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Full text of "Encyclopedia of the history of Missouri, a compendium of history and biography for ready reference"

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ENCYCLOPEDIA 



OF THE 



History of Missouri, 



A COMPENDIUM OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY 
FOR READY REFERENCE. 



EDITED BY 

HOWARD L. CONARD. 



VOL III. 



NEWIYORK, LOUISVILLE, ST. LOUIS: 

THE SOUTHERN HISTORY COMPANY, 

Haldeman, Conard & Co., Proprietors. 
I9OI. 






THE SOUTHERN HISTORY CO. 



•^Dll 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



G 

P\GE 

Gay, Edward J lo 

Gay, John H 13" 

Geiger, Jacob 16 

Gentry, Richard T 24 

Gossett, Jacob D 71 

Graves, Fayette P 91 

Graves, Waller W 92 

Green, Charles W 98 

Green, Samuel B loi 

Greenwood, Moses, Jr 120 

Gregory, Elisha H 124 

Grover, Hiram J 129 

Guernsey, David W 132 

Guinn, John C 136 

H 

Hackemeier, Franz 141 

Haines, A. S ' 147 

Hall, C. Lester 152 

Hall, William E •••..155 

Halley, George 157 

Halliburton, John W 158 

Hardin, Charles H 171 

Harding, Russell 177 

Hardy, Joseph A 178 

Hargadine, William A 180 

Harris, Samuel S 189 

Hartwig, Henry R. W 200 

Hawes, Harry B 203 

Heer, Charles H 210 

Heidorn, Frederick A., Sr 212 

Heim, Joseph J 214 

Helfenstein, John P 217 

Hirzel, Rudolph 253 

Hoagland, George T 259 

Hodgen, John T 261 

Hoevel, August 263 

Holland, Colley B 268 



PAGE 

Holmes, Nehemiah 274 

Hoog, Otto J. S 284 

Hough, Samuel B 302 

Hough, Warwick 304 

Houser, Daniel M 307 

Howard, William G 310 

Hughes, Charles H 319 

Huttig, William 339 

Hyde, William 341 

I 

Ireland, Harvey C 382 

J 

Johnson, Charles P 445 

Johnson, James T 447 

Johnson, John B 448 

Johnson, Reno D. 451 

Johnson, Waldo P. . 453 

Johnson, William T 455 

Johnston, John T. M 460 

Jourdan, Morton 476 

Judson, Frederick N 480 

Judson, Winslow 482 

K 

Kane, William B 485 

Karnes, Joseph V. C 507 

Keating, William 514 

Keith, Abraham W 516 

Keith, Richard H 518 

Kesler, Daniel 531 

Kesler, John R 532 

Kingsbury, James W 541 

Kinney, Joseph 542 

Knapp, John 549 

L 
Lathrop, John H Frontispiece. 



They who lived in history .... seemed to walk the earth again. 

— L ong fellow . 

We may gather out of history a policy no less wise than eternal. 

— Sir Walter Raleigh. 

Histories make men w\se.— Bacon. 

Truth comes to us from the past as gold is washed down to us from 
the mountains of Sierra Nevada, in minute but precious particles. — Bovee. 

Examine history, for it is "philosophy teaching by example." — Carlyle. 

History is the essence of innumerable biographies. — Carlyle. 

Biography is the most universally pleasant, the most universally 
profitable, of all reading. — Carlyle. 

Both justice and decency require that we should bestow on our 
forefathers an honorable remembrance. — Thucydides. 

"If history is important, biography is equally so, for biography is 
but history individualized. In the former we have the episodes and events 
illustrated by communities, peoples, states, nations. In the latter we have 
the lives and characters of individual men shaping events, and becoming 
instructors of future generations." 



IV 



Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri. 



Garner, James W., lawyer, was born 
in Ray County, Missouri, September 2, 1852. 
His father, C. T. Garner, was born in Howard 
County, Missouri, removed to Richmond, 
Ray County, and there studied law in the 
office of George W. Dunn. For fifty years 
he practiced his profession in Ray County, 
becoming one of the strongest legal advo- 
cates and counselors in the State, as well as a 
foremost citizen and man of prominence in 
all important affairs. The mother of J. W. 
Garner was a daughter of James Mosby, of 
Callaway County, Missouri, and was born at 
Fulton. Mr. Garner is a descendant of the 
Triggs and Clarks, noted families of Ken- 
tucky and Virginia. The subject of this 
sketch received his education in the public 
schools of Ray County, Missouri, and later 
graduated from Richmond College, located at 
Richmond, Ray County, Missouri. He fol- 
lowed his literary training with a course of 
careful legal reading of which he availed him- 
self in the office of Garner & Doniphan. This 
firm was one of noted strength, the senior 
member being the father of the young man, 
and the other member being General A. W. 
Doniphan, one of Missouri's most celebrated 
men. After his admission to the bar of Mis- 
souri Mr. Garner practiced law in partnership 
with his father. Having read for four years 
before applying to the Circuit Court of Ray 
County for admission, he was thoroughly pre- 
pared for his professional career. He was 
elected prosecuting attorney of Ray County 
and served four years. Since that public 
service he has never been a candidate for 
political office. In the spring of 1887 Mr. 
Garner removed from Richmond to Kansas 
City, Missouri, and has since been a resident 
and active practitioner of that place. During 
his term of office as prosecuting attorney of 
Ray County, Mr. Garner tried the celebrated 
case of the State of Missouri against the Ford 
boys, for the murder of Wood Hite, the trial 
lasting about two weeks and being one of 
Vol. Ill— 1 



the most noted in the history of Missouri 
crime. In Jackson County Mr. Garner has 
appeared in many important legal battles, 
including the celebrated election contest 
case in Jackson County, As a criminal law- 
yer he stands at the head of the bar, having 
successfully defended, among other clients, 
Blanche Connors for murder in the first de- 
gree, B. F. Gates, also charged with mur- 
der in the first degree, and Jennie Hendrick, 
accused of murder. The cases attracted 
widespread attention at the time of their 
trial in the courts of Jackson County, and 
added materially to the reputation of the 
lawyer who so successfully defended the pris- 
oners at bar. He has appeared in many other 
murder cases of less importance, and has es- 
tablished a steadfast reputation as a trial 
lawyer, as well as in the careful preparation 
of cases. Mr. Garner has always been a 
Democrat politically, but in the election of 
1896 he found himself unable to accept the 
principles enunciated by the leaders of his 
party. He, therefore, supported Palmer and 
Buckner, on the national ticket, and can- 
vassed the State of Missouri in the interest 
of those candidates for the highest offices 
within the gift of the people. For a num- 
ber of years Mr. Garner was a member of 
the Democratic central committee of Jack- 
son County. He is a communicant of Trin- 
ity Episcopal Church, Kansas City, and was 
for a number of years a member of the vestry 
of that church. He is a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the- 
Knights of Pythias. Mr. Garner was mar- 
ried, in April, 1873, to Miss Leonora Snoddy,. 
daughter of Samuel Snoddy, of Howard 
County, Missouri, and after her death was. 
married to Miss Carrie Cotes, of Galesburg,. 
Illinois. Of the last union three children-, 
have been born. The head of the family is 
recognized as an able lawyer, and he is highly 
respected as a patriotic, public-spirited cit- 
izen, a true friend to the worthy cause and 



GARRISON. 



a warm supporter of every movement that 
will advance the interests of his locality and 
the State of which he has been a part since 
his birth. 

Garrison, Daniel R., manufacturer and 
railroad manager, was born November 23, 
181 5, in Orange County, New York. He 
learned the machinist's trade as a boy, and 
worked at it in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, prior 
to his coming to St. Louis. He located in 
that city in 1835 and took employment in 
the foundry and engine works of Kingsland, 
Lightner & Co. Five years later he formed 
a partnership with his brother, Oliver Garri- 
son, and began the manufacture of steam 
engines and steam machinery of all kinds. 
This enterprise proved successful, and in 1840 
the brothers sold out their foundry and ma- 
chine works and retired from this branch of 
industry with handsome fortunes. When the 
Ohio & Mississippi Railroad enterprise was 
set on foot, Daniel R. Garrison became iden- 
tified with it and was one of the moving 
spirits in advancing the road to completion. 
Afterward he took the vice presidency and 
general mangement of the Missouri Pacific 
Railroad, and occupied that position during 
the Civil War, and until 1870. When the 
Missouri Pacific and the Atlantic & Pacific 
roads were consolidated he was made vice 
president and general manager of the con- 
solidated interests, and served in that capac- 
ity until the -property passed into the hands 
of Jay Gould." Later he built the Vulcan 
Iron Works of South St. Louis, and in com- 
pany with others the Jupiter Iron Works, 
which were afterward consolidated as the 
Vulcan Iron and Bessemer Steel Works. 

Garrison, James Harvey, clergyman, 
editor and author, was born on the 2d day of 
February, 1842, near Ozark, in what was then 
Greene — now Christian — County, Missouri. 
His maternal grandfather, Robert Kyle, was 
an Irishman, who migrated to this country 
from the North of Ireland soon after the Rev- 
olution, and located in Virginia. He was a 
soldier in the War of 1812, and died of sick- 
ness contracted in the army. His paternal 
grandfather, Isaac Garrison, was a North 
Carolinian, who migrated to east Tennessee 
about the beginning of the past century. 
His parents, James and Diana (Kyle) Garri- 
son, moved from Hawkins County, east Ten- 



nessee, about the year 1835, and located in 
southwest Missouri, at the place above men- 
tioned. In his early youth, James Harvey 
Garrison attended school at Ozark and be- 
came an adept in reading and spelling at a 
very early age. When eleven years old, his 
parents moved to a new and then unsettled 
part of the country, near where Billings is 
located. Here school advantages were scant, 
and hard work in opening a new farm took 
the place of study for a few years. At the 
age of fifteen years he made a public profes- 
sion of religion, and united with the Baptist 
Church, of which his parents and grand- 
parents before him were members, and began 
to take an active part in religious meetings, 
About this time a Yankee school-teacher, C. 
P. Hall, came into the neighborhood, and 
taught an excellent school for several terms, 
of which the subject of this sketch was a con- 
stant member, missing only a part of one 
term, to teach a district school, when he was 
sixteen years of age. The outbreak of the 
war found him again at Ozark, attending a 
high school, taught by the Yankee teacher 
above referred to. The excitement following 
the firing on Fort Sumter caused the discon- 
tinuance of the school, and he identified him- 
self with a company of home guards, whose 
rendezvous was Springfield. After the battle 
of Wilson's Creek, he enlisted in the Twenty- 
fourth Missouri Infantry Volunteers, was 
soon promoted to the rank of first sergeant, 
and was wounded quite severely on the even- 
ing of the second day of the battle of Pea 
Ridge, in March, 1862. He raised a com- 
pany for the Eighth Missouri Cavalry Vol- 
unteers as soon as he was able to perform 
active duty, and was commissioned as captain 
September 15, 1862. He continued his serv- 
ices in the Union Army until the close of the 
war, participating in several battles, acting 
as assistant inspector general of his brigade 
for more than a year, and being promoted to 
the rank of major for meritorious service 
during the last year of the war. When mus- 
tered out of the army in St. Louis, in 1865, 
he entered Abingdon College, in Abingdon, 
Illinois, and graduated in 1868 as bachelor 
of arts. One week after his graduation he 
was married to Miss Judith E. Garrett, of 
Camp Point, Illinois, who graduated in the 
same class with him, and who has been to 
him all that a faithful and affectionate wife 
can be to her husband. He entered college 



GASCONADE— GASCONADE CAVES. 



for the purpose of devoting himself to the 
law, but during his college course he changed 
his denominational allegiance and identified 
himself with the Disciples of Christ, a fact 
which changed all his plans. He at once be- 
gan preaching, and in the autumn of 1868 lo- 
cated with the church at Macomb, Illinois, to 
share the pulpit with J. C. Reynolds, who 
was publishing and editing "The Gospel 
Echo" at that place. A partnership was 
formed with Mr. Reynolds, beginning with 
January i, 1869, by which he became one of 
the editors and publishers of that magazine. 
This was the beginning of his editorial career, 
which continues to the present. In 1871 
"The Christian," of Kansas City, Missouri, 
was consolidated with "The Gospel Echo,"- 
and Mr. Garrison moved to Quincy, Illinois, 
where he published . the consolidated paper 
under the title of "Gospel Echo and Chris- 
tian," at first, later as "The Christian," and 
still later as "The Christian-Evangelist." In 
the year 1873 a joint stock company was or- 
ganized and incorporated as "The Christian 
Publishing Company," and "The Christian" 
was moved to St. Louis, and was issued from 
that city from January i, 1874, under the 
auspices of the Christian Publishing Com- 
pany, with J. H. Garrison as editor-in-chief. 
He has resided in St. Louis ever since, with 
the exception of two years spent in England, 
when he was pastor of thj church at South- 
port in 1881 and 1882, and almost two years 
spent in charge of a church in Boston, in 
1885 and 1886. His connection with "The 
Christian-Evangelist," however, has never 
ceased. His temporary absences frorti the 
office were the result of ill health brought on 
by too close confinement to office work. He 
is also the author of several popular works, 
as "The Heavenward Way," a book for young 
Christians ; "Alone with God," a- devotional 
work, which has had a remarkable sale ; "The 
Old Faith Restated," and "Half-Hour 
Studies at the Cross," besides a number of 
smaller booklets. 

Dr. Garrison is editor of the "Christian- 
Evangelist," and president of the Christian 
Publishing Company. He travels exten- 
sively, but his residence is now and has been 
for many years in St. Louis. 

G-asconade. — A town at the mouth of 
the Gasconade River, in Gasconade County, 



seven miles west of Hermann, on the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railroad. It is one of the old 
settled points in the State. It has one 
church, a public school and a general store. 
Population, 1899 (estimated), 100. 

Gasconade Bridge Disaster.— The 

completion of the Pacific Railroad to Jeffer- 
son City was an event of great importance 
to the people of St". Louis, and arrangements 
were made to celebrate it in a fitting man- 
ner. Accordingly, on November i, 1855, an 
excursion train bearing the r'ailway officials, 
the mayor and city council of St. Louis, two 
military companies and a large number of the 
most prominent people in the city, started 
for the State capital, where a grand public 
dinner was to be served, and the opening 
of the road celebrated with due ceremony. 
What was intended to be a joyous demon- 
stration was, however, turned into a season 
of general mourning by an accident at Gas- 
conade River. The bridge spanning that 
stream, which had not been fully completed, 
but which, it was thought, would carry the 
train safely over, gave way under the strain 
put upon it, and precipitated the locomotive 
and all but one of fourteen passenger 
cars into the water, thirty feet below. The 
result was appalling, twenty-eight persons be- 
ing killed outright and more than thirty seri- 
ously injured. Among the killel were Thomas 
O'Sullivan, chief engineer of the Pacific 
Railroad; Rev. Dr. BuUard, pastor of the 
Second Presbyterian Church, and Rev. John 
Teasdale, pastor of the Third Baptist Church, 
of St. Louis ; Mann Butler, the eminent 
Kentucky historian; Henry Chouteau, E. C. 
Yosti, E. Church Blackburn, and other prom- 
inent citizens of St. Louis. Immediately 
following the crash, and while the work of 
extricating the dead and wounded from the 
wreck w^as going on, a heavy rain and thun- 
der storm prevailed, and survivors of the 
catastrophe remembered the scene as one 
weird and awful beyond description. 

Gasconade Caves. — There are many 
caves in the bluflfs fronting on the Gasco- 
nade River, nearly all of them abounding in 
deposits of saltpeter, which has been turned* 
to profit in the manufacture of gunpowder. 
In some of the caves have been found stone 
axes and other implements. 



GASCONADE COUNTY. 



Gasconade County. — A county a lit- 
tle east of the center of the State, bounded 
on the north by the Missouri River, which 
separates it from Montgomery and Warren 
Counties ; east by Franklin and Crawford, 
south by Crawford and Phelps, and west by 
Maries and Osage Counties ; area, 330,000 
acres. The surface of the county is irregu- 
lar, ranging from level prairie and bottom 
lands to ridges, hills and precipitous bluffs. 
The northern part is rough for some distance 
south of the Missouri River, with numerous 
valleys and rolling lands. The southern part 
is mostly table land, with numerous small 
prairies. Through the northwest section the 
Gasconade River winds in a devious course 
to the Missouri. The Bourbeuse River flows 
in an irregular course in a northwesterly di- 
rection through the southern part. The chief 
tributaries of the Gasconade are First, Sec- 
ond, Third and Pin Creeks, and of the Bour- 
beuse Dry Fork is the chief feeder, with 
numerous smaller streams. In the northern 
part Coal and Frene Creeks rise and flow into 
the Missouri River. In the northeastern part 
of the county are Boeuf, Berger and Little 
Berger Creeks. Numerous springs abound 
throughout the county. The valleys and bot- 
tom lands are rich, the soil a dark sandy loam 
of great productiveness. The prairie land 
in the southern part is generally good, con- 
taining a clayey soil that produces well by 
careful cultivation. The hills and uplands 
have a light covering of clayey soil over 
gravel, and are good grass and fruit lands. 
The hills and valleys along the streams are 
generally covered with growths of timber, 
consisting chiefly of the different oaks, hick- 
ory, elm, walnut, cottonwood, etc. Much 
of the timber in the valleys has been cleared 
away and the land converted into farms. 
About 40 per cent of the land is under cul- 
tivation, the remainder being in timber and 
grazing lands. Wheat and corn are the chief 
cereal productions, the average yield per 
acre of the former being twenty bushels and 
the latter fifty bushels. All the vegetables 
grow well, particularly potatoes, which av- 
erage 150 bushels to the acre. The surplus 
products shipped from the county in 1898 
were: Cattle, 192 head; hogs, 12,880 head; 
sheep, 262 head ; horses and mules, 19 head ; 
wheat, 146,757 bushels; corn, 28,423 bush- 
els ; flour, 996,080 pounds ; corn meal, 4,320 
pounds ; shipstuff, 103,040 pounds ; clover 



seed, 180,000 pounds; lumber, 51,500 feet; 
walnut logs, 6,000 feet; cross-ties, 172,066 
cooperage, 13 cars; wool, 13,574 pounds; 
poultry, 219,783 pounds ; eggs, 379,290 dozen ; 
butter, 18,340 pounds; dressed meats, 7,837 
pounds; game and fish, 8,658 pounds; lard 
and tallow, 18,452 pounds; hides and pelts, 
90,150 pounds; apples, 497 barrels; fresh 
fruits, 3,070 pounds; dried fruit, 38,919 
pounds; vegetables, 61,330 pounds; onions, 
2,829 bushels; whisky and wine, 196,081 gal- 
lons ; nuts, 7,840 pounds ; nursery stock, 
3,460 pounds; furs, 1,910 pounds; feathers, 
2,428 pounds. The most profitable products 
are wheat, corn, stock and fruit. Wine man- 
ufacture is an important industry in Gasco- 
nade County. There are over one hundred 
wine-growers in the county, producing annu- 
ally from 200 to 20,000 gallons of wine, 
not including the large manufacturers at 
Hermann. While the report of the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics is here given as official, 
the output of wine from Gasconade County 
annually is several times the amount given 
in the report. Iron in considerable quan- 
tities is found in the western and southern 
portions of the county, and in the southern 
part lead and zinc exist in considerable de- 
posits. Some years ago a lead mine was 
opened up on the Bourbeuse, but was aban- 
doned because of difficulty experienced in 
excluding the water. Lately the lead and zinc 
of the county have been attracting consider- 
able attention, with promise of much activity 
in mining operations. Silicate and coal have 
been discovered, but no attempt to develop 
the deposits have been made. There is plenty 
of good building stone in all parts of the 
county. Along the Gasconade are numer- 
ous caves, some of which have in them de- 
posits of saltpeter, which in the early history 
of the county was gathered and shipped to 
St. Louis, where it was used in the manu- 
facture of gunpowder. When these caves 
were first discovered, in some of them were 
found rude stone axes and hammers, which 
gave evidence that in remote periods they 
had been occupied for some purpose by In- 
dians, or a race preceding them. Near one 
of the caves on the Gasconade are the ruins 
of an ancient town, only small traces of which 
now remain. Dr. Beck, in his "Gazetteer," 
published in 182 1, gave a description of the 
town, which appears to have been laid out 
with considerable regularity in squares, and 



GASCONADE COUNTY. 



at that time the stone walls of houses could 
be traced. On the west side of Gasconade, 
in the neighborhood of Mount Sterling, a 
wall of stone about twenty-five feet square, 
which gave evidence of being constructed 
with a marked degree of regularity, occupied 
a prominent position on a blufif overlooking 
the country. From this ruin a footpath, well 
defined, ran in a devious course down the 
cliff to the entrance of the cave, where was 
found a quantity of ashes and charcoal. All 
that remain of these ruins now are a few 
mounds, apparently Indian graves. Many 
relics, bones, axes, tomahawks, arrow heads, 
etc., have been found. On Dry Fork is an 
interesting cave — Bear Cave — so called by 
the early hunters, who believed it to be the 
lurking place of those animals. Also on Dry 
Fork is Beaver Pond, the margin of which 
is dotted with small islands, said to be the 
work of beavers. Long before Lewis and 
Clark ascended the Missouri River venture- 
some hunters and trappers had visited Gas- 
conade County, but it is not recorded that 
any of them became permanent settlers. The 
names of those who had the distinction of 
first becoming residents of the territory now 
within the limits of the county are lost even 
to tradition. It is recorded that in 1812 
Henry Reed settled on a tract of land near 
the Bourbeuse, in what is now Brush Creek 
Township. Prior to that date James Roark 
had settled on land about three miles south- 
east of the present site of Hermann, and 
William West, Isaac Perkins, G. Packett and 
James Kegans and a few others were hunt- 
ers and trappers along the Gasconade River, 
and seemed to have lived on the friendliest 
terms with the Shawnee Indians, who then 
made that country their hunting ground. In 
1818 Philip Tacket entered a tract of land 
on the Gasconade River, and became the 
first real estate owner in the county. Only 
one incident in early history is recorded of 
any unfriendly demonstration on the part 
of the Indians. Isaac Best ran a horse 
mill on the Gasconade, in what is now the 
northeastern part of the county. For pro- 
tection, he had a block house and kept a 
number of cur dogs, trained to bark upon 
the approach of Indians. One day, while 
working at his mill along with a man named 
Callahan, the barking of his dogs attracted 
his attention. Both men going outside the 
stockade were shot at from ambush by the 



Indians and Callahan was disabled. The 
Indians succeeded in securing the horses 
belonging to both men. Best and Callahan 
abandoned the mill, and in a canoe made 
their way down the river to the nearest set- 
tlement. Gasconade County was organized 
by legislative act, approved November 25, 
1820. It was erected out of Franklin County, 
and attached to it was all the unorganized 
territory of the State to the south and west, 
and, like Wayne County, it was called, in a 
jocular way, the "State of Gasconade." It 
was named after its principal river, which, 
when the county was organized, flowed 
through it from south to north. The terri- 
tory included in it was reduced by organiza- 
tion of other counties until it nearly reached 
its present limits in 1835. In 1869 the last 
change was made, when thirty-six square 
miles were taken from it and added to Craw- 
ford County. The first county seat was called 
Bartonville, and later the name was changed 
to Mount Sterling. The village is now in 
the southwest corner of Boulware Township, 
near the western line, twenty-four miles 
from Hermann. When the county was or- 
ganized (1820) it had a population of 1,174; 
in 1830, 1,545. After 1830 its settlement was 
more rapid, and in 1836 within its borders 
were 3,012, and in 1840 the number was 
swelled to 5,330. January 15, 1821, the first 
county court for Gasconade County was or- 
ganized, at the residence of John G. Heath, 
with Honorable John Woollans, presiding 
judge; William Dodds and Moses Welton, 
associate justices. The court appointed Sam- 
uel Owens clerk, and Daniel Waldo pro- 
duced his credentials and furnished bond as 
sheriff. The home of Heath was the reg- 
ular meeting place of both the circuit and 
county courts until 1825. For the next 
three years the courts met at the house of 
Isaac Perkins, and from 1828 to 1832 at 
the house of David Waldo, at Shockley's 
Bluff, or, as it was later called. Mount 
Sterling, which place, in 1828 was voted upon 
and made the permanent county' seat. In 
1832 a small log courthouse, one story in 
height, was built on a fifty-acre tract, which 
was donated to the county by Shockley and 
Isaac Perkins. This tract was laid out in 
town lots and became known as Mount 
Sterling. A small log cabin was rented for 
jail purposes. Mount Sterling remained the 
county seat until 1842, when, by vote, it 



GASCONADE COUNTY. 



was changed to the town of Hermann, which, 
a few years before, had been founded by a 
colony of Germans. The people of Hermann 
gave $3,000 toward the building of a court- 
house, which, in 1840, was completed at a 
cost of $4,000. The building was located 
on the mound which is now the public square, 
and upon which the present magnificent 
courthouse stands. This tract of land, in 
1818, was purchased by Robert Heath for 
one barrel of salt. When the county seat 
was changed the county paid the residents 
of Mount Sterling, by way of damages on 
account of the removal of the seat of jus- 
tice, .$2,724, and they relinquished their 
rights to the town lots of the fifty-acre tract. 
This tract was sold by Robert Cooper, who 
was appointed to adjust the claims of the 
county in the matter, to Rebecca Perkins for 
$408, which amount was used to pay dam- 
ages to those who relinquished their rights 
to town lots, the balance required for this 
purpose being paid by the county in scrip, 
which was then worth only twenty-five cents 
on the dollar. For many years the county 
has been out of debt, and is in high financial 
condition. A few attempts have been made 
to remove the county seat. But, through 
the munificence of- a prominent citizen, 
Charles D. Eitzen, the county seat has been 
perpetually located at Hermann. Mr. Eitzen 
died January i, 1894, and in his will, among 
other bequests, he left $50,000 for the 
building of a courthouse. His will provided 
that the courthouse should be built on the 
mound occupied by the old courthouse at 
Hermann. In compliance with the provisions 
of his will, the county court accepted the gift, 
and, in 1896, a courthouse, which is one of 
the most substantial and artistic in the State, 
was built. Mr. Eitzen, who had accumulated 
considerable wealth in the mercantile busi- 
ness in Hermann, also bequeathed $1,000 to 
each of the three churches in Hermann; 
$5,000 to the school, and $500 to the public 
park. The first circuit court for Gasconade 
County met on the fourth Monday in Janu- 
ary, 1821, Honorable Rufus Pettibone, judge 
of the Second Judicial District, presiding. 
There was no important business before the 
first court. At the second session. May 28, 
1821, the first grand jury was appointed. 
The first attorney to present his license and 
to get permission to practice before the 
courts of the county was Stephen W. Fore- 



man. The first case tried by the court 
was the State vs. John McDonal, for as- 
saulting Hiram Scott. In this case the com- 
plaining witness, Scott, was compelled to pay 
the costs. The first divorce case, and the 
third case to be tried in the court, was 
Nancy Eads vs. John Eads, and the prayer 
of the petitioner was granted. Before the 
earliest sessions of the court there were few 
important' cases, the records showing that 
"assault and battery," "for stealing fish gig," 
etc., were the principal charges the court 
was required to pass upon. The first in- 
dictment for manslaughter was returned by 
the grand jury Thursday, October 4, 1827, 
against John Tacket for slaying Samuel Gib- 
son. Tacket was found guilty and sentenced 
to jail for one year and one day and fined 
$50. The first newspaper published in Gas- 
conade County was the "Wochenblatt," 
started at Hermann by Edwatd Meuhl and 
C. P. Strehli, in 1843. Mr. Meuhl died in 
1854, and that year the paper was published 
by Mr. Jacob Graf, who changed the name 
to the "Volksblatt." In 1870 Mr. Graf died, 
and his widow continued to publish the pa- 
per, with Rudolph Hirzel editor. In 1873 
Mrs. Graf sold the paper to Charles Eber- 
hardt, and at the end 'of the year purchased 
it back, and also the "Gasconade County 
Advertiser," which had been started by Eber- 
hardt. These publications were published 
by Mrs. Graf, in company with Joseph Lei- 
sing, until 1880, when her two sons, under 
the firm name of Graf Brothers, succeeded 
to the ownership of both papers. In 1874 the 
"Gasconade Courier" was started. This, in 
1877, was acquired by the Graf brothers, 
who consolidated it with the "Advertiser," 
under the name of "Advertiser-Courier," 
and it is still published by them, as is also 
the "Volksblatt." A few years ago the 
"Republican Banner" was established. Gas- 
conade County has few papers. It has a 
county poor farm, but all the county poor 
are sustained at a cost to the taxpayers of 
less than $400 a year. Gasconade County 
is divided into eight townships, named, re- 
spectively, Boeuf, Boulware.Bourboir, Brush 
Creek, Canaan, Richland, Roark, and Third 
Creek. The assessed value of real estate 
and town lots in the county in 1900 was 
$2,050,017; estimated full value, $4,500,000; 
assessed value of personal property, including 
stocks, bonds, etc., $1,295,268; estimated 



GASCONADE RIVER— GATES. 



full value, $1,500,000; assessed value of rail- 
roads, $297,199. There are 16.50 miles of 
the main line of the Missouri Pacific Railroad 
crossing the northern part of the county. 
The condition of the public roads is far above 
the average in the counties of the State; in 
fact, few parts of Missouri can boast of roads 
kept in better condition. In 1899 there were 
58 public schools in the county, 64 teachers^ 
4,268 pupils ; the permanent county school 
fund amounted to $12,548.80, and township 
permanent school fund $15,067.22. The pop- 
ulation in 1900 was 12,298. 

Gasconade River. — The river bearing 
this name has its origin in three forks — the 
Lick Fork, the Piney Fork and the Osage 
Fork — which rise in Wright, Texas and Web- 
ster Counties. Lick Fork and Osage Fork 
unite in Laclede County, and Piney Fork 
flows into the stream in Pulaski County; 
thence the main river flows north through 
Maries, Osage and Gasconade Counties, into 
the Missouri at Gasconade City. It is 200 
miles long and navigable for flatboats, barges 
and rafts. 

Gatch, Elias S., mine-operator and 
manufacturer of pig lead and zinc spelter, was 
born February 14, 1859, at Milford, Cler- 
mont County, Ohio, son of John Newton and 
Georgianna (Hutchinson) Gatch. His father, 
John N. Gatch, was a son of Lewis Gatch 
and grandson of Nicholas Gatch, both na- 
tives of Maryland. Philip Gatch, an uncle 
of Lewis, came, in the year 1798, from Balti- 
more to Newtown, Ohio, and was the first 
Methodist circuit rider to invade what was 
then a new country. He introduced Method- 
ism into what was known at that time as the 
Northwest Territory. Afterward he was a 
member of the First Constitutional Conven- 
tion of Ohio, and was the first probate judge 
of Clermont County in that State. Georgi- 
anna Hutchinson, the mother of Elias S. 
Gatth, was a granddaughter of David Hutch- 
inson, of Milford, New Hampshire, and a 
member of the famous family of singers of 
that name. David Hutchinson, who was the 
eldest of thirteen children, married Betsy 
Hayward, who was a member of an old New 
Hampshire family. In his boyhood Elias S. 
Gatch attended the public schools of Milford, 
Ohio, and later was a student at the normal 
school at Lebanon, Ohio, and at the Wes- 



leyan University of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, 
graduating from the last named institution in 
the class of 1882. Soon after leaving school 
he took charge of large coal-mining interests 
in northern Missouri, and some time later 
established himself in business at St. Joseph, 
in this State, where he remained for six or 
seven years. In 1894 he came to St. Louis 
to become connected with the Granby Mining 
& Smelting Company as its secretary. Two 
years later he was made general manager of 
the company's affairs, as well as its secretary, 
and he has since filled both positions. The 
Granby Mining & Smelting Company dates 
its origin from 1853, when Peter E. Blow and 
F. B. Kennett formed a partnership for the 
purpose of engaging in lead-mining at 
Granby. In 1865 Mr. Kennett retired, and 
the Granby Company was organized, with 
Peter E. Blow, James B. Eads, Henry T. 
Blow, Charles K. Dickson and Barton Bates 
as stockholders. These men were among the 
noted business men of St. Louis in their day, 
and the reputation of at least one of them 
was national. Since he has been connected 
with this corporation Mr. Gatch has resided 
in St. Louis, but twice each month he visits 
Granby, Joplin and Oronogo to look after 
the interests of the corporation. A staunch 
believer in Democratic principles, he was an 
active member of the Jefferson Club of St. 
Joseph for many years, and has frequently 
served his party as a public speaker and oth- 
erwise in political campaigns. He has, how- 
ever, been content with efforts to advance 
the principles of his party and the interests of 
his political friends, and has never aspired to 
ofiice himself. He is a member of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church, and for some time 
has served as superintendent of the Sunday 
school connected with St. George's Episcopal 
Church in St. Louis. June 7, 1887, he was 
married to Miss Katherine Burnes, daughter 
of Honorable Daniel D. and Virginia (Winn) 
Burnes, of St. Joseph. Their children are 
James Nelson Burnes Gatch, Hayward 
Hutchinson Gatch, Katherine Gatch and Cal- 
vin Fletcher Gatch. 

Gates, E. Clyde, president of the Gates 
& Coomber Pressed Brick Manufacturing 
Company, was born June 25, 1866, in Greene, 
Trumbell County, Ohio. His father, Free- 
man Gates, was a silent partner in the firm 
of Brooks & Coomber, in Kansas City, and 



8 



GATES. 



the subject of this sketch, before his re- 
moval to Missouri, was engaged in the manu- 
facture of machinery. In 1893 he removed 
to Kansas City and associated himself with 
the company of which he is now the head. 
George F. Coomber, who is associated with 
him in the company heretofore referred to, 
is a native of England, and came to this 
country in 1870, going direct to Kansas 
City and arriving there May 31st, of the same 
year. He was engaged in commercial pur- 
suits of a varied nature for several years, but 
his prime object in coming to this country 
was to engage in the manufacture of brick. 
Accordingly, in 1887, he organized the Dia- 
mond Vitrified Brick Company, the yards be- 
ing located on the Blue River, east of Kansas 
City. He continued with that company until 
1891, when he associated himself with D. E. 
Brooks. The firm of Brooks & Coomber 
was in existence until 1893, when Mr. Brooks 
sold his interest to E. C. Gates. The com- 
pany now owns four acres of valuable shale 
land at Twenty-seventh and Woodland 
Streets and the enterprise is one of the most 
flourishing of its kind in the West. The an- 
nual output is about four million brick. 
Twenty-five hands are employed and every 
modern device and essential fixture for the 
manufacture of dry pressed brick of superior 
quality is brought into service. The dry pro- 
cess of making brick results in a much 
harder, denser and less absorbent brick than 
the common clay variety. The yard now 
used by this company was purchased by 
Brooks & Coomber when the business was 
begun in 1891. Up to the time that Mr. 
Coomber went to Kansas City for the pur- 
pose of putting a valuable idea into practice, 
the manufacture of brick from shale rock 
had never been considered possible. The 
result has been highly satisfactory, and the 
man who Originated the process has had the 
pleasure of seeing his experiment develop 
into a great industry. Both members of this 
firm are members of the Manufacturers' As- 
sociation of Kansas City and of the Master 
Builders' Association. 

Gates, Edward P., lawyer and jurist, 
was born March 5, 1845, at Lunnenburgh, 
Vermont. He was descended from a most 
honorable ancestry. Stephen Gates, founder 
of the Gates family in America, came from 
England in 1638, and settled in Massa- 



chusetts, where he was one of the founders 
of Hingham, named for his native town ; he 
was also among the founders of the town of 
Lancaster, in the same State. His great- 
grandson, Captain Silas Gates, served with 
Massachusetts troops during the Revolu- 
tionary War, and Samuel Gates, son of the 
last named, rendered military service at a 
later day. George W. Gates, a native of 
Vermont, was a man of great ability ; he 
served as United States marshal in Vermont 
under President Van Buren; in 1850 he re- 
moved to Illinois, and in 1865 to Inde- 
pendence, Missouri, where he attained con- 
siderable prominence. In 1868-9, he was 
presiding judge of the county court, and in 
1871-2, he was a member of the Missouri 
Legislature. His wife was Sarah D. Todd, 
a native of Portland, Maine, and a school- 
mate of the poet, Henry W. Longfellow. 
Their son, Edward P., was but five years old 
when his parents removed to Illinois, where 
he received his literary education. After at- 
tending Port Byron Academy, he pursued a 
full classical course in Knox College, at 
Galesburg, from which he was graduated with 
the highest honors in 1867. He then rejoined 
his parents, who had removed to Independ- 
ence, Missouri, There he diligently applied 
himself to a course of law study under the 
tutorship of Comingo & Slover, thorough 
lawyers of the old school, and men of wide 
discernment and great force of character. 
He could not have had better training, and 
he has frequently expressed his deep obliga- 
tion for their friendly interest in him at a 
critical time. In 1868 he was admitted to 
the bar, and began practice. In 1877 • he 
became associated with William H. Wallace, 
and their partnership under the firm name of 
Gates & Wallace was pleasantly and profit- 
ably maintained for about twenty years. 
Their business soon became large and im- 
portant, and for a period of fifteen years 
they appeared in the greater. number of cases 
involving large interests, originating in 
Kansas City "or tried in its courts. At other 
times, John A. Sea and T. B. Wallace were 
associated in membership with the firm, 
which was finally dissolved January i, 1896. 
Mr. Gates acquitted himself so admirably and 
successfully in his personal practice, that he 
came to occupy a prominent place in public 
estimation, and he was called to the position 
of counselor of Jackson County, when that 



GATY. 



9 



office was created in 1886, and was re-elected 
in 1888. His services in this capacity were 
marked by conspicuous ability and unim- 
peachable fidelity to public interests. An 
interesting incident transpired when he suc- 
cessfully prosecuted a case involving the 
validity of the oleomargarine law, opposed 
by the great lawyer and statesman Roscoe 
Conkling. In 1888 he was admitted to 
practice before the Supreme Court of the 
United States, before which he appeared in 
much important litigation, among other 
cases being those involving county and 
township liability for railroad and other 
gratuity bonds, in which he pleaded the 
cause of the people with masterly force and 
ability. In 1896 he was elected circuit judge 
for the Sixteenth Judicial District, compris- 
ing Kansas City and Jackson County. In 
this highly important position, in which he is 
called upon to deal with issues as momen- 
tous as are pressed upon the attention of any 
court in the State, the bar, by common 
accord, concede his pre-eminent judicial 
qualities in deep knowledge of law, compre- 
hension of issues, and equable personal 
temperament which eliminates the individual 
and extraneous matter, taking cognizance 
only of the cause. A marvelous memory re- 
tains the most apparently insignificant fact, 
and no misstatement, whether intentional or 
accidental, escapes his attention. While his 
mental processes are unusually rapid, they 
are at the same time entirely accurate, the 
product of a mind trained to exact logical 
methods. In rulings from the bench, or in 
speech, his language is well chosen, admit- 
ting of no misconstruction, and his manner 
of delivery attests his confidence in the truth- 
fulness of his utterance. For several years 
he rendered valuable pubHc service as a 
member of the Board of Managers of Insane 
Asylum No. 2, at St. Joseph, to which 
position he was appointed by Governor 
David R. Francis in 1890, and reappointed 
by Governor William J. Stone ; in the second 
year of the latter term he voluntarily relin- 
quished the office on account of the exactions 
of his professional calling. Taking a sincere 
interest in young men desirous of entering 
the profession, he affords substantial aid to 
the Kansas City School of Law, and was for 
a time a member of its faculty, but withdrew 
on account of his labors on the bench. He 



is well versed in the best of literature, French 
and German as well as English, and his 
private library is one of the choicest in the 
city. Of companionable disposition, he is a 
favorite in intellectual circles. His recreation 
is in part in field and forest, where his en- 
joyment is complete. He is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, of the order of 
Knights of Pythias, and of the society of 
Sons of the American Revolution, his con- 
nection with the last named being derived 
through the services of distinguished an- 
cestors. Firmly grounded in the principles 
of Democracy, he was for many years an 
earnest and able advocate of his party princi- 
ples, but since his elevation to the bench he 
has taken no active part in political affairs. 
Judge Gates was married November 4, 1886, 
to Miss Pattie Field Embrey, of Richmond, 
Kentucky, daughter of William and Mary 
Embrey. She is an intelligent and cultivated 
lady and comes of an influential and wealthy 
family connected with the well known Clays 
and Fields of Kentucky. 

Gaty, Samuel, pioneer manufacturer, 
was born in Jefferson County, Kentucky, 
August 10, 181 1. He came of German ances- 
try, and his forefathers, who spelled the name 
Getty, were the founders of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania. He was left an orphan at an 
early age, ran away from the farmer to whom 
he had been "bound out," when he was ten 
years of age, went to Louisville, Kentucky, 
and there apprenticed himself to a firm of 
machinists and iron founders. He mastered 
this trade, and by carefully hoarding his 
earnings, had managed to save something 
more than two hundred dollars when he was 
sixteen years of age. He came to St. Louis 
in 1828, and in company with two other 
young men, started k small iron foundry, 
near the corner of Second and Cherry 
Streets. This venture did not prove suc- 
cessful, and toward the close of 1829 he re- 
turned to Louisville. After working there 
for a time as a journeyman, he returned to 
St. Louis and assisted in establishing another 
iron foundry. He was subsequently head of 
the firms of Gaty & Coonce, Gaty, Coonce & 
Morton, Gaty, Coonce & Beltshoover, Gaty, 
Coonce & Glasby, Gaty, McCune & Glasby, 
and Gaty, McCune & Co. He became widely 
known as an iron manufacturer and was a 



10 



GAY. 



pioneer in various fields of enterprise. He 
married Eliza J. Burbridge, and reared a 
large family of children. 

G-ay, Edward J., merchant, planter and 
Congressman, was born February 3, 1816, in 
Liberty, Bedford County, Virginia,, and died 
May 30, 1889, at his beautiful home on the 
St. Louis plantation, in Iberville Parish, 
Louisiana. He was the eldest son of John 
H. and Sophia (Mitchell) Gay, and came with 
his parents from Virginia to Illinois when he 
was three years of age. He was educated at 
the private school of Mr, Henry Dennis, near 
Belleville, Illinois, and at Augusta College, in 
Kentucky. At the age of eighteen years, he 
engaged in commercial life with his father, 
who was then a leading merchant in St. 
Louis. He evinced remarkable aptitude for 
this business from the beginning, and when 
he was only twenty-two years of age evi- 
denced his sagacity and enterprise in becom- 
ing the first St. Louis merchant to import 
coffee direct, in large quantities. Splendid 
success combined with probity and integrity 
to give him an enviable position among the 
merchants of the country, during the years 
that he was engaged in this business in the 
chief city of Missouri. Alluding to this por- 
tion of his career, many years afterward, in 
a debate in Congress, the late Governor 
Gear, of Iowa, gave expression to this senti- 
ment : "Mr. Gay's career as a merchant in 
St. Louis, before the war, had made his name 
a synonym of honesty, integrity and honest 
dealing throughout the whole Mississippi 
Valley." This was the reputation which he 
bore to the end of his business career. He 
was rigidly honest, and strictly conscientious. 
In 1840, Mr. Gay married Miss Lavinia 
Hynes, daughter of Colonel Andrew Hynes, 
of Nashville, Tennessee. Fifteen years after 
his marriage, Mr. Gay was called upon to 
take charge of the large planting interests of 
Colonel Hynes in Louisiana, and that oc- 
casioned the transfer of his residence from 
Missouri to Louisiana. He continued, how- 
ever, to have large property interests in St. 
Louis, and to take an active part in the im- 
provement and upbuilding of the city. In 
1882 he erected, at the corner of Third and 
Pine Streets in that city, the Gay Building, 
which was the pioneer office building of the 
city, and the Meyer Brothers' Drug Building 
and the Becktold Building are other im- 



provements for which St. Louis is indebted 
to Mr. Gay. He had unbounded faith in the 
development of St. Louis into one of the 
great commercial centers of the world and 
made large investments in real estate in that 
city. The appreciation in the value of this 
property added largely to his fortune and at 
the time of his death, although a non-resident 
of St. Louis, he was one of the city's largest 
taxpayers. The city of New Orleans also 
felt the vivifying efforts of his energy and 
enterprise, and he was the first president of 
the Louisiana Sugar Exchange, organized in 
that city and opened June 3, 1884. His life 
as a planter, in the far South, began many 
years before the culmination in Civil War 
of the strife . between the Northern and 
Southern States concerning the institution of 
slavery. He was an opponent of secession, 
as long as he felt that this opposition would 
avail anything, but when the die was cast, he 
sided with his people. He himself was un- 
fitted for military service by reason of in- 
juries which he had received years before, 
but his son entered the Southern army and 
fought through the long struggle which en- 
sued. Mr. Gay was witness to the ruin and 
destruction that followed in the wake of the 
armies, and his heart bled for the victims of 
that appeal to arms. When peace came, 
however, he wasted no time in vain regrets 
but gave his best thought and energies to the 
repairment of tlie ravages that war had made. 
His influence and example, and that of men 
like him, revived the drooping spirits of the 
people of Louisiana and "barriers to the 
floods were rebuilt, fields were replanted, 
factories arose from their ashes, the land 
regained the beauty that had gone, and peace 
and plenty smiled where want and desolation 
stalked in many a home before." He was no 
less successful as a planter than he had been 
as a merchant, and in all matters affecting the 
welfare of the agricultural community in 
which he lived he was foremost as a pro- 
moter of progress and advancement. In a 
memorial address delivered before the House 
of Representatives in the Fifty-first Con- 
gress, Mr. Wilkinson, of New Orleans, who 
had been one of his colleagues, alluded to 
this portion of his life and summarized the 
events of his subsequent career as follows : 
"Of all the avocations he ever followed, I 
believe Mr. Gay was fondest of agriculture, 
or of that combination of agriculture and 




/^''le ^i'on.1^ern. /^sfortf dJo 



r-^r i-f ('■'•^M^'r^sA^t 



X^^^:^ %v. ^^ 



GAY. 



11 



manufactures which prevails on every larg^ 
sugar plantation in Louisiana. He loved that 
calling in all its phases. He loved to see the 
mellow earth tvirn from the shining share. 
He loved to see the tender shoots of cane 
mark the long brown rows with tints of early- 
spring and then grow on until they hid the 
earth with a continuous canopy of green. He 
loved to view the fields when under summer 
suns they lay like a sea at calm, or were 
stirred by the breeze into emerald waves of 
loveliness and grace. And when the autumn 
was well along, and the harvest came, to him 
whose life had always been an active one, 
there was certain excitement in the busy 
grinding time, when he saw the skillful 
cutters stretched in line, with rapid blow and 
gleaming knife, strip and top and fell the 
standing canes and cast the purple stalks in 
even rows and piles ready for the wagon's 
load; when above the sounds of rustling 
leaves and ringing steel, of rumbling carts 
and teamster's urgent words, there came the 
cheery voices of contented labor, which burst 
at times into a work-song, weird and wild, 
but full of melody. He loved to see without 
his factory walls the ruddy glare of furnace 
fires, and within, the engines go on and on 
by night and day ; and massive rolls crush out 
the liquid sweets, the amber juices foam and 
dance with heat and steam, the machines re- 
volve with lightning speed, from which at 
last emerge the pure and sparkling crystals, 
the finished product of twelve long months 
of cost and toil. And thus, Mr. Speaker, in 
1884, amid these rural scenes, the future ap- 
peared to him as quiet and serene as the 
placid calm of evening after storms have 
ceased and clouds have passed away. But 
the merchant who had laid aside the cares of 
his calling, the planter who at almost the 
allotted three score years and ten looked 
forward to spending his declining years at 
peace in the society of his loved ones and 
amid the comforts of his home, received an 
urgent summons to bear his people's 
standard in one of the most hotly contested 
political conflicts of the time. Mr. Gay was 
averse to accepting the nomination unani- 
mously tendered him, and to entering 
political Hfe in his declining years, but the 
summons that carne to him with such in- 
sistance he would not and did not disregard. 
Elected in that campaign to the Forty-ninth 
Congress against an opponent of great 



ability and with great patronage at his back, 
he was re-elected to the Fiftieth and Fifty- 
first Congresses, each time against a different 
competitor— for no man was found to enter 
the lists against him the second time— and 
each time with increased majorities, because 
each time he not only held the friends he had, 
but won others who had opposed him before. 
He "was particularly averse to accepting a 
third nomination on account of ill health and 
need of rest, but saying: "I am willing to 
do my part," did that part — a 'noble one 
indeed — unto death itself. The seat to which 
he was elected the last time, he was destined 
alas ! never to fill. Nearly three months after' 
his second term was over, at home and sur- 
rounded by those he loved, he passed peace- 
fully away. Mr. Gay's career as a legislator 
crowned a long life of honor and usefulness. 
He had the faculty of expressing what he de- 
sired to say in words that were simple, clear, 
and full of force and thought. Implicitly did 
his people trust in him, and well was that 
trust bestowed, for if ever Representative 
filled the measure of faithfulness to his peo- 
ple, it was Edward J. Gay." 

On the occasion of these memorial services 
in the House of Representatives, Governor 
Gear, of Iowa, then a member of the House 
spoke as follows : "I am glad to join my 
fellow members in paying my tribute to the 
worth of our departed friend. It is an old 
adage, 'Nil mortnis nisi boniiui.' There are 
few men whom I have ever met who more 
truly illustrated in their lives the truth of the 
quotation. My acquaintance with Mr. Gay 
probably antedates that of any person here 
to-day. The first time I met him was in 
June, 1846. He was then engaged in bus- 
iness as a wholesale grocery merchant. St. 
Louis at that time commanded not only the 
trade of the Northwest, but extended also to 
Mexico on the southwest. Mr. Gay possessed 
in an eminent degree the essential qualities 
which make the successful business man, and 
was at the head of a firm whose trade ex- 
tended throughout that country from New 
Orleans to the sources of the Mississippi and 
Missouri Rivers. By the fair and honest 
niethods with which he transacted business 
his firm soon came to the front as the leading 
business concern of the Mississippi Valley, 
the reputation of which is to-day a pleasant 
remembrance to the old merchants of that 
section. During a long and active business 



12 



GAY. 



career, great and wonderful changes came 
over the country, to much of which he con- 
tributed both by his enterprise and his purse. 
During his career as a merchant in St. Louis 
two great financial crises swept over the 
country, which involved the merchants and 
traders alike in bankruptcy. By his sagacity, 
he foresaw the portent of the times, and by 
his ability he carried his firm safely through 
those great financial storms and emerged 
therefrom with enhanced credit. His spoken 
word wa^ not only his bond, but when once 
given was scrupulously kept. His mind was 
equitable in the largest degree. This quality 
may be illustrated by a remark he once made 
to one of his clerks, who himself is now one 
of the leading business men of the West. He 
said : 'John, always make it a rule when you 
are trusted to act for another to exercise 
your judgment in his "behalf." Thus, he 
honestly believed and put into practice in his 
every-day business, the golden rule, 'what- 
soever ye would that men should do to you, 
do ye even so to them.' As you, his fellow- 
members, knew and appreciated him as you 
met him here day by day, so he was known 
and appreciated by all who transacted bus- 
iness with him during his long and active 
business life. Honest and upright in his 
daily walk and in his dealings, he especially 
impressed all with his kind and gentle man- 
ners. He was a manly man and a gentleman 
in the fullest meaning of the word. His 
character in this regard is idealized in the 
language of England's sweet poet: 

There are some spirits truly just, 

Unwarped by pelf or pride ; 
Great in the calm, but greater still 

When pressed by adverse tide. 

These hold the rank no king can give, 

No station can disgrace ; 
Nature puts forth her gentlemen, 

And monarchs must give place. 

"The reputation he enjoyed for honesty of 
purpose, integrity in his business trans- 
actions, and as a conscientious Christian 
gentleman, is to his children a legacy more 
precious by far, than the ample fortune he 
bequeathed them." 

Similar tributes to his virtues and ability, 
were paid by Mr. Heard and Mr. Kinsey, of 
Missouri; Mr. Blanchard, Mr. Coleman and 
Mr. Robertson, of Louisiana ; Mr. McMillin, 
of Tennessee ; Mr. Hemphill, of South Caro- 
lina ; Mr. Butterworth, of Ohio ; Mr. Bynum, 
of Indiana; Mr. Clements, of Georgia; and 



Mr. Peters, of Kansas, in the House, and by 
Senators Gibson and Eustis, of Louisiana, 
and Senator Cockrell, of Missouri, in the 
Senate. Senator Cockrell's estimate of his 
character and pubhc services was as follows : 
"In all the relations of life he was a worthy 
exemplar, and the true gentleman in the 
broadest and best sense of the term. As a 
father he was patient, affectionate and kind, 
mindful of his responsibilities and watchful of 
the interests and success of his children. As 
a husband, he was gentle, tender, devoted 
and faithful. As a Christian and member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Churcli, South, he 
was humble, exemplary, liberal, and gen- 
erous, without ostentation, and was not 
ashamed of the gospel of Christ, nor to be 
called a follower of the meek and lowly 
Saviour, and in his dying moments could 
conscientiously and triumphantly exclaim : 
'I have fought a good fight ; I have finished 
my course ; I have kept the faith.' As a 
citizen of this great country, he recognized 
fully his responsibilities and duties, and took 
an active and intelligent interest in all public 
affairs, and sought to wield a worthy in- 
fluence in behalf of honest government and 
honorable and legitimate methods. As a 
public official, a Representative in the Con- 
gress of the United States, he was honest, 
faithful, painstaking and devoted, and recog- 
nized fully that he was the agent, servant and 
representative of the people of his district 
and of the nation, and made all of his per- 
sonal private affairs and interests, however 
important and exacting, subservient to his 
official public duties, and never attempted 
to use his official position for the enhance- 
ment of his private interests. He was not 
ambitious for political distinction, honors or 
preferment. His nomination for Representa- 
tive in Congress was offered to him in the 
sixty-eighth year of his age, unsolicited by 
him directly or indirectly. Although a gentle- 
man possessed of a large fortune, he never 
attempted to use his means for the purchase 
or procurement of political preferment or 
official position. He set an example worthy 
of emulation by all in official life and seeking 
official preferment. In the record of his 
life's work we have an impressive illustration 
of the many attainments which can be 
secured by citizens of our great country 
under our unequaled institutions, which v 
afford to every citizen an open pathway to ) 




■^fA^riAfisUn, C.. 



^(fiu^ '^'^'^ 



GAY. 



13 



every position in business, social and political 
life. Without entering into the details of his 
eventful, successful, and honorable career in 
all the relations of life, which have been so 
faithfully given by the distinguished Senator 
from Louisiana, who has just addressed the 
Senate, sufifice it to say that the good people 
of Missouri will ever hold in sacred remem- 
brance his illustrious name and unsullied life 
and character, and guard with zealous care 
his mortal remains now sleeping in Belle- 
fontaine Cemetery — the beautiful city of the 
dead — under the monument erected by lov- 
ing hands to his memory, and will ever point 
with just pride to his successful life as an 
example to follow and not to deter." 

The children born to Edward J. and 
Lavinia Hynes Gay were seven in number. 
Those living in 1900 were Andrew H. Gay, of 
Iberville Parish, Louisiana; Sophia Mitchell 
Crow,, wife of Philip A. Crow, of St. Louis ; 
John Henderson Gay, of San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, and Anna Margaret Price, wife of 
Andrew Price, of La Fourche Parish, Louis- 
iana. Mary Susan Gay died the wife of L. L. 
Butler; Edward James Gay, Jr., died Sep- 
tember 18, 1878, and William Gay died in 
infancy. 

Gay, John Henderson, one of the 

noted pioneer merchants of St. Louis, was 
born October 7, 1787, near Staunton, Au- 
gusta County, Virginia, and died at his home 
in St. Louis, September 9, 1878, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-one years. His parents 
were Henry and Rebecca (Henderson) Gay, 
both of whom died when he was very young, 
leaving him to the care of his grandmother 
and an uncle, who resided in Augusta 
County, Virginia, and with whom he re- 
mained until he was sixteen years of age. He 
then started out to make his own way in the 
world, equipped with such education as the 
schools of that early day in Virginia afforded. 
Brought up on a farm, he had received care- 
ful industrial training, and had been taught 
to regard economy and integrity as cardinal 
virtues. He left the town of Staunton, Vir- 
ginia, in 1809, and at that time the entire 
amount of his worldly possessions was thir- 
teen dollars, which he carried in his pocket. 
He had learned the trade of tanner and cur- 
rier, and began work at this calling in the 
town of Amsterdam, Botetourt County, Vir- 
ginia. There he built up a good business as 



a result of his sagacity, perseverance and 
industry, and in the course of a few years he 
became the owner of a store, which was a 
prosperous commercial institution. In 1815 
he married Miss Sophia Mitchell, daughter 
of Rev. Edward Mitchell, of Botetourt 
County. The brothers, Edward and Samuel 
Mitchell, were noted local preachers of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in that portion 
of central Virginia, and they were recognized 
as men of intelligence, strict integrity and 
unswerving patriotism. Edward, who was 
the older of the two brothers, resided in 
Botetourt County, and Samuel lived near 
Salem, in Wythe County. In early life they 
had become Methodists, and both possessing 
unusual mental endowments, they exercised 
them as local preachers in that church. They 
served in the Revolutionary Army as Ameri- 
can Minute Men, and, although they re- 
mained in service throughout the entire 
struggle, neither would ever accept any ofifice 
or emolument. Having inherited comfort- 
table fortunes, they had no need of help from 
their struggling country. Both married and 
had large families, their sons becoming 
prominent as professional men and mer- 
chants, and their daughters marrying equally 
prominent merchants, agriculturists and phy- 
sicians. At the close of the Revolution the 
brothers returned to their farms, and, having 
numerous servants, they cultivated lands ex- 
tensively, at the same time giving a large 
share of their attention to church work and 
the preaching of the gospel. They were 
among the earliest of prominent Virginians 
to accept the views of John Wesley, relative 
to domestic slavery, and as a result they de- 
termined to remove with their families to a 
free State. In pursuance of this idea, about 
the year 1818, they sold their possessions in 
Virginia and emigrated to Illinois, establish- 
ing their homes at a settlement then known 
as Turkey Hill, in St. Clair County, near 
Belleville. They had manumitted all such of 
their slaves as could be settled in Virginia, 
and, at their own expense, brought the rest to 
Illinois, where they furnished most of them 
with homes. In Illinois, the brothers soon 
became prominent, and their superior abili- 
ties as preachers were recognized and appre- 
ciated to such an extent that their services 
as clergymen were in constant demand in St. 
Clair and adjoining counties. Their wives 
were the typical old-time Virginia matrons, 



14 



GAY. 



ideal housewives and lovable characters in 
every Sense of the term. The coming of the 
Mitchells to Ihinois brought to that State, in 
1819, John H. Gay and his wife. In the 
spring of 181 5 Mr. Gay had removed to Bed- 
ford County, Virginia, where he conducted 
a tannery and a store, and also traded profit- 
ably in cattle, adding materially to his re- 
sources and his capital. .When he came to 
Illinois he purchased a farm and engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. In 1823 his brother 
died in the South, and Mr. Gay settled up his 
estate. In doing this a large amount of 
sugar, coflfee, etc., came into his hands, and, 
in order to realize the best results from the 
sale of these products, he concluded to open 
a grocery house in St. Louis. This he did in 
1824, taking into partnership with himself 
his brother-in-law, Mr.. Estes. The firm of 
Gay & Estes began business on Main Street, 
near Market Street, dealing in both groceries 
and dry goods. St. Louis had then some- 
thing like 5,000 inhabitants, and extended 
only three or four squares westward from 
the river. Their patronage came principally 
from Illinois, and extended as far as one hun- 
dred miles into the interior of the State. It 
soon developed that Mr. Gay was destined to 
become an eminently successful merchant, 
and that as a business man he had few equals. 
His innate sagacity and superior judgment 
enabled him to plan successfully for the ex- 
tension of trade and to attract patrons, while 
his partner attended to the indoor concerns 
and details of the business of the house. Each 
of the partners supplemented the other in 
such a way that their business prospered con- 
tinuously, and had grown to large propor- 
tions when Mr. Estes died. After the death 
of his partner, Mr. Gay's health became im- 
paired, as a result of the close confinement 
which the conduct of the business necessi- 
tated, and in 1833 he sold the establishment 
to two young men who were engaged in the 
store, furnishing them with capital and credit 
and enabling them to continue the business 
on the original plan. A man of keen fore- 
sight, he invested his profits largely in real 
estate in Illinois and St. Louis, which he pur- 
chased at a low figure. So judicious were his 
investments in St. Louis that the growth of 
the city made him very wealthy. He estab- 
lished his sons in mercantile pursuits and 
materially assisted them in building up com- 
mercial names and houses as honorable as 



his own. In all the enterprises calculated to 
build up and bring permanent prosperity to 
St. Louis, John H. Gay took an active in- 
terest. He was a large stockholder in vari- 
ous railroad lines, in the Wiggins Ferry 
Company, and in the St. Louis Gas Com- 
pany. He was also a stockholder in some of 
the first insurance companies organized in 
St. Louis, and was a director in the branch 
of the United States Bank, which had a cred- 
itable and useful existence in that city. A 
devout member of the Methodist Church 
throughout almost his entire life, he was one 
of the founders of Centenary Church of St. 
Louis, located then at the corner of Fifth and 
Pine Streets, and was one of the first stew- 
ards and trustees of that church. Regular in 
his attendance at all services of the church, 
he was a generous contributor, also, in aid 
of every movement to promote its upbuild- 
ing. During the later years of his life, on 
account of his removal from his old home, 
located in what had become the business por- 
tion of the city, to Union Avenue, he was a 
member, communicant and regular attendant 
of St. John's Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, at the corner of Ewing and Locust 
Streets, of which church he was a founder. 
In politics Mr. Gay was reared an old-line 
Whig and affiliated with that party until it 
passed out of existence. Thereafter he was 
a member of the Democratic party, holding 
liberal views and reserving to himself the 
right of independent action when he deemed 
it for the best interests of the public. His 
wife died September 14, 1869, after living in 
sweet companionship with her husband for 
fifty-six years. One who has written of Mrs. 
Gay says : "She was a rare woman ; a 'keeper 
at home,' devoted to her church, her hus- 
band, her children and her household, rever- 
encing the memory of her parents, whom she 
loved with an unusually ardent affection ; a 
sister as well as 'a mother in Israel.' Her 
house was ever open to the ministers of the 
gospel, their special rooms being always 
ready, and it was her delight to make them 
feel it was home." Of six children born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Gay, two sons, Edward J. and 
William T. Gay, survived them. Their eldest 
daughter, Eliza M. Gay, married Dr. Mere- 
dith Martin, of St. Louis, and died August i, 
1862. William T. Gay married Miss Sallie 
Bass, daughter of Ely E. Bass, of Boone 
County, Missouri. Edward J. Gay, who 



GAYLORD— GEHNER. 



15 



achieved great distinction, is the subject of 
an extended sketch in this connection. 
Among- the direct descendants of this worthy 
couple are Mrs. PhiHp A. Crow and family, 
of St. Louis ; Mrs. Anna M. Gay Price, of La 
Fourche Parish, Louisiana; Andrew H. Gay, 
of Plaquemine, Iberville Parish, Louisiana; 
and John H. Gay, Jr., of San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. Other descendants live in Ohio and 
Virginia. In his long and not uneventful 
career, John H. Gay did not leave a line, a 
speech, a word or an act recorded against his 
integrity as a merchant, or against his char- 
acter as a man. Few men have had such 
pure and unsullied records at the end of al- 
most a century of life. Relying upon him- 
self, he made for himself and his family an 
honored and esteemed name, and when he 
passed to a good man's reward the world was 
better for his having lived. 

Gaylord, Samuel A., was born March 
29, 1832, in Pittsford, Monroe County, New 
York, his parents being of old New England 
stock. Erastus Gaylord, his father, was a 
manufacturer in the above named village 
during the early youth of the subject of this 
sketch, and there his primary education was 
obtained. Later he attended college in 
Rochester, New York. Upon graduating he, 
for a short period, held a clerical position in a 
mercantile house in Rochester, from which 
he retired to come west. Arriving in St. 
Louis, in 1849, he at once became an em- 
ploye of the banking house of George E. H. 
Gray & Co., with which the veteran banker, 
James M. Franciscus, was connected. It 
soon became evident that young Gaylord was 
eminently qualified for the business he had 
selected, as after a few years' service with 
this firm he had made to him an offer of a 
position in the Boatmen's Saving Institution, 
now the Boatmen's Bank. This position he 
held continuously until 1862, a ten years' 
service, from which he resigned to engage in 
the banking business with his father and 
brother, under the firm name of Erastus Gay- 
lord & Sons. After the death of his father 
the business was continued as Gaylord, Leav- 
enworth & Co., for some time, succeeded by 
S. A. Gaylord & Co., and afterward by Gay- 
lord, Blessing & Co. In 1866 he married 
Miss Frances A. Otis, of Batavia, New York, 
by whom he had two children, both dying in 
infancy. • Mrs. Gaylord died in 1876. Seven 



years later, in 1883, he married Mrs. Clara 
Peterson Billon, widow of Louis C. Billon, 
and a daughter of Alexander Peterson, of the 
banking firm of Rennick & Peterson, in the 
early days of St. Louis. 

Gaynor City. — A hamlet located in the 
interior of Independence Township, Noda- 
way County, about fourteen miles northeast 
of Maryville. There are two churches, Pres- 
byterian and Christian, with a store, school- 
house and other buildings. It has telephone 
connections with neighboring towns. 

Gayoso. — An incorporated village, the 
seat of justice of Pemiscot County. It is 
situated near the Mississippi River ; was set- 
tled about 1799, and was named in honor of 
Manuel Gayoso, one of the early Spanish 
Governors of Louisiana. In 1852 it was laid 
out as a town and made the county seat. It 
has a courthouse, public school, church, a 
shingle factory and numerous sawmills near- 
by. Population, estimated (1899), 300. 

Gehner, August, banker and finan- 
cier, was born in the city of Hanover, Ger- 
many, September 18, 1846. He obtained his 
early education in his native city, and, com- 
ing to St. Louis when he was thirteen years 
of age, completed his studies at the German 
Institute, in that city. He was still a school 
boy when the Civil War began, and had been 
but two years in the United States, but, not- 
withstanding his youth and his short-lived 
American citizenship, he had learned to love 
his adopted country, and in 1862 enlisted as 
a private soldier in Company L, of the First 
Missouri Light Artillery, and from that date 
until July 20, 1865, when he received an hon- 
orable discharge, at the end of the war, he 
served continuously with the Union forces. 
He returned to St. Louis to turn his atten- 
tion to civil pursuits, and, having shown a 
remarkable aptness at drawing during his 
school days, accepted a position as draughts- 
man in the surveyor general's oflEice, which 
he filled for three years thereafter. This 
naturally inclined him toward the realty busi- 
ness, and at the end of his three years' term 
of service with the surveyor general he be- 
came a clerk in the ofifice of Hurk & O'Reil- 
ley, abstracters of titles. Three years with 
this firm thoroughly familiarized him with 
the details of the title abstract business, and 



16 



GEIGER. 



at the end of that time he opened an abstract 
business of his own. Under his careful and 
intelHgent supervision the business which he 
had established speedily grew to large pro- 
portions, and it may be said that he has made 
abstracts of the titles to almost every piece 
of real property in St. Louis. In everything 
pertaining to this branch of the realty busi- 
ness he is a recognized authority, and as a 
banker and financier he is no less prominent. 
For some years he has been president of the 
German-American Bank of St. Louis, a 
monetary institution which has been most 
admirably managed, and which stands at the 
head of the banking houses of that city as a 
dividend-paying institution. In the business 
and financial circles of St. Louis Mr. Gehner 
is universally recognized as a broad-minded 
financier, as well as a successful banker. This 
has caused him to become identified with 
numerous corporations in the capacity of 
stockholder and official, among the more 
prominent of these corporations being the 
Mississippi Valley Trust Company, the Ger- 
man Fire Insurance Company, and the Plan- 
ters' Hotel Company, in each of which com- 
panies he is a director. He was married, in 
1870, to Miss Minna Wehmiller, of St. Louis, 
and has two children, a son, Albert Gehner, 
and a daughter, Pauline Gehner. 

Geiger, Jacob, physician and surgeon 
of St. Joseph, was born July 25, 1848, at 
Wurttemberg, Germany. His parents were 
Anton and Maria G. (Eberhardt) Geiger. 
Jacob attended the Homer Seminary, at 
Homer, Illinois, and graduated from Bry- 
ant's Business College, St. Joseph, Missouri, 
in 1866. The same year he began the study of 
medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. 
Galen E. Bishop, of St. Joseph, and began 
the practice of medicine in 1868. Having ac- 
quired a substantial foundation for the life 
work he had chosen, the young physician de- 
termined to avail himself of a finishing course 
of lectures, and thus be better prepared for 
the professional future which determination 
and ambition had in store for him. He, 
therefore, attended lectures for one year at 
the medical department of the University of 
Louisville, Kentucky, graduating from that 
institution in 1872. He then returned to St. 
Joseph and entered upon a career that has 
been marked by remarkable success — a de- 
gree of success that is attained by few men 



engaged in his profession. The father died 
in Obernau, Wurttemberg, Germany, in 185 1, 
and Jacob was, therefore, thrown upon his 
own resources from early boyhood. Two of 
his brothers had emigrated to America, and 
in 1856 Jacob and his mother came to this 
country to find a new home and accept per- 
manent citizenship. But the sons were to 
experience another stinging blow, for the 
mother was ta^n away from them two years 
later and they were left alone. The situation 
was most serious for Jacob, who was the 
youngest of the three, but he had inherited 
the pluck that was characteristic of the fam- 
ily, and in the midst of overwhelming sorrow 
the boy set his face toward the unpromising 
future and began to prepare himself for a 
battle against obstacles that would have ta 
be surmounted and smoothed without the 
help of parents' hands. Shortly before her 
death, in 1858, the mother and her sons re- 
moved from Champaign County, Illinois, ta 
Brown County, Kansas. After his mother's 
death, and a brief residence in St. Joseph, 
Jacob Geiger returned to Illinois, where he 
attended school as faithfully as limited means 
would allow, and gave close attention to the 
rudiments of an education that was afterward 
well rounded and completed. The close of 
the Civil War marked the end of Jacob's days 
at the Homer Seminary, and in 1865 he re- 
turned to St. Joseph. Limited finances com- 
pelled him to seek employment that was re- 
warded by exceedingly meager remuneration: 
There were months behind the counter of a 
grocery store and tiresome days spent at 
even harder labor than that of a clerk. 
Through adversity he struggled manfully 
and succeeded in working his way through a 
business college, a training that has had the 
result of making him a successful business 
man, as well as one of brilliant professional 
attainments. Knowledge of drugs was gained 
by a short term spent in a drug store, and 
this was- followed by a course of reading in 
a doctor's office under the careful guidance 
of an able preceptor. In 1878 Dr. Geiger 
helped to organize the St. Joseph Medical 
College. Two years later the St. Joseph Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons was estab- 
lished, and in 1883 the institutions were 
consolidated under the name of the St. Jo- 
seph Medical College. In 1886 it became the 
Ensworth Medical College, and Dr. Geiger 
was its dean. He is professor of the principles- 




Z^*- Scfi*.fAfffn /^s f^ru /Sc 



%X^t^f^^j2^<^jH^ ^ .^K^^^ 



GEMS OF MISSOURI— GENERAI. ASSEMBLY. 



17 



and practice of surgery in the Ensworth Col- 
lege, and also lectures on the subject of 
clinical surgery, his able services having been 
of inestimable value in building up the insti- 
tution and maintaining its high standing. In 
1890 Dr. Geiger assisted in the organization 
of the Marion Sims College of Medicine of 
St. Louis, and he visits that city once a week 
during the school year for the purpose of 
lecturing on the subjects attending surgical 
work and its practice. In medical literature 
Dr. Geiger's name is one of the most familiar 
in the profession, and his writings carry un- 
measured weight on account of the recog- 
nized ability of the writer. He is a contrib- 
utor to the leading medical publications, and 
many able articles have come from His pen. 
He is one of the owners and editors of the 
St. Joseph "Medical Herald," a journal that 
has a large circulation among the physicians 
of the West. Dr. Geiger was elected presi- 
dent of the Missouri State Medical Society 
in 1897, and in the same year the degree of 
LL. D. was conferred upon him by Park Col- 
ege, Parkville, Missouri. He is an active 
member of the following medical societies 
and associations : American Medical Asso- 
ciation, Mississippi Valley Medical Associa- 
tion, Missouri Valley Medical Association, 
Northern Kansas Medical Association,West- 
ern Association of Obstetricians and Gyne- 
cologists, Tri-State Medical Society, Mis- 
souri State Medical Society, St. Louis 
Medical Society, Buchanan County, Mis- 
souri, Medical Society, District Medical So- 
ciety of Northwest Missouri. Of the last- 
named organization he was president in 1894. 
During the years 1888 and 1889 he was presi- 
dent of the Board of Health of St. Joseph, 
and during his term the health aflairs of the 
city were most carefully guarded. In politics 
Dr. Geiger is and has always been a Repub- 
lican, more or less active. In 1890 and 1891 
he was a member of the Common Council of 
the city of St. Joseph, and during his term of 
office he was president of that body. Under 
the present national administration he was 
made president of the Pension Bureau for 
the district in which St, Joseph is located. 
He is a Presbyterian in religious belief and 
is a member of the First Presbyterian Church 
of St. Joseph. What time and attention he is 
able to devote to secret orders is given up 
almost exclusively to Masonry, and in that 
order he has attained the dignity of the Mas- 

Yol. Ill— 2 



ter Mason. Dr. Geiger, as a citizen inter- 
ested in the afifairs of the government, and 
as a man of high social standing, devotes a 
portion of his time to outside matters, but he 
is essentially wrapped up in his profession 
and devoted to his home life. Since 1890 he 
has devoted his professional abilities almost 
exclusively to surgery, and in that line he is 
in demand in the principal cities of the coun- 
try, both in the active care of difficult cases 
and in consultations. Dr. Geiger was mar- 
ried, in 1887, to Miss Louise Kollatz, of St. 
Joseph, Missouri. 

Gems of Missouri. — In different parts 
of Missouri, semi-precious gems have been 
found, topaz, tiger-eye, opalized wood, chal- 
cedony and various classes of crystals. 
Schoolcraft, in his "Notes on the Minerals of 
Missouri," published in 1819, states that on 
the banks of the Mississippi River, between 
St. Louis and Grand Tower, he found several 
specimens of carnelian and jasper, and an 
opal of great hardness and beauty. The opal, 
he believed, had been washed by the waters 
of the river from some distant part of the 
country along its banks. 

General Assembly. — The official name 
of the Legislature or law-making body 
of the State of Missouri. It consists of 
two houses — the Senate and the House of 
Representatives — which meet and act in dif- 
ferent chambers in the State capitol, at Jef- 
ferson City. The Senate has thirty-four 
members, chosen in districts by the people, 
holding for a term of four years, one-half the 
number being elected every two years. In 
some parts of the State it takes several coun- 
ties to form a senatorial district ; in populous 
counties, one county may contain more than 
one district. The State is divided into sena- 
torial districts anew every ten years. A 
Senator must be thirty years of age, a citizen 
of the United States, and have been a quali- 
fied voter for three years, and be a taxpayer. 
The presiding officer of the Senate is the 
Lieutenant Governor. The House of Repre- 
sentatives consists of a variable number of 
members, every county being entitled to one, 
and the populous counties to more. The 
ratio is determined by dividing the popula- 
tion of the State, as given in the last United 
States census, by 200; each county having: 
one ratio or less is entitled to one Represen- 



18 



GENERAI. ASSEMBLY. 



tative ; each county having two and a half 
ratios is entitled to two Representatives; 
each county having four ratios is entitled to 
three ; each county having six ratios is enti- 
tled to four — and so on, above that number, 
each two and a half additional ratios entitling 
to one additional Representative. A member 
of the House of Representatives must be 
twenty-four years of age, and a citizen of the 
United States, and have been a qualified 
voter of the State for two years, and be a tax- 
payer. The General Assembly meets once in 
two years, on the first Wednesday after the 
first day of January of the odd years. It 
may be called to meet in special session when 
occasion demands, by proclamation of the 
Governor. The pay of Senators and Repre- 
sentatives is five dollars a day for the first 
1 20 days, and after that one dollar a day — in 
addition to which they receive traveling ex- 
penses. The presiding officer of the House 
of Representatives is the speaker, chosen by 
the House itself. Neither house of the Gen- 
eral Assembly may, without the consent of 
the other, adjourn for more than two days at 
a time, nor to any other place than that in 
which the two houses are sitting. A bill in- 
troduced in either house must be read three 
times on three different days, and it may not 
be put on final passage unless it has been re- 
ported upon by a committee and printed for 
the use of members. To become a law, it 
must receive the votes of a majority of the 
members elected to each house, and be 
signed by the presiding officer of each house. 
Then it goes to the Governor. If he ap- 
proves it, and signs his name to it, it becomes 
a law. If he fails to return it, with his ap- 
proval or disapproval, within ten days, the 
General Assembly may enact it into a law by 
simple resolution. If the Governor vetoes 
it, it can become a law by the votes of two- 
thirds of the members of each house. If the 
General Assembly shall adjourn within the 
ten days allowed the Governor to consider a 
bill, he may make it a law by sending it to 
the Secretary of State, with his approval, 
within thirty days, or he may defeat it by a 
veto.' No law enacted by the General As- 
sembly goes into effect until ninety days after 
the adjournment of the session at which it 
was passed, unless there be appended to it an 
"emergency clause," and two-thirds of all the 
members elected to each house otherwise 
direct. The general appropriation act is an 



exception to this rule; it goes into effect as 
soon as approved by the Governor, or made 
a law without his approval. The laws passed 
at each session of the General Assembly are 
all published in a book called "Session Acts" 
of such a General Assembly, givirig the num- 
ber and the year. Once in ten years there is 
a revision made, when all the previous laws 
of the State are gone over, together with the 
session acts, the repealed laws omitted and 
the new ones inserted, in two large volumes 
called "The Revised Statutes of Missouri," 
with the year mentioned. This book, with 
the laws arranged in order, in chapters, ar- 
ticles and sections, is authority in this State 
in all suits, courts and contracts. 

Representative government in Missouri 
began in 1812, under the act of Congress 
which reorganized the Territory and changed 
its name from Louisiana to Missouri. In ac- 
cordance with the provisions of that enact- 
ment the people elected a Territorial House 
of Representatives, and these Representatives 
nominated eighteen citizens, of whom the 
President of the United States chose nine, to 
act as a Legislative Council. The Council and 
House of Representatives thus chosen con- 
stituted the first General Assembly of Mis- 
souri. The first session of the House of 
Representatives — which body consisted of 
thirteen members — began in St. Louis, De- 
cember 7, 1812, and was held at the residence 
of Joseph Robidoux. Nominations to the 
Council were made, as provided by law, and 
after the appointment of nine Councilors by 
the President, the organization of the Gen- 
eral Assembly was completed and its work 
was begun. The act which created the Gen- 
eral Assembly provided that it should hold 
an annual session, beginning on the first 
Monday in December, but in 1816 an 
amended act provided for biennial sessions, 
and also fixed the number of Councilors at 
one for each county. In 1820 the Territorial 
Legislature was succeeded by the State Leg- 
islature, chosen in pursuance of the con- 
gressional enactment of March 6th of that 
year. Although the State was not formally 
admitted into the Union until August 10, 
1 82 1 — by reason of the fact that the Consti- 
tution adopted contained a provision obnox- 
ious to Congress — the first State officers, 
Senators and Representatives, were chosen 
at an election held August 20, 1820. Four- 
teen Senators and forty-three Representa- 



GENET— GENTRY. 



19 



tives were chosen at that election, and the 
General Assembly met, pursuant to the pro- 
visions of the Constitution, September 19th. 
The first session of that body was held in the 
old "Missouri Hotel," which occupied the 
southwest corner of Main and Market Streets 
in St. Louis. The first president of the Sen- 
ate was General William H. Ashley, who had 
been elected Lieutenant Governor, and James 
Caldwell, of Ste. Genevieve, was first speaker 
of the House of Representatives. David Bar- 
ton and Thomas H. Benton were chosen 
United States Senators by this General As- 
sembly, but were not admitted to the Senate 
until after the formal admission of the State. 
The next session of the General Assembly 
was held in St. Charles, beginning June 4, 
1 82 1, and on the 26th of that month the as- 
sent of that body was given to the conditions 
imposed by Congress in connection with the 
admission of the State. The sessions were 
held thereafter at St. Charles until 1826, 
when the capital was removed to Jeflferson 
City, the fourth General Assembly meeting 
there, November 20th of that year. 

Genet, Edmond Charles. — See 

"French Intrigues in the West." 

Gentlemen's Driving Club. — Soon 
after the close of the Civil War, Honorable 
Norman J. Colman and other owners and ad- 
mirers of good horses instituted in St. Louis 
a club bearing the above name, which had for 
its object the bringing together of the good 
"roadsters" of the city, at regular intervals, 
for tests of speed. In 1882 a new organiza- 
tion bearing the same name succeeded the 
old one, and has since been one of the pop- 
ular institutions of the city. Driving mati- 
nees are given every Saturday afternoon at 
Forest Park, from May to October, under 
the auspices of the club, and these exhibi- 
tions of speed are free to the public. The 
club was instituted solely for the pleasure 
and recreation of its members, who meet all 
its expenses by assessing themselves. In 
1898 there was but one other driving club of 
this kind in the United States. 

Gentry, Nicholas Hocker, proprietor 
of the famous Wood Dale Stock Farm, 
in Pettis County, is a son of Joel W. and Jael 
W, (Hocker) Gentry, and was born on the 
old homestead, near Sedalia, March 16, 1850. 



His father, who was born in Missouri in 1815, 
and died in October, 1851, was a son of Reu- 
ben E. Gentry, a native of Kentucky, and a 
soldier in the War of 1812. Joel W. Gentry 
was a brother of Major William Gentry and 
Richard Gentry. In 1824 he removed with 
his father to Pettis County, and settled on a 
farm now occupied by Nicholas H. Gentry, 
where he engaged in farming and stock-rais- 
ing on an extensive scale. He and his 
brother Richard, who occupied adjoining 
farms, were the pioneer breeders of fine stock 
in western Missouri, and their foundation of 
this industry has resulted in making the 
name of Gentry famous throughout the 
United States. For many years Joel Gentry 
drove his stock to St. Louis, then the central 
market of the West, and during his brief life- 
time he established a high reputation as a 
scientific breeder of stock. In politics he was 
a Whig. He and his wife were devoted mem- 
bers of the Christian Church. He was a man 
of great strength of character, eminently just 
and of a deeply religious nature. Few men 
exerted an influence for good in his commu- 
nity so powerful as did he. He married Jael 
W. Hocker, who was born near Richmond, 
Kentucky, and who was a daughter of Nich- 
olas Hocker, a Virginian by birth. They had 
two children, Nicholas H. and Eliza Jael, wife 
of S. M. Morrison, of Denver, Colorado. 
After the death of Joel W. Gentry, his widow 
married his brother, Richard Gentry, and 
now resides in Sedalia. One of the children 
of ■ Richard and Jael (Hocker) Gentry was 
Rev. Richard W. Gentry, a graduate of the 
State University, where he won the Stephens 
Medal for the best oration. He preached 
in the Christian Church at Columbia and 
elsewhere, and for a time was secretary of 
the State Board of Agriculture. He was 
recognized as a man possessed of a high 
order of talent. His death occurred in No- 
vember, 1883, while he was in his twenty- 
sixth year. Mary V., their second child, is 
the wife of A. W. Walburn, of Chicago; 
Nannie G. is the widow of William Estill, of 
Sedalia, and Mattie died in childhood. Nich- 
olas H. Gentry was educated in the common 
schools of his native county, was reared and 
always has resided on one of the two noted 
Gentry farms north of Sedalia, most of his 
boyhood being spent with his uncle, Richard 
Gentry. In 1875 ^^ married and returned to 
the homestead to reside permanently, at once 



20 



GENTRY. 



engaging in the stock industry independ- 
ently. From the start he paid particular at- 
tention to the breeding of Berkshire hogs, 
importing them in large numbers. At the 
Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, in 
1876, he paid $550 for the Berkshire hog 
which was awarded the first prize there. In 
later years he has also bred Shorthorn 
cattle. At the convention of the stockmen of 
the United States and Canada, in 1890, a 
committee of eighteen men was appointed to 
look after their interests at the Columbian 
Exposition of 1893, held at Chicago. Mr. 
Gentry was one of this number, and a large 
measure of the success of that great exhibit 
is due to his well directed efforts. At the 
same time he served as president of the Mis- 
souri World's Fair Commission, a position 
of great responsibility and trust. At this 
great fair, members of his famous herd of 
Berkshires were awarded thirty-two separate 
prizes — greater in both number and value 
than those of any other exhibiter of swine 
of any breed at the fair. The showing made 
is the more remarkable when it is understood 
that Mr. Gentry competed with the best 
herds in America, as well as the most noted 
prize-winners from the leading exhibits in 
England in both 1892 and 1893. No ex- 
hibiter of any class of stock shown at Chi- 
cago was the breeder of so large a percentage 
of the winners. Since his first exhibit in 1874 
(in Missouri), he has won prizes at every fair 
and show to which he has sent stock, and 
holds to-day more prizes and diplomas than 
any other breeder in America, if not in the 
world. For seven years Mr. Gentry has been 
president of the American Berkshire Asso- 
ciation; he is a director and member of the 
American Shorthorn-Breeders' Association ; 
for three years he has been president 
of the National Association of Live Stock 
Exhibiters of America, organized to make 
known to the management of the State fairs 
the wants of breeders. He is vice president 
of the Missouri State Fair Association, and 
chairman of the committee to improve the 
grounds, and was one of the organizers of 
that association in 1899. Fraternally he is a 
Master Mason, and in religion he is a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church. He was mar- 
ried, December 29, 1875, to Minnie D. 
Carter, a native of Dover, Missouri, and a 
daughter of Jesse W. and Margaret (Camp- 
bell) Carter. They have been the parents of 



seven children, of whom five are living. They 
are Jael, a graduate of the Chicago Musical 
College, in the class of 1899, in which she 
was the winner of the diamond medal for 
general proficiency; Ella, Nannie M., Lucy 
H. and Lee M. Gentry, all of whom reside on 
the home farm, where Mr. Gentry and his 
family dispense a generous hospitality. 

Gentry, Reuben Joel, was born six 
miles north of Sedalia, January 2, 1839, and 
was a son of Richard and Alzira (Miller) 
Gentry. His father was a son of Reuben E. 
Gentry. Reuben J. Gentry's education was 
obtained in the country schools of Cedar 
Township, Pettis County, and the Kemper 
School at Boonville. Upon the completion 
of his studies in the latter institution he re- 
turned to the farm of nearly eight thousand 
acres belonging to his father, and assisted in 
its supervision until the death of the latter, 
in February, 1865. Richard Gentry had be- 
gun life with a limited capital, and after 
taking up his original small tract added to 
it by the purchase of forty acres at a time 
until he possessed one of the most extensive 
and most carefully cultivated farms in Mis- 
souri. It was known as the model farm of 
the State, and was visited by inhabitants of 
all sections of the United States. From the 
beginning he engaged in stock-raising, and 
during his successful career he bred some of 
the finest horses, cattle, sheep and hogs ever 
produced west of the Mississippi River. 
Upon his death the estate was divided into 
farms averaging about 1,700 acres each, one 
of these being allotted to each member of the 
family. Upon the outbreak of the Civil 
War, Reuben J. Gentry tendered his services 
to the Union and received an appointment 
on the stafif of Colonel John F. Philips, his 
warm personal friend, who had raised the 
Sixth Regiment of Missouri State Militia 
(cavalry). Colonel Thomas T. Crittenden 
subsequently assumed command, and under 
these two gallant leaders, Mr. Gentry par- 
ticipated in the stirring scenes enacted within 
the borders of Missouri and in Arkansas 
during the four years which followed his en- 
listment. Upon the conclusion of peace he 
returned to his farm and resumed its oper- 
ation in partnership with his brother, direct- 
ing his attention toward the breeding of fine 
stock, much of which secured a world-wide 
reputation. Probably no family in the United 



GENTRY. 



21 



States is better known than the Gentrys in 
connection with the stock interests of the 
country, and no small share of the credit for 
the high grade attained by American horses, 
cattle and other stock is due to the scientific 
labors of Reuben J. and William M. Gentry. 
The subject of this sketch was through his 
€ntire life, a Democrat, but his policy was 
never dictated by those narrow and shallow 
sentiments altogether too prevalent in both 
the great parties. He never sought public 
office, but his deep interest in the cause of 
education led to his repeated election as 
school director in his district, and he em- 
ployed all his influence in behalf of the im- 
provement of the educational facilities in his 
township. Fraternally he was a Master 
Mason. He was married April 5, 1871, to 
Bettie Hughes, a native of Georgetown, 
Pettis County, and a daughter of Reece 
Hughes. Their living children are : Sallie 
Burch, wife of Thomas J. Sturges, of Sedalia ; 
Wilham Henry, Charles Richard and Reuben 
Joel, at home. The three last named are en- 
gaged in the cattle business under the firm 
name of Gentry Brothers, occupying the 
estate left by their father and uncle. Charles 
R. is also a student in the law department of 
the Missouri State University, and Reuben J. 
is attending the high school in Sedalia. All 
are members of the Christian Church, of 
which Mrs. Gentry is also a communicant. 
One child died in infancy. Ruby, wife of Dr. 
W. J. Ferguson, of Sedalia, died June 16, 
1900. The useful career of Reuben Joel 
Gentry was terminated by death October 5, 
1881, while he was still in the prime of life. 

Gentry, Richard, soldier and pioneer, 
was born in Madison County, Kentucky, 
August 21, 1788. He was the son of Richard 
Gentry and Jane Harris, who emigrated to 
Kentucky from Virginia among the early 
pioneers in 1786, coming over the Wilderness 
trail through Cumberland Gap. The elder 
Gentry enlisted twice as a soldier in the 
Revolution, and was present at the surrender 
of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Entering land 
and building his cabin in the rich cane brakes 
of Madison County, he became rich in land 
and slaves, and raised a family of sixteen 
sons and three daughters. Eight of his 
sons came to Missouri while it was yet a 
Territory and settled in what was afterward 
Marion, Ralls. Boone and Petti? Counties, 



and raised large and influential families. The 
most prominent of them were : Reuben 
Gentry, the ancestor of the Pettis County 
Gentrys; Rev. Christy Gentry, a pioneer 
Baptist minister of Missouri; Honorable 
Joshua Gentry, the first president of the 
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, and Gen- 
eral Richard Gentry, the subject of this 
sketch. 

General Gentry was by nature and training 
a soldier, fond of adventure and daring; he 
inherited the true pioneer spirit, was a born 
hunter, and delighted to follow the Indian 
trail. As a boy, he was always put forward 
by his brothers to execute any of their plans 
requiring strength and bravery. He was 
popular, for he was generous, hospitable, 
patriotic and brave. Governor Christopher 
Greenup, of Kentucky, appointed him a lieu- 
tenant in the Kentucky militia at the age of 
twenty. Three years later, in 181 1, he was 
appointed a captain, and Governor Shelby 
commissioned him as regimental ensign for 
the Kentucky Volunteers sent to the assist- 
ance of General W. H. Harrison on the lakes 
in the War of 1812 against the British. 
While on this campaign, his oldest son was 
born October 15, 1812, and with his charac- 
teristic patriotism, he named him Richard 
Harrison Gentry, in honor of his general. 
There was great hardship and suffering 
among the volunteers on account of the 
severity of the northern winter and the 
scarcity of supplies. The Kentucky wives 
and mothers responded quickly with their 
looms and needles to supply them with cloth- 
ing. Young Gentry wore with great satis- 
faction a new suit of Kentucky jeans, which 
had been spun, woven, cut and made by his 
young wife at home. 

After the war was over, desirous of new 
adventure and new opportunity, he collected 
his personal property, consisting of some live 
stock and a few slaves, and in pioneer 
fashion, started for the new territory of Mis- 
souri, arriving at the little French town of 
St. Louis on the banks of the Mississippi in 
1816. After remaining a short time in St. 
Louis County, he pressed forward to the new 
center of population and influence growing 
up on the then western frontier of civiliza- 
tion. The town of Old Franklin was fast be- 
coming a place of political and commercial 
importance. The old forts of Hempstead, 
Kincaid and Cooper in the vicinity of Old 



22 



GENTRY. 



Franklin gave evidence of the necessity of 
means of protection from the savage Indians 
which still frequented that portion of Mis- 
souri. 

While at Old Franklin, General Gentry 
formed the acquaintance of the leading men 
of the State, many of whom resided there. 
His great friendship and admiration for 
Thomas H. Benton no doubt influenced him 
to become a Democrat and leave the old 
Whig party of his father. He was a good 
public speaker and took an active part in 
every political campaign. He often boasted 
in Democratic style "that he was born in a 
canebrake and was rocked in a sugar 
trough." 

In 1820 he became one of the incor- 
porators of the town of Columbia, Missouri, 
and built the first hotel of the town, and made 
it his permanent home. He devoted himself 
to the building up of the new town for a 
time, but was also deeply interested in public 
afifairs, especially in the military organ- 
izations of the State. In 1821 Alexander 
McNair, the first Governor of Missouri, ap- 
pointed him a captain of the State militia, and 
in the following year gave him a commis- 
sion as colonel. 

About this time he became interested in 
the lead mines of Galena, Illinois, and spent 
some time in that exciting mining camp. In 
1826 he was elected a State Senator and 
served four years as such in the Missouri 
Legislature. He had the pleasure of voting 
for Senator Benton for his second term as 
United States Senator. In 1830 President 
Jackson appointed him postmaster at Colum- 
bia, which office he held during his life, and 
after his death it was held by his widow until 
1867, a period of thirty years, she having 
the distinction of being the first woman who 
ever held such an appointment in the United 
States. The old Santa Fe trail passed 
through Columbia and thence over the plains 
to New Mexico. General Gentry could not 
refrain from becoming interested in the 
promising opportunities of the Mexican 
trade, and he listened to the stories of the 
freighters stopping at his hotel with the 
deepest interest. Senator Benton, too, was 
advocating in the Senate the importance of 
this Mexican trade and urging appropria- 
tions for the Santa Fe trail. Between the 
years 1830 and 1832, General Gentry made 
several successful freighting trips with mer- 



chandise from Missouri to Santa Fe, New 
Mexico. 

In 1832, when the Northern Indians threat- 
ened a raid into Missouri, led by their 
famous chief. Black Hawk, General Gentry 
was appointed by the Governor of Missouri 
a major general, and given command of all 
the Missouri troops. He soon organized his 
forces and led them to the northern border 
of the State in time to prevent the raid into 
Missouri and to protect its citizens from the 
cruel savages. He remained at Fort Pike in 
Clark County, Missouri, for several months, 
and caused the wily chief to change his plans 
and the course of his raids. There was no 
engagement, therefore, with the Indians in 
Missouri. A little later this same band 
raided Illinois and were defeated at the battle 
of Bad-ax by the regulars under Colonel 
Taylor, and Chief Black Hawk was cap- 
tured. 

In 1835 the United States government at- 
tempted to remove the Seminole Indians 
from Florida to the Indian Territory, west 
of the Mississippi; they refused to go, and 
the long and costly Seminole War was the 
result. In 1837 President Van Buren asked 
Senator Benton if Missourians could be in- 
duced to travel so far from home as the 
swamps of Florida to assist in chastising the 
Seminoles. Senator Benton's prompt reply 
was : "The Missourians will go wherever 
their services are needed." He went im- 
mediately to the Secretary of War and 
secured a commission for General Gentry as 
colonel of volunteers, and orders for raising 
a regiment of Missouri troops for the Florida 
war. The following is a letter from Senator 
Benton to General Gentry notifying him of 
the orders from the War Department, au- 
thorizing him to raise the first regiment of 
volunteers for the government service ever 
furnished by the State of Missouri : 

"Senate Chamber. 

" September 8, 1837. 
^^ Major General Gentry, Colonel Volunteer s^ 
Columbia, Mo. : 

"Dear Sir : I have the gratification to write 
you simultaneous with the issue of orders 
from the War Department for the march of 
600 of your volunteefs to Florida. This is 
an event which you have ardently desired, 
and I have no doubt but that the brave 
spirits who volunteered with you will rejoice 



GENTRY. 



23 



to have an opportunity to display their 
courage, devotion and patriotism. I feel 
proud for Missouri that her gallant sons are 
called to take a part in this war, and am fully 
assured that there will be no disappointment, 
neither of the promptness of the march nor in 
bravery of conduct after you reach the field 
of action. I make great calculations upon the 
600 that will go with you, and great will be 
my pride to see them turn out with an 
alacrity, and signalize themselves by exploits, 
which will give me an opportunity to cele- 
brate their praises on this floor. 
"Your old friend, 

"Thomas H. Benton." 

The orders from the War Department 
were dated September 8, 1837, and on Octo- 
ber 15th, General Gentry marched out of 
Columbia for St. Louis with his regiment of 
600 men. Such promptness in enlisting, 
equipping and marching to the scene of 
battle is an example of energy and patriotism 
worthy of praise and emulation. Senator 
Benton came all the way from Washington 
to meet the volunteers at St. Louis, where 
he made them a stirring and patriotic ad- 
dress. General Gentry lost no time in reach- 
ing Florida and joining the army already in 
the field under General Zachary Taylor, who 
had been in Florida for the past year, bjit 
had been unable to meet the Indians in any 
decisive battle. On the arrival of the Mis- 
souri Volunteers, the army under General 
Taylor advanced about one hundred and fifty 
miles into Florida in search of the Indians. 
The country was an unexplored wilderness, 
full of swamps and everglades. After several 
skirmishes the Indians were finally found 
congregated in force in a very strong 
position on the north side of the Okeechobee 
Lake. In front of them was a swamp nearly 
a half mile wide and they were protected by 
dense woods in which they hid themselves. 
A decisive battle, which terminated the war, 
was fought on Christmas day, 1837. The 
Missouri Volunteers brought on the fight in 
gallant style, led by their brave commander; 
they waded the swamp on foot, almost to 
their armpits in water, to attack and drive 
a concealed enemy from the dense hammock 
on the opposite side. Of the 138 soldiers 
killed dnd wounded, the most of them were 
Missourians. Their brave and gallant com- 
mander. General Gentry, received a mortal 



wound just as he emerged from the swamp, 
but he continued on his feet for some time in 
front of his men, urging them forward to the 
attack. General Taylor in his report of the 
battle says : "Colonel Gentry died in a few 
hours after the battle, much regretted by the 
army, and will be, doubtless, by all who knew 
him, as his State did not contain a braver 
man or a better citizen." The remains of 
General Gentry were brought from Florida 
to Missouri and buried in the national 
cemetery at Jefferson Barracks, where his 
grave is marked by a small monument. His 
son, Richard Harrison Gentry, was wounded 
in the arm by a ball from an Indian rifle 
about the same moment General Gentry 
was shot. The first intelligence of the death 
of General Gentry that came to Missouri 
was by the following letter from Senator 
Benton at Washington to his widow : 

" Washington City, January 12, 1838. 
" Mrs. Richard Gentry, Columbia, Mo. : 

"Dear Madam : The melancholy intelli- 
gence from Florida, though not yet con- 
firmed by the arrival of the official reports, 
seems too well substantiated to admit of a 
doubt that your brave and patriotic husband 
has nobly fallen in the cause of his country. 
Twenty years of friendship between us en- 
ables me to appreciate his loss to his family, 
and makes me feel how much the country is 
bound to endeavor to alleviate the calamity 
of that loss. With that view, I have already 
applied to the President and Postmaster 
General to have you appointed to keep the 
postoffice at Columbia, and think it probable 
that the application will be granted. Presi- 
dent Van Buren deeply regrets the death of 
your husband, and feels that everything is 
due to his family which can lawfully and con- 
sistently be done. A pension for five years 
will be granted to you, at the rate, I think, 
of about $450 or $500 a year. I shall also 
be glad to assist in doing anything for your 
children, and must request a statement of the 
names and ages of your sons, that I may 
see whether any of them can be educated at 
the military academy or placed in the navy. 
With my assurance that you and your chil- 
dren can rely on my friendship at all times, 
and that I shall lose no opportunity to pro- 
mote your and their welfare, I remain, dear 
Madam, Yours truly, 

" Thomas H. Benton." 



24 



GENTRY. 



General Gentry has a large number of 
descendants in Missouri and adjoining 
States, but only four grandsons bearing his 
name : Richard Gentry, of Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, and Oliver Perry Gentry, of Smithville, 
Missouri, sons of Richard Harrison Gentry; 
and North Todd Gentry, of Columbia, Mis- 
souri, and Wm. Richard Gentry, of St. Louis, 
Missouri, sons of Thomas Benton Gentry. 

Gentry County, one of the richest and 
most prosperous counties of Missouri, was 
named by the Missouri Legislature, when it 
was formed, in honor of General Gentry. 

General Gentry was cut down in the very 
prime of life, full of the vigor and spirit of a 
well matured manhood. Had he lived to 
return from the Florida War he would 
doubtless have taken a very prominent po- 
sition in the public afifairs of the country. 

Richard Gentry, the grandson and name- 
sake of General Gentry, is president of the 
Bond Shoe Company, one of the large manu- 
facturing and jobbing house of Kansas City, 
of which city he has been a resident for 
eighteen years. He was born at Columbia, 
Missouri, November ii, 1846, graduated 
from the University of the State of Missouri 
in 1868, and for many years thereafter was 
engaged in civil engineering, being at differ- 
ent times connected with the Chicago & 
Alton, the Wabash, the Iron Mountain and 
other railways. In 1889 he became one cf 
the incorporators and was a large stock- 
holder in the Pittsburg & Gulf Railway, 
of which he was successively chief engineer, 
general manager and vice president within 
the next eight years. He has always been an 
active man of afifairs and has been engaged 
in various large enterprises, such as cattle- 
raising and mining in Colorado, and banking 
in Kansas City, and other Missouri towns. 
Successful in his business enterprises,, he is 
numbered among the prominent financiers 
of Kansas City. November 11, 1873, he 
married Susan E. Butler, of Callaway 
County, Missouri, who is the daughter of 
Martin Butler, of New Bloomfield, in that 
county. Four sons and two daughters have 
been born of this union. 

Gentry, Richard T., general manager 
of the Union Central Life Insurance Com- 
pany of Cincinnati, is one of Kansas City's 
most popular and energetic men. He is a 



native Missourian, having been born in 
Sedalia, Pettis County, son of Major William 
Gentry, a noted man and pioneer breeder of 
fine cattle. Mr. Gentry resided in Sedalia 
until 1898, when he removed to Kansas City. 
He has been identified with the insurance 
business in Missouri for about ten years, and 
has held many public and social positions 
of dignity and importance. He was treas- 
urer of Pettis County from 1878 to 1884, and 
has figured prominently in State politics as 
a leading and representative Democrat. In 
1886 he came within a few votes of receiving 
the Democratic nomination for State Treas- 
urer. In 1900, his abilities having been 
recognized throughout the insurance world, 
he accepted the general management of the 
Union Central at Kansas City, with juris- 
diction over the company's afifairs in Mis- 
souri and with about twenty men under his 
able direction. Mr. Gentry is a writer of 
ability and has contributed considerable in- 
teresting matter on the subject of life insur- 
ance to journals devoted to that important 
line of business. In Kansas City he is as 
popular socially as he is esteemed in financial 
and commercial circles. He is a thirty- 
second degree Mason, is a member of Ararat 
Temple of the Mystic Shrine, and also of the 
order of Elks. He is secretary of the Gentry 
Family, one of the most noted family asso- 
ciations in the country. There are over ten 
thousand members of the Gentry family, of 
whom there is kept an accurate record, and 
their reunions are important gatherings and 
widely reported in the daily press. Most of 
the members of the association reside in 
Missouri, Kentucky, and other Southern 
States, but almost every State in the Union 
is represented when the Gentry kin are 
gathered together. November 27, 1877, Mr. 
Gentry married Miss Mattie C. Prewitt, of 
Clarksville, Pike County, Missouri, daughter 
of Honorable Wm. C. Prewitt, one of the 
pioneers and substantial men of that portion 
of the State. Mrs. Gentry died in 1881. 
Mr. Gentry is a man of fine business quali- 
fications and acumen, a courteous, polished 
and dignified gentleman, and of unusually 
pleasing address. He is a natural politician, 
and his charming manners and personal 
magnetism irresistibly draw men to him. He 
is just in the prime of life, enthusiastic, active 
and untiring in all his efiforts. 





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>,i y 



A C ^rL (u 



'~he Si:**ief^frft f/isi'jrii Ctr 




GENTRY. 



25 



Gentry, William, one of the most dis- 
tinguished citizens of Pettis County, was 
born at Boone's Lick, Howard County, 
April 14, 1818. The Gentry family was orig- 
inally of Germanic stock, and was trans- 
planted to England, and thence to America 
in colonial days. Richard Gentry, a native of 
Virginia, after performing military service in 
the Revolutionary war, became one of the 
early settlers of Kentucky, locating in Madi- 
son County. His son, Reuben E. Gentry, 
was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, 
June 6, 1785. He married Elizabeth White, 
and removed to Missouri in 1809. In 181 1 
he located at Boone's Lick, where he en- 
tered and improved a tract of government 
land. Early in the War of 1812 he assisted in 
building Fort Hempstead and Fort Kincaid. 
In 1824 he removed to Pettis County, and 
made a farm home about five miles northeast 
of the present city of Sedalia, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. Previous 
to leaving Virginia, he married Elizabeth 
White, a native of that State. Their family 
comprised four sons and one daughter, 
namely, Richard, Joel W., Jane H., Reuben 
and William. The latter named, the youngest 
child, was six years of age when his parents 
removed to Pettis County. His boyhood and 
early manhood were passed upon the farm, 
which he aided in cultivating, and his educa- 
tion was acquired in a neighborhood sub- 
scription school established by his father. In 
1840, he married Ann Redd Major, daughter 
of Lewis Redd Major, a pioneer of Pettis 
County, and for many years one of its most 
prominent and useful citizens. In 1846 he 
purchased and settled upon a farm about 
four miles west of his father's estate, where 
he passed the remainder of his life. In 1856 
he was elected county judge of Pettis County, 
and successive re-elections extended his term 
of service to the long period of twenty years, 
during which time he instituted many move- 
ments in advancement of the material inter- 
ests of the county. After the death of his 
brother Richard, he resigned the office to at- 
tend to the administration of the estate, and 
this business, added to care for his own 
affairs, occupied all his time and attention for 
a couple of years. He was a devoted 
Unionist from the beginning of the Civil 
War, and in 1862 Governor Gamble com- 
missioned him major of the Fortieth Regi- 
ment of Missouri Enrolled Militia, with 



which he served until its disbandment. He 
was subsequently appointed major of the 
Fifth Provisional Regiment of Missouri 
Militia, and served in this capacity until the 
restoration of peace. During all the years 
of strife and disturbance, in a region where 
conditions were peculiarly distressing, with 
families disrupted and kinsmen arrayed 
against each other. Major Gentry displayed 
all the qualities of the ardent patriot and 
gallant soldier, at the same time performing 
his duties with such consideration as to 
greatly mitigate the sufferings incident to 
the times. In the reconstruction period, his 
wise counsels and equitable disposition exer- 
cised much influence in assuaging the bitter- 
ness of feeling then prevailing. Deeply 
interested in the material development of his 
region of the State, he earnestly advocated 
various important enterprises, to all of which 
he liberally contributed of his means. In 
1870 he was elected a director of the Lexing- 
ton & St. Louis Railway, and two years later 
he was unanimously chosen president of the 
same company. He was also a director of 
the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway, and 
he was president of the Sedalia, Warsaw & 
Southern Railway from the date of its organ- 
ization until its purchase by the Missouri 
Pacific Railway Company. Originally a 
Whig, upon the disruption of that party he 
became a Democrat. With many oppor- 
tunities for political advancement, he had no 
fondness for public life, and but once con- 
sented to become a candidate for a purely 
political position. In 1873 he was the 
nominee of the People's or Independent 
party for Governor of Missouri, and was 
defeated by Charles H. Hardin, the Demo- 
cratic candidate. In the winter of 1881-2, he 
rendered his last public service, as presiding 
judge of the Pettis County court, under ap- 
pointment by Governor Crittenden. Major 
Gentry, by his. first marriage, was father of 
eight children, namely, Mary E., wife of . 
T. W. Cloney, of Sedalia ; Jane Redd, wife of 
Theodore Shelton, of St. Louis ; Allie B., 
who died August 18, 1886, wife of J. M. 
Olfield, of Sedalia; Bettie G., widow of J. B. 
Skinner, of St. Louis ; Richard T., of Kansas 
City; Joel B., who died January, 1886; John 
R., of St. Louis, and Eva G., wife of H, B. 
Duke, of Kansas City. The mother of these 
children died August 11, 1873, and in 
December, 1874, Major Gentry married her 



26 



GENTRY— GENTRY COUNTY. 



sister, Mrs. Evelyn Witcher. The death of 
Major Gentry occurred May 22, 1890. In 
every relation of life, as husband, parent, 
cititzen, soldier, and public official, he was a 
model of integrity and noble purpose. His 
services in behalf of his home county and 
the adjacent region can not be overestimated. 
Keenly alive to its possibilities, and hoping 
for its occupation by a large and desirable 
population, he never lost faith in the ultimate 
success of the various enterprises intended to 
accomplish this end, nor did his effort ever 
lag, nor were his means ever withheld. It 
is to be said that his wise discernment was 
amply vindicated in the magnitude of ac- 
complished results. While incessantly busy 
with important concerns to the advantage of 
the community, he neglected no personal 
duty nor interest, and his unflagging in- 
dustry, wise management and great business 
ability caused him to be regarded, as he is 
now remembered, as the model farmer of his 
region. He accumulated a large estate 
comprising six thousand acres in his home 
place, splendidly improved, and nearly all 
under cultivation or used in rearing stock. 
His personal success in these lines of in- 
dustry was of vast advantage to others 
through imitation of his methods, and 
through availing themselves of new and de- 
sirable breeds of domestic animals of his 
introduction. His conduct in the outer 
world was governed by the same high princi- 
ples which characterized him in his home 
life. Refined in manner, genial in disposition, 
pure-minded and temperate in all ways, he 
was held in affectionate regard by all the 
thousands who esteemed it a pleasure to 
know him and to enjoy his friendship. He par- 
ticularly endeared himself to very many dur- 
ing and immediately after the Civil War, 
when he expended a comfortable fortune in 
providing for the wants and ameliorating the 
conditions of such as had suffered impover- 
ishment. Charitable and merciful, his home 
was ever a refuge for the weary and 
distressed throughout his life. His tender- 
hearted sympathy required no personal ap- 
peal, nor could sickness or disaster afflict one 
within his knowledge, that he did not make 
it his errand to visit the unfortunate and 
make generous bestowal of his means and 
services. To few families is it given to in- 
herit so highly honored a name as is borne 



by the descendants of the truly noble Wil- 
liam Gentry. 

Gentry, William Miller, was born at 

the family homestead in Pettis County, Sep- 
tember 19, 1837, son of Richard and Alzira 
(Miller) Gentry. His boyhood was spent 
upon the farm, and his rudimentary educa- 
tion was obtained in the school established | 
by his father. While the famous Kemper 1 
School was still located at Fulton, he entered 
it as a student, continuing his studies there ■ 
after its removal to Boonville. After leaving I 
this school he returned to his home and as- 
sisted his father in the management of his 
extensive farming and stock interests. The 
Civil War interrupted his farming operations 
for a while, and when a call for additional 
men for the defense of the homes of loyal 
citizens was made, he joined the State Un- 
ion forces and served until the danger was 
past. The death of his father, in 1865, left 
him and his brother in charge of the valuable 
interests founded and nurtured by the elder 
Gentry, and to their care he devoted the re- 
mainder of his life. Though a Democrat of 
the same type as his father and brother, he 
never sought nor consented to fill public of- 
fice. Fraternally he was a Master Mason. 
December 2, 1885, he married Bettie H., 
widow of Reuben J. Gentry. While in the 
prime of manhood, apparently with many 
years of usefulness before him, he was 
stricken with an illness which resulted in his 
death. May i, 1889. It should be said of him, 
that the traditions of the old and honorable 
Gentry family guided him throughout life, 
and his career, though free from ostentation, 
was, nevertheless, marked by a public- 
spiritedness, and liberality of thought and 
action in consonance with the spirit which 
has characterized his family throughout all 
its generations. 

Gentry County. — A county in the 
northwestern part of the State, bounded on 
the north by Worth County, east by Harri- 
son and Daviess Counties, south by DeKalb 
County, and west by Andrew and Nodaway 
Counties; area, 313,000 acres. The surface 
is generally undulating, with large areas of 
bottom land along Grand River, the principal 
stream, which runs through the county in a 
.southeasterlv direction, in an irregular 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS. 



27 



H course. Its chief feeders are East Fork of 
K West Fork, Middle Fork and West Fork of 
Grand River. Of Grand, and the streams 
here named, there are numerous smaller trib- 
utaries. Originally one-third of the area of 
the county was in timber, a large belt of oak, 
several miles in width, extending through the 
county from north to south. Much of this 
has been cleared away and the land converted 
into farms. About two-thirds of the county 
is prairie. Throughout nearly all sections of 
the county the soil is a dark loam, mixed in 
places with sand, and lying on a base of clay. 
The timber lands have proved the best for 
the growing of wheat and other cereals. The 
average yield to the acre of corn is 35 bush- 
els ; wheat, 15 bushels; and, oats, 25 bushels. 
Potatoes yield 100 bushels to the acre, and 
all the tuberous vegetables grow equally as 
well, and reach almost a perfect state of ma- 
turity. The grasses, especially timothy and 
clover, grow luxuriantly and are profitable 
crops. Stock-raising, dairying and fruit- 
growing are the most profitable branches of 
diversified farming, which is the general oc- 
cupation of tbe residents of the county. 
About 80 per cent of the area of the county 
is under cultivation, the remainder being in 
timber, consisting chiefly of oak, hickory, 
black walnut, cottonwood, lind, etc. The 
fruit acreage of the county, is nearly 3,000 
acres. All the hardy varieties of fruits are 
produced abundantly, and horticulture has 
for many years been successfully carried on. 
In the northern part of the county there is a 
deposit of bituminous coal, which is the only 
mineral yet discovered in the county. Build- 
ing stone exists in limited quantities. There 
K is abundance of brick clay, which is used ex- 
tensively in the manufacture of brick, con- 
siderable of which is exported. According 
to the report of the Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, in 1898, the surplus exports shipped 
from the county were: Cattle, 18,600 head; 
hogs, 69,600 head ; sheep, 2,683 head ; horses 
and mules, 2,390 head ; wheat, 27,800 bushels ; 
oats, 938 bushels ; corn, 24,500 bushels ; hay, 
39,400 pounds; timothy seed, 1,000 pounds; 
lumber, 91,200 feet; logs, 6,000 feet; walnut 
logs, 24,000 feet; cross-ties, 454; cordwood, 
1,212 cords; brick, 768,750; sand, 75 cars; 
wool, 64,000 pounds ; poultry, 690,200 
pounds ; eggs, 546,000 dozen ; butter, 87,500 
pounds ; lard and tallow, 4,085 pounds ; hides 
and pelts, 63,000 pounds ; nursery stock, 



2,790 pounds. Other articles exported from 
the county were dressed meats, honey, bees- 
wax, molasses and furs. The exact date of 
the first permanent settlement in the section 
that is now Gentry County, and who was the 
first settler, are matters that remain in dis- 
pute. It is generally claimed that no settle- 
ments were made in the section until 1840, 
when a number of people, who for a time had 
resided in Clay and Ray Counties, located 
upon the land along the Grand River. It is 
certain that there were only a few settlers, if 
any, prior to this time. That in 1840 there 
was considerable occupation of the lands 
along. Grand River, is evidenced by the fact 
that the county had a sufficient population 
for organization a year later. On February 
12, 1841, Gentry County was preHminarily 
organized, and its boundaries defined. The 
first two sections of the creative act were in 
the following words : "All that portion of 
territory now attached to Clinton County, 
and lying north of the township line dividing 
Townships 60 and 61, shall be included in a 
new county hereafter organized and known 
by the name of Gentry, in honor of Colonel 
Richard Gentry, who fell in the battle of 
Okeechobee, in Florida. Gentry County 
shall be attached to the County of Clinton, 
for all civil and military purposes, until other- 
wise provided by law." The organization of 
the county was perfected in 1843, ^"d the 
commissioners appointed to select a perma- 
nent seat of justice located it on land near the 
center of the county, and laid out a town, 
which was called Athens. Later the name 
was changed to Albany. Gentry County is 
divided into eight townships, named, respec- 
tively, Athens, Bogie, Cooper, Howard, Hig- 
gins, Jackson, Miller and Wilson. The 
Omaha & St. Louis branch of the Wabash 
Railroad passes diagonally through the 
county, from the northwest ; and the St. Jo- 
seph branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, from the southwest corner, north- 
east to north of the center of the eastern 
boundary line. The number of public schools 
in the county in 1899 was 91 ; teachers em- 
ployed, 141 ; pupils enumerated, 6,820. The 
population of the county in 1900 was 20,554. 

Geological Surveys. — The motive of 
some of the French and all of the early Span- 
ish explorers was the search for precious 
metals. In 1541 De Soto is supposed to Have 



28 



GEOI.OGICAL SURVEYS. 



traversed southern Missouri in his search for 
wealth. In 1705 the Governor of Louisiana 
sent out an expedition under De Lochon, 
which penetrated as far as the mouth of Kan- 
sas River, but with no success. In 1720 De 
La Motte explored southeast Missouri, and 
did some mining for lead in the region since 
known as the La Motte mines. Soon after, 
Renault mined near Potosi, and from 1730 to 
1770 there was occasional mining in south- 
east Missouri. The first person of English 
descent to explore this region was Moses 
Austin, a native of Durham, Connecticut, 
who had been working lead mines in Wythe 
County, Virginia. In 1798 he rode horse- 
back to Missouri, obtained the grant of a 
league of land from the Spanish government, 
and soon after opened the first regular shaft 
for mining and erected a furnace for smelting 
lead. In 1804 Austin made a report to Major 
Amos Stoddard, acting Governor, which was 
later published in the "American State 
Papers," Volume I. In this report Austin 
describes each of the ten mines, with some 
general observations on the district. These 
mines were operated by Austin for nearly fif- 
teen years. He then went to Texas to ar- 
range for the establishment of a colony there. 
From Texas he went to Mexico to negotiate 
for a cession, was imprisoned, came out sick 
and dispirited, and soon after died at the 
home of his son-in-law, on Big River, Mis- 
souri. His son, Stephen F. Austin, later ob- 
tained the grant and established a settlement 
around Austin, Texas, and died there in 
1836. 

In 1818, 1819 and 1823 Henry R. School- 
craft was in the mining region of southeast 
Missouri. In November and December, 
1818, Schoolcraft, with Levi Pettibone, jour- 
neyed from Washington County, Missouri, 
through the then unknown wilderness, to 
southwest Missouri, exploring caves, exam- 
ining the rocks, and, on the 30th of Novem- 
ber, met hunters on the waters of the White 
River. There were then two or three families 
on White River, near the Arkansas line. 
From thence they journeyed up White River 
and Swan Creek to Finley Creek, by Ozark 
Cave, to James Fork, and visited the mine 
since known as the Phelps lead mine, about 
five miles from Springfield. A small shaft 
was sunk, some lead ore dug out, a rude log 
furnace erected, and on January 3, 1819, some 
lead was smelted. On January 5th they 



started on their return trip, passed down 
White River; thence up Black River to St. 
Michael — now Fredericktown — and to Ste. 
Genevieve. In 1823, when accompanying 
General Cass to St. Louis, Schoolcraft paid 
another visit to the mines of southeast Mis- 
souri, he saw Austin, and obtained additional 
information of the mines and minerals of 
Missouri. As a result, he published, in 1819, 
a volume on the mines of Missouri. He 
names mines in the counties of Washington, 
Ste. Genevieve and Madison, and describes 
the associated minerals and manner of mine- 
working. To this he adds a geographical de- 
scription of Missouri, with its sixteen coun- 
ties ; also an article on the mineral masses of 
the earth. Another volume he published, en- 
titled "A Tour Through Missouri and North 
Arkansas," in 1819. He also published a 
volume with notes of his trip in 1823. 

In Volume I of "Western Journal and 
Civilian," St. Louis, 1848, page 243, Dr. H. 
M. Prout gives a general sketch of the geol- 
ogy of the Mississippi Valley, and in Volume 
V, of January, 1853, he further advocates the 
importance of a geological survey of the 
State. The "Western Journal," for October 
and November, 1849, contains lengthy articles 
showing the value of the mineral resources 
of Missouri, and the great importance of hav- 
ing made an early geological survey of the 
State. Dr. M. M. Maughas, of Callaway 
County, explored central Missouri, and in 
the "Western Journal and CiviHan " for 
February, 1853, he published an interesting 
article on his geological researches in Mis- 
souri. 

In 1839 the State of Missouri had a Board 
of Improvement, consist- 
Official Surveys and ing of several members. 
Reports. The president of the board 

was George C. Sibley; 
William H, Morell was chief engineer, and 
Dr. Henry King was employed to make a 
geological survey along the Osage River. 
The act organizing this movement was 
passed by the Legislature and approved Feb- 
ruary 9, 1839. Dr. King handed in his report 
December, 1839. This may be considered 
the first official geological report ever pub- 
lished on Missouri. Dr. King connected his 
geological surveys with the southeast Mis- 
souri region, and that of the Osage River. 
He examined the lead mines of Washington 
and St. Francois Counties, the region 



GEOLOGICAI. SURVEYS. 



29 



around Massies' iron works ; thence across 
the Gasconade and Osage, to Jefferson City. 
He notes the occurrence of lead and iron, 
copper, barytes and zinc. He speaks of coal 
pockets and salt springs. He studies the 
geology on both sides of the Osage to the 
west line of the State. He discusses the 
Osage and its tributaries, the character of 
the country, timber, prairie, soils, minerals, 
fossils, and the age of the rocks. In this, he 
considers the Jefferson City rocks to be the 
upper member of the lead-bearing series. He 
further takes notice of the building stone, of 
the "float" mineral, which he considers to be 
the remains of a former regular vein. He 
speaks of lead mines in the country, from 
near Jefferson City to near Warsaw, and of 
the indications of lead in central Missouri. 
Pierre Chouteau, of St. Louis, is said to have 
been the first man who explored the Upper 
Osage Valley for minerals. 

In 1849 the Missouri Historical and Phil- 
osophical Society presented a memorial to 
the Legislature, signed by Sol. D. Caruthers, 
Samuel T. Glover, Falkland H. Martin, Wil- 
liam G. Minor and De Witt C. Ballou, setting 
forth the advantages to be derived from a 
geological survey, and urgently asking the 
Legislature to make liberal appropriations 
for the same. In May, 1849, the Legislature 
appointed a committee, with T. F. Risk as 
chairman, to memorialize Congress to set 
apart one township of land in each land dis- 
trict for the purpose of carrying on a survey, 
and also to establish a school of agriculture, 
mining and chemistry. This was adopted by 
the United States tlouse of Representatives, 
without a dissenting voice, but was delayed 
in the Senate and not acted on before the 
close of the session. On December 27, 1849, 
Stephen H. Douglas introduced a bill in 
Congress to authorize an allotment of one 
township of land in each land district, for the 
purpose of aiding a geological survey. In 
December, 1852, the Missouri Legislature 
recommended an appropriation for a geo- 
logical survey of the State, and the bill was 
passed April 2, 1853. George C. Swallow 
was appointed State Geologist, and in June 
he began his work in the State, which he con- 
tinued until May, 1861. During the summer 
of 1853 Swallow made surveys in Boone 
County, then he explored the Missouri bluffs 
from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to Rockport, Mis- 
souri. After this he made a trip across the 



State to southwest Missouri, returning by a 
different route ; the next summer he did 
work in central and northeast Missouri, and 
by December, 1854, he had his report com- 
plete, including 450 pages, with five maps with 
sections. No other man during the same time 
has ever gone into a strange field, traversed 
the country and written out its geology in so 
short a time and with such successful accu- 
racy as he did. In this work he was ably 
assisted by Dr. B. F. Shumard, Dr. A. Litton 
and Mr. F. B. Meek. The other assistants 
in the work were R. B. Price, Dr. J. G. Nor- 
wood, Major F. Hawn, G. C. Broadhead, Dr. 
John Locke, H. A. Uiffers, Warwick Hough, 
P. C. Swallow, Edwin Harrison, Henry En- 
gelmann and C. Gilbert Wheeler. Most of 
the State was surveyed by Swallow and his 
assistants. In 1861 the geological survey 
was discontinued. 

The second geological survey was made 
in 1870-5. During 1870 
Second Survey. and part of 1871 Albert 
D. Hager was State Geol- 
ogist. In 1871 J. G. Norwood was tempo- 
rarily State Geologist, with G. C. Broadhead, 
assistant geologist. He was also assisted by 
Charles M. Litton. Surveys were made in 
Madison County and in western Missouri. 
The Legislature, in 1871, established a State 
Board of Mines and Geology, to consist of 
four members, with the Governor as chair- 
man. In November, 1871, Raphael Pumpelly 
was appointed State Geologist. His assist- 
ants on the work were Dr. Adolph Schmidt, 
G. C. Broadhead, William B. Potter, Alex. 
Leonhard, P. N. Moore, W. E. Guy, J. R. 
Gage, Charles J. Norwood and John 
Pumpelly. Dr. Schmidt's work was mainly 
a description of iron ore beds in south, east 
and central Missouri. Professor Potter 
made a survey of Lincoln County. G. C. 
Broadhead examined the coal fields of west- 
ern Missouri. Regis Chauvenet made chem- 
ical analyses. In June, 1873, Pumpelly 
resigned and G. C. Broadhead was appointed 
State Geologist. His assistants were Dr. A. 
Schmidt, P. N. Moore, C. J. Norwood, H. H. 
West and J. R. Gage with Regis Chauvenet, 
chemist. Broadhead made surveys of Cole, 
Madison and Howard and certain counties of 
southwest Missouri. C. J. Norwood made 
surveys of Putnam and Schuyler and assisted 
Broadhead in other surveys. J. R. Gage 
made a report on certain lead mines in St. 



30 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS. 



Francois and Madison Counties, and P. N. 
Moore made a survey of Limonite ore beds 
in southeast Missouri. Dr. Schmidt made 
surveys of the lead and zinc mines in central 
and southwest Missouri. The survey was 
suspended in 1875. 

The geological survey was reorganized in 
1889 with a Bureau of 
Third Survey. Geology and Mines, con- 
sisting of four members 
and the Governor as chairman of the board. 
From 1889 to 1893 Arthur Winslow was 
State Geologist. From 1893 to 1897 Charles 
R. Keyes filled the office. The assistants 
were C. F. Marbut, Elston Lonsdale, A. E. 
Woodward, G. E. Ladd, Frank Nason, J. 
Robertson, H. A. Wheeler, R. R. Rowley, 

E. M. Shepard, J. E. Todd, Erasmus 
Haworth, The reports included twelve 
volumes of from 200 to 400 pages each, and 
five bulletins and annual reports. In 1897 
John A. Gallaher was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. He has had Marbut and Rowley to 
assist. The work of the third geological 
survey has been chiefly in the same field as 
the others, being brought out in more detail 
in some districts. 

Official publications in connection with 
geological surveys of Mis- 
Official Publications, souri have been as fol- 
lows : Geological Report 
of Country Adjacent to Osage River, by Dr. 
Henry King accompanying State Engineer's 
Report, Jefferson City, 1840; First Annual 
Report, 1853. Report of Progress, Second 
Annual Report, 1854; includes 38 pages. 
Report of Progress, 447 pages ; geology, 
maps, sections, three plates of fossils ; 
Chapters i to 5 inclusive, by G. C. Swallow; 
Part Second, Report of A. Litton on Lead 
Mines; F. B. Meek on Moniteau County; 

F. Hawn on Country along Hannibal & St. 
Joseph Railroad ; Dr. B. F. Shumard on St. 
Louis, Franklin and the Country along the 
Mississippi River, and description of forty- 
eight species of fossils. Reports of Progress 
.for 1856, 1859 ^"^ i860; G. C. Swallow and 
assistants. Report of Country Adjacent to 
Southwest Branch of Pacific Railway, 1858. 
Annual Report of A. D. Hager, 23 pages, 
1871. Geological Report, 1855-71, Jefferson 
City, 1873; 323 pages, photo-lithographic 
plates, eight county maps ; includes reports 
on six counties, by G. C. Broadhead; three 



counties by F. B. Meek, and twelve counties 
by B. F. Shumard. 

Report — Iron Ores and Coal Fields — 1873. 
Raphael Pumpelly, director; 190 illustra- 
tions; two parts and an atlas; Part I, 214 
pages ; includes geology of Pilot Knob and 
vicinity, by R. Pumpelly; second, Analyses, 
by Chauvenet and Blair; third, by A. 
Schmidt, Description of Iron Ore Deposits; 
Part II, 440 pages, Chapters i to 6, Coal Mines 
of Missouri, by G. C. Broadhead; Chapters 
7 and 8, Geology of Lincoln County, by W. 
B. Potter; Chapters 9 to 15, inclusive, Re- 
ports on Counties of Northwest Missouri, 
by G. C. Broadhead. Appendix — Smith, 
Broadhead and C. J. Norwood. 

Geological Survey Report 1874 — G. C. 
Broadhead, Chapters i to 6, inclusive, and 
II to 21, inclusive, by Broadhead; Chapters 
7, 8, 9, 10 and 12, by Broadhead and C. J. 
Norwood; Chapters 16 and 17, by C. J. Nor- 
wood ; Chapters 21 to 33, by Dr. A. Schmidt, 
on Lead Districts ; Chapter 34 by J. R. Gage ; 
Chapter 35, by P. N. Moore; Chemical 
Analyses, by R. Chauvenet; and appendix. j 
Jefferson City, 1874; thirty-five chapters and | 
appendix ; 734 pages ; ninety-one illustra- 
tions ; atlas, fourteen maps. Report of C. 
P. Williams, 183 pages; three chapters, Lead 
and Zinc; Jefferson City, 1877. 

Publications of the Third Survey, 1889- 
1900, were as follows : Five bulletins ; 470 J 
pages; thirteen plates, eleven figures; A. ' 
Winslow, State Geologist and assistants, 
Ladd, Marbut, Haworth, Woodward; and 
includes a bulletin on bibliography of Mis- 
souri geology by F. A. Sampson; three 
biennial reports, 150 pages. 

Volume I. Coal, by A. Winslow; 227 
pages; 131 figures; four chapters, two ap- 
pendices. 1 

Volume II. Iron Ore; Frank L. Nason; 1 
366 pages ; nine plates, sixty-two figures ; 
eleven chapters, two appendices. 

Volume III. Mineral Waters, by Dr. Paul 
Schweitzer; 256 pages; thirty-four plates, 
eleven figures; ten chapters, three appendices. 

Volumes IV and V. Paleontology, by 
Charles R. Keyes ; 314 and 320 pages ; thirty- 
four and thirty-two plates, nine and two 
figures. 

Volumes VI and VII. Lead and Zinc j 
Deposits, by A. Winslow ; 387 and 401 pages ; | 
twelve and twenty-eight plates, 71 and \ 



GEOI.OGY OF MISSOURI. 



31 



196 figures, appendix charts, E. O. Hovey; 
Analyses, J. D. Robertson. 

Volume VIII. Charles R. Keyes, E. 
Haworth,on Crystalline Rocks; Altitudes, by 
C. F. Marbut, and Coal Measures of Mis- 
souri, by G. C. Broadhead. 

Volume IX. Areal Geology, by C. R. 
Keyes and C. F. Marbut ; Higginsville 
Sheet, by A. Winslow; Bevier, by C. H. 
Gordon, assisted by H. A. Wheeler and J. E. 
Todd ; Iron Mountain, by Winslow, Haworth 
and Nason ; Mine La Motte, by C. R. Keyes ; 
with maps and plates. 

Volume X. Twenty-two maps and 
sketches, twenty-four figures ; 523 pages ; 
C. F. Marbut, on Surface Features ; Quater- 
nary, by J. E. Todd ; Bibliography, Charles 
R. Keyes. 

Volume XI. Six hundred and ten pages, 
thirty-nine plates, fifteen figures ; Clay De- 
posits, by H. A. Wheeler. 

Volume XII. Four hundred and nine 
pages and 245 pages ; six maps, thirteen 
plates ; thirty-seven cuts. Green County, by 
E. M. Shepard; CHnton, Calhoun, Lexington, 
Richmond and Huntsville, Quadrangles, by 
C. F. Marbut ; Geology of Boone County and 
on Ozark Uplift, by G. C. Broadhead. 

G. C. Broadhead. 

Geology of Missouri. — The geology 
of any given area of the earth is to some ex- 
tent individualized, because the conditions of 
deposit in that area were essentially local. A 
correct genesis is, therefore, the easiest way 
of resolving all geological phenomena. But 
the genesis must satisfy all of the require- 
ments of physics, logic and consciousness. 
In other words, it must be supported by 
abundant and obvious facts, because we rea- 
son only by analogy. 

Traversing the Mississippi basin, from 
Lake Superior to southwestern Texas, lies 
an ancient deep-seated arch or upward fold, 
unevenly developed. It is known locally as 
the Ozark Range. It is, in fact, the eastern 
axis of our primordial continent, and is older, 
by far, than the Rocky Mountains. 

On that deep-seated arch or ancient axis, 
about midway between the points just named, 
rests the geographical area now known as 
Missouri. But the topography of our pri- 
mordial base is radically unlike that of the 
present surface. The first is sharply defined 



or rugged, the latter is relatively smooth or 
undulating. 

The rocks involved in our primordial base 
are chiefly granite, gneiss and mica schist ; 
with the dyke rocks, pegmatite, diabase and 
porphyry, characteristic of such country. 
That the topography of our primordial base 
is sharply defined or rugged, is a fact of great 
economic importance. As will be shown 
hereafter, an acute knowledge of that basal 
topography helps us to analyze local struc- 
ture and determine the areas of the subdrain- 
age zones, wherein our greatest ore bodies 
have been concentrated. 

In the primordial areas of Wayne, Madi- 
son, Ste. Genevieve, St. Francois, Iron and 
Crawford Counties, in which the granite 
rocks have been denuded of their sedimentary 
covering, the same general conditions obtain 
under which rich metal veins are found in 
other countries. The only reason I can con- 
ceive why those areas of granite country 
rock have not been explored for plutonic de- 
posits and true fissure veins, is because they 
were not situated in some more difficult or 
romantic country. They are, at least, very 
old rocks, on which has doubtless rested a 
vertical mile of ore-bearing rocks that have 
been resolved into their constituent elements 
and carried away to the sea floor, or precipi- 
tated in the fissures and other cavities in 
those ancient bed rocks. 

Moreover, the innumerable dykes of dia- 
base, pegmatite and porphyry suggest that 
if there really are such things as sublimation 
veins, they ought to be found in the granite 
country of southeastern Missouri. It is a 
familiar fact that all of the richest metal 
mines in the world are situated in the areas 
wherein the greatest destruction of sedimen- 
tary rocks has occurred. If the energy that 
has been wasted on the proverbially barren 
porphyry had been judiciously expended in 
searching for metal veins in the granite coun- 
try of Missouri, it is more than probable 
that rich ore deposits would have been found. 
Some large bodies of hematite iron, concen- 
trated in the upper surface of porphyry, is 
about all of value that has been found in that 
sort of country. 

Porphyry talus has, in some instances, 
served as receptacles for lead and copper ores 
that have been derived from decomposed or 
weathered-out limestones. Some of my read- 



32 



GEOIvOGY OF MISSOURI. 



ers may demur to that proposition. They 
have a right to do so, if they hke, for I am no 
oracle, but merely a close observer of nature's 
methods. However, I am not yet ready to 
argue that question to a finish, but beg to call 
your attention to this conclusion : that all of 
our ore bodies are water concentrations, pure 
and simple. They are neither hot water con- 
centrations nor salt water concentrations, but 
common cold water concentrations of the 
metallic elements of decomposed or recon- 
structed rocks. 

The maternal function of this cosmic body, 
earth, precludes the possibility of purely 
metallic masses having been thrown up from 
below. Furthermore, when it is known that 
all of our great ore bodies occur in the once 
open structure of certain country rocks and 
are resting on practically impervious floors, 
it will devolve on the other side of the house 
to show at least one place in Missouri 
through which these great ore bodies have 
been thrown up. 

The earth is evolving some seventy-four 
chemical elements, I believe, with which we 
are more or less familiar. Everything in 
nature has a physiological function to per- 
form, because it is a part of an organized, 
living whole. Knowing that earth's water 
and atmosphere are the vehicles in which are 
diffused or suspended the essential elements 
of organic life, that our bodies are made up 
of those elements and continually renewed by 
them, as well as all of the other myriads of 
forms and individuals of animal and vegetable 
life, is it not reasonable to suppose that 
earth's water and atmosphere have to be re- 
newed? Call to mind that this entity which 
we call life and cling to so tenaciously would 
cease in five minutes, were it not for the one 
element, oxygen, that is suspended in the at- 
mosphere. 

The first essential element of organic life is 
cosmic light, derived from the sun. Co-oper- 
ating with her imperial motor, the sun, our 
cosmic mother, earth, evolves the other es- 
sential elements ; and that is one illustration 
of the synthetic method (the physiology) of 
nature. 

Moreover, if everything in nature has a 
function to perform, for what purpose are the 
three or four hundred active volcanoes send- 
ing out continuous streams of vapors and 
gases? Earth's maternal function is the key 
to the whole problem. It is the only proper 



foundation for the science of geology. Her 
elements are diffused in her water and atmos- 
phere, metals and metalloids alike, and are 
afterwards concentrated into economic 
bodies. The process fs illustrated in every 
living organism. Organic matter, given 
back to the earth by our dead bodies, acts as 
a powerful reagent to facilitate the concen- 
tration of the metallic elements or rock min- 
erals. As I proceed with this brief delineation 
of Missouri geology, I beg you to keep this 
fundamental fact before you. 

On that primordial base of granite, gneiss 
and mica schist, traversed and diversified, as 
it is, by dykes and bosses of diabase, pegma- 
tite and porphyry, rests the famous magne- 
sian lens of Missouri. The plane of contact 
between the primordial base and the mag- 
nesian lens is essentially rugged. Manifestly, 
because the topography of the base is hard 
and sharp, while the lower members of the 
lens represent the first paleozoic sediment 
deposited on the floors of the valleys and 
basins in the rugged surface of the primordial 
base. 

The magnesian lens of Missouri is essen- 
tially unique. It has not 
The Magnesiao Lens, an exact equivalent in 
North America. It is 
made up of eighteen individual members, the 
lower ten of which have been recently dif- 
ferentiated as Cambrian, and the upper eight 
of which belong in our lower silurian. 
Sharp granite peaks, porphyry dykes and 
pegmatite bosses stand up in places, i,ooo 
feet above the common level of the primor- 
dial base, and the areas between have been 
filled with Cambrian and silurian deposits. 
Hence we have contacts, at various angles, 
between the cambrian and first silurian lime- 
stones, on the one hand, and granite, gneiss, 
mica-schist, pegmatite, diabase or porphyry, 
on the other. 

Our Missouri cambrian beds are better de- 
veloped than the cam- 
• Cambrian. brian of any other area 

now known in North 
America. Their genesis is, therefore, essen- 
tially unique. That will, however, be gradu- 
ally unfolded as we proceed. 

Our cambrian rocks have been recently 
differentiated and divided into two sections, 
viz. : lower and upper cambrian. 

The lower cambrian, including the basal 
sandstone, consists of five members: i. The 



GEOI.OGY OF MISSOURI. 



33 



basal sandstone is a fine grained, pure white, 
quartzose sandrock about fifty feet thick, in 
the central zones of the primordial valleys, 
and a variable conglomerate along its outer 
margins, where its materials were derived di- 
rectly from the granites and porphyries. 2. 
The white lead (leed) or first limestone rests 
comformably on the basal sandstone. It is 
usually a white, intensely crystalline and cav- 
ernous rock, varying in thickness between 
ten and fifty feet. This is the horizon or 
country rock of some of the greatest dis- 
seminated ore bodies in the known world. 3. 
The dead rock or second limestone is an ex- 
ceedingly fine-grained rock, varying in thick- 
ness between ten and one hundred and fifty 
feet. It carries no ores except in the form 
of vertical fissures or "feeders." 4. The 
black lead (leed) or third limestone is usually 
a very dark colored, coarsely crystalline and 
cavernous rock, varying in thickness be- 
tween five and twenty feet. 5. The massive 
crystalline cap-rock or fourth limestone is a 
very cavernous rock that has undergone vast 
reconstruction. But the great disseminated 
ore bodies lie mainly in the white and black 
leads or first and third limestones. This 
massive crystalline cap-rock of the lower 
Cambrian is usually about 300 feet thick. 
Hence the average total thickness of lower 
Cambrian is about 450 feet in the areas al- 
ready explored. 

The upper cambrian consists also of five 
members: i. The lower green shales (grey- 
wackes), about twenty feet thick, including 
some thin layers and lenses of argillaceous 
limestone; 2. the lower mud-rock, about 
twenty feet thick; 3. the upper green shales 
(greywackes), about twenty feet thick, also 
containing some thin layers and lenses of ar- 
gillaceous limestone ; 4. the upper mud-rock, 
an argillaceous limestone, about forty feet 
thick and yielding some good dimension 
building stone; 5. the last or siliceous cap- 
rock of the upper cambrian is about 150 feet 
thick. 

Right here I would like to impress on the 
mind of the reader the very important fact 
that this last named siliceous cap-rock of the 
upper cambrian is the only siliceous lime- 
stone in our whole cambrian section. The 
other cambrian limestones under it make 
absolutely no cherts, no drusy quartz or other 
siliceous products. 

The last or siliceous cap-rock is unique in 

Vol. Ill— 3 



two particulars: it makes vast quantities of 
convoluted cherts and drusy quartz, and it 
weathers in tall, narrow columns. Its weath- 
ered cliffs have much the same appearance as 
the columnar structures of basalt. 

A very extensive cambrian fauna is repre- 
sented by the fossils recently found in these 
rocks. Primitive types of brachiopods, gas- 
teropods, cystoids and crustaceans are abund- 
ant in certain zones and at certain horizons 
in both shales and limestones. Trilobite re- 
mains are especially numerous at different 
horizons. 

The lower silurian section of our magne- 
sian lens consists of eight 
Lower Silurian. members : four infusorial 
sandstones and four mag- 
nesian limestones, in alternate succession. 
The Silurian members of the lens are de- 
scribed and named as follows : i. The roubi- 
doux or basal sandstone, with an average 
thickness of about fifty feet ; 2, the first silu- 
rian limestone with an average thickness of 
about 400 feet ; 3, the St. Thomas sandstone 
with an average thickness of about fifty feet ; 
4. the second silurian limestone with an aver- 
age thickness of about 200 feet; 5. the 
Moreau sandstone with an average thickness 
of about fifty feet; 6. the third silurian lime- 
stone with an average thickness of about 300 
feet ; 7. the St. Peter sandstone with an aver- 
age thickness of about fifty feet ; 8, the fourth 
silurian limestone with an average thickness 
of about 200 feet (same as Swallow's first 
magnesian limestone). 

First — The roubidoux, or basal sandstone 
of the lower silurian, is usually a pure white, 
quartzose sandrock, varying in thickness be- 
tween ten and two hundred feet. Roubidoux 
sandstone rests uncomformably on all of the 
upper members of the cambrian, from the top 
of the siliceous cap-rock down to the mas- 
sive crystalline cap-rock of the lower cam- 
brian. Indeed, the under surface of Rou- 
bidoux is seen in many places projecting 
down into old ditches and eroded chan- 
nels in the upper surface of the lower cam- 
brian cap-rock, with all of the upper cam- 
brian missing. This fact suggests a very 
long interval of time and very considerable 
erosion in different zones of the cambrian 
surface, before the roubidoux sandstone was 
deposited. This remarkable contact, together 
with the radical differences in litholog^c and 
fossil characters of the rocks below and 



34 



GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 



above it, makes a deeply marked divisional 
plane between the cambrian and silurian sec- 
tions of our magnesian lens. 

The roubidoux sandstone, barring its nu- 
merous fucoid casts, is not unlike the St. 
Thomas, the Moreau or the St. Peter sand- 
stone. All of them are massive and false- 
bedded in places, all of them are thin-bedded 
and stratified in places. All of them are soft 
and friable in places, all of them are homo- 
geneous quartzites in places. . All of them 
are oolitic quartzites in places, all of them are 
iron stained brown or red in places. And 
last, but not least, all of them are equally per- 
sistent. 

Inasmuch as it is always present and a 
very conspicuous benchmark around the 
Cambrian areas now recognized in eighteen 
different counties, the roubidoux sandstone 
is one of the most important rocks in our 
geological record. Next to the St. Thomas 
sandstone, it is the horizon of a large part of 
the pine forests in southeastern Missouri. Its 
fucoid casts and its geological relations are, 
however, its only constant characters, so far 
observed. 

Second — The first silurian limestone rests 
conformably on roubidoux sandstone and 
has an average thickness of about 400 feet. 
It is the second great country rock or ore- 
bearing horizon in the magnesian lens, and is 
the surface rock over large areas in thirty 
different counties. Its immense thickness 
and the constancy of its character make it 
the greatest individual rock in our geological 
record. It is the most siliceous limestone in 
the magnesian lens ; and next to the crystal- 
line limestone of the cambrian, it has under- 
gone most reconstruction. In fact, its 
gnarled and cavernous structure so closely 
resembles that of the cambrian that either 
one of them is easily mistaken for the other. 

However, when characteristic fossils can 
not be found (trocholites. ophileta^ ortho- 
ceras, murchisonia and others closely re- 
lated to the Trenton fauna) and geological 
relations are obscured, there are character- 
istic cherts in this rock that are absolutely 
constant. Indeed, its cherts are better wit- 
nesses to its identity than its fossils. First, 
because its fossils are mostly obliterated and 
hard to find, and when found, they are not 
unlike the fossils in the other magnesian 
limestones above it. Second, because its 
cherts are always present and bear certain 



characters or individualities that do not occur 
in the cherts of any other rock. The silice- 
ous concretions, or cherts, of each one of 
these great magnesian limestones of the silu- 
rian are stamped with some peculiar charac- 
ter that remains in them until they are re- 
duced to atoms. 

When I think of the magnitude of the first 
silurian limestone of the magnificent Greer 
Spring in Oregon County, the Jumping 
Spring in Carter, the Blue Spring in Shan- 
non, the Meramec Spring in Phelps and Ben- 
nett Spring in Laclede, all flowing out of its 
dark and mysterious caverns, I am almost 
persuaded that it is the greatest sedimentary 
rock in the world. 

But when I think of the deep serene of the 
Round Spring and the weird splendor of 
Cyclop's Cave, two exquisite gems of the 
cambrian of Shannon, and more than all, 
of the wild Niangua and the laughing Ha-Ha- 
Tonka, with its matchless freaks and inspir- 
ing scenery, in the cambrian zone of Cam- 
den, I am at least constrained to say that our 
cambrian rocks have no parallels, in mineral 
wealth or scenic beauty, outside of this 
unique magnesian lens of Missouri. 

I have now described two of the three great 
country rocks of Missouri, viz. : The first 
cambrian (bottom limestone of all) and the 
first silurian limestone. You will have to ex- 
cuse me for hurrying up the column or ver- 
tical section of our sedimentary rocks, some 
ten or twelve hundred feet to our third great 
country rock (with reference to age) known 
as the Burlington-Keokuk or Carthage lime- 
stone. It is the second member of our sub- 
carboniferous section (bed rocks of the pa- 
leozoic coal measures) about 250 feet thick 
in its greatest development and rests on the 
first member of that section — the argillaceous 
Chouteau beds. 

The Burlington-Keokuk or Carthage lime- 
stone has two alternating aspects or typical 
phases : It is typical Burlington in one lo- 
cality and typical Keokuk in another. But 
it carries certain constant characters, litho- 
logic and fossil, under all conditions of occur- 
rence. It is the wall rock or country rock of 
all those rich ore bodies now being mined in 
the Spring River Valley, in southwestern 
Missouri. 

You now have brief descriptions of our 
three great country rocks. These are the 
most crystalline and cavernous rocks in Mis- 



GEOI.OGY OF MISSOURI. 



35 



I 



souri — occurring, not consecutively, but in 
the order named with reference to age. In 
other words, they are several hundred feet 
apart in a vertical section and, for that rea- 
son, they are the surface rocks in distinctively 
different areas. 

Briefly stated, the ore bodies in the first 
Cambrian limestone are 
Ore Bodies and How chiefly lead, zinc, nickel 
Distributed. and cobalt (sulphites) dis- 

seminated in the bedding- 
seams and porous texture of this wonderful 
country rock, in wide zones ; and copper ores, 
deposited at its contact with porphyry, peg- 
matite or granite. 

The ore bodies in the first silurian lime- 
stone are chiefly lead, zinc, iron, copper and 
bariuna (sulphides, sulphates, oxides and car- 
bonates) deposited in clay-blankets, sinks and 
fissures. 

The ore bodies in the Burlington-Keokuk 
or Carthage limestone are chiefly lead, zinc, 
and cadmium (sulphites, silicates and carbon- 
ates) deposited in reconstructed channels or 
narrow zones, on lines of fissures, coincident 
with original joint-structure in the country 
rock. 

There are several great bodies of specular 
hematite iron ore, yet untouched, resting in 
the St. Thomas sandstone and first silurian 
limestone. There are also many great sink 
deposits of excellent clay for various cera- 
mic purposes ; in the other silurian and de- 
vonian rocks. But, except one or two, 
all of the profitable metal mines in Missouri 
are situated in the (one time) open structure 
of one or the other of the three great country 
rocks, just described. 

There is, towards the bottom of the second 
silurian limestone, between a cotton rock 
floor and a true limestone roof, a certain per- 
sistent chert bed, which makes a proper re- 
ceptacle for water concentrations, when the 
beds are all tilted and the chert has the requi- 
site open structure. But these requisite con- 
ditions seem to have been rarely developed in 
either the second, third, or fourth silurian 
limestones. In short, there are, in all of the 
intervening beds between our three great 
country rocks, numerous small deposits, suf- 
ficient to tempt the inexperienced prospector, 
but there are no profitable metal mines in 
any of them. Obviously, because they have 
not the requisite structure. 

We have large areas of cambrian country 



now recognized in eighteen different coun- 
ties, viz. : Morgan, Camden, Dallas, Laclede, 
Shannon, Carter, Reynolds, Wayne, Bol- 
linger, Perry, Ste. Genevieve, Madison, St. 
Francois, Jefferson, Washington, Crawford, 
Dent and Iron. 

We have large areas of first silurian coun- 
try in thirty different counties, viz. : Benton, 
Morgan, Miller, Camden, Dallas, Laclede, 
Pulaski, Texas, Phelps, Maries, Cole, Osage, 
Gasconade, Franklin, Crawford, Dent, Shan- 
non, Oregon, Ripley, Butler, Carter, Rey- 
nolds, Iron, Washington, Jefferson, Ste. 
Genevieve, Perry, Bollinger, Wayne and 
Madison. 

We have large areas of ore-bearing Bur- 
lington-Keokuk in twenty-one different coun- 
ties, viz. : Moniteau, Cooper, Saline, Pettis, 
Benton, St. Clair, Hickory, Cedar, Polk, 
Webster, Wright, Christian, Stone, McDon- 
ald, Barton, Dade, Greene, Lawrence, Jas- 
per, l3arry and Newton. With emphasis on 
the last named seven counties, because they 
lie in the original Spring River invert. 

That calls to mind: the matchless dissem- 
inated lead deposits in the cambrian valley 
of Big River and its tributaries, in St. Fran- 
cois County; the great fissure deposits of 
lead and copper in the first silurian limestone 
of the Meramec Valley in Franklin County. 
And right here I want to impress on the 
mind of the reader this fact : that one of the 
essential conditions for large water concen- 
trations of the metallic elements is, primarily, 
that the impervious floor on which the coun- 
try rock rests should lie in the form of a basin 
or trough, wherein the subdrainage, through 
the country rock, has been flowing by con- 
verging lines towards a central zone, from 
time immemorial. 

Now the subdrainage lines from the mag- 
nesian lens into the open structure of the 
Burlington-Keokuk, in the Spring River in- 
vert, before the Rocky Mountains were de- 
veloped, have never been reversed. The 
magnesian lens has been relatively let down, 
but the subdrainage lines of the original 
Spring River Valley have never been re- 
versed or materially altered. 

The great magnesian lens or "Mothef 
Lode," whence all or most of the metallic ele- 
ments in our great ore bodies have been de- 
rived, by the decomposition or reconstruction 
of its rocks, is a decidedly unique mass. It has 
been known by the popular name of "Ozark 



36 



GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 



uplift." But, with reference to the later de- 
velopment of the Rocky Mountains, it is bet- 
ter named the magnesian lens of Missouri. 
"Ozark uplift" carries with it a radically- 
wrong impression. The difference in the 
altitudes of the lowest and highest points in 
Missouri is little more than i,ooo feet or 
about one-half of the thickness of the mag- 
nesian lens. 

The Ozark Range must have been, one 
time, relatively higher and more sharply de- 
fined than it is now. The well known fact 
that the later development of the Rocky 
Mountains lifted the floor of an inland sea 
into land surface and inclined it towards the 
center of the Mississippi Basin, is suggestive 
of some very great alterations. The con- 
tour of the Ozark Range must have been 
greatly modified and the drainage lines of 
west central Missouri must have been re- 
versed. 

Howbeit, the unique character of the mag- 
nesian lens is due to other things entirely. It 
is obviously a local lens, ending wedgelike in 
all directions save in the narrow, sinuous 
ridge or deep-seated arch in which some of 
its later rocks occur, all the way up to Lake 
Superior. The eighteen members of the 
magnesian lens already named and partly de- 
scribed are, altogether, a rare combination, 
without an exact equivalent in North 
America. 

It is a fundamental fact that we reason 
only by analogy. Knowing, as we do, that 
certain forms of marine life, plant and ani- 
mal, take for their food certain elements di- 
rectly from the water, and that the organic 
acids which they give back are very active 
reagents, we naturally conclude that a vast 
aggregation of those forms in some quiet 
spot in the ocean would produce, in the 
course of time, a vast accumulation of hete- 
rogeneous organic products and metaUic ores 
or rock minerals on that spot in the sea 
floor. If that spot should be some time rel- 
atively raised into land surface by the sub- 
sidence of other areas in the sea floor, which 
is the most logical explanation of emergence, 
would you not expect something unique in 
the rocks of that area? 

We have just such conditions of deposit 
in the three great sargasso seas of the pres- 
ent time. In those three great filtering areas 
of the present ocean we have vivid illustra- 



tions of the conditions and processes by 
which our unique magnesian lens was doubt- 
less formed in early paleozoic time. 

Now, with the metallic element diffused in 
its rocks, it is not difficult to understand that^ 
by the decomposition of part and the recon- 
struction of all, these marvelous ore de- 
posits might easily have been concentrated 
from the diffused state into economic bodies. 
Indeed, it is so simple and logical that it 
must be so. All of the facts in the case sup- 
port this conclusion. 

The human mind can not conceive any- 
thing so logical as the synthetic method of 
nature. But neither time nor space will 
permit me now to discuss that most fascinat- 
ing of all subjects. 

Reverting to the magnesian lens, after the 
fourth Silurian limestone, or last mem- 
ber of the lens, comes the Black River lime- 
stone (occurring in its greatest development 
near Cape Girardeau), the Trenton limestone 
and the Hudson River beds, all conformable 
with each other and with the fourth silurian, 
and that completes our lower silurian section. 

The massive white Trenton (including the 
Orthis bed) is, next to the typical Burling- 
ton, the greatest lime rock in Missouri that 
is now being utilized in the manufacture of 
lime. Splendid exposures of this rock occur 
in Lincoln, St. Charles, St. Louis, Jefferson 
and Cape Girardeau Counties. 

Trenton limestone is also the country 
rock, in whose upward folds are found the 
requisite conditions for commercial supplies 
of natural gas. In the central zones of its 
downward folds, troughs or basins, are also 
often found great lenses of coarsje sand rock 
saturated with crude petroleum. 

The mere fact that Trenton limestone 
does exist under a considerable depth of 
argillaceous beds all over north Missouri, 
suggests that Missouri may have both oil 
and gas in commercial quantities. But the 
requisite local structure in that rock for either 
oil or gas has not yet been explored. 

The Hudson River beds, or closing mem- 
ber of our lower silurian, mostly harsh clay- 
shales and argillaceous limestones, occur in 
several localities along the Mississippi River, 
notably between Louisiana and Clarksville. 
They occur in more interesting form in the 
famous Cape Rock, two miles above Cape- 
Girardeau. 



GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 



37 



Although our cambrian and lower Silu- 
rian beds are better de- 
Upper Silurian. veloped in Missouri than 
in any other area now 
known in North America, our upper Silu- 
rian rocks are few in number, and occur only 
in isolated local deposits. The fact that 
they are are all argillaceous limestones or 
calcareous shales proves conclusively that 
they were nearly all deposited on the floors 
of the shallow and muddy seas. 

The first (bottom) member of our upper 
Silurian section is the Clinton group of 
mud-rocks and clay-shales, best developed 
about the Buffalo Knobs, in Pike County. 
The second member is the Niagara limestone, 
generally argillaceous in Pike and adjoin- 
ing counties, but somewhat crystalline, and 
a more valuable rock in Perry and Cape 
Girardeau Counties. The third member is 
the delthyris group of the lower helder- 
berg. This latter rock is exposed in some 
beautiful cliflfs along the west shore of the 
Mississippi River, above and below Grand 
Tower. These rocks are little used, how- 
ever, except for river improvement. 

Our devonian section consists of four 
members or groups of 
Devonian. rocks and shales that 

are fairly well developed 
and distributed. Small patches of other de- 
vonian rocks have been reported, but they 
have not yet been seen or recognized by 
the Geological Survey. The four members 
that have been recognized by their fossils 
and geological relations are: i. Oriskany 
sandstone ; 2. the corniferous limestone ; 3. 
the Hamilton limestone and shales ; 4. the 
Louisiana limestone ; 5. the Hannibal shales. 

The corniferous limestone is the rock of 
which that natural, historic and noble monu- 
ment, the Grand Tower, is constructed. It 
is the only crystalline limestone in Missouri 
devonian, and is the most important mem- 
ber of that section. Its exposures are, how- 
ever, most confined to the eastern border 
of the State. 

The Hamilton beds, Louisiana limestone 
and Hannibal shales are more widely distrib- 
uted, but have very little economic value at 
this time. 

Our subcarboniferous (bed rocks of the 
paleozoic coal measures 

Subcarboniferous. is far more interesting 
and important than either 



the upper silurian or the devonian. This 
section consists of five members, viz. : i. the 
argillaceous Chouteau beds ; 2. the Burling- 
ton-Keokuk or Carthage limestone ; 3. the 
St. Louis limestone ; 4. the Ste. Genevieve 
sandstone ; 5, the Kaskaskia limestone. 

These rocks are called subcarboniferous or 
bed rocks of the coal measures because 
our paleozoic coal measures rest on each 
and every one of them somewhere in Mis- 
souri. For example, the basal sandstone 
of the coal measures rests on the Burling- 
ton-Keokuk in west-central Missouri, on the 
St. Louis limestone in north-central and 
northeastern Missouri, and on the Kaskaskia 
limestone in Perry County. 

The Big Muddy Invert of the Illinois coal 
field once extended into Perry and Ste. Gen- 
evieve Counties. But the coal measure rocks 
have been removed, all except the basal 
sandstone, by the letting down of the track 
of the Mississippi River. Hence we have, 
along the river front of Perry County, some 
splendid exposures of the basal sandstone 
of the coal measures resting on Kaskaskia 
limestone. Those bed rocks standing on the 
Missouri side are instructive monuments to 
show us that the destruction of a vast and 
valuable area of coal field has been wrought 
by the slow but inevitable letting down of a 
great river. 

The Chouteau beds or bottom member of 
our subcarboniferous section has a wide dis- 
tribution, but very little economic value. It 
seems to have the requisite physical charac- 
ter for making a good native cement, but 
that industry has received very little atten- 
tion in Missouri. The most interesting thing 
about the Chouteau now is the fact that it 
forms the impervious floor to the "open 
ground" or reconstructed channels in the 
Burlington-Keokuk or third great country 
rock. 

The Chouteau, like the immense beds of 
cotton rock in the second, third and fourth 
silurian limestones, is a . close-structured 
mud-rock. Either of them is better adapted 
for the impervious floor of "open ground" 
or reconstructed channels than for the re- 
ceptacles of water concentrations. 

It occurs to me that I forgot to describe 
the impervious character of the basal sand- 
stone of the Cambrian and of the basal sand- 
stone of the lower silurian. Those rocks 
were originally fine-grained and close- 



38 



GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 



textured sand rocks. Under the ore bodies 
they have absorbed mineral solutions 
(sulphides) until they have become practi- 
cally impervious to a depth of several feet. 
You could scarcely recognize a specimen of 
basal sandstone thus saturated with mineral 
solutions (sulphides). The mineral solutions 
fill the delicate voids between its once pure 
quartz grains, and give it the appearance of 
another rock entirely. 

But the Chouteau was originally an imper- 
vious rock, by reason of its argillaceous char- 
acter. 

The Burlington-Keokuk or Carthage lime- 
stone is a very interesting and valuable rock 
for several reasons. It is our third great 
country rock, with reference to age. It is 
our greatest lime rock, for the reason that 
it has the widest distribution, and is, there- 
fore, the most available rock in Missouri for 
the manufacture of lime. It also yields the 
finest building stone of any sedimentary rock 
in Missouri, and is available for that purpose 
in many different localities. It is the famous 
"mountain limestone" and "encrinital lime- 
stone" of the old geologists. It was well 
named encrinital limestone, because it con- 
tains more crinoid relics than any other rock. 
Most of the marble in the Mississippi basin 
is altered Burlington-Keokuk or Carthage 
limestone. 

The way this great country rock has been 
decomposed and reconstructed along its nu- 
merous lines of fissure by the magnesian 
waters and mineral solutions, from the mag- 
nesian lens, is something marvelous. Those 
reconstructed channels are usually narrow 
zones coincident with the original joint 
structure (face-joints, S. W.-N. E., head- 
joints S. E.-N. W.), but in some places, as, 
for instance, between Webb City and Car- 
terville, the areas of "open ground" or re- 
constructed country are greater than the 
"bars" or isolated masses of original coun- 
try rock between them. 

But there are two very different kinds of 
rock in the Burlington-Keokuk. Where this 
rock occurs in its full development the lower 
section of about one hundred feet is an in- 
tensely crystalline and cavernous rock. It 
is the wall-rock or country of the ore bod- 
ies. The upper section of about one hundred 
feet or more is an uncrystalHne, cherty, blue 
limestone that has no open structure and 
does not contain any important ore depos- 



its. This upper, uncrystalline and barren 
limestone bears the provincial name of "cap- 
rock" in southwestern Missouri. In eroded 
valleys and basins, wherein "cap-rock" is 
gone, it is neither difficult nor expensive to 
locate "open ground" or reconstructed coun- 
try. But in other places where "cap-rock" 
is present in its full development, locating 
narrow zones of reconstructed country under 
it is a serious problem. Nor does it neces- 
sarily follow that you will find a great ore 
body when you have found reconstructed 
country. Indeed,. if all of the "open ground" 
in the Burlington-Keokuk of southwestern 
Missouri had been filled with metallic ores 
Missouri would have been a prodigy. She is 
already unique in her magnesian lens and 
three great country rocks. 

Next, after the Burlington-Keokuk, comes 
the St. Louis limestone. In it are found 
some of the most exquisite forms of paleo- 
zoic time. Splendid exposures of this rock 
occur between the Burlington Railroad 
bridge across the Missouri River and the 
mouth of the Meramec River. It is es- 
pecially imposing along the river blufifs 
two or three miles below Jefferson Bar- 
racks. 

Now comes, to break the monotony, the 
Ste. Genevieve sandstone, and then the Kas- 
kaskia limestone on top of it, and that brings 
us up to the basal sandstone of the coal 
measures. The Ste. Genevieve sandstone 
and the Kaskaskia limestone have a wider 
distribution in Missouri than has generally 
been credited to them. However, neither one 
of them is now being utilized for any eco- 
nomic purpose, outside of the localities in 
which it occurs as the surface rock. 

The most interesting thing about the Kas- 
kaskia limestone is the recurrence in it of 
the bryozoan archimedes. This marvelous 
organic form seems to have reached its 
greatest development in the last horizons 
of the Burlington-Keokuk. It does not oc- 
cur in the St. Louis limestone or the Ste. 
Genevieve sandstone — two rocks represent- 
ing fully 300 vertical feet of sediment and 
deposited under greatly altered conditions. 

I have the somewhat strange conviction 
that this elaborate and beautiful bryozoan 
archimedes is a perfect analogue of the re- 
productive effort of our cosmic mother 
Earth. But it would take more time and 
space than this whole article to explain it. 



GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 



39 



Our coal measure section reaches a total 
vertical depth of fifteen 
Paleozoic Coal hundred feet. With the 
Measures. Forest City lens added, 

it reaches the extraordi- 
nary depth of eighteen hundred feet. But 
there is nothing strange about that, when 
it is known that our coal field lies in four 
different parallel zones, on the western slope 
of the Ozark range. Slope is not a good 
word to use in describing the base of our 
coal measures, but it is sometimes hard to 
think of a word that will convey two or three 
different aspects in one thing. If our coal 
measures were removed and the base were 
left intact, it would not be a slope, but three 
great terraces, curving around the eastern 
side of its deepest abyss, like the terraces in 
the floor of an amphitheater. 

On each terrace in the base lies a zone, 
in which the coal measures are individualized, 
with reference to depth. To make it plainer, 
I will say that in the first or Chariton zone 
it is nowhere more than 300 feet from sur- 
face to bed-rock ; in the second or Grand 
River zone, it is nowhere more than 800 feet 
from surface to bed-rock ; in the third or 
Platte River zone, it is nowhere more than 
1,300 feet from surface to bed-rock; in the 
fourth or Nodaway zone, it is nowhere more 
than 1,800 feet from surface to bed-rock. In 
other words, going westward from the east- 
ern margin the coal measures in each one 
of these zones are from 300 to 500 feet thicker 
than in the next zone on the east of it. 
Moreover, each terrace in the base lies much 
the lowest in a transverse zone, about coin- 
cident with the track of the Missouri 
River. 

That calls to mind a remark in the first 
paragraph of this article. The obvious facts 
in this case are these : The dislocation of 500 
feet in the bed-rocks between the Chariton 
and Grand River zones is vividly displayed 
in the Missouri River bluffs at Miami and 
White Rock. Miami stands on Burlington- 
Keokuk limestone. Three miles away, on 
the opposite side of the river track, and 
about equally high above water level in the 
river, white rock sandstone quarries are in 
the great alternating filler, on top of the 
second horizon of the middle coal meas- 
ures. The basal sandstone, all of the lower 
coal measures and two horizons of the mid- 
dle coal measures lie between the Burling- 



ton-Keokuk and the great alternating filler 
in which white rock quarries are situ- 
ated. 

The other two dislocations are not ex- 
posed, for the simple reason that they should 
have been developed, and were developed, 
before the rocks now in sight were de- 
posited. 

Again, the same coal horizon (third of the 
middle coal measures), worked at Marceline, 
Brookfield, Trenton and Tom Creek (south 
of Hamilton), lies at about the same depth 
from the surface. And the floors of all 
those mines lie practically level. At the 
Brush Creek mine, in Jackson County, and 
in the same zone, the same coal horizon lies 
about eighty feet deeper in the ground. 

At the Randolph shaft, in Clay County, 
where the mine was in the second horizon 
of the middle coal measures, at a depth 
of 400 feet below the top of the north river 
bluff or Parkville limestone, the floor of the 
mine was rising towards Leavenworth. At 
Leavenworth, Kansas, where the mines are 
in the same second horizon of the middle 
coal measures, the floors of the mines are 
dipping toward Randolph ; and yet they are 
700 feet below the bed of the Missouri River. 
These are not all of the obvious facts in this 
case, but I trust they are sufficient. 

For different reasons our coal measures 
are differentiated in three sections, viz.: i. 
The lower coal measures, embracing tlie 
basal sandstone, eight coal horizons and the 
Mahoning sandstone for cap-rock ; 2. the 
middle coal measures, resting on the Ma- 
honing sandstone, and embracing twelve coal 
horizons, with the Bethany Falls limestone 
for cap-rock ; 3. the upper coal measures, 
resting on the Bethany Falls limestone, and 
embracing nine coal horizons, with the Quit- 
man limestone for cap-rock. 

Before proceeding, I will say that the dif- 
ference in the depths of our four coal zones, 
from surface to bed rock, is accounted for 
largely in the increased thickness of the alter- 
nating fillers between regular coal horizons 
in each zone going westward. For example, 
the alternating filler in which White Rock 
quarries are situated is usually about twenty 
feet thick in the Chariton zone, about eighty 
feet thick in the Grand River zone, about 
150 feet thick in the Platte River zone. 

That one fact shows that there was greater 
subsidence, during the coal period, in the 



40 



GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 



Platte River zone than in the Chariton zone. 
Furthermore, it effectually knocks out the 
oscillation theory of coal deposit. Some of 
these text-book geologists would do well 
to take a few lessons from mother Earth. 

In fact, our thickest coal is in the Chari- 
ton zone, where the alternating fillers be- 
tween horizons are thinnest. Our thinnest 
coal (yet worked) is in the Platte River zone, 
where the alternating fillers between hori- 
zons are thickest (yet explored). That shows 
the development of the dislocations in the 
bed rocks to have been a slow process, or 
an intermittent subsidence of the floor of one 
great invert, on which each one of the lower 
members of our coal measures was deposited 
contemporaneously in the different zones. 

The facts show that all of the movements 
in the bed rocks were downward. The dif«- 
ferent masses, like the individual blocks in 
an arch or invert, were gradually readjusting 
themselves to shorter lines of curvature. The 
alternating fillers are made up of land sedi- 
ment, carried in to fill up the variously de- 
pressed area, and thus bring it back to land 
surface ; so that cumulative coal forests 
might grow in the sunlight and accumulate 
the requisite plant debris for the coal beds 
of another coal horizon. 

More time and sediment were required 
to fill up the deeper depressed zones and that 
explains the inverse order of thickest coal 
in the Chariton zone and thickest alternat- 
ing fillers in the Platte River zone. The 
cumulative coal forests must have grown in 
the sunlight. Their debris must have been 
preserved from decomposition by the water 
in which it was immersed and have been 
buried under sediment, one horizon after 
another, until intermittent subsidence and 
other requisite conditions had ceased. 

The productive horizons of our Missouri 
coal field are : The first, second and sixth 
of the lower coal measures ; the first, sec- 
ond, third, fourth and tenth of the middle 
coal measures ; the ninth of the upper coal 
measures. With emphasis on the second 
and sixth of the lower; second, third and 
fourth of the middle, because they yield all 
of the commercial coal. 

There are yet vast areas of workable coal 
in the western zones untouched. They are 
deep in the ground and relatively thin, but 
the quality is good, and the requisite 
structure for long-wall mining is better de- 



veloped in those zones than in the eastern 
zones. Therefore, the time is not far away 
when St. Joseph and other northwestern 
Missouri cities will quit "carrying coals to 
Newcastle." 
There is, in Holt County contiguous to 
the track of the Missouri 
Permian (Post- River, a great local and 
Carboniferous.) superficial lens of mud- 
rocks and shales resting 
upon the upper coal measures. Whether 
this local mass belongs properly in the 
permian or not is an unsettled question 
among geologists. It certainly does repre- 
sent sediment that was deposited at the close 
of the paleozoic coal period, and after the 
requisite conditions for coal forest growth 
had ceased in our coal field. While it does 
carry many relics of coal measure species, it 
also carries some typical permian species and 
contains neither coal nor under-clay. 

Such a thick and absolutely local lens of 
mudrocks as that, shows that after the entire 
surrounding zones of our coal field had 
emerged and become permanent land sur- 
face, the deepest abyss remained under water 
and was largely filled up with land sediment. 
These facts suggest rock-salt, productive coal 
beds and petroleum, in that basin. 

Now passing from the permian lens of 
Holt County, to Crowley's 
Tertiary. Ridge, in Stoddard and 

adjoining counties, we 
find: I. The Cape Girardeau sandstone, a 
comparatively recent rock, resting uncon- 
formably on the Trenton limestone. At 
Commerce, a few miles down the river, this 
same rock, or its equivalent, has developed 
some massive quartzites which are now lying 
at the wa'ter's edge a little above the landing. 
2. Lignite beds occur about Jackson, cov- 
ered by beds of beautiful white and highly 
plastic clay. 3. Lignite beds and large bodies 
of bog-iron, of apparently tertiary age, occur 
near Ardeola and Puxico, Stoddard County. 
4. Local lenses of dark colored, plastic clay- 
shale occur at Dexter, containing numerous 
pelecypods and gasteropods of tertiary age — 
probably miocene. Those beds are doubtless 
the Missouri extension of the tertiary of 
Texas, Louisiana and Arkansas. 

Lying almost exclusively north of the Mis- 
souri River and spreading 
Glacial Drift. out over nearly all of 

North Missouri, with its 



GEORGE H. NETTEETON HOME FOR AGED WOMEN. 



41 



thickest edge to the north and its thinnest 
■edge to the south, is a great ragged sheet 
of glacial drift. In Schuyler and Scotland 
Counties the glacial drift is about 300 feet 
thick. Further south and west it has been 
reduced by erosion until large zones of the 
original land surface have been denuded of 
this burden and the drift lies in widely 
separated ridges. The glacial drift consists 
mainly of angular fragments and rounded 
blocks of granite, gneiss, pegmatite, diabase 
and red quartzites, dispersed in variable beds 
of gravel, sand and fine plastic clay. 

Fragments of trees that were growing on 
the original land surface, before the glacial 
period, are often found under the drift, and 
ifi a fairly well preserved condition. Flint 
arrow-heads, stone axes and other durable 
relics of prehistoric man are also found 
deeply imbedded or buried in the drift. Val- 
uable pieces of native copper are frequently 
found, and, I dare say, all of the "lost rocks" 
in that great sheet of drift look as if they 
might have been transported from about the 
north shore of Lake Superior. However, the 
limits of this article will not permit me to 
discuss the probable genesis of either glacial 
drift or 

In a ragged zone of 
River Loess. very irregular width, 

along both sides of the 
Missouri River and along the west side of 
the Mississippi (so far as Missouri is con- 
cerned) lies a queer deposit of fine plastic 
loam. This river loess, or loam, has a light 
yellowish color and is more fertile along the 
Missouri River than the heavier brownish 
colored loess along the Mississippi. In 
every other respect, however, they have prac- 
tically the same characters and seem to have 
been deposited under the same or similar 
conditions. 

Outside of the river plains and loess zones 

the colors and other char- 
Other Soils. acters of the Missouri 

soils, like those of any 
other country, are predetermined by the de- 
composing surface rocks. It is a familiar 
fact that crystalline limestones and pure 
quartzose sandrocks make yellow soils ; and 
that argillaceous rocks, either sandstone or 
limestone, make black soils. 

Next to the alluvian drift of the river 
plains and the light colored loess of the Mis- 
souri River, the Cambrian limestone soil is 



the richest. But on account of the relatively 
small and rugged areas in which they occur, 
there is not much cambrian soil available for 
cultivation. 

The soils whose rock minerals have been 
derived from the Trenton and Burlington 
limestones are generally durable and fairly 
productive. They are the prevailing soils in 
a wide zone, lying diagonally across the State 
from southwest to northeast, and parallel 
with the eastern margin of the coal meas- 
ures. They are also the prevailing soils back 
of the loess in ah of the counties fronting on 
the Mississippi River, from Marion to Cape 
Girardeau, inclusive. 

But the largest areas of fertile soils lie in 
north Missouri and in the northwest half of 
southwest Missouri. Their rock mineral 
characters are, for the most part, derived 
from the argillaceous glacial drift, or coal 
measure cap-rocks. Hence they are usually 
strong limestone and argillaceous soils. 
They occur in what were one time wide, un- 
dulating prairies. 

The forestry of Missouri is as extensive 
and varied as the rocks 
Forestry. and soils are diversified. 

But her greatest timber 
resources lie first in the splendid white oak 
forests of Crawford, Washington, Iron, 
Reynolds, Shannon, Carter, Douglas, Ore- 
gon, Ripley, Butler and Stoddard Counties. 
Next, in her yellow pine forests, which grow 
mainly on the St. Thomas sandstone in Iron, 
Reynolds, Shannon, Carter, Wayne and Ore- 
gon Counties. Sweet-gum, beech, yellow 
poplar and cypress all flourish on the damp, 
rich soils of the old river plains in several 
counties in southeastern Missouri. 

John A. Gallaher. 

George H. Nettleton Home for 
Aged Women. — This was formerly 
known as the Protestant Home for Aged and 
Friendless Women and Girls, founded De- 
cember I, 1890. The need for such a home 
was presented by Mrs. Patti Moore, now 
police matron at Kansas City, before a body 
of philanthropic ladies in St. Louis, who con- 
tributed some means. The work was taken 
up by a committee of ladies representing the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union of 
Kansas City and vicinity, and the home was 
opened on the date named, in rented prem- 
ises, at the corner of Independence and 



42 



GEORGE R. SMITH COLIvEGE— GERET. 



Lowell Avenues, Kansas City. A single ap- 
plicant was received on the day of opening. 
In 1892 removal was made to a more suitable 
building at Twenty-ninth and Cherry Streets, 
which was occupied until November, 1900. 
The home would accommodate from twenty- 
five to twenty-seven persons, and this num- 
ber have been cared for during several years 
past. In 1900 Mrs. George H. Nettleton 
presented to the Protestant Home Associa- 
tion her family residence, at the corner of 
Seventh Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, as 
a memorial to her deceased husband. The 
association then re-incorporated as the 
George H. Nettleton Home for Aged 
Women Association, and erected an addi- 
tion to the old Nettleton residence, at a cost 
of $10,000, their means being derived from 
subscriptions by members and friends of the 
association. The property was occupied in 
November, 1900, and affords accommoda- 
tions for some forty old ladies. The home is 
conducted by a board of managers, exclu- 
sively ladies, and the property interests are 
vested in a board of trustees, chosen from 
among prudent business men. It is main- 
tained by voluntary contributions, which are 
for the greater part clothing and provisions 
contributed by business houses and individual 
citizens. The beneficiaries are almost alto- 
gether aged women who have enjoyed better 
financial and social circumstances. No re- 
ligious test is applied. 

George R. Smith College. — An in- 
stitution for the higher education of colored 
people, located at Sedalia and completed in 
1872. It is in the western suburbs, and is 
built in the midst of a beautiful twenty-four 
acre tract of land, the gift of Mrs. M. E. 
Smith and Mrs. S. E. Cotton, surviving 
daughters and heirs of General George R. 
Smith. The building is three stories, with 
dormitories for seventy-five pupils, and an 
auditorium seating 300 persons. In 1898 
there were seven teachers and 200 pupils. 
The property was valued at $50,000, and the 
library contained 2,500 volumes. 

Georgetown. — A town in Pettis County, 
on the Kansas Pacific branch of the Missouri 
Pacific Railway, three miles north of Sedalia. 
It was platted in 1836 by General David 
Thompson, father of Judge Mentor Thomp- 
son, who named it after his home town in 



Kentucky. In 1837, by an act of the General 
Assembly, Joseph S. Anderson, of Cooper 
County, John Stapp, of Lafayette County, 
and John S. Rucker, of Howard County, 
were appointed commissioners to locate a 
permanent county seat. They selected 
Georgetown, and in the same year George R. 
Smith and James Ramey, as contractors, 
erected a brick courthouse, at a cost of 
$4,000, which was considered an elegant and 
expensive building. The first term of the 
circuit court held here was in March, 1838, 
with Judge John F. Ryland presiding; Wil- 
liam R. Kemp, sheriff, and Amos Fristoe, 
clerk. The same year William A. Miller, 
Thomas Wasson and James Brown were 
elected county judges. In 1847 Campbell 
College was founded, and in i860 the 
Georgetown Female School ; both were well 
patronized for a time, and then closed. 
About i860, the population then numbering 
1,200, Professor Neal founded an academy 
which numbered 150 pupils, and was success- 
fully conducted until about 1865, when the 
county seat was removed to Sedalia, and the 
decadence of Georgetown began. The first 
newspaper in the county was the "Pettis 
County Independent," at Georgetown. It 
was founded in November, 1857, by Bacon 
Montgomery, who managed it ably and suc- 
cessfully until early in 1861, when he dis- 
continued its publication and entered the 
Union Army. The village now has a public 
school, a Methodist Episcopal Church, a Bap- 
tist Church, a cheese factory, and several 
stores. In 1899 the population was 250. 

Geret, Benjamin H. A., physician 
and Knight of the Iron Cross of Germany, 
was born December i, 1841, in Mering, 
Bavaria. His parents were Frederick Wil- 
liam and Eleanora (Versmann) Geret. He 
was descended from a noble Huguenot family 
which avoided the dreadful massacre in Paris, 
France, August 24, 1572, known in history 
as that of Saint Bartholomew's Night, by 
escaping into Bavaria, taking refuge at Ans- 
bach. Some of these refugees and their 
descendants attained distinction in the mili- 
tary service of the country of their adoption, 
while others became students of theology and 
medicine, and entered those learned profes- 
sions as ministers or practitioners. Benjamin 
Geret attended the parochial school in his 
native town until he was eleven years of age. 



GERET. 



43 



In 1854 he entered the Benedictine Convent 
Academy at Scheyern, Bavaria, afterward en- 
tering another of the same order, that of St. 
Stephan, in Augsburg, where he completed 
a full classical course, and was graduated in 
1858. Under the instruction of his father, 
a skillful pharmacist and druggist, he com- 
pleted a three years' course in pharmacy, and 
graduated "cum laude" in 1861. For three 
years thereafter he was engaged as a practi- 
cal druggist in Wurzburg, Bavaria; Man- 
heim, Baden, and Basle, Switzerland. In 
1864 he entered the university in Munich, 
where he studied chemistry and natural sci- 
ence, having as a tutor the accomplished 
scientist, Liebig. In March, 1866, he passed 
the State examination and was duly licensed 
as a royal apothecarian. His studies had led 
him to the threshold of medicine, and he 
acquired an interest in the science which im- 
pelled him to its mastery. Accordingly, he 
attended the medical colleges at the Univer- 
sities of Wurzburg, Munich and Vienna, tak- 
ing a final course at Erlangen, where he was 
graduated as a doctor of medicine, July 10, 
1868, by the celebrated professor, Frh. Nep. 
von Nussbaum. In February, 1869, he was 
appointed a member of the medical stafT of 
the North German Lloyd Steamship Co., a 
high recognition of his attainments, the com- 
pany being as exacting as the army in its re- 
quirements as to capability. For two years 
he served as physician upon their great 
trans-Atlantic steamers, during which time 
he visited New York, Baltimore, Havana, 
Porto Rico, the West Indies, St. Martinique, 
St. Thomas, Panama, Gibraltar, Africa, Al- 
giers, Tunis, Alexandria, the Suez canal and 
Cairo. When the Franco-Prussian War 
opened, in August, 1870, impelled by patri- 
otic ardor, and moved to assist as he might 
in relieving the suffering he knew would en- 
sue, he was among the first to volunteer his 
services to his native country. His standing 
in his profession was such that his proffer 
met with ready acceptance, and at Munich, 
Germany, he was appointed to the position 
of physician and surgeon of the Fourth Ar- 
tillery, the Queen Mother's Regiment of the 
Bavarian Army. Entering upon active 
service, he was assigned to duty by the chief 
of the operating staff of the Bavarian army 
as his assistant. In this capacity his profes- 
sional skill, personal courage and devotion 
to duty won for him the gratitude of those 



to whom he ministered, the commendation 
of his superiors, and the proudest distinction 
brought to any soldier during the war, his 
investiture by the Emperor William as a 
Knight of the Order of the Iron Cross, a 
purely military distinction, conferred by that 
monarch alone, and only in recognition of 
most distinguished courage and signal serv- 
ice. From the king of Bavaria he received 
the Medal of Merit of the Haus Wittelsbach 
and Military. At the close of the war he 
might have retained his position, but having 
no inclination for army service under a peace 
establishment, and having been favorably 
impressed with America on his visits while in 
the employ of the Lloyd, in 1871 he came 
to New York, where his testimonials of abil- 
ity and distinguished service obtained for 
him a cordial reception in the circles of his 
profession. He was appointed physician in 
the German Hospital, on Fourth Avenue and 
Seventy-seventh Street, and occupied that 
position until January, 1872, when he came 
to St. Charles, Missouri, where he continued 
to make his home until his death, which 
occurred in May, 1900. His beginning was 
auspicious, and he soon acquired a large and 
lucrative practice, and recognition in the pro- 
fession as one of its most accomplished mem- 
bers in the State. When St. Joseph's 
Hospital was instituted, in 1890, he became 
its chief, a position for which he was pecul- 
iarly fitted through his knowledge and skill, 
especially as a surgeon, derived from unusual 
advantages, those of thorough training in the 
best medical schools in the world, supple- 
mented by the wide experience which came 
to him during his service on the medical 
staff of the German Army during actual war, 
when every conceivable class of injury came 
under his observation and care. In his 
treatment of the suffering he united with the 
interest of the scientist, the solicitude and 
sympathy of the Christian gentleman. In re- 
ligion he was a Catholic, as was his mother, 
and his family adhere to the same faith. His 
father was a Protestant. In October, 1864, 
while attending the university at Munich, he 
became a member of the Corps Bavaria, a 
social organization of students, with which 
he maintained connection as a life member. 
He held membership in other European 
bodies, the Koesner S. C. Order, extending 
through Germany, Switzerland and Austria. 
American societies with which he was con- 



44 



GERMAN. 



nected were the United Workmen and the 
Knights of the Maccabees. In the line of his 
profession he was a member of the St. 
Charles County Medical Society, in which he 
was highly regarded for his brilliant profes- 
sional attainments, his wealth of experience, 
and the lucidity of his expression in the dis- 
cussion of technical topics. Dr. Geret was 
married, September 17, 1874, to Miss Bar- 
bara Schneider, of Harvester, Missouri. Two 
daughters, Charlotte and Olga, were born of 
this union. The surviving members of his 
family dwell in refined comfort, and are 
highly esteemed in the community. Aside 
from his profession Dr. Geret was a genial 
and cultured gentleman, and one of the fore- 
most in all movements for advancing the 
material and moral welfare of his city. 

German, Charles W., lawyer, was 
born July 10, 1867, in Ontario, Canada. His 
parents were both natives of that country, 
and the father still resides there. The mother 
is deceased. The Gehrmann family left the 
Bavarian Palatinate, on the Rhine, in the 
days of King Louis XIV, of France, when 
that potentate assumed authority over it on 
account of the marriage of his brother to 
Princess Elizabeth of that State, and began 
to persecute the Protestants. About 1685 the 
Gehrmanns went with the Prince of Orange 
and settled on the west coast of Ireland, near 
Limerick. There they remained about fifty 
years, at the end of that time coming to 
America and locating in the Hudson, or Sus- 
quehanna, region of New York. At the time 
of the Revolutionary War they were Tories, 
and, not pleased with the result of that strife, 
they went to Canada as United Empire loy- 
alists, in 1791, settling in the Bay of Quinte 
region. Christopher German, the great- 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, 
drew a farm in Adolphustown, the fourth 
township west from Kingston. The name, 
German, had been anglicized at a time un- 
Icnown. There were three brothers of them, 
Christopher, John and Jacob, and a cousin, 
Lewis, all of whom located in the same neigh- 
borhood, in the then wilderness of -upper 
Canada. The Purdys, a family of which the 
mother of Charles W. German was a mem- 
ber, were also United Empire loyalists, the 
great-grandfather Purdy having been an 
officer in the British Navy in 1776 and 1783. 
The Purdys had been tories since the time 



of Charles I of England, as the motto on 
their crest, "Stans cum rcge," would indi- 
cate. Charles W. German attended the com- 
mon schools of Ontario, and the high school 
at Harriston, Canada, graduating from the 
latter. In 1885 he left the country of his 
nativity and went to California, remaining 
there until the spring of 1887, incidentally 
rounding out his experience with travel in 
other sections of the country. In the fall 
of 1887 Mr. German entered the law school 
of Northwestern University, at Chicago, Illi- 
nois, graduating from that institution in 
June, 1889. Immediately after graduation he 
went to Kansas City, Missouri, and there 
entered upon the practice of law, spending 
the first two years with the legal firm now 
known as Lathrop, Morrow, Fox & Moore. 
At the end of the two years Mr. German 
entered the firm of Meservey & Pierce, as a 
partner, and the firm became Meservey, 
Pierce & German. The existence of this 
partnership dates back to the year 1891, and 
during these nine years it has grown to be 
one of the strong legal combinations at the 
Kansas City bar. Mr. German's practice is 
devoted to general civil cases covering a wide 
field, and he and his associates represent a 
number of the most important corporations 
and individual interests in Kansas City and 
vicinity. He is a member of the Kansas 
City Bar Association, and for the year 1899- 
1900 was elected treasurer of that organiza- 
tion, his- term of office expiring with the 
presidency of Mr. H. D. Ashley. He comes 
from a Methodist family, his father having 
been a minister of that denomination of long 
service and high standing. Mr. German was 
married in October, 1898, to Miss Louise 
ZoUer, daughter of Charles Zoller, president 
of the Third National Bank, of Greensburg, 
Indiana, and one of the most substantial men 
of that part of the State. Mrs. German is a 
firm believer in the doctrines of the Presby- 
terian Church, is a member of Central Pres- 
byterian Church in Kansas City, and on 
account of her affiliation with that denomina- 
tion her husband is identified with the same 
religious society. To this marriage one son 
has been born. Mr. German, although one 
of the younger members of the Kansas City 
bar, is numbered nevertheless among its able 
representatives. He has always held a posi- 
tion of dignity, justified by his methods in 
the court room and his practices as a coun- 



GERMAN BENEVOLENT SOCIETY— GERMAN ORPHANS' HOME. 



45 



seller. Having a firm faith in the locality 
and State of which he is a part, he is ever a 
loyal citizen, faithful to the best interests of 
the commonwealth and his community. 

German Benevolent Society.— A 

social and beneficiary society organized in 
February of 1875, at Charding's Hall, corner 
of Third and ]\Iarion Streets, St. Louis, with 
fifteen charter members. It has been com- 
posed exclusively of Germans since it came 
into existence, and in 1898 had a membership 
of 125. A similar organization, founded in 
1892 and chartered the same year, is known 
as the South St. Louis German Benevolent 
Society. 

German Clnb. — A society formed in 
St. Louis for the study, in the original, of 
German literature, especially the drama. 
The German Club originated in 1884, at the 
suggestion of Mrs. Jonathan Rice and Mrs. 
August Frank, and has met at the homes of 
its members every Monday afternoon since, 
excepting during the summer vacations. All 
the parts of the play chosen are assigned, 
and the reading proceeds in the dramatic 
form and with much dramatic spirit. The 
principal plays of Goethe, Schiller, Lessig 
and others have been read, but the work is 
not confined to the dramatists. One year 
was given to a German translation of the 
Iliad, two years to Jordan's Nibelungen, and 
one year to the second part of Faust, supple- 
mented with explanatory works by German 
authors. The club has no officers, but its 
leader is Mrs. Albert Drey, a lady of fine 
culture, thoroughly familiar with her sub- 
jects, and also with the homes and haunts of 
the authors, which she has visited in her trav- 
els. The social feature is not neglected. 
Light refreshments follow each reading, and 
at the last meeting of the season, which is in- 
variably held at Forest Park, the programme 
is miscellaneous and the gathering largely 

^°^^^^- Martha S. Kayshr. 

German Emigrant Aid Society. — 

A society organized in St. Louis in 1848, 
and chartered by the act of the Missouri 
Legislature February 27th of the year 1851. 
Robert Hanning, Arthur Olshausen, Willliam 
Stumpf, Ferdinand Overstoltz and others 
were the incorporators. Its objects were to 
provide in a systematic way for the relief of 



German immigrants, arriving in St. Louis 
without means, to aid them in securing em- 
ployment and assist them in gaining such 
knowledge of the language and custom of 
the country as would enable them to take 
care of themselves. It was rechartered at a 
later date and its powers extended so as to 
enable it to use its means for divers chari- 
table purposes, and in 1896 it contributed 
$1,000 to the sufiferers from the cyclone. It 
also gives every year to the Provident Asso- 
ciation, the St. Vincent de Paul Society and 
other benevolent organizations. This society 
is called in German ''Die Deutsche Gesell- 
schaft." Its most active officers and directors 
have been Isidor Busch, C. R. Frilch, Arthur 
Olshausen, Charles H. Teichmann, Albert 
Fischer, C. A. Stifel, H. Eisenhardt, A. Klas- 
ing, E, D. Kargan, Dr. H. Kinner, M. C. 
Lange and H. T. Wilde. 

German Evangelical Lutheran 
Orphans' Home. — An orphans' home in 
St. Louis, with which is connected an asylum 
for aged and indigent members of the Luth- 
eran Church. It was erected in 1867 by the 
German Evangelical Lutheran Hospital As- 
sociation of St. Louis. This association was 
incorporated in 1863 by an act of the Mis- 
souri Legislature. The first building erected 
was a log house, which was used for several 
years after the present building was erected. 
In 1873 a brick building, three stories in 
height, was erected and dedicated on the 8th 
of June in that year. In 1882 a frame build- 
ing for an orphan school was erected. The 
house is located at Des Peres, on the Man- 
chester Road, fifteen miles from St, Louis. 
Forty acres of land belong to the home. The 
first president of this asylum was Rev. Johann 
Frederick Buenger, who, at his death in 1882, 
was succeeded by Rev. Christlieb C. E. 
Brandt, pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran 
St. Paulus' Church of St. Louis. 

German General Protestant Or- 
phans' Home. — An institution founded 
February 13, 1877, and located on Natural 
Bridge Road, near St. Louis. The corner 
stone of the building was laid September 6, 
1877. On October 20, 1878, it was dedicated, 
and occupied by the first orphans a few days 
after its dedication. The object of the home 
is to receive, as far as possible, all poor 
orphans and educate them without charge. 



46 



GERMAN IMMIGRATION, IMPRESS OF. 



also to receive half orphans and orphans with 
means provided by the surviving parent or 
guardian. 

German Immigration, Impress of. 

The immigration of Germans into the United 
States, in large numbers, occurred at two dif- 
ferent periods of our history. The earlier im- 
migration beginning in 1663 and continuing 
until the breaking out of the Revolutionary 
War in 1775, populated the larger part of 
Pennsylvania, the Valley of the Mohawk in 
New York, portions of Maryland, the Valley 
of the Shenandoah in \^irginia. and sent col- 
onies into North Carolina, South Carolina 
and Georgia. During the period covered by 
the American Revolution, the French Revo- 
lution and the Napoleonic wars, German im- 
migration into the United States ceased alto- 
gether, and did not set in again until about 
1820. The interval of nearly half a century 
was sufficiently long to break the connection 
between the earlier and the later immigra- 
tion. For the purpose of this sketch, we may 
dismiss the earlier period with a bare refer- 
ence to it, for although a goodly number of 
the people of St. Louis trace their blood back 
to this early German immigration, they are 
classed among us as Anglo-American. Per- 
haps the most prominent man of this class 
was Henry S. Geyer, for many years the 
leader of the Missouri bar and the successor 
of Colonel Benton in the United States Sen- 
ate. He was born in Maryland in 1790, of 
German parentage. 

German immigration into the United 
States during the decade from 1820 to 1830 
was light in comparison to the influx that was 
to follow, but it brought us some valuable ac- 
quisitions, among them Charles Follen, who 
arrived in 1824, and Francis Lieber, who ar- 
rived in 1827. The works of the latter, writ- 
ten in English, are the best we have on the 
subject of political science. Missouri received 
but little of the immigration of this decade, 
but among those who came was Dr. Gottfried 
Duden, a man of education, but of no prac- 
tical insight into things, who arrived in 1824 
and settled on a farm in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, where he wrote a series of letters, giving 
a highly colored account of the advantages 
of Missouri. These letters, after his return 
to Europe, were published in book form and 
were widelv circulated. This book directed 



attention to Missouri and brought a great 
many German immigrants to the State. 

In 1830 the population of St. Louis was 
6,694. A year or two afterward the tide of 
German immigration began to set in, in large 
volume, and has continued to flow in ever 
since. There must have been strong impelling 
causes to induce great masses of men to leave 
the land of their birth and seek permanent 
homes elsewhere. In inquiring into them, 
we must give full effect to the fact that men 
are controlled in their movements by the de- 
sire to improve their condition. In old and 
crowded countries the individual is constantly 1 
confronted by the difficulty of supporting | 
himself. The promised abundance of a new 
country of great natural resources is most 
tempting. As his necessities at home grow and 
become more pinching, the desire to emigrate 
increases. If to the hope of finding readier 
means of gratifying his physical wants, there 
is added the assurance of greater personal 
liberty and larger latitude for individual ac- 
tion, the desire to exchange the old for the 
new is still further intensified. 

The condition of the German people at the 
time was peculiar. Not the command of the 
sovereign, but the patriotic impulse of the 
people, had recruited the German armies in 
the campaigns against Napoleon of 1814 and 
181 5. The passionate desire of the people to 
drive out the foreign invader, in conjunction 
with the hope of securing national unity and 
a liberal domestic government after his expul- 
sion, sent into the army not only every man 
of fighting age, but the immature youth and 
the gray-bearded sire as well. 

Their armies were victorious, but their 
hopes were destined to disappointment. Im- 
mediately after the peace of Paris came the 
Congress of Vienna, the fruit of which was 
a close compact between the crowned heads 
of Austria, the German States and Russia to 
maintain kingly authority and to repress all 
manifestations of liberalism. Instead of Ger- 
man unity, the thirty-six potentates, who di- 
vided the sovereignty of the nation, were re- 
instated, freedom of speech was curtailed, 
and a rigid censorship of the press was main- 
tained. 

Cheated of the fruits of their patriotic sacri- 
fices, a feeling of painful dissatisfaction seized 
the people. This feeling was exhibited most 
strongly by the educated classes and the 



GERMAN IMMIGRATION, IMPRESS OF. 



47 



youth of the country. The ravages of war had 
left their deep impress upon the material re- 
sources of the people, to which were added 
partial crop failures for several years to 
heighten the cause of general discontent. 

The year 1830 was a year of unrest and up- 
rising throughout all western Europe. France 
had her revolution. Poland her rebellion, and 
in Germany the mutterings of discontent weie 
loud and universal and resulted in various 
collisions between the people and the au- 
thorities. Numerous political prosecutions 
followed, the victims of which fled the coun- 
try, wherever that was possible. The discon- 
tent at home turned their eyes hopefully to 
the new world across the water. The roving 
spirit had seized them. Many of the educat- 
ed among them had come to believe that true 
happiness was to be found only in primeval 
forests, and thus the tide began to move 
which was destined to carry millions of men 
and women, with their hopes and aspirations, 
to new homes during the second period of 
German immigration into the United States. 

St. Louis received its full share of this im- 
migration. In twenty years (from 1830 to 
1850) the population of the city grew from 
7,000 to 77,860. Of the latter number, ac- 
cording to the Federal Census of 1850, 36,529 
were native born, and 38,397 foreign born, 
and of the latter number, 22,340 were born 
in Germany. (Compendium U. S. Census, 
1850, p. 399.) Theodore Olshausen, a pains- 
taking writer of acknowledged accuracy, in 
his treatise on Missouri (page 131), places the 
population of the city in 1850 at 77,465, of 
whom 37,051 were native Americans, 23,774 
Germans, 11,257 Irish, 2,933 English and 
2,450 other foreigners. 

According to the local (city) census of 1852 
so much of the southern end of the city as 
was embraced in what was then the First 
Ward contained 13,709 inhabitants, of whom 
12,058 were Germans. 

According to the federal census for the re- 
spective years there were in St. Louis : 

*In i860, 50,510 persons of German birth; 
in 1870, 59,040 persons of German birth ; in 
1880, 54,901 persons of German birth, and 
in 1890, 66,000 persons of German birth. 

These figures do not include the Austrians 
and Swiss of German tongue. It must also be 

* The figures for i860, above given, include the city arid county 
of St. Louis. The figures for the subsequent years are limited 
to the city alone. 



remembered that they do not include the na- 
tive born children of German parentage. It 
is safe to assume that since i860, the number 
of native horn children, both of whose par- 
ents were of German birth, is at least twice 
as large as the census enumeration of their 
parents. 

The figures above given show the propor- 
tion of German blood that has gone into the 
population of the city. What has been its 
influence upon the educational, scientific, art- 
istic, business and social interests of that 
community? In the nature of things, a precise 
demonstration in answer to the question is 
impossible. The relations of individuals and 
of classes in the same community are so inti- 
mately blended that the influence of the one 
upon the other is hardly distinguishable ; yet 
in a general way, we may trace results direct- 
ly attributable to the German immigrant who 
cast his lot with us. 

So a large number of people added to a 
community can not fail to leave their impress 
upon it. The immigrant brought his labor, 
his skill, his knowledge and his means and 
contributed them to the community of which 
he became a member. He is entitled to be 
credited with a fair share of its subsequent de- 
velopment and progress. Germans by birth 
or descent are found in every line of business 
in the city. Some pursuits may still be said 
to be in their hands exclusively ; for instance, 
the manufacture of beer. This beverage is 
now so generally used as to have become the 
national drink. Having introduced it, they 
may claim the merit of having been instru- 
mental in substituting a lighter drink for the 
heavier beverages in use before their time. 

The bulk of every larger immigration must 
necessarily consist of persons who gain their 
livelihood by manual labor, and so it is with 
respect to the immigration of which we are 
now speaking ; but long before it began, Ger- 
many had, and has ever since had, a superior 
school system, so that the boy who left 
school at fourteen, to be apprenticed, had re- 
ceived a fairly good training in the element- 
ary branches. There were few among them 
that could not read and write. But the politi- 
cal troubles of 1830, already alluded to, and 
the revolutionary movement of 1848-9, in both 
of which the educated classes of Germany 
were the most active participants, brought 
to our shores also a large number of men 
of high culture, university professors, stu- 



48 



GERMAN IMMIGRATION, IMPRESS OF. 



dents, scientists and professional men. They 
were possessed of the best achievements of 
their people in science and art and gave us 
the benefit of them. They were the medium 
through which the learning of German uni- 
versities was disseminated. As tutors, they 
entered our high schools and colleges, and 
enlarged and liberalized their curriculum. 
Their example and precept have sent scores 
of young Americans to German universities. 
They furnished us physicians, engineers, mu- 
sicians, artists and editors. They founded 
schools, churches and newspapers among us. 

The press is the potent factor in moulding 
public opinion and through it the permanent 
institutions of the people. The second oldest 
newspaper in St. Louis is a German news- 
paper, the "Anzeiger des Westens," founded 
in 1835, and published continuously since, 
with the exception of a few months in 1863. 
At this time — 1897 — St. Louis has five Ger- 
man daily newspapers, three of them being 
morning papers, the "Anzeiger," the "West- 
liche Post" and the "Amerika," and two aft- 
ernoon papers, the "Tribuene" and the 
"Tageblatt." The "Tages-Chronik" was es- 
tablished in 1850, and continued to live until 
1863. "Puck" was first published in St. Louis 
and then emigrated to New York. Besides 
these, there were many ephemeral German 
newspaper ventures which were of some im- 
portance in their day. 

At the time German immigration began to 
set in, art had found but a scanty foothold in 
this country. The German immigrant brought 
with him his fondness for music and his 
knowledge of the art, and its rapid develop- 
ment among us is undoubtedly due largely to 
him. The first orchestra of string music in St. 
Louis was organized in 1845. It was called 
the "Polyhymnia." Every performer at its 
first concert bore a German name. There are 
twenty-six German singing societies in St. 
Louis at this time. 

The educational advantages of gymnastics 
are now universally recognized in this coun- 
try. The system, as practiced by Jahn, was in 
use in Germany from the early days of the 
century. It was unknown to us until brought 
over by the immigration of 1848-9. The first 
"Turn-Verein" in St. Louis was founded in 
185 1. There are now ten of them. No school 
under German management is without its 
gymnastic exercises. American educators are 
fully aware of the importance of this German 



educational method, which is founded upon 
the thought that a healthy mind presupposes 
a healthy body, and so well is it thought of 
that there is to-day scarcely a college or 
school of any importance in the country with- 
out its gymnasium. 

The continental European does not look 
upon the Sabbath as a day of prayer alone ; 
to him it is also a day of recreation. After six 
days of labor, he enjoys the leisure which the 
seventh gives to him. The number of their 
churches show that the German imnngrants 
were not less religious than their neighbors^ 
but a Puritanical observance of the Sabbath 
did not seem to them a part of true religion. 
They make it appear that they could enjoy 
the day without abusing it, and thus led the 
way to the more liberal view of Sunday which 
now prevails both by custom and in the law. 

In politics the bulk of the German immi- 
grants of St. Louis belonged to the Demo- 
cratic party, and after the schism, to the Ben- 
ton wing of it, until the slavery question be- 
came the absorbing issue in public aflfairs. 
Then their strong anti-slavery sentiments 
carried a majority of them into the Repub- 
lican party, of which they and their descend- 
ants have been the mainstay ever since in this- 
city. But whatever political differences there 
were among them, they were, without excep- 
tion, on the side of the Union during the late 
war. The first five Federal volunteer regi- 
ments raised in St. Louis in the spring of 
1861 were made up of Germans almost alto- 
gether. So were the five reserve corps (home 
guard) regiments. As a result of their active 
and united support of the cause of the Union, 
their political influence in Missouri was never 
greater than during and immediately after the 
war. In 1868 General Schurz was elected to 
the United States Senate and Mr. Finkeln- 
burg to the lower house of Congress. From 
1875 to 1881 Henry Overstolz was mayor of 
St. Louis, the only German by birth who ever 
held that office. But whilst they were intense 
Union men during the war, they were op- 
posed to the illiberal and proscriptive features 
of the Constitution of 1865, and cast a heavy 
vote against its adoption. In 1872 they led 
the liberal movement in the State which re- 
sulted in eliminating the obnoxious features 
from the Constitution. A minute inquiry into 
the share which the German blood of this city 
has in its manufacturing, banking and com- 
mercial interests, and in the arts and sciences,. 



GERMAN MEDICAL SOCIETY, THE— GERMANIA CEUB. 



49 



if it were indeed possible with any degree of 
accuracy, would extend this sketch much be- 
yond the limits assigned to it. The conclu- 
sion may be inferred approximately from the 
number of persons of that class among us, 
their culture, habits of industry, enterprise 
and thrift. 

The white inhabitants of the United States 
all trace their descent back to the nations of 
Europe. They are all immigrants or the de- 
scendants of immigrants. And whilst for an 
inquiry of this kind we group them according 
to the nationality of their origin, they are to- 
day one people, with one common purpose 
and impulse. The Englishman, the Irishman, 
the German, the Scandinavian, the French- 
man and the Spaniard" have all been merged 
in the American, who has received something 
good from each of them. To trace out this 
something and show its impress upon the 
new nation is the interesting work of the fu- 
ture historian. Edward C. Kehr. 

Germ till Medical Society, The, 

known among its members as "Deutsche 
Medizinische Gesellschaft," is a society 
formed in St. Louis in 1850, composed of 
German physicians. The membership is lim- 
ited to twenty-live. The society has a large 
library and receives the leading European 
medical journals. 

German Protestant Orphans' 
Home. — In 1858 Rev. L. E. Nollau found 
on a boat a child whose parents had died on 
their passage to this country from Germany. 
This child he placed under the care of Mrs. 
Wilhelmina Meyer in rooms which he set 
apart for the purpose in the Good Samaritan 
Hospital, which he had just then established 
on Carr Street, between Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Streets, in St. Louis. This was the 
commencement of the German Protestant 
Orphans' Home. The number of children in 
the establishment thus founded rapidly in- 
creased, and larger accommodations became 
necessary. Rooms were accordingly rented 
on the corner of Jefferson and Dayton Ave- 
nues, and to these the children were removed, 
though they continued to board at the Good 
Samaritan Hospital. On the breaking out of 
the Civil War in 1861 the government took 
possession of this building for a soldiers' hos- 
pital, and the children were removed to a 
house on the corner of Carr and Sixteenth 

Vol. Ill— 4 



Streets, where they remained until the close 
of the war, when they were taken back. In 
the autumn of 1866 a farm of sixty-five acres 
on the St. Charles Road, nine miles from St. 
Louis, was purchased at a cost of $23,500, and 
to the large dwelling on this farm the- or- 
phans, then fifty-five in number, were re- 
moved. In 1870 a wing was added on the east 
of this building, and in 1874 another wing 
was added on the west, and a tower was 
erected in front. The cost of these additions 
was $50,000. January 18, 1877, the entire 
establishment was destroyed by fire, and one 
child perished in the flames. The children 
were removed to the Good Samaritan Hos- 
pital again till spring, when they were quar- 
tered in temporary shanties on the farm. Dur- 
ing the summer the present asylum was erect- 
ed, and was first occupied November i8th of 
that year. It was a brick structure, 160 by 70 
feet in size and three stories in height above 
the basement. Its cost was $50,000. There 
has also been erected a teachers' residence, 
bakery, laundry, ice house, all brick, and their 
total cost was $20,000. In December, 1882, 
twenty acres were added to the farm, and the 
cost of tlfis addition was $2,000. On March 
23, 1 861, the institution was incorporated 
by an act of the Legislature, with Lewis E. 
Nollau, Frederick Maschmeier, T. Frederick 
Massman, Michael Voepel and Francis 
Hackemeier as corporators. This board has 
been increased to the maximum number al- 
lowed by the charter. In the asylum no sec- 
tarian distinction is made, but the children 
of the Jew and Gentile, Catholic and Protes- 
tant alike are received and cared for. The 
asylum is not endowed, but is dependent for 
its support entirely on the contributions of 
benevolent people. It is a noteworthy fact 
that the first donation was made in 1858 by a 
child four years of age, Charles H. Hacke- 
meier, who gave the sum of one dollar from 
his little savings. To the watchful care and 
efficient labors of Mr. Nollau the early suc- 
cess of the institution was largely due. 

Germania Club. — A German social 
club in St. Louis, chartered by special act of 
the Legislature February 16, 1865. Among^ 
the founders of the club were James Taussig, 
Charles F. Meyer, Charles Enslin, Julius- 
Conrad, Louis Holm, Charles F. Eggers,, 
Charles Balmer, Felix Coste and others. The 
first president . was Charles F. Meyer, the 



50 



GERMANIA, ORDER OF— GIBSON. 



first vice president Louis Holm, the first sec- 
retary Charles De Greek, and the first treas- 
urer William Hunicke. In 1866 the club com- 
pleted a clubhouse at the corner of Eighth 
and Gratiot Streets, which was fitted up at a 
cost of $110,000. For several years the club 
had a large membership, which was com- 
posed of the leading Germans of the city, 
and many eminent visitors were entertained 
at its clubhouse, which was a beautiful 
example of architecture. It was famous 
throughout the land for a time, but the en- 
croachments of business caused the club to 
pass out of existence, in 1888. 

Germaiiia, Order of. — Toward the 
end of May, 1898. fourteen members of the 
United Order of Hope seceded, in conse- 
quence of dissensions, and founded a»new 
society, called the Order of Germania. They 
elected their supreme officers and applied to 
the Secretary of Sate of Missouri for a char- 
ter. 

Germania Saengerbiind. — A Ger- 
man singing society, organized March 19, 
1859, in St. Louis, by William and Adolph 
Reisse. and which was first called the "Berg 
Saengerbund," or ''Mountain Saengerbund." 
The society took a proniinent part in numer- 
ous fetes and held a leading place among the 
musical organizations of the city. 

Geyer, Henry Sheftie, lawyer, jurist 
and United • States Senator, was born of 
German parents in Frederick County, Mary- 
land, December 9, 1790, and died in St. Louis, 
March 5, 1859. His early promise attracted 
the attention of General Nelson, with whom 
he studied law. Another early friend was his 
uncle, Daniel Sheffie, of Virginia, a promi- 
nent lawyer and politician. He began prac- 
tice in 181 1, but entered the army in 181 2 as 
first lieutenant, and rose to the rank of cap- 
tain in active duty on the frontier. In 181 5 
he re-entered the legal field in St. Louis, 
and almost immediately won recognition. At 
that time the laws of the Territory were in a 
rudimentary condition, and the inchoate titles 
granted by Spain were being examined and 
readjusted, and the most intricate problems 
were involved in their settlement. Captain 
Geyer applied himself so assiduously to this 
department of law that for over forty years 
hardly an important land case was settled in 



Missouri without his aid. But he also pos- 
sessed a variety of legal accomplishments, 
and was perfectly at home in the subtile dis- 
tinctions of commercial law, in complex 
details of chancery cases, and in the skillful 
management of jury trials, when his exam- 
ination of witnesses and of the evidence was 
unequaled. In 1817 he published "Statutes of 
Missouri." He was a delegate to the State 
Constitutional Convention of 1820, and was 
five times chosen to the Legislature after the 
admission of Missouri to the Union, serving 
as speaker of the first three General Assem- 
blies of the State. In 1825 he was one of the 
revisers- of the statutes, and contributed 
largely to the adoption of a code which was 
at that time superioi' to that of any other 
Western State. He declined the post of Sec- 
retary of War, tendered him by President 
Fillmore, in 1850, and was then elected 
United States Senator over Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, on the fortieth ballot, by a majority of 
five votes. He served from 1851 till 1857, 
and while in Washington was one of the 
counsel in the Dred Scott case. At the time 
of his death he was the oldest member of 
the St. Louis bar, both in years and in profes- 
sional standing. In the Supreme Court of 
the United States he came into contact with 
such men as Webster, Ewing and Reverdy 
Johnson, who entertained the highest respect 
for his ability. Politically he was a firm 
Whig, and an ardent admirer of Henry Clay. 
W'hen the party disappeared he returned to 
the Democratic ranks. 

Gibbs. — An incorporated town in Adair 
County, sixteen miles southeast of Kirks- 
ville, on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railway. It has a graded school, a church, 
bank and about a dozen other business 
places, including a hotel, general and other 
stores and shops. Population in 1899 (esti- 
mated), 200. 

1 

Gibson, Charles, was born in Mont- i 
gomery County, Virginia, in 1825, and died 
October 27, 1899, at Lake Minnetonka, Minne- 
sota. When he was about eleven years of age 
his parents removed to Missouri, establish- 
ing their home in what was then a very new 
country in the western portion of the State. 
Educational facilities were at that time lim- 
ited in that region, but Charles Gibson was ^ 
a student by nature and instinct, and notwith- 



GIBSON. 



51 



standing the disadvantages under which he 
labored, he managed to fit himself for the 
Missouri University. There he completed 
his academic studies, supplementing the 
knowledge thus obtained with a comprehen- 
sive course of reading, which made him a 
man of very broad general information in 
early life. In 1843 ^^^ vvent to St. Louis and 
studied law under the preceptorship of the 
renowned lawyers, Edward Bates and Josiah 
Spaulding. He made his entree into politics 
in 1844, when he made a brilliant series of 
campaign speeches in favor of the election of 
Henry Clay to the presidency of the United 
States. Four years later he championed the 
cause of General Zachary Taylor, and in 1852 
was an elector at large for the State of Mis- 
souri on the Whig ticket. He occupied a 
prominent and leading position among the 
•old-line Whigs of Missouri in the presidential 
campaign of 1856. It was largely through his 
efforts that Edward Bates was put forward 
as a candidate for the presidency at the Re- 
publican National Convention of i860, and 
after the election of President Lincoln he 
became an influential supporter of the new 
administration. When the Civil War began 
he at once took strong ground in favor of 
the maintenance of the Union, and was a co- 
laborer with Hamilton R. Gamble, Frank P. 
Blair, B. Gratz Brown and others in pre- 
venting Missouri from joining in the seces- 
sion movement. Although he had an 
aversion to accepting public office, he was 
called upon as a matter of duty to fill the 
office of solicitor of the court of claims, and 
represented the State government of Mis- 
souri at Washington during the war. For 
this four years of arduous work on behalf 
of the State he declined to accept any com- 
pensation whatever, establishing a precedent 
which none of his successors have seen fit to 
follow. Shortly before the Convention of 
1864, held at Baltimore, he resigned the office 
which he held, in order that he might be free 
to follow his convictions in the ensuing cam- 
paign. These convictions led him to support' 
General George B. McClellan for the presi- 
dency, and he later supported President 
Andrew Johnson in his controversy with 
Congress during the early part of the recon- 
struction period. In 1870 he joined forces 
with the Liberal Republicans of Missouri in 
the movement which resulted in the election 
of B. Gratz Brown for Governor, and paved 



the way for the repeal of the "Drake Consti- 
tution." He supported Horace Greeley for 
the presidency in 1872, and made an extended 
and vigorous canvass for Samuel J. Tilden 
for the same office in 1876. During the long 
contest over the election which followed he 
represented the Democratic national com- 
mittee in Louisiana and Florida in the in- 
terest of a fair count, and rendered great 
service to his party in that connection. As a 
lawyer he was nof less prominent than in 
politics. In 1 85 1 he was sole counsel in a 
most important case brought by the King of 
Prussia, from whom he received, as a token 
of appreciation of his services, two magnifi- 
cent vases of exceptional value. December 
16, 1882, he was made Commander of 
Knights in Austria by the Emperor, who 
decorated him with his own order of Francis 
Joseph, and, contrary to precedent, issued 
an edict that the decoration should descend 
as an heirloom. The same year Emperor 
William decorated him with the cross of the 
Royal Prussian Crown Order, and in 1890 
Emperor William II conferred upon him the 
additional decoration of the Grand Cross. 
In 1 85 1 Mr. Gibson married Miss Virginia 
Gamble, daughter of Archibald Gamble, in 
his day a leading member of the bar and 
citizen of St. Louis. 

G-ibson, James, lawyer and jurist, was 
born November 19, 1849, "^ Cooper County, 
Missouri. His parents were John H. and 
Mary A. (Hill) Gibson. The father was a 
native of Virginia, who, in early life, removed 
to Missouri. He was descended from a Penn- 
sylvania family, which numbered among its 
members Chief Justice John B. Gibson, of 
the Keystone State. John Gibson was a 
soldier during the Revokitionary War, and 
was wounded at the battle of Brandywine; 
his son, Hugh, was a soldier in the War of 
1812 and married a Rutledge, of the famous 
South Carolina family of that name ; her 
father. General Rutledge, was conspicuous 
in the battle of King's Mountain, in Revo- 
lutionary times. John H. Gibson, their son, 
married Mary A. Hill, a lineal descendant of 
Robert Hill, of North Carolina, who was a 
captain during the Revolutionary War; she 
was born in Cooper County, Missouri, in Ter- 
ritorial days. Their son, James Gibson, was 
educated in the common schools and at 
Kemper College, of Boonville, Missouri. In 



52 



GIBSON— GIDEON. 



1871 he located in Kansas City and entered 
upon the study of law. In 1875 he was ad- 
mitted to practice, but was soon called to 
public position. In 1877 he was elected city 
attorney, and he was re-elected the following 
year. In this position he displayed great 
activity, and a reign of law and order suc- 
ceeded to one of tumult and disorder. In 
1883 he was elected to the mayoralty, and 
his course commanded such approval that 
his party made unanimous tender of a re- 
nomination, which he declined, preferring his 
profession to political prominence or civic 
position. In 1889 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor David R. Francis to the position of 
judge of Division No. i of the Circuit Court 
of Jackson County, and he was successively 
re-elected in 1894 and in 1898, and is now 
serving under the latter election. While en- 
gaged in practice he was recognized as a 
lawyer of eminent ability. His reputation 
as a jurist of superior qualifications is well 
established, and is attested by the fact that 
his rulings are affirmed in nearly all appealed 
cases. In politics he is a Democrat, and in 
1880 he was the Democratic elector from the 
Fifth Congressional District. Judge Gibson 
was married, November 18, 1880, to Miss 
Mary Toad Pence, of Platte County, a 
daughter of Lewis W. Pence, a leading 
farmer of that region. 

Gibson, Robert Edward Lee, known 
as one of the "sweet singers of Missouri," 
was born January 14, 1864, in Steelville, Mis- 
souri, son of Dr. Alexander and Haynie Gib- 
son. He was educated in the public schools 
of his native town and at the United States 
Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. 
He served a year in the navy, and then, re- 
signing from the naval service, he came to 
St. Louis, which has since been his home. 
There he became connected with the St. 
Louis Insane Asylum in an official capacity, 
and so much of his time as could be spared 
from these duties has been devoted to litera- 
ture. In this field he has attained well 
deserved celebrity. Writing verse is with 
him a pleasure and a pastime, but his three 
booklets, "Mineral Blossoms," "Sonnets," 
"And Indian Legend, and Other Poems," 
which were published for private distribution 
only, contain much delightful verse, and all 
deserve a wider reading. Mr. Gibson mar- 
ried Miss Annie Higgins, of St. Louis. 



Giddiiigs, Salmon, clergyman, was 
born in Hartland, Connecticut, March 2,. 
1792, and died in St. Louis February i, 1828. 
He was graduated from Williams College in 
1807, studied theology at Andover Seminary^ 
and was ordained to the ministry in 1814. 
During the years 1 814- 15 he was tutor at 
Williams Colllege, and occasionally preached 
among the neighboring Congregational 
churches. Deciding then to become a mis- 
sionary, he set out on horseback for St. 
Louis, then on the frontier of civilization. 
He reached that city in April of 1816, as- 
sembled a small congregation and became 
the founder of the First Presbyterian, and 
the first Protestant, Church established in St. 
Louis. The same year he organized the 
IVesbyterian Church at Bellevue settle- 
ment, eighty miles southwest of St. 
Louis, and during the next ten years formed 
eleven other congregations, five in Missouri 
and six in Illinois. In 1822 he explored Kan- 
sas and Nebraska Territories, preparatory ta 
establishing missions among the Indians. On 
this tour of many weeks, without white com- 
panions, and hundreds of miles from any 
white settlement, he visited several Indian 
nations, held councils with their chiefs, and 
was received with hospitality. In 1826 he 
was installed pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church in St. Louis, which he served there- 
after until his death. He was an active mem- 
ber of the first Bible, Sunday School and 
Tract Societies organized in Missouri, and 
also of the first Colonization Society in this 
State. 

Gideon, James J., was born in that 
part of Taney County which is now Christian 
County, near the little town of Ozark, in 1846.. 
He is the son of William C. and Malinda 
(Byrd) Gideon, who came to Missouri from 
Tennessee in 1835. He receivied his education 
in the public school at Ozark. In 1863, being 
then only a lad of sixteen, he enlisted in Com- 
pany H, of the Sixteenth Missouri Cavalry 
Regiment of United States Volunteers, and 
served until the cease of the Civil War, re- 
turning to his home in 1865. Upon his return: 
to Missouri he took part in the reorganiza- 
tion of the State militia, and was elected Cap- 
tain of a company organized in his locality. 
At the close of his military work he took up 
the study of law, in his home town. Borrow- 
ing books he read at night, and during the 



GIERS— GIESSING. 



53 



r 
I 



day performed the required duties on his 
father's farm. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1872, and the following winter was elected 
prosecuting attorney of his county. This was 
at a time when everything was in turmoil, and 
the litigation was large. He served eight 
years as prosecuting attorney of Christian 
County, and in 1882 was elected to the State 
House of Representatives, where he served 
one term. In 1884 he was elected to the State 
Senate, where he served four years. In 1888 
he was elected prosecuting attorney of 
Greene County, and in 1892 judge of the 
criminal court. He was re-elected to 
this office in 1900. Judge Gibson comes 
from an old family of Republicans, and has 
always taken an active interest in party af- 
fairs. In 1868 he was married to Miss Marv 
S. Ball, of Ozark. To Mr. and Mrs. Gideon 
five children have been born, only two of 
whom are now living. 

Giers, Charles H., was born in Ger- 
many, June 6, 1825, and with his father, who 
was a manufacturer of clothing, came to 
St. Louis at an early day. After acquiring a 
practical education he engaged in business 
on his own account under the name of C. H. 
Giers, retail dealer in dry goods, in New Or- 
leans, and later in Naples, Scott County, Illi- 
nois, as a dealer in general merchandise. In 
1857 he located in Jerseyville, Jersey County, 
Illinois, and engaged in the purchase and sale 
of farms in the vicinity. He removed to Al- 
ton, Illinois, in 1867, and from Alton to a 
farm in Central Township, St. Louis County. 
May 22d of the same year he located in St. 
Louis and embarked in business as a retail 
dealer in dry goods at 308 Market street, at 
which place he remained four years. On ac- 
count of failing health, Mr. Giers left St. 
Louis in 1871 and purchased a large farm 
near Sandoval, Illinois, to which he removed 
with his family and engaged in stock and fruit 
farming. While in Sandoval. Arthur Giers, 
his youngest son, died, to whom he was de- 
votedly attached, and to whose loss he never 
became reconciled. In 187.=; he disnosed of 
his farm interests near Sandoval and, return- 
ing to St. Louis County, he purchased two 
farms embracing over 300 acres of land, to 
which he removed with his family. These 
farms he gave to his sons, and permanently 
retired from active business life. He resided 
with his son, Rolla C. Giers, devoting himself 



to the cultivation of flowers, of which he was 
passionately fond, until his death, which oc- 
curred December 13, 1898. Mr. Giers was a 
man of a quiet, retiring disposition, but pos- 
sessed sound judgment and remarkable ex- 
ecutive and financial ability, with a tact 
for turning everything that he touched into 
gold. He was . successful in all of his busi- 
ness ventures, left a handsome fortune to his 
family, and when he died did not owe a dollar. 
He was an inveterate reader and devoted 
his leisure hours to his books, magazines and 
flowers in the environs of his home circle. 
In politics he was a staunch Democrat, and 
he was a Presbyterian churchman. Mr. Giers 
married Miss Philopena Brinkenmeyer, 
daughter of Gottlieb Brinkenmeyer, of Louis- 
ville, Ky., February 22, 1850. Mrs. Giers died 
November 4, 1893. Eight children survive 
them, viz. : Lillie — wife of R. H. Downing, of 
St. Paul, Minnesota; Paris H., of Steward- 
son, Illinois; Rolla C, occupying the home 
farm ; Charles B., of Stewardson, Illinois ; 
Irene, wife of Frank Lightner, of St. Louis; 
Robert E. Lee, farmer and executor of the 
estate; Olive, wife of Lilburn T. Westrich, 
of the Clover Leaf Railway ; and Flora M. 
Giers, of Colorado Springs, Colorado. 

Giessiiig, Peter, manufacturer, was 
born February i, 1858, in Iron Mountain, 
St. Francois County, Missouri, son of Charles 
and Mary (Heohn) Giessing. Both his par- 
ents were natives of Germany, the father of 
the Principality of Waldeck, and the mother 
of the Kingdom of Prussia. The elder Gies- 
sing came to the United States in 1852 and 
his wife in 1854. Settling at Iron Moun- 
tain, Missouri, Charles Giessing entered 
the employ of the Iron Mountain Com- 
pany, with which he was connected for twen- 
ty odd years thereafter. In i860 he purchased 
an interest in what was known as the Pickle 
Flour Mill and established a business at Val- 
ley Forge, two and a half miles from Farm- 
ington, Missouri. There he lived until his 
death, which occurred February 18, 1880. He 
was practically the founder of the milling in- 
dustry in St. Francois County, and was a cap- 
able and honorable man of affairs. His son, 
Peter Giessing, attended, as a boy, the public 
schools of Iron Mountain and Farmington. 
His school days ended before he was twenty 
years old, and for seyeral years prior to that 
time he had been employed more or less, in 



54 



GILL. 



his father's mill. After quitting school he 
went to work regularly in the mill, and for 
eight or ten years was the engineer of the 
estabhshment. In 1882, two years after his 
father's death, he became one of the principal 
■ owners of the mill, his associates being his 
two brothers. In 1883 he remodeled the plant 
at Valley Forge, changing the process of 
manufacturing to what is known as the roller 
system. Until 1893 this plant was operated 
under the name of Giessing & Sons. The 
death of Mr. Giessing's mother then brought 
about a readjustment of affairs, and the Gies- 
sing Milling Company was organized, which 
is still in existence, Peter, Henry and Daniel 
F. Giessing being the partners. In 1897 the 
mill at Valley Forge was dismantled and 
the same year the brothers erected a larger 
flour manufacturing plant at Farmington, 
The present capacity of this plant is 150 bar- 
rels of flour and fifty barrels of corn meal 
per day. A successful manufacturer and a 
good citizen in all that the term implies, 
Peter Giessing is known also as one of the 
leaders of the Republican party in his portion 
of the State, and he has taken an active part 
in the conduct of political campaigns as a 
member of the Republican State central com- 
mittee. His inherited religious tendencies 
have made him a member of the Lutheran 
Church. April 6, 1897, '^^ married Miss 
Louisa K. Knoche. of Onarga, Illinois. Mrs. 
Giessing's father is a prominent Illinois farm- 
er, largely interested in the raising of fine 
stock. One child has been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Giessing, named Marion Anna Giessing. 

Gill, Turner Anderson, lawyer and 
jurist, was born December 8, 1841, in Bath 
County, Kentucky. His parents were Marcus 
and Sarah (Bruton) Gill. The father was de- 
scended from the Rev. John Gill, D. D., an 
eminent English Presbyterian divine who 
emigrated to America. Marcus Gill was a 
native of Kentucky, who removed in 1854 to 
Jackson County, Missouri, where he became 
a wealthy and influential citizen. His 
son, Turner, who was completing his 
education in the Missouri State Uni- 
versity when the Civil War began, enlisted 
in March, 1861, in Company A, of Rosser's 
battalion, afterward merged in the Sixth Mis- 
souri (Confederate) Regiment. His army 
service was brilliant and brought him signal 
recognition. He was wounded in the battle 



of Corinth, Mississippi, and soon after-ward 
was promoted from the ranks to a heuten- 
ancy. In the battle of Champion Hills, Mis- 
sissippi, he was seriously wounded ; he was 
taken into Vicksburg for treatment, and be- 
came a prisoner of war when that stronghold 
was surrendered. After exchange he was 
transferred to the Trans-Mississippi Depart- 
ment and reported to General Shelby, who 
assigned him to duty as adjutant of Shanks' 
regiment. Lieutenant Gill acquitted himself 
most creditably, especially in scouting 
duty, and was promoted to the rank 
of captain. General Shelby's appointing 
order reciting that the promotion was 
"for gallantry and merit.'' Captain GilL 
however, would not accept the honor until 
the company to which he was assigned had 
expressed its satisfaction, which it did by a 
unanimous vote. Captain Gill was wounded 
in a skirmish in Arkansas, and was engaged 
in the Battle of Westport, and in others of 
the later affairs under General Price. He 
was commander in frequent important expe- 
ditions, ever fulfilling the expectations of 
General Shelby, who held him in the highest 
regard. After the war Captain Gill located 
in Kansas City and read law under J. V. C. 
Karnes, and afterward resumed his studies 
in the University of Kentucky, from which he 
was graduated in 1868, with second honors in 
a class of seventeen. He then entered upon 
the practice of his profession in Kansas City. 
From 187*9 to 1881 he was associated in the 
firm of Lathrop, Gill & .Smith. In 1875 ^e 
was elected to the mayoralty of Kansas City, 
and was re-elected in 1876. The city was then 
just entering upon a period of unexampled 
development, and the intense commercial ac- 
tivity gave opportunity for all manner of 
reckless aggression upon public rights. 
Mayor Gill introduced numerous reforms, 
frustrated dishonest raids upon the public 
treasury and enforced municipal law vigor- 
ously and effectively. On retiring from the 
mayoralty he was appointed city counselor, 
and served two terms. July i, 1881, he was 
appointed by Governor T. T. Cfittenden to 
the position of judge of the Circuit Court of 
Jackson County, to fill a vacancy occasioned 
by the death of Judge Samuel H. Woodson, 
the appointment being made at the solicita- 
tion of the Kansas City bar. He was elected 
and re-elected to the same position, in the 
last instance with the indorsement of all po- 



GILLIAM— GILMORE. 



55 



litical parties. After serving eight years in 
this capacity he was called to a higher po- 
sition, and in 1889 he resigned and was elect- 
ed associate judge of the Kansas City Court 
of Appeals. As a lawyer he gave attention to 
every department of law except criminal prac- 
tice, which had no attractions for him. As 
a judge he has acquitted himself most credit- 
ably, his honesty and integrity being abso- 
lutely unassailable, and his decisions 
characterized by that clearness and discrimi- 
nation which mark the profound student and 
judicial mind. Intensely loyal to his home 
city, he has given aid to its most important 
"enterprises; he was a charter member of the 
Board of Trade, and a member of the Fair 
Association, and gave able assistance to the 
purposes of these and other public organiza- 
tions. He is a Democrat in politics, but has 
habitually held aloof from active participa- 
tion in political afifairs. In 1871 Judge Gill 
was married to Miss Lizzie Campbell, whose 
father, John S. Campbell, was a pioneer sei- 
tler at Kansas City and established its first 
ferry. Three children have been born 01 this 
marriage, of whom Charles S. and William 
E. Gill were living in 1900. George S. Gill 
died in the Klondike region, in Alaska, in 
1898. 

Gilliam. — A village on the Chicago & 
Alton Railway, in Saline County, fifteen miles 
northeast of Marshall, the county seat. It 
has a public school, a Baptist Church and a 
Methodist Episcopal Church, a bank, a steam 
flourmill, an elevator and a tobacco factory. 
In 1899 the population was 600. 

Gilmaii City. — An incorporated village 
in Harrison County, near the southeastern 
corner, on the Omaha, Kansas -City & East- 
ern Railroad. It has two churches, a school, 
a bank, a newspaper, the "Guide," and about 
fifteen miscellaneous stores, shops, etc. 
Population, 1899 (estimated), 400. 

Gilmore, Elisha Eugene, physician 
and surgeon, was born in Warren County, 
Kentucky, August 19, 1836, son of Samuel 
Wilson and Rozina (Adair)- Gilmore. His 
father is a son of Patrick Gilmore, a native of 
Virginia and an early pioneer of Kentucky. 
The latter's father was a native of Ireland 
and came to America in Colonial times. 
Samuel W. Gilmore, who devoted the active 



years of his life to agricultural pursuits, re- 
sided in Kentucky until 1857, wl\en he 
brought his family, including the subject of 
this sketch, to Missouri, locating in Polk 
County, where he purchased a farm. Upon 
the outbreak of the Civil War he enlisted 
in the Union Army, and was assigned to 
duty with the Thirteenth United States Vol- 
unteer Cavalry, which saw service principally 
in Missouri. In 1863 he removed his family 
to Pettis County, Missouri, and in 1865 to 
Barton County, of the sante State, and a year 
later to Kansas. In 1867 he returned to 
Missouri, locating in Bates County, where he 
has since resided. In 1881 he retired from 
active business, and since that time has re- 
sided with his son. Dr. E. E. Gilmore. Dr. 
Gilmore's mother was a daughter of Elisha 
Adair, and a native of South Carolina, where 
her father was for many years a prominent 
educator. He was a son of a Revolutionary 
soldier. In middle life he removed to Ken- 
tucky, where his professional career was con- 
tinued for many years. Dr. Gilmore's 
education was begun in the common schools 
of Warren County, Kentucky, and concluded 
in the Transylvania University, which con- 
ferred upon him the degree of master of arts 
and doctor of medicine in 1857. ^^ the latter 
year he accompanied his father to Missouri 
and engaged in teaching school in Polk 
County. Removing to Barton County he 
continued teaching, and in i860 was elected 
school commissioner of that county. In Sep- 
tember, 1863, he enlisted as a private in the 
Forty-fifth Missouri Volunteer Infantry, and 
served in the Union Army until March, 1865. 
During Price's raid through Missouri he 
assisted in the defense of Jefferson City, and 
subsequently assisted in the operations about 
Nashville, Spring Hill and Johnsonville, Ten- 
nessee. At the close of the war he traveled 
through Missouri and Kansas, finally lo- 
cating, in 1867, near the present site of 
Adrian, in Bates County, where he has since 
enjoyed a lucrative practice in his chosen 
profession. In 1878 he took a course in the 
Kansas City Medical College, which granted 
him a diploma. In connection with his prac- 
tice, he 'also, for a time, held an interest in 
a drug store in Adrian. Dr. Gilmore cast his 
first vote for Stephen A. Douglas, but since 
die war has always adhered strictly to the 
principles of the Republican party. He is an 
active member of the American Medical As- 



56 



GIRLS' INDUSTRIAL HOME— GI VAN. 



sociation, the Missouri State Medical Asso- 
ciation, the Hodgen Medical Society and the 
Bates County Medical Society, and has 
served as president of the Hodgen Medical 
Society. Fraternally he has attained the 
Knight Templar degree in Masonry, has been 
master of Adrian Lodge, and affiliates with 
the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. He 
was married February 7, 1861, to Mary Wor- 
ley Duckett, a native of Warren County, Ken- 
tucky, and a. daughter of Thomas and Elvira 
(Rector) Duckett. ' Her father was a native 
of North Carolina, and descended from Rev- 
olutionary stock. Mr. and Mrs. Gilmore 
have had four children, William R., a grad- 
uate of the Kansas City Medical College in 
the class of 1887, and now engaged in prac- 
tice with his father ; Elvira Rozina, who died 
in childhood; Samuel Richardson, who died 
in infancy, and James P. Gilmore, a graduate 
of William Jewell College, in Clay County, 
and a practicing attorney in Kansas City 
since 1897. 

Girls* Industrial Home. — On Feb- 
ruary 4, 1854, a number of women, meeting 
in the vestry room of St. George's Church, 
in St. Louis, organized for the purpose of res- 
cuing unprotected little girls. A larger meet- 
ing followed in the parlor of the Church of 
the Messiah, on February nth, when it was 
resolved : "To found a home, followed by a 
school, in which these helpless ones should 
be sheltered, educated, the trends of their 
minds followed, and they be fitted for the 
vocations seemingly best adapted to secure 
them the safety of self-support. This home 
to be founded free from debt and kept so.'' 
At that time little beggar girls from three 
to ten years old were very numerous in the 
streets from the levee to Fourth Street, then 
the confines of trade. Far into the hours 
of night these little ones would ply their 
vocation, the more inclement the weather the 
greater their receipts. The children were in 
moral as well as physical danger, and their 
rescue was the object of this organization, 
which was non-sectarian, being composed of 
members of the various Protestant Churches 
in the city. The board of thirty-five man- 
agers chosen to govern the charity, elected 
the following officers: Mrs. Mary B. 
Holmes, president; Mrs. Mary N. Ranlett, 
vice president; Mrs. Caroline E, Kasson, 
secretary; Mrs. Mercy B. Manny, treasurer. 



The home was incorporated February 13, 
1855. Having no money, the managers as- 
sessed a tax upon themselves, which is con- 
tinuous. In a short time they raised $1,300, 
rented a house, secured a matron, and were 
themselves the teachers. The school opened 
with seven forlorn little girls. A petition to 
the City Council resulted in a law prohibiting 
begging on the streets by children, and soon 
after there were ninety-two inmates. The 
charity grew, and in i860 the board of man- 
agers, through hard work, economy and the 
small gifts of the generous, were enabled to 
purchase and improve their present home at 
718 North Eighteenth Street. Here a day' 
school was added with a substantial warm 
dinner, for the pupils, often their only meal, 
and a "credte" was conducted, giving a fam- 
ily of 125, but these features were discon- 
tinued after a score of years. The home 
proper has assumed care of a total of 925 
children. Many of these have been placed 
here temporarily by a parent or guardian 
unable to give them personal care. A small 
sum, varying according to circumstances, is 
received for their board. Many soldiers 
placed their children here during the Civil 
War. Children surrendered to the home are 
under its control until they have reached the 
age of eighteen years ; some are placed for 
adoption in families, the home reserving the 
right of reclaiming the child of its welfiare is 
not enhanced, and the others are fitted for 
congenial callings. The home averages sixty 
inmates, at an average annual cost of $55 per 
capita. 

Givan, Noah Monroe, ex-judge of the 
Seventh (now the Seventeenth) Judicial Cir- 
cuit, was born near Manchester, Dearborn 
County, Indiana, December i, 1840, son of 
George and Sabrina J. (Hall) Givan. His 
father, a native of the eastern shore of Mary- 
land, moved to Indiana with his parents 
when he was ten years of age, and spent the 
remainder of his life on the homestead, in 
Dearborn County, which was entered in his 
name while he was still a youth. His death 
occurred December 20, 1895, at the age of 
seventy-nine yekrs and nineteen days. He 
was a son of Joshua Givan, a native of Mary- 
land, and a son of George Givan, who was 
also born in that State. The latter's father, 
John Givan, was the founder of the family in 
America, having come to this country from 



GIVAN. 



m 



Ireland and settled in Maryland prior to 1750. 
Judge Givan's mother, a native of Indiana, 
was a daughter of Daniel Hall, a native of 
Maine and a pioneer of that section of In- 
diana now included in Dearborn County. 
She still resided on the old homestead there. 
Captain D. K. Hall, president of the Allen 
Banking Company, of Harrisonville, is her 
brother. The Givan family was represented 
in both the Revolution and the War of 1812. 
The education of the subject of this biogra- 
phy was begun in the comrnon schools of 
Dearborn County, Indiana. After a course in 
Franklin College, a Baptist institution at 
Franklin, Indiana, he taught school for a 
year, then entered the academy at Manches- 
ter, in that State. For three or four years 
thereafter he devoted his winters to teach- 
ing and his summers to academy and college 
work, and in 1862 was graduated with the 
•degree of A. B. from the Indiana State Uni- 
versity at Bloomington. After leaving col- 
lege he was for one year principal of the 
Lawrenceburg graded schools. In the mean- 
time he began the reading of the law with 
James T. Brown, of Lawrenceburg, and at 
the conclusion of his term as principal, was 
appointed school commissioner of Dearborn 
County, serving from 1863 to May, 1866. 
While thus engaged, in 1865, his alma mater 
conferred upon him the degree of master of 
arts. For two years he served as deputy 
•county treasurer under William F. Crocker. 
In 1864 he was admitted to the bar before 
Judge Jeremiah M. Wilson, now of Washing- 
ton, D. C, and at once opened an office for 
practice. During the McClellan presidential 
campaign of that year he edited the Law- 
renceburg "Register," the local Democratic 
organ. A humorous incident in this connec- 
tion, illustrative of the tense feeling of that 
period, is related by one of Judge Givan's 
friends. When he and his partner bought the 
paper, the assets included a contract for a 
patent medicine advertisement, payment for 
which was to be made partly in cash and 
partly in the bitters advertised. When the 
amount became due he went to Cincinnati to 
make the collection, and while there learned 
that public feeling was running very high on 
account of the discovery that day of boxes 
filled with guns, pistols and ammunition in- 
tended for the use of the Knights of the 
Golden Circle. So high was the excitement 
that when his boxes of bitters reached their 



destination a delegation of citizens waited 
upon him, insinuated that they believed the 
boxes contained pistols, and demanded to see 
their contents. The joke was so thoroughly 
enjoyed by Judge Givan that he "stood 
treat," and dispensed his bitters among those 
who suspected him of membership in the 
much dreaded order. In May, 1866, he re- 
moved to Harrisonville, Missouri, where 
he has since resided, with the exception of 
two years. In 1867 he edited the Cass 
County "Herald," the first Democratic paper 
published in Harrisonville after the Civil 
War. About this time he also took an active 
interest in the movement for securing a full 
registration of Democrats, whom the then^ 
State authorities attempted to disbar from 
citizenship through the iron-clad oath then 
required. In 1868 he was a delegate to the 
National Democratic Convention at New 
York, which nominated Horatio Seymour 
and Frank P. Blair for president and vice 
president. From that time to 1877 he contin- 
ued to take an active interest in Democratic 
politics, though aspiring to no public office. 
In the latter year he was nominated for 
judge of the newly created Seventh Judicial 
Circuit, and elected for the unexpired term of 
three years and three months as the candi- 
date of the bar, irrespective of party affilia- 
tions. In 1880 he was re-elected to the office 
for the full term of six years, but refused to 
be a candidate for re-election. About two 
months before the expiration of his term he 
resigned to remove to St. Louis, where for 
two years he engaged in private practice in 
partnership with Colonel Jay L. Torrey, 
author of the measure known as the Torrey 
Bankruptcy Law. In 1888 he returned to 
Harrisonville, where he has since remained 
in the active practice of his profession. At 
the Springfield convention of 1898 he was a 
candidate for the Democratic nomination for 
the supreme bench. Judge Givan, for many 
years, has been one of the most prominent 
members of the Masonic fraternity in the 
United States. He was made a Mason by 
Burns Lodge No. 55, of Manchester, Indi- 
ana, in April, 1862, took the Chapter degrees 
at Lawrenceburg, and the Council, Commarid- 
ery and Scottish Rite degrees in Missouri. 
As a Noble of the Mystic Shrine he affiliated 
with Ararat Temple, of Kansas City. He 
has been grand master of all the grand 
bodies of the State of Missouri. In 1877 and 



58 



GIVENS— GIVENS' FORCED SERMON. 



1878 he was grand master of the Missouri 
Grand Council, in 1878 and 1879 was grand 
master of the Grand Lodge and grand high 
priest of the Grand Chapter, in 1892 and 1893 
was grand patron of the State Order of the 
Eastern Star, and in 1894 was grand com- 
mander o'' the Missouri Grand Commandery, 
K. T. For nearly twenty years he has been 
grand treasurer of the Grand Chapter and 
Grand Council, and for many years was 
chairman of the important committee on ap- 
peals and grievances in the Grand Lodge. 
He is president of the board of directors of 
the Masonic Home, at St. Louis, and has 
held that ofHce since the year following its 
organization. He has also been grand dic- 
tator of the Knights of Honor for Missouri, 
and is now serving as assistant supreme dic- 
tator for the Supreme Lodge of that order 
in the United States. He is also identified 
with the Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
the Woodmen of the World, and the Royal 
Tribe of Joseph. He was one of the organ- 
izers and incorporators of the Bank of Har- 
risonville, and for many years was a director 
in that institution. An active merriber of the 
Baptist Church, he has acted as superinteni- 
ent of its Sunday school much of the time 
since 1872. For eight years he has held the 
office of moderator of the Blue River Baptist 
Association, the largest in Missouri, and is a 
member of the Board of State Missions and 
Sunday Schools. Deeply interested in educa- 
tional matters, he has been a member of the 
board of curators of the Missouri State Uni- 
versity, and chairman of the executive board 
of that important body since June, 1897, un- 
der appointment by Governor Stephens. 
Judge Givan was married August 7, 1862, to 
Lizzie Chloe Jackson, a native of Dearborn 
County, Indiana, and a daughter of John and 
Mabel (Garrigues) Jackson. They have been 
the parents of four children, of whom three 
are deceased. Their only living child, Mabel, 
is the wife of Charles E. Allen, cashier of the 
Allen Banking Company, of Harrisonville. 
The contemporaries of Judge Givan hold him 
in high esteem, according him a place among 
the most learned members of the bar of the 
West. As a judge he was eminently just, his 
opinions being lucid, strong, and always to 
the point. Personally he is a man of ideal 
integrity, high-minded and conscientious, 
dignified, courteous, and a most entertaining 
conversationalist. For manv vears he has 



wielded a potential influence in local and 
State alTairs, and from every viewpoint is 
acknowledged to be a thoroughly useful 
factor in society. 

Givens, Ozro B., lawyet, was born in 
the town of Juneau, Dodge County, Wiscon- 
sin, April 5, 1848, son of Samuel and Jerusha 
(Williams) Givens. His paternal ancestors 
were among the early Scotch-Irish immi- 
grants to America, and the family history 
dates back to the Colonial era. His parents, 
who were reared in New York State, emi- 
grated to Wisconsin soon after that State 
came, into existence, and settled on a farm 
near Juneau. Ozro B. Givens was reared on 
this farm, and, after attending the public 
schools until he had obtained a good English 
education, completed his academic studies at 
Whitewater Normal School, of Whitewater, 
Wisconsin. He then began reading law un- 
der the preceptorship of James McAllister, of 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and in 1873 continued 
his law studies as a member of the senior class 
of the law department of the University of 
Wisconsin. He was graduated from that in- 
stitution in the class of 1874, and the same 
year came to St. Louis, where he entered 
upon the practice of his profession. He has 
ever since been a member of the bar of that 
city, devoting himself assiduously to his prac- 
tice and allowing nothing to interfere with 
his professional duties. More than twenty 
years of successful practice have given him 
well-deserved prominence among the mem- 
bers of his profession, and he is known as a 
lawyer of fine attainments, and conscientious 
in the discharge of all his duties as he is able 
and zealous in guarding the interests of 
clients. In fraternal circles he is well known 
as a member of the Masonic order, affiliating 
with George Washington Lodge, of St. 
Louis. 

Givens' Forced Sermon. — During 
the Civil War, John Givens, a missionary 
Baptist preacher, living near Rutledge, in 
Lawrence County, in order to avoid doing 
service in either army, made his home in a 
cave, with his Bible as his only companion. 
He was taken one day by Federal scouts, 
whose commander. Captain Kelso, said : 
''Givens, I understand you are a good 
preacher, and you must give us a sermon 
right here." Givens demurred, but Kelso in- 



GLASGOW. 



5a 



sisting, he took his Bible from his pocket, 
and with a congregation of sokHers, read a 
text, "And John said to the sokHers, do 
violence to no man, but be content with your 
wages,"' and delivered so excellent a dis- 
course that he was dismissed with respect. 

Glasgo^v. — An incorporated town on the 
Missouri River, in the northwestern part of 
Howard County, twelve miles northwest of 
Fayette, and i86 miles from St. Louis, on 
the Chicago & Alton Railroad, and the ter- 
minal of the Glasgow branch of the Wabash. 
It was laid out as a town in 1836 and first 
incorporated in 1845. It was laid out on 
land bought of Talton Turner and James 
Earickson, and was named in honor of James 
Glasgow. Its second incorporation was in 
1853, and the town is now working under 
special charter. It has Baptist, Catholic, 
Christian, Presbyterian, German Evangelical 
and Methodist Episcopal South Churches, a 
good graded public school, and is the seal 
of Pritchett College, connected with which 
is Morrison Observatory and the Lewis 
Library ; has an operahouse, bank, two flour- 
ing mills, sawmill, two hotels, brick manu- 
facturing plant, steam laundry and about 
^sixty other business houses, including stores 
md shops. There is a mineral spring in the 
town noted for the medicinal qualities of its 
waters. Three newspapers are sustained, the 
"Missourian," the "Globe" and the "Echo." 
Population, 1890, 1,781 ; 1899 (estimated), 
2,200. 

Glasgow, Capture of.— During the 
raid of General Sterling Price into Missouri 
in the fall of 1864, after the main body of 
Confederates had passed west from Jefferson 
City, Generals J. O. Shelby and John B. Clark 
were detached and sent off to capture Glas- 
gow. The place was garrisoned by parts 
of the Ninth Missouri State Militia, the 
Forty-third Missouri and the Seventeenth 
Illinois Cavalry, under Colonel Chester 
Harding. An artillery fire was opened from 
the opposite side of the river by the Con- 
federate Major Collins, and at the same time 
Clark's brigade, which had crossed the river, 
attacked it on the east. After the fighting 
had been going on for some time, a delega- 
tion of citizens waited on General Clark and 
asked permission to visit Colonel Harding 
and explain to him the impossibility of hold- 



ing the place against the forces attacking it. 
This was granted, and after some parley 
Colonel Harding surrendered on October 
8th. During the fight the city hall was set on 
fire and was burned to the ground, with a 
number of adjoining buildings. Rev. William 
G. Caples, a clergyman of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, and a Southern 
sympathizer, was killed while lying asleep in 
his bed by one of the first shells-fired from 
Collins' gun at daylight. 

Glasgow, Edward James, was born 
in Belleville, Illinois, June 7, 1820. His fa- 
ther was a pioneer Western merchant, who 
was in business at different times in Belle- 
ville, Illinois, and at Herculaneum and St. 
Louis, Missouri. The elder Glasgow served 
at one time as treasurer of St. Louis, and was 
president of the Missouri Insurance Com- 
pany, the first corporation of that character 
organized in that city. Edward J. Glasgow 
was educated in St. Louis, completing his 
course of study at St. Louis University and 
St. Charles College. Before he attained his 
majority he went to Mexico, and in 1840 
was appointed United States consul at Guay- 
mas by President Van Buren. He had gone 
to Mexico to take charge of certain business 
interests for James Harrison, his uncle, 
James Glasgow, and himself, at Mazatlan, 
and was engaged in trade there until 1843. 
In 1843 he left Mazatlan, and engaged in the 
overland trade between Missouri and Chi- 
huahua. Freighting in those days over the 
Santa Fe trail was a hazardous occupation, 
and Mr. Glasgow had many thrilling and 
not a few perilous experiences while engaged 
in the overland trade. His last trip across the 
plains was made in 1846 on the eve of the 
rupture between the United States and Mex- 
ico, which culminated in the Mexican War. 
His train was escorted into Santa Fe by the 
troops then on their way to Mexico under 
command of General Stephen W. Kearney. 
After a delay of several months, his train, 
with several others, moved south with the 
United States forces under command of Col- 
onel A. W. Doniphan, who expected to join 
and re-enforce General Wool at Chihuahua. 
At El Paso del Norte the traders and their 
teamsters, over 200 in number, were formed 
into two companies of infantry and mustered 
into the service of the United States. Mr. 
Glasgow was elected captain of one of the 



60 



GLASGOW. 



companies, which became a part of the bat- 
taHon commanded by Major Samuel C. 
Owens, also a trader. They participated in 
the battle of Sacramento, fought on the 28th 
of February, 1847, in which Major Owens 
was killed, and completed a three months' 
term of service in the war with Mexico. 
Later, in 1847, ^^^ during a portion of the 
year 1848, Mr. Glasgow served as United 
States commercial agent at Chihuahua. He 
returned to the United States in 1848, and 
for thirty years thereafter was engaged m 
business in St. Louis, dealing largely in sugar 
and cofifee, a considerable amount of which 
his house imported from Brazil. 

He married, in 1856, Harriet Clark Kenne- 
dy, daughter of James Kennedy, originally 
of Virginia, but as early as 1816 a prominent 
business man of St. Louis. 

Glasgow, Edward James, Jr., 

merchant, was born in St. Louis, March 27, 
1853. After receiving thorough educational 
training which was completed at Washington 
University, he went South and for some years 
lived on a sugar plantation in Louisiana. Re- 
turning to St. Louis, he became associated 
with his father in the wholesale grocery trade, 
in which he continued until 1880. He then 
connected himself with the wholesale dry 
goods house of Crow, Hargadine & Co., and 
a year and a half later was admitted to a 
partnership in that establishment. Since then 
his genius, his commercial acumen, his time 
and efiforts, have been at the service of this 
great mercantile institution, known through- 
out the West because of the magnitude of its 
operations, its high character as a business 
house, and its long and honorable history. 
As vice president and one of the active man- 
agers of the business of this corporation, Mr. 
Glasgow now has under his charge its office 
affairs, and has proven himself a worthy suc- 
cessor of the distinguished merchant, under 
whose training he fitted himself for these 
duties and responsibilities. He married Jan- 
uary 14, 1880. Miss Julia Hargadine, second 
daughter of William A. Hargadine, of St. 
Louis. 

Glasgow, James, was born at Christi- 
ana Bridge, Delaware, in T784. His father 
and mother both died early, and he was left 
to the care of an aunt. He married Ann Ross, 
the daughter of James Ross, a wealthy mer- 



chant of Wilmington, Delaware, and Ann 
Cottmann, of Philadelphia. He settled in 
Howard County, Missouri, at Chariton, in 
1819. There he established an extensive gen- 
eral store under the firm name of Comp- 
ton, Ross & Glasgow, and as. business de- 
veloped, established branches in Richmond 
and Liberty, Missouri. He also engaged in 
the manufacturing of hemp and tobacco. In 
conjunction with Captain Turner and others, 
he laid out the town of Glasgow, Missouri, 
which bears his name. In 1835, in connection 
with James Harrison, under the firm name of 
Glasgow & Harrison, he obtained the con- 
tract from the government for the removal of 
the Choctaws and the Seminoles from their 
residence in northern Alabama to their pres- 
ent lands in the Indian Nation. They also 
largely engaged in the Mexican trade, ship- 
ping cargoes by water to the western coast 
and overland by pack trains, the Mexican 
headquarters of the firm, Glasgow, Harrison 
& Vallois, being Chihuahua and Guaymas. 
In 1840 he entered the firm of Gay, Glasgow 
& Co., which became large importers of 
sugar and tobacco from Havana. James Glas- 
gow invested largely in lands in St. Louis, 
and built the first three-story brick row on 
Fourth Street, extending from St. Charles 
to Locust Street, known in early times as 
"Glasgow Row." He died in St. Louis in the 
year 1857, aged seventy-three years, leaving 
two children, William Glasgow, Jr., who mar- 
ried Sarah Lane, the daughter of William 
Carr Lane, and Susan, who married Thomas 
H. Larkin. 

Glasgow, William, Jr., who may be 

said to have been the founder of one of the 
great industries of Missouri, was born in 
Christiana, Delaware, July 4, 181 3. When he 
was five years of age his parents removed to 
Missouri and were among the earliest settlers 
who came from the Eastern States to what 
was then a Territory. They settled first at 
Chariton, Howard County, and that was their 
place of residence until 1836, when they re- 
moved to St. Louis. William Glasgow, Jr., 
who was the eldest son of James Glasgow, 
was sent back to his native State of Dela- 
ware, and received his education at a well 
known institution of learning, conducted by 
Eli Hillis, in Wilmington. Returning to 
Chariton immediately after leaving school, he 
was in business at that place until 1836, when ^ 



GLASGOW. 



61 



i 



he came with his father's family to St. Louis. 
In 1837 he estabHshed there the firm of Glas- 
gow, Shaw & Larkin, which continued until 
1840. In 1842 he erected one of the earliest 
factories to manufacture white lead, but this 
proving unprofitable, it was discontinued aft- 
er a short time. William Glasgow, Jr., W. C. 
Taylor and WilHam Milburn were appointed 
by the Legislature commissioners for the 
sixteenth section of public school land. W. 
C. Taylor and William Milburn dying, the 
trust was continued in the hands of William 
Glasgow, and he served as commissioner for 
over thirty-five years. A large part of this 
tract was in litigation, and the latter years of 
his life were largely spent in protecting this 
trust, and perfecting the titles to the prop- 
erty. Through his energy and zeal many 
hundred thousand dollars' worth of property 
were saved to the use of the public schools. 
A student of the resources of the State, he 
was impressed in early life with the view 
that the soil of portions of Missouri was^ pe- 
culiarly well adapted to grape culture, and in 
1844 he planted a small vineyard at his resi- 
dence in St. Louis for the purpose of experi- 
menting in wine-making. His enterprise was 
one which was generally looked upon as of 
doubtful issue, but the results not only sur- 
prised his friends, but surpassed Mr. Glas- 
gow's most sanguine expectation, demon- 
strating beyond a doubt that soil and climatic 
conditions were favorable to the making 
of good wine in Missouri, and that intelligent 
enterprise only was necessary to the build- 
ing up of a prosperous industry of this char- 
acter. His was the first vineyard established 
in the State, and to Mr. Glasgow belongs the 
credit for having introduced a new and profit- 
able feature into the horticulture of Missouri. 
In 1847 he obtained the first premiums for 
grapes and wine which had been given by any 
society in the State. In 1858, with Amadee 
Valle and Allen H. Glasby, he formed the 
wine manufacturing company of William 
Glasgow, Jr., & Co. He became president of 
this corporation two years later, when it was 
chartered as the Missouri Wine Company. 
Under this name both the company and its 
products became widely known, and Mr. 
Glasgow obtained much prominence as the 
pioneer wine-maker of Missouri. April 10, 
1840, he married Miss Sarah L. Lane, daugh- 
ter of Dr. WilHam Carr Lane, who was the 
first mayor of St. Louis, and one of its most 



distinguished pioneer citizens. He- died in 
St. Louis in 1892, aged seventy-nine years. 

Glasgow, William Carr, physician, 
was born January 16, 1845, "^ St. Louis, son 
of William Glasgow, Jr. After having passed 
three years in the Real Gymnasium in Wies- 
baden, Germany, Dr. Glasgow entered Wash- 
ington University, and graduated in 1865. 
He then began the study of medicine and was 
graduated from St. Louis Medical College in 
1869, afterward taking a postgraduate 
course at Long Island Hospital Medical Col- 
lege, of Brooklyn, New York, which was sup- 
plemented by residence and study for two 
years at the University of Vienna, Austria. 
Returning then to his native city, he began 
the practice of his profession under most fa- 
vorable auspices, and in 1872 was appointed 
lecturer on physical diagnosis at the St. Louis 
Medical College. In 1885 he was made ad- 
junct professor of practice in the same in- 
stitution; in 1886 he was made professor of 
diseases of the chest and laryngology in the 
Postgraduate School of Medicine; and in 
1890 professor of practice of, medicine and 
laryngology in the Missouri Medical College. 
In 1899 he was appointed professor of clinical 
medicine and laryngology in the medical de- 
partment of Washington University. He was 
one of the founders of the American Laryn- 
gological Society in 1878, and in 1890 he was 
honored with the presidency of that society. 
He has been prominent also as a member 
of the American Climatological Society, of 
the American Medical Association, and of the 
Missouri Medical Society. He was co-editor 
at one time of the "Courier of Medicine," 
arid has contributed many monographs to 
medical literature. Dr. Glasgow married, 
in 1877, Fannie E. Englesing, daughter of 
Captain J. C. Englesing, who served with dis- 
tinction in the Confederate Army during the 
Civil War. 

Glasgow, William Henry, merchant 
and manufacturer, was born February 19, 
1822, at Belleville, Illinois. He was educated 
in the schools of St. Louis and at St. Charles 
College, St. Charles, Missouri. After quitting 
school he was engaged for a time in the 
wholesale grocery business in St. Louis, but 
in 1842 abandoned this business to go on an 
exploring expedition to Mexico. In the fall 
of that year he sailed from New Orleans, 



62 



GLENCOE— GLENN. 



Louisiana, to Tampico, Mexico. Leaving 
Tampico soon after his arrival there, Mr. 
Glasgow traveled across the country to San 
Bias, going thence to Mazatlan, on the Gult 
of California, from there to Alamos, and then, 
crossing the mountains, to the old mining 
town of Jesus Maria. He spent his twenty- 
first birthday at Jesus Maria, and then turned 
homeward, visiting next the city of Chihua- 
hua, making his way from there to Santa Fe, 
and thence across the plains to Independence, 
Missouri. In 1846 he went again to Mexico, 
and was delayed en route by the breaking out 
of the Mexican War. He was at El Paso, 
Texas, when Colonel A. W. Doniphan, of 
Missouri, who had marched with General 
Kearney to Santa Fe, reached El Paso on his 
way to join General Wool, then in the in- 
terior of Mexico. Enrolling themselves in 
Captain E. J. Glasgow's company, of Colonel 
Doniphan's regiment, Mr. Glasgow and his 
party proceeded on the way to Chi- 
huahua, Mr. Glasgow being commissioned 
first lieutenant of his company. At Chi- 
huahua he resigned his commission, and es- 
tablished himself in business as a merchant in 
that city. At the end of a year, and after 
General Sterling Price had occupied Chihua- 
hua, he returned to St. Louis by way of 
Monterey. Here he again embarked in the 
wholesale grocery business, in which he was 
successfully engaged for many years there- 
after. In 1886 he was made president of the 
St. Charles Car Company, and since that time 
has become widely known as a manufacturer, 
and to the railroad interests of the coun- 
try, the corporation of which he was the 
head being extensively engaged in the manu- 
facture of all kinds of railway equipments. 
He has been twice married. First, in 1850, to 
Mary Frances Wright, daughter of Major 
Thomas Wright, paymaster of the United 
States Army, and in i860, to his second wife, 
who was Miss Carlotta Xestora Fales before 
her marriage, and whose earlier home was 
at Remedios, in the Island of Cuba. 

Glencoe. — A station on the Missouri 
Pacific Railroad, in St. Louis County, twen- 
ty-six miles from St. Louis, taking its name 
from the glen in Scotland where the massacre 
of the MacDonalds by the Campbells took 
place in 1689. The place is wild and rugged, 
but picturesque and attractive, with the Mer- 
amec winding through its hills. 



01 en dale. — A station on the Missouri 
Pacific Railroad, in St. Louis County, twelve 
miles from St. Louis. The surrounding 
region is rolling and beautiful, and near the 
station are some stately villas — one built by 
Colonel Sam McGofitin, and afterward owned 
for many years by Hudson E. Bridge, and 
after him by George Myers; another, built 
by Colonel George E. Leighton, and after- 
ward owned and occupied by Charles W, 
Barstow ; and another, the Dyer Place, owned 
and occupied by Charles A. Dyer; and an- 
other, the Cruttenden Place, owned and 
occupied by Colonel Sam Williams. 

Glenn, Allen, ex-judge of probate of 
Cass County, was born in that county March 
30, 1852. His father, Hugh G. Glenn, was 
descended from Scotch ancestry, the family 
in Scotland being known as the "Douglasses 
of the Glen." He was born in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, February 3, 1817, and devoted the most 
of his life to agricultural pursuits. In 1839 
he came to Missouri and located- in Cass 
County, one and a half miles southwest of 
Harrisonville, where his death occurred on 
November 28, 1888. His father, Hugh, was 
a son of Hugh Glenn, a native of Scotland, 
and the founder of the family in the United 
States. This immigrant ancestor located in 
Virginia, where he reared his family. Hugh 
G. Glenn originally affiliated with the old 
Whig party, but afterward became a Dem- 
ocrat. From 1844 to 1848 he served as 
sheriff of Cass County, and in i860 was 
elected judge of the county court. About 
that time Cass County had issued the bonds 
in aid of the Missouri Pacific Railway Com- 
pany. Upon the opening of the war Judge 
Glenn, by virtue of his ofifice, became the 
custodian of these bonds, which he kept in 
safety until the close of the war, when he 
delivered them to the Federal military au- 
thorities. Judge Hugh G. Glenn married 
Letitia B. Suggette, a native of George- 
town, Kentucky, and a daughter of James 
Suggette, a native of Pennsylvania, who be- 
came one of the early inhabitants of Ken- 
tucky. His father was the first white man 
to make the journey to Santa Fe, New Mex- 
ico, and return in safety. The year following 
the expedition of Lieutenant Zebulon Pike 
through that region, he went down the Ohio 
and Mississippi Rivers to the mouth of the 
Arkansas, ascended that stream as far as the 



GLENN. 



63 



I 



present site of Fort Gibson, and thence 
traveled overland, returning home the follow- 
ing year. He was an intrepid explorer, and 
much of the territory through which he 
passed undoubtedly had never before been 
visited by white men. At least none of his 
predecessors, if there were any, ever 're- 
turned to describe the country. The educa- 
tion of the subject of this sketch was begun 
in the common schools of Cass County, and 
his classical studies were concluded in the 
Missouri State University, from which he was 
graduated in 1871. Upon the completion of 
his college course he began the study of the 
law in the ofhce of Hall & Givan, at Har- 
risonville, and in 1874 was admitted to the 
bar. Since that time he has continuously 
practiced his profession in that place, with 
the exception of eight years, in which he 
served as judge of probate for Cass County. 
During the early years of his career he was 
elected to the oflfices of township collector 
and justice of the peace as the candidate of 
the Democratic party. In 1885 he was chosen 
judge of probate, and was re-elected in 1889, 
serving two terms of four years each. Since 
that time he has been engaged in private 
practice. Judge Glenn, for a long period, 
has been identified with the Masonic fra- 
ternity, in which he is a Knight Templar and 
a Noble of the Mystic Shrine, afifiliating with 
Ararat Temple, of Kansas City. In religion 
he is a member of the Baptist Church. His 
marriage occurred October 9, 1879, and 
united him with Mary B. Keller, a native of 
Westport, Missouri, and a daughter of Silas 
P. Keller, a merchant of Kansas City for 
many years. They have been the parents of 
ten children, of whom eight are living, and 
residing with their parents, namely : Hugh 
G., Price K., Mary E., Allen B., Winnefred, 
Robert, Ewing and Catherine. Judge Glenn 
is from every viewpoint a self-made man. 
His career has been a highly honorable one. 
Personally he is known as a man of the high- 
est integrity, high-minded, public-spirited, 
and generous-hearted. He has always had 
the best interests of his community at heart, 
and has thus become an influential and useful 
member of society. 

(rleiiii, John McClellaii, postmaster 
of Sedalia, was born June 29, 1849, ^^ 
Washington, Iowa, His parents were Aaron 
A. and Sarah (McClellan) Glenn, both na- 



tives of Pennsylvania, and now residents of 
Iowa. The son, John, was reared on the 
home farm; his education was acquired in 
the public schools, and in an academy at 
Washington, where he took a partial course. 
When nineteen years of age he went to Mar- 
ble Hill, Missouri, and there began his busi- 
ness training as clerk in a dry goods store. 
After an engagement of four years he re- 
moved to Fort Scott, Kansas, where he was 
similarly engaged for two years. In 1876 he 
located in Sedalia, and for seven years was 
a salesman in the wholesale and retail dry 
goods store of John G. Allen & Sons. From 
1883 to 1890 he was bookkeeper and cashier 
in the wholesale stationery store of C. P. 
Muir. In 1890 he was appointed, assistant 
postmaster under Colonel H. C. Demuth, 
and held the position during that adminis- 
tration, and for nine months under V. P. 
Hart, successor to Colonel Demuth. In 1895 
he was appointed deputy circuit clerk of Pet- 
tis County. April i, 1898, he received the 
appointment of postmaster. In 1892 he was 
elected city treasurer, being the only suc- 
cessful candidate on the Republican ticket, 
with a majority of 137. He was re-elected 
in 1894 by a majority of more than 600 votes, 
and again in 1896 by a majority of more than 
800 votes. In 1889 he took the place of a 
private in the Sedalia Republican Flambeau 
Club (which see), at its organization. A few 
months afterward, while absent from home, 
he was elected to the captaincy by unanimous 
vote, and has occupied that position continu- 
ously to the present time. Many of the 
elaborate and attractive movements of this 
famous body were designed by him. His 
personal enthusiasm and high executive abil- 
ity are attested in the admirable discipHne 
of the club, a purely voluntary organization, 
and in his continuous re-election to the com- 
mand during so long a term of years. In 
religion he is a Presbyterian. He was mar- 
ried, February 11, 1878, to Miss Rebeccah 
C. Otten, who was born in Boonville, and 
educated in the Sedalia public schools. Four 
children have been born of this marriage : 
Flora May, a graduate of the Sedalia high 
school, was completing a postgraduate course 
in 1900; Harry, Madge and Leonard were 
students, the two first named in the Sedalia 
high school. Captain Glenn, in the various 
important positions he has been called to 
occupy, has displayed the highest business 



64 



GLENNON- GLOVER. 



qualities, and he has discharged every trust 
with the most scrupulous fidelity. His per- 
sonal qualities are such as not only command 
respect, but instill that confidence which at- 
taches men closely, in recognition of con- 
genial companionship and unassuming lead- 
ership. 

Gleiinoii, John Joseph, bishop of 
the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kansas City, 
bears the distinction of being the youngest 
man to occupy that high station in. the United 
States, and at the time of his election to the 
oiiEice in 1896 he probably was the youngest 
Roman Catholic bishop in the world. He 
was born June 14, 1862, in County Meath, 
Ireland, and is a son of Matthew and Kath- 
arine (Kinsella) Glennon. His father, also a 
native of Ireland, came to America in 1853 
and acquired citizenship in the United 
States prior to the Civil War. Upon the 
outbreak of the war he returned to Ireland, 
but a few years later resumed his business in 
this country, where he remained until 1869. 
Since that year he and his wife have resided 
in their native land. The education of Bishop 
Glennon was begun in a preparatory college 
at MiUlingar, Ireland. Subsequently he pur- 
sued the prescribed course in All Hallows 
College, in Dublin, after which he entered the 
Catholic University in that city, from which 
he was graduated in 1883, while yet in his 
minority. Upon leaving the university he 
sailed for America, arriving in this country 
before the twenty-first anniversary of his 
birth ; and, though a native of Ireland, he be- 
came, under our laws, an American citizen 
upon attaining his majority, his father. being 
a citizen at the time of his birth. Bishop 
Glennon's objective point in America was 
Kansas City, then the center of a great mis- 
sionary field for the Catholic Church, where 
the services of active young men in the 
church were greatly needed. His course of 
study in the Catholic University of Dublin 
had been pursued with the single aim of 
thorough preparation for a life's labor in the 
ministry. Upon his arrival in Kansas City 
he at once entered upon his duties as assist- 
ant at St. Patrick's Church, and on Decem- 
ber 20, 1884, he was ordained to the priest- 
hood by Bishop Hogan. Two and a half 
years later he returned to Europe, where he 
remained one year, devoting a part of the 
time to further study. Upon his return to 



Kansas City in 1887 he received the appoint- 
ment of rector of the Cathedral, in which 
office he served until 1893, when he was 
named as vicar general of the diocese. One 
year later he became administrator of the dio- 
cese, and in 1896 was elected to the dignity 
of bishop of Kansas City. This diocese in- 
cludes the entire southwestern portion of the 
State of Missouri. During the administration 
of Bishop Glennon it has developed at a re- 
markable rate, and now (1900) comprises 130 
churches, including missions, under the pas- 
toral care of ninety priests. The Catholic 
population of the diocese is now about 50,000 
persons, who support, besides many 
churches, various colleges, convents, asy- 
lums, orphanages, hospitals and parish 
schools. Bishop Glennon is a man of strik- 
ing personality, great strength of character, 
and unusual administrative and executive 
ability. 

Gleiiwood. — ^An incorporated village in 
Schuyler County, one mile south of the junc- 
tion point of the Wabash and the Keokuk & 
Western Railways, two miles west of Lan- 
caster. It has two churches, a graded school, 
bank, two hotels, foundry and machine shops, 
a woolen mill, flouring mill, wagon factory, a 
newspaper, the "Phonograph," and about 
twenty other business places, including lum- 
ber and coal yards, general stores and other 
stores in various lines of trade and shops. 
Population, 1899 (estimated), 500. 

Glover, John Milton, lawyer and 
member of Congress, was born in St. Louis, 
Missouri, June 23, 1855. He was educated 
at Washington University, and after study- 
ing' law was admitted into the firm of Glover 
& Shepley, of which his father was senior 
member. In 1884 he was elected to Congress 
from the Ninth Missouri District as a Dem- 
ocrat, and in 1886 was re-elected, by a vote 
of 9,830 to 8,133 for McLean, Republican. 

Glover, John Montgomery, soldier 
and Congressman, was born in Mercer 
County, Kentucky, September 4, 1824, and 
died at LaGrange, Missouri. He received a 
good education and came to Missouri while 
a young man. In the Civil War he was an 
Unconditional Unionist, and was appointed 
by President Lincoln colonel of the Third 
Missouri Volunteer Cavalry, serving till 



GLOVER. 



65 



1864, when he resigned on account of im- 
paired heakh. He was appointed collector 
of internal revenue for the Third Missouri 
District in July, 1866, and served till March, 
1867. In 1872 he was elected from the 
Twelfth Missouri District to the Forty-third 
Congress as a Democrat, over J. F. Benja- 
min, Republican, with a majority of over 
3,000, and in 1874 and 1876 was again elected, 
serving in all three terms. 

Glover, Samuel T., long known as 
one of the great lawyers of the Missouri bar, 
was born in Mercer County. Kentucky, 
March 9, 1813. His childhood and .youth 
were passed on a farm, where he first 
began to read law, which he pursued dili- 
gently in connection with his other studies 
until he entered the college at Bardstown. 
At this institution he graduated with the 
highest honors of his class. After practicing 
a year or two in his native State he removed 
to Missouri, and was admitted to the bar 
at Palmyra in 1837, where, in connection 
with his partner, John T. Campbell, he ac- 
quired a large clientage throughout the sec- 
ond judicial circuit. In 1849- ^^^ went to St. 
Louis and established a partnership the 
next year with John C. Richardson, which 
was continued until 1857, when Mr. Richard- 
son was elected to the supreme bench. Three 
or four years later the law firm of Glover & 
Shepley was formed, and continued until the 
death of Mr. Glover, January 22, 1884. John 
R. Shepley was, like Mr. Glover, one of the 
most able and distinguished legal lights of 
St. Louis. An interesting fact is related illus- 
trating the esteem in which the characters 
of both men were held. When the case of 
McGuire vs. Taylor was instituted, and dur- 
ing a litigation of many years — a case in- 
volving heavy interests, and which was three 
times before the United States Supreme 
Court — Mr. Glover represented one of the 
partners and Mr. Shepley the other. Pend- 
ing the suit these gentlemen entered into 
their law partnership, and each proposed to 
his client to retire from this case ; but such 
was the confidence of McGuire and Taylor 
in their attorneys that they insisted that the 
proceedings should go on without reference 
;to the new relation, without the least diminu- 
,tion of zeal on the part of either lawyer. Mr. 
[Glover's first case in the State Supreme Court 
is reported in the fifth volume of Missouri 

Vol. Ill— 5 



Supreme Court Reports. From that to the 
seventy-sixth there is not one volume which 
does not present him as counsel in numer- 
ous important cases. For thirty years he 
practiced in the United States courts. The 
reports of Howard, Black, Wallace and Otto 
bear testimony to the frequency of his ap- 
pearance before the highest tribunal of the 
land, as well as to the learned, able, pains- 
taking and conscientious discharge of his 
duties in behalf of the varied interests he 
represented. Mr. James L. Blair, in an ad- 
dress before the Kansas City Bar Associa- 
tion, in March, 1897 — an address which 
splendidly portrays the career of Mr. Glover 
— states that Mr. Glover appears in the re- 
ports as having been in thirty-two cases in 
the United States Supreme Court, thirty- 
five in the St. Louis Court of Appeals, and 
410 in the Missouri Supreme Court. It 
would seem that his professional duties could 
have left him but little time for aught else, 
but we find Mr. Glover prominent in organ- 
izing the Missouri Historical Society, and 
in various movements for intellectual ad- 
■ vancement. He was one of the petitioners 
to the General Assembly to provide for a 
thorough geological survey of Missouri, and 
prepared the memorial on that subject, thus 
taking the first step toward the development 
of the vast mineral resources of the State. 
In politics Mr. Glover, although raised in 
the atmosphere of slavery, early exhibited 
a leaning toward the policy of emancipation, 
and after coming to St. Louis he identified 
himself with the Free Democratic party, co- 
operating with Blair, O. D. Filley, John How, 
Gratz Brown and others of that faith. He 
assisted in promoting the movement for the 
nomination for President at the Chicaga 
convention, i860, of Edward Bates, who be- 
came a member of Mr. Lincoln's cabinet. 
From first to last he was an unflinching 
Unionist. 

A fitting arena for Samuel T. Glover would 
have been the United States Senate cham- 
ber, but, though he was twice persuaded — 
in 1871 and again in 1879 — to be a candi- 
date, he did not reach the station of a Sen- 
ator. He was wholly unused to the arts 
and lacked the "personal magnetism" of the 
modern politician. His intimate friends 
knew he possessed unusual social qualities; 
in familiar conversation he was brilliant and 
delightful, with a playful humor; but he 



66 



GOETTLER— GOLDEN CHAIN SOCIETY 



was not a "mixer," as the phrase is; was 
often absent-minded, and sometimes was for- 
getful of faces or names. 

Mr, Glover was married, in Marion County, 
June 28, 1843, to Miss Mildred Buckner, 
who came to Missouri from Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. 

Goettler, Michael, was born in Stop- 
fenheim, Bavaria, Germany, January 21, 
1831, son of Johannes and Francisca (Witt- 
man) Goettler. The former was born May 
10, 1786, and died December 3, 1844; the 
latter was born March 8, 1799, and died 
February 2, 1844. They were married May 
30, 1830, and had four children — Mary Goett- 
ler, John Goettler, Joseph and Michael Goett- 
ler. The sons emigrated to St. Louis, where 
later they died. The daughters died in the 
Fatherland. 

After acquiring a practical parochial school 
education in his native town, Michael Goett- 
ler served from 1845 to 1848 as an apprentice 
to the hat, cap and furrier's trade with Jacob 
Schlund, and for three years thereafter trav- . 
eled as a journeyman throughout the leading 
cities in Germany. He then immigrated to 
the United States, landing in New Orleans, 
Louisiana, December 15, 185 1, and in St. 
Louis January 15, 1852, after a passage of 
eighty days on the ocean and tiiirty days 
on the river. Soon after his arrival in St. 
Louis he entered the employ of Simon Mey- 
berg, a manufacturer and wholesale and re- 
tail dealer in hats, caps and furs, located on 
Morgan Street, between Third and Fourth 
Streets, and boarded with Christian Schaefer, 
living in an adjoining block, at $2 per week, 
remaining nine months. With the money 
saved from his earnings and his inheritance 
of $80, on January 26, 1853, he purchased 
a small stock of goods of Mr. Verhiss (who 
later removed to California), located on Fifth 
Street, between Chouteau Avenue and La- 
Salle Street, and engaged in the retail hat, 
cap and fur trade. After being in business 
six months he sent the passage money to 
his brothers, Joseph and John, who arrived 
in St. Louis December 4, 1852. In 1854 he 
removed to 1260 South Broadway, his pres- 
ent location, which he purchased in 1865. 
In 1879 John Adam Gramlich, a nephew of 
Mr, Goettler, joined him as partner, under 
the name of M. Goettler & Co., and in 1898 
the business was incorporated as the M. 



Goettler Hat Company, with M. Goettler as 
president; J. A. Gramlich, vice president, 
and Joseph A. Goettler, secretary and treas- 
urer. 

Mr. Goettler did the largest retail hat, cap 
and fur trade in St. Louis until the date 
of his death, which occurred July 5, 1899. 
He was a member of the Home Guards dur- 
ing the War of the Rebellion. He was a 
Republican in political faith and action, and 
for the last eighteen years a prominent Spir- 
itualistic organizer, and at the date of his de- 
cease a member of Mentor Council, No. 765, 
Royal Arcanum, and formerly a director of 
the Empire Savings Institution. He was also 
a member of the Provident Association, and 
a warm friend of the German Protestant 
Orphans' Home and other charitable organ- 
izations. 

Mr. Goettler came to St. Louis before the 
era of street or steam railways, and, enter- 
ing commercial life in his young manhood, 
kept pace with the rapid growth of the city 
and the needs of the people during his entire 
business career, A man of the strictest in- 
tegrity and of irreproachable character, he 
was universally loved and honored by all in 
his business and social relations. 

Mr. Goettler married, January 24, 1854, 
Miss Catherine Saal, daughter of Johannes 
Saal, one of the prominent pioneer gar- 
deners of South St. Louis, who came to the 
United States with his family in September, 
1845, Mrs, Goettler was born in the Rhein- 
pfalz, Germany, July 17, 1835, and received 
a common school education in her native 
town, supplemented by a course of instruc- 
tion in a private school in St. Louis. Like 
her husband, she is a firm believer in Spirit- 
ualism, and is of very kindly and charitable 
disposition. 

Mrs. Goettler and three children survive: 
Elsie, wife of Philip Hassendeubel ; Laura 
Goettler and Joseph A. Goettler, 

Golden Chain Society. — The Golden 
Chain Children's Humane Society was 
founded in St, Louis in 1888 by the union 
of several Bands of Mercy, which had been 
founded in that city during the years 1885- 
6-7 by Mrs, Pauline Polk Brooks. The ob- 
ject of the society is to cultivate the 
sentiments of mercy and kindness by read- 
ings and recitations of noble deeds and 
words in behalf of human and dumb crea- 



GOLDEN CITY— GOOD TEMPLARS, ORDER OF. 



67 



t 



tures. The following precepts form its creed : 
"Blessed are the merciful," "The merciful 
man is merciful to his beast," "Cruelty to 
animals will poison their flesh and milk," 
"The merciful man doeth good to his own 
soul, but he that is cruel troubleth his own 
flesh." The plan of work inaugurated by 
the Golden Chain is to interest the members 
in forming Bands of Mercy in their respec- 
tive neighborhoods, and to secure signatures 
to the Humane Pledge. 

In 1898 ten branches were holding regu- 
lar meetings in St. Louis, and seventy had 
been organized in all in various cities and 
States. A branch had also been organized 
in South America, through the efforts of 
Miss Hattie Jenness. 

Golden City.— A city of the fourth 
class, in Barton County, on the Kansas City, 
Fort Scott & Memphis Railway, fourteen 
miles southeast of Lamar, the county seat. 
It has a public school, erected at a cost of 
$9,000; four churches. Baptist, Christian, 
Methodist and Presbyterian; an independ- 
ent newspaper, the "Herald," and a Repub- 
lican newspaper, the "Free Press ;" lodges 
of Masons, Odd Fellows and United Work- 
men, and a Grand Army Post; a bank, an 
operahouse, a steam flourmill, two elevators, 
and a nursery. In 1899 the population was 
1,200. The original town of Golden City 
was laid out in 1867. In 1869 the store 
buildings were removed to a point about 
two miles distant from the present site, the 
original name being retained. In 1882 it was 
incorporated, J. A. Williamson being the first 
mayor. 

Good Fellows, Order of.— A frater- 
nal arid benefit organization which came into 
existence in St. Louis about the year 1852, 
and finally ceased to be represented there 
about 1876. The order flourished for a time 
at different points in Missouri, but its mem- 
bership was gradually absorbed by similar 
organizations, and there was not a lodge in 
existence in the State in 1900. 

Good Governmeiit Leagvie Club. — 

An association in St. Louis whose objects 
are the "promotion of good government, mu- 
nicipal, State and national ; the resisting and 
exposing of corruption in public affairs, and 
the exaltation of American citizenship 



through the principles of the Republican 
party." It was founded January 17, 1899, 
and its first officers were L. J. W. Wall, presi- 
dent; F. B. Brownell, first vice president; Jo- 
seph B. Ambs, second vice president; E. L. 
Rowse, third vice president; Isaac A. 
Hedges, secretary; Fred C. Meier, treasurer; 
Joseph E. Tatum, corresponding secretary; 
Thomas H. Keeling, financial secretary. 

Good Koads Association. — The Good 
Roads and Public Improvement Association 
of Missouri was organized in St, Louis in 
1897, its object being, first, to devise the most 
feasible plans for improving the public roads ; 
second, to formulate measures for utilizing 
the labor of tramps, vagrants and prisoners 
in preparing materials for the construction of 
roads; third, to secure necessary legislation 
for public improvements in the Fortieth Gen- 
eral Assembly of Missouri. W. H. Wood, 
T. P. Rixey, and Thomas H. West, all of St. 
Louis, were elected president, secretary and 
treasurer, respectively, of the association, 
with D. H. Shields, of Hannibal; A. W. 
White, of Moberly; H. C. Duncan, of Os- 
born; R. M. Abercrombie,of St. Joseph; J. B. 
Stone, of Kansas City; J. N. Ballard, of 
Montrose ; T. O. Stanley, of Sedalia ; Henry 
T. Wright, of Lebanon ; N. D. Dierker, of St. 
Charles; J. B. Brewster, of Ascalon; Henry 
V. Lucas and H. R. Whitmore, of St. Louis ; 
Henry Seckmann, of Seckmann; J. J. Rus- 
sell, of Charleston, and W. T. Le Compte, of 
Pierce City, as vice presidents. Under the 
auspices of this association local associations 
have been organized throughout the State, 
and the movement promises to result in the 
material improvement of the public highways 
of Missouri. 

Good Templars, Order of. — This 
order originated in Utica, New York, in 1852, 
and within a few years thereafter became one 
of the strongest temperance organizations in 
existence. It admitted women as well as 
men to membership, giving them position and 
dignity on an equal footing. Its astonishing 
growth was probably due to this course, it 
being the first society of any kind to admit 
women on equal terms with men. Besides 
having spread over the United States, the or- 
der at present is well sustained in Canada and 
the dependencies of Great Britain, including 
England, Ireland and Scotland, together with 



68 



GOODMAN. 



Australia and South Africa. It has lodges in 
France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Den- 
mark and Switzerland, where, at Zurich, in 
May, 1897, the Supreme Grand Lodge of the 
World was held. It is estimated that since 
its organization the order has numbered 
about 4,000,000 members. At the present 
time — 1898 — the estimated number of mem- 
bers is half a million adults and 200,000 
children. The cardinal principle of the or- 
ganization is total abstinence from all intoxi- 
cating drinks. It is social and helpful, but 
includes no benefits, its work being purely a 
labor of love. 

The first lodge in Missouri was organized 
in Boonville in 1854 by B. F. Mills, a promi- 
nent member of the Sons of Temperance, who 
had been initiated into a Good Templars' 
lodge while visiting an Eastern State. The 
first lodge in St. Louis was instituted early in 
1855. and soon after two other lodges — "Lily 
of the Valley" and "Mound Lodge" — were 
instituted, Mr. Mills being the instituting of- 
ficer of all these. On the 14th of March, 
1855, the Grand Lodge of Missouri was es- 
tablished in St. Louis. The first officers of 
the Grand Lodge were : Grand worthy chief 
templar, Colonel William F. Switzler; vice 
templar, Mrs. Jane Walker; counselor, E. 
Blakeley; secretary. B. H. Mills; treasurer, 
E. E. Pleasant; chaplain. Rev. W. M. Rush; 
marshal, H. B. Callahan. Among the lead- 
ing promoters of the order were John F. 
Grandy, John Libby, John Campbell, C. S. 
Barrett, Timothy Parsons, R. R. Scott and 
others. When the war broke out the Good 
Templars had nearly 500 lodges in Missouri, 
but the order was nearly broken up during 
the war period. In St. Louis, however, it 
held its own, the lodges being recruited to 
some extent from the numerous bodies of 
soldiers in the city. One of the most flour- 
ishing lodges was sustained in connection 
with the camp at the Fair Grounds. The 
Good Templars reached their greatest pros- 
perity in St. Louis after the war, and at 
one time there were seventeen lodges in the 
city. The formation of the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union and other temper- 
ance organizations at a later date drew away 
many members from the Good Templars, and 
in 1898 there were only 100 lodges in Mis- 
souri, and but one — "Our Neighbors, No. 
233" — with fifty members, in St. Louis. The 



total membership in the State at the same 
time was about 3,000. 

Goodman, Lowell Aloiizo, a noted 
horticulturist, and secretary of the Missouri 
State Horticultural Society, was born Febru- 
ary 6, 1845, ^n Porter, Michigan. His father,. 
Alonzo Adolphus Goodman, was born at 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1813, and mar- 
ried Hannah W. Reeves, a native of Rens- 
selaer. New York, born in 1820. Tliey resided 
during their married life at Mt. Clemens and 
Porter, Michigan. The first member of the 
Goodman family of whom there is clear 
genealogical record was Deacon Richard 
Goodman, born in England in 1609. He was 
killed by the Indians in 1676, during a sharp 
encounter in Massachusetts. His wife was 
Mary Terry, whom he married in 1659. She 
was the daughter of Stephen Terry, wha 
came over from the mother country in the 
good ship "Mary and John" in 1630. Their 
son, Thomas, was born at Hadley, Massa- 
chusetts. September 16, 1673, and was mar- 
ried to Grace Marsh in 1698. Their son^ 
Thomas, was born at Hadley, December 15, 
1 701. and his wife was Mary Scoville, their 
marriage being celebrated in 1724. To them 
a son was born, named Noah, also at Hadley. 
This occurrence was on February 9, 1734, and 
on October 25, 1756, Noah married Abiel 
Smith. A son, Titus, was born of this mar- 
riage, the family home being then at South 
Hadley. Titus was born October 23, 1763,. 
and was married in 1781 to Sarah Moody, to 
whom a son, Lowell Goodman, was born 
August 17, 1789. The latter married Lucy 
Merrill, June 23, 1810, at Pittsfield, Massa- 
chusetts, and her son, A. A., was the father 
of Lowell A. Goodman, whose name appears 
in the introductory line of this biography. 
When the latter was less than one year of 
age his parents removed from Porter, Michi- 
gan, to Mt. Clemens, in the same State, mak- 
ing the journey in a huge wagon with an ox 
team for motive power. The family resided 
at Mt. Clemens for twenty years, at the end 
of which time they removed to Ann Arbor, 
in order that the children might have better 
educational advantages. There were four sis- 
ters and one brother in the family, and these 
with their parents, excepting Lowell A., re- 
moved to Kansas City in 1866, the young 
man following the next year, after he had re- ^ 



GOODWIN. 



69 



ceived his degree from the University of 
Michigan. From the last named institution 
he graduated in June, 1867, receiving the de- 
gree of C. E. On the first day of the follow- 
ing August he arrived in Kansas City and 
took up his residence on a thickly wooded 
farm, bounded by what would now be Oak 
Street on the east, Main Street on the west, 
Fortieth Street on the north and Forty-third 
Street on the south. The entire acreage of 
that promising place was planted in fruit 
trees, and the owner little realized that within 
a few years he would be in the suburbs of 
one of the most important cities of the coun- 
try. His farm was then considerably removed 
from the signs of urban civilization. Now the 
tract of land is surrounded by it. Mr. Good- 
man has ever since made his home at this 
beautiful spot, at what is known as the cor- 
ner of Fortieth Street and Warwick Boule- 
vard. A square brick house, of the prevailing 
style, was erected in 1867. In 1887 an addi- 
tion was built, and the residence now stands, 
one of the most homelike to be found any- 
where. Every tree on the place — and trees 
are among Mr. Goodman's delight, as he has 
made them a lifelong study, and the willing 
instruments whereby he has prospered — was 
planted by the present owner, and he has seen 
them grow from saplings to the sturdy di- 
mensions of forest trees. In 1882 Mr. Good- 
man was elected secretary of the Missouri 
State Horticultural Society, and has since 
served in that capacity. He is devoted to his 
business and conducts the aflfairs of the great- 
est orchards in the world, in addition to his 
labors as secretary of the society heretofore 
mentioned. He is considered high authority 
upon all matters pertaining to horticulture 
and has established a reputation that is by no 
means bounded by the State in which he lives. 
Mr. Goodman is a Republican, but is not an 
active politician. His only tenure of office 
has been as a member of the school board, 
of which important organization he was presi- 
dent for a number of years. His political 
views have remained unshaken since an early 
day, and he remembers when there were b.ut 
two Republican voters in Westport, then a 
separate town from, but now a suburban part 
of Kansas City. Since 1877 Mr. Goodman 
has been a member of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church, and he has been superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school at Westport for 
twenty-two years. Prior to 1877 he was af- 



filiated with the Methodist denomination. He 
was married January 5, 1869, to Miss Emer- 
gene Parker, of Albion, Michigan. To them 
three daughters have been born: Marie 
Louise, Grace Fanny and Josephine Berda. 
Mr. Goodman, in his present positions of 
dignity and trust, is rounding out a noble 
career. In the chosen line of work adopted 
by him many years ago he has achieved very 
large success. He is allied with the efforts 
making toward the upbuilding of the youth 
of the land, and withal is held in highest es- 
teem for what he is and what he has done 
during the years of a fruitful life. 

Goodwin, J. West, editor, was born Oc- 
tober 3,1836, in Jefiferson County, New York. 
His parents, earnest Methodists, named him 
John Wesley ; this name he changed to 
its present form in early manhood. When less 
than fourteen years old, he began work in a 
printing office in Watertown, New York, and 
completed his apprenticeship in Potsdam, in 
the same State. In 1857 he went to La- 
fayette, Indiana, where he took employment 
on the ''Journal." During the political cam- 
paign of 1858 he conducted a newspaper at 
Frankfort, Indiana, and made it a zealous 
exponent of Democratic principles as repre- 
sented by Stephen A. Douglas. At the close 
of the campaign he resumed work at La- 
fayette. In 1859 he worked at the case on 
the "Enquirer," at Memphis, Tennessee. 
During the presidential campaign of i860, he 
was owner and editor of a Democratic news- 
paper at Liberty, Indiana. While opposing 
vigorously the election of Lincoln, he was a 
staunch Unionist, and a marked type of the 
War Democrats, whose efforts aided so 
largely in the preservation of the govern- 
ment. In 1861 he offered himself for 
enlistment as a private in the Fifteenth Regi- 
ment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, but was 
rejected on account of ill health. Shortly 
afterward he sought acceptance in the Six- 
teenth Regiment, and was rejected for the 
same reason as before. He then made his 
way to Virginia and secured service in vari- 
ous capacities, in General McClellan's army, 
during a portion of the time in the Quarter- 
master's Department. Having regained his 
health he enlisted in the Sixty-second Regi- 
ment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, with which 
he served, in the Army of the Cumberland, 
under General George H. Thomas. Novem- 



70 



GORDON. 



ber I, 1865, several months after the return 
of peace, he was mustered out of service, and 
returned to Indiana. In 1866 he visited Se- 
dalia, but finding no field for his effort, 
walked to Springfield. He there established 
the first newspaper after the war period, the 
''Southwest Union Press," which he con- 
ducted for about one year. In 1867 he lo- 
cated in Sedalia, which has since been his 
home, and the scene of his best effort. He 
began with a small jobbing outfit, advertising 
his office as the Artemas Ward Job Printing 
House. June i, 1869, he began the pubHca- 
tion of the Sedalia weekly "Bazoo." In 1895 
he discontinued the daily edition of his paper, 
continuing the weekly, which is yet under his 
management. The peculiar title, and the 
bright, incisive style which marked its 
columns, gave the paper fame almost from 
the outset. Soon after its founding Mr. 
Goodwin visited New York City, and his 
presence was mentioned by a reporter on the 
"Herald." James Gordon Bennett, its editor, 
wrote a note asking a visit, and when Mr. 
Goodwin appeared, he inquired with curiosity 
as to the meaning of the word "Bazoo." He 
was informed that the word was of Indian 
origin, meaning a wind musical instrument 
used in the Ozark region, and the next morn- 
ing the "Herald" contained the narrative, 
written personally by Mr. Bennett. Mr. 
Goodwin, through his wide acquaintance and 
retentive memory, is undoubtedly the best 
informed man in Missouri on matters per- 
taining to the newspaper field, past and pres- 
ent, and his library is a mine of valuable files 
of periodical literature, including many bound 
volumes of magazines and journals which 
have long ago disappeared. While indulgent 
in reminiscence, he maintains keen interest in 
the affairs of the present, and conducts his 
paper with undiminished vigor and a hearty, 
well-tempered enthusiasm. Belonging to 
the old school of newspaper men, he has ever 
taken deep interest in political matters, but 
has habitually refused to become the recipi- 
ent of political favors as an office-holder. He 
was married December 20, 1865, to Miss 
Martha Torrence Hunt, of Rising Sun, In- 
diana, who died August 15, 1886, leaving 
three sons. The youngest one of the 
three met his death in the St. Louis 
cyclone. May 27, 1896, while on a visit 
to his uncle. 



Crordoii, James Andrew, banker, was 
born in Lafayette County, Missouri, August 
26, 1 84 1, son of Dr. William L. and Sarah 
(Smith) Gordon. Dr. William L. Gordon 
was a native of Kentucky. He came to Mis- 
souri about 1830 and settled at Jefferson City, 
where he studied medicine under Dr. Bolton. 
He then attended the Transylvania Medical 
College in Kentucky, which conferred upon 
him the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Re- 
turning to Missouri he first practiced medi- 
cine in Cedar County, where he remained 
three or four years, later removing to Jack- 
son County and subsequently opening an of- 
fice in Holt County, where he practiced up 
to the time of his death in 1885, except during 
the period of the Civil War. He was an in- 
fluential Democrat and for six years was 
county judge of Holt County. His father, 
James Gordon, was probably a native of Ken- 
tucky. His wife, Sarah Smith, was a native 
of Tennessee. Her death occurred when the 
subject of this sketch was about six years of 
age. James A. Gordon was afforded a lib- 
eral college education by his father. His 
preparatory course was directed by private 
instructors. Entering the Missouri State 
University at Columbia, he was graduated in 
the scientific department with the class of 
1861. After leaving college he began the 
study of law, teaching school in the mean- 
time, but never qualified at the bar. Soon 
after the begining of the Civil War he ten- 
dered his services to the Confederacy, enlist- 
ing in the command of General Shelby. He 
left for the front August 18, 1862, and until 
the close of the conflict served constantly, 
participating in all the engagements in the 
various campaigns conducted by General 
Shelby. At the "gunboat fight" at Claren- 
don, Arkansas, on White River, a bullet 
nearly ended his career, but he recovered in 
time to participate in the famous Price raid 
in September, 1864. He still carried the bul- 
let received in the engagement on White 
River. The army with which he was con- 
nected surrendered at Shreveport, Louisiana, 
in June, 1865, and on July 3d, following, he 
reached Lafayette County. Until April, 1866, 
he was laid up at home as the result of his 
bullet wound, but upon his recovery he was 
engaged as instructor at Shelby College, in 
Lafayette County, until June 1869. The fol- 
lowing year he taught school south of Lex- \ 



GORIN— GOSSETT. 



71 



ington. In the summer of 1870 he removed 
to Waverly, where he assisted in the organi- 
zation of the Farmers' Savings Bank, becom- 
ing its first cashier. The bank was moved 
to Marshall in March, 1879. Until 1889 Mr. 
Gordon served as cashier, but since that year 
has acted as president of the institution. He 
has been actively identified with numerous 
enterprises of a public nature. About 1881, 
in company with Thomas Boatright, he laid 
out an addition of about twenty-one acres to 
the northern part of the town of Marshall, 
disposing of most of the lots within ninety 
days. Nearly every lot now has a house 
upon it, many of them being attractive and 
costly. He has also been the promoter of 
several railroads, including an air line from 
St. Louis to Kansas City, projected in 1886, 
but which failed to materialize; another line 
from Sedalia to Miami, unconstructed ; and 
the branch of the Missouri Pacific extending 
from Lexington to Boonville. Of the last 
named road he was one of the original pro- 
moters in 1887, making the contract with the 
Missouri Pacific to give the right of way, that 
company agreeing to build the road. He as- 
sisted in the establishment of the Missouri 
Valley College, in Marshall, contributing lib- 
erally of his means to provide for the original 
expense of the property, and likewise was 
largely instrumental in securing the location 
in Marshall of the State Institution for 
Feeble-Minded Children, erected in 1900. 
Other local enterprises have also received his 
hearty co-oi>eration. Though an ardent sup- 
porter of the cause of Democracy, he has 
never consented to become a candidate for 
public office. He was made a Mason in 1871 
at Waverly and has passed the chairs in the 
lodge, chapter and commandery at Marshall. 
He was one of the charter members of the 
commandery in Marshall. Chiefly through 
his efforts General John S. Marmaduke Camp 
of United Confederate Veterans of Marshall 
was instituted, and he has been its only com- 
mander. He is an active member of the 
Christian Church and has been superintend- 
ent of its Sunday school for eighteen years. 
Mr. Gordon was married December 29, 1868, 
to Margaret Elizabeth Catron, who was born 
four and a half miles south of Lexington, and 
is a daughter of John Catron, who came from 
Tennessee in boyhood and devoted his life to 
agriculture. They are the parents of a son, 
William Catron Gordon, a graduate of the 



Marshall High School, the Missouri Valley 
College and Harvard University, which 
granted him diplomas, classical and post- 
graduate, conferring upon him the degrees of 
bachelor of arts and master of arts. Al- 
though but twenty-two years of age, in 
the fall of 1900 he became instructor in 
Latin and Greek languages in the high 
school at St. Paul, Minnesota. For many 
years Mr. Gordon has been one of the most 
influential men of affairs in Saline County, de- 
voting time and money toward those move- 
ments instituted for the improvement of the 
community in its various aspects. He is a 
prudent and sagacious financier, and his ad- 
vice guides many investors in and about Mar- 
shall. 

Gorin* — An incorporated town in the 
southeastern part of Scotland County, on 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. 
It is nicely situated, on the North Fabius, 
and has a good graded public school, three 
churches, a bank, flouring mill, a newspaper, 
the "Argus," a hotel, handle factory, and 
about twenty other business places, includ- 
ing stores and small shops. Population, 
1899 (estimated), 1,100. 

Gossett, Jacob D., a pioneer Baptist 
minister of western Missouri, was born No- 
vember 29, 1818, in Clark County, Kentucky, 
his ancestors having removed to that State 
from Virginia at an early day. He was a 
prominent preacher of the Baptist denom- 
ination, and in 1867 came to Missouri, pur- 
chasing a farm three miles southwest of 
Independence. There he resided a number 
of years, and in 1884 removed to Independ- 
ence, where he died April 3, 1897, at the age 
of seventy-eight years and four months. He 
and his wife, Joan Frances (Ratliff) Gossett, 
united with the "Regular" Baptist Church 
in 1853, and during their useful lives they 
maintained that profession, and honored it 
by their devotion to the work of God. They 
were baptized by Elder Matthias Gossett 
while they were residing in the State of their 
nativity. Mrs. Gossett was born in Bath 
County, Kentucky, February 4, 1830, and 
died January 2, 1900, having almost arrived 
at the age of three score years and ten. 
Rev. Gossett was ordained to the work of 
the Gospel ministry in 1867, and removed to 
Missouri in the same year. His marriage 



72 



GOSSETT. 



had occurred September 2, 1846, and with 
his family he sought a new home in a com- 
paratively new State. With the exception 
of a short time spent in Kansas City, Inde- 
pendence was his home from that year until 
his death. Elder and Mrs. Gossett cele- 
brated their golden wedding anniversary 
September 2, 1897, and the event was said 
to have been the second of its kind in the 
history of Independence. Prior to his re- 
moval to Independence, Elder Gossett was 
engaged in farming and stock-raising. He 
also had experience in the mercantile busi- 
ness, and was one of the originators and, 
stockholders of the Bank of Independence. 
At the same time he was engaged in the 
milling and grain business at Blue Springs, 
during this commercial activity maintaining 
his duties as a preacher and spiritual adviser. 
As a preacher he was a man of great 
strength, and his duties as pastor were re- 
warded by the love of all who profited by 
or witnessed his ministrations. Nine chil- 
dren were born to Elder and Mrs. Gossett, 
of whom eight are living. At the death of 
their father and mother the six surviving 
sons acted as pall-bearers, this being done, in 
both instances, at the request of their mother. 
Their son, Caleb Sanford Gossett, was born 
June 18, 1847, in Bath County, Kentucky. 
He was educated in the private schools, and 
at an early age assumed his share of the 
duties of the farm. He was nineteen years 
of age when he came to Missouri. Being 
the eldest son, the duties of managing the 
afifairs of the home place devolved upon him 
largely, and he acquired valuable practical 
experience early in life. In 1879 he removed 
to Kansas City, and was deputy sheriff under 
John C. Hope for two years. At the end 
of that time he returned to Independence 
and engaged in stock-raising on the country 
place which has since been the family home. . 
January i, 1899, he was appointed by his 
brother, Martin R. Gossett, recorder of deeds 
of Jackson County, to the position of deputy 
recorder, with jurisdiction over the office at 
Independence, and he is still acting in that 
capacity. The members of this family are 
Democrats in political belief, and have been 
active workers in the best interests of the 
party. Mr. Gossett has been a member of 
the Baptist Church since 1878. He is a mem- 
ber of Union Lodge, No. 168, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, at Kansas City. 



Matthias Gossett was born July 4, 1848, in 
Bath County, Kentucky. He lived on the 
farm with his father until 1870, having re- 
moved to Missoviri during these years, and 
then returned to his native State, where he 
was married to Miss Kittie Bourne, a mem- 
ber of one of Kentucky's most highly re- 
spected families. He came back to Missouri 
and lived one year, returned to Kentucky to 
engage in merchandising and farming, and 
in 1885 resumed his residence in that State, 
and has been identified with the interests of 
Missouri since that time. Anna Elizabeth 
Gossett was born November 10, 1850, and 
was married to William M. Hill, of Jackson 
County, Missouri, in 1869. She died No- 
vember 4, 1880. Mary E. Gossett was born 
December 18, 1853, and was married to Wil- 
liam Down, of Platte County, Missouri, May 
30, 1876. Her husband was a Confederate 
soldier and served with John Morgan. He is 
now a resident of Kansas City, Missouri. 
Martin R. Gossett, recorder of deeds of 
Jackson County, Missouri,' was born April 
II, 1857, in Bath County, Kentucky. He 
came to Missouri with his parents in 1866, 
and during his boyhood days attended school 
in the old Pitcher's schoolhouse, a structure 
that is still .withstanding the ravages of 
time. He was also a pupil under Professor 
D. I. Caldwell, of Independence. His first 
business engagement was in the mercantile 
line with J. May & Son, of Independence. 
He was with that house for four years, at the 
end of which tihie, in 1880, he removed to 
Kansas City, where, for eighteen years, he 
was identified with the clothing trade on 
Main Street. In 1898 the Democrats of 
Jackson County nominated him for the office 
of recorder, and he was elected by the hand- 
some majority of 3,200, the candidate for 
the circuit judgeship being the only one on 
the ticket who received a larger vote. The 
term is for four years, and Mr. Gossett is 
discharging the duties of the office to the 
full satisfaction of the people who honored 
him. He was married, in 1891, to Mary D. 
Carter, daughter of Edwin Carter, of Kan- 
sas City. He is a member of the Masonic 
order, is a Knight Templar, and holds mem- 
bership in the Modern Woodmen of Amer- 
ica. Alfred N. Gossett, lawyer, was born 
November 13, 1861, in Bath County, Ken- 
tucky. He came to Missouri with his 
parents while yet a child, and received his 



GOULD— GOVERNMENT, DEPARTMENTS OF. 



73 



i 



preliminary education in the common schools 
of Jackson County, also graduating from 
Woodland College, in Independence. His 
legal course was taken at the Washington 
University Law School, St. Louis, gradua- 
tion honors being conferred upon him in 
1883. After his admission to the practice 
of law he located at Kansas City, entering 
into partnership with John D. S. Cook, under 
the firm name of Cook & Gossett. Mr. Gos- 
sett's practice is devoted to real estate and 
corporation law and general civil practice. 
He has not sought political preferment, 
although his counsel is valued in affairs 
which have a bearing upon the welfare of 
the Democratic party and the accomplish- 
ment of good government. "He was married, 
November 27,, 1887, to Miss Vera Galbaugh, 
a native of St. Louis, but then residing in 
Kansas City. Emma Lee Gossett was born 
September 17, 1863, and is living with her 
brother, C. S., at the old family home in 
Independence. Edward B. Gossett was born 
July 24, 1865, and graduated from a medi- 
cal school in Kansas City in 1894. After 
receiving his diploma he practiced medicine 
in Kansas City for three years, and then ac- 
cepted a position as assistant surgeon in the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Hospital, at 
Topeka, Kansas, being promoted to the office 
of chief surgeon at Ottawa, Kansas, in 1899. 
He married Edna Hough, of Aurora, Illinois, 
October 16, 1899. Claud S. Gossett was 
born September 30, 1868, at the old country 
home of the family, near Independence. He 
attended the district schools and graduated 
from the High School at Independence. He 
was employed at dififerent times as dry goods 
and drug salesman, later engaged in the 
grain and milling business with his father, 
and is now chief deputy recorder of Jack- 
son County under his brother, Martin R. 
Gossett. He married Miss Bettie Stanley, 
a member of a highly respected family of 
Jackson County. 

Cxould, David B., was born in Cald- 
well, Essex County, New Jersey, Septem- 
ber 7, 1844. He received a common school 
and academic education. During the Civil 
War he entered the Union Army and was as- 
signed to the ordnance department, and in 
1864 was transferred to a Western post — 
Fort Scott, Kansas — where he remained until 
the close of the war. The following year, 



1866, he embarked in the directory pubHsh- 
ing business. Volume I of the St. Louis 
Directory was issued in 1872. Two years 
later he began publishing, in addition to his 
annual general directory of the city, a spe- 
cial business directory. In 1881 he added 
another annual to his list of publications — the 
"St. Louis Blue Book." Each hasi been im- 
proved and enlarged with each succeeding 
issue. The business directory, now called 
"Gould's Commercial Register," takes in 
East vSt. Louis, Belleville and St. Charles, 
and the "Blue Book" a score of suburban 
cities, about every place, in fact, that might 
properly be included in "Greater St. Louis." 
Nor is this all. Mr. Gould has published 
complete general directories at dififerent times 
for a number of more distant cities, such as 
Peoria, Bloomington, Quincy, and Spring- 
field, Illinois. His list of publications include 
also a street guide to St. Louis and a map 
of the city. In 1898, at a meeting held in 
Cleveland, Ohio, he was elected president of 
the Association of American Directory Pub- 
lishers. Mr. Gould was one of the founders 
of the St. Louis Club, and during the first 
year was a director and chairman of its house 
committee. He was one of the organizers 
of the St. Louis Hansom Company, which 
was the commencement of cheap fares, and 
has been prominently identified with many 
other public and semi-public enterprises. In 
1878 he was appointed chairman of the Mer- 
chants' Exchange Relief Fund for the yellow 
fever sufiferers of Memphis and the South, 
Mrs. Gould was a Miss Allen, daughter of 
Dr. M. V. Allen, of Peoria, Illinois. They 
have three children — Edward M. and Miss 
Emma Banks Gould, and Mrs. Henry W. 
Grady, of Atlanta, Georgia, the latter's hus- 
band being a son of the late Henry W. 
Grady, editor of the Atlanta "Constitution" 
at the time of his death, and one of the most 
famous men of the South. 

OoverniTient, Departments of. — In 

the United States, and also in the States, 
there are three departments of government — 
the legislative department, which alone makes 
laws ; the judicial department, which inter- 
prets the laws ; and the executive department, 
which executes the laws. Each of these is 
confined to a separate magistracy, and only 
in a few exceptional cases is a person con- 
nected with one department authorized to 



74 



GOVERNMENT OF ST. I^OUIS, PRIMITIVE. 



exercise powers belonging to the other. 
There are minor departments of administra- 
tion, sometimes popularly spoken of as the 
State department, and the insurance depart- 
ment ; but the legislative, judicial and exec- 
utive are the three chief departments of the 
government, and the Constitution aims to 
keep them as distinct and independent of one 
another as possible. 

Oovernment of St. Louis, Primi- 
tive. — Government in St. Louis began grad- 
ually and almost imperceptibly, as it did in 
other parts of the West where the first be- 
ginning was a handful of settlers or miners, 
whose rights were simple and whose wants 
were few. There was the trading house of 
Maxent, Laclede & Co., the largest struc- 
ture at the post, located on Main Street, be- 
tween Market and Walnut, and near it were 
clustered the small palisade houses of the 
first inhabitants. They were all French, and 
the community of interest in common dan- 
gers, common language, common faith and 
common purposes stood in the place of gov- 
ernment. They required no government, as 
there was nothing to govern. The rights of 
property needed neither definition nor pro- 
tection where there was little in the shape 
of property to protect ; and as to the rights 
of person, they were safe enough with peo- 
ple who were true to one another and who 
soon became akin by intermarriage. Another 
consideration that exempted the little com- 
munity from the necessity of law and gov- 
ernment was the absence of distilled liquor. 
The French settlers cared nothing for the 
whisky that was considered an article of 
necessity in the American settlements in 
Kentucky and Tennessee, and it never be- 
came an article of commerce and use in the 
trading post until an American element was 
added to the population and trade was opened 
with the Ohio River towns. Besides, there 
was a supreme recognized authority over all 
in the person of the Military Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, who had a small body of troops at 
his command. Although the authority of the 
Military Governor was virtually absolute, 
there was no temptation to oppress and no 
wealth in the community to provoke rapac- 
ity ; and the forty years of military rule, from 
1764 to the surrender of the place to the 
United States in 1804, was so gentle and sat- 
isfactory that the little community never 



troubled itself with any other. The popu- 
lation grew slowly. The first body of set- 
tlers who came with Auguste Chouteau 
numbered only about thirty, and there were 
few sources from which accessions could be 
drawn. A few families — not more than two- 
score all told — came across the river from 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Fort Chartres and Vin- 
cennes, after the campaign by which General 
George Rogers Clark subjugated the terri- 
tory now embraced in the States of Indiana 
and Illinois, as the United States authority 
was not agreeable to the French settlers in 
those places, and a number came to St. 
Louis to escape it. At the beginning of the 
year 1800 the entire population of the place 
was only about 600. It was better known as 
"Laclede's Village" than by the official name 
of St. Louis, which Laclede had given it. 
It was French in everything — in language^ 
manners, habits, amusements, in the con- 
struction of the houses, in their wooden cart 
wheels, in the harness, and in the method of 
yoking and driving the oxen, which were 
chiefly used for drawing the carts through 
the deep mud of the streets. The inhabi- 
tants were not given to the roystering and 
violence that sometimes cause trouble in 
Western American settlements, but were in- 
nocent, simple-hearted, and so considerate 
of others that the machinery of government 
would have been irksome. There was so lit- 
tle spirit of improvement among them that 
when, after the transfer, the restless Ameri- 
cans began to take matters into their own 
hands, the tranquil, easy-going people com- 
plained that the rocks with which the Ameri- 
cans paved the crossings broke their untired 
cart wheels. A more contented community 
could not have been found than this one, 
and if it had been left to itself it might 
have plodded on its peaceful way for an- 
other quarter of a century without ordi- 
nances, statutes or courts of justice. The 
first streets were Rue Royale, which after- 
ward became Main Street; Rue d'Eglise, 
which afterward became Church Street, and 
later Second Street ; Rue des Granges, which 
the Americans called Barn Street, and is 
now Third Street ; Rue Bonhomme, which 
afterward became Market Street, and Rue de 
la Tour, which afterward became Walnut 
Street. Where the levee now runs was a 
steep blufif thirty-five feet high. There was 
a public square, called Place d'Armes, east \ 



GOVERNMENT OF ST. LOUIS, VII.LAGE. 



75 



of Main Street, between Market and Walnut, 
and from Walnut Street the bluff sloped off 
gently to Poplar Street, whence the low, 
level ground stretched away to the south. 
There was no scarcity of real estate, which 
now furnishes cause for so much litigation 
in advanced communities, for the back yard 
of the settlement extended indefinitely. The 
site of the post was wooded, but from the 
line of Broadway west was open prairie, 
broken here and there by patches of timber, 
and any settler might take as much or as 
little as he wanted, provided he did not en- 
croach upon some prior occupant's posses- 
sion. A little later on the Spanish Governor 
adopted the practice of granting concessions 
of lands, and these, in the end, were the 
cause of endless confusion and litigation. 
But in the primitive days of St. Louis there 
were no lawsuits, no lawyers, no courthouse 
and no jail ; and yet the community was 
quite as happy, probably, as when, at a later 
day, it had increased in numbers and wealth 
and was provided with all these adjuncts of 
civilization. The Lieutenant Governors dur- 
ing the primitive period to the cession to 
the United States in 1804 were : St. Ange de 
Bellerive from 1766 to 1770; Don Pedro Pier- 
nas, from 1770 to 1775 ; Don Francisco Cru- 
zat, from 1775 to 1778; Don P'ernando de 
Leyba, from 1778 to 1780; Don Francisco 
Cruzat, reappointed, from 1780 to 1787; Don 
Emanuel Perez, from 1787 to 1792; Don 
Zenon Trudeau, from 1792 to 1799, and 
Charles Dehault Delassus, from 1799 to 

^^4- D M Grissom. 

Governinent of St. Louis, Village. 

It was not until the year 1809, five years 
after the formal transfer of Louisiana Ter- 
ritory to the United States, that the people 
of St. Louis took upon themselves the du- 
ties and responsibilities of self-government. 
The population was then about r,200, and 
was increasing briskly for that day — say, at 
the rate of about 250 a year. There was a 
prosperous fur, lead and peltry trade, which 
brought in about $75,000 a year ; the ferriage 
of persons and vehicles across the river was 
growing into a lively business, which needed 
some regulation; there was an increasing 
element of boatmen, hunters, trappers, voy- 
agers, Indians and adventurers, who, though 
not altogether lawless, required some re- 
straint; and, then, there were streets which, 



in some cases, were little more than lanes 
or roads, built into, here and there, which 
required straightening, widening and shap- 
ing, to make them worthy of the large town 
that St. Louis promised to become in the 
course of the next twenty years. The formal 
transfer of Louisiana Territory to the United 
States, which took place in 1804, had been 
followed almost immediately by increasing 
signs of American spirit and enterprise. A 
new element was coming into the village 
from Kentucky and Virginia; the fur trade 
was growing larger and more profitable, and 
a new trade with the settlements on the Ohio 
River was springing up. There was an in- 
creased coming and going between St. Louis 
and Vincennes — the seat of government of 
Indiana Territory — and also to and from 
Ste. Genevieve, St. Charles, Louisville and 
Nashville, and each year the ferry accommo- 
dations between St. Louis and the Illinois 
shore ha:d to be increased. Captain Amos 
Stoddard, who formally received St. Louis 
and Upper Louisiana Territory in the name 
of the United States, on the loth of March, 
1804, remained in authority until Sep- 
tember 30th of that year, when General Har- 
rison, Governor of Indiana Territory, came 
over from Vincennes, with his attendant 
judges, and opened court, and appointed a 
court of common pleas for St. Louis, with 
Silas Bent, Bernard Pratte and Louis Le- 
baume as judges. A sheriff was appointed, 
as well as a recorder, and two months later, 
in December, 1804, the first grand jury was 
summoned and a house was rented for a 
jail. These things showed that the tranquil, 
easy and uneventful French regime was vir- 
tually over, and a more aggressive era had 
begun. In the five years following the trans- 
fer, of authority by Lieutenant Governor De- 
lassus, the last French Governor, in 1804, 
there were three American Governors : Sam- 
uel Hammond, appointed deputy under Gen- 
eral William Henry Harrison, from 1804 to 
1805; General James Wilkinson, from 1805 
to 1807, and Meriwether Lewis, from 1807 
to 1809; and these officials, with the court 
of common pleas, furnished what govern- 
ment was thought to be needed. But the 
village was growing in importance, and the 
citizens began to desire a larger control of 
their own local interests; accordingly, in 
1809, under an act of the Territorial Legis- 
lature, St. Louis became an incorporated 



76 



GOVERNMENT OF ST. I.OUIS, VILLAGE. 



town, with its first board of trustees. The 
Augnste Chouteau plat of the town, made 
at the beginning of the settlement, extended 
from Chouteau Avenue, on the south, to 
Cherry Street — now Franklin Avenue — on 
the north, and from the River to Fourth 
Street — the squares having an east and west 
front of 240 feet and a depth of 300 feet. 
The trade of the place consisted of peltries, 
lead and whisky, and the imports of mer- 
chandise were valued at $250,000 annually. 
The revenues of the town were provided for 
at first by licenses, and afterward by taxes 
on property. A license of $15 was exacted 
of taverns, retailers of liquor and merchants 
dealing in products and manufactures com- 
ing from places outside the Territory ; $100 
on billiard tables and wheels of fortune ; $2 
on dogs over one to each family ; $2 on four- 
wheel carriages, and $1 on others; $15 on 
ferries ; $5 a ton on boats and barges of five 
tons, with $1 per ton additional for those 
of greater tonnage, and $2 on pirogues. 
These licenses, as we learn from the re- 
turns of Auguste Chouteau, treasurer, 
yielded, in 1810, a total of $350, which, with 
$163 from the property tax, and $16 from 
fines, m.ade an aggregate revenue of $529 
for the first year of town government. The 
next year it amounted to $636, and there 
was a steady increase from year to year. 
The ordinances dealt with the ordinary sub- 
jects of regulation. Ferry rates were fixed; 
slaves were forbidden to be away from home 
at night after 9 o'clock, without a pass from 
their owners ; chimneys were required to be 
swept once a month; stone crossings were 
provided at the principal street corners ; car- 
casses of dead animals were removed, and 
some of the worst mud-holes were filled up. 
The first step toward the modern fire de- 
partment was taken, by requiring every 
house to be provided with two strong buck- 
ets for carrying water in case of a fire, and 
the able-bodied citizens to be enrolled as 
members of a fire company. A road over- 
seer was appointed, and every able-bodied 
male inhabitant was required, upon the call 
of this offtcer, to work on the streets not 
more than thirty days every year. In 181 1 
the first Sunday law was enacted. It re- 
quired all stores where goods and merchan-' 
dise were sold to be closed on Sunday from 
"8 o'clock in the morning till sundown," the 
penalty being a fine of $10 and the price of 



the goods sold. In the same year Charles 
Gratiot, chairman of the board of trustees, 
advertised for materials for a new market- 
house on Main Street, between Market and 
Walnut Streets. This building, having fif- 
teen stalls, was completed in the following 
year, and the stalls were rented for $10 to 
$30 each. In 1813 the population had reached 
1,400, and in 181 5 it was returned by the 
sheriff, J. W. Thompson, at 2,600, showing 
the very encouraging increase of 1,200 in the 
two years. The first proposition for a city 
charter came up and was discussed, but the 
taxpayers, who alone were voters, did not 
receive it with general favor, because they 
feared it would involve too great a cost for 
the community. The election for trustees 
in 1819 was an exciting one, and there were 
168 votes cast, the successful candidates be- 
ing Julius De Mun, Thomas McKnight, Wil- 
liam C. Carr, Henry Von Phul and Paschal 
Cerre. The revenue amounted to $1,307. 
The general appearance of things was con- 
stantly becoming more and more American. 
The French names of streets were changed, 
and Rue Royale was called Main Street ; Rue 
d'Eglise, Church Street ; Rue des Granges, 
Barn Street ; Rue Bonhomme, Market 
Street, and Rue de la Tour, Walnut Street. 
The population in 1819 was still chiefly 
French, but the Americans, about one-third, 
were taking the lead in business and politics, 
and asserting the new order of things indi- 
cated in the change of government. The fur 
trade was growing more extensive and profit- 
able ; there were more boats and barges com- 
ing and going in its service, and the river 
trade with Louisville and New Orleans was 
assuming larger proportions, and there were 
times when the streets were thronged with 
bargemen, cordeliers, hunters, trappers, voy- 
ageurs and soldiers, just returned from an 
expedition, or preparing for an outgoing one. 
In 1817 a steamboat, the "General Pike," had 
come up the river and landed at St. Louis, 
giving an intimation of the wonderful steam- 
boat era that was to reach its full develop- 
ment a generation later. In 1821 the first 
directory of St. Louis was published, and in 
the same year Missouri became a State of the 
Union. The time was at hand for the town 
of St. Louis to take another step upward, and 
it was, therefore, in accordance with the 
plainly expressed desire of its people that one 
of the acts of the first State Legislature. 



GOVERNMENT OF ST. LOUIS, CITY. 



77 



which met in 1822, was the granting of a 
charter to the "City of St. Louis." This char- 
ter was accepted by the people, and in the 
following year the board of trustees of the 
town of St. Louis went out of existence — the 
last members of the board being William 
Clark, Archibald Gamble, Henry Von Phul, 
Peter Ferguson and George Morton. The 
town government lasted from 1809 to 1823, 
in which time the population was quadrupled, 
increasing from 1,000 to 4,000. 

D. M. Grissom. 

Government of St. Loviis, City. — 

St. Louis began its career as a city in 1823, 
when its first charter, investing it with 
municipal dignity, powers and franchises, 
went into effect. This charter, submitted 
to the taxpayers in March, 1823, was 
accepted by a small majority, the vote 
standing 107 for to 90 against it; and 
a month later an election was held 
for mayor and aldermen. Dr. William 
Carr Lane being chosen the first mayor, and 
Thomas McKnight, James Kennerly, Philip 
Rocheblave, Archibald Gamble, William H, 
Savage, Robert Wash, James Loper, H. Von 
Phul and James Lakenan, the first aldermen. 
These names indicate how nearly American- 
ized the place had become in the nineteen 
years since the transfer in 1804. There were 
many prominent wealthy French citizens. 
The two original Chouteaus, Auguste and 
Pierre, who took part in the settlement of 
the place, were still living, the former at the 
age of seventy-three, and the latter sixty-five 
years, and there was a second generation^ 
descendants of the first settlers, including 
Gratiots, Papins, Carrs, LeBeaumes, Ber- 
tholds and others, fitted by wealth and edu- 
cation, enterprise, public service and social 
position to take part in the local government 
of the city which their fathers had assisted in 
founding ; but they did not exhibit the ambi- 
tion for official position which marked the 
restless Americans, and the latter were 
allowed to take the lead in the work of 
starting the young city on its municipal 
career. The first message of the first mayor 
exhibited the boundless faith in the future 
greatness of St. Louis that has been ex- 
pressed in the messages of his successors 
ever since. "The progressive rise of our 
city," said Mayor Lane, "is morally certain. 
The causes of its prosperity are inscribed 



upon the very face of the earth, and are as 
permanent as the foundations of the soil and 
the sources of the Mississippi." The mes- 
sage called attention to the obstructions of 
buildings in the streets, and the propriety 
of having them removed, the need of one or 
more wharfs, with a port officer to look after 
them, the regulations of the ferries, and 
recommended a board of health with ample 
powers to search out and remove nuisances, 
with the object of correcting the "character 
for unhealthiness" which the city was labor- 
ing under. The mayor's salary was fixed at 
$600 a year, and the city treasurer's com- 
pensation at I per cent on receipts. An 
ordinance was adopted, recognizing the width 
of the north and south streets as thirty-six 
French feet, and of the cross streets, as they 
were called, thirty feet, but allowing the 
houses built into the streets to remain until 
voluntarily removed by the owners, or de- 
stroyed by time or accident, and establishing 
the "Market Square" (bounded by Main 
Street and the Levee and Market and Wal- 
nut) and that whereon Colonel Chouteau re- 
sides (bounded by Main and Second Streets, 
and Market and Walnut) as a basis of survey 
of plats of the city. As the traffic of the city 
increased on Main Street, Walnut, Market 
and Chestnut, the narrow limits of these 
streets caused inconvenience, but it was not 
until twenty-five years after the city charter 
was granted, and after nearly all the old 
dwelling houses on these streets had been 
abandoned, that the city council took ad- 
vantage of the great fire in 1849 to widen 
Main Street to sixty feet and require that this 
increase in width should be conformed to in 
rebuilding the burnt district. The cross 
streets were gradually widened in like man- 
ner, and the irregular lanes that had come 
down from the old village days were con- 
verted into the streets as we see them at this 
day. 

At the original incorporation of the town of 
St. Louis by the Territorial Legislature, in 
1809, onlv taxpayers were allowed to vote at 
elections for trustees and town officers, and 
this tax-paying qualification for voters was 
continued under the first city charter in 1823. 
It worked well enough as long as the public 
offices were not sufficiently remunerative to 
be sought after, but as the city grew in popu- 
lation and importance, the political parties 
more sharply defined, and the elections more 



78 



GOVERNMENT OF ST. LOUIS, CITY. 



exciting, the qualification became a source of 
trouble. All kinds of tax receipts, for dog- 
tax and even water licenses, were presented 
as qualifications for voting, and the party 
committees would hunt up delinquents and 
pay their taxes for them ; and, it was charged, 
sometimes issue fraudulent receipts, to carry 
an important election. The trouble increased 
until a growing demand for a larger partici- 
pation of the non-property-holding class of 
citizens in the elections caused the Legisla- 
ture to abolish the tax-paying qualification, 
and to establish the voting franchise on the 
free basis which has prevailed ever since. 
The important event in the period of city 
government of St. Louis from 1823 to 1898 
was the separation of the city from the county 
of St. Louis and its organization into some- 
thing like an independent municipality. The 
separation was accompanied by an enlarge- 
ment of its area, and a new and liberal char- 
ter, not framed by the State Legislature, as 
all previous charters and amendments had 
been, but framed by a body of free-holders 
chosen by and from among its own citizens. 
This took place in 1876, fifty-three years 
after the organization of the city under the 
first charter, and perhaps the most striking 
proof of the wisdom of the new arrangement 
is the fact that the new charter which accom- 
panied the scheme of separation has been 
only once amended by the Legislature since 
it was adopted, although it had become a 
habit under the old arrangement to have the 
charter amended or renewed by the State 
Legislature every other year. Under the 
charter of 1876 the people of St. Louis have 
almost absolute discretion in the management 
of their local affairs, and all the changes from 
the old methods have been improvements. 
The legislative body is called the Municipal 
Assembly, and is composed of a council of 
thirteen members chosen on a general ticket 
every four years, and a house of delegates, 
one from each ward, chosen every two years. 
The executive and administrative depart- 
ment consists of the mayor, comptroller, 
auditor, treasurer, register, collector, re- 
corder of deeds, inspector of weights and 
measures, sheriff, coroner, marshal, public 
administrator, president of the board of as- 
sessors and president of the board of public 
improvements, chosen by the people and 
holding office for four years, and a city coun- 
selor, district assessors, superintendent of 



workhouse, superintendent of house of 
refuge, superintendent of fire and police tele- 
graph, commissioner of supplies, assessor of 
water rates, two police justices, attorney, 
jailer and five commissioners of charitable 
institutions, appointed by the mayor and 
holding office for four years. 

In 1879, two years and a half after the 
Scheme and Charter went into effect, Mayor 
Overstolz, in his message, congratulated the 
people of St. Louis on the improved condi- 
tion of their municipal affairs, increased pros- 
perity, better management of the city debt 
and more efficient appropriation of the rev- \ 
enues, a higher credit, easy working of the 
public institutions and a more vigorous pros- 
ecution of public improvements, all attribut- 
able to the larger control over their fortunes 
which the new charter gave them. At the 
time of accepting the first city charter, in 
1823, the population of St. Louis was about 
4,000, and its taxable valuation $1,200,000. 
In 1839 the population had increased to 
16,000, and the taxable valuation to $8,682,- 
500, and the revenue was $43,291. Two years 
later, in 1841, the population was 20,000 and 
the valuation $12,100,000; in 1855 the popula- 
tion was 100,000 and the valuation $59,609,- 
000; in 1865 the population was 190,000 and 
the valuation $87,624,000; in 1880 the popu- 
lation was 350,522 and the valuation $163,- 
566,000; in 1890 the population was 451,770 
and the valuation $245,931,000; in 1898 the 
population was (estimated) 660,000 and the 
valuation $353,988,000. 

The first city debt was incurred in 1827; it 
was $13,000 for a market and city hall; in 
1 83 1 there was an increase of $25,000 for 
waterworks; in 1837 there was another in- 
crease of $100,000 for the improvement of 
the harbor, and in 1845 there was another 
$100,000 added for the further improvement 
of the harbor. Other additions were made 
for various purposes, and in 1848 the city 
debt was stated at $1,036,121. In 1850 the 
bonded indebtedness was $1,192,992; in 1851 
there was another increase of $120,000 for 
improving the harbor and the levee. In 1852 
the bonded debt of the city was $1,850,000, 
and in 1854 it was $3,250,296, of which* 
$1,246,000 was incurred in aid of railroads. 
From this time on the obligations rapidly 
increased for waterworks, parks, harbor, rail- 
roads, hospitals and sewers. In 1869 the \ 
aggregate was $12,335,000; in 1873 it was ii 



GOVERNOR- GOVERNORS, FRENCH AND SPANISH. 



79 



$14,086,000; in 1877 it was $16,318,000, and in 
1876 it was $23,067,000, of which $6,820,000 
was the old County of St. Louis debt, as- 
sumed by the city on the separation. After 
this separation, under the new charter, the 
debt began to be reduced, and in 1892 it was 
$21,524,680, and in 1897 it was $20,352,278, 
with an annual interest charge of $879,119. 
The sewer system of St. Louis was author- 
ized by what was called the "New Charter" 
of 1843, which allowed the city council to 
"establish, alter and change the channels of 
water courses, and to wall them up and cover 
them over;" but it was not till after the 
devastating visitation of cholera in 1849 ^^at 
the work of draining the city was systemati- 
•cally and vigorously begun. Biddle Creek 
sewer was then commenced for draining 
"Kayser's Lake," a large, deep pond in the 
neighborhood of the intersection of Biddle 
ana O'Fallon Streets and Cass Avenue with 
Eleventh and Twelfth Streets, and this was 
followed by Mill Creek sewer for draining 
Chouteau's Pond and Mill Creek Valley. 
Sewer districts were defined and estab- 
lished; the extension was vigorously prose- 
cuted from year to year until, in 1882, there 
were 211 miles of public sewers, constructed 
at a cost of $6,418,458. In 1829 the city's 
waterworks had a beginning in a contract 
with a private corporation for supplying 
water from the Mississippi, through reser- 
voirs and pipes. In 1832 a small reservoir 
was made and pumps erected above the city, 
in the vicinity of what is now Bates Street. 
As the population increased the works were 
enlarged, and in 1850 a basin was made with 
a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons. It cost $30,- 
000, and the expense of the new works, 
including reservoir, pumps and mains, was 
stated at $180,000. In 1854 a larger one was 
constructed on Benton Street, with a capacity 
of 40,000,000 gallons. In 1865 the new water- 
works, with pumps and settling basins at 
Bissell's Point, a water-tower and the Comp- 
ton Hill reservoir, were begun and prosecuted 
to completion; and these works, extended 
and enlarged from time to time, have served 
as the basis of the city's water system ever 

^^"^^- D. M. Grissom. 

Governor. — The chief officer of the 
State, and head of the executive department. 
He is chosen by the people at the general 
State election, and holds office for a term of 



four years. He cannot be elected to suc- 
ceed himself. He must be thirty-five years 
old, and have been a citizen of the United 
States ten years, and of Missouri for seven 
years, before his election. He must approve 
bills enacted by the General Assembly to 
make them laws, unless he withholds his veto 
for ten days, or unless they are passed over 
his veto by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers of each house. His chief duty is to see 
that the laws are faithfully executed. The 
militia are subject to his orders, and he may 
call out troops to "execute the laws, suppress 
insurrection, and repel invasion." He has 
authority to call the General Assembly to- 
gether in special session, grant pardons after 
conviction, commute sentences, fill State, 
county and district offices by appointment, 
when vacancies occur, call special elections, 
and to appoint a number of State and local 
officers for their full terms. He is required 
to reside at the State capital, where an execu- 
tive mansion is provided and furnished for 
him. His salary is $5,000 a year. 

Governors, French and Spanish. — 

The first royal Governor of the Province of 
Louisiana was Sauvolle Le Moyne — com- 
monly called Sauvolle — brother to D'lber- 
ville, founder of the colony, who was commis- 
sioned by Louis XIV in 1699. He died at 
his post of duty in 1701, and was succeeded 
by Bienville Jean Baptist Le Moyne — called 
always Bienville — who controlled the affairs 
of the colony until 1712, when Anthony 
Crozat received his grant of the exclusive 
right to trade in the colony and introduce 
slaves from Africa, from the French king. 
Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac became Gov- 
ernor in 1713, and served in that capacity 
until 1717, when he was superseded by M. de 
I'Epinay, who was in turn superseded by 
Bienville. Boisbriant and Perier were the 
next Governors in the order named, and in 
1733 Bienville again became colonial Gov- 
ernor. In 1743 he was superseded by the 
Marquis de Vaudreuil, who in turn gave place 
to Louis Billouart de Kerlerec in 1752. Ker- 
lerec was Governor of the colony during the 
"Seven Years' War," relinquishing his office 
to D'Abbadie, who surrendered the govern- 
ment to Spain. Captain Aubrey was acting 
Governor after the death of D'Abbadie, 
pending the establishment of the Spanish 
authority. Antonio de Ulloa, distinguished 



80 



GOVERNORS OF THE TERRITORY 



as a Spanish naval officer, was the first Span- 
ish Governor of Louisiana, being such in 
name only, as he failed to win over the 
French colonists, and was recalled by his 
government in 1766. He was succeeded by 
General Alexander O'Reilly, who established 
Spanish domination in New Orleans and 
served as Governor until 1769. O'Reilly's 
successor was Don Luis Unzaga, and Un- 
zaga's successor was Don Bernardo de Gal- 
vez, appointed Governor in 1777. Governor 
Miro, the Baron de Carondelet, Manuel 
Gayoso de Lemos, the Marquis de Casa 
Calvo and Don Juan Manuel de Salcedo then 
held the office in the order named down to 
the date of the retrocession of the Territory 
to France. After the retrocession Pierre 
Clement de Laussat was designated by the 
French government to take charge of the 
alifairs of the Province, which he form- 
ally surrendered to Governor William C C 
Claiborne and General James Wilkinson, rep- 
resentatives of the government of the United 
States. 

The list of Lieutenant Governors, who 
acted as the representatives of imperial 
authority in St. Louis, began with Pedro 
Piernas and ended with Charles Dehault 
Delassus. Prior to the coming of Piernas, 
however, St. Ange de Bellerive had exercised 
the functions of Lieutenant Governor with- 
out imperial authority, but by common con- 
sent of the people. After surrendering to 
the British the government of the yiinois 
country, in accordance with his instructions 
from France, he came to St. Louis from 
Fort Chartres in 1765. He was accustomed 
to command, and the people with whom he 
became associated recognized the necessity 
for some sort of government for their infant 
colony. In 1766, therefore — January 2d — he 
assumed the lieutenant governorship, with- 
out any other commission than the consent 
of the governed, and exercised the authority 
of that office until May 20, 1770, when Cap- 
tain Piernas arrived in St. Louis, bearing a 
royal commission. Piernas established the 
Spanish authority in St. Louis, and served 
as Lieutenant Governor until May 20, 1775, 
when he was succeeded by Francisco Cruzat. 
Cruzat was succeeded, June 17, 1778, by 
Ferdinand de Leyba, who held the office for 
two years and until his death. After Leyba's 
death, Don Silvio Francisco Cartabona was 
acting Lieutenant Governor for three months 



toward the close of 1780, retiring when Fran- 
cisco Cruzat was reappointed to that office. 
Cruzat's second term of service lasted until 
November t.'j, 1787, when he was succeeded 
by Emanuel Perez, who served until 1792. 
July 21, 1792, Don Zenon Trudeau became 
Lieutenant Governor. August 29, 1799, he 
was succeeded by Charles Dehault Delassus, 
who surrendered his authority to Captain 
Amos Stoddard, representing the govern- 
ments of France and the United States, 
March 9, 1804. 

Governors of the Territory. — By 

act of Congress, March 26, 1804, the newly 
acquired Territory of Louisiana was divided 
into the Territory of Orleans — afterward the 
State of Louisiana — and the District of Lou- 
isiana, known as "Upper Louisiana." Under 
the same enactment, Upper Louisiana was 
attached to the Territory of Indiana tempo- 
rarily, and General William Henry Harrison, 
then Governor of Indiana Territory, was the 
first Territorial Governor to exercise juris- 
diction over what is now the State of Mis- 
souri. March 3, 1805, Congress passed an act 
transforming the District of Louisiana into 
the Territory of Louisiana, and General 
James Wilkinson became Governor of the 
Territory by appointment of President Jeflfer- 
son. Joseph Browne, who was appointed 
secretary of the Territory at the same time 
that Wilkinson was appointed Governor, 
served for a time as acting Governor, and 
Frederick Bates, who succeeded Browne as 
secretary, was also acting Governor in the 
absence from his post of General Wilkinson. 
Captain Meriwether Lewis was appointed 
Governor by President JeflFerson in 1807, and 
served in that capacity until his death, in 
1809. Benjamin Howard succeeded Lewis 
by appointment of President Madison, serv- 
ing until 1813, when he resigned his office to 
accept a brigadier general's commission in 
the United States Army. It was during his 
administration that the Territory of Missouri 
was created, and he was the first to govern 
the Territory under that name. Captain Wil- 
liam Clark — who had been associated with 
Lewis in the famous "Lewis and Clark Expe- 
dition" — was the. next Territorial Governor 
of Missouri, his term of office beginning in 
1813 and continuing until the admis- 
sion of Missouri into the Union as a State 
in 1820. 



GOVERNORS, STATE. 



81 



Ooveriiors, State. — The following is a 
full and accurate list of the Governors of Mis- 
souri, from 1820 to 1900, inclusive, the years 
of their service, and dates of their death if 
not living : 

Alexander McNair, St. Louis. Elected Au- 
gust, 1820, for four years. Died March 18, 
1826. 

Frederick Bates, St. Louis. Elected 
August, 1824, for four years. Died August 
4, 1825. Abraham J. Williams, Columbia, 
Boone County, president of the Senate and 
ex-officio Governor, acted as Governor till 
the election to fill vacancy in September, 
1825. Died in Columbia, December 30, 1839. 

John Miller, Gooch Mills, Cooper County. 
Elected September, 1825, to fill vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of Governor Bates ; 
and elected August, 1828, for four years, and 
died at Florissant, Missouri, March 18, 1846. 

Daniel Dunklin, Washington County. 
Elected August, 1832, over John Bull, of 
Howard, for four years. Died August 25, 
1844. 

Lilburn W. Boggs, of Jackson County. 
Elected August, 1836, for four years. Died 
at Nappa Valley, California, March 14, i860. 

Thomas Reynolds, of Howard County. 
Elected August, 1840, for four years. Com- 
mitted suicide in Governor's Mansion, 
Jeflferson City, on Friday, February 9, 1844. 
M. M. Marmaduke, Saline County, Lieuten- 
ant Governor, acted as Governor until regu- 
lar election, August, 1844. Governor Mar.- 
maduke died March 26, 1864. 

John C. Edwards, Cole County. Elected 
August, 1844, for fo"r years. Died in Stock- 
ton, California, September 14, 1888. 

Austin A. King, Ray County. Elected 
August, 1848, for four vears. Died April 22, 
1870. 

Sterling Price, Chariton County. Elected 
August, 1852, for four years. Died in St. 
Louis, September 29, 1867. 

Trusten Polk, St. Louis. Elected August, 
1856, for four years, and elected to the United 
States Senate February 27, 1857, and re- 
signed the office of Governor. Hancock Jack- 
son, Lieutenant Governor, Randolph County, 
filled the vacancy until special election in 
August, 1857. Poll^ flied April 16, 1876. 
Jackson died in Salem, Oregon, March 19, 
1876, then his residence. 

Robert M, Stewart, Buchanan County. 
Elected August, 1857, to ^^1 out unexpired 

Vol. Ill— 6 



term of Governor Trusten Polk. Died Sep- 
tember 21, 1 87 1. 

Claiborne F. Jackson, Saline County. 
Elected August, i860, for four years. In July, 
1861, a State Convention declared the office 
vacant and elected Hamilton R. Gamble to 
fill vacancy. Jackson died December 6, 1862, 
opposite Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Hamilton R. Gamble, St. Louis. Elected 
Provisional Governor by the State Conven- 
tion, July 31, 1 861, to fill vacancy of C. F. 
Jackson. Gamble died January 31, 1864. 
Willard P. Hall, Buchanan County, Lieuten- 
ant Governor, acted as Governor until the 
end of Gamble's term and died November 
2, 1882. 

Thomas C. Fletcher, St. Louis. Elected 
November, 1864, for four years. Died in 
Washington City, March 25, 1899. 

Joseph W. McClurg, Camden County. 
Elected November, 1868, for two years. Died 
near Lebanon, Missouri, December 2, 1900. 

B. Gratz Brown, St. Louis. Elected No- 
vember, 1870, for two years. Died at Kirk- 
wood, December 13, 1885. 

Silas Woodson, of Buchanan County. 
Elected November, 1872. for two years. 
Died November 9, 1896. 

Charles H. Hardin, Audrain County. 
Elected November, 1874, for two years. 
Died July 29, 1892. 

John S. Phelps, Greene County. Elected 
November, 1876, for four years. Died No- 
vember 20, 1886. 

Thomas T. Crittenden, Johnson County. 
Elected November, 1880, for four years. Is 
yet living, in Kansas City. 

John S. Marmaduke, Saline County. 
Elected November, 1884, for four years. 
Died November 28, 1887. A. P. Morehouse, 
of Maryville, Lieutenant Governor, acted as 
Governor till end of term, and committed 
suicide at Maryville, September 31, 1891. 

David R. Francis, St. Louis. Elected No-: 
vember, 1888, for four years. Is yet living,, 
in St. Louis. 

William J. Stone, Vernon County. Elected 
November, 1892, for four years. Is yet living, 
and in St. Louis. 

Lon V. Stephens, of Cooper County. 
Elected November, 1896, for four years, and 
is yet serving out his term. 

Total number of Governors elected by the 
people, 24. Now living, 4, namely — Thomas 
T. Crittenden, David R. Francis, Wm. J. 



82 



GOWER— GRAHAM. 



Stone and Lon V. Stephens. Native Mis- 
■ sourians, 4 ; namely — Thomas C. F"letcher, 
Joseph W. McClurg, John S. Marmaduke 
and Lon V. Stephens. 

William F. Switzler. 

Gower. — A town in Clinton County, lo- 
cated in Atchison Township, nine miles west 
of Plattsburg, the county seat, and twenty 
miles southeast of St. Joseph. It was laid out 
in 1870 by Daniel Smith and named after A. 
G. Gower, who at that time was division su- 
perintendent of the St. Louis & St. Joseph, 
now the Wabash Railroad, at that place. The 
iirst postmaster was B. O. Wilier, and the first 
school teacher was Miss Mollie Tillery. In 
1873 Gower was incorporated and the first 
board of trustees was composed of E. T. 
Smith, president; R. T. Dusky, M. Duncan 
and J. Westbrook. The Gower bank has a 
capital of $12,000, and deposits of $75,000. 
Churches are maintained by the Baptists, the 
Christians and the Presbyterians. The "Epi- 
tomist" is an independent newspaper. Popu- 
lation 600. 

Graebiier, Augustus L.., clergyman, 
author and educator, was born July 10, 1849, 
in Saginaw County, Michigan. His parents 
were Rev. J. H. Ph. Graebner, a Lutheran 
minister, and Jacobina Graebner, his wife. 
Eldest of the children of this worthy couple, 
he was born in a log house in a colony of 
Franconian Lutherans, and among the most 
frequent visitors to his early home were the 
Indians of the Northwest, who now and then 
carried him about in their arms and allowed 
him to make toys of their tomahawks. When 
he was five years of age his parents removed 
to Roseville, Michigan, and from there the 
family came five years later to St. Charles, 
Missouri, where the father served as a Lu- 
theran minister for upward of thirty years. 
The boy had learned to read at his mother's 
knee from scraps of newspapers before he 
was five years old, and on his fifth birthday 
he received a Bible for a birthday present. 
Until he was twelve years of age he attended 
the parish schools, and then, after spending a 
year at an academy in St. Louis, he entered 
Concordia College, of Fort Wayne, Indiana. 
When in the senior year of his course at col- 
lege, chronic headache compelled him to 
break away from his studies for a while, but 
in the fall of the year he presented himself 



for examination and was admitted to the 
course in theology at Concordia Seminary, of 
St. Louis. Before the completion of his tri- 
ennium at the seminary he received and ac- 
cepted a call to what was then a Lutiieran 
high school, but has since been incorporated 
as Walther College, St. Louis. While teach- 
ing in this institution he married Miss Anna 
Schaller, daughter of the late Professor 
Schaller, of Concordia Seminary. After hav- 
ing taught for three years he was called to 
Northwestern University, of Watertown, 
Wisconsin, where he taught languages and 
history during the next three years. When, 
in 1878, the Lutheran Synod of Wisconsin 
opened a theological seminary at Milwaukee, 
he was a member of the faculty of that in- 
stitution. From 1880 to 1887 he was also the 
editor of the religious periodical published 
by that synod. While at Milwaukee he also 
published his "Life of Luther" and several 
other volumes, dogmatical and polemical and 
historical. In 1887 he was again called to 
St. Louis to take the chair of Ecclesiastical 
History in Concordia Seminary, which he 
now occupies, having been since 1893 the in- 
cumbent also of the English professorship 
of theology in that institution. He 
is a member of the Board of 
EngHsh Home Missions, of the Board 
of Foreign Missions, and of the 
Board of Trustees of Walther College, 
holding the office of superintendent of the 
last named institution. He is associate editor 
of several theological periodicals, and the 
author of a number of theological works, 
among which a "History of the Lutheran 
Church in America" and his "Outlines of 
Doctrinal Theology" may be especially men- 
tioned. He is also the author of the historical 
sketch, "Lutheran Church," which appears 
elsewhere in these volumes. 

Grahaui. — A village situated in the 
southwestern part of Nodaway County, in 
Hughes Township, near Elkhorn Creek. It 
was laid out in 1856 by Andrew Brown, and 
called Jacksonville, the name being changed 
afterward in honor of Colonel Amos Graham. 
The first settlement in the county was made 
by Isaac Hogan, whose log cabin stood near 
Graham. This was in 1839. Now Graham 
is a town of 400 inhabitants. It is well located 
in the midst of a rich farming region, sur- 
rounded by woods. There are three springs ^ 



GRAIN VALLEY— CRANBERRY. 



83 



of water within the town limits. Within a 
mile are four quarries that supply choice 
building stone. It has a bank called the Citi- 
zens' Bank, capital and surpkis $20,600, de- 
posits, $50,000; a number of business houses, 
a Methodist Episcopal, a German Methodist 
Episcopal and a Presbyterian Church, and 
Graham Council, No. 112, of the Masonic 
Order; Reynolds Post, G.. A. R, ; Graham 
Lodge, No. 202, Ancient Order of United 
Workmen; Golden Rule Encampment, No. 
40, and Hesperian Lodge, No. 189, of the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows. The "Gra- 
ham Post" is a well supported newspaper. 

Ciraiii Valley. — A town in Jackson 
County, platted by Joseph Peters in 1878, and 
situated on the Chicago & Alton Railroad. 
It contains stores, schools, churches, etc. It 
is the business center of a fertile portion of 
the county, and its population is 600. 

Gramme Society. — The Gramme So- 
ciety of Kansas City was the first organiza- 
tion of its kind in the world, and attracted 
international attention, and was made the 
model for many similar societies in other 
countries. It was instituted through the ef- 
fort of Edwin R. Weeks, general manager of 
the Kansas City Electric Light Company. 
The rapid development of electrical indus- 
tries found schools and colleges unprepared 
to provide trained workmen to supply the 
immediate need. Employers were obliged to 
depend upon unskilled men for the opera- 
tion of machinery as yet unperfected and 
easily depreciated by ignorant handling. To 
meet his own emergency, Mr. Weeks formed 
the men in his employ into a mutual im- 
provement association, which was named the 
Gramme Society, after a French scientist 
who had made some radical improvements in 
the construction of dynamo-electric ma- 
chines. The society was organized March 12, 
1887, with fourteen members ; the number 
was increased from time to time as new men 
were called into service by the Kansas City 
Electric Light Company and other companies 
■ under Mr. Weeks' management, and at one 
time nearly 100 persons were enrolled. The 
original ofBcers were : Edwin R. Weeks, 
president ; Charles Harber, vice president ; 
Thomas Conroy, secretary ; with a committee 
on education comprising John Gadwood, G. 
W. Hart and the president ex-officio. Mr. 



Weeks was the directing spirit from the be- 
ginning, and maintained his interest until his 
withdrawal from the Electric Light Company 
in June, 1900, and the great success of the so- 
ciety was pre-eminently due to his zealous 
and intelligent effort. A reading room and 
auditorium were opened, provided with 
tables, blackboards and writing materials, 
and the Electric Light Company presented 
the society the nucleus of a library, 100 vol- 
umes bearing upon the science of electricity, 
its machinery and its practical uses, and upon 
the fundamental sciences, and kindred 
branches of knowledge. Semi-monthly meet- 
ings were held, and regular programmes were 
arranged, providing for papers and discus- 
sions upon scientific topics, with biographical 
sketches of noted scientists,. preferably elec- 
tricians. The meetings were open to all in- 
terested auditors, but participation was 
restricted to members. Monthly cash prizes 
were awarded upon graded examinations to 
determine excellence in attainment of knowl- 
edge, and in various ways it was shown that 
in education lay the pathway to success. The 
results were eminently satisfactory, ^nd the 
light companies attributed their prosperity 
and immunity from difHculty with their em- 
ployes in no small measure to the bond of 
mutual sympathy and helpfulness created 
through the operations of the society. From 
the body of the latter organization came 
superintendents of both the Kansas City and 
the Edison Light Companies, while other 
members came to be recognized as expert 
electricians and machinists, and were called 
to neighboring States, and even to South 
x-Xmerica, to Australia and to Japan, to set 
up and operate American machinery. For a 
number of years each member of the society 
paid fifty cents a month to a relief fund, the 
Kansas City Electric Light Company con- 
tributing a like amount, but the latter assist- 
ance was recently withdrawn. In spite of this, 
so great was the interest, that the society 
was maintained. In 1890 the active member- 
ship was about fifty. The officers were 
Joseph Magrath, president; Charles E. Poe, 
vice president; F. A. White, secretary and 
treasurer. The present committee on educa- 
tion is C. A. Harber, E. A. Barth and Edwin. 
R. Weeks. p y. Hedley. 

Granberry, John Cowper, Metho- 
dist Episcopal bishop, was born in Virginia, 



84 



GRANBY— GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 



December 5., 1829; was educated at Randolph 
Macon College, and became a minister of tiie 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in the 
Virginia conference ; was a chaplain in the 
Confederate Army, and was wounded in one 
of the battles near Richmond. From 1875 to 
1882 he was a professor in Vanderbilt Lni- 
versity, at Nashville, Tennessee. In the latter 
year he was chosen bishop, and removed his 
family to St. Louis and made it his episcopal 
home for several years. 

Granby. — A city in Newton County, 
eight miles east of Neosho, the county seat, 
on the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway. 
It has schools for white and colored chil- 
dren ; Baptist, Christian and Catholic 
Churches, and the "Granby Miner," an inde- 
pendent newspaper. Fraternal societies rep- 
resented are Masons, Odd Fellows, the 
Grand Army of the Republic, the Miners' 
Benevolent Association and the Miners' 
Union. In 1853 William Foster, a Cornish 
miner, found lead ore near the place, and 
within two years 3,000 people were on the 
groundj with numerous furnaces and acres 
of mines in operation. In 1857 Kennett, Blow 
& Co., of St. Louis, leased the lands and 
exacted royalty from the squatting miners. 
Mining was suspended during the war. In 
1865 the Granby Mining and Smelting Com- 
pany was organized, and operations were re- 
sumed on a larger scale. The smelting works 
of this company are among the largest in the 
mining district. (See "Zinc and Lead Mining 
in Southwest Missouri.") Granby was platted 
in 1866, incorporated in t868 and granted a 
charter as a city of the fourth class in 
1875, its area being defined as nearly three 
and one-half miles ; the organic act forbade 
the taxing of mineral lands for city purposes 
unless divided into lots. The population in 
1890 was 2.315. 

Granby Fight.— During the early part 
of the Civil War it was a matter of great 
importance to the Confederates in the South- 
west to secure supplies of lead from Mis- 
souri, and in the fall of 1862 General Rains, 
with a force of 2,000 men, was stationed on 
the old Pea Ridge battle field to cover the 
transportation of lead from the Granby mines 
to the Confederate arsenal at Little Rock. 
To break up the business a body of Federal 
troops took possession of Granby and* 



stopped the shipment of lead to the South. 
Colonel Shelby sent a force of Confederates, 
under Colonel Shanks, to attack the place 
and secure possession of it at whatever cost. 
The attack was made at daylight on the 23d 
of September, and resulted in the surprise 
and defeat of the Federals, who lost twenty- 
seven killed and w^ounded and forty-three 
taken prisoners, the Confederates losing only 
two men wounded. The mines were then 
actively worked under the protection of the 
Confederates, and large quantities of lead 
were sent to the Rains camp to be forwarded' 
to Little Rock. 

Grand Army of the Republic— A 

secret order composed of persons who 
served in the Army and Navy of the United 
States in the Civil War, its object being to 
preserve and strengthen fraternal feeling 
among its members, encourage loyal senti- 
ment, bury the dead of the society with be- 
coming honors, maintain the observance of 
May 30th as Memorial Day, by visiting ceme- 
teries and decorating the graves of buried 
patriots with flowers, and to furnish assist- 
ance to needy veterans' families. The order 
owes its origin to B. F. Stephenson, surgeon 
of the Fourteenth Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry. The first general orders were issued 
April I, 1866, a year after the close of the 
Civil War, and the first post was organized 
April 6th of that year, at Decatur, Illinois, 
and a national organization effected at a con- 
vention held at Indianapolis in November 
following. The first twelve charter members 
all served in Illinois regiments. The motto 
of the order is "Fraternity, Charity and Loy- 
alty." Party politics are forbidden in its dis- 
cussions. The constituted bodies of the order, 
beginning with the lowest, are : First, a 
local organization, known as Post No. — ; 
second, a State organization known as a de- 
partment ; and third, a national organization 
known as a National Encampment of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. The supreme 
power h lodged in the National Encampment 
held every year. Each post has a relief 
fund, and no needy member is allowed to go 
unassisted. The observance of Memorial or 
Decoration Day is scrupulously maintained. 
On the Sunday preceding the day, the posts 
attend church, and if any member has died 
during the year a memorial service is held ; 
and when the 30th of May arrives, all join 



GRAND FALLS— GRAND TOWER. 



85 



r 



in orderly processions to the cemeteries 
where departed loyal soldiers lie buried, and 
deposit wreaths and bunches of flowers upon 
the graves. The membership of the order 
reached its highest point in 1892, when there 
were 409,489 members in the United States. 
At the first national convention, held at Indi- 
anapolis in 1866, Missouri was represented by 
a body known as the "Volunteer Mutual Aid 
Society," which was there merged into the 
Grand Army of the Republic; but the new 
organization did not prove fortunate at first, 
and after a while passed out of existence. 
In 1874 Abraham Lincoln Post No. i was 
organized in St. Louis, but it was a failure 
also, and in two years was abandoned. 
Finally on the 8th of December, 1879, a meet- 
ing of ex-soldiers of the Union Army was 
held at St. Louis in the office of ex-Governor 
Thomas C. Fletcher, which brought about, 
the following month, the organization of 
Frank P. Blair Post, No. i, with John Reed, 
Thomas R. Rodgers, S. O. Fish, John W. 
Francis. R. B. Beck, G. Harrv Stone, John 
O'Connell, John B. Pachall, F. R. Potter, 
George C. Chaise, Richard Mallinckrodt, E. 
M. Joel, B. Seaman and Arthur Dreifus as 
charter members. April 22, 1882, a State 
convention of delegates from all the Grand 
Army posts in Missouri was held at Kansas 
City, and the Missouri Department of the 
Grand Army of the Republic was organized, 
with Major William Warner as department 
commander. The next year he was re- 
elected, and during the two years of his ad- 
ministration the jnembership of the depart- 
ment increased from 500 to over 6.000. At 
the beginning of the year 1900 the order had 
an organization in 107 counties in Missouri, 
with 415 posts and 17,543 comrades, there 
being in St. Louis nine posts and 2,096 com- 
rades ; in Kansas City three posts and 697 
comrades, and in St. Joseph one post with 
207 comrades. 

Grand Falls. — A beautiful falls on Shoal 
Creek, in the northwestern part of Newton 
County. 

Grand Gnlf. — A curious formation in 
the southwestern part of Oregon County, 
where, in the midst of a level country, there 
is a sunken area three-quarters of a mile in 
length, 50 to 100 feet in width, and 150 feet 
in depth. 



Grandin. — An incorporated town in 
Johnson Township, Carter County, on Little 
Black River, and on the Current River 
branch of the Kansas City, Fort Scott & 
Memphis Railway, twenty miles southeast of 
Van Buren. It has three churches, a public 
school, electric lights, four stores* and two 
saw and planing mills. The largest lumber 
manufacturing plant in Missouri is located 
there. Population, 1899 (estimated), 800. 

Grand Jury. — A body of men, twelve in 
number, selected by the county court or the 
sheriff, from dififerent parts of the county, 
whose duty it is, under general instructions 
from the court, to inquire into crimes and 
offenses against the laws. They have author- 
ity to summon witnesses and compel their 
attendance, and to find true bills in cases 
where there is reasonable evidence sufficient 
to sustain a trial. The grand jury holds its 
sessions in secret, and its members take an 
oath to inquire and perform their duty "with- 
out hatred, malice, fear, favor or affection," 
and not to divulge their proceedings. Nine 
members of the grand jury, or a majority, 
may find a true bill. 

Grand River. — The North Missouri 
Grand River is the largest stream in that 
part of the State. It is made up of several 
branches — Locust Creek, which rises in 
southern Iowa and runs south through Put- 
nam, Sullivan and Linn Counties ; Medicine 
and Weldon Creeks, which also rise in south- 
ern Iowa and flow south through Mercer, 
Putnam, Grundy and Livingston Counties ; 
Thompson's Branch, which rises in southern 
Iowa, and flows through Harrison and 
Grundy Counties ; Big River, which rises in 
southern Iowa and runs through Harrison 
and Daviess Counties, and the East Fork, 
Middle Fork and West Fork, which rise in 
southern Iowa, and, flowing through Worth 
and Gentry Counties, unite to form the main 
stream which flows into the Missouri at 
Brunswick. Grand River, with its tributaries, 
waters thirteen counties. It has a length of 
200 miles. Another stream, called Grand 
River, rises in Kansas and flows through 
Cass, Bates, Henry and Benton Counties of 
Missouri, a distance of 100 miles. 

Grand Tower. — A curious tower of 
rock in the Mississippi River near the Mis- 



86 



GRANGER— GRANT. 



souri shore, opposite the city of Grand Tower 
in Illinois, and loo miles below St. Louis. 
It is seventy-five feet in height and affords 
from its summit a fine view of the surround- 
ing country. In the days of keel-boating 
in the West it was a dangerous point to pass 
on account of the desperate river bandits 
who, for a time, made it their rendezvous. 

Granger. — ^A village in Scotland Coun- 
ty, on the Keokuk & Western Railroad, 
eleven miles east of Memphis. It has two 
churches, Methodist Episcopal and Chris- 
tian ; a bank, a hotel and a few stores. Pop- 
ulation, 1899 (estimated), 290. 

Granite Quarry. — A mass of granite, 
seventy feet high and covering several hun- 
dred acres, six miles northwest of Ironton. 
On the top of the mountain are enormous 
bowlders, some of them twenty-five feet high, 
worn round and smooth by movements ages 
ago. The granite is red, of the best quality, 
and is extensively used in St. Louis and 
elsewhere for street paving and buildings. 

Graniteville. — A village in Iron Town- 
ship, Iron County, a mile northwest of 
Ironton, on a branch railroad running from 
Middlebrook, three miles distant on the Iron 
Mountain Railroad. It was settled in 1873. 
There are extensive granite quarries that 
give employment to 500 men. The village has 
two churches, a public hall, a free school and 
three general stores. The population in 1890 
was 721. 

Grant, Ulysses Simpson, the great- 
est of American soldiers and eighteenth 
President of the United States, was for six 
years a resident of St. Louis, and here he 
married Julia Dent, daughter of Frederick 
and Ellen (Wrenshall) Dent. General Grant 
was born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, April 27, 
1822, and died on Mount McGregor, near 
Saratoga, New York, July 23, 1885. He was 
of Scottish ancestry, but his family had been 
Americanized in all its branches for eight 
generations. He was a descendant of 
Mathew Grant, who arrived at Dorchester, 
Massachusetts, in May of 1630. His father 
was Jesse R. Grant, and his mother's maiden 
name was Hannah Simpson. His parents 
were married in Clermont County, Ohio, in 
1821, and Ulysses S. Grant was the eldest 



of six children. He passed his boyhood on 
his father's farm in Ohio, and attended the 
village school until 1839, when he was ap- 
pointed to a cadetship in the United States 
Military Academy at West Point by Honor- 
able Thomas L. Hamer, then a member of 
Congress from Ohio. In this connection it 
is of interest to note the fact that an error in 
the appointment gave him a name which he 
ever afterward bore. At his birth he was 
christened Hiram Ulysses, but as a boy he 
was always called by his middle name. Mr. 
Hamer, thinking this his first name, and that 
his middle name was probably that of his 
mother's family, inserted in the ofHcial ap- 
pointment the name Ulysses S. He was 
graduated from the Military Academy in 
1843, standing twenty-first in a class of thirty- 
nine. He was commissioned, on graduation, 
as a brevet second lieutenant, was attached 
to the Fourth Infantry regiment and assigned 
to duty at Jefferson Barracks. He was 
commissioned second lieutenant in 1845, and 
served in the war with Mexico, first under 
General Taylor and then under General 
Scott, taking part in every battle from 
Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. He 
was made captain in 1853. The year follow- 
ing he resigned and established his home on 
the farm near St. Louis, which is now known 
as "Grantwood" and is the property of Cap- 
tain Luther H. Conn, of that city. For six 
years thereafter he engaged in farming and 
in the real, estate business in St. Louis, but 
in neither calling can he be said to have 
succeeded. In i860 he removed to Galena, 
Illinois, and there became a clerk in the hard- 
ware and leather store of his father. He 
was one of the first to offer his services to 
his country when the Civil War broke out, 
and became colonel of an Illinois volunteer 
regiment. In May he was made brigadier 
general and placed in command at Cairo. 
He occupied Paducah, broke up the Confed- 
erate camp at Belmont, and in February, 
1862, captured Forts Henry and Donelson. 
He was then promoted to major general, 
conducted the battle of Pittsburg Landing, or 
Shiloh, and for a while was second in com- 
mand to Halleck. He performed excellent 
service in the West and Southwest, especially 
in the vicinity of the Mississippi River and at 
and near the Tennessee River, in 1863. He 
was created lieutenant general on March i, 
1864, and awarded a gold medal by Con- 



GRANT CITY— GRANT MEDALS. 



87 



f 



f 



gress. He issued his first order as general- 
in-chief of the armies of the United States at 
Nashville, March 17, 1864. In the grand 
movements of the armies in 1864 he accom- 
panied that of the Potomac, with his head- 
quarters "in the field," and he remained with 
it until he signed the articles of capitulation 
at Appomattox Courthouse, April 9, 1865. 
In 1866 he was promoted to general of the 
United States Army. After the war Grant 
fixed his headquarters at Washington. When 
President Johnson suspended Stanton from 
the office of Secretary of War — August 12, 
1867 — Grant was put in his place, ad interim, 
and held the position until January 14, 1868, 
when Stanton was reinstated by the Senate. 
In 1868 General Grant was elected President 
of the United States by the Republican party, 
and was re-elected in 1872. He retired from 
the office March 4, 1877. After his retire- 
ment from the presidency he visited the coun- 
tries of the old world, sailing from Philadel- 
phia May 17, 1877. While he was abroad he 
was entertained in a princely manner, and 
upon his return to the United States, in Sep- 
tember of 1879, he made a triumphal tour 
across the continent from San Francisco. In 
1880 he was again put forward as a candidate 
for the Republican nomination for the presi- 
dency, but the traditional sentiment against a 
third presidential term influenced the Na- 
tional Convention held in Chicago against 
him, and after a long and exciting session 
the delegates to the convention compromised 
by nominating General James A. Garfield. 
In August of 1881 he established his home in 
New York and passed the remainder of his 
life in that city. He completed two volumes 
of "Personal Memoirs" while on his death 
bed. See "Military History of Ulysses S. 
Grant," by Adam Badeau; "Life and Public 
Services of General Ulysses S. Grant," by 
James Grant Wilson. 

Grant City. — A city of the fourth class, 
the judicial seat of Worth County, situated 
near the center of the county, and the south- 
ern terminus of a branch of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad. It was laid 
out in 1864, in which year it was made the 
county seat, and was named in honor of 
General U. S. Grant. It has Baptist, Chris- 
tion, Methodist Episcopal, Free Methodist 
and Presbyterian Churches. There are an ex- 
cellent graded public school, two banks, a 



flouring mill, two hotels, a good courthouse 
and jail, two weekly papers, the "Star" and 
the "Times." There are about fifty miscel- 
laneous business houses in the city. Popu- 
lation, 1899 (estimated), 1,200. 

Grant Medals. — Th-e famous Grant 
medals, designed to commemorate one of the 
most interesting events in the political his- 
tory of the United States, were executed in 
St. Louis, and distributed from that city to 
those entitled to them. At the National Re- 
publican Convention held in Chicago in 1880 
it was proposed for the first time since 
Washington refused a third term of the presi- 
dency, to again nominate for that office the 
great soldier who had four years earlier re- 
linquished the chief magistracy of the nation 
after having served two terms, the limit fixed 
by custom and the unwritten law of the land. 
The opposition to this innovation proved un- 
yielding and finally forced the nomination of 
General James A. Garfield, but from the be- 
ginning to the end of that historic struggle 
306 delegates cast their votes on every ballot 
for General Grant, standing together to the 
last, like Napoleon's "Old Guard." A few 
days after the convention, Senator J. Donald 
Cameron, of Pennsylvania, and Chauncey I. 
Filley, of St. Louis, were taking a stroll to- 
gether, when tke matter of commemorating 
the fealty of the "306" suggested itself and 
was discussed. A medal was decided upon 
and each commenced penciling, upon the 
store-box upon which they seated them- 
selves, a design. From these pencilings, 
coinciding as to the general features, the 
project was left for Mr. Filley to carry out, 
so that each of the 306 could have a medal. 
In pursuance of this arrangement he secured 
from General Grant his latest photograph, 
called into service Mr. Kershaw, the St. Louis 
engraver and bronze worker, and they carried 
out the details so that the result of their de- 
signs was approved on submission to Senator 
Cameron and Mrs. Grant. The medals were 
then struck, the list of delegates' names pre- 
pared and certified to in each State, and to 
each was sent a medal. There was consider- 
able demand from those who were not en- 
titled to them, and as late as 1897 requests 
for them were made by the friends of General 
Grant, but only enough were struck off for. 
the delegates. Senator Cameron paid the en- 
tire expense of preparing the medals. They 



88 



GRANTWOOD. 



were made of bronze and were about three 
inches in diameter. A profile of General 
Grant adorned one side of the medal, and on 
the obverse side was the following inscrip- 
tion : "Commemorative of the Fifty-six Bal- 
lots of The Old Guard for Ulysses S. Grant 
for President; Republican National Conven- 
tion, Chicago, June, 1880." 

Grant wood. — The estate formerly called 
"White Haven," once owned by Colonel F. 
T. Dent, father-in-law of General U. S. Grant, 
and afterward owned by Grant himself. 
When it passed out of his possession it was 
purchased by Captain Luther H. Conn, a citi- 
zen of St. Louis, an ex-Confederate officer, 
who changed the name to "Grantwood," as 
being more expressive of its historic signifi- 
cance. It is a noble estate, comprising nearly 
800 acres at the time when it was occupied 
as the country seat of Colonel Dent, but re- 
duced now to 650 acres, situated ten and a 
half miles southwest of St. Louis, on the 
Gravois Road, in the Gravois neighborhood, 
one of the oldest American settlements of St. 
Louis County. It is five miles from Jefferson 
Barracks, five miles from the quiet old town 
of Fenton, on the Meramec River and five 
miles from Kirkwood. The Carondelet 
branch of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, from 
Kirkwood to Carondelet. rtms through it, 
and so does the beautiful Gravois Creek, 
which gives the name to the road and the 
neighborhood. The estate is about equally 
divided between cleared and wood land, and 
might be called an ideal stock farm, the 
creek supplying an abundance of water all the 
year round, the fertile fields yielding good 
crops of grain and hay, and the ample forest 
furnishing woodland pasture and shelter. 
Colonel Dent turned it to account in the rear- 
ing of animals ; General Grant improved its 
capacity for this purpose, and Captain Conn, 
the present proprietor, who has a quick eye 
and a warm feeling for a good horse and a 
full-blooded shorthorn, has still further de- 
veloped its advantages as a breeding ground 
for choice animals. Captain Conn is a gen- 
tleman of leisure, taste, travel and means, 
and, withal, hospitable and afifable, and the 
many visitors from all parts of the L^nited 
States and foreign lands who visit the place 
where the great American general and Pres- 
ident wooed and won the fair lady who be- 
came his wife, bear away with them pleasant 



recollections of the host who seems to regard 
himself as holding the estate for the great 
soldier's countrymen. The old Dent man- 
sion, which gave the name "White Haven" 
to the place, is still standing in good condi-- 
tion, and is occupied by the present propri- 
etor, who has been careful, while keeping it 
in good repair, to* preserve the original char- 
acter and appearance. It is a two-story 
frame house, with attic, wide and roomy, with 
the spacious two-story veranda in front so 
frequently met with in Southern country 
seats, and heavy stone chimneys at the ends. 
Before the war there were the cabins for 
colored people, always seen on Southern 
country seats, but these have disappeared and 
in place of them are the barns and sheds 
which General Grant built for horses and cat- 
tle when the estate came into his possession. 
The wide breast of the massive chimneys 
suggests the old-fashioned fireplaces within, 
and on entering the house the visitor finds 
them as wide and ample as the rooms to be 
warmed by them. Grantwood is within 
hearing distance of the guns of Jefferson 
Barracks, and it is to this fact that that very 
important event in Grant's life — his marriage 
to Miss Julia Dent — is due. Her brother, 
F. T. Dent — afterward brigadier general and 
minister to Denmark — w'as one of his class- 
mates at West Point, and when Lieutenant 
Grant, after leaving the Military Academy, 
was assigned to duty at the barracks, noth- 
ing was more natural than that he should be 
invited to the home of this brother ; and thus 
began, in 1844, the acquaintance which had 
so much to do with the young lieutenant's 
subsequent career. General Grant not only 
highly appreciated White Haven on account 
of its value as a stock farm, but had a fond 
attachment for it on account of the romantic 
youthful associations connected with it. It 
was there he won his wife, and it was there 
all their children were born ; and while he was 
still at Washington, absorbed in Ijie cares of 
ofifice, he was accustomed to say that he 
looked forward eagerly to the time when he 
should retire from pul3lic life and spend his 
last days in the sylvan scenes and amid the 
lural delights of White Haven. Mrs. Grant 
shared with him this affection for her early 
home, and when, in 1893. she visited it, with 
her son, Jesse R. Grant, and his wife, it was 
an unexpected delight to her to find it look- 
ing almost exactly as she had left it many 



GRASSHOPPER YEAR- GRATIOT. 



years before. The Gravois region is a beau- 
tiful rolling country, occupied chiefly by 
orchards, vineyards and gardens owned by a 
thrifty and neighborly people. It was settled 
in the early days by the Sappingtons and 
Longs, whose descendants still exhibit the 
sterling virtues of their pioneer ancestors of 
three generations ago. General Grant was 
well known and warmly esteemed in the 
neighborhood in his early days, and one of 
his steadfast personal friends was Colonel 
John F. Long, who. Democrat, though he 
was, was appointed by him surveyor of the 
port of St. Louis during his administration. 
Mrs. Grant and her father's family also are 
affectionately remembered by the few still re- 
maining old citizens who knew them as occu- 
pants of White Haven. There have been 
suggestions among surviving veterans of the 
LTnion Army that the estate ought to be saved 
from the subdivision into small tracts that 
will ultimately be its fate, if left to private 
ownership, by making it a national park as a 
perpetual memorial of General Grant, and a 
visiting spot for his countrymen ; but Captain 
Conn is himself greatly attached to it, be- 
cause of its adaptation to stock-breeding and 
its attractiveness as a country seat, and it is 
not certain that he would be willing to part 
with it. He shares the high respect which 
so many Confederate soldiers entertain for 
General Grant, and takes no little satisfaction 
in owning the place once owned by the great 
commander. 

"Grasshopper Year." — In the year 
1875 the State of Missouri was subjected 
to a visitation of grasshoppers, or Rocky 
Mountain locusts. The insects, which had 
their habitat in the Rocky Mountains, had 
visited the State of Kansas for several years 
before, and caused some damage to the crops, 
but in 1874 they came in swarms, or rather 
in clouds, into Missouri, devouring such 
crops as were still in a green condition, and 
depositing their eggs for a more destructive 
campaign the following year. In the spring 
of 1875 they came forth in myriads and be- 
gan to devour every green thing in some 
of the western counties. The foliage was 
stripped from the trees and the green blades 
from the corn, while the wheat, oats and 
grass were eaten off smooth to the ground, 
leaving the earth bare, and making the land- 
scape oppressively dreary and desolate. 



Farmers replanted their crops only to see 
them again devoured by the voracious in- 
sects, and the district invaded by them was 
threatened with famine. The ground was lit- 
erally covered with them ; they were crushed 
in offensive masses under the wheels of rail- 
road trains, and they entered houses, cover- 
ing the floors and clinging to the walls and 
filling drawers and cupboards in such num- 
ber as to be a plague on the land. So serious 
was the visitation that Governor Hardin is- 
sued a proclamation setting apart June 3, 
1875, as a day of fasting and prayer for de- 
liverance, and there was a general observance 
of the day over the State, particularly in the 
"grasshopper district." Shortly afterward the 
drouth which had aggravated the calamity, 
was broken by abundant rains which washed 
away the insects in great quantities, and this 
was followed by an east wind which carried 
them in clouds from the State. In July the 
farmers replanted corn, and with the ad- 
vantage of an unusually favoring season 
there was a good crop. 

Cxratiot. — An attractive little city on the 
St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad, in St. 
Louis County, nearly seven miles from St. 
Louis. It is named after one of the early 
residents of the city who was the owner of 
the "Gratiot League," on which the present 
station is located. 

Gratiot, Charles, the head of the dis- 
tinguished American family of Gratiots, and 
one of the early settlers of St. Louis, was 
born in Lausanne, Canton of Vaud, Switzer- 
land. His family were French Huguenots, 
forced to leave their native country by the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He came 
to this country and lived for a time at 
Charleston, South Carolina. About 1777 he 
came to the west and settled at St. Louis, 
and engaged in merchandising. The post was 
only thirteen years old at that time, so that 
it may be said of Gratiot that he was here 
from almost the beginning. His alliance with 
the family which founded St. Louis began on 
the 25th of June, 1781, when he married Vic- 
toire Chouteau, one of the three sisters of 
Colonel Auguste Chouteau, the friend and 
companion of Laclede. Nine children were 
born to them, four sons — Charles, Henry, 
John B. and Paul M. Gratiot — and five 
daughters — Julie, who became the wife of 



90 



GRATIOT— GRATIOT STREET PRISON. 



John P. Cabanne; Victoire, who became the 
wife of Sylvester Labadie ; EmiUe, who be- 
came the wife of Pierre Chouteau, Jr. ; Marie 
Therese, who became the wife of John N. 
Macklot, and Isabelle, who became the wife 
of Jules De Mun. The eldest of the sons, 
Charles, graduated at West Point and rose 
to the rank of General, dying at the age of 
eighty-seven years. The other sons went to 
the lead mines on Feore River, Illinois, and 
took a prominent part in the founding of 
what is now the city of Galena. In 1832 
Paul M. Gratiot returned from the lead mines 
to St. Louis and spent the remainder of his 
life on his farm near Cheltenham, part of the 
"Gratiot League," which had been the prop- 
erty of his father. One of the daughters of 
Jules and Isabelle (Gratiot) De Mun, Isabelle, 
became the wife of Edward Walsh ; another, 
Julie, became the wife of Antoine Chenie ; a 
third, Louise, became the wife of Robert A. 
Barnes, and a fourth, Emilie, became the wife 
of Charles Bland Smith — all prominent in 
business and the professions in St. Louis, 
whose children are still to be found in the 
city. When General George Rogers Clark 
made his conquest of the Illinois country, 
Charles Gratiot, Pierre Menard and other 
French settlers gave him the most valuable 
assistance in wresting this territory from the 
English, and when the territory west of the 
Mississippi River passed under the control of 
the United States Government he was a no 
less potent factor in reconciling the French 
inhabitants of that region to the new order of 
things. All of his life he possessed the confi- 
dence of the inhabitants of the post, and was 
the leader in all movements for their benefit. 
In 181 1, 1812 and 1813 he was president of 
the board of trustees, and when, in 181 5, 
Thomas H. Benton, then a young man thirty- 
three years of age, but with the beginning of 
his great reputation, came to St. Louis to 
make it his home, Charles Gratiot welcomed 
him to the town and entertained him in his 
hospitable home, at the corner of Main and 
Chestnut Streets. Mr. Gratiot was very suc- 
cessful in business, and when he died, in the 
year 181 7, he was reckoned one of the richest 
men in St. Louis. 

Gratiot, Charles, was born in St. 
Louis, August 29, 1786, and died in that city 
May 18, 1855. His father was Charles Gratiot 
and his mother was Victoire (Chouteau) Gra- 



tiot, sister of the two Chouteaus, Auguste 
and Pierre, who took part in the founding of 
St. Louis. At the age of eighteen years he 
was appointed as a cadet to the military 
academy at West Point by President Jeffer- 
son, being one of the four French youths of 
Louisiana Territory selected for this distinc- 
tion with the object of conciliating the French 
population after the cession. He graduated 
with honor in 1806 and entered the army as 
second lieutenant of engineers. In 1808 he 
was promoted to be captain. He served with 
gallantry in the War of 1812 as chief engineer 
in General Harrison's army, and in 1814 was 
brevetted colonel. He took part in the de- 
fense of Fort Meigs in 1813, and in the attack 
on Fort Mackinac in 1814. In 181 5 he was 
appointed major of engineers, and superin- 
tended the construction of fortifications on 
Delaware River, and afterward the construc- 
tion of Fortress Monroe, at Old Point Com- 
fort. In 1819 he was appointed lieutenant 
coldnel, and in 1828 was made colonel in 
charge of the engineering bureau at Wash- 
ington, D. C. May 24, 1828, he was brevetted 
brigadier general and appointed inspector of 
West Point. It was General Charles Gratiot 
who, in 1835, selected Lieutenant Robert E. 
Lee to construct the works on Bloody Island, 
and between the island and the Illinois shore, 
which protected the St. Louis harbor. Fort 
Gratiot, on St. Clair River, Michigan, and 
the villages of Gratiot in Michigan and Wis- 
consin were named in his honor. He was 
married to Miss Ann Belin, at Philadelphia, 
April 22, 1819. Two daughters were born 
to them — Victoria, who became the wife of 
Marquis C. F, de Montholon, French min- 
ister to the United States ; and Julie Augusta, 
who became the wife of Charles P. Chouteau, 
of St. Louis. His widow died in St. Louis 
December 26, 1886, at the age of eighty- 
seven years. 

Gratiot Street Prison. — What was 
known during the Civil War as Gratiot Street 
Military Prison, in St. Louis, was originally 
McDowell Medical College. It was a large 
octagonal building, built of gray stone, and 
stood at the corner of Eighth and Gratiot 
Streets. It was flanked by two wings, the 
southern situated directly on the corner of 
Eighth and Gratiot Streets, and the northern 
extending to the building of the Christian \^i 
Brothers. It was appropriated by the Federal '": 




n^Saut^riMtalcr^ Co 



.sTi^ it i^^^Ains A/ :ir 



GRAVELY— G RAVES. 



91 



military authorities at the beginning of the 
•war for use as a military prison, and to it 
were committed from time to time captured 
Confederate soldiers, Southern sympathizers 
placed under arrest, and those charged with 
being "bushwhackers," spies or mail-car- 
riers, and also deserters, bounty-jumpers, and 
delinquents from the Union side. Many 
prominent citizens of Missouri were incarcer- 
ated in this prison, among them being men 
who had occupied high public stations, and 
who had rendered important services to the 
country, but whose overt acts or openly ex- 
pressed sympathy with the Confederate cause 
occasioned their imprisonment. The disci- 
pline maintained in the prison seems to have 
been severe, and there were many complaints 
of harsh treatment and of unnecessary hard- 
ships imposed upon those who had the mis- 
fortune to incur the displeasure of the 
military authorities then in complete control 
of the city. 

Grravely, Joseph J., lawyer, legis- 
lator, soldier, member of Congress and 
Lieutenant Governor of Missouri, was born 
in Henry County, Virginia, in 1828, and died 
in Cedar County, Missouri, April 28, 1872. 
He was raised on a farm and educated in the 
common schools. In 1853 he was elected to 
the Virginia Legislature. In 1854 he removed 
to Missouri, and in 1861, when the excite- 
ment preceding the Civil War began, he took 
a bold stand for the Union and was elected 
to the State Convention. In 1862 he was 
elected to the State Senate, and in the war 
served in the Union Army as colonel of the 
Eighth Missouri Cavalry. In 1866 he was 
elected to the Fortieth Congress from the 
Fourth Missouri District as a radical Repub- 
lican, and served to the end of the term. In 
1870 he supported the "Liberal" movement, 
and was nominated for Lieutenant Governor 
and elected on the ticket with B. Gratz 
Brown for Governor. 

Graves, Alexander, lawyer, soldier 
and member of Congress, was born in Mis- 
sissippi, August 20, 1844. When he was sev- 
enteen years of age, and at the beginning of 
the Civil War, he left Centre College, in Ken- 
tucky, and entered the Confederate Army. 
He served until the end under General N. B. 
Forrest. In May, 1865, he was paroled with 
Forrest, at Gainesville, Alabama, and entered 



Oakland (afterward Alcorn) University, grad- 
uating in 1867. He then studied law and 
graduated at the University of Virginia in 
1869, ^"d came to Missouri and settled at 
Lexington, where he commenced the practice 
of his profession. In 1872 he' was elected 
city attorney, and two years later prosecuting 
attorney of Lafayette County. In 1882 he 
was the Democratic candidate for Congress 
in the fifth Missouri district and was elected 
by a vote of 12,695 to 8,672 for John T. 
Crisp, Independent, and 243 for McCabe, 
Greenbacker. 

Graves, Fayette Parsons, mine- 
operator, was born January 17, 1849, 
in Rochester, New York, son of Wil- 
liam Henry and Julia (Parsons) Graves. 
His mother and twin brother died 
when he was only a few months old, 
and his father when the son was eight 
years of age. After the death of his father 
he went to live with his grandmother, and 
later lived with his uncle at Burr Oak, Michi- 
gan. When he was about twelve years of 
age he went to Hillsdale, Michigan, where he 
lived with his aunt. As a boy he attended 
the public schools of Burr Oak and Hillsdale, 
and while in Hillsdale he attended for a time 
private schools and afterward the public 
high school. When about seventeen years of 
age he went to Southampton, Massachusetts, 
and in 1867 entered Williston Seminary at 
Easthampton, Massachusetts. Unable to 
complete the full course, he was obliged to 
discontinue his studies at the last-named in- 
titution and came west to Missouri, finding 
employment in the St. Joseph Lead Mines, 
at what is now Bonne Terre. He had previ- 
ously worked in the lead mines at Southamp- 
ton, Massachusetts, and later had worked for 
the street railway company at Northampton, 
giving evidence of his industry and his am- 
bition to make his own way in the world. 
When he came to Missouri he began a con- 
nection with the great industry founded by 
the St. Joseph Lead Company, which has 
continued up to the present time, and he was 
advanced to the position which he now occu- 
pies by successive steps as a reward of real 
merit. He worked in the mill and shops of 
the company for two years and was then 
given the position of cashier, which he filled 
for seventeen years. In 1887 he became con- 
nected with the Doe Run Lead Company at 



92 



GRAVES. 



the organization of that corporation, as its 
secretary and assistant superintendent. Fill- 
ing these positions, he has since resided at 
Doe Run, in charge of the works at that place. 
He is also a director and stockholder in the 
company, arid one of the men to whom it 
owes, in a large measure, its success. During 
his thirty years of active and continuous work 
in connection with the lead mining interests 
of this region, he has devoted his spare time 
and means to making a collection of speci- 
mens of various minerals. This collection, 
which is now one of the finest in the West, 
also contains a great variety of relics, curios, 
ancient coins, weapons, etc., from Oriental 
countries, implements of the stone age and 
prehistoric evidences of the existence of man. 
Indian war relics, rare books, manuscripts 
and autographs, and over 6,000 postage 
stamps — some of which are exceedingly rare 
— constitute a part of the collection. Egypt, 
Spain, Cuba, China and the Philippine Is- 
lands have also contributed to what consti- 
tutes a wonderfully attractive and instructive 
museum of antiquities. Exhibits from this 
collection were attractive features of the 
World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago 
and the expositions at Atlanta and Omaha. 
The collection will undoubtedly be repre- 
sented also at the Bufifalo Pan-American 
Exposition in 1901, and at the Louis- 
iana Centennial Purchase Exposition in 
St. Louis in 1903, in the interest of 
southeast Missouri and St. Francois Coun- 
ty. In gratifying his tastes in this di- 
rection Mr. Graves has shown the same 
energy and thoroughness which he has evi- 
denced in the conduct of his business affairs. 
Aside from this indulgence, he has given 
his time wholly to the industrial interests 
which he represents, and has never taken an 
active part in public affairs, the only office 
which he has held having been that of post- 
master, at Doe Run, which he filled from 
1887 to 1891. He has been known, however, 
as a staunch Republican and one who took 
an active interest in promoting the welfare 
of his party. At the National Convention of 
the Republican League Clubs held in St. 
Paul, Minnesota, in 1900, he was elected vice 
president of the league for Missouri. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen. His 
career as a Mason began in 1874, when he 
became a member of Samaritan Lodge, No. 



424, in Bonne Terre. At the organization of 
Pendleton Lodge, No. 551, at Doe Run, in 

1892, he became master of that lodge and 
served as such during the years 1892 and 

1893. He was exalted in Midian Chapter, No. 
71, Royal Arch Masons, in 1892, at Ironton, 
Missouri, and was created a Knight Templar 
in De Soto Commandery, No. 56, at De 
Soto, Missouri, in 1895. He served as dis- 
trict deputy grand master and district 
deputy grand lecturer for the sixteenth 
district of Missouri in 1894 and 1895, and 
also served as grand sword-bearer in the 
Masonic Grand Lodge of Missouri in 1894 
and 1895. December 6, 1871, Mr. Graves 
married Miss Mary E. Woodside, of Bonne 
Terre, Missouri. Of a family of three sons 
and two daughters born to them, only two are 
now living. These are Dr. John B. Graves, 
engaged in the practice of his profession at 
Doe Run, and Mrs. J. V. Braham, who re- 
sides in Bonne Terre, Missouri. They have 
also an adopted daughter whom they re- 
ceived from the Missouri Children's Home 
Society. Mr. and Mrs. Graves are members 
of thv; Congregational Church of Bonne 
Terre, Missouri. As there is no Congrega- 
tional Church at Doe Run, their affiliation 
there is with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, all of their children having united 
with that denomination. Mr. (Graves, how- 
ever, prefers to divide his attendance between 
these two churches, and feels at home with 
either, or in any of the churches of Doe Run. 

Graves, Waller Washington, law- 
yer and judge of the Twenty-ninth Judicial 
Circuit, was born in Lafayette County, Mis- 
souri, December 17, i860, son of Abram L. 
and Martha E. (Pollard) Graves. His father 
was born near Palmyra, Missouri, in 1837. 
The latter's father, who was a native of 
North Carolina, removed early in life to Ken- 
tucky, where he married. In 1836 he came \ 
to Missouri and engaged in the mercantile 
business near Palmyra, where his son, Abram 
L. Graves, was born. Abram L. Graves, 
whose life was devoted to farming, was a 
prominent Democrat, held numerous local 
offices, and was a man of wide influence. 
Being a strong Southern sympathizer, he 
was forced into the Missouri State Guard 
in the early days of the Civil War. but spent 
most of his time in Colorado until the strug- 
o:le was ended. In 1880 he removed to Bates 




<^c</> 




legal FuAiisJuni: Co. StLnuLS, 



GRAY. 



93 



County, occupying a farm near Mulberry, but 
since the spring of 1898 he has made his 
home at Garden City on a farm which he 
purchased at that time. His wife is a daugh- 
ter of Henry S. Pollard, who married a 
member of the famous Waller family of Vir- 
ginia. She is a direct descendant of John L. 
Waller, a distinguished officer of the Con- 
tinental Army during the Revolutionary 
War. Both the Pollards and Wallers are de- 
scended from prominent Old Dominion fam- 
ilies. Mrs. Graves was born in Todd County, 
Kentucky, and came with her parents to Mis- 
souri when a girl of fifteen years. The 
education of Waller W. Graves was begun 
in the public schools of Lafayette County, 
and continued in the State University until 
1880, when he removed with his parents to 
Bates County. There he devoted two years 
to the study of law and teaching school. 
From 1882 to 1885 he continued his legal 
studies in the office of Parkinson & Aber- 
nathy, at Butler, being admitted to the bar in 
the latter year by Judge James B. Gantt. In 
1884 one of his preceptors — Mr. Abernathy — 
I had died, and upon his admission to the bar 
Mr. Parkinson offered young Graves a part- 
nership, which he accepted. This relation 
was sustained until October i, 1893, when 
Judge Graves formed a partnership with 
General H. C. Clark, which continued until 
the subject of this sketch took his place upon 
the circuit bench, January t, 1899, having 
been elected to that office in November, 1898. 
Before being elected to the circuit bench 
Judge Graves had filled two other public 
offices. Governor Marmaduke appointed 
him school commissioner of Bates County 
to fill a vacancy, and at the end of his term 
he was elected to the office. In 1890 he was 
the candidate of the Democratic party for 
city attorney of Butler, and was elected by 
a handsome majority, though the Republican 
candidate had been victorious at the preced- 
ing election. Judge Graves is identified with 
the Masonic fraternity, the Knights of 
Pythias, the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, the Woodmen of the World and the 
Modern Woodmen of America. He was 
married June 30, 1892, to Alice Ludwick, a 
native of Butler, and a daughter of John L. 
K Ludwick, a retired merchant, and an early 
mt settler of that place. They are the parents 
H of two children, Ludwick and W. W. Graves, 
^Kfr. During his career as a practitioner Judge 

I 



Graves participated in the trial of many im- 
portant cases. In 1897 and 1898 he was 
associated with Attorney General Crow in 
the prosecution of the famous cases against 
the trust companies of St. Louis. The action 
was brought at the instance of the regularly 
chartered banks of that city to compel the 
trust companies to abstain from engaging in 
the banking business. After a bitter fight the 
court sustained the contention of the clients 
of Messrs. Graves and Crow. Another im- 
portant case was that of the State ex rel. 
Wheeler vs. Hastetter, to determine the right 
of a woman to hold office in Missouri. Judge 
Graves appeared for Mrs. Maggie B. Wheel- 
er, who had been elected clerk of St. Clair 
County. The office was refused her on the 
ground that under the statutary and consti- 
tutional provisions of the State, no woman 
could hold office in Missouri. Judge Graves 
carried the case to the Supreme Court, which 
not only sustained his position and awarded 
the office to Mrs. Wheeler, but complimented 
him highly on his brief and the method of 
its preparation. In such high esteem is 
Judge Graves held by the bench and bar of 
Missouri that many of his friends have urged 
him to become a candidate for the supreme 
bench in 1901. 

Gray, Alexander, lawyer and jurist, 

was born in Kentucky, and died in St. Louis, 
August 2, 1823. He served as a captain in 
the Twenty-fourth United States Infantry 
Regiment during the War of 1812, and at its 
close came to Missouri, settHng at Cape 
Girardeau. From there he came to St. Louis, 
a well educated man, a fine writer, and a re- 
markably able criminal lawyer. In 1820 he 
was appointed judge of the St. Louis Circuit 
Court by Acting Governor Frederick^ Bates, 
and held two terms of his court in St. Louis 
under the Territorial government. At the 
organization of the State government he was 
appointed by Governor McNair judge of the 
circuit court for the circuit north of the Mis- 
souri River, and filled that position until his 
death. He died unmarried and while still a 
young man. 

Gray, Henry Lock, who lived a life of 
much usefulness in public, as well as private, 
stations, was a native of Missouri, born Feb- 
ruary 7, 1846, in St. Charles County, and 
died at Sturgeon, Missouri, June 26, 1900. 



94 



GRAY. 



His parents were natives of the Shenandoah 
Valley, Virginia, and removed to Missouri in 
1861, locating in Allen, near where is now 
Moberly, where the father conducted a store 
and served as postmaster and express agent. 
The son, Henry Lock Gray, left school at the 
age of fourteen years to begin work. Even 
before that time he had acquired habits of 
close and careful study, which he maintained 
during his life, and when he was twenty-five 
years of age those whom he met believed him 
to be a college graduate, so generous and 
accurate was his store of knowledge, cov- 
ering the best of history and literature, biog- 
raphy, economic subjects, and even the law. 
During the four years of the Civil War period 
he served as clerk in his father's store, and as 
assistant postmaster and express messenger. 
In the latter service he had a varied experi- 
ence and repeated narrow escapes from bush- 
whackers while on a route with a stagecoach 
between Allen and Glasgow and Brunswick. 
In 1865, when nineteen years of age, he 
located at Sturgeon, which was thencefor- 
ward his place of residence for thirty-five 
years, excepting about eighteen months, 
when he resided at Middlegrove, Monroe 
County. For some years he kept a general 
store. In 1893 he failed, owing to crop 
failures and the financial panic, and he was 
for the following ten years a commercial 
traveler. He re-established himself in a mer- 
cantile business in Sturgeon in 1883, and con- 
ducted it until 1 891, when he retired. He 
was an intensely earnest and active Demo- 
crat throughout his life, and his qualities as 
a leader, and his accurate business methods 
and ripe judgment, led to his being called at 
various times to public positions, in which 
his services were eminently useful to the 
State and honorable to himself. While a res- 
ident of Monroe County he took an active 
part on the stump in advocacy of the regular 
Democratic ticket headed by Hardin, and 
was urged to become a candidate for Rep- 
resentative, but declined. He was defeated 
for the Legislature in 1886 by but sixty-nine 
votes, after a most exciting and warmly con- 
tested campaign. In 1885 he was made clerk 
of the ways and means committee of the State 
Senate, of which Honorable J. M. Proctor, of 
Sturgeon, was chairman. He was elected 
assistant secretary of the Senate in 1887, and 
secretary in the revision session of 1889, and 
he was re-elected to the latter position in 



1891. In April, 1891, he was appointed chief 
clerk of the Labor Bureau, and he was re- 
appointed to the same position in 1893. 
When the office of supervisor of building 
and loan associations was created he was 
made deputy supervisor. Later, when the 
office of supervisor was made a separate 
bureau, in the spring of 1897, Governor 
Stephens appointed him supervisor, and he 
occupied the position until his death, his 
term not expiring until May 21, 1901. In 
the discharge of official duty he was punctil- 
iously prompt and accurate, and he adorned 
every place he was called to fill. His in- 
vincible integrity came to be fully recognized, 
when as supervisor of building and loan 
associations he indignantly denounced those 
who sought his official favor through the 
proffer of what would have been to him a 
small fortune. He was a graceful and force- 
ful writer, and an orator of no mean ability. 
His reading, while a Senate clerk, was pleas- 
ing and brought him much commendation, 
while as a speaker before the people, no one 
in his county could attract so large an audi- 
tory or interest it for so long a period. His 
personal character was crowned with many 
excellencies. He was without dissimulation. 
His thoughts were in his face to be read by 
all men. He confided in those he thought 
were his friends. Being naturally credulous 
and unsuspecting, made him a prey to the 
cunning, but when his confidence was be- 
trayed, it was impossible to restore it. He 
was always candid and outspoken. His ene- 
mies were few, but bitter. His friends were 
firm and devoted. He was the soul of cour- 
age and integrity. Embarrassed with debt, 
and his wife in delicate health, he never fal- 
tered ; he was never sued ; his paper was 
never protested ; he paid 100 cents on 
the dollar, with 10 per cent interest. When 
twenty-one years of age he married Miss 
Sophia Dinwiddle, daughter of Dr. John Din- 
widdle, and granddaughter of Rev. James 
Barnes, a widely known preacher of the old- 
school Baptist Church, who was married to 
an aunt of the late Judge Burckhart, in the 
fort at old Frankford, where the prisoners 
assembled to defend themselves against an 
attack by the Indians. Mr. Gray is survived 
by his wife and a son, Omar D. Gray. The 
latter named is a talented journalist, and is 
editor and publisher of the Sturgeon "Mis- 
souri Leader." He is devoted to the memory 



> 



GRAY. 



95 



of his lamented father, whom he commem- 
orated in a special memorial edition of his 
paper, which contained a fervent tribute from 
his own pen, and eloquent encomiums by 
Governor Stephens and other distinguished 
men. Mr. Gray was born May 17, 1869, and 
was married June 25, 1899, to Miss Mayme 
Smith, of Huntsville, Missouri. He served 
as lieutenant colonel on the staff of Gov- 
ernor Stephens, by whom he was held in high 
esteem for his many excellent qualities. 

Gray, Melviu Lamoiid, lawyer, and 
one of the old and honored members of the 
St. Louis bar, was born July 20, 181 5, at 
Bridport, Vermont, son of Daniel and Amy 
(Bosworth) Gray. The founder of this 
branch of the Gray family in America was 
John Gray, who came with his family from 
Ireland to this country in 1718, and settled 
at Worcester, Massachusetts. Of Scotch 
origin, the family was planted in the north of 
Ireland in the year 1612, when one of its 
representatives emigrated to that region from 
Ayrshire, Scotland, and became the progen- 
itor of a physically and intellectually vigorous 
Scotch-Irish people bearing his name. 
Transplanted from Ireland to America, the 
i family has retained its pristine vigor, and 
[representatives of each generation have 
[achieved merited distinction in various walks 
[of life. During the Revolutionary War the 
[grandfather of Melvin L. Gray and several of 
his grandfather's brothers were participants 
:in the struggle for independence. His father, 
Daniel Gray, graduated at Middlebury Col- 
lege, of Middlebury, Vermont, in 1805, and 
isoon afterward married Susan Rice, who died 
[in her young womanhood, leaving one son, 
Ozro Preston Gray. After the death of his 
first wife he married Amy Bosworth, and of 
this union eight children were born, six of 
whom were sons, all of whom grew to man- 
'hood. The eldest of these sons was Rev. Dr. 
Edgar Harkness Gray, who was long eminent 
las a Baptist clergyman, served four years as 
chaplain of the United States Senate, and 
lofificiated at the funeral of President Lincoln 
in Washington. Daniel Gray died when his 
son, Melvin L. Gray, was eight years of age, 
and the half-orphaned boy was given a home 
in the family of the village minister of Brid- 
port. Reared in a rural community, he 
divided his time in early youth between farm 
labor and attendance at school. As he ap- 



proached manhood a strong desire to obtain 
a collegiate education took hold upon him, 
and, after fitting himself for college at the 
village select school and completing the 
course of study prescribed for the freshman 
year without the aid of a teacher, he entered 
the sophomore class of Middlebury College 
in 1836. During three years thereafter he 
maintained himself in college by teaching 
school during the winter months of each year, 
and in 1839 was graduated in a class of which 
John G. Saxe, the "Green Mountain poet," 
and William A. Howard, later a member of 
Congress and Governor of Washington Ter- 
ritory, were members. In the autumn of 1839 
he went to Autauga County, Alabama, and 
. taught school there and in the adjoining 
County of Montgomery for two years there- 
after. There he had some interesting expe- 
riences and formed the acquaintance of men 
like Dixon H. Lewis, then a member of the 
lower branch of Congress and later a United 
States Senator; Governor (and later United 
States Senator) Fitzpatrick ; William L. Yan- 
cey, Henry W. Hilliard, and others who at- 
tained national celebrity in later years. 
Among his less agreeable experiences was 
that of being paid for his services as an edu- 
cator in the depreciated State Bank currency 
of Alabama, which he was compelled to dis- 
count 35 per cent when he left the State. In 
September of 1842 he came to St. Louis and 
continued law studies, previously commenced, 
under the preceptorship of Britton A. Hill 
and John M. Eager, then practicing in part- 
nership. In 1843 ^^^ was admitted to the bar 
of Missouri, and in February of 1844 opened 
his own law office. After that until 1893 he 
was continuously engaged in the practice of 
his profession, and at the present time — 1898 
— he is, with the exception of Samuel Knox 
and Nathaniel Holmes, now of Massachu- 
setts, and Judge Samuel Treat, of St. Louis, 
the oldest member of the St. Louis bar. 
During his long professional career of more 
than half a century he confined himself to the 
civil practice, and for many years gave 
special attention to admiralty and trade mark 
law. In this branch of practice he attained 
more than local celebrity in the years of his 
greatest activity, and the volume of his bus- 
iness made him one of the most successful 
practitioners in St. Louis. In later years he 
withdrew, in a measure, from this kind of 
practice and turned his attention largely to 



GRAYDON SPRINGS— GREAT AMERICAN SOCIETY. 



the care and conservation of the estates of 
which he had been made curator or trustee. 
In 1893 he retired from the practice to the 
enjoyment of a green old age, and, still physi- 
cally and mentally vigorous, is numbered 
among the few members of the bar who 
link the distant past with the present of St. 
Louis. Prominent at the bar, he has been 
hardly less well known to the public as a 
patron of the arts, sciences and education. 
A self-made man, his generous sympathies 
have gone out to those struggling to obtain 
an education or a foothold in life, and all such 
who have come in his way have found in him 
a friend and benefactor. He gave to Drury 
College, the leading educational institution of 
the Congregational Church in the West, the 
sum of $25,000 to establish and endow a pro- 
fessorship in honor of his wife, and has freely 
used the means with which fortune has 
favored him to elevate mankind and assist the 
progress of civilization. For thirty-five years 
he has been a member of the Missouri His- 
torical Society, taking at all times a deep 
interest in its work and serving for a number 
of years as its vice president. The St. Louis 
Academy of Sciences is another institution 
through which he has labored efficiently to 
promote intellectual development, and during 
the years 1896 and 1897 he served as presi- 
dent of that society. Mr. Gray's first law 
partner in St. Louis was Charles B. Law- 
rence, who afterward achieved distinction as 
a jurist and member of the Illinois Supreme 
Court. Among those eminent at the bar of 
St. Louis and in public life with whom he has 
been contemporary in the practice of law 
have been many of the most eminent mem- 
bers of the Missouri bar. Edward Bates, 
Hamilton R. Gamble, Henry S. Geyer, Josiah 
Spalding, John F. Darby, and Beverly Allen 
were the senior members of the local bar 
in his young manhood. Charles D. Drake, 
later a United States Senator; Joseph B. 
Crockett, afterward a judge of the CaUfornia 
Supreme Court; Wilson Primm, James B. 
Bowlin, an American diplomat under the 
Polk and Buchanan administrations ; Richard 
S. Blennerhasset, noted for his eloquence as 
an advocate; John M. Krum, Albert Todd, 
William F. Chase, a brother of Salmon P. 
Chase ; Alexander Hamilton, P. D. Tiffany, 
Samuel Knox, John R. Siiepley, Trusten 
Polk, afterward Governor and United States 
Senator ; Roswell M. Field and Myron Leslie 



were all legal lights within the period of his 
active practice, as were also Logan Hunton, 
Lewis V. Bogy, Montgomery Blair, Thomas 
T. Gantt, Thomas B. Hudson and Nathaniel 
Holmes. When Mr. Gray began practicing 
law in St. Louis there were six volumes of 
Missouri Supreme Court Reports. There 
are now 138 of these reports, and these 
figures tell their own story of the long span 
of his professional life. In 185 1 he married 
Miss Ruth C. Bacon, a native of Massachu- 
setts, who for several years had been a 
teacher in a leading female seminary of St. 
Louis. A woman of rare social and domestic 
graces, her companionship was an inspiration 
and a blessing to her husband until her death 
in 1893. A beautiful and true tribute to her 
life and character was written by the late 
Eugene Field, who was a frequent visitor to 
the Gray home. Mr. Gray was executor of 
the poet's father's estate, and practically the 
curator of the poet himself, and a warm 
friendship long existed between the Field and 
the Gray families. 

Graydon Springs. — A health resort in 
Polk County, on the Bolivar branch of the 
St. Louis & San Francisco Railway, six- 
teen miles southwest of Bolivar, the county 
seat. The waters are of recognized medicinal 
value, and issue from the side of the cliff 
overlooking a branch of Sac River. The hills 
in the vicinity are broken into successively 
rising terraces, and end in grotesque cliffs, 
making an exceedingly picturesque scene, 
while the point commands a beautiful view 
of the distant Ozark Range, and the interven- 
ing prairies and water courses. A hotel and 
bath houses have been erected here, and the 
place is much sought as a health resort. 

Grayson. — A town in Clinton County, on 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, 
seven miles southwest of Plattsburg, the 
county seat. It was laid out in 1871 on land 
owned by H. B. Baker and called after the 
maiden name of his wife. It is in the midst 
of a fertile farming district, and is an im- 
portant stock shipping point. Population 200. 

Great American Society. — A fra- 
ternal and beneficiary society chartered under 
the laws of Missouri, April 9, 1895. It pays 
sick, accident and burial benefits. St. Louis 
has been the headquarters of the society since 



GREBEL— GREELEY. 



97 



its organization, and in 1898 it had about 500 
members in that city. 

Grebel, Hugo, prominent as a business 
man and citizen of St. Joseph, was born 
August 8, 1856, in Zittau, Saxony. His par- 
ents were August J. F. and Agnes (Behrens) 
Grebel, both of whom are now Hving in Sax- 
ony, the family home for many years back. 
Hugo was educated in the high schools of 
Zittau and Reichenbach, and being possessed 
of a retentive mind and quick reasoning facul- 
ties he learned rapidly and made creditable 
advancement. At the close of his school days 
he served an apprenticeship of three years 
in a machine factory at Zittau. At the age 
of twenty he enlisted in the army and at the 
close of his military service he decided that 
he should broaden his experience by travel- 
ing. He went to England and remained there 
a few months, returning at the request of his 
father in order that they might engage in the 
business of cotton agents together. This was 
another new experience for the young man, 
and his make-up was being well rounded out 
by the variety. Until the year 1885 he re- 
mained with his father in Zittau, and in that 
year they went to Leipsic, Germany, where 
they established a type foundry. Of this large 
institution Mr. Grebel was manager, and he 
gave evidence of remarkable business quali- 
fications. In 1887 he went to South America, 
visiting Buenos Ayres, Montevideo and the 
principal cities of Brazil and Paraguay in the 
interest of his business, and from there came 
to the United States. He crossed the conti- 
nent from New York to San Francisco and 
then returned to Germany. In 1890 he again 
visited South America and spent some time 
in that country. Until 1891 he continued to 
be identified with his father's business in 
Leipsic, but in that year his desire to see 
the United States again, and a disposition to 
make his home here, brought him to this 
country. Reaching St. Louis, he almost im- 
mediately connected himself with the An- 
heuser-Busch Brewing Company. His school- 
ing in this new departure was had in St. 
Joseph, and after he had served with marked 
success he was sent to Memphis, Tennessee, 
where he served the company as book- 
keeper. In 1892, the year following his 
initiation into the business, he was sent to 
St. Joseph to manage the large branch es- 
tablishment there, which position he has held 

Vol. Ill— 7 



with a success to reward him that is far above 
the average. Mr. Grebel has charge of a large 
stretch of territory, including a number of 
towns in northwest Missouri and northeast 
Kansas, as well as the extensive business in 
St. Joseph. He is extremely popular with 
his army of customers, with business men of 
every class and in social circles. He was a 
success as a soldier, just as he has been suc- 
cessful in everything he has undertaken. 
After passing the required examination while 
attending school, he was admitted to the 
army under the one-year rule. During his 
military career he was required to pass sev- 
eral other and more difificult examinations 
and these he invariably mastered brilliantly. 
He was promoted steadily and on account of 
merit, serving as sergeant, first sergeant, 
lieutenant and first lieutenant, as the ranks 
were reached in their successive stages. He 
was a' first lieutenant during five years of 
his army life. Mr. Grebel is independent in 
politics, but takes a lively interest in all af- 
fairs that concern the welfare of the nation. 
In religious doctrine he is an Evangelical 
Lutheran. He was married April 26, 1892, 
to Miss Bertha L. Wezler, of St. Louis, 
whose father, now retired, was formerly a 
prominent wholesale liquor dealer. Mr. and 
Mrs. Grebel have one child, Irma Grebel. 

Greek Ethics Club.— See "Ethical 
Society of St. Louis." 

Greeley, Carlos S., was born July 13, 
181 1, in Salisbury, New Hampshire, and died 
in St. Louis, April 18, 1898. His education 
was completed at an academy in Salisbury, 
and when he was twenty years old he left 
the farm and began fitting himself for mer- 
cantile pursuits as a clerk in the general store 
of Pettingill & Sanborn, of Brockport, New 
York. After he had clerked in this store two 
years he purchased a quarter interest in the 
establishment with money borrowed of his 
father. The enterprise prospered, and in 1836- 
he sold out and with his profits as capital 
came to St. Louis in 1838. Mr. Sanborn, one 
of his former partners, had preceded him to 
that city, and. forming a new partnership, 
they embarked in the wholesale grocery busi- 
ness together. Mr. Sanborn's interest was 
purchased after a time by Daniel B. Gale, and 
until 1858 the firm was Greeley & Gale. C. B. 
Burnham then became the head of the house, 



98 



GREEN. 



which took the name of C. B. Burnham & 
Co., under which it was conducted for eight- 
een years thereafter. The partnership tnen 
became known as Greeley, Burnham & 
Co., and the business was conducted 
under that name until 1879, when the 
enterprise was incorporated as the Greeley- 
Burnham Grocer Company, with Mr. 
Greeley as president. In 1893 this house 
was consolidated with the firm of E. G. 
Scudder & Bro., and since then has been 
known as the Scudder-Gale Grocer Company. 
For many years the house was under the 
general management of Mr. Greeley, and 
during this time it became one of the most 
widely known wholesale grocery houses in 
the United States. Mr. Greeley was one of 
the earliest subscribers to the capital stock 
of the Kansas & Pacific Railroad Company, 
and for several years was the treasurer of 
that corporation. He was also a director of 
the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company. He 
was long a trustee of the Lindenwood Semi- 
nary, at St. Charles, Missouri, and was also a 
member of the boards of trustees of Wash- 
ington University and Mary Institute of St. 
Louis, and of Drury College, of Springfield, 
Missouri. He was a philanthropist by nature, 
and one of his most notable labors in this 
field was the great work which he performed 
as a member of the Western Sanitary Com- 
mission of the Civil War period. He was 
treasurer of that commission, and $771,000 in 
all passed through his hands in that connec- 
tion, over three-fourths of that amount hav- 
ing been raised at the Mississippi Sanitary 
Fair, held in May of 1864. He married, in 
1841, Miss Emily Robbins, of Hfirtford, Con- 
necticut, and a son and a daughter were born 
of this union. The son is Charles B. Greeley, 
and the daughter is now Mrs. Dwight Tread- 
way. 

Green, Charles W., editor and news- 
paper publisher, was born July 29, i860, in 
Madison County, Ohio, son of Nelson L. and 
Carrie M. (Williams) Green. His ancestors 
in the paternal line came to this country from 
England, and in the maternal line from Wales. 
Representatives of the Green family were 
members of the New Haven Colony estab- 
lished in 1638. The father of Charles W. 
Green, who was a native of Ohio and a farmer 
by occupation, came to Missouri immediately 
after the close of the Civil War and settled 



in Linn County, near the present city of 
Brookfield. After completing his education 
at the Brookfield high school, the son learned 
the printer's trade, mastering thoroughly all 
the details of that business. In 1882 he found- 
ed the "Brookfield Argus," which is now one 
of the leading newspapers of northern Mis- 
souri. He is known to his brother journal- 
ists throughout the State as one of the most 
enterprising and progressive of the younger 
generation of newspaper publishers, and has 
been conspicuous for the reforms which he 
has inaugurated in the conduct of his busi- 
ness. Having unbounded faith in the re- 
sources of Missouri and being an enthusiastic 
champion of its interests, he has wielded all 
the power and influence of his paper to en- 
courage every movement designed for the 
betterment of existing conditions, aiding at 
the same time material development and 
moral and educational progress. He received 
deserved recognition of his intelligence and 
progressiveness in 1892, when he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Francis one of the seven 
commissioners who represented Missouri at 
the World's Columbian Exposition held in 
Chicago in 1893. In 1897 ^^ served as chief 
clerk of the House of Representatives at 
Jefferson City. Later Governor Stephens ap- 
pointed him one of the delegates from Mis- 
souri to the first Louisiana Purchase con- 
vention, held in St. Louis, January 10, 1898. 
At that convention he was conspicuous 
among those who worked and voted for the 
proposition to hold a World's Fair in St. 
Louis in 1903. As the editor of a Democratic 
paper and through active personal effort, he 
has been closely identified with Democratic 
politics in this State for many years. He has 
sat as a delegate in numerous State conven- 
tions and has served as a member of the State 
central committee as the representative of the 
Second Congressional District. His religious 
affiliations are with the Congregational 
Church, and he has served as a member of 
the board of trustees of the church in which 
he holds membership. His fraternal affilia- 
tions are with the orders of Knights of 
Pythias, Modern Woodmen and Woodmen 
of the World. September 20, 1885, he mar- 
ried Miss Eleanor Jones, of Brookfield, who 
died December 10, 1896, leaving one daugh- 
ter, Frances Green, born May 31, 1889. 
November 2, 1899, Mr. Green married Miss 
Florence Burnett, of Brookfield. 



GREEN. 



99 



Green, James, manufacturer and capi- 
talist, was born in Staffordshire, England, 
September 23, 1829, and came to this country 
in 1852, a capable and intelligent young man, 
with a good trade and abundance of energy 
and sagacity, and with capital enough to give 
him a good start in life. For several years 
after his coming to this country he worked in 
the Eastern States, taking charge at differ- 
ent times of several rolling mills and 
furnaces, which were then among the largest 
in the United States. In 1857 he came to St. 
Louis and took charge of the Laclede Rolling 
Mills, and for seventeen years thereafter he 
remained in the employ of the corporation 
conducting that enterprise. During that time 
he built the Belcher Sugar Refinery, project- 
ed by Charles Belcher and Judge Lackland ; 
the furnaces at the Helmbacher Forge and 
Rolling Mills, and also the Bessemer Iron 
Works in East St. Louis ; the Vulcan Steel 
Works, the Jupiter Furnaces in Carondelet, 
the Springfield Rolling Mills, of Springfield, 
Illinois, and many other kindred manufac- 
turing plants. In 1865 he established, on his 
own account, in a comparatively small way, a 
plant for the manufacture of fire brick at 
Cheltenham, evidencing his good judgment 
and keen foresight in the inauguration of this 
enterprise. The excellent qualities of the clays 
at that place and the possibilities of develops 
ment in this industry were apparent to him 
from the start, but somewhat limited means 
rendered it necessary for him to "make haste 
slowly" at the beginning. The plant grew 
steadily, however, yielding good returns, and 
in 1869 the business thus established was in- 
corporated as the Laclede Fire Brick Manu- 
facturing Company. Rapid development 
along various lines followed, and to-day these 
works are among the most celebrated of their 
kind in the world. Here are made all kinds 
of fire brick, gas retorts, blast furnace linings, 
culvert and sewer pipe, paving brick, and 
many other products, which find their way 
into all the markets of the United States and 
into foreign markets as well. Mr. Green is 
president of the corporation owning and con- 
trolling these works, and has been one of the 
creators of an industry which has contributed 
largely toward making St. Louis famous as 
a manufacturing center. Large fortune has 
come to him as a result of his manufactur- 
ing operations, and the spirit of enterprise 
which is one of his distinguishing character- 



istics has caused him to become identified of- 
ficially and as an investor with many other 
corporations, among which may be men- 
tioned the Greencastle Gas Company, of 
Greencastle, Indiana ; the Helmbacher Forge 
and RoUing Mills Company, the Sedalia Elec- 
tric Light and Power Company, of Sedalia, 
and the Moberly Gas and Electric Company, 
of Moberly, Missouri, of all of which cor- 
porations he is president; and the St. Louis 
and Suburban Electric Railway Company, 
the Mechanics' Bank, and the Pittsburg Glass 
Company, in each of which he has been a di- 
rector. Every business venture in which he 
has interested himself has profited by his sa- 
gacity, good judgment and executive ability, 
and he enjoys the distinction of having been 
uniformly successful in all his operations. So 
well established is this fact that others feel 
safe always in following his leadership in bus- 
iness affairs, and as a natural consequence he 
wields large influence in commercial and in- 
dustrial circles. Delighting in travel, he has 
made frequent trips to the Old World, has 
traveled extensively throughout the United 
States, and spends much of his time with his 
family in southern California. One of the 
purely public enterprises of St. Louis with 
which he has been officially identified' and in 
which he has taken a deep interest is the St. 
Louis Fair, which he has helped to make the 
most famous institution of its kind in the 
country. Mr. Green has a family of four sons 
and one daughter, his children being named, 
respectively, James, Thomas T., J. Leigh, 
Rumsey, and Mabel Green. 

Green, James S., lawyer, member of 
Congress and United States Senator from 
Missouri, was born in Virginia in 1817. In 
1827 he came to Missouri and settled in 
Monticello, Lewis County, and studied law. 
With no other educational advantages than a 
coiintry school in his native State had 
afforded, he applied himself so diligently to 
his profession that he soon came to be recog- 
nized as a lawyer of ability and learning, and 
a speaker and writer whose speeches and 
letters were models of clear and accurate 
statement. In 1845 he was chosen one of 
the sixty-six delegates to the Constitutional 
Convention that met in Jefferson City and 
framed the constitution which was submitted 
to the people and rejected. In 1846 he was 
elected to Congress, and re-elected in 1848, 



100 



GREEN. 



and after an interval re-elected again in 1856, 
but before the expiration of his third term, 
in 1857, he was chosen United States Senator 
to succeed David R. Atchison. An effort had 
been made in the last preceding Legislature, 
in 1855, to choose a Senator, but after forty- 
one ballots had failed, so that Green's term 
was for only four years. The vote in the 
joint session stood : For James C. Green 
(anti-Benton Democrat), 89; for Thomas H. 
Benton. 33 ; for Luther M. Kennett (Ameri- 
can), 32. His election was a signal triumph 
for the anti-Benton party, for Green was the 
ablest and boldest of the State-rights and pro- 
slavery leaders engaged in the contest against 
Colonel Benton — the foremost of the "three 
Jims," James S. Green, James H. Birch and 
James B. Bowlin — whom the old ex-Senator 
had been accustomed to hold up before the 
public for his severest invectives. On his 
appearance in the United States Senate, Mr. 
Green at once began to participate in the 
great debate on the question of "squatter 
sovereignty"' — the right of a Territorial pop- 
ulation to exclude slavery from a Territory 
before coming into the Union as a State. 
The Southern Senators generally repudiated 
the doctrine, and were so surprised and 
pleased 'with the spirit, zeal and ability ex- 
hibited by the new Senator from Missouri 
that he was made the champion of their cause 
in opposition to Stephen A. Douglas, of 
Illinois, who was the acknowledged leader in 
the debate on the other side. On the expira- 
tion of his term, March 4, 1861, he returned 
to private life, and died at St. Louis January 
19, 1870, his body being taken to Monticello 
for interment. 

Green, John Randolph, clerk of the 
Supreme Court of Missouri, was born No- 
vember 4, 1858, at Kingston, Missouri. His 
parents were John W. and Ann (Pollard) 
Green. The father was a merchant, a native 
of Kentucky, descended from Virginia an- 
cestors who saw service during the Revolu- 
tionary War. The mother was also a Ken- 
tuckian, with similar ancestry. She died 
when the son was seven years of age. John 
R. Green came to Missouri with his father 
previous to the Civil War, and was educated 
in the public schools of Ray County. For 
five years he was employed as clerk in drug 
stores in Richmond, Kansas City and Lib- 
erty. January i, 1879, he was engaged as 



deputy circuit clerk of Ray County. The 
clerk dying, he was appointed by Governor 
Crittenden to fill the vacancy. At the suc- 
ceeding election he was elected to the circuit 
clerkship, and upon the expiration of his 
term was re-elected. In 1892 he was ap- 
pointed by the Supreme Court of Missouri to 
the position of clerk of that court, and con- 
tinues to serve in that capacity. In the dis- 
charge of the duties of his office he is careful 
and methodical, and all his records are 
models of neatness and exactness, while his 
thorough knowledge of the modes of court 
procedure and of the transactions of the high- 
est judicial body in the State constitute him 
an invaluable aid to attorneys in facilitating 
their quests for information on cases in 
which they are concerned. In politics he is a 
Democrat, and a regular attendant upon the 
State and other conventions of his party. 
He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
having attained to the Commandery degrees, 
and has occupied various positions in the 
several bodies of the order. He also holds 
membership in the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks. November 28, 1883, he was 
married to Miss Sallie Creel, daughter of 
Mathew Creel, a merchant and building con- 
tractor of Richmond. Of this marriage have 
been born two daughters, Mary and Helen, 
who are attending school. Mr. Green is a 
man of broad intelligence and much force of 
character, and is held in high estimation, 
particularly by the judiciary and bar of the 
State, with whom his relations are necessarily 
intimate. 

Green, Marion J., was born in the 
State of New York, January 25, 185 1. Her 
father was Horace Weller and her mother 
Lavinia (Rumsey) Weller. She was educated 
at Seneca Falls, New York, and while young 
came to St. Louis with her grandfather and 
uncles, Lewis and Moses Rumsey, for many 
years wealthy and leading citizens of St. 
Louis. She was married, January 21, 1873, 
to James Green, a sketch of whose life ap- 
pears in this work. Mrs. Green has led an 
active, busy life, marked throughout by 
offices of kindness and charity to the poor, 
the needy and the struggling. To be helpless 
was a claim on her help, and to be friendless 
a claim on her assistance, and no work was 
too arduous and no denial of ease too great 
for her in ministering: to the necessities of 




l^Uuims My^ 




/ / 



.'^^f SauthecnJ-ftsf'jrLf Co. 



GRKEN. 



101 



the destitute and despairing. Her labors have 
been without ostentation and display, and 
pursued with the quiet manner that avoids 
observation ; but they have been fruitful in 
relief to the distressed, and hope and encour- 
agement to the unfortunate and disheart- 
ened. The Bethel Mission and the Memo- 
rial Home, of which she is vice president, and 
the Martha Parsons Hospital, of which she 
is president, owe no small share of their suc- 
cess to her vigorous administration and 
support, and other similar institutions in the 
city have been recipients of her bounty. She 
is not easily discouraged by obstacles in the 
prosecution of individual enterprises or of 
humane work, and when she puts her hand 
to an undertaking worthy in itself and in its 
purposes, it is usually carried to suc- 
cess through her unfaltering patience and 
perseverance. Though reserved of manner, 
she is fond of her friends, and warmly es- 
teemed by them in return, and, with her am- 
ple means and her cultivated tastes, is able to 
make her beautiful home the seat of ele- 
gant hospitality and the meeting ground for 
a delightful circle of cultured acquaintances. 
Her children are John Leigh, Mabel and 
Rumsey Green. 

Green, Samuel Ball, lawyer, was born 
January 21, 1850, near Savannah, An- 
drew County, Missouri, and died at his home 
in St. Joseph, Missouri, June 27, 1890. His 
parents were Samuel and Amanda (Davis) 
Green, both of whom were natives of Vir- 
ginia. The early years of his life were 
passed on a farm, and he obtained the rudi- 
ments of an education in the country schools. 
At the beginning of the Civil War he and 
his mother went to Mobile, Alabama, taking 
with them a large number of slaves, hoping 
that their slave property would be secure 
under the Confederate government. At the 
close of the war they returned to St. Joseph, 
Missouri, and in 1867 young Green went to 
Montana with Judge Alexander Davis. He 
had previously graduated from the St. Joseph 
High School, and when he went to Mon- 
tana he began the study of law under the 
preceptorship of Judge Davis. When only 
€ighteen years of age he was appointed clerk 
of the circuit court at Virginia City, Mon- 
tana, and faithfully and efificiently discharged 
the duties of that position. Returning to 
Buchanan County, Missouri, in 1870, he en- 



gaged in farming operations for one year, 
and then came to St. Joseph, where he em- 
barked in the wood and coal trade. He 
proved himself a capable and sagacious busi- 
ness man, but the bent of his mind was toward 
the law, and after completing the studies 
which he had begun under the preceptorship 
of Judge Davis, he was admitted to the bar 
by Judge Grubb in 1874. In 1878 he was 
elected city recorder of St. Joseph, and was 
a conspicuous figure in the conduct of city 
affairs during the adrpinistration of. Mayor 
Finer. Thereafter until his death he applied 
himself assiduously to professional labors, 
and became recognized throughout a wide 
extent of territory as one of the ablest mem- 
bers of the Missouri bar. In 1882 he became 
a member of the law firm of Woodson, Green 
& Burnes, which was composed of Judge 
Silas Woodson, Samuel B. Green and D. D. 
Burnes. Two years later the criminal court 
was established in St. Joseph, and Judge 
Woodson was appointed to the bench of this 
court. The firm then continued as Green 
& Burnes until the death of Mr. Green. 
While he was never a seeker after official 
preferment himself, he took an interest in 
politics and public afifairs and was the con- 
fidential friend and adviser of Colonel James 
N. Burnes while that gentleman was in pub- 
lic life. When Colonel Burnes died he was 
pressed to accept the nomination for Con- 
gress as Colonel Burnes' successor, but de- 
clined the honor, saying that he thought 
it should go to one of the other counties of 
the district. As a practitioner of law he was 
remarkably successful, not only in his cham- 
pionship of the interest of clients and the 
winning of cases, but in winning the respect 
and esteem of the general public and his 
contemporaries at the St. Joseph bar. His 
high standing at the bar is best attested by 
the action of the Buchanan County Bar 
Association at the time of his death. At that 
time a committee appointed to draft suitable 
resolutions presented the following, which 
were unanimously adopted : 

"The closing hours of this term of court 
are called upon to witness an event pro- 
foundly sad and sorrowful — the death of 
Samuel B. Green, one of the ablest, noblest 
and most successful members of this bar. He 
was born in this vicinity and his life was 
spent in this city and community. At an early 
age he was thrown upon his own resources. 



102 



GREKNCASTLE— GREEN CITY. 



but he went forward to battle with every op- 
posing difficulty, animated by that noble 
heroism and lofty determination which 
brook not defeat. At the time of his death 
he had been a member of this bar about fif- 
teen years. During that time he achieved 
a success in his profession such as few men 
at his age have ever achieved. He was en- 
dowed with qualities and characteristics 
which meant success. He was remarkable 
for his untiring energy, for his strong, clear, 
vigorous thought, the great analytical powers 
of his mind, his profound, even philosophical 
comprehension of legal principles and their 
application, his rare and accurate knowledge 
of men, his invincible logic, his convincing 
eloquence, and his unswerving fidelity and 
noble devotion to every trust committed to 
his care. 

"He prepared his cases with great indus- 
try, outlined them with a keen, clear compre- 
hension of all the difficulties, forecasted with 
rare and remarkable accuracy the points of 
opposition, went into trials thoroughly 
equipped, conducted them with consummate 
skill and won. 

"Although cut down upon the threshold of 
mature manhood, he had advanced to the 
front rank of his profession in this State, and 
fell crowned with a success nobly won and 
well deserved. 

"In all the relations of life he was remark- 
able for his fidelity to friends — he was true 
as steel — and in his devotion in this respect 
he was never known to falter. He had many 
friends, and, w^hat is better, by his candid, 
straightforward course in life, he deserved 
them. The high, the low, the rich, the poor, 
stood ready to do him honor. He was well 
known throughout different parts of the 
State, was highly regarded wherever known, 
and to-day thousands of the best citizens in 
this city and elsewhere mourn his sad and 
untimely death. 

"As husband, father and brother, he was 
kind, gentle, loving and affectionate. There- 
fore be it 

"Resolved, That in his death this bar has 
lost one of its ablest and most successful law- 
yers, and the profession in this State one of 
its noble and most worthy members. 

"That this city has lost one of its most en- 
ergetic, enterprising, popular, upright and 
patriotic citizens. 

"That we hereby tender his grief-stricken 



widow and family, and his sad and sorrowing 
relatives, our profound sympathy in their 
sore bereavement. 

"That we request the circuit court in both 
divisions, and the criminal court, to set apart 
upon their respective records a memorial 
page, and that these resolutions be recorded 
thereon as evidence of the high esteem in 
which he was held by us. 

"That a copy of these resolutions, duly 
engrossed and properly attested by the 
president and secretary of this meeting, be 
transmitted to his widow and family," 

On this occasion numerous tributes were 
paid to his virtues and ability, and his worth 
as a man and a citizen, by members of the bar 
of St. Joseph, who honored him for his high 
character and loved him for his many noble 
qualities. His old law partner. Honorable 
D. D. Burnes, said of him : "He was as noble 
as he was fearless and true, and as gentle as 
he was brave;" and this seems to have been 
the sentiment of all who knew him. A touch- 
ing incident of the obsequies was the placing 
upon the casket which held his remains, of 
a large pillow of roses, surmounted by swing- 
ing gates, upon which perched a white dove. 
It bore the inscription : "True to his friends." 
The obsequies were impressive in character, 
and the remains of Mr. Green were followed 
to Mount Mora Cemetery by one of the larg- 
est concourses of people which has ever done 
honor to the memory of a dead citizen of St. 
Joseph. Mr. Green married, on the 25th day 
of June, 1873, Miss Taylor Mitchell, daughter 
of Alexander J. and Harriet (Rowan) Mitch- 
ell, residents of St. Joseph, but natives of 
Kentucky. Of this union three children 
were born, Lesslie Mitchell, Helen B. and 
Nelson M. Green, all of whom survived their 
father. Helen B. Green died December 22, 
1898. 

Greencastle. — An incorporated village 
in Sullivan County, on the Omaha. Kansas 
City & Eastern Railroad, fifteen miles east- 
northeast of Milan. It has a bank, a grist- 
mill and about twenty-five miscellaneous 
business houses, including stores, shops, etc. 
Population, 1899 (estimated), 500. 

Green City. — An incorporated village in 
Sullivan County, on the Omaha, Kansas City 
& Eastern Railroad, northeast of Milan. It 
has Methodist, Christian and Presbyterian 



GREEN RIDGE— GREENE. 



103 



churches, a college, public school, bank, 
creamery, flouring mill, gristmill, sawmill, a 
weekly paper, the "Press," and about thirty 
stores and miscellaneous shops. Population, 
1899 (estimated), 600. 

Green Ridge. — A village in Pettis 
County, on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
Railway, twelve miles southwest of Sedalia, 
the county seat. It has churches of the Bap- 
tist, Congregational, Cumberland Presbyte- 
rian, Christian, Methodist Episcopal and 
Methodist Episcopal South denominations ; a 
public school, a Democratic newspaper, the 
"Local News ;" a bank, a fiourmill and a saw- 
mill. In 1899 the population was 600. In 
1870 the site was known as Parker sburgh ; it 
was platted under its present name in 1875 
and incorporated in 1881. In 1838, and an- 
nually for many years afterward, a great 
camp meeting was held by the Cumberland 
Presbyterians on the farm of Robei^t Means. 

Greene, Charles Fillmore, was born 
April 9, 1851, in Marshall County, Alabama, 
son of Isaiah and Sallie (Melton) Greene. He 
received his scholastic training in the public 
schools of Nashville, Tennessee, and then 
studied medicine in the medical department 
of the University of Louisville, Kentucky, 
and in the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, at Nashville. After 
completing his medical education he removed 
to Missouri, and began the practice of his 
profession at Gainesville, removing later to 
Mountain Grove, in Wright County. He 
continued to practice successfully at that 
place until 1890, when he went to Winona, in 
Shannon County, and became chief surgeon 
of the Ozark Lumber Company. This posi- 
tion he retained until 1893, when he accepted 
the position of chief surgeon of the Central 
Coal & Coke Company, of Texarkana, Ar- 
kansas, taking charge of the hospital depart- 
ment located at that place. In 1895 he 
removed to Poplar Bluflf and engaged in a 
general practice which has since grown to 
large proportions. During the last adminis- 
tration of President Cleveland he was an 
examining physician for the Government 
Pension Department, and he is at the present 
time medical examiner for four prominent 
life insurance companies. In politics Dr. 
Greene is a Democrat, but has been too much 
absorbed in professional labors to take an 



active part in political movements. In fra- 
ternal circles he is known as a member of the 
Masonic Order, the Order of United Work- 
men, the order of Knights of Maccabees and 
the order of Hoo-Hoos. August i, i87i,he 
married Miss Nannie A. Gee, of Tompkins- 
ville, Kentucky. The children born to them 
have been Maude Greene, now Mrs. Pum- 
phrey, of Lead Hill, Arkansas; Charles F. 
Greene, of Jackson, Missouri; Alice Greene, 
now Mrs. Magnus, of Lead Hill, Arkansas; 
Bertie, Alice Mamie, Joseph and Edward 
Greene. 

Greene, John Priest, clergyman, was 
born in Scotland County, Missouri, in 1849. 
He comes of Baptist parentage. He received 
his academic education at the hands of Bart- 
lett Anderson and at Memphis Academy. He 
graduated from La Grange College, and in 
1875 entered the Southern Baptist Theologi- 
cal Seminary, now located at Louisville, Ken< 
tucky. In 1879 he went to Germany, where 
he spent fifteen months as a student in the 
L^niversity of Leipsic, after which he spent 
some time traveling in Europe. On his re- 
turn to America he resumed the charge of 
the East Baptist Church, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, of which he was pastor before going 
abroad. In 1882 he was called to the pas- 
toral care of the Third Baptist Church, St. 
Louis. At that time the church was located 
at Fourteenth and Clark Avenue, and had 
a membership of 372. Shortly after taking 
charge of the church, steps were taken to 
secure a new site. The eligible location on 
Grand Avenue, at the head of Washington 
Boulevard, was selected, and a property 
worth $120,000 was dedicated, free of debt, 
in December, 1885. In 1892 Dr. Greene was 
called to the presidency of William Jewell 
College, which position he accepted, and en- 
tered upon the work there in September of 
that year. 

Under his care the Third Baptist Church 
grew from 372 to a membership of 800, and 
became the first church in point of influence, 
numbers and prominence in the State. With 
the coming of Dr. Greene to St. Louis an era 
of Baptist prosperity was inaugurated. Very 
largely under his influence the Water Tower, 
Lafayette Park, First German and Jefferson 
Avenue German Churches were put in good 
houses ; the Missouri Baptist Sanitarium was 
made an established fact, and the orphans' 



104 



GREKNE COUNTY. 



home very materially aided. Referring to 
him at the time of leaving St. Louis, the 
"Central Baptist" says: "Few men have 
more universally won the esteem and love of 
the denomination than he." 

Greene County. — A county in the 
southwest part of the State, 175 miles south- 
east of Kansas City. It is bounded on the 
north by Polk and Dallas, on the east by 
Webster, on the south by Christian, and on 
the west by Dade and Lawrence Counties. It 
has an area of 688 square miles, of which 
about three-fifths is under cultivation ; a large 
portion of the remainder affords excellent 
pasturage, and is well adapted to fruit cul- 
ture. While situated upon the summit of 
the Ozark Range, at an altitude of 1,492 feet, 
the undulating uplands in the west and south- 
west have prairie characteristics, being not 
too rough for cultivation, and bearing a fer- 
tile soil, somewhat sandy, over a clay subsoil. 
Kickapoo Prairie and Grand Prairie, the one 
south and the other west of Springfield, are 
of this nature. The valleys are extremely 
fertile. The central north is hilly and rocky, 
covered with scrubby black jack. A heavy 
growth of oak, hickory, walnut, sycamore and 
black jack is found in the west and south- 
west. Lead, zinc and iron have been found 
in the northwest part of the county. The 
water courses are numerous tributaries of 
Osage River, in the north, the principal ones 
being the forks of Sac River, uniting in the 
central part of the county, and Pomme de 
Terre in the northeast. Flowing south- 
wardly from the central east is the James 
Fork of White River, with its affluents. Wil- 
son's Creek and Campbell's Creek flow south- 
wardly from the central part of the county, 
west of Springfield. There are several fine 
springs and caves. Knox Cave, named for 
J. G. Knox, who discovered it in 1866, and 
explored it for about one mile, is near Little 
Sac River, about seven miles northwest of 
Springfield ; it lies from seventy-five to one 
hundred feet below the surface, is twenty to 
seventy feet wide, and six to thirty feet in 
height. It is thickly set with beautiful stalac- 
tites and stalagmites, and huge columns. 
Springdale Cave, formerly known as Fisher's 
Cave, after a former owner, six miles south- 
east of Springfield, has similar characteris- 
tics, and contains a bounteous spring. Other 
and smaller caves are worthy of attention. 



Springfield, the county seat, is the commer- 
cial center of a large territory. The prin- 
cipal smaller towns are Ash Grove, Walnut 
Grove, Republic, Cave Spring and Strafford. 
The railways are the St. Louis & San Fran- 
cisco, the Kansas City, Clinton & Springfield 
and the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis. 
All farm and orchard products are largely re- 
munerative, and fine limestone and fire-clay 
are abundant. In 1898 the principal surplus 
products were as follows: Cattle, 8,713 head; 
hogs, 48,476 head ; sheep, 10,582 head ; horses 
and mules, 2,033 head; wheat, 115,839 bush- 
els; hay, 985,000 pounds; flour, 35,817,450 
pounds ; shipstuff, 2,552,820 pounds ; lumber, 
logs and posts, 386,200 feet; lead ore. 200 
tons ; zinc ore, 1,020 tons ; pig iron, 160 tons ; 
brick, 143,500; cement, 34,387 barrels; wool, 
60,100 pounds; cotton, 19,800 pounds; poul- 
try, 3,089,716 pounds; eggs, 1,390,710 dozen; 
game and fish, i33,837pounds ; hides andpelts, 
352,116 pounds ; apples, 24,877 barrels ; straw- 
berries, 7,990 crates; fresh fruit, 1,321,900 
pounds; dried fruit, 59,531 pounds; vege- 
tables, 92,643 pounds; canned goods, 1,120,- 
000 pounds; lime, 154,880 barrels. In 1900 
the population was 52,713. 

The territory now known as Greene 
County, excepting possibly a narrow strip on 
the north, was originally a portion of Wayne, 
one of the territorial counties. In 1829 it 
was included in Crawford County. January 
2, 1833, Greene County was created, the or- 
ganic act specifying that it was named in 
honor of "Nathaniel Green, of the Revolu- 
tion." The corrected form of the name, 
with the final "e," appears in subsequent acts, 
but without explanation. It embraced all 
Missouri south and west of compass lines 
taken from about the northwest corner of 
Laclede County, and formed substantially a 
square of nearly 100 miles on each side. By 
successive detachments beginning with the 
creation of Henry County in 1834, and ending 
with that of Christian County in i860, Greene 
County was reduced to its present dimen- 
sions. Under the provisions of the organic 
act, Jeremiah N. Sloan, James Dollison and 
Samuel Martin sat as county justices with 
John D. Shannon, sheriff. A. J. Burnett, 
justice of the peace, administered the oath of 
office, and the court held its first session at 
the house of John' P. Campbell, March 11, 
1833. Samuel Martin was chosen presiding 
justice, and John P. Campbell clerk. The 



GREENE COUNTY. 



105 



immense territory of the new county was di- 
vided into seven townships, and two more 
were established later the same year. There 
were no maps, and ridges and streams were 
designated as boundary lines. Justices were 
appointed in five of the townships, Andrew 
Taylor, Richard C. Martin and Larkin Payne 
being named for Campbell Township, which 
was substantially the present Greene County. 
Commissioners were appointed to lay out 
roads in the direction of Boonville, Mis- 
souri, and P^ayetteville, Arkansas. At a sub- 
sequent session John Williams was appointed 
assessor, and D. D. Berry treasurer. The 
clerk was instructed to procure a seal, bear- 
ing the efifigy of an elk, and the inscription : 
"Seal of Greene County, Missouri." In 1834 
James Dollison, Alexander Young and Ben- 
jamin Chapman were elected county jus- 
tices; Benjamin U. Goodrich, sheriflf, and 
John Rolands, coroner. Goodrich died on 
election night from the bursting of a blood 
vessel, and Chesley Cannefax was appointed 
to the vacancy by Governor Dunklin. His 
commission did not issue, and the court 
named John W. Hancock to the position. C. 
D. Terrill was appointed clerk. Cannefax 
was afterward elected sherifif and served until 
1838. At the February term, 1835, the court 
appointed Daniel Gray, assessor ; Chesley 
Cannefax, collector, and D. D. Berry, treas- 
urer. The General Assembly had previously 
(January 5th) appointed Jeremiah N. Sloan, 
George M. Gibson and Markham Fristoe 
commissioners to locate a county seat. At 
the July term, 1835, of the county court this 
commission made report of location near 
Campbell's Spring — where John P. Campbell 
had donated fifty acres of land for public uses 
■ — whereupon the court appointed D. B. 
Miller commissioner to lay ofif a town and 
sell lots. In August John P. Campbell was 
elected county clerk; John H. Clark, asses- 
sor; Samuel Scroggins, surveyor, and Charles 
S. Yancey and David Appleby, county jus- 
tices. At the next session of the county 
court James Dollison was chosen presiding 
justice. In December, County Justice 
Younger resigned, and the Governor ap- 
pointed Charles S. Yancey to the vacancy. 
At the August term, 1836, Justice Yancey 
was chosen presiding justice. An order was 
made directing Commissioner Miller to em- 
ploy a competent surveyor to lay off the town 
site, reserving two lots for public buildings — 



two acres having been previously reserved 
for a public square — and to advertise a sale 
of lots, the proceeds to be set aside for the 
erection of public buildings. A sale had 
been ordered the previous year, but 
amounted to little. Previous to the location 
of the county seat, many had favored a site 
near the present Mount Vernon, and hoped 
to secure a re-location. The latter sale was 
advertised in newspapers in St. Louis and 
Franklin, and many people attended. The 
sales amounted to $649.88, and the expenses 
were $131.51. In November the court ap- 
pointed Sidney S. Ingram superintendent of 
building, and instructed him to erect a two- 
story brick courthouse in the center of the 
public square, and appropriated $3,250 there- 
for. This building was destroyed in 1861. 
A log jail had already been built, paid for 
by subscription, in the absence of public 
revenue. In 1837 two bridges were built on 
the road from Springfield into Arkansas ; 
they were the first in the county, and cost 
$100. In 1855 a poorhouse was built. In 
1858, the county court appointed W. B. 
Farmer, Warren H. Graves and Josiah Leedy 
commissioners to select a site and procure 
plans for a new courthouse. Ground was 
purchased for $3,000, on the west side of the 
public square, and the building contract was 
awarded to Leedy for $36,000. After this 
transaction the county suffered loss of terri- 
tory and taxable property by the creation of 
Christian County, and the court procured a 
legislative act authorizing the county to bor- 
row $16,000 for building purposes. Before 
the building was completed the contractor 
became seriously embarassed, and compro- 
mise proceedings took place at a later day. 
The building was occupied in 1861, and is yet 
in use. In April, 1862, were present Justices 
Joseph Rountree and James W. Gray. Jus- 
tice John Murray resigned,, and was suc- 
ceeded by A. C. Graves. The last named 
was afterward killed at the Battle of Spring- 
field, where he served as major in the Seven- 
ty-second Regiment Enrolled Missouri Mili- 
tia. After the brief occupation by General 
Price's army in 1861, the county was under 
Federal control, and public business was con- 
ducted with a fair degree of order. In 1866 
the Federal government paid $2,500 as com- 
pensation for damages to the courthouse 
while used for military purposes. In 1855 
a court of probate and common pleas was es- 



106 



GREENE COUNTY. 



tablished, with P. H. Edwards as first judge 
and S. H. Boyd as first clerk. In 1834 
Joseph Weaver was elected first State sen- 
ator, and J. D. Shannon the first representa- 
tive. The county cast 503 votes, of which 
185 were in Campbell Township. In 1876 
the county was divided into two representa- 
tive districts. Green, Dade, Dallas and Polk 
Counties now constitute the Twentieth Sen- 
atorial District ; and Greene, Christian and 
Taney Counties constitute the Twenty-third 
Representative District. 

What is now known as southwest 
Missouri, substantially 
Settlement of the Greene County as or- 
County. ganized in 1833, was for- 

merly known as the 
Osage Country, being the home of the Indian 
tribe for which it was named. After the 
War of 1812 the Kickapoos made villages 
on the Pomme de Terre River, and near 
the present site of Springfield, leaving their 
name in that of Kickapoo Prairie, south of 
that place. The history of the region is 
peculiarly interesting as that of one of the 
most important purely American settlements 
made in the State. The first white settlers 
came about 1820, being John P. Pettijohn, 
a Virginian and a Revolutionary War sol- 
dier, with a party numbering twenty-four 
people, who had sojourned for a time in 
Arkansas. He and his family, with Joseph 
Price and Augustine Friend, settled on James 
River, southwest of Springfield, and William 
Friend in what is now Christian County. 
Jeremiah Pierson settled on a branch of the 
Pomme de Terre, where he built a mill, said 
to have been the first in this part of the 
State, although this claim is disputed in favor 
of a man named Ingle, who located near the 
Osage bridge over the James River. Na- 
than Burrill, a son-in-law of Pettijohn, and 
George Wells and Isaac Prosser located near 
William Friend shortly afterward. About 
1822 Thomas Patterson, a North Carolinian, 
came and bought one of the Pettijohn claims ; 
his brother, Alexander, settled higher up on 
the James. The same year the Delaware 
Indians came, to the number of 500, assert- 
ing reservation rights. Thomas Patterson, 
Sr., went to St. Louis, where he instituted 
an inquiry which led him to conclude that 
their claims were just, whereupon all the 
settlers retired except William Friend, who 
remained on his farm, and may be regarded 



as the earliest permanent settler. With the 
Delawares lived a few whites, to whom they 
rented lands. Among them were a man 
named Marshall, who took the abandoned 
Ingle mill, and James Wilson, who left his 
name to the creek where General Lyon fell. 
Wilson married a squaw, and afterward a 
French woman, who upon his death became 
the wife of Dr. C. F. Terrill. William Gillis 
and Joseph Philabert lived among the In- 
dians on James River, near Wilson's Creek, 
where Philabert managed a trading post. 
Between 1822 and 1825 a man named Davis 
lived on James River, east of Springfield ; 
it is supposed that he was killed by Indians. 
In 1827 came the Mooney brothers, one of 
whom was a preacher, who settled on a 
branch of the James. Samuel Martin came 
from North Carolina in 1829. In 1830 the 
Indians were removed to the Indian Terri- 
tory, and a large white immigration set in. 
In February William, Levi and John Ful- 
bright and A. J. Burnett located at Ful- 
bright Springs. In March came John P. 
Campbell and his brother-in-law, Joseph H. 
Miller. Campbell had visited the country 
in 1829, and cut his initials in a tree on the 
site chosen by Burnett, who upon seeing this 
evidence of prior possession, removed five 
miles eastward, leaving to Campbell and Mil- 
ler his cabin, the first white habitation upon 
the site of Springfield. Edward Thompson 
came somewhat later. Among the immi- 
grants of 1831 were Joseph Rountree, Sid- 
ney S. Ingram, Andrew Taylor, Radford 
Cannefax, Finis Shannon, Samuel Painter, 
Peter Epperson and John Headlee. Between 
1832 and 1834 came John D. Shannon, Joseph 
Price, Sr., Littleberry Hendrick, John Pen- 
nington, George F. Strother and James Dol- 
lison. All these settled in the vicinity of 
Springfield. To the north and east, on the 
Sac and Pomme de Terre Rivers and their 
branches, about the same time came Nathan 
Boone, son of Daniel Boone, and the Leeper, 
Tatum and Robberson families, and others. 
The immigration to this time was almost ex- 
clusively from Tennessee, and the names 
given are important in the history of this 
region. The first white child born in the 
county was a daughter of Cowden Martin, 
a brother of Samuel Martin, in 1829. The 
first male white child was William, son of 
Edward Thompson, in 1830. Junius Roun- 
tree was married to Martha, daughter of 



GREENE COUNTY. 



107 



Joseph H. Miller, August 7, 1831, by Rich- 
ard Kizee, a Baptist minister. This is 
claimed to have been the first marriage, but 
the same claim is made for that of Lawson 
Fulbright and Elizabeth Roper, who were 
married the same year by J. H. Slavens, the 
pioneer Methodist preacher. The first death 
is said to have been that of Finis Shannon, 
brother-in-law of Joseph H. Miller, on Wil- 
son's Creek, in 183 1. A child of Joseph H. 
Miller died in the same neighborhood the 
same year. September i, 1835, the United 
States Land Office was opened at Spring- 
field, with Joel H. Haden, of Howard County, 
as first register, and Robert T. Brown, of 
Ste. Genevieve, as receiver. This was the 
occasion for a large assembling of people, 
but little to the advantage of Greene County, 
in which the public lands were not open for 
entry until December, 1837, when a large 
immigration set in, and the development of 
the county really began. By 1840 a better 
class of dwellings had been erected, churches 
and schools received attention, mail and pas- 
senger stage lines had become numerous, 
and railroad building was contemplated. In 
1850 the population was 12,799, including 
1,146 slaves. In 1853 was great snfi'ering; 
crops failed generally, there was great stock 
shortage on account of drouth, and a viru- 
lent flux prevailed, causing much mortality, 
particularly among children. Prosperity suc- 
ceeded until 1856, when there was another 
failure of crops, and many domestic animals 
starved to death. The effect was felt se- 
verely the next year, and many people left 
the county and the State. That summer a 
bountiful wheat crop was raised, and until 
1861 material conditions were favorable. 
With the opening of the Civil War social 
order was overthrown to a great extent, and 
the county became the scene of strife and 
desolation. Even after the disbandment of 
the hostile armies there was much lawless- 
ness, and a body of "Regulators" took the 
remedy into their own hands, maintaining 
their organization until about 1868. In 
April, 1867, the United States Land Office 
at Springfield was reopened, with John S. 
Waddill as register. Between that time and 
June 30th 25,619 acres were entered, and the 
repopulation of the county may be said to 
date from that time. In 1868 ground was 
broken for the first railway. In the aggre- 
gate, $400,000 were contributed in subscrip- 



tions to the stock of various roads. There 
were irregularities in connection with some 
of these bond issues, and much litigation 
ensued. In 1885 a compromise was effected. 
January i, 1900, this indebtedness was $320,- 
000, and the refunding bonds were being 
paid as they fell due. Education received 
early attention. Almost as soon as a little 
settlement was made a log building was 
erected by common effort to serve as school 
and church. The first school was in 183 1, 
on the site of Springfield, and was taught 
by Joseph Rountree. A log schoolhouse was 
built in the Little Sac neighborhood in 1835, 
and another near by in 1837; the former 
was taught by Daniel Appleby and the lat- 
ter by Robert Foster. In 1836 a school was 
taught near the Pierson Springs, but the 
name of the teacher is lost. Other early 
schools were taught by Joseph Tatum, near 
Ash Grove ; by Robert Batson, on Pond 
Creek, in the extreme southwest part of the 
county; by David Dalzell, near Cave Spring; 
by B. F. Walker, on a branch of the Sac, 
and by the Rev. Thomas Potter, near the 
Pomme de Terre. In 1841 Miss Rachel Q. 
Waddill taught in the Grand Prairie neigh- 
borhood. In 1847 school townships were 
organized, and schools were established in 
nearly all during that and the following 
years ; select schools and academies were 
opened at Springfield about the same time. 
In 1853 the office of county commissioner 
of schools was created, and A. H. Matthis 
was appointed to the position. During the 
Civil War schools were generally abandoned. 
In 1866 the work of restoration began, under 
H. S. Creighton, appointed county superin- 
tendent. At the present time the educational 
institutions of the county are unexcelled in 
the State. • In 1898 there were 126 schools, 
including 8 schools for colored children; 219 
white and 14 colored teachers, and 11,375 
white and 554 colored pupils. The aggre- 
gate value of school property was $545,320, 
and the permanent school fund was $47,- 
431.42. 

Among the early settlers were ministers, 
who came to make homes as did others. 
They preached at times in cabins, sometimes 
going considerable distances on invitation, 
and always finding attentive auditors. Out 
of this preaching grew many of the now ex- 
isting churches. The first was one Mooney, 
a Baptist, who settled near the James in 



108 



GREENE COUNTY. 



1827 or 1828. Other early preachers of this 
denomination were WiUiam Tatum, who or- 
ganized Mount Pleasant Church, near Cave 
Spring, in 1838; .Thomas Kelly, near Ash 
Grove; Elijah Williams and Hiram Savage, 
at the Leeper settlement, on the Sac, and 
Jesse Mason, near Grand Prairie. J. H. Sla- 
vens, who married a daughter of Joseph 
Rountree, and settled near Campbell's Spring 
in 183 1, was the first Methodist preacher to 
locate in southwest Missouri ; it may be that 
H. G. Joplin, of Jasper County, preached 
once or twice on the Pomme de Terre be- 
fore him. Other Methodists were one Al- 
derson, in the Campbell neighborhood ; 
Edward Robberson and David Ross, near the 
Sac, and Bryant Nowlin and James Mitchell, 
in the Leeper settlement. E. P. Noel was 
the first Presbyterian, and in 1839 he or- 
ganized Mount Zion Church, near Cave 
Spring, claimed to have been the first regu- 
larly established church of that denomina- 
tion west of St. Louis. Milton Renshaw 
came to the same neighborhood later. The 
■earliest -Cumberland Presbyterian minister 
was Jefiferson Montgomery, and the earli- 
■est Christian ministers were Thomas Potter, 
near the James, and Joel H. Haden, at 
Springfield. Among the early physicians 
were Constantine Perkins, near Ash Grove ; 
R. C. Prunty, on Wilson's Creek ; William 
C. Caldwell, on the James ; C. D. Terrill, 
•on Little Sac, and Edward Rodgers, in the 
Campbell neighborhood. 

From the first the experiences of the peo- 
ple were such as to fos- 
Military History. ter a martial spirit, and 
Greene County has fur- 
nished soldiers in every war from the time of 
its settlement. In 1836 the settlers were dis- 
turbed by bands of Osage Indians, who were 
removed by a regiment of militia under 
Colonel Charles S. Yancey. The following 
year there was another alarm which led to 
General Powell calling out the militia of the 
district to which Greene County belonged, 
iDUt it proved unnecessary, the Indians in the 
Sarcoxie neighborhood, where trouble was 
reported, being entirely peaceable. During 
the Mexican War a Greene County com- 
pany, under Captain A. N. Julian, marched to 
Fort Leavenworth and became a part of Col- 
onel Ruffin's regiment, but was disbanded 
and returned home. Early in 1847 Captain 
Samuel Boak organized a company of the 



Third Missouri Mounted Infantry, com- 
manded by Colonel John Ralls. It marched 
into Mexico and fought a battle at Santa 
Cruz de Resales, where the Alexicans were 
defeated with heavy loss. It remained in 
Mexico until the end of the war, and upon its 
return to Springfield was entertained with a 
great barbecue. During the Kansas troubles 
in 1856, almost a war, considerable numbers 
of Greene County people crossed the border 
and engaged in those unhappy affairs. Dur- 
ing the Civil War the county was the scene 
of battles of momentous importance, and was 
traversed by armed men from beginning to 
end of the conflict. It contributed largely to 
both armies. It furnished to the Union Army 
1,387 men, 392 more than were called for by 
the government ; the number of Confederate 
enlistments is not ascertainable. In February 
and March of 1861, secret meetings were 
held by both Unionists and Secessionists, 
and both parties prepared for the coming 
conflict ; they were mostly armed with shot- 
guns and revolvers, liut a few were provided 
with rifles and carbines. In May the Seces- 
sionists were sending out of Springfield 
munitions of war to their adherents in the 
country, while the Unionists, largely in the 
majority, were seeking to prevent it. patrol- 
ling the streets and roads from dark until 
daylight. June nth Campbell's company of 
State Guards, with other armed men, held a 
barbecue at the Fulbright Spring, just west 
of Springfield. Peter S. Wilkes, Representa- 
tives W. C. Price, Hancock and Frazier, and 
Captains Campbell and Freeman were the 
leaders at this meeting. To ofifset this 
demonstration, a meeting of Unionists was 
held at the "Goose Pond," on the Kickapoo 
Prairie, south of Springfield. Here assem- 
bled numerous semi-military Union com- 
panies from Greene and Christian Counties, 
armed similarly with the Secessionists. The 
assemblage moved to the pasture lands on 
the John S. Phelps farm, where a regimental 
organization was formed, which was known 
as the Phelps Regiment of Home Guards, or 
the Greene and Christian County Home 
Guards. There were twelve companies, ag- 
gregating 1,133 officers and men. Eight 
companies were from Greene County, com- 
manded by Captains John A. Lee, C. B. 
Owens, J. T. Abernathy, Charles I. Dun- 
wright, T. C. Piper (succeeded by J. A. Mack, 
Sr.), John W. Gattly (succeeded by First 



GREENE COUNTY. 



109 



Lieutenant Hosea G. Mullings), William H. 
McAdams, Sampson H. Bass and Daniel L. 
Mallicoat. The officers were John S. Phelps, 
colonel ; Alarcus Boyd, lieutenant colonel ; S. 
H. Boyd and Sample Orr, majors; R. J. Mc- 
Elhaney, adjutant, and Henry Sheppard, 
quartermaster. Alany of the Unionists were 
anxious to make an attack upon the Seces- 
sionists, who were equally desirous of march- 
ing into Springfield and raising "a Southern 
flag" upon the courthouse, A collision 
was averted as the result of a meeting be- 
tween Colonel Phelps and Captain Campbell, 
and both parties displayed their flags in the 
city ; the Unionists hoisted the Stars and 
Stripes, and the Secessionists what they 
called the Missouri State flag, which was 
really the Confederate flag, except that it 
bore the Missouri coat-of-arms in the field in 
the place of the stars. The Home Guards 
held possession of the city that night, and the 
next day, upon Campbell's men being 
marched away, dispersed for the time, sub- 
ject to call to duty. The Home Guards 
maintained a quasi organization until after 
the Battle of Wilson's Creek, August loth. 
During that conflict it was assembled at 
Springfield under the command of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Marcus Boyd. Officers and men 
were anxious to participate in the battle, and 
were only restrained by the stringent order 
of General Lyon restricting them to their 
post. The Home Guards accompanied the 
retreating Federals to Rolla, where most of 
them enlisted in permanent organizations. 
The greater number were combined in a regi- 
ment known as the Lyon Legion, under Col- 
onel S. H. Boyd, and under that name per- 
formed military duty until mustered into the 
service of the United States in October, 1861, 
for the term of three years, as the Twenty- 
fourth Regiment, Missouri Infantry Volun- 
teers. It saw service in southeastern Mis- 
souri and Arkansas, at Island No. 10, in the 
siege of Vicksburg, the Red River campaign, 
the Price raid, the Battle of Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, and the operations against Mobile, 
Alabama. Other Greene County troops were 
about 300 men enlisted in the Eighth Cavalry 
Regiment. Missouri State Militia; Colonel 
John S. Phelps' six months' regiment, which 
fought at Pea Ridge ; and the companies of 
Captains Samuel A. Flagg and Stephen H. 
; Julian, in the Fourteenth Regiment, Cavalry, 
• Missouri State Militia, which fought at Prai- 



rie Grove, under the command of Colonel 
John M. Richardson, of Greene County. The 
Seventy-second and Seventy-fourth Regi- 
ments of Enrolled Militia were organized late 
in 1862, and contained respectively 502 men 
and 278 men from Greene County; these 
regiments performed valliant service at the 
Battle of Springfield, and suffered severely. 
The Seventy-second Regiment was first com- 
manded by Colonel C. B. Holland, who was 
promoted to brigadier general of Missouri 
Militia, and was succeeded by Colonel Henry 
Sheppard. The Seventy-fourth Regiment 
was commanded by Colonel Marcus Boyd. 
Various companies in these regiments were 
afterward attached to the Sixth Provisional 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel Henry 
Sheppard, which later became the Sixteenth 
Cavalry Regiment, Missouri State Militia. In 
August, 1862, Dr. Samuel H. Melcher, then 
a brigade surgeon, obtained leave of absence 
and organized a battalion of militia, and 
broke up several guerrilla bands, afterward 
returning to his duties in the medical depart- 
ment. In 1863-4 Captains W. C. Mont- 
gomery, S. H. Julian and W. P. Davis, 
respectively, organized Batteries H, I and K 
of the Second Missouri Artillery Regiment, 
and went into active service. Battery H. 
fought at Pilot Knob, and in the Price raid; 
Battery I at Franklin and Nashville, Tennes- 
see ; and Battery K in Missouri and on the 
Powder River campaign against the Indians. 
In 1864 the Second Arkansas Cavalry Regi- 
ment, in which were many Greene County 
men, completed its organization under Col- 
onel John E. Phelps, son of Colonel John S. 
Phelps. It served under General Sanborn 
during the Price raid, and performed arduous 
service in breaking up numerous guerrilla 
bands. In September, 1864, was organized 
the Forty-sixth Regiment Missouri Volun- 
teers, a six months' regiment, commanded by 
Colonel Robert W. Fyan; it was distributed 
on garrison duty at various posts in south- 
west Missouri, and was mustered out of serv- 
ice in May, 1865. The principal body to en- 
gage in the Confederate service was Captain 
Leonidas St. Clair, Campbell's company of 
State Guards, which fought at Wilson's 
Creek, and in 1863 surrendered at Vicksburg, 
Mississippi ; after exchange it participated in 
the Tennessee campaigns under Generals 
Johnston and Hood, and finally disbanded at 
Mobile, Alabama, in 1865. 



110 



GREENE COUNTY. 



June 24, 1861, Colonel Franz Sigel 
entered the city of Springfield with the 
Third and Fifth Regiments of Missouri Vol- 
unteers. A number of Secessionists were 
temporarily imprisoned, and a quantity of 
powder found in their possession was taken. 
July 1st T. W. Sweeney, then a Captain in the 
regular army, an elected brigadier general of 
volunteers, arrived with 1,500 men and a few 
pieces of artillery. He issued a proclamation 
July 4th warning the citizens against disloyal 
conduct or demonstrations. July ist Colonel 
Sigel departed for Carthage, and the next 
day Colonel B. Gratz Brown entered the city 
with a regiment. Numerous citizens were 
arrested from time to time under charges of 
disloyalty ; the greater number of these were 
released by Colonels John S. Phelps and 
Marcus Boyd, whom General Sigel had desig- 
nated as a commission to try such cases. July 
13th General Lyon came, and during his stay 
recruited men for the Federal service, and 
impressed provisions and animals for use of 
his men, but treated citizens generally with 
great courtesy. The foundry at Springfield, 
under the direction of Colonel Phelps, made 
cannon balls for General Sigel's artillery. 
August 1st General Lyon moved with his 
force of 5,868 men and engaged the enemy at 
Dug Springs, returning to Springfield, Au- 
gust 5th. While in the city he made his resi- 
dence in a house on North Jefferson Street, 
not far from the public square; his official 
headquarters were in a house owned by Col- 
onel John S. Phelps, on the north side oi 
College Street, a little west of Main Street. 
His body lay in this house after it was 
brought from Wilson's Creek. It was burned 
by Federal soldiers in February, 1862. 

August loth the Federal forces evacuated 
the city, leaving the courthouse, the sher- 
iff's residence, the Methodist Church and 
other buildings filled with their sick and 
wounded from the battlefield. Many of the 
ladies of the city volunteered as nurses, 
among them being Mrs. John S. Phelps, Mrs. 
Marcus Boyd and daughters, one of whom 
became Mrs. D. C. Kennedy ; Mrs. Crenshaw, 
Mrs. Worrell. Mrs. Graves, Mrs. Waddill. 
Mrs. Beal and Mrs. Jameson. Dr. E. C. 
Franklin, surgeon of the Fifth Missouri Reg- 
iment, remained to care for the wounded. 
The Confederates entered the city about 11 
o'clock the next day. General Price made his 
headquarters in the Graves House, on Boon- 



ville Street, and General McCuUoch estab- 
lished himself at the General N. R. Smith 
house, on the same street. August 22d Gen- 
eral Price marched for Lexington, leaving 
Colonel T. P. Taylor, with 500 men, at. 
Springfield. October 25th Major Zagonyi, the 
advance of General Fremont's army, entered 
the city. General Fremont made his headquar- 
ters here until November 2d, when he was 
superseded by General Hunter. November 
9th the Federal troops left the city, and Gen- 
eral McCuUoch occupied it November i8th. 
On Christmks, 1861, General Price again 
made his headquarters in the city, occupy- 
ing the same premises as during his first 
visit. February 13th the Confederates evacu- 
ated, and possession was taken by the Fed- 
eral troops, under General Curtis. The city 
was in filthy corldition, but was speedily 
cleansed under the direction of Lieutenant 
Colonel Mills. A general military hospital 
was established, in which 1,300 sick and 
wounded were cared for ; a daily average of 
four deaths occurred. The city having be- 
come an immense supply depot for the Fed- 
eral Army, containing quartermaster's, com- 
missary and ordnance stores, heavy fortifi- 
cations were constructed, the work being 
performed by details from the troops, im- 
pressed citizens and negroes, under the di- 
rection of Colonel M. LaRue Harrison. Jan- 
uary 8, 1863, General Marmaduke attacked 
the city and was repulsed. (See "Springfield, 
Battle of.") January nth the Federal dead 
were buried with military honors under or- 
ders issued by Brigadier General E. B. 
Brown. In 1873 an imposing monument to 
their memory was erected. The remains of the 
Confederate dead were afterward cared for. 
During 1863-4 irregular bands of Confeder- 
ates and guerrillas infested the county; usu- 
ally they did but little harm, but at times were 
guilty of great excesses. During the latter 
part of the war General John B. Sanborn 
commanded at Springfield, and succeeded in 
great measure in repressing the more vio- 
lent of both factions of citizens, who, in the 
nature of things, were greatly embittered 
toward each other on account of their per- 
sonal sufferings, or sympathy with friends. 
Several military executions occurred at 
Springfield. (See "Military Executions.") 
April ID, 1865, a salute of 200 guns was fired 
from the forts in honor of the surrender of 
General Lee. The maintenance of a mili- 



GREENE COUNTY. 



Ill 



tary post, notwithstanding the close of the 
war, being necessary on account of the vast 
military stores, troops were retained until late 
in September. September 4th, four compa- 
nies of the Second Ohio Cavalry Regiment 
departed for Rolla, leaving but twenty men 
to perform guard duty. Some days afterward 
Captain Hillhouse returned with twenty 
more men, and remained in command until 
September 23d, when he was withdrawn, and 
Springfield had seen the last of armed occu- 
pation. His leaving was accompanied with 
many expressions of good will on the part 
of both citizens and tlie departing soldiers. 
Previously, May i8th, the Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth Regiments of Missouri Militia, under 
Colonels Mullings and Hursh, respectively, 
were organized in Greene County to preserve 
the peace, and performed efficient service 
until the restoration of civil order. Under 
the National Guard establishment the Spring- 
field Rifles were organized in 1881, under 
Captain George Townsend, and became Com- 
pany C of the Fifth Regiment; about 1886 
they were disbanded on account of failure 
of legislative appropriation. In 1890 Com- 
pany F of the Second Regiment was organ- 
ized under Capt. A. E. Findley. It was 
assigned to a Provisional Regiment which 
participated in the opening of the Colum- 
bian Exposition at Chicago in 1892, where 
it was commanded by First Lieutenant 
Ernest McAfee. It was subsequently dis- 
banded. Two companies were formed for 
service in the Spanish-American War, and 
were assigned to the Second Regiment, Na- 
tional Guard of Missouri. Company K was 
commanded by Captain A. B. Diggins, and 
Company M by Captain Ernest C. McAfee. 
The regiment was encamped at Chickamauga 
Park, Tennessee ; Lexington, Kentucky ; and 
Albany, Georgia, and was disbanded after 
being mustered out of the service of the 
United States. 

Greene County has been famous for its 

jurists and lawyers, and 
Courts. niany have been men of 

education and great legal 
ability. Their early field was that of a full 
score of counties, as now constituted, and 
their journeys were habitually made on horse- 
back. They seldom carried books, other than 
a volume of statutes, and cases were argued 
by verbal citation of law and common law 
principles. For many years court sessions 



afforded almost the only occasion for peo- 
ple coming together, and these gatherings in- 
spired the lawyers to make the most of the 
generally petty cases with which they were 
concerned. The first circuit court in the 
county was held August 12, 1833, t>y Judge 
Charles H. Allen, known as "Horse" Allen, 
on account of his uncouth demeanor and 
coarse language, even upon the bench. It 
is said that the appellation given him grew 
out of the following circumstance : When 
holding court an attorney disturbed the pro- 
ceedings by engaging in a loud altercation 
with an uncouth lawyer. Judge Allen called 
him to order without avail. The sherifif be- 
ing absent, the judge rose and exclaimed 
vehemently : "Sit down, sir, and keep your 
mouth shut." The lawyer obeyed, replying: 
"Well, as you are the judge of this court, 
I guess I will obey you this time." To which 
Judge Allen replied: "I'll let you know that 
I am not only judge of this court, but I'm a 
hoss besides, and if you don't obey me, I'll 
make you." In 1844 Judge Allen was the 
defeated independent candidate for Governor 
of Missouri against John C. Edwards, Dem- 
ocrat. The court officers at the first term 
held by Judge Allen were: Charles P. Bul- 
lock, clerk, and John D. Shannon, sherifif. 
Thomas J. Gevins and Littleberry Hendrick 
were admitted to practice. The first case was 
one brought by Manuel Carter, a free negro, 
which was dismissed upon his own motion. 
The grand jury indicted a number of free 
negroes and depraved white women for im- 
morality, and some white men for gaming,' 
upon whom were imposed fines and impris- 
onment. In 1835 C. D. Terrill was the first 
elected circuit clerk. In 1837 Judge Allen 
was succeeded by Judge Foster P. Wright, 
one of the most able and industrious of Mis- 
souri jurists. He was peculiar in his manner 
of expression, and wore old-time garb which 
attracted attention even in those primitive 
days. He was trial judge in a case of homi- 
cide brought against Charles S. Yancey, who 
succeeded him on the bench. Judge Yancey 
was a native of Kentucky. In early life he 
removed to Franklin County, Missouri, and 
shortly afterward to Springfield. In 1835 
he became a county justice of Greene County, 
and in 1836 was chosen presiding justice. 
In the same year he was an actor in an 
unfortunate affair, wherein he was held 
blameless, and which worked no impairment 



112 



GREENE COUNTY. 



of his fortune. In 1836-7 he was colonel of 
militia, and under orders from Governor 
Boggs, he moved against the Indians, who 
persisted in hunting in the vicinity and com- 
mitting various depredations, and effected 
their removal to their own territory. In 1841 
he was appointed circuit judge. While not a 
profound lawyer, he made an excellent 
judge, and stands well at the side of 
the jurists of his day. He died February 7, 
1857; the death of his wife occurred a short 
time before, and they left no children. Judge 
Yancey was succeeded on the bench by Wil- 
liam C Price. He was a native of Virginia, 
and came early in life to Greene County, 
Missouri, where he taught school and clerked 
in a general store, and became a lawyer. In 
1840 he was made deputy sheriff, and the 
following year he was appointed a county 
justice to fill a vacancy; in 1847 he was 
elected State Senator, and resigned the posi- 
tion to accept appointment as circuit judge, 
to succeed Judge Yancey. In 1859 he was 
appointed by Governor Stewart to be 
swamp land commissioner for Missouri, a"nd 
in that capacity succeeded in saving to the 
State several hundred thousand acres of 
land. In March, i860. President Buchanan 
appointed him treasurer of the United States, 
to fill a vacancy, which position he held until 
he resigned, under the administration of 
President Lincoln. At the beginning of the 
Civil War he became a private in McBride's 
Brigade of General Price's Army, was cap- 
tured in the battle of Pea Ridge, imprisoned 
for eight months at Alton, and was ex- 
changed at Vicksburg. He was appointed 
by President Jefiferson Davis to the posi- 
tion of assistant adjutant general in the 
Confederate Army, with the rank of major, 
and was assigned to duty in the recruiting 
service in Missouri. Fnancially ruined, he 
resigned in 1864, and carried on farming in 
Arkansas until 1867, when he removed to St. 
Louis, where he engaged in the practice of 
his profession. He removed to Springfield 
in 1869 and busied himself in the law, paying 
little attention to politics, and in 1898 re- 
moved to Chicago, where he was living in 
retirement in 1900. John R. Chenault, of 
Jasper County, was elected to the circuit 
bench in November, 1857, and shortly after- 
ward Greene County was attached to the 
Fourteenth Judicial Circuit, in which Patrick 
H. Edwards was judge. At the beginning of 



the Civil War he left his office to engage 
with the Confederates. Governor Gamble 
appointed Littleberry Hendrick to the va- 
cancy, with H. J. Lindenbower as prosecuting 
attorney. Jwdge Hendrick issued a temper- 
ate address, announcing the coming court 
opening and invoking the assistance of all 
good citizens. He opened court April 7, 
1861, when Martin J. Hubble was appointed 
clerk, and Coroner Anthony Church served 
as sherifif. Attorneys who subscribed to the 
oath of loyalty and were admitted to prac- 
tice were H. J. Lindenbower, Alfred Julian, 
James W. Mack, M. Cavanaugh and D. C. 
Dade. In 1862 business was dispatched in. 
an orderly manner. January 10, 1863, Judge 
Hendrick died; he had been ill for some 
days, and his death was ascribed to excite- 
ment incident to the battle two days pre- 
vious. He was a native of Kentucky, and 
one of the two first lawyers admitted to prac- 
tice in the Greene County Circuit Court at its 
initial term in August, 1833. In early life 
he was an ardent Whig, and in 1848 he was 
the candidate of his party for Lieutenant 
Governor, and during the campaign edited 
the "Springfield Whig" newspaper, at the 
same time taking an active part in the can- 
vass as a public speaker. He was an uncondi- 
tional Union delegate in the State Conven- 
tion of 1861, and afterward took an earnest 
part in advocacy of all measures for the sup- 
pression of the rebellion. He was an able 
jurist, a man of stern integrity and deep con- 
victions of duty, and his personal character 
was such as to attract his fellows and com- 
mand their confidence and esteem. He left 
three sons, among whom was his namesake, 
a lawyer and judge, who died in Lawrence 
County. Judge Hendrick was succeeded by 
John C. Price, who opened court three days 
after the death of the former named. He 
was a man of broad legal mind, and made an 
excellent record on the bench. Of large 
frame, he was rugged and uncouth, but was 
a man of much force of character, and was 
greatly respected. John S. Waddill was 
elected circuit judge at the succeeding elec- 
tion. During 1863-4 numerous suits were 
disposed of; in many the defendants 
were serving in the Confederate Army, 
against whom judgment was taken by de- 
fault. Some cases were for misappropriation 
of property during military operations, or 
property taken by raiding parties. At a later 



GREENE COUNTY. 



113 



day all prosecutions based upon such acts 
were barred by act of the General Assembly. 
Judge Waddill was born in East Tennessee. 
In 1835 he removed to Missouri and bought 
the Wilson farm, at the mouth of the creek 
of the same name. The following year he 
removed to Springfield, where he was ad- 
mitted to the bar two years later. From that 
time he was regarded as one of the most 
capable of the southwest Missouri lawyers; 
and until nearly seventy-five years of age 
gave devoted attention to his profession, until 
nearly his closing years accomplishing great 
distances upon horseback to attend numer- 
ous and widely separated courts. It is be- 
lieved that during his active life he rode 
farther in his practice than did any of his 
colleagues. In 1861 he was appointed by 
Governor Gamble as judge of the Eighteenth 
Judicial Circuit, and resigned the position the 
following year. In 1863 he was again ap- 
pointed, by the same authority, as judge of 
the Fourteenth Judicial Circuit. At the con- 
clusion of his term he was elected to the 
same office, and was removed by Governor 
Fletcher in 1865 under the conditions of the 
Drake Constitution. In 1867 he was ap- 
pointed register of the land office at Spring- 
field by President Johnson, but was removed 
by President Grant in 1868. He then prac- 
ticed law until shortly before his death, 
September 13, 1880. Governor Fletcher 
appointed Sempronius H. Boyd to the 
vacancy created by the removal of Judge 
Waddill. Judge Boyd was conspicuous dur- 
ing the Civil War period. The other court 
appointments were Robert W. Fyan, prose- 
cuting attorney, and R. A. C. Mack, clerk. 
In 1868 Fyan was elected circuit judge. He 
was a man of high attainments and great 
force of character. He occupied various con- 
spicuous positions. Prior to the Civil War- 
he was an elector on the Breckinridge pres- 
idential ticket. When war began he warmly 
espoused the Union cause, and entered the' 
Twenty-fourth Regiment of Missouri Volun- 
teer Infantry, rising to the rank of major, 
and commanding the regiment in several im- 
portant campaigns and engagements. He 
was afterward colonel of the Forty-sixth 
Regiment, Missouri Volunteer Infantry. 
Previous to his election to the bench he 
was prosecuting attorney. In 1870 he be- 
came a Liberal Republican, and afterward a 
Democrat. He was twice elected to Con- 



gress, and died at Marshfield. Washington 
F. Geiger succeeded Judge Fyan, and- was 
re-elected; he died in 1886, before the ex- 
piration of his last term. He was a well read 
lawyer, an excellent judge, and an exemplary 
citizen. He served in the Phelps Regiment 
of Home Guards, and afterward as colonel 
of the Eighth Regiment, Missouri Cavalry 
Volunteers. Previous to his election to the 
bench he was prosecuting attorney. James 
R. Vaughan was appointed to fill the unex- 
pired term of Judge Geiger, and made an 
excellent record. He had previously served 
as county superintendent of schools; during 
the Civil War he was sergeant major of the 
Sixth Regiment, Missouri Cavalry Volun- 
teers. At the ensuing election Walter D. 
Hubbard was elected circuit judge. He 
acquitted himself most creditably, and upon 
retirement from office devoted himself to his 
personal practice. He had served as a lieu- 
tenant in the Sixth Regiment, Missouri Cav- 
alry Volunteers, and was afterward a captain 
and later a colonel in the veteran service ; he 
served as aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen- 
eral John B. Sanborn, when that officer was 
district commander at Springfield. James 
T. Neville succeeded him by election in 1892, 
and was re-elected in 1898. When the Civil 
War closed there were few lawyers in Mis- 
souri south and west of Springfield. In that 
city were many, including a consider- 
able number fresh from the law 
schools. All found abundant employ- 
ment, and their duties required fre- 
quent travel to considerable distances. Of 
the earlier lawyers there remained John S. 
Phelps, T. A. Sherwood, William C. Price, 
W. F. Geiger, John S. Waddill, S. H. Boyd, 
D. C. Dade, William Weaver, Robert W. 
Crawford, A. M. Julian and James Baker. 
Among the newcomers were John P. Ellis, 
Charles B. McAfee, Benjamin U. Massey, 
John O'Day, James R. Vaughan, O. H. 
Travis, J. C. Cravens, R. L. Goode, Charles 
W. Thrasher, Henry C. Young, James R. 
Waddill, James M. Patterson, J. T. White, J. 
P. McCammon, H. E. Howell, John A. Pat- 
terson, F. S. Heffernan, T. H. B. Lawrence, 
P. T. Simmons and E. A. Barbour. All were 
capable lawyers, and many of the number 
who attained distinction in official life or in 
notable cases are mentioned elsewhere in this 
work. The Criminal Court of Green County 
was created in 1890 by special act of the 



Vol. III-8 



114 



GREENE COUNTY. 



General Assembly; in criminal cases it has 
similar jurisdiction with circuit courts, in- 
cluding authority in habeas corpus and in- 
junction proceedings. The first judge was 
Mordecai Oliver, appointed by Governor 
Francis. He was succeeded, in 1893, by 
James J. Gideon, and he by Charles B. Mc- 
Afee, in 1897. 

In 1836 John Roberts, a resident of 

Springfield, was brought 
Tragedies. before the County Court 

of Greene County on 
a charge of misdemeanor. Among those 
present was John P. Campbell, with whom 
Roberts was on bad terms. Roberts assailed 
him bitterly, and after being repeatedly com- 
manded to keep good behavior by Presiding 
Judge Charles S. Yancey, replied: "I will 
say what I d — n please, m this court, or the 
high court of heaven, or hell." Judge Yan- 
cey imposed a fine of $20, which Roberts 
paid, making many threats against the judge. 
For a year following, upon frequent occa- 
sions, Roberts vilely insulted Judge Yancey, 
the latter making every endeavor to avoid 
his enemy, who was regarded as a dangerous 
character. Late in 1837 Roberts met Yan- 
•cey on the public square, and toward him 
applied threatening language, at the same 
time making a motion as if to draw a knife, 
a weapon which he had used on previous 
occasions. Yancey fired a pistol at his assail- 
ant, and another weapon, which he was about 
to discharge, was struck aside by Littleberry 
Hendrick, who was at Yancey's side, the ball 
going wide of its mark. At the same moment 
Roberts pressed his hand to his breast, ex- 
claiming: "Don't shoot again; I am a dead 
man now," and fell. His death occurred the 
next day. In December, 1838, Yancey was 
indicted for manslaughter, and was held in 
bonds of $2,000 to appear for trial, a number 
of leading citizens becoming his bondsmen. 
In April, 1839, Yancey was put upon trial. 
Judge Foster P. Wright on the bench. The 
trial occupied nearly two days, and the jury 
rendered a verdict of acquittal after but a few 
minutes' consideration. It was shown at the 
trial that Yancey acted strictly in self-defense, 
while Roberts was a dangerous man when 
in his cups. It also appeared that at the time 
of his death Roberts was under indictment for 
an assault, with intent to kill, upon another 
person. 

In 1838 J. Renno was stabbed and killed by 



Randolph Britt in a store in Springfield. The 
afifair began in a friendly scuffle in an eating 
house, Britt being intoxicated at the time. 
The trial took place in Benton County, where 
the accused was convicted of manslaughter 
and sentenced to the penitentiary. He was 
afterward pardoned, and died in Greene 
County. In May, 1841, one Davis was shot 
and killed by John T. Shanks, both being 
intoxicated at the time. Shanks escaped 
from jail, and was never brought to trial. On 
October 24, 1861, John H. Stephens, a re- 
spectable and inoffensive citizen of Spring- 
field, was killed at his own gate by a Union 
soldier. The Union troops had just entered 
the city, and Mr. Stephens was hastening 
home, when a trooper ordered him to halt. 
Disregarding the summons he was fired upon 
with fatal result, to the deep regret of the 
hasty soldier. May 21, 1862, Captain John 
R. Clark, of Colonel Powell Clayton's cav- 
alry regiment, went to the house of a Mrs. 
Willis and demanded supper, which was re- 
fused. Clark and a companion, both intoxi- 
cated, drew pistols upon the guards stationed 
to protect the family and property, where- 
upon one of the gfuards fired, killing Clark 
instantly. Clark's companion, A. J. Rice, 
fired at the guard, missing him, and killing 
Mary, a daughter of Mrs. Willis. Another 
guard fired at Rice, inflicting a wound which 
resulted in death. In May, 1863, Will Ful- 
bright, a Confederate soldier, came from 
Arkansas to visit relatives in the southeast 
part of the county. With a number of oth- 
ers he established a little camp, which was 
attacked by the Union militia, and Fulbright 
was killed in the course of the fight. In the 
spring of 1864 Joseph Cooper, a young man 
living near Cave Spring, was decoyed from 
his home by a party of Anderson's guerrillas, 
taken into Polk County, where he was killed, 
and his body savagely mutilated. October 5th 
James M. Thompson, an old resident, was 
murdered between Springfield and his home, 
some five miles south. He had sold cattle, 
and the crime was presumably committed for 
the purpose of robbery. There was strong 
suspicion as to the identity of the murderers, 
but General Sanborn, who investigated the 
case, could find no evidence upon which to 
base proceedings. February 28, 1867, James 
Simpson and Kindred Rose, both old citizens 
of Springfield, quarreled about war matters. 
Rose struck Simpson on the head with a 



GREENE COUNTY REGULATORS. 



115 



bar of iron and death ensued. Rose was 
acquitted on the ground of self-defense. 
May 24th of the same year Judge H. C. 
Christian was shot and killed by one or two 
unknown men in his place of business. They 
were pursued, and one, Jacob Thompson, was 
captured next day and placed in jail. June 
21 st he made his escape, was pursued, and 
overtaken at a blacksmith shop in Texas 
County. He mounted his horse, when he 
was fired upon, and shot in the thigh and 
shoulder, was recaptured and replaced in jail 
in Springfield. October 24th he again made 
his escape, and, as reported, was afterward 
hung in Texas for the commission of a mur- 
der there. Judge Christian had come from 
Texas, where he served as a provost marshal 
during the war, and his assassination was 
supposed to have been accomplished in re- 
venge for some act of his while acting in that 
capacity. January 24, 1871, Judge Harrison 
J. Lindenbower was shot and killed in Spring- 
field by William Cannefax. Cannefax com- 
mitted the crime in a frenzy growing out of 
a conviction that Lindenbower had become 
possessed of some real estate to which he 
considered himself entitled. The Greene 
County bar, presided over by Colonel John 
S. Phelps, adopted resolutions denouncing 
the killing as a base murder, and extolling the 
deceased as an honorable lawyer and estima- 
ble citizen. Cannefax was indicted for mur- 
der, escaped from jail at Springfield, returned 
and was rearrested in 1874; on trial, he 
pleaded guilty to the charge of murder in the 
second degree, and was sentenced to the pen- 



itentiary for life. 



F. Y. Hedley. 



Greene County Court, Nullifica- 
tion Order of.— The Tenth General As- 
sembly of Missouri, in an act concerning 
groceries, enacted that "county courts may 
exempt their county from the operation of 
this act, by an order directing that the same 
shall not extend to or be in force in their 
county." At the November term, 1839, the 
County Court of Greene County made the fol- 
lowing order : "Ordered by the court that the 
act concerning groceries, passed at the last 
session of the Legislature, be and the same is 
hereby repealed and of no effect in the county 
of Greene." The use of the word "repealed" 
in this order brought a great deal of ridicule 
upon the court, but their act was eflfective. 



Greene County Regulators.— Imme- 
diately after the Civil War there was great 
lawlessness in southern Missouri; horse steal- 
ings, robberies and burglaries were of almost 
daily occurrence, and murders were not rare. 
Civil law had not yet been fully re-estab- 
lished, and citizens banded themselves to- 
gether for protection of person and property, 
many excesses growing out of it. Such an 
organization v/as formed in Greene County, 
with headquarters at Walnut Grove, and be- 
came popularly known as the "Regulators," 
but was self-designated as the "Honest Men's 
League." It numbered in its membership men 
who had served in the Union and Confeder- 
ate Armies, and some who had seen such 
service were among its victims. In May, 
1866, Greene B. Phillips, who had been a 
Captain in the Seventy-fourth Regiment of 
Missouri Enrolled Militia, and served gal- 
lantly in the defense of Springfield, came un- 
der the ban of this organization, charged with 
being a friend to evil-doers, if not their aider 
and abettor. May 23d, early in the morning, 
while in his barn two miles northwest of Cave 
Springs, preparing to feed his stock, his place 
was visited by three of the regulators. Pro- 
truding their revolvers through the cracks 
between the logs, they ordered him out. He 
was taken by the arm, one on each side, the 
third following behind, toward the timber 
in the rear of the premises. Being a very 
strong man, he broke the grasp of his cap- 
tors and ran, but stumbled and fell. As he 
arose he was fired upon by two of the party 
and killed. May 26th, at Walnut Grove, John 
Bush and his son-in-law, Charles Corsuch, 
who had served in the State Militia, were 
taken out of a store to the woods a mile 
southwest of town and hanged. Their killing 
was ascribed to the fact that after the mur- 
der of Captain Phillips, they had denounced 
two men by name as being guilty of the 
crime, threatening them with vengeance. 
Somewhat later, the Regulators assisted Dep- 
uty Sheriff Isaac Jones in the arrest of seven 
men charged with stealing. Some of these 
were bailed out, whereupon a card was pub- 
lished, bearing the signature, "Regulators," 
stating that they had organized to assist in 
the enforcement of law, and to put down 
thieving; that this was to notify all persons 
entering into bail for persons accused of 
crime, that they were regarded as in sympa- 
thy with such, if not co-operators with them, 



116 



GREENFIEI.D— GREENFIELD, ATTACK ON. 



and would be held responsible for the con- 
duct and personal appearance at court for 
trial of all whom they thus countenanced. 
June 1st a body of 280 Regulators rode 
into Springfield and formed in front of the 
courthouse. Speeches were made by Senator 
J. A. Mack, Colonel James H. Baker, JMajor 
Downing and the Rev. Mr. Brown, deprecat- 
ing the necessity for such an organization, 
but defending it in its purposes and actions. 
Colonel John S. Phelps and Colonel John M. 
Richardson answered these speeches, plead- 
ing that the civil law should be regarded, 
and calling upon all good citizens to aid in 
the restoration of good order through its 
operation. The regulators rode away without 
further demonstration. They maintained 
their organization for some time afterward, 
but without the commission of such excesses 
as before. 

Greenfield. — The county seat of Dade 
County, thirty-nine miles northwest of Spring- 
field, and 270 miles southwest of St. Louis. 
It is the terminus of the Greenfield 
& Northern Railway, which connects with the 
Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Railway 
at South Greenfield, three and one-half miles 
south. The town stands upon a plateau two 
miles west of Turnback Creek, at an eleva- 
tion of 200 feet above the stream. A two- 
story brick courthouse, erected in 1848 at a 
cost of $12,000, stands in the center of a well- 
kept public square. There are two public 
school buildings, one for white children cost- 
ing $12,000, and one for colored children. 
Ozark College (which see), a collegiate insti- 
tution under care of Ozark Presbytery, has a 
building erected at a cost of $12,000. There 
are churches of the Baptist, Christian, Meth- 
odist Episcopal, Cumberland Presbyterian 
and Presbyterian denominations. There are 
two weekly newspapers, the "Vidette," Re- 
publican, and the "Advocate," Democratic. 
The fraternal societies are four Masonic 
bodies, two lodges, a chapter and a com- 
mandery; a lodge of United Workmen and 
a Grand Army Post. There the two banks, 
the R. S. Jacobs Banking Company and the 
Dade County Bank, with an aggregate capital 
of $100,000; an operahouse, two hotels; a 
steam flouring mill and a sawmill. It is a 
large shipping point 'for coal, wheat, fruit, 
cattle, horses, mules and wool. In 1899 the 



population was 1,600. It was made the coun- 
ty seat (see Dade County) in 1841. It was 
platted in 1841 and was incorporated as a city 
of the fourth class in 1867. It was first set- 
tled in 1833 or 1834. Matthias H. Allison 
was the first to locate on the immediate site ; 
those who located near by, and were identi- 
fied with the early history of the place were 
Joseph Allison and his son James. George 
Davidson, William Hampton, John Lack, 
John M. Rankin and Peter Hoyle. In 1839-40 
came Samuel Weir, Aaron Finch, Jonathan 
Parris and John C. Wetzel; and in 1841, 
Jefiferson D. Montgomery and William K. 
Lathim. Weir and Montgomery were Cum- 
berland Presbyterian ministers ; the latter 
named married a daughter of the former, and 
their marriage was one of the earliest, if not 
the first in the town. Madison Campbell 
erected the first business building in 1841. 
The first merchant was John W. Wilson, who 
carried on business for Caleb Jones & Co., of 
Polk County. A post-office was established 
in 1841 or 1842, W. K. Lathim being the 
first postmaster. John Wells' Hotel, built in 
1853, was the first brick building after the 
courthouse. The Cumberland Presbyterians 
organized a church in the vicinity in 1839,^ 
with the Rev. J. D. Montgomery as pas- 
tor; it was disrupted during the war, re- 
organized at Greenfield, and in 1868 the pres- 
ent frame house of worship was erected, at a 
cost of $2,500. Ebenezer Baptist Church was 
formed June 4, 1842, by the Rev. G. W. Bell; 
the first church edifice of brick was erected 
in 1854, and in 1884 it was replaced by the 
present structure, which cost $4,500. 

At the beginning of the war the town num- 
bered about 300 inhabitants. The merchants 
removed their stocks elsewhere, and ^any of 
the people went away. After peace was re- 
stored the town was rebuilt with substantial 
business blocks and neat cottage residences 
of modern design. 

Greenfield, Attack on. — When Gen- 
eral Shelby, in the latter part of September, 
1863, had captured the Federal garrison at 
Neosho, he moved rapidly on Greenfield,. 
where a Federal force was stationed, and,. 
surrounding the place at daylight, made pris- 
oners of the little garrison and burned the 
courthouse, on the pretense that it had been 
used as a fort by the Federals. 



GREENLEE— GREENWOOD. 



117 



Greenlee, Aubrey R., physician, was 
born May ii, 1871, in Johnson County, Mis- 
souri. His parents were William P. and Bar- 
bara W. (Enlow) Greenlee. The father, a 
native of Kentucky, came to Missouri when 
quite young, became a farmer in Johnson 
County, and was for four years in the Con- 
federate service as a member of General 
Price's body guard. He was a member of 
the Legislature from Johnson County during 
Governor Woodson's administration, and by 
appointment by the same ofificial he was a 
regent of the State Normal School at War- 
rensburg. For some years he was engaged 
in the grocery business in Kansas City, where 
he and his wife are now living in pleasant 
retirement. Their son, Aubrey, was educated 
in the public schools in Kansas City and in 
the State Normal School at Warrensburg. 
As a youth he was engaged with his father in 
the grocery business. In 1888 he read medi- 
cine under the tutorship of Dr. J. R. Snell, in 
Kansas City, and then entered the University 
Medical College, from which he was grad- 
uated in 1892. After practicing in Kansas 
City one year he was'appointed assistant city 
physician, a position which he capably occu- 
pied for two years. He then resumed the gen- 
eral practice, to which he brought thorough 
preparation and the enthusiasm which char- 
acterizes one engaged in a profession for 
which he possesses marked aptitude. He was 
appointed in 1898 lecturer on minor surgery 
in the Columbian Medical College, and yet 
occupies that position. He is a member of the 
Jackson County Medical Society, a member 
of the order of Modern Woodmen, and of 
the Modern Brotherhood of America. In the 
last-named order he has served as examining 
physician, and is the present secretary and 
treasurer of the local lodge. In religion he is 
a Baptist, and in politics a Democrat. 

Greentop. — An incorporated village in 
Schuyler County, on the Wabash Railroad, 
about seventeen miles south of Lancaster. 
• It was founded in 1855, and was incorporated 
in i860. It has two churches, a public 
school, a sawmill, flourmill. seven general 
stores, a drug store, etc. Population, 1899 
(estimated), 400. 

Greenville. — See "Miami." 

Greenville. — A city of the fourth class, 
the county seat of Wayne County, located in 



St. Francois Township; on the St. Francis 
River, the terminal point of the Williamsville, 
Greenville & St. Louis Railroad. The town 
was laid out in 1819 on Spanish land grant 
No. 787 by the commissioners appointed to 
locate a seat of justice for Wayne County, 
When the town was laid out its site was a 
corn field, and the streets were laid out ac- 
cording to the rows of corn. The first store 
in the town was opened in 1824 by Messrs. 
Van Horn & Wheeler. In 1827 another store 
was opened by William Creath. The first 
medical practitioner was Elijah Bettis. The 
first members of the medical profession to 
become residents of the town were Dr. E. H. 
Bennett and Dr. Payne. Owing to its 
isolated location, the growth of the town was 
slow. In 1826 it was inundated by an over- 
flow of the St. Francis, and again much dam- 
age was done by high water in 1863. The 
first newspaper published in the town was 
the "Reporter," started in 1869 by C. P. Rot- 
rock. In 1872 the "Democrat" was estab- 
lished, and in 1877 the "Journal." The 
present papers of the town are the "Wayne 
County Journal," published by Clarence 
Carleton, and the "Sun," by J. S. Marsh. 
Greenville has a graded public school, Bap- 
tist, Methodist, Christian and Catholic 
Churches, three hotels, a flouring mill and 
numerous stores and other business places. 
Population, 1899 (estimated), 950. 

Greenwood. — ^A town in Jackson Coun- 
ty, platted in 1867 by Alfred Hanscom, R. W. 
Price, Frank Brooks, and Rev. S. G. Clark, in 
four sections. It is situated on the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railroad, and contains stores, 
churches, schools, etc. Lincoln College, under 
the auspices of the United Presbyterian 
Church, was founded there in 1870. The pop- 
ulation is 500. 

Greenwood, James Micklebor- 
ough, superintendent of the public schools 
of Kansas City for a quarter century, and 
numbered among the most distinguished edu- 
cators in America, was born November 15, 
1837, in Sangamon County, Illinois. His 
parents were Edmond and Jeannette (Fos- 
ter) Greenwood; the father was a lineal 
descendant of William Greenwood, who emi- 
grated from England to Virginia in 1635. 
His grandfather, Peyton Foster, was de- 
scended from a Huguenot family that settled 



118 



GREENWOOD. 



in South Carolina. His grandmother, on his 
mother's side, from the Daniels and Mickle- 
boroughs of Virginia. James M. Greenwood 
was reared upon a farm near where his 
grandfather settled, in Illinois, in 1824. 
When eight years of age he first attended a 
country school, and as soon as he had learned' 
to read devoted all his spare time to perusing 
such books as he could obtain in the neigh- 
borhood. In 1852 his father removed with 
his family to Adair County, Missouri, near 
the present site of Brashear, where he is now 
living. Young Greenwood alternately occu- 
pied his time in farm work, hunting and 
study. The nearest schoolhouse was seven 
miles distant, and his studies were pursued 
at home during evenings and on rainy days. 
Text books were scarce, but the death of a 
scholarly man at some distance brought to 
sale a number of volumes, which the young 
student secured from the proceeds of the 
sale of a two-year-old steer; these included 
a Latin grammar and a copy of Virgil, a first 
and second book on Spanish, an elementary 
work on algebra, geometry and surveying, 
Butler's "Analogy" and Olmstead's "Philos- 
ophy." Without the aid of a teacher he easily 
mastered the mathematics, solving every 
algebraic problem, notwithstanding he had 
never before seen a work upon that subject. 
He became proficient in philosophy, and 
acquired a fair knowledge of Latin and Span- 
ish. His general reading was limited to the 
few books belonging to the family, compris- 
ing a few standard English authors. 
Valuable as was the knowledge derived 
through his persistent effort, his course of 
conduct was of more momentous importance 
in intensifying his desire for education, and 
in laying the foundations for a pre-emin- 
ently useful life in a profession which he came 
to adorn. It may be said that from that day 
he has been an incessant student. Until he 
was sixteen years old he had attended school 
only six seasons ; from that time until he. was 
twenty years of age he attended school but 
twenty-five days. In 1857 he entered the 
Methodist Seminary, at Canton, Missouri, 
then one of the best schools in northeastern 
Missouri, where he made a record without a 
parallel in its history; he would have com- 
pleted a four years' course in ten months 
had he not been obliged to discontinue his 
studies on account of ill health. As it was 
he did practically complete the course, suc- 



cessfully passing examination in twenty dif- 
ferent branches. For several years afterward 
Mr. Greenwood worked upon his father's 
farm, pursuing his studies in the meantime. 
While here, November i, 1859, he married 
Miss Amanda McDaniel, then a teacher in 
Kirksville, who, with similar ambition and 
talent for schoolroom work, was in after 
years his efficient colaborer and inspirer in 
the line of his profession. From 1862 until 
late in 1864, he served in the Missouri State 
Militia. He first essayed the work of a 
teacher when but sixteen years of age, in 
Adair County, Missouri, and notwithstanding 
his youth proved himself a capable instructor 
and disciplinarian, successfully overcoming a 
number of insubordinate pupils who sought 
to impose upon him. At a later day he was 
urged to apply for a vacant school at Lima, 
Illinois, but answered that he was averse to 
such methods for obtaining employment. He 
was induced to visit the town, upon invitation 
from the school directors, one of whom, 
inquired as to his politics. Greenwood 
answered : "None of your business. If you 
want politics taught in your school, you must 
look for another teacher, for I am too good 
a patriot to be a partisan, and too good a 
Christian to be a sectarian." He was en- 
gaged, conditioned upon his obtaining a cer- 
tificate from the school commissioner of the 
county. The commissioner wrote the re- 
quired questions upon a blackboard and 
allowed him three hours in which to make his 
answers. Mr. Greenwood asked for an imme- 
diate oral examination, which was granted, 
and upon satisfactorily answering all the 
questions propounded, he received a first 
grade certificate, the first so issued in the 
county. In 1864 he returned to Adair 
County, Missouri, where he taught a short 
term of school during the following winter. 
He afterward performed clerical duty in the 
offices of the circuit clerk and of the county 
clerk of the county. In the fall of 1865 he 
again taught the school at Lima, IlHnois, and 
the following year taught a school in Knox 
County, Illinois. In September, 1867, Dr. 
Joseph Baldwin, ever conspicuous for his 
services in behalf of popular education dur- 
ing his fourteen years of residence in Mis- 
souri, opened a private normal school at 
Kirksville, and employed Mr. Greenwood as 
teacher of mathematics and logic, which 
position he successfully occupied for seven 



GREENWOOD. 



119 



years. In this position he became recognized 
throughout Missouri and adjoining States 
as an unusually accomplished mathematician. 
During his term of service in this institution 
Mrs. Greenwood served as principal of the 
model training department. In 1861 was 
held the first teachers' institute in northeast- 
ern Missouri, Mr. Greenwood being one of 
the originators of the movement, and an 
active participant in its work. Without ap- 
plication, Mr. and Mrs. Greenwood were 
called to the service of Mount Pleasant Col- 
lege, at Huntsville, Missouri, Mr. Greenwood 
as teacher of mathematics, logic, rhetoric 
and reading, and Mrs. Greenwood as teacher 
of botany, history and primary work. They 
resigned six months afterward, Mr. Green- 
wood having accepted the chair of mathe- 
matics in Kirksville Normal School, which 
had become a State school. He had been 
ollfered the presidency, which he declined, 
stating that Dr. Baldwin had established the 
school, and that it would be manifest injus- 
tice to displace him. In 1874 Mr. Green- 
wood entered upon his present position, in 
which he has successfully maintained him- 
self, and gained the distinction of having 
given to the schools of Kansas City their un- 
iCxcelled position in the educational world. 
rin June of that year, J. V. C. Karnes, then 
treasurer of the board of education of Kan- 
sas City, wrote Air. Greenwood, urging him 
to apply for the superintendency of the 
schools, soon to become vacant. He declined 
to do so, but was induced to go to Kansas 
City, where he reiterated his refusal, but con- 
sented to serve if elected. He returned to 
Kirksville, where he was apprised of his elec- 
tion over sixteen applicants, several of whom 
were men of eminent capability. The popu- 
lation of Kansas City was then but 28,000, 
and the schools were just becoming well 
established. There were obstacles to con- 
tend with, growing out of discordant ele- 
ments and limited means. Mr. Greenwood 
at once set himself to the task of restoring 
harmony, and of creating a public sentiment 
which would afford adequate moral and 
financial support. His efforts were gradu- 
ally successful, and among the first benefi- 
cent results was the elimination of 
incompetent teachers. A teachers' institute 
was organized, and out of its discussions at 
stated meetings grew improvement in meth- 
ods of management, discipline and class reci- 



tations. His second year witnessed a net 
gain of 255 in average daily attendance. At 
the close of the school year of 1877-8 the 
schools were recognized as unsurpassable in 
the West, and from that time there has been 
a steady improvement in the morale and in 
methods of instruction and management, 
commensurate with the increased number of 
pupils and cost of maintenance. Mr. Green- 
wood is a conspicuous example of the class of 
men who achieve great results through entire 
and conscientious devotion to the present 
task. As has been said by his biographers, 
Wilfred R. Hollister and Harry Norman, 
who teil the story of his life in their volume 
entitled "Five Famous Missourians," "every 
fibre of his being is permeated with educa- 
tional ideas ; every stroke of his pen, every 
word from his mouth, every movement of 
his body, is to the development of a supreme 
ideal." Keeping in touch with all the pro- 
gressiveness of the educational world, and 
with the great self-assertion born of a con- 
sciousness of the dignity of his position, and 
the responsibilities attaching to it, he at the 
same time encourages independence in 
thought and act in principals and assistant 
teachers, gladly hailing the working out of a 
new idea, and bestowing unstinted praise 
when deserved. At the same time he is re- 
lentless in his opposition to mere experi- 
ments and fads. For every contemplated 
innovation, he must see at the foundation a 
recognizable want, and as a result a real 
advantage. To his effort is due the effectual 
systematic organization of laboratory science 
and literature studies in the Kansas City 
high school, the first in the entire West to 
introduce these systems, now in vogue in 
nearly all institutions of similar grade. A 
well defined principle in his policy with 
reference to the employment of teachers, said 
to be peculiar to himself and unobserved 
elsewhere in any large city in the United 
States, is his entire disregard of local influ- 
ence, or of the so-called claims of home 
teachers. He regards the entire educational 
field as subject to his purpose, and his sole 
endeavor is to secure the most capable in- 
structors, regardless of place of residence, 
school of instruction, nationality, sex, re- 
ligion or politics. A factor contributing in no 
small degree to his great success, is his in- 
tensely interesting personality. A man well 
read in books, a keen observer of all types 



120 



GREENWOOD. 



of humanity, an experienced traveler, he is 
one whose companionship pleases as well as 
instructs, while at the same time he com- 
mands that respect and admiration which are 
accorded to him who unconsciously advises 
his associates of a lofty ideal and the highest 
moral purpose. Exceedingly resourceful in 
history, philosophy, general literature and 
art, he is equally* interesting upon the plat- 
form or in the press, and he never appears 
except when he may serve some" good pur- 
pose. In the field of authorship he has 
contributed much of permanent value. His 
.great ability as a mathematician led to his 
appointment, in 1884, to revise Ray's 
"Higher Arithmetic." In 1887 he wrote his 
well known work, "Principles of Education 
Practically Applied," published by D. Apple- 
ton & Co., and the following year he wrote 
for Butler's "Advanced Geography" the his- 
torical sketch of Missouri, equivalent to a 
duodecimo volume of eighty pages. In 1890 
he wrote "A Complete Manual on Teaching 
Arithmetic, Algebra and Geometry," pub- 
lished by Maynard, Merrill & Co. In asso- 
ciation with Dr. Artemas Martin he wrote 
"A History of American Arithmetics, and a 
Biographical Sketch of the Authors," which 
was issued as a government publication. For 
years his services have been required as a 
reviser of standard arithmetics and other 
mathematical works. His annual reports as 
superintendent of the Kansas City public 
schools are a mass of valuable educational 
literature, which have received the com- 
mendation of the highest educational author- 
ities in the country, and have had a marked 
influence in the school world. He is widely 
and favorably known as a frequent contribu- 
tor to leading magazines and reviews, and 
particularly to educational journals. In 1895 
he made a tour of Europe, in company with 
some distinguished men, among whom were 
Dr. William T. Harris, United States Com- 
missioner of Education ; Charles A. Dana, 
editor of the New York "Sun," and others. 
Observation of the progress of education in 
the principal European countries was his 
special purpose, and his detailed account 
through the American press was exceedingly 
interesting and ioistructive. As a lecturer he 
is entertaining, always original and logical, 
and on occasion eloquent; since 1870 he has 
delivered more than a thousand addresses 
throughout the country, reaching the most 



remote States in all directions. From time 
to time he has been called upon to occupy 
unremunerative positions conferred upon him 
in compliment to his high attainments, and 
in order to secure the benefits of his valuable 
services. In 1876 he served as president of 
the Missouri State Teachers' Association. 
In 1884 he was elected a member of the 
National Council of the Educational Associa- 
tion, and for years was chairman of its com- 
mittee on statistics. In 1887 he was elected 
a life director of the National Educational 
Association. From 1890 to 1895 he served 
as treasurer of the latter body, and in 1897 
he was elected to the presidency. He wields 
great personal influence in this and other 
educational bodies, and it was largely 
through his effort that Dr. William T. Har- 
ris was called from the superintendency of the 
St. Louis public schools to the position of 
United States Commissioner of Education, 
by appointment of President Harrison, to 
whom Mr. Harris was politically opposed, 
and it was the successful mission of Mr. 
Greenwood to procure the assent of the 
nominee, in advance of formal action. In 
1897 Mr. Greenwood received, as a fitting 
recognition of his scholarly attainments and 
his intelligent effort in behalf of education, 
one of the highest honors that could be con- 
ferred upon him. Without previous knowl- 
edge on his part, and without solicitation 
from any outside sources, the curators of the 
University of Missouri conferred upon him 
the degree of doctor of laws. Dr. Green- 
wood is in the prime of his physical and 
mental powers, and gives promise of unim- 
paired activity and usefulness during many 
years to come. ^ ^ Hedley. 

Greenwood, Moses, Jr., civil engineer 
and real estate operator, was born May 30, 
1862, in New Orleans, Louisiana, son of 
Moses M. and Mary (Whittelsey) Green- 
wood. His father was for thirty years en- 
gaged in business as a member of the firm of 
Moses Greenwood & Son, cotton factors, of 
New Orleans. His mother was a native of 
New Haven, Connecticut, and his great- 
grandfather served with a Massachusetts reg- 
iment as a soldier of the Revolution. 
Reared in New Orleans, Moses Greenwood, 
Jr., was fitted for college at the University 
High School, of that city, and then went to 
Roanoke College, of Virginia, from which 




r^>!r S^uM^rn/Yz^. 



W. ^^ l>Pff. earns ASr' 




GREENWOOD CLUB. 



121 



institution he was graduated in 1881 with 
the degree of bachelor of science, and the 
same institution also conferred on him the 
degree of master of arts. He had been 
driven from New Orleans by the epidemic 
of yellow fever, which visited that city in 
1878, and, after his graduation from Roanoke 
College, he continued to reside at Salem, 
Virginia, seat of the college, until 1882, 
when he was appointed United States assist- 
ant civil engineer, and assigned to duty on 
the Mississippi River commission, with head- 
quarters in St. Louis. Brought to that city 
through his connection with the government 
service, he has since continued to reside 
there and has occupied a conspicuous posi- 
tion among the younger business men of 
the city. After serving three years on the 
river commission, he resigned his position 
in connection with that body, and, forming 
a partnership with Mr. Alfred Carr, became 
junior member of the real estate firm of Carr 
& Greenwood. In 1889 this partnership was 
dissolved, and he associated himself with his 
father, Moses M. Greenwood,- under the firm 
name of Greenwood & Co. This firm has 
since conducted a general real estate bus- 
iness, and has occupied a prominent place 
among the firms engaged in that business, in 
St. Louis. They deal in investment securities, 
and devote much time to the securing of 
foreign moneys for the purpose of develop- 
ing the mineral resources of Missouri, most 
notably in the disseminated lead district of 
St. Francois and Washington Counties. A 
devout member of the Presbyterian Church, 
Mr. Greenwood has interested himself espe- 
cially in the Sunday school work of the 
church, and, in this connection, he has gained 
much more than local renown. He was a Sun- 
day school superintendent when he was but 
eighteen years of age, and his interest has 
never flagged in that splendid labor of love 
which seeks to bring the youth of the land 
under christianizing influences and to de- 
velop them into worthy and God-fearing men 
and women. During the years of 1892 and 
1893 he was president of the St. Louis Sun- 
day School Union, and, acting in that 
capacity was charged with the responsibility 
of arranging for the holding of the Seventh 
International Sunday School Convention, 
and Second World's Sunday School Conven- 
tion, in St. Louis, in September of 1893. At 
that time thousands of delegates, who came 



from all parts of the world, met in the Expo- 
sition Building, and one of the most note- 
worthy addresses delivered before the con- 
ventions was that on the subject of "House 
to House Visitation," by Mr. Greenwood. 
This modern method of promoting Sunday 
school interests was conceived and perfected 
by him, and his audience listened with eager 
attention to the exposition of its workings, 
presented by the author. Since 1891 he has 
been a member of the executive committee of 
the Missouri Sunday School Association, and 
was one of those responsible for the existence 
of the "International Evangel," a publication 
devoted exclusively to the interests of the 
Sunday school work in its world-wide scope. 
For four years he was a deacon of Rev. Dr. 
James H. Brooks' church, and superintendent 
of the Sunday school of that church during 
the same period. For seven years he has 
sustained the same relationships to the West 
Presbyterian Church, and for six years he 
has been an active member of the board of 
managers of the East End Industrial Church, 
known as the People's Central Church. In 
addition to his church and Sunday school 
work, he has been active in promoting the 
welfare of charitable and philanthropic insti- 
tutions generally, and his labors have covered 
a broad field of usefulness. In his college 
days he was a member of the "Sigma Chi" 
fraternity, and in later years he has been 
identified with fraternal organizations as a 
member of the Masonic order, the Royal 
Arcanum, the Legion of Honor, and the Sons 
of the Revolution. Politically he has affili- 
ated with the Democratic party in contests 
involving national issues, and during the 
presidential campaign of 1896 was numbered 
among the Democrats of the old school who 
supported the platform adopted and the can- 
didates nominated at the Indianapolis con- 
vention of that year. In 1884 he married 
Miss Margaret F. Woods, daughter of Rob- 
ert K. Woods, of St. Louis, who was one of 
the founders of the Mercantile Library, of 
St. Louis. The children born of their union 
have been Mary W., Annie Lou, Moses M. 
and Margaret Greenwood, of whom three are 
now living, their only son, Moses M. Green- 
wood, having died in 1892. 

Greenwood Club. — A club formed in 
Kansas City in 1878 by J. M. Greenwood 
and a few friends, for the study of the mod- 



122 



GREGG. 



ern philosophical systems. It was named 
"The Philosophical Club." After two years, 
the trend of study having been largely of the 
writings of Immanuel Kant, it was decided 
to change the name to "The Kant Club." 
Ten years later, the scope of topics having 
widened, it became known as "The Literary 
Club." These years had been devoted to 
thorough study of philosophical systems, lit- 
erary phases of the world, and economic 
conditions of different countries. The com- 
parative method pursued gave a breadth and 
depth to the investigations which insured 
completeness. The literature and the phi- 
losophy of all the greater nations were re- 
viewed. In 1895 its name was changed to 
"The Greenwood Club," in honor of its 
founder. Professor J. M. Greenwood. The 
club is composed of such citizens as are dis- 
posed favorably toward a higher and broader 
education, including teachers, preachers, 
doctors, lawyers, business men and others. 
Its plan of work is simple. There is no 
formality. A president and a treasurer are 
the only officers. Subjects are assigned by a 
committee. A paper, from thirty to forty 
minutes in length, is presented by an essayist. 
After the paper, the subject is before the 
clutx, and any one present can participate in 
the discussion. Speeches do not exceed ten 
minutes in length. The sessions open at 
8 arid close piomptly at 10 o'clock in the 
evening, and the number of meetings each 
year is thirty-two. 

The general influence of this organization 
upon the teaching forces of the city has been 
remarkable. Every strong teacher who has 
been selected to take positions elsewhere on 
account of superior qualifications has been an 
active member of this club. Its influence has 
been strongly emphasized in the State 
Teachers' Association of Missouri. The 
primary object in view by the founder was 
to give breadth, depth and a wider scope to 
the general scholarship of the teachers of the 
city. A few of those who have been called to 
wider fields of work, but were active members 
while in Kansas City, may be mentioned : 
Principal E. F. Hermanns, West Denver high 
school ; Principal J. T. Buchanan. Boys' High 
School, New York; President I. C. McXeill, 
State Normal School, West Superior, Wis- 
consin ; Professor N. A. Harvey, of the same 
institution, and Honorable J. R. Kirk, presi- 
dent of the Missouri State Normal School, 



at Kirksville, Missouri. This is the oldest 
literary organization in Kansas City, and 
many of its members are among the ablest 
and best informed essayists and ready de- 
baters in the State. 

Gregg, Henry Harrison, mine oper- 
ator, was born March 19, 1840, at Belief ont, 
Centre County, Pennsylvania. His parents 
were Mathew Duncan and Ellen (McMurtrie) 
Gregg. The father was of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent, a lawyer by profession, and an iron- 
master; he was owner of the Potomac Iron 
Works, opposite Point of Rocks, Maryland, 
when he died ; his father, Andrew, was a 
member, from Pennsylvania, of the first 
American Congress, and served for eight 
consecutive terms, representing five different 
districts as reapportionment was made ; he 
was then elected to the United States Sen- 
ate in 1807 — being the third Senator from 
Pennsylvania — and was twice elected presi- 
dent of the Senate. He was also secretary of 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, under 
Governor Heister, in 1820, and was the 
Whig candidate for Governor in 1823, for 
which office he was defeated by John Andrew 
Schultz. His wife was a daughter of General 
James Potter, of Revolutionary War fame. 
Ellen McMurtrie, wife of Mathew Duncan 
Gregg, was a daughter of David McMurtrie, 
a prominent Scotch merchant of Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. Their son, Henry Har- 
rison Gregg, was graduated from Dickinson 
College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in July, 1861, 
and afterward entered upon the study of 
law, which was interrupted by the Civil War. 
On the first call for troops, in 1861, together 
with many of his college comrades, he volun- 
teered for military service, but was rejected 
by order of the Governor, for the reason that 
Pennsylvania's quota was more than filled. 
In June, 1862, he entered the service as cap- 
tain of Company H of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Regiment of Pennsylvania In- 
fantry, in which he served until the expira- 
tion of the term for which he had enlisted, 
May 10, 1863, after participating in the vari- 
ous campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, 
including the desperate battles of Antietam 
and Chancellorsville. In July following he 
took service with the Thirteenth Regiment of 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, in which he rose to 
the rank of major and brevet lieutenant 
colonel. He served under Generals Stone- 



GREGG— GREGORY. 



123 



man, Pleasanton and Sheridan, in a brigade 
commanded by his cousin. General Irwin 
Gregg, and of which his brother. Major 
General David McM. Gregg, was division 
commander. He was taken prisoner in front 
of Petersburg, and was held for nearly six . 
months in Libby and other prisons. He was 
mustered out of service April 5, 1865, to ac- 
cept the position of military secretary and 
chief of transportation to Governor Curtin, 
of Pennsylvania, and was retained in the 
same position by Governor Geary. He then 
Qame west, with appointment as post trader 
at Fort McPherson, Nebraska, but on reach- 
ing his destination decided to decline it. In 
1869 he removed to Missouri, located at Ne- 
osho, and became one of the founders and 
incorporators of the town of Seneca. In 
1884 he removed to Joplin, where he has 
since made his residence. Almost from the 
time of his coming to southwest Missoari 
he has been interested in mining, and is ac- 
counted among the most experienced and 
successful operators. In 1891 he began the 
development of the celebrated Scotia mines, 
now managed by the Allen Mining Company. 
About the same time he prospected and 
opened the mines at Gregg, four miles south- 
west of Joplin, situated partly in Jasper 
County and partly in Newton County, and 
named for him. For six years, beginning in 
1878, he was secretary of the Board of Rail- 
way Commissioners of Missouri, serving 
under Governors Crittenden and Marmaduke. 
He was one of the six World's Fair com- 
missioners appointed by Governor Francis 
to represent Missouri at Chicago in 1893. 
In politics he is a Democrat, and in religion 
an Episcopalian. He is a member of the 
Joplin Club, and has given liberal assistance 
to that organization in all its undertakings. 
Colonel Gregg was married to Miss Rose 
Mitchell, daughter of Major George Mitchell, 
Indian agent at the Quopaw Agency, Indian 
Territory. Mrs. Gregg was born in Indiana, 
of Kentucky parents, and is a graduate of the 
Convent of the Visitation at Georgetown, 
District of Columbia. Six children have been 
born of this marriage, of whom a son is de- 
ceased. Those living are : Thomas J., super- 
intendent of a cotton compress company at 
Newport, Arkansas ; David McMurtrie, who 
has studied at Kemper College; Arthur M., 
a student at Joplin ; Charlotte and Jean, both 
accomplished musicians, residing at home. 



Oregg, William flenry, manufac- 
turer, was born in Palmyra, New York, 
March 24, 1831. Fie first came to St. Louis 
in 1846, after one year returning to Palmyra. 
In 1849 h^ took up permanent residence in 
St. Louis, where he has since resided. He 
was a clerk for Warne & Merritt in 
the hardware, woodenware and house- 
furnishing business from 1850 until 
January i, 1854, when he was made a 
partner, the firm becoming Warne, Merritt & 
Co. In 1856 he retired from that firm and 
became a member of the firm of Cuddy, Mer- 
ritt & Co., owning and operating the Broad- 
way foundry and machine shop, at that time 
one of the largest concerns of the kind in 
the country. In 1858 he retired from that 
firm and formed a copartnership with John 
S. Dunham in the steam bakery business, and 
later with Mr. Dunham and Mr. Charles Mc- 
Cauley in the commission business, under the 
name of C. McCauley & Co., both firms being 
operated from the same office. In 1865 Mr. 
Gregg retired from .business, and in 1867, 
with other parties, organized the Southern 
White Lead Company, of which he became 
president, holding the office until 1889, 
when the company was sold out to parties 
transferring it to the National Lead Com- 
pany. The Southern White Lead Company 
was a very successful one, owning a factory 
in St. Louis and one in Chicago, and selling 
its product in every State and Territory in 
the Union. Since 1889 Mr. Gregg has been 
out of business, devoting himself to travel 
and social life. During his business career he 
was a director in the Mechanics' Bank, the 
Mound City Mutual Insurance Company, and 
a "member of the board of arbitration and 
appeal in the Merchants' Exchange of St. 
Louis. He is a member of the Scotch-Irish 
Society, Sons of the Revolution, and Society 
of the Colonial Wars. In 1855 he was mar- 
ried to Orian Thompson, who is a descend- 
ant in the maternal line of the Lawrences, of 
Groton, Massachusetts. They have five 
children. 

Gregory, Charles Rush, was born in 
Hopkinsville, Kentucky, son of -Charles and 
Sophia Pleasants (Hall) Gregory. He re- 
ceived very careful educational training at the 
hands of his parents in early life, and when 
fourteen years of age entered the wholesale 
dry goods house of Tevis, Scott & Tevis, of 



124 



GREGORY. 



St. Louis, as a clerk. Three years later, and 
when he was only seventeen years of age, he 
was charged with the responsibility of repre- 
senting the trade interests of this house in a 
traveling capacity throughout the Missouri 
River valley. After remaining with Tevis, 
Scott & Tevis two years longer he became 
connected with the wholesale dr}' goods 
house of Doan, King & Company, of St. 
Louis, and represented that house in the ter- 
ritory over which he had previously traveled 
until the beginning of the Civil War, when 
the firm retired from business. After the re- 
tirement from business of Doan, King & 
Company, his principal business for a time 
was purchasing the depreciated notes of sus- 
pended Missouri banks. Later he went to 
New York City and had a brief experience on 
Wall Street. In 1864 he returned to St. Louis 
and connected himself with Henry T. Simon, 
who had been a fellow-employe with the firm 
of Tevis, Scott & Tevis. Mr. Simon had es- 
tablished himself in the wholesale notion 
business, and soon after Mr, Gregory joined 
him in a business partnership, they added 
dry goods to their stock in trade. This house 
soon became one of the best known whole- 
sale dry goods and notion houses in the 
West, and in latter years the annual volume 
of its business approximated $3,500,000. Un- 
der the name of H. T. Simon-Gregory Dry 
■Goods Company it continued in business 
until December i, 1896, when the owners of 
the establishment retired from business with 
handsome fortunes, accumulated as the result 
of their enterprise and sagacity. Since that 
time Mr. Gregory has lived in quiet retire- 
ment, enjoying the fruits of well-directed ef- 
fort in the field of commercial activity. While 
he has never sought official preferment of any 
kind, he has always taken a warm interest in 
politics and public affairs, and in 1896 sat as 
one of the Missouri delegates in the National 
Democratic Convention, which met in Chica- 
go and nominated William J. Bryan for Pres- 
ident. 

Gregory, Elisha Hall, physician, was 
born in Logan County, Kentucky, on 
the loth of September, 1824, the son of 
Charles Gregory and Sophia Pleasants (Hall) 
Gregory, both natives of Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, who emigrated to Kentucky in 
1820, and to Missouri in 1833, locating in 
the latter State at Boonville, at which place 



Dr. Gregory greVv up, gained his education 
and finally studied medicine with Dr. F. W. 
C. Thomas, a man for whom Dr. Gregory 
expresses the highest esteem, considering 
him possessed of much culture and general 
ability. His first opportunities for observa- 
tion, experience and practice in medicine 
were in April, 1844, while living with the fam- 
ily of John Jameson, in Morgan County, Mis- 
souri, of whom the doctor speaks as having 
been a most excellent man, a plain farmer, 
and says that his memory is deeply impress- 
ed with the simplicity and uprightness, in 
general, of the family, long since dissolved, 
for, having returned to the spot after forty 
years of absence, he found them all gone. Dr. 
Gregory came to St. Louis in 1848 and be- 
gan practice there in 1849, and has been en- 
gaged entirely in the work of medicine ever 
since, as practitioner and teacher. His com- 
ing to St. Louis was a wise move on his part, 
the field being especially adapted to him and 
giving him the necessary stimulus to develop 
his great abilities. Almost from the begin- 
ning he took first place as a member of the 
medical profession of St. Louis and as a 
citizen. He had the sterling, honest, earnest, 
conscientious qualities which win places for 
men. As a practitioner of medicine and sur- 
gery he has been eminently successful, and 
as a teacher of anatomy and surgery for close 
on to fifty years no one has surpassed him. 
It was the pleasure of the writer to be one 
of his pupils, and he never had the satisfac- 
tion of listening to more impressive lectures, 
or of facing a teacher whose every element 
was more successful in imparting knowledge. 
Indeed, as a teacher, earnestness and honesty 
of purpose, and a desire to teach the right 
thing in a manner to impress the pupil with 
proper knowledge and an appreciation of his 
obligations, seem to be the controlling 
thought in his mind. As an evidence of his 
gentral culture and eminence as a citizen 
and physician, the St. Louis University some 
years ago honored him with the degree of 
LL. D., a great honor worthily bestowed. 
After having achieved the greatest eminence 
in his profession and in the community of his 
own city and State ; having received general 
public and professional recognition ; and hav- 
ing served as a member of the board of health 
of the city of St. Louis, president of the State 
Board of Health of Missouri ; twice president 
of the St. Louis Medical Society, and asj 




T'ie S^^ i^^r^ /y^s fa,-^ /T: 



• /«■- /5*f75i» r,y. y^r' 




GRENNER— GRIKR. 



125- 



president of the State Medical Association 
of Missouri, he was, in 1886, elected president 
of the American Medical Association. For 
well on to half a century he served as a pro- 
fessor of surgery and anatomy in the St. 
Louis Medical College, which was formerly 
the medical department of St. Louis Uni- 
versity, and later the medical department of 
Washington University. Dr. Gregory, in 
private conversation, expressed his true sen- 
timents when he said : "My greatest pride 
is that all the honors which I have held have 
been bestowed upon me by my profession." 
He was married on the 15th of April, 1845, ^^ 
Miss Jael Smallwood, of a Maryland family, a 
native of Cooper County, Missouri. Mrs. 
Gregory had good understanding, sterling 
character and withal a happy disposition, a 
helpmeet, indeed. Twelve children were born 
to Dr. and Mrs. Gregory, of whom the 
following are living : Margaret Gregory Oster- 
moor, Sophia Gregory Humes, Alexis Greg- 
ory, Cornelia Douglas Gregory, Elisha Hall 
Gregory, Jr., Maria Carter Gregory and Stel- 
la Gregory Lindsay. Charles Russell Greg- 
ory, Mary Byrd Gregory, Howard Gregory, 
Eliza Hall Gregory and Mary Alicia Gregory 
are dead. 

Grenner, Henry Clay, collector of 
internal revenue for the first district of Mis- 
souri, was born in 1852, in Philadelphia, . 
Pennsylvania, son of John L. and Mary Gren- 
ner. After completing his education at New 
York College, of New York City, from which 
institution he was graduated, he engaged in 
the business of printing and publishing in 
New York, when he was nineteen years of 
age. In 1877 ^e left New York for the oil 
regions of Pennsylvania, and soon afterward 
became part owner of the "Titusville (Penn- 
sylvania) Daily and Weekly Herald." The oil 
interests of this region were then at the flood 
tide of their prosperity, and during the year 
1880 Mr. Grenner entered that business and 
developed many new oil fields. Keen fore- 
sight and good judgment enabled him to 
operate successfully in this field, and after 
opening a number of valuable wells, he en- 
gaged al§o, in 1882, in the business of refin- 
ing petroleum. He mastered all the details 
of producing and refining oils and, having a 
thorough understanding of the business, he 
became an important factor in the early fight 
made against the Standard Oil Company in 



Pennsylvania. He was one of the prime mov- 
ers in organizing a company which built an 
independent pipe line from the Pennsylvania 
oil regions, and he also built the international 
oil works, at Titusville, and was president of 
the company which operated that plant. This 
was one of the independent refineries and 
owned its own wells, piped and refined its 
own oil, and was owner also of the railway^ 
cars which carried its products to the markets 
In 1886 Mr. Grenner came to St. Louis for 
the purpose of developing the independent 
oil trade throughout the West and South- 
west, and in pursuance of the plan which he 
had formulated, he built the International 
Oil Works in that city. He became presi- 
dent of the corporation owning this plant,, 
and through his resistless energy and ag- 
gressiveness, the International Oil Works 
have been wonderfully successful, and are to- 
day a potent factor in controlling the oil trade 
of the west. He has always been a zealous 
Republican, and at different times has con- 
tributed much to the success *of his party. 
In recognition, both of his party fidelity and 
his eminent fitness for an office which should 
be filled by the best type of business man. 
President McKinley appointed him United 
States collector of internal revenue for the 
first district of Missouri, and he entered upon 
the discharge of his duties in this connection 
in February of 1898. As a Federal official 
he has justified the expectations of his 
warmest friends, in looking after the interests 
of the government during a period in which 
the duties and responsibilities of collectors 
of revenue have been vastly increased as a 
result of the war revenue law of 1898. The 
delicate and difficult task of putting the ma- 
chinery of the new law into operation in one 
of the largest revenUe-producing districts of 
the United States has been performed by him 
in such a way as to reduce the friction inci- 
dent thereto to the minimum, and his admin- 
istration has received the unqualified com- 
mendation of the general public. Mr. Grenner 
is one of the most prominent members of the 
Masonic order in Missouri, and he is also a 
member of the order of Odd Fellows and the 
order of Knights of Pythias. He married^ 
in 1875, Miss Gussie L. Seabury, of New 
York City. 

Grier, David Perkins, distinguished 
both as soldier and civilian, was born . 



126 



GRIFFIN. 



in Danville, Pennsylvania, December 26, 
1836, and died in St. Louis April 21, 1891. 
He was educated in the schools of Pennsyl- 
vania, and, when fifteen years of age re- 
moved with his parents to Peoria, Illinois, 
where he became associated later with his 
father and brothers in the grain trade. At the 
beginning of the Civil War he was living at 
Elmwood, Illinois, and when the firing on 
Fort Sumter aroused Northern patriots to 
action, he quickly organized a company, com- 
posed of his neighbors and friends, and ten- 
dered its services to Governor Yates, of Illi- 
nois. The State of Illinois had, however, be- 
fore this mustered its full quota of troops, 
and the services of Captain Grier's company 
were declined. Determined not to be balked 
in his endeavor to contribute something to 
the defense of the Union, he brought his 
company to St. Louis, and promptly tendere:l 
it to the provisional Union government of 
this State. Its services were accepted and in 
June, 1861, it was mustered into the Eighth 
Missouri Volunteer Infantry, as Company G 
of that regiment. As captain of this com- 
pany General Grier participated in the cam- 
paigns against Forts Henry and Donelson, 
and the battles of Shiloh and Corinth. In 
August of 1862 Illinois reclaimed the gallant 
soldier, and calling him to Springfield, Gov- 
ernor Yates commissioned him Colonel of 
the Seventy-seventh Illinois Volunteer Infan- 
try. As Colonel of this regiment he served 
faithfully, and with conspicuous gallantry 
throughout the entire Vicksburg campaign, 
during a portion of which he was acting com- 
mander of a brigade. In November of 1863 
he was assigned to the command of the Sec- 
ond Brigade of the Fourth Division of the 
Thirteenth Army Corps, and in August of 
1864, was placed in command of all the land 
forces on Dauphin Island, Alabama, under 
Major General Granger. After the capture 
of Fort Gaines all the troops on the island, 
excepting those of the Seventy-seventh Illi- 
nois Regiment, crossed over to the peninsula 
and laid siege to Fort Morgan. General Grier 
being detached from his regiment temporar- 
ily to take command of the expedition, and 
remaining in command of all the land forces 
until the end of the siege and the capture oi 
the fort. In March of 1865 he was commis- 
sioned Brigadier General of Volunteers, and 
assigned to the command of the First Brig- 
ade of the Third Division of the Thirteenth 



Army Corps, under General Canby, which he 
commanded in the campaign around and 
against Mobile. Subsequently he was as- 
signed to the command of the Third Division 
of the Thirteenth Army Corps, and retained 
that command until mustered out of the serv- 
ice, July 10, 1865. At the close of the war 
he returned to civil pursuits, becoming a 
member of the firm of Grier Brothers, which 
had grain depots in several cities. The firm 
established the Union Elevator in East St. 
Louis, and General Grier took charge of the 
business at that point in 1879. At a later date 
he established his home in St. Louis, and 
formed the Grier Commission Company, 
which was later succeeded by the D. P. Grier 
Grain Company. 

Griftiii, Frederick W., lawyer, was 
born February 2, 1855, in what is now a part 
of Boston, Massachusetts, near the site of the 
historic Bunker Hill monument. His father, 
J. Q. A. Griffin, was born in New Hampshire, 
but removed to Massachusetts in about 1820, 
locating in the suburbs of Boston. On his; 
side of the family the ancestry is directly 1 
traced back to about the year 1700, the pro-' 
genitors of the family having been of Scotch- 
Irish origin. Concord, Massachusetts, has 
been the home of Mr. Griffin's mother's 
family since 1638, and it was Colonel 
James Barrett, her ancestor in direct 
line, who gave the order to fire 
to the brave minute men under his com- 
mand at the battle of Concord, and who ' 
thus started hostilities on the day of that 
memorable engagement. The first Griffin in 
this country settled at Londonderry, New 
Hampshire, that town having been named in 
honor of the locality in the old country from 
which he came. F. W. Griffin was educated 
at Boston and Concord, Massachusetts. He 
attended Harvard College and took the law 
course at Boston University, graduating in 
1876. He immediately located in Boston for 
the practice of law and remained there ten 
years, being associated with Samuel T. Har- 
ris. In February, 1887, he removed to Kan- 
sas City, Missouri, and has since been an 
active and prominent member of the bar at 
that place. He was associated with F. M. 
Hayward until 1893, since which time he has 
been in the practice alone. He represents a 
number of large eastern corporations, includ- ' 
ing the Fidelity & Deposit Company, of 

\ 



GRIMSI.EY— GRISWOIvD. 



127 



Maryland, in its affairs within the borders of 
Missouri and Kansas, and his practice is de- 
voted for the most part to corporation law. 
The Wachusett Investment Company is also 
numbered among his clientage, which is sub- 
stantial and dignified. Mr. Griffin is a mem- 
ber of the Kansas City Bar Association and 
stands high in the esteem of his fellow law- 
yers. He is a Republican politically, takes a 
somewhat active part in politics and was his 
party's candidate for prosecuting attorney of 
Jackson County, Missouri, in 1892. He was 
married in 1884 to Terese L. Lippman, 
daughter of Morris J. Lippman, an early resi- 
dent of that city. 

Grimsley, Thornton, pioneer mer- 
chant and manufacturer, was born in Bour- 
bon County, Kentucky, August 20, 1798, and 
died in St. Louis, December 22, 1861. When 
he was ten years old he was apprenticed to 
the saddler's trade, and in 1816, at the end of 
a long term of service, he was sent to St. 
Louis in charge of a stock of saddlery goods. 
In 1822 he opened a store of his own in that 
city and afterward became famous in the 
saddlery trade. He invented and patented 
the military or dragoon saddle, which was 
universally approved by the officers of the 
United States Army, and did more work for 
the government at his manufactory than was 
done at that time at any other factory in 
the country. Although he had only limited 
educational advantages in his youth, he be- 
came a man of broad intelligence, and took a 
prominent part in public affairs in St. Louis. 
He was elected to the Missouri Legislature 
in 1828, and proved a useful member of that 
body, serving at different times in both 
branches. In 1839 he received the Whig 
nomination for Congress, but as his party 
was largely in the minority he was defeated. 
He was a prominent member of the Masonic 
order, and served as grand treasurer of the 
Grand Lodge of Missouri. For forty years 
he cultivated and promoted the military taste 
and spirit in St. Louis, and at different times 
he commanded various military organiza- 
tions. In 1846 he recruited a regiment for 
service in the Mexican War, but as a suf- 
ficient number of troops had already been 
raised, his regiment was not mustered into 
the United States service. He married Miss 
Susan Stark, of Bourbon County, Kentucky, 
and at his death left two daughters, Mrs. 



Henry T. Blow and Mrs. George Stansbury, 
and one son, John Grimsley. 

Grissom, Daniel M., was born at 
Owensboro, Kentucky. His father was Al- 
fred Grissom, a respectable tailor, and after- 
ward farmer, with a family of ten children. 
He received a good education in a large 
school kept by George Scarborough, from 
Connecticut, and at Cumberland University, 
at Lebanon, Tenn., and, after teaching school 
for two years, came to St. Louis in 1853, and 
was employed as a writer on the "Evening 
News." He remained on that paper until 1863, 
when he became editor of the "Union," a 
morning paper, which was afterward changed 
into the "Dispatch," an evening paper. His 
connection with this paper continued until 
1868, and in 1869 Mr. Grissom was offered 
a position on the editorial staff of the "Mis- 
souri Republican" by Colonel William Hyde, 
then its managing editor. He remained on 
the "Republican" in this position until 1888, 
when he retired from active newspaper writ- 
ing. 

Griswold, Joseph L., was born in 
Kentucky in the year 1843, the son of Wil- 
liam D. Griswold. He was reared in Terre 
Haute, Indiana, and after attending the 
schools in that city was sent to Williston 
Seminary, of East Hampton, Massachusetts, 
from which institution he was graduated in 
the class of 1861. When he left college his 
father was president of the St, Louis, Alton 
& Terre Haute Railroad Company, now a 
part of the "Big Four" system, and he be- 
came connected with the railway service as 
an employe of that company. He soon de- 
veloped into a capable railroad man, and 
when his father became president of the Ohio 
& Mississippi Railroad Company, the son was 
made paymaster for that company. He held 
that position until his merits earned pro- 
motion, and was then appointed superintend- 
ent of the western division of the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad, extending from Vin- 
cennes, Indiana, to East St. Louis. He filled 
this position so well and inaugurated so many 
reforms that he was elected by the board of 
directors general superintendent of the entire 
line, a position which he held for four years. 
When he took the superintendency of the 
road its gauge was six feet wide, and it was 
soon afterward determined to change this to 



128 



GRISWOLD. 



a standard gauge. This work was done in 
1871, under the supervision of Joseph L. 
Griswold, and was accomplished without the 
suspension of traffic for a single day. This 
was deemed, at the time, a remarkable feat, 
and Mr. Griswold received the commendation 
of railroad men generally for the wonderful 
executive ability he displayed in shifting the 
track along the entire line, a distance of 340 
miles, in the short time of eight hours. Re- 
tiring later from the railway service, he asso- 
ciated himself with H. S. Clement and 
Charles Scudder, and leased the Lindell 
Hotel, in St. Louis, which, after being refur- 
nished, was thrown open to the public in 
1874. In 1881 he sold his interest in this hotel 
and became the owner of the Laclede Hotel 
property, including the real estate connected 
therewith, and has since been the owner and 
manager. He has been connected also with 
other enterprises of consequence to St. Louis, 
and is known as one of the leading business 
men and property-owners of the city. He 
served at one time as a State fish commis- 
sioner, but, with this exception, has held no 
public office. In 1875 he married Miss Emily 
W. Adae, of Cincinnati. , Their only child is 
a daughter. Miss Nellie Griswold, 

Griswold, William Dickinson, emi- 
nent both as a lawyer and financier, was born 
in the town of Benson, Vermont, November 
6, 181 5, and died in St. Louis March 30, 1896. 
He grew up on a farm, and in his boyhood 
attended the village school at Benson. His 
ambition to obtain a finished education 
caused his father to place him under the 
tutorage of his nephew, Richard Smith, a 
scholarly and accomplished gentleman, who 
had just graduated from Yale College at 
Sharon, Connecticut. After studying for 
some time under this instructor, he took an 
academic course at Castleton, Vermont, 
where he was fitted for college by the late 
Rev. Dr. Post, of St. Louis.. Entering Mid- 
dlebury College, of Middlebury, Vermont, in 
1832, he then completed a classical and sci- 
entific course of study at that institution and 
was graduated in the class of 1836. Upon his 
return to his father's home he desired to 
go to Canada for the purpose of mingling 
with the French people of that country and 
improving his knowledge of the French 
language, but his father did not approve of 
his plans, and the result was that he went to 



Virginia instead, accepting a position as tutor 
in the family of Major Eliason, of the United 
States Army, who was then stationed at 
Fortress Monroe. His disposition was, how- 
ever, a trifle adventurous, and at the end of 
six months he found himself dissatisfied with 
the quiet life of teacher in a private family,^ 
and, resigning his position, he went to Wash- 
ington, D. C. There he met some interest- 
ing men from the West, with whom he 
formed lifelong friendships, and who easily 
convinced him that he would find in the 
Western States a field in which his talents 
would be appreciated and his energy and 
ability amply rewarded. In descending the 
Ohio River on his way to this "land of prom- 
ise," he became acquainted with a Mr. Mer- 
rill, of Indianapolis, a native of Vermont, 
who was at that time one of the leading 
merchants of Indianapolis and president also 
of the Indiana State Bank. Accompanying 
Mr. Merrill to his home, he entered in Indi- 
anapolis the law office of Honorable W. J. 
Brown, then a member of Congress from 
Indiana and the father of Admiral George 
Brown, recently retired from the United 
States Navy. After studying law for nearly 
a year under this preceptorship he concluded 
to go further west, and started on foot for 
the southwestern part of Indiana. On his 
way through what was then practically an 
unbroken wilderness, he had some amusing 
and also some thrilling and trying experi- 
ences. He kept on, however, with undaunted 
courage and determination until he reached 
the little town of Terre Haute, weary and 
footsore and anxious to bring his journey to 
an end. Pleased with the aspect of the place, 
he decided that his wanderings should end 
there and that Terre Haute should become 
his home. Turning his educational attain- 
ments to account he at once announced that 
he proposed to open a school there, rented 
a room for that purpose, and the following 
Monday morning found twelve prepossessing 
boys waiting to be instructed by him. Sonie 
of these boys were afterward among the lead- 
ing men of Indiana^ and all loved and re- 
spected him to the ends of their lives, the 
teacher surviving all his pupils. After teach- 
ing six months, during which time he con- 
tinued his law studies, he abandoned the 
school room and opened a law office. From 
that time forward, as lawyer, railroad official 
and business man, he was eminently sue- 




P"-i^ . ti^:;- .'-i^r-^ /^, f^:-f 






GROVER. 



129 



cessful in all his undertakings. He was 
senior member of the noted old-time law firm 
of Griswold & Usher, in its day one of the 
most famous law firms in the West. While 
in active practice at the bar he tried many- 
cases with Abraham Lincoln and Judge 
David Davis, of Illinois, both of whom were 
his warm personal friends as long as they 
lived. When the era of active railroad build- 
ing began in the West, Mr. Griswold became 
at once identified with these enterprises. He 
was first interested in the building of the 
Evansville & Crawford Railroad, extending 
from Evansville to Terre Haute, and after 
the completion of this line he operated and 
managed it for several years. About this 
time he was nominated for judge of the 
Supreme Court of Indiana by the Whig party, 
of which he was a member, and, although 
he was defeated by reason of the fact that 
Indiana was then a strongly Democratic 
State, his personal popularity was evidenced 
in his running several thousand votes ahead 
of his ticket. In 1859 he was made president 
of what was then the Terre Haute, Alton & 
St. Louis Railroad Company, operating the 
line which is now a part of the Big Four sys- 
tem. In 1864 he became president and gen- 
eral manager of the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad Company, and during his adminis- 
tration of the affairs of the corporation built 
the portion of its line extending from North 
Vernon, Indiana, to Louisville, Kentucky. 
His management of that road was eminently 
successful, and much might be written of his 
important services in that connection. Dur- 
ing the years of his connection with railway 
enterprises he was compelled to spend much 
of his time in St. Louis and Cincinnati, al- 
though Terre Haute' had continued to be his 
home. As a result of his business relations 
to St. Louis he had become largely interested 
in real estate in that city and when, in 1871, 
he retired from active railroad management 
he established his home there. As a resident 
of St. Louis, William D. Griswold continued 
to be for many years a conspicuous figure in 
business circles. He was one of the organ- 
izers of the St. Louis Transfer Company, 
for more than a quarter of a century a mem- 
ber of its board of directors, and for a time 
president of the corporation, trusted and 
honored by all his associates. He was in all 
respects a most capable and sagacious man 
of affairs, and his judicious operations and 

Vol. Ill— 9 



wise investments resulted in his accumula- 
tion of a handsome fortune. In politics he 
was an old school Whig until that party 
ceased to exist. He then became a member 
of the RepubHcan party, and during the Civil 
War was an ardent patriot, supporting the 
Union with all the influences at his command. 
When the war ended and the Southern peo- 
ple accepted the results in good faith, he 
favored restoring to them all the rights of 
citizenship, and opposed the vindictive course 
pursued by many of the leaders .of the Re- 
publican party. As a consequence of this 
feeling on his part he became a member of 
the Democratic party, and contributed to 
further its interests, from honest convictions, 
to the end of his life. 

Grover, Hiram J., lawyer, was born 
in the Parish of West Feliciana, Louisiana, 
July 6, 1840, son of Hiram J. and Margaret 
(Hamilton) Grover. His father was a native 
of the State of Vermont, but went to Louis- 
iana in early life and became well known in 
that State as an extensive and wealthy sugar 
planter. The elder Grover died when the son 
was five years of age, and he was reared and 
fitted for college under the guardianship of 
his mother. His collegiate training began at 
St. James College, Maryland, and was com- 
pleted at Yale College, where he pursued a 
course of study designed to fit him for the 
law. After a thorough course of preparation 
for his chosen profession he was admitted to 
the bar in 1867, and began practicing in the 
city of New Orleans, admirably equipped for 
his calling. In 1872 he married Miss Char- 
lotte T. Blow, daughter of the noted St. 
Louis merchant, Peter E. Blow, and four 
years later he removed to that city and be- 
came a member of the St. Louis bar. For 
more than twenty years he has devoted him- 
self to the practice of law in that city, and 
has earned for himself a prominent place 
among his professional brethren. Careful 
and conscientious as a counselor and adviser, 
chivalrous in his devotion to the interests of 
his clients, and zealous in the defense of their 
rights, he has been a participant in the con- 
duct of many notable cases, and has become 
known both to the bar and general public as 
a lawyer of high character and superior at- 
tainments. A close student of the law and 
of the underlying principles of jurisprudence, 
he has become especially noted for careful 



130 



GROWERS' AND SHIPPERS' ASSOCIATION— GRUNDY COUNTY. 



preparation of his cases, fearless champion- 
ship of the causes with which he is identified, 
candor and fairness in dealing with the issues 
involved, and a strict regard for the ethics of 
the profession. Courteous in manner and 
bearing, he is at the same time vigorous and 
forceful in character and action, and in all 
respects a well-rounded and well-equipped 
lawyer. He has taken no active interest in 
politics, but has always been known in politi- 
cal circles as a staunch Democrat. He is an 
Episcopalian churchman and a member of 
the Masonic order. He has been twice mar- 
ried, his first wife having been Miss Mary 
G, Semmes, of Cumberland, Maryland, and 
a niece of the famous Admiral Semmes, of 
the Confederate Navy. The first Mrs. Grover 
died a year after their marriage, leaving one 
son. Five sons have been born of his second 
marriage, the oldest, Hamilton, being asso- 
ciated with his father in his law business. A 
man of domestic tastes, he is devoted to his 
home and family, and his homestead is an 
ideal one. 

Growers' and Shippers' National 
Protective Association. — An associa- 
tion organized at Kansas City, January i6, 
1900, with J. E. Saunders, of Pierce City, 
Missouri, for president ; J. P. Logan, of 
Siloam Springs, Arkansas, treasurer; I. N. 
Barrick, of Kansas City, secretary and gen- 
eral manager, and A. E. Stanley, of Kansas 
City, cashier. The objects are to promote 
the rights and interests of growers and ship- 
pers of fruit, vegetables and other farm 
products by a system of watchfulness over 
packages bearing the seal of a member, and 
apprising members of the market prices from 
day to day. It acts for its members in dis- 
putes with commission merchants, without 
charge ; informs its members about the re- 
sponsibility and standing of commission 
merchants ; investigates claims and com- 
plaints ; gives advice about the glutted or 
bare condition of a market, and the best 
points to ship to ; and will, when instructed 
to do so, divert shipments from one point to 
another, and take charge of shipments re- 
jected by dealers. Any person, not a com- 
mission merchant, engaged in shipping 
orchard, garden or farm products, may be- 
come a member on payment of $6 ; annual fee 
afterwards, $5. The members of the asso- 
ciation are chiefly in the States shipping to 



Kansas City, and its headquarters are in that 
city. 

Grundy County.— A county in the 
northern part of the State, bounded on the 
north by Mercer; east by Sullivan and Linn; 
south by Livingston, and west by Daviess 
and Harrison Counties; area, 274,000 acres. 
About two-thirds of the area of the county 
is up-land prairie, and the remainder hills 
and ridges, generally well timbered. The 
Thompson River, entering the county near 
the northwest corner, and the Weldon River, 
entering the county near the center of the 
northern boundary line, form a junction near 
Trenton and constitute the east fork of 
Grand River, which flows southward, leaving 
the county near the southwest corner. Easf 
of Grand River are Muddy, Honey, Crooked, 
No and Medicine Creeks, and flowing into 
Grand River from the west are Coon, Sugar, 
Hickory, Wolf and Gee Creeks. Crooked 
Creek flows through a prairie country, as do 
most of the other creeks, with narrow bot- 
tom lands, skirted by strips of timber. West 
of Grand River along the streams are hills, 
with an occasional strip of bottom land. The 
western part of the country is the most hilly 
section, and contains the greater part of the 
timber land of the county. The prairies 
average from two to three miles in width, 
and run generally from north to south. The 
soil of the county is variable, generally in the 
bottoms and prairies a dark loam with a clay 
subsoil. In the uplands the soil is light. 
These lands are the best for fruit-growing. 
Bluegrass grows in abundance, and stock- 
raising is one of the most profitable branches 
of the farmer's occupation. The minerals in 
the county are coal, fire clay, limestone and 
sand stone. For years coal has been mined 
for home consumption, and some of it has 
been exported. The average yield per 
acre of the cereal crops is : corn, 35 bushels ; 
wheat, 12 bushels ; oats, 25 bushels. Potatoes 
average 100 to 150 bushels to the acre ; clover 
seed, iy2 bushels, timothy seed, 3 bushels, 
and flax seed, 9 bushels. According to the 
report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 
1898, the surplus products shipped from the 
county were : Cattle, 8,096 head ; hogs, 
35,215 head; sheep, 4,915 head; horses and 
mules, 1,029 head; hay, 18,200 pounds; flour, 
184,830 pounds; clover seed, 2,700 pounds; 
timothy seed, 33,130 pounds; lumber, 43,120 



. \. 



GUDGELL. 



131 



feet; walnut logs, 18,000 feet; coal, no tons; 
brick, 92,250; stone, 5 cars; poultry, 849,465 
pounds; eggs, 350,570 dozen; butter, 59,652 
pounds; hides and pelts, 52,140 pounds; 
feathers, 19,947 pounds. Other articles ex- 
tported were corn, shipstuff, cordwood, wool, 
potatoes, cheese, dressed meats, game and 
iish, lard, tallow, peaches and other fruits, 
dried fruits, vegetables, honey, cider, canned 
goods and furs. For many years before white 
men settled in Grundy County territory it 
was occupied as a hunting ground by tribes 
of Sac, Sioux and Pottawottomie Indians, 
who chased game over its prairies and 
through its forests. There is no obtainable 
record or tradition of any permanent settle- 
ment being made in the county until 1833, 
when General W. P. Thompson, of Ray 
County, settled near Grand River. The 
year following a number of Kentuckians and 
Tennesseeans, who had for a while lived in 
.other parts of Missouri, located on land in 
the vicinity of the present site of Trenton. 
[Among the first settlers were John Thrailkill, 
I Levi Moore and William Cochran. During 
ithe next two years the settlements in the 
[county were increased by the arrival of about 
|a dozen other families, including those of 
ijewett Norris, John Scott, Daniel De Vaul, 
rjames R. Merrill, Samuel Benson and the 
^Perrys, Grubbs and Metcalfs. The first thing 
to disturb the tranquility of their peaceful 
fsurroundings was the Hetherly war, and at 
[the site of Trenton, then known as Bluff 
Grove, a block house was built, which was 
[the residence place of the settlers for some 
time. Grundy County was a part of Carroll 
County when that county was organized, and 
later was attached to Livingston County. It 
was organized as a separate and distinct 
[county January 2, 1841, and was named in 
lonor of General Felix Grundy, of Tennes- 
fsee. Attorney General of the United States 
kunder President Van Buren, Grundy County 
lis divided into thirteen townships, namely, 
'Franklin, Harrison, Jackson, Jefferson, Lib- 
erty, Lincoln, Madison, Marion, Myers, Tay- 
lor, Trenton, Washington and Wilson. The 
assessed valuation of real estate and town 
lots in the county in 1900 was $3,693,233; 
estimated full value, $10,079,699; assessed 
value of personal property, including stocks, 
bonds, etc., $825,093 ; estimated full value, 
$1,237,639; assessed value of merchants and 
manufacturers, $131,760; assessed value of 



railroads and telegraphs, $829,406. There 
are 54.20 miles of railroad in the county, the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific entering near 
the southwest corner, passing northeast to 
Trenton, thence northerly to the boundary 
line; the Omaha, Kansas City & Eastern, 
passing in an easterly direction through the 
center of the county, and the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St, Paul entering the county a little 
north of the center of the eastern boundary 
line, and running south to the southern 
limits. The number of public schools in the 
county in 1899 was 121 ; number of teachers, 
161; pupils enumerated, 5,589; amount of 
permanent fund, both township and county, 
$61,000. The population of the county in 
1900 was 17,833. 

Gudgell, James Robinson, was 

born September 26, 1849, in Bath County, 
Kentucky, and died June 2, 1897^ at his home 
in Independence, Missouri. His parents were 
Joseph and Louise (Groves) Gudgell. The 
father was a prominent business man and was 
actively identified with banking interests. 
Both parents were born in Kentucky. James 
R. Gudgell was educated in the select schools 
of his native State, the University of Virginia, 
from which he graduated, and the University 
of Heidelberg, Germany. He was a man of 
strong mentality and great brain capacity. 
He was a thorough student of all branches of 
science, in which he found particular inter- 
est, was well versed in the languages and a 
student of medicine. A thoroughly trained 
mind was his, capable of grasping the secrets 
of knowledge and applying them intelligently 
and with practical force. When he returned 
from Heidelberg he came to Missouri and en- 
gaged in the banking business at Kansas 
City. Subsequently he engaged in the cattle- 
raising business in Colorado in company with 
his brother, Charles Gudgell, W. A. and John 
Towers and D. A. Smart. They had large 
ranches in Colorado and owned the Pan 
Handle ranch in Texas and the celebrated 
"Ox" in Montana. Mr. Gudgell, being greatly 
interested in fine breeds of cattle, went 
abroad and was the first purchaser of the 
famous Pole Angus cattle for his section of 
the country. He also imported one of the 
first herds of Hereford cattle. The firm to 
which he belonged is now Gudgell & Simp- 
son, and is one of the recognized leaders in 
the breeding of animals valuable on account 



132 



GUERNSEY. 



of the superior blood record accorded to 
them. As a business man Mr, Gudgell was 
conservative even when great successes were 
promised, and his excehent judgment served 
him well in transactions involving large 
amounts of money. He was a staunch Demo- 
crat, but did not allow his activity in politics 
to lead him into search for public honors. 
He was a true, conscientious Christian and 
was a member of the Baptist Church. He 
was made a Mason during his residence m 
Colorado. Mr. Gudgell was married June 30, 
1887, to Miss Lettie Lee Rochester, daugh- 
ter of the late Colonel C. H. Rochester, of 
Danville, Kentucky. Mrs. Gudgell is a de- 
scendant of Nathaniel Rochester, four gene- 
rations removed, the founder of the city of 
that name in the State of New York. Mrs. 
Gudgell was carefully educated and spent 
about two years abroad after the death of her 
husband in art studies. She is a lady of cul- 
ture and refinement. One who knew him well 
and intimately wrote the following lines soon 
after Mr. Gudgell's death, and the words 
show the esteem in which the man was held : 
"He possessed in high degree and beautiful 
harmony those rare qualities which make a 
gentleman. He was always and genuinely 
a gentleman. He was a man of unaffected 
learning. He had a liberal education and a 
culture broadened by extensive travel. He 
had a keen appreciation of the beautiful in 
nature and art. He loved the tiniest flower 
and nursed it with dehcate care. His taste 
was exquisite. As a business man he had 
large experience and an honorable record. 
He was generous to a fault. Those who 
knew him well felt, involuntarily, the touch 
of a noble spirit. By nature and by grace 
he was a modest man. He hated hypocrisy, 
shams and shoddy. He loved the natural, the 
sincere, the genuine. As a husband he was 
thoughtful, tender, kind, patient, loving and 
faithful. For many years he was rarely free 
from pain, yet through it all he was patient, 
heroic." 

Guernsey, David W., electrician and 
capitalist, was born in Westford, Otsego 
County, New York, May 7, 1838, and died in 
St. Louis January 4, 1901. His father was a 
farmer; his mother a French lady whose 
maiden name was Orilla de Lesdernier. He 
was greatly attached to her, and her death, 
which occurred when he was about eighteen 



years of age, affected him deeply. At the 
age of sixteen he left his' father's farm and 
entered Eastman's Commercial College, at 
Rochester, where he graduated with high 
honor. He was at once offered an excellent 
clerical position in a printing house of that 
city, but he preferred commercial life, and in 
April, 1855, being then little more than sev- 
enteen years old, he became a clerk in the 
dry goods store of Crockett & Marvin, at 
Cooperstown. His engagement was for three 
years, at the usual wage in that day, 5^50 for 
the first year, and an increase of $25 each 
successive year. From his entrance he de- 
veloped marked ability as a salesman. His 
leisure time was taken up with work as as- 
sistant bookkeeper. At the end of his en- 
gagement he went to Boston, Massachusetts, 
arriving there in April, 1858, without an ac- 
quaintance in the city and with $40 as his 
entire means. He at once diligently sought 
employment in the principal dry goods 
establishments, meeting with many rebuffs^ 
but was finally engaged in the store of Saf- 
ford, Ames & Co. In the course of a few 
weeks he had familiarized himself with the 
stock, and was sent to Hartford, Connecticut, 
to sell from samples. Discouraged on ac- 
count of what he deemed his want of success, 
on his return, he asked to be relieved, but the 
firm expressed satisfaction, and sent him out 
again. Having had only common school ad- 
vantages and being ambitious to acquire an 
education, in 1858 he entered Pierce Acad- 
emy, at Middleborough, Massachusetts, bor- 
rowing money from a friend to pay for the 
first term, and working in a trunk factory 
during his spare hours to defray his expenses,, 
as well as to learn a profitable trade. The 
factory was wrecked by a boiler explosion 
and he lost his tools and was thrown out of 
employment. Several persons were killed, 
while Young Guernsey had providentially left 
the premises only a few moments before the 
disaster. During the vacation he had em- 
ployment in a trunk factory in North Bridge- 
water, and when he returned to his school in 
the fall he resumed spare hour work in a new 
factory which replaced the one destroyed. 
In 1861 he graduated with high credit, and 
was arranging to enter college, when he be- 
came ill with measles, which left him for 
months with impaired eyesight. When recov- 
ery came his meager savings were exhausted, 
and he had abandoned the hope of further 




1 



^ T^f. ^ i-^i^-^J-T7i-A/}-' 



% 'I 




GUERNSEY. 



133 



advancement in education, when a friend of- 
fered to defray his college expenses. The 
proffer was gratefully accepted, Guernsey, 
however, stipulating that such advances 
should be considered as a loan. Accordingly 
he entered the Normal School at Bridge- 
water, on advice of a friend, who considered 
light studies all that his eyes would endure ; 
but continued impairment of his vision 
obliged him to leave school, and he resumed 
work as a traveling salesman. In that day 
one of such calling was expected to engage 
his customers in dissipation, to induce them 
to purchase, and misrepresentation of goods 
-was considered legitimate. In such practices 
Guernsey would not engage. He held to the 
convictions of his boyhood — that a just fear 
of God, truth, sincerity and integrity between 
man and man, should rule his life, regard- 
less of all other considerations. Men 
engaged in the same calling jeered at him and 
prophesied his failure. But success attended 
him, and the future was brightened before 
him. 

Mr. Guernsey was now twenty-four years 
of age, and the nation was engaged in a civil 
war. Considering it his duty to give his 
effort to the support of his country, August 
12, 1862, he entered the navy as a landsman, 
and was sent to the receiving ship "Ohio" 
in Boston harbor, whence he was afterward 
drafted to the U. S. S. "Macedonian." He 
was soon made an officer's clerk; from this 
was advanced to the position of paymaster's 
steward, and then to that of paymaster's 
clerk. The "Macedonian" being put out of 
commission, Commodore Montgomery per- 
sonally ordered Guernsey on board the U. 
S. S. "Sunflower," as acting assistant paymas- 
ter in charge. The vessel sailed for Key 
West, where her paymaster came aboard, and 
Guernsey resumed his position as paymas- 
ter's clerk. On suggestion of Admiral Bailey 
he now made application for appointment 
as acting assistant paymaster, the highest 
rank in the pay department open to a volun- 
teer, and, provided with strong letters of in- 
dorsement from his superior officers, the 
admiral included, he went to Washington, 
secured a personal interview with Mr. Welles, 
Secretary of the Navy, who ordered him ex~ 
amined, and on favorable report thereof, 
issued his commission. Acting Assistant 
Paymaster Guernsey was then assigned to 
duty on the U. S. S. "Anacosta," of the Po- 



tomac Flotilla. While on this service he was 
ordered to take up the accounts and act as 
paymaster of the U. S. S. "Tulip," in ad- 
dition to his duties on the "Anacosta," but 
declined on account of the bad condition of 
the former vessel. Here, a second time, 
Guernsey's life was saved by a providential 
intervention, for the boilers of the "Tulip" 
exploded and all on board were lost. A third 
time he escaped death; when carried away 
by the tide while bathing, his clerk rescued 
him as he was about to drown. It is pleasant 
to know that his savior was a former school 
and shipmate, to whom he had given honor- 
able position when he himself was favored 
by fortune. 

The war was now over, and the "Anacosta'* 
being put out of commission. Paymaster 
Guernsey was ordered to make settlement of 
his accounts. He had received and expended 
hundreds of thousands of dollars, and the 
government found him indebted to it in the 
sum of $7.50. The deficit was apparent and 
not real. There was lacking a voucher for 
that amount, which needed the signature of 
the captain, and that officer was not within 
reach. Most men would have preferred to 
make the payment, and thus save trouble. It 
is highly characteristic of the man that 
Paymaster Guernsey cared far more that his 
record should be faultlessly clear than for 
money or trouble. A little correspondence, 
and the missing voucher was at hand, and the 
matter was closed. 

Although his accounts had been finally 
audited and settled, Paymaster Guernsey was 
yet in service, being on "waiting orders," 
and as he had never seen the West, he came 
to St. Louis, in August, 1865, being twenty- 
seven years of age. With two others, one a 
former schoolmate, Alexander Averill, now a 
leading business man in St. Louis, he formed 
the partnership of Guernsey, Averill & 
Burnes, for conducting a boys' clothing busi- 
ness, which was opened at 116 South Fourth 
Street. By this time Paymaster Guernsey had 
resigned his commission in the navy, and he 
and his partners went East and bought stock. 
Business proved brisk, but it was soon ap- 
parent that there was not sufficient for three 
partners, and Mr. Burnes retired, the other 
partners buying his interest, and the firm 
name becoming Guernsey & Averill. A year 
later Guernsey & Averill sold to William 
Banks & Co., of New York. Mr. Guernsey 



134 



GUERNSEY. 



remained with the new firm for a time, while 
Mr. Averill found employment in another 
house. Later Mr. Guernsey was associated 
with General Clinton B. Fisk in the general 
agency of the Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany of New York, traveling and supervising 
country agencies. The business was not 
agreeable to Mr. Guernsey, and he became a 
salesman in Comstock & Haywood's furni- 
ture house, but in less than a year the' es- 
tablishment was burned out. Mr. Guernsey 
then sold furniture on commission, and after- 
ward took a junior partnership in the furni- 
ture firm of Burrell, Comstock & Co. He 
remained in this connection about four years, 
when he engaged in the same line of busi- 
ness on his own account, under the style of 
Guernsey, Jones & Co., above the United 
States Express Company, at St. Charles and 
Fourth Streets. This continued a year, when 
the capital was increased, and the firm in- 
corporated as the Guernsey Furniture Com- 
pany. 

At this point begins a remarkable narra- 
tive, a narrative of serious misfortune and 
grave disaster, of indefatigable determination 
and courage, and of incomparable honor and 
sterling integrity. Before the expiration of 
the first year under the latter arrangement, 
Mr. Guernsey was admonished of failing eye- 
sight. The oculist advised him that treatment 
for that ailment would be unavailing, until 
his general health was built up, impaired as 
it was on account of close application to 
business for many years. At times he was 
utterly unable to read, and it was with diffi- 
culty that he could recognize intimate friends. 
In this sore strait his attention was directed 
to electricity as a curative agent, and he went 
to Hot Springs for treatment. He asked ad- 
vice as to electric baths, but the physicians 
gave him no encouragement. He insisted, 
however, and improved rapidly in physical 
condition, while his mental vision became in- 
tensely keen. Realizing the new life which 
had come to him, he engaged in yet deeper 
study of that wonderful force which had 
served him so well. His daylight hours were 
given to his business; his nights he devoted 
to the investigation of electrical phenomena. 
When from home buying goods, he spent his 
evenings in electric light stations, acquiring 
all knowledge accessible. 

The furniture business had outgrown the 
premises occupied, and he erected a magnifi- 



cent building on the southwest corner of 
Third and Locust Streets. The basement^ 
arranged for the purpose, was provided with 
an extensive electric light plant, and the 
Guernsey & Scudder Electric Light Company 
was organized to operate it. Light by night 
or day, as needed, was furnished to ad- 
jacent business houses. There was a limita- 
tion, however; not a light for a saloon, nor 
on Sunday for any purpose, could be had on 
the Guernsey-Scudder circuit. The capacity 
of the plant was soon reached, and new ma- 
chines were put in until the premises would 
contain no more, and all were operated to 
their fullest capacity, and at remunerative 
prices. The income of the plant was $115.50 
daily, and as the light company and the fur- 
niture company were practically one, the 
light expense of the latter was nominal. Seri- 
ous trouble ensued. Suits were instituted and 
injunctions were prayed for, on account of 
alleged infringement of patents, by competi- 
tors. Mr. Guernsey was the aggressive spirit 
in resisting these assaults, and there were 
few days during fifteen years that he was not 
involved in a suit brought against him in the 
endeavor to force him out of business. That 
the antagonism was selfish and malicious is 
evident when it is said that Mr. Guernsey lost 
no case brought against him in all these 
years, and the fact is not only a strong aver- 
ment of the rightfulness of his cause, but is 
also evidence of his clear understanding of 
the character of men. At the outset of his 
legal difficulties he had retained as his coun- 
sel Judge McKeighan, who with ample equip- 
ment of legal learning, untiring vigilance, and 
the devotion of a personal friend, as well as 
the loyalty of an honorable attorney, success- 
fully defended his cause in all these troublous 
times. 

After the light plant had been in operation 
about a year, Mr. Guernsey took a vacation, 
and by arrangement with Professor Hoch- 
hausen, president of the Excelsior Electric 
Company, Brooklyn, New York, passed the 
time in the factory, as a workman, and here 
he gained much of that practical knowledge 
which aided St. Louis so greatly in its devel- 
opment of its electrical interests. 

After managing the furniture and electric 
light business for ten years, disaster overtook 
Mr. Guernsey. In 1888 the Guernsey Furni- 
ture Company was obliged to make an as- 
signment. The capital was $65,000, of which 



GUERNSEY. 



135 



much more than the major part was owned 
by Mr. Guernsey, who had bought the inter- 
est of a partner, making payment with his 
own notes endorsed by such sterhng men as 
George D. Barnard, Sarriuel Kennard, Rich- 
ard Scruggs, Charles Barney, Frank Ely, D. 
Crawford, Joseph Specht, Joseph Franklin, 

D. M. Houser, L. M. Hellman, A. F. Shap- 
leigh, Daniel Catlin, Judge J. E. McKeighan, 

E. J. Crandall, Byron Nugent and Daniel Nu- 
gent. 

The assignment swept away all of Mr. 
Guernsey's possessions, furniture stock and 
electric light plant. He lost all save his 
energy and his integrity; but his friends, in- 
cluding his security creditors, held to him. 
They recognized that all his business con- 
cerns had been conducted with scrupulous 
honesty, and they made no complaint of his 
indebtedness to them. Many gave him en- 
couragement, and in a substantial way. The 
friendly feeling felt for him was reflected in 
the sympathetic notices of the local press. 
O^ his part, despite the magnitude of the 
disaster, he professed faith in . his recuper- 
ative powers and determination to pay all 
his indebtedness. It was wonderful pluck for 
a man of two-score years and ten, bank- 
rupted, and with $40,000 additional of per-- 
sonal oblio^ations. His friends continued to 
give him their encouragement, but many had 
little faith in his ability to repay, though they 
did not question the desire of his heart. 

The furniture stock and electric light plant 
were sold under process of law. The latter 
was purchased by a number of Mr. Guern- 
sey's friends, in his interest, who organized 
the St. Louis Electric Light and Power Com- 
pany, and elected Mr. Guernsey president, 
with the understanding that he should pur- 
chase the stock from time to time as his 
ability might permit. From this on, success 
attended him. ,He was yet agent for the 
Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Com- 
pany, of New York, and this was an 
advantage. The affairs of the reorganized 
Electric Light and Power Company pros- 
pered. The original capital of $8,000 was 
increased to $15,000, then to $30,000, to $75,- 
000, and again to $200,000, all paid up, one- 
half of the stock being held by Mr. Guernsey ; 
at the outset he had held only one share, but 
acquired additional stock rapidly. He then 
interested capitalists who bought the Scudder 
interest, of which Mr. Guernsey secured $10,- 



000, giving him a majority of the stock. 
Among the new stockholders and directors 
was Sim T. Price, who became one of the 
attorneys for the company, at Mr. Guernsey's 
suggestion, and was largely instrumental in 
bringing about the subsequent sale. The 
capital stock was now increased to $700,000. 
New equipment was added ; a lot was secured 
on the northwest corner of Lucas Avenue 
and Eighth Street ; plans were drawn and es- 
timates made for a new power house ; the 
underground system was determined upon, 
and the cash deposit required by the city, 
was in hand; the $500,000 in bonds author- 
ized on the increase of capital stock, were 
practically placed ; the future was never so 
promising. At this juncture the Edison Mis- 
souri Electric Company made a purchase of 
the property. There was no desire to sell, 
but the Guernsey Company was offered its 
price, and it sold. 

Now was the triumph of a lifetime for Mr. 
Guernsey, an ample recompense for his weary 
waiting, his patient enduring, and his untir- 
ing effort. No sooner was the purchase 
money paid in, than he made immediate pay- 
ment to his endorsers of years before, adding 
to the principal compound interest at the rate 
of six per cent. Many, at the outset, had 
despaired of receiving any return, and none 
could expect repayment so much in excess of 
what simple honesty would demand. Thanks 
and congratulations came to him from every 
hand, the letter following being a represen- 
tative expression of the general voice, and 
as such it is, perhaps, Mr. Guernsey's most 
valued treasure : 

"Catlin Tobacco Company, 

"St. Louis, May 10, 1897. 
"J/r. D. IV. Guernsey, St. Louis. 

"Dear Sir : Your kind favor of May 7th, 
enclosing check for $382.15 in full payment 
of all interest, compounded to date, on your 
$1,000 note December 15, 1886, reached me 
this morning, and I beg to return my thanks 
for your favor, and congratulations upon the 
manly and unusual course you have pursued 
throughout in this transaction. 

"It is so entirely out of the usual course, 
and such a complete reversal of my usual ex- 
perience in affairs of this kind, I intend to put 
it thoroughly and carefully before my two 
sons, who are now at college, as a shining ex- 
ample of upright and thoroughgoing man- 



136 



GUILFORD-GUINN. 



hood that I should like to have them take 
pattern from. Again thanking you, with sin- 
cere regards, believe me, Yours truly, 

"Daniei. Cati^in." 

Mr. Guernsey was married November 9, 
1864, to Miss Annie Shattuck, of Boston, 
Massachusetts, who survives him. Of this 
union were born three children, of whom are 
deceased, Remington Bancrott, named for an 
old and valued friend, and Ella May. Grace 
M., the second child, is living. 

Mr. Guernsey, as may be traced in this 
sketch, was ever an earnest, unobtrusive 
Christian man. For years he was a member 
and deacon in the Third Baptist Church. He 
had no active business concerns to disturb 
him, and he passed his later days in posses- 
sion of ample means, quietly and peacefully, 
and taking pleasure in aiding the needy and 
suffering. 

The details of Mr. Guernsey's life hereinbe- 
fore given render it hardly necessary to draw 
the general features of his character, already 
sufficiently disclosed by the incidents of his 
life. 

Although not visionary, he was, in the 
large and better sense of the word, an op- 
timist, and yet he never suflfered, himself to be 
deluded by his wishes and expectations, but 
on the contrary, weighed carefully every 
business enterprise that he ventured upon. 
Clearly perceiving the natural aids, as well 
as the difficulties, which attend every under- 
taking, he was never unduly elated by the 
former nor dismayed by the latter, but met 
every obstacle with fine courage and spirit. 

Mr. Guernsey, in everything that he under- 
took requiring great labor and persistent ef- 
fort, was always able to work more .hours in 
the day than the average man, thereby greatly 
increasing his chances for success. 

The recital of the varied incidents of Mr. 
Guernsey's experience renders it unnecessary 
to make any formal declaration that honesty, 
integrity and energy were the controlling 
factors in his career, making it impossible for 
him to gain anything by fraud, deceit or 
treachery, or to fail because of any neglect or 
carelessness on his part. Those who per- 
formed service for Mr. Guernsey, either pro- 
fessional or otherwise, imite in their testi- 
mony that he was, in such relations, as gen- 
erous as he was just, and that no matter 
whether success or failure mav have attended 



the efforts of those who served him, yet no 
unmerited censure or reproach ever fell upon 
them from Mr. Guernsey so long as he be- 
lieved that they were true to his interests, 
and that they had used their best capacity and 
judgment in serving him. 

In the social relations of life he was most 
pleasing and agreeable, and no man can 
truthfully say that Mr. Guernsey was his per- 
sonal enemy, for he was incapable of holding 
resentment or revenge against anyone, no 
matter how much he might have been justi- 
fied in doing so, according to the ordinary 
standards of human conduct. As a husband 
and father he might well serve as a model for 
the most exacting and critical, and as a citi- 
zen, there is but one judgment with respect to 
him, and that judgment would honor the best. 

The large assembly of representative citi- 
zens who attended his funeral attested his 
deserved popularity. The sermon, delivered 
by his friend. Dr. R. P. Johnston, pastor of 
the Third Baptist Church, was one of the 
most inspiring, beautiful and eloquent trib- 
utes ever paid to an honored and beloved citi- 
zen of St. Louis. 

Guilford.— A town of 100 inhabitants, in 
Washington Township, Nodaway County, 
fourteen miles southeast of Maryville. It 
has the Bank of Guilford, with a capital and 
surplus of $10,105, 3.nd deposits of $40,000; 
a Methodist Episcopal Church, a Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, a Masonic lodge 
and a lodge of Good Templars. 

Guiim, John C, one of the widely 
known and eminently successful farmers of 
Missouri, was born August 29, 1832, in 
Greene County, Tennessee, son of P. R. 
and Lottie (Lauderdale) Guinn, both of 
whom were natives of the county in which 
their son was born. The ,e4der Guinn, who 
was a farmer by occupation, was born March 
. 3, 1800, and lived to be sixty-six years of age. 
His wife was born in 1802 and died when 
thirty-eight years of age, leaving a family of 
six children, named respectively, George W., 
William M., Caroline M., John C, Pleasant 
M., and P. E. Guinn. John C. Guinn grew 
up on a farm, receiving a good practical 
education and thorough industrial training. 
In 1850, when he was eighteen years of age, 
he obtained a position in a mercantile estab- 
lishment at Atlanta, Georgia, and remained 









rk, S^KtkfrnMstor^ C- 



£:-:^.i» i4f//,^,^s Ary^ 



GUINOTTE. 



137 



in the employ of this concern for two years 
thereafter. From 1852 to 1856 he was en- 
gaged in railroading, and then went to Cen- 
tral America, where he remained for some 
time. From there he came back to Atlanta, 
Georgia, and in 1865 came to Missouri for 
the purpose of making investments in the 
rich and promising lands of this State. He 
was attracted to Jasper County, and there 
made purchases of land, to the improvement 
of which he gave a large share of his atten- 
tion, although he did not remove his family 
to that county until 187 1. He then estab- 
lished his home at Georgia City, twenty 
miles northwest of Carthage, and there he 
has built up an ideal country place. Making 
a careful study of agriculture in all its 
branches, he has been uniformly successful in 
his operations. As a wheat grower he has 
become famous and is widely known as one 
of the most successful in southwest Missouri. 
From time to time he has added to his 
landed estate, which now consists of 4,000 
acres, mainly valley and bottom lands, 
drained by Spring River and its tributaries. 
The soil of these lands is enormously produc- 
tive and besides raising large corn and other 
crops, Mr. Guinn has sent into the market, 
in a single year, 27,000 bushels of wheat. He 
is also an extensive stock-raiser, giving his 
attention principally to high grade cattle and 
hogs. Splendidly cultivated lands and fine 
improvements combine to make Mr. Guinn's 
estate one of the finest in the West, notable 
alike for its beauty and productiveness. He 
is also the owner of valuable mineral lands 
in Jasper County, and his wealth is con- 
clusive evidence of the fact that farming in 
Missouri, if properly conducted, "leads on to 
fortune." November 7, 1861, Mr. Guinn was 
married to Miss Mary J. Broome, an accom- 
plished young lady, who was born at La 
Grange, Troop County, Georgia, August 15, 
1832, and who was a daughter of Rufus and A. 
W, (Pitts) Broome, both natives of Georgia. 
Mrs. Guinn was educated at the Wesleyan 
Female Seminary, at Macon, Georgia, one of 
the oldest and most noted educational in- 
stitutions in the South. The children born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Guinn were Charles Broome 
Guinn, born February 14, 1864; George B. 
Guinn, born July 4, 1866; John B. Guinn, 
born October 28, 1868, and Lottie H. Guinn, 
born September 11, 1872. A resident of Jas- 
per County for more than thirty years, Mr. 



Guinn has earned and enjoys the esteem of 
his fellow citizens, who know him as a high- 
minded and honorable gentleman, kindly and 
courteous in all the relations of Hfe, and a 
business man of perfect probity and exact rec- 
titude, who can always be relied upon to dis- 
charge faithfully every obligation incumbent 
upon him. 

Guiiiotte, Aimee Brichaut, was 

born at Brussels, Belgium, in 1823. Her 
father, Jean Brichaut, was connected in an 
ofiticial capacity with the mint of Brussels, 
where his father and grandfather before him 
held the same position. Madame Guinotte 
received her earlier education in the acad- 
emies of Brussels, going to Cambrai, France, 
to complete her studies. In 1852 she sailed 
for New York to meet and marry Joseph 
Guinotte, also of Belgium, and an old friend 
of the Brichaut family. They were married 
by Archbishop Hughes, of New York City. 
Mr. Guinotte was a highly educated civil 
engineer, and always contended that some 
day there would be a large city where 
Kansas City is now located. Convinced 
oLthis, he bought immense tracts of land on 
the bluffs and in the east bottoms. For his 
home site he had selected one of the high 
bluffs overlooking the Missouri River. This 
bluff was then covered by a dense forest, from 
which were hewn the logs that were used in 
the construction of the house. The log house 
was in later years weather-boarded. It was 
built in the old southern style, with wide hall 
through the center and rooms on both sides. 
These rooms measured about twenty-one feet 
square, which made it a marvel in size for a 
log house. To this wilderness, for such it 
seemed to her in comparison to the lovely 
city of Brussels, Mr. Guinotte brought his 
bride. In those days of Indian missionaries 
and traders, Mr. Guinotte's home was a 
favorite stopping place for those hardy pio- 
neers who had left civilization behind. 
Among those who enjoyed its gracious hos- 
pitality were the honored Father de Smet, 
Bishop L'Ami of Mexico ; Bishop Miege and 
Bishop Salpointe, of Arizona and Mexico. 
Among the traders who were often made 
welcome were the famous Captain Bridger, 
Vasquez, the Papins, the Chouteaus and 
many others. These visits, especially those 
of the French missionaries, were intellectual 
oases to the educated of this wilderness. 



138 



GUINOTTE— GUITAR. 



Here the Guinotte children were born and 
reared, and once more its hospitality was 
extended to many young people of Kansas 
City, who can recall the pleasant hours spent 
within its walls and under the shade of its 
forest trees. Mr. Guinotte did not live to see 
realized his fondest dream — the building of a 
large city — but Mrs. Guinotte has had that 
great satisfaction, and is still noted for her 
great activity and energy, and her interest 
in charity work. Her children are J. E, 
Guinotte, judge of the Probate Court of 
Jackson County; Mrs. W. B. Teasdale, Mrs. 
W. H. Clarke — both of whom have been so 
closely identified with schools — and J. K. 
Guinotte, an architect. The family remained 
in the old home, which is situated on Troost 
Avenue, opposite the Karnes School, till dis- 
agreeable encroachments forced them to 
leave in 1889. "* Time has laid a heavy hand 
on the old home, and it is no longer what it 
once was. It is now occupied by a family of 
Hollanders, who try to keep it from utter 
decay. One of the small houses on the place 
is used by Mr. George Sass, the artist, as a 
studio. The house has stood for so many 
years as a landmark that it is painful to 
realize that in a few years it will be only a 
memory. 

Guinotte, Jules Edgar, judge of the 
Probate Court of Jackson County, was born 
August 20, 1855, in Kansas City, Missouri, 
his birthplace being the old Guinotte home- 
stead, at the corner of Fourth Street and 
Troost Avenue, one of the historic spots in 
that city. His parents were Joseph and 
Aimee (Brichaut) Guinotte, both of whom 
were natives of Belgium. He received his 
primary education in the private schools of 
Kansas City and afterward entered the St. 
Louis University. Upon the completion of 
his education he returned to Kansas City, 
and for several years was employed in cler- 
ical work in various offices, the last expe- 
rience in this line being his service as deputy 
clerk in the office of Honorable Wallace 
Laws, for many years circuit clerk of Jack- 
son County. He then entered the law of- 
fices of Tichenor & Warner, and began a 
careful course of reading, which he contin- 
ued under these two capable attorneys until 
he was admitted to the bar. In 1886 he was 
nominated by the Democratic party for the 
office of judge of the Probate Court of 



Jackson County, Missouri, and was elected 
by an overwhelming majority, many of the 
best Republicans burying their political 
prejudices and voting for him because of 
his real worth and ability. That he has 
proven himself a capable judge on the pro- 
bate bench, administering the affairs of that 
office to the satisfaction of the voters of his 
county, is evidenced in the length of time 
he has served the people in this capacity. 
He was renominated in 1890, 1894 and in 
1898, and re-election resulted in each in- 
stance. The affairs of the court, under his 
guidance and direction, have been adminis- 
tered with marked care and discretion, and 
few losses have resulted on account of 
blunders or injudicious management. His 
reputation as one of the most popular and 
efficient public servants in Jackson County 
is firmly established. He is a member of 
the Catholic Church, and comes from a fam- 
ily whose members have all been devout be- 
lievers in that creed. He was married May 
24, 1883, to Miss Maud Stark, only daughter 
of Dr. John K. Stark, a pioneer dentist of 
Jackson County and a leader in his profes- 
sion. 

Guitar, Odon, lawyer and soldier, was 
born in Richmond, Madison County, Ken- 
tucky, August 31, 1827. His father. John 
Guitar, was a native of Bordeaux, France, 
and his mother a native of Kentiicky and a 
daughter of David Gordon, one of the pio- 
neers of Boone County, Missouri. His 
parents came to Missouri in 1829, and his 
father did business as a merchant in Colum- 
bia until his death, in 1848. General Guitar 
was educated entirely in Boone County, at- 
tending the common schools of Columbia 
until he was fifteen years old, and then en- 
tering the State University at its first opening 
session, in 1842, and graduating in 1846. At 
the beginning of the Mexican War, the same 
year, he volunteered in Doniphan's regiment, 
and started off without waiting for the col- 
lege commencement, leaving his graduating 
speech to be read by a classmate. He served 
throughout the war and then returned to 
Columbia and studied law in the office of 
his uncle. Honorable John B. Gordon, a 
leading orator and lawyer of central Mis- 
souri. In 1848 he was admitted to the bar 
by Judge William A. Hall, and entered on 
the practice of his profession. His abilities, 



GUNBOATS. 



139 



learning and manners gave him a secure 
position in a community famous for elo- 
quence and learning, and in 1853 he was 
elected as a Whig candidate to the Legisla- 
ture, and four years later was elected again, 
serving his Boone County constituency with 
honor to himself and entire satisfaction to 
them. When the Civil War began he took 
a determined stand as a Union man, and 
in 1862 was commissioned by Governor 
Gamble to raise a regiment of volunteers 
for the federal Army. He commanded the 
Ninth Cavalry, Missouri State Militia, until 
June, 1863, when he was commissioned brig- 
adier general for gallant conduct in the 
field. His chief service was in north Missouri, 
where the most daring and desperate guerrilla 
forces were to be encountered, and there 
was no one of that day 'who did more to 
expel them from that field than General 
Guitar. After the war he resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, devoting himself 
chiefly to the criminal practice, and was re- 
markably successful in securing the freedom 
of his clients. He was married, in 1865, to 
Miss Kate Leonard, a daughter of Judge 
Abiel Leonard, of Howard County. Five 
children were born to them, four sons and 
one daughter. 

Gunboats.— In the latter part of May 
and in June of 1861, soon after the begin- 
ning of the Civil War, the steamers "Cones- 
toga," "Taylor" and "Lexington" were pur- 
chased by the government at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and fitted out as gunboats to be used 
on the Western rivers and waters. These 
steamboats were not plated, but were pro- 
tected by oak bulwarks against musket balls. 
In July following a contract was awarded 
to Captain James B. Eads for the construc- 
tion of seven ironclad gunboats for service 
on the Mississippi River. Three of these 
vessels were built for Captain Eads by 
Messrs. Hambleton & Collier, at Mound 
City, and the remaining four were con- 
structed on marine railways at Carondelet. 
The boats were completed within 100 days 
after signing the contract. Each of the boats 
thus constructed was about 175 feet long, 
fifty-one feet beam, had six feet depth of hold, 
drew about five feet of water, and had a speed 
of nine miles per hour. The hulls were made 
of wood, the bottoms of five-inch plank and 
the sides of four-inch plank, and the vessels 



were sealed all over with two-inch plank. 
The sides projected from the bottom of the 
boat to .the waterline at an angle of about 
forty-five degrees, and from the water line 
the sides feii back at about the same angle 
to form a casemate about twelve feet high. 
This slanting casemate extended across the 
hull near the bow and stern, forming a quad- 
rilateral gundeck. The casemates were made 
of three-inch plank and well fastened. The 
knuckles of the main deck at the base of the 
casemates were made of solid timber about 
four feet in thickness. The boats were 
calked all over, both inside and outside, and 
sheathed on the outside with two and a half- 
inch iron. The plating covered the case- 
mates above and below the water line. The 
gundeck was about one foot above water, 
and the vessels were pierced to carry thir- 
teen heavy guns. The first of these gun- 
boats, which was also the first United States 
iron-clad war vessel, was launched from Cap- 
tain Eads' shipyard, at Carondelet, on the 
I2th of October, 1861. She was named the 
"St. Louis," by Admiral Foote, but when 
the fleet was transferred from the control 
of the War Department to the Navy Depart- 
ment the name was changed to the "De- 
Kalb." The other vessels turned over to 
the government by Captain Eads were 
named the "Carondelet," "Cincinnati," "Lou- 
isville," "Mound City," "Cairo" and "Pitts- 
burg." In December of 1861 the vessel 
which was named the "Benton" and became 
the flagship of Admiral Foote, was altered 
and plated at St, Louis. The "Benton" car- 
ried eighteen heavy guns, two nine-inch 
Dahlgren guns and two smaller ones. Cap- 
tain Andrew H. Foote, of the United States 
Navy, who had been appointed to the com- 
mand of naval operations in Western waters, 
assumed command of the flotilla at St. Louis, 
September 6, 1861. When the flotilla was 
finally completed it consisted of twelve gun- 
boats, seven of them iron-clad, these iron- 
clads being able to resist all except the 
heaviest solid shot, and having cost on the 
average $89,000 each, Foote's flotilla ren- 
dezvoused at Cairo, and the "Benton" and 
"Essex" left St. Louis for that port on the 
3d of December, 1861. In the fight at Fort 
Henry the "Essex" was disabled, and on the 
23d of February following returned to St. 
Louis for repairs. The gunboat and ram 
"Fort Henry" was launched from the Marine 



140 



GUNN CITY— HAARSTICK. 



Railroad Company's yard, at Carondelet, 
September 22, 1862. This boat was con- 
structed more especially to be used .as a ram 
and carried but eight guns. The "Choctaw" 
was launched from the Marine Railway Com- 
pany's yards about the same time as the 
"Fort Henry." The rams on both vessels 
were two feet in length and made of bell 
metal. On the 13th of January, 1862, the 
Union Marine Works, at Carondelet, 
launched another gunboat, which was named 
the "Osage." July 5, 1863, the "Winne- 
bago" was launched from the Union Works, 
and on February 10, 1864, the "Chickasaw" 
was launched at the same yards. Subse- 
quently two light-draft, iron-clad monitors 
of the Ericsson pattern were built at the 
National Iron Works, in St. Louis. These 
monitors were named, respectively, the 



"Etlah" and "Shiloh." The "Etlah," which 
was launched July 2, 1865, in the presence 
of a vast concourse of people, was the larg- 
est vessel which had ever been built on the 
Mississippi River up to that time. 

Gunn City. — A village in Cass County, 
on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway, 
eleven miles east of Harrisonville, the county 
seat. It has a public school, a Methodist 
Church, and a Christian Church, which is 
also occupied by the Southern Methodists ; a 
lodge of Odd Fellows, a mill, and numerous 
business houses. It was founded, in 1871, 
by Levers & Bunce, and incorporated in 
1881. In 1899 the population was 250. In 
1872 the place was the scene of the so-called 
"Bloody Bonds" tragedy. See "Cass County 
Bond Tragedy." 



H 



Haarstick, Henry C, one of the 

wealthy, self-made men of St. Louis, and 
one who has done much for the commercial 
interests of the city and State, was born 
July 26, 1836, in Hohenhameln, Germany. 
In his early childhood his parents decided 
to leave the Fatherland and seek a home and 
prosperity in this country, and in the year 
1849 they arrived in St. Louis. Henry C. 
Haarstick attended what was known as the 
"Saxony School" of the German Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. His capacity for close 
application and his broad mental grasp at- 
tracted the attention of his instructors, and 
an earnest effort was made by them to induce 
his parents to educate him for the ministry. 
The elder Haarstick, however, felt that his 
son should follow mercantile pursuits, and 
sent him first to Wykoff's EngHsh School, 
and later he entered Jones' Commercial Col- 
lege. At this institution he was a favorite 
with his teachers, and President Jonathan 
Jones especially interested himself in his be- 
half, obtaining for him a position in the 
office of Molony & Tilton, then operating a 
large distilling enterprise in St. Louis, where 
he received, to begin with, a salary of twenty- 
five dollars per month. His industry, as- 
siduity and fidelity won and received the 
substantial recognition of his employers, and 



he received promotion rapidly from one posi- 
tion of trust and responsibility to another, 
until in the course of a few years he became 
the manager of the affairs of the Tilton Com- 
pany, and later a partner in the business. He' 
was connected with this enterprise until the 
distillery was destroyed by fire in 1861, as 
a result of which the partnership which had 
existed theretofore was dissolved. Soon 
after this Mr. Haarstick built a distillery of 
his own on Barton Street, but finding the 
internal revenue legislation of the war period 
embarrassing to the business, he sold out 
after a short time. He was then asked to 
take charge of the affairs of the Mississippi 
Valley Transportation Company, whose 
property consisted of little more than a few 
barges and towboats sadly in need of re- 
pairs. Under his energetic and sagacious 
management, however, its business at once 
began to improve, and the "Barge Line," as 
it was called, became an institution of great 
value to St. Louis. From the time of the 
opening of the Mississippi River by the build- 
ing of the jetties in 1878, the flow of grain 
to Europe by the "water route" has been 
constant and continuously greater from year 
to year, and in 1881 all the barge transporta- 
tion interests on the Mississippi River were 
combined in one powerful organization under 




G^ 



yl€i^?2^i 



i^. 



HAARSTICK— HACKEMEIER. 



141 



the name of the St. Louis & Mississippi Val- 
ley Transportation Company, and the man- 
agement was confided to Mr. Haarstick's 
hands. Since that time his views and judg- 
ment have been the dominating power in the 
conduct of a business which has made St. 
Louis one of the principal export grain mar- 
kets of the country. He has worthily filled 
the office of president of the Commercial 
Club, the most influential private organiza- 
tion of the central West; he is the vice 
president of the St. Louis Trust Company, 
president of the Compton Heights Improve- 
ment Company, president of the Compton 
Heights Railway Company, director in the 
Lindell Railway Company, and was president 
of the St. Louis Merchants' Exchange during 
one of its most prosperous years. He mar- 
ried, in 1861, Miss Elsie Hoppe, a lady well 
suited in every way to become the wife of 
such'a man, as kindly and charitable as her 
husband, and a most worthy and estimable 
woman. 

Haarstick, William T., identified 
with grain-trade and transportation inter- 
ests of St. Louis, was born May 11, 1865, 
son of Henry C. and Elise (Hoppe) Haars- 
tick. He was educated at Smith's Academy, 
of St. Louis, and at the Boston School of 
Technology. After leaving school he was 
taken into his father's offtce and was made 
familiar with the details of the business of 
the St. Louis & Mississippi Valley Trans- 
portation Company. He was an apt pupil, 
and a born merchant, and as a result he was 
soon in possession of the confidence of the 
elder Haarstick, and became his efficient 
lieutenant. In 1894 he was elected vice 
president of the St. Louis & Mississippi Val- 
ley Transportation Company, and ably sec- 
onded his father, at times taking entire 
charge of the business. As an operator on 
'Change he has been conspicuous for his 
sagacity. As vice president of the St. Louis 
& Mississippi Valley Transportation Com- 
pany he has represented his father in all his 
important business transactions for the past 
six years, and he is also a director of the 
Bank of Commerce. He is not a politician, 
but is one of the ardent and enthusiastic 
young Republicans of St. Louis. 

Haas, Edward, wholesale merchant, was 
born December 2, 1865, in St. Louis, Mis- 



souri, son of Benjamin and Julia (Schule- 
hause) Haas, both of whom were natives of 
Germany, the father having been born in 
Berlin. Both parents are still living in 
Neosho, Missouri, where the father is con- 
ducting an extensive hide, leather and com- 
mission business. When he was three years 
of age Edward Haas accompanied his 
parents to Neosho, and that place has ever 
since been his home. There he attended the 
public schools until he reached the age of 
twelve years, when he secured employment 
as driver of a delivery wagon for a retail 
grocery store, receiving for his services 
$1.50 a week. Three years later he began 
clerking in a retail grocery store, and worked 
for two years at a salary of $20 per month. 
During the three succeeding years he re- 
ceived $30 per month for his services as 
bookkeeper in the dry goods store of the 
McElhany Mercantile Company, of Neosho. 
At the age of twenty he began business for 
himself in a small retail grocery, which he 
conducted for four years. At twenty-four 
years of age he founded a wholesale gro- 
cery house, with a cash capital of $5,000. 
Since that time he has devoted all his en- 
ergies to the upbuilding of this business, 
which is now the most extensive of its kind 
in southwest Missouri. From the small be- 
ginning noted above he has built up, in ten 
years, a business representing a present in- 
vestment of $115,000, and his annual sales 
amount to halt a million dollars. A splendid 
building of brick, with gray stone front, was 
begun by him in 1897, and occupied by his 
business in 1898. Its cost was, approximately, 
$30,000, but in many cities nearly double 
the amount would have been necessary to 
defray the cost of its erection. It is said' 
by good judges to be one of the finest build- 
ings for the purpose for which it was de- 
signed in the United States. In addition to 
conducting his wholesale house, which is 
the pioneer of its kind in southwest Missouri, 
Mr. Haas is also the local agent of the famous 
Anheuser-Busch Brewery, of St. Louis, 
handling a large amount of its goods annu- 
ally. A Republican in politics, he is greatly 
attached to his party, but has never sought 
or held a public office. He is unmarried. 

Hackemeier, Franz, who has been 
known to the people of St. Louis both as a 
merchant and philanthropist, was born in 



142 



HACKETT. 



the city of Hanover, Germany, May 8, 1831. 
His parents were highly respectable people, 
in moderate circumstances, and as a boy he 
enjoyed the educational advantages usually 
afforded to the youth of his station of life. In 
1844 his parents immigrated to this country, 
and on the first day of January, 1845, they 
reached St. Louis and established their home 
in that city. A year later his father died, and 
it became necessary for the son to contribute 
as far as possible to the support of his mother 
and four brothers and sisters. Whatever he 
could do to improve the condition of the fam- 
ily exchequer he did willingly, evincing in 
boyhood the same strong self-reliance and 
energy which were among his marked charac- 
teristics in later years. After working for a 
time in a factory during the day, and selling 
newspapers on the streets in the evenings, he 
obtained a position in the clothing house of 
Young & Bros., and thus began his connec- 
tion with the business of merchandising. 
Beginning in an humble capacity he was 
promoted from one position to another as the 
reward of merit, until he attained the super- 
.intendency of what was then one of the large 
mercantile houses of the city. In 1856 he 
formed a partnership with his brother-in-law 
and engaged in the dry goods and clothing 
trade on Franklin Avenue. In the cculiict 
of this business, he laid the foundation of an 
ample fortune, and as his prosperity increased 
his generous and sympathetic nature caused 
him to become conspicuous among the busi- 
ness men of the city as a friend of charitable 
enterprises and an earnest worker in behalf 
of certain eleemosynary institutions. He was 
especially interested in building up the Good 
Samaritan Hospital, and was also one of the 
warm friends and benefactors of the German 
Protestant Orphans' Home. After engaging 
in merchandising operations some years, the 
failure of his health caused him to dispose of 
his dry goods interests and remove to a farm 
near St. Louis, on which he resided until 
1869. In that year, Rev. L. Nollau, the 
founder of the German Protestant Home, 
died, and Mr. Hackemeier was invited to be- 
come his successor as superintendent of that 
worthy institution. He accepted the position 
tendered him, and since that time has had 
charge of the conduct and management of the 
home, ably assisted by his wife, as admirably 
fitted as he himself for the noble work which 
they have in hand. In addition to devoting 



much of his life to benevolent and charitable 
work, he has also been a generous contrib- 
utor of money in aid of enterprises designed 
to ameliorate the condition of those depend- 
ent upon the public for their support. Both 
he and his worthy wife have on all occasions 
shown a tender sympathy for these wards of 
the public, placed under their charge, and 
they have earned the lasting gratitude ot 
hundreds of unfortunates to whose wants 
they have administered. Mrs. Hackemeier 
was Miss Mary Piper before her marriage, 
which occurred in 1851. 

Hackett, Arthur Ermon, section di- 
rector United States Weather Bureau of Co- 
lumbia, was born April 11, 1866, at Moira, 
Franklin County, New York. His parents 
were John Colby and Jane Elizabeth (Chand- 
ler) Hackett, natives of New Hampshire. His 
father was a contractor and builder, and is 
yet living; his mother died in 1879. His pa- 
ternal great-grandfather was a soldier during 
the Revolutionary War, and fought in the 
Battle of Bunker Hill. The mother of Ar- 
thur E. Hackett was related to the late Sen- 
ator Chandler, of Michigan, who was born 
in New Hampshire. Mr. Hackett was reared 
on a farm in Ionia County, Michigan He 
had no school opportunities, with the excep- 
tion of a three months' course in a business 
college ; all else in the way of education was 
self-acquired. He had obtained the rudi- 
ments of an education by the time he was fif- 
teen years of age, when he was apprenticed to 
the publisher of the Ionia (Michigan) "Sen- 
tinel" newspaper. He worked in the print- 
ing office for three years, and during that 
time acquired a fair knowledge of the com- 
mon English branches, and a large fund of 
general information from newspapers and 
books which came in his way. In 
1884 he enHsted as a private soldier 
in Company E, Twenty-second Regi- 
ment United States Infantry, at Santa 
Fe., New Mexico. During his term of 
army service, continuing for five years, he 
was a close student, and upon his discharge 
would have passed well for one who had been 
favored with excellent school advantage. At 
the same time, he was so perfect in the dis- 
charge of all the details of the duties devolv- 
ing upon a soldier that he attained to 
positions which are usually reached only after 
several terms of enlistment. He rose to the 



HACKNEY. 



143 



rank of sergeant, and, from time to time, held 
acting appointments as ordnance sergeant, 
quartermaster sergeant, orderly sergeant, ser- 
geant major and signal sergeant. With the du- 
ties of a soldier, were sometimes interspersed 
those of post printer and telegraph operator. 
July 8, 1889, at Fort Totten, North Dakota, 
Sergeant Hackett was discharged, his term 
of enlistment having expired, and he imme- 
diately re-enlisted in the United States Sig- 
nal Corps. His first service was at St. Paul, 
Minnesota. He was transferred then to 
Grand Haven, Michigan, as assistant to the 
observer in charge, in the work of re-estab- 
lishing the station, which had been destroyed 
by fire, afterward returning to St. Paul. In 
December, 1890, he was ordered to Fort Cus- 
ter, Montana, in charge of the military tele- 
graph line at that point during the campaign 
against the Sioux Indians. This service ter- 
minated February, 1891, when he was de- 
tailed as assistant to the officer in charge of 
the Colorado State Weather Service, at Den- 
ver, being relieved in April, ^nd assigned to 
duty as assistant to the observer in charge at 
Nashville, Tennessee. While thus engaged, 
the new legislation affecting the weather and 
signal service became operative, and Ser- 
geant Hackett was honorably discharged 
from the signal corps, June 30, 1891. He was 
at once employed as an observer in the 
United States Weather Bureau, and remained 
on duty at Nashville until April 1892, when 
he was assigned to the charge of the weather 
bureau station at Montgomery, Alabama. At 
later dates, he was transferred to Manistee, 
Michigan, to Springfield, Missouri, and again 
to Nashville, Tennessee. Since February, 
1894, he has been stationed at Columbia, Mis- 
souri, in charge of the Missouri section of the 
climate and crop service of the weather bu- 
reau. During his entire service in the signal 
corps and weather bureau, Mr. Hackett has 
been conspicuous for great abiHty in all mat- 
ters pertaining to the science to which he has 
devoted his effort, in technical knowledge, 
and in executive and administrative qualities. 
He is an enthusiastic and skillful amateur 
photographer, and his proficiency in this line 
has frequently proven of much practical use 
in photographing meteorological phenomena, 
such as lightning and cloud formations. Mr. 
Hackett was married January 23, 1890, to 
Miss Eva Grace Hackett. of Keeler, Van 
Buren County, Michigan. The circumstances 



leading to this marriage are somewhat ro- 
mantic. While in army service at Santa 
Fe, New Mexico, Mr. Hackett solicited a 
lady correspondent, through the medium of 
a newspaper advertisement, in which he gave 
a fictitious address. He received a reply from 
one whose family name was the same as his 
own, greatly to the surprise of both. Fur- 
ther correspondence discovered no trace of 
relationship, although their remote ancestors 
were from the same region, and possibly re- 
lated. The correspondence was continued for 
two years, until Mr. Hackett left the army, 
when he visited the lady, and they were sub- 
sequently married, the union proving to be 
most congenial. Their only child, Harold 
Arthur Hackett, was born at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, February 24, 1892. 

Hackney, Thomas, lawyer, was born 
December 11, 1861, in Giles County, Tennes- 
see, near the Alabama line. His parents 
were Edward J. and Frances Josephine 
(Langham) Hackney. The father was of a 
Scotch-Irish family, which settled in Virginia 
and North Carolina, and contributed of its 
members to the early settlement of Tennes- 
see. The molher was also a native of Ten- 
nessee, of Scotch descent. In 1864 the 
parents removed to Jackson County, Illinois, 
where they lived upon a farm until their 
deaths. The son, Thomas, was brought up 
on the farm, where he remained until seven- 
teen years of age. During this time he at- 
tended the country school in the neighbor- 
hood, and exhausted its capabilities. He then 
attended the , Southern Illinois Normal 
School, at Carbondale, after which he passed 
one winter in teaching in the country. In 
1880 he removed to Missouri and became a 
student in the University at Columbia, but 
was unable to remain to graduate. In 1882 
he entered upon a course of law reading at 
Keytesville, in the office of W. W. Rucker, 
now member of Congress from the Second 
Missouri District. In 1883 he located at 
Carthage and continued his law reading un- 
der the tutorship of Abner L. Thomas, with 
whom he entered into partnership upon be- 
ing admitted to the bar, September 18, 1886, 
that partnership continuing to the present" 
time. The practice of the firm is, in great 
measure, devoted to corporation, real estate 
and mining law, the latter department pre- 
senting a field of its own, broad in scope and 



lU 



HACKNEY COURT— HADEN. 



magnitude, due to the complex interests in- 
cident to mining under lease, and frequent 
transferrence of leasehold claims. A long 
experience and marked success in the con- 
duct of cases has given the firm much pres- 
tige, and they are made the custodians of 
important interests by distant non-residents, 
as well as by a large local clientele. In court 
practice Mr. Hackney excels in thoroughness 
in presenting his case, and in alertness of 
attack upon the weak points of his adver- 
sary, and he is forceful and clear in address 
before the jury. Previous to his admission 
to the bar, and while pursuing his legal 
studies, he served as deputy circuit clerk of 
Jasper County from August 7, 1883, to June 
I, 1885. A Democrat in politics, he has been 
an active delegate in every State convention 
and frequently in congressional district con- 
ventions since 1884. He is a clear and vigor- 
ous speaker before the people, and has been 
heard in the principal large gatherings of 
his party in southwest Missouri in all the 
campaigns since his entrance upon profes- 
sional life. In the contest for the location 
of the county seat, prior to the erection of 
the present courthouse at Carthage, he took 
a leading part, and to his effort and influ- 
ence was largely due the popular decision 
in favor of that city. He is a member of vari- 
ous Masonic bodies, and has held minor po- 
sitions in the commandery, has served as 
high priest in the chapter and in chairs in 
the lodge. He was married. May 8, 1888, 
to Miss Addie K. Newell, daughter of 
Mathew T. Newell, a merchant and mechanic 
of Carthage. She is a graduate of the Car- 
thage High School, has fine artistic 
talent, and excels particularly in china paint- 
ing. A son. Earl, now ten years of age, 
has been born of this marriage. 

"Hackney Court." — This term is de- 
rived from the name of the judge of the 
County Court of St. Louis County in 1859. 
The administration of this court had become 
extremely unpopular. It was conducting the 
building of the courthouse, the architect be- 
ing a. brother of one of the judges, and the 
public suspected that favoritism governed 
the contracts, and that the building was en- 
dangered by the incapacity of the architect, 
particularly that the walls of the dome were 
not strong enough for the very heavy super- 
structure to be imposed on them. Other 



causes added fuel to the popular discon- 
tent. The county finances were notoriously 
disordered and mismanaged. There was na 
money in the treasury to meet the demands 
against the county, and the court was issu- 
ing warrants as a makeshift. Public meet- 
ings were held, at which the administration 
of the county affairs was strongly condemned, 
and, as there was no regular method of pro- 
ceeding against the court but the slow one 
of impeachment, the Legislature was ap- 
pealed to for relief. The public feeling was 
so strong that, although the judges were of 
the same party with the majority of the Leg- 
islature, a bill was passed abolishing the court 
and substituting for it a board of five com- 
missioners. The first board of commission- 
ers chosen under the new law consisted of 
John H. Lightner, for presiding officer; Dr. 
William Taussig, Ben Farrar, General Alton 
R. Easton and Peregrine Tippett. The first 
thing the commissioners did after coming 
into office was to investigate the county 
finances, the result of which was the discov- 
ery of a defalcation of $360,000, caused by 
the failure of the banker with whom the col- 
lector, Shands, had made his deposits. The 
county, however, did not suffer the loss, as 
it was met by the collector's bondsmen. 
William Rumbold was appointed architect of 
the courthouse, and at once proceeded to 
change the plan of the dome by substituting 
lighter ribs for the heavy work provided for 
in the original plan. The existing contracts 
were compromised on the best terms possible 
and the work pushed rapidly forward, and it 
is remembered, to the credit of the commis- 
sioners, that, although they took their seats 
in the midst of the excitement and alarming 
events that preceded the Civil War, and their 
terms extended into the war period, during 
which the business of the city was greatly 
impaired, and, for a time, almost destroyed, 
the county's interest obligations were 
promptly met without a single default. 

Haden, Joel H., a pioneer minister of 
the Christian denomination, was born No- 
vember 14, 1788, in Virginia. His father, 
Anthony Haden, born in Virginia, of English 
descent, served through the entire Revolu- 
tionary War, rising to the rank of captain; 
he refused to the last to receive a single cent 
for his service, which he regarded as a duty 
too sacred for compensation. He removerf 



HAEUSSLER— HAGERMAN. 



145 



to Kentucky, where he reared his family. His 
son, Joel H. Haden, succeeded to his estate, 
and removed to Howard County, Missouri, 
where he made his home upon a farm. In 
1835 he removed to Springfield, where he 
served as register at the opening of the 
United States land office. The duties of that 
position were, in greater part, devolved upon 
his son, Charles A. Haden, while he devoted 
himself to preaching and estabHshing Chris- 
tian Churches throughout southwest Mis- 
souri, traveling out of Springfield for this 
purpose except in the winter months, when 
he made his home in Howard County, where 
his death occurred February 7, 1862. He 
directed in his will that his body should be 
encased in a metallic coffin, which he had 
previously measured himself for and pur- 
chased in St. Louis, and that he should be 
buried in sloping ground, with his head ele- 
vated. His wife died in 1857. Their son, 
Charles A. Haden, was the first clerk of the 
Springfield branch of the Missouri State 
Bank, and afterward engaged as contractor 
and freighter for the United States govern- 
ment. In February, 190Q, he was living in 
retirement on his farm, near Springfield. 

Haeussler, Herman Albert, law- 
yer, was "born May 21, 1838, in Pennsylva- 
nia, son of Dr. Ferdinand W. and Clara 
Leontina (Strehley) Haeussler. He was 
seven years of age when his father removed 
to St. Louis, where he obtained his earliest 
education. In 1850 he accompanied his father 
on an overland trip to California, where he 
remained for five years. Returning to St. 
Louis, he applied himself to the study of law 
in the office of Messrs. Hart & Jecko, dis- 
charging at the same time the duties of 
office boy and clerk. He was admitted to 
the bar shortly after the beginning of the 
Civil War, and became associated with Fide- 
lio C. Sharp and James O. Broadhead. When 
the war began he was a member of the En- 
rolled Missouri Militia, and was about to 
enter the United States as a regimental adju- 
tant when, at the request of Colonel Broad- 
head, he was detailed to serve as assistant 
to the judge advocate general of Missouri. 
He was associated with Colonel Broadhead 
in a military capacity, and later in the prac- 
tice of law, until 1870, when he formed a law 
partnership with Colonel Alonzo W. Slay- 
back. In 1878 Colonel Slayback and, Mr. 

Vol. Ill— 10 



Haeussler were joined by Colonel Broadhead, 
the firm becoming at that time Broadhead, 
Slayback & Haeussler. After the death of 
Colonel Slayback, Colonel Broadhead and 
Mr. Haeussler practiced together until the 
head of the firm was elected to Congress. Mr. 
Haeussler has eschewed politics and shunned 
office-holding, but has been known as a 
Democrat of moderate views. He has been 
twice married; first, in 1866, to Miss Anna 
Lachleben, daughter of Henry Lachleben, of 
St. Louis. Mrs. Haeussler died in 1874, leav- 
ing three daughters, all now grown and mar- 
ried. In 1877 he married Miss Emilie L. 
Lachleben, a sister of his first wife. 

Hagerman, Frank P., one of the most 
able lawyers of western Missouri, is a native 
of the State, born in Clark County, April 27, 
1857. His literary education was acquired in 
the public schools at Keokuk, Iowa, where 
he completed the high school course when 
but seventeen years of age. Immediately 
afterward he began the study of law in the 
same city, in the office of P. T. Lomax, and 
was admitted to the bar two years later, 
when but nineteen years of age. In due time 
he entered upon practice, and soon after at- 
taining his majority he was elected city at- 
torney of Keokuk, the only pubHc office for 
which he has ever consented to be a candi- 
date. January i, 1881, he became a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Hagerman, McCrary 
& Hagerman, of Keokuk, his associates be- 
ing his older brother, James Hagerman, now 
general solicitor for the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railway Company, and Honorable 
George W. McCrary, afterward Secretary of 
War in the cabinet of President Hayes, and 
subsequently United States circuit judge. In 
1884 his brother removed to Topeka, Kansas, 
and he remained with Mr. McCrary, the 
firm being known as McCrary & Hagerman. 
Mr. "McCrary entering upon public life, the 
association was terminated and Mr. Hager- 
man became a member of the firm of An- 
derson, Davis & Hagerman, in 1886. In 1887 
he removed to Kansas City, Missouri, and' 
formed a connection with the firm of Pratt,. 
McCrary, Ferry & Hagerman, the second! 
member being his former associate at Keo- 
kuk. This association was maintained untit 
1890, when Judge McCrary died, and the 
business was continued by the remaining 
partners. In 1896 Mr. Hagerman withdrew, 



146 



HAGERMAN— HAHN. 



and since that time has practiced alone. In 
his professional life he has constantly dis- 
played all the elements which distinguish the 
thorough lawyer. Steadfastly resisting all in- 
ducements to enter upon a political career, 
he has ever devoted his entire and earnest 
effort to the practice of his profession, and 
with such marked success that his position 
with the first of the Kansas City bar is con- 
ceded by all his associates, while many regard 
him as pre-eminently the leader. The gen- 
eral opinion found delicate but fervent ex- 
pression by Mr. Eugene McQuillan, compiler 
of the Missouri Digest, who dedicated that 
important work to Mr. Hagerman in recog- 
nition of his conspicuous position in the pro- 
fession. His attention has been directed 
particularly to corporation law, and his great 
ability in that field has caused him to be re- 
garded with much favol" by large corpora- 
tions, many of which have committed their 
interests to his keeping. He rendered impor- 
tant local service of this nature in connection 
with the Lombard Investment Company, 
having been one of the five original receiv- 
ers of that corporation, and upon him as sole 
receiver, at a later day, devolved the duty 
of closing up its affairs. The success at- 
tained by Mr. Hagerman in his profession 
is scarcely greater than in the many depart- 
ments of literature and general knowledge 
which, at some point, have bearing upon 
even commercial and financial affairs, and are 
useful, if not indispensible, to the really 
capable lawyer. His attainments in these 
lines are eloquent affirmation of his industry 
and resolution throughout his life. With 
limited educational advantages, his prepara- 
tion for the active duties of life were appar- 
ently inadequate, but studious habits, 
excellent judgment as to authors and siib- 
jects, and a determined purpose to enlarge 
his field of knowledge, were his marked'char- 
acteristics from the first, and served him so 
well that from the time he entered upon his 
profession, at whatever stage, or whatever 
the requirement, he has been enabled to ac- 
quit himself with masterly ability. Holding 
to the same rules of conduct which marked 
his earlier life with unabated interest and 
enthusiasm, and physical powers at their 
best, his future gives promise of even more 
brilliant successes than have been achieved 
in the past. 



Hagerman, James, lawyer, was born 
in Jackson Township, Clark County, Mis- 
souri, November 26, 1848. He was educated 
at the Christian Brothers' College, of St. 
Louis, and at Professor Jameson's Latin 
School at Keokuk, Iowa. After leaving 
school he entered the law office of Rankin & 
McCrary, of Keokuk. He was ready for ad- 
mission to the bar before he attained his ma- 
jority, but under the laws of Iowa his youth 
was a bar to his admission to practice, and he 
returned to Missouri, where no similar inhibi- 
tion was in existence, passed his examination 
and was admitted to the bar in 1866. being 
then but eighteen years of age. Returning 
to Keokuk, he continued in the office of Ran- 
kin & McCrary until 1869, when with H. P. 
Lipscomb as his partner, he opened a law of- 
fice at Palmyra, Missouri. He returned to 
Keokuk, and formed a partnership with his 
old preceptor. Judge McCrary. When Judge 
McCrary was appointed Judge of the United 
States Circuit Court for the Eighth Circuit, 
his place was filled by Frank Hagerman, now 
of Kansas City, Missouri, and the firm be- 
came Hagerman, McCrary & Hagerman, In 
1884 Mr. Hagerman accepted the general at- 
torneyship of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railroad Company, which caused his re- 
moval to Topeka, Kansas, In 1886 Mr, Ha- 
german removed to Kansas City, Missouri, 
and became a member of the firm of Warner, 
Dean & Hagerman, and in 1888 he became 
general counsel for the receivers of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas Railway. In 1891 he 
was appointed general solicitor of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas and Texas Railroad Company. 
In 1893 he removed to St. Louis, and has 
since been a member of the. bar of that city. 
He has always been identified with the Demo- 
cratic party, and since 1868 he has taken part 
in every national campaign. October 6, 1871, 
Mr. Hagerman married Miss Margaret M. 
Walker, of Palmyra, Missouri, Their chil- 
dren are Lee W, and James Hagerman, both 
of whom have adopted the law as their pro- 
fession. 

Hahn, William H., recorder of deeds 
for St. Louis, was born February 13, 1864, 
in St, Louis, son of William Hahn, a well 
known business man of that city. He was 
educated in the public schools of St. Louis, 
at the German Institute and at Bryant & 



A^ 



m 




^0m^jCcA^ 




HAHNEMANN CLUB— HAINES. 



147 



Stratton's Business College. When fifteen 
years of age, he became an employe of the 
hardware firm of Bailey & Richardson. In 
1891 he engaged in business on his own ac- 
count, and has since been prominently identi- 
fied with the hardware trade as head of the 
firm of William H. Hahn & Co. He belongs 
to the young and progressive element which 
has contributed so largely toward making St. 
Louis a Republican city. He is central com- 
mitteeman of the Eighteenth Ward; secre- 
tary of the Republican central committee, 
and treasurer of the Eleventh Congressional 
District League of Republican League Clubs. 
In 1897 he was appointed a member of the 
Public Library Board of St. Louis. January 
I, 1899, he resigned to accept the office of 
recorder of deeds, to which he was elected 
November 8, 1898. In 1898 he was elected 
State secretary of the Republican League 
Clubs, and still holds that position. Mr. 
Hahn's religious affiliations are with the 
Evangelical Church, and he is an active mem- 
ber of the Masonic order. April 30, 1885, he 
married Miss Rose Rembor, of St. Louis. 

Hahnemann Club. — The Hahnemann 
Club of St. Louis is an association of ho- 
meopathic physicians, formed for purposes 
of social intercourse and for the discussion 
of professional topics and subjects of kindred 
interests. It was organized in 1873, with the 
following members : Dr. James A. Campbell, 
Dr. G. S. Walker, Dr. T. G. Comstock, Dr. 
Charles Gundelach, Dr. G. B. Parsons, Dr. 
C. H. Goodman, Dr. N. D. Tirrell, Dr. 
Charles Vastine and Dr. H. S. Chase. 
Through all the troublo-us times, when the 
college faculties and medical societies were 
disrupted, the Hahnemann Club maintained 
its organization, and proved an efficient fac- 
tor in the restoration of harmony in those 
bodies. 

Hahnemann Medical College of 
the Kansas City University. — This 
school was founded partly through the gen- 
erosity of H. J. Heinz, of Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, and was incorporated in June, 1896, as 
the College of Homeopathic Medicine and 
Surgery, the Homeopathic Medical Depart- 
ment of the Kansas City University. June 
20, 1900, the name was changed to the 
Hahnemann Medical College of the Kansas 
City University. At the opening, the col- 



lege successively passed a severe test, in being 
able to show compliance with all the exac- 
tions of the State Board of Health with 
reference to apparatus and equipment sup- 
posedly only in possession of long established 
institutions. The college occupies a com- 
modious three-story building, and its com- 
plete equipment includes one of the largest 
X-ray machines in the West, and a library 
which is receiving constant accessions. The 
course of instruction covers a period of four 
years, as required by the American Institute 
of Homeopathy, and affords unusual clin- 
ical advantages, bringing to the observation 
of the student diseases and injuries of every 
nature. Women are admitted on equal terms 
with men. The first class was graduated in 
1899, and numbered four members. In 1900 
the graduates numbered seven and the 
matriculates eighty-five. The medical faculty 
is as follows : Dr. W. H. Jenney, dean and 
professor of obstetrics ; Dr. Frank Elliott, 
secretary and professor of gynecology; Dr. 
W. E. Cramer, treasurer and professor of 
gynecology; Dr. W. A. Forster, professor of 
operative surgery; Dr. Moses T. Runnels, 
professor of principles and practice of sur- 
gery; Dr. Charles S. Elliott, professor of 
nervous diseases and electro-therapeutics ; 
Dr. J. H. Holland, Dr. C. F. Menninger and 
Dr. L. P. Crutcher, professors of materia 
medica ; Dr. H. F. Fisher and Dr. J. M. Pat- 
terson, professors of ophthalmology,,otology 
and laryngology; Dr. W. J. Gates, professor 
of principles and practice of medicine ; Dr. E. 

C. Mills, professor of diseases of children; 
Dr. E. H. Merwin, professor of obstetrics; 
Dr. Clay E. Coburn, professor of anatomy; 
Dr. L. G. Van Scoyoc, professor of principles 
and practice of medicine and orificial philoso- 
phy; Dr. B. W. Lindberg, professor of toxi- 
cology, chemistry and urinalysis ; Dr. P. F. 
Peet, professor of genito-urinary and vene- 
real diseases ; Dr. E. M. Perdue, professor of 
histology and bacteriology; Dr. J. C. Wise, 
professor of pharmacy; Dr. J. S. Watt, pro- 
fessor of hygiene and sanitary science ; Dr. J. 
F. Mitchell, demonstrator of anatomy; Dr. 

D. L. Wallick, professor of dentistry; and M. 
R. King, professor of medical jurisprudence. 

Haines, A. S., the man who inaugurated 
the movement that resulted in the organiza- 
tion of the Kansas City Board of Trade, has 
been a resident of Kansas City since April 



148 



HALE. 



15, 1868. Mr. Haines was born July 5, 1843, 
at Xenia, Ohio, son of David T. and Deborah 
(Sever) Haines. He was educated at Muncie, 
Indiana, to which place his parents had re- 
moved. When he first moved to western 
Missouri and located in the city where he 
now resides, and where his interests have 
been for so many years, the metropolis of 
that part of the State was but a promising in- 
fant, with little to indicate that it would as- 
sume its present great proportions. The 
Kansas City Board of Trade was organized in 
1872, and was an institution entirely distinct 
from the Merchants' Exchange, which it ab- 
sorbed. Mr. Haines, a commission merchant 
of Kansas City, was the prime mover in the 
effort looking toward the organization of a 
board that should hold daily meetings and 
promote the growth of the city as a com- 
mercial and grain center. The call for the 
first meeting, with the end in view of estab- 
lishing a board of trade, was issued by Mr. 
Haines, after he had consulted with other 
leading business men, and the initial meeting 
was at the City Hotel, corner of Fifth and 
May Streets. On the following day, at the 
old city hall, an adjourned meeting was held 
at Fourth and Main Streets, and an organiza- 
tion was perfected. General W. H. Powell 
was elected president; A. S. Haines, secre- 
tary, and Junius Chaffee, treasurer. From 
that time to the present, daily meetings have 
been held. Up to the date of the organiza- 
tion of the board, a number of grain firms 
had been established, and a board of trade 
was considered an essential feature in the 
building up of what has grown to be one of 
the important grain centers of the country. 
Among the first members of the board were 
Michael Flynn, Junius Chaffee, A. L. Charles, 
W. C. Brannum, A. S. Haines, James Marsh, 
W. H. Powell, R. C. Crowell, S. B. Armour, 
H. J. Latshaw, Robert Quade, J. A. Dewar 
and F. B. Nofsinger. The board occupied 
various locations during the early days of 
its existence. The present handsome struc- 
ture at Eighth and Wyandotte Streets was 
completed in 1888. Mr. Haines was a pio- 
neer in the produce commission business of 
Kansas City, being located at the foot of 
Grand Avenue and the levee. He was mar- 
ried June 15, 1865, to Miss Emma J. Winton, 
daughter of Dr. Robert Winton, of Muncie, 
Indiana. The surviving children born of this 
union are Robert T. Haines, the well known 



actor; Charles G. Haines, partner with his 
father, and Maude, wife of J. M. Bernardin, 
of Kansas City. Mrs. Haines died August 22^ 

1893, and Mr. Haines married, September 26, 

1894, Mrs. Carrie C. Hanna, of Kansas City, fl 
Mr. Haines was reared a Quaker. Politically " 
he has always been a Republican. His first 
presidential vote was cast for Abraham Lin- 
coln. 

Hale. — An incorporated village in Hurri- 
cane Township, Carroll County, twenty-three 
miles northeast of Carrollton,on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Kansas City Railroad. It was 
laid out in 1833. It has four churches, a 
good public school, two banks, a creamery, 
brick works, two hotels, a gristmill, a news- 
paper, the "Hale Hustler," and about thirty 
business houses. Population, 1899 (esti- 
mated), 1,000. 

Hale, George C, chief of the Kansas 
City fire department, and inventor, was born 
in Colton,. St. Lawrence County, New York, 
October 28, 1849. The name of Hale is illus- 
trious in both English and American history. 
Every schoolboy knows of Sir Matthew Hale, 
the foe of corrupt practice and the great 
light of English law, and of Nathan Hale, 
who gave his young life for his country. 
George C. Hale is reflecting luster upon the 
name, and has an international reputation. 
He went to Kansas City when he was four- 
teen years old, having acquired the elements 
of a common school education in his native 
State. He obtained a situation with the man- 
ufacturing firm of Lloyd & Leland, where, 
by his devotion to the tasks assigned to him, 
he was raised from the position of shop boy 
and put in charge of the engine that furn- 
ished motive power for the shops. His ready 
mind soon made him master of every detail. 
He is a natural mechanic, able to duplicate 
any machinery he sees. In 1866 he took 
charge of the machinery used in building the 
great bridge that spans the Missouri River 
at Kansas City, and remained until the cere- 
monial over its completion, July 4, 1869. He 
then went to Leavenworth, Kansas, and for 
four years was in the employ of the Great 
Western Manufacturing Co., at that place. 
He returned to Kansas City in 1873, and 
since then has been connected with the fire 
department of that city. What Edison has 
done for light and communication. Hale has 



HALE— HALES. 



149 



done for the subjugation of fires. He be- 
lieves in the homely adage, "A stitch in time 
saves nine,'' and has devoted all the ener- 
gies of his highly practical mind to facilitating 
speed in arriving at the point of danger. 
He is the genius of fire chiefs, and is intelli- 
gent, active, energetic, fearless and thor- 
oughly self-possessed in emergencies. His 
methods of fighting fires are scientific. He 
is firm and considerate, but his subordinates 
love to obey his commands. The Hale 
rotary engine is one of his inventions and is 
highly recommended by the United States 
Navy. His devices for hitching horses 
quickly have wrought revolution in all fire 
departments, and the Hale swinging harness 
reduces the time of hitching to two seconds. 
The Hale horse cover shields the horse from 
the weather, dirt and pestiferous flies, and 
is removed instantly by automatic means. 
This device keeps the horse clean and pre- 
serves his strength and spirit. Hale's cellar 
pipe is a device for throwing water into the 
unexposed parts of buildings, such as cellars, 
basements, between floors and ceilings, dis- 
tributing a sheet of water sixty feet wide 
through a small opening. It is effectual in 
lumber yard fires, since it forces a sheet of 
water through the lumber. He has also in- 
vented a tin roof cutter and an electric wire 
cutter. His improved telephone fire alarm 
system is of immense utility. His water 
tower, so simple that one man can operate 
it, carries water to the upper stories of build- 
ings, and concentrates several streams which 
it sends against the flames with crashing 
force. His latest invention is an apparatus 
to give an instant alarm of fire in any part of 
of a large building. It is an apparatus by 
which the graphophone is combined with a 
telephone, by which the knowledge of an 
incipient fire is immediately announced at 
headquarters by the human voice. Wires 
connect the ceiling with a graphophone 
charged previously with the message. A 
rise of temperature causes the apparatus to 
act automatically, and the message is in- 
stantly communicated through the telephone 
to the engine houses, and in a few seconds 
the proper means of subduing the fire is 
speeding toward the point of danger. Space 
and time are overcome, and a sleepless eye 
is watching over our lives and property like 
a universal guardian. Mr. Hale is in the 
prime of life, and the possibilities of the good 



work he may yet accomplish lie beyond our 
conceptions. When one analyzes what such 
a man as George C. Hale has accomplished 
for the good of the race, the fabled deeds of 
the Argonauts sink into insignificance, and 
Shakespeare's words have a deeper meaning: 
"How wonderful is man !" Mr. Hale's friends 
presented him with one of the finest firemen's 
badges in the world. It consists of a shield of 
dark blue enamel caught in the claws of an 
eagle, suspended from a gold fire ladder, be- 
tween the rungs of which is the name of G. 
C. Hale. In the edge of the shield are sixty- 
two diamonds, and in the center is a revolv- 
ing star studded with twenty-six diamonds. 
From the upper corner of the shield two 
firemen's trumpets are suspended, and on the 
ground work of the shield is inscribed 
"Chief K. C. F. D." The star is made to 
revolve by means of a Swiss movement, run- 
jiing four hours. In 1893, with a company of 
twelve firemen, with horses and apparatus, 
Mr. Hale participated in an international 
fireman's tournament in London, winning all 
first prizes. In 1900 the same crew achieved 
especial distinction in the international tour- 
nament at Paris. Mr. Hale married, June 8, 
1880, Miss Lucretia Cannady, daughter of 
William Cannady, of Muncie, Indiana. They 
have one child, a daughter, Minnie Hale. 

Hale, John Blackwell, lawyer, sol- 
dier and member of Congress, was born in 
what is now Hancock County, West Virginia, 
February 27, 183 1. He received a common 
school education, and after studying law 
came to Missouri and made Carrollton his 
home. In 1856 he was elected to the Legis- 
lature and served two years. In i860 he was 
a presidential elector on the Douglas ticket, 
and on the outbreak of the Civil War, the 
following year, he entered the Union service 
and served as colonel in the Missouri militia. 
In 1864 he was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention, and again in 
1868; and in 1872 he was an elector on the 
Greeley and Brown ticket. In 1875 he was 
elected a member of the constitutional con- 
vention, and in 1884 was elected to Congress 
from the Second Missouri District, as a 
Democrat, by a vote of 20,204 to 15,749 for 
Norville, Republican. 

Hales, John Ross, lawyer, was born in 
Clayton County, Iowa, July 17, 1856, son of 
John and Jane (Moody) Hales, both natives 



150 



HALEY. 



of Ohio. His father is a son of John Hales, 
also a native of Ohio and a descendant of 
EngHsh ancestry. His mother is a daughter 
of James Moody, a native of New Jersey, who 
removed to Ohio early in the nineteenth 
century. Our subject's father, who was a 
farmer by occupation, removed to McGregor, 
Iowa, in 1850, and fifteen years later removed 
to the farm in Van Buren County, Iowa, 
where he still resides. The education of 
John R. Hales was begun in the public 
schools of Clayton County, Iowa, and con- 
tinued in Van Buren County, in the same 
State, After teaching school for several 
terms in the last named county, he pursued a 
three years' course in the State Normal 
School at Kirksville, Missouri, from which 
he was graduated in 1877. After teaching a 
year or two longer, he began the study of 
law in the office of Knapp & Beaman, at 
Keosauqua, Iowa. While thus engaged fail-, 
ing health compelled him to go West, and for 
two years he remained in Nevada. Upon his 
return to Iowa he spent one year as a clerk 
in a store, after which he entered the law de- 
partment of the Iowa State University at 
Iowa City, from which he was graduated in 
the class of 1888. In the same year he was 
admitted to the bar in Iowa City. In 1889 
he located in Rich Hill, Missouri, where he 
has since remained in the practice of his 
profession. His first partnership was with 
C. A. Clark, but since 1890 he has been asso- 
ciated with George Templeton. Mr. Hales 
has always been a staunch Republican, and 
that party has frequently nominated him for 
office. In 1894 he was the nominee for the 
State Senate, and though the district gives a 
normal Democratic plurality of 2,000, he was 
defeated by the very narrow margin of 185 
votes. Mr. Hales was married October 9, 
1899, to Harriet Reed, of Nevada, Missouri, 
formerly of Henry Township, Vernon 
County. He and his wife are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. The firm 
of Templeton & Hales is the acknowledged 
head of the bar of Rich Hill. They are the 
attorneys for the Farmers' and Manufactur- 
ers' Bank, of Rich Hill, and other large cor- 
porations, and their success has given them 
a rank among the leaders of the legal profes- 
sion in southwest Missouri. 

Haley, Thomas Preston, an eminent 
divine and author, was born April 19, 1832, 



near Lexington, Kentucky. His parents 
were Benjamin and Ehza (Carver) Haley, 
both born near the birthplace of their son, 
the father being of Irish parentage, and the 
mother descended from a Pilgrim family of 
New England. Thomas Preston Haley be- 
gan his education in the country schools of 
Randolph County, Missouri, and was pre- H 
pared for college at Huntsville, Missouri, ■ 
under the tuition of Barton W. Anderson, a 
distinguished Baptist minister, and Professor 
Asa N. Grant, a graduate of the Missouri 
State University. He entered the last named 
institution under the presidency of Dr. James 
Shannon, and completed the academic course 
in 1854. He was not graduated from the 
university, but completed the greater part 
of the course, with the exception of mathe- 
matics, then the standard. While acquiring 
his education he was at intervals engaged in 
teaching in order to defray his expenses. 
At the age of seventeen years he began to 
teach in a public school, and for nearly two 
years he was an assistant in the preparatory 
academy in Huntsville, Missouri. In his 
twenty-second year he was ordained to the 
ministry of the Christian Church, and for two 
years following he was a missionary pastor in 
northwest Missouri. In 1857 he was settled 
as pastor at Richmond, Missouri, at the same 
time acting as president of the Richmond 
Female Academy. Late in 1858 he was 
settled as pastor at Lexington, Missouri, 
where he remained until nearly the end of 
the Civil War, without suffering serious 
molestation from either of the parties to the 
strife. While residing there he held meetings 
in various portions of the State, and made a 
wide reputation as a successful evangelist. 
In the fall of 1864 he became pastor of the 
Second Christian Church in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, and for five years performed an em- 
inently successful work, and attracted na- 
tional attention. In 1869 he was obliged to 
resign his charge on account of a throat ail- 
ment, and he bought a farm near Platte City, 
Missouri, and there made his horme. Having 
soon derived improvement from the change 
he became pastor of the Christian Church at 
Platte City, and also accepted the position 
of agent of the church in Missouri for 
the establishment of the Missouri Female 
Orphan School of the Christian Church, an 
institution in which hundreds of the class for 
whom it was founded have been educated and 



HAIvEY. 



151 



prepared for usefulness. On the completion 
of this work he was called to California to 
establish a church of his denomination in San 
Francisco, and another in the neighboring 
city of Oakland. Returning to Missouri, he 
located at St. Joseph, and while there built' 
the First Christian Church, one of the hand- 
somest and most commodious religious 
edifices in that city. After a ministry of three 
years he was called to the pastorate of the 
First Christian Church in St. Louis, where 
he labored successfully for five years. Late 
in 1881 he was called to the First Christian 
Church in Kansas City, and occupied the 
pastorate until 1894, when he resigned, and 
in the same year made a second extensive 
tour of central and southern Europe. Soon 
after his return home he became pastor ot* 
the Springfield Avenue Christian Church, of 
Kansas City, to which he continues to min- 
ister, serving without salary, and with little 
compensation beyond the consciousness of 
doing good. While well advanced in years, 
a superb physique and a well-ordered life 
have preserved to him unimpaired physical 
and mental vigor, and his work is at once 
useful and honorable in -various ministerial 
and kindred lines. In all his long ministerial 
life of more than forty-six years, he has en- 
joyed the unusual privilege of being contin- 
uously employed, save during a brief illness, 
and that, too, without seeking place in a 
single instance. As pulpiteer and author he 
is recognized throughout the country as one 
of the most eloquent and able exponents of 
Bible truths, and of the tenets of his denom- 
ination. At various times leading institutions 
have preferred him degrees in recognition 
of his scholarly abilities, but these he has 
persistently declined, out of deference to the 
repugnance of this church to such titles. 
Notwithstanding, the title of "Doctor" is 
habitually applied to him throughout the 
State. His literary work began but little 
later than did his ministerial labors. In 1858 
he published a small volume, "The Commun- 
ion Question." While stationed at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, he contributed a sermon to 
a volume entitled "The Living Pulpit," pub- 
lished by W. T. Moore, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
His sermon on "The One Foundation " 
attracted wide attention, and gave to its 
author a place among the prominent minis- 
ters of the church. He also frequently con- 
tributed articles to leading denominational 



journals. While in San Francisco he pub- 
lished a weekly magazine called "The Evan- 
gelist," which was circulated gratuitously 
through the generosity of a friend. During 
his St. Louis pastorate he contributed a por- 
tion of a volume on the "Catholic Question," 
published by the Chambers Publishing 
House. He was one of the founders of the 
"Christian," a denominational journal at 
Kansas City, and the first Christian weekly 
published in the State. After its consolida- 
tion with the "Evangelist," the organ of the 
church in Missouri, he continued to make 
frequent contributions. In 1888 he published 
a volume entitled "The Dawn of the Reform- 
ation," which has had extensive sale, and is 
yet in steady demand. Somewhat later he 
published another volume, "Historical and 
Biographical Sketches of the Churches and 
Deceased Ministers of Missouri." His last 
work for the press is his article on the 
"Christian Church," in the "Encyclopedia of 
the History of Missouri." All his literary 
work is marked by clearness and forcefulness, 
and on occasion his passages abound in real 
eloquence. In his church his abilities have 
been recognized by appointment to various 
positions of honor, as well as of usefulness. 
He has presided over several national con- 
ventions of the Christian Church. He was 
president of the State Board of Missions for 
twenty-five consecutive years, ending with 
the last convention, when he resigned, and 
he is yet a member of the Board of Church 
Extension, and of the General Ministers' 
Alliance, of Kansas City, and in the latter 
body has held every position which could be 
conferred. His active interest in charity 
work is attested by his long connection with 
the Humane Society, of Kansas City, with 
the National Conference of Charities and 
Corrections, and with the National Prison 
Association. In 1897 he was appointed by 
Governor Lon V. Stephens to membership 
on the State Board of Charities, a position 
which he yet occupies. In politics he is a 
Democrat, but was unable to accept Mr. 
Bryan's financial theories, and supported Mr. 
McKinley for the presidency. He was mar- 
ried in 1855, at Fayette, Missouri, to Miss 
Mary Louise McGarvey, youngest sister of 
the Rev. J. W. McGarvey, president of the 
Bible College, Lexington, Kentucky. Five 
children born of this marriage are yet living, 
liberally educated and occupying useful 



152 



HAIvL. 



places in life. Mrs. Haley died in 1887. In 
July, 1892, Mr. Haley married Mrs. Mary 
Stewart Campbell, of Kirksville, Missouri, 
widow of T. C. Campbell, founder and pres- 
ident of the Kirksville Savings Bank. Mr. 
Haley was fortunate in both marriages; he 
has ever lived an ideal home life, is in com- 
fortable financial circumstances, and has 
promise of a happy, contented old age. 

Hall, C. Lester, a leading physician of 
Kansas City, is a native of Missouri, born at 
Arrow Rock, Saline County, March 10, 1845. 
His ancestry is Scotch and English, and the 
American branch of either side was planted 
in Colonial days. His parents were Dr. 
Matthew W. and Agnes J. (Lester) Hall. 
The father was a son of Rev. Nathan H. 
Hall, a native of Kentucky, a Presbyterian 
clergyman of striking personality and great 
ability, who preached in Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, for a quarter century, and for some 
years afterward in St. Louis, Missouri ; he 
died in Columbia, Missouri, at the age of 
seventy-six years. Matthew W., born in 
Kentucky, became a physician of much abil- 
ity; he practiced in Salem, Illinois, from 1837 
to 1845 5 '^^ the latter year he removed to 
Arrow Rock, Missouri, where he practiced 
for twelve years, afterward removing to his 
farm near Marshall, where he passed the 
remainder of his life. During the Civil War 
he served as surgeon in the Confederate 
Army ; he twice represented his district in the 
Legislature, both previous to the Civil War 
and subsequently. He was an earnest Pres- 
byterian, and an elder in that church for 
many years. He married Miss Agnes J. Les- 
ter, a native of Virginia, daughter of Bryan 
Lester, a farmer, a man of strong character, 
yet amiable and benevolent, traits which 
found expression in all his relations with his 
fellows, a marked instance appearing in his 
gift of freedom to many of his slaves. Mrs. 
Hall, a woman of lovely character, died in 
1883. She was the mother of eleven children, 
of whom four are deceased, among them 
William Ewing Hall, a lawyer and capitalist 
of Kansas City, whose death occurred July 
6, 1900. Those living are Dr. C. Lester Hall, 
of Kansas City, Missouri; Dr. John R. Hall, 
a practicing physician at Marshall, Missouri ; 
Louisa F., wife of W. W. Trigg, banker, of 
Boonville, Missouri; Matthew W., a farmer, 
and member of the Legislature from Saline 



County; Florida L., wife of Judge D. W. 
Shackelford, now a member of Congress, of 
Boonville ; Dr. Thomas B. Hall, a practicing 
physician, residing on the parental home- 
stead near Marshall, Missouri, and Efifie B., 
wife of Fred B. Glover, a stockman at Park- 
ville, Missouri. C. Lester Hall, the oldest 
son, derived his second name from his moth- 
er, largely out of regard for her brother, Dr. 
Thomas B. Lester, an eminent practitioner 
and author. He was brought up on the home 
farm, and attended schools in the neighbor- 
hood and at Boonville. In 1862, when sev- 
enteen years of age, he attached himself to 
the army of General Sterling Price, but after 
the affair at Lexington he was invalided 
home. He rejoined the army in December 
following, but was subsequently captured 
with Colonel Robertson's command at Mil- 
ford, Missouri, and after being held as a 
prisoner for three months, took the oath of 
allegiance to the United States and returned 
home. Through association with his talented 
father, who was bosom companion as well as 
parent, he had already made considerable 
progress in medical study, and he now en- 
gaged to complete what he had begun. After 
devoting some months to study in Boonville 
he was a student in the St. Louis Medical 
College in the season of 1864-5, ^"^ in Jeffer- 
son Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania in the session- of 1866-7, graduating in 
the latter year. For six years following he was 
associated in country practice with his father 
at the family home. In 1873 he removed to 
Marshall, where for seventeen years he was 
engaged in a large and remunerative prac- 
tice. Desirous of engaging in a field where 
was greater opportunity for usefulness and 
advancement in professional knowledge, in 
September, 1890, he took up his residence in 
Kansas City. Here his success has been 
conspicuous, and he has recognition in the 
profession and by the laity as pre-eminently 
a leader in the various departments of gen- 
eral practice, with a special talent for treat- 
ment of the diseases of women. He is a 
highly regarded member of the American 
Medical Association, the Western Surgical 
and Gynecological Association, the Missouri 
State Medical Society, of which he has been 
president ; the Jackson County Medical Soci- 
ety, and the Kansas City Academy of Medi- 
cine, which he has served as president. He 
is also president of the faculty of the Medico- 






^^-2-^Si^ b^'^'^tZ-^ 




^fi^rrn /Tra'i"-u/J, 



HALL. 



153 



Chiriirgical College, and professor of gyne- 
cology and abdominal surgery. 

Dr. Hall was married June i6, 1869, to 
Miss Katherine Sappington, daughter of 
Honorable E. D. and Penelope (Breathitt) 
Sappington. Her maternal grandfather was 
a former Governor of Kentucky. Of five 
children born of this marriage, one died in 
infancy. Those living are : Dr. Darwin Wal- 
ton Hall, a graduate of the University Medi- 
cal College at Kansas City, and postgraduate 
of the Polyclinic School, of New York, a 
rhinologist and laryngologist, practicing in 
association with his father, and a member of 
the faculty of the Medico-Chirurgical Col- 
lege ; Penelope, wife of Leon Smith, head of 
a department in the Smith-McCord Dry 
Goods Co. ; C. Lester, educated in the Kan- 
sas City high school and the Chicago Uni- 
versity, and now attending a commercial 
college in preparation for a business life, and 
Katherine May, a school girl. Outside his 
profound medical knowledge, Dr. Hall is 
familiarly conversant with general literature 
and is well informed upon all topics of gen- 
eral concern. His contributions to the 
history of the medical profession, to be found 
in this work (see "Medicine"), are of much 
value. 

Hall, George Diiffield, merchant and 
ironmonger, was born in Lewiston, Penn- 
sylvania, February 22, 1831, and died in St. 
Louis, December 6, 1883. He was educated 
at Marshall College, Mercersburg, Pennsyl- 
vania. He began reading law at Lewistown, 
Pennsylvania, but before completing his 
course of study entered the employ of Messrs. 
Lyon, Shorb & Co., iron manufacturers of 
Pittsburg. Two years later he went to St. 
Louis as manager of a branch house estab- 
lished by them in that city, known as the 
Sligo Iron Store. After serving -six years 
as manager, Mr. Hall became part owner. 
Some time later he became sole owner and 
manager and gave to it the closest atten- 
tion until 1879, when his wife's illness com- 
pelled him to intrust it to other hands. Later 
he organized a stock company to conduct the 
business of the Sligo Iron Store. His death 
occurred soon afterward. In early life he was 
a member of the Whig party and later be- 
came a Republican. He was a resident of St. 
Louis during the war period, and was one 
of the business men of the city most loyal 



to the defense of the Union. His rehgious af- 
filiations were with the Presbyterian Church. 
Mr. Hall was twice married; first, to Miss 
Louise Miller, who died without children. 
After her death he married Miss Lucretia Al- 
len, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Beverly Allen, 
of St. Louis, and four children were born 
of this union. 

Hall, John C, president of the New En- 
gland Securities Company, and for a number 
of years very prominently identified with the 
financial interests of Kansas City, was born 
in Ohio, but has spent the important years 
of his hfe in Iowa and Missouri, After ob- 
taining a good fundamental education he en- 
tered upon a course of legal reading, having 
as a tutor a no less distinguished and able 
attorney than Chief Justice Scott, of Ohio. 
In 1873, soon after his admission to the bar 
of his native State, Mr. Hall removed to 
Boone County, Iowa, where he soon took a 
place of prominence in legal and political af- 
fairs. For fifteen years he practiced law 
and dealt in securities in Iowa, and assisted 
in organizing the First National Bank of 
Boone, Iowa, of which institution he was a 
director for ten years. He also served a 
splendid constituency in the Legislature of 
that State. He was a member of the Twenty- 
second General Assembly, and was the third 
member of the committee which had in 
charge the framing and successful enaction 
of the wholesome railroad law which now ap- 
pears on the statute books of Iowa. This 
law, it is generally conceded, is one of the 
best provisions for the proper regulation of 
railroad affairs now in existence, and it is the 
ability and foresight of such careful men as 
the subject of this sketch that the people of 
that State have to thank for the wise meas- 
ure incorporated in the statutes at that time. 
Mr. Hall was, in fact, elected from Boone 
County, as a member of the Legislature, on 
the railroad issue. He was the Republican 
candidate nominally, but the strong elements 
of both parties were united for him, and the 
influence that stood for the passage of a good 
railroad law succeeded in sending him to a 
place where his abilities might be of service 
in this direction. In 1888, after the adjourn- 
ment of the Legislature, Mr. Hall moved to 
Kansas City, Missouri, and there assumed 
charge of the legal department of the New 
England Loan & Trust Company. He served 



154 



HALL. 



in that capacity until 1898, when he organized 
the company of which he is still the head, the 
New England Securities Company. He was 
the active spirit in the inauguration of the 
company's business career, and was elected 
president. The other officers are as follows: 
C. E. Gibson, vice president ; T. C. Alexan« 
der, secretary and treasurer; F. D. Hutch- 
ings, second vice president. These men and 
J. W. Ramsey, of Independence, Missouri, 
were the organizers of the company. The 
company is incorporated, with a capital stock 
and surplus of $27,000, and is one of the 
strongest of its kind in the entire country. All 
of the officers reside in Kansas City with the 
exception of Mr. Hutchings, who lives in 
Kansas City, Kansas. The company nego- 
tiates all kinds of securities, deals in munici- 
pal and industrial bonds and local real estate, 
and makes loans on farm and city property. 
All of the men included in this creditable list 
are strong in the financial circles of the city, 
and hold the confidence of the people of the 
commercial world. Mr. Hall, in traveling ex- 
tensively for the company, keeps in close 
touch with the fluctuations of realty values, 
and is considered high authority in such mat- 
ters. He has an unbounded faith in the 
future of Missouri and Kansas and the re- 
sourceful Western country of which Kansas 
City is the center. He has faith in the possi- 
bilities of the city, and takes a prominent 
part in movements calculated to advance her 
best interests. He married Miss Josephine 
Reynolds, of La Porte, Indiana, July 24, 1878. 
They have one son, Benj. R. Hall, at the 
present time (1900) a student at the Uni- 
versity of Missouri. 

Hall, John Randolph, physician and 
surgeon, was born in the town of Arrow 
Rock, Saline County, Missouri, August 28, 
1849, son of Dr. Matthew W. and Agnes J. 
(Lester) Hall. Three of the sons of Dr. M. 
W. Hall became successful physicians, name- 
ly, C. Lester, John R. and Thomas B. Hall. 
Dr. John R. Hall's elementary education was 
begun in the common schools of Arrow 
Rock, and continued in Spaulding's Commer- 
cial College, at Kansas City, and Westmin- 
ster College, at Fulton, Missouri. Upon the 
conclusion of his classical studies he read 
medicine under the direction of his father, 
subsequently matriculating in Missouri Medi- 
cal College at St. Louis, which conferred 



upon him the degree of doctor of medicine 
in 1873. His first location was in Salt Fork 
Township, Saline County, where he practiced 
in partnership with his father for seven years. 
May 27, 1880, he removed to Marshall, and 
opened an office, where he has since prac- 
ticed continuously. For ten years he main- 
tained an office alone, but since 1890 has 
practiced in partnership with Dr. D. C. Gore. 
He has kept fully abreast with the advance of 
medical science. In 1890 he took a postgrad- 
uate course in the New York Polyclinic, and 
for a long time has been actively identified 
with the more important medical societies, 
including the American, Missouri State, Dis- 
trict and Saline County organizations. He 
has been corresponding secretary and vice 
president of the State Society, and was one 
of the organizers of the District Society. 
For several years he acted as local surgeon 
for the Missouri Pacific Railway. Before the 
adoption of the law organizing boards of ex- 
amining surgeons under the pension bureau, 
he filled the post of local examiner, and dur- 
ing both administrations of President Cleve- 
land he served on the Saline County board. 
He has been a contributor to the leading 
medical journals. The city of Marshall is 
partly indebted to Dr. Hall for its present 
supply of pure drinking water, the quality of 
which is unsurpassed. He, with others, pro- 
posed to dig to a depth sufficient to tap the 
underground river which was known to exist 
near Marshall, and in September, 1883, was 
organized the Marshall Waterworks Com- 
pany, of which his brother. Dr. C. Lester 
Hall, was elected president, and of which Dr. 
Hall became president in 1890. This corpora- 
tion at once dug a well thirty-five feet in 
diameter and forty-six feet in depth, pene- 
trating seven feet of gumbo found over 
thirty-five feet below the surface, and enter- 
ing a stratum of sand through which flows 
water of an excellent character slightly im- 
pregnated with mineral. Though actively 
interested in the success of the Democratic 
party. Dr. Hall has never cared for public 
office, though he has served as chairman of 
the county and congressional committees. In 
the Presbyterian Church he has officiated as 
elder for several years. He was married Feb- 
ruary 4, 1885, to Marceline Webb Thomas, 
who was born near Huntsville, Missouri, and 
is a daughter of the late Dr. Lawson C. 
Thomas, a native of Saline Countv, and for 





The Southern Eistory Co. 



HALL. 



155 



many years a practicing physician of Wa- 
verly, Missouri. His father went to Missouri 
from Kentucky in 1818. The ancestors of the 
family in America came to Maryland with 
Lord Baltimore, and one of them was Lord 
Surveyor of the colony of Maryland. The 
family is descended from the Cecils, who were 
united by marriage with the Royal family of 
England. Dr. and Mrs. Hall are the parents 
of two children, Agnes Lester and John Ran- 
dolph Hall, Jr. 

Hall; Uriel S., lawyer, farmer and mem- 
ber of Congress, was born in Randolph 
County, Missouri, April 12, 1852. He attend- 
ed the public schools, and afterward entered 
Mount Pleasant College at Huntsville, grad- 
uating at the age of twenty years. He taught 
school three years, then studied law and prac- 
ticed for eight years, after which he engaged 
in farming. He was for a time State lecturer 
for the Farmers' Alliance, and afterward 
State president, though he did not approve 
all the doctrines of that organization. In 1892 
he was elected as a Democrat to Congress 
from the second district, receiving 18,039 
votes, against 16,178 cast for C. A. Loomis, 
Republican, and 2,761 for J. C. Goodson, 
Popuhst. His father was William A. Hall, 
who was circuit judge for thirty years and 
member of the thirty-seventh and thirty- 
eighth Congresses, 

Hall, Willartl P., lawyer, soldier. 
Lieutenant Governor and Governor of Mis- 
souri, was born at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, 
in 1820, and died at St. Joseph, Missouri, No- 
vember 21, 1882. He had the advantage of a 
good education, having been trained in the 
schools of his native town, and then sent to 
Yale College, where he graduated at the age 
of nineteen years. He then studied law, and 
in 1841 came to Missouri and commenced the 
practice of his profession at Huntsville, but 
removed the next year to St. Joseph and 
made that city his home for life. His talents 
and education soon commanded recognition, 
and in 1843 he was appointed circuit attorney 
by Governor Reynolds. His free and cordial 
manners won him a large measure of popu- 
lar favor, also, and in 1844 he was made 
presidential elector on the Democratic ticket, 
doing a full share in carrying Missouri for 
James K. Polk, and when the electoral vote 
for Missouri was cast he was chosen to take 



the certificate to Washington. When the 
Mexican war began, he, with many other 
brilliant and ambitious young men ol north- 
west Missouri, enlisted in Colonel Doni- 
phan's regiment and took part in the famous 
expedition to New Mexico. When the army 
took possession of Santa Fe, General Kear- 
ney detailed him to make a digest of laws 
for governing the country under American 
rule, and he executed the task so wisely and. 
well that the code has survived, in its main 
features, for more than a generation. On 
his return from New Mexico in 1847 ^^ was 
elected to Congress, re-elected in 1849, and 
again in 185 1, serving three full terms in the 
Thirtieth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second 
Congresses. At the close of this service he 
returned to the practice of his profession, 
and was soon recognized as one of the best 
lawyers in a circuit renowned for its bar. He 
owned a fine farm near St. Joseph and took 
great interest in agricultural experiments, 
with the object of improving the standard of 
Missouri farming. When the disputes and 
controversies that preceded the Civil War 
came on, he boldly declared himself a Union 
man, and was elected a delegate to the State 
convention of 1861, at the first session of 
which he became one of the recognized lead- 
ers of the Union party. At the second session 
of the convention in July, after Governor 
Jackson and Lieutenant Governor Reynolds 
had openly espoused the cause of the South,- 
Hamilton R. Gamble was made Provisional 
Governor, and Willard P. Hall, T lieutenant 
Governor. On the death of Governor Gam- 
ble, in January, 1864, he became Governor, 
and continued to the end of the term in the 
following January. He then returned to St. 
Joseph and led a quiet life until his death 
in 1882. His public career was marked by 
integrity, generosity and freedom from ex- 
treme party spirit, and his name stands high 
among those whom the people delight to 
honor. 

Hall, William E., farmer and mine- 
owner, was born in Jasper County, Missouri, 
March 14, 1845, son of Winston and Jane 
(Roberson) Hall. His father, who was a na- 
tive of Surrey County, North Carolina, was 
the son of Harrison and Rebecca (East) Hall, 
and came of an old English family. Harrison 
Hall was a millwright by trade, and was 
among the early settlers at Springfield, lUi- 



156 



HALLECK. 



nois. His wife died in Indiana on the long 
journey from North Carolina to Illinois, and 
he himself died shortly after the remainder of 
the family arrived at Springfield. Winston 
Hall accompanied his parents to Illinois as 
a child, and while crossing the Blue Ridge 
Mountains witnessed the wonderful "falling 
star" phenomenon of 1833. He grew up in 
Illinois, finishing his education in the com- 
mon schools of that State, and while still 
unmarried came to Missouri and settled in 
that portion of Barry County which later be- 
came Jasper County. He married there, his 
wife having gone to that region with her 
parents shortly before he arrived there. He 
settled on a farm about two and a half miles 
north of the site of the present city of Joplin. 
After living there some time he sold this 
land and improved a farm four miles east 
of Joplin, on which he resided imtil his death. 
He and his wife were the parents of nine 
children, seven of whom are now living. They 
are William E. Hall, the subject of this 
sketch, of Carthage, Missouri ; Thomas C. 
Hall, George W. Hall, Augustus H. Hall, Al- 
bert W. Hall and Mrs. Mary E. Halley, all 
of whom are residents of Williamson County, 
Texas, and Mrs. Rebecca J. Ewing, who lives 
at Morrisville, in Polk County, Missouri. 
Winston Hall died December 21, 1863, and 
his wife died in February of 1869. During the 
Civil War they suffered much at the hands 
of the military bands which overran Jasper 
County. Farm animals belonging to them 
were appropriated by the marauders, and 
they were despoiled of much of their proper- 
ty. Mr. Hall's grandfather, Clisby Roberson, 
who was a noted pioneer of Jasper County, 
and who was holding the office of public ad- 
ministrator when the war began, was killed 
at the age of seventy-nine years, at his own 
home in 1863, by bushwhackers who sup- 
posed that he had a considerable amount of 
money in his possession. William E. Hall at- 
tended the public schools of Jasper County 
as a boy and grew to manhood there. While 
still a mere youth he enlisted in the Con- 
federate Army, and was accompanied into 
the service by his younger brother, Thomas 
C. Hall. After serving two years in the army, 
he returned home and a little later went to 
Texas, where he attended school for four 
months, and where he Hved for five years 
afterward. His mother had gotten permission 



from the military authorities, in 1865, to pass 
through the lines and go with her family to 
a farm they owned in Texas. This was what 
took William E. Hall to that State, and while 
there he was engaged in farming and stock- 
raising. He returned to Jasper County in 
1870, and settled on a farm a half mile north 
of Webb City, in Mineral Township, where 
he devoted his attention to farming and 
stock-raising until 1878. In 1877 he first be- 
came identified with mining enterprises 
through leasing his lands to the North Cen- 
ter Creek Mining and Smelting Company. 
The tract of land was converted into a mining 
property, proved to be very rich in lead ore, 
and the first large mill erected in the district 
was built on this tract. Ever since that time 
Mr, Hall has been interested in mining prop- 
erties and engaged in mining enterprises, 
and his ventures have made him a man of 
large means. Politically, he has always af- 
filiated with the Democratic Party, which 
made him township assessor of Mineral 
Township in 1874, 1875 and 1876, notwith- 
standing the fact that the township ordinarily 
gives a Republican majority. In 1878 he was 
elected collector of Jasper County and served 
two years in that office. He is a member of 
the Masonic order and of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. In Masonry he has 
taken the Knight Templar degrees and he 
is also a Noble of the Mystic Shrine. October 
14, 1869, he married Margaret C. Glasscock, 
who died at their home in Texas, April 22, 
1870. May 7, 1 87 1, he married Miss Martha 
E. Webb, daughter of John C. and Ruth F. 
(Davis) Webb. Four children have been 
born of this union, of whom John W. Hall 
died at the age of seventeen and a half years. 
Ruth Hall became the wife of Harry A. Van- 
derford in March of 1897, and died in De- 
cember following. Charles T. Hall married 
Mary Himes Hendrix, who resides in Car- 
thage, and is engaged in stock-raising and 
mining. Edward M. Hall also resides in 
Carthage, and is engaged with his father in 
business. Mr, and Mrs. Hall are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
and are liberal supporters of the church and 
its charities. 

Halleck. — A town in Buchanan County, 
once known as Fancher's Cross Roads, and 
nicknamed "Old Taos." It has a population 



HAIvLECK— HALLKY. 



157 



of 200. Halleck flour was formerly famous. 
Francis Ferguson kept a school in this vicin- 
ity in 1839. 

Halleck, Henry W., soldier, was born 
at Waterville, New York, in 1814, and died 
at Louisville, Kentucky, January 9, 1872. He 
graduated at West Point in 1839, and was, 
for a time, assistant professor in the Military 
Academy. He served with distinction in the 
Mexican War on the Pacific Coast. In 1861 
he was made major general, and on the re- 
moval of Fremont from the command of the 
Department of Missouri, in November, 1861, 
was appointed to succeed him. In 1862 he 
took command of the operations before 
Corinth, and conducted the siege until the 
place was evacuated by the Confederates. 
In July of that year he was made general-in- 
chief of the army, and held that place until 
superseded by General Grant. He was in 
command of the Department of Missouri 
until succeded by General Schofield. It was 
during his administration that General Cur- 
tis, under him, fought and won the battle of 
Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern). On the 12th 
of December, 1862, he issued an order, No. 
24, levying assessments on certain wealthy 
citizens of St. Louis, for the support of the 
Union refugees, large numbers of whom had 
been driven from their homes and forced to 
seek safety in that city. One or two of the 
persons thus assessed refused to pay and 
were put in prison ; the others paid to escape 
that penalty. In the month of December, 
1861, a hundred miles of the North Missouri 
Railroad was destroyed by disbanded soldiers 
from Price's army, and to prevent a repeti- 
tion of this work General Halleck declared 
martial law in St. Louis and in the counties 
through which railroads ran, making death 
the penalty for taking up the rails of a road 
with the purpose of destroying it, and requir- 
ing the towns and counties along the road 
to repair all such damage. Shortly after the 
issue of this order, eight persons were con- 
victed by a military commission at Palmyra 
of burning bridges and cars and destroying 
railroads, and sentenced to be shot, and Gen- 
eral Halleck approved the sentence; but the 
time and place of execution were never set, 
and on the 20th of February, 1862, he mod- 
ified the sentence to confinement in the Alton 
military prison. Three other men found 
guilty of a similar ofifense by a military com- 



mission at Columbia received similar clem- 
ency, and were finally released. 

Halley, George, one of the most 
prominent surgeons in the middle West, is a 
native of Canada, born in Aurora, York 
County, Province of Ontario, September 10, 
1839. His parents were George and Jane 
Halley, the former a lineal descendant of Sir 
Edmund Halley, the famous English astron- 
omer, and the latter descended from James 
Baird, a native of Scotland, whose profession 
was that of a civil engineer. Their son, 
George, was without school advantages until 
he was fifteen years of age, but the want was 
well supplied through the intelligent solici- 
tude of his parents and the medium of a 
small, but excellent library. The family had 
removed to Wellington County, Ontario, 
where the father made a farm out of the un- 
touched forest, the son aiding as he was 
capable. In the absence of a neighborhood 
school the lad learned the rudimental English 
branches at home, and derived a large fund 
of knowledge, as well as a fine taste for polite 
literature, elevating sentiment, and language 
of the highest character, through repeated 
perusal of the few books at his command, 
among which were Shakespeare's dramas, 
Addison's "Spectator," Reid's "Essay on the 
Human Understanding," Hume's and Smol- 
lett's "Histories of England," and Rollins' 
"Ancient History."- Through three winters, 
beginning in 1854, he attended a common 
school in the neighborhood, and in 1858 he 
entered the County Grammar School, where 
he studied the higher English branches, 
mathematics, Latin and French, in prepara- 
tion for college. His school attendance was 
interrupted by the illness and death of his 
two brothers, but he continued his studies, 
principally during the night hours, at home. 
In 1865 he successfully passed the matricula- 
tion examination and began the study of 
medicine in Victoria University, Toronto, 
Canada. His advancement was so satisfac- 
tory that in 1867 he was appointed prosector 
to the chair of anatomy, which afforded him 
unusual opportunity for further improvement 
in that department of medical knowledge. 
In March" following he went to New York 
City, where he took the spring course at 
Long Island College Hospital, and occupied 
the summer in attending clinical instruction 
at various hospitals and dispensaries. He 



158 



HALLKY'S BLUFF— HALLIBURTON. 



re-entered Victoria University in autumn of 
the same year, and in March, 1869, success- 
fully passed the final examination and re- 
ceived his degree as doctor of medicine. He 
was disappointed in his desire to immediately 
enter upon practice, on account of the death 
of his father, which necessitated his remain- 
ing at home to manage the farm and settle 
up the estate. Early in 1870 he set out in 
search of a location affording promise as a 
field of usefulness, his travel extending as 
far west as Kansas. After visiting various 
towns in Missouri and Kansas he finally de- 
cided upon Kansas City, in the former named 
State, which, from that time, has been his 
residence and the scene of his labors, con- 
spicuous in their usefulness to the suffering, 
not only through his masterly skill in per- 
sonal service, but through the wealth of 
professional knowledge he has bestowed 
upon professional associates and students. 
Unable to discern the point where he might 
cease to be a learner, he has continually 
applied himself to investigation in every de- 
partment of medical science, carefully exam- 
ining every new proposition, and on proof of 
its value applying it in his personal practice, 
and inculcating it by his pen and spoken 
word. In surgery, his special field, his skill 
is recognized as of the highest order while 
his intimate knowledge of anatomy, and the 
acute conscientiousness which forbids oper- 
ation save in case of abselute necessity, give 
his surgical diagnoses an authority which is 
regarded by the profession as all but infalli- 
ble. For these reasons his services are in 
much demand in cases involving capital 
operations, as an operator, or in consultation, 
not alone in the city, but through all the 
region which seeks it as a center of knowl- 
edge and commerce. From the day of his 
coming Dr. Halley has maintained a deep 
interest in professional educational institu- 
tions and in public charities, and his effort 
and means have been freely contributed to 
their establishment and maintenance. In 
1870 he was called to the position of assistant 
demonstrator of anatomy in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, and in 1871 he was 
elected professor of anatomy, to succeed Dr. 
A. D. Taylor, who had been called to the 
chair of surgery. After ten years' service in 
that position he was elected to temporarily 
succeed Dr. Taylor, who had died. In 1882 
Dr. W, S. Tremain, then occupying the chair 



of surgery, removed from the city, and Dr. 
Halley was elected to the position, which he 
occupied until 1891. During his connection 
with this college, in May, 1874, he performed 
the first operation in Kansas City for ova- 
riotomy, and with complete success, the 
patient being yet living, . In 1892 he was 
called to the professorship of surgery in the 
University Medical College, which position 
he occupies at the present time. This school, 
recognized as one of the most important of 
its class in the middle west, owes much of its 
prestige and success to his devoted personal 
interest, as well as to the excellence of its 
faculty, of which he is one of the most 
valued and capable members. From 1888 to 
1895 Dr. Halley conducted a private hospital, 
which proved of great advantage to a large 
class of sufferers, but he was obliged to close 
it on account of the exactions of his consult- 
ing practice outside the city. In 1884, in 
association with Dr. A. L. Fulton, he assisted 
in establishing the Kansas City "Medical 
Record," the oldest of now existent local 
medical journals, and remained with it four 
years. He has frequently contributed to pro- 
fessional journals, and he is the author of 
the history of medical colleges (regular) in 
Kansas City, which appears in this work. He 
has also been a constant contributor of 
papers on professional topics, to national, 
State and local medical societies. Dr. Halley 
was married, in 1871, to Miss Florence 
Chiles, who died in 1887; she was a devoted 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and a most amiable woman. A daughter 
born of this marriage, Georgia E., is the wife 
of Donald Latshaw, associate editor of the 
Kansas City "Star." In November, 1889, Dr. 
Halley married Miss Jessie Egelston, daugh- 
ter of Dr. J. Q. Egelston, of Olathe, Kansas. 
Born of this union were two children, George 
E. and Eleanor J. Dr. and Mrs. Halley are 
both members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

Halley's Bluff. — See "Vernon County, 
Indian and French Occupation of." 

Halliburton, John William, lawyer, 
was born December 30, 1846, at Linneus, 
Missouri, son of Judge Westley and Armilda 
E. (Collins) Halliburton. His education be- 
gan when he was five years of age. He 
attended private and public schools at the 




lf-^V>:«/r,s- /"!./}' 




C^l-i^ s 




6ci£tXT^<yt ^-j^n^ 



^V S4'ufAfrr4./-/tst'Pr'fCi.'. 



HALLIBURTON. 



159 



place of his birth, at Milan, and at Bruns- 
wick. In the fall of 1864 he was a student at 
Mount Pleasant College, Huntsville, Mis- 
souri, but the Price raid disrupted the school. 
Returning home, he enlisted in a company 
under the command of Captain James Ken- 
nedy, at Brunswick. It joined General 
Price's army at Waverly, and was attached 
to Colonel Searcey's regiment of General 
Tyler's brigade. This entire command was 
made up of recruits, mainly youths, who had 
come together as the army passed through. 
Young Halliburton participated in the des- 
perate battle of Mine Creek, which was 
followed by the retreat to the Red River. 
After many privations the troops reached 
Texas, and there wintered. He was then 
attached to Shelby's division, a member of 
Captain I. N. Sitton's company, of Colonel 
D. A. Williams' regiment, of General Jack- 
man's brigade. He was finally discharged 
from service, after the close of the war, in 
June, 1865, having performed the full duty 
of a soldier, courageously and uncomplain- 
ingly, in a spirit of fervent devotion to the 
cause he held to be right, in face of certain 
defeat. He passed the following winter in 
Chihuahua, Mexico, where he clerked in a 
general store. In March, 1866, he began his 
journey home, with so little means that he 
was pleased to serve as guard for a private 
train in order to be subsisted. In Texas he 
was variously engaged in procuring means 
with which to proceed farther, and finally 
reached home in August. From August, 
1866, to September, 1867, he clerked in his 
father's store at St. Louis, and at Bonfil's 
Station. In the fall of 1867 he went to Kirks- 
ville, where he read law with his brother- 
in-law, J. M. DeFrance, returning in July, 
1868, to St. Louis County, where he farmed 
for some months. Later the same year he 
entered upon the junior course in the St. 
Louis Law School, and in April, 1869, was 
admitted to practice, being licensed by Judge 
Irwin Z. Smith, receiving the high compli- 
ment of being passed without examination, 
on motion of Judge E. B. Ewing. He as- 
sisted in the law office of DeFrance & 
Hooper, at Kirksville, until January i, 1871, 
when he was received as a partner by Mr. 
DeFrance, with whom he was associated 
until November, 1874. He then removed to 
Milan and entered into a law partnership 
with his father, the firm name being Hallibur- 



ton & Son. In April, 1867, he started to 
Texas in search of a location, visiting rela- 
tives in Carthage, and this incident proved 
the turning point of his life, for he decided 
to make his permanent location there. In 
May of the same year he formed a law part- 
nership with his brother-in-law, Samuel Mc- 
Reynolds, who had located there two years 
before. This association is yet maintained, 
and they take pardonable pride in the fact 
that theirs is the oldest law firm in Missouri, 
so far as they have been able to ascertain. 
Their practice has been and contmues to be at 
once extensive and successful to an unusual 
degree, being principally in civil lines, cover- 
ing all departments of commercial law. They 
have probably brought more attachment 
suits than any other four firms in Jasper 
County, and no client of theirs was ever 
mulcted for damages. They are attorneys 
for the South West Missouri Electric Rail- 
way Company and for the Central National 
Bank, of Carthage. They are averse to 
criminal practice, and only engage in it where 
an old and well regarded client is in interest. 
Mr. Halliburton was fortunate in his profes- 
sional training. From his father he acquired 
knowledge of the old methods of practice, in 
some degree effective even in this day, to 
which he adds that derived from the teach- 
ing of the law school, and constant familiar 
intercourse with the most eminent legal 
minds in the State. With such he maintains 
a close companionship, professionally and 
socially, and among them he is highly re- 
garded for his professional attainments, his 
clear, analytical mind, and pungent, convinc- 
ing style of expression in oral argument and 
written brief. In the wide acquaintance which 
he has made throughout the State, he has, 
without seeking it, established a reputation 
as an anti-corporation lawyer. With refer- 
ence to corporations, his fundamental prin- 
ciple is, that the creature must necessarily be 
held as inferior to the creator; corporations 
must be accorded all the rights conferred 
upon them under the law, but they must also 
be held to a strict responsibility to the law 
giving them existence, and must not be per- 
mitted to act beyond or outside of such pow- 
ers as are explicitly bestowed upon them. 
Out of these considerations has grown a 
strong and constantly increasing sentiment 
favoring his elevation to the supreme bench 
of the State. This found expression in the 



160 



HAI.I.IBURTON. 



strong support given him for the position in 
the State Convention in 1898. To him are 
due two judicial interpretations of law which 
are far-reaching in effect. One is important 
as touching the police powers of the city. In 
a test case, originating in Carthage, he con- 
tended that the city had authority to oblige 
the owner of a dog to pay license, and the 
Supreme Court sustained him. At the time, 
decisions upon this question were conflicting 
in many of the States, and while the case 
was pending it was regarded with interest 
throughout the country, in questioning an- 
ticipation of the position which would be 
taken by the Supreme Court of Missouri. In 
another instance he contended that suit 
could be brought against a person for the 
purchase price of property bought, and also 
against the party to whom the purchaser had 
sold with knowledge of unpaid purchase 
price, and maintain action against both par- 
ties in one suit. The circuit court held with 
him, and its decision was maintained by the 
Kansas City Court of Appeals. He is pecu- 
liarly strong as a trial lawyer, anci is at his 
best before a jury. In 1882 Mr. Halliburton 
was elected city attorney, but declined further 
service in that position. In politics he is an 
uncompromising Democrat, taking active 
part in all political campaigns, for the sake 
of principle, and without thought of reward 
or self-seeking. He is a favorite political 
speaker in southwest Missouri, and a familiar 
figure in State conventions, where his influ- 
ence is potent. He was one of the active 
agents in the movement which led to the 
Pertle Springs Democratic Convention in 
1895, and was instrumental in formulating 
the action of that body in its declaration for 
"free silver." In 1896 he was a delegate to 
the National Democratic Convention. He 
accepts the golden rule as his guide of con- 
duct, holding membership with no religious 
body, but regarding the Baptist faith with 
especial favor. He became a member of the 
order of Odd Fellows in 1873, and has filled 
all the chairs in the local lodge. He has 
always been an earnest supporter of the 
militia system. In 1877 he entered the Car- 
thage Light Guard as a private, and passed 
through all the grades to the rank of first 
lieutenant. Upon the organization of the 
Second Regiment, National Guard of Mis- 
souri, in 1889, he was appointed judge advo- 
cate, with the rank of captain, and served 



as such until the regiment was mustered into 
the service of the United States at the out- 
break of the Spanish-American War, when 
he retired, the position which he occupied 
having no place in the regular military estab- 
lishment, and business and family considera- 
tions forbidding him leaving home. He was 
married, October 16, 1878, to Miss Julia B. 
Ivie, daughter of the Rev. William S. Ivie, a 
Christian minister. Mrs. Halliburton was 
educated in public and private schools in 
Kirksville, and in the convent school at 
Edina. Seven children have been born of 
this marriage, of whom three are deceased. 
Westley is a student in the University of 
Missouri. The others living are John Joseph,^ 
Louise and Sallie Halliburton. 

Halliburton, Westley, one of the 

early lawyers of Missouri, was born January 
4, 1812, in Humphrey County, Tennessee. 
His parents were Ambrose and Mary (Free- 
man) Halliburton. The father was of Scotch- 
Irish descent, and the mother of English and 
French descent. They removed to Missouri 
in 1823, locating in Randolph County. The 
son, Westley Halliburton, was the eldest of 
nine children, and his early years were passed 
upon the farm. He knew a country school 
house for but three months; all else of his 
education was self-acquired, from borrowed 
books read by the light of bark fires at night. 
In spite of want of educational facilities, he 
became well informed for that day, and dur- 
ing several years taught schools in the neigh- 
borhood during the winter months in the 
territory comprising and adjoining the pres- 
ent Randolph County. When about twenty- 
one years of age he opened a store at Shel- 
byville, but soon began the study of law, 
using borrowed books. In 1840 he removed 
to Bloomington, Macon County, and entered 
upon practice. The same year he was elected 
judge of the county court. In 1844 he was 
elected circuit attorney, the district covering 
a number of counties as now constituted. At 
the first term which he attended the court 
sat in a log stable, and the grand jury met 
in a clump of timber near by, a log serving 
as a desk. In 1845 he moved to Linneus. 
In 1848 he was re-elected circuit attorney, 
defeating Captain William Y. Slack, who had 
just returned from the Mexican War. In 
185 1 he resigned, and was elected a Repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly from Lin» 



HALI.IBURTON. 



161 



County. In 1853 he was appointed receiver 
of public moneys for the Chariton land dis- 
trict by President Pierce, this necessitating 
his removal to Milan and his resignation as 
a member of the General Assembly. During 
his incumbency of this position he collected 
about $1,000,000, mostly in specie, which he 
transferred to St. Louis by wagon. During 
this time he loaned considerable sums to 
persons desiring to enter land, and a large 
amount was never repaid. In 1857 he was 
again elected to a seat in the lower house of 
the Legislature to fill a vacancy, and the 
following year he was elected to the State 
Senate, and was returned to that body in 
1882. As Senator and Representative he de- 
voted his effort, with all his zeal and ability, 
to fostering the construction of railroads, 
and the enactment of a homestead law. He 
was also a great friend of the public school 
system, which he labored effectively to per- 
fect in this State. As early as 1853, or about 
that time, he purchased a printing plant and 
started the first newspaper at Milan, which 
was called the "Milan Farmer." From 1864 
to 1873 he resided on a farm in St. Louis 
County, and then returned to Sullivan Coun- 
ty, in which he made his home during the 
remainder of his life. In 1875 he was elected 
a member of the Constitutional Convention 
which gave the State its present organic law. 
In 1880 he was again elected to the State 
Senate, and in 1888 Governor Morehouse ap- 
pointed him probate judge to fill an unex- 
pired term. Throughout his life he was 
energetic and public-spirited, forwarding all 
enterprises aiding in the development of the 
country. He was numbered among the in- 
corporators of the old Hannibal & St. Joseph 
Railway Company. In politics he was a 
Democrat of the old school. His first presi- 
dential vote was cast for Van Buren in 1836. 
In i860 he was a presidential elector on the 
Breckinridge and Lane ticket. In that crit- 
ical time he was opposed equally to secession 
and to coercion, but when war began all his 
sympathies were with the South. His senti- 
ments being known, he was one of the first 
men arrested under military authority, and 
he was sent to Quincy, Illinois. General 
John M. Palmer, of Illinois, ordered his re- 
lease, there being no charges against him, 
an act which made that ofificer the object of 
his grateful regard ever afterward. Up to 
the war period. Judge Halliburton had grown 

Vol. Ill— 11 



constantly into more conspicuous place with 
his party, and was regarded as a probable 
Governor of the State. Never a church 
member, he was deeply religious by nature, 
and strongly imbued with the doctrines of 
the Baptists. From early manhood he was 
an earnest member of the Order of Odd Fel- 
lows. When about twenty-one years of age 
he married Sophia Holman, of Macon 
County ; he spun the wool and made the cloth 
for his wedding suit. His wife died in 1841, 
leaving two children, Joseph H., a merchant 
at Milan, and Mary E., who became wife 
of J. M. DeFrance, a member of the Kirks- 
ville, Missouri, bar; she died in 1876. Judge 
Halliburton afterward married Armilda Col- 
lins, of Randolph County; born of this mar- 
riage were Helen M., wife of Samuel 
McReynolds, of Carthage, Missouri; John 
W., and R. E. Lee Halliburton, of Carthage; 
Martha A., wife of R. W. Richardson, of 
Omaha, Nebraska ; Thomas Halliburton, of 
Brookfield, Missouri, and Westley Hallibur- 
ton, of Alton, Illinois. James C. Halliburton 
died at Warsaw soon after reaching 
maturity. In November, 1878, Judge Halli- 
burton married Juliette Owens, of Chariton 
County, who is now making her home with 
her stepson, John W. Halliburton, at Car- 
thage. Judge Halliburton died at Milan, June 
16, 1890, aged seventy-eight years. He was 
buried with the rites of the Order of Odd 
Fellows, all the business houses being closed 
in respect .to his memory. Throughout his 
life he was held in respectful regard by all 
with whom he associated. In law he was- 
constantly associated with the foremost of his 
profession* his strong analytical mind 
searched out all the details of the most com- 
plicated cases ; before the jury he appeared 
to splendid advantage, presenting his case 
clearly and conveying his ideas to the most 
illiterate; notwithstanding his limited educa- 
tion he vras ready in language, rising on 
occasion to passages of great force and 
rugged eloquence. His facility as a speaker 
made him much sought after in political can- 
vasses, and he was heard in many momen- 
tous campaigns. It is not too much to say 
that up to the Civil War period no Mis- 
sourian occupied higher place in the esteem 
and confidence of the people, and his influ- 
ence was coextensive with his acquaintance. 
His home ever afforded a hearty and un- 
affected hospitality. Until i860 he possessed 



162 



HALLSVILLK— HAMILTON. 



considerable property, but his fortune was 
seriously impaired during the turbulent times 
which followed. He gathered up sufficient, 
however, to provide for his wants, and to 
leave a modest sum for the maintenance of 
^ his widow. 

Hallsville. — A town in Boone County, 
so named in honor of Judge John W. Hall, 
a pioneer citizen, whose home was not far 
from the site of the present town. It was 
laid out in 1866 on the commencement of the 
branch railroad from Centralia to Columbia. 
It is surrounded by rich farming lands and 
is a neighborhood trade center. Its popula- 
tion is about 100. 

Hamilton.— A city of the fourth class, in 
the northern part of Caldwell County, located 
on the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, and 
the northern terminus of the Hamilton & 
Kingston Railroad, nine miles north of 
Kingston, the county seat. It has Baptist, 
Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal 
Churches, graded schools, two banks, three 
hotels, a creamery, steam flouring mill, grain 
elevator and operahouse, is the home of a 
mutual fire insurance association, and sup- 
ports two newspapers, the "Farmers' Advo- 
cate," Democratic, and the "Hamiltonian," 
Republican. There are about seventy mis- 
cellaneous business places in the city, includ- 
ing stores, small factories and shops. The 
town was settled in the spring of 1855, and 
was incorporated in 1868. Population, 1899 
(estimated), 1,800. 

Hamilton, Alexander, lawyer and 

jurist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1814, and died in St. Louis, October 
27, 1882. He received a classical education in 
his native city. Fitted for the law, he came to 
St. Louis, where for nearly half a century 
thereafter he was in active practice, except 
when serving on the bench, and was ranked 
among the leading lawyers of the State. He 
was appointed a judge of the Circuit Court of 
St. Louis by Governor Edwards, and again 
by Governor King, and afterward was elected 
to that high office, serving, in all, fifteen years 
on the bench. Numerous cases which at- 
tained wide celebrity were passed upon by 
Judge Hamilton, chief among them being 
the famous "Dred Scott case," in which he 
rendered the first decision, afterward af- 



firmed by the Supreme Court. He was among 
the founders of the St. Louis law library, and 
did much to build up that institution. Judge 
Hamilton was an Episcopalian, and at the 
time of his death was one of the oldest mem- 
bers of Christ Church in St. Louis. He mar- 
ried Miss Julia Keen, who came of an old 
and aristocratic Philadelphia family. In the 
maternal line she was descended from the 
English family of Lawrences, and her 
mother's brothers were distinguished officers 
of the United States Navy. It was James 
Lawrence, her first cousin, who gave utter- 
ance to the sentiment, "Don't give up the 
ship, boys," immortalized among American 
patriots. Two children were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Hamilton ; Anna, who married Lewis 
Bailey, of Boston, and Virginia, who mar- 
ried Theodore Forster, of St. Louis. Both 
daughters are now residents of that city. 

Hamilton, Warren, who has done 
much to promote the business interests of 
the city of Kirksville, was born in Plevna, 
Knox County, Missouri, son of Henry S. 
and Margaret (Wiseman) Hamilton. He es- 
tablished his home in Kirksville when he was 
fourteen years of age, and was educated at 
the Kirksville high school and at the State 
Normal School of that place. His early busi- 
ness experience was obtained as a traveling 
salesmen, which occupation he entered upon 
when he was eighteen years of age. After 
traveling for a time he taught school a year, 
and 'then returned to the road and traveled 
for a commercial house thereafter until 1892. 
In that year he organized the State Building 
& Loan Association at Kirksville, of which 
he became a director and secretary. Ever 
since the organization of this association, 
which is a model of its kind, he has filled the 
positions above named, and its success has 
been chiefly due to his able and efficient con- 
duct of its affairs. He is also a director and 
secretary of the Masonic Hall Associa- 
tion of Kirksville, a director and secre- 
tary of the Kirksville Real Estate Associa- 
tion, and has been secretary and treasurer of 
the American School of Osteopathy and of 
the A. T. Still Infirmary since 1898. While 
looking after these various interests, he also 
studied law, and in 1896 was admitted to the 
bar. A clear-headed, capable and sagacious 
man of affairs, he has given free rein to his 
public spirit, and has aided in many ways 



I 



HAMMOND— HANDLAN. 



163 



the rapid growth and development which 
have taken place in Kirksville within the ten 
years ending with 1900. In his early manhood 
Mr. Hamilton became a member of the Ma- 
sonic order, and his present affiliations with 
various branches of that mystic brotherhood 
are as follows : He is a member of Adah- 
Lodge, No. 366, of Master Masons ; of Cald- 
weW Chapter, No. 53, Royal Arch Masons, 
Kirksville Council of Royal and Select Ma- 
sons ; Ely Commandery, No. 22, of Knights 
Templar ; Moila Temple of the Mystic Shrine 
of St, Joseph, and Quincy Consistory of Scot- 
tish Rite Masons at Quincy, Illinois. He is 
also a member of the Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks, No. 464, of Kirksville, 
and Edina Lodge, Knights of Pythias, ot 
Edina, Missouri. October 23, 1893, ^^^- Ham- 
ilton married Miss Lura Mae De Witt, and 
they have one child, Arthur De Witt Hamil- 
ton, who was born August i, 1896. 

Hammond, Samuel, was Deputy 
Governor of the District of St. Louis under 
Governor William Henry Harrison, of In- 
diana Territory. Hammond was an old- 
school Virginia gentleman, who had a home 
remarkable for being built in the Virginia 
style, and who was noted for his generous 
hospitality. He entertained royally during 
the time that he acted as Gov'ernor, and aided 
materially in popularizing the new regime 
with the French settlers. 

Hammond, William Gardiner, law- 
yer and educator, was born at Newport. 
Rhode Island, May 3, 1829. He was educated 
at Amherst College. He studied law and be- 
gan practice in Brooklyn, New York. His 
health failed and he traveled abroad for a 
number of years. He studied at Heidelberg 
and there acquired his knowledge of foreign 
languages which served him usefully in his 
later works of investigation. In 1867, as one 
of its founders, he became connected with 
the Iowa Law School and was placed at the 
head of the institution. In 1880 he resigned 
his position to become dean of the St. Louis 
Law School. His interest was close and ef- 
fective, and as years passed and the many 
classes of graduating students scattered, he 
came to be closely identified with all the in- 
terests of the legal profession throughout 
Missouri and neighboring States. He retained 



his interest in the Iowa State Law School 
throughout his life, making frequent re- 
turns for the delivery of lectures and ad- 
dresses. Between i860 and 1865 he 
contributed to numerous periodicals. In 1867 
he began the publication of the "Western 
Jurist," and was the chief editor until 1870. 
He wrote "An Introduction to Sanders' 
Justinian" in 1875. It was afterward pub- 
lished separately under the title of "A System 
of Legal Classification of Hale and Black- 
stone in its Relation to the Civil Law." In 
1880 he published an edition of Lieber's 
"Hermeneutics." In 1890 he published an 
edition of "Blackstone's Commentaries," 
with elaborate notes. He also lectured 
at divers times at the law schools of 
Boston University, the Liniversity of Michi- 
gan and elsewhere. At the time of his death 
he was a member of the American Bar Asso- 
ciation and chairman of the committee upon 
legal education. 

Handlan, Alexander Hamilton, 

was born in Wheeling, Virginia, April 25, 
1844, son of Captain Alexander H. Handlan, 
for many years well known to the people of 
St. Louis through his connection with the 
early river trade. He was educated at Her- 
ron's Seminary, Cincinnati. He became con- 
nected with the quartermaster's department 
of the United States Army, and was stationed 
the greater part of the time at Nashville, 
Tennessee. He removed to St. Louis in 1.868 
and became connected with the railroad sup- 
ply house, of which Myron M. Buck was then 
the head. After filling various positions he 
became a partner and soon afterward took 
almost entire charge of the business, and in 
1895 he purchased Mr. Buck's interest. He 
is president and manager of the M. M. Buck 
Manufacturing Company; president of the 
Handlan Warehouse Company; president of 
the Marquette Trust Company, and a di- 
rector in several other mercantile enterprises. 
He has also been vice president of the Citi- 
zens' Bank, is one of the owners and was the 
originator of the new Planters' Hotel, and 
has operated extensively in real estate. 

In 1866 he married Miss Marie De Prez, 
whose parents settled at Nashville, Tennes- 
see, at an early date, who was born in Paris, 
France, and comes of a distinguished French 
family. 



164 



HANAWALT— HANNA. 



Hanawalt, Henry, physician, was born 
July 29, 1844, in Ross County, Ohio. His 
parents were Caleb and Eliza Hanawalt, the 
first-named a native of Pennsylvania and an 
early settler in Ohio, and the last-named a 
native of Virginia. Their son Henry was 
brought up on the home farm and received 
his literary education in the common schools 
and in the Normal School at Lebanon, Ohio. 
For a few years following he taught in pub- 
sic schools in Fayette County, Ohio. He 
then read medicine at Bloomingburg, Ohio, 
under Dr. C. Smith, and afterward entered the 
Medical College of Ohio at Cincinnati, from 
which he was graduated in 1873. After prac- 
ticing for two years in Fayette County, Ohio, 
he located in Arvonia, Kansas, where he re- 
mained until 1877, when he removed to Ga- 
lena, in the same State. In 1885 he removed 
to Kansas City, where he has since been en- 
gaged in professional labor, his practice 
being largely in the treatment of nervous dis- 
eases, a specialty which has given him high 
reputation, beyond the city as well as within 
it. He is at present professor of nervous and 
mental diseases in the Kansas City Medical 
College, and was formerly professor of physi- 
ology and general pathology in the Western 
Dental College, and professor of the physiol- 
ogy of the nervous system and of clinical neu- 
rology in the Woman's Medical College, both 
of Kansas City. He is a member of the 
American Medical Association, the Missouri 
State Medical Society and the Jackson Coun- 
ty Medical Society, and is an honorary mem- 
ber of the Southeastern Kansas District 
Medical Society, and of the Hodgen Medi- 
cal Society of Western Missouri. The year 
previous to locating in Kansas City he was 
president of the Kansas State Medical So- 
ciety. He is an occasional contributor to 
local and national professional journals on 
various phases of nervous diseases and their 
treatment. In politics he is a Republican. 
While a resident of Galena, Kansas, he 
served two terms as councilman, and one 
term as mayor of that city, and during his 
entire residence there was intimately asso- 
ciated with educational affairs, serving for 
several terms as a school director at Empire 
City, practically a portion of Galena. During 
a portion of the Civil War he was a member 
of the Sixtieth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. With that command he was cap- 
tured at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in 1862. 



He was subsequently a patient in a govern- 
ment hospital, and on this account was not 
with his regiment when it was mustered out 
of service, and did not receive his discharge 
until some time afterward. Dr. Hanawalt 
was married in i886 to Miss Ida L. Edmond- 
ston, of an old family of Knoxville, Maryland. 
Two children have been born of this mar- 
riage, Mabel and Henry O. Hanawalt, Jr. 

Haiina, Thomas King, a prominent 
pioneer merchant of the Alissouri valley, and 
active in the establishment of various impor- 
tant enterprises in Kansas City, was born 
February 29, 1829, in Shelby County, Ken- 
tucky, son of John S. and Jane (King) Hanna, 
both natives of Kentucky, and descended 
from Scotch Covenanter ancestry. Their son^ 
Thomas K. Hanna, was reared on the home 
farm and was educated in the neighborhood, 
his schooling including a course, liberal for 
the day, provided by the high school at Shel- 
byville. When eighteen years of age he went 
to Louisville, Kentucky, and engaged as clerk 
in the dry goods store of W. W. Talbot, and 
during one year of this occupation laid the 
foundation for that method, close attention 
to details and persistent application, which 
marked his after life, and to which he at- 
tributes his success. In 1849 ^^ removed to 
Lexington, Missouri, where he engaged for 
two years with McGrew Brothers, merchants 
and manufacturers. For two years following 
he conducted a mercantile business in the 
same city on his own account. From 1853 
to 1854 he resided in St. Louis, engaged in 
the wholesale dry goods trade in the em- 
ploy of C. M. McClung & Co.. From 1854 to 
1857, wit.h a younger brother, and at his fa- 
ther's solicitation, he was on a farm in De 
Kalb County, Missouri. The brother having 
returned to Kentucky, he sold the farm for 
double the price paid and returned to mer- 
cantile life. In 1857 he entered the field, which 
proved to be the scene of his most marked 
success and usefulness, in association with one 
who was equally enterprising, with whom he 
maintained companionable and mutually 
profitable relations for many years. Forming 
a partnership with Thomas E. Tootle, then 
the foremost dry goods merchant in St. Jos- 
eph, Missouri, he opened a wholesale and 
retail house at Plattsmouth, Nebraska, which ^ 
he conducted under the name of Tootle & 
Hanna. The business proved entirely success- 



HANNIBAL. 



165 



I 



ful, and in 1864 a branch house was opened 
at Helena, Montana, by the firm of Tootle, 
Leach & Company, with Richard Leach 
as managing partner. In 1868 the firm name 
became Tootle, Hanna & Leach. The houses 
at Plattsmouth and Helena were now aban- 
doned, and the firm opened a wholesale dry 
goods business in Kansas City under the per- 
sonal management of Mr. Hanna. In 1873 
Mr. Leach died, and the business was con- 
tinued under the firm name of Tootle, Hanna 
& Company. In 1887, on the death of Milton 
Tootle, Mr. Hanna bought the business m 
Kansas City. His health had become serious- 
ly impaired owing to excessive application to 
commercial affairs during many years, and he 
sold interests to others, placing the firm un- 
der its present title of Burnham, Hanna, 
Munger & Company. This establishment, at 
its beginning in 1868, employed six men and 
transacted an annual business of $200,000 ; it 
is now one of the most important wholesale 
houses in the Missouri valley, employing 
about 250 persons and distributing annually 
goods to the value of more than five million 
dollars. Mr. Hanna, who maintains an advis- 
ory interest in the daily concerns of the 
house, bears the distinction of being the old- 
est dry goods jobbing merchant in the city, 
and is honored as one of the few survivors 
of the class of old-time merchants, whose 
ideals of business character were the most 
exalted, and whose promise or guaranty 
needed neither witness nor bond. Prior to 
the organization of the present firm he was 
in full charge of the business, yet gave at- 
tention to various other enterprises. At 
Plattsmouth he aided in organizing the First 
National Bank, and at a later day he was one 
of the founders of the Miners' Bank at Jop- 
lin. He was also for many years interested m 
lead mines at the latter place and elsewhere 
in southwest Missouri. He was one of the 
organizers of both the Citizens' National 
Bank and the Merchants' National Bank, of 
Kansas City, and for many years a director 
in each of them, and for a short time was vice 
president of the American National Bank of 
Kansas City. When he became a resident of 
Kansas City he assumed a full share of 
the labor and outlay incident to the advance- 
ment of public interests conducive to its de- 
velopment and prosperity. In 1869 he was 
an organizing member of the Kansas City 
Board of Trade, and was president of that 



body for the first three years of its existence. 
After that he was for many years an officer 
and member of the board of directors of that 
organization. His interest in it has never 
waned, and he was foremost among its mem- 
bers when the present magnificent exchange 
building was erected. Earnestly interested in 
educational affairs as a member of the board 
of education, 1872-5, he rendered valuable 
service. There were then laid the founda- 
tions for the present admirable school sys- 
tem, and wise judgment and great tact were 
necessary in providing school accommoda- 
tions for a rapidly increasing population and 
to select a corps of teachers whose capability 
and character were unassailable. In all meas- 
ures to these ends he was one of the most 
ready to assume responsibility and to afford 
the benefit of his wise judgment and direct- 
ing powers. In his early life he was a Henry 
Clay Whig, and on the downfall of that party 
he became a Democrat. He never sought 
political distinction, and has held but one 
political office, that of State Senator in the 
first Legislature of the State of Nebraska, 
to which he was elected without solicitation 
on his part. He served his term to the emi- 
nent satisfaction of his constituents, who 
commended his fidelity and usefulness in un- 
stinted language. In religion he is a Presby- 
terian and has ever given devoted service to 
his church and Sunday school, and bestowed 
liberally of his means on various benefi- 
cences. Mr. Hanna was married September 
27, 1855, at St. Joseph, Missouri, to Miss 
Judith J. Venable, a lady of education and 
refinement, and a daughter of Dr. Joseph 
Venable, of Shelbyville, Kentucky. 

Hannibal.— A city of 12,780 inhabitants 
(census of 1900), situated on the Mississippi 
River, in the southeast corner of Marion 
County. Soulard, an early surveyor general, 
probably left in the provisional archives some 
map calling for Hannibal Creek, which, 
escaping transfer to the Spanish capital, re- 
mained in territorial custody so as to sug- 
gest the name to the United States surveyors 
who, in 1818, platted the town. Whoever 
constructed this plat was able to so arrange 
it that, except on Broadway, each half block 
with one-half the abutting area of the alley 
and one-half the surrounding area of the 
streets, amounted to precisely one acre. To 
the early bar of the subsequent city this fea- 



166 



HANNIBAL. 



ture was well known. On February 6, 1816, 
Abraham Bird, of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 
gave his son, Thompson Bird, a supposed 
general power of attorney over the aflfairs 
of Abraham Bird in Missouri Territory. In 
1817 Moses D. Bates settled at St, Louis, 
Missouri, and engaged in a contract under 
the Territorial government. In 1818, while 
'serving as a chain carrier in the government 
survey corps, Bates became acquainted with 
the present site of Hannibal. Soon after- 
ward Abraham Bird, through his son, 
Thompson Bird, located in the recorder's 
office at St. Louis, a New Madrid certificate 
for 640 acres. No. 230 or 379, survey 2,739, 
on Sections 28, 21, and part of 29, in Town- 
ship 57, north, Range 4, west. It appears that 
the filing of the claim on this land was done 
upon the advice of Bates, who later became 
a prominent figure in the afifairs of the early 
town of Hannibal. Under power of attorney, 
Thompson Bird deeded the undivided half of 
the 640 acres to Elias Rector, In 1818 M. 
D, Bates, accompanied by four slaves and 
eight employes, brought from St. Louis a 
stock of goods and built a double log cabin 
store house on the south part of what is now 
Lot 7, Block 6, and near by he built some 
shanties.. He also built a warehouse on Lot 
3, Block 10. Bates and his companions were 
the first settlers, and the former may be con- 
sidered the founder of Hannibal. He also 
ran a keel-boat on the Mississippi, plying be- 
tween St, Louis and Ste. Genevieve. While 
working at the construction of such a boat 
for Bates, at the mouth of Bay de Charles, 
in 1819, Jonathan Fleming was attacked and 
wounded by the Indians, The first steam- 
boat, Bates' boat, the "Gen. Putnam," arrived 
in 1825. Bates' principal business during his 
first years at Hannibal was trading with the 
Indians, and he numberea among his cus- 
tomers Black Hawk and Keokuk, In the 
early part of 1819 an association, known as 
the "Old Town Company," had the first 
thirty-three blocks of the town laid ofT and 
platted, and gave to the place the name Han- 
nibal. Bates was the chief factor in this oper- 
ation, and it appears plain that the surveying 
and platting of the town was done by his sur- 
veyor associates. The Rectors were survey- 
ors, and four Rectors figured in the early 
title. A public sale of lots attracted some 
purchasers, and titles were made under the 
Thompson Bird power of attorney. In the 



winter of 1820- 1 Bates moved his store to 
what is now known as Indian Mound Park. 
There is evidence that Abraham Bird died 
in 1819, but in the case of Rector vs. Waugh 
(17 Mo., page 23), it is stated that Abraham 
Bird, of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, died in- 
testate in 1821. On December i, 1824, a 
United States patent for the 640 acres upon 
which Thompson Bird filed, as attorney, a 
New Madrid claim, was issued to Abraham 
Bird or his legal representatives. In 1826 the 
Supreme Court of Missouri decided that 
Thompson Bird's power of attorney was void. 
(Ashley vs. Bird, i Mo., 640.) By deed, 
dated December i, 1829, and acknowledged in 
1830 and 1831, Abraham Bird's widow, Mary 
Bird, and his children, Abraham, William, 
John and Mary Bird Vail, joined by her hus- 
band, conveyed to the remaining child, 
Thompson Bird, their estate in the patented 
land. (Record Book B, page 37, Marion 
County.) There were numerous corrective 
and other conveyances, but in the end all 
title, including a third acquired by Moses D. 
Bates, and set ofiF to him in partition in 
Marion Circuit Court, was concentrated to 
Stephen Glascock and his grantees, Glas- 
cock was simply a member or agent of the 
"New Town Company," and was selected for 
trustee because he was unmarried. On April 
17, 1836, he filed a reproduction of the orig- 
inal plat of 1819, Abstracts of title usually 
stop with Stephen Glascock. In 1839 
Stephen Glascock platted the additional 
blocks, including South Hannibal and all the 
out lots. This plat, though then filed, is lost ; 
yet there is reason to believe that it is still 
in existence. Some lithographic copies of 
this plat are extant. The year Glascock laid 
out his additions to the town he made a pub- 
lic sale of all unsold lots and out lots. The 
sale book is in the records of the common 
pleas court at Hannibal. Thomas Sunder- 
land, a young lawyer of Hannibal, made an 
abstract which contained in narrative form 
a history of the early Hannibal titles. This 
history, after passing through various vicis- 
situdes, was lost in about 1882. Sunderland 
went to California and became a multi- 
millionaire. He removed to Washington 
City and died there. The early settlers 
called the creek running through the town 
Bear Creek, because an American hunter V 
from down the river had killed a bear in this 
valley. The space between Bear Creek and 



HANNIBAL. 



167 



Rock Street was, on March i, 1839, incor- 
porated as a town. (Missouri Session Laws, 
1838-9, page 305.) On January 29, 1841, the 
corporate Hmits were extended northward. 
(Laws 1 84 1, page 306.) February 25, 1843, 
the town of South Hannibal, with other ter- 
ritory, was added. (Laws 1842-3, page 383.) 
February 21, 1845, the Legislature granted 
the town of Hannibal a special charter as a 
city. (Laws 1845, page 115.) Since then 
numerous amendments have been enacted. 
The first brick building in Hannibal was 
erected by Joseph Hamilton on Lot 2, in 
Block 7, a two-story house, opposite to the 
landing between Bird and Hill Streets. 
When the levee was raised by the earth taken 
from Third Street, between Hill and North 
Streets, the first floor of this old brick be- 
came three or four feet below the grade. 
There are now but two frame houses that 
were in Hannibal before 1836, One is on the 
east end of lot 8, in block 9, on the north 
side of the hill between Main and Third 
Streets. The other is on the south part of 
the east front of lot 2, in block 11, west 
side of Third Street, between Center and 
Bird Streets. The original city prison, then 
called the calaboose, was a two-story brick 
building, situated on the east end of lot 5, 
in block 5, and was' held by the city under 
some right derived from the late General 
Benjamin F. Butler. (City Records, May 17, 
1847, page 196.) This was the structure that 
the hapless prisoner fired as described in 
Mark Twain's "Life on the Mississippi," 
page 554. Carroll Beckwith, the portrait 
painter, was born in the two-story brick 
northeast corner of Hill and Fourth Streets. 
In 1838 John M. Clemens, the father of Mark 
Twain, moved to Hannibal. His first resi- 
dence was on lot i, in block 19, west side of 
Third Street, between Bird and Hill Streets, 
November 13, 1839, John M. Clemens 
bought lot I, in block 9. On this lot his first 
residence was in a dwelling house no longer 
existing, but then facing Hill Street, between 
Second and Third Streets, and adjoining his 
subsequent residence, the two-story frame 
known as the Mark Twain building, No. 206 
Hill Street, almost directly in rear of which 
stands "Huck Finn's" former habitation. 
After the death of John M. Clemens, March 
24, 1847, the ell of the Clemens house was 
erected by his son Orion Clemens. The 
Christmas number of "Harper's Weekly," 



1899, contains some views of early Hannibal, 
illustrating an article by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Fielder Waller. In 1844 Hannibal began a 
remarkable growth. In that period were 
built the brick blocks that compose the old- 
est part of the city. These improvements 
bore the tax burdens that ipade Hannibal a 
railway focus. Following the era of 1844, 
the citizens of Hannibal began to debate the 
project of a railroad from Hannibal to Glas- 
gow, Missouri. The citizens of St. Joseph 
became enlisted, and through their influ- 
ence the western terminus was diverted to 
St. Joseph. As early as 1837 John M. Clem- 
ens had appeared as a corporator in a char- 
tered railway company, and as he figured as 
chairman of the organizing meeting in Han- 
nibal, held in his office in 1846, for the cre- 
ation of what became the Hannibal & St. 
Joseph Railroad, it may be concluded that 
he, if not original promoter, was one of the 
prime movers of that enterprise. In 1851 the 
canvass began. Among the largest subscrib- 
ers were Zachariah Z. Draper, who died July 
2, 1856, and Archibald S. Robards, who died 
June 21, 1862. There were, among others, 
foremost in that campaign two citizens who 
afterward freely devoted the best part of 
their lives to the promotion of this and vari- 
ous succeeding public enterprises which 
finally made Hannibal one of the first 
railway centers in the United States — Rob- 
ert F. Lakenan, who expired May 13, 1883, 
and Jameson F. Hawkins^ who, on July 21, 
1885, died in the harness. For such as these 
the commemorative bronze awaits its merited 
invocation. The present city of Hannibal 
extends from Holliday's Hill, on the north, 
to Lover's Leap, on the south, extending for 
a distance of more than two miles back from 
the river and having a delightful location 
on elevated land. For some years after the 
first settlement was made, the Indians had 
their wigwams on the hills over which the 
residence part of the city now extends. As 
the white settlers came the Indians gradu- 
ally departed. The greater part of the site 
of the city in early days was a dense forest 
of oak and other trees and underbrush. This 
was cleared away as the population increased. 
At the old R. H. Griffith homestead in Han- 
nibal to-day remains a grove of these pri- 
meval forest trees, with very straight and 
slender columns. In 1833 the first steam 
sawmill was built by Smith & Johnson, 



168 



HANNIBAL. 



and occupied what is now the corner of 
Main and Broadway. In the early settle- 
ment of the place commerce of the river was 
carried on by keel boats, and a week and 
a half was required to make the trip from 
St. Louis to Hannibal. Hannibal had no 
regular steamboat service until about 1830, 
when one Doat a week made the trip to St, 
Louis. When the river was high a steamer 
would sometimes come up the creek and land 
at the intersection of Broadway and Second 
Street. In 1833 the total population of the 
town was thirty-five, while Palmyra, the 
county seat, had more than 1,000 inhabi- 
tants. The city at present contains within 
its corporate limits more than 3,000 acres 
of land. It has a public sewer system, sev- 
eral miles of well paved streets, gas works 
and water works, a finely equipped electric 
car system, municipal ownership of electric 
light and power plant, telegraph and cable 
service, telephone, local and long distance, 
paid fire department, a well organiired police 
force consisting of a chief and ten men, four 
banks, fine free public library, an operahouse, 
hotels, elegant union depot, ten fine public 
school buildings, including a high school and 
schools for colored children, an academy (St. 
Joseph's) conducted under the auspices of 
the Catholic Church, and an Evangelical 
Lutheran parochial school, connected with 
St. John's Church. The moral tone of the 
city is told by its number of churches — 
twenty— including three Baptist, one of which 
is colored ; three Christian, of which two arc 
colored; one Congregational, one Episco- 
pal, one Evangelical Lutheran, seven Meth- 
odist Episcopal, including the two Methodist 
Episcopal, South, and two for colored peo- 
ple; two Presbyterian, and one Catholic. 
There are numerous religious and charitable 
societies and lodges of fraternal orders, in- 
cluding five lodges of the different degrees 
of Masonry, three lodges of United Work- 
men, one lodge Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks, eight lodges of Odd Fellows, 
seven of Knights of Pythias, three of the order 
of Maccabees, one of Modern Woodmen, and 
one of National Union. There are a num- 
ber of lodges, not included above, sustained 
by the colored residents of the town. There 
are numerous fine public halls and buildings. 
In January, 1900, the county court directed 
that a courthouse, to cost $50,000, be built, 
and this is in process of construction. Ses- 



sions of the United States circuit and the 
United States district courts are held in the 
city. A United States marshal's office, an inter- 
nal revenue office, pension examiner's office, 
weather bureau, and United States live stock 
agent are maintained in the city. The gov- 
ernment building is one of the most artistic 
and substantial in Missouri. The building 
is occupied by the post office, the United 
States courts and United States officers. 
Within and near the city are many points 
of interest, some of which have been made 
famous by Mark Twain, especially Hannibal 
Cave. The bluffs of drift are the largest 
known in the State. (See Swallow's "Geology," 
engraving facing page y6, First Part.) The 
Hampton boulder, a red granite erratic, is the 
largest lost rock in the State. It is distin- 
guished by its freedom from erosion. Han- 
nibal is one of the chief division points of 
the Burlington Railway system, and general 
offices of the St. Louis, Keokuk & North- 
western, and the Hannibal & St. Joseph di- 
visions are maintained there, and the large 
repair shops of the company are also located 
at that point, giving employment to several 
hundred hands. Shops of the Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas Railway and the St, Louis & 
Hannibal Railroad are also located in the 
town. The building stone is a crinoid lime- 
stone, a coarse, white marble taking a good 
polish. A large plant saws out slabs and 
blocks of this material in any required size. 
The lumber interests of the town are impor- 
tant, a number of large mills still being 'in 
operation. There is a large stove manufac- 
turing plant, two foundries, one of which 
manufactures car wheels ; a wagon factory, 
cooperage works, large printing house and 
blank book manufactory, two shoe factories, 
several cigar factories, shell button factories, 
a pump manufacturing works, pressed brick 
plant, large pork-packing house, large 
flouring mills, ice-making plant, breweries, 
soap works, overall factory, box factories, 
lime works and more than thirty other 
manufacturing establishments, some of 
which are of considerable size and 
give employment to many hands. A 
new, but perhaps temporary, industry, 
is the gathering of mussels and the 
manufacture of button blanks. A bed of 
mussels, said to be six or seven feet deep and 
a half mile long, extends in front of the city 
limits. This space is dotted with mussel 



HANNIBAL & ST. JOSEPH RAIIvROAD— HANNIBAL CAVES. 



169 



boats, suggesting the oyster pungies on the 
shallows of the Chesapeake. There are alto- 
gether nearl> 400 business concerns in the 
city, including the above mentioned and a 
number of wholesale establishments. There 
is one daily paper, the "Journal," and two 
weeklies, the "Journal" and the "Courier- 
Post." The total assessed valuation of all 
kinds of property in the city in 1900 was 
$3,648,821. It is the converging point of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy ; the St. 
Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern ; the Hanni- 
bal & St. Joseph; the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas ; the St. Louis & Hannibal, and the 
Wabash Railroads. The principal place of 
interment at Hannibal is Mount Olivet Cem- 
etery, situated just south of the city lim- 
its. It contains eighty-seven acres, crowning 
the elevated slopes which overlook the Cave 
Mills on the south, the city on the north, and 
on the east the river glimpse, the river plain 
and the far hills and towns of Illinois. Na- 
ture never presented a more lovely site. The 
grounds have been well laid off at great ex- 
pense, a residence is provided for the warden, 
a cut-stone slate-roofed chapel costing $2,000 
occupies a central position, and many very 
beautiful and costly monuments are within 
the cemetery enclosure. Three present life- 
size granite statues. Mount Olivet Ceme- 
tery Association is a benevolent corporation. 
Its president is Thomas H. Bacon, and its 
secretary and treasurer is John L. R. Bards, 
who is the founder and general patron of the 
enterprise. Under his management a fund 
of near $10,000 has been accumulated from 
the sales of lots, and this money is maintained 
at interest on real estate security with a view 
of providing ultimate income to defray the 
running expenses, as well as to improve the 
grounds. 

The free public library of Hannibal was es- 
tablished in 1889, under the promotion of 
Robert Elliott. It is the first free public li- 
brary organized in the State, and is sup- 
ported by a 5 per centum city tax, producing 
$1,700 per annum. The incidental revenue 
is $100 besides. The library contains 7,647 
books. The officers and board serve with- 
out compensation. ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 

Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad. — 

The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad Com- 
pany was chartered under the laws of Mis- 
souri in 1847. It received a land grant of 



600,000 acres, and the State guaranteed its 
bonds to the amount of $3,000,000. The 
road was opened February 15, 1859, with J. 
T. K. Hayward as its general superintendent. 
In the beginning, its management was inimi- 
cal to St. Louis, the road crossing the State 
in such a way as to divert traffic to Chicago 
and the East. It is now part of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy system, which see. 

Hannibal Bridge. — In the year 1870-1 
a combined railroad and wagon bridge was 
built over the Mississippi River at Hannibal, 
at a cost of $485,000. It is used by the Wa- 
bash and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
railways. 

-^Hannibal Caves. — There are several 
interesting caves in the vicinity of Hannibal. 
The largest one (the Mark Twain-"Tom Saw- 
yer" Cave) is a mile below the city and a 
quarter of a mile from the Mississippi River, 
having an ante-chamber eight feet high and 
fifteen feet long, descending into the Nar- 
rows, through which access is had to Grand 
Avenue, Washington Avenue, and Altar 
Chamber. In Bat Chamber there are thou- 
sands of bats clinging to the ceiling and walls, 
and in Washington Avenue are long corri- 
dors of stalactites and stalagmites. Devil's 
Hall is a spacious chamber with a horizontal 
ceiHng and level floor; AlHgator Rock and 
Elephant's Head afford rude resemblances to 
the animals they are named after; Table 
Rock is twenty feet in height, with regular 
steps to the top. Not far away is the La 
Beaume Cave. Within the limits of the city 
are Murphy's Cave and Ure's Cave, but they 
are smaller and contain fewer formations of 
interest. These caves could be used in 
mushroom culture. They are generally free 
from moisture. Their occurrence is confined 
to the Louisiana limestone, which nowhere 
extends below water level. All stories of 
chambers or avenues extending under the 
river are fabrications, the stock products of 
cave mendacity. No archaeological relics 
can ever be found in these caverns. The 
floor is a clay of high specific gravity. This 
mud was deposited when the whole country 
was under water. The same agencies sealed 
up the many openings. The avenues are 
huge crevices in the rock, labyrinths of inter- 
secting passages. The cave limestone is also 
called "pot metal," from its metallic ring. It 



170 



HANNIBAL TUNNEL— HARDIN. 



is applicable to lithographic purposes. Mark 
Twain Cave was discovered as the refuge of a 
panther. Two other panthers were after- 
ward cornered there by the earliest settlers. 
About 1858, Rogers, the sculptor, lived ui 
Hannibal, where he held some position in the 
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad offices. He 
made a survey and diagram of the Mark 
Twain Cave. Thomas H. Bacon. 

Hannibal Tnnnel. — A railway tunnel 
cut through Bridge Hill, just north of Holli- 
day's Hill at Hannibal. It is 302 feet in 
length, 20 feet in height and 18 feet in width. 
The Louisiana limestone being full of cavi- 
ties, making it difficult to blast, dynamite was 
used, and in several instances with fatal re- 
sults. 

Hardeman's Garden. — A name given 
to a beautiful ornamented spot of ten acres 
laid off and cultivated as a botanical garden 
by John Hardeman, about live miles above 
Old Franklin, Howard County, on the Mis- 
souri River, in 1820. The proprietor was a 
native of North Carolina, a gentleman of 
wealth, leisure and taste, who came to Mis- 
souri to practice law, but abandoned the pro- 
fession for the gentler pursuit of floriculture. 
The garden was the central attraction in a 
fine farm of several hundred acres which the 
proprietor owned and cultivated, and was 
famous for its shell walks, its exotic and in- 
digenous plants, its vines and its ornamental 
shrubbery. But it was swallowed up in the 
rapacious Missouri long ago, and the very 
name is almost forgotten. John Hardeman 
died of yellow fever at New Orleans in 1829. 

Hardin.— A fourth-class city, in Ray 
County, on the Wabash and the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe Railroads, five miles 
north of the Missouri River, and ten miles 
east of Richmond. It has Methodist Epis- 
copal, Christian and Baptist churches, a free 
public school, a bank, flouring mill, two grain 
elevators, a newspaper, the "News," and 
about twenty-five stores, shops, etc. Popula- 
tion, 1899 (estimated), 650. 

Hardin, Charles B., physician, and 
medical examiner for various life insurance 
companies, is a native of Missouri, and was 
born in Lafayette County, August 30, 1857. 
His parents were Daniel S. and Sallie (Buck- 



ner) Hardin, both natives of Kentucky, who 
soon after their marriage removed to Mis- 
souri, and in recent years have resided in 
Jackson County. Of their five children. Dr. 
C. B. Hardin was the second. He was reared 
upon the home farm and began his education 
in the common schools in the neighborhood. 
Having the medical profession in view, he 
availed himself of every opportunity to ad- 
vance in knowledge, and afterward became a 
student in Woodland College, at Independ- 
ence, Missouri, and in the Christian College, 
at Canton, Missouri, pursuing the complete 
course in the latter institution. Upon leav- 
ing college, he taught school for a time in 
Saline County, Missouri, with such success 
as to mark him as well fitted for a teacher. 
Determined upon medicine, however, he en- 
tered upon the study of that science in Kan- 
sas City, Missouri, and in 1881 he was grad- 
uated from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. After his graduation he prac- 
ticed with his first preceptor. Dr. John Bry- 
ant, at Independence, Missouri, afterward 
removing to Excelsior Springs, Missouri, 
where he practiced alone. Desirous of at- 
taining further proficiency in his profession, 
in the fall of 1882 he closed his office and 
went to New York City, and entered Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College, from which he was 
graduated in 1883. With the thorough prepa- 
ration afforded through these various courses 
of study, he located at Independence, and en- 
tered upon a practice which was useful and 
remunerative almost from the first. Recog- 
nition of his ability soon came in his appoint- 
ment as examining physician by several of 
the most exacting insurance companies and 
fraternal insurance orders, among them the 
Bankers' Life Insurance Company, the An- 
cient Order of United Workmen, the Fra- 
ternal Guardians, and the Provident Life In- 
surance Company. With no reason for 
dissatisfaction with his practice, a laudable 
ambition moved him to seek a field more rich 
in opportunities for effort, and affording a 
keener stimulation through contact with 
greater numbers in the profession, and in 
1888 he removed to Kansas City, Missouri, 
where he has since built up a large and in- 
creasing practice, general in its character, 
among an excellent class of people. To deep 
knowledge in his profession he unites those 
personal attributes which adorn the true phy- 
sician and contribute to his success. Courte- 




ptyrffm^Myr 



T^c^^ ^ "?^ 






HARDIN. 



171 



ous in his demeanor, he possesses a naturally 
sympathetic feeUng which affords assurance 
of a deep-seated personal interest in his pa- 
tients, inspiring that confidence which is so 
efficient an aid to medical skill. He is now 
lecturer on physical diagnosis in the Medico- 
Chirurgical College of Kansas City, and sec- 
retary of the faculty. He is a member of the 
Jackson County Medical Society, in which he 
holds the position of censor; of the Kansas 
City District Medical Society; of the Kansas 
City Academy of Medicine, in which he has 
served as secretary and as censor ; of the 
Missouri State Medical Society, and of the 
American Medical Association. He is a 
Democrat in politics, but has taken little act- 
ive interest in political affairs on account of 
the exactions of his profession. The year 
following his removal to Kansas City, he was 
the nominee of his party for the position of 
city physician, and was defeated by but one 
vote. With his wife he is a member of the 
Christian Church. He holds membersnip 
with the Knights of Pythias, with the 
Woodmen of the W^orld, and with the 
Brotherhood of America. June 19, 1884, 
Dr. Hardin married Miss Lunette Mosby, an 
amiable and well educated lady, of Liberty, 
Missouri. Two children have been born of 
this marriage, Celeste and Samuel B. Hardin. 
The first named was a second year student in 
the Kansas City High School, and the last 
named was a student in the ward school in 
1900. 

Hardin, Charles Henry, ex-Governor 
of Missouri, was born in Trimble County, 
Kentucky, July 15, 1820, and died at Mexico, 
Missouri, July 29, 1892. He was a son of 
Charles and Hannah (Jewell) Hardin, both 
descendants of old Virginia families. Mrs. 
Hardin was a sister of Dr. William Jewell, of 
Columbia, the founder of William Jewell 
College, at Liberty, Missouri. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hardin were the parents of five children, 
three sons and two daughters. Charles H. 
Hardin was their second child. At an early 
day his parents removed from Virginia, their 
birthplace, to Kentucky, and after a few 
years' residence there removed to Boone 
County, Missouri, where the family was 
reared and where the elder Hardin prospered 
financially. He died August 20, 1830, when 
his son, Charles H., was only ten years of age. 
The care and education of the son devolved 



upon the mother, who was a firm, devout 
Christian of unusual strength of mind. The 
son attended the excellent schools at Colum- 
bia until 1837, when he entered the college 
at Bloomington, Indiana, where he remained 
two years. From 1839 to 1841 he attended 
Miami University, at Oxford, Ohio, where 
he graduated with honor, receiving the de- 
gree of bachelor of arts, July 13, 1841. Sub- 
sequently this institution conferred upon him 
the degree of master of arts. William Jewell 
College gave him the degree of doctor of 
laws. Returning to Columbia after com- 
pleting his college course, he began the study 
of law under Judge James M. Gordon, then 
one of the prominent lawyers of the State. 
In 1843 he was admitted to the bar and lo- 
cated at Fulton, the judicial seat of Callaway 
County, where he entered actively into the 
practice of his profession, and soon became 
recognized as a young attorney of more than 
ordinary ability, and by the people of Fulton 
was elected a justice of the peace. His de- 
cisions of cases were remarkable for correct- 
ness, and the few successful appeals from his 
court attracted the attention of the legal fra- 
ternity. As a lawyer he was highly success- 
ful, and his arguments in cases and all his 
legal papers were models of conciseness and 
accuracy. As a pleader he was forcible, a 
clear thinker, and while not of the greatest 
eloquence and brilliancy as an orator, his 
convincing manner and plain common sense 
successfully appealed to the court and jurors. 
After a term of five years of eminently suc- 
cessful practice he was chosen prosecuting 
attorney of the Third Judicial Circuit and 
served a four years' term, remarkable on ac- 
count of no indictment drawn by him ever 
being overruled by the court. In his duties 
he was conscientious, and through no fault of 
his did any offender escape. In 1859 he was 
appointed one of the managers of the State 
Lunatic Asylum at Fulton, which position he 
held for twelve years, in the meantime being 
secretary of the board. Under his watchful 
eye the affairs of the institution were man^ 
aged economically and with consummate 
ability. Prior to his appointment to the 
board of managers of the State Lunatic 
Asylum, and in 1852, he was elected to the 
Legislature from Callaway County, and at 
the close of his term was returned. In 1855 
the Legislature appointed him, together with 
Honorable John W. Reid, pf Kansas 



172 



HARDIN. 



City, and Hon. Thomas C. Richardson, of 
Scotland County, to revise and compile the 
"State Statutes," and he was selected to su- 
perintend the printing of the same, a task 
which he discharged with credit and marked 
ability. For the third time he was elected 
to the Legislature in 1859, ^^^ ^^ ^^^ close 
of his term in i860, he was elected to the 
State Senate for the district composed of Cal- 
laway and Boone Counties. The term in 
which he served was one of the most excit- 
ing and stormy in the history of the State. 
He was made the chairman of the committee 
on judiciary, a place at that period which 
called for the calmest consideration and the 
exercise of powerful judgment. He filled 
the position admirably. While a member of 
the State Senate in 1861, he removed his resi- 
dence from Fulton to his farm, nine miles 
southwest of Mexico, where he remained 
until 1865, when he opened an office and prac- 
ticed his profession for several years in Mex- 
ico. In 1866 he improved a farm, two miles 
north of Mexico, where he resided until his 
death. For a while he withdrew from the po- 
litical field. He had the confidence of all who 
knew him. Legal and business affairs of 
every kind and character were thrust upon 
him. His reputation for honesty, combined 
with his great ability, caused him to be over- 
whelmed with work, arising out of adminis- 
trative, executive and guardianship affairs. 
In all his transactions he was guided by the 
highest sense of honor. He was exacting to 
the fraction, and never held *a cent in trust 
but what was carefully accounted for. Gov- 
ernor Hardin retired from legal practice in 
1871, and a year later was sent to the State 
Senate — the honor unsolicited, for he never 
sought ofifice — from the district composed of 
Audrain, Boone and Callaway Counties. 
Again he was made chairman of the judiciary 
committee, and also chairman of the commit- 
tee on the Lvuiatic Asylum. The people of 
the State wanted him for Governor, and at 
the Democratic convention, which met in 
1874, he was nominated, and at the following 
election was elected, receiving a majority of 
nearly 40,000 votes. As State executive, his 
administration marks an important era in 
Missouri's financial affairs. Differences aris- 
ing out of the Civil War, and recklessness and 
mismanagement resultant, had impaired the 
credit of the State. Governor Hardin's man- 
agement soon raised the value of the State 



bonds from ninety-five cents on the dollar to 
a premium of 7 per cent above par. He 
maintained law and order, and in every way 
upheld and added to the dignity of the com- 
monwealth. The following resolution was 
adopted by the Democratic State convention, 
July 19, 1876: "Resolved, That we point 
with pride to the administration of Charles 
H. Hardin, Governor of Missouri, as a model 
one in the history of the State, and challenge 
comparison for it with that of any other State 
in the Union ; and upon the honorable record 
thus made in the management of our State 
affairs, we invite all good men to co-operate 
with us in our determination to present and 
elect a State ticket that shall prove worthy 
successors to Governor Charles H. Hardin 
and his associates in the various State af- 
fairs." 

At the close of his term as Governor he re- 
turned to his farm, two miles north of 
Mexico, and retired from public life. He was 
a member of the Missionary Baptist Church. 
The well known female college, Hardin Col- 
lege, at Mexico, Missouri, now stands as a 
monument to the man's generosity, and will 
for time to come perpetuate his memory. To 
this institution he gave nearly $75,000. In 
works of charity he was foremost among the 
citizens of Missouri. He even lived in a 
simple and economical manner so that he 
could accomplish lasting good to his fellow 
men. Like all men of extraordmary mental 
qualities, often by his friends he was accused 
of eccentricities, but time demonstrated that 
his alleged peculiarities, which were mainly 
of an economic nature, were not without wis- 
dom, and served as a veil for the purely 
charitable inclinations of the man. During 
life he had the confidence and respect of all 
who knew him, and never did his virtues 
shine brighter in the eyes of the people of 
Missouri than when the announcement of his 
death was made. In i8zi4 Governor Hardin 
was married to Miss Mary B. Jenkins, daugh- 
ter of Theodorick Jenkins, of Boone County, 
Missouri. Mrs. Hardin resides at Mexico 
surrounded by a circle of faithful friends, and 
continues in the charitable work inaugurated 
by her noted husband. 

Hardin, Hopkins, was born Septem- 
ber 19, 1838, in Albemarle County, Virginia. 
His parents were Hopkins and Amanda (Beal) 
Hardin, both of whom were natives of Vir- 



HARDIN COLLEGE. 



173 



ginia. The paternal ancestors came to this 
country from England before the War of the 
Revolution, and the great-grandfather, Hugh 
Hardin, owned a farm adjoining that of Gen- 
eral George Washington, and served in a 
Virginia regiment of the Colonial troops. 
Hopkins Hardin, Sr., died in Virginia in 1893, 
and was the father of eight children, four of 
whom are living. The subject of this sketch 
was educated in the private schools of his 
native State, and resided at home with his 
father until the outbreak of the Civil War. 
In April, 1861, he enlisted in Company C, 
Nineteenth Virginia Regiment, at Scottsville, 
Virginia, and served in Pickett's Division, be> 
ing a participant in all of the principal 
engagements in which that part of the Con- 
federate army figured. He was at both 
battles of Bull Run, WilHamsburg, Freder- 
icksburg, Boonesborough and Gettysburg. At 
the latter place he was wounded three times. 
The bravery of this soldier could not be 
questioned. Always seeking the thickest of 
the fray, he was in constant peril, but thought 
little of the many dangers which surrounded 
him, as enthusiasm carried him on, and a de- 
sire to fight as his heart dictated led him 
toward the front of the struggling column. 
He was captured at Gettysburg, and for 
nearly two years suffered the hardships en- 
dured by prisoners of war. He was at Fort 
McHenry, Point Lookout, Fort Delaware, 
Morris Island and Fort Pulaski, In 1862 he 
was given a lieutenant's commission. After 
the surrender of Lee he was paroled from 
Fort Delaware, June 13, 1865, after long iso- 
lation from the activity of a Hfe in which he 
found true patriotic enjoyment. He returned 
to his home in Virginia at the war's close, 
and after spending four years there started 
for Missouri in 1869, purchasing a farm four 
miles south of Independence, where he re- 
sided until 1899 ^^^ where he reared his 
family. At that time he removed to Inde- 
pendence and is now a resident of that city. 
Mr. Hardin has always been an enthusiastic 
Democrat, but has not sought public honors 
at the hands of his party. He has been a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South for over thirty-five years, and has 
among his interesting papers a license to ex- 
hort for the church, showing that in good 
works he has been as earnest and zealous as 
he was intense in his military service. Mr. 
Hardin was married October 25, 1875, to 



Miss Susan L. Westmoreland, daughter of 
Bufort Westmoreland, of North Carolina. To 
this union seven children were born : Mrs. 
Ardelia Palmer, of Independence, Missouri; 
John H. Hardin, a teacher in Jackson County, 
Missouri; William H., who resides at home, 
and Misses May, Mattie, Allie and Sallie, the 
three first named being pupils in the schools 
of Independence, and living at home, while 
Miss Sallie makes her home with her uncle, 
John McCurdy, of Independence. In the 
education of this interesting family and the 
performance of labor for the cause of Chris- 
tianity Mr. Hardin leads a quiet, unassuming 
life. Having experienced his full share of 
peril and the unpleasant side of life, he pre- 
fers to end his days in comfortable retire- 
ment, with the satisfaction that duty well 
performed, however humble the performance 
may have been, brings a reward that is more 
satisfying in life's closing days than empty 
honors and great riches. 

Hardin College. — An educational in- 
stitution located at Mexico, for higher fe- 
male education, and conducted under the 
auspices of the Missionary Baptist Church 
of Missouri, though non-sectarian in man- 
agement. The college was founded in 1873, 
in which year it received a charter from 
the State. The college was established 
through the munificence of ex-Governor 
Charles H. Hardin. He purchased five acres 
of land, on which was located what was 
known as the "Old Seminary," which he and 
his wife transferred to the Hardin College 
Association, with a donation of about $40,- 
000. Later he made additional donations, 
altogether giving $75,000 to the institution. 
The citizens of Mexico gave about $15,000 
to the support of the college, and in the past 
twenty years various endowments have 
been given. From the beginning the college 
was successful, and its patronage rapidly in- 
creased until it gained recognition as one 
of the leading female educational institutions 
west of the Mississippi River. The college 
is beautifully located in the southern suburbs 
of Mexico, on spacious and handsomely laid 
out grounds. The main building is an im- 
posing brick structure, four stories in height, 
with a frontage of 100 feet. One of the 
wings of this building is three stories high, 
and contains the chapel and recitation rooms ; 
another wing, on the east side, 48 x y6, four 



174 



HARDING. 



stories, is used for dormitory and class room 
purposes. The grounds about the college 
have an area of ten acres, are artistically laid 
out in walks, and present pretty examples of 
landscape gardening. The school has three 
departments — primary, preparatory and col- 
legiate. The courses of study are in accord- 
ance with those of other leading colleges 
for women, including literature, music, art, 
domestic science and business. The total 
value of the grounds and buildings is $90,- 
000, and the furniture, appliances, library and 
equipment of laboratories, etc., $20,000. The 
total amount of the endowment fund is ^6;^,- 
600. The board of trustees in 1900 was com- 
posed of the following named gentlemen : 
T. B. Hitt, president; C. F. Clark, secretary; 
William Harper, J. A. Potts, W. W. Harper, 
C. A. Witherspoon, W. H. Kennan, W. M. 
Pollock, J. E. Jesse, Lewis Hord, A. G. Tur- 
ner and C. W. Lewis. The president of the 
faculty is John W. Million ; vice president, 
George A. Ross. A corps of twenty-one 
teachers is employed. The number of stu- 
dents in attendance at the 1898-9 term was 
166 boarding students and eighty-eight day 
students. 



and after spending some time there, returned 
to this country and made his home in Spring- 
field, Massachusetts. After that, however, 
he frequently spent his winters in St. Louis, 
and painted a number of portraits of the 
most prominent people of the day then re- 
siding in that city. At different times many 
of the most distinguished men in the United 
States sat for him, and among others he 
painted portraits of James Madison, James 
Monroe, John Quincy Adams, John Mar- 
shall, Charles Carroll, William Wirt, Henry 
Clay, John C. Calhoun, Washington AUston, 
the Dukes of Norfolk, Hamilton and Sussex, 
Samuel Rogers and Sir Archibald Allison. 
His last work was a portrait of General Wil- 
liam T. Sherman. His portrait of Daniel 
Webster is now in the possession of the Bar 
Association of New York, and that of John 
Randolph is in the Corcoran Gallery at 
Washington, D. C. He wrote "My Egotisto- 
graphy," which has been printed, but not 
published. All things considered, he was 
one of the most distinguished portrait paint- 
ers America has produced, and St. Louis is 
proud to have numbered him among her 
resident artists. 



Harding, Chester, artist, was born in 
Conway, Massachusetts, September i, 1792, 
and died in Boston, April i, 1866. His fam- 
ily removed to Caledonia, New York, when 
he was fourteen years old, and he was early 
thrown on his own resources for support. 
Going to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, he eventu- 
ally became a house painter, and had worked 
at this occupation a year when his acquaint- 
ance with a traveling portrait painter led Tiim 
to attempt art. Having succeeded in pro- 
ducing a crude portrait of his wife, he de- 
voted himself enthusiastically to the profes- 
sion. He painted several other portraits at 
Pittsburg, and then went to Paris, Kentucky, 
where he finished 100 portraits in six months, 
at $25 each. After receiving slight instruc- 
tion in Philadelphia, he established himself 
in St. Louis, and was one of the earliest 
portrait painters to make his home in that 
city. In August of the year 1823 he went 
to London, England, and spent the three 
years following in studying and painting in 
that city. He then returned to the United 
States and established himself in Boston, 
where he became very popular as a portrait 
painter. In 1843 he went to England again, 



Harding, Chester, lawyer, was born 
in 1826, in Northampton, Massachusetts, and 
died in St. Louis, in 1875. He was a son 
and namesake of Chester Harding, the artist, 
and came of an old New England family. 
After graduating at a New England college 
he began his law studies in St. Louis, under 
the preceptorship of Judge John M. Krum, 
of the circuit court, who was his brother-in- 
law. After studying for some time in Judge 
Krum's office he went to Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts, and there entered the Harvard 
Law School, from which institution he was 
graduated at the end of a full course, in the 
class of 1850. In 1852 he returned to St. 
Louis, and, forming a partnership with 
Judge Krum, soon acquired an enviable rep- 
utation as a practitioner of law. The firm 
of Krum & Harding continued in existence 
until 1861, when the breaking out of the 
Civil War temporarily diverted Mr. Hard- 
ing from professional pursuits. His inher- 
ited tendencies, education and training made 
him an ardent Unionist, and, volunteering 
his services in defense of his country, he \ 
was commissioned a colonel of volunteer ' 
troops. When General Lyon took command 



HARDING. 



175 



of a brigade Colonel Harding was assigned 
to duty on his staff, and for some months 
prior to the arrival of General Fremont, in 
1861, he was in command of the United 
States military forces at St. Louis. After 
that he was in active service in the field 
until the close of the war, and gained dis- 
tinction for his gallantry and ability as a 
commanding officer. At the close of the 
war he returned to St. Louis and resumed 
his practice of the law, and held a promi- 
nent position at the bar until his death. He 
was a chivalrous gentleman as well as an 
able lawyer, and the esteem in which he was 
held by the bar was demonstrated by its 
adoption of a series of highly eulogistic res- 
olutions and the attendance of the bar at 
his funeral in a body. He had endeared him- 
self during the years of his residence in St. 
Louis after the war, especially to the veter- 
ans of the Union Army, and at his death 
the survivors of that conflict were among 
the sincerest mourners who followed his 
remains to their last resting place. One of 
these comrades in arms and also a brother 
lawyer, distinguished as lawyer, soldier and 
statesman. Colonel James O. Broadhead, 
presided at the meeting of the bar at which 
appropriate action was taken on the death 
of Colonel Harding. On that occasion sev- 
eral addresses were made by prominent 
members of the bar, all of whom united in 
paying the highest tributes to Colonel Hard- 
ing's ability as a lawyer, to his patriotism 
as a soldier and to his admirable qualities 
as a man and a citizen. A son of New 
England, he revered the history and tradi- 
tions of the region in which he was born 
and brought up, but was none the less loyal 
to Western interests and to the city in which 
he spent neai ly all the years of his manhood 
in the practice of an honorable profession 
and the building up of a good name. 

Harding', James, who has served as 
soldier, civil engineer and public official, and 
who is now and has for some years been, a 
resident of Jefferson City, was born in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, February 13, 1830, son 
of the distinguished artist, Chester Harding. 
His mother's maiden name was Caroline 
Woodruff, and she belonged to an old and 
well known New England family. In the 
paternal line he is descended from Abraham 
Harding, who came from England in 1623, 



and settled near Boston, Massachusetts. 
Nine generations of this family have been 
represented in America, and many of its 
members have distinguished themselves in 
various walks of life. 

James Harding attended, in his early youth, 
the best private schools of Boston and 
Springfield. In 1843 he obtained his earli- 
est knowledge of the West, coming then to 
Missouri and residing in St. Louis with his 
sister, the wife of Honorable John M. 
Krum. Upon his return to the East, in the 
autumn of 1844, he entered Phillips Exeter 
Academy, of Exeter, New Hampshire, at 
which institution he completed his scholastic 
training. After finishing his course at the 
academy he chose to go to sea rather than 
enter Harvard College, as his parents de- 
sired. In 1849 1^6 made a sea voyage to 
California, and after remaining there two 
years returned overland to the East, passing 
through Mexico en route, and making the 
journey from Mazatlan to Vera Cruz on 
horseback. In the summer of 185 1 he re- 
ceived his first practical training for the pro- 
fession of civil engineer, beginning as a rod- 
man in a surveying party then making a 
survey of the Lafayette & Indianapolis Rail- 
way. At a later day (in 1853) he was con- 
nected with a surveying party on the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railway, engaged in locating 
the line of that railway from Jefferson City 
east to the Gasconade River. Still later he 
was placed in charge of the construction of 
a five-mile division between the Osage River 
and L'Oms Creek, and was so engaged until 
early in 1854, when he was sent as transit 
man to accompany a location survey party 
west from Jefferson City to the vicinity of 
Knobnoster. Following this, he had charge of 
fifteen miles of construction from Jefferson 
City to Centretown, completing the work in 

1858, after which he made a visit to Vir- 
ginia, remaining there until the autumn of 

1859, when he returned to Missouri. In Oc- 
tober, i860, he received an appointment as 
chief clerk in the office of W. S. Mosely, 
State Auditor. His duties at the State capi- 
tal naturally brought him into contact with 
men of prominence in military and civil 
affairs in a most stirring period, and, with his 
views upon national questions, it was to be 
expected that he would make no delay in 
taking an unmistakable position. In Novem- 
ber, i860, he became a member of the Gov- 



176 



HARDING. 



ernor's Guards, at Jefferson City, and later 
in that year he was appointed division in- 
spector, with the rank of colonel. In Feb- 
ruary, 1861, he received from Governor Jack- 
son appointment to the highly responsible 
position of quartermaster general of the State 
of Missouri, with the rank of brigadier gen- 
eral, and served actively in the field as chief 
quartermaster of the Missouri State Guards 
until April, 1862, when he resigned his com- 
mission at Van Buren, Arkansas, and was 
appointed by Major General Sterling Price 
to the position of quartermaster of his di- 
vision, in the Confederate States service, 
with the rank of major. He discharged the 
duties of this position until he received his 
commission from Richmond, while at Corinth, 
Mississippi, when he declined it. He was 
then appointed captain of artillery in the Con- 
federate States Army, and was assigned to 
duty in the Ordnance Department, and 
served at Columbus, Mississippi, Selma, Ala- 
bama, and Charleston, South Carolina, being 
on duty at the last named place for twenty- 
one months in the years 1863 and 1864. In 
the latter year he was ordered to Columbus, 
Georgia, in charge of the Confederate States 
armory, where he was promoted to the rank 
of major, and was paroled at the close of 
the war, in May, 1865. He then went to 
Pensacola, Florida, and engaged in the lum- 
ber business, in which he continued for two 
years, at the expiration of which time he re- 
turned to the profession for which he was 
so well qualified, carrying on important en- 
gineering and surveying enterprises. He 
also filled a term of office as city engineer 
of Pensacola. In February, 1871, he re- 
turned to Missouri and was appointed chief 
engineer of the Jefferson City, Lebanon & 
Southern Railroad, and conducted elaborate 
surveys between Jefferson City and Leba- 
non, and located and directed the grading of 
eighteen miles of the line from Jefferson City 
to near Russellville, in Cole County. In 
1875 and 1876 General Harding served as 
architect and superintendent of improve- 
ments at the Missouri State penitentiary, 
Jefferson City. In November of the latter 
year he was elected railroad commissioner 
of Missouri, and in 1882 was re-elected for 
a term of six years. In 1889, at the close 
of this term of office, he was appointed sec- 
retary of the railroad commission, and has 
held that position from that time to the pres- 



ent. In 1893 and 1894 he was engineer in 
charge of improvements of the Capitol 
grounds. In 1896 he received appointment 
from the Supreme Court of the United States 
as commissioner from Missouri to settle the 
boundary line dispute between the States of 
Missouri and Iowa. Amid these duties he 
has done his immediate neighbors some 
service as an alderman in Jefferson City. 
This narrative implies that General Harding 
has ever been an earnest and consistent Dem- 
ocrat. He holds no church relationship. His 
connection with fraternal organizations is 
limited to membership in Capital City Lodge,. 
No. 67, Ancient Order United Workmen. He 
was married, December 18, 1855, to Miss 
Christine A. Cordell, daughter of Dr. L. C. 
Cordell, of Charlestown, Jefferson County, 
Virginia. It falls to the lot of few men to 
fill so long a life with so many important 
duties, all well and faithfully discharged, and 
to be so honored by those in whose service 
he has been engaged. Such a career is an. 
honor to him who has lived it, and an in- 
spiration to all who are privileged to know 
of it. 

Harding, John Thomas, lawyer, who 
is descended from a family, many represent- 
atives of which have distinguished themselves 
in public life in the United States, was born 
in St. Louis, November 15, 1866, son of Dr. 
Nathan M. and Emily Dyer (Badger) Hard- 
ing. The Harding family came to Missouri 
from Baltimore in the pioneer days of this 
State, while the family of which Mr. Hard- 
ing's mother was a member were for sev- 
eral generations residents of Connecticut. 
The latter, who now resides with her son, 
Joseph E. Harding, of Nevada, is a descend- 
ant of the famous Bradford family, two mem- 
bers of which were Colonial Governors of 
Connecticut. Rear Admiral Oscar E. Bad- 
ger, of the United States Navy, who died 
in 1899, was her brother. Thomas Dyer, a 
member of her mother's family, was one of 
the most distinguished citizens of Connect- 
icut, and for many years was chief justice 
of that State. George E. Badger, secretary 
of the Navy during the administration of 
President William Henry Harrison, was her 
paternal uncle. Her education was received 
chiefly at Mount Holyoke Collegiate Semi- ^ 
nary, in Massachusetts, which for many 
years was the most noted institution of its 



HARDING. 



177 



kind in the United States. The family of 
Nathan M. Harding and his wife consisted 
of the following children: Joseph E., cash- 
ier of the Thornton Bank, of Nevada; Ora, 
residing in Nevada ; James W., a teacher in 
Oklahoma; Yancey and John T., of Nevada, 
and Leof, a lieutenant in the United States 
Navy, now seeing service in the Philippine 
Islands. Soon after the birth of the sub- 
ject of this sketch his parents removed to 
Nevada, and in that city his early educa- 
tion was received. After completing the pre- 
scribed course in the public schools there, 
he attended the Southwest Normal School, 
at Fort Scott, Kansas, following which he 
entered the Missouri State University, and 
took the academic and law courses. In 1889 
he was admitted to the bar in Nevada, and 
immediately afterward began his professional 
career with the firm of Burton & Wight, 
then regarded as the strongest alliance of 
legal talent in that section of Missouri. When 
Judge Burton was elected to Congress, Mr. 
Harding opened an office and practiced alone, 
but upon the expiration of the former's con- 
gressional term in 1898, he entered into a 
partnership with the latter, under the style 
of Burton & Harding, which relation still 
continues. Mr. Harding has always remained 
firm in his allegiance to the Democratic 
party, and as its candidate was elected to 
the office of city attorney and city counselor, 
serving from 1891 to 1896. In Masonry he 
is a member of the Lodge, Chapter and Com- 
mandery, and of Ararat Temple, Nobles of 
the Mystic Shrine, of Kansas City. He is 
also an Odd Fellow. In religion he is identi- 
fied with All Saints' Protestant Episcopal 
Church, of Nevada, of which he is now a 
senior warden. His marriage occurred No- 
vember 4, 1 89 1, and united him with Mary 
Joel Atkinson, daughter of Edwin J. Atkin- 
son, M. D., a prominent physician of Nevada. 
They are the parents of one daughter, Patti 
Douglas Dyer Harding. Mr. Harding is 
highly esteemed by his fellow practitioners 
as a man of merit, whose foundation of learn- 
ing in the law is secure. Few attorneys have 
the opportunities which were extended to 
him in the earlier days of his career, and his 
association in practice with such men as Hon- 
orable Charles G. Burton and Honorable S. 
A. Wight has had a marked influence upon 
his professional life. Older members of the 
profession prophesy that his future public 

Vol. 111-12 



career will depend practically upon his own 
inclination in the matter, for his administra- 
tion of the legal affairs of the city of Nevada 
was conducted in a manner which demon- 
strated his fitness for the higher and more 
responsible public duties which none but men 
of recognized ability and integrity should be 
called upon to fulfill. 

Harding, Russell, railway builder and 
manager, was born July 24, 1856, in the city 
of Springfield, Massachusetts, son of William 
H. and Mary E. Harding, the father a native 
of Massachusetts, and the mother of Virginia. 
He was educated in the public schools of 
Portland, Maine, and was fitted by a thor- 
ough course of training for the profession of 
civil engineering. His father, who was a 
member of the firm of Fuller & Harding, and 
who lived at Portland, Maine, until his death, 
January 24th, 1900, was extensively engaged 
for many years in railway building in Maine, 
Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
New York, Indiana, Illinois and the Canadas, 
and from 1880 to 1884 he was president of a 
Texas Railroad Company. Under the guid- 
ance of his father, who was an accomplished 
man of affairs, the son became connected 
with railway construction work in 1870, first 
as an office boy in his father's office. A lit- 
tle later he became paymaster for his father, 
who was then engaged in contract work on 
the Portland & Ogdensburg Railway. From 
1873 to 1876 he was connected with the en- 
gineering department of his father's business, 
and from 1877 till 1880 he was station agent, 
operator and ticket seller on the Portland & 
Ogdensburg line. From 1880 till 1883 he 
was assistant engineer, in charge of construc- 
tion of the International & Great Northern 
Railway of Texas, and from 1883 until 1884 
engineer and superintendent of construction 
on that line. From 1884 until 1886 he was 
resident engineer in charge of tracks, bridges 
and buildings on the same road. From 
January i, 1886, to August 21, 1894, he was 
superintendent and engineer of the lines of 
the Missouri Pacific Railway Company, in 
southern Kansas, with his headquarters at 
Wichita, Kansas. He then went to Grand 
Forks, North Dakota, as superintendent of 
the Dakota division of the Great Northern 
Railway, and filled that position until March 
1st of 1896. He then became general su- 
perintendent of the Western Division of the 



178 



HARDING— HARDY 



Great Northern Railway, at Spokane, Wash- 
ington, and was thus engaged until February 
15, 1897. From that date until November 
I, 1898, he was general superintendent of the 
Great Northern system, at St. Paul, Minne- 
sota. He was then made vice president and 
general manager of the St. Louis Southwest- 
ern Railway, and this brought him to St. 
Louis. January 6, 1899, he was elected presi- 
dent of the St. Louis Southwestern Railway 
Company of Texas. March 12, 1900, he was 
elected vice president and general manager 
of the Missouri Pacific Railway system. As 
the representative in St. Louis of this great 
railway system Mr. Harding is a conspicuous 
figure in the railway circles of the city, and 
his long connection with Western railroads 
has made him widely known. Few men in 
the railway service have a broader or more 
thorough practical knowledge of everything 
pertaining to railway management, and his 
advancement from one position of responsi- 
bility to another of greater responsibility has 
been a systematic progression which is the 
best evidence of his capability. While living 
in New Hampshire he served at one time as 
a member of the Legislature of that State, 
but with this exception he has held no po- 
litical office. Tn 1887 he married Miss Isabel 
Rowsey, daughter of Charles A. Rowsey, of 
Toledo, Ohio. Mrs. Harding's father, who 
was one of the early settlers of Toledo, and 
who served as a captain in the War of the Re- 
bellion, is still living in Toledo, being at this 
date, 1900, eighty-live years of age. 

Harding, Josei)h Edimind, banker, 
was born in Vernon County, Missouri, Octo- 
ber 30, 1847, a son of Nathan M. and Emily 
D. (Badger) Harding, of whom more ex- 
tended mention will be found in the forego- 
ing sketch of John T. Harding. During the 
childhood of the subject of this sketch his 
parents removed to St. Louis County, Mis- 
souri, locating at Webster Groves, where he 
attended the common schools. Upon the 
completion of his elementary studies he en- 
tered the college at that place, where his 
education was finished. In 1866 he accompa- 
nied his parents to Vernon County, where 
he has since continuously resided. Soon 
after his removal to Nevada Mr. Harding re- 
ceived an appointment of deputy county sur- 
veyor. In 1868 he was elected county sur- 
veyor, serving in that office four years. 



though he left the duties of the office prin- 
cipally in the hands of a deputy during the 
greater portion of that period, enabling him 
to engage in the book and stationery busi- 
ness with H. L. Tillotson, which partnership 
continued about a year. In 187 1 he was 
appointed cashier of the newly organized 
bank now operated by the Thornton Banking 
Company, and since that time has occupied 
the same position, with the exception of five 
years. During that period the management 
of the bank's interests has been chiefly in 
his hands, and largely through his sagacious 
conduct of its affairs it has become recog- 
nized as one of the most prosperous financial 
institutions of southwestern Missouri. Aside 
from his banking experience, Mr. Harding 
has been interested in other ventures. He 
was one of the incorporators of the Nevada 
Gas Company, and its first president. Always 
firm in his allegiance to the Democratic 
party, he was chosen as the candidate of 
that party, first mayor of the city of Nevada, 
filling the office one term. He was also for 
one term presiding justice of the Vernon 
County court. A member of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church at Nevada, for several 
years he filled the office of warden. In 
Masonry he has filled the highest chairs in 
the Lodge, Chapter and Commandery. Mr. 
Harding was married, on January 2, 1873, 
to Kate A. McNeil, daughter of Colonel 
Robert W. McNeil, one of the pioneers of 
Vernon County, and an influential citizen of 
Nevada. Mrs. Harding died in Nevada, Feb- 
ruary iS, 1898. To Mr. and Mrs. Harding 
were born a family of nine children, of whom 
three are deceased. Those now Uving are : 
Murray, Anna, Ennna (Mrs. C. H. Graves), 
Robert, Amy and Josephine, all of whom re- 
side at home. 

Hardy, Joseph Allen, mine-owner and 
operator, was born August 15, 1840, in Ralls 
County, Missouri, son of Joseph Arnold and 
Julia Anna (Gardner) Hardy. Both his 
parents were born in Frankfort, Kentucky, 
the father in 1812 and the mother in 1810. 
The first named died in 1879 ^"^ ^^e last 
named in 1890. A short time previous to the 
Black Hawk War, Joseph Arnold Hardy 
went from Ralls County to Illinois, and dur- 
ing the war with the Indians he saw active \ 
military service, becoming well acquainted 
with Abraham Lincoln, who was also a par- 




'thira Msfffrf Ca 



£7^^ i-if I^Pf/^a^s /•/y 




^ ^^ ^ 




; 



i 



HARGADINE. 



179 



ticipant in the Black Hawk War. In 1846 
the elder Hardy removed to Wisconsin and 
became a mine-owner at ShuUsburg, in that 
State. There the younger Hardy passed the 
greater part of his boyhood, and received a 
plain practical education in the common 
schools. At that time the lead mines at 
Galena, Illinois, and in Grant County, Wis- 
consin, were the most noted in the country, 
and at fifteen years of age Joseph Allen 
Hardy began working in the mines in the 
neighborhood of his home. It may be said, 
therefore, that he was trained to this pursuit 
in boyhood, and during all the years of his life 
since that time he has engaged in mining en- 
terprises and identified with the lead and 
zinc interests. If follows, therefore, as a 
natural consequence that he has become thor- 
oughly conversant with all the details of this 
business, and expert in his judgment of min- 
ing properties and mining problems. He 
removed from Wisconsin to Jasper County, 
Missouri, in 1873, and settled at Oronogo, 
where he resided until 1882, He then 
changed his place of residence to Webb City, 
which is still his home. A natural spirit of 
independence and self-reliance caused him to 
begin life on his own account when he was 
but fifteen years of age. When he com- 
menced mining he worked much of the time 
for little or nothing, and was highly pleased 
when he earned a dollar a day. His earnings 
were carefully saved, however, and in time he 
became an investor. Energy, tireless indus- 
try, thrift and sagacity earned for him their 
legitimate reward, and have made him a man 
of means and influence, highly esteemed in 
the business circles of the region with which 
he has been identified for more than a quar- 
ter of a century. He is now (1900) heavily 
interested in mineral lands in Jasper, Newton 
and Moniteau Counties, in Missouri, and his 
opinions concerning the mineral development 
of Missouri are always interesting and enter- 
taining. Speaking of Jasper County, Mr. 
Hardy says: "Ignorance and poverty de- 
veloped the mineral wealth of this region.. 
Ignorance brought the people here, and pov- 
erty kept them here. The ore was discovered 
by accident, and the results have been the 
development of great wealth." While in 
Wisconsin, Mr. Hardy sold ore as low as $2 
per ton to the Matthews & Hagler Zinc Com- 
pany, and this recollection causes him to have 
a lively appreciation of present prices and 



present prosperity. Politically, Mr. Hardy is 
identified with the Democratic party, and he 
is a firm believer in the principles of that or- 
ganization. He has never been an office- 
seeker, however, and the only office he has 
held was that of member of the School Board 
of Oronogo. He and his family are members 
of the Roman Catholic Church, and are 
liberal contributors to the maintenance of the 
church and its institutions. His only frater- 
nal connection is with the Order of United 
Workmen. On the 15th of September, 1862, 
Mr. Hardy married Miss Emma Edstrom, 
and ten children have been born of this union. 
These children are Harriet, now the wife of 
James McKenna, a foundryman of Joplin, 
Missouri; Mary, now the widow of Dr. Ty- 
ree ; George, interested in mining at Webb 
City; Alice, now the wife of George Burg- 
ner, of Joplin ; Catherine, unmarried ; Anna, 
wife of B. C. Aylor, of Webb City; Allen, 
Thomas, Agnes and Herbert Hardy. To his 
estimable wife, Mr. Hardy attributes much of 
the success he has achieved, she having been 
to him in the fullest sense, helpmate, advisor 
and faithful companion. A successful busi- 
ness man, a public-spirited citizen and a gen- 
tleman of strict integrity, Mr. Hardy will 
leave to his children and grandchildren not 
only the abundant fruits of his labors, but the 
legacy of a well spent and useful life and an 
untarnished reputation. 

Hargadine, William Anderson, 

merchant, was born near Frederika, in the 
State of Delaware, January 6, 1822, son of 
Robert and Nancy (Anderson) Hargadine. 
He spent the early years of his life on what 
was known as the "Anderson farm," near 
Frederika, an ancestral estate which is still' 
in possession of his family. When he was 
sixteen years old and after he had obtained 
a good practical education, he left the farm 
and went to the little city of Dover, the cap- 
ital of his native State, to fit himself for the 
business of merchandising. Forming a con- 
nection with a mercantile house in that city, 
he remained there four years, and then went 
to St. Louis. He arrived there in 1842, a 
young man twenty years of age, and began 
his business career there as a clerk in the 
house of John Warburton & Co. Later he 
was for some time in the employ of the old- 
time merchants, Powell & Robbins, and then 
entered the service of Crow, McCreery & 



180 



HARGADINE. 



Barksdale, then coming into prominence as 
a wholesale dry goods house. Here he be- 
came associated with very accomplished mer- 
chants, and it soon developed that the con- 
nection was mutually advantageous and 
agreeable. June i, 1849, Mr. Hargadine and 
George D. Appleton were admitted to a- 
partnership in the firm, the name of which 
was then changed to Crow, McCreery & Co., 
and under that name its business was con- 
ducted until 1875, although in the meantime 
some changes occurred in the personnel of 
the firm. Mr. Barksdale withdrew his inter- 
est in the house and was succeeded by Hugh 
McKittrick in 1854, and Mr. McCreery died 
in 1861, but his name was retained for sev- 
eral years after his estate ceased to have 
an interest in the business. George D. Ap- 
pleton withdrew from the firm about 1862. 
In 1875 the firm name was changed to Crow, 
Hargadine & Co. In 1881 Edward J. 
Glasgow, Jr., became a member of the firm, 
and in 1885, after the death of Mr. Crow, 
its name was changed to Hargadine, McKit- 
trick & Co. A corporation has since 
succeeded the copartnership, and the Harga- 
dine-McKittrick Dry Goods Company per- 
petuates the name and fame of the honored 
merchant who contributed so largely to the 
upbuilding of this great commercial establish- 
ment. Mr. Hargadine's connection with the 
house, known all over the West and South- 
west, and regarded everywhere as a commer- 
cial institution of the highest character and 
standing, covered a period of more than 
forty years, and during all that time he was 
a conspicuous figure in the commercial cir- 
cles of St. Louis. He was a potential factor 
in building up the vast business interest 
with which he was directly connected, and 
was, in addition, a man whose operations 
were beneficial to the whole city. Comment- 
ing upon his life work and his usefulness as 
a citizen, a city paper had this to say the 
day after his death: "The commercial emi- 
nence this city has attained is due in no small 
degree to William A. Hargadine." That 
this was the feeling of the community 
with which he had been so long iden- 
tified, and especially of his contempo- 
raries among the merchants of St. Louis, 
was shown by their action on the day of 
his funeral, when every wholesale busi- 
ness house in the city was closed as a 
token of respect to the man and his mem- 



ory. His success as a business man was 
achieved by dint of persistent effort and 
close attention to his affairs, coupled with 
extraordinarily good judgment of both men 
and markets. He was an apt student of hu- 
man nature, and in the vast dealings which 
brought him into contact with hundreds of 
people, he seldom made mistakes in his esti- 
mates of their characters and abilities. Born 
with the instincts of a merchant, he was for- 
tunate in his early training and associations 
and in his later business connections, and 
developed into a man of broad views and su- 
perior qualifications for the business in which 
he was engaged. Outside of commercial 
affairs and in all the activities of life, he 
showed himself always fhe public-spirited 
citizen, interested in the welfare and happi- 
ness of his friends and neighbors, and solic- 
itous for the prosperity of the city in which 
he lived. His good nature, unfailing court- 
esy and cordiality of manner left a pleas- 
ant impress upon those associated with him 
in the affairs of everyday life, lighted his 
own home with the sunshine of happiness, 
and attached to him, as with hooks of steel, 
the friends of a lifetime. As his wealth and 
resources increased, his activities were ex- 
tended, and at the time of his death he was 
officially identified with the Boatmen's Bank, 
the Missouri State Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, the Venice & St. Louis Ferry Com- 
pany, the St. Charles Car Company, of St. 
Charles, Missouri, and the Bellefontaine 
Cemetery Association. He had also been 
for many years a warm friend of the Mis- 
souri State militia, doing much to aid in 
perfecting that organization ; and in earlier 
years he had been conspicuously identified 
with the St. Louis fire department. Num- 
bered among the most helpful friends of 
Washington University, he contributed to 
the building up of that institution, and de- 
serves to be classed among the popular ben- 
efactors of the city. His philanthropy knew 
no distinction of sect or creed, and his re- 
ligious views were as broad and liberal as 
his philanthropy, his church affiliations being 
with the Unitarian "Church of the Messiah." 
His death occurred January 4, .1892, two days 
before the seventieth anniversary of his birth, 
and on the seventieth anniversary day his 
remains were laid to rest in Bellefontaine \ 
Cemetery. In 1850 he married Miss Acrata 
Davidge McCreery, daughter of Dr. Charles 




"i^ .Si^f'i4r.n^Ji&fyru /^a 



.^Ptt^. ^£^ ^■^^?^i^m^ A/^ i 




I 



HARIG— HARKLESS. 



181 



McCreery, a distinguished physician and sur- 
geon of Hartford, Kentucky. Two sons born 
of this union, Phocion and Atreus, died be- 
fore their father, and the members of his 
family who survived him were his wife and 
three daughters. The eldest daughter is now 
the wife of William H. Thomson, cashier of 
the Boatmen's Bank; the second is the wife 
of Edward J. Glasgow, Jr., vice president of 
the Hargadine-McKittrick Dry Goods Com- 
pany, and the third is the wife of Otto U. 
Von Schrader, also of that city. 

Harig, Albert, merchant and manufac- 
turer, was born in Germany, January 14, 1826, 
and died November 3, 1892, in St. Louis. He 
came to America when nine years of age, and 
obtained a limited education in the public 
schools of Baltimore, Maryland. Coming to 
Louisville, Kentucky, while he was still a 
child, he lived in that city until he was nine- 
teen years of age. There he learned the hat- 
maker's trade and added somewhat to his ed- 
ucation by attending night schools. He came 
to St. Louis in 1847, when he was twenty-one 
years of age. He worked at his trade for 
two years thereafter and then opened a hat 
store and manufacturing establishment, in 
company with Frederick Woesten. In 1862 
Mr. Harig sold his interest to his partner, 
and two years later opened another store. 
Eleven years thereafter he disposed of his 
mercantile interests, retiring with a comfort- 
able fortune. His health was seriously im- 
paired for some years, and he traveled in 
this country and abroad. Although fre- 
quently solicited by the Democratic party to 
accept ofificial positions, he always declined. 
In religion he was a Catholic. July 
30, 1850, he married Miss Harriet Whit- 
aker, daughter of Samuel Whitaker, of St. 
Louis. Their only child, Ameha Harig, is 
the wife of Frank E. Fowler, a prominent in- 
surance man of St. Louis. 

Harkless, James H., senior member 
of the law firm of Harkless, O'Gready & 
Crysler, of Kansas City, was born May 15, 
1856, in Belmont County, Ohio. His parents 
were James and Sarah (McComm) Harkless, 
the former a native of Ohio, and the latter of 
Virginia. The father, with a partner, was a 
contractor on the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
way, and built thirty-two miles of track 
between Hagerstown, Maryland, and Alex- 



andria, Virginia. In 1866 he located in Bar- 
ton County, Missouri, where he engaged in 
freighting, finally retiring to a farm, where 
he died in 1883. His wife died two years 
previously. Five children were born to them, 
of whom James H. was the eldest. The 
others were Thomas W., a merchant at La- 
mar, Missouri ; Ella, wife of Monroe Billings, 
superintendent of bridge construction on the 
Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf Railway; 
George A., a merchant at Lamar, Missouri, 
and Cora B., wife of W. B. Moudy, of Fort 
Scott, Kansas. James H, Harkless was 
reared upon the home farm and in the pur- 
suits followed by the father. When ten years 
of age he drove a freight wagon between La- 
mar and Sedalia, a distance of 160 miles, the 
trip requiring eight days. He afterward 
drove a stage for the Southwestern Stage 
Company, of which his father was manager. 
During this time his educational opportuni- 
ties were necessarily limited to a few winter 
months in each year, but he had determined 
upon a professional life, and, in lieu of school 
training, he acquired a liberal fund of prac- 
tical knowledge, derived from self-appointed 
reading and intercourse with men, sufficient 
equipment for the beginning of a useful and 
creditable career. When eighteen years of 
age he took a course in the Janesville (Wis- 
consin) Business College. The next year he 
began the study of law in the office of Judge 
R. B. Robinson, of Lamar, Missouri, and 
after two years of diligent application, just 
previous to attaining his majority, after pass- 
ing a highly creditable examination, he was 
admitted to the bar. He at once formed a 
partnership with his preceptor, and the firm 
of Robinson & Harkless carried on a suc- 
cessful practice for nine years, when they re- 
moved to Kansas City, Missouri. In 1888 
John O'Gready was admitted to the firm, 
which became Robinson, O'Gready & Hark- 
less. In 1889 Mr. Robinson withdrew. In 
1895 '^^- Charles S. Crysler was admitted, 
and the firm adopted its present title of 
Harkless, O'Gready & Crysler. While cov- 
ering all the departments of a general prac- 
tice, the firm devotes special attention to the 
intricate questions of corporation law, and 
in this field guards the interests of various 
large companies. Among these are the Fi- 
delity & Casualty Employer's Liability Com- 
pany of New York, one of the largest of its 
class in the world, and the Slitz and Her 



182 



HARLEM— HARMONY MISSION. 



Brewing Companies. With natural aptitude 
for the profession, deep knowledge of the 
law, a keen analytical mind, large command 
of language and clearness of expression, and 
intense but not overwrought oratory, Mr. 
Harkless holds high position at a bar noted 
for the conspicuous ability of its members. 
He is an earnest Republican, holding to the 
doctrines of his party as constituting the sur- 
est foundations for national prosperity, and 
asserting them vigorously and intelligently as 
a matter of patriotic duty. At the same time 
he has steadfastly set aside all opportunities 
for political preferment. In 1884 he was 
proffered the nomination for Congress from 
the old Twelfth Congressional District, and 
in 1888 he declined a like honor in the Fifth 
Congressional District. He also declined 
appointment to the position of assistant city 
counselor. In 1890 he was elected president 
of the State Republican League, and was re- 
elected to the position two years later. Dur- 
ing these years he was active and successful 
in the work of organization, visiting numer- 
ous cities, where his earnestness and enthu- 
siasm were effective in the restoration of 
harmony and inducement to vigorous eflfort. 
Mr. Harkless was married, in 1884, to Miss 
Carrie M. Kiser, daughter of Israel Kiser, 
of Ohio, a lady of fine education and amiable 
character, a graduate of Otterbein (Ohio) 
University. Two children, Fay and James 
H. Harkless, were born of this marriage, 

Harlem. — A hamlet in the southwestern 
corner of Clay County, directly opposite 
Kansas City. The Hannibal & St. Joseph, 
the Wabash, the Kansas City, St. Joseph & 
Council Bluffs, and the Chicago, Rock Isl- 
and & Pacific Railroads pass through it. 
Population, about 200. 

Harmony Mission. — An extinct town 
in Bates County, which was three miles 
northwest of the present site of Papinsville, 
and notable as the first white settlement in 
the county. About 1820 a number of Osage 
chiefs, while in Washington, expressed a de- 
sire that missionaries should be sent to their 
people to establish schools and churches and 
instruct them in the arts of civilization. The 
American Board of the Foreign Missionary 
Society recognized the value of the field and 
organized a missionary party. Meanwhile, 
White Hair, a most influential chief, assem- 



bled a council of Big and Little Osages, to 
the number of 8,500, on the banks of the 
Marais des Cygnes (Osage River), and made 
a speech, in which he explained the benefits 
to be derived from churches and schools, and 
gained the consent of the tribes. In 182 1 the 
mission band formed at Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, comprising N. B. Dodge, superintend- 
ent ; Wm. B. Montgomery and Mr. Pixley, all 
ministers ; D. H. Austin, a millwright, and 
S. B. Bright, a farmer. All these were mar- 
ried and took their families. There were 
also three teachers, Amasa and Roxanna 
(Sterns) Dodge, just married, a Miss Ettress 
and others, in all about forty persons, includ- 
ing children. The party embarked on two 
keelboats without sails. During the journey 
Mrs. Jones taught the children daily; on 
Sundays the boats were tied up, and the day 
was given to religious services. Mrs. Mont- 
gomery died and was buried on the bank of 
the Ohio River. After a voyage of six 
months the party reached the place now 
known as Papinsville, on the Osage River, 
occupied by a large Indian village, where 
were a number of French and half-breed 
traders, who soon moved away. The band 
located about one mile to the north, and 
lived in tents until huts were built for them 
by Colonel Henry Renick, a Kentuckian, who 
came for the purpose. By this time nearly 
all were sick from exposure ; haste was made 
to prepare a hut for Mrs. Jones, prostrated 
with typhoid fever, and she was the first per- 
son to occupy a civilized habitation in the 
county. Schools were at once established, 
and religious services were held with regu- 
larity, but the effort of the missionaries 
effected little good. Austin, the millwright, 
made several attempts to build a water mill, 
but the impetuous Marais des Cygnes washed 
away his dams, and he was obliged to build 
a horsemill. The mission made a farm and 
planted an orchard to supplement the aid af- 
forded them by the American Board. The 
band suffered at times at the hands of the 
people whom they sought to benefit. Once, 
while in pursuit of Indians who had stolen 
animals, a son of Superintendent Dodge was 
killed. Eight hundred militia came from 
Jackson County, but their support worked 
more of a hardship upon the missionaries 
than did the forays of the Indians. In 1837 ^^ 
the Indians were removed to the West. The 
United States paid $8,000, as compensation 



HARNED. 



183 



for improvements, to the American Board, 
which that body received into its treasury, al- 
lowing each mission family a quantity of 
provisions, clothing and stock, and the band 
separated. Mr. Jones had become a physi- 
cian, succeeding Dr. Belcher, who had re- 
moved previously, and was also a minister, 
becoming pastor of a Presbyterian Church 
in Henry County. He died in 1870, leaving 
two daughters, of whom Jane married John 
Austin, son of the mission millwright, D. H. 
Austin, who died in 1861. The mission lands 
were held under lease from the government 
by Colonel James Allen, whose son James 
married Eliza, oldest daughter of Dr. Jones. 
They were afterward held as a reservation, 
and finally opened to entry; much litigation 
ensued and title was not quieted until after 
the war. The mission house, built by the mis- 
sionaries for church and school purposes, 
was used as a courthouse from 1841, when 
the seat of justice was there established, until 
1847, when Papinsville became the county 
seat. (See "Bates County.") In 1848 Thos. 
Scroghern purchased the building and re- 
moved it to the latter place, where it was 
destroyed by fire in 1861. After the aban- 
donment of the mission Captain William 
Waldo opened a store in 1838, bringing his 
goods in wagons drawn by oxen, from Lex- 
ington, a distance of 150 miles. In 1844 he 
brought a small steamboat, the "Maid of the 
Osage," from Jefferson City, a wonderful un- 
dertaking. Freeman Barrows came from 
Massachusetts the same year and worked in 
Captain Waldo's store. He was the first 
county clerk, and became first postmaster 
after the establishment of the county seat, the 
postoffice being called Batesville. His wife, 
a daughter of the Rev. William F. Vaill, was 
the first white child born at the Union Mis- 
sion, in Arkansas, in 1822. Miss Sarah 
Lutzenhiser was the first school teacher at 
Harmony Mission after the missionaries de- 
parted. When Papinsville became the county 
seat. Harmony Mission began to decay, and 
soon passed out of existence. 

F. Y. Hedley. 

Harnecl, George, for many years one 
of the leading farmers and stock-raisers of 
Missouri, was born April 11, 1829, in Nelson 
County, Kentucky, and died September i, 
1900, at his home in Cooper County, Mis- 
souri. Both his parents were born and 



reared in Kentucky, and the son grew to 
manhood in that State. As a boy he attended 
what was known as the old "field" schools of 
Kentucky, and thereafter added to his attain- 
ments by a process of self-education. He 
became noted locally as an excellent gram- 
marian and a careful and diligent reader of 
good books, and throughout his life he was 
regarded as an unusually well informed man. 
When he was twenty-two years of age he 
came to Missouri and settled in the south- 
eastern portion of the State, where he en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. He returned 
to Kentucky in 1855, and on the 9th of Au- 
gust of that year was united in marriage with 
Miss Marcia Pash. Immediately after his 
marriage he came back to Missouri with his 
wife and bought a farm in Scott County, 
where he remained until 1865. In that year 
he sold his Scott County farm and removed 
to Cooper County, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. There he became a large 
land-owner, and was widely known as one of 
the most successful farmers in that part of 
the State. Soon after his removal to Cooper 
County he became interested in the raising 
of Short Horn cattle, and during the first 
year of his residence there he purchased 
some of the best specimens of this breed of 
cattle in the East, and established the now 
celebrated "Idlewild" herd, which is the 
property of his son, W. P. Harned. His 
health failed several years before his death, 
and, in the hope of restoring his physical 
vigor, he traveled somewhat extensively in 
different portions of the country. His effort 
to regain his health was, however, in vain^ 
and, returning to his home, he arranged all 
his business affairs and waited, like the true 
Christian and philosopher, for the end. In 
his young manhood he had united with the 
Christian Church, and throughout his later 
life he was a worthy and useful member of 
that church. His prosperity in a business 
way enabled him to give generously in aid of 
the advancement of religious work, to the 
extension of his church and to the cause of 
charity, and his ear and heart were ever open 
to appeals from these sources. Without os- 
tentation, and without other thought than 
that of doing good and being helpful to man- 
kind, he gave liberally to the poor and needy, 
and assisted them with counsel and advice, as 
well as with generous gifts. Politically he 
affiliated with the Democratic party, but he 



184 



HARNEY. 



was devoid of any ambition for ofifice-holding 
and took no active part in public affairs. The 
surviving members of his family are his esti- 
mable wife, three sons and one daughter. 
Of the sons, William P. Harned, one of the 
prominent cattle-raisers of Missouri, resides 
at the old homestead in Cooper County; 
Benjamin Harned and Edwin P. Harned are 
both prominent farmers and stock-raisers of 
that county ; Hulda Harned, the daughter, is 
now the wife of Walter Williams, of Colum- 
bia, Missouri. 

Harney, William Selby, a distin- 
guished general of the United States Army, 
was born in Davidson County, Tennessee, 
August 22, 1800. In 1818 President Monroe 
appointed him a lieutenant in the First In- 
fantry, and his first service was with the ex- 
pedition against Lafitte, the pirate. In 1823 
he was ordered to St. Louis, and in the fol- 
lowing year accompanied General Atkinson 
and Major O'Fallon to the upper Missouri 
on a mission to treat with the Indians. In 
1825 he was promoted to a captaincy. He 
spent some years in Wisconsin, where the 
Winnebagoes had been giving some trouble. 
His most conspicuous military service in the 
North was during the Black Hawk War, 
where his courage won him great distinction. 
In 1833 he was appointed paymaster, with the 
rank of major. When the Seminole War 
broke out he had been promoted lieutenant 
colonel of the Second Regiment. In this war 
his bravery and gallant bearing brought him 
much credit, and he was brevetted, April, 
1841, for meritorious conduct. At the be- 
ginning of the Mexican War he was pro- 
moted colonel of the Second Dragoons and 
placed in command on the Texas border. 
This position of comparative inactivity was 
galling, and, on his refusal to remain, he was 
court-martialed and sentenced to six months' 
suspension, but this punishment was counter- 
manded, and, rejoining his regiment, he took 
part in all the leading engagements on the 
march to the Mexican capital. At Cerro 
Gordo his valor was so impetuous and daring 
that he was brevetted brigadier general. 
From the close of the Mexican War to 1852 
General Harney was stationed in Texas and 
commanded several expeditions against hos- 
tile Indians. He was then furloughed, but 
the Sioux Indians making warlike demon- 



strations, he was appealed to by President 
Buchanan to return and suppress the threat- 
ened war. This he did successfully, and ne- 
gotiated a treaty of peace. Preceding the 
Civil War he was stationed in Kansas, but 
later was ordered to Oregon on another mis- 
sion of quelling Indian disturbances. On 
arriving at San Francisco, the British claim 
to the ownership of San Juan being then in 
controversy, he proceeded to Fort Van- 
couver and took possession of the island, 
greatly to the chagrin of the British, who had 
a fleet there for a like purpose, an act subse- 
quently confirmed by the arbitration of Em- 
peror William, to whom the question was 
submitted by the contending governments. 
When the Civil War opened, General Harney 
was stationed at St. Louis. On his way to 
Washington, in April, 1861, he was detained 
by the Confederates at Harper's Ferry, but 
was released. He returned to St. Louis a 
day or two after the capture of Camp Jack- 
son, and his presence served to quiet the peo- 
ple and restore peace. He issued. May 14th, 
a proclamation, in which He pronounced the 
military bill passed by the Missouri Legis- 
lature a virtual secession ordinance and a 
nullity ; avowed that Missouri must share the 
destiny of the Union, and declared that the 
whole power of the government would be ex- 
erted to maintain the State in the Union. He 
remained in command until the 31st of May, 
when he was relieved by General Lyon, and 
at once retired to the country around Jeffer- 
son, Franklin and Crawford Counties, where 
he owned large tracts of farming land, and 
where he lived for several years after the 
war, until seeking, for his health, a more 
agreeable climate at Pass Christian, Louisi- 
ana. He was appointed a member of the 
noted Indian Peace Commission of 1865, 
which laid out the Sioux Reservation. Phys- 
ically General Harney was a magnificent 
specimen of manhood, tall, straight, lithe of 
limb, handsome, strong, cheerful, consider- 
ate, affable. He was six feet three inches in 
height, and every inch a soldier. In January, 
1833, he married Mary Mullanphy, a daugh- 
ter of John Mullanphy, one of the pioneers of 
St. Louis. Their children were John M., 
Eliza and Anna B. Harney. Mrs. Harney 
died in Paris in 1864, and the general again 
married in 1885, the second wife being Mrs. 
M. Elizabeth St. Cyr. 



HARRELSON— HARRINGTON. 



185 



Harrelson, Nathan O., physician and 
surgeon, was born September 3, 1869, at 
Pleasant Hill, Missouri. His parents were 
James West and Olivia (Woodson) Harrel- 
son. The Harrelson genealogy is traceable 
for four hundred years, the family blending 
the blood of England, Scotland and Ireland. 
The American branch were early Colonial 
settlers in North Carolina and Georgia, and 
a county in the latter State bears their name, 
with the trifling change of one "r" omitted. 
The Harrelsons spread into Virginia, Ken- 
tucky and Mississippi, and are widely and 
favorably known in those States. James 
West Harrelson, now a successful business 
man at Belton, Missouri, was descended, on 
the maternal side, from the well known West 
family of Kentucky. His mother was a di- 
rect des'cendant of the great English painter, 
Sir William West ; and an ancestral marriage 
brought him into relationship with General 
Graham, a veteran of the Mexican War, and 
a pronounced Unionist during the Civil War, 
of Lexington, Missouri. His wife, Olivia 
Woodson, who died in 1869, was descended 
from General Davidson, of Revolutionary 
War fame, and from the Ewing and Fulker- 
son families, of Kentucky. Their son, 
Nathan O., received his elementary educa- 
tion in the public schools at Belton, Missouri, 
and then entered Wentworth Military Acad- 
emy, at Lexington, completing the course in 
1889, with the rank of captain in the Cadet 
Corps. He then went to California, and later 
to Arizona, where he remained for a time on 
a ranch belonging to his uncle, William H. 
Harrelson, upon whose advice he soon de- 
termined to become a physician. With this 
purpose he returned to Missouri, in 1892, and 
entered the Kansas City Medical College, 
from which he was graduated in 1894. Im- 
mediately afterward he found employment as 
an interne in St. Joseph's Hospital, and the 
same year was advanced to the position of 
house surgeon. His service continued until 
1896, when ill health obliged him to seek less 
confining occupation, and he resigned to ac- 
cept the position of surgeon for the Mining 
Company of Texas and Old Mexico. He was 
so engaged for six months, during which 
time he traveled extensively through Mexico. 
Returning to Kansas City, he entered upon 
general practice, making surgery a principal 
feature. In addition to his personal practice 
he discharges the duties of consulting sur- 



geon for St. Joseph's Hospital, assistant to 
the chief surgeon of the Kansas City South- 
ern Railway, and surgical clinic in St. Jo- 
seph's Hospital. He is a member of the 
Jackson County Medical Society, of the 
Academy of Medicine, of the American 
Medical Association, and of the Asso- 
ciation of Military Surgeons of the 
United States. His connection with the last 
named association is based upon an honor- 
able record made during the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War. At the commencement of hostili- 
ties he enlisted as a hospital steward in the 
Fifth Regiment of Missouri Volunteer In- 
fantry, May 18, 1898. Two weeks afterward 
he successfully passed a critical examination 
and was commissioned surgeon, with the 
rank of major. He accompanied his regi- 
ment to Camp Stephens, Missouri ; to Camp 
Thomas, at Chickamauga, Georgia, and to 
Camp Hamilton, Kentucky, where he was 
detached from his command and placed on 
the hospital staflf of the Third Division of the 
First Army Corps. On the reduction of the 
military force he returned with his command 
to Camp Sanger, near Kansas City, Missouri, 
and was honorably mustered out of the 
United States service November 9, 1898. He 
was married, October 25, 1899, to Mrs. Mar- 
garet Lee Cole. She is granddaughter of 
Dr. W. F. Cusick, a leading physician and 
public-spirited citizen of Blanchester, Ohio. 
Her maternal grandmother was a member 
of the old Lee family, of Virginia, from which 
was descended the famous Southern general, 
Robert E. Lee. Dr. Harrelson is accom- 
plished in his profession, and possesses in 
an eminent degree those genial qualities 
which inspire confidence and esteem in those 
whom he is called to serve. 

Harrington, Alnius, lawyer, and a 
typical representative of that class of men 
whom we call "self-made," was born in 
Greene County, Missouri, December 25, 
1849. Soon after his birth his parents re- 
moved from their country home, nine miles 
west of Springfield, to the city, and there the 
son passed the first ten years of his life. His 
mother died when he was little more than an 
infant, and his father died when he was ten 
years old. When thus orphaned he went to 
live with his brother at the old home place, 
but soon became dissatisfied, and, being an 
adventurous and independent youth, he 



186 



HARRINGTON. 



started out to make his own way in life. For 
a time he found employment at such work as 
a boy could do on a farm, and then went to 
eastern Missouri, where he obtained a posi- 
tion in the Massic Iron Works. He was at 
work in this manufactory in the spring of 
i86i, when the. lowering war cloud which had 
been hovering over the United States for 
years burst into a storm, Missouri being one 
of the first States to become involved in the 
civil strife. Young as he was, he was carried 
away by the martial spirit, and, when he 
heard the fife and drum of Colonel Sigel's 
command, he managed to get himself ac- 
cepted as a volunteer, there being no one to 
protest against his enlistment on account of 
his youthfulness. After serving three months 
he re-enlisted, on the 19th of August, 1861, 
in the Twenty-fourth Volunteer Infantry 
Regiment, in which he served for three years 
and two months, being mustered out Octo- 
ber 14, 1864. He was a participant in numer- 
ous engagements, among them being those 
at Tupelo, Carthage, Pleasant Hill and Fort 
Derney, and he still bears scars and suflfers 
from wounds received in battle. Although 
one of the youngest soldiers in the army that 
fought for the Union, he proved his loyalty 
and patriotism by excellent service, and now 
has in his possession a complimentary letter 
written to him by his old commander, Gen- 
eral Sigel. When he laid ofif the uniform of 
a soldier and returned to civil pursuits he 
had had an interesting and varied experience, 
and had seen much of life, but he had no 
knowledge of books. During his boyhood 
there had been no one to direct his educa- 
tion, and he had never attended school a day 
in his life. That he had much native ability 
was recognized by all who knew him, but 
thus far he had drifted, like a ship without a 
pilot, and without well defined aims or pur- 
poses. It was not until after he had married 
and children were growing up about him that 
he determined upon a calling and set about 
fitting himself for it. He first learned to read 
and write, and then diligently and carefully 
pursued other studies until he had acquired 
a practical education. In 1876 he began read- 
ing law at his own fireside, and in 1879 he 
was admitted to the bar. As poets are born, 
so lawyers and orators are sometimes born 
rather than made, and Mr. Harrington soon 
demonstrated his fitness for the calling which 
he had chosen. With forensic talent of a high 



order he combined painstaking effort in the ' 
preparation of cases, and a capacity for the 
analysis of legal propositions, which made 
him a successful practitioner from the start. 
He began practicing in Christian County^ 
and in 1880 made the race for prosecuting 
attorney there, but was defeated by a small 
majority. Later he opened a law office in 
Ozark, in that county, and still later was 
chosen prosecuting attorney of the county, 
as a candidate of the Greenback party, by an 
overwhelming majority. He filled that posi- 
tion for two years, and was engaged in 
general practice at Ozark until 1888, when 
he removed to Springfield, Missouri. Since 
then, by sheer force of his ability, his elo- 
quence and the breadth of his legal knowl- 
edge, he has worked his way up to a place 
among the leading members of the bar of one 
of the largest cities of Missouri. As an ad- 
vocate he has become especially prominent, 
and as a criminal lawyer he occupies a posi- 
tion in the front rank of the bar of south- 
western Missouri. He "has always had a 
warm feeling of comradeship for those who 
served with him in the war for the preserva- 
tion of the Union, and is a member of Cap- 
tain John Mathews Post of the Grand Army 
of the Republic at Springfield. He is also 
a member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. He married Miss Wincy M. Mer- 
ritt, daughter of Nathaniel Merritt. 

Harrington, Charles O., mayor of 
Carthage, was born December 14, 1844, in 
Ovid, Seneca County, New York. His par- 
ents were Ransley and Mary (Hall) Harring- 
ton. The father, who was a Methodist clergy- 
man of Lyons, New York, was descended 
from an English family which immigrated to 
America early in the seventeenth century. 
Several of his ancestors served during the 
Revolutionary War, and one, John H. Har- 
rington, was killed in the fight at Lexington. 
The ancestral homestead, near Brookfield, 
Massachusetts, has descended from father to 
son through several generations. Charles O. 
Harrington's mother also belonged to an old 
New England family, and was related to Wil- 
liam L. Marcy, who was Governor of New 
York, Secretary of War under President 
Polk, and Secretary of State under President 
Pierce. Mr. Harrington was a member of \ 
the sophomore class of Genesee College, at i 
Lima, New York, when the Civil War began, 



HARRINGTON. 



187 



in 1861, and in May he left school, enlisting 
in Company G, Twenty-seventh Regiment 
New York Volunteer Infantry. With this 
command he participated in all the cam- 
paigns and engagements of the Army of the 
Potomac, from the battle of Bull Run to the 
second Fredericksburg engagement. During 
his army service he performed much scout- 
ing duty, and engaged in various important 
and hazardous missions ; he was several 
times captured, and at one time made his es- 
cape from Belle Island, swimming the James 
River. At the close of the war he located at 
Des Moines, Iowa, and while living there oc- 
cupied a responsible position in the city fire 
department. In 1870 he took up his resi- 
dence in Carthage, Missouri, and has since 
been an enterprising citizen of that city. In 
1880 occurred there the disastrous fire, in 
which thirteen buildings were destroyed, 
among them being four belonging to Mr. 
Harrington, on the site now occupied by the 
Central National Bank and adjacent houses. 
He had previously recognized the necessity 
for a suitable hotel, and he now sought to 
interest others in the erection of a building. 
To this end he purchased the old Aetna 
House, on the site of the present Harrington 
House, and was making arrangements for its 
removal to give room to a new structure, 
when it caught fire in daylight and was 
burned down, on Thanksgiving Day, 1881. 
There was no insurance, and Mr. Harring- 
ton's associates declined to go on with the 
building project. Stimulated, rather than de- 
terred by these unfortunate circumstances, 
he connected others with himself, but prac- 
tically assumed all the expense and responsi- 
bility of erecting the Harrington House, 
beginning the work soon after the fire in 
188 1, and completing it in the year following, 
at a cost of $40,000. In 1893 he expended 
$25,000 additional in building additions and 
in refurnishing. It is now a one hundred 
room hotel, and is known to the traveling 
public as one of the most comfortable public 
houses in Missouri, and unapproachable 
among those of inland cities in management 
and cuisine. Mr. Harrington has always 
been one of the foremost citizens of Car- 
thage in all enterprises for the development 
of its material interests. He aided largely in 
bringing to success the building of the new 
courthouse, and, with others, carefully over- 
looked every step of the work which has re- 



sulted in the erection of a model public 
edifice at a phenomenally low cost. He was 
active in the organization of the fire depart- 
ment, and was the first chief, continuing to 
serve in that position for many years ; it was 
during his administration that the first appa- 
ratus was procured, a large Babcock extin- 
guisher engine, which was afterward supple- 
mented with a hook and ladder equipment. 
He served as a city councilman, and in 1898 
was chosen mayor, his popularity being at- 
tested by the fact that he was elected as a 
Democrat in spite of a Republican majority 
of several hundred. He was one of the orig- 
inal members of the Carthage Light Guard, 
and contributed largely to the success of that 
organization through his influence and lib- 
eral gifts. After rising to the rank of first 
lieutenant in that command he was promoted 
to the rank of captain and aid-de-camp on 
the staff of Brigadier General Milton Moore, 
when that officer commanded the one brig- 
ade then constituting the military establish- 
ment of the State. He was afterward pro- 
moted to the rank of major and brigade 
commissary of subsistence, and retired from 
service in 1898. He is a comrade in the 
Grand Army of the Republic, and in 1899 
was elected commander of Stanton Post, No. 
16, of Carthage. He assisted in the forma- 
tion of the Carthage Commercial Club, and 
has served as president of that body. Major 
Harrington was married, in September, 1869, 
to Miss Ida A. Britton, of Des Moines, Iowa. 
Two children have been born of this mar- i 
riage, Alice, wife of Ray Ream, and Walter, 
owner of a cigar manufactory. 

Harrington, James Louis, secretary 
of the Board of Trustees of the Medico-Chi- 
rurgical College, at Kansas City, was born 
August 3, 1867, at Cincinnati, Ohio. His 
parents were Daniel A. and Mary A. (Tobin) 
Harrington, natives of Ireland, who came to 
America in early childhood. They removed 
to Kansas City in 1869, and are yet living. 
Of their seven children, James Louis was the 
eldest. He was educated in the public schools 
of Kansas City, and attended the high 
school. He began the study of medicine 
when nineteen years of age, was graduated 
from the University Medical College, March 
15, 1889, and engaged in practice in Kansas 
City immediately after graduation. In 1889 
he became assistant to Dr. McDonald, city 



188 



HARRIS. 



physician, and occupied that position from 
April of that year to October of 1890, when 
he went to Los Lunas, New Mexico. He 
was engaged in practice there until August, 
1895, when he returned to Kansas City, 
where he has since been occupied in his pro- 
fession. For four years past he has given 
special attention to the treatment of genito- 
urinary and skin diseases. In 1895, with 
others, he organized the Kansas City College 
of Medicine and Surgery of Kansas City, 
Kansas, which, in 1897, became the Medico- 
Chirurgical College of Kansas City Missouri, 
and from that time until the present has 
served as secretary of the Board of Trustees 
and professor of genito-urinary diseases. He 
is also a lecturer in the Kansas City Training 
School for Nurses. In 1899 he was ap- 
pointed quarantine officer by Dr. G. O. Cof- 
fin, city physician, and served until the ces- 
sation of the smallpox epidemic. He was 
peculiarly fitted for this task, owing to his 
previous experience in combatting the dis- 
ease in New Mexico. During the five years 
of his residence in New Mexico he was act- 
ing coroner of Valencia County. In politics 
he has always been a Republican. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, of the An- 
cient Order of United Workmen — in which 
he was past chief of honor in its aux- 
iliary body — of the order of Woodmen of 
the World, of the Independent Order of For- 
esters, and of the Fraternal Union. Dr. 
Harrington was married, April 25, 1892, to 
Miss Viola Greenwald, at Las Lunas, New 
Mexico. She was born in Illinois, was lib- 
erally educated in a convent school in Santa 
Fe, New Mexico, and is an accomplished 
pianist. In her young womanhood she fre- 
quently performed for local entertainments, 
but since her marriage has not appeared in 
public. Three children have been born of 
this marriage, two of whom are deceased. 

Harris. — An incorporated village in Sul- 
livan County, located on Medicine Creek and 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
eighteen miles northwest of Milan. It con- 
tains two churches, a public school, steam 
flouring mill, sawmill, a telephone exchange, 
hotel, a newspaper, the "Journal," and about 
twenty miscellaneous stores and shops. Pop- 
ulation, 1899 (estimated), 500. 

Harris, Joseph Ellison, physician, 
was born in Madison County, Kentucky, Jan- 



uary 13, 1821, son of Robert and Jael (Elli- 
son) Harris. His father was a prominent 
and well-to-do Kentucky farmer, who served 
twenty years in the Legislature of that State, 
and died in Kentucky, in 1870. Although 
reared on a farm and in the midst of rural 
environments. Dr. Harris was not inclined to 
follow farming as an occupation, and edu- 
cated himself for a professional career. After 
attending the district schools of Madison 
county through boyhood he entered an acad- 
emy at Richmond, Kentucky, and was grad- 
uated from that institution. Immediately 
afterward he began the study of medicine, 
and was a student in the office of his elder 
brother. Dr. J. M. Harris, at Richmond, for 
two years. After attending the regular 
courses of lectures at Louisville Medical Col- 
lege, in Louisville, Kentucky, and graduating 
from that institution, he began the practice 
of the profession in Madison County, Ken- 
tucky, in 1849. He remained in that county 
until 1853, when he removed to Manchester, 
Kentucky. After practicing there a year he 
came to Missouri and resumed professional 
labor at Trenton, Grundy County. That 
city has ever since been his home, and for 
forty years he was a leading practitioner in 
that portion of the State. He began practice 
in Trenton and vicinity when the life of a phy- 
sician was spent mostly on horseback, travel- 
ing over almost impassable roads and visiting 
patients scattered throughout a wide ex- 
tent of territory. Throughout these early 
years of professional life, and during his en- 
tire career, he has been known as a typical 
family physician, ready to respond to every 
call made upon him, and putting duty before 
everything else. He commanded the unlimited 
confidence of those who came under his care, 
and to all such he was friend and counselor, 
as well as physician. In 1894 ill health com- 
pelled him to retire from practice, much to 
the regret of the general public. Although 
he always took a warm interest in public af- 
fairs. Dr. Harris was never in any sense a 
politician. In early life, however, he was an 
ardent member of the Whig party, and later 
affiliated with the Democratic party. In re- 
ligion he adheres to the tenets and faith of 
the Christian Church. He is a member of 
the order of Freemasons, and, in 1855, rode 
on horseback from Trenton to Huntsville, a 
distance of one hundred and twenty miles, to 
take the Royal Arch degrees. In early life, 





Z^>':2>^^>\^ 



The Sotidttrri Jj'istory Cp 



HARRIS. 



189 



and, in fact, until advancing years impaired 
his activity, he was a great lover of field 
sports, and particularly delighted in the old- 
lime fox hunt. He was popular in all cir- 
cles, and in both professional and everyday 
life was always the genial and companionable 
gentleman. Dr. Harris has been twice mar- 
ried — first to Miss Jane McDonald, who 
died in 1861. In 1865 he married Mrs. Eva 
A. (Crews) Bishop, who was born and reared 
in Missouri. His children are Robert M. 
Harris, a farmer of Grundy County ; Mrs. 
Anna Bowlin, who is married to a Grundy 
County farmer; Mrs. Lillie Retlish, whose 
home is at St. Joseph, Missouri; Ada and 
Pearl Harris, both of whom reside in Tren- 
ton. Another daughter, May Harris, is dead. 
James L. Bishop, a lawyer, who resides at 
Selma, Alabama, is a son of Mrs. Harris, 
born of her first marriage. 

Harris, Samuel Stanhope, physician 
and surgeon, was born in Jackson, Cape 
Girardeau County, Missouri, December 26, 
1836, and died in St. Louis, December 6, 
1899. He was a son of Dr. Elam W. and 
Mary (Alexander) Harris, both natives of 
North Carolina, who became residents of 
Missouri in 1821, first locating at Farming- 
ton, and afterward at Jackson, Missouri. The 
maternal grandfather of Dr. S. S. Harris, 
Abraham Alexander, and his uncle, Charles 
Alexander, and also his paternal grandfather, 
were signers of the famous "Mecklenburg 
Declaration," in May, 1775, and were active 
in advancing the glorious cause it repre- 
sented. His maternal great-grandfather, 
Caleb Phifer, was a colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary War, and served with distinction. 
Samuel S. Harris, in his youth, attended the 
private academy at Pleasant Hill, near Jack- 
son, and later entered the college at Lexing- 
ton, Missouri, from which he was graduated 
when eighteen years of age. He was of a 
family of physicians, and it was but natural 
that he should incline toward the profession 
of medicine, and to fit himself for his life's 
work he entered Bellevue Medical College, 
of New York City, from which he received 
his diploma when he was twenty-one years 
old, and in an open competition of all grad- 
uates won the postgraduate prize, which 
carried with it the appointment of house sur- 
geon for two years. In i860 he returned to 
Jackson, Missouri, and commenced practice, 



with success from the beginning. Then were 
tumultuous times; the war for the Con- 
federacy was at hand, and Dr. Harris aban- 
doned his practice and entered into armed 
championship of the cause of the South. He 
organized a company of cavalry that became 
noted as the "Swamp Rangers," and later re- 
cruited a company of artillery and served 
with it at the battle of Fredericktown, where 
he distinguished himself for bravery ; the 
guns being deserted by his men, he stood in 
the open field alone, facing the Federal force, 
manning the cannon the best he could, until 
it meant certain death to remain longer, and 
his comrades almost by force compelled him 
to retreat. His battery took a prominent 
part in the naval engagement at Fort Pillow. 
When the famous ironclad ram "Arkansas" 
started on its trip down the Yazoo River to 
encounter the fleet of Admiral Farragut and 
Davis, volunteers were called for. Among 
the first to respond were Captain S. S. Har- 
ris and Lieutenant J. C. Galvin, with sixty of 
General Jeff Thompson's men. The history 
of the "Arkansas" and its crew is one of the 
most thrilling, telling of bravery unequaled 
in the Civil War, and is well known to both 
Confederate and Federal veterans. Captain 
Harris, throughout all the adventures of the 
"Arkansas," in all of its victories, had charge 
of its batteries that dealt such awful blows to 
the ships of the Federal fleet, and his record 
is one of heroism fitting for the annals of the 
most worthy military achievements. At the 
termination of the war Dr. Harris settled at 
Water Valley, Mississippi, where he practiced 
medicine for a short time, and then removed 
to Cape Girardeau, Missouri, where, until his 
death, he remained, except for a short time, 
when he was surgeon for the Scotia Iron 
Company, in Jefferson County. As a phy- 
sician he acquired a high reputation and en- 
joyed a large practice. He was inclined 
toward literature, and was a contributor to 
numerous medical journals on matters per- 
taining to his profession ; also devoting con- 
siderable attention to the preparation of mis- 
cellaneous articles for the magazines and 
daily papers. In public enterprises he was 
foremost, and always active in the promotion 
of the best interests of his city and county. 
In politics he was Democratic, and active in 
afifairs of his party. For eight years he was 
a member of the Board of Pension Exam- 
iners, and in 1886 he was appointed post- 



190 



HARRIS. 



master of Cape Girardeau, serving for nearly 
three years, when he resigned, owing to his 
practice demanding his whole attention. The 
parents of Dr. Harris were of the Presby- 
terian faith, and in that church he was bap- 
tized, and until he reached manhood was a 
regular attendant at its services. For a num- 
ber of years he was favorably inclined toward 
the Roman Catholic Church, and later at- 
tended the Episcopalian Church, in which, 
for a number of years, he was superintendent 
of the Sunday school. In this church his 
children were baptized, though he himself 
was never confirmed. He was entirely free 
from any sentiment that could be classed as 
bigotry, but was sincere as a Christian, and 
respected the religious convictions of all. 
Yet he was so faithful to duty that he never 
neglected to use his good influence to induce 
his patients, whose recovery was impossible, 
to call a priest or minister and receive bap- 
tism and communion. He was benevolent 
and charitable, and was never known to re- 
fuse a worthy cause his hearty support. Dr. 
Harris was twice married. His first wife, to 
whom he was united January lo, 1867, was 
Miss Amanda Brown, daughter of Lieutenant 
Governor Brown. She died in April, 1868, leav- 
ing one child, Mary Amanda Harris, now the 
wife of E. F. Blomeyer, of Cape Girardeau, 
general manager of the Southern Missouri & 
Arkansas Railroad. In 1880 Dr. Harris mar- 
ried Miss Julia E. Russell, of Jackson, Mis- 
souri, a daughter of Joseph W. and Mary L. 
(Frizel) Russell. Two children were born of 
this union, but died in infancy. The father 
of Mrs. Harris, Joseph W. Russell, was of 
an old Virginia family, who came from Eng- 
land prior to the Revolution. Her mother, 
Mary L. F. Russell, was a daughter of Jo- 
seph and Sarah (Bolinger) Frizel, and was 
born and reared in Jackson, Missouri. When 
she was thirteen years of age she made a 
journey by stage coach to Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania, to the Moravian Seminary, where 
she was educated in part, for she was a stu- 
dent all her life. She was a brilliant woman, 
of many accomplishments, a devoted Chris- 
tian of the Episcopalian faith, and for more 
than forty years was a member of the church. 
She was baptized into the church by Rev. Dr. 
Horrell, rector of Christ Church, St. Louis, 
Missouri, in whose diary is the record: 
"Rode a horse from St. Louis to Jackson, 
September 4, 1823. Baptized Mary Frizel 



and sister, after reading funeral service at the 
grave of their father." Joseph Frizel was of 
an old English family, which came to Amer- 
ica at an early date and settled in Boston, and 
the Pemberton and Vance families were 
among his ancestors. About 1805 Joseph 
Frizel settled in St. Louis and engaged in the 
mercantile business, later removing to Jack- 
son, where he continued in business until his 
death. Sarah Bolinger Frizel, his wife, was 
a woman of rare accomplishments. While 
quite young she rode on horseback from her 
home, at Jackson, to Salem, North Carolina, 
to attend the Moravian Seminary. In 1816 
she brought by wagon the first piano across 
the Mississippi River, and the instrument is 
still in the possession of the family. She wae 
a daughter of George Frederick Bolinger, 
who located in the Territory, now Missouri, 
in 1796. Removing to North Carolina, he 
returned with his own and twenty other fami- 
lies in 1800, having received large conces- 
sions from the Spanish. He was a colonel 
under Commandant Louis Lorimier. His 
father, Henry Bolinger, was killed in the 
Revolution. The Bolinger family was promi- 
nent in the early affairs of Missouri. Mem- 
bers of the family have in their possession a 
number of pieces of old silverware marked 
with the Frizel family crest, one of the early 
Bibles, with the Pemberton name on its 
silver clasp, and many other valuable heir- 
looms. 

Harris, William Torrey, eminent as 
an educator, and present United States Com- 
missioner of Education, was born at North 
Killingly, Connecticut, September 10, 1835. 
In the common schools and such academies 
as Phillips (Andover) he received his early 
education, and for two years and a half he 
was a student at Yale College, but left before 
graduating. That institution, however, be- 
stowed on him, in 1869, the degree of A. M., 
and, in 1895, the degree of LL. D. In 1893 
Brown University honored him with the de- 
gree of Ph. D. The degree of LL. D. was 
conferred on him successively by the Uni- 
versity of Missouri, in 1870, the University 
of Pennsylvania, in 1894, and the Princeton 
University, in 1896. His contributions to the 
educational exhibit of the United States at 
Paris, the "Saint Louis Annual School Re- 
ports," published in thirteen volumes, at- 
tracted such attention that he was tendered 



HARRISON. 



191 



the honorary title of "Officier de I'Acad- 
€mie," signifying office of the educational sys- 
tem of France, the reports themselves being 
placed in the pedagogical library of the Uni- 
versity of Public Instruction. In 1889 he also 
received the title of "Officier de I'lnstruction 
Publique." In 1880 he represented the 
United States Bureau of Education at the In- 
ternational Congress of Educators at Brus- 
sels, and, returning to America, settled at 
Concord, Massachusetts, where, he took a 
prominent place as member of the School of 
Philosophy. In 1889 he again represented 
the United States Bureau of Education 
at the Paris Exposition, and the same 
year was appointed Commissioner of 
Education of the United States, and re- 
moved to Washington, D. C. In 1857 he 
became a resident of St. Louis, where, for 
twenty-three years, he was teacher, principal, 
assistant superintendent and superintendent 
of public schools, holding the last named 
office from 1867 to 1880. During this period 
of superintendency he witnessed an increase 
in the attendance of the schools of from 17,- 
000 to 55,000 pupils. Resigning in 1880 on 
account of failing health, Dr. Harris was, by 
the citizens of St. Louis, presented with a 
gold medal costing $500, and a purse of 
$1,000, in grateful recognition "of his 
faithful and distinguished service." The 
history of the public school system of 
St. Louis, prepared by Dr. Harris for 
this "Encyclopedia," recounts the results 
accomplished during his notable administra- 
tion. But not alone as a school educator 
were the uncommon acquirements of Dr. 
Harris displayed during his residence in St. 
Louis. In 1866 he was the founder of the 
Philosophical Society of St. Louis. The 
"Journal of Speculative Philosophy," estab- 
lished by him in 1867, was the first attempt 
of its kind in the English language, and he 
has continued to edit and publish it without 
interruption. In 1870 he was president of the 
National Educational Association. Since he 
removed from St. Louis he has found time 
for an immense amount of scientific and lit- 
erary work. For the American Social Sci- 
ence Association, of which he has been an 
officer for nearly twenty years, he has written 
many papers. He was assistant editor of 
"Johnson's Cyclopedia," contributing forty 
articles on philosophy and psychology. In 
co-operation with A. J. Rickofif and Mark 



Bailey he prepared the "Appleton's School 
Readers," and with Duane Doty, of Detroit, 
drew up for the Educational Bureau the first 
formulated "Statement of the Theory of 
American Education." In 1898 he was the 
editor of "Appleton's International Educa- 
tion Series." From his constant contribu- 
tions to the foremost magazines, an "Intro- 
duction to the Study of Philosophy" has been 
compiled. He is a deeply versed and emi- 
nent expounder of German thought, and has 
recently published "Hegel's Logic." This, 
with a commentary on "The Spiritual Sense 
of Dante's Divina Commedia," is ranked as 
marking an era in the history of mutual de- 
velopment in the United States. In 1898 he 
published "Psychologic Foundations of Edu- 
cation," a volume on the psychology of 
school work, art and philosophy, and espe- 
cially of the institutions of civilizations. A 
record of devotion to the subject of intellec- 
tual enlightenment so constant, so untiring, 
so steadily aimed, often hampered by phys- 
ical discouragements, is itself a monument. 

Harrison, Clifford Melvin, editor 
and legislator, was born May 22, 1863, at 
Fairview, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, 
eight miles from Johnstown. His father, 
Christian Harrison, who was a school 
teacher, farmer and merchant, was also a na- 
tive of Cambria County. His mother's 
maiden name was Caroline Watters, and she 
was born in Wayne County, Ohio. In the 
paternal line Mr. Harrison is descended from 
English ancestry, and his antecedents on the 
mother's side were Scofch-Irish. His father 
died in February 1900, at the age of sixty- 
eight years, and his mother in August, 1883, 
at the age of forty-nine years. In 1867, when 
he was four years of age, his parents removed 
from Cambria County, Pennsylvania, to 
Blackhawk County, Iowa, where his early life 
was uneventfully passed upon a farm. There 
he obtained the rudiments of an education in 
the public schools. When he was eleven 
years old the family removed to Grant City, 
Worth County, Missouri, where the youthful 
Harrison worked at anything he could 
find to do during the summer months, 
and attended school during the winter 
months of each year, until he was fif- 
teen years of age. He then apprenticed 
himself to the "Grant City Star," and 
spent the following three years learning the 



192 



HARRISON. 



printer's trade. At the conclusion of his ap- 
prenticeship he began working as a journey- 
man printer, and thereafter was successively 
employed on the "Denver (Missouri) New 
Era," the "Worth County (Missouri) Times," 
the "Mt. Ayr (Iowa) Record," the "Holden 
(Missouri) Herald," the "St. Joseph (Mis- 
souri) Evening News," and the "Kansas City 
(Missouri) Daily Journal." He worked on 
the last named paper eight years, and during 
four years of that time was head proof- 
reader. In 1 89 1 he purchased the "Grant 
City Star," at Grant City, Missouri, and was 
editor and proprietor of that paper for eight 
years thereafter. Selling this paper at the 
end of that time, he soon afterward pur- 
chased the "Albany (Missouri) Advocate," a 
Democratic paper. He changed both the 
politics and the name of this paper and pub- 
lished it as the "Albany Capital," a Repub- 
lican newspaper, for six months. Selling out 
the "Capital" at the end of that time, he pur- 
chased the "Gallatin North Missourian," in 
March of 1899. This paper is one of the old- 
est and most widely known Republican 
newspapers in northwest Missouri. It was 
established before the Civil War as the "Gal- 
latin Sun," and its name was changed to 
"North Missourian" in 1864. It is the oldest 
paper in Daviess County, and one of the 
most influential in the Third Congressional 
District. An eight-page, six-column paper, 
it is printed entirely at Gallatin, and the office 
is equipped with the latest machinery and 
type faces. Under Mr. Harrison's manage- 
ment the noted old paper has increased in 
prestige and usefulne'ss, and occupies a place 
among the leading press exponents of Re- 
publicanism in Missouri. Personally Mr. 
Harrison has been active in Republican cam- 
paigns, and in promoting the interests of his 
party for many years. At the present time 
(1900) he is chairman of the Republican cen- 
tral committee of Daviess County, and a 
member of the Republican congressional and 
executive committees of the Third District. 
The first office which he held was that of 
member of the Grant City School Board 
which he filled from 1892 to 1895, serving as 
vice president of the board. In 1894 he was 
elected a member of the House of Represen- 
tatives of the Missouri General Assembly 
from Worth County. During the ensuing 
session he served as chairman of the com- 
mittee on eleemosynary institutions, vice 



chairman of the committee on printing, and 
member of the committee on penitentiary. He 
was the author of a bill providing for the es- 
tablishment of a State Board of Pardons, and 
the Parole of Convicts from the Penitentiary. 
The last named provision of this bill was en- 
acted into law at a later session. In 1898 Mr. 
Harrison was nominated by the Republicans 
of the First Senatorial District for State Sen- 
ator, but at the ensuing election he was de- 
feated by a fusion of Democrats and Popu- 
lists. A Presbyterian churchman, he is 
active in church work, and is an elder of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Gallatin. He 
has been chancellor commander of Gallatin 
Lodge, No. 206, of the Knights of Pythias, 
and is a member of the orders of Odd Fel- 
lows, Freemasons, Modern Woodmen and 
Knights of the Maccabees. June 27, 1888, he 
married Miss Hannah Ella Marrah, at Kings- 
ville, Missouri. Five children have been born 
of this union, of whom Frederick Melvin, 
Greeta Viola and Garret Hobart Harrison 
are now living. Mrs. Harrison is a native of 
Ireland, reared in the faith of the Catholic 
Church, and a devout member of that church. 

Harrison, Edwin, one of the most 
prominent citizens of St. Louis, was born in 
1836, in Washington, Arkansas, son of James 
Harrison, one of the most distinguished of 
Western manufacturers. He came to St. 
Louis as a child, and when twelve years of 
age, through the friendship which existed be- 
tween his father and Father De Smet, he was 
sent to Namur, in Belgium, where he at- 
tended school for several years. In 1851 he 
returned to St. Louis, and continued his 
studies at Wyman's school. In 1853 he en- 
tered the Lawrence Scientific School, a de- 
partment of Harvard University, where he 
studied mechanics and engineering, gradu- 
ating in 1855. While in this school he was 
under the preceptorship of Agassiz and Asa 
Gray. He was appointed, in 1859, assistant 
to State Geologist G. C. Swallow, of Mis- 
souri. He served some time as assistant to 
Drs. Schumard and Norwood in the Missouri 
Geological Survey, and then went to Santa 
Fe, New Mexico, where he was engaged in 
merchandising from i860 to 1862, and return- 
ing to Mexico in 1862, he became head of the 
firm of E. Harrison & Co., manufacturers of \ 
pig iron. In 1870 he was elected president of 
the Iron Mountain Company, and of the 



HARRISON. 



193 



Chouteau, Valle & Harrison Iron Company, 
owners of the Laclede Rolling Mills. He 
was one of the organizers and the first presi- 
dent of the St. Louis Smelting & Refining 
Company, and of its branch, the Harrison 
Reduction Works, on the site of the present 
city of Leadville, Colorado. He was presi- 
dent of each of ten corporations for fifteen 
years, and at the same time engaged in many 
mining enterprises. The Hope and Granite 
Mountain mines, of Montana, were both en- 
terprises Avith which he was identified from 
their inception. Governor B. Gratz Brown 
appointed him to membership on the board 
of managers of the State Geological Survey, 
and by reappointment of Governors Hardin 
and Woodson, he served until the survey 
was discontinued. In 1876 he was commis- 
sioner from Missouri to the Philadelphia 
Centennial Exposition, but other duties com- 
pelled him to decline. He has served as pres- 
ident of the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, in St. Louis ; of St. 
Luke's Hospital Association, of the Mercan- 
tile Library Association, of the Missouri 
Historical Society, of the managing commit- 
tee of the Manual Training School, and of 
other organizations. He has also been a 
warm friend of Washington University, and 
the St. Louis Fair Association ; was for many 
years a director in each, and was one of the 
incorporators of the St. Louis Club. In 1897 
he was nominated for mayor of St. Louis, 
but was defeated by reason of factional dif- 
ferences in the Democratic party, with which 
he has always affiliated. Mr. Harrison mar- 
ried, in 1873, Miss Laura E. Sterne, of Glas- 
gow, Missouri, and two sons and a daughter 
have been born of his marriage. 

Harrison, James, merchant and man- 
ufacturer, was a Kentuckian, born in Bour- 
bon County, October 10, 1803. His educa- 
tional advantages were meager. Before he 
attained his majority he came to Missouri 
and settled in Fayette, Howard County, 
where he became associated with James Glas- 
gow in commercial pursuits. He engaged in 
numerous other successful ventures, among 
them being the shipment of live stock to St. 
Louis, and 'of grain by flatboat from St. 
Louis to New Orleans. In 1831-2 he traded 
in Mexico, extending his operations to Chi- 
huahua. From 1834 to 1840 he was engaged 
in merchandising in Arkansas, maintaining 

• 

Vol. Ill— 13 



trading establishments in several different 
towns. He became a resident of St. Louis in 
1840. In 1843 he became a third owner of 
the Iron Mountain property, and in 1845 o^" 
ganized the "Iron Mountain Company." 
One after another obstacles were sur- 
mounted, and Mr. Harrison and his associ- 
ates became known as among the largest 
producers of iron in the world. The manu- 
facturing firm in St. Louis was known as 
Chouteau, Harrison & Valle, and for many 
years this was one of the most famous estab- 
lishments of its kind in the West. He in- 
spired the organization of the Iron Mountain 
Railroad Company, and for several years was 
a managing director. He was a director also, 
of the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, 
and when that road was purchased from the 
State he was one of the men who negotiated 
a $7,000,000 loan in aid of the enterprise. He 
contributed to the building of churches, 
schools and public institutions of various 
kinds, and was in all respects a potent factor 
in promoting the progress and prosperity of 
the city of St. Louis. His death occurred 
August 3, 1870. He married, in 1830, Maria 
Louisa Prewitt, daughter of Joel Prewitt, of 
Howard County, Missouri, who died in St. 
Louis in 1847. 

Harrison, James Frank, was born 
August 7, 1852, near Lancaster, in Fairfield 
County, Ohio. His parents were Dixon A. 
and Elizabeth (Williams) Harrison. The 
father was born on the same farm as was the 
son ; he became a lawyer, and was for some 
time a partner with General J. Warren 
Keifer, of Springfield, Ohio. He removed to 
Carthage, Missouri, in 1868, where he con- 
tinues to practice. The mother was a native 
of Ohio, of Scotch-Irish descent. The pa- 
ternal ancestry is highly honorable, and 
rarely interesting. In the Cromwellian Par- 
liament in England, a Harrison voted for the 
execution of Charles I, and for this act was 
hung by Charles II, after the restoration of 
the monarchy. Another Harrison removed to 
Ireland and participated in the siege of 
Derry. His three sons immigrated to Amer- 
ica prior to the Revolutionary War, and took 
a part in that struggle. Of these, one settled 
in Virginia, and all his male descendants in 
the Civil War period took up arms for the 
Confederacy.. The descendants of the other 
two settled in Ohio, and, to the number of 



194 



HARRISON. 



twenty-eight, served in the Union Army. To 
•this branch of the family belongs James 
Frank Harrison. In 1868 he came to Car- 
thage with his parents, and for two years at- 
tended the public school. He then read law 
with his father, but having no liking for the 
profession, did not ask for admission to the 
bar. For sixteen years he was State agent 
and adjuster for the German Fire Insurance 
Company of Freeport, Illinois. He then en- 
gaged in the lumber business as a member of 
the firm of Harrison, Calhoon & Harrison, 
from which he afterward retired. In 1895 ^^ 
became one of the incorporators of the Jas- 
per County Railway Company, and was one 
of the leaders in the construction of the road 
from Carthage to Carterville. The road was 
purchased by the South West Missouri Elec- 
tric Railway Company, and consolidated with 
the Carterville and Galena line, in 1898, and 
he was then elected vice president of the 
company. Since that time he has given his 
attention principally to mining operations, in 
the Empire, Central City and Zincite tracts. 
Among the richest holdings in the Missouri- 
Kansas mineral belt is a forty-acre tract ad- 
joining Carterville, owned by himself and 
Judge Malcolm G. McGregor, which they 
have had in possession for twenty-one years. 
Parties holding lease rights have recently 
found upon this property rich disseminated 
ore. Upon the ground is a one hundred ton 
mill and four compressed air drills. The 
prospects were most promising from the 
outset, and the shafts are producing bounti- 
fully. Mr, Harrison is a Republican in poli- 
tics, but is averse to public life, and the only 
office which he has ever held was that of 
councilman, some years ago. He and his 
family are members of the Methodist Church. 
For twelve years he has been a member of 
the order of Knights of Pythias. He was 
married, September 4, 1878, to Miss Emma 
Dora Walker, daughter of Dr. Madison G. 
Walker, of Pendleton, Indiana. She was a 
student in the female college connected with 
the University of Ohio, at Delaware. She is 
highly cultured, a well trained musician, and 
has been for several years an active member 
of the lanthe Chautauqua Club. Five chil- 
dren were born of this marriage. Mary is a 
student at the Central College, Lexington, 
Missouri. Edith graduated in 1900 from 
the Carthage High School. The younger 
children are Merle, Ruth and Frances. 



Harrison, James Washington, mer- 
chant and ex-judge of the Lafayette 
County Court, was born seven miles south- 
east of Higginsville, Missouri, March i, 
1839, son of William Washington and Polly 
(Sims) Harrison. His father was a native of 
Madison County, Virginia, and his mother of 
Greene County, in the same State. His par- 
ents came to Missouri in 1838, locating on a 
farm in Lafayette County, where J. W. Har- 
rison was born. The subject's father was a 
son of John Harrison, of Prince William 
County, Virginia, one of seven brothers who 
served in the Revolutionary War, he holding 
a commission as lieutenant in Captain 
Mountjoy's company, in Willis' regiment, 
which guarded the prisoners at Valley Forge. 
The family is descended from the same stock 
as that of General William Henry Harrison. 
Judge Harrison's education was received in 
the country schools of Lafayette and Saline 
Counties. The first twenty-five years of his 
manhood were devoted to farming and stock- 
raising, after which he engaged in merchan- 
dising at AuUville, Corder and Higginsville, 
ten years being spent at the latter place. 
Since August, 1900, he has been engaged in 
business at Odessa, Lafayette County, with 
his son, W. H. Harrison, operating two 
stores. Judge Harrison established the bank 
at Corder, in 1892, and also assisted in the 
founding of the Bank of Wellington, Mis- 
souri, and the Citizens' Bank of Higginsville, 
now defunct. For about one year he served 
as cashier of the Corder Bank. One of the 
most interesting episodes in his career oc- 
curred during the six years of his incum- 
bency of the office of judge of Lafayette 
County, to which he was elected in 1879. In 
1883 and 1884 the serious questions over 
the adjustment of the compromises on 
the Lafayette County Railroad bonds 
arose, and he and the other two judges 
were arrested by order of the United States 
Court and taken to Jefferson City, where he 
was held a prisoner for two years for refusing 
to levy a tax for the payment of the bonds as 
directed by the courts. Three months of this 
time he was compelled to sleep in jail, but 
during the remainder of the perigd of his de- 
tention he was allowed the freedom of a sec- 
tion of the city. During his term in office 
the entire bond issue, excepting about $10,- 
000, was compromised. Subsequent to serv- 
ing as ^ounty judge he held the office of 



HARRISON. 



195 



county collector for two terms, from 1885 to 
1889. In 1895 and 1896 he was a member of 
the Democratic county committee, and fre- 
quently has been a delegate to conventions 
of the Democratic party. Judge Harrison is 
a Confederate veteran with a good service 
record. His first enlistment was in Captain 
Samuel Taylor's company in the regiment of 
Colonel Routt, which formed a part of Gen- 
eral Price's army. He subsequently entered 
Hunter's regiment, and afterward Jackman's 
regiment, both of which formed a part of 
General Shelby's brigade. In this command 
he served during the last year of the war, 
surrendering at Shreveport, Louisiana, June 
14, 1865. At that time he was first lieutenant 
of Company G, Colonel Jackman's regiment, 
and, as the higher officers in command had 
gone to Mexico, he commanded the division 
at the time of the surrender. Judge Harri- 
son is a member of the Baptist Church, in 
which he is a deacon. He was married, Sep- 
tember 27, 1859, to Ellen Davis, a daughter 
of Dr. Hamilton C. Davis, a native of North 
Carolina, and a grandson of General Hamil- 
ton, of that State. They are the parents of 
seven living children, namely, Comorah, now 
the wife of Nathan Corder, of Corder, Mis- 
souri; William H., Joseph S., Fleet H., 
Estella, Leslie R. and Hugh J. Harrison. Their 
eldest son, Marcellus, who was graduated as 
a civil engineer from the State University, 
became a deputy United States surveyor, and 
served as such during two years of President 
Cleveland's first administration. He died in 
1890. 

Harrison, John W., manufacturer, 
was born in Howard County, Missouri, in 
1840, son of John and Pamela (Marr) Harri- 
son, both of whom were reared m that 
county. He was educated at the Missouri 
State University and then took a commercial 
course in St. Louis. In i860 he became man- 
ager of the iron furnace at Irondale, Mis- 
souri. In 1867 he aided in founding the 
Shickle, Harrison & Howard Iron Company, 
which is still in existence. In 1890, in com- 
pany with Thomas Howard, he organized the 
Howard-Harrison Iron Company, which 
erected large pipe works at Bessemer, Ala- 
bama. Of both these corporations Mr. Har- 
rison is president, and he is also the principal 
owner of stock in both companies. For many 
years he and his associates have been large 



employers of labor, and in all this time they 
have never had a strike among such em- 
ployes. He has usually indorsed the prin- 
ciples and policies of the Democratic party. 
He is an Episcopal churchman, and a vestry- 
man in the Church of the Redeemer of St. 
Louis. Mr. Harrison has been twice mar- 
ried. First, in i860, to Miss Laura Harrison, 
daughter of James Harrison, of St. Louis, a 
union of which three children were born. 
After the death of his first wife he married 
Mrs. A. E. Campbell, daughter of Captain 
William Eads, of Carrollton, Missouri. 

Harrison, Leon, was born in Liver- 
pool, England, August 13, 1866. He was 
graduated from the public schools of New 
York at the age of thirteen years. Soon 
afterward he was one of nine hundred and 
twenty applicants for admission to the Col- 
lege of the City of New York, and ranked 
first among the five hundred admitted. He 
afterward entered Columbia College, in 
which institution he won a scholarship prize, 
graduating in 1886. During his academic 
course he also attended Emanuel Theo- 
logical Seminary, of New York, from which 
he was graduated in 1886, at the age of 
twenty years. After that he took a post- 
graduate course of three years in philosophy 
at Columbia College. He was admitted to 
the Jewish priesthood, and preached his first 
sermon at Temple Israel, Brooklyn, New 
York, in 1886, being then but twenty years of 
age, and the youngest minister of this church 
in America. He occupied this pastorate five 
years, completing, at the same time, his aca- 
demic and theological courses. Under his 
ministration the church grew from a very 
small membership into one of the leading 
congregations of Brooklyn, and built and 
paid for a temple which cost $75,000. In 
1890 he was invited to deliver a sermon at 
Temple Israel, of St. Louis, and as a result 
he was chosen unanimously from twenty- 
eight candidates to fill the pastorate left 
vacant by the resignation of Rev. Dr. Son- 
neschein. He entered upon his duties and 
established his home in St. Louis, January i, 
1891, and since then has ranked among the 
first pulpit orators of the city. 

Harrison, William, physician and 
surgeon, is a representative of the family 
which includes the two Presidents of the 



196 



HARRISON. 



United States bearing the same name. He 
was born on a farm in Madison Township, 
Fayette County, Ohio, July 8, 1850, son of 
Captain Scott and Frances (Young) Harri- 
son. His father, who was born in the same 
county, February 22, 1817, and died at Mar- 
shall, Missouri, in October, 1875, was a son 
of Captain Batteal Harrison, born in Vir- 
ginia in 1780. The latter's father. Captain 
Benjamin Harrison, also a native of Vir- 
ginia, held a commission in Washington's 
command in the Continental Army. He mar- 
ried a Miss Vance and subsequently removed 
to Wheeling, and thence to Cynthiana, Ken- 
tucky. One of his sons, William, located in 
Crawford County, Missouri, prior to 1830. 
Another son, Batteal, Dr. Harrison's grand- 
father, was three years of age when his 
parents removed to Kentucky, and was left 
with his uncle, at Wheeling, on account of 
the Indian troubles in the Territory of Ken- 
tucky, In 181 1 Batteal Harrison moved to 
Belmont County, Ohio, and the following 
year received from President Madison a 
commission as first lieutenant in the Nine- 
teenth Infantry, United States Army. March 
17, 1814, he was promoted to the captaincy 
of the Second Company of Riflemen, United 
States Army, and served until the conclusion 
of peace. After the War of 1812 he was ap- 
pointed Adjutant General of Ohio, subse- 
quently was made brigadier general, and while 
serving in this office, in 1835, refused to mus- 
ter the "cornstalk militia" for the government. 
His action was followed generally by the 
commanders of the State troops throughout 
the country. In 1817 he was elected asso- 
ciate judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
for Fayette County, Ohio, and also served in 
the Ohio Legislature for some time. He 
married Elizabeth Scott, of Lexington, Ken- 
tucky. Their son, Captain Scott Harrison, 
in 1862, organized Company D, One Hun- 
dred and Fourteenth Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, of which he was elected captain, and 
served until the fall of Vicksburg, when he 
was discharged by reason of disabilities oc- 
casioned by illness. When the colonel of his 
regiment fell he was promoted to the com- 
mand, but refused to accept the honor on ac- 
count of his personal regard for the officers 
ranking ahead of him. He was subsequently 
elected major of the regiment, but decHned 
this office also. After the surrender of Vicks- 
burg he entered the. Ohio militia and com- 



manded his regiment at Chillicothe during 
Morgan's raid. He was honorably dis- 
charged at Columbus, Ohio, in October, 
1863. He married Frances Young, of Pick- 
away County, Ohio, and they were the par- 
ents of eight children, Annetta, Batteal V., 
J. v., Elizabeth, William, Belle, John and 
James Cook Harrison. He came to Mis- 
souri and located in Cooper County in 1865, 
but the next year removed to Marshall, where 
he died, October 5, 1875. The education of 
Dr. William Harrison was received in the 
common schools of Fayette County, Ohio, 
and Saline County, Missouri; Newton's 
Academy, in Marshall, and the St. Louis 
Medical College, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1874. For twenty-six years he has 
practiced continuously in Marshall, part of 
that time with Dr. B. St, George Tucker, and 
twelve years as a partner of Dr. John B. 
Wood. During Cleveland's second adminis- 
tration he served as pension examiner, and 
for a time was local surgeon for the Chicago 
& Alton Railroad. He has served as county 
physician, was an organizer of, and chief 
medical examiner for, the Home Protectors' 
Association, founded in Marshall in 1897, 
and for many years has been local examiner 
for leading insurance companies. He is a 
member of the Saline County, Missouri Val- 
ley District, State, and American Medical 
Associations, and has been president of the 
first named society. Aside from his profes- 
sional associations he has been identified 
with various public movements. For several 
years he was an officer of the Saline County 
Agricultural Society ; helped to organize, and 
for some time was president of the Marshall 
Driving Club, and was one of the prime 
movers in the establishment of the Ridge 
Park Cemetery, at Marshall. He is widely 
known as a lover of fine horses, and has bred 
some of the best produced in Missouri. He 
refused $4,000 for "Zo," the fast running 
mare ; owns "Sallie L.," a trotter with a fine 
record, and was interested in the breeding of 
"Tranby," a running horse, which made a. 
record of i : 40 3-4 at Oakley, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, in the spring of 1899. Since 1832 the 
family of which "Sallie H." is a member has 
been owned by the Harrison family. Dr. 
Harrison has always been a staunch Demo- 
crat, but has never cared for public office. In 
Masonry he is a Knight Templar, He was 
married, October 4, 1881, to Sallie Akin Mar- 



HARRISON COUNTY. 



197 



maduke, daughter of Colonel Vincent Mar- 
maduke, of Marshall. Their only child died 
in infancy. 

Harrison County. — A county in the 
northwestern part of the State, bounded on 
the north by the State of Iowa, east by Mer- 
cer and Grundy Counties, south by Daviess, 
and west by Gentry and Worth Counties ; 
area, 468,000 acres. The county presents a 
variety of surface. About two-thirds is un- 
dulating prairie, the remainder considerably 
broken. There are some low bottom lands, 
the soil of which is a black loam. The prai- 
ries have a dark brown loam, in places mixed 
with sand, and ranging from one to two feet 
in depth, resting on a clay subsoil. In the 
broken sections the soil is light. Big Creek, 
an affluent of Grand River, flows from north 
to south through the county, a little west of 
the center. Sugar, Sampson, Cypress and 
smaller streams, which are subtributaries of 
Grand River, water and drain different parts 
of the county. These streams generally have 
rocky or gravelly beds and rapid currents, 
affording good water power. In various 
parts springs abound. There are some good 
deposits of bituminous coal in the county, 
which for many years have been mined for 
home use, and small quantities for export. 
There is an abundance of good fire clay, and 
limestone and sandstone suitable for build- 
ing purposes. About 75 per cent of the land 
is under cultivation ; the remainder is in tim- 
ber, consisting of hickory, oak of different 
varieties, ash, elm, lind, black and white wal- 
nut, etc. The timber exists in tracts, along 
or near the courses of the streams. Diversi- 
fied farming, of which stock-raising and 
dairying are profitable branches, is the prin- 
cipal industry of the county. The cereals 
grow well, the average yield per acre being, 
corn, 33 bushels; wheat, 11 bushels; oats, 20 
bushels. The grasses grow in abundance. 
Potatoes average from 75 to 100 bushels to 
the acre. According to the report of the Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics, the surplus products 
shipped from the county, in 1898, were : 
Cattle, 15,300 head; hogs, 71,600 head; 
sheep, 3,680 head; horses and mules, 1,260 
head; wheat, 1,893 bushels; corn, 11,237 
bushels ; flour, 20,350 pounds ; corn meal, 
1,300 pounds; ship stuff, 6,300 pounds; tim- 
othy seed, 387,000 pounds; lumber, 171,800 
feet ; walnut logs, 62,350 feet ; piling and 



posts, 66,000 feet ; cord wood, 852 cords ; coal, 
23 tons; stone, 8 cars; lime, 15 barrels; ce- 
ment, 6 barrels; poultry, 681,000 pounds; 
eggs, 690,000 dozen; butter, 44,362 pounds; 
tallow, 14,900 pounds; hides and pelts, 39,- 
910 pounds ; canned goods, 1,160,000 pounds ; 
nursery stock, 2,120 pounds. Other articles 
exported were cooperage, cheese, dressed 
meats, vegetables, furs and feathers. That 
section of the Grand River country which 
was organized into Harrison County was, be- 
fore the advent of white men, one of the 
choice hunting spots of the Indians, and as 
late as 1845 bands roamed over its prairies 
and along its streams, hunting and fishing. 
It has been long lost to tradition just who 
was the first white man venturesome enough 
to visit the country, but most likely he was 
some one of the French fur-traders. After 
1830 the class of men known as bee-hunters 
went into the section and traversed the 
courses of the various streams, to which they 
gave names. According to the most reliable 
authority, no permanent settlements were 
made in the county, which was then a part 
of Daviess, until 1839, when John Conduit, 
Reuben Massey and William Mitchell located 
in the southern part. They were soon fol- 
lowed by others, who settled in the timbered 
portions, in the southeastern and south- 
western parts of the county. The circulating 
medium of the early times consisted of 
honey, beeswax, coon skins and other peltry. 
Their food was of the plainest kind, corn, 
hominy, honey, game and fish, and it was 
many years before any luxuries were in- 
dulged in. St. Joseph was the nearest trad- 
ing point of any importance. Schools were 
not known until some time after the organi- 
zation of the county. Harrison County ter- 
ritory was included within the limits of Ray 
when that county was organized, and later 
was part of Daviess County, from which Har- 
rison County was organized by legislative 
act approved February 14, 1845. ^^ was 
named in honor of Honorable Albert G. Har- 
rison, of Callaway County, who was a repre- 
sentative in Congress from Missouri from 
1834 to 1839. The commissioners appointed 
to locate a permanent seat of justice selected 
Bethany, which, upon the organization of the 
county, was laid out and named by a number 
of settlers who had come from Tennessee. 
The first county court convened in August, 
1845, under an oak tree. The year it was ere- 



198 



HARRISONVILLE. 



ated the county was surveyed and section- 
ized, and the first land entries were made 
during the following year. After being com- 
pelled to leave Illinois, the Mormons at- 
tempted to re-enter and establish themselves 
in Missouri. A company of militia was or- 
ganized in Harrison County, and, under com- 
mand of Colonel C. L. Jennings, met the 
"Saints" at Mt. Pisgah, Iowa, where a treaty 
was entered into with Brigham Young, in 
which it was agreed that the Mormons would 
not again try to settle in Missouri. In 1843, 
when an Indian raid was threatened, a com- 
pany of militia was organized in the county 
for protection, and was under command of 
Colonel Jennings and Major S. C. Allen. A 
few soldiers were recruited in the county for 
service in the Mexican War, and during the 
Civil War men were supplied by the county 
to both the Northern and Southern armies. 
There was not much trouble experienced in 
the county during the conflict. Harrison 
County is divided into twenty townships, 
named, respectively, Adams, Bethany, But- 
ler, Cypress, Dallas, Fox Creek, Grant, Ham- 
ilton, Jeflferson, Lincoln, Madison, Marion, 
Sherman, Sugar Creek, Trail Creek, Union, 
Washington, White Oak, Colfax and Clay. 
There are sixty-one miles of railroad in the 
county, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
running from the northern boundary, 
through the county, to the southwestern 
boundary, and the Des Moines & Kansas 
City Railroad, running along near the east- 
ern border for some distance. The number 
of public schools in the county, in 1899, was 
162; teachers employed, 187; pupils enumer- 
ated, 7,684. The population of the county, in 
1900, was 24,398. 

Harrisonville. — The county seat of 
Cass County, and a city of the fourth class. 
It is situated on the Missouri Pacific, the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the Kansas City 
Osceola & Southern, and the Kansas City, 
Clinton & Southern Railways, forty-five 
miles south of Kansas City, and 254 miles 
west of St. Louis. It is on high, undulating 
prairie, surrounded by a picturesque, richly 
productive and highly cultivated country, 
which sends to the market large supplies of 
all the cereals, stock, cattle, horses and 
mules, hogs, sheep, wool and hides. The 
city is lighted by electricity. The county 
courthouse is a spacious building, and an or- 



nament of architecture. It is of brick, three 
stories in height, with a lofty clock and ob- 
servation tower. Over the porch entrance 
is the inscription : "A public office is a public 
trust." It was built in 1895, and cost $45,000. 
There are a public library and an operahouse. 
The banks are the Allen Banking Company, 
the Bank of Harrisonville, and the Cass 
County Bank, with ample capital and large 
lines of deposits. There are four weekly 
newspapers, conducted with ability, and with 
large circulations — the "Democrat" and the 
"Leader," both Democratic; the "News," 
Republican, and the "Record," Populist. 
Churches are the Baptist, Christian, Protes- 
tant Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal, Meth- 
odist Episcopal South, Cumberland Presby- 
terian and colored Methodist Episcopal. In 
1899 the population (estimated) was 2,500. 
The first settlers at Harrisonville were 
James Lackey, Humphrey Hunt and John 
Blythe, "squatters" ; the former had built a 
cabin on the tract of public land taken for 
county seat purposes, in 1837. January 9th 
a postolfice was established with James W. 
McLellan as postmaster, who was succeeded 
by Lorenzo E. Dickey, December 2d. The 
same year Henry F. Baker opened the first 
store in a log building. In 1838 David Wil- 
son opened a blacksmith shop. Lynch 
Brooks was the first physician and druggist; 
the first resident lawyers were Charles Sims, 
Charmichall, R. L. Y. Peyton, and Snyder. 
Samuel Wilson kept a "tavern," a log build- 
ing of two rooms, one above the other. The 
first shoemakers were David Dawson and 
James Wilson ; the first tailor was John 
Yanny, and William Cook was the first cabi-. 
net and coffinmaker. John Cummins, after- 
ward county judge, erected the first brick 
dwelling house, in 1846, and Abraham Casle 
built the first brick business house, about the 
same time. The first newspaper. Whig in 
politics, appeared in 1854, the "Cass County 
Gazette," of which Nathan Millington was 
editor and owner. He sold it, in 1856, to R. 
O. Boggess, who styled it the "Western 
Democrat," and made it Democratic in tone. 
In 1857 Boggess sold it to Thomas Fogle, 
but continued to write the editorials. The 
paper was destroyed soon after the war 
began. The first school was opened 
about 1840, and was taught by Frank 
Love. William Jones was another early 
teacher. In 1849 Richard Massey opened a 



HARTVIIvIvE. 



199 



small academy for both sexes, with Miss 
Sallie Hays as assistant. They were married 
the same year. Thomas A. Russell succeeded 
to the charge of the school. Instruction was 
confined almost entirely to private institu- 
tions until 1853, when B. C. Hawkins became 
county commissioner, and the public school 
system was brought to a fair degree of effi- 
ciency, but the war occasioned discontinu- 
ance of effort. The existing educational sys- 
tem had its beginning in 1869, when a board 
of education was elected, consisting of 
Thomas Holloway, president ; George M. 
Houston, secretary, and D. K. Hall, treas- 
urer, who, with W. J. Terrell, J. C. Boggs 
and J. D. Hines were the directors. In 1871 
$20,000 in bonds were issued, and a three- 
story brick building was erected. 

Churches were prosperous and possessed 
valuable property, until the war dispersed the 
congregations and wrought material damage 
to the buildings, if they were not utterly de- 
stroyed. The first was that of the Missionary 
Baptists, organized some time previous to 
1840, nearly two miles southwest of Harri- 
sonville, with Elder John Jackson as pastor. 
In 1844 the congregation removed to the 
town and erected the first house of worship 
in the place. In 1854 a brick edifice was 
erected in its stead, and in 1883 this gave 
place to a modern structure, costing $10,000. 
The Cumberland Presbyterians formed a 
church about 1845. It was reorganized in 
1866, and in 1870 a building was erected at 
a cost of $4,000. The Methodist Church, 
South, dates to 1856, when it occupied a spa- 
cious and handsome edifice for that time. 
The building was replaced in 1878 at a cost 
of $4,500. The Christian Church, also dating 
to about 1856, erected a frame building in 
i860, which cost $4,400, which, in 1882, gave 
place to a modern brick structure of nearly 
the same cost. The Methodist Episcopal 
Church was organized in 1865, and in 1871 a 
church building was erected at a cost of 
$4,000. A colored Methodist Church was 
formed in 1866, and a house of worship was 
built, costing $800. Among the fraternal 
societies, the first was Old Prairie Lodge, 
No. 90, A. F. & A. M., chartered October 12, 
1847. The first meeting was held in a store ; 
ithe seats were nail kegs, and the officers' 
[jewels were made from tin. This lodge sus- 
)ended in 1861. Existing bodies of the order 
^are : Cass Lodge, No. 147 ; Signet Chapter, 



No. 68; Arcana Council, No. 16, and Bayard 
Commandery, No. 26. Other societies are 
Harrisonville Lodge, No. 7, I. O. O. P.; 
Harrisonville Lodge, No. 30, Order of Mu- 
tual Protection; a lodge of the Knights of 
Honor, and a lodge of United Workmen. 

The town site was designated as the seat 
of justice, in April, 1837, by Francis Prine, 
Welcome Scott and Enoch Rice, and was 
named in honor of Albert G. Harrison, of 
Callaway County, one of the two Missouri 
Congressmen elected in 1836. The name 
"Democrat" was strongly urged, but finally 
rejected. It was located on 160 acres of pub- 
lic land, and was laid off by Martin Rice, the 
first county surveyor. Fleming Harris was 
appointed county seat commissioner and 
made a sale of lots. In 1838 a courthouse 
and jail were erected ; in 1844 the former was 
replaced with a brick building, costing $3,000. 
In i860 $15,000 were appropriated for a new 
edifice, but the war caused abandonment of 
the project after the bricks had been burned, 
and in 1865 they were utilized for repairing 
the old structure, damaged through military 
occupation. In 1863 the town' was depopu- 
lated, and most of the buildings burned, the 
jail among them ; the latter was replaced in 
1869. (See "Cass County.") Harrisonville was 
incorporated as a city in 1859, when H. W. 
Younger was elected mayor ; he was suc- 
ceeded by J. M. Cooper, who served until 
1861. Civil law was unknown from that year 
until the restoration of peace, and municipal 
rule was not re-established until May, 1867, 
when an election was called by John B. Stitt, 
a justice of the peace, and the following offi- 
cers were elected : John Christian, mayor ; 
James Blair, Jr., Alexander Robinson, 
George S. Akin, A. H. Boggs, councilmen. 
Appointed officers were : A. J. Briggs, 
clerk ; J. H. Williams, treasurer ; J. D. Sar- 
vor, attorney, and M. O. Teeple, marshal. 

Hartville. — The judicial seat of Wright 
County, situated in Hart Township, near the 
center of the county, on the Gasconade 
River, twelve miles north of Mansfield, the 
nearest railroad shipping point. It has a 
good public school, four churches, lodges of 
two fraternal orders, two banks, live general 
stores, six grocery, two dry goods and other 
stores, a hotel and two newspapers, the 
"Press," Democratic, published by Carl Gar- 
ner, and the "Progress," Republican, pub- 



200 



HARTVILLE, BATTLE OF— HARTWIG. 



lished by Thomas H. Musick. Population, 
1899 (estimated), 600. 

Hartville, Battle of. — After the re- 
pulse of the Confederates under General 
Marmaduke, on the 8th of January, 1863, at 
Springfield, they moved to Marshfield, and 
thence to Hartville, in Wright County, where 
a Federal garrison was stationed. The at- 
tack was made, January nth, by Shelby's 
brigade, and was sternly met, many of the 
assailants going down before the destructive 
fire of a body of Union troops concealed in 
a dry ditch behind a high rail fence. Every 
captain in Shelby's regiment fell under these 
volleys, and Shelby had two horses shot, 
and Marmaduke one. The desperate nature 
of the fighting was maintained to the end, 
and although the Unionists were forced at 
last to evacuate the place, they were not pur- 
sued, and the Confederates gained little to 
compensate them for the loss of many valu- 
able officers, among them Colonel John M. 
Wimer, ex-mayor of St. Louis, and Colonel 
Emmet McDonald, of St. Louis; Mayor 
George Kirtley, Captain Charles Turpin, 
Captain Dupuy and Lieutenant Royster. The 
battle was followed by the retreat of the Con- 
federates into Arkansas, through bitter Jan- 
uary weather, and was marked by great suf- 
fering. 

Hartwig, Henry R. W., retired capi- 
talist, soldier and politician, was born April 
II, 1837, near Hesse-Cassel, Nieder Moll- 
rich, Prussia. His parents were Frederick 
Oswald Hartwig and Elizabeth (Rosenblath) 
Hartwig. They were both born in Prussia, 
the father being engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits in that country for many years. The 
grandfather was a preacher of the German 
Reformed denomination, and traveled exten- 
sively, expounding the faith wherever he 
went. While on the island of Surinam, a 
Dutch possession, he met Miss Maria Louise 
Von Schalge, who became his wife. They 
returned to Prussia and there ended a life of 
ease and quiet retirement. Gustave C. Lud- 
wig Hartwig, an uncle of Henry R. W., was 
a lieutenant in the Prussian Arrhy under 
Bluecher, and participated in the battles of 
Leipsic and Waterloo. Henry received a 
good education in the schools of Hesse-Cas- 
sel, and at the close of his educational career 
he engaged in agricultural pursuits with his 



father. The young man yearned for greater 
things, however, and soon decided to give 
up the quiet life of the farm and come to the 
country he had for years longed to see. It 
was in 1854 that Henry bade his loved ones 
farewell and came to America. He settled 
at Cleveland, Ohio, where he clerked in a dry 
goods store until the spring of 1857. The 
Western fever took a strong hold upon him 
and he moved to Council Bluflfs, Iowa, spend- 
ing one year in that locality and in Nebraska. 
In the spring of 1858 he went to St. Joseph, 
where he has since resided. Mr. Hartwig, 
after deciding to locate in St. Joseph perma- 
nently, first engaged in the business of out- 
fitting miners for the long journey to Colo- 
rado. Those were the days of the Pike's 
Peak emigration, and the Colorado gold ex- 
citement was at its height. In one year Mr. 
Hartwig succeeded in saving a goodly sum 
of money, and when he combined the profits 
with the earnings of previous years he found 
that he was possessed of a comfortable sum, 
an amount, in fact, sufficiently large to enable 
him to embark in the wholesale and retail 
liquor business. Fortune again smiled, and, 
under the firm name of H. R. W. Hartwig & 
Co., the business was carried on until 1863, 
when Mr. Hartwig concluded to change his 
line of operations and engage in the grain 
and commission business. This proved to be a 
profitable experiment of one year's duration, 
but Mr. Hartwig preferred the line he had 
abandoned a few months before. Accord- 
ingly, he re-engaged in the wholesale and re- 
tail trade, combining groceries and liquors. 
In 1869 the grocery stock was sold, and from 
that time until 1888 Mr. Hartwig was en- 
gaged in the wholesale liquor and rectifying 
business. When he stepped aside from the 
ranks of active commercial life he had at his 
command a competency that has grown 
steadily through judicious investments and 
w^ise speculations. Mr. Hartwig's brother, 
E. F. Hartwig, succeeded to the business and 
is still at the head of one of the most substan- 
tial concerns of its kind in the West. Major 
Hartwig's military career was one of steady 
promotion and honorable advancement. The 
spirit of the true soldier was inborn, and from 
the day he entered the service, until his dis- 
charge, he had an untarnished record on the 
battlefield and in the disciplined camp. In the 
summer of 1861 he enlisted in Captain Har- 
bine's company of Enrolled Missouri Militia 



HARTWOOD— HARVEY. 



201 



and was at once made a sergeant. In 1862 
he was appointed first lieutenant of Landry's 
battery of artillery. Soon afterward Captain 
Landry was promoted to the rank of major 
of the Swiss St. Louis regiment. The bat- 
tery was reorganized with Captain Hartwig 
at its head, and was known as Hartwig's In- 
dependent Artillery. In that service the gal- 
lant captain and his faithful men continued 
until 1864, when there was another deserved 
promotion, and he became major of the First 
Regiment, Enrolled Missouri Militia. Major 
Hartwig's political career has likewise been 
one of distinguished prominence. He is not 
placed in the class of politicians as the word 
is accepted in this day, but is a type of the 
true politician of the time when impurity was 
not such a common characteristic of public 
life. Major Hartwig has always stood for 
the best government and the honest adminis- 
tration of the people^s aflfairs. In 1867 he 
had attained sufficient prominence to war- 
rant his appointment, by Governor Fletcher, 
as one of the Missouri commissioners to the 
Paris Exposition. In 1870 he was elected 
collector of the city of St. Joseph and held 
that position two years. In 1884 the people 
of St. Joseph called him to be their executive, 
and for two years he was mayor of the city, 
his administration being marked by the 
steady growth of the municipality and her 
entrance into the second class of cities: He 
was nominated for Congress on the Repub- 
lican ticket, in 1888, against the Honorable 
James N. Burnes, who was representing the 
Fourth Missouri District in the lower house 
of Congress, but the district was strongly 
Democratic and Major Hartwig was unable 
to overcome the majority against his party. 
He has always been a Republican. Although 
not actively engaged in church work, he 
clings to the creed of his antecedents and 
pins his faith to the German Reformed 
Church. He was married, March i, i860, to 
Miss Caroline Kuechler, of St. Joseph, and 
two sons were the result of the happy union. 
George Henry Hartwig died June 7, 1867. 
The other son, Ernst Charles Hartwig, has 
fought his own battles and won them, and is 
now assistant cashier of the First National 
Bank of Buchanan County, Missouri. Mrs. 
Hartwig died in December, 1885. The 
major's second marriage occurred March 24, 
1898, his bride being Miss Emma Vegely, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. August Vegely, of - 



St. Joseph. Mr. Vegely was a well known 
and prominent resident of St. Joseph. He 
came to that city in 1852, and was for many 
years engaged in the candy manufacturing 
business. Looked upon as one of St. Jo- 
seph's most enterprising and liberal citizens, 
the worthy cause always receives the assist- 
ance of Major Hartwig. He is one of the 
strong supporters of the Commercial Club, 
and is not slow to respond to a call for assist- 
ance when such assistance means the im- 
provement of St. Joseph and the advance- 
ment of her interests. At the present time 
he is president of the Chamber of Commerce 
of the city of St. Joseph. He is also president 
of the Hartwig Realty and Investment Com- 
pany, which has large holdings of realty, not 
alone in St. Joseph, but in Denver, Colorado, 
Salt Lake, Utah, and Wichita, Kansas, and 
large bodies of land in Missouri, Kansas and 
Nebraska. 

Hartwood.— See "Oakland." 

Harugari. — A secret society whose of- 
ficial head is the "Grand Lodge of the German 
Order of Harugari," and which traces back 
to an ancient German order of knighthood. 
It was instituted in 1848, and the first lodge 
in Missouri was organized in St. Louis in 
1864. Its objects are aiding and assisting 
the helpless, sick and suffering. In the year 
1900 there were 3^9 lodges with 18,268 mem- 
bers in the United States, 107 being ladies' 
lodges with 5,519 members. In the State of 
Missouri there were nineteen lodges, two of 
them being ladies' lodges. In the fifty-three 
years of its existence the order had paid out 
in the United States for the benefit of sick 
and for deaths $6,250,000, of which $535-3 1 7 
was paid out in Missouri. The Grand Lodge 
of Missouri was incorporated for fifty years 
in October, 1899, and it has its capital in the 
hall built by itself, and valued at $14,000, at 
the corner of Tenth and Carr Streets, in St. 
Louis. The officers in 1900 were: Grand 
bard, Oscar Home; grand secretary, Theo- 
dor Thielman; grand treasurer, August 
Boettgar ; and the trustees were F. W. Heide- 
mann, H. E. Heuer and F. W. Mueller. 

Harvey, William C, physician, mer- 
chant and man of affairs, was born in Howard 
County, Missouri, August 8, 1825. He comes 
of "F. F. V." ancestry, the name having fig- 



202 



HARVIELL— HATCHER. 



ured prominently in the annals of Virginia 
for many generations. His parents were 
John and Elizabeth (Walkup) Harvey. John 
Harvey was a native of Virginia, but was 
reared to manhood in Kentucky and removed 
from there to Howard County, Missouri, in 
1817. Dr. W. C. Harvey had the usual ad- 
vantages in an educational way that the pub- 
lic schools of the county afforded, and ap- 
plied himself so well that he became qualified 
to teach, and followed that occupation for two 
years. He chose medicine as his profession, 
and spent two years in study under the in- 
struction of Dr. L. C. Thomas. In 1846 
he went to Lexington, Kentucky, and became 
a student at the Transylvania Medical Col- 
lege, from which institution he graduated 
with high honors in 1848. Returning to Mis- 
souri, he practiced his profession for a short 
time in Linn County, but in the winter of 
1848 located at Roanoke, in his native county, 
where he has continued in active practice ever 
since. Dr. Harvey is a skillful and success- 
ful practitioner, and has achieved wide dis- 
tinction in his chosen profession, but he has 
been and is much more than simply a phy- 
sician of extensive practice. In connection 
with his practice he established and has con- 
ducted a drug and grocery store, 
and has always commanded the trade 
of a large scope of territory. He 
operated for many years the old 
Roanoke tobacco factory, which gave em- 
ployment to many laborers each year. In 
addition to this he has for several years en- 
gaged extensively in farming, and now owns 
850 acres of beautiful and fertile land in the 
vicinity of Roanoke. He is also prominent 
as a stock-trader and dealer in the county, 
and is one of the most extensive in the State. 
Seldom a week in any year passes that he 
does not ship, through his agents, from one 
to six or eight cars of live stock. Truly a 
man of this type is of incalculable value to any 
community. Such men are the true builders 
of the commonwealth. He is a member of 
the Methodist Church and of the Masonic 
fraternity. Dr. Harvey was married Septem- 
ber 16, 1852, to Miss Leah A. Blakey. They 
have two children, Gussie S. and Zallie A. 
Harvey. 

Harviell. — A village in Harviell Town- 
ship, Butler County, seven miles southwest 
of Poplar BlufT. It has two churches, a 



graded school, six sawmills (near by), a stave 
tactory, fiouring mill, hotel and two large 
general stores. Population, 1899 (estimated), 
450- 

Harwood. — ^A town in Vernon County, 
on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway, 
fourteen miles north of Nevada, the county 
seat. It has a public school, Baptist and 
Methodist Episcopal Churches, lodges of 
Modern Woodmen, Royal Neighbors, the 
Royal Tribe of Joseph, a Grand Army Post, 
and a Woman's Relief Corps ; a bank and nur- 
series. Considerable quantities of coal are 
shipped. In 1899 the population was 225, It 
was platted in 1882 by John T. Birdseye, for 
Charles E. Brown, of St. Louis, owner of the 
site. 

Hatch, William Henry, lawyer, sol- 
dier and member of Congress, was born in 
Scott County, Kentucky, September 11, 1833, 
and died at Hannibal, Missouri, December 
23, 1896. He was educated at Lexington, in 
his native State, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1854. Shortly after he 
came to Missouri and entered on the prac- 
tice of his profession. In 1858 he was elected 
circuit attorney for the Sixteenth Judicial 
Circuit, and in i860 was re-elected. When 
the Civil War began he took the Southern 
side, entered the military service, and was 
commissioned captain and assistant adjutant 
general, and the next year was assigned to 
duty as assistant commissioner of exchange 
under the cartel, and in this capacity he con- 
ducted the exchange of prisoners on the Con- 
federate side to the end of the war. He then 
returned to Missouri and resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession at Hannibal, and in 1878 
was elected to Congress, and re-elected seven 
times in succession, serving with distin- 
guished ability in the Forty-sixth, Forty-sev- 
enth, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, 
Fifty-first, Fifty-second and Fifty-third Con- 
gresses, and being particularly noted for his 
championship of Western interests. 

Hatcher, Robert A., lawver, member 
of the Confederate Congress and the United 
States Congress, was born in Rockingham 
County, Virginia, February 24. 1819. and died 
at Charleston, Missouri, December 18, 1886. 
He received his education at private schools 
in Lynchburg, in his native State, and after 




^^ 





The Loulhern Bisiorij Co 



HAUGHN'S MILIv MASSACRE— HAWES. 



203 



studying law removed to Kentucky and en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession. In 
1847 he came to Missouri and located at New 
Madrid, where he acquired a large practice. 
He was elected and re-elected circuit attor- 
I ney, holding the office for six years, and was 
afterward twice elected to the State Legisla- 
ture. In 1861 he was chosen a member of the 
State convention, but withdrew from it and 
espoused the cause of the South, and was 
sent as member to the- Confederate Congress 
from Missouri. In 1872 he was elected to 
the Forty-third Congress and was re-elected 
in 1874 and again in 1876, serving three full 
terms. 

Haughn's Mill Massacre. — See "Mor- 
monism." 

Havens, Harrison E., lawyer, jour- 
nalist and member of Congress, was born in 
Franklin County, Ohio, December 15, 1837, 
and, after receiving his eduation at the com- 
mon schools, studied law and practiced for a 
time in his native State, afterward removing 
to Iowa. In 1867 he came to Missouri and 
located at Springfield, where he published the 
"Patriot." In 1870 he was elected from the 
Fourth Missouri District, as a Republican, 
to the Forty-second Congress by a vote of 
8,830 to 7,833 for W. E. Gilmore, Liberal, 
and in 1872 was re-elected, serving two full 
terms. 

H awes, Harry Bartow, was born in 
Covington, Kentucky, November 15th, 1869. 
He comes from a long line of men distin- 
guished in the political and military history of 
the country. Samuel Hawes, who was the 
first of his family to arrive in this country, 
came to Virginia in 1727 with the King's 
commission as a magistrate. Early Vir- 
ginia records speak of him as a worthy and 
public spirited man who took great interest 
in politics. His son Samuel commanded a 
regiment in the Revolutionary Army, which 
was fitted out by himself and father. In re- 
turn for his military services and the money 
advanced for Colonial troops, he was after^ 
ward issued letters patent for 30,000 acres of 
land in Kentucky, and moved with his family 
and slaves from Virginia to his new posses- 
sions, settling at the town of Hawesville, on 
the Ohio River. His son commenced his 
professional career as a lawyer at Paris, Ken- 



tucky, where he married Hettie Nicholas, 
whose father, George Nicholas, had written 
the Constitution of Kentucky, and was the 
author of the celebrated State's Rights doc- 
trine, his resolutions on this subject being 
even at this date the accepted authority. The 
town of Nicholasville and Nicholas County 
were named after the father of Hettie Nicho- 
las. 

Through the Nicholas family, Mr. Hawes 
is descended from Samuel Smith, who was 
Secretary of the Navy under Thomas JefTer^ 
son. Secretary of State under Madison, and 
was United States Senator from Maryland. 
Samuel's brother, Robert Smith, was Gover- 
nor of Maryland and an officer in the Colonial 
Army. George Nicholas was Governor of 
Virginia and a personal friend and confidant 
of Thomas Jefiferson, having married Samuel 
Smith's daughter. Through this line Mr. 
Hawes is also descended from Richard Car- 
ter, who had a grant of land from the At- 
lantic coast as far west as his majesty's 
possessions extended, being the largest land- 
holder and the wealthiest man in the colony 
of Virginia. Robert Carey, of Virginia, from 
whom Mr. Hawes is also lineally descended, 
was a colonel in the Colonial Army and par- 
ticipated in the stirring events of the Revo- 
lution. 

Richard Hawes, husband of Hettie Nicho- 
las, and the grandfather of Mr. Hawes, was 
a contemporary of Henry Clay, with whom 
he practiced law for many years, being asso- 
ciated with him as counsel in the settlement 
of the celebrated Nicholas estate, which was 
in the courts of Kentucky for over fifty years. 
He represented the Ashland District In Con- 
gress, was a volunteer in the Black Hawk 
War, and upon the breaking out of the re- 
bellion was elected by the Confederate troops 
at Frankfort, Confederate Provisional Gov- 
ernor of Kentucky. His home at Paris was a 
place of meeting for distinguished men from 
the entire South. He was a man noted for 
his uprightness of character, simplicity of 
manner, and was generally beloved and es- 
teemed by all who knew him. 

Jeflferson Davis, President of the Confed- 
eracy, described him as follows: 

"I knew him long and esteemed him 
highly. Direct and unswerving, faithful in 
private as well as public life, he commanded 
the regard and confidence of all who knew 
him well. The position of Kentucky tested 



204 



HAWES. 



the sincerity of her sons' adherence to the 
doctrine she had taught in the infancy of her 
statehood, but Richard Hawes, true to 
principle as the magnetic needle to the pole, 
quietly took his position, and through good 
and evil report efhciently worked to main- 
tain the constitution as it was written and in- 
terpreted by the men who made it." 

After the war, shattered in health and in 
fortune, Richard Hawes returned to his old 
home, and was immediately elected county 
judge by his old constituents, which position 
he held until the time of his death, which 
came in his eighty-third year. His eldest 
son. General Morrison Hawes, was a class- 
mate of Grant and Longstreet at West Point, 
graduating from that academy at the same 
time with them. He served throughout the 
Mexican War, and at the breaking out of the 
Civil War was in command of Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, when he was offered a com- 
mission as brigadier general in the Union 
Army by Secretary of War Stanton, his wife's 
uncle. He chose, however, to resign and ac- 
cepted the position of colonel of the Second 
Kentucky, afterward being transferred to 
the Division of Texas and promoted to the 
rank of brigadier general in the Confederate 
Army, surrendering his command upon the 
cessation of hostilities at Galveston in 1865. 
Two of his brothers were killed in the Con- 
federate Army. 

General Morrison Hawes' youngest 
brother. Smith Nicholas Hawes, was made a 
lieutenant in the Confederate Army at the age 
of seventeen, receiving his commission at 
Maryville, Missouri, in 1861. He was later 
promoted to the rank of captain and served 
until the close of the war, being severely 
wounded at the battle of Shiloh. After the 
war Captain Hawes returned to Kentucky, 
where he married Susan E. Simrall. Two 
boys were the result of this marriage, Harry 
B. Hawes, the subject of this sketch, and 
Richard S. Hawes. The Simrall family is 
well known in Kentucky and the South, four 
generations in a direct line having been dis- 
tinguished lawyers and jurists. 

Financial reverses overtaking the Hawes 
family, young Hawes left Kentucky and came 
to St. Louis to carve out his own fortunes. 
He arrived in St. Louis in his seventeenth 
year without acquaintances, friends or 
mone3\ but accidentally met an old army 
comrade of his father, who secured a posi- 



tion for him in the Third National Bank. 
Continuing his studies at spare times, he pre- 
pared himself for the study of the law. In the 
meantime his father died and Harry B. 
Hawes brought his widowed mother and 
younger brother to St. Louis. He was later 
enabled, through the assistance of Honorable 
John G. Carlisle, Secretary of the Treasury, 
an old friend and legal adviser of the family 
in Kentucky, to secure a Federal appointment 
which occupied but a few hours each day, en- 
abling him to attend the lectures at the St. 
Louis Law School, and at the same time pro- 
vide for the support of himself and family. 
He graduated from this institution, repre- 
senting his class at its closing exercises, and 
entered into the practice of law in the office 
of Governor Charles P. Johnson. 

Being sent as a delegate from Missouri to 
the Trans-Mississippi congress which met at 
Salt Lake, in Utah, he there met and formed 
the acquaintance of Honorable Lorin A. 
Thurston, the representative of the Hawaiian 
Republic, who was in this country for the 
purpose of securing the annexation of those 
islands to the United States. The question 
of annexation was presented to the conven- 
tion for its approval or rejection, and Mr. 
Hawes entered into an active debate in behalf 
of annexation. The resolutions were passed 
and he returned to St. Louis. Two months 
later the Hawaiian government offered him 
a position in its diplomatic service, under the 
direction of Honorable Lorin A. Thurs- 
ton and President Dole. The position was 
accepted by Mr. Hawes, and he remained in 
the employ of the little republic until the isl- 
ands were annexed to the United States. 
During his engagement in this work for over 
a year, he spoke in the leading cities of the 
South, and was instrumental in disclosing the 
operations of the sugar trust in its attempt to 
defeat the annexation of the islands, which 
seriously threatened its monopoly. His 
speech before the Jefferson Club on sugar 
trust interference went through three edi- 
tions, over 40,000 copies of it being distrib- 
uted throughout the United States. 

Resuming the practice of the law, Mr. 
Hawes associated himself with three other 
young lawyers uiider the firm name of John- 
son, Houts, Marlatt & Hawes, this firm now 
being recognized as the strongest among the 
younger members of the bar in the city. Mr. 
Hawes had inherited a natural aptitude for 



HAWKINS. 



205 



politics, and taking a decided stand against 
the old boss system in his adopted city, he or- 
ganized what is now known as the Jefferson 
Club, which at the present time controls the 
politics of St. Louis. After eight years' 
struggle with the old-line bosses, they were 
defeated in the primaries of May, 1900, and 
the authority of the organization built up by 
the young Kentuckian was made supreme. 
In 1898 Mr. Hawes was appointed police 
commissioner by Governor Stephens, who 
had been his personal friend for a number 
of years. He was immediately elected presi- 
dent of the board and in the same year he 
caused to be introduced and secured the pas- 
sage through the Legislature of a new police 
law increasing the size of the department to 
meet the growing needs of his city. The 
passage of this bill attracted the attention of 
the whole State, the conflict becoming bit- 
terly partisan, and was the sole topic of con- 
versation in political circles while it was 
pending, and has since become a fruitful 
source of discussion. 

Although not thirty years of age, with a po- 
sition of tremendous responsibility placed 
upon him as president of the police board, 
Mr. Hawes was not found lacking in the 
necessary executive capacity or ability. In 
the spring and summer of 1900, the great 
street railway strike, involving the employ- 
ment of 3,500 men and extending over street 
railroad tracks of over 400 miles in length, 
and having the active support of 40,000 union 
workmen in St. Louis, presented the greatest 
struggle between labor and capital ever wit- 
nessed in America. Mr. Hawes' position as 
president of the police board brought him 
between these two conflicting interests. Pur- 
suing a fair and impartial course as an of- 
ficer of the law, without injustice to one side 
or the other, he was made the storm center 
of attack and abuse from both sides. His 
political opponents, taking advantage of the 
crisis then upon the city, sought by the arts 
of demagogery to inflame the public mind 
against him. The trouble was finally settled 
with little loss of life or property, and the 
public, having had time and opportunity to 
review the strike in a dispassionate manner, 
generally approved his conduct through this 
critical and dangerous period. Mr. Hawes 
was reappointed police commissioner by 
Governor Dockery, in 1901. 

On November 15th, 1899, Mr. Hawes mar- 



ried Miss Eppes Osborne Robinson, of 
Washington, D. C. Her family, like his, was 
distinguished in the early politics of the Old 
Dominion, she being descended from the 
Randolph, Eppes and Giles families of 
that State. Her great-grandfather, William 
Branch Giles, was one of the early Governors 
of Virginia, a staunch supporter of Thomas 
Jefferson and a bitter foe of Hamilton. In 
the debates of the constitutional convention, 
and later on, during Hamilton's administra- 
tion as Secretary of the Treasury under 
Washington, he was fiercely assailed for his 
monarchical tendencies by Giles of Virginia. 
Partisan papers take delight in referring to 
Mr. Hawes as "young Mr. Hawes," and in 
assailing him for his Democratic partisanship. 
The serious charge of being a young man 
seems, however, to have been the only charge 
of incompetency that they could substantiate. 
Firm in his convictions, aggressive in action, 
warm in his friendships and determined in op- 
position, he has made many friends and ene- 
mies in his brief period in public life. As a 
forensic orator and public speaker, he is 
plausible and convincing. His rapid rise in 
politics in St. Louis, he being now the recog- 
nized leader of his party in the city, has 
brought with it jealousies and animosities as 
a natural consequence. He has refused nomi- 
nations for public office, and has often stated 
to his intimate friends that his life work shall 
be in the line of his chosen profession, the 
law. 

Hawkins, Charles P., lawyer and leg- 
islator, was born February 15, i860, in Fulton 
County, Kentucky, son of Dr. James M. and 
Matilda (Harris) Hawkins. His father, who 
was a native of Tennessee and was reared in 
that State, was a brother of ex-Governor 
Hawkins, who achieved much distinction as 
a public man. Dr. J. M. Hawkins removed 
from Tennessee to Kentucky and there mar- 
ried. He was a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, in early life, but 
later engaged in the practice of medicine in 
Fulton County, Kentucky, where he became 
very prominent in his profession and accu- 
mulated a handsome fortune. The son was 
educated at McKenzie College, Tennessee, 
and after his graduation from that institution 
began reading law in Fulton County, Ken- 
tucky. In 1879 he came from there to Mis- 
souri and established his home in New Mad- 



206 



HAWKS -HAYNESVILLE. 



rid, where he completed his law studies with 
his brother, who was a member of that bar. 
He was admitted to practice in 1880, and be- 
gan his professional career at New Madrid, 
where he remained until the fall of 1882. He 
then removed to Maiden, in Dunklin County, 
and from there removed to Clarkton, in the 
same county, in 1884, At the last named 
place he was engaged in private practice until 
1886, when he was elected prosecuting attor- 
ney, and removed to Kennett, the county 
seat of Dunklin County, which has since been 
his home. Here he has since practiced suc- 
cessfully, and has gained a prominent place 
among the lawyers and public men of his 
county. In 1888, he was the nominee of the 
Democratic party for representative in the 
General Assembly, and was elected to that po- 
sition by a handsome majority. He was re- 
elected in 1892, serving four years in all in 
the Legislature, and becoming recognized not 
only by his immediate constituency, but 
throughout the State, as an able legislator and 
a public servant of unquestioned integrity. 
As a member of the Democratic party he has 
been devoted to its principles, has partici- 
pated actively in many campaigns, and has 
contributed his full share to the advancement 
of its interests. He is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, and of the 
orders of Freemasons and Odd Fellows. In 
April, 1884, he married Miss Augusta Wal- 
trip, daughter of Judge James M. Waltrip, 
a prominent citizen of Dunklin County. Four 
children have been born of this union. 

Hawks, Cicero Stephens, first Prot- 
estant Episcopal Bishop of Missouri, was 
born in New Berne, North Carolina, May 26, 
1812. He received his education at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, and was gradu- 
ated at the age of eighteen. He studied law, 
but when almost ready for admission to the 
bar he abandoned it for theology under 
the direction of his brilliant brother. Rev. 
Francis Lister Hawks, then rector of 
St. Thomas parish. He was made 
deacon December 8, 1834, and was 
ordained priest, July 24, 1836. His first 
parish was Saugerties, New York. In 1837 
he was transferred to Trinity Church, Buf- 
falo, New York, and in October, 1843, ^^~ 
cepted the rectorship of Christ Church, St. 
Louis, Missouri, and entered on his duties 
January i, 1844. Missouri then was under 



the jurisidiction of Rt. Rev. Jackson Kem- 
per, missionary Bishop of Missouri and Indi- 
ana ; but the extent and rapidly increasing 
population of that region made it necessary 
to divide the jurisdiction, and the entire 
State was set off as an independent diocese, 
under the name of the Diocese of Missouri, 
and the new rector of Christ Church, St. 
Louis, was elected its first bishop, and he was 
consecrated October 20, 1844. The poverty 
of the new diocese compelled Bishop Hawks 
to continue to be rector of Christ Church as 
well as Bishop of Missouri, and he discharged 
the duties of both offices for more than ten 
years. In twenty-three years he organized 
more than twenty parishes and missions, and 
the number of communicants increased un- 
der his pastorate to nearly 2,000. He was 
exemplary in the discharge of his duties as 
pastor of a parish as well as those of the 
episcopate. During the pestilence of 
1849, Bishop Hawks remained at his 
post, ministering to the sick and dying and 
burying the dead. In the midst of his ardu- 
ous labors he has found time for the exer- 
cise of those literary talents which were a 
family possession. He edited Harper's 
"Boys' and Girls' Library" and Appleton's 
"Library for My Young Countrymen," and 
was the author of the little work, ''Friday 
Christian, or the First Born of Pitcairn's 
Island." In 1867 Bishop Hawks began to 
show symptoms of the disease which termi- 
nated his life. He continued, however, to 
discharge the duties of his office till 1868, 
when he was compelled to request the assist- 
ance of Bishop Vail, of Kansas, in the visita- 
tion of the diocese. The last service of the 
church in which he participated by his pres- 
ence was on the Sunday before Easter, April 
5th. He was then too weak to take any 
part in the service, and he died on Sunday, 
April 19, 1868. Bishop Hawks was twice 
married, first, to Miss Jones, of Hillsboro, 
North Carolina. Mrs. Hawks died in 1855. 
Second, he married Miss Leonard, daughter 
of Judge Abiel Leonard, of Howard County, 
Missouri, who survived him. 

Haynesville. — A small village in the 
southern part of Clinton County, laid out in 
1842 by Solomon Kimsey, W. F. Franklin 
and J. R. Coflfman. It was a thriving and 
prosperous place until the Cameron Branch 
Railroad was built, running a mile distant, 



HAYTI— HAZEN. 



207 



in 1867, when most of its business and many 
of its inhabitants moved to the town of Holt, 
on the railroad, in Clay County. Since then 
Haynesville has been an unimportant village 
of about seventy-five population. 

Hayti. — A village on the St. Louis, Ken- 
nett & Southern Railway, in Little River 
Township, Pemiscot County, four miles 
south of Gayoso. It has several sawmills 
near by, and six general stores, a school and 
a church. Population, estimated (1899), 600. 

Hazard, Rebecca Naylor, a recog- 
nized leader among the philanthropic women 
of St. Louis, was born November 10, 1826, 
in Woodsfield, Ohio. She was receiving her 
education at Marietta Female Seminary, but 
left it at the age of fourteen years, her fam- 
ily removing to Cincinnati, and thence 
to Quincy, Illinois, where she was married, 
in 1844, to William T. Hazard, of Newport, 
Rhode Island. In 1850 Mr. and Mrs. Hazard 
removed to St. Louis, and soon after her 
coming Mrs. Hazard became interested in 
the neglected young girls of the city. Be- 
coming a director in the Girls' Industrial 
Home, she entered upon the work of build- 
ing up that institution. For five years she 
was engaged in this work, but upon the 
breaking out of the Civil War a more im- 
perative demand was made upon her activi- 
ties by the sufferings of the sick and wounded 
soldiers. In the winter of 1863-4 she was 
appointed by the Union League, with five 
other ladies, to inaugurate the movement 
which resulted in the memorable Sanitary 
Fair. At the close of the war she aided in 
founding the Guardian Home for unfortu- 
nate women. In May, 1867, she assisted in 
forming the Woman Suffrage Association of 
Missouri. She has filled the offices of secre- 
tary and president of the Missouri Associa- 
tion, and in 1878 was elected president of the 
American Woman Suffrage Association. In 
1873 the Association for the Advancement of 
Women was formed in New York, and Mrs. 
Hazard has been associated as vice president 
for Missouri for more than twenty years. 
She a"ssisted in forming in St. Louis the 
School of Design. She is a member of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and 
has been known in politics also as a pro- 
nounced bimetallist. For several years she 
has lived in comparative retirement in the 



country, near Kirkwood. For the past six- 
teen years she has met at her home a class 
of ladies who devoted themselves to the study 
of the poets, Homer, Dante, Goethe and 
Shakespeare, and have also given attention 
to the philosophic writings of Plato and 
Hegel. In early years she was attached to 
the Methodist Church, but in middle life she 
became imbued with a love of the doctrines 
of Emanuel Swedenbbrg. The children of 
Mr. and Mrs. Hazard have been Charles F., 
who graduated from the Washington Univer- 
sity and died in early manhood; Nathaniel, 
well known in the musical circles of St. 
Louis ; William T., Jr., who graduated from 
Yale College in the class of 1871, and is now 
connected with the Missouri Car & Foundry 
Company, and two children, who died in in- 
fancy. A grandchild, Grace Hazard, a stu- 
dent at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts, is 
also a member of Mrs. Hazard's family. 

Hazeltiiie, Ira S., lawyer, farmer and 
member of Congress, was born at Andover, 
Vermont, July 13, 1821. He was educated in 
the schools of his native State, and when a 
young man removed to Wisconsin, where he 
taught school for three years, then studied 
law and spent ten years lecturing on scien- 
tific and reformatory subjects, and also took 
an active part in building up Richland Cen- 
tre, the county seat of Richland County, in 
Wisconsin, and introducing improved farm- 
ing into the State. He served in the Wis- 
consin Legislature. In 1870 he came to Mis- 
souri and located upon a farm near Spring- 
field and directed his attention to the culti- 
vation of fruit and the rearing of sheep. He 
participated in the Granger movement, and 
was also made a member of the executive 
committee of the Missouri State Grange. In 
1880 he was elected to the Forty-seventh 
Congress as a Greenbacker-Republican over 
James R. Waddill, Democrat, the vote being 
22,787 for Hazeltine and 22,680 for Wad- 
dill. 

Hazeii, William L., secretary and 
manager of the Pacific Coast Lumber & 
Supply Company, of Kansas City, was born 
January 29, 1848, in Cincinnati, Ohio. His 
parents removed to Kansas when he was a 
youth, and he soon afterward entered the 
employe of IngersoU & Rush, lumber dealers 
at Leavenworth, where he gained his first 



208 



HEARD— HEDBURG. 



experience in the business which now engages 
his attention. He left these employers to 
take a clerical position in the United States 
quartermaster's department at Fort Leaven- 
worth, under Generals Eaton, Van Vliet and 
Saxton. He manifested such aptitude for his 
duties, and acquired so great familiarity with 
all the details of the intricate business to 
which he had been introduced, that he was 
soon sent to the terminal points of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe, and of the Denver 
& Rio Grande Railways, to superintend the 
shipment of army suppHes thence to the vari- 
ous military posts in New Mexico, Colorado 
and Arizona. He was continued in this im- 
portant position until wagon transportation 
was rendered obsolete through railway ex- 
tensions. In 1880 he located at Wichita, 
Kansas, where he became engaged with the 
Chicago Lumber Company, for whom he 
conducted yards at the car works, and then 
in the city proper. With many others, he 
met with reverses in the reaction following 
the speculative period, but suffered no im- 
pairment of energy or damage to reputation 
for integrity. He then became associated 
with E. R. Rogers, with whom he conducted 
a commission lumber business under the firm 
name of Hazen & Rogers, handling yellow 
pine almost exclusively, from the mills of the 
Long-Bell Lumber Company. During 1892-3 
Mr. Hazen was engaged for the latter cor- 
poration as a salesman in western Kansas 
and Oklahoma. January i, 1894, the Pacific 
Coast Lumber & Supply Company began 
business in Kansas City, and Mr. Hazen was 
placed in charge as secretary and manager, 
a two-fold position which he continues to 
occupy. He is regarded as one of the most 
accomplished judges and handlers of lumber 
in the market, and as possessing exceptional 
ability in extending and maintaining trade 
relations throughout an extensive and con- 
stantly increasing territory. Uniformly fair 
and liberal in his dealings, his broad intelli- 
gence and geniality of disposition attach to 
him firmly the friends once gained, and he is 
equally esteemed in business affairs and in 
the social relations of life. 

Heard, John T., lawyer and member 
of Congress, was born at Georgetown, Mis- 
souri, October 29, 1840, and was educated 
at the common schools and the State Uni- 
versity, graduating in i860. He then read 



law in the office of his father, George Heard, 
and practiced in partnership with him at 
Sedalia. In 1872 he was elected to the State 
Legislature, and served as chairman of the 
committee on ways and means, and was a 
member of the committee on judiciary, and 
the committee on the State University. In 
1881 he was elected without opposition to 
the State Senate, serving for four years, dur- 
ing which time he prosecuted the claims of 
the State against the general government on 
behalf of the fund commissioners. In 1884 
he was elected, as a Democrat, to the Forty- 
ninth Congress, and was re-elected in suc- 
cession to the three following Congresses, 
receiving in his last election 24,027 votes to 
16,365 cast for E. L. Redmond, Republican. 

Hedburg, Eric, mining engineer, was 
born May 28, 1859, ^t Soderhamn, Sweden. 
His parents were A. O. and A. B. (Johans- 
docter) Hedburg. The father, who was a 
machine works owner and manager, died in 
1879, aged thirty-six years, and the mother 
died in 1865, on the family homestead in 
Enonger, Sweden. The Hedburg family 
originated in Heidelburg, Germany. Among 
them were ironmasters dating from 1780, 
who emigrated to the north of Sweden to 
give instruction in iron manufacture. Six 
members of the family divided an estate ; two 
continued in the iron trade, one engaged in 
the lumber and two in mercantile bus- 
iness in the city of Gavle, and another entered 
government service as postmaster in the 
same place. From this family descended the 
Hedburgs in America, four in number, of 
whom there are two in Joplin and one in 
California. Another, a captain in the United 
States Army, died recently. Eric Hedburg 
attended the common schools in Enonger, 
Sweden, until he was fifteen years of age. 
He then entered the School of Mining in 
Bergslagen, studying metallurgy and me- 
chanics, with two years of practical work in 
the manufacture of iron, and at the age of 
nineteen years received the degree of assist- 
ant ironmaster. At a later day he supple- 
mented his technical studies with a six 
months' course in the School of Mines at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After his grad- 
uation in Sweden he engaged in extensive 
travel to add to his knowledge of his chosen 
profession. In 1878 he went to England, 
first to London and then to Shields, famous 



HEEGE. 



209 



for its coal mines and iron working establish- 
ments. He then visited Norway, remaining 
three months at Christiania, returning to 
London, and thence journeying to Lisbon, 
Portugal. In 1879 he went to St. John's, New 
Brunswick, and from that point attended an 
exploring party 200 miles inland. He then 
visited Liverpool, in England, and Dublin, 
in Ireland, thence sailing to Baltimore, 
Maryland, and thence to St. Nazaire, France, 
where he made a stay of two months. In 
1880 he returned to the United States, and 
was employed for a time with the Thompson 
Steel Company, of Jersey City, New Jersey. 
In 1881 he went to Carthage, Missouri, and 
assisted in developing the now famous Pleas- 
ant Valley zinc mines. In 1883 he laid out 
the town of Boxley, Newton County, Arkan- 
sas, and organized the Carthage (Arkansas) 
Mining and Smelting Company, built the 
necessary works, and carried on lead mining 
and smelting for eighteen months, when the 
company made an assignment, the business 
proving unprofitable on account of the long 
wagon haul of ninety-five miles to a railway 
shipping point. He then went to Lehigh, 
Jasper County, Missouri, and successfully 
superintended zinc mining until the ore was 
exhausted, when he became superintendent 
of the Sherwood Mines. In 1890 he entered 
upon a five years' engagement as superin- 
tendent of the Roaring Springs Mining Com- 
pany. During that period of service he opened 
the Gordon Hollow Mines, in the north- 
west corner of Newton County, Missouri. 
These now famous mines led to the opening 
of nine other paying mines in the vicinity, 
induced the St. Louis & San Francisco Rail- 
way to build a mile switch to the properties, 
and built up in a wilderness a prosperous 
town with 900 inhabitants, a postofHce and 
a number of stores. In 1895 he visited the 
lead mines in Tennessee and Iowa, and made 
an expert report of the same. In 1896-7 he 
opened the Leadville and Chettwood Hollow 
Mines, in Jasper County, Missouri, and or- 
ganized the Chicago Consolidated Company. 
In 1898 he organized the Narragansett Min- 
ing Company, of Webb City, with a capital 
of $150,000. He has now a permanent office 
in the Columbian Building in Joplin, Mis- 
souri, and gives attention solely to his pro- 
fession as a mining expert and organizer, 
lines in which he has established a high repu- 
tation. His volunteer and unrecompensed 

Vol. Ill— 14 



labor has been of great value to the com- 
mercial and scientific world. In 1896 he 
wrote for the "Chicago Engineer" a pro- 
fusely illustrated series of articles descriptive 
of the various kinds of machinery used in the 
Western mines. In 1898 he wrote twelve 
illustrated articles for the "Mines and Min- 
erals," of Scranton, Pennsylvania, giving a 
complete history of Joplin, its geology, the 
mining, milling and smelting of lead and 
zinc, with plans and cost of production. He 
has also written an illustrated pamphlet on 
"Lead and Zinc Mining," which is a recog- 
nized authority upon these subjects, and has 
reached an issue of 20,000 copies in the East 
alone. His professional attainments are 
recognized by the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers, a scientific body having 
representation in all mining countries, of 
which he is an active member; and by the 
National Association of Steam Engineers, of 
which he is deputy president. During his 
early residence in America he was a Demo- 
crat, being personally acquainted with Gen- 
eral Hancock, Democratic candidate for 
President when he came to the country, and 
having an intimate friend in Colonel J. M. 
Tower, who expected the appointment of 
Minister to Sweden, and sought his services 
as interpreter. In the campaign of 1896 he 
became a staunch Republican on account of 
the Democratic party favoring free silver and 
other dogmas which he could not approve. 
He is a member of Fellowship Lodge, No. 
345, A. F. & A. M., of Joplin. Mr. Hed- 
burg was married, in 1884, at Carthage, Mis- 
souri, to Miss Sophia J. Anderson, who was 
born in Warmland, near Philipstad, Sweden. 
Three children have been born of this union, 
George, Nora and Lillie Hedburg. 

Heege, Theodore, merchant and bank- 
er, was born November 15, 1834, in Bruns- 
wick, Germany. His parents were William 
and Frederika (Bierman) Heege. He re- 
ceived his education in the common schools 
of his native town. In 1854, when twenty 
years of age, he immigrated to America, 
locating in St. Louis, where he carried on 
the shoemaking trade until i860. He then 
removed to Kirkwood, where he was simi- 
larly occupied until 1865, when he established 
a grocery store on the site which he yet 
occupies. By diligent attention to his con- 
cerns and careful economy he has developed 



210 



HEER. 



his business until it has reached the sum 
of $50,000 per annum, and he has acquired a 
handsome competency. He was among the 
organizers of the Bank of Kirkwood, and 
from its foundation has been its vice presi- 
dent. During the Civil War he assisted in 
the organization of Company F, First Regi- 
ment of Missouri Infantry Militia, and held 
a commission as second lieutenant in that 
command. In 1888 he was called upon to 
serve as presiding judge of the county court 
of St. Louis County, and his acceptance of 
the position was in the nature of a response 
to a popular demand and expression of con- 
fidence, rather than as the gratification of 
personal ambition. His service in that posi- 
tion was so eminently creditable to himself 
and satisfactory to the cqmmunity that he 
•was twice re-elected, his terms of service 
•covering the long period of ten years. He 
was also elected a town trustee for Kirk- 
wood, and re-elected, serving in that capacity 
ior four years. In political concerns he is a 
Republican, and has always taken an active 
part in the afifairs of the party throughout 
the county and district, as well as locally. He 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity and 
of the Royal Arcanum, and of all the leading 
•German societies in the county. He was 
married, April 9, 1857, to Miss Louisa Al- 
brand, of St. Louis, who died July 22, 1894. 
Of this union were born eight children, Wil- 
liam ; Emma, wife of Leith Decker, of St. 
Louis ; August, who is associated in business 
with his father; Frederick; Lena, wife of 
Charles Hilderbrand, of Buffalo, New York; 
Ida, wife of Joseph Fansler, of St. Louis; 
George, of St. Louis, and Eliza, wife of Frank 
Witerow, of Brantwood, Missouri. He was 
married, March 2, 1899, to Miss Johanna 
Rogall, of St. Louis. Beginning life as he 
did, in a strange land, with little knowledge 
of the people he came to dwell among, or 
of the language they spoke, and without 
means, the success which has crowned his 
efforts evidences the sterling qualities of 
which he is possessed. In the community in 
which he lives he is regarded as an entirely 
upright, substantial and public-spirited citi- 
zen. He is an excellent type of the best 
German-American character, and the unusu- 
ally large relationship by which he is sur- 
rounded, descended from him or allied by 
marriage, are worthy of him. 



Heer, Charles H., merchant, was bon 
in the kingdom of Hanover, Germany, Apri 
30, 1820, son of Gerhardt W. and Mary E 
(Klecker) Heer, The elder Heer, who wa 
a landed proprietor and public official in Ger 
many, died three months before the birth o 
his son. The latter passed the years of hi; 
early youth in Germany, and was well edu 
cated with a view to his entering the Catholi( 
priesthood. In 1835, however, his mothe: 
married again and later came with her hus 
band and family to America. Tliis even 
changed the course of Mr. Heer's life, anc 
made him a merchant instead of a priest 
After landing at Baltimore the family jour 
neyed to Wheeling, West Virginia, in a larg( 
old-fashioned Pennsylvania wagon, the jour 
ney occupying three weeks. From M^heelin^ 
to St. Louis they came by river, ayd in th( 
last named city they established their home 
The family then consisted of seven persons 
namely Louis Heer, the stepfather; Mrs 
Heer, Charles H. Heer and his half-brotheri 
and sisters, Edward, Francis, Mary ant: 
Agnes Heer. Soon after they settled in St 
Louis Charles H. Heer obtained a positioi 
in a wholesale and retail queensware house 
with which he remained until he was twenty 
two years of age. By this time he had re 
ceived a thorough business training, anc 
having saved some money, he determined t( 
begin merchandising on his own account, am 
forming a partnership with R. Heitcamp, h( 
engaged in the grocery and provision trad( 
in St. Louis. Two years later he sold hi; 
interest in this establishment and became i 
partner with D. L. Myer in the grocery trade 
expanding this business later so as to includ( 
a fine general stock of goods. Close atten 
tion to business and overexertion caused Mr 
Heer's health to become impaired, and t( 
bring about its betterment he abandonee 
merchandising operations temporarily, spend 
ing some time in the South, and later goin^ 
to Illinois. In Illinois he purchased a larg( 
farm near the home of his mother and step 
father, who had removed to Monroe County 
in that State. This farm he conducted per 
sonally until 1850, when he placed it undei 
the care of a tenant, and engaged in genera 
merchandising at Waterloo, Illinois. H< 
continued in business at Waterloo until 1871 
but in 1868 visited Springfield, Missouri, am 
purchased the lot now occupied by the build 





^.?^.-^. 



,^^^ 



HEIDORN. 



211 



ing in which the business of the Heer Dry 
Goods Company is carried on. Soon after 
purchasing this property he erected a brick 
store building, and in 1871 he removed to 
Springfield and occupied this building. There 
he carried on a wholesale and retail business 
imtil the end of his life, becoming known as 
one of the most sagacious merchants in 
southwestern Missouri, and in all respects a 
highly successful and honorable busiriess 
man. In 1879 this business was incorporated 
as the Charles H. Heer Dry Goods Com- 
pany, all the stock being held in the family 
of Mr. Heer. The house which he thus 
founded is now the oldest and largest retail 
house in the city, its wholesale business hav- 
ing been discontinued some years since. 
Successful as a merchant, Mr. Heer was 
prominently identified also with various other 
enterprises which aided materially in the 
building up of the city of Springfield. He 
was one of a company of capitalists of that 
city who bought the franchises of the old 
Springfield & Western Missouri Railroad — 
now a part of the Gulf Railroad system — only 
a small portion of which had then been 
graded, owing to the fact that the company 
engaged in its construction had failed. The 
Springfield company built twenty miles of 
the road to Ash Grove, and ran trains be- 
tween that place and Springfield until they 
sold out to the company now operating it, 
two years later. Mr. Heer was also an exten- 
sive owner of real estate in Springfield. 
January 6, 1846, he was married, in St. 
Charles County, Missouri, to Mrs. Mary E. 
Buneman, whose maiden name was Koenig. 
The children born of this union were Charles 
H. ; Henry L., who died at the age of thirty 
years; Mary E. ; Louis H., who died at the 
age of seven years ; Agnes ; Francis X., now 
at the head of the mercantile house estab- 
lished by his father, and Celia Herr. Mr. 
Heer was a devout Catholic, and in 1892 he 
founded St. Joseph's College, located at the 
corner of Jefferson and Chestnut Streets, in 
Springfield, to which he donated $12,000 in 
property and money. His first wife died Sep- 
tember 25, 1 88 1, and he afterward married 
Mrs. Sarah Barry. He died at Springfield, 
Missouri, April 3, 1898. 

Heidorii, Frederick August, Jr., 

lawyer, was born at Bridgeton, Missouri, 
December 31, 1857, son of Frederick August 



and Anna Dorothea (Hopke) Heidorn. He 
was educated at Bridgeton Academy, and for 
one year attended Washington University, of 
St. Louis, and later took a two years' course 
at the Christian University at Canton, Mis- 
souri. After leaving the Christian Univer- 
sity he taught school for four years in St. 
Louis County, in the meantime reading law 
in the office and under the direction of Judge 
Warfield, of Clayton. Later he entered the 
St. Louis Law School, from which he was 
graduated in 1886. After being admitted to 
the bar he opened offices at Bridgeton and 
Clayton, and soon had a valuable clientage. 
For a number of years he was assistant 
prosecuting attorney of St. Louis County. 
In 1892 he was elected on the Republican 
ticket to the Thirty-seventh General Assem- 
bly, and in 1894 was elected prosecuting 
attorney of St. Louis County, and has been 
re-elected three successive times since then. 
He has always been a Republican and is an 
able exponent and supporter of sound money, 
always a gold standard advocate. Regardless 
of his political views, he is highly esteemed 
by the citizens belonging to both Republican 
and Democratic parties in St. Louis County. 
As an attorney his reputation for ability ex- 
tends beyond the limits of his home county, 
where he has been known from childhood, 
and he is favorably known to the majority 
of the members of the St. Louis bar. He 
is a man of fine social qualities, is a Mason 
— being a member of Bridgeton Lodge, No. 
80 — a member of the Hyde Park Council, 
Legion of Honor, and a member of all the 
leading German societies and clubs of St. 
Louis County. 

Heidorn, William Henry, physician, 
was born March 2, i860, in the village of 
Bridgeton, Missouri, which is now his home. 
His parents were Frederick A. and Anna C. 
(Hopke) Heidorn, natives of Hanover, Ger- 
many, who immigrated to America, locat- 
ing in St. Louis County. The father was a 
successful business man and stood high in 
the community ; at one time he was treasurer 
of St. Louis County; his death occurred in 
1881. The son began his education in the 
common schools in the home neighborhood, 
and then entered the Christian University of 
Canton, Missouri, from which he was grad- 
uated in June, 1882, receiving the degree of 
bachelor of laws and bachelor of science. 



212 



HEIDORN. 



and an unlimited State teacher's certificate, 
in the first grade of the first class. For two 
years following he taught school in Lewis 
County and in St. Louis County, in order to 
secure means with which to enter upon a 
course of medical study. He read medicine 
in the office of Dr. Morris at Bridgeton, and 
in 1884 entered the St. Louis College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, from which he was 
graduated in 1886 • as valedictorian of his 
class. After this he entered upon a course 
of study in the Post-Graduate School of New 
York, from which he was graduated in the 
spring of 1887. In these later studies he 
took up surgery as a specialty, and in order 
to further qualify himself, made an arrange- 
ment with Dr. Bernays, of St. Louis, an 
eminent practitioner, in whose office he re- 
mained for some months. He also made a 
study of pulmonary diseases under Dr. 
William B. Hazard, of the same city. Not 
having the means to establish himself in 
practice in St. Louis as he had wished, he 
returned to Bridgeton and entered into part- 
nership with his friend and former preceptor, 
Dr. Morris, this relationship continuing until 
the death of that gentleman, when he engaged 
in practice on his own account. His one 
ambition in life has been to master all possi- 
ble knowledge of his chosen calling, and he 
is regarded as an unusually well read and 
capable practitioner in surgery as well as in 
general medicine. No more severe test can 
come to one than to engage in one of the 
learned professions in the place where he 
was born and reared. That Dr. Heidorn 
should have attained his present high posi- 
tion and enjoy in such large measure the 
confidence of the connnunity in all its con- 
cerns, attests his superior ability and moral 
worth. He has always affiliated with the Re- 
publican party, but has never cared to take 
an active part in political concerns or to seek 
personal advancement. In religion he was 
reared a Lutheran, but for several years has 
attended the ]\Tethodist church. September 
30, 1 881, he was married to Mrs. Mattie Til- 
lette Utz, of Bridgeton. 

Heidorn, Frederick August, Sr., 
was born at Neustadt, Ruebenberg, Province 
of Hanover, Germany, April 14, 181 5, and 
died in Bridgeton, Missouri, September 23, 
1881. He was educated in the schools of the 
Lutheran church in his native country, and 



while a young man learned the shoe and har- 
nessmaker trade. In 1836 he came to 
America and located in St. Louis, where for 
a while he worked as a laborer for a lime 
company. In 1837 he went to Bridgeton, St. 
Louis County, where he engaged at his trade 
as shoe and harnessmaker, in which business 
he continued until 1877. When he arrived 
in the United States he was almost penniless, 
but by his industry and good business quali- 
ties he accumulated considerable property, 
and the later years of his life were spent in 
independent ease. He was a man of the 
strictest integrity, one who by his honesty 
and general honorable dealings, gained and 
maintained the respect of all in St. Louis and 
St. Louis County who knew him. His repu- 
tation as an honest man was dear to him, and 
there was not one among his friends and 
acquaintances in financial transactions but 
would as soon have his word as his bond. 
He was never known to break his word or fail 
to keep a promise. It was his chief pride to 
provide well for his family and rear them to 
be honest and honorable. His home was his 
castle and the dearest of all places to him. 
He was an extensive reader and fond of his- 
tory, though he always kept thoroughly in- 
formed on current doings in all parts of the 
world. During the Civil War, though sur- 
rounded by slave-owners and Confederate 
sympathizers, he was loyal to the Union, and 
the home of himself and wife was the head- 
quarters for Federal soldiers. On one occa- 
sion his wife nearly brought about a serious 
riot by hoisting the Union flag in front of her 
house. He was a Republican and took an 
active part in county and State affairs of his 
party, and his counsel was sought by men 
high in the ranks of the party at St. Louis 
and elsewhere. He was not an office-seeker, 
but was honored by the people of his county 
on several occasions. For a number of years 
he was town trustee of Bridgeton, and was 
one of the incorporators and for a long time 
a director of the Bridgeton Academy. In 
1878 he was elected treasurer of St. Louis 
County, and at the expiration of his term 
was re-elected, though he did not live to 
complete his second term. He was one of 
the supporters of the proposition, which was 
successfully carried, to separate St. Louis 
from St. Louis County. He was a man ot 
refined social qualities, and was an active 
member of a number of leading German 




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I^^. 




HEIM. 



213 



societies. March 24, 1842, he was married 
to Miss Anna Dorothea Hopke, at Bridgeton, 
His Hving children are George Henry Wil- 
liam, connected with the St. Louis Transit 
Company; Edward Frederick, agent of the 
Wabash Railroad Company, at Bridgeton; 
Frederick August, Jr., prosecuting attorney 
of St. Louis County ; William Henry, a prac- 
ticing physician at Bridgeton, and Anna 
.Louise, who resides with her brother at the 
old homestead in Bridgeton. Mr. Heidorn 
was a member of the German Lutheran 
Church. 

Heim, Frederick, was born Septem- 
ber 16, 1826, in Bregenz, Tyrol, Austria, son 
of Wunnibald and Mary A. (Osterly) Heim, 
who were the parents of a family of nine sons 
and three daughters. The elder Heim was a 
prosperous rope manufacturer and farmer of 
the Tyrol, and his sons and daughters were 
well reared and received good, practical edu- 
cations. The sons then served a term of years 
as apprentices to the rope-maker's trade in 
Europe, and subsequently in St. Louis. Fred- 
erick and Ferdinand also learned and worked 
at the baker's trade before coming to this 
country. They arrived in the United States 
in the year 1850, and came at once to St. 
Louis, which has ever since been their home, 
and in which they have come to be recognized 
as capable and honorable men in business 
affairs and worthy citizens. For some years 
after coming to St. Louis, Frederick worked 
with his five brothers in their own rope fac- 
tory in that city, but in 1855 they engaged in 
the dairy business, which they continued for 
ten years thereafter. In 1865 he disposed of 
his dairy interests and then turned his atten- 
tion to the lumber trade, becoming a whole- 
sale and retail dealer in that commodity. 
Establishing a lumber yard at the corner of 
Fourteenth Street and Russell Avenue, he 
has since handled at that place several 
millions of feet of lumber each year, and for 
over thirty years he has been a successful and 
extensive dealer in all kinds of building ma- 
terial. For the success which has attended 
his enterprise as a business man he is in- 
debted to his own energy, tact, courtesy, 
sagacity, and his ability to make and retain 
friends. Some of the earliest and most 
valued friends of the brothers in the city 
were men who have since gained unusual dis- 
tinction in the business world, and Samuel 



Cupples and Francis Saler were among those 
who showed appreciation of their pluck and 
energy and gave them kindly encourage- 
ment and assistance in their earliest business 
ventures. Ferdinand and Michael Heim, 
two brothers of Frederick, both gained great 
prominence in later years as the owners of 
large brewing plants in East St. Louis and 
Kansas City. Joseph, John and G. F. Heim 
were also associated at one time with their 
three other brothers in business in St. Louis, 
and all were worthy and useful citizens. Dur- 
ing the Civil War all the brothers were mem- 
bers of the Union organization of Home 
Guards, which rendered valuable services to 
the State and the general government. In 
politics Mr. Heim has been independent since 
the war period, while his religious affiliations 
are with the Catholic Church. He is a ra- 
tional churchman of that faith, and active at 
all times in advancing its interests, and is a 
member also of the Catholic Knights of 
America. He is much of a student, as well 
as a business man, and devotes his leisure 
time to the study of astronomy, astrology, 
theosophy, and the occult sciences. 

Heim, Joseph J., manufacturer, was 
born in i860, in St. Louis County, Mis- 
souri, on a farm adjoining that of General 
Grant. His parents were Ferdinand and 
Elizabeth Heim. The father was a native of 
Wolfort, Austria, and came to America in 
1850, when twenty-one years of age. For 
some years he made rope by hand for Samuel 
C. Cupples, at St. Louis, Missouri, at the 
same time carrying on a dairy business 
which was principally managed by his wife. 
From i860 to 1869 he lived at French Village, 
Illinois, on the road between Belleville and 
East St. Louis. He there kept a tavern, 
known as the Yellow House, in its day the 
most famous stage-line roadhouse in South- 
ern Illinois, where he frequently entertained 
the most noted men of the time as they 
traversed this great central highway, before 
the railway era. In 1869 he removed to East 
St. Louis, where he kept a similar house. 
He here set up a hand brewery, producing 
about fifty gallons per day, which he made 
solely for his own guests. His brew be- 
came favorably known in the neighborhood, 
and in order to supply the demands of other 
tavern-keepers he increased his manufactur- 
ing facilities from time to time. In 1871 he 



k 



214 



HEITKAMP. 



set up an ox treadmill, which was replaced 
two years later with a three-horse power. 
In 1875 he set up the first steam brewing 
plant, and it is a matter of interest that when 
he retired from the business many years later, 
the original engine was retained in the family, 
and is now kept as a relic in the Heim brew- 
ery, at Kansas City. In 1875 Mr. Heim as- 
sociated with himself his brother Michael, and 
the partnership was continued until the death 
of the latter named, in 1883. In 1881 the 
East St. Louis business was incorporated 
under the name of the Heim Brewing Com- 
pany, and was continued until 1890, when it 
was sold for $350,000 to an English syndicate. 
During his business career Mr. Heim twice 
lost his brewery property by fire ; he was 
without insurance, and the restoration of his 
fortunes was solely due to his indefatigable 
industry and undaunted resolution. In 1884 
he visited Kansas City, and being desirous of 
establishing in business his three sons, now 
grown to manhood, he purchased the small 
brewery plant then operated by Frank Kump. 
Joseph J., the oldest of the sons, was placed 
in charge, while the father assumed no part 
of the business direction, but maintained a 
paternal interest and advised freely with his 
sons until his death. His wife died in East 
St. Louis, Illinois, in 1893. From that time, 
his most constant residence was in California, 
where he owned a large amount of property. 
His death occurred in 1895, at East St. Louis, 
Illinois. He was a self-made man, remark- 
ably energetic and industrious, strictly hon- 
orable in all his dealings, and possessed of 
the highest qualifications, both executive and 
advisory. The son, Joseph J. Heim, was 
educated in the district schools of St. Clair 
County, Illinois. At an early age he began 
his life work in his father's brewery, and 
acquired an intimate knowledge of every de- 
tail of the brewing art, and also learned the 
quiet methodical business methods which 
characterized the parent. His subsequent 
career affords assurance that he inherited 
those sterling traits of character which dis- 
tinguished the parent, and which are in no 
manner the result of education or fortuitous 
circumstances. At the inception of the Ferd. 
Heim Brewing Company, in 1884, he was 
elected president and treasurer, and now oc- 
cupies the position of president. To his 
masterly management is largely due the mar- 
velous development of the Heim establish- 



ment, one of the most important among the 
great industries of Kansas City. Beginning 
with an annual output of 12,000 barrels, the 
product rose to 130,577 barrels in 1900. The 
brewery is the largest west of St. Louis, rep- 
resents a valuation of $2,500,000, and afifords 
employment to 250 men, most of them with 
dependent families. In May, 1900, an exten- 
sive amusement park was laid out by the 
Heim Brothers adjacent to their manufac- 
turing plant. In 1899 was completed the 
East Side electric line, a double track street 
railway, extending from the business center 
of Kansas City to and beyond the brewery 
property. Mr. J. J. Heim was president at 
the organization of the operating company, 
and yet occupies that position. He is an 
active member of the Commercial Club and 
of the Manufacturers' Association ; in the 
latter body he occupies the position of second 
vice president. He was married in 1886 to 
Miss Hettie Hinze, daughter of Frederick 
Hinze, an early settler and well-to-do citizen 
of St. Clair County, Illinois. Born of this 
marriage was a daughter, Gertrude, who has 
completed a liberal education, and is now in 
Europe studying music and continental 
languages, for which accomplishments she 
has developed special talent. Associated in 
business with Mr. Heim are his brothers, 
Ferdinand Heim and Michael G. Heim. Fer- 
dinand Heim was born in St. Louis County, 
Missouri, and was educated at the Irving 
Park Military School, Chicago, Illinois. He 
became connected with the Ferd. Heim Brew- 
ing Company in 1891, and is the present sec- 
retary. He married Miss Cracentia Auchter, 
and a daughter, Elizabeth, has been born of 
this marriage. Michael G. Heim was born 
at French Village, St. Clair County, Illinois, 
and was educated in the Poughkeepsie (New 
York) Military Academy. His connection 
with the Ferd. Heim Brewing Company dates 
from 1892, and he is now superintendent. He 
married Miss Olympia I. Droz, of East 
St. Louis, Illinois, and has two children, 
Mabel and Joseph Heim. 

Heltkamp, Frederick Joseph, was 

born in Hanover, Germany, February to, 
1813, and died in St. Louis, December 27, 
1869. He was the son of John Henry and 
Mary Angela (Ostendorf) Heitkamp. country 
people, who spent their lives in Germany. 
Educated in a parochial school in his native 



HEITMAN. 



216 



town, young Heitkamp immigrated to the 
United States, landing in New Orleans in 
1833, where he suffered from a severe attack 
of yellow fever. After recovering he came to 
St. Louis, paying his way from New Orleans 
as steward on a river steamer. Soon after ar- 
riving in St. Louis he took a course of study 
in the city schools, learning to speak the 
English language fluently. Later he served 
as steward in one of the leading hotels of the 
city. About the year 1841 he engaged in 
business on his own account, as a retail 
grocer, on Franklin Avenue. Later he leased 
the property now known as 900 South Broad- 
way, upon which he erected a small building. 
Into this building he moved with his family, 
and opened what was then known as the Mill 
Tavern and general store, both of which he 
conducted for several years thereafter. He 
made money rapidly, and invested a 
portion of his surplus earnings in va- 
cant real estate adjoining the O'Fallon 
Mill, and upon this ground he erected 
a large brick block. Mr. Heitkamp 
did a large wholesale and retail trade. 
In 1855 he leased the hotel to his nephew 
Fritz Heitkamp, and thereafter until his 
death devoted his entire time to the grocery 
trade. After his death, in 1869, his son, 
B. Joseph Heitkamp, conducted the business 
until 1880, when he purchased the interest of 
the estate in the grocery store, and has since 
conducted it on his own account in the name 
of B. Joseph Heitkamp. Mr. Heitkamp was 
remarkably successful in his commercial 
career, and at his death left large blocks of 
valuable real estate, located in different parts 
of the city, which have since been improved 
imder the wise supervision of his son, B. 
Joseph Heitkamp. The realty is the proper- 
ty of the surviving children — Josephine M. 
and B. Joseph Heitkamp — and the estate is 
one of the largest owners of real property in 
the city of St. Louis. 

Mr. Heitkamp wasa staunch Democrat, and 
a devoted Catholic churchman. He was one 
of the founders and a charter member of the 
German St. Vincent Orphans' Society, also a 
charter member of St. Mary's School Society 
and Church, and a liberal contributor to edu- 
cational, church and charitable objects. He 
was a director of the Bank of the State of 
Missouri, a stockholder in the Franklin 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company and the 
Lumbermens' and Mechanics' Fire Insurance 



Company. Mr. Heitkamp was widely and 
favorably known as one of the leading pioneer 
hotel proprietors and merchants of St. Louis. 
He was industrious, economical, honest, a 
man of sound judgment, and possessed exec- 
utive and financial ability of a high order. 
His word was his bond, and his name was a 
synonym of the highest honor and integrity. 
He was domestic in his tastes, devoted to his 
family, and a self-made man in the fullest 
acceptation of that term. Mr, Heitkamp was 
twice married: First to Miss Mary Angela 
Bulla, a native of Germany, in 1841. Mrs. 
Heitkamp and two children died of cholera 
June 7, 1849, leaving two surviving children, 
Frederick R. Heitkamp, Jr., who died June 
12, 1867, and Josephine M. Heitkamp. His 
second marriage was with Miss Mary Jose- 
phine Battermann, a native of Germany, Sep- 
tember 28, 1850. Mrs. Mary Josephine Heit- 
kamp died March 12, 1895. One son, B. 
Joseph Heitkamp, survives. B. Joseph 
Heitkamp, who inherits his father's busmess 
ability and is his successor, was born in St, 
Louis, January 26, 1852, was educated at the 
Christian Brothers' College, and married 
Miss Lena H. Kleekamp, daughter of a 
pioneer merchant of St. Louis. They have 
eight children — Joseph J., Edward J., Lena 
E., Charles E., Emily M., Oliver F., Eugene 
A. and Hilda J. Heitkamp. 

Heitman, Nvima F., lawyer, was born 
on the nth of September, i860, in Davidson 
County, North Carolina, near Lexington. 
His parents were William A. and Martha 
(Tussey) Heitman. His great-grandfather 
Heitman was a pioneer in that State and 
came from Germany. His grandfather, 
Henry N. Heitman, was a man distinguished 
for a high degree of intelligence and force of 
character. He was a local Methodist 
preacher and noted for his eloquence. His 
ability, honesty and geniality rendered him 
an unusually popular man. Before the war 
he was elected continuously for sixteen 
years to the olitice of clerk of the Davidson 
County Superior Court. He was a highly 
self-educated man and a great reader. His 
precept and example inspired two of his sons 
to become college graduates, and to seek and 
follow professional careers. One of his sons, 
John F. Heitman, became a preacher and a 
member of the North Carolina Methodist 
conference. Another son became a success- 



216 



HELENA— HELENA, BATTLE OF. 



ful lawyer, who stands in the front rank of 
his profession in the State of Idaho. The 
maiden name of the grandmother of N. F. 
Heitman on his father's side was McCrary. 
The McCrary family was also a pioneer fam- 
ily, and she and her family were a high order 
of Scotch-Irish people. Her brother, John 
McCrary, is an extraordinarily popular man. 
He held the office of treasurer of Davidson 
County for twenty years. The father of the 
subject of this sketch is a well informed man 
and a great reader. He married young and 
became a farmer. 

The maternal grandfather of N, F. Heit- 
man was an Englishman, who possessed a 
large farm in North Carolina and a large 
number of slaves before the war. Several of 
his sons went into the Confederate Army and 
lost their lives. His wife, the maternal 
grandmother of the subject of this sketch, 
belonged to the Wagner family of East Ten- 
nessee, a large, wealthy, influential, pioneer 
family of that section. She was an estimable 
woman, and died highly beloved by all who 
knew her, at the age of eighty-two. The 
mother of the subject of this sketch is an 
unusually intelligent woman, a woman of 
great force of character and high-mindedness. 

The childhood and youth of N. F. Heitman 
was spent on his father's farm. He was 
always studious. He early became imbued 
with an ambition and determination to ac- 
quire a thorough education. His father, 
having a large family and being unable to 
educate all of his children in the manner 
young Heitman had planned for himself, 
early told him that he would have to execute 
his plan of education in his own way. For 
a time the accomplishment of this cherished 
ambition seemed impossible, but the deter- 
mination never wavered. Through the aid 
of his uncle he was enabled to enter the 
University of North Carolina. Having made 
the opportunity for himself, he thoroughly 
appreciated it. He set to work with charac- 
teristic energy and high ambition, and in his 
sophomore year obtained a gold medal in the 
Greek language. When he graduated in 1883 
he. reaped a harvest of honors as a result of 
four years of hard work. On graduation he 
was awarded the moral philosophy prize, the 
highest average grade in his class, and the 
oratory medal. This was a proud day in his 
life. This success opened the opportunity 
for a two years' course of law at the Univer- 



sity of Virginia, from which institution he 
graduated in 1885. 

From there he came directly to Kansas 
City looking for a location. He landed there 
with a small sum in his pocket, having burned 
the bridges behind him so far as getting any 
more money from his friends was concerned. 
Kansas City was then a perfect bee hive. 
Immediately on arriving there he caught the 
spirit of the place and determined to make 
it his home at all hazards. He made up his 
mind to practice law on his own independent 
account, and flung his shingle to the breeze. 
From the very start he made a living. 

He married the youngest daughter of John 
H, Coleman, of Kansas City, a beautiful and' 
charming woman. Of this marriage there 
was born a son, John Hood Heitman, who is 
a student in the Kansas City schools. 

Mr. Heitman's reputation as a lawyer was 
firmly established when he won the famous 
land case of McKenzie vs. Donnell. This 
case involved a great deal of hard work. In 
it Mr. Heitman succeeded in setting aside a 
deed made in 1875 to five acres of valuable 
land in Kansas City on the ground of the 
insanity of the maker, thereby restoring the 
title to the heirs of the insane man. Since 
that time he has enjoyed a constantly grow- 
ing practice, and he is counted among the 
strongest members of the Jackson County 
bar. His offices are in the New York Life 
Building, in Kansas City. He has a clientage 
that holds him in highest respect, and a large 
circle of friends who esteem him as a man 
worthy of confidence and having at heart the 
best interests of the city and State, of which 
he is a loyal and progressive part. 

Mr. and Mrs. Heitman are members of the 
Southern Methodist Church. He has de- 
voted his attention to his profession and has 
never held office. He takes a citizen's in- 
terest in politics and is a loyal Democrat. 

Helena. — A village in Rochester Town- 
ship, Andrew County, on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad. It was laid 
out in 1878 by H. C. Webster and Henry 
Snowden, It is a considerable shipping point. 
Population about 250. 

Helena, Battle of. — The attack on 
Helena was one of the most signal failures I 
and one of the most disastrous experiences '^ 
that attended the Missouri Confederates in 





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^^.A^f^^^-^^ZA/^Z^^^ 



HELFENSTEIN. 



217 



the Civil War. Helena is the largest and most 
important city on the Mississippi River, in 
Arkansas, situated about lOO miles below 
Memphis, and at the time of the attack, July 
4, 1863, was in possession of a strong Federal 
garrison of 3,000 men under General Pren- 
tiss, and provided in the rear with powerful 
defences ; on the south, Fort Hindman, a 
battery of four guns protected with earth- 
works and rifle pits ; next to it on the north, 
the Graveyard Fort, with three heavy guns ; 
next to it Fort Solomon, with three heavy 
guns, and on the extreme north a line. of rifle 
pits, with the gunboat Tyler in the harbor. 
The object of the attack was to relieve the 
Confederate garrison at Vicksburg, lower 
down the river, which was sorely pressed by 
General Grant, and reduced to such straits 
that unless relieved in some way it would be 
forced to surrender. But, even if the Helena 
enterprise had been successful, it would not 
have accomplished this purpose, for Vicks- 
burg surrendered the day before the attack 
at Helena was made. The plan of attack, de- 
vised and executed in person by General 
Holmes, commander of the Confederate 
Trans-Mississippi Department, imposed on 
General Fagan's command the task of carry- 
ing by assault Fort Hindman ; General Price, 
with a portion of the Missouri troops, was to 
carry the Graveyard Fort; General Marma- 
duke, with General Shelby, was to carry Fort 
Solomon, and General Walker, of Texas, was 
to complete the semicircle of captures by 
carrying the works at the northern end of 
the line. The combined attacks were to be 
made at sunrise. Through some misunder- 
standing there was a failure of co-operation 
in the movements, and while Fagan and Price 
were making their assaults. at the lower half 
of the semicircle, and Shelby, next to Price, 
was plying the guns of Collins' battery, the 
only artillery brought into action against 
Fort Solomon, Walker, in the north, made no 
advance, and this rendered it impracticable 
for Marmaduke to move, since to do so 
would expose his flank unprotected to the 
Federals' fire. In addition to