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Full text of "Encyclopedia of the history of St. Louis, a compendium of history and biography for ready reference"

M.U 



' 



3SNEAU03Y COUUECT.ON 



ALLEN COUNTY HH.il l< I HUiAIlt 



3 1833 01064 5916 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/encyclopediaofhi04hyde 






«C (fr^c^rd 



ENCYCLOPEDIA 



OF THE 



History of St. Louis, 



A COMPENDIUM OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY 
FOR READY REFERENCE. 



EDITED BY 

WILLIAM HYDE AND HOWARD L. CONARD. 



VOL IV. 



New York, Louisville, St. Louis : 
THE SOUTHERN HISTORY COMPANY, 

Haldeman, Conahd & Co., Proprietors. 
1899 



Copyright, 1899, by the Southern History Co. 



all Rights Reserved. 



1198403 

INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES. 



R 

Rios, Francisco 

Robert, P. G 

Robertson, Charles F. . 
Robidoux, Antoine . . . 
Robidoux, Joseph .... 
Robinson, Daniel B. . . . 

Robinson, Paul G 

Roever, William 

Rogers, Charles S 

Rohan, John 

Rombauer, Roderick E. 

Rosati, Joseph 

Rowell, Clinton 

Rozier, Edward A 

Rumbold, Frank M. . . . 

Runge, Edward C 

Russell, Thomas A. . . . 

Russell, Charles S 

Russell, Trumbull G. . . 
Rutledge, William A. . . 

Ryan, Frank K 

Ryan, Patrick J 

Rychlicki, John K 

S 

Sager, Arthur N 

St. Ange de Bellerive . . 

Sale, Moses N 

Sale, Samuel 

Sampson, Clark H. . . . 
Samuel, Webster M. . . 

Sander, Enno 

Sanguinet, Charles .... 
Sanguinet, Marshall P. 
Sargent, Clarence S. . . 

Sargent, Roger M 

Sarpy, Gregoire B. ... 

Sarpy, John B 

Sass, Richard F 

Saugrain, Antoine F. . . 

Sawyer, Frank O 

Scanlan, Mary F 

Schaefer, Louis 

Schaerfer, Nicholas . . . 

Schiele, Theodore 

Schlange, Joseph 

Schlossstein, Adolphus 



19J3 
1927 
1928 
1930 
1930 
1930 
i93i 
193 2 
1933 

1935 
1936 

1937 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1942 
!943 
19++ 
!945 
1946 



947 
948 
020 
978 



983 
984 
983 
985 



989 
990 



2002 
996 



Schlossstein, George 2000 

Schlossstein, Louis 2002 

Schmidt, Charles 1997 

Schmieding, Charles W 2005 

Schmieding, Frederick E 2007 

Schnaider, Joseph 2009 

Schoen, Isaac A 1998 

Schofield, John H 2010 

Schopp, John 2019 

Schott, Augustus H 2022 

Schotten, William 2019 

Schotten, Hubertus 202 1 

Schotten, Julius J 2022 

Schraubstadter, Carl G 2023 

Schray, William 2024 

Schreiber, William 2024 

Schroers, John 2027 

Schuchmann, Gustavus 1999 

Schultz, William 2001 

Schurz. Carl 2023 

Schuyler, Montgomery 2 ° 2 5 

Schwartz, Frederick W 2029 

Scott, John 2030 

Scripps, John 2031 

Scruggs, Richard M 2031 

Scudder, John A 2020 

Scullin, John 2036 

Scullin, Harry 2037 

Sears, Edmund H 2037 

Seddon, James A 2038 

Sehon, Edmund W 2039 

Senter, William M 2039 

Sessinghaus, Theodore 2040 

Sexton, Henry C 2045 

Shaffner, Louis H 2046 

Shapleigh, Augustus F 2047 

Shapleigh, John B 21 13 

Sharp, Fidelio C 2048 

Shaw, Henry 2048 

Shaw, Hiram 2052 

Sheldon, Walter L 2052 

Shepard, Elihu H 2053 

Shepley, John R 2020 

Sherman, William T 2055 

Shields, George H 2056 

Shields, Mary H. L 2059 

Shoenberg, Moses 2060 

Short, Patrick 2061 



(iii) 



INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES. 



PAGE. 

Shultz, Chauncev F 2063 

Shultz, John A. J 2065 

Shumard, Benjamin F 2065 

Siebenmann, Francis 2067 

Siemon, Frederick 2067 

Sigel, Franz 2067 

Simmons, Edward C 206S 

Simmons, Wallace D 2070 

Simpson, Robert 2070 

Sire, Joseph A 2073 

Slayback, Alonzo W 2003 

Sloss, James L 2082 

Small, George H 2083 

Smith, Charles H 2084 

Smith, Elsworth F 2084 

Smith, Huntington 2086 

Smith, Irwin Z 2086 

Smith, Tames A 2008 

Smith. John B 2087 

Smith, Solomon F 2087 

Smith, William 2088 

Sneed, Thomas F 2088 

Snider, Denton J 2089 

Snow, Marshall S 2090 

Snyder, John 2091 

Soderer, Alois 2096 

Soldan, Frank L 2096 

Soper, Arthur W 2103 

Souther, Eustace E 2207 

Souther, Warren A 2021 

Spencer, Corwin H 21 10 

Spencer, Selden P 21 1 1 

Spencer, Horatio N 2112 

Spencer, Charles H 21 13 

Spengler, Tobias 21 14 

Spiegelhalter, Joseph 21 16 

Sprague, Ambrose 2124 

Staehlin, Christian 2124 

Stagg, Hannah 1 21 15 

Stanard, Edwin 2124 

Starkloff, Hugo M 2126 

Starklofr, Maximilian C 2127 

Stateler, Learner B 2129 

Steedman, Isaac G. \Y 2005 

Steigers, William C '. . 2136 

Stevenson, John D 2137 

Stewart, Alphonso C 21 13 

Stewart, James 2138 

Stickney, William A 2140 

Stifel, Charles G 2141 

Stifel, Otto F 2143 

Stillman, John D 2144 

Stocke, Jacob 2144 

Stoddard, Amos 2146 



PAGE. 

Stoddart, Thomas A 2147 

Stoffel, Remy J 2147 

Stolle, Caspar 2148 

Stone, Charles H 2208 

Stone, William J 2149 

Strassberger, Clemens 2150 

Straub, Augustus W 2151 

Strodtman, George 2167 

Stuart, Alexander 2168 

Stuckenberg, John 2168 

Stuever, Charles B 2168 

Sturgeon, Isaac H 2169 

Sublett, William L 2170 

Sutter, John 2201 

Sutter, Otto 2202 

Sutton, James C 2202 

Sutton, John L 2203 

Swasey, William A 2204 

Sweringen, James T 2204 

Swift, William H 2206 

Swinsfley, Charles E 2208 



T 

Talmage, Archibald A 2210 

Talty, John A 221 1 

Tamblyn, William L 221 1 

Tansey. George J 2213 

Tansey, Robert P 2213 

Taussig, Edward 2215 

Taussig, James 2216 

Taussig, John J 2216 

Taussig, Joseph S 2217 

Taussig, William 2218 

Taylor, Daniel G 2221 

Taylor, George 2222 

Taylor, Isaac S 2223 

Tayl r. Seneca N 2224 

Teasdale, John W 2226 

Tebbetts, Lewis B 2226 

Teichmann, Charles H 2227 

Temm, Herman H 2236 

Ten Broek, Gerrit H 2238 

Terry, John H 2242 

Tesson, Michel D 2248 

Tesson, Edward P 2249 

Tesson, Edward M 2250 

Thayer, Amos M 2250 

Thomas, Benjamin F 2261 

Thomas, James S 2261 

Thompson, James D 2262 

Thompson, Francis W 2263 

Thompson, N. D 2265 

Thompson, George H 2266 



INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES. 



Thompson, William B .' 2267 

Thompson, William H 2267 

Thompson, Seymour D 2268 

Thomson, William H 2269 

Thorne, Adela P 2271 

Thoroughman, Thomas 2271 

Tiemeyer, John C 2273 

Tiffany, John K 2273 

Tillotson, Frederick E 2237 

Timken, Henry 2275 

Tinker, George 2276 

Tirmenstein, Martin S 2276 

Todd, Albert 2280 

Todd, Charles 2281 

Todd, George 2249 

Tompkins, Cornelius 2238 

Tonti, Henry de 2283 

Tower, George F 2286 

Townsend, Henry C 2287 

Treat, Samuel 2295 

Trekase, William 2303 

Tremmel, Frank 2 3°3 

Triplett, John R 2304 

Troll, Henry 2305 

Trorlicht, John H 2306 

Trudeau, Don Zenon 2306 

Tucker, Nathaniel B 2310 

Tuholske, Herman 23 1 1 

Turner, John W 2313 

Tutt, Dent G 2318 

Tutt, Thomas E 2319 

Turtle, Daniel S 2320 

U 

Udell, Freeman E 2 3 2 5 

Uhri, Andrew 2326 

Uhrig, Franz J 2327 

Uhrig, Ignatz 232S 

Ulloa, Antonio de 2329 

Unzaga, Luis de 2361 

Uthoff, Frank G 2328 

V 

Vahlkamp, Henry 2362 

Valle, Francis 2362 

Valle, Jules F 2363 

Valliant, Leroy B 2364 

Van Blarcom, Jacob C 2366 

Van Cleave, James W 2366 

Vandervoort, William L 2368 

Van Dillen, William C 2367 

Van Studdiford, Henry 2369 

Vaudreuil, Pierre F 2369 



Verdin, James -'374 

Vigo, Francis -374 

Vogel, Charles F 2375 

Vogel, John C 2376 

Vogeler, Julius -377 

Vogelsang, Henry B 2378 

Vogt, William C 2378 

A^ollrath. Charles 2379 

Von Court, Benjamin T 2380 

Von Phul, Henry . . . .' 2381 

W 

Wachter, Emil 2385 

Wade, Festus J 2386 

Waddill, Tames R 2387 

Wahl, John 2388 

Wainwright, Samuel 2391 

Wait, Walter J 2455 

Walbridge, Cyrus P 2393 

Waldauer, August 2391 

Walker, Benjamin 2394 

Walker, David D 2395 

Walker, Tesse 2395 

Wall, George W 2389 

Wall, Otto A 2390 

Walsh, Edward 2396 

Walsh, Julius S 2397 

Walsh, Thomas W 2399 

Walsh, William 2399 

Walther, Charles F 2405 

Walther, Karl F. W 2401 

Ware, Martha E 2446 

Warner, Charles G 2452 

Warner, Edward S 2454 

Warren, Isaac S 2456 

Wash, Robert 2465 

Waterhouse, Sylvester 2465 

Waterman. Alfred M 2453 

Waterworth, James A 2472 

Watson, Howard 2474 

Watson, Ringrose J 2454 

Way, James C 2473 

Way, Mary A. E 2475 

Wear, David W 2476 

Wear, James H 2477 

Wehking, Charles H. C 2484 

Weinheimer, Jacob 2485 

■ Weldon, George S 248=; 

Welle, Albert F 2486 

Wells, Erastus 2487 

Wells, Robert W 2487 

Wells, Rolla 2489 

Wenneker, Charles F 2490 

Wertheimer, Jacob J 2491 



INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES. 



Shultz, Chauncey. F 2063 

Shultz, John A. J 2065 

Shumard, Benjamin F 2065 

Siebenmann, Francis 2067 

Siemon, Frederick 2067 

Sigel, Franz 2067 

Simmons, Edward C 2068 

Simmons, Wallace D 2070 

Simpson, Robert 2070 

Sire, Joseph A 2 °73 

Slayback, Alonzo W 2003 

Sloss, James L 2082 

Small, George H 2083 

Smith, Charles H 2084 

Smith, Elsworth F 2084 

Smith, Huntington 2086 

Smith, Irwin Z 2086 

Smith, James A 2008 

Smith, John B 2087 

Smith, Solomon F 2087 

Smith, William 2088 

Sneed, Thomas F 2088 

Snider, Denton J 2089 

Snow, Marshall S 2090 

Snyder, John 2091 

Soderer. Alois 2096 

Soldan, Frank L 2096 

Soper, Arthur W 2103 

Souther, Eustace E 2207 

Souther, Warren A 2021 

Spencer, Corwin H 21 10 

Spencer, Selden P 21 1 1 

Spencer, Horatio N 21X2 

Spencer, Charles H 21 13 

Spengler, Tobias 2114 

Spiegelhalter, Joseph 21 16 

Sprague, Ambrose 2124 

Staehlin, Christian 2124 

Stagg, Hannah 1 2115 

Stanard, Edwin 2124 

Starkloff, Hugo M 2126 

Starkloff, Maximilian C 2127 

Stateler, Learner B 2129 

Steedman, Isaac G. W 2005 

Steigers, William C '. . 2136 

Stevenson, John D 2137 

Stewart, Alphonso C 21 13 

Stewart, James 2138 

Stickney, William A 2140 

Stifel, Charles G 2141 

Stifel, Otto F 2143 

Stillman, John D 2144 

Stocke, Jacob 2144 

Stoddard, Amos 2146 



PAGE. 

Stoddart, Thomas A 2147 

Stoffel, Remy J 2147 

Stolle, Caspar 2148 

Stone, Charles H 2208 

Stone, William J 2149 

Strassberger, Clemens 2150 

Straub, Augustus W 2151 

Strodtman, George 2167 

Stuart, Alexander 2168 

Stuckenberg, John 2168 

Stuever, Charles B 2168 

Sturgeon, Isaac H 2169 

Sublett, William L 2170 

Sutter, John 2201 

Sutter, Otto 2202 

Sutton, James C 2202 

Sutton, John L 2203 

Swasey, William A 2204 

Sweringen, James T 2204 

Swift, William H 2206 

Swinglev, Charles E 2208 

T 

Talmage, Archibald A 2210 

Talty, John A 221 1 

Tamblyn, William L 221 1 

Tansey, George J 2213 

Tansey, Robert P 2213 

Taussig, Edward 2215 

Taussig, James 2216 

Taussig, John J 2216 

Taussig, Joseph S 2217 

Taussig, William 2218 

Taylor, Daniel G 2221 

Taylor, George 2222 

Taylor. Isaac S 2223 

Taylor. Seneca N 2224 

Teasdale, John W 2226 

Tebhetts, Lewis B 2226 

Teichmann, Charles H 2227 

Temm, Herman H 2236 

Ten Broek, Gerrit H 2238 

Terry, John H 2242 

Tesson, Michel D 2248 

Tesson, Edward P 2249 

Tesson, Edward M 2250 

Thayer, Amos M 2250 

Thomas, Benjamin F 2261 

Thomas, James S 2261 

Thompson, James D 2262 

Thompson, Francis W 2263 

Thompson. N. D 2265 

Thompson, George H 2266 






INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES. 



Thompson, William B .' 2267 

Thompson, William H 2267 

Thompson, Seymour D 2268 

Thomson, William H 2269 

Thorne, Adela P 2271 

Thoroughman, Thomas 2271 

Tiemeyer, John C 2273 

Tiffany, John K 2273 

Tillotson, Frederick E 2237 

Timken, Henry 2275 

Tinker, George 2276 

Tirmenstein, Martin S 2276 

Todd, Albert 2280 

Todd, Charles 2281 

Todd, George 2249 

Tompkins, Cornelius 2238 

Tonti, Henry de 2283 

Tower, George F 2286 

Townsend, Henry C 2287 

Treat, Samuel 2295 

Trekase, William 2303 

Tremmel, Frank 2303 

Triplett, John R 2304 

Troll, Henry 2305 

Trorlicht, John H 2306 

Trudeau, Don Zenon 2306 

Tucker, Nathaniel B 2310 

Tuholske, Herman 231 1 

Turner, John W 2313 

Tutt, Dent G 231S 

Tutt, Thomas E 2319 

Turtle, Daniel S 2320 

U 

Udell, Freeman E 2325 

Uhri, Andrew 2326 

Uhrig, Franz J 2 3 2 7 

Uhrig, Ignatz 2328 

Ulloa, Antonio de 2329 

Unzaga, Luis de 2361 

Uthoff, Frank G 2328 

V 

Vahlkamp, Henry 2362 

Valle, Francis 2362 

Valle, Jules F 2363 

A^alliant, Leroy B 2364 

Van Blarcom, Jacob C 2366 

Van Cleave, James W 2366 

Vandervoort, William L 2368 

Van Dillen, William C 2367 

Van Studdiford, Henry 2369 

Vaudreuil, Pierre F 2369 



Verdin, James 2374 

Vigo, Francis 2374 

Vogel, Charles F 2375 

Vogel, John C 2376 

Vogeler, Julius 22,77 

Vogelsang, Henry B 2378 

Vogt, William C 2378 

Voilrath, Charles 2379 

Von Court, Benjamin J 2380 

Von Phul, Henry 2381 

W 

Wachter, Emil 2385 

Wade, Festus J 2386 

Waddill, Tames R 2387 

Wahl, John 2388 

Wainwright, Samuel 2391 

Wait, Walter J 2455 

Walbridge, Cyrus P 2393 

Waldauer, August 2391 

Walker, Benjamin 2394 

Walker, David D 2395 

Walker, Tesse 2395 

Wall, George W 2389 

Wall, Otto A 2390 

Walsh, Edward 2396 

Walsh, Julius S 2397 

Walsh, Thomas W 2399 

Walsh, William 2399 

Walther, Charles F 2405 

Walther. Karl F. W 2401 

Ware, Martha E 2446 

Warner, Charles G 2452 

Warner, Edward S 2454 

Warren, Isaac S 2456 

Wash, Robert 2465 

Waterhouse, Sylvester 2465 

Waterman, Alfred M 2453 

Waterworth, James A 2 47 2 

Watson, Howard 2474 

Watson, Ringrose J 2454 

Way, James C 2473 

Way, Mary A. E 2 475 

Wear, David W 2 47 6 

Wear, James H 2 477 

Wehking, Charles H. C 2484 

Weinheimer, Jacob 2485 

• Weldon, George S 2485 

Welle, Albert F 2486 

Wells. Erastus 2487 

Wells, Robert W 2487 

Wells, Rolla 2489 

Wenneker, Charles F 2490 

Wertheimer, Jacob J 2491 



INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES. 



PAGE. 

VVesten, Edward 2492 

Westlake, James V 2494 

Whitaker, Edwards 2496 

Whitaker, Francis 2550 

White, Florence D 2498 

White, Porter 2498 

Wickham, John 2502 

\\ iggin, Lucy A 2502 

Wiggins, Samuel B 2503 

Wightman, William E 2503 

Wilkinson. James 2504 

Wilkinson, John C 2505 

Willard, George W ' ■ ■ 2506 

Williams. Eugene E 250S 

William-. Samuel 2508 

Wilson, Oscar B 2509 

Wilson, Robert M 2510 

Wimer. Carl 2512 

W'imer. John M -'51-' 

Winkelmaier, Louis 251 2 

Winkelman, Bernhard -'513 

Winkelmeyer, Julius 2514 

Wise, William 2515 

Wishart, Dempster 2551 

Wislizenus, Adolph 2515 

Wisser. Philip 2516 

Withnell, John 25 1 7 

Withrow, James E 2517 

Witt. Thomas D 25 iS 

Wi '<. nier, J. Gabriel 2 5*9 

Wolff. Christian D 2521 

Wt .Iff. Edward B 2555 



PAGE 

Wolff, George P 2522 

Wonderly, Peter T 2549 

Wood, Horatio D 2539 

Woodson, John M 2540 

Woodward, Calvin M 2541 

W'oodward, William H 2543 

Wright, Frank L 2547 

Wright, Henry C 2548 

Wright. James A 2549 

Wright, Joseph P 2552 

Wright, Thomas 2552 

Wright, Uriel ■ 2553 

Wrisberg, William C 2554 

Wuerpel, Edmund H 2555 

Wyman, Edward 2556 . 

Wyman, Henry P 2558 

Wyman, Walter 2559 

Y 

Yarnall, Mordecai 2562 

Yeaman, W. Pope 2563 

Yeatman, James E 2563 

Yoakum, Benjamin F 2565 

Yosti, Emilien 2566 

Young, Paul, Jr 2569 

Z 

Zachritz, William 2569 

Zepp, Jacob 2570 

Ziegenhein, Henry 2570 

Zimmermann, Theodore F. W 2^71 



INDEX TO PORTRAITS. 



Conard, Howard L. . . Frontispiece to Vol. IV. 



R 

PAGE. 

Robinson, Daniel B T 93° 

Rogers, Charles S J 933 

Rombauer, Roderick E 1935 

Rowell, Clinton J 937 

Rutledge, William A 1943 

Rychlicki, John K 1946 

S 

Sampson, Clark H 198 [ 

Sarpy, John B 1986 

Sawyer, Frank 1980, 

Scanlan, Mary F 1990 

Schlange, Joseph T 996 

Schlossstein, Adolphus T 998 

Schlossstein, George 2000 

Schlossstein, Louis 2002 

Schmieding, Charles W 2005 

Schmieding, Frederick E 2007 

Schnaider, Joseph 2009 

Schotten, William 2019 

Schotten, Hubertus 202: 

.Schotten, Julius J 2022 

Schreiber, William 2024 

Schroers, John 2027 

Scott, John 2 °3° 

Scruggs, Richard i\l 2031 

Scullin, John 2036 

Shapleigh. Augustus F 2047 

Shaw, Henry 2048 

Sherman, William T 2055 

Sneed, Thomas F 20S8 

Soper, Arthur W 2103 

Spencer, Corwin H 21 10 

Spencer, Horatio N 21 12 

Spengler, Tobias 2114 

Spiegelhalter, Joseph 21 16 

Stewart, James 2138 

Stifel, Charles G 2141 

Stocke, Jacob 2144 

Stolle, Caspar 2148 

Straub, Augustus W 2151 

Sweringen, James T 2204 

Swift, William H 2206 

(v 



T 

PAGE. 

Tansey, Robert P 2213 

Taussig, James 2216 

Taussig, William 2218 

Taylor, Daniel G 2221 

Taylor, Seneca N 2224 

Tebbetts, Lewis B 2226 

Temm, Herman H 2236 

Ten Broek, Gerrit H 2238 

Terry, John H 2242 

Tesson, Michel D 2248 

Tesson, Edward P 2250 

Thomas, Benjamin F 2261 

Thompson, Francis W 2263 

Thompson, N. D 2265 

Thompson, William B 2267 

Thomson, William H 2269 

Thoroughman, Thomas 2271 

Timken, Henry 2275 

Treat, Samuel 2295 

Trorlicht, John H 2306 

Tuholske, Herman 231 1 

Turner, John W 2313 

Tutt, Thomas E 2319 

U 

Udell, Freeman E 2325 

Uhrig, Franz J 2 2> 2 7 

Uhrig, Ignatz 2^2^ 

V 

Van Cleave, James W 2366 

Vandervoort, William L 2368 

Vogel, Charles F 2 i75 

Vogelsang, Henry B 2378 

Von Phul, Henry 238 1 

W 

Wade, Festus J 2386 

Wahl, John 2388 

Wainwright, Samuel 2391 

Walbridge, Cyrus P 2393 

Walker, David D 2395 

ii) 



INDEX TO PORTRAITS. 



PAGE. 

Walsh. Julius S -2397 

Walsh, Thomas W 2399 

Walther, Charles F 2405 

Warner, Charles G 2452 

Warner, Edward S 2454 

Warren. Isaac S 2456 

Waterhouse, Sylvester 2465 

Way, James C 2473 

Way. Mary A. E 2475 

Wear, James H 2477 

Weldon, George S 2485 

Wells, Erastus 2487 

Wells, Rolla 2480 

Westen, Edward 2492 

Wickham, John 2502 



f PAGE. 

\\ illard, George W 2506 

Wilson, Robert M 2510 

Winkelmeyer, Julius 2514 

Woerner, J. Gabriel 2519 

Woodward, William H 2 543 

Wright, Frank L 2547 

Wright, James A 2 549 

Wright, Joseph P 2552 

Wrisberg, William C 2 554 

Wyman, Edward 2556 

Wyman, Henry P 2558 

Wyman, Walter 2560 

Y 

Yeatman, James E 2563 



Encyclopedia of the History of St. Louis. 



R 



Rios, Francisco, commander of the ex- 
pedition sent to St. Louis by Count Ulloa, in 
176", to establish the Spanish authority in Up- 
per Louisiana. He was accompanied by twen- 
ty-five Spanish soldiers — the first that came to 
St. Louis — and built old Fort St. Charles the 
Prince. 

Riots and Mobs. — St. Louis, from its 

I beginning as a trading post up to its incor- 

! poration as a city in 1822, was almost free 

' from disturbances in the nature of riot or mob. 

I The primitive French inhabitants were peace- 

I able and satisfied with their government, and 

I there were no strifes of religion or politics to 

set them at variance. After the transfer to the 

United States in 1804, immigrants began to 

come in from the East and abroad, bringing 

with them not only enterprise and adventure, 

but more complicated interests. The old 

French element soon found itself outnumbered 

but submitted quietly to the inevitable and 

made the best of it. No collision between it 

and the new American element ever took 

place. 

The first election disturbance occurred on 
the 4th of August, 1817, at a special election 
held to fill the vacancy of Territorial Delegate 
in Congress, caused by the rejection of John 
Scott, whose election was contested by Rufus 
Easton. The election was held at Baird's 
large frame house on South Third Street, 
where the United States recruiting office was 
kept. During the day the soldiers were 
marched several times round the polls, bearing 
tickets on their hats and hurrahing for Scott. 
Altercations took place between them and 
citizens, but no blood was shed and the feeling 
provoked by the affair soon passed away. 

In 1822 there was a series of fights between 
the "Jacques and the Mikes," the former com- 
posed of the surveyors and chain carriers in 
the employ of General William Rector, United 



States surveyor-general, who, in a spirit of 
mischief, got into the habit of committing noc- 
turnal depredations on the doors, domiciles, 
and wooden carts of the French habitants, 
who called them "sacre Jacques," a name, it is 
said, derived from the jack-staff that supported 
the surveyor's compass. The boatmen who 
were accustomed to winter in St. Louis were 
a roystering set, ready to take a hand in any- 
thing that came along. They had their head- 
quarters at the Cross Keys tavern on South 
Second Street, between Spruce and Poplar, 
kept by James Gonzales, and at the frequent 
balls and parties given there and at rival 
taverns they had frequent collisions with the 
surveyors, resulting sometimes in the defeat 
of one party and sometimes the other. There 
was a considerable number of Irishmen in 
the city at that time and they espoused the 
cause of the habitants and had their share of 
fighting with the surveyors, and this, it is said, 
suggested the name of "Mikes" by which the 
rival faction to the "Jacques" became known. 

The first case of lynch law in St. Louis oc- 
curred in 1835, when a negro named Mc- 
intosh, who killed Deputy Sheriff Hammond 
while being taken to jail, was captured, chained 
to a tree and burned to death. The burning 
took place on what is now the Southwest cor- 
ner of Seventh and Chestnut Streets in the 
presence of an approving assemblage of over 
one thousand persons. The event made a 
vivid impression, and for many years after- 
ward the "year the nigger was burned" was a 
date in popular reckoning. 

On the 25th of February, 1844, there was 
an outbreak of that popular horror and re- 
sentment of which dissection rooms have been 
so often the center and provoking agent. 
The medical college of the St. Louis Univer- 
sity then stood in the common on Washington 
Avenue near Eleventh Street, and some boys 
playing in the neighborhood had occasion to 



(1913) 



1914 



RIOTS AND MOBS. 



i limb ovei th< vail in search of a ball. While 
thus engaged the) came upon the opening into 
the vault where the remains of bodies from the 
dissecting room had been carelessly cast with- 
out any precaution taken to protect them from 
view. The b( i) S ran oft' in terror and reported 
the discovery, and persons came and looked 
on the ghastly sight. Wild rumors flew about 
of graves robbed in cemeteries and the bodies 
can nil t( i the dissecting room, and by the mid- 
dle of the afternoon there was a crowd of one 
thousand persons on the spot, making threats 
of destroying the building. By nightfall the 
crowd was three thousand strong, and the situ- 
ation was becoming alarming. The militia 
was ordered out and the mayor and a number 
of prominent citizens, Alexander Kayser, 
James Mahon, Mr. Blennerhassett and Judge 
Mullanphy made speeches to the crowd, urg- 
ing them to abstain from violence, and dis- 
perse. In spite of their efforts the crowd be- 
came a mob and stones were thrown and 
windows smashed. Some of the leaders most 
active in inciting to violence were arrested, 
but the mob refused to disperse and demanded 
the withdrawal of the militia. A conference 
was arranged which resulted in the withdrawal 
of the militia and the release of the arrested 
leaders and then the mob dispersed. But a 
committee of twelve were left in charge, and 
after a time the crowd began to return and 
show a spirit of violence, as bones and frag- 
ments of bodies were brought out of the pit. 
Finally, it made an assault on the doors and 
broke them down, ranging through the build- 
ing and committing whatever wanton destruc- 
tion its rage suggested. All the furniture was 
demolished, the materials in the museum 
broken to pieces, and nothing left but the bare 
walls and roof. The mob next marched to the 
Missouri Medical College with the purpose of 
wrecking it in like manner; but the demon- 
strator, with the assistance of several of the 
professors and students, apprehending some- 
thing of the land, had taken the precaution to 
put the building in order and hide everything 
thai might excite the mob, and when the 
angry visitors came they were invited in and 
their leaders conducted through the building. 
They reported that they found nothing wrong 
and the mob dispersed and quiet was restored 
to the alarmed city. 

There was a city election riot in the Fifth 
Ward in April. lS44.au encounter between two 



persons of opposite sides furnishing tbje oc- 
casii m. Party spirit ran high and a good deal 
of excitement had prevailed during the day, 
and the fight was followed by the gathering of 
a large crowd, composed of friends of both 
combatants, and a general fight took place, in 
which several well known citizens, not con- 
cerned in the disturbance, were injured — and 
as Joseph Jones was passing by Maher's 
tavern he was fired upon and mortally 
wounded. When the crowd gathered on 
Franklin Avenue heard of it they started im- 
mediately for the spot and attacked the tavern, 
breaking in the doors and windows, throwing 
the furniture, liquors, beds and everything 
into the streets. No other violence was com- 
mitted. 

On Sunday, June 29, 1849, a riot between 
firemen and rivermen occurred on the Levee, 
on the occasion of a fire which, starting in the 
engine room of the steamer "Algona," early 
in the morning, extended to the "Mary," 
"Phoenix," "Dubuque," and "San Francisco," 
and all were burned. About half past five, 
while the volunteer firemen were still at work, 
a difficulty occurred between one of them and 
a bystander, and blows were struck. A gen- 
eral fight followed in which missiles were 
thrown and the firemen forced the crowd to 
retreat into the coffee house of J. O'Brien at 
So Levee. When the firemen attempted to 
enter they were fired upon from the upper 
windows and several of them slightly 
wounded. They in turn retreated, and were 
followed and fired upon by fifteen or twenty 
men. Shortly afterward the firemen opened 
fire and drove the coffee house crowd, com- 
posed chiefly of rivermen. up Morgan Street. 
The firemen, with their friends numbering 
now several hundred, many of them armed, 
then attacked O'Brien's coffee house and de- 
stroyed everything in it, following with at- 
tack's successively upon the coffee houses of 
Dennis Murphy on Battle Row, and B. Shan- 
non on Green Street. James Gilligan on 
i 'hern Street, and Terence Brady on the cor- 
ner of Fifth and Morgan Streets, all of which 
were treated in the same manner, in spite of 
the efforts of the mayor and police to prevent 
it. Having completed this work of destruc- 
tion, the rioters appeared satisfied, and began 
to disperse, and fifty citizens appointed by the 
mayor were sworn in as special policemen to 
assist in maintaining the peace. But about 



RIOTS AND MOBS. 



1915 



9 o'clock that night a party of firemen with 
their friends to the number of two or three 
hundred, obtained a howitzer, loaded it with 
powder, slugs and boiler-iron punchings, and 
took it to the Levee and planted it so as to 
rake Battle Row, in which were the rivermen's 
boarding houses. Before a further outbreak 
of hostilities a shower came up and the crowd 
started to the Missouri Engine House, taking 
the howitzer with them and retaining it all 
night in spite of the efforts of the city author- 
ities to secure possession of it. No further 
disturbance occurred. 

In the winter of 1847-8 a German women 
suddenly and unaccountably disappeared from 
her home in the city, and, although diligent 
search was made, could not be found. Vari- 
ous suspicions and conjectures were put forth, 
and the one that met with greatest favor was a 
report that she had been decoyed into the Mis- 
souri Medical College at the corner of Ninth 
and Cerre Streets and killed for dissecting 
purposes. Professor J. N. McDowell, one of 
the founders of the college, was accustomed to 
make public speeches against foreigners and 
this strengthened the belief in the suspicion. 
There were threats against the college and a 
crowd began to gather bent on mischief. As 
the number increased, the feeling increased, 
stones were thrown at the windows and doors, 
and the crowd seemed ready to attack the col- 
lege, when their attention was attracted to 
lights and movements in the second story of 
the octagonal stone building adjoining on the 
corner of Eighth and Gratiot which, just 
erected, was afterward to become famous as 
McDowell's College Military Prison. There 
were port holes in this building, and a report 
prevailed that it was armed with cannon — and 
when the crowd, looking up at the windows, 
plainly saw a number of students with Dr. Mc- 
Dowell in command loading and handling a 
cannon, they were seized with panic and broke 
and scattered in all directions, and never came 
together again. About two weeks afterward 
the woman whose disappearance had caused 
the trouble was found wandering in a de- 
mented condition in the vicinity of Alton, and 
brought home. 

On the morning of Sunday, October 28, 
1849, two French counts, Gonsalve and Ray- 
mond Montesquieu, on their travels for recre- 
ation and pleasure in this country, while 
quartered at Barnum's City Hotel, corner of 



Third and Vine Streets, were concerned in a 
tragedy, in which two young men, T. Kirby 
Barnum and Albert Jones, were killed and 
three others wounded. The elder brother, 
Gonsalve, who afterward died in an insane 
asylum in France, deliberately tired twice with 
a double-barrel shot gun. The reports of the 
gun instantly gathered the guests and others 
together, and calls were made for a rope to 
hang the offender then and there. Charles 
Gonter, a newspaper man, was the first to arrest 
Gonsalve, whom he found in bed with a heavy 
overcoat on him. Mr. Theron Barnum. pro- 
prietor of the hotel, effectually dissuaded the 
crowd from violence, though in his resentment 
he at first seized the murderer by the throat 
and knocked his head against the wall. The 
prisoners were taken to the jail which then 
stood on the southeast corner of Sixth and 
Chestnut Streets, where, during the day a mob 
collected, and under the leadership of Robert 
Mc. ( ('Biennis, they threatened to take the 
prisoners out and hang them. Toward night 
there were increasing indications of trouble 
and a number of citizens consulted as to the 
best means of preventing the threatened 
violence, and Isaac Sturgeon with L. A. La 
Baume, the sheriff, went immediately to Judge 
Colt, who promptly issued an order directing 
the sheriff to remove the prisoners from the 
jail to a place of safety. By the time the sher- 
iff reached the jail there was a mob of a thou- 
sand persons around it on Sixth and Chestnut 
Streets, and the jailer said if the prisoners 
were brought out they would be torn to pieces. 
It was remembered, however, that there was 
an unused gate leading into the alley in the 
rear, and through this the prisoners were 
quietly taken and conducted to the residence 
of Bishop Hawks directly across the alley. 
From there the prisoners, each in charge of an 
officer, with whom they walked arm in arm, 
some distance apart, were conducted to the 
corner of Fourth and Walnut Streets where 
hacks were in waiting. They were taken first 
to the Arsenal, where the officer in charge in- 
formed the sheriff that he had not a single man 
to protect them. They were then taken to 
Jefferson Barracks and placed in charge of 
Captain Lovell, where they were kept until the 
dav of trial. They were tried and acquitted on 
the plea of insanity and no further attempts at 
violence were made. 



RIOTS AND MOBS. 



i in the nighi of Jul) 25, i860, a mob of 
some two or three hundred persons made an 
assault upon the tenements in the neighbor- 
hood of Almond and Second Streets, inhabited 
by degraded classes of men and women. As 
the work went on the mob increased until they 
numbered nearly a thousand. Bricks and 
stones were hurled in the windows, driving the 
occupants into the back yards, the mob de- 
molishing one house after another until eleven 
were wrecked, and the furniture, beds, bedding 
and clothing brought out into the streets and 
burned. In addition to the houses sacked, as 
many more were robbed. The mob set the 
police at defiance during their work of havoc 
and then dispersed. 

1 in the 25th of May, at 10 o'clock at night, 
[850, a 1110I1 of live hundred persons made an 
attack on several houses of ill fame, on Al- 

m 1 Street, mar Third, and destroyed the 

furniture and contents of four tenements. No 
lives were lost, and the mob dispersed and the 
ringleaders were arrested. 

Tin- city election of Monday, April 5. 1852, 
was attended by an unfortunate outbreak of 
hostilities between the Germans and Ameri- 
cans. Tin- candidates for mayor were L. M. 
Kennett (Whig), who had been elected for 
two terms and was standing for a third, and 
T. P. Chiles and T. R. Conway, Benton and 
anti-Renton Democrats. There was a good 
deal of feeling, and in the First Ward, where 
the Germans, who were Benton Democrats, 
were in a large majority, the) look possession 
of the polls and prevented their opponents 
from voting. Some who made an attempt to 
break through the crowd were driven back 
with sticks and stones, and I )r. Mitchell was 
roughh handled. Mayor Kennett repaired 
to the scene, and was greeted with groans and 
hisses. When information of these proceed 
ingS reached the Second. 'Third. Fourth and 
! nth Wards, about ^ o'clock in the afternoon, 
a Tody composed of both the native horn and 
adopted citizens, numbering over five thou- 
sand, led by Bob < ('Biennis and the notorious 
\'ed Buntline (Judson), moved down to the 
polls al Soulard Market. 'The vicinity of the 
Market was denseh packed with Germans, 
who made repeated attacks on the crowd as 
it passed down, throwing stones and other 
missiles into it, while an occasional shot was 
fired From the windows of the houses. In the 
midst of the excitement a force of two hun- 



dred Americans, well armed ami moving with 
some discipline, arrived opposite the Market, 
and with a shout for "free suffrage," charged 
on the polls and drove off the crowd that had 
been holding possession. "The Germans, in 
dispersing, took possession of the coffee 
houses above and below. The polls being 
cleared of the obstructionists, voting was re- 
nun d. and all voters were permitted to de- 
posit their ballots without regard to the party 
they belonged to. But the excitement con- 
tinued, and frequent collisions occurred in the | 
neighborhood, and several persons were 
wounded 1>\ shot, fired from the houses. Ned 
Buntline's horse was wounded in the neck. 
'These hostilities exasperated the crowd from 
the upper wards, and they opened fire on the 
houses m return. Soulard Market was rid- 
dled, and so was Xeumeyer's tavern, on the 
corner of Park Avenue and Seventh Street. 
where a number of Germans had taken refuge. 
A shot fired from the tavern killed a young 
man named Joseph Stevens, of the St. Louis 
Tire ( ompany. which so infuriated the Amer 
icans that they assaulted the house, destroyed 
everything in it, and then burned it to the 
ground. 'The rioting continued until after 
dark, when the mob managed to get posses- 
sion of two six-pounders, which they planted 
on the corner of Park Avenue, so as to sweep 
the sidewalks, where large crowds of Germans 
were gathered. The cannon were not fired, 
however, nor was any attempt made to capture 
them. 'The hostile mobs confined themselves 
to threats and brickbats and occasional pistol 
shots, until several influential citizens inter- 
fered, and by their earnest appeals persuaded 
them to disperse. The trouble seemed to be 
at .111 end, when, about to o'clock, another 
mob of twelve or fifteen hundred persons gath- 
ered and made a move against the "Anzeiger 
d> s Westcns" printing office, in resentment of 
certain articles printed in that paper. Before 
an attack was made, two companies of the 
city military sent by Mayor Kennett appeared 
on the ground and drew up promptly in front 
of the threatened building. The mob finding 
itself foiled, after a while melted away, and 
this was the end of a day and night of har- 
rassing troubles. 

On Sunday morning, May 25. 1853, a riot 
growing out of a dog fight resulted in the 
death of two men. The fight between the 
dogs was going on under the patronage of the 



RIOTS AND MOBS. 



1917 



residents of Green and Cherry Streets, re- 
spectively, when a member of Franklin Fire 
Company interfered, and the intrusion was re- 
sented by the owner of one of the canines. 
An encounter took place, which involved 
others besides the two combatants, several 
members of the fire company and others on 
one side, and the friends and adherents of the 
dog owner on the other. The latter were 
forced to take shelter in houses, and these were 
demolished and several of the party that had 
taken refuge in them severely beaten ; one was 
killed outright and another died in a few days 
after from his injuries. 

The election riots of August. 1854, were the 
worst of the kind that ever occurred in St. 
Louis. The "Know-Nothing" party, which 
grew out of the ruins of the Whig party in 
New York, in 1852, was organized in St. Louis 
in the winter of 1853 and spring of 1854, and 
intensified and embittered the ill feeling that 
had for several years prevailed between the 
native-born and foreign elements of the popu- 
lation. The "Know-Nothing" party was op- 
posed both to foreigners and to the Catholic 
Church, and this imparted a religious feature 
to the hostility and made it doubly menacing 
to the peace of communities where the foreign, 
particularly the Irish element, was strong, 
and the Catholic Church influential. At the 
election in St. Louis many foreign-born citi- 
zens, on presenting themselves at the polls, 
were called on for their papers and declared 
unqualified. This caused bad blood, and at 
the Fifth Ward polls a boy was stabbed by an 
Irishman, who, after the act. fled toward Mor- 
gan Street and took refuge in the Mechanics' 
Boarding House, at the corner of Second and 
Morgan Streets. The crowd of pursuers that 
followed him attacked the house with stones 
and bricks, taking several other similar houses 
in the assault, smashing windows and doors 
and breaking up the furniture. Pistol shots 
were fired into the houses, and from them, 
during the attack, but the inmates were driven 
out and forced to flee for their lives. In half 
an hour the crowd had increased to five thou- 
sand persons, and after sacking the houses at 
the corner of Second and Morgan Streets, 
they proceeded to Cherry Street and wreaked 
their fury upon a dozen houses in that locality 
occupied by Irishmen. Then returning to 
Morgan Street the crowd encountered a body 
of levee Irishmen, drawn up to oppose their 



passage to the levee, but the blockade soon 
gave way, two men being killed in the fight, 
and the mob poured down the levee. A fierce 
contest took place between the Irishmen, who 
had taken refuge in the houses on Battle Row, 
and the mob, the showers of stones and brick- 
bats from the crowd being answered with 
pistol shots from the inside, a boatman being 
killed by one of these shots, and a number of 
persons on both sides being wounded. The 
occupants of the houses were, in the end, 
driven out, and every house on the levee from 
Morgan Street to Locust Street was attacked, 
the windows and doors broken in, and the 
contents destroyed. After this the mob pro- 
ceeded to Morgan, Cherry. Fifth and Green 
Streets, sacking one Irish house after another, 
and, after wrecking Drayman's Hall, on the 
corner of Eighth and Franklin Avenue, it 
broke up into small parties and attacked all the 
drinking saloons in the neighborhood, contin- 
uing its disorderly and destructive career until 
at last the National Guard, the Continentals 
and the St. Louis Grays, called out by the < 
mayor, managed to disperse the larger bodies, 
and the smaller ones disbanded of their own 
accord. Next day the rioting was resumed. 
There was a large body of Irishmen gathered 
at the foot of Morgan Street, and two hostile 
disorderly crowds at Fifth and Green Streets. 
The Continentals, while marching along 
Green Street about 10 o'clock, were fired upon 
from the houses, and two of their number — 
Spore and Holliday — wounded. They re- 
turned the fire and wounded several persons 
in the mob, and the disturbance in that neigh- 
borhood ceased ; but the rioting was kept up 
in other localities, without coherence between 
the rioting bodies. At the corner of Seventh 
and Biddle Streets, near St. Patrick's Church, 
a man was making free use of his pistol, when 
E. R. Violet, a prominent and popular citizen, 
and several others attempted to disarm him, 
and in the struggle Mr. Violet received three 
shots in the shoulder, killing him on the spot. 
An affray between hostile parties at the corner 
of Broadway and Ashley Streets about the 
same time resulted in three persons being 
wounded, and one man named Snyder, a sa- 
loon-keeper, being killed. These collisions 
continued to occur throughout the day and 
through half the night, and when Wednesday 
morning came the streets in places were 
thronged with men calling upon Americans 



1918 



RIOTS AND MOBS. 



to protect their lives and honor, and it seemed 
as if the city was to be given up to anarchy, 
when the law and order element began to as- 
sert itself. A meeting of citizens, called by 
the mayor, was held at the Merchants' Ex- 
change, to devise measures for suppressing 
the riots and re-establishing authority. James 
H. Lucas was called to the chair, and Hudson 
E. Bridge chosen secretary. Resolutions 
pledging the meeting to assist the authorities 
in restoring order were adopted, and the meet- 
ing immediately adjourned to the Court- 
house, where a larger meeting of citizens 
was held, addressed by the mayor, Edward 
Bates, and others. The result was the tempo- 
rary suspension of the regular police by the 
mayor and the appointment of a special force, 
placed in charge of Captain N. J. Eaton. By 
5 o'clock in the afternoon seven hundred men 
had enrolled their names and were on hand 
ready for service. Captain Eaton named 
Major M. L. Clark to command in the field, 
and thirty-three well known citizens to act as 
captains, to each of whom he assigned a list 
of competent men from whom to select his 
lieutenants, the captains and lieutenants all to 
be mounted. The duty of suppressing and 
dispersing all riotous bodies and re-establish- 
ing order was entrusted to this body of citi- 
zens, with the military held in readiness to be 
called on if their assistance should be required. 
Fortunately no more rioting occurred. Two 
days of violence had nearly exhausted the 
mob spirit, and what survived was cowed by 
the determined arrangements made to meet it, 
and by midnight the streets were perfectly 
quiet and no further collision occurred. 

On the nth of May, 1861, the day after the 
capture of Camp Jackson, great excitement 
and bloodshed was caused by a body of Home 
Cuards firing wildly into the crowd on the 
sidewalk, in resentment of pistol shots fired at 
them. The troops were marching up Walnut 
Street from Third, and the crowd on the side- 
walk, with the bloody scene at Camp Jack- 
son fresh in their minds, hooted at them as 
they passed, and a young man standing on the 
steps of the Presbyterian Church, on the north- 
west corner of Broadway and Walnut Street, 
fired a pistol at the marching column and a 
soldier fell dead. Two more shots were fired 
from windows of houses. In response the 
troops at the head of the column, which had 
reached Seventh Street, turned suddenly and 



fired wildly down the street, killing sbme of 
their own comrades, as well as some of the 
spectators. It w : as a neighborhood of private 
residences at that time, and many bullets en- 
tered windows and doors and were imbedded 
in the furniture and walls. Six men lay dead 
on the street, and a number of others were 
wounded and shrieking with pain. Four of 
the men killed were members of the regiment, 
and two were citizens. Jerry Switzelan, an 
engineer on the river, was struck in the head 
by a bullet, which scattered his brains over 
the door and walls of Mr. H. Glover's resi- 
dence on Seventh Street, near Walnut, and 
Jeremiah Godfrey, who was at work in the 
yard of Mr. Cozzens, county surveyor, was 
deliberately shot by three soldiers, who aimed 
their muskets at a distance of three feet and 
fired three bullets into his body. Fortunately 
the wounds were not mortal, and he recov- 
ered. The community was nearly frantic 
with excitement, but nothing could be done, 
and after an address from Mayor Taylor from 
the steps of the church, the crowd dispersed 
and nothing further came of the affair. 

On the 17th of June, 1861, while a detach- 
ment of Colonel Kallman's regiment of 
Home Guards was marching down Seventh 
Street, at a point between Olive and Pine 
Streets, a shot was fired, the weight of the 
testimony indicating that it was the act of a 
soldier in the ranks. Instantly the troops in 
advance wheeled and fired a volley into the 
Missouri engine house, on the east side of 
Seventh Street, between Olive and Pine 
Streets, and the adjoining houses. The sec- 
ond floor of the engine house was the re- 
corder's court room, and the court was in ses- 
sion at the time. Four persons were killed, 
two mortally wounded, and several others 
slightly injured. The marks of seventy-five 
bullets were counted upon the walls, shutters, 
doors and windows in the neighborhood. The 
names of the persons killed were N. M. Pratt, 
Keren Tracy, an Irishman; Charles Cella, an 
Italian, and a man named Burns. Deputy 
Marshal Franzel, who was supposed to be 
mortally wounded, recovered and lived to hold 
several official positions, though badlv crip- 
pled. 

At a Fourth of July celebration, in 1863, at 
Hyde Park, where several thousand persons 
were assembled, a riot was started by thirty 
or forty convalescent soldiers from the hos- 



RIOTS AND MOBS. 



1919 



pital, who had been permitted to go to the 
place. They began the disturbance by drink- 
ing repeatedly and refusing to pay, and then 
demolished a balloon prepared for ascension, 
and next assaulted the restaurant building, de- 
stroying the liquors and smashing the fixtures. 
The proprietor called on a military company 
encamped just outside the park for protection, 
and the captain marching his men inside, or- 
dered them to fire on the rioters. Several 
were killed and others wounded. The park 
was immediately evacuated and the celebra- 
tion broken up. 

On Saturday night, October 30, 1880, at 
the close of the presidential campaign, an im- 
mense Republican mass-meeting was held at 
Lucas Market, Twelfth and Olive Streets, 
several thousand persons being present, and 
speeches made at several stands. At one of 
these stands a colored club was startled by the 
firing of a shot from an unknown person, who 
fled. The members of the club, imagining 
that the police had fired it, attacked them 
while attempting to preserve order, and drove 
them back. Some of the police were forced 
to take refuge in Heffner's saloon, and the 
mob attacked the place and riddled it with 
bullets, and then entering the house broke the 
furniture and destroyed whatever they could 
find. The police were compelled to retreat 
again before the rioters, and matters were be- 
coming serious, when Captain Samuel J. Boyd 
was detailed by Captain William Lee to quell 
the riot. Taking with him fourteen men, all 
he could gather on the spur of the moment, 
he gave an example of what a handful of reso- 
lute trained men can do against a disorderly 
and lawless mob of twenty times their num- 
ber. Forming his men in line, with himself 
in the lead, Captain Boyd charged into the 
crowd with a cheer that suggested a regiment 
behind it, the police beating their way through 
with their clubs, which came down upon 
every head in front of them. The negroes at 
first tried to make a fight with their torch 
staves, but they could not stand before the de- 
termined attack of the police, who put them 
to flight, pursuing them along Twelfth Street 
to Lucas Avenue. On their return they found 
a body of rioters in possession of a drug store. 
These were attacked and driven off, with the 
loss of one killed and several others badly 
wounded, who afterward died in the hospital. 
Several hundred shots were fired during: the 



affray. Only one of Captain Boyd's force 
was injured, a man named Shafford. 

One of the accompaniments of the great 
railroad strike of July, 1877, was a sort of reign 
of disorder in St. Louis, which lasted for sev- 
eral days, during which the community was 
almost entirely at the mercy of a body of an- 
archist agitators calling themselves the "In- 
ternational Committee of the Workingmen," 
with headquarters at Schuler's Hall, corner of 
Fifth and Biddle Streets. Here they issued 
edicts and organized labor meetings and pro- 
cessions, which were directed to visit all man- 
ufacturing and industrial establishments and 
compel the employes to quit work and join in 
the movement for revolutionizing things in 
general — foreign-born persons taking the lead 
in the proceedings. To assist in compelling 
obedience to the decrees of the committee a 
regiment of negroes, mostly roustabouts from 
the levee, armed with clubs and revolvers, 
was sent on a march through the city. At 8 
o'clock, July 25th, a meeting was held at Lu- 
cas Market, on Twelfth Street, and here the 
beginning was made. A procession started 
from the meeting, which soon degenerated into 
a mob, passing down Locust Street to Fifth, 
thence to Poplar, thence to Twelfth and 
Spruce and the Four Courts, stopping at the 
Phoenix Planing Mill, and giving the proprie- 
tor fifteen minutes to close his works. The 
mob then moved across the Twelfth Street 
bridge and forced the St. Louis Bagging Fac- 
tory to shut down, after terrifying the one hun- 
dred female operatives with their shouts and 
yells as they were being discharged from 
work. The rioters next took possession of 
the foundry of Shickle, Harrison & Co., a 
short distance away, and shut off the steam. 
At the Douglas Bagging Factory, on Stod- 
dard Street, the windows were broken and 
the door of the engine room beaten in, and 
the engineer compelled, under threats of 
death, to shut off steam. The mob then, after 
insulting and frightening the women and girls 
employed in the factory, visited successively, 
Waimvright's Malt House, Christopher Simp- 
son & Co.'s foundry, on Park Avenue, the 
works of the Southern Bagging Company, at 
Decatur and Barry Streets, and the St. Louis 
Trunk Factory, where similar scenes were en- 
acted. They next compelled the Saxony 
Mills and the Southern White Lead and Color 
Works to close up, under threats of burning. 



1920 



RIOTS AND MOBS. 



and kept up their visitation march until a 
dozen other establishments were forced to sus- 
pend. At Plum Street depot they surrounded 
a passenger train on the Iron Mountain Rail- 
road that was preparing to start out, threat- 
ened the passengers, and were dissuaded from 
detaining it only through the efforts of some 
white colleagues in their ranks. The mob 
divided into two bodies, to facilitate the task 
of forcing a general suspension of factory 
work, and a small detachment, under the lead 
of a member of the international committee, 
visited the Dozier-Weyl Bakery, at the corner 
of Sixth and Pine Streets, where, after com- 
pelling the thirty or more employes to stop 
work, they took possession of the retail de- 
partment and devoured the loaves of bread, 
pies and cake. Toward the close of the day 
the law-abiding citizens of St. Louis began to 
recover from their stupor, and in co-operation 
with the authorities, a volunteer force of about 
four thousand men was organized and 
equipped for action. On Thursday, the 26th, 
a raid was made on Schuler's Hall by the 
mounted police, under Captain Boyd. On 
reaching the neighborhood the street adja- 
cent to the hall was cleared by a charge, and 
a number of rioters and idlers inside were ar- 
rested ; but the executive committee, who had 
been instigating and directing the disorder, 
had received notice of the attack and escaped 
through the windows on the roof of the ad- 
joining building, and the group of ineffectives 
whom the military procession brought to the 
calaboose as prisoners were too pitiable and 
sorry looking to gratify the resentment or 
provoke the derision of the crowds of specta- 
tors collected on the streets to see them as 
they passed. The riot was completely broken 
and some of the leaders were arrested and 
punished. 

In 1 88 1, April 20th, the street car conductors 
and drivers held a meeting at Turners" Hail 
and demanded a reduction of hours from 
eighteen to twelve as a day's work, with $1.75 
a day for drivers and $2 a day for conductors, 
with a resolution to strike if the terms were 
not acceded to. The companies rejected the 
terms, and on Saturday the men, seven hun- 
dred in number, quit work on every line in the 
city but two. For nearly a week street car 
travel was suspended, and the public put to 
great inconvenience. The few cars that came 
down town were prevented front moving by 
the crowds in sympathy with the strikers, and 



the few new men who took the places of the 
old ones were hooted at and reviled as "scabs," 
and sometimes along the route they were 
pelted with dirt and stones. The feeling was 
increasing, and there were indications of fur- 
ther trouble, when the National Guards were 
called out and held in readiness to act, and the 
police, by judicious management, broke the 
power of the strike and dispersed the crowds, 
and the regular running of the cars, with new 
conductors and drivers, was resumed. 

On Tuesday, June 10, 1884, there was an 
affray between the mates of the steamer "St. 
Paul" and the roustabouts employed on her, 
growing out of misunderstanding about 
wages. One of the mates was driven into 
the river, and the other, in defending himself, 
shot and mortally wounded one of his assail- 
ants. 

There was a strike of street car conductors 
and drivers in the early part of October, 1885, 
attended by much lawless conduct on the part 
of the strikers and their sympathizers, and 
great inconvenience to the public — for it was 
during the Fair week, when the demand for 
street car service is greater than usual. The 
strikers demanded a reduction of the work 
day from eighteen hours to twelve, and the 
sympathy of the street crowd was plainly with 
them. The lines affected attempted to run 
their cars with new drivers, but with poor suc- 
cess, and their patrons had to walk. As fast 
as new men were placed on the cars they were 
persuaded by the strikers to give up their posi- 
tions. On Broadway the cars were stopped 
and the horses taken out and hitched to the 
other end of the car. The Cass Avenue line 
encountered similar trouble, and one of the. 
drivers was dragged off his car. A crowd of 
sympathizers at Compton Avenue threw 
stones into a Market Street car, smashing the 
windows. Xext day a mob smashed several 
cars on Pine Street and beat the drivers off, 
and on Seventh and Eighth Streets a Cass 
Avenue ear was surrounded by a crowd, with 
cries of derision against the driver, and one 
man leaped over the dashboard and seized 
him by the throat and beat him in the face. 
The horses were unhitched and the car left 
standing on the track. A police officer 
finally managed to arrest the driver's assail- 
ant and take him off. The mob then rushed 
to Pine Street, and at Seventh stopped a blue 
car, cut the lines and traces, and drove the 
mules off. All cars attempting to cross west 



RIVER COMMERCE UNDER MILITARY CONTROL. 



1921 



were forcibly stopped, the mules unhitched, 
and the cars thrown from the track. About 
1 1 o'clock a car on the Bellefontaine line was 
; derailed by a strong body of strikers, causing 
! a blockade of seven cars that had been de- 
tained for the "trades procession." The pas- 
, sengers were forced to leave the cars, which 
| were then turned over on their side and left 
! in the street, the drivers were taken from their 
; cars and badly beaten, and one of them sent 
home with a fractured skull. Next day, Fri- 
day, the 9th, riots occurred at half a dozen dif- 
ferent places, attended by the destruction of 
• railroad property, and John Havey, a brick- 
\ layer, who was taking part with the strikers, 
1 was shot and killed by Officer Hamon of the 
police. At Twelfth Street bridge several cars 
' were overturned and a driver severely beaten, 
! several of the rioters engaged in the work be- 
! ing arrested. On the Chouteau Avenue line 
a party of forty strikers detached two cars 
and beat the drivers and conductors, and sim- 
ilar violence was enacted on O'Fallon Street. 
In the western part of the city a lady in the 
Jefferson Avenue car had her arm broken by 
the explosion of a torpedo. The killing of 
the bricklayer, Havey, marked the culmina- 
tion of the disturbance, and as it was followed 
by the arrest of several of the most active pnd 
daring of the leaders, the strikers became dis- 
heartened and gave up the contest. 

In March, 1886, there was a strike among 
the workmen employed on the Gould system 
of roads, provoked by the discharge of a car- 
penter, whom Mr. Hoxie, of the Missouri Pa- 
cific, refused to reinstate. At the command of 
Martin Irons, who was at the head of the labor 
organizations, the men went out, and the roads 
were tied up for several weeks, only mail cars 
being permitted to go out of the yards in St. 
Louis. A crowd of fifteen hundred persons, 
strikers and their sympathizers, would assem- 
ble at the yards and machine shops every 
morning, offering such impediments as throw- 
ing switches the wrong way, running engines 
off the track, and pulling out coupling-pins, 
so that it was impossible to make up trains 
or take them out. Fortunately, the strike was 
not attended by bloodshed, and after a time 
the strikers gave it up and the regular run- 
ning of trains was resumed. 

D. M. Grissom. 

River Commerce Under Military 
Control.— On the 10th of December, 1861, 



owing to the exigencies of the Civil War, the 
river commerce from the port of St. Louis was 
placed under military control and surveillance. 
Under the order which then went into force no 
steamboats or other craft were permitted to 
take freight or passengers from this port ex- 
cept those authorized by the major-general 
commanding the Department of Missouri, or 
the general commanding the district of St. 
Louis. All officers, pilots and river employes 
on any steamboat or craft doing business on 
the rivers to and from the port of St. Louis 
were required to take an oath of allegiance to 
the United States government. The object 
of the order was to suppress and entirely pre- 
vent any aid or assistance to, or communica- 
tion with, any person or persons directly or in- 
directly disloyal to or in arms against the Fed- 
eral authority of the United States. Any 
owner, officer or pilot of any steamboat or 
other craft who acted contrary to the order 
was liable to the forfeiture of his steamboat 
or other craft, and her cargo to the Federal 
government. 

River Navigation, Steamboat. — In 

order to give a pretty fair account of the rise 
and progress of steamboating, and of the class 
of men connected with it, it will hardly be nec- 
essary to date back of the year 1832, as before 
that time there were but few steamboats, and 
these made only occasional trips, such as the 
"Orleans," from Louisville to New Orleans, 
iri 181 1 ; the "Vesuvius," the "Washington," 
the "Aetna" and a few others. They were sea- 
going vessels, and were brought around by sea 
from the East, with the exception of the "Or- 
leans," which was built on the Ohio River. 
All of them were more or less experiments, 
especially as to their machinery, which was low 
pressure, and their hulls were built of such 
heavy material that they proved, for the most 
part, financial failures ; and it was not until 
steamboat-building was regularly inaugurated 
in the West — at McKeesport, Brownsville, 
Pittsburg, and Freedom, in Pennsylvania, and 
at other points — that steamboating developed 
into a successful occupation. That was about 
the year 1832, at which time and thereafter they 
were turned out by the dozen, or, rather, by 
the hundred. For a series of years constant 
improvements were made in their construc- 
tion, both as to machinery, size, and style of 
hull and cabin. The first steamboats built 
were very small, varying in length from thirty 



1922 



RIVER NAVIGATION, STEAMBOAT. 



to one hundred feet, and in width, from sixteen 
to twenty feet, but deep like a ship, with but 
one deck and a roof, where now is the boiler- 
deck, so-called. They had but one engine, 
1. i\v pressure, and were stern-wheelers. The 
accommodations for passengers, if any, were 
on the main deck, with bunks instead of state- 
rooms, as now. In fact, everything was put 
in together, on the lower deck — passengers, 
freight and machinery, and not much room 
for any of them. As low water seasons came 
around every year, it was found necessary to 
vary the construction of the boats so as to 
make them draw less water, and yet carry more 
freight, and the result was that in the course 
of five or six years boats were built 187 feet 
long, and about 30 feet beam, with shallow 
hold and side wheels, but still with one engine. 
Improvements continued to be made, and 
about the year 1836 double engines were put 
on the boats and another deck was added, and 
later a "Texas" for officers, and a fine upper 
cabin, with state rooms, were inaugurated, and 
the size, width and length of the boats were 
increased, until they got to be — for the lower 
river, at least — 350 feet long, the power in- 
creasing in proportion, and carrying 3,000 
tons. About 1838 all the rivers swarmed with 
boats of all sizes and capacities. High pres- 
sure engines were the only ones used, and ev- 
erything was done with a rush and a vim that 
betokened a degree of enterprise such as was 
never known 'before. Emigration was flood- 
ing the country. There was no United States 
law regulating the amount of pressure that 
might be carried in the boilers, and the result 
was that some reckless engineers, encouraged 
by their captains, often carried a pressure of 
180 to 200 pounds of steam to the square inch 
in boilers forty inches in diameter, and with a 
shell not more than three-sixteenths of an inch 
in thickness, so that many explosions were the 
result. One of the most dreadful that oc- 
curred in those early days — 1836 — was that of 
the "Mozelle," which ran between Cincinnati, 
St. Louis and Alton. She was the finest boat 
of her day in point of speed and accommoda- 
tions, and to "show off" in starting from Cin- 
cinnati full of passengers, she ran above the 
city, and as she passed down, with an enor- 
mous pressure of steam, she exploded every 
boiler, throwing arms and legs and other parts 
of human bodies, and scalded remains in every 
direction. The boat was literally torn to 
pieces; nothing but debris and rubbish were 



left to tell the tale, the number killed being 
variously estimated at between 250 and 300. 
The frequency of these so-called accidents was 
so common up to 1839 that Congress finally 
took the matter in hand, and required engi- 
neers and pilots to take out a license after a 
thorough examination as to qualifications, 
thereby reducing, in large part, casualties from 
both marine and machinery accidents. From 
time to time other restrictions and safeguards 
were added, such as government lights and 
signals established to designate which side the 
ascending and descending boats should take. 
Before that time many such signals had been 
improvised by the captains and pilots, notably 
by Captain Sellers, but they had never been 
made effective by law. Hundreds of incidents 
of accidents and disasters might be woven into 
this necessarily abridged account of steam- 
boating. Looking back at them with nervous 
horror, what was then considered only enter- 
prise, is now clearly seen to have been sheer 
recklessness. 

In the early days of the navigation of the 
lower Mississippi River, when the "pirogue," 
the "broad-horn," which went down, but 
never came back, and the primitive steamboats 
first navigated the river, say, from 1812 to 
1832, "Natchez under the hill," and the mouth 
of the Arkansas River were, for a numDer of 
years, the headquarters, or strongholds, of 
bands of assassins and cut-throats, who, for 
daring and blood-curdling deeds, were seldom, 
if ever, equaled. The leaders of two of the 
gangs were "Murrell" and "Mason." Mur- 
rell had a list of sworn retainers of fully one 
thousand men, while Mason had not so many 
and his men were of a lower order, having no 
character in the community, except as free- 
booters, while many of the Murrell gang pass- 
ed as respectable. It was told, among other 
daring things perpetrated by Murrell, that he 
at one time pretended to be an itinerant 
preacher, and actually addressed a gathering 
of honest people, who had ridden miles to hear 
him. while his accomplices mounted their 
horses and rode them off, leaving the congre- 
gation to get to their homes as best they 
could. He often boasted of killing men on a 
lonely road, and then, after robbing them of 
their valuables, and taking out their entrails 
to prevent their bodies from floating, throw- 
ing them into the river like carrion. Flatboat- 
men and travelers of all kinds, single and in 
parties, if not too large, were sure game for 



RIVER NAVIGATION, STEAMBOAT. 



1923 



them, and this was often accomplished by his 
having spies in New Orleans, Vicksburg, 
Natchez and other places, who learned of or saw 
persons being paid money for produce ot other 
values, and then saw them start home by the 
Natchez road, or "trace," as it was then called, 
when they were waylaid and butchered, or 
otherwise disposed of, often in the most bar- 
barous manner. However, as steamboating 
became 'more of a success, and as steamboats 
increased in number, free-booting became 
more dangerous to the free-booter. As the 
"lonely traveler" left bis horse and took to the 
steamboat, the free-booter also took to the 
steamboat, and plied the no less nefarious 
trade of gambling with "marked cards" and 
other devices to rob the unwary. It is within 
recollection when "Natchez under the hill" was 
still a rendezvous for a class of gamblers and 
cut-throats who infested the boats, traveling 
up and down the river in parties, more or less 
in number. Though confederates, to stran- 
gers they appeared to be utter strangers to 
each other. They would take their places in 
the social hall, in the front of the boat where 
the bar was then situated, and watch for their 
prey, offering all sorts of inducements for "a 
little game" of poker, and when once started 
upon it their victim was never allowed to quit 
until relieved of every cent of his money and 
all his valuables. The game would frequently 
last for from twenty-four to thirty-six hours, 
the players never leaving the table, but having 
the pantryman bring in a light lunch to mix 
with the brandy and whisky cocktails from the 
bar. Not infrequently a display of pistols 
would be made if the winner attempted to quit 
the game, and all this as late as 1840. 

Up to the year 1845 steamboats were doing 
all the transportation business in the West, 
and the trade had then reached its zenith. The 
first railroad built in the Western country was 
that from Meredosia to Springfield, Illinois, 
which used the old "flat rail" and, when run- 
ning, was frequently troubled with "snake 
heads," caused by the flat bars coming loose 
and turning up at the ends and entering the 
cars. Twelve miles an hour was considered a 
fair rate of speed. Cedar ties were considered 
indispensable in the building of a railroad in 
those days ; indeed, everything was done as an 
experiment in railroad building, both East and 
West. The Hudson River Railroad was built 
on "stone stubs," of posts, instead of wooden 
ties, but it was soon found that, in running 



over the road, it "nearly shook out the teeth 
of the passengers," so that the stone posts had 
to be taken out, and wood, which takes up the 
vibration, put in their places. 

Prior to the enactment of the laws regulat- 
ing the pressure of the steam to be carried in 
boilers, and various other restrictions, won- 
derfully quick time was made by some of the 
finest steamers on the lower Mississippi, and 
it is doubtful if, with all the latest improve- 
ments in the development of steamboats, faster 
time has ever been made between the ports of 
New Orleans and St. Louis and other points 
than at that early day. For example, the 
steamer "J. M. White," Captain Converse, in 
1844, made the trip from New Orleans to St. 
Louis, in three days, twenty-three hours and 
twenty-three minutes. In 1872 the "Rob- 
ert E. Lee," Captain Cannon, claimed to have 
made the same trip in three, days, eighteen 
hours and thirty minutes, but she had many 
advantages in her methods of getting fuel and 
other things. Among the many early boats 
running regularly in the St. Louis and New 
Orleans trade were the "Rolla," "Vandalia," 
"Alton," "Autocrat" and "St. Louis," and 
there were afterward built a great number of 
boats. The largest of these, the "St. Louis," 
was built in this city in 1848, and was expected 
to be very fast, as she had great power, with 
seven boilers, 34-inch cylinders, and ten feet 
stroke, but owing to a great mistake in her 
model, which was on the flat-iron wedge pat- 
tern, making her bury in, rather than rise on, 
the water, she never came from New Orleans 
to St. Louis in less than seven days, whereas, 
it had been thought by her builder and part 
owner, Captain George Taylor, that she could 
make the trip in three days and a half. She 
was 360 feet long, 45 feet beam and 10 feet hold. 
Captain Taylor dragged along, discouraged, 
without making any money out of her, until 
he finally sold her to the writer of this sketch, 
who ran her to New Orleans through a bad 
cholera season, in 1854, getting fabulous prices 
for freight, and taking great risks, while nearly 
all other 'boats were laid up. From 1836 to 
i860 was the harvest time for steamboats, dur- 
ing which time innumerable packet companies 
were established and flourished, there being 
then no railroad competition. Among these 
were the Louisville & Cincinnati Packet Com- 
pany, which operated many splendid steamers, 
such as the "Jacob Strader," a low-pressure 
boat; the "United States," the "Telegraph" 



1 924 



RIVER NAVIGATION. STEAMBOAT. 



and other fine steamers. They still held their 
own. even after the railroads were built along- 
side of them. Captain Tom Sherlock was its 
commanding spirit for several years. The 
line often met with terrible competition, but al- 
ways overcame it. There was also a splendid 
line of steamers that ran from Wheeling to 
Cincinnati, for a number of years, under the 
auspices of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, but, 
proving a bad investment, they were dis- 
carded. This line was composed of the "Tom 
Swon," the "Baltimore," the "Virginia," and 
others, all long black-snake boats, with great 
power and very fast. There w r ere also Pitts- 
burg and Cincinnati, and Cincinnati and St. 
Louis packets, which were more or less sub- 
ject to discontinuance on account of low water. 
Next to the Louisville and Cincinnati line was 
the St. Louis and Keokuk Packet Company, 
under the presidency of Captain John S. Mc- 
Cune, Who was at its head for many years, say, 
from 1840 to 1870. This was a favorite trade, 
and many steamboatmen had their eyes on it, 
but the known determination and fighting 
qualities of the president of the company kept 
many of them out of it. Several attempts were 
made to wrest the trade from McCune, but in 
a fair fight they always proved unsuccessful. 
However, as other lines were established, 
reaching farther up the river, they naturally 
interferred with the Keokuk line proper, and 
finally, between them and the railroads, which 
were springing up everywhere, the grand old 
St. Louis and Keokuk line succumbed. Among 
the best boats forming the line were the "Kate 
Kearney." the "Andy Johnson," the "Ouincy," 
the "Hannibal," the "Jennie Deans," the 
"Louisiana" and many other fast and fine boats 
which ran regular trips, set a fine table, and had 
splendid accommodations in everv way. Cap- 
tain Philips was the caterer for this line. The 
Alt. m ami St. Louis trade also had some very 
fast boats in it, among the fastest being the 
"Al'tona," built in 1853, and run by the writer. 
She was 232 feet long, had 32 feet 'beam, 7 
feet hold, five 5-flue boilers, with engines 36 1-2 
inches in diameter, and 10-foot stroke, with a 
36-foot water-wheel, and 16-foot bucket. She 
made the lust time from St. Louis to Alton — 
twenty-five miles — in one hour and thirty- 
seven minutes, under Captain Lamothe, and 
on several occasions came down within .an 
hour, frequentl) beating the Chicago & Alton 
trains into the city. She paid for herself in 
one year, and was finallv sold to the Chicaero 



& Alton railroad, soon afterward sinking in 
the bend below the present water works, at the 
"Chain of Rocks." The "Luella," Captain 
W. P. Lamothe, was the first fast boat built 
for the Alton trade and plied there for many 
years, at the time the fastest boat running 
above St. Louis. Then the "Tempest" and 
other boats took her place. With the rail- 
roads as competitors, the "Baltimore," "Rein- 
deer" and "Winchester" also plied between 
Alton and St. Louis and sank while engaged in 
that trade. The Illinois River had several 
lines of boats. At one time there were thirty- 
eight of them, among which were the "Prairie 
State," Captain Baldwin; the "Ocean Wave." 
Captain March, and the "Prairie Bird," be- 
sides the boats of the Naples Packet Company, 
with Captains Gould and Rogers. There were 
also packets running to Galena, Dubuque and 
St. Louis. Among the early boats were the 
"War Eagle," Captain Bob Riley ; the "St. 
Croix." Captain Bersie ; the "Time," Captain 
Hooper, who afterward moved to Salt Lake 
and became a Mormon ; the "St. Paul," Cap- 
tain Bissell ; and many others. In 1849, tne 
time of the gold fever hegira, there were sixty- 
eight fine boats engaged in the Missouri River 
trade, among which were the "James H. Lu- 
cas," the "Polar Star," Captain Brierly, and 
Clerk — afterward Captain — Blossom ; and the 
"Martha Jewett." During the years 1849 and 
1850 the writer has seen and counted one hun- 
dred and sixty-two steamers at the landing at 
one time, and it is melancholy now to state 
that he has seen the wharf, within the present 
year, entirely deserted, with not a single boat 
lying at it. All this is the result of more than 
one cause ; the first is the incompetent manner 
in which the river improvements have been 
carried on, without deepening the channels of 
the rivers. Another is that the railroads cut 
across the country and thereby save time with 
both freight and passengers, as well as saving 
all insurance and running at all seasons of the 
year. Then steamboatmen have never entirely 
mastered the science of building boats suitable 
to the trade as to draft of water, and the con- 
sequence is that, in the fall, when trade is most 
active, the water is low and the boats must lie 
at the bank or on a bar. The insurance 
companies were partly to blame for this, as 
they were constantly "harping" upon building 
the boats heavily timbered, and still charged 
twelve cents per annum insurance. With the 
development of railroads came the decline of 



RIVER NAVIGATION, STEAMBOAT. 



1925 



steamboating, and the result was that so long 
as the commerce of the West was carried on 
bv the steamboats, which were owned at home, 
the profits were retained and invested at home, 
and, in those days, went far toward building 
up St. Louis, and other Western cities where 
the building of boats was carried on, and 
where steamboat owners and captains lived. 
But when railroads were projected the}- were 
built largely on credit, and tfhe money with 
which they were constructed was largely bor- 
rowed from the East or from London, and 
bonds issued therefor, which, of course, bore 
interest twice a year ; and the result has been 
that the people of the West have become 
"hewers of wood and drawers of water" for 
Wall Street and London, and the entire West 
is being "milked" twice a year out of at least 
half of the earnings of her roads, which, like 
absentee Irish landlordism, is constantly de- 
pleting the country. In fact, to till at extent 
at least, the West is doing business on bor- 
rowed capital, which is always disastrous. 

Some of the men who had charge of the old- 
time steamers deserve most favorable men- 
tion. For splendid manners and gentlemanly 
deportment, none stood higher than Captain 
J. C. Swon, who commanded one of the "J. M. 
Whites ;" and later, the "Alexander Scott ;" 
with Captain Sellers as pilot, and Dick Ken- 
nett as partner-pilot. Captain Sellers' remains 
lie in Bellefontaine cemetery, beneath a monu- 
ment ordered by himself, the design represent- 
ing him at the pilot wheel. His partner, Dick 
Kennett, was blown up on the steamer "War- 
ner," below Memphis, not long after Sellers' 
death, and his body was never found. Indeed, 
these two men were so closely bound together 
by the ties of friendship and association that 
after the death of Sellers, Kennett lost all in- 
terest in everything in life. They were both 
noble men, and a credit to their profession. 
Captain George Taylor was a very large man, 
with a voice like a fog-horn, and could be 
heard giving his orders for miles up and down 
the river. He was the captain of several 
steamers, the big "St. Louis" being one, and 
the "Belfast," built for the New Orleans trade, 
being the last. Captain Newman Robirds was 
another, and his brother, Oby Robirds, was al- 
ways wih him as engineer and owner. They 
built the "John Simons," a very large three- 
decker, expecting her to be a great success, 
but she drew too much water, and they finally- 
traded her to Captain Charlie Church, of 



Memphis, for a cotton boat, and she made 
money as a packet between Memphis and New 
Orleans. The steamer "Mayflower" was built 
in 1854, at Brownsville, Pennsylvania, for 
Captain Joseph Brown, by Samuel Walker, the 
builder of the fast "White," at a cost of $286,- 
000. She was the finest boat that ever ran in 
the St. Louis and New Orleans trade, and, 
probably, had more good points than any other 
steamboat of her day, with fine cabins, large 
capacity for freight (2,500 tons) and passengers 
and a middle or separate deck for deck pas- 
sengers. Before she had been in the service 
a year she was burned by the "George Col- 
lier" landing alongside of her, while afire, so 
as to save her own passengers. In 1861 
Captain Brown was running a boat called 
the "Louisiana," and happened to be in New 
Orleans when the United States flagwas pulled 
down from the customhouse. That evening 
he started the "Louisiana" for St. Louis, fly- 
ing light, and with such passengers only as 
were anxious to get away while they could. 
Trouble was expected in getting past Napo- 
leon, and when the boat got abreast of that 
point, off went one of their cannon, which the 
Confederates had planted along the river bank. 
The boat was landed, and four hundred men 
jumped on the guards and made for the bar, 
cleaning it out in about thirty minutes. Then 
the next thing was to decide as to whether to 
confiscate the boat or let her go on to St. 
Louis. The discussion was getting very hot, 
with a preponderance in favor of confiscation, 
when the captain mounted a table in the cabin 
and said: "Gentlemen, this boat belongs to 
St. Louis, and I am part owner, with slaves on 
board, and if you want Missouri to go out of 
the Union, with the other Southern States, I 
would advise you not to confiscate her prop- 
erty." They talked it over for some time, and 
finally released her, but said: "Damn the 
Cincinnati boats ; we will confiscate every one 
of them ;" and they did, as fast as they came 
up. Captain Tom Leathers was a splendid 
specimen of a man, standing six feet three or 
four inches in height, and stout in proportion, 
respected by everybody, and popular in the 
New Orleans and Vicksburg trade, owning 
two plantations and two hundred slaves before 
the war. The collapse of the Southern Con- 
federacy wrecked his fortune, and after that 
he came to St. Louis, and was advised to get 
President Morton, of the Marine Ways, at 
Cincinnati, to build him another boat. "Whv," 



192(1 



RIVER NAVIGATION, STEAMBOAT. 



he said, "when the war broke out I owed them 
$42,000 on the last 'Natchez,' and I swore, 
rather than pay them, I would turn it into 
the Southern Confederacy." ''Oh, well," was 
replied, "go and see him; he will build you 
another boat." He said he was ashamed to go; 
so a friend wrote and made the suggestion. 
The result was that Morton did build him an- 
other boat, without a cent in money, and Tom 
Leathers not only paid them for it, but the 
$42,000 besides. After a few years, (however, 
he was less fortunate. Captain — afterward 
Commodore — Garrison, of the Pacific coast, 
and finally the millionaire of New York, was a 
noted steamboat captain on the Mississippi. 
He built, partly with his own hands, the "Con- 
vov," a large, fine steamer. He afterward 
drifted over to the Pacific coast, with William 
C. Ralston, and became mayor of San Fran- 
cisco, and president of the Pacific Mail Com- 
pany. Henry D. Bacon was another. He 
was captain of the steamer "Hannibal," would 
nut run on Sunday, and so laid by on Satur- 
day night at twelve o'clock, and stayed at the 
bank until Sunday night at the same time. He 
afterward married a daughter of Daniel D. 
Page, and went into the banking business with 
his father-in-law, finally moving to San Fran- 
cisco where he died, his remains being 
brought to St. Louis. He built and endowed 
with $40,000 the church on the corner of 
Eleventh and Locust Streets, which still 
stands. lie made other munificent gifts in 
San Francisco. Captain Gould, still living in 
1898, built many fine boats, the "Imperial'' be- 
ing the finest and fastest, but she was never put 
to 'her highest speed. The last boat built and 
run by him was the "Halliday." He is the 
oldest steamboat man now living in St. Louis. 
Captain James B. Eads, who built the big 
bridge and constructed the jetties, was once 
second clerk for him. He published a splen- 
did book of 750 pages, entitled "Fifty Years on 
the Mississippi." Captain R. J. Lackland, 
now president of the Boatmen's Bank, was 
another "old-timer," and is an honored repre- 
sentative of the long-ago boatmen. Captain 
Ward, of what was once the Northern Line, is 
a hale old boatman, and has a fine record as 
captain and boatstore man. Captain Thor- 
wegan, of the "Chouteau" and "Providence" 
Excursion ( ompany, is still "on deck," and as 
popular as ever. Captain "Jim" Goslee was 
long a favorite captain on the river, and one 



of the finest boats owned by him was the "Au- 
tocrat." One day the "Autocrat" was on her 
way up the river and had landed on the Ar- 
kansas side of the river to take on wood. She 
carried a hundred deckhands, and was taking 
one hundred cords of wood, when a young 
man stepped up to Captain Goslee, while he 
was sitting looking at the deckhands taking 
in the wood, and said: "Captain Goslee, I 
hear this boat is very hard on wood ; how much 
will she burn in twenty-four hours?" "Oh, of 
good, hard, oak wood, she might get along 
with about seventy cords." "Well, but of this 
cottonwood you are now taking on, how much 
would she burn?" "Oh," said Captain Gos- 
lee, "it will be just like throwing shavings into 
hell!" 

The steamer "Eclipse" was the finest boat 
that ever ran in the Louisville and New Or- 
leans trade. She was built and commanded 
by Captain Sturgeon, was fast and fine in every- 
way, was 360 feet long, but drew too much 
water, and, like almost all the other fine and 
fast boats, made no money, being unable to 
run in low water. The Atlantic & Mississippi 
Steamship Company was inaugurated by the 
stocking of twenty-eight steamboats into a line 
about the year 1866, after the war, and was the 
finest line ever consolidated on the river. But 
the boats were put in at too high a valuation, 
which was paid, in large part, in stock, and 
amounted to $2,500,000, leaving the company 
in debt over $800,000. Owing to the impov- 
erishment of the South after the war, with 
trade paralyzed, the company could not pay 
out. and the boats were finally sold at auction. 
The company attempted to carry its own in- 
surance, but with poor success, as in fifteen 
months it lost eleven of its best boats by fire, 
explosions and other casualties. The prin- 
cipal stockholders were the following gentle- 
men : Captain John J. Roe, the two Scud- 
ders, George Pegram, the two Ames, Joseph 
Brown, Captain John N. Bofinger, Captains 
"Dan" and "Bart" Able, David Gibson, 01 
Cincinnati ; Captain Ford, Captain Laveille 
and others, they losing nearly all the capital 
put in. The present Anchor Line is the out- 
growth of the Atlantic & Mississippi Steam- 
ship Company, and has been more or less of a 
success, but the halycon days of steamboating 
arc over, and no more does the darkey stand 
on the forecastle as the boat swings out from 



RIVERSIDE HUNTING AND FISHING CLUB— ROBERT. 



1921 



Shore, and with a small flag waving over his 
head sing: 

"She's a bully boat; she's got a bully crew. 
And a bully captain, too; 
I Y et her go! Our work is done ; 

And now we'll rest and see her run," etc. 

In the early days of steamboating every- 
thing — loading, wooding and work of every 
kind — was done with a vim, to the song of a 
leader, the whole crew joining in the chorus. 
Now, every movement of the officers and crew 
shows that they have lost heart, and What was 
once a regular "holiday business" has nothing 
left but the drudgery of labor, to be done mere- 
ly for the eking out of a livelihood. No 
longer does the palatial steamer, obeying every 
turn of the wheel, like a thing of life, with a 
band of music and flags flying, dance up to 
the landing, and deposit her way-freight or 
passengers ; then out and away again, like a 
bird of passage, leaving behind her a surging, 
boiling, passageway, as if some "Leviathan of 
the Waves" 'had just gone 'by. Changes and 
improvements must and do come, but who 
could have imagined that the fast and palatial 
steamer, with her splendid promenade deck, 
her magnificent state rooms, and her luxuriant 
table and service, would ever have been dis- 
placed. All these are about making their exit, 
to be superseded by the "lightning express," 
which dashes across land and stream, and stops 
at almost every door, at the appointed time. 
Joseph Brown. 

Riverside Hunting' and Fishing 
Club. — A recreation club which has a club 
house at the foot of Cherokee Street, in St. 
Louis. It was organized April 25, 1892. Its 
members hunt and fish on and along the river 
in St. Louis County and in the State of Illi- 
nois. There were twenty-six members of the 
club in 1898. 

River Transit Traffic. — As might be 
supposed, the traffic across the river at St. 
Louis shows a very large 'tonnage. In 1896 
it was 8,081,416 tons; and of this 5,551,630 
tons were carried over the St. Louis (Eads) 
bridge, 1,359,612 over the Merchants' bridge, 
and 2,529,786 tons by the ferries. The records 
Of the business show that the tonnage from 
East to West was much larger than that from 
West to East — that is, the city received more 
than it sent off. Thus, the freight that crossed 



from West to East in 1896 was 2,984,450 tons, 
and the freight that crossed from East to West 
was 5,096,966. This great excess of receipts 
over shipments across the river finds an ex- 
planation in the 3,500,000 tons of coal received 
from the east side of the river, all of which is 
consumed in the city. 

Riviere an Tayon. — See "Mill Creek." 

Riviere 1' Abbe. — The name by which 
Cahokia Creek was known among the early 
French settlers of this region. 

River St. Jerome. — This was the name 
by which the Wabash River was designated 
in Anthony Crozat's Louisiana charter, and it 
was so called by the early French colonists of 
the Mississippi Valley. 

River St. Louis. — This was the name 
given to the Mississippi River in Anthony 
Crozat's charter, granting him exclusive privi- 
lege in all the commerce of the Province of 
Louisiana. 

River St. Philip. — This was the name 

given to the Missouri River by French explor- 
ers, and it was so designated in the charter 
granted to Anthony Crozat. 

Robbers' Roost. — A name given to 
what was at one time an infamous St. Louis 
resort on the river bank, on the site afterward 
occupied by Filley's foundry. This place was 
notorious as a resort for gamblers, thieves and 
other disreputables, and, in 183 1, indignant 
citizens, taking the law into their own hands, 
raided the place, and burned down the build- 



Robert, P. G., clergyman, was born in 
Richmond, Virginia, December 16, 1827. He 
was educated at the Richmond Academy, in 
the private school of Dr. Socrates Maupin, and 
at the boarding school of Rev. George A. 
Smith, at Clarens, near Alexandria, Virginia. 
After leaving school he clerked for a time in 
Colonel Walter D. Blair's grocery, in Rich- 
mond, and, subsequently, in the counting- 
room of John D. Mayben. who was a large 
dealer in Virginia and Kentucky tobacco. In 
1846 he determined to enter the ministry, and, 
after reviewing his Greek and Latin at Clarens, 
he entered the Theological Seminary at Alex- 



L928 



ROBERTSON. 



andria. He passed his examinations under 
such men as Drs. Sparrow, May and Packard, 
ami was ordained to the diaconate at Christ 
Church. Alexandria, July 12, 1850, by Bishop 
Meade. He was advanced to the priesthood by 
Bishop fohns, Decemiber 18, 1851. at Christ 
Church, of Bruton Parish, Williams'burgh, 
Rev. Charles Minnegerode, and Rev. Edmund 
Withers, examiners. After serving for a time 
as assistant rector of St. James" Church, of 
Richmond, Virginia, he was sent by Bishop 
Meade to Meherrin Parish, of Greensville 
County, and took charge of that parish, as 
rector elect. He remained there eight years, 
and while there married, October 5, 1854, 
Miss Elizabeth Scott. From 1858 to 1861 he 
was rector of Christ Church, of Smithfield, 
Isle of Wight County, and St. Andrew's South- 
wark Parish, of Surrey County, the last named 
being a parish of which his great-grandfather. 
Rev. Christopher McRae, had been rector in 
colonial times. ( Mi the breaking out of the 
Civil War Mr. Robert was commissioned 
chaplain in the Confederate States Army, and 
served in two brigades until he was surren- 
dered at Appomattox Courthouse, April 9, 
[865. He was in nine general engagements, 
many skirmishes, and several "affairs.'' After 
the war he taught school for a year, and then 
went to Little Rock, Arkansas, upon the invi- 
tatii hi of Bishop Lay. He was rector of Christ 
Church for three years, coming to St. Louis 
from there in 1869 to become rector of the 
Parish of the Holy Communion, which he has 
since served. He has made a marked im- 
press upon the church life of St. Louis, has 
been prominent in the councils of the church, 
and has filled many important positions in that 
connecti* in. 

Robertson, Charles Franklin, sec- 
ond bishop 1 >f Missouri, was born in the city 
1 if New York March 2. 1835. His father, 
James Robertson, was a merchant of that city, 
where his family had been resident for several 
generations. The future bishop was educated 
at private schools, with a view to following his 
father into commercial pursuits; but a short 
experience convinced him that a business life 
would 11 lit prove congenial, and when about 
twenty years of age, he entered Yale Univer- 
sity. At Yale he distinguished himself as a 
conscientious student, and was graduated with 
honors in [859. By this time he had bee urn 
strongly attracted to religious life, and he 



turned to the church as affording the sphere of 
duty most satisfying to his aspirations. He 
entered the general theological seminary of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, in 1859, 
completing the theological course in 1862 ; and 
on the 29th of June of that year he was or- 
dained deacon. On October 23, 1862, he was 
advanced to the priesthood by Bishop Potter. 
His first cure was St. Mark's Parish, Malone, 
X. Y., which he held till 1868, discharging the 
duties of his office with exemplary diligence 
and great success. While rector of St. Mark's 
he married, in 1865, Miss Rebecca Duane, 
great-granddaughter of James Duane, a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress, first mayor 
of the city of New York after the Revolution, 
and one of the few laymen who were mem- 
bers 1 if the convention which, in 1784, organ- 
ized tiie Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
United States. On September 1. 1868, he was 
called to the rectorship of St. James' Parish, 
1 lata via. X. Y., and two days afterward was 
elected bishop of the diocese of Missouri. He 
was consecrated in Grace Church. New York, 
mi October 25th. and on Xovember 1st ar- 
rived in St. Louis. 

At the time of Bishop Robertson's election 
the diocese of Missouri was coextensive with 
the State. In the sixty-eight thousand square 
miles (if its territory there were not a thousand 
miles of railroad. There was no mode of 
reaching interior towns save by wagon or on 
horseback. Large sections of the State had 
recently been devastated by Civil War, and 
party feeling still ran high. In this vast dio- 
cese there were only seventeen parishes and 
six mission stations supplied with clergy, and 
four vacant parishes. The total number of 
communicants was less than two thousand; 
the majority of the parishes were overwhelmed 
with debt, and the people were poor. To 
cope with these discouraging conditions the 
new bishop brought executive ability of a high 
order, a stout heart and faith in God. He 
visited every parish and mission in the State 
during the first year of his episcopate, some of 
them twice, and established new missions 
wherever he found a knot of church people, or 
a promising field unoccupied. Wherever he 
went he brought order out of confusion, and 
inspired the people with energy and hope. 
Debts were gradually paid off; churches were 
built; the church became established through- 
out Missouri. At the close of his eighteen 
years' episcopate the number of churches and 



ROBERTSON. 



1929 



missions in the diocese had increased to 
eighty-five, the clergy to fifty-one, the com- 
municants to sixty-five hundred, and the cur- 
rent revenue of the church had trebled. The 
general interests and institutions of the dio- 
cese, of all of which he was ex officio the 
head, felt the same access of vigor from his 
broad views and business ability. Xew build- 
ings were erected for St. Luke's Hospital, and 
the foundation of its endowment was laid ; a 
diocesan school for girls was established, and 
put in charge of a church sisterhood, and be- 
came a successful training school of church 
women ; the Missionary Host, composed of the 
Sunday-school children and their teachers, was 
organized, and, under <h'is enthusiastic foster- 
ing, developed into the most efficient auxiliary 
of the missionary work in the diocese ; the St. 
Louis City Mission was established, of which 
the well equipped St. Stephen's Mission, on 
Rutger Street, is the eldest offspring. The 
church's work in the other cities of the diocese 
received a similar impulse from his energetic 
counsels and ready assistance. He carried 
the same energy and good sense into the coun- 
cils of the House of Bishops, of which he 
speedily became an influential member, and 
was honored with a full share of the labors 
connected with the administration of the gen- 
eral institutions of 'the church. In all move- 
ments for the betterment of moral and social 
conditions and promotion of good citizenship 
he was deeply interested. He was vice-presi- 
dent of the S't. Louis Social Science Associa- 
tion, and of the National Conference of Chari- 
ties and Corrections. Good citizenship was an 
important part of his religion. The only rec- 
reation he permitted himself was original re- 
search in various departments of knowledge, 
chiefly in the history of the discovery and set- 
tlement of the Mississippi Valley, to which he 
made important contributions, some of the 
more notable of which were the "American 
Revolution and the Mississippi Valley" ( 1884) ; 
"The Attempt to Separate the West from the 
American Union" (1885); "The Purchase of 
the Louisiana Territory, in its Influence on the 
American System" (1885). He was a friend 
and patron of learning to the full extent his 
busy life permitted. He was an active mem- 
ber of the Missouri Historical Society, a cor- 
responding member of the New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Society, and of the 
historical societies of Virginia, Wisconsin. 
Marvland, Kansas and Georgia. In recogni- 



tion of his learning and contributions to 
knowledge, he was honored by the universi- 
ties, receiving the degree of S. T. D. from 
Columbia College, New York, in 1868 ; D. D. 
from the University of the 'South, Sewanee, 
Tennessee, in 1883 ; and LL. D. from the 
University of the State of Missouri, Colum- 
bia, Missouri, in 1883. 

The toil and anxieties incident to the visita- 
tion and government of so vast a diocese were 
known to be too much for one man's strength, 
and in 1885 Bishop Robertson had 'begun to 
show symptoms of physical weakness. At 
that time also the diocese was greatly agitated 
over an ecclestical trial, which developed sen- 
sational features and aroused angry passions. 
The clamors and animosities of that trial and 
its unhappy ending proved a severe strain on 
a vitality already impaired. Nervous exhaus- 
tion supervened, which a short rest failed to 
relieve ; and after an illness of several weeks 
the bishop died, on May 1, 1886, in the fifty- 
second year of his age, and eighteenth of his 
episcopate. The demonstrations of respect 
which marked his obsequies showed that 'he 
was held in high esteem by all classes of his 
fellow-citizens, irrespective of creed ; while the 
resolutions adopted by the diocesan conven- 
tion, the standing committee, and the vestries 
bore uniform testimony to the kindly courtesy, 
fidelity to duty and righteousness of govern- 
ment, which were the most patent facts of his 
life and character. 

Bishop Robertson was a man of modest and 
kindly disposition, fortified with much native 
dignity of character and a profound conviction 
of the greatness and sacredness of his office. 
He was deeply religious and utterly self-sacri- 
ficing. In manner somewhat austere, he was 
tender in his dealings with all who claimed his 
sympathy. He was scrupulously particular 
in the observance of his appointments, whether 
with the obscure mission in the backwoods or 
the wealthy city Church ; and it is pathetic to 
recall at what a cost of physical toil this punc- 
tuality was purchased in those days of imper- 
fect facilities for travel. In his churcbmanship 
he was equally removed from ritualism and 
from liberalism, but tolerant of both when he 
believed them to be the honest expression of 
conscientious convictions. As a preacher, 
while he lacked those rhetorical graces which 
attract the multitude, he was very impressive, 
his sermons being thoughtful and well-worded 
and sometimes eloquent, and always delivered 



1930 



ROBIDOUX— ROBINSON. 



with the earnestness of one who believed he 
had a message to the consciences of men. As 
an organizer and dispatcher of business he had 
few superiors on the episcopal bench. He 
was well endowed with those qualities of head 
and heart which mark the faithful pastor and 
able administrator, and his short episcopate 
gave an impulse to the spiritual and material 
interests of the church in Missouri, which will 
continue to be felt for many years to come. 

Robidoux, Antoine, Indian trader, was 
born in St. Louis in 1794, and died in the 
city of St. Joseph, Missouri, in i860. He was 
a sprightly youth, and entered very early upon 
a life which was full of romance and adventure. 
At twenty-two years of age he accompanied 
General Atkinson on his expedition to the 
Yellowstone region, and at twenty-eight he 
went to Mexico. There he remained fifteen 
years, marrying, while a resident of that coun- 
trv, an attractive and wealthy Mexican lady, 
who returned with him to the United States. 
In 1840 he settled near the site of St. Joseph, 
and in 1845 went from there into the Rocky 
Mountain region on a trading expedition. 
Caught in an unusually severe storm on that 
occasion, he suffered greatly, lost many of his 
horses, and would, doubtless, have perished 
himself had he not been rescued by a relief ex- 
pedition sent out by his brother, Joseph. In 
1846 he accompanied General Phil. Kearny as 
guide and interpreter to Mexico, and in a bat- 
tle with the Mexicans received three lance 
wounds, from which, however, he recovered. 
Returning to Missouri in 1849, ne uve d at St. 
Joseph until 1855, when he removed to New 
Mexico. Later he lived for a time in Wash- 
ington City, and then returned to St. Joseph, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. 

Robidoux, Joseph, merchant and 
trader, and the founder of the city of St. 
Joseph, Missouri, was born in St. Louis, Au- 
gust 10, 1783. 1 >f French-American parentage. 
He was trained to the fur trade and as early as 
t8oo made his first trip up the Missouri River 
in search of a favorable location for a trading 
post. At that time he stopped on the site of 
the city of St. Joseph, but a little later moved 
on to Council Bluffs, and established his trad- 
ing post there. As agent of the American Fur 
Company he spent the next four years travel- 
ing and trading among the Indians of the 
West, and at one time pitched his tents on the 



site of Chicago. Returning to St. Louis, he 
then built a store here, and it was in the build- 
ing which he occupied as a dwelling house and 
tavern that the first Territorial Legislature of 
Missouri met, in December of 1812. In 1843 
he removed to Western Missouri, and laid out 
the city of St. Joseph. He died there in 1868. 



Robinson, Daniel Bullard, railway 
president, was born August 26, 1847, in St. 
Albans, Vermont, son of William H. and Car- 
oline (Bullard) Robinson. He came of good 
old New England ancestry, both of the fami- 
lies from which he is descended having been 
conspicuous through successive generations 
for the physical and intellectual vigor of their 
representatives. His parents, however, were 
country people, and the early years of his life 
were spent on a farm. His early training was 
that of tin' average New England country 
youth, a kind of training conducive to the pro- 
motion of steady habits, sturdy character, and 
that kind of industrious application which 
wins success in any calling. He received a 
public school education, which ended when he 
was sixteen years of age, and his business 
career began when he was eighteen years old. 
His first employment was with the Vermont 
Central Railroad Company in the humble 
capacity of a day laborer. Six months after 
he began work in this capacity, his faithful- 
ness and efficiency had won for him promo- 
tion to the position of check clerk in the 
freight office of this railway company, and 
some time later he was made cashier and given 
charge of the books of the freight office. In 
1878 he went to California by way of Panama, 
and he and three companions who accompa- 
nied him went to work in the shops of the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railway Company at Sacramento. 
After spending two years on the Pacific coast, 
he went to Mobile, Alabama, and took the 
position of station agent on the New Orleans 
& Mobile Railway. During the next ten 
years he filled successively the positions of 
assistant superintendent and general superin- 
tendent of that railway, and was then called 
upon to undertake the building of the Sonora 
Railroad. This road was started from Guay- 
mas, Mexico, and built toward the United 
States in connection with the Santa Fe system. 
In the prosecution of this work. Mr. Robin- 
son employed the few Indians and Mexicans 
who could be induced to work, and added to 
his force of laborers by importing two hundred 



ROBINSON. 



1931 



negroes from the South. Serious embarrass- 
ments confronted him at every turn. Con- 
struction materials had to be shipped by sail- 
ing vessel around Cape Horn from this coun- 
try, months of time being consumed in the 
voyage. The natives of Sonora were in the 
main unfriendly to the enterprise and ob- 
structed his progress in various ways. De- 
spite the obstacles which had to be overcome, 
however, Mr. Robinson completed his work. 
From 1883 to 1886 he was in charge of the 
construction of the Mexican Central Railway, 
and then returned to the United States to be- 
come general manager of the Atlantic & Pa- 
cific Railway. During his connection with 
the Atlantic & Pacific Company he organized 
the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix Railway 
Company, and was made its president in 1888, 
and constructed the line from a connection 
with the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad at Ash 
Fork, Arizona, to Phoenix, Arizona, a dis- 
tance of two hundred miles. 

In 1887 he left this road to become general 
manager of the Colorado Midland Railway, 
a position which he retained until 1890, when 
he was made president of the San Antonio & 
Aransas Pass Railroad Company. In 1892 
a broader field opened for him in connection 
with the Santa Fe system, and he left the 
Texas road, which he had managed for two 
years, to become vice-president of the great 
corporation which owns and operates 9,900 
miles of railway. In 1896 he was offered and 
accepted the presidency of the St. Louis & 
San Francisco Railroad Company, and this 
connection brought him to St. Louis, which 
has since been his home. His connection 
with Western railway management has now 
covered a period of nearly twenty years, and 
few men have left a more strongly marked 
impress upon railway construction and opera- 
tion in this vast field. Both constructive and 
executive ability of a high order have been 
evidenced in his work as a railway man. He 
has been part and parcel of the history of 
epoch-marking railway enterprises. The 
Sonora and Mexican Central Railroads, with 
the construction of which he was prominently 
identified, were the pioneer railway enterprises 
of Mexico, the first highways of commerce 
between the two great republics of the West- 
ern Hemisphere; and the Colorado Midland, 
which he managed in the infancy of its exist- 
ence, was the first standard gauge railway 
built over the Rockv Mountains, and one of 



the most remarkable engineering feats which 
has been attempted in the history of American 
railway construction. A man of striking per- 
sonal appearance, forcefulness and energy are 
apparent in his every action, but his genial 
temperament and charming "bonhommie" re- 
duce to the minimum the asperities incident 
to the conduct of business affairs of large mag- 
nitude and exacting character. He married, 
in 1871, Miss Ella Perkins, whose father was 
then superintendent of the St. Louis & San 
Francisco Railroad. His children are James 
B. and Harry Robinson, of St. Louis, and 
Mrs. Lena Robinson Thompson, of Chicago. 

Robinson, Paul Gervais, one of the 

most distinguished of Western physicians, 
was born August, 22, 1834, in Charleston, 
South Carolina, son of Stephen Thomas and 
Mary Margaret (Gervais) Robinson, both of 
whom were natives of South Carolina. His 
father was descended from Scotch-Irish an- 
cestors in the paternal line, and from Hugue- 
not ancestors in the maternal line, and his 
mother was of mixed Welsh and Huguenot 
descent. Dr. Robinson received a classical 
education in his native city, and then studied 
medicine at the South Carolina Medical Col- 
lege. After completing the prescribed course 
at that institution, he went abroad and con- 
tinued his medical studies for two years there- 
after in Paris, France. He began the active 
practice of his profession in Charleston, South 
Carolina, in 1858, and was thus engaged when 
the Civil War diverted his attention from civil 
practice and carried him into military life. 
He was the first medical officer to join the 
Confederate Army, and took part in the first 
battle of the war, being on Morris' Island at 
the bombardment of Fort Sumter. After the 
surrender of that fort, he went to Virginia, and 
served successively with the Third Alabama, 
the Twenty-second North Carolina, and the 
First South Carolina Regiments until the final 
surrender of General Lee at Appomattox 
Courthouse, April 9, 1865. Much of the 
time during his long term of service in the 
army, he was attached to the command of 
General Thomas J. ("Stonewall") Jackson, and 
he was a witness of and participant in many 
of the hardest . fought battles of the war. 
When the war ended he returned to the civil 
practice of his profession, and in 1867 came to 
St. Louis. Since then he has practiced con- 
tinuously in this city, and his broad learning. 



1932 



ROCK POINT— ROEVER. 



conscientious devotion to duty, and successful 
professional labors have given him a place 
among the most eminent physicians of the 
countrv. Early in his career in this city, he 
began taking an active interest in medical edu- 
cation, and for thirty-one years he has been 
professor of the practice of medicine in .Mis- 
souri .Medical College. For many years he 
has been the dean of that institution, and he 
has labored earnestly and successfully through 
this and other agencies to elevate to the high- 
est possible plane the moral and intellectual 
standard of his profession. In recognition of 
his scholarly attainments and his distinguished 
professional achievements, the honorary de- 
gree of doctor of laws has been conferred 
upon him. In addition to holding member- 
ship in the leading medical societies of the 
country, he is a member of the society of Sons 
of the American Revolution, and also of the 
Empire State Society. Dr. Robinson has 
been twice married — first, in 1858, to Miss 
Elizabeth R. Dickson, daughter of Dr. 
Samuel Henry Dickson, of Charleston. South 
Carolina. The first Mrs. Robinson died in 
iSf.i , leaving no children. In 1869 he mar- 
ried for his second wife Miss Lina Pratte, 
daughter of Honorable Bernard Pratte, of St. 
Louis. Mrs. Robinson died in 1882, leaving 
six children, five of whom are now living. 

Rock Point. — The name given to an ad- 
dition to the city of St. Louis, dedicated April 
9, 1853, and made by Stephen D. Barlow, as 
executor of the will of William C. Carr. The 
addition extended from Main Street to Caron- 
delet Avenue, between Dorcas and Lynch 
Streets. 

Rock Spring'.— This spring was famous 
in the early history of St. Louis. It was the 
source of Mill Creek — or, as the French called 
it. La Petite Riviere — and one of the three 
principal sources of water supply for the arti- 
ficial lake known as "Chouteau's Pond." The 
growth of the city finally caused Mill Creek to 
be converted into a mammoth sewer, and the 
waters of the spring now flow to the river 
through that channel. 

Rock Springs. — This was the name 
given to a village, or real estate addition, laid 
out and dedicated by John B. Sarpy, in 1852. 
It was incorporated into St. Louis in 1876, 



when the independent government of the city 
was established, and its limits were extended. 

Rocky Mountain Fur Company. — 

An unchartered association of fur traders, 
composed of the friends of General William H. 
Ashley, which carried on a profitable business 
between the years 1820 and 1834. General 
Ashley himself was a bold, daring man, and 
an enterprising trader, who conducted an in- 
dividual business and became wealthy. After 
■his retirement, bhose who had been in his serv- 
ice, among whom were Sublette and Bridger, 
famous old-time fur traders, went into partner- 
ship under the name of the Rocky Mountain 
Fur Company, and continued in the trade with 
great profit. The association did not have its 
headquarters in St. Louis; the members made 
their home in the field of operations, and did 
their business through agents in St. Louis. 
It went out of existence about the year 1834) 
after the American Fur Company passed into 
the hands of Pierre Chouteau, Jr. 

Roever, William, was born September 

17, 1830, in Xeustadt, in the Kingdom of Han- 
over, Germany, and died in St. Louis June 1 1, 
180,8. His parents were Louis and Wilhel- 
mina (Ludeking) Roever. and his father, who 
was a wealthy soap manufacturer, immigrated 
to this country in 1837. Coming of a family 
prominent in the military and educational cir- 
cles of Hanover, William Roever inherited 
good endowments, and after the coming of the 
family to St. Louis, in 1837, he was given the 
advantages of educational training in the best 
private schools in this city. After leaving 
school he gained his first business experience 
as an employe of a St. Louis brush manufac- 
turer. Afterward he clerked a year for a store 
in Belleville, Illinois, and then entered the em- 
ploy of the wholesale dry goods house of 
Woods, Christ) 6c Co., of St. Louis, with 
which he was connected for several years 
thereafter. After leaving this establishment he 
was in business with his brother, Frederick 
Roever, until i860, when he returned to Eu- 
rope to revisit the land of his birth. Com- 
ing back to St. Louis, at the beginning of the 
Civil War. he recruited a company of home 
guards, of which he was commissioned cap- 
tain. He participated in the capture of Camp 
Jackson, in May of 1861, and served as cap- 
tain of his company throughout the war. After, 
the war he entered the employ of the whole- 







• ,A 



ROGERS. 



193;: 



sale house of Dodd, Brown & Co., with which 
he continued to be connected until 1871. In 
1870 he was given a leave of absence, and 
again spent four months abroad, his wife ac- 
companying him on this trip. Failing health 
compelled him to give up his business con- 
nection in 1871, and for two years thereafter 
he and his family lived in Europe. Upon his 
return to St. Louis in the fall of 1874 he be- 
came interested in the manufacture of shoes at 
the Jefferson City, Missouri, Penitentiary, but 
he retired from 'this business in a short time, 
built a home at 3628 St. Louis Avenue, in 
1876, and was not engaged in trade thereafter. 
At the time of his death he was the oldest liv- 
ing charter member of Cosmos Lodge of An- 
1 cient Free and Accepted Masons, and he was 
l also a member of the Order of Odd Fellows, 
and had been numbered among the founders of 
1 the Germania Club. November 12, 1867, he 
! married Miss Sophie Deppe. daughter of 
; Henry and Fredericka Peters Deppe, both of 
whom were natives of Germany. Airs. Roe- 
ver's father, who was one of the pioneer hard- 
ware merchants of St. Louis, was one of the 
victims of the cholera epidemic of 1849. The 
surviving members of Mr. Roever's family are 
I his widow and two children, Sophie Eugenia 
and William Henry Roever. Another son, 
Frederick Louis Roever, died in 1892. 

Rogers, Charles Smith, identified 
with the Mississippi River tra'de for a full half- 
century, was born September 27, 18 16, at Lon- 
donderry, New Hampshire, son of Edward 
and Mary (Smith) Rogers. His parents died 
within a few months of each other, when he 
was four years of age, and he was reared under 
the care and guidance of his uncle, spending 
his youth in Londonderry and at Portland, 
Maine. His early education was obtained in 
the village school of Londonderry, and later 
he attended the schools of Portland, Maine. 
After quitting school he served an apprentice- 
ship to the dry goods business with S. R. Ly- 
man, who was then the leading merchant of 
that city. With this training for commercial 
pursuits, he came to St. Louis, in 1838, and 
embarked in the wholesale dry goods business, 
the location of this old-time establishment 
having been on Main Street, between Locust 
and Vine Streets. At the end of three years 
he abandoned the wholesale dry goods trade 
to turn his attention to the river trade, which 
then offered flattering inducements to men of 



enterprise and capital. In this business he 
soon became a conspicuous figure, noted alike 
for his successful operations and his enterprise 
in building and improving river craft. Some 
years before the beginning of the Civil War, 
in company with Captain E. W. Gould, lie 
built the steamer "Imperial," a splendid boat, 
and the finest on the river at that time. He 
was also the builder and owner of the steamer 
"J. E. Woodruff," and, in company with Cap- 
tain John J. Roe and others, built the steamer 
"Empress." This steamer, owned and oper- 
ated by Captain Rogers and his associates, 
was, in its day, the largest freight carrier on 
the river, and is well remembered by all the 
old-time rivermen now living. Becoming 
president of the Illinois Packet Company, Cap- 
tain Rogers continued his connection with 
river interests in that capacity until 1892, when 
he retired at the end of full fifty years' service 
in the business of transporting passengers and 
merchandise on the Western rivers. His long 
and active business career and the success 
which had attended it entitled him to pass the 
remaining years of his life in comparative rest- 
fulness, but he found idleness irksome, and, in 
1893, in company with other gentlemen, he or- 
ganized the Central Lead Company, becoming 
secretary and treasurer of the corporation, a 
position which he still retains. He is still re- 
garded, however, as a typical representative of 
the class of men who controlled the steamboat 
interests of the Mississippi River during the 
golden era of their history. During bis long 
term of river service he had a rich and varied 
experience, that of the Civil War period hav- 
ing in it much of thrilling interest. During 
the war he was in command of the steamer 
"Imperial." which was the last boat to leave 
Xew Orleans for St. Louis in 1861. There- 
after, to the close of the war, he was in the 
transportation service of the Federal govern- 
ment, subject all the time to military orders, 
and facing innumerable dangers and perils in- 
cident to that service. He was a staunch sup- 
porter of the Union, belonging to that large 
and influential element of the Democratic 
party of Missouri which rendered such impor- 
tant services to the government at that critical 
period of its history. Since the war he has 
continued to act with the Democratic party, 
and. in later years, has belonged to that branch 
of it which has been uncompromising in its 
opposition to the debasement of our national 
currency, and to dangerous financial experi- 



i:i:;i 



ROGERS CLAIM ROMAN CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. 



merits. His religious affiliations are with the 
Episcopal Church, and he has long been a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. In 1850 
he was married to Mrs. Mary Adeline Watson, 
daughter of Robert Rogers, of Dover, New 
Hampshire, and widow of Dr. Gilbert Watson, 
of Newburyport, Massachusetts, who died ten 
years later, leaving one child, a daughter. This 
daughter, in [872, became the wife of Na- 
thaniel G. Pierce, now a well known business 
man of St. Louis. In 1875 Captain Rogers 
married fur his second wife, Mrs. Emily D. 
Hall, daughter of Colonel S. H. Mudge, at one 
time a well known banker of this city, and later 
of New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Rogers Claim. — About the beginning 
of the nineteenth century one Jacob Rogers is 
said to have died in St. Louis possessed of a 
large amount of real estate. His descendants 
held a meeting at Akron, Ohio, October 12, 
[896, at which the claim was made that the 
heirs of Jacob Rogers were the rightful own- 
er-, of real estate in St. Louis, now worth 
many millions of dollars. Some steps were 
taken to put this claim into shape for presenta- 
tion to the courts, but nothing further was ac- 
complished by the fortune hunters. 

Rogues' Gallery. — A name applied to 
the collection of portraits of noted criminals 
and suspected persons, at the police head- 
quarters, in the Four Courts building, on Clark 
Avenue, between Eleventh and Twelfth 
Streets. Besides these portraits, there is an as- 
sortment of tools used by burglars and thieves. 

Rohan, John, manufacturer, was born 
in the County of Kilkenny. Ireland, Decem- 
ber 27, 1 833, si m 1 if James and Anastasia (Wal- 
ton) Rohan. He obtained a good, practical 
education in the schools of the region in which 
he spent the years of his boyhood, but when he 
was fifteen years of age his school days ended. 
In [848 he sailed for this country, and landed 
at Xew ( >rleans in I )ecember of that year. ( )n 
the 2d of January following he arrived in St. 
Louis, and soon afterward went to work for a 
eii\ brickmaker. Afterward he found more 
remunerative employment in connection with 
the building trades, and was employed in vari- 
ous capacities until [851, when he apprenticed 
himself to the iron manufacturing business as 
an employe of Gaty, McCune & Co. Three 



years later the works which had previously 
been operated by this firm, were purchased by 
William H. Card, and Mr. Rohan became fore- 
man of the establishment, under the new man- 
agement. He retained this position until Mr. 
Card's death, in 1863, and was then placed in 
charge of the business, and conducted it for the 
estate until the spring of 1864. The plant then 
passed into the hands of Gaylord Sons & Co., 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, and. forming a partner- 
ship with Mr. Allison, Mr. Rohan leased it 
from the owners. Two years later he and Mr. | 
Allison purchased the property, and continued I 
to operate the manufactory together until 1873. 
Mr. Allison then transferred his interest to Mr. 
Rohan and retired. Shortly afterward Mr. 
Rohan associated with himself his two broth- 
ens, Michael and Phil Rohan, and in 1880 their 
enterprise was incorporated as the Rohan 
Bros. Boiler Manufacturing Company. For 
thirteen years thereafter the brothers were as- \ 
sociated together, but. in 1893, Michael and ] 
Phil Rohan withdrew, and John Rohan took ' 
in his two sons, James J. and John A. Rohan. 
In July of the year following the name of the 
corporation was changed to the John Rohan 
& Sons Boiler Works Company, and under 
that name its business is still carried on. Of 
this corporation the elder Rohan is president; 
John A. Rohan, vice-president; James J. Ro- 
han, treasurer; and Newton B. Stewart, sec- 
retary. Mr. Rohan has, for more than a third 
of a century, been at the head of one of the im- 1 
portant industrial enterprises of the city, still 
gives it his constant attention, and is known 
to the public as one of the pioneer manufactur- 
ers of the city, and one who 'has always stood 
high in business circles. He has been twice 
married ; first, in 1865, to Christina Lortz. who 
died in 1889. In 1801 he married for his sec- 
ond wife Elizabeth Burns. His children are 
Alary T. A. Rohan, Anastasia M. Rohan. Jas. 
J. Rohan, John A. Rohan, Philip A. Rohan 
and The imas A. Ri >han. 

Roman Catholic Temperance So- 
ciety. — The first organization of its kind 
formed by Catholics in St. Louis was insti- 
tuted at the Cathedral by Rev. Father Hamil- 
ton, in 1843, non-Catholics as well as Catho- 
lics being admitted to membership. At one 
time it had fifteen hundred members, but it 
lasted 1 ink twi 1 vears. 



±198103 



ROMBAUER. 



1935 



Roman Catholic Total Abstinence 
and Benevolent Society. — This society, 
organized in 1848, by Rev. John Higgin- 
botham,was active and successful at the begin- 
ning, and has continued so through its long 
existence. Its benevolent feature is the cause 
of its coherence and the explanation of its use- 
fulness. In 1898 it numbered eighty mem- 
bers, the youngest of Whom was sixty-nine 
vears of age. All the Catholic temperance so- 
cieties in Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas 
have 'sprung from it, and in St. Louis it has 
about twenty-five auxiliary societies. The old 
organization has raised for the benefit of or- 
phans and for different churches $125,000. 

Rombauer, Roderick E., lawyer and 
jurist, was born May 9, 1833, in Selesto, Hun- 
gary, son of Theodore and Bertha Rombauer. 
Although the early history of the family to 
which he belongs is not definitely known in 
consequence of the destruction of records dur- 
ing the Hungarian wars of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, it is probable that the 
founders of the Rombauer family in Hungary 
went to that country from Germany during 
the latter part of the Arpad dynasty, which 
, came to an end in 1301. There is traditionary 
evidence that these early representatives of the 
family settled in upper Hungary, and in that 
; region most of those bearing the name still re- 
! side. In early annals the name appears as 
Romppauer, and the first authentic records 
• throwing light on its history date from the be- 
! ginning of the seventeenth century. These 
I records are found in the archives of the city 
of Locse, in the form of a written report by a 
Romppauer, as member of Congress, to his 
constituency. For centuries the Rombauers 
have been recognized as belonging to the no- 
bility of the district in which they lived, and 
the father of Roderick E. Rombauer was a 
member of the Department of Industry, and 
chief of a division during the Hungarian revo- 
lution of 1848-9, in which the patriot, Kossuth, 
won undying fame. He was also in charge of 
the factory of arms and military stores during 
the revolutionary period. Exiled from his 
native land in 1849, ne came to the United 
States in 1850, and died in 1855 in Davenport, 
Iowa. His widow died in 1897, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-seven years, in Alameda. 
California. Judge Rombauer received a clas- 
sical education in the graded schools of Locse, 
Rozsnyo, Eperjes and Selmetz, in Hungary, 



and enjoyed, as he approached manhood, the 
advantage of several years' residence in the 
famous city of Budapest. He was eighteen 
years of age when he came with his mother to 
this country, in 185 1, and for two years there- 
after they resided in Iowa. The family then 
came to St. Louis, and soon afterward Roder- 
ick E. Rombauer entered the employ of the 
then Northern Cross railroad, now part of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad, as as- 
sistant engineer in the civil engineering de- 
partment, with his headquarters at Avon, Illi- 
nois. He was engaged in the engineering 
work incidental to the construction of that rail- 
road until 1856, when he began the study of 
law under the preceptorship of Judge Law- 
rence, afterward Chief Justice of Illinois. After 
reading law for a time he matriculated in the 
Dane Law School of Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was graduated 
from that institution in the class of 1858. He 
was first admitted to the bar in Boston, De- 
cember 15, 1857, and after his graduation from 
the law school returned to St. Louis, and was 
admitted to the bar of Missouri May 19, 1858. 
Beginning the practice of his profession at 
once in this city, he has since engaged in it 
continuously, except while serving as a volun- 
teer in the Union Army during the Civil War, 
and in later years on the judicial bench. He 
enlisted in the First Regiment of Missouri 
Volunteers as a private soldier in 1861, and 
subsequently rose to the rank of captain in the 
First Regiment of the United States Reserve 
Corps of Missouri. He was elected judge of 
the law commissioner's court of St. Louis in 
November of 1863. In 1867 he was ap- 
pointed a judge of the circuit court and in 1868 
was elected to that office by the people. Upon 
the expiration of the term for which he had 
been elected, in 1871, he resumed the practice 
of law, and for ten years thereafter enjoyed a 
large and lucrative practice, having no part- 
nership connections during that time. In 1881 
David Goldsmith became associated with him 
as a partner, and they continued in practice 
together until 1884, when Judge Rombauer 
was elected a member of the Court of Appeals. 
He was a member of this court thereafter until 
January, 1897, his term of service on the ap- 
peals bench covering in all a period of twelve 
years. During this period many of the most 
important cases which have occupied the at- 
tention of St. Louis courts were passed upon 
bv this tribunal, and fudge Rombauer became 



L936 



ROSATI. 



recognized as one of the ablest and most ac- 
complished of Missouri jurists. His fitness for 
the exercise of the highest judicial functions 
have long been recognized both by the bar 
and the general public. He declined repeat- 
edly to become a candidate for the supreme 
bench, although the nomination was tendered 
to him when the Republican party, with 
which he has always affiliated, controlled 
the State, it being conceded by political 
friends and antagonists alike that as a 
member of the Supreme Court he woivld have 
graced the bench and honored both himself 
and his constituents. Splendid mental and le- 
gal attainments, analytic powers of a high or- 
der, strict impartiality and unimpeacheable in- 
tegrity have been among his distinguishing 
characteristics as a jurist, and as a practitioner 
of the law he has also taken high rank among 
Western lawyers. Wliile 'he has never been a 
pronounced partisan and during 'his long ca- 
reer i m the bench refrained from any active 
participation in politics, deeming such action 
incompatible with the exercise of judicial func- 
tions, he has been orthodox in bis Republic- 
anism, and has been a member of that party 
ever since he became a voter. His religious 
affiliation's are with the Unitarian Church. He 
married, in 1865, Miss Augusta Koerner, of 
Belleville, Illinois, second daughter of Gover- 
nor Gustavus Koerner, of that State, one of 
the most distinguished of the German- Ameri- 
cans who have been prominent in public life in 
the West. Three sons and three daughters 
1 lorn . >f this union are now living ; the sons be- 
ing Theodore G. Rombauer, born in October, 
1866. and Edgar R. Rombauer. born July 3, 
1868; both now members of the St. Louis 
bar; and Alfred 1'.. Rombauer. born Septem- 
ber 17, 1869; now a mining engineer in Butte, 
Montana; and the daughters: Bertha S. 
Rombauer, born August 11. 1872; Sophie M. 
Rombauer, born October 13, 1874; and Irma 
Ronrbauer. born August 30, 1884. 

Rosati, Joseph, Roman Catholic bish- 
op, was born in Sora, Italy. January 30, 
1780, and dieil in Rome, September 25. 1843. 

He became a member of the Lazarist order 
and studied philosophy and theology in their 
seminary of Montr Citorio, Rome. He de- 
voted himself with great zeal to the spiritual 
improvement of the prisoners in the city, and 
;ii the same time became noted as a pulpit ora- 
tor. He grave his leisure to the study of the 



English language, and when Bishop Dubourg, 
of New Orleans, invited him to come to the 
United States he accepted without hesitation, 
and landed in Baltimore on July 23, 1816. 
After spending nearly a \ ear in Louisville, 
Kentucky, he came to St. Louis on October 
17, 1817, designing to found a Lazarist col- 
lege', but, after consultation with Bishop Du- 
bourg, it was decided to establish the institu- 
tion in the Barrens, Perry County, Missouri. 
Here Father Rosati and his brother Lazarists 
erected a rude building with their own hands. 
It was ready to receive students in 1819, and 
he was appointed its first superior, at the same 
time filling the chairs of logic and theology. 
From this beginning was developed St. Mary's 
College and Seminary at the Barrens, which 
afterward took high rank. He was made 
Superior of the Lazarists in the United States 
in 1820, and in 1823 rebuilt his seminary on 
a larger scale. The same year he obtained a 
colony of Sisters of Loretto to take charge of 
an academy and a home for Indian girls. In 
March, 1824, he was made coadjutor of Bish- 
op Dubourg, and in 1827 he was appointed 
bishop of St. Louis, which had been erected 
the previous year into an episcopal see. He 
was also for some time administrator of the 
diocese of New Orleans, and retained the post 
of superior of the Lazarist order up to 1830. 
He co-operated with the Jesuits in founding 
St. Louis University and the House of 
Novices at Florissant, and introduced various 
sisterhoods. By his aid and patronage St. 
Louis Hospital, said to have been the first 
of its kind in the United States, was estab- 
lished, and the cathedral was built under his 
supervision and consecrated by him in Octo- 
ber, 1834. He attended the first four pro- 
vincial councils of Baltimore, and exercised 
much influence in their deliberations. Bishop 
Rosati was very successful in making converts 
to his church. In 1840 he sailed for Europe, 
anil on his arrival in Rome he was appointed 
apostolic delegate to Hayti, to settle a con- 
troversy that had arisen between that repub- 
lic and the court of Rome, and also to bring 
about a reorganization of the Haytian church. 
( )n his return to Rome the pope expressed 
his approval of the diplomacy of Bishop 
Rosati, who prepared to sail for the United 
States from a French port, but he fell sick in 
Paris and was advised by his physicians to go 
back to Rome, where he died shortly after his 




'' -^c/Ls^^-£( 



ROSE HILL— ROWELL. 



1937 



arrival. He was succeeded as bishop of St. 
Louis by Rt. Rev. Peter Richard Kenrick. 

Rose Hill. — An addition of thirty blocks 
made to St. Louis in 1871 by D. C. and Ham- 
ilton Gamble. It became a part of the city 
in 1876 and embraced the territory between 
Union and Hodiamont Avenues, on the south 
side of Easton Avenue. 

Round Table, The. — This club, one 
of the most delightful and useful of the social 
clubs of St. Louis, was organized June 10, 
1882, at Porcher's, on Ninth and Olive Streets. 
The suggestion of the Round Table was taken 
from the then recently organized Commercial 
Club, on the model of which it was formed ; 
the intention being to bring into relations the 
younger representative men in the principal 
lines of business. The objects of the club, as 
stated in its constitution, are "to establish inti- 
mate relations between its members for mu- 
tual improvement, and for the purpose of ob- 
taining thorough information, and, if need be, 
united action on matters pertaining to the 
prosperity of the city of St. Louis." To fur- 
nish opportunity for carrying out these ob- 
jects, the members dine together six times 
each year and "enjoy a free interchange of 
opinion on subjects connected with social, in- 
tellectual and business progress." The mem- 
bership has been choice from the first, and has 
always included the brightest and most pro- 
gressive men connected with the management 
of local commercial and manufacturing inter- 
ests, railroads, and institutions of learning, 
and also representative men from the learned 
professions. The entire management and 
direction of the club's proceedings is in the 
hands of an executive committee of five, 
elected annually, who provide the programme 
jfor the meetings. The first executive commit- 
tee, 1882-3, were James A. Waterworth, 
j Charles Hodgman. Halsey C. Ives, Joseph H. 
[Holliday and Henry T. Kent. The dinners 
of the Round Table are elegant affairs, and 
(the variety of interests and professions repre- 
sented lend a characteristic vivacity and 
jfreshness to the proceedings. The post- 
prandial discussions are introduced by essays 
prepared by persons of national or local emi- 
nence selected by the executive committee. 
These discussions embrace a wide range of 
subjects of current interest, social, scientific, 
artistic, and commercial. The records show 



that, few questions of social, local or trade in- 
terest have been overlooked, and that most 
of them have been very ably treated. Some 
important municipal reforms have also had 
assistance from agitation begun at the Round 
Table. The club has had a vigorous and pros- 
perous life, and has been the means of main- 
taining intellectual alertness, local patriotism, 
and a wideawake business spirit among its 
members. There are sixty-five names on the 
roll of membership ; all men of prominence 
in their respective businesses or professions, 
and they are distributed, as to occupations, 
as follows : Commercial pursuits, nineteen ; 
manufacturing, eleven; transportation, four; 
banking, three; law, nine; medicine, six; 
university life, six ; other professions, seven. 
The executive committee for the year 1898-9 
are . D. S. H. Smith, Charles Hodgman, John 
F. Sheplev. Breckinridge Jones, Edmund A. 
Engler. The Round Table has proved emi- 
nently successful in holding together the most 
active and influential young men in business 
and professional life in St. Louis ; affording 
them opportunity for rational enjoyment, in- 
tellectual friction and up-to-date information 
on the topics of the time, and making them 
more effective and useful men in their vari- 
ous business pursuits and in the civic life of 
St. Louis. 

ROAvell, Clinton, lawyer, was born in 
Concord, Essex County, Vermont, Novem- 
ber 12, 1838. son of Guy and Clarissa (Rankin) 
Rowell. His parents, both of whom came of 
old New England families, removed to New 
Hampshire in the infancy of the son, and he 
was reared on a farm in that State. He was 
fitted for college in the public schools and 
academies of New Hampshire, and completed 
his scholastic education at Dartmouth College. 
Soon after leaving college he came west. and. 
after a careful course of reading and study in 
the office of a leading law firm of Blooming- 
ton. Illinois, he was admitted to the liar of that 
city. In 1866, just at the time that the city 
was beginning to recover from the blighting 
effects of the Civil War, and was entering upon 
an era of remarkable growth and develop- 
ment, he became a member of the St. Louis 
bar and began his professional career under 
favorable auspices. Forming a copartnership 
with David D. Fisher, he was associated in 
practice with that able and accomplished law- 
yer until Mr. Fisher's election to the judge- 



1938 



ROYAL ARCANUM. 



ship of the circuit court brought about a sev- 
erance of their relations in 1889. Soon after 
that he became head of the firm of Rowell & 
Ferriss — Franklin Ferriss being his partner — - 
among the ablest ofWestern lawfirms. Deeply 
in love, apparently, with both the study and the 
practice of the law, Mr. Rowell has been, in 
all that the term implies, a lawyer, and he 
lias neither wandered into the tempting field 
of politics nor allowed commercial or business 
interests to divert his attention from the call- 
ing to which lie pledged his be'st efforts, his 
time and his natural endowments in early 
manhood. Throughout a third of a century 
almost, during which he has been a member 
of the St. Louis bar, there has been, in his 
case, a steady growth of attainments, a con- 
stant expansion of reasoning and analytical 
powers, and a broadening of knowledge, and 
gratifying success as a practitioner has come 
to him as the reward of merit. Having many 
of the attributes of a popular orator, he has 
been eloquent, forcible and convincing as an 
advocate and trial lawyer, and being, at the 
same time, a close student of the law, with 
large capacity for research and investigation, 
and an unusually retentive memory, he has 
achieved a no less enviable distinction as a 
wise, candid and judicious counselor. In his 
reading he has traveled far beyond the domain 
of his profession, but this has been because a 
km iwledge of literature and art and broad gen- 
eral information is a part of the necessary 
equipment of a well-rounded lawyer, and in 
gratifying natural tastes he has better fitted 
himself to meet any emergency which might 
confront him and to perform all the duties 
incident to his calling. A member of the Mer- 
cantile Club and Merchants' Exchange, he has 
been brought into contact daily with mer- 
chants, manufacturers, financiers and men of 
affairs in St. Louis, and has kept in touch 
with the great business interests of the city, 
with the general trend of development, and the 
most intelligent sentiment of the people con- 
cerning matters of public import and impor- 
tance. In 1803 he was sent to Washington 
as one of the representatives of the business 
and financial interests of St. Louis to appear 
before a committee of Congress and urge the 
repeal of the silver purchase clause of what 
was known as "the Sherman law." and his 
argument on that occasion was one of the 
most convincing made before the assembled 
legislators, on a subject which was then at- 



tracting the attention of the whole country. 
Politically he has always affiliated with the 
Democratic party, but neither the honors nor 
emoluments of office have seemed to have for 
him any attractions. He married, in 1868, 
Miss Carrie M. Ferriss, and has two chil- 
dren. 

Royal Arcanum. — A secret society, 
with fraternal and mutual benefit features, in- 
corporated under the laws of Massachusetts 
in 1877. The first council was organized in 
Boston on June 27th of the year above men- 
tioned, with nine members. Its objects are 
the cultivation of fraternal sentiment, the ex- 
tension of moral and material aid to its living 
members, and to make provision for the care 
and maintenance of the widows and orphans 
of deceased members. Xovember 1, 1897, the 
membership of the order in fifteen of the 
United States and the Provinces of Ontario 
and Xew Brunswick. Canada, was 195,000. In 
each of the States in which the membership 
of the order is one thousand or more a govern- 
ing bodv, known as the Grand Council, is in 
existence, and there were in all in the United 
States and Canada twenty-one of these Grand 
Councils in 1*1,7. Representatives from these 
councils compose the Supreme Council, or 
central governing body, which, in 1807. had 
its headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. 
The collection of what is known as the Wid- 
ows' and Orphans' Benefit Fund of the order 
is controlled exclusively by the Supreme 
Council. The Grand or State Councils are 
composed of representatives elected by the 
subordinate councils, which have charge of 
the work of the order in their immediate vicin- 
ities, and which are the agents of the Supreme 
Council in the collection of the Widows' and 
Orphans' Benefit Fund, above referred to. 
Missouri Council, instituted June 17. 1878, in 
St. Louis, was the first subordinate council 
organised in this State. The Grand Council 
of Missouri was instituted December 12. 1883. 
The eighth annual session of the Supreme 
Council was held in St. Louis, in 1895. Soon 
after the great tornado of 1806 a notable en- 
tertainment was given under the auspices of 
the order at Music Hall for the benefit of its 
members who had suffered through the de- 
struction of their homes and property. The 
total membership of the order in Missouri at 
the be<rinnin£r of the year 1807 was 5,820, and 
in St. Louis the membership at the same time 



ROYAL FRATERNAL UNION— ROZIER. 



1939 



was 4,987. At the same date twenty-one sub- 
ordinate councils were in existence in St. 
Louis and eleven in the State outside of St. 
Louis. 

Royal Fraternal Union. — A fraternal 
and benefit order, which had its origin in St. 
Louis, where it was organized February 25, 
1897, under a perpetual charter from the State 
of Missouri. Among the original petitioners 
for the charter were : W. H. Graham, George 
D. Barnard, Walter B. Woodward, William 
A. Hobbs, Perrin S. Smith, J. S. Marmaduke, 
W. P. Robinson, and others. At the close of 
the year 1897 there was one council in St. 
Louis, with a membership of about two hun- 
dred. Seven councils were in existence at 
the same time in the State outside of St. Louis. 
The principal offices of the order are located 
in St. Louis. 

Royal League. — A fraternal society, 
with insurance and benefit features, incorpo- 
rated under the laws of Illinois, October 26, 
1883. It confines its operations to Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin and the 
States and Territories west of the Mississippi 
River and north of the thirty-sixth parallel. 
The founders of the League were members 
of the Royal Arcanum who sought to institute 
a new organization with more attractive life 
insurance features than those of the society 
with which they had previously affiliated. The 
first council of the Royal League was estab- 
lished in St. Louis about the year 1885, and 
there were nine councils in the city in 1897. 
The total membership of the order at the date 
last mentioned was, approximately, 17,000. 

Royal Templars of Temperance. — 

A fraternal beneficiary order, organized in 
Buffalo. New York, February 3, 1897, and 
based upon total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors as a beverage. Both sexes are received 
into this order on perfect equality, and it has 
many beautiful ritualistic features. The Su- 
preme Council sits in Buffalo, New York, 
where the order originated. Grand Councils 
have been established in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania. Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Kentucky, 
New Jersey and the New England States. The 
first council was established in St. Louis in 
1880. by Thomas Kerns, supreme lecturer 
of Illinois, with Robert Herries, Thomas B. 
Kerwin, R. M. King, Adam Woerthage. 



Charles Scollay and others as charter mem- 
bers. This and three other councils organized 
later have been consolidated into one, called 
St. Louis Council, Xo. 1. 

Royal Tribe of Joseph.— A fraternal 
and beneficial order, instituted at Sedalia, Mis- 
souri, in 1894, deriving its inspiration and 
name from the story of Joseph, the son of 
Jacob and Rachel, who became prime minis- 
ter of Egypt and played an important part in 
traditional Hebrew history. Pleasing ritual- 
istic features and judicious benefit arrange- 
ments served to popularize the order at once, 
and it soon extended its membership through- 
out Missouri, Kansas, Illinois and Nebraska. 
The only lodge in existence in St. Louis in 
1897 was St. Louis Lodge, No. 7, organized 
in 1894, and having a membership of 100. 

Rozier, Edward A., lawyer, was born 
December 9, 1857, in Ste. Genevieve, Mis- 
souri, son of Edward A. Rozier, who was born 
at Ste. Genevieve, in 1833, and died there in 
1858. His father, although a young man at 
the time of his death, had served as public ad- 
ministrator and county judge of Ste. Gene- 
vieve County, and was editor of the Ste. Gene- 
vieve "Plaindealer," then the leading news- 
paper of Southeastern Missouri. His wife, the 
mother of Edward A. Rozier, of St. Louis, was 
Miss Lavinia M. Skewes before her marriage, 
and she was a daughter of William Skewes, 
of Richwood, Missouri. The progenitor of the 
Kozier family of Missouri was Ferdinand 
Rozier, born at Nantes, France, in 1777. After 
serving with distinction in the French Navy 
for three vears this immigrant ancestor of the 
Roziers left France with John J. Audubon, the 
distinguished naturalist, and crossed the ocean 
in the American ship "Polly." After landing 
in this country Rozier and Audubon first set- 
tled at Mill Grove, Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania : lived for a time afterward at 
Louisville. Kentucky, and then in the year 
1810 came to Ste. Genevieve with a stock of 
merchandise, which included three hundred 
barrels of whisky. Audubon remained at Ste. 
Genevieve only a year, his partnership with 
Ri i/ier being then dissolved. Rozier was for 
many years thereafter the leading merchant in 
what was then one of the principal towns in 
the Southwest, and used t<^ make annual trips 
on horseback to Philadelphia and other East- 
ern cities for the purchase of goods. He mar- 



RUBINSTEIN CLUB— RUMBOLD. 



ried Constance Roy, who was born at Fort 
Chartres, Illinois, but also came of a French 
family. He was one of the most widely known 
of the pioneer French merchants of Missouri, 
and lived to be eighty-six years of age, dying 
in 1864. The elder Edward A. Rozier was one 
of the ten children born to him. His descend- 
ants in St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve are now 
very numerous. The younger Edward A. 
Rozier was educated at the State University 
of Columbia Missouri, and then studied law 
under the preceptorship of Judge Jesse B. 
Robbins, of Ste. Genevieve. He was admitted 
to the bar in April of 1878, and at once entered 
upon a successful career as a practicing lawyer 
at Ste ( lenevieve. He was elected prosecut- 
ing attorney of Ste. Genevieve County in 
[886, and was twice re-elected to the office, 
serving in all six years. In 1897 he was elected 
mavor of Ste. Genevieve, and held that office 
until March of 1808, when he removed to St. 
Louis to accept the position of United States 
District Attorney for the Eastern District of 
Missouri, to which he had been appointed by 
President McKinlcy. He is now filling this 
office, and is also a member of the law firm of 
Bryan, Richards & Rozier. Ever since he 
became a voter he has been an active mem- 
ber of the Republican party, and in 1892 he 
was a delegate to the Republican National 
Convention, held at Minneapolis. Minnesota. 
May 3, 1881, Mr. Rozier married Miss Anna 
M. Carlisle, daughter of James H. and Con- 
stance Carlisle, of St. Louis. 

Rubinstein Club. — See "Music in St. 
Li mis." 

Rumbold, Frank Meeker, physi- 
cian, was born January 4. 1862, in Lafayette 
County, Wisconsin, son of Dr. Thomas F. 
and Emma (Meeker) Rumbold. His father, 
who has achieved distinction in the practice 
of his profession, was born in Aberdeen. 
Scotland, and is a direct descendant of Cap- 
tain John Rumbold, of "Rye House Castle" 
and of "Rye House Plot" fame. The elder 
Dr. Rumbold emigrated with his parents from 
Scotland to Canada in [834, and came from 
there to the United States in his young man- 
hood, establishing his home in Scott County, 
Iowa. He saw military service during the 
Civil War, acting during that period as a sur- 
geon in the Union Army. His wife, the mother 
of Dr. Frank- M. Rumbold, was a daughter of 



Dr. John Meeker, who was one of the pio- 
neer settlers of Wisconsin. Dr. Frank M. 
Rumbold was educated in the public schools 
of St. Louis and at Washington University. 
He then began the study of medicine and was 
graduated from St. Louis Medical College in 
1884. During his medical college vacations 
he prospected and mined in Colorado and New 
Mexico, traversing a good part of both State 
and Territory either on foot or on horseback. 
In 1884 he became business manager of the 
"St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal," of 
which his father was editor and proprietor, 
and in 1886 became associate editor and pro- 
prietor of this journal. Meantime, he had 
begun the practice of his profession, which 
was at first general in its character, but which 
he confined after 1887 to diseases of the nose, 
throat and ear. In 1896 he disposed of his 
interests in the "St. Louis Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal." and in company with Dr. M. A. 
Goldstein founded "The Laryngoscope," a 
journal devoted exclusively to the considera- 
tion of diseases of the nose, throat and ear. 
This journal has now become widely known, 
and has the largest international circulation 
of any of its class published in the English 
language. In 1878, when he was sixteen years 
old, Dr. Rumbold began a connection with 
the local military affairs of St. Louis, which 
has since gained for him enviable distinction. 
At that time he became a member of the First 
Regiment of the National Guard of Missouri, 
in which he served until 1882. when he was 
transferred to Light Lattery A, of the National 
Guard. He was elected second lieutenant of 
this battery in 1888. promoted to first lieuten- 
ant in 1890, and to captain in 1891. May 10, 
1898, he was commissioned captain of this bat- 
tery, which then entered the volunteer service 
of the United States to take part in the Span- 
ish-American War. He commanded the bat- 
terv thereafter until it was mustered out at 
the close of the war, and saw active service in 
Porto Rico, where the battery reflected credit 
upon the city of St. Louis and the State of 
Missouri. Upon his return to St. Louis Cap- 
tain Rumbold resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession and the management of the medical 
journal in which he is interested. He served 
as vice-president of the Western Oto-Laryn- 
gological Association in 1897, and was secre- 
tary of the same association during the year 
1898. During the year last mentioned he was 
also secretary of the St. Louis Laryngological 



RUNGE— RUSSELL. 



1941 



Society. He has taken a somewhat active in- 
terest in politics as a member of the Republi- 
can party, and his religious affiliations are 
with the Christian Church. 

Runge, Edward C, physician, was 
born in St. Petersburg, Russia, September 
7, 1856. He received a collegiate education 
in his native city, and in his young manhood 
came to the United States, establishing his 
home in St. Louis. He had always had a fond- 
ness for the study of medicine, and soon after 
his arrival in this city began giving a share of 
his attention to that science. He attended his 
first course of lectures at St. Louis Medical 
College, in 1886, and in 189 1 received his 
doctor's degree from that institution. Since 
then he has been engaged in the successful 
practice of his profession, and in 1895 was 
honored by appointment to the superintend- 
ency of the St. Louis Asylum for the Insane, 
a position which he still retains. In caring for 
the unfortunate wards of the city deprived of 
their reason he has discharged the full meas- 
ure of his responsibilities, and both as a physi- 
cian and executive officer, has merited the es- 
teem of the public. In the fraternal circles of 
St. Louis he is known as an active and promi- 
nent member of the order of Knights of 
Pythias and the Legion of Honor. Dr. 
Runge married, in 1893, Miss Emily K. 
Foote, of St. Louis. 

Russell, Thomas A., lawyer and jur- 
ist, was born on a farm at Huntington, 
West Virginia. His father, John Russell, was 
a soldier in the War of 1812, and his grand- 
father, Thomas Russell, saw service in the 
Revolutionary War. His mother's maiden 
name was Rebecca Buffington, and she was a 
daughter of Colonel Buffington, who achieved 
distinction as a Revolutionary soldier. Thomas 
A. Russell grew up on a farm, but at an early 
I age made choice of the law as his profession, 
(and bent all his energies toward fitting him- 
self for that calling. While still a youth he 
made an overland trip to California and spent 
several profitable years on the Pacific coast. 
I Returning east then as far as Columbia, Mis- 
souri, he completed his preparations for the 
study of law at the State University and then 
|began his law studies under the preceptorship 
(of his brother, Colonel F. T. Russell, who was 
I at that time one of the leading lawyers of that 
iportion of the State. After his admission to 



the bar he established himself in practice at 
Kansas City, and speedily acquired a large 
clientele. In 1864 he removed to St. Louis 
and has since been a prominent member of the 
bar of this city. He has been identified during 
the time that has since elapsed with much im- 
portant litigation, and has appeared as coun- 
sel in many of the most noted cases which 
have occupied the attention of the State and 
Federal courts. Devoted to his profession, 
he has but twice yielded to solicitations which 
made him an officeholder. For four years he 
was a member of the public school board of 
St. Louis, which he served as vice-president, 
and at a later date he was appointed a judge 
of the St. Louis Circuit Court by Governor 
Stone, the occasion being the creation of three 
additional judgeships at that time. "He wore 
the judicial ermine gracefully, and doffed it 
unsmirched by even a suspicion of unfair- 
ness." Reaching the close of his term, he de- 
clined to become a candidate for election to 
the office he had filled so ably and acceptably, 
and returned to the more congenial and profit- 
able practice of law. He is a member of the 
First Christian Church, and was for many 
years a prominent official of that congrega- 
tion. Politically, he affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party. Judge Russell married Miss M. 
L. Lenoir, a granddaughter of General Lenoir, 
of North Carolina, who was an officer of the 
Continental Army. The children of Judge 
Russell and Mrs. Russell are two daughters, 
one of whom is now Mrs. J. G. Thomas, of 
Waco, Texas, and the other of whom is the 
wife of Dr. ■ Thomas E. Ferguson, of St. 
Louis. 

Russell, Charles Silas, manufactur- 
er, was born March 7, 1833, at Oak Hill, St. 
Louis County, son of James and Lucy (Bent) 
Russell. His father was a native of Virginia, 
and served in the Virginia line during the War 
of 1812. The elder Russell came to Missouri 
in territorial days and settled first at Jackson, 
where he was for a time editor of a newspaper. 
Afterward he came to St. Louis County and 
purchased what was known as the Oak Hill 
estate, south of and joining the tract of land 
which has since become Tower Grove Park. 
He served as a member of the Legislature of 
Missouri, was a judge of the St. Louis County 
Court, and an honored citizen until his death, 
which occurred in 1850. His wife, the mother 
of Charles S. Russell, was a daughter of Judge 



1942 



RUSSELL. 



Silas Bent, who was appointed by Albert Gal- 
latin principal deputy surveyor of the Terri- 
tory of Louisiana in 1806, and who, in Sep- 
tember of that year, became a judge of the 
Territorial Court for the District of St. Louis, 
holding that office thereafter until Missouri 
was admitted into the LJnion as a State, and 
who enjoyed the distinction, as presiding 
judge of that court, of signing the first town 
charter of St. Louis. Charles S. Russell re- 
ceived an academic education and had en- 
tered upon a college course at Yale when his 
father's death rendered it necessary for him 
to return home and give his attention to busi- 
ness affairs. In company with his mother, he 
took charge of his father's estate, and for sev- 
eral years managed the ( )ak Hill farm and 
the coal mines operated in connection there- 
with. After the settlement of the affairs of the 
estate and the division of the property among 
the heirs of the elder Russell, Mr. Russell, in 
connection with other members of the family 
who had inherited an interest in the coal mines, 
formed the Russell Coal Company, of which 
he continued to act as general manager. While 
prospecting for a lower vein of coal he discov- 
ered the deposits of fire-clay which have since 
been utilized in the building up of a great in- 
dustry by the Parker-Russell Mining and 
Manufacturing Company. He became a 
member of the firm of Parker, Russell & Co., 
which had been in existence some years prior 
to that time, in 1866, and at that time the firm, 
which had previously been engaged in the 
wholesale grocery trade, began the manufac- 
ture of various kinds of goods from fire-clay, 
and by a process of experimentation and de- 
velopment, gradually built up one of the larg- 
est institutions of its kind in the United 
States. Since this enterprise was founded Mr. 
Russell has been continuously identified with 
it in a managerial capacity, and he has, there- 
fore, been one of the builders of an industry 
which furnishes employment to 200 persons 
and the means of livelihood to several hun- 
dred more. When the original copartnership 
was succeeded by the corporation now known 
as the Parker-Russell Mining and Manufac- 
turing Compan\ he became secretary of the 
company, and still retains that position. The 
business of (his company has at all times re- 
ceived his careful attention, and he is known 
to the public as a capable man of affairs, of 
unimpeachable integrity and the highest char- 
acter. Tn addition to his manufacturing inter- 



ests, he is president of the Russell Real Estate 
and Improvement Company, in which he is a I 
principal shareholder. He is one of a com- 
paratively small number of the business men 
now prominent in St. Louis who are natives 
of the citv, and he has demonstrated in many 
ways his loyalty to the city of his birth. While 
he has, at different times, taken a somewhat 
active interest in politics, he has been too 
much a business man to give any considerable 
share of his attention to public affairs, and the 
only office he has ever held has been that of . 
member of the school board. A quiet, modest 
man. he is, nevertheless, a citizen of sterling 
worth, recognized by all who come within his 
sphere of action as a man of sound judgment, 
great tenacity of purpose and exact rectitude 
in all his dealings with men. Mr. Russell mar- 
ried, in 1858. M iss Mary E. Mead, of St. Louis, I 
who died in 1895. Their children are Sue AT. 
Russell, now the wife of Thomas G. Portis, I 
a member of the St. Louis bar; S. Bent Rus- 
sell, civil engineer, now in charge of the ex- 
tension of the St. Louis water works under 
Commissioner Holman : Charles M. Russell, 
a resident of Great Falls. Montana. 

Russell, Trumbull (Justine, manu- 
facturer, was born April 7, 1823. in Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, son of Frederick A. 
and Theodosia (Gustine) Russell, the first- 
named a native of New Hampshire, and the 
last-named born in Virginia. His parents 
were married in Georgetown, District of 
Columbia, in 1804, and were living there when 
Washington was captured by the British in 
1814. His paternal ancestors came from the 
north of England to this country and settled 
in Massachusetts in the year 1640. In the 
maternal line he is of Irish descent, although 
generations of the family have lived in Amer- 
ica, its earliest representative having settled 
in Culpeper County, Virginia, in 1641. His 
maternal grandmother was Ann Tayloe 
Greene, daughter of Colonel Robert Greene, 
of Revolutionarv fame. Colonel Greene's wife 
was Patsey Ball, first cousin of Mary Pall, 
afterward Mary Washington, mother of 
George Washington. Reared in Washing- 
ton. Mr. Russell obtained his early education 
under private tutorship, and completed his 
studies at Charlotte Hall, of St. Mary's 
County. Maryland, once celebrated among the 
educational institutions of the country. He 
began his business career in Washington in 



RUTLEDGE. 



1943 



1846, embarking at that time in the hardware 
business. Three years later he came to St. 
Louis and was engaged in the hardware trade 
in this city, under the firm name of Russell 
& Armstrong, until 1855. That year he dis- 
posed of his hardware business, and early in 
1856 associated himself with his brother-in- 
law, George W. Parker, in the wholesale gro- 
cery trade, as a member of the firm of Parker, 
Russell & Co. Until 1866 this firm did a large 
and profitable business throughout Missouri 
and adjoining States in the grocery trade, but 
in that year they turned their attention to the 
manufacture of various kinds of fire-clay prod- 
ucts, still retaining the firm name under which 
they had previously operated. In 1871 the 
partnership which had existed between Mr. 
Russell and his associates was succeeded by 
a joint stock company, which retained the old 
name. This corporation was. in turn, suc- 
ceeded by the Parker-Russell Mining and 
Manufacturing Company, of which Mr. Rus- 
sell is treasurer. It has built up one of the 
important industries of St. Louis, ships its 
products to all parts of the United States, Can- 
ada and British Columbia, furnishes regular 
employment to about two hundred men, and 
is the largest institution of its kind in the West, 
and probably the largest in the United States. 
To the building up of this business Mr. Rus- 
sell has devoted more than thirty years of his 
active life, and during all that time he has been 
well known in the business circles of St. Louis 
and has enjoyed the confidence and esteem 
of those with whom he has had business rela- 
tions, not only in this city, but in all parts of 
the country. He was a director of the Laclede 
Bank, and he is also a member of the director- 
ate of the Laclede Insurance Company. He was 
reared under Whig political influences and 
was a great admirer of the old-time Whig 
statesmen, like Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, 
and other famous men whose faces were famil- 
iar to him in early life. He was in Washing- 
ton when the next to the last of the Whig Pres- 
idents elected by the people died, and was 
among those who attended the funeral of 
President William Henry Harrison. When 
the Whig party passed out of existence he 
became a Republican, and has since affiliated 
with that party. His religious affiliations are 
with the Episcopal Church. In 1853 Mr. Rus- 
sell married Julia A. Russell, daughter of 
James Russell, of Oak Hill Farm, now a sub- 
urb of St. Louis. Their surviving: children 



are Daniel R. Russell and Mrs. Lucy B. Cren- 
shaw. 

Rutledge, William Askins, promi- 
nently identified with the real estate interests 
of St. Louis, was born March 12, 1855, in the 
village of Mechanicsburg, near Springfield, 
Illinois. His parents were Washington D. 
and Lucy (Askins) Rutledge, and the elder 
Rutledge was for many years owner of a com- 
mercial college in Springfield, Illinois, and 
later a teacher of penmanship in the St. Louis 
Public Schools, in which city he still resides. 
The mother of William A. Rutledge was the 
daughter of Rev. William Askins, a Methodist 
minister, who was a contemporary of the fa- 
mous itinerant, Rev. Peter Caftwright, and 
during several years traveled the same "cir- 
cuit" with him. She was born at Bowling 
Green, Kentucky, married near Carrollton, 
Illinois, and died in St. Louis, February 20. 
1879. I' 1 hi s boyhood, William A. Rutledge 
attended the public schools of Springfield and 
supplemented this training for a business ca- 
reer by a course of study in the commercial 
college conducted by his father. Then for a 
short time he worked on a farm near Spring- 
field, and in 1870 joined his father in St. Louis. 
Here he was employed first in the wholesale 
■law book firm of Soule, Thomas & 
Windsor, later in the wholesale drug 
store of Wengler, Blow & Co., and still 
later by A. A. Mellier, also a wholesale drug- 
gist. In the panic of 1873, when the business 
houses of St. Louis found it necessary to re- 
duce their expenses to the minimum, he lost 
his position with the last named drug house, 
a circumstance which seemed to him at the 
time peculiarly unfortunate, as he had learned 
the druggists' tra'de and was anxious to con- 
tinue in that 'business. It was not in his na- 
ture, however, to remain idle, and not finding 
such employment as he desired, he accepted 
such employment as he could find. This was 
a boy's position with J. M. Carpenter, who was 
engaged in the real estate business, and 
through this connection he became identified 
with a business for which he has shown 'him- 
self peculiarly well qualified, in which 'he has 
been remarkably successful, and through 
which he has contributed in no small degree 
to the growth and expansion of the city of St. 
Louis. At a later date he served as an em- 
ploye in the real estate office of Edtjar Miller, 
and. having qualified himself by experience to 



1944 



RYAX. 



engage in the business, he joined Charles A. 
Dyer in establishing a real esta'te agency of 
their own in [877. Within a year thereafter 
he purchased his partner's interest in this busi- 
ness and conducted his operations alone until 
[882, when he formed a partnership with Wil- 
liam M. Horton and became head of the firm 
of Rutledge & Horton. This partnership was 
dissolved in 1895 and thereafter, until Decem- 
ber of 1897, Mr. Rutledge was again alone in 
the conduct and management of a business 
which had by that time grown to large propor- 
tions. Toward the close of the year last 
named he incorporated the William A. Rut- 
ledge Realty Company, capitalized at $25,000, 
his associates in this enteqmse being W. J. 
Hamilton and Seneca N. Taylor, Mr. Rutledge 
being the principal owner of the stock. Since 
he became interested in realty transactions as 
an agent and operator, Mr. Rutledge has 
helped to greatly enlarge the area of the city of 
St. Louis, and some of the finest residence 
districts in the city were originally platted 
and placed on the market by him and his asso- 
ciates Among these have been Reber Place, 
Horton Place, Forest Park Addition, Hay- 
dock Place, Bartirrer Place, Thornby Place, 
and Ellendale. In all these additions they ex- 
pended large sums of money in gradihg. sew- 
ering, making streets, laying granitoid walks, 
planting trees, etc. Eastbourne Terrace and 
Rutledge & Horton's Addition were also 
added to East St. Louis by the firm of Rut- 
ledge & Horton. His accurate judgment of 
real estate values have caused him to be called 
upon to serve the public in various capacities 
in this connection, and he acted as a member 
of the board of commissioners appointed in 
1896 to assess damages and benefits incident to 
the opening of Compton Avenue from Lafay- 
ette Avenue to Carondelet. He was also one 
of the commissioners who condemned the site 
of the new water works at the Chain of Rocks, 
and at different times he has served on many 
similar commissions. During the year iXr,- 
he was one of the directors of the Real Estate 
Exchange of St. Louis. Politically lie has af- 
filiated witli the Republican part) since lie be- 
came a voter, and his religious connections are 
with the Methodist Church, in which he was 
reared. He was for some years a member of 
the Union Methodist Church and sold to that 
society the site on which its church is located, 
at the corner of Lucas and Garrison Avenues. 
In 1802 he helped to found the Maple Avenue 



Methodist Episcopal Church and was one of 
the chief donors of the fund with which that 
congregation erected the handsome stone 
chapel which it now occupies. In 1892 he was 
made president of the board of trustees of this 
church, which office he held for five years, 
and for several years taught the Bible class 
in its Sunday-school. He was also treasurer 
of the building fund of the Maple Avenue 
Methodist Episcopal Church during the five 
years in which he was president of the board. 
He has been for a number of years secretary 
and treasurer of the St. Louis City Church 
Extension and Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church of St. Louis, an 
organization which has done much good in es- 
tablishing new churches and in helping weak 
churches in this city. In 1888 he was asso- 
ciated with Dr. L. H. Laidley and others in the 
purchase of what was known as the "old Dyer 
Mansion," on Eighteenth Street, and the 
founding therein of the Protestant Hospital, 
an admirable institution, the more extended 
history of which will be found under its appro- 
priate heading in this work. He is a life mem- 
ber of the Young Men's Christian Association. 
was "iie of the earliest members of the asso- 
ciation in this city and for several years a mem- 
ber of the board of managers having its affairs 
in charge. He has been identified with fra- 
ternal organizations as a member of Occi- 
dental Lodge, No. 163, of the Masonic order, 
the Royal Arcanum, the Royal League — of 
which he was president during the year 1895 — 
and the Legion of Honor, and is a member of 
the Mercantile Club. 

Ryan, Frank K., lawyer, was born in 
Norfolk, Connecticut, son of John and Johan- 
na (Boomer) Ryan, both natives of Kilkenny. 

Ireland. His father was well known in public 
life in Connecticut. His parents removed to 
Decatur. Illinois, in 1858, and his father was 
postmaster of that city from 1859 to 1867. In 
the year last named, the family removed to St. 
Louis, where his father was twice a member of 
the State Legislature. Here Frank H. Ryan 
read law. and in 1870 was admitted to the bar 
in this city. Immediately afterward he began 
practicing at the St. Louis bar and is now 
rounding out thirty years of practice, in the 
course of which he has impressed himself upon 
the public as an able and accomplished advo- 
cate, and in all respects a well rounded and 
well equipped lawyer. Early in his career he 






RYAN. 



1945 



became identified with city, State and national 
politics, and has been recognized as one of the 
leaders of the Democratic party, with which he 
affiliates, in Missouri. He served as land com- 
missioner of St. Louis during the administra- 
tions of Mayors Britton and Overstolz, and 
has filled other positions, but has been unself- 
ish in his devotion to his party and has been in 
no sense a seeker after political preferment. 
During the presidential campaign of 1880 he 
served as chairman of the Democratic State 
Executive Committee of Missouri and distin- 
guished himself as an able and popular cam- 
paign manager. Since then he has devoted 
himself assiduously to his professional labors, 
and has been identified with much of tllie im- 
portant legislation occupying the attention of 
the courts of this city. The bent of his mind 
is judicial, and few members of the bar of St. 
Louis have had the satisfadticui of seeing their 
opinions upheld by the higher courts of the 
State in a greater number of cases than has 
he. As a popular orator he is well known 
both in St. Louis and throughout the State, 
and he is one of the members of the local bar 
most in demand as an after-dinner speaker. 

Ryan, Patrick John, Roman Catholic 
archbishop, was born February 20, 183 1, in 
the town of Thurles, in the County Tipperary, 
Ireland, where his maternal grandparents re- 
sided. His father's home, where his infancy 
and childhood were spent, was at Cloneyharp. 
near Thurles, and adjacent to the ruins of a fa- 
mous castle bearing the same name, sugges- 
tive of beautiful surroundings. This castle is 
one of a cluster of such — Miltown, Cloney- 
harp, Graigue and Clogher — all within a mile 
of each other. Once there existed a contin- 
uous circuit of these sentinel castles, forming 
a chain of defense around the fertile lands of 
Upper Ossory. The archbishop's early edu- 
cation was obtained at the Christian Brothers' 
School in Thurles, and from there he went to 
Dublin, wiiere he commenced his classical 
studies at the school of Mr. Naughton, of 
Richmond Street, in the Parish of Rathmines. 
In 1847 he entered St. Patrick's College, of 
Carlow, as an affiliated subject of Most Rev. 
Peter Richard Kenrick, then presiding over 
the diocese of St. Louis. There he be'came 
proficient in logic, metaphysics, ethics, pure 
and applied science, and his mastery of rhet- 
orical style and graceful elocution made him 
especially in demand on all such occasions as 



scholastic exercises and public exhibitions. 
Earnest piety and strict observance of discip- 
line, no less than his accomplishments as a 
divinity student, distinguished him, and as 
soon as his years permitted, he received the 
minor orders and the higher grades oi sub- 
deaconship and deaconship. In 1852 he said 
farewell to "the Isle so green" and came to the 
United States and to St. Louis. Knowledge 
of his ability had preceded him, and he was 
made professor of English literature in the 
Carondelet Theological Seminary. In 1853 
he was ordained to the priesthood, and in 1855 
he became rector of the Cathedral, performing 
the duties of that position until i860, when he 
began the erection of the Church of the An- 
nunciation and of the parochial school con- 
nected therewith. When the Civil War be- 
gan, while retaining his position as pastor, he 
was appointed by Archbishop Kenrick spirit- 
ual adviser of the unfortunate men in the 
Gratiot Street Prison, and later, on recom- 
mendation of General Blair, was appointed one 
of the chaplains of the prison by the authori- 
ties at Washington. This last appointment, 
however, he declined, feeling that he could do 
more good among the Confederate prisoners 
as a simple priest. After his ministry at the 
Church of the Annunciation he was trans- 
ferred to the Church of St. John the Evangel- 
ist, where he remained until his official depart- 
ure for Philadelphia, in 1884. While at St. 
John's he attended the second plenary coun- 
cil, at Baltimore, and preached a sermon on 
"The Sanctity of the Church," which was 
afterward published in a collection of the best 
sermons delivered before the council. New 
York University conferred upon him the de- 
gree of doctor of laws the same year, and 
twenty years later he received this degree also 
from the University of Pennsylvania. Upon 
the occasion of the eighteen hundredth anni- 
versary of the crucifixion of St. Peter, Arch- 
bishop Kenrick made a tour of Europe, and 
Father Ryan accompanied him. He returned 
to St. Louis with his already liberal mind 
broadened by a year of travel, and immediately 
afterward was appointed vicar-general of the 
diocese. He was administrator of the diocese 
later while the archbishop was in attendance at 
the ecumenical council, and still later, when the 
archbishop applied to Rome for a coadjutor. 
Father Ryan was selected for that position. 
The title of Bishop of Tricomia was conferred 
upon 'him and he was consecrated with impos- 



RYCHLICKI. 



ing ceremonies in St. John's Church, of this 
city, on the 14th of April, 1872. From that 
time forward Bishop Ryan took an active part 
in the work of the diocese, laying corner 
stones, administering the sacrament of con- 
firmation, preaching in the Cathedral, and for 
charitable objects, and lightening, in every 
way possible, the burdens of his superior. He 
visited Rome again in 1883. and it was on this 
occasion that his elevation to the archepisco- 
pal dignity -was announced, under the title of 
the archbishop of Salimina. While connected 
with the archdiocese of St. Louis his services 
as a preacher and lecturer were constantly in 
demand, and he became famous both for his 
learning and his eloquence. In 1879 be was 
the preacher selected by Cardinal McCloskev 
on the occasion of the dedication of the great 
Cathedral of St. Patrick, in Xew York. He 
was the preacher, also, when this first of the 
American cardinals was laid to rest near the 
high altar of this same sacred edifice. Later, 
when the pallium came to be bestowed upon 
Archbishop Corrigan, it was again Bishop 
Ryan who delivered the sermon. In 1884 he 
was recommended by the congregation of the 
Propaganda and approved and appointed by 
the pope as archbishop of Philadelphia. His 
departure from St. Louis was mourned by all 
1 l'asses of people, and an address, tendering 
him a public reception was sent to him by a 
committee of representative citizens. The 
priests of the diocese gave him a farewell re- 
ception and banquet on the Sunday before his 
departure, and expression was given on that 
occasion to a wealth of sentiment showing the 
extent to which he had endeared himself to 
his colaborers of the Catholic clergy, lie left 
St. Louis amid a chorus of regrets, which came 
from ( 'atholic and non-Catholic, the press and 
the people. Arrived in Philadelphia, he was 
received with distinguished consideration, and 
his formal installation took place in the cathe- 
dral in that city on the 20th of August, [884. 
Since that time his life has been an open book 
to the people of Philadelphia. Those of the 
Catholic faith have came to look upon him as 
a kind father and counselor, in whom they may 
repose confidence, and from whom they may 
always look for a gracious welcome. To non- 
Catholics he is known as a great preacher, a 
useful citizen, and a public benefactor. \- a 
pulpit orator he has few equals in the United 
States, and his fame has reached to the limits 
of the English-speaking world. 



Rychlicki, John K., one of the early 

Polish settlers of St. Louis, and a most es- 
teemed pioneer, was born October 22, 1808, in 
the Province of Sandomir, near Warsaw, Po- 
land. His parents, Florian and Josephine 
(Bzinkoski) Rychlicki, both came of families 
notable in their day as landed proprietors. 
When he was eleven years of age, John K. 
Rychlicki attended a near-by classical scho A, 
from which he was graduated three years later. 
The principal of this school was greatly im- 
pressed with his aptitude for learning and ad- 
vised his parents to send him to college at 
Radom, the capital of that Province. There 
he finished in four years a six years' course of 
study, passed his examinations with high 
honors, received his diploma and was recom- 
mended to the faculty for admission to War- 
saw University. He entered the university 
when he was eighteen years old and there 
studied jurisprudence, the higher mathematics, 
languages and civil engineering. After grad- 
uating from the university he was taken under 
the protection of a Mr. Bandke, who offered 
him the position of tutor to his sons, then in 
college. In 1831 a revolution broke out in 
Poland, and, notwithstanding the flattering 
offer of a high court position, Mr. Rychlicki 
joined the Patriot Army and fought nine 
months for the liberation of his country, par- 
ticipating in many engagements. After the 
defeat of the Patriots by the Russian Army 
they retreated to Galicia. Austria, where they 
were surrounded by the Austrian Army and 
kept under military observation for nearly two 
years. The Russian government demanded 
the removal of these Patriots on account of 
their proximity to Russian territory and the 
constant menace which they would be to the 
Russian despotism. In compliance with this 
demand they were expelled from Austria, and 
scattered in various directions, going to 
France and other countries. Mr. Rychlicki, 
with six hundred others, chose America as their 
place 1 if exile ami were accordingly deported 
10 this country in three Austrian frigates. At 
the end .if a three months' voyage he and his 
companions were landed in Xew York City, 
in March of [834. There they were received 
with numerous demonstrations of sympathy by 
a committee of prominent citizens, many of 
whom remembered their own struggle for 
American independence. This committee of- 
fered needed assistance to the exiles and pro- 
vided many of them with situations, according 







p^Li //. oo>tpc^c,& 



-&? 



SADDLERY AND HARNESS TRADE— SAGER. 



1947 



to their qualifications. Mr. Rychlicki was in- 
vited to enter Che home of a prominent family 
as a guest, and did so, remaining there some 
time as instructor to the sons of the family, in 
Latin and Greek. He received generous and 
cordial treatment in this family and it was even 
proposed that he should ente'r it by adoption 
as a son, but his independent nature caused 
him to decline, while expressing his gratitude 
for the offer of a .home. Taking leave of his 
benefactors he left New York City and, act- 
ing on the advice of friends, set out for the 
"Great West," in July of 1834. At the end of 
a three months' journey, which was made en- 
tirely by stage, he arrived in St. Louis in Sep- 
tember following, and here found new friends 
who offered him assistance. Being recom- 
mended by these friends to the United States 
survevor-general, on the second day after his 
arrival in this city, he obtained a position as 
civil engineer, which he held for twenty-nine 
years thereafter.- He was alternately em- 



ployed in the surveyor-general's office and in 

the field, surveying the public lands of the 
Territories adjacent to Missouri. In [863 he 
retired to private life and settled on a tract of 
land which he had acquired, at what is now 
King's Highway and Page Boulevards. There 
he gave himself up to the cultivation of fruits 
and other products and to his books and his 
family, leading a quiet life until December 20, 
1898, when he passed away. Mr. Rychlicki 
married, in 1S46, Miss .Mary E. Mann, who 
was a native of Kentucky, and who died De- 
cember 7, 1887. Three sons and five daugh- 
ters were born to them, all of whom, except 
two who died in childhood, were carefully 
trained and received classical educations. The 
living children are A. Rvchlicki, Casimir 
Rychlicki, Marv J. Rychlicki. Emilie G Rych- 
licki, Wladislas H. Rychlicki, Julia A. Rych- 
licki, and Eugenia V. Rychlicki, all of whom 
reside in St. Louis. John P. and Josephine 
V. Rvchlicki died in childhood. 



Saddlery and Harness Trade. — The 

saddlery and harness trade of St. Louis con- 
sists almost entirely of the sale of the products 
of its own establishments, several of which are 
i very extensive and send their goods tbrough- 
i out the West and South. The trunk trade, 
; which is allied to it, has also grown into a very 
important feature of the general business of 
i the city. The value of the whole trade in 
1896 was estimated at $4,000,000. 

Saddlery Credit Bureau. — A volun- 
tary unincorporated association of the whole- 
i sale dealers in saddlery and harness in St. 
Louis, for imparting to one another informa- 
1 tion of the business capacity and standing of 
i their customers, the object being to protect 
I the business and one another against irrespon- 
'; sible purchasers. It was first organized with 
J. J. Kreher for president ; T. Burns, first vice- 
president; Jacob Meyer, treasurer, and H. C. 
! Tatum, secretary. 

Saengerbund. — See "Music in St. 
Louis." 

Saengerbund of the Sons of Her- 
man.— See "Music in St. Louis." 



Sager, Arthur N., lawyer, was born in 
Kenosha, Wisconsin, December 2, 1871, son 
of George H. and Martha A. Sager. His fa- 
ther, who was born in New York State and 
w;ho is now living in Chicago, is a widely • 
known civil engineer, who has had much to do 
with the construction of public works of va- 
rious kinds. ' He was superintendent of engi- 
neers in charge of the Sturgeon Bay and Lake 
Michigan Canal, and built the iron ore docks 
at Duluth, Minnesota. He also built and ■ 
sunk the new "intake" and "intermediate 
crib" connected with the Chicago water works, 
which was an important engineering feat. He 
has built "breakwaters" at Chicago, and at 
Kenosha and Racine, Wisconsin ; lowered the 
Washington Street tunnel under the river in 
Chicago; and is now engaged on minor pub- 
lic improvements in that city. Arthur N. 
Sager, the son, obtained his early education in 
the public schools of Kenosha. Wisconsin, and 
completed his academic studio at Evanston, 
Illinois. He then read law and. in June of 
1893, was graduated from De Pauw University- 
Law School, of Greencastle. Indiana, with the 
degree of bachelor of laws. In December fol- 
lowing he went to Yellville, Arkansas, and be- 



948 



ST. ALPHONSO'S CONVENT OK RKDEMPTORIST FATHERS. 



i^an the practice of his profession at that place. 
Later he practiced at Harrison. Arkans 
partnership with De Roos Bailey, and still later 
in Little Rock. In 1897 he removed from the 
last named city to St. Louis and formed a part- 
nership with \V. F. Carter, under the firm 
name of Carter & Sager. He has since prac- 
ticed successfully in the courts of this city, im- 
pressing himself upon the local liar as a law- 
yer 1 >f fine natural ability and superior attain- 
While a member of the Arkansas bar 
he served as judge-advocate-general of the Ar- 
kansas Reserve Militia, with the rank of major. 
A Democrat in politics, he has participated ac- 
tively in several political canvasses, and is a 
pleasing and effective campaign orator. Feb- 
ruary 14, 1894, Air. Sager married Miss Lizzie 
Scott, daughter of Honorable W. T. Scott, of 
Kentucky, and a descendant of Thomas 
Wynne, a noted Welsh pioneer of Pennsylva- 
nia. Mrs. Sager died January 26, 1896, leav- 
ing one son, George H. Sager, Jr. 

St. Alphoiiso's Convent of He- 
demptorist Fathers. — The Redemptor- 
ist order in the Catholic Church originated in 
Italy about a century ago, the founder being 
St. Alphonso Liguori. It has two provinces 
in the United States, eastern and western, the 
Very Rev. Daniel Mullane, of St. Louis, be- 
ing the provincial of the western province. 
Before the order was established in St. Louis 
the Redemptorist Father.-, gave a mission at 
the cathedral, which was attended with such 
success ihat Archbishop Kenrick proposed to 
them the establishing of a house in St. Louis. 
In [865 the)' gave a mission at St. Mary's 
Church, and the archbishop's proposition was 
repeated with the choice of several lots placed 
at their disp isal. No one of these lots was 
lered altogether suitable, and the result 
was the purchase of a lot of three .and a half 
acres on Grand \venue near the St. Charles 
rock road— and there the noble and beautiful 
known as the "Rock Church" was 
built. The lut, which cost $27,000, was in the 
1 mtskirts < >t tlir i-'i\ . in the prairie, at the time. 
lint is now in a densely built district. The 
corner stone was laid on the }il 1 >f November, 
1X1,7. in tin- presence of four thousand persons, 
the celebrant being the Very Rev. Joseph 
Meli'Iier, vicar-general of the archdiocese, and 
mi the |ih of August, 1872. tin- church was 
dedicated bj Archbishop Ryan. During the 
several years preceding the dedication of their 



own church, Archbishop Kenrick placed~the 
cathedral with the adjoining parish in charge 
of the Rcdemptorists. The conditions upon 
which they agreed to establish a house in St. 
Louis were that it should be the home of the 
fathers eng'iged m g'V-ng missions and re- 
treats; that it should also be a novitiate and 
house of studies for professed students; and 
the fathers were to be entirely free from paro- 
chial duties. Rev. Louis Dodd, rector of St. 
Philomena's Church. Pittsburg, was the first 
superior, followed quickly, on June 29, 1886, 
by Rev. Egidius Smulders. Rev. Ferrol Gi- 
rardev and Brothers Jacques and Peter from 
Annapolis, Maryland, who together constitu- 
ted the nucleus of the new community — and 
the mission work was prosecuted with dili- 
gence and zeal. On the 10th of June, 1874. 
the St. Louis house was raised to the dignity of 
a rectorate. with Rev. W. V. Meredith as first 
rector. In [879 a novitiate was begun at St. 
Li mis. with Rev. Father Smulders as tempo- 
rary novice-master. It was afterward re- 
moved to Kansas City. In 1882 the corner 
stone of the parish school was laid and a build- 
ing erected at a cost of $45,533- In 1883 the 
Sisters of Notre Dame took charge and the 
school was opened with nearly four hundred 
pupils. Besides their church, the St. Alphon- 
so fathers have a college, also, at Windsor 
Springs, near Kirkwood. two convents in Chi- 
cago e mnected with St. Louis, a convent at 
Xew ( Irleans and a college at Denver, Colo- 
rado, and Seattle. Washington. The rector of 
the Rock Church in 1808 was the Very Rev. 
Win, Loewekamp. 

St. Andrew's Society. — A benevolent 

association formed September 31. 1839, com- 
posed of natives of Scotland residing in St. 
1. 1 'ir.-. John S. Thompson was first president 
of the society and T. T. Stewart first secretary. 

St. Ange de Bellerive, first military 
commandant and acting Governor of the post 

of St. Louis, was born in Canada about the 
year 1705. Little more is known of his early 
life than that he had been, for many years 
prior to his coming to St. Lotus, in the mili- 
tary service of France, on duty in the Canadas 
and the Illinois country. Alt the time the 
treaty of Paris went into effect in the Illinois 
country, the Illinois settlements were under 
his government, he being at that time in com- 
mand at Fort Chartres. In the exercise of 



ST. ANN'S FOUNDLING ASYLUM AND WIDOWS' HOME. 



1949 



these governmental functions he was subordi- 
nate to M. D'Abbadie, Director-General of 
Louisiana, who resided at New Orleans, then 
the seat of government of the Province. St. 
Ange had attained the military rank of captain 
and had shown such wisdom and tact in deal- 
ing with the Indians that he had gained a 
strong hold upon their affections, as well as 
upon the affections of the French settlers in 
the region over which he exercised control. 
In 1765, in obedience to the orders of his supe- 
riors and in the name of the King of France, 
he delivered to Captain Sterling, the accredited 
commissioner of his British Majesty, formal 
possession of the Illinois country and soon 
afterward withdrew with bis little company of 
troops from 'the territory which had passed 
under British control. He came at once to St. 
Louis, at a time when the infant settlement had 
begun to feel the need of some governmental 
authority, and his recognized character and 
ability caused him to be endowed by the peo- 
ple with the authority that legitimately be- 
longed to a Governor under the French co- 
lonial system in America. He appears to 
have accepted the powers which the people 
sought to confer upon him only to the extent 
of maintaining public order, making grants of 
land, and directing military affairs at the post 
of St. Louis. The temporary government 
which he established went into effect January 
2, 1766, and was maintained until May 20, 
1770, at which date Don Pedro Piernas suc- 
ceeded 'him by appointment of the Spanish 
government. While he governed without au- 
thority from the Spanish crown, he appears to 
have acted in harmony with the Spanish offi- 
cials of the Province of Louisiana, so far as 
they chose to exercise any authority during his 
administration, and retired from office with 
the good will of his immediate successor, who 
conferred upon him the rank of captain of in- 
fantry in the Spanish service. His services to 
the colonists of St. Louis were doubtless of 
great value, and in view of the fact that he 
established its government and was for several 
years the most conspicuous personage in the 
place, it is not altogether strange that some 
early writers, not very careful in their investi- 
gations, should have given bim credit for the 
founding of the city. He died at the home of 
Madame Chouteau, December 27, 1774, and 
was buried in the parish graveyard on the fol- 
lowing day. His remains were removed from 
this cemetery aloner with those of the mem- 



bers of the Chouteau family and they now rest 
in the Chouteau family lot. Pierre Laclede 
Liguest was named by St. Ange as the execu- 
tor of his will. 

St. Ann's Foundling Asylum ami 
Widows' Home. — This institution, the 
first asylum for abandoned infants opened in 
the United States, was commenced May 12, 
1853. Its founder was Ardhbishop Kenrick, 
who obtained from the Mother House at Em- 
metsfourg, Maryland, four Sisters of Charity, 
who began their work in a small house on 
Eleventh and Marion Streets, the site of the 
House of the Guardian Angel. Fourteen in- 
fants were received on the first day. Mr. John 
Mullanphy left a bequest for the support of 
ten widows and separate small houses for 
them. Separate residence proved impracti- 
cable, so the archbishop had the house erected 
on the southeast corner of Tenth and O'Fallon 
Streets, on ground bequeathed by Mr. Mul- 
lanphy's daughter. Airs. Ann H. Biddle. This 
was given in care of the Sisters of Charity, 
who brought to the new house their infant 
charges, September 8, 1858. Thus were con- 
solidated a Home for Aged Widows, a Ma- 
ternity Hospital and Foundling Asylum. The 
institution was incorporated Marcb 5, 1869. 
Eleven of the fourteen sisters in the house 
form the body of the corporation ; five are di- 
rectors of the business affairs. The institu- 
tion is non-sectarian. The sisters receive an- 
nually about three hundred and fifty infants : 
these are of both sexes, their ages ranging 
from one day to five years. Among them are 
orphans, half-orphans and foundlings. Each 
child is given a name and a number and its his- 
tory is recorded for future identification. It 
is then placed in the nursery under the care of 
the sisters and the nurses. Many of the chil- 
dren are given out to nurse to mothers in their 
homes. These are called in when fifteen or 
sixteen months old and placed in the nursery. 
At the age of three years they are transferred 
to the play-room, where the older children at- 
tend the kindergarten. The orphans of legiti- 
mate birth are transferred to the orphan asy- 
lum, when five years old, unless claimed by? 
relatives. Not a few are adopted into Roman 
Catholic families. 

The Maternity Hospital is intended for 
young women whose previous character has 
been good and whose reception here will save 
the honor of a family. None is admitted the 



1950 



ST. CHARLES— ST. JOSEPH'S BOYS' ORPHAN ASYLUM. 



second time. It is also intended for married 
women, who can receive in this hospital pro- 
fessional attention not possible in their own 
homes. Poor and homeless widows over 
sixty years of age are received and cared for in 
the widows' department. Others who are not 
indigent are received and from these fees are 
requested. The revenues of the institution are 
as follows : Rents from real estate bequeathed 
by Mr. John Mullanphy and Mrs. Ann H. Bid- 
die : board payments for children and for ma- 
ternity and hospital patients ; fairs or sales and 
entertainments; donations and bequests, and 
payments from fhe city for children picked up 
by the police. The house has accommoda- 
tions for one hundred and twenty inmates, but 
is generally overcrowded. The number re- 
ceived since the institution was opened is as 
follows: Infants, 15,016; patients, 4.566; 
widows, 254. In 1889 the sisters purchased a 
lot of 718 feet on Page Boulevard by 466 feet 
on Union Boulevard, on which they hope to 
be able in the near future to erect a commo- 
dious building. 

St. Charles. — The city of St. Charles, 
twenty miles northwest of St. Louis, had its 
origin in one of the early French settlements 
of Missouri. It was founded in 1769, five 
years later than St. Louis, was incorporated 
as a town in 1809, and as a city in 1849. The 
Legislature of Missouri made it the capital of 
the State by act of November 28, 1820, and it 
continued to be the seat of government until 
1826. It was called by the French "Les Pe- 
tites Cotes," the village of "the little hills." 

St. Clair. — A town laid out in what is now 
the central district of East St. Louis, in 1837. 
In 1859, together with East St. Louis and Illi- 
noistown, it was incorporated as the village of 
Illinoisrcwn. * In 1861 the name was changed 
to East St. Louis by vote of the citizens of the 
combined towns. 

St. Clair Hotel.— An old-time hotel, 
which stood at the southwest corner of Market 
and Third Streets, and which at an earlier date 
was widely known as the National Hotel. The 
house was closed in 1877, but was afterward 
remodeled and newly furnished but never re- 
gained its old time prestige. 

St. Ferdinand. — See "Florissant." 



Ste. Genevieve. — The old village of 
Ste. Genevieve was one of two French settle- 
ments in the territory now embraced in the 
State of Missouri at the time Laclede came up 
the Mississippi River with the intention of 
founding a trading-post in this region. It 
was founded about 1735 and was twenty miles 
below Fort Ohartres. Laclede landed there on 
his way up the river in November of 1763, in- 
tending to leave his goods and a portion of his 
company there while seeking a location for his 
trading-post. On arriving there, however, he 
could find no place to store his goods, and pro- 
ceeded to Fort Chartres, where he spent the 
following winter. Ste. Genevieve was an im- 
portant trading-post in the early days, and 
much interesting history clusters around this 
old French town, the oldest in Missouri. It 
was sometimes called "Misere." 

St. George. — The town of St. George 
adjacent to St. Louis, was dedicated Novem- 
ber 15, 1836. by William Carr Lane. It ex- 
tended from the river to Carondelet Avenue, 
between Victor Street and Lynch Street. It 
became a part of the city in 1841. 

St. Joseph's Boys' Orphan Asylum. 

This institution, which is in charge of the Sis- 
ters of St. Joseph, dates back to 1835. when 
the corner stone of a small building was laid 
in the neighborhood of the old Cathedral. In 
July erf the next year the little orphanage was 
opened and soon received into its shelter thir- 
ty-five boys. The asylum was chartered in 
1841 . Before the organization of the orphans' 
board the sisters were obliged to go about and 
solicit alms for the children. Every want is 
now supplied by the board at stated times and 
the sisters have more time to devote to the 
immediate care of the asylum. The "Mana- 
gers of the Roman Catholic Orphan Asylums 
of St. Louis" was incorporated March 2, 1849, 
the following named gentlemen being incorpo- 
rators : John B. Sarpy, Edward Walsh, 
Bryan Mullanphy, Amadee Valle, Joseph 
Murphy, John Haverty, Thomas Gray, Thos. 
O'Flaherty and Patrick J. Rider. These were 
constituted a board of managers at that time, 
and their successors thereafter, under the pres- 
idency of the archbishop of St. Louis. Under 
this management, existing for the past fifty 
\ ears, over twenty thousand children have 
been oared for at St. Joseph's Asylum for Boys 
and St. Mary's Asylum for Girls, the number 



ST. JOSEPH'S NIGHT HOSPITALITY. 



1051 



largely increasing annually in both institu- 
tions. St. Joseph's Asylum was located far 
nearly fifty years at Fourteenth Street and 
Clark Avenue, but now occupies a handsome 
and commodious building recently erected at 
Delor Street and Grand Avenue, the home 
and grounds costing $200,000. Two hundred 
and fifty boys are here cared for, with the nec- 
essary number of sisters and servants to look 
a'fter their welfare. The age of admission is 
from four to thirteen years. The boys are 
taught the rudiments of a plain English edu- 
cation and music. Homes are found for them 
in Catholic families in the city and archdiocese 
when suitable occasion affords, and those re- 
maining are placed in positions at the age of 
fourteen, the institution still exercising a 
watchful interest in their welfare until they 
become of age. Half-orphans and boys need- 
ing temporary shelter are received when nec- 
essary. Applicants are received without sec- 
tarian restriction. 

St. Joseph's Night Hospitality.— 

This night refuge for homeless women 
was opened Christmas night, 1877, at 
St. Joseph's House of Mercy, on Mor- 
gan and Twenty-second Streets. These 
poor women, usually advanced in years, 
are admitted at night and dismissed every 
morning. They are kept completely separate 
from the inmates of the other departments. 
Beds have been endowed in this charity by 
Mrs. Virginia S. Peugnet, who has been its 
faithful helper and benefactress from the be- 
ginning ; Mrs. W. Patterson, Mrs. Stettinius. 
Mrs. Firth, Miss M. Chassaing and Mrs. Tulia 
Maffitt. 

St. Louis Anniversary Celebra- 
tion. — On the 15th of February, 1847, the 
eighty-third anniversary of the founding of St. 
Louis was commemorated with elaborate and 
imposing ceremonies. There were six mili- 
tary companies, under command of Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Kennett, of the St. Louis Legion, 
followed by societies, fire companies and clubs, 
with a retinue of carriages. There was a rep- 
resentation of the "General Pike," the first 
steamboat to arrive at St. Louis, followed by 
a model of the "Laclede." at that time one of 
the finest boats on the Mississippi River, but 
the most interesting feature of the day w r as one 
of the original founders, Pierre Chouteau, 
then in the ninety-first year of his age, who 



rode in an open carriage with his two sons, 
Pierre, Jr., and Paul Liguest Chouteau, and 
his nephew Gabriel S. Chouteau. There was 
an oration by Wilson Primm, a banquet at the 
Planters House and a ball at night. 

St. Louis, Areas of. — The city of St. 
Louis, incorporated December 9, 1822, con- 
tained an area of 385 acres. The limits of 
1839 gave it 477; of 1841, 2,865; of 1855, 
8,823; of 1870, 11,505; of 1876, 39,276 acres, 
or nearly 61 square miles. St. Louis is the 
seventh city in the Union in point of area, 
those having larger being New York, Chica- 
go, Philadelphia, San Diego, Washington, D. 
C, and Duluth, Minnesota. 

St. Louis as a Capital. — Within two 
years after the settlement of St. Louis, it be- 
came, in a sense, a seat of government. From 
1766 to 1770, St. Ange de Bellerive was Act- 
ing Governor of Upper Louisiana, and his offi- 
cial residence was at the post of St. Louis. 
The first Spanish Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Province came to St. Louis in 1770, and his 
successors governed the territory within their 
jurisdiction from this point until Louisiana 
was transferred to the United States. The 
formal transfer of Upper Louisiana from Spain 
to France, and from France to the United, in 
1804, took place in St. Louis. After the Ter- 
ritory of Louisiana had been created by act of 
Congress, it continued to be the seat of gov- 
ernment and later was the capital of Missouri 
Territory until the State government was or- 
ganized. With the erection of Missouri into 
a State, St. Louis ceased to be more than the 
capital of a county, the seat of government be- 
ing fixed at St. Charles by act of the Legisla- 
ture bearing date of November 28, 1820. For 
fifty years previous to that time, however, St. 
Louis had been officially recognized as a pro- 
vincial and territorial capital. The capital was 
removed from St. Charles to Tefferson City in 
1826. 

St. Louis, Chronological Sketch of. 

St. Louis was founded in 1764 by Pierre Li- 
guest Laclede, who came up the Mississippi 
River from New Orleans, and who as a mem- 
ber of the New Orleans firm of Maxent, La- 
clede & Co., had obtained from the Governor- 
General of Louisiana an exclusive control of 
the fur trade of the Missouri and other tribes 
of Indians as far north as the River St. Peter. 



1952 



ST. LOUIS CIRCUIT COURT. 



On the 14th of February of that year Auguste 
Chouteau, the stepson of Laclede arrived on 
the site of St. Louis, in charge of about thirty 
men and on the following day they began 
clearing a space in the forest and thus began 
the building of a city. Almost immediately 
the place became an important trading post 
and continued to be headquarters of the fur 
and Indian trade in the Southwest during the 
latter part of the last and early part of the 
present century. It passed under Spanish 
domination in 1765, all the French territory on 
the west side of the Mississippi River and the 
Island of New Orleans having been ceded by 
France to Spain by the secret treaty of 1763. 
The genius of Napoleon compelled a retroces- 
sion of the Province of Louisiana, of which 
Missouri and St. Louis formed a part, in 1801, 
by a treaty which was not made public until 
1803. On the 30th of April, 1803, a treaty 
was signed under which France ceded the 
Province to the United States and the formal 
transfer of Upper Louisiana to the growing 
American republic took place at St. Louis, 
March 9, 1804. The population of the trad- 
ing post, St. Louis, was a'bout 1,000 at the time 
it came under the authority of the United 
States government. It was incorporated as 
a town in 1809 with a population something 
less than 1,400. In 1823 the city was incorpo- 
rated with a population of approximately 
4,000. Subsequent census reports give the 
population at decennial periods as follows : 
1830, 4.W77 ; 1840, 16,469; 1850, 77,860; i860, 
185.587; 1870, 310,864; 1880, 350,522; 1890, 
451,770 

St. Louis Circuit Court.— Much of 
the history of the Circuit Court of St. Louis is 
told in other parts of this work, in the biogra- 
phies of the several judges, and in sketches of 
the lives of the members of the bar who have 
figured in its proceedings. The purpose of 
this article is to present those facts in the his- 
tory of the court which are not to be found 
elsewhere in this Encyclopedia. 

The flight of time has made havoc of much 
historical material, resting in the memory of 
the pioneer settlers of St. Louis. In scarce 
any field of research into local history is the- 
irreparable loss of such material so evident as 
in the field of our present topic. Tradition 
invests with intense interest the early days of 
the St. Louis Circuit Court; yet there have 
been transmitted to our time few authentic 



memorials of the forensic battles which the 
giants of those days fought. The meagre par- 
ticulars of those battles, described in the offi- 
cial reports of the Supreme Court of Missouri, 
constitute, for the most part, all that has been 
rescued from oblivion. Here and there, how- 
ever, a thoughtful hand has preserved an ac- 
count of something of interest in the life of the 
court, not appearing in its records, but these 
particulars are given in other parts of this 
work — in the sketches of local history, and in 
the accounts of individual lives of our citizens. I 

The records of the court have been kept, al- 
most invariably, with scrupulous fidelity, and 
from them has- been derived the greater, part 
of the information we furnish. 

The Circuit Court of St. Louis is traceable 
from a period antedating the admission of 
Missouri into the Union. In territorial times 
the court was created and began its work. 
From that day to this it has preserved an unin- 
terrupted existence, and its records, intact, 
contain in themselves a great mass of the most 
authentic information touching the early life 
and history of the city. 

The circuit court of to-day is the repository 
of the files and judgments not only of the court 
of that name of primitive times but of several 
other courts of record that have been merged 
into it at various dates. It is the legal succes- 
sor and representative of the "St. Louis Court 
of Common Pleas," created by the act of the 
General Assembly, approved January 21, 
1841,* and of the Law Commissioner's Court 
of St. Louis County, established in 1845, under 
the provisions of the Revised Statutes, || and 
of the "St. Louis Land Court," formed by the 
act of 1853.** As those courts last named have 
been so completely merged into the present 
circuit court, it is not thought necessary to de- 
scribe at length their functions. They are 
fully defined in the enactments referred to, so 
that the reader who desires may obtain that 
information therefrom. It may be said, 
briefly, that all of those tribunals were created 
to relieve the stress of labor of the circuit 
judges, and to facilitate the public business. 

By the terms of the Constitution of 1865 
(which went into force July 4th in that year) 
provision was made for reorganizing the 
Circuit Court of St. Louis County, so that it 
should be composed of three judges, each of 
whom should try causes separately, and all (or 

• Laws, 1840-41, page 50. 
Revised Stal utes, 1 v 15. chapter 99. 
Laws, 1852-3, pa 



ST. LOUIS CIRCUIT COURT. 



1953 



a majority) of whom should constitute a court 
in banc, to decide questions of law and to hear 
appeals from the several courts held by the 
judges while sitting separately. The two ad- 
ditional circuit judges were to be appointed by 
the Governor with the approval of the Senate, 
until the next general election, when the three 
judges of the court were to be chosen by the 
qualified voters, and were by lot to determine 
among themselves the duration of their terms 
of office (which were to be for two, four and 
six years respectively), and they were to certify 
the result to the Secretary of State. There- 
after the full terms of judges elected was fixed 
at six years from the first Monday of January 
next after their election. The General As- 
sembly was, moreover, given power to in- 
crease the number of judges from time to time 
as the public interest might require. 

Pursuant to the constitutional provision, 
the General Assembly passed an Act (ap- 
proved December 19, 1865; Gen. Stats. Mo., 
1866, p. 887) which vested all the juris- 
diction of the St. Louis Court of Common 
Pleas, the St. Louis Land Court, and the Law 
Commissioner's Court of St. Louis County, 
in the Circuit Court of St. Louis County, thus 
consolidating all the courts above mentioned 
in one court, the Circuit Court of St. Louis 
County, and transferring all unfinished busi- 
ness of the other courts to the circuit court for 
final disposition. The scheme of reorganiza- 
tion also provided that appeals to the Supreme 
Court which might have been taken from any 
of said courts should be taken to the circuit 
court, and in like manner writs of error from 
the Supreme Court to any of said courts might 
be directed to the circuit court with like effect. 

We do not deem it necessary to give all the 
details of the scheme of reorganization. We 
merely enumerate its chief features, the most 
important of which was the establishment of 
what was called general terms and special 
terms of the circuit court. The General 
Term was when the court sat as a court in 
banc for the purpose of reviewing decisions of 
the Special Terms, and of hearing questions of 
law certified from the special terms, which 
were those terms of the court at which the 
judges presided singly. The General Term 
was an appellate court for the review of judg- 
ments rendered at special term, and appeals 
lay from the judgments of the general 
term to the Supreme Court. According to the 
scheme of arrangement of the general and spe- 



cial terms, the court in General Term had the 
power to classify, arrange and distribute the 
business among the several judges as the ma- 
jority might deem expedient, and the judges 
were permitted to interchange business and 
otherwise relieve each other, as occasion 
might require. This made a very flexible and 
convenient system for the transaction of the 
business of the court. 

When the consolidation scheme went into 
operation, Judge Moodey was judge of the 
circuit court proper (which was then named 
Room No. 1); Judge Reber was judge of 
the common pleas court (his division was 
called Room No. 2), and Judge Lord was 
judge of the land court (his room was 
given the number 3). These judges con- 
stituted the circuit court as reorganized pur- 
suant to the provisions of the Constitution of 
1865. 

In the course of time, following the growth 
of the city in other respects, the business of the 
circuit court increased to such a degree that 
in 1871 the number of judges was raised 
by the Legislature to five.* Under the Consti- 
tution of 1875 a scheme was provided for the 
separation of the city and county of St. Louis, 
and the city was authorized to enact a charter 
for its own government. But the courts of 
the Eighth Judicial Circuit (composed of St. 
Louis County) were to remain undisturbed, 
until otherwise provided by law. Before long 
i.t became apparent that the city of St. Louis 
should be separated from the county for the 
purposes of judicial administration, and so the 
territorial jurisdiction of the circuit court in 
the city of St. Louis was made to conform to 
the limits of the city as defined by the reorgan- 
ization scheme. (R. S. 1879, Sees. 1122. 1163.) 

By legislation in 1895 (Laws, 1895, pp. 130- 
13 r-135") the number of judges of the circuit 
court was increased to seven ; then, by consoli- 
dation with the old criminal court, and the ad- 
dition of another judge to deal with criminal 
causes, the number was raised to nine. The 
present judges of the court, as arranged for 
the purposes of trials, are assigned as follows : 

Room No. 1, William Zachritz. 
Room No. 2, Pembrook R. Flitcraft. 
Room No. 3, James E- Withrow. 
Room No. 4, Daniel D. Fisher. 
Room No. 5. Horatio D. Wood. 
Room No. 6, Franklin Ferriss. 
Room No. 7, Seidell P. Spencer. 
Room No. 8, John A. Tally. 
Room No. 9, Jacob Klein. 



1 Acts 1S70. p M. 



ST. LOUIS CIRCUIT COURT. 



In the article on the "Federal Courts" ap- 
pears a concise account of the method of legis- 
lation followed during the territorial epoch of 
our city's history, when many courts (includ- 
ing the circuit court) were first organized. 
.Much valuable information will be found 
therein in regard to the jurisdiction and prac- 
tical operation of the early courts, both State 
and national, held in St. Louis. The reader 
desiring to be fully advised on the subject may 
advantageously consult that article. 

The first circuit court in St. Louis was 
created by the act of the General Assembly of 
the Territory of Missouri, approved January 
4, 1815,* which divided the State "into two dis- 
tricts or circuits" (northern and southern), for 
each of which the Governor was empowered 
to appoint a circuit judge, who must "have 
resided in the Territory at least one year pre- 
vious to his appointment." The county of St. 
Louis and the counties of St. Charles and 
Washington composed the northern circuit. 
The judge was to receive an annual salary of 
$1,200, payable quarterly. Three terms of the 
court were required to be held in each county 
of the circuit. On the civil side the jurisdic- 
tion reached all cases "above the sum of ninety 
dollars." On the criminal side the court was 
to deal with all causes except those in which 
the punishment was capital, and those over 
which the county courts had jurisdiction. The 
act also invested the court with power to hear 
and determine appeals from the county courts 
and justices of the peace. The "town of St. 
Louis" is mentioned in the act and the dates 
for opening the terms of court therein for the 
county of St. Louis, are appointed — the second 
Monday in April, July and October. The cir- 
cuit judges were removable "for nonfeasance 
or misfeasance in office or neglect of duty, by 
joint ballot of both houses of the Legislature, 
two-thirds of both houses concurring." 

It is noteworthy that the act creating the 
circuit court conferred express authority to 
punish contempt by fine, not to "exceed ninety 
dollars," and imprisonment not longer than 
during the sitting of the court, unless a fine re- 
mained unpaid, in which event the imprison- 
ment might be ordered to continue until pay- 
ment of the fine. 

Various changes in the limitations of juris- 
diction of the court occurred from time to 
time, both in relation to the territory of the 
court's functions and respecting- the subjects 

1 Terr. Laws, Missouri, pace 14s. 



of its authority. As early (at least) as the Act 
of February 6, 1843, tnc eighth judicial cir- 
cuit of the State became confined to the 
County of St. Louis, and since then the terri- 
torial jurisdiction of the court has been marked 
by the boundaries of the county, and later of 
the city, of St. Louis. The criminal jurisdic- 
tion was severed from that of the circuit court 
proper by the establishment of the criminal 
court (see article on that subject) by the Laws 
of 1838-9, p. 28. 

Below we present a table showing. the names 

of the judges who have 
The Judges. served in the Circuit Court 

of St. Louis from the earli- 
est period of its existence. We shall not un- 
dertake to give in this article any sketch of 
the lives of these men, or of any of them. In 
other parts of this work those sketches may be 
found. It is enough to say that a great many 
of them have been men who ornamented the 
position, who presided with dignity and im- 
partiality, and, in many instances, with con- 
spicuous ability. Among the members of 
this bench will be found a number who at- 
tained eminence in other fields, both national 
and State. Some of these judges have be- 
come members of the United States Senate 
and House of Representatives ; others have 
filled cabinet positions, and other honorable 
offices ; yet others have served in higher judi- 
cial positions in the State and nation. It has 
not been possible in every instance to state 
with absolute accuracy the date of the begin- 
ning of service of each judge. Some of the 
most important archives of Missouri were de- 
stroyed by the fire which consumed the State 
House in Jefferson City in 1837. In those 
days the Governor appointed the judges, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
and the dates when commissions were actually 
issued to them, prior to 1837, can not always 
be stated with positiveness. But the date 
when actual service began on the bench is usu- 
ally marked by some court memorial which 
can be depended upon. Consequently, in the 
table which we present we have utilized in 
each instance that date of commencement of 
service which seems to be the most certain 
and reliable. The table otherwise explains 
itself. 

JUDGES op THE CIRCUIT COURT. 
SITTING AT si I,' iTJIS 



Circuit Judges 
David Barton 



2J Qualified. «>«««.«-■ 
April IS, 'l.K Oct., 1817 



ST. LOUIS CIRCUIT COURT. 



1955 



JUDGES OF THE CIRCUIT COURT.— Continued. 

SITTING AT ST. LOUIS. 

9 Appointed, E d f 
Circuit Judges. g Elected, or §■"">„ 

« Qualified. service. 

Nathaniel B. Tucker Feb. 9. '17. Resigned 

Jan. 21, '20. 

Alexander Gray Aprils, '20. Dec. 2, 1820. 

Nathaniel B.Tucker April 2, '21. Nov. 1, '22. 

Alexander Stuart June 2, '2:!. Resigned 

Maj' 27, '2(1. 

William C. Carr July 24, '20. Resigned 

Jan. 20, '34. 

Luke E. Lawless Mar. 24, '34. Resigned 

Jan., 1841. 

Bryan Mullanphy Feb. 13, '41. Resigned 

Mch.27, '44. 

John M. Krum April 10, '44. Apl., 1847. 

Alexander Hamilton April 12. '47. 

Reappointed 
Jan. 4. '4!i. 
Reappointed 
Jan. 29, '49. 1857. 

James R. Lackland August, 1857. Resigned 

Aug. 1859. 

Samuel M. Breckinridge Aug. 9, '50. Jan., 1864. 

James C. Moodey 1 Nov.. 1863. Byremov'l 

Dec. 1, '65. Mcb., 1867. 

Charles B. Lord 3 Dec. 19, '65. Died Nov., 

1868. 

Samuel Reber 2 Dec. 1, '65. Resigned 

Sept.. 1868. 

Roderick E. Rombauer 1 Mar. 11. '67. Nov., 1868. 

Irwin Z. Smith 2 Sept. 16. '67. Resigned 

Nov. 1868. Feb. 15, '70 

James K. Knight 3 Nov.3,'68. Died Nov. 

Nov., 1872. 1K76. 

George A. Madill 2 April 5, '70. Jan., 1875. 

James J. Lindley 4 Nov. 1870. 

Nov. 7, '7(1. Jan., 1883. 

Ephraim B. Ewing 1 Nov. 8, '70. Resigned 

Dec, 1872. 

Horatio M. Jones 5 Nov. 8, '70. Jan., 1877. 

Chester H. Krum 1 Nov. 6, '72. Resigned 

July, 1875. 

John Wickham 2 Nov. 3, '74. Jan., 1881. 

Louis Gottschalk 1 July, 1S75. Jan., 1879. 

Wilbur F. Boyle 3 Nov. 30, '76. 

Appointed to 

vacancy 

caused by 

death of 

J'ge Knight. 

El'ct'd Nov., 

1876. Jan., 1883. 

Amos M. Thayer 5 Nov., 1876 Resigned 

and Nov., '82. Mar. 4, '87, 
to accept 
appoint- 
ment as U. 
S. District 
Judge. 

ElmerB. Adams 1 Nov., 1878. Jan., 1883. 

Shepard Barclay 3 Nov., 1882. Resigned 

Dec. 3), '88 

George W. Lubke 2 Nov., 1882. Jan., 1889. 

William H. Horner 2 Nov., 1881. Died, 

Nov.. ism;. 

Daniel Dillon 4 Nov., 1884. 

Nov., 18(111. Jan . 1897. 

Lerov B. Valliant 5 Appointed 

Nov. 8, '86, to 

fill vacancy. 

Elect'dNov., 

1886. and 

Re-elected 

Nov., 18i)2. Jan., 1899, 



JUDGES OF THE CIRCUIT COVRT.-Can/,>u,ed. 

SITTING AT ST. LOUIS. 

§ Appointed, ... - 

Circuit Judges. § Elected, or e" ,.,°l 

K Qualified. service. 

James A. Seddon 2 Mar. 4. '87. Jan. 5 '89. 

Jacob Klein 1 Nov., 1888. 

Re-elected 

Nov., 1896. 
Daniel D. Fisher 4 Nov.. 1888. 

Nov.. 1896. 

Nov., L898. 
James E. Withrow 3 Nov , 1888, 

Re-elected 

Nov.. 1894. 
John A. Harrison 3 Appointed 

Spec'l Judge 

Dec. 6, 1892. Apr. 15. '93. 

John M. Wood li April 29, '95. Jan., 1897. 

Thomas A. Russell 7 April 29, '95. Jan., 1897. 

Pembrook R. Flitcraf t 2 Nov., 1894. 

Horatio D. Wood 5 Nov., '96 and 

Re-elected 

Nov., 1898. 

William Zachritz 1 Nov., 1896. 

John A. Talty 2 Nov., 1896. 

Selden P. Spencer 7 Nov., 1896. 

Franklin Ferriss 6 Nov., 1898. 

JUDGES OF THE ST. LOUIS COURT 
OF COMMON PLEAS: First term began 
February 21, 1841. — Honorable P. Hill Engle, 
appointed February, 1841, held office to Jan- 
uary, 1844; Honorable Montgomery Blair, 
appointed January, 1844, held office until Au- 
gust, 1849 ; Honorable Samuel Treat, ap- 
pointed August, 1849, resigned March, 1857; 
Honorable Samuel Reber, appointed March, 
1857, held office until the court was merged 
in circuit court, January 1, 1866, and then be- 
came circuit judge. 

JUDGES OF LAW COMMISSIONER'S 
COURT: First term held March, 1S51. — 
Honorable John H. Watson, appointed March, 
1851, held office to August, 1851 ; Honorable 
John W. Colvin, elected August, 1851, held 
office to August, 1857 ; Honorable Henry 
Dusenbury, elected August, 1857, held office 
to November, 1863; Honorable Roderick E. 
Rombauer, elected November, 1863, held 
office until consolidation of courts, Tanuarv, 
1866. 

TUDGES OF ST. LOUIS LAND 
COURT: First term held August, 1853. — 
Honorable Edward Bates, elected August, 
1853, held office until April, 1856; Honorable 
Charles B. Lord, April, 1856. to consolidation 
of courts, January. 1866. 

The salaries of the judges of the court have 
varied from time to time. In addition to the 
salary paid by the State to each of the circuit 
judges, further compensation has been paid 
by the county or the city for main years. Bj 



1 956 



ST. LOUIS CIRCUIT COURT. 



the Act of February 15, 1864, the county was 
required to pay $1,000 to each circuit judge, 
to enlarge the salary received from the State. 
By the law of December 19, 1865, each circuit 
judge of St. Louis was to be paid a salary of 
$4,000 per annum, $2,000 of which was pay- 
able by the State, and the residue by the 
County of St. Louis. By the Act of March 
10, 1869, the salary was raised to $4,500 per 
annum, of which $2,500 was payable by the 
County of St. Louis. By the Act of March 17, 
1871, the salary of each circuit judge was, in 
effect, increased to $5,500, it being provided 
that the county should pay $3,500 per annum 
in addition to the compensation (then and now 
$2,000) paid by the State to each circuit judge. 
Thus it appears that the last increase of sal- 
ary to these hard-worked public servants was 
in 1871, nearly thirty years ago. Notwith- 
standing the immense increase in the impor- 
tance of the business coming before these 
courts, the very great ability of many of the 
judges who have adorned that bench, and the 
enormous growth in wealth and importance 
of the city of St. Louis, no increase of the com- 
pensation of these valuable public officers has 
been made. Despite this apparent "'ingrati- 
tude of the republic," the spirit of the legal 
profession, and the laudable ambition to fill 
such an honorable place, have given to the 
public service in St. Louis almost continu- 
ously a most able, fearless and independent 
judiciary. Its membership to-day maintains 
its high position of former years, and the court 
as a body constitutes one of the most conserv- 
ative and trustworthy agencies in the adminis- 
tration of our local government. 

The following table gives the names of those 
who have filled the office 
Officers of the of sheriff since the reor- 
Court. ganization of the court in 

1866. when the circuit 
court was consolidated with the court of 
common pleas, the land court, and the law 
commissioner's court. The date opposite each 
name indicates the time when the sheriff men- 
tioned began his term of service : 

Jan., 1S66 John C. Vogel. 

Dec. 17, 1866 John McNeil. 

Jan., 187 1 Philip C. Taylor. 

Dec, 1874 H tui 1 Thomas. 

June 18, i^~~ John Finn. 

John Finn. 

Nov. 26, 1S80 Isaac M. Mason. 

Nov. 29, 18S4 Henry F. Harrington. 

Dec. I, 188S John Henry Pohlman. 



Dec. 30, 1890 Patrick M. Staed. 

Jan. 7, 1895 Henry Troll. 

Henry Troll. 
Jan. 2, 1S99 John Henry Pohlman. 

The following table gives the names of those 
who have filled the office of circuit clerk since 
the reorganization of the court in 1866: 

Feb. 20, 1867 F. A. H. Schneider. 

Nov. 25, 1867 John Lewis. 

Jan. 27, 1S71 John Lewis. 

Jan. 4. 1875 J. Fred. Thornton. 

Feb. 22. 1S7* Philip Stock. 

Jan. 6. 187L) Charles F. Vogel. 

Jan., 18S7 Philip H. Zepp. 

Jan. 7, 1895 Thos. B. Rogers. 

Jan. 2, i8qq Henry Troll. 

As indicating the amount of business trans- 
acted by the circuit court 
Business of the in recent years we subjoin 
Court. the following table, show- 

ing the number of cases 
which have been brought into the court for 
hearing. A consideration of this table will ad- 
vise the reader of the progress of litigation 
during the last twenty-six years down to the 
close of the year 1898. This schedule pre- 
sents only the civil business : 

In 1N73, cases brought 3.57° 

In 1S74, cases brought 4.470 

In 1875. cases brought 5,020 

In 1876, cases brought 4.230 

In 1877, cases brought 3,750 

In 1878, cases brought 3.560 

In 1879, cases brought 3.406 

In 1S80, cases brought 2,837 

In 1SS1, cases brought 2,655 

In 1SS2, cases brought 2,801 

In 18S3, cases brought 2,876 

In 1884, cases brought 2,900 

In 1885, cases brought 2,692 

In 1886, cases brought 2,869 

In 1887, cases brought 2,903 

In iSSS, cases brought 2.S22 

In 1SS9, cases brought 3,022 

In 1890, cases brought 3.002 

In 1891, cases brought 3,148 

In 1892, cases brought 3, 155 

In 1893, cases brought 4.647 

In 1894, cases brought 3.56$ 

In 1.895, cases brought 3-374 

In 1S96, cases brought 3.797 

In 1897. cases brought 3,354 

In 1898, cases brought 3.241 

According to the most authentic tradition,, 
the first building specially 
Courtrooms. erected as a courthouse 
was constructed in 181 7 on 
South Third Street, between Spruce and Al- 
mond. After that several temporary loca- 
tions were occupied by the courts. 

In 1822 the Legislature passed an act mak- 



ST. LOUIS CLUB. 



1957 



ing provision for the building of a courthouse 
and jail.* Under that act commissioners 
selected the block of ground on which the 
present civil court building is situated. But 
the history of the courthouse of St. Louis is 
given in another part of this work, and we 
need not repeat it here. 

In the limits of space marked for this article 
it has not been found practicable to review the 
litigation that has passed through the court, 
or to do justice to the great names of the mem- 
bers of the bar that have filled its history with 
important events and still more interesting 
traditions. In other parts of this Encyclope- 
dia will be found a great deal of material which 
properly appertains to the history of the court. 
1 Ours has been the duty to gather up such 
I facts as were not presented in other forms to 
I the reader. We have endeavored to do so as 
i best we might within the limitations pre- 
! scribed to us. 

Those who thoughtfully consider the facts 
! we have given, and the important part which 
[ the circuit court has played in the history of 
I our city, will, we believe, unite with us in the 
opinion that one of the most healthy forces in 
the development of the present metropolitan 
i greatness of St. Louis has been the continual 
presence of a courageous, able and incor- 
! ruptible judiciary. Our people are to be con- 
gratulated that, notwithstanding the inade- 
quate compensation which rewards the faith- 
. ful labors of the circuit judges, those impor- 
| tant posts are still filled with men who worthily 
I preserve the ermine in all its pristine purity. 
Shepard Barclay. 

St. Louis Club. — The St. Louis Club 
is an organization of gentlemen of means and 
position, drawn together for social purposes 
i only. At the same time that social intercourse 
| has been conducive to the advancement of 
. many of the most Important material interests 
i of the city and State, the entire membership of 
I the club making their influence strongly felt 
in all public movements. The club was incor- 
j porated Novemiber 28, 1878, by George H. 
j Rea, Daniel Catlin, Isaac Cook, Edwin Harri- 
son, B. B. Graham, George D. Capen and John 
W. Noble. The first officers were : George 
H. Rea, president ; John W. Noble, vice-pres- 
ident ; T. A. Stoddard and A. B. Cheever, sec- 
retaries. The first club home was in the Finney 
mansion, at No. 1532 Washington Avenue, 



which was opened with a public reception, 
September 23, 1879, when John W. Noble de- 
livered an address. These premises were oc- 
cupied until 1885, when the club removed to 
their present spacious and elegant quarters, on 
Locust Street ami Eu-ing Avenue. This 
building cost $142,000, this amount being con- 
tributed in sums of $5,000 by the members of 
the Commercial Club, who were also members 
of the St. Louis Club. The St. Louis Club is 
now building a club house, which, in dimen- 
sions, architectural beauty, and elegance of 
appointments, will surpass all edifices of its 
class in the Mississippi Valley, and stand sur- 
passed by none in the country. The location 
is on Lindell Avenue, between Grand and 
Spring Avenues. The site cost $60,000, and 
the contract cost of the building is $195,000. 
The building fund is provided by a corpora- 
tion composed of members of the club, which 
in its corporate capacity is inhibited from is- 
suing bonds or holding realty. The building 
is 100 feet square on the ground, and three 
stories high. The basement is occupied with 
a large swimming pool. On the first floor are 
the cafe, reading room, billiard room and of- 
fices ; on the second floor the library, dining 
rooms, and kitchen ; on the third floor, the ball 
room and sleeping rooms. The style of archi- 
tecture is of the French Renaissance ; the in- 
terior finishings are largely marble and mo- 
saic. September 1. 1899, ' s fixed as the date 
of occupation. The architects are Dillon & 
Freedlander, of New York, and Laurence 
Ewald, of St. Louis. The club is in excellent 
financiail condition. The membership is lim- 
ited to 500 : there are now 372 active resident 
members, and forty-eight non-resident mem- 
bers. 

St. Louis College of Homeopathic 
Physicians and Surgeons. — See "Ho- 
meopathic College of Missouri." 

St. Louis College of Physicians 
and Surgeons. — This college, which dif- 
fers only in name from a predecessor by the ad- 
dition of the word St. Louis, was incorporated 
in 1879 by James O. Broadhead, William 
Hyde, Louis Bauer, M. D., Isaac Cook. ( liis- 
tav Woltman. Charles P. Warner. L. M. Rum- 
sey, A. A. Millier. Ellis Wainwright and A. S. 
Barnes, M. D. A strong faculty was chosen, 
and the college entered upon a prosperous ca- 
reer. At first a building was procured on the 



ST. LOUIS COUNTRY CLUB— ST. LOUIS FAIR. 



southwest corner of North Market and Elev- 
enth Streets, which had been previouslj used 
for similar purposes. This was fitted up con- 
veniently, a dispensary was organized, and 

material was thus secured for illustration by 
clinical lectures. The regular work of the col- 
lege was commenced in the autumn of 1879, 
a ela-s nf five members being graduated in the 
spring of [880. Each succeeding class so in- 
creased in numbers that the management was 
forced to seek new and more commodious 
quarters. This necessity resulted in the erec- 
tion of a hands, nne building specially de- 
signed lor the accommodation of the college, 
on the corner of Jefferson Avenue and (iam- 
bic Street, where it is at present located. 

The course of instruction, which is a graded 
one. extends oxer four years of study in col- 
lege, devoted to dissections, laboratory work, 
didactic and clinical instruction, recitation and 
quizzes, demonstrations and manual training 
in the use of instruments and appliances. 

St. Louis Country Club.— This club 

had its original organization in 180.2, its pur- 
poses being social, with polo playing as its 
principal recreation. William Scudder was 
president, and Otto L. Mersman was secre- 
tary; there is no record of the board of direc- 
tors. The management leased the old Bridge 
farm, about a mile south of Clayton, in Floris- 
sant Valley, occupying the residence thereon. 
In 1895 E. C. Sterling, Daniel Catlin, Judge 
Wilbur Boyle and others, constituting a driv- 
ing club, proposed a consolidation of the two 
clubs. This was favorably regarded, and. in 
order to carry it into effect, the members of 
the two organizations incorporated under the 
general law as the St. Louis Country Club, 
with the following officers: E. C. Sterling, 
president; John F. Shepley and Wilbur F. 
Boyle, vice-presidents; C W. Mersman, sec- 
retary, and A. I,. Shapleigh, treasurer. The 
capital stock was then increased to $30,000, 
and a lease was secured upon contiguous land, 
upon which a clubhouse and stables were 
erected. September 15. [897, the main build- 
ing was destroyed by fire; the loss was $22,001 1, 

and the insurance was $17,1 , The club 

made up $15,000 in contributions b\ the mem- 
bership, and a new building was erected. 
larger, but on the same general plan. The 
grounds amount to 133 acres. Driving and 
golf are practiced with interest, while polo is 
regarded with much favor. The polo team has 



made a record which compares favorably yyith 
the best in the world, it having in recent con- 
tests kit the Chicago and Buffalo teams hope- 
lessly dt feated. The club boasts a better finan- 
cial condition and legitimate exclusiveness 
than any club in the West, if not in the coun- 
try. Membership stock shares, par value $100, 
sell for $350. The constitutional member- 
ship, 300, is full, and there are thirty desirable 
applicants on the waiting list. The present 
officers are : Wilbur F. Boyle, president ; Dan- 
iel G. Taylor, secretary, and A. L. Shapleigh, 
treasurer. 

St. Louis Eye and Ear Infirmary.— 

An institution incorporated December 23, 
[871, lor the gratuitous treatment of all poor 
persons suffering from affections of the eye, 
ear and throat. It was located at 1409 North 
Twelfth Street, and among its founders were 
fames F. Yeatman, Rev. William G. Eliot, 
Albert Todd, Carlos S. Greeley, Dr. J. B. 
Ji hnson. Dr. William M. McPheeters, Dr. E. 
Fl. Gregory, Dr. William C. Glasgow and 
others. After being sustained for a couple of 
years the medical staff discontinued their serv- 
ices, and the infirmary was transferred to St. 
Luke's 1 Iospital. 

St. Louis Fair. — The St. Louis Fair is 
not only one of the oldest and most popular 
public institutions in the Mississippi Valley, 
but maintains the reputation of being far in 
advance of any similar institution in the world. 
It practically belongs to, and is identified with, 
the history of St. Louis, and its great popu- 
larity and success as a live stock, mechanical 
and agricultural exhibition has accomplished 
more, perhaps, toward the growth, the en- 
hanced value of property, and the general en- 
largement of the city than any other enterprise 
inaugurated in the past fifty years. Its enter- 
prising management has added, year after 
year, many new attractions, until, in 1898, its 
forty-second year, it has reached a state Hear- 
ing perfection. The grounds, including the 
race track, cover an area of 143 acres, now- 
situated almost in the heart of the city. The 
handsome buildings within its enclosure were 
constructed with the most artistic skill in 
modern architecture. The fair grounds proper 
ci instil ute one 1 f the city's beautiful parks, and 
are now reached bv numerous lines of electric 
cars. The liberal premiums awarded each 
vear amount to seventy or cightv thousand 



ST. LOUIS FAIR. 



1959 



dollars. This money has been distributed to 
exhibitors from all parts of the United States 
and Canada, and tens of thousands of people 
from this and adjacent States are annually at- 
tracted to it. The magnificent premiums of- 
fered to exhibitors of live stock have been the 
means of encouraging the breeding of fine 
blooded stock of every description. The 
finest horses, cattle, sheep, hogs and poultry 
ever seen in the country compete annually in 
the pens and arena. In this connection it 
must be remembered that Missouri took 
more premiums on live stock at the Chicago 
World's Fair than any other State in the Un- 
ion. Much of this is due to the encourage- 
ment given to breeders by the enterprising 
management of this association. Great atten- 
tion is also given to the products of the soil, as 
well as to machinery, vehicles, farming imple- 
ments and the fine arts, all of which conspire 
to improve and cultivate public taste. 

It was in November, 1855, that the first 
movement was made toward the establish- 
ment of this institution. The charter for the 
St. Louis Fair was written in that year, and 
was granted at the following session of the 
Legislature. The instrument was written by 
ex-Lieutenant-Governor Robert A. Camp- 
bell, at the instance of Colonel J. Richard Bar- 
ret, who was then a member of the Legisla- 
ture, and afterward first president of the asso- 
ciation. The year following the requisite 
amount of stock subscriptions was obtained. 
a tract of fifty acres of land, at the northeast 
corner of Grand Avenue and Natural Bridge 
Road, was purchased for $50,000, and on Mon- 
day, the 13th of October, 1856, the fair was in- 
augurated under the most favorable auspices. 
The first officers and board of directors were 
the following named gentlemen : President. 
J. Richard Barret ; secretary, G. O. Kalb ; 
treasurer, Henry S. Turner ; board of direc- 
tors, Henry T. Blow, Norman J. Colman, 
Thornton Grimsley, John Whitnell, John M. 
Chambers. H. C. Hart, Charles L. Hunt. J. 
Richard Barret, Andrew Harper, Thomas T. 
January, James M. Hughes, Henry S. Turner 
and F. Dings. Of these far-seeing and pub- 
lic-spirited citizens all have passed over the 
"great divide" except J. Richard Barret, who 
now (1898) resides in New York City; Nor- 
man J. Colman and G. O. Kalb. Colonel 
Barret served four successive years as presi- 
dent, and G. O. Kalb, in the capacity of sec- 
retary and superintendent, for a period of 



twenty-seven war-. In [860 Andrew Har- 
per succeeded Colonel Barret in the presi 
dency. In September of that year the Prince 
of Wales, the Luke of Newcastle and other 
distinguished foreigners visited St. Louis, and 
devoted one day of their time to the attrai 
tions at the fair grounds. One hundred and 
fifty thousand people had congregated within 
the enclosure to receive his Royal Highness. 
The president escorted the Prince and his as 
sociates over the grounds, and through the dif- 
ferent department buildings. Among the pr< >mi- 
nent horses exhibited at the first fair were : Sil- 
ver Heels, St. Lawrence. Dixie, Ethan Allen. 
Flora Temple, Stockbridge Chief, Revenue, 
Green Mountain Boy, Illinois Farmer, Char- 
ter < )ak. Young Consternation, Darkness, 
Trojan. Denmark. Granite State, Henry Clay, 
Bell Founder and King William. Silver 
Heels was the great favorite in the exhibitions 
and captured the first premium awarded by 
the association. He was owned by General 
Singleton, of Quincy. Illinois. The second 
prize went to St. Lawrence, the property of 
Thomas T. January, of St. Louis County. 
"Douglass," a short-horn bull, owned by Gen- 
eral J. O. Shelby, of Lafayette County, Mis- 
souri, took the first premium in the cattle dis- 
play. Colonel David Clarkson, of St. Louis 
County, was awarded the first prize on Cots- 
wold sheep, and H. Clay Taylor, of Warren 
County, Missouri, was awarded first premium 
on thoroughbred mares and jacks and South- 
down sheep. Ex-Governor Robert A. Camp- 
"bell officiated as herald for the first fair, and 
was succeeded by Colonel John F. Long, and 
later on came Colonel John I. Martin. 

Prior to the Civil War the fairs were held 
in the last week of September, except the first, 
which opened October 13th, and after the war 
the date was changed to the first week in Oc- 
tober, on account of it being further from the 
equinox and a better promise of more settled 
weather. Thursday of each fair week was, and 
still is, set apart as a general holiday, and a 
large proportion of the population puts in the 
dav at the fair grounds. It was not unusual 
in the early days of the fair to witness from 
75.000 to 125,000 people within the enclosure. 
Monday, the first day of each fair, is given up 
to the school children, free of admission, who 
take full possession of the grounds, including 
unlimited privileges. "Big Thursday," in 
1850. will loner be remembered by those in at- 
tendance as "Rainv Thursday." On the after- 



L960 



ST. LOUIS FAIR. 



in ii ni of that memorable day a heavy rain 
set in, and continued without intermission 
tin i iughi mi the i \ ening and far int< i the night. 
In those days not a single street railroad was 
operating that far in the northwestern section 
of the city, and but few cross streets were con- 
structed much further west than Sixteenth 
Street — they were nothing more than dirt 
roads, and were ver) rough and ungainly at 
that. The only means of reaching the fair 
grounds was by private conveyance, and 
every imaginable and available description of 
vehicle was brought into requisition to con- 
vey the masses to and from the grounds. \- 
darkness approached it was apparent that the 
transportation facilities were altogether inade- 
quate tn transfer the immense crowds to the 
city proper. The roads were so heavy that the 
In irsi s and mules attached to the different con- 
veyances were unable to draw their loads of 
human freight. In many instances men. wo- 
men and children were obliged to vacate their 
seats and wade through the rain and mud 
to their homes, miles away. Upward of 5,000 
men, women and children — babies in arms — 
were compelled to remain over night on the 
grounds and in sheltering sheds, stables and 
houses on the roads leading to the city. Those 
who tarried on the grounds were made as 
comfortable as circumstances would permit. 
Every department building, as well as many 
of the unoccupied stalls, were taken possessii >n 
1 if during the night by the surging crowds 
who were unable to secure transportation, and 
remained there until the storm subsided on 
the following morning. 

On account of tin- breaking out of the war 
in [860 the exhibitions were discontinued, 
and no fairs were held in 1861, 1862. 1863 and 
[864. The grounds were taken possession of 
by the military authorities and turned intii 
what was known as "Benton Barracks," and 
tented with soldiers. Strange to say, the 
government has never reimbursed the associa- 
ti hi fur the use of the grounds. 

In the early days of the fair all premiums 
were paid either in gold or silver plate, and 
tin awards wire distributed in the arena to 
the grooms who had charge of the successful 
animals. The grooms were gorgeously uni- 
formed, and principally slaves. After the war 
it was made optional to pay the premiums in 
plate or money, and the latter soon became 
preferable. At the fair in [866 an exhibitor 
from Arkansas captured a premium of $75 in 



plate. He called upon the management and 
desired to have it exchanged for a watch, be- 
cause, as he seriously remarked, he had nei- 
ther lock m t latch on his door, but a 
timepiece he could carry in his pocket. The 
request was granted, and Secretary Kalb 
made the exchange with Eugene Jaccard, who 
supplied the gold and silver plate premiums 
for the Fair Association. 

The annual increase of exhibitors and of 
live-stock rendered the then amphitheater en- 
tirely too small for the accommodation of the 
numerous displays, and in the year 1870 the 
new, beautiful and commodious building was 
constructed, which now adorns the grounds, 
being fifteen hundred feet in circumference, 
and possessing a seating and standing capac- 
ity of 25.000. The arena of this grand amphi- 
theater, where all live stock is exhibited and 
their speed and endurance tested, is acknowl- 
edged tn be the largest and most beautiful in 
the world. 

The Zoological Garden was established and 
opened to the public in October, 1876. The 
plans fur the buildings were drawn by Thomas 
Walsh, the architect, from photographic views 
of the Zoological Gardens of Hamburg, Ber- 
lin and other prominent places of Europe- 
After the necessary buildings were erected. 
consisting of comfortable quarters for harbor- 
ing the different animals, and every detail 
made in readiness for their reception, a com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting of Julius S. 
Walsh, Charles L. Hunt. Napoleon Mulliken 
and ( i. 0. Kalb. to purchase the animals and 
birds for stocking the Zoological Garden. 
This committee visited the New York Central 
Park Menagerie, and the famous wild animal 
dealer. Charles Reiche, then in New York, 
and also immediately opened correspondence 
with Mr. Hagenbach, in Hamburg, and made 
their first purchases from these different 
sources. Their collection was as numerous in 
variety of the different species of carnivorous 
animals and birds as could be found in this 
country. 1 luring Mr. Kalb's administration 
as secretary and superintendent he exchanged 
all duplicate animals, which were either born 
at the Zoo or purchased in the Western States, 
with 'he gardens of Philadelphia. Cincinnati 
and Xew York, and thereby kept the interest 
alive. There was born in the St. Louis Zoo 
a zebra, which is claimed to be the only one 
ever burn in captivity in the United States. 
There were also born several monkeys, kan- 



ST. LOUIS FAIR. 



garoos, bears, wolves, lions, leopards, pumas, 
yaks, elks, deer and many others too numer- 
ous to mention. Several sea lions were im- 
ported from San Francisco, and proved to be 
very interesting to the public. The royal 
Bengal tiger never bred at the St. Louis Zoo. 
In 1891 what animals remained of this collec- 
tion were sold to the city authorities of St. 
Louis, and are now rusticating at Forest Park. 

The memorable industrial parade came off 
in St. Louis in October, 1878. There were 
thirteen divisions, comprising floats represent- 
ing almost every industry in the city, and up- 
ward of 20,000 people were in the line of 
march. At the starting of the column a heavy 
rain set in. but nothing daunted, the pro- 
gramme was carried out to the letter. The 
whole body of the procession marched 
through the principal streets and entered the 
fair grounds late in the afternoon. 

In 1880 Mr. Charles Green entered upon 
the presidency of the Fair Grounds Associa- 
tion, and served in that capacity for twelve 
successive years. During his administration 
varied and extensive improvements were in- 
augurated — many necessary buildings were 
put up — but the most important of these was 
the laying out of the mile race track, the con- 
struction of the grand stand, capable of seat- 
ing 15,000 people, the magnificent clubhouse, 
the handsome and commodious stables, and 
other buildings for the accommodation of ex- 
hibition and racing animals, the whole com- 
prising a beautiful city within the fair grounds 
enclosure. Mr. Green's first suggestion to 
establish a high-class race course in connec- 
tion with the fair grounds met with many ob- 
jections from the parties in control, but 
through his indomitable energy and persever- 
ance he succeeded in his purpose. In 1883 
work was commenced and pushed forward 
with his usual enterprise, energy and progres- 
siveness. Xo pains or money were spared to 
make it an ideal race course, notwithstanding 
the doubts existing as to its success. The 
work was speedily and successfully accom- 
plished, and it stands to-day the pride and 
glory of the lovers of the turf throughout the 
country, and acknowledged by all to be the 
best, fastest and most complete institution of 
its kind in the world. The race track proper 
contains sixty acres. The purchase of the ad- 
ditional ground, the grading, fencing and 
other necessary improvements were completed 
at a cost of Si 10,000. The amount expended 



on the grand stand was Si [0,000, which con- 
tains all the conveniences appertaining to the 
purposes intended. It is three stories high 
and 480 feet in length. The front row in the 
third story is devoted to private boxes, ovei 
looking the entire grounds. The clubhouse is 
recognized as one of the most complete, as 
well as one of the most artistic, structures of 
its kind on the American Continent, and was 
built at a cost of 874,000, including its fur- 
nishings. It is devoted exclusively to the 
club members, their families and invited 
guests. Tlie membership in [897 numbered 
250, with annual dues of $50 for each member. 
The stabling and other necessary buildings 
for the accommodation and comfort of til 1 
hibition and racing horse- were constructed at 
a cost of $55,000. The stables are roomy, 
comfortable and well ventilated, and excel- 
lently adapted to the purposes intended. The 
race track and the numerous buildings there- 
on were constructed at an aggregate cost to 
the ass ciation of $500,000. The supervision, 
engineering, grading and laying out of the 
track were under the superintendence of Ju- 
lius Pitzman. To the energy and persever- 
ance of President Green ami his enterprising 
associates the citizens of St. Louis, and the 
lovers of highbred racing, are indebted for 
these magnificent additions to the Agricultu- 
ral and Mechanical Association grounds. The 
first racing meeting over the new track 
was held on the 6th of June, 1885, with six 
hotly contested races, and racing on the 
course has continued every year since then. 
Following are the names of some of the most 
celebrated- horses participating in the inau- 
gural programme of the St. Louis Jockey 
Club: Modesty, Asa IX, Favor, Tom Martin. 
Hazaras, Rapids, Loftin, Adventurer. Ilattie 
T). H.. Sister Monica, Reverse, Flora L., 
Thistle, Troubadour. Verona, Lizzie Dwyer, 
Bersan. Isaac Murphy. Kosciusko, Top Saw 
yer, Talleyrand, Whizzig, Bonnie S., Ten 
Stone. Charley Lucas, Doubt, and others. 
The winner of the first purse of $500 offered 
was Modesty, a chestnut filly, entered by I'M. 
Corrigan. Eight horses started on a mile 
dash. Ada D. captured the prize of $2,385 in 
the second race. She was a brown filly, en- 
tered by Wooding & Purvear. The grand 
I (erby nurse of $4,80 1 was won in a hotly con- 
tested race by Favor, a bay colt, enter. 
Morris & Pattern ; one mile and a half. The 
fourth struggle for a prize of $500 was cap- 



1962 



ST. LOUIS FAIR. 



tured by Tom Martin, a bay colt, entered b\ 
P. C. Fox & Co. The fifth dash for $400 
was won by Hazaras, a chestnut colt, three 
years old, entered by Ed. Corrigan. The 
officers of the first meeting of the St. Louis 
Jockey Club were Charles Green, president; 
B. G. Bruce, secretary. The judges were J. 
\\ . Brewster, of Chicago; A. W. Gates, of 
Chicago, and Charles Green, of St. Louis. 
The timers were W. R. Cotrill, of Mobile; 
Samuel Brown, of Pittsburg, and Edward 
Martin, of St. Louis: the starter, J. G. Sheri- 
dan, of New York. Ten thousand people wit- 
nessed the racing of the opening day, thou- 
sands of whom were the fair daughters of St. 
Louis. In the evening of the inaugural day 
a royal banquet was spread in the dining 
rooms of the clubhouse, and those who par- 
ticipated presented President Green with a 
magnificent gold watch and chain, costing 
$540, attesting their appreciation of his fore- 
thought, enterprise and determination. 

Among the distinguished public officials, 
politicians and live stock breeders who have 
visited the St. Louis Fair at different periods 
of its existence, have been I 'resident C. S. 
Grant, in 1875 and [876; President Grover 
Cleveland and Mrs. Cleveland, in 1883; Presi- 
dent Benjamin Harrison, in 1887; Vice-presi- 
dent Henry Wilson. Vice-president Thomas 
A. Hendricks. Vice-president Schuyler 
Colfax General W. S. Hancock. Horace 
Greeley, who delivered a speech in the 
arena; General F. P. Blair, Jr., Stephen A. 
Douglas, Governor B. Gratz Brown, General 
W. T. Sherman, Ceneral Bosie, General Sheri- 
dan, General John S. Fullerton, the Emperor 
of Brazil, Dom Pedro; the Prince of Wales, 
the Duke of Newcastle, Postmaster-General 
Montgomery Blair, General Samuel R. Cur- 
tis, Judges Samuel Miller and Samuel Treat, 
of the United States Court; Senator Mc- 
Creery, Senator R. O. Mills. General John B. 
Henderson, Attorney-General Edward Bate-. 
Governor Bowie. Senator Cullom. Governor 
Luke P. Blackburn. Governor Oglesby, Hon- 
orable William R. Morrison. John T. Hughe-, 
of Lexington, Ky. ; Secretaries of the Interior 
John W. Noble and David R. Francis. Sen- 
ator James Lane. Senator John Sherman. Hie 
Grand Duke Alexis of Russia. Jay Gould and 
daughter. Colonel E. Ellsworth. R. A. Alex 
ander, A. J. Alexander, Abe Buford, Governor 
Norman J. Colman, Governor John S. Phelps, 
Governor Charles Hardin. Governor Silas 



Woodson, Governor T. T. Crittenden, Gov- 
ernor W. S. Stewart, Governor J. S. Manna- 
duke, Governor William J. Stone, Governor 
Lon V, Stephens, Governor Sterling Price, 
Governor Claib. F. Jackson, Governor 
Thomas ( . Reynolds. 

Among the noted horses participating in 
the early years of the Fair were: Addison, 
Noting Hiram, Black Hawk, Morgan, La- 
clede, Woeful. Black Chieftain, Young 11am- 
bletonian. Flying Cloud. White Mountain, 
Harrod, Comet, Black Hawk Prince. Morgan 
Hunter. < ireen Mountain Boy, Young War- 
rior, General Gifford, Edwin Forrest, Silver 
Heels, St. Lawrence, Black Bird, Albion, 
Henry Clay. Bill Allen. Bell Founder, Wide- 
a-Wake, Kimball Jackson, Peerless, Stock- 
bridge Chief. Sherman Morgan, Long Light- 
ning, Granite State, Morgan Prince, Ethan 
Allen, Richmond. General Stark, King Wil- 
liam, Charter Oak, Lexington, Ruric, Prince- 
ton, Priam. Warfield, Young Barronton, Rev- 
enue, Little Arthur, Governor Bowie, Bar- 
num, Gold Finden, Castor, Doubloon, Dark- 
ness, Trojan, Denmark, Dexter, Clark Den- 
mark, Denmark. Jr.. Amboy, Mamona, Dixie, 
and Tackey. Among the celebrated animals 
contesting in the St. Louis arena in the later 
years of the hair were: Lenington, Ten 
Broeck, Pat Malloy. Uncle Vie, Bonnie Scot- 
land, Don Cassock. King Rene, Onward, ■ Cor- 
bin's Bashaw, Gold Dust. The King, Rex 
McDonald, Lou Chief, Nutwood, Green's 
Bashaw. Lady de Jarnette, Prince Denmark, 
Billy Boyce, Goldsmith Maid. Aytoun. Pilot 
Temple, Montrose, Chestnut Boy, Governor 
Sprague, George Wilkes, Maud S., J. I. ('.. 
Mambrino Chief, Pilot, Jr., Dexter, Woodford 
Mambrino, Rysdyck's Hambletonian, Al>- 
dallah, Trouble. Strathmore, Green Mountain 
Chief. Alexander's Abdallah, Clark Chief, 
Mambrino Patchen, Ben Patchen, Red Ink, 
Harry Wilkes. Colman's Abdallah. Almont, 
George M. Patchen, Black Diamond, Brent- 
wood, Joe 1 looker, C. M. Claw Mambrino 
Star. Wedgewood, and Mambrino King. 

The public-spirited gentlemen who have 
served a term or more as officers of the asso- 
ciation are as follows : First president. J, 
Richard Barret, four years; vice-presidents, 
\. Harper, Thornton Grimsley, and H. C. 
Mart: treasurer, Henry S. Turner: secretary, 
G. O. Kalb; second president, Andrew Har- 
per, one year; vice-presidents, C. L. Hunt. 
Charles Todd, and FTenry T. Blow; treasurer,. 



ST. LOUIS, FOUNDING OF. 



1963 



G. B. Allen ; secretary, G. O. Kalb ; third pres- 
ident, Charles Todd, five years ; vice-presi- 
dents, Andrew Harper, Daniel G. Taylor, and 
Alexander McKinley; treasurer, Ben O'Fal- 
lon; secretary, G. O. Kalb; fourth president, 
Arthur B. Barret, eight years ; vice-presidents. 
Ben O'Fallon, Ansel Phillips, and J. O'F. 
Farrar; treasurer, Daniel G. Taylor; secre- 
tary, G. O. Kalb; fifth president, Julius S. 
Walsh, four years ; vice-presidents, D. K. Fer- 
guson, Edward A. Manny, and Charles P. 
Chouteau ; treasurer, E. C. Lackland ; secre- 
tary, G. O. Kalb ; superintendent of Fair 
Grounds, David Clarkson ; sixth president, 
Gerard B. /Mien, two years ; vice-presidents, 
Charles Green, Charles L. Hunt, and E. A. 
Manny ; treasurer, E. C. Lackland ; secretary 
and superintendent, G. O. Kalb ; seventh 
president, Charles Green, twelve years ; vice- 
presidents, G. B. Allen, Charles P. Chouteau, 
and Edwin Harrison ; treasurer, J. R. Lion- 
berger; secretary and superintendent, G. O. 
Kalb ; eighth president, Rolla Wells, two 
years ; vice-presidents, L. M. Rumsey, Ellis 
Wainwright, and Alvah Mansur ; treasurer, 
August B. Ewing; secretary, William M. 
Lockwood ; ninth president, Charles Clark, 
one year; vice-presidents, Charles C. Maffit, 
Alvah Mansur, and Rolla Wells ; treasurer, 
William M. Lockwood; secretary, J. K. 
Gwynn ; tenth president, Charles C. Mafiitt, 
two years ; vice-presidents, A. B. Ewing, Al- 
vah Mansur, and James Green ; eleventh pres- 
ident, L. M. Rumsey, one year; vice-presi- 
dents, Robert Aull, A. B. Ewing, and Charles 
Clark ; treasurer, William M. Lockwood ; sec- 
retary, Joseph A. Murphy; twelfth president, 
Robert Aull ; vice-presidents, A. B. Ewing, 
L. M. Rumsey, and Alvah Mansur; treasurer, 
William M. Lockwood; secretary, Joseph A. 

Mur P h >'- Charles G. Gonter. 

St. Louis, Founding of. — St. Louis 
was founded as the result of a fur trader's en- 
terprise. In the year 1762 the firm of Maxent, 
Laclede & Co., formed in New Orleans, ob- 
tained from Louis Billouart de Kerlerec, Colo- 
inial Governor of Louisiana, a concession 
] which gave them exclusive control of the fur 
j trade with the Missouri and other tribes of 
I Indians as far north as the River St. Peter. 
(The junior member of this firm was Pierre 
Liguest Laclede, commonly called Pierre 
Laclede, and to him was intrusted the estab- 
lishment of a permanent trading post some- 



where in the vicinity of the junction of the 
Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. The choice 
of a site for the proposed trading post was left 
to him. and he had entire charge of the expedi- 
tion fitted out to carry forward their enter- 
prise. On the 3d of August, 1763, accompanied 
by a small party of hardy adventurers and his 
family, he embarked in primitive boats which 
had been loaded with goods for the Indian 
trade, and which were slowly and laboriously 
pushed up the Mississippi River. It had been 
his intention to store his goods at Ste. Gene- 
vieve while selecting a location for the trading 
post which he was to establish, but when he 
landed at that place he failed to rind such ac- 
commodations as he needed, and proceeded 
to Fort Chartres, which he reached three 
months after leaving New Orleans. After 
making such preliminary arrangements as 
were necessary, he left the fort to explore the 
country about the mouth of the Missouri 
River, and coming -upon the site of St. Louis 
in the course of his explorations, was so im- 
pressed with its advantageous situation that 
he at once determined that here was a natural 
trade center and the place for a town. He 
found here no aborigines laying claim to the 
site of the future city, and did not have to ask 
anybody's consent to enter upon and occupy 
the lands necessary for his purpose. His young 
stepson, Auguste Chouteau, had accompanied 
him. and to this lad he communicated his in- 
tention of establishing a trading post at this 
point, and marked the trees so that the boy 
could easily identify the spot upon his return. 
They then returned to Fort Chartres to make 
preparations for carrying forward the work 
planned, and not long afterward young Chou- 
teau, who was evidently an unusually intelli- 
gent and trustworthy youth, left the post ac- 
companied by about thirty men to enter upon 
the work of clearing a town site and building 
settlers' cabins at St. Louis. This party came 
in boats by way of the river and landed on 
the site of the present city February 14, 1764. 
About the same time Laclede, who had trav- 
eled across the country from Fort Chartres, 
arrived here, and under his direction the work 
of laying- out a town was begun by Auguste 
Chouteau. The first trees were felled and the 
first cabins were erected on the block which 
afterward was occupied by the old "Chouteau 
Mansion." During the spring and summer 
of 1764 the work of laving out the town — after 
the approved plan of French villages estab- 



1964 ST. I. oris HOMEOPATHIC MEDICAL SOCIETY— ST. LOUIS IN 1807. 



lished in the Mississippi valley — and erecting 
homes for the settlers and the buildings in 

which I. acinic was to carry on his trading 
operations progressed steadily, and when the 
autumn came the settlement, which was to 
develop into a greal city, had a well-defined 
existence. Thus was St. Louis founded, the 
year 1764 having been its natal year, and 
I'ierre Laclede the originator of the idea of 
establishing a town here and director of the 
work of laying it out, with Auguste Chouteau 
as his chief lieutenant and most valued assist- 
ant. The most pretentious of the buildings 
en 1 ted at first was that which was to be oc- 
cupied bv Laclede, and this was ready for oc- 
cupancy in the early autumn of 1 764. Laclede 
then brought to his trading post, which he 
had named St. Louis, the stock of goods 
which he had brought up from New ( )rleans. 
and which had been left at Fort Chartres until 
storage .facilities had been provided for them 
here. With this stock of goods designed for 
the Indian trade the commerce of the place 
began, and thus was inaugurated the fur trade 
for which St. Louis was so long headquar- 
ters, and which in later years assumed such 
large proportions. The transfer of the Illinois 
country to England by France, which took 
place shortly after St. Louis was founded, con- 
tributed somewhat to the growth of the new 
settlement on the west bank of the river, a 
considerable number of the French settlers at 
Cahokia, St. Philippe, Prairie du Rocher and 
other places moving to the west side of the 
river in the hope that they would here still 
be able to live under French government. 
Devoting himself to his commercial pursuits, 
Laclede made no effort to establish any form 
of government for his settlement, and as the 
settlers were bound to each other by ties of 
personal friendship and community of inter- 
ests, there was little need of government. 
Besides Pierre Laclede and Auguste Chou- 
teau, the more prominent of those who may be 
said to have ''been in at the birth" of St. Louis 
appear to have been Madame Therese Chou- 
teau. Baptiste Riviere, Antoine Riviere, Jo- 
seph Pecquet. Andre Pecquet, Gabriel Dodier, 
Paptiste Martigny, Lemoine Martigny, Fran- 
cois Delin, Paul Kierseraux, Gregoire Kierse- 
raux, Alexis Picanl. Antoine Pothier, Louis 
Chancelier, Joseph Chancelier, Louis Ride, 
Louis Marcheteau, Joseph Marcheteau, Fran- 
cis Marcheteau, Michael I.ami, Joseph Bra- 
zeau, Louis Brazeau, Nicholas Peaugenou, 



Guillaume Bissette, Joseph M. Taillon .and 
Roger Taillon. Pierre Chouteau — the first of 
that name in St. Louis — one of the most con- 
spicuous figures among the early settlers, wit- 
nessed the founding of the town as a child, 
six ; ear- 1 if age. 

St. Louis Homeopathic Medical 

Society. —This society (generally, but im- 
properly, known as the St. Louis Society of 
Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons) was 
organized at Dr. Burleigh's office in 1868. with 
thirty members, the first officers being Dr. 
William Todd Helmuth, president, and Dr. 
W. R. Richardson, secretary. Its purpose was 
to associate together the homeopathic practi- 
tioners in the city for the advancement of the 
medical sciences, the individual improvement 
of each member, and the promotion of har- 
mony and kindly feeling. The next spring the 
Missouri Institute of Homeopathy held its 
annual meeting in St. Louis, as the guests of 
the St. Louis Homeopathic Society, which has 
in more recent days frequently entertained the 
State body, and on one occasion the National 
Homeopathic Society. In 1890 the society was 
incorporated under the general law. The 
names of the incorporators are not accessible. 
Dr. T. G. Comstock was president, and Dr. 
Burleigh was secretary. During a portion of 
its existence meetings of the society were ir- 
regular, on account of various disagreements. 
It had no established home, but met in offices 
of the members, until it secured a room in the 
Public Library building, which it occupied 
from 1893 until [898. In the latter year the 
society arranged for the use of parlors in the 
West End I Intel, where it continues to hold 
meetings on the second and fourth Saturdays 
in each month, when prepared programmes 
are given, comprising essays and discussions 
upon general and clinical subjects, with occa- 
sional presentation of a patient. The mem- 
bership is eighty-five, including a number of 
females. The officers are : Dr. W. J. Gun- 
delach, president : Dr. A. L. Boyce, vice- 
president : Dr. G. N. Seidlitz. secretary- 



St. Louis in 1 SOT. —The Cincinnati 
"Literary Gazette." published in 1826, had a 
sketch of St. Louis as it appeared from the Illi- 
nois shore to a lady visitor in 1807. "The trav- 
eler." she writes, "that passes upon the eastern 
bank of the river immediatelv directs his eve 



ST. LOUIS LAW SCHOOL. 



1965 



to the opposite shore. He there contemplates 
a bold and rocky eminence, where the pri- 
meval materials of nature's strength seem 
piled in rude and disordered magnificence. 
The ascent is steep and difficult, and has the 
aspect at a distance of threatening to exclude 
you from the town, which it beautifully ele- 
vates to a considerable height above the water, 
at the same time proving an impenetrable ram- 
part to ward off the encroachments of the 
river. You would almost believe the houses 
were united and that the roofs upheld and sup- 
ported one another, so gradual and so beauti- 
fullv has nature bent her brow for the recep- 
tion of this village. From the opposite shore 
it has a majestic appearance, which it borrows 
from its elevated site and from a range of 
Spanish towers that crown the summit of the 
hill and bend their Gothic rudeness to complete 
a picture which scarcely has a parallel. The 
principal houses of St. Louis are surrounded 
bv massy walls of stone to serve as defense 
in time of danger, the port holes with which 
they are pierced testifying that they were con- 
structed as fortifications to repel the bold and 
sanguinary savage. Within these rough en- 
closures are planted trees of various descrip- 
tions, which, like infancy smiling in the arms 
of age, serve to decorate the otherwise sombre 
aspect of the town." 

St. Louis Law School. — The St. 

Louis Law School is one of several depart- 
ments of Washington University, which insti- 
tution was authorized by act of the Legisla- 
ture of the State of Missouri as early as Feb- 
ruary 22, 1853, under a most liberal charter, 
affording great opportunity and imposing 
large responsibility upon those who are 
charged with the administration of its affairs. 
About 1867 Dr. William G. Eliot, then presi- 
dent of the board of trustees, and a man who 
was ever intent to narrow the chasm between 
law and ethics, first suggested the idea of es- 
tablishing a law school in connection with the 
university. The suggestion found ready ear 
with the trustees and with the more prominent 
members "of the bar, some of whom were even 
then associated with the work of the uni- 
versity. The first meeting looking to the es- 
tablishment of a law school was held in the 
office of Samuel Treat, then the United States 
district judge. This meeting was attended by 
James H. Lucas. Samuel Treat. John M. 
Krum. Tames E. Yeatman, John F. How and 



Henn Hitchcock. It resulted in the appoint- 
ment of a committee, with John M. Krum as 
chairman, charged with the duty to formulate 
and report a plan for the organization and 
control of a law school. The promptness with 
which the report was submitted and the una- 
nimity with which it was adopted arc proof of 
the fact that the subject had received earlier 
consideration by those who proposed to give 
it form ami support. The prevailing ideas of 
the plan were that professors and lecturers 
should, in the main, consist of active mem- 
bers of the bar; that degrees should lie con- 
Ferred only after examination and upon recom- 
mendation by an advisory board composed of 
members of the bar, not otherwise connected 
with the school, and that, by making the com- 
pensation for services practically nominal, the 
best part of the income should be applied to 
the building up of the school itself. Based 
upon this general plan, the following were ap- 
pointed members of the first faculty, with their 
respective subjects assigned to them : 

Samuel Treat — International, constitu- 
tional, admiralty and maritime law: the juris- 
diction, practice, and proceedings in United 
States courts. Assistant : Professor Alexan- 
der Martin, now occupying the position of 
dean of the Columbia Law School of Mis- 
souri. 

Xathaniel Holmes — History and science of 
law : equity jurisprudence, pleadings and prac- 
tice. 

Albert Todd — The law of real property and 
successions. 

John D. S. Dryden — The law of pleading, 
practice and evidence, and criminal jurispru- 
dence. 

Henry Hitchcock — Dean of the faculty ; the 
law of contracts and commercial law. 

The first advisory committee was composed 
of the following members : Samuel F. Miller, 
of United States Supreme Court ; David Wag- 
ner, chief justice Supreme Court of Missouri; 
Arnold Krekel, United States Judge. Western 
District of Missouri: Charles P>. Lord. St. 
Louis Circuit Court: Samuel Reber, St. Louis 
Circuit Court: W. B. Napton, late chief jus- 
tice of Missouri ; Samuel T. Glover, John M. 
Krum, John R. Sheplev. Charles C. Whittle- 
sev. and Tames O. Broadhead, all leading 
members of the bar. 

So equipped, the St. Louis Law School was 
inaugurated in the larye hall of the old Poly- 
technic Institute, on the southwest corner of 



L966 



ST. LOUIS LAW SCHOOL. 



Seventh and Chestnut Streets, on the 16th day 
of i Ictober, 1867. Chancellor Chauvenet pre- 
sided, and Judge Samuel Treat delivered the 
address. The first lecture was given on the 
fourth lli inr 1 if the same building one day later. 
About 1N71 the school was removed to the 
buildings of the Washington University 
proper, on Seventeenth and Washington Ave- 
nue, to continue there until 1880, when its 
present site. No. 1417 Locust Street (the old 
Mar) Institute building) was permanently 
dedicated to the purposes of the Law School 
h\ the university trustees. 

During these years the advisory board has, 
■ if course, undergone great changes. Made 
11]). as it was, of the most prominent men con- 
nected with the administration of justice in 
this circuit, room had sunn to be made for 
younger and growing forces of equal distinc- 
tion. While no judicial position, however 
exalted, was ever urged by its occupant as 
an excuse from service on the board, it is 
equally true that there was never a time when 
the mere fact of official prominence or pro- 
fessii >nal success was accepted as a conclusive 
test for membership. As a result, the standard 
was not permitted to deteriorate. Those who 
were added since the organization of the first 
advisory board, and who are no longer mem- 
bers, are the following: Roderick E. Rom- 
bauer, James R. Lackland, John F. Dillon 
John D. S. Dryden. Ephraim B. Ewing, James 
K. Knight. James J. Lindley, Horatio M. 
Jones, G. A. Finkelnburg, John Wickham, 
Trusten 1'olk, George W. Cline. E. A. Lewis. 
Amos M. Thayer, C. S. Hayden, John D. 
Pope, George W. McCrary. Erancis P. Blair, 
Frederick X. Judson, Noah M. Givan, Fred A. 
Wislizenus, Edward S. Robert, and Charles 
Sumner Taussig. 

At the present time ( [898) the board is made 
up as follows: David J. Brewer, justice of 
United States Supreme Court : Samuel Treat. 
LL. D.. United States district judge (retired) ; 
Shepard Barclay, justice of the Supreme 
Court of Missouri; Warwick- Hough, late 
justice of the Supreme Court of Missouri: 
Seymour D. Thompson, late judge of St. Louis 
Court of Appeals: William II. Biggs, judge of 
St. Louis Court of Appeals: Henry W. Bond, 
judge of St. Louis Court of Appeals; K. A. 
]'>akcwell, late judge of St. Louis Court of 
Appeals: Daniel Dillon, late judge of St. 
Louis Circuit Court; Leroy I'.. Valliant. judge 
t S'i 1 -1 1111. I li : nit t Hlit I ICi ib L. 1 , m 



judge of St. Louis Circuit Court; James E. 
Withrow, judge of St. Louis Circuit Court; 
I huiiel 1 >. Fisher, judge St. Louis Circuit 
Court: J. Gabriel Woerner, late judge of St. 
Louis Probate Court ; Elmer B. Adams, judge 
of United States District Court; Wilbur F. 
Boyle, late judge of St. Louis Circuit Court; 
George W. Lubke, late judge of St. Louis 
Circuit Court; James A. Seddon, late judge 
of St. Louis Circuit Court; John W. Xoble, 
ex-Secretary of the Interior: Henry S. Priest. 
late United States district judge; Robert F. 
Walker. ex-Attorney-General of Missouri; 
Horatio D. Wood, judge of St. Louis Circuit 
Court; John A. Harrison, late judge of St. 
Louis Circuit Court: Edward C. Kehr, Arba 
N Crane, James Taussig, John W. Dryden, 
Edward Cunningham, Jr. ; George H. 
Shields, John P. Ellis, Charles Claflin Allen, 
John M. Holmes. Henry T. Kent, James P. 
Maginn, Leverett Bell. Edward T. Farrish, 
Everett W. Pattison, John E. McKeighan. 
Silas B. Jones. Thomas K. Skinker, Truman 
A. Post. Hugo Muench, Eleneious Smith, 
lames P. Dawson, David Goldsmith. Garland 
Pollard. Wells U. Blodgett, E. T. Allen, John 
F. Lee. John 1). Davis. James L. Blair. Wil- 
liam B. Homer. Fred W. Lehmann, of the St. 
Li iuis bar. 

The unfailing interest and support of the 
bar finds its best proof in the fact that only 
very rarely, and then only for the best of rea- 
sons, has a member declined to assume the 
burden of preparing and passing upon ques- 
tions for the graduating class. 

The faculty itself has. of course, been sub- 
ject to a similar change. Quite a number have 
been active since the first organization, either 
temporarily or under regular appointment, 
who are no longer associated with the school. 
They are: John M. Krum. John W. Noble, 
' ieorge A. Madill, J. Gabriel Woerner, Francis 
Preston Blair. Eugene C. Tittmann, D. D. 
Fisher, Samuel Reber, George W. Cline. John 
F. Dillon. Chester II. Krum, Rochester Ford, 
< ieorge W. Lubke, and Charles Claflin Allen. 

The members at the present time are: 
Winfield S. Chaplin. LL. D., chancellor of 
Washington University : William S. Curtis, 
LL. B., dean of the law faculty: Roderick E. 
Rombauer (ex-justice St. Louis Court of Ap- 
peals), professor, real property law and equity; 
\11ins M. Thayer, LL. D. (judge of Uniteffl 
States Circuit Court of Appeals'), professor, 
iaw of contracts and commercial law: Gusta- 



ST. LOUIS LAW SCHOOL. 



1967 



vus A. Finkelnburg, A. B., lecturer, constitu- 
tional limitations ; James O. Broadhead, LL. 
D., lecturer, international law ; Frederick N. 
Judson, LL. D., lecturer, constitutional law; 
Charles Nagel, LL. B., lecturer, corporations ; 
Pendleton Taylor Bryan, LL. B., lecturer, 
torts and negligence ; Edward C. Eliot, LL. 
B., lecturer, sales and bailments ; F. A. Wis- 
lizenus, LL. B., lecturer, administration ; I. H. 
Lionberger, A. M., lecturer, statute of limita- 
tions and statute of frauds ; Paul F. Coste, 
LL. B., lecturer, agency; Edward S. Robert, 
LL. B., lecturer, evidence; Lee Sale, LL. B., 
lecturer, partnership ; Charles P. Johnson, 
A. M..C.O. Bishop, LL. B., lecturers, criminal 
law; Jacob Klein, LL. B. (judge of St. Louis 
Circuit Court), lecturer, advanced class. 

It would not be possible to do justice to 
every man who has in one capacity or another 
lent his aid to the school. But it will not be 
regarded as a disparagement of the work of 
any one, and it is really essential to an under- 
standing of the school's success, to make men- 
tion of the singularly effective services of such 
members of the faculty as George A. Madill 
and G. A. Finkelnburg. The former taught 
real property and. for the greater part of the 
same period, equity, from 1869 to 1894; and 
the latter has taught contracts and bills and 
notes, or constitutional law, since 1878. With 
these should be given the names of the men 
who have held the office of dean. Henry 
Hitchcock was not only the first in point of 
time, but to him probably more than to any 
one else is the law department indebted for 
intelligent and energetic installment and pros- 
ecution of its work. With rare fidelity he 
devoted his splendid ability to the elevation 
of his own profession. Compelled by sickness 
to surrender the position of dean in 1870, 
George M. Stewart was selected in his stead. 
1 Returning to the city in 1871, Henry Hitch- 
cock continued in active charge of the school 
1 in the newly created office of provost until 
l|878, when he again assumed the office of 
idean, and held it until 1881 ; after which time 
he continued as lecturer until 1884. During 
ithe period from 1878 to 1881 he delivered as 
jmany as 170 lectures a year, and his course 
,of lectures during his connection with the 
ischool embraced the following subjects: 
.Agency, bills and notes, equity, partnership, 
corporations, insurance, constitutional law. 
succession, etc. In 1881 Dr. William G. Ham- 
mond, until then at the head of the Iowa State 



Law School, whose reputation as a man of 
learning in the law was second to none in this 
country, became dean. He directed tin: school 
with great success, drawing to its lecture 
rooms students from adjacent and from many 
of the distant States, until 1893, when he died. 
He was succeeded by the present dean. 
William S. Curtis, a graduate of the school, 
under whose control the school has enjoyed 
the most pronounced growth and prosper- 
ity. 

After a test of thirty years the school may 
be said to have proved the wisdom of its f. Hin- 
ders. The teachers, with the exception of the 
dean, are selected upon the old principle from 
the ranks of active lawyers. The advisory 
board still guards the interests of the bar bv 
finally passing upon the fitness of such men 
as the faculty may after its own examinations 
ci include to recommend for admission ; and the 
law provides that the degree, when obtained, 
entitles to admission at the bar of any court 
within the State of Missouri. 

The conditions for entering the school have 
undergone no change, unless it be in the mat- 
ter of their more strict enforcement. A fair 
English education is required. The course still 
comprises only two years, although a third 
year course for advanced students has been 
added, which the more active friends of the 
school confidently hope to see develop into a 
regular third year. The tuition is only $80 
a" year, and three free scholarships for each 
class have so far made ample provision for 
such men as seemed to show promise without 
means. The lecture 'hours are between nine 
and ten in the morning, and four and six in 
the afternoon, making it more convenient for 
active members of the bar, and at the same 
time meeting the requirements of such stu- 
dents as may be dependent upon daily work. 
While in one sense this last combination is not 
encouraged, and usually makes a three-year 
course a necessity, it is, at the same time, true 
that the greatest consideration has been shown 
by employers and even by courts to facilitate 
the work of the school under its time arrange- 
ment. 

The method of teaching may be said to have 
undergone some modification. The strict 
lecture system was never exclusively used. 
From the beginning students were expected ti 1 
be prepared to answer questions within regu- 
lar assignments previously made. This fea- 
ture has, if anvthin£r. been extended, and now 



1968 



ST. LOUIS LYCEUM— ST. LOUIS MEDICAL SOCIETY 



includes the more and more frequent assign- 
ment of cases for the purpose of illustration 
and discussion. In addition the students are 
required to attend and to participate in moot 
courts, well calculated to bring them as near 
as possible t.i the practical tests of active pro- 
fessii mal life. 

During the two years' course every student 
is required to make examination in every study 
before the respective teaclier; and if he falls 
below a certain percentage in any branch, or 
fails to reach a certain average percentage on 
all studies, he can not be recommended by the 
faculty for final examination to the advisory 
board. Another condition to such recom- 
mendation is the writing of an original thesis 
upon a subject selected by the faculty. 

In all this work the student is aided by a 
valuable library contained in the large room of 
the third fioor of the building; as also by the 
privilege to use the regular law library in the 
court house on Saturdays. The library of the 
school was modestly started by the investment 
of a donation of $2,000 from Dr. William G. 
Eliot. Subsequently, Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 
added $6,000 for the same purpose. Since 
then some generous donations for the general 
support of the school (one as large as $40,000) 
have been made, notably by George A. Mad ill. 
Henry Hitchcock and G. A. Finkelnburg. All 
these, very materially aided, as they are. by the 
largely increased income on account of tuition 
and by the fact that most of the teachers give 
their services for nominal compensation, or en- 
tirelv free, have placed the law school in a 
comparatively independent position. The li- 
brary now contains upwards of seven thousand 
well-selected volumes ; and since the school on 
its present basis is more than self-sustaining, 
the library, as well as other features of the 
school, may be expected to steadily improve. 

The building is devoted to the exclusive use 
of the school : and in addition to lecture rooms 
and library, there are ample quarters for the 
dean, for faculty meetings, and for the meet- 
ings of the customary students' societies. 

Starting with a class of e'ight men, the at- 
tendance of the St. Louis Law School now 
averages one hundred and fifty. The coming 
bar of the city of St. Louis is largeh c imp >sed 
of graduates; the bar of the State has a good 
representation. 

The dependence of the law school upon the 
good will of the bar in general has always 
been recognized. Remembering the generous 



aid that has been given in the past, it is not un- 
reasonable to hope for a continuance of that 
support now that the bar and the alumni 
have become in so great a measure identical. 

In a word, the St. Louis Law School has 
realized the hope of its founders. It justifies 
the claim that the lawyer is intent upon the ele- 
vation of his profession. It makes proper re- 
turn to the State for privileges wisely con- 
ferred. It is a credit to the city and State of 
which it forms a part. It gives promise of do- 
ing all these things in a higher and better de- 
gree as time affords opportunity. 

Charles Nagel. 

St. Louis Lyceum. — An organization 
established in St. Louis in 183 1 as a branch 
1 >f the American Lyceum, which was instituted 
m New York in May of the same year for the 
advancement of education, especially in pub- 
lic schools and the general diffusion of knowl- 
edge. Its first officers were Beverley Allen, 
president; Joseph C. Laveille, vice-president; 
Archibald Gamble., treasurer; James A. Murj 
raw corresponding secretary ; J. C. Dennies, 
recording secretary: R. K. Richards, John F. 
Darby, and Peter Ferguson, curators. An- 
other organization bearing the same name and 
having similar objects in view was organized 
in 1839, with the following officers: Andrew 
J. Davis, president ; Dr. J. N. McDowell, vice- 
president ; Philip Reilly, second vice-presi- 
dent ; George W. Dent, recording secretary;! 
Safmuel Knox, , corresponding secretary; 
Charles F. Henry, treasurer, and W. P. 
Darnes, J. H. Bayfield, J. B. Walker. Dr. T. J 
White and Dr. E. T. Watson, directors. This 
last named society was incorporated in 1844, 
and had a prosperous existence of several 
years, occupying rooms in a building located | 
at the corner of Third and Pine Streets. 

St. Louis Medical College- — See 

"Washington University." 

St. Louis Medical Society. — The St. 

Louis Medical Society is one of the oldest or- 
ganizations in the city, having been founded 
in 1836, and incorporated by act of the Mis- 
souri Legislature. January, 1838. under the 
name of Medical Society of the State of Mis- 
souri, its first officers being Dr. B. G. Farrar, 
president : Dr. Hardage Lane, vice-president 
Dr. B. B. Brown, recording secretary : Dr. J 
Johnson, corresponding secretary; Dr. Y. D. 



ST. LOUIS MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY— ST. LOUIS PLACE. 



1969 



Boiling, treasurer. Its objects, as set forth 
in the original constitution, were "the advance- 
ment of the medical and its collateral sciences 
in general, and the improvement of the medi- 
cal profession oif the city o'f St. Louis in par- 
ticular." The by-laws debarred from mem- 
bership all persons "holding any patent for 
medicines, or secret remedies for diseases, or 
who shall advertise in any newspaper, or other- 
wise announce their pretensions to superior 
qualifications in the cure of any particular dis- 
ease, or who shall publish cases of operations, 
or promise radical cures or invite laymen to 
be present at operations, or boast of cures and 
remedies, or publish certificates of skill and 
success ;" and provided further, that any mem- 
ber guilty of any of these acts should be ex- 
pelled. The society adopted the code of ethics 
recommended by the American Medical As- 
sociation at Philadelphia, in 1847. ^ had 
three classes of members, associate, corre- 
sponding and honorary. At first the meet- 
ings were monthly, from May to November, 
and semi-monthly, from November to May; 
but in 1848, it virtually suspended, and this 
condition of things lasted until 1850, when a 
new organization was effected under the name 
of St. Louis Medical Society, which exhibited 
increased spirit and exerted a greater influ- 
ence, the meetings being largely attended and 
marked by earnest professional interest. Nev- 
ertheless there have been occasions when 
wrangling and recrimination prevailed, and 
charges o'f professional misconduct were made 
among members. For twelve years after the 
society was organized the meetings were held 
in the Masonic Hall, afterward at Westmin- 
ster Church, corner of Broadway and Locust; 
next in a hall on the corner of Fourth and 
Chestnut ; next in the Commercial School ; 
next in the office of Drs. Jordan & Shumard ; 
and for a time in the hall of the Academy of 
Sciences, in the Medical College building, on 
Seventh and Myrtle. After this building 
burned down the meetings were held in the 
Polytechnic building, corner Seventh and 
Chestnut Streets. Since its organization the 
society has numbered among its presidents 
Drs. Hardage Lane, Wm. Beaumont, George 
Engleman, John Barnes, Thomas Revburn, 
John S. Moore. Win. M. McPheeters. M. L. 
Linton, M. M. Pallen, J. S. B. Alleyne. Wm. 
Johnston, Tohn T. Hodgen, E. H. Gregorv, 
G. M. B. Maughs, L. C. Boisliniere. H. H. 
Mudd, Wm. Dickson and Wm. L. Barret, Dr. 



J. N, McDowell and Dr. Charles A. Pope, 
were of the number of its distinguished mem- 
bers. At the close of the year 1898 the so- 
ciety was in a high state of efficiency, harmony 
and good feeling prevailing among its mem- 
bers, its proceedings being marked by profes- 
sional spirit and decorum, and the papers and 
discussions exhibiting earnest inquiry and re- 
search. The meetings were held in the board 
of education building, and the officers elected 
January 7, 1899, were: Dr. Jos. Grindon, 
president ; Dr. Bransford Lewis, vice-presi- 
dent; 1 )r. C. R. Dudley, recording secretary; 
Dr. F. W. Hilschern, corresponding secretary; 
Dr. A. R. Kieffer, treasurer. 

St. Louis Microscopical Society. — 

Several attempts, with varying degrees of suc- 
cess, have been made by the microscopists of 
St. Louis to organize a permanent microsco- 
pical society. A society was founded in 1869, 
but continued in operation only a short time. 
In 1874 another society was organized, but 
suspended in 1876. In 1881 a third society 
was organized, but was discontinued within 
some three or four years. In 1894, however, 
the present St. Louis Microscopical Society, 
which was really the first one founded in 1869, 
was revived, and is now a prosperous organi- 
zation, with some thirty-eight members, com- 
posed, almost exclusively, of physicians. 

•St. Louis Place. — Lying in North St. 
Louis, and bounded by Benton, Hebert and 
Twenty-first Streets, and Rauschenbach Ave- 
nue, was acquired, in part, through donation in 
1850, for a pleasure ground. The donors were 
Colonel John O'Fallon. Governor Miller, Jo- 
siah Dent and others. The tract is composed of 
four different parts, which, together, comprise 
[■3.88 acres. Numbers 1 and 2 are the older 
parks. Numbers 3 and 4 are south of the 
above mentioned plats of ground, and were 
parts of the old reservoir site, dedicated by the 
ckv to park purposes. St. Lonis Avenue runs 
from east to west through the center of the 
park. This avenue was formerly called Gran- 
dee Avenue, but the name, being similar to 
that of Grand Avenue, was changed to thai 
which it now bears. The park is nicely shaded 
with sveamores, maples. Carolina poplars and 
Wisconsin weeping-willows. For improve- 
ments and maintenance up to 1897 the city 
had expended $117,066.71. The amount ap- 
propriated for the maintenance of the park for 



1970 ST. I.( HIS ROWING CLUB— ST. LOUIS. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NAME. 



the fiscal year ending in [898 was $4,250. A 
monumenl ■ ■ ch von Schiller, the Ger- 

man p placed in this park, the gift of 

Colonel Charles G Stifel, in 1898. It was un- 
veiled with appropriate ceremonies on Novem- 
ber 1 3th 1 if that year. 

St. Louis Rowing Club. — The St. 

I hi - Rowing Club was organized in June, 
[875, at a meeting held at George Fehl's store, 
"ii ! '.roadway, between Rutger Street and Park 
Avenue. The organizers were John A. 
Schultze. John Fritz, David Herold, Louis 
Stoker, Frank Elmer, Andrew Wunsch, 
( 'harles Koken, J. D. Werder, George W. 
Wittmann and Charles J. Keller, and the first 
1 ifncers were Frank Elmer, president ; Andrew 
Wunsch, secretary: John A. Schultze, treas- 
urer. The first boat house was at the foot of 
Rutger Street, and was rented from Timothy 
Hickey, harbor master. This was occupied 
until the fall of 1876. when the club had a house 
built on the levee. The membership in- 
creased, and a larger house, a two-story brick. 
was built, which was occupied until the ground 
was needed for the elevator, and the club lo- 
at the foot of Plum Street, and afterward 
occupied the Excelsior boat house, on Anna 
Street, until they built their new boat house, 
at the foot of Chouteau Avenue. The club's 
first boat was the "St. Louis." built for them 
by John A. Schultze; the next was the "Mag- 
nolia," which twice took the premium at the 
Si Louis hair: and after these came the "Bal- 
tic :" the "John A. Schultze." the "St. Louis 
X... j." the "II. Clay Sexton," the "A. L. Ste- 
ber," the "Romeo," the "Lily," the " Al Spink." 
the "L. L. Culver," a cedar gig and two four- 
oared shells. A high spirit prevails in the 
club, and its rowing matches with other clubs 
excite a lively interest. It has one hundred 
and sixty-five members. 

St. Louis School of Fine Arts.— 

Sei Washington University." 

St. Louis, Significance of the 

Name.— When St. Louis was founded, Louis 
XV was the reigning King < >f France. La- 
clede was a loyal Frenchman, and supposed he 
was establishing his trading post in French 

territory, being unaware of the fact that the 
region west of the Mississippi had been ceded 
to Spain. lie. therefore, sought to honor his 
sovereign bv naming his town St. Louis, in 



honor of the patron saint of Louis XV. -This 
patron saint was King Louis IX of France, 
who was canonized and placed on the roll of 
saints by Pope Boniface VIII, in the year 
[297. "Louis IX. or St. Louis, was born in 
Poissy, April 25, 1215, and succeeded his 
father, Louis VIII. in 1226. being then in his 
eleventh, year. During his minority his 
mother. Blanche of Castile, a woman of great 
talent and deep piety, acted as regent. This 
lady bestowed upon her son every care in his 
education, and especially gave great attention 
to his religious training. The celebrated Xe- 
ander. in his 'Kirchcngeschichte,' draws a most 
interesting picture of the religious side of the 
character which the assiduous care of his 
mother had formed for her son, but which we 
have not the space to reproduce here. On 
reaching his majority, Louis engaged in a war 
with Henry III, King of England, and de- 
feated the English at Taillebourg, at Saintes 
and at Blave. in 1242. Soon after he con- 
cluded a peace with the English King. At a 
subsequent period King Louis fell danger- 
ously ill. During this critical time he made a 
vow that if he recovered from the sickness, he 
would go in person as a crusader. He did re- 
cover, and in accordance with his vow he ap- 
pointed his mother. Blanche of Castile, re- 
gent, and sailed, August, 1248, with an army 
of fort} thousand men, to Cyprus, whence, in 
the following spring, he departed for Egypt, 
thinking by the conquest of that country to 
open the way to Palestine. He succeeded in 
capturing Damietta. but was afterward de- 
feated and taken prisoner by the Saracens. 
The price of his ransom was named at one hun- 
dred thousand marks of silver, which was 
paid his captors, and Louis was released May 
7, 1250. with the fragments of his army, re- 
duced in number to six thousand men. He 
procei ded by sea to St. Jean D'Acre, and re- 
mained in Palestine until the death of his 
mother, which event happened November, 
1252. Louis was then compelled to return to 
France to assume the government. He ap- 
plied himself with great assiduity to 'tihe task 
1 if gi iverning his kingdom, united several prov- 
inces to the crown on the lapse of feudal 
rights, or by treaty, and made many important 
changes in the administration, the general 
tendency of which was to increase the royal 
During this time a code of laws was 
brought into use. now known as the 'Etablis- 
semenfs de St. Louis.' July I, 1270, Louis 



ST. LOUIS SOCIETY OF PEDAGOGY-ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY. 



1971 



embarked upon a new crusade, and sailed for 
Tunis. Here a pestilence broke out in the 
French camp, by which the greater part of tihe 
French army was destroyed. The King him- 
self was attacked and died at Tunis, August 
25, 1270. Such, in brief, are 'the important 
events in the life of the monarch whose name 
has been bestowed upon the city, and who is 
the patron saint of the oldest parish in St. 
Louis. The anniversary of the death of St. 
Louis occurs on the 25th of August. When 
the pioneer emigrants from France com- 
menced to huild on the site now covered by the 
city, they selected as the patron saint of St. 
Louis the monarch whose history has been 
briefly sketched in the foregoing paragraph, 
and conferred his name upon the infant col- 
ony. The Cathedral parish was organized 
soon after tihe commencement of the settle- 
ment, and St. Louis' Day has ever since been 
observed as a festival day in the parish." 

St. Louis Society of Pedagogy. — 

See "Pedagogy, Society of." 

St. Louis University. — A minute his- 
tory of this institution would outline many of 
the earliest incidents associated with the set- 
tlement of the Jesuits in St. Louis. The pres- 
ent article will attempt merely a succinct state- 
ment of its origin, advance and influence, to- 
gether with mention of the leading minds con- 
nected with the educational Work it has per- 
formed. 

Rt. Rev. William Louis Dubourg, bishop of 
U/pper and Lower Louisiana, who was conse- 
crated in Rome in 18 15, reached Ste. Gene- 
vieve two years later, and soon visited St. 
Louis, the object being to determine whether 
Ste. Genevieve or St. Louis was the more suit- 
able for a seminary. In the summer of 1818 
five ladies of the Sacred Heart, with Madame 
Duchesne as superior, who had been sent 
hither at the bishop's request, arrived from 
France and proceeded to St. Gharles, where 
they opened a school, near the Catholic 
Church, but met with little encouragement. 
After a year's trial they removed to Florissant, 
and this formed a nucleus for various educa- 
tional enterprises at different points in Mis- 
souri. In 1819 Bishop Dubourg established 
a college attached to the Cathedral, in St. 
Louis, but this college was discontinued in 
1826, and, although, much attention was given 
to the establishment of mission schools, in- 



cluding some devoted tio the idea of training 
the Indian mind, the college plan was not re- 
vived until (828, when a Lit on Ninth and 
Christy Avenue, which had been given by 
Jeremiah Connors, then deceased, towards 
founding a college, was made over to the 
Jesuit fathers. The remainder of the block 
west of Ninth, between Washington and 
Christy Avenues, and about two-thirds of the 
block immediately west, were afterward pur- 
chased. The Jesuit Mission of .Missouri, at 
that time, had only eight priests and six lay 
brothers, three being novices. The college 
foundation was laid in 1828 fur a building 50 
feet in length, by 40 in width, of three stories, 
attic and basement. The college was ready to 
receive students in 1829. The Florissant 
Seminary students, fifteen in number, were at 
once transferred there. These included Charles 
P. Chouteau, Bryan Mullanphy, Edmond Paul 
and Francis, Julius and Du Thiel Cabanne, 
with others whose names are no longer famil- 
iar, even to the oldest citizens. Rev. P. J. 
Yerhaegen was the first president of the col- 
lege. Among his staff were Rev. P. J. De 
Smet, who afterward became so famed as an 
Indian missionary, and Rev. J. A. Elet. Dur- 
ing the first two years several extra teachers 
taught classes in English and mathematics, 
namely: Thomas B. Taylor, John Servary. 
Benjamin Eaton, Bartholomew McGowan and 
Jeremiah Langton. Brother James Yates 
taught some rudimentary classes, and later, 
Rev. Peter Walsh gave instructions in the 
higher branches. On the first day the college 
opened there entered ten boarders and thirty 
externes, or. day scholars, which number was 
within a few weeks increased to thirty and one 
hundred and twenty, respectively. This at- 
tendance varied but little for two years, when, 
more house room having been provided, a con- 
siderable number of new boarders were ad- 
mitted, principally from Louisiana and Missis- 
sippi, Where Father Van de Velde, a cultivated 
scholar and fine pulpit orator, had labored in 
behalf of the institution. This reverend father, 
together with Father Wan Lommel and Mr. 
Sweevelt, a scholastic, had been sent from 
Maryland to join the college faculty, arriving 
here in October, 1831. So promising now 
were the prospects of the college that in C832 
the Legislature of Missouri was petitioned for 
a permanent charter, with the power to confer 
degrees, etc. The Legislature granted the 
charter, with university features, to include the 



1972 



ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY. 



departments of theology, medicine and law, in 
the event of its being deemed expedient to add 
them. The charter incorporated P. J. Ver- 
haegen, Theodore De Theux, P. W. Walsh, C. 
F. Van Ouickenborne, and James Van de 
Velde. The institution was, at the same ses- 
sion, empowered to purchase, hold and con- 
vey property for educational purposes. Un- 
der this charter a regular faculty was organ- 
ize. 1 April 3, 1833, with Rev. P. J. Verhaegen 
as "rector of the St. Louis University." Not- 
withstanding the visitation of the scourge of 
cholera, which was very severe in St. 
Louis in 1832-3, and also a terrible tor- 
nado, which worked terrible havoc in 
the Western and Southern States, the 
college buildings did not afford room for all 
the students who applied for admission in 
1833. and a new wing was begun and made 
ready the next summer. Of the twenty-four 
Jesuits in the Missouri mission in 1834. ten 
were at the St. Louis University, there being 
at that time fifteen professors and tutors en- 
gaged in the institution. From the French 
population of Louisiana fifty students were 
added early in 1834. by the efforts of Rev. J. 
A. Elet. In May the university had one hun- 
dred and fifty boarders. At the annual com- 
mencement, July 31, 1834, the baccalaureate 
degree was conferred on Paul A. F. du Lout- 
fay and Peter A. Walsh ; that of master of arts 
on John Servary, all Missourians. These were 
the first graduates. At the fall term Messrs. 
M. Pin and J. B. Emig were added to the fac- 
ulty The latter, afterward Father Emig. in- 
troduced Greek into the curriculum, and had 
a long and influential career in the University. 
September. 1835, another addition on Wash- 
ington Avenue was made to the college build- 
ings, the first story of which served as a chapel 
until the completion of St. Xavier Church, in 
1843- 

At this time. 1835, the project of forming a 
medical school was agitated, but it was not un- 
til October 5. 1836, that the plan book form, 
when C. J. Carpenter, J. Johnson, William 
Beaumont, E. II. McCabe, H. Lane and H. 
King, all physicians of high standing, were se- 
lected as the faculty. The school, however, 
was not opened until the autumn of 1842. at 
Washington Avenue and Tenth Street, in a 
building erected for the purpose. The first 
lecture to the medical department was given 
March 28. 1842. by Professor Joseplh W. Hall. 
The other members of the facultv were M. L. 



Linton, Daniel Brainard, H. A. Prout, James 
V. Prather. Joseph J. Norwood and Alvin Lit- 
ton. The school soon attracted public atten- 
tion and graduated a number of students from 
the Western and Southern States. In 1848 
the faculty requested the trustees of the uni- 
versity to dissolve the connection of the medi- 
cal department with the parent institution, 
which request was renewed the following 
January, and again in 1854-5, the reason as- 
signed being the then growing prejudice 
against Catholics, as shown in the organization 
of a political party based on that and antagon- 
ism to foreigners. The trustees no longer re- 
sisted the separation, and thenceforth the med- 
ical school was conducted under a charter of 
its own. The law department of the Univer- 
sity had begun its first session in 1843, with 
Richard A. Buckner at its head, but despite 
his efforts, this school languished and was 
soon abandoned. 

The Rev. Verhaegen having been, in 1836, 
appointed superior of the Jesuit Mission in 
Missouri, his place as president of the Univer- 
sity was filled at the opening of the session in 
September by Rev. J. A. Elet. in which year 
the number of students was 146. At this 
time Rev. George A. Carrell, noted for supe- 
rior literary attainments, was added to the fac- 
ulty as professor of English literature. In 
1839 a suite of class-rooms was erected to ac- 
commodate the increased number of students, 
and the next year, the corner-stone of St. 
Xavier. "the college church," was laid with 
impressive ceremonies, the dedication taking 
place Palm Sunday, 1843. In 1840 President 
Elet was transferred to Cincinnati, to become 
president of Athenaeum, afterward St. Xavier, 
College, and Rev. James Van de Yelde suc- 
ceeded him at the St. Louis University, remain- 
in- until September 17. 1843. when he, in turn, 
having been appointed vice-provincial of Mis- 
souri, was succeeded by Rev. George A. Car- 
rell. Father Carrell. although a man of su- 
perior gifts in literature and belles-lettres, was 
by his temperament not entirely fitted for the 
presidency. I hiring his administration of 
two years, there was a marked decline in the 
number of students, though this was partiallv 
accounted for in the hard times of that period ; 
but by the closing of St. Mary's College, in 
Kentucky, and by recruiting work in the 
South, performed by Rev. John Gleizal, in 
184(1, the prospects of the University were 
brought back to former conditions. Another 






ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY. 



1973 



large building, three stories in height, was 
erected on Christy Avenue, and the institu- 
tion had an imposing list of professors and 
tutors. 

Father Carrell having been transferred to 
the presidency of St. Xavier College in July. 
1847, Rev. John B. Druyts was appointed to 
take his place in the St. Louis University. He 
had been connected with the institution for 
twelve years. He soon became one of the 
most popular and successful of all those who 
had held the position. But, unfortunately, he 
lost his sense of hearing, and the managing 
board was obliged to fill his place, which was 
done in 1854 by the appointment of Rev. John 
S. Yerdin. During the first year of Father 
Yerdin's term, which extended to 1859, the 
number of boarding students was larger than 
at any other time. The local schools had so 
improved, both numerically and in character, 
that the necessity of sending youth from home 
to be educated gradually decreased, but from 
1855 this class of scholars was more than re- 
placed by externes. March 19, 1859, Father 
Yerdin was succeeded as president by Rev. 
Ferdinand Coosemans. At the opening of 
the fall session the classical and commercial 
courses had been separated, and the classical 
course extended to six years. On the break- 
ing out of the Civil \Var, in 186 1, sixty-three 
of the students from the South withdrew from 
the University and went home. All the 
classes were suspended May 24th of that year, 
and during the next session only nine students 
registered from the Southern States, several 
cf these having remained. Indeed, all 
through the war period the catalogue was 
much reduced from previous years, but, not- 
withstanding, the registry of 1862-3 showed 
290 students. In July, 1862, Father Coose- 
mans was made vice-provincial of Missouri, 
and was succeeded by Rev. Thomas O'Xeil, 
who remained as such till July 2, 1868, when 
Rev. Francis H. Stuntebeck was installed. 
Meantime, in May, 1867, property was pur- 
chased on Grand Avenue, between Lindell 
and Baker Avenues, where the stately build- 
ings of the University are now located. At 
the close of the session of 1867-8 the register 
for the year had 346 names of students ; and 
for the next session the same number. The 
following year the number decreased to 297 ; 
in 1871 it was 317 ; in 1S72 it was 402 ; in 1873, 
413. Then the financial crisis came on and 



the attendance dropped by years to 374. 353, 
330. 327, 334, and 362 in [897. 

Rev. Joseph Zealand was installed president 
ti the University August 8, 1871, and Rev. L. 
Bushart November 22, 1874. The latter re- 
signed in August, 1877, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Joseph E. Keller. It was at the begin- 
ning of Father Keller*s term that the commer- 
cial course was extended to five years for the 
further study of mathematics, the physical 
sciences, logic, metaphysics, etc., successful 
examination in which would entitle the candi- 
date to the degree of bachelor of science. A 
medal was bestowed on the student of the 
scientific course winning the highest honors 
of the class at the annual commencements, as 
before had been done with the class in philoso- 
phy. Previous to 1836 the public annual ex- 
hibitions were given in the original building 
erected in 1829, then in the chapel, afterward 
amidst the shade trees on the play grounds of 
the students, and from 1855 ul the University 
Hall. 

In 1836 such had been the encroachments 
1 if tlie town carpenters and builders upon the 
quietude of the institution that the trustees re- 
solved to select a new site for the University, 
and chose a farm of 300 acres on the Bellefon- 
taine road, three and a half miles north. The 
foundations for the buildings were dug, when, 
owing to the death of the contractor, the work 
was stopped, the project postponed, and later 
abandoned. The site is still known as Col- 
lege Hill, now inside the city limits, where 
a scholasticate was established which became 
the theological department of the University. 
This was a brick house of three stories, nearly 
one hundred feet in length, erected in 1857 as 
a country resort for professors and students. 
From the sales of town lots, into which the 
farm had been divided, the trustees were en- 
abled to make costly improvements on the 
University premises. Early in i860 the 
scholasticate was transferred from College 
Hill to Boston College, Massachusetts, which 
enjoyed special advantages for theological and 
philosophical studies. 

The University possesses a select and val- 
uable library, its tomes and volumes numbei- 
ing scores of thousands, a museum of natural 
history, a collection of scientific instruments, 
a laboratory, etc. — all including many curious 
and costly objects. Among its treasures are 
nearlv one hundred large folios donated by 
the P.ritish government in 1834, containing 



i:»74 



ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY 



ancient statutes, the famous Doomsday Book, 
and various state papers. The "Philalethic 
Literary and Debating Society," organized in 
1832. and the "Philharmonic Society," dating 
from [838, arc features of the institution. 

In the first half century of the history of the 
St. Louis University almost 6,000 youths re- 
ceived the benefit of its educational and moral 
influence, and since then many more thou- 
sands have been educated wholly or partly 
within its walls. Numbers of priests, physi- 
cians, lawyers, scientists, whose names are on 
the roll of fame, claim it as their alma mater. 
Its lists of presidents and professors embrace 
ni >t a few noted no less for their commanding 
intellectual gifts than for their piety and zeal 
in the cause of religion. 

The semi-centennial of the St. Louis Uni- 
versity was celebrated in a "golden jubilee," 
June 24, 1X70. A papal brief of Leo XIII 
gave the institution the apostolic benediction. 
Solemn high mass was said, with Archbishop 
Ryan as celebrant, and nearly one hundred 
priests and secular clergy present. Bishop 
Spalding delivered an eloquent discourse. 
The music for the mass and the Te Deum was 
of the very highest order. There was a grand 
alumni dinner in the afternoon, and in the 
evening a jubilee of music, poetry and oratory, 
full accounts of which were given in the city 
press of the following day, as also in the "His- 
torical Sketch of the St. Louis University." 
a book i f 26'j pages, written by Rev. Walter H. 
Hill, S. )., from which a large part of the pres- 
ent article has been condensed. Father Hill 
has kindly supplied for the present work the 
subjoined data of the University since the 
golden jubilee in 1879: 

"In June, 1881, the University ceased to be 
a boarding school. There was a gradual in- 
crease of externes, or day scholars, and the 
number of students soon equaled the total 
number, externes and boarders, of former 
years. The project of moving the college to 
another site was discussed for a number of 
years, as far back as the year 1836 — owing 
to the extension of the city, the bustle and the 
noise of business in the central position occu- 
pied by the college — though that position was 
a suburban one when the college was started 
in the year 1829. Property fronting on Grand 
Avenue and extending from Lindell Boule- 
vard to Pine Street was purchased in 1867, 
with a view of transferring the college to that 
place at some future time. Action was first 



taken toward moving to this locality in 1884, 
when, on June 8th of that year, the corner- 
stone of a new church was laid with solemn 
ceremony, at the corner of Grand Avenue and 
Lindell Boulevard. The new college building 
was begun in 1886; it fronts eastward, and its 
length on Grand Avenue is 270 feet. The 
old college premises, fronting on Washing- 
ton Avenue and extending from Ninth Street 
westward 475 feet, were sold .May 24. 1886. 
The Alumni of the college had a reunion and 
a farewell banquet in the study hall of their old 
alma mater on June 25, 1888. when interest- 
ing speeches, narrating reminiscences of its 
past history, were delivered by Dr. Smith Al- 
leyne, Rev. John Verdin, S. J., Dr. Elisha 
Gregory, Honorable Shepherd Barclay, Rev. 
M. McLaughlin. Mr. Theophile Papin, Rev. 
Walter H. Hill, S. J.. Rev. Rudolph Meyer, 
S. J., and Mr. Walter Blakely. Public serv- 
ices were held in the old 'college church' for 
the last time August 6. 1888. 

The new college buildings, including 'he 
theological department fronting on Lindell 
Boulevard, are extensive and imposing, and 
are of English gothic style. The walls, with 
all ornamental trimmings, are of a red color, 
agreeable to the taste prevalent when the 
buildings were erected. The new church on 
Grand Avenue and Lindell Boulevard is of 
St. Louis limestone, trimmed with Bedford 
blue stone. It is in English gothic style of 
the thirteenth century ; it is 210 feet in length, 
with 120 feet of width in the transept. It con- 
tains grandeur of proportion, with exquisite 
beauty of ornamental finish, making it one of 
the finest churches in the country. It was 
opened for public services early in the year 
[898. This church, together with the other 
buildings on the college grounds, will reach 
a total cost of little less than a million of dol- 
lars. 

The St. Mark's Academy, a literary society 
devoted to higher learning, was established at 
the old college in 1876, through the influence 
of Rev. J. M. Hayes, S. J. In 1886 this as- 
sociation was finally developed into the Mar- 
quette Club. 

A commodious sodality building, of large 
dimensions and handsome architecture, fronts 
on Grand Avenue, at a short distance to the 
south of the Marquette Club premises. 

During the five years' administration of 
Rev. J. Grimmelsman, S. J., as president of 
the St. Louis University the magnificent 



ST. MARY'S GIRLS' ORPHAN ASYLUM. 



L975 



church has reached its completion, and all the 
departments of the extensive institution have 
steadily progressed, until it has grown into an 
important power in St. Louis for higher moral 
and intellectual culture." 

The presidents of the University, beginning 
with 1877, have been as follows: 1877-81, 
Rev. Joseph E. Keller, S. J.; 1881-5, Rev. 
Rudolph J. Meyer, S. J. ; 1885-9, Rev. Henry 
Moeller, S. J. ; 18S9-90, Rev. Edward J. Glee- 
son, S. J.: 1 890-1, Rev. John E. Kennedy, 
S. J.; 189?, Rev. Joseph Grimmelsman, S. J., 
appointed March 31, 1891. 

In 1898 the board of trustees was composed 
of the following named gentlemen : Rev. 
Joseph Grimmelsman, S. J., president; Rev. 
\Y Banks Rogers, S. J., chancellor ; Rev. 
John E. Kennedy, S. J., secretary ; Rev. 
Roman A. Shaffel, S. J., treasurer ; Rev. 
Francis B. Klocker, S. J. 

At the same time the officers and faculty 
were as follows : Rev. Joseph Grimmelsman, 
S. J., president ; Rev. W. Banks Rogers, vice- 
president and prefect of studies ; Rev. Joseph 
G. H. Kernion, S. J., chaplain ; Rev. Roman 
A. Shaffel, S. J., treasurer ; Rev. William F. 
Poland, S. J., librarian. 

Post-Graduate Course — Rev. James Con- 
way, S. J., and Rev. William F. Poland, lec- 
turers on ethics and natural laws ; Rev. James 
J. Sullivan, S. J., lecturer on logic and meta- 
physics: Rev. Henry J. DeLaak, S. J., lecturer 
on physics. 

Classical Curriculum. A — Collegiate De- 
partment — Rev. William T. Kinsella, S. J., lec- 
turer on evidences of religion and professor of 
mental and moral philosophy ; John B. Furav. 
S. J., professor of physics and mathematics; 
Rev. Charles J. Borgmeyer, S. J., professor of 
chemistry and mathematics ; Aloysius F. 
Frumveller, S. J., professor of astronomy, 
mathematics and geology; Rev. Joseph A. 
Murphy, S. J., professor of class of rhetoric : 
Rev. John A. Gonser, S. J., professor of class 
of poetry: Richard D. Slevin, S. J., professor 
of class of humanities. B — Academic Depart- 
ment : Francis J. O'Boyle, S. J., and Mat- 
thew Germing, S. J., professors of first acad- 
emic class; James A. McCarthy, S. J., and 
Joseph C. Husslein, S. J., professors of second 
academic class: William J. Eline, S. J., and 
John A. Weiand, S. J., professors of third 
academic class. 

Commercial Curriculum — Professors David 



Jones, Thomas T. Russell, M. 1 >. ; |ohn M 
Flvnn, A. M. 

Preparatory Department — Thomas A. 
Healy. 

In iSSc) a three years' University course of 
mental and moral philosophy, sciences and 
mathematics for members of the Society of 
Jesus was added to the other curricle of the 
St. Louis University. The lecturers are : 
Rev. James J. Conway, S. J., and Rev. Wil- 
liam F. Poland, S. J., lecturers on ethics and, 
natural law; Rev. James J. Conway, S. J., lec- 
turer on special metaphysics, psychology- and 
natural theology; Rev. Florentine Bechtcl, 
S. J., lecturer on cosmology and psychologv; 
Rev. Francis Klocker, S. J., lecturer on gen- 
eral metaphysics and logic; Rev. Henry J. 
DeLaak. S. L. lecturer on physics and me- 
chanics; Rev. Charles J. Borgmeyer. S. J., 
lecturer on chemistry and mathematics ; Aloy- 
sius F. Frumveller, S. J., lecturer on higher 
mathematics, astronomy and geologv. 

Walter H. Hill. 

St. Mary's Girls' Orphan Asylum. 

This asylum, which is in charge of the Sisters 
of Charity, was founded in 1843, Mrs. Biddle, 
daughter of John Mullanphy, donating a site 
and $3,000 toward the erection of a home, giv- 
ing at the same time the use of her own dwell- 
ing as a temporary asylum. In January, 1845, 
the building on Tenth and Biddle Street was 
completed, and was occupied by St. Mary's 
< rirls' < )rphan Asylum for about fifty years, 
and until the recent removal of St. Joseph's 
Boys' Orphan Asylum to their new location, 
when St. Mary's Asylum was removed to the 
building vacated by the Boys' Asylum, at 
Fourteenth Street and Clark Avenue. In 
May, 1899, Archbishop Kain, president of the 
hoard of "managers of the Roman Catholic 
orphan asylums of St. Louis," received a gift 
of grounds for a new location in the northern 
part of the city, with means for the immediate 
erection of a suitable new building. St. 
Mary's Asylum maintains and educates or- 
phan or homeless girls from the age of four to 
fourteen years. Two hundred and fifty girls 
are sheltered and instructed in common 
branches of education and vocal music, be 
sides which they are taught to sew, cook, wash 
and bear a part in all the duties of the house- 
hold. Children are given for adoption when 
suitable homes are provided; others are re- 
turned to their relatives when the necessity 



1976 



ST. PAUL'S BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. 



for assistance is over; those remaining in the 
asylum are, at the age of twelve or fourteen, 
either put out to service or transferred to St. 
Philomena's Industrial School, where they are 
taught dressmaking and other trades. The 
financial affairs of the asylum are conducted 
by the board of managers, consisting, besidi s 
the regular officers, of ten members, five cler- 
gymen, and five laymen. The internal gov- 
ernment and management of the house is un- 
der the direction of twelve Sisters of Charity. 

St. Paul's Benevolent Society. — 

A beneficiary association incorporated May 
16. 1868, under the laws of Missouri by Fred- 
erick Arendes, Nicholas Helmbacher, B. L. 
(iretz. A. Geisel, Louis Metts and others. 

St. Philippe.— In 1710. Phillip Ren- 
ault, who had been made director-general of 
mines in Louisiana, sailed from France with 
200 mechanics and laborers. Stopping at 
Santo Domingo, he obtained there 500 negro 
slaves, and with this equipment he sailed up 
the Mississippi River to "the Illinois coun- 
try." where it was supposed at that time gold 
and silver were to be found in large quanti- 
ties. He established himself on the river, 
five miles north of Fort Chartres, and there 
founded the village which became known as 
St. Philippe. From there he sent out explor- 
ing parties in all directions and diligent search 
was made for the precious metals. It was a 
fruitless search, and in the course of time was 
abandoned for agricultural pursuits and other 
vocations. When Illinois passed under Brit- 
ish control, the inhabitants of St. Philippe 
abandoned the place and sought new homes 
in St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, and other settle- 
ments west of the Mississippi River. When 
the English officer. Captain Phillip Pitman, 
visited the place in 1765, he reported that he 
found there sixteen houses and a small church, 
all deserted. All traces of the old village dis- 
appeared in later years. Historical interest 
attaches to it chiefly on account of its having 
been the place at which negro slavery was in- 
stituted in the Illinois country. When Ren- 
ault returned to France he sold his slaves to 
the Illinois colonists. 

St. Philomena's Industrial School. 

In 1834 Bishop Rosati gave to the Daughters 
of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul a small 
house on Third and Walnut Streets, to be used 



as an asylum for boys and girls, under the pat- 
ronage of St. Philomena. In 1845 tne boys 
were transferred to the Sisters of St. Joseph — 
tlie -iris remaining at St. Philomena's. The 
same vear his grace. Archbishop Kenrick. 
finding the house insufficient to accommodate 
the number, erected a large buliding on Fifth 
and Walnut Streets, for the purpose of train- 
ing more advanced girls who were to be re- 
ceived from St. Mary's Asylum: also for poor 
girls out of employment. The latter charity 
was continued fur twenty years, during which 
time the archbishop generously contributed 
toward their support, as many of these were 
unable to defray their expenses. At this time, 
when destitution and suffering were so great, 
two sisters for several years were appointed 
for no other duty than that of visiting and re- 
lieving the sick. The poor were also sup- 
plied with food and provisions at the institu- 
tion. The number thus assisted is known to 
God alone. The Industrial School was in- 
corporated February 13. 1864. 

This location being in the central part of 
the city, proved unsuitable, and in June, 1S0S, 
his grace. Archbishop Kenrick. purchased the 
present site, corner of Clark and Ewing Ave- 
nues, where he enabled the Sisters to erect 
the commodious building, in order to carry on 
this great charity. He was ever the true 
friend and generous benefactor of St. Philo- 
mena's. 

The number of girls who have been cared 
for by this institution since its foundation ex- 
ceeds two thousand, the greater part of whom 
arc received annually from St. Mary's Orphan 
Asylum. Many children of respectable fam- 
ilies, being deprived of their parents, are also 
taken ami cared for and fitted for different 
stations in life. The house accommodates 
one hundred children, and has at present sev- 
enty-five. It is interesting to see these girls 
at work in the several departments, each of 
which is superintended by a sister, who instills 
into these young minds the necessity of ac- 
quiring habits of industry, as they will in later 
years be entirely dependent upon themselves. 
They are taught dressmaking, fine sewing, 
and domestic economy, and the Industrial 
School is self-supporting. While remaining 
with the Sisters the £'irls are obliged to attend) 
class for several hours each day, during which 
they are taught arithmetic, bookkeeping, pen- 
manship, grammar, rhetoric, geography, sten- 
ography, etc. These advantages enable the 



ST. THOMAS' MISSION FOR THE DEAF. 



1977 



Sisters to procure for them excellent positions, 
according to their abilities, and they are often 
at a loss to satisfy the demands of patrons. 
The ladies of our city require no other rec- 
ommendation than to know that they are 
taught at St. Philomena's. 

The girls frequently return to spend their 
recreations in their old home, where they re- 
ceive advice and encouragement. It is grati- 
fying to those who have labored in this cause 
to see these girls become useful members of 
society. The good effected by an institution of 
this kind can not be overestimated, as these 
children going out into the world diffuse 
around them by their good example the les- 
sons of usefulness and virtue learned therein. 

St. Thomas' Mission for the Deaf. 

A mission which had its beginning in St. Louis 
in 1877 in the labors of Rev. Austin W. Mann, 
a traveling missionary doing church work 
among deaf mutes. May 30, 1891, the mis- 
sion was regularly organized, with Rev. 
James H. Cloud in charge. Regular services 
are held at 11 a. m. Sundays, in the Mary E. 
Boffinger Memorial Chapel, connected with 
Christ Church Cathedral, the prayer book 
service of the Episcopal Church being used. 
Monthly lectures on current events are given 
on the evening of the first Friday of each 
month, and special lectures are arranged for 
from time to time under the auspices of the 
mission. 

St. Vincent de Paul Society. — See 

"Catholic Societies." 

St. Vincent's German Orphan Asy- 
lum. — A charitable institution located on Ho- 
gan Street, between O'Fallon Street and Cass 
Avenue. It was founded June 13, 1851, and 
incorporated the same year. The incorporat- 
1 ors were John Mountel, F. L. Stuver, Francis 
i Sturwald, F. J. Heitkamp, J. H. Grefankamp, 
! Francis Saler, and S. T. Blattaw. The cor- 
ner-stone of the building was laid in Septem- 
j ber, 1850. The object of the asylum is to re- 
! ceive, maintain, and educate orphans of Ger- 
man parentage. The institution has nearly 
two hundred children, in charge of the Sisters 
of St. Joseph, who receive a small annual com- 
pensation from the society. The entire ex- 
pense is borne by members of the St. Vincent's 
Society of German Catholic Churches. The 

65 



improvements and grounds cost over sixty 
thousand dollars. 

St. Vincent's Institution for the 
Insane. — This institution, established and 
conducted by the Sisters of Charity, was 
founded in 1858. In the early days of St. 
Louis, the Sisters had charge of a hospital on 
Fourth and Spruce Streets, where the insane, 
as well as the sick and injured, were received. 
In time it became necessary to provide a sep- 
arate home for the insane, which was located 
on Ninth and Marion Streets, and opened 
with four Sisters and fifteen patients. During 
the Civil War the aid for the insane from the 
State treasury failed, as no income could be 
collected, and the State Asylum at Fulton 
was suspended October, 1861. Patients were 
returned to their respective counties, when 
there were no means for their proper treat- 
ment. The County of St. Louis appealed to 
St. Vincent's for help, and ninety insane pa- 
tients were sent there. At that time the house 
had forty patients and eleven sisters in charge. 
The unexpected addition so crowded the insti- 
tution that the sisters had to give up their re- 
fectory and several of their rooms. In 1865 
the State Asylum was reopened and the State 
claimed its patients ; still the building was too 
small for the reception of all sent for treat- 
ment, and it became necessary to build a large 
addition. Wishing to extend the benefits of 
the institution to a larger number, and desirous 
of giving the insane better accommodations 
and purer air, the Sisters erected a new build- 
ing on the Wabash Railroad, eight miles from 
the Courthouse, which was opened June 25, 
1895. This fine structure, admirably situated 
on high ground, with a farm of ninety-six 
acres, is fitted with all the latest improvements 
and possesses accommodation for six hun- 
dred patients, over whom the Sisters have sole 
charge in each department. Patients are re- 
ceived irrespective of creed or nationality. 
About one-half are non-Catholics. Here, too, 
are all classes of society and all grades of in- 
sane. About two-thirds of the patients are 
women, whose relatives and friends wish them 
to be under the care of women. About one- 
fourth are charity patients. The inmates are 
employed, interested ami amused in various 
ways. Their assembly rooms are furnished 
with pianos, organs and billiard tables. There 
is also a very fine entertainment hall. Many 
of the ladies sew and do fancy work. In sum- 



ST. XAVIER'S TOTAL ABSTINENCE AND BENEVOLENT ASSN. 



mer the}- play lawn tennis and other out-of- 
door games. An inebriate department was 
added to the institution in 1873, for the relief 
of persons addicted to the use of stimulants. 
It is entirely separate from the insane depart- 
ment, and is provided with a library, billiard 
table, and other amusements. 

St. Kavier's Total Abstinence and 
Benevolent Association. — A society 
organized in 1846, by Father Glenzall, of St. 
Xavier's Church, then on Ninth Street and 
Lucas Avenue. This church, known for 
many years as the "College Church," on ac- 
count of the adjacent St. Louis University, 
was the center of large throngs of worshipers, 
and the temperance work which the Fathers 
zealously prosecuted among them was at- 
tended by encouraging results. The society 
maintained an active and vigorous existence 
until 1 888, when the pressure of business 
forced the church to move to Grand Avenue, 
and then it fell to pieces. 

Sale, Samuel, Jewish rabbi, was born 
October 29th, in Louisville, Kentucky. There 
he received his early scholastic training, grad- 
uating from the High School as valedictorian 
of 'his class, and winning also a scholarship in 
Washington and Lee University, of Lexing- 
ton, Virginia. In 1873 ' le went to Europe 
and matriculated at the University of Berlin, 
entering at the same time the Hochsohule fuer 
die Wissenschaft des Judenrhums. At the end 
of five years of study in these institutions he 
returned to the L/nited States with the degrees 
of rabbi and doctor, and received an immedi- 
ate call to the pulpit of Har Sinai congrega- 
tion, of Baltimore, which had some years ear- 
lier been filled by Dr. David Einhorn, one of 
the most distinguished representatives of ad- 
vanced thought in Judaism. Entering upon 
this pastorate, Dr. Sale remained in Baltimore 
until the autumn of 1883. when he accepted a 
call to Chicago, where he succeeded the be- 
loved Dr. Liebrnan Adler as pastor -of Kehill- 
ath Anshe Maarabh congregation. He occu- 
pied this pastorate for four years thereafter, 
and 'during that time not only won the high 
regard of liis congregation, hut of the general 
public of Chicago. In 1887 he received a call 
from the Reform congregation of Kcnesth 
Israel, of Philadelphia, one of the largest and 
most prosperous congregations in the United 
States, and also from Shaare Fmeth consre- 



gatiem of St. Louis. The fact that other mem- 
bers of his family were residents of St. Louis 
caused him to accept the call extended to him 
by Shaare Emeth congregation, and for more 
than ten years he has been one of the most at- 
tractive and popular pulpit orators of St. 
Louis. As the exponent of a liberal theology, 
whose aim is the betterment of mankind re- 
gardless of creeds, he has arrested the thought 
and fixed upon himself the attention of those 
of all shades of belief, and he is hardly less 
popular with the general public than with the 
people of 'his own faith. Fearless in attacking 
the evils of the day, in whatever guise they 
may appear, he has nevertheless little sym- 
pathy with present-day pessimists, believes 
in the upward tendencies of civilization, and 
preaches the Gospel of progress. His ser- 
mons evince the ripest scholarship and widest 
range of thought and research, and are models 
of chaste English and elegant diction. 

Salt Trade. — The large proportions which 
the slaughtering and packing business of St. 
Louis assumed in the "forties" demanded 
large supplies of salt for the accommodation of 
this interest, and, as the regions tributary to 
the city were engaged in raising corn, hogs 
and cattle, still larger supplies were required 
for distribution in Illinois, Missouri and Iowa. 
St. Louis, therefore, became the center of an 
extensive salt trade, and it has remained so 
ever since, although there have been important 
changes in the trade, the most notable of which 
is in the source of supply. Down to about the 
year 1875 the receipts of salt at St. Louis came 
chiefly from New Orleans, and the Ohio River 
region. New Orleans sending us what was 
known as Liverpool and Turk's Island salt, 
and the latter Ohio River and Kanawha salt. 
The up-river salt trade from New Orleans was 
for many years a large, though never a very 
profitable, business. Foreign vessels coming 
to Xew Orleans for cotton, grain, tobacco and 
flour Would bring Liverpool salt in bags and I 
barrels as ballast, so that it was delivered at 1 
that point at a very low price. The up-river 
boats were only too glad to bring it up at low i 
rates also, for salt and sugar were the only! 
freights they had up-stream, and never enough 
of these to pay expenses. Ohio River salt 
and Kanawha salt having the advantage of 
water carriage, were brought round at low J 
rates also, and during this era St. Louis, and * 
through St. Louis a large part of the Vest, 



SALVAGE CORPS— SALVATION ARMY. 



19711 



had ample supplies of cheap salt. When a 
high duty was imposed on imported salt for the 
development of our own salt-making interest, 
the imports from Liverpool and Turk's Island 
gradually fell off, and finally ceased almost en- 
tirely, and the supplies of salt for St. Louis be- 
gan to arrive from Michigan, New York and 
Kansas, and it is from these quarters chiefly 
that our receipts were coming in 1897. This 
change in the source of supply is exhibited in 
comparing the receipts of 1875 with 
those of 1896. In 1875 89,680 sacks out of 
96,680 sacks received came from New Orleans, 
and 230,683 barrels out of 246,193 barrels re- 
ceived came from the Ohio River region ; that 
is to say, nkieteen-twenthieths of the -total re- 
ceipts came from these two sources. But in 
1892 only 10,000 sacks out of 48,963 were re- 
ceived from New Orleans, and in 1896 there 
were no receipts at all from that source. Since 
1890 no receipts at all from the Ohio River 
were reported. Nevertheless the salt trade of 
St. Louis increased very largely in the period 
between 1865 and 1896, as the statistics show. 
The total receipts in 1865 were 170,814 bar- 
rels, and 83,221 sacks ; in 1875 they were 246,- 
193 barrels and 96,880 sacks; in 1885 they 
were 387,737 'barrels, 46,331 sacks, and 548,- 
700 bushels in bulk ; in 1895 they were 304,- 
204 barrels, 72,293 sacks, and 804,980 bushels 
in bulk. The shipments in 1865 were 109,248 
barrels and 24,328 sacks ; in 1875 they were 
219,102 barrels and 30,381 sacks; in 1885 they 
were 309.571 'barrels, 8,957 sacks, and 345,323 
bushels in bulk ; and in 1895 they were 283,- 
541 barrels, 17,043 sacks, and 54,320 bushels 
in bulk. From 1879 a ver Y large proportion 
of the receipts have been in bulk, these re- 
ceipts in 1895 reaching 804,980 bushels. The 
receipts in sacks correspondingly decreased. 
(All the receipts in 1896 came by railroad, ex- 
:jcept 25,346 barrels and 438 sacks from the Illi- 
•jnois River, whereas twenty years before near- 
| ly all the receipts came by water and only a 
small proportion by rail. The total receipts 
in 1896 were 329,666 barrels, 39.163 sacks, and 
454,160 bushels in bulk, and of this, 3,005 bar- 
rels, 125 sacks and 102,480 bushel's in bulk 
[came from Kansas, ny the Missouri Pacific 
>and the St. Louis & San Francisc'o roads; 
land nearly all the rest from Michigan and New 

! Yorkb - vVaiL D. M. Grissom. 

Salvage Corps. — What is known as the 
jUnderwriters' Salvage Corps of St. Louis had 



its origin in a meeting of the underwriters of 
the city held at the office of the St. Louis In- 
surance Company, May 19. 1874, at which 
sixty-three fire insurance companies, doing 
business in the city, were represented. At 
that meeting the initiatory steps were taken 
for creating a fire patrol to be owned and op- 
erated by tlie insurance underwriters, and 
Messrs. George T. Cram, Lewis E. Snow. W. 
G. Bentley, W. D. VanB'l'arcom and J. B. S. 
Lemoine were appointed a governing body, to 
lie kiii iwn as the "Committee of the Fire Patrol 
of St. Louis." At a meeting held May 29th, fol- 
lowing, George T. Cram was made president, 
and Lewis E. Snow secretary and treasurer of 
the organization, and early in the following 
month a committee, appointed for the pur- 
pose, visited Chicago to inspect the fire patrol 
of that city. The result oi this committee's 
visit was that Charles Evans, of Chicago, was 
unanimously selected to take charge of the or- 
ganization and equipment of the St. Louis 
Fire Patrol. Captain Evans entered upon his 
work soon afterward, and completed the or- 
ganization of the first Salvage Corps July 3, 
1874. That it has since proven very effective 
in reducing fire losses to the minimum through 
the protection which it affords to merchandise 
and other kinds of property is evidenced by 
the fact that during the year 1S73, before the 
Salvage Corps was organized, the percentage 
of loss to the amount of insurance on the 
property damaged by fire was 37.37, while in 
[896 it had dropped to 13.40 per cent. The 
cost of maintaining this fire patrol is borne by 
the insurance companies, the expense to each 
company being proportionate to the amount of 
its business in the city. In 1897 there were 
three Salvage Corps in the city, each under 
command of a captain, and all subject to the 
authority of Chief Charles Evans. 

Salvation Army. — A body of evangel- 
izers founded by William Booth in London. 
England, in 1866, whose chief purpose is to 
preach the gospel to the outcast and criminal 
classes, who are thought not to be sufficiently 
reached and cared for by the regular church 
organizations. Mr. Booth was a Methodist 
clergyman, engaged in evangelical work, 
which brought him into personal contact with 
the "submerged" classes of London and other 
great English cities, and he was so touched 
with pity for their wretchedness, and so con- 
vinced that the ordinary agencies were not 



1980 



SALVATION ARMY. 



adequate to the task of caring for their spir- 
itual wants, that he determined to sever bis 
formal connection with the church, and devote 
his life to the task of ministering to the relief 
of the unfortunate population of the British 
capital. Most fortunately he found a valuable 
and efficient coadjutant in his wife, Catharine 
Booth, who entered heartily with him into the 
work, and, in prosecution of it, revealed a zeal, 
energy, intellectual and spiritual power, and 
a sympathy for the outcast and neglected 
classes not inferior to his own. Indeed, she 
did so much in the beginning of the enterprise, 
and showed so much power in her preaching 
and writings, and such admirable judgment 
in the arrangement and conduct of the work, 
that it is not easy to tell how it could have been 
carried to the point of success it reached, even 
in her lifetime, without her assistance. As 
the small body of helpers who began to gather 
round the Booths were converts from the low 
and poor classes, and the work to be done was 
urgent and pressing, calling for sacrifice, obe- 
dience and prompt action, the organization 
instinctively took a military form, with Wil- 
liam Booth as general, and his assistants and 
helpers as military subalterns. At the very 
beginning, he conceived the idea of enlisting 
women in the service on a perfect coequality 
with the men. Indeed, it is probable that the 
zeal, judgment and ability which his wife dis- 
played in the cause suggested this feature of 
the organization to him. At any rate, the 
women of the army have proven not onlv zeal- 
ous and efficient workers, but capable of doing 
tasks and visiting places, in ministering to 
outcasts, where men could not go; and in the 
control of drunken and boisterous men and 
refractory crowds, they often reveal an au- 
thority and power which men could not ex 
hibit. Nearly all the officers or active work- 
ers of the Army are young, and the women 
share all the rights, privileges and responsibil- 
ities equally with the men, beginning as cadet, 
and going, by successive promotions, to lieu- 
tenant, captain, ensign, adjutant and staff 
captain, up to brigadier. If it was fortunate 
for William Booth that his wife embarked in 
the Salvation Army work with all her zeal and 
abilities, it was both fortunate and strange 
that all their children, three sons and four 
daughters, embarked in it also, and have been 
assigned to responsible and difficult positions 
in England. Belgium. France, India, the 
United States, and Canada. The military 



character of the organization restrains liberty 
of speech and action, of course, and makes 
obedience to the orders of the superior officers 
the first duty; but this, perhaps, is little or 
no hardship as long as the Army is animated 
by a single impulse, and all thinking alike, 
with neither time nor disposition for doctrinal 
disputes. ( Inly the officers belong to the 
Army in the sense of being entirely devoted 
to the work and subject, at all times, to orders. 
The soldiers are usually working men and 
women, earning their own living at various 
avocations, and taking part in the meetings 
Sunday and at night. They are not subject 
to orders, and receive no wages. A "corps" 
is a meeting room in charge of two officers, 
usually a captain and a lieutenant, with such 
a retinue of soldiers to attend the meetings as 
may be enlisted — the soldiers being persons, 
men and women, who have been "saved" and 
sworn in at the corps. The meeting place is 
usually a store-room, or hall, with a platform 
at one end on which the officers, soldiers, and 
invited friends sit, and from which the services 
are conducted, and the space in front occu- 
pied with chairs for the audience. The serv- 
ice begins with a song sung standing, followed 
by a song or chorus, kneeling, and one or 
more prayers. This is followed by more 
songs, sometimes varied with a solo, then 
personal testimonies from officers, soldiers, 
and persons in the audience. Then come the 
tambourine collection and more testimonies, 
a Bible lesson and discourse, which is an ear- 
nest appeal to the unconverted, and a call to 
the penitent form, and a prayer-meeting for 
those who may come forward. Each corps 
holds a public open meeting in its hall every 
night in the week, except one, usually Tues- 
day, when a private soldiers' meeting is held, 
and on Sunday there are four public hall meet- 
ings, at 7 and u o'clock in the morning, 3 in 
the afternoon, and 8 in the evening. Every 
night meeting in the week, and every Sunday 
afternoon meeting, is preceded by a march, 
with tambourine and drum, and brass band, 
if the corps has one, and an open air meeting 
on the side of the street. In 1897 the Salva- 
tion \rmy had a footing in forty-three differ- 
ent countries, with 5,500 corps and 12,000 
officers. In the United States there were 600 
corps, with 2,000 officers and 24,000 soldiers. 
The largest number of corps in any one city 
was thirty-three, in Chicago. There were 
54,000 persons, mostly in the lower walks of 




^ju^J^W^ 




SAMARITAN SOCIETY, ST. LOUIS— SAMPSON. 



1981 



life, converted at its meetings in the United 
States in 1897. 

For nine years the army in the United 
States was in command of Ballington Booth, 
youngest son of the founder, with headquar- 
ters at New York City; but, in 1896, a dis- 
agreement arose between father and son, upon 
an order assigning the son to the charge of 
the army in British India, and he withdrew, 
and, with his wife, organized a new similar or- 
ganization called the Volunteers of America, 
with headquarters in New York, and branches 
in other cities. 

The army was introduced into St. Louis in 
1889, and has made steady progress ever since. 
In 1897 it had ten corps in the city, one of 
them a slum corps, as it is called, conducting 
its operations in a field where the very poor, 
the outcast and the criminal classes are found. 
The slum corps in all cities are in charge of 
women only ; the other corps may be in charge 
of women or men. There are two training 
garrisons in St. Louis also, one for men and 
one for women. The pupils enter these garri- 
sons as cadets, and, after six to eight months 
of training, in which they are instructed in 
the Bible, the history and habits of the army, 
the management of public meetings, and the 
conduct of indoor and open air services, are 
promoted to lieutenant, and assigned to active 
duty under a captain in charge of a corps. In 
addition to the two training garrisons the 
[ army has, in St. Louis, two "Shelters" for 
men, in one of which, for ten cents, and in the 
other, for five cents, a bunk in a warm room, 
I with a cup of coffee in the morning, is fur- 
| nished to any unfortunate man who can afford 
] nothing better. It has also, at 3740 Marine 
i Avenue, a rescue home for fallen women, 
1 where they are reclaimed, kindly cared for and 
I assisted, until they can be entrusted with the 
j task of taking care of themselves, when they 
j are provided with places in which to earn their 
jown living. General William Booth, founder 
;of the organization, has twice visited the 
! United States — in 1894 and 1898 — visiting St. 
Louis in December of the former year, and in 
I February of the latter, and speaking to large 

! audiences at Music Hall on each occasion. 
D. M. Grissom. 

1 Samaritan Society, St. Louis.— See 

"Charities in St. Louis." 



Sampson, Clark Hamilton, mer- 
chant and manufacturer, was born September 
17, 1850, in the town of Hatfield, Hampshire 
County, Massachusetts, son of Elijah N. and 
Agnes (Hubbard) Sampson. The founder of 
this branch of the Sampson family in America 
was Abraham Sampson, who came from Eng- 
land, and joined the Plymouth colony two 
years after the landing of the "Mayflower," 
following his brother, Henry, who, as a boy 
twelve years of age, and the ward of Edward 
Tilly, had landed from the ship which brought 
the English Pilgrims to this country. Abra- 
ham Sampson married a daughter of Samuel 
Nash, lieutenant of the Duxburv militia com- 
pany, and their son, Isaac, married Lydia 
Standish, a daughter of Alexander and Sarah 
(Alden) Standish, son and daughter respec- 
tively, of Captain Miles Standish and John 
Alden. Among the ancestors, therefore, of 
Clark H. Sampson in the paternal line were 
at least three of the most conspicuous of the 
"Mayflower" compact, and his mother also 
belonged to an old New England family. His 
great-grandfather was an officer in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and the family annals are rich 
in historic interest. Born and reared in New 
England, Mr. Sampson was educated under 
private tutorship, and at the schools of Hat- 
field and Northampton, and was then trained 
to mercantile pursuits, serving his apprentice- 
ship in a large dry goods store. When 
twenty-one years of age he became secretary 
of a manufacturing corporation at Northamp- 
ton, and for some years thereafter was also a 
traveling salesman for that establishment. As 
a traveling representative of this manufactory 
he visited man}' of the large cities of the 
United States — St. Louis being among them 
— and while largely extending the trade of his 
house and gaining an enviable reputation as 
a salesman, he was also gaining knowledge of 
trade conditions throughout the country, and 
the commercial advantages of different cities, 
which proved exceedingly valuable to him in 
later years. Within a few years after he at- 
tained his majority he became connected with 
the Corticelli Silk Mills, and for some time 
represented this interest in New York City, 
living at the famous old St. Nicholas Hotel, 
located at the corner of Broadway and Spring 
Street. In 1879 he came to St. Louis and 
opened a wholesale establishment for the dis- 
tribution of the products of the Corticelli Silk 
Mills throughout the West and South, enter- 



1982 



SAMUEL. 



ing at once upon a commercial career which 
has been continuously successful. The silk 
business which he established has steadily ex- 
panded, until it now occupies a conspicuous 
position among the great commercial institu- 
tions of the city, and this is but one of many 
important business enterprises with which he 
has been identified. A man of practical ideas, 
large resourcefulness and superior organizing 
capacity, he has been conspicuous for his en- 
ergy and prompt action, and for that tenacity 
of purpose which apparently recognizes no 
obstacles as insuperable and reduces the fail- 
ures of life to a minimum. Candid and cour- 
teous in manner, and inflexible in the recti- 
tude of his business transactions, he has 
wielded, and still continues to wield, large in- 
fluence in commercial circles, and is no less 
esteemed for his moral worth and his devotion 
to the welfare of his adopted city. In addition 
to his mercantile interests in St. Louis he is a 
stockholder in the Corticelli Silk Company, a 
director in the St. Louis & Suburban Rail- 
way Company, a director of the American 
Credit Indemnity Company, vice-president of 
the Missouri Savings & Loan Company, treas- 
urer of the Ludlow Fire Alarm Company, 
president of the St. Louis Manufacturing 
Company, and is interested also in other busi- 
ness enterprises. Notwithstanding the fact 
that his large business interests have been ex- 
acting in their requirements, he has seemed 
always to be able to respond to the demands 
of the public for his services, and ready to 
labor for the public good. He has at divers 
times made enviable records as chairman of 
finance committees organized for the purpose 
of forwarding public movements designed to 
promote the welfare of the city, and has be- 
come famous for raising funds of large pro- 
portions in this connection. He was chair- 
man of the finance committee which provided 
funds for the entertainment of visiting veter- 
ans at the Grand Army Encampment, held in 
St. Louis in 1SX7. On that occasion he or- 
ganized a committee of five hundred members, 
and in a single day raised a fund of $90,000 for 
entertainment purposes. He was chairman of 
the finance committee which collected neces- 
sary funds and erected the first monument to 
General I". S. Grant. He was chairman of 
the delegation through whose labors the Na- 
tional Republican Convention was brought to 
St. Li mis in 1896, and later acted as chairman 
of the committee on arrangements which had 



matters pertaining to the holding ol the con- 
vention in charge. He is president of the St. 
Louis Exposition <!v Music Hall Association, 
of which institution he has for fifteen years 
been a director. He was, in 1896, vice-presi- 
denl of the Merchants' Exchange. He was 
president of the Missouri State Commission, 
created by Governor Stephens to represent the 
interests of Missouri at the Trans-Mississippi 
and International Exposition, held at ( )maha 
in 189X. At the present time he is a promi- 
nent member of the citizens' committee, hav- 
ing in charge preparations for the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, to be held in St. Louis 
in 1903. In politics he is a Republican of the 
stalwart type, standing high in the councils of 
his party, and yet counting among iiis per- 
sonal friends and business associates quite as 
many men of other political creeds as of his 
own party faith. He was at one time a mem- 
ber of the Republican State central committee 
of Missouri, and sat in the Republican Na- 
tional Convention, held in Minneapolis in 
1892. as a delegate from this State. His 
religious affiliations are with the Methodist 
Church, with which he is officially connected 
as a trustee of Lindell Avenue Church. His 
regular contributions to numerous charitable 
institutions bear testimony to the warmth of 
his generosity and the breadth of his liberality. 
He was the founder of the New England So- 
ciety, of St. Louis, and has served as its presi- 
dent. He is vice-president of the society of 
the Sons of the American Revolution, and 
deputy governor of the Society of Colonial 
Wars, of Missouri. One of the organizers of 
the Mercantile Club, he has long been one of 
its most active members, and served several 
years as a member of its board of directors. 
In 1881 Mr. Sampson was married, at Long 
Branch, New Jersey, to Miss Mary Ryer. 
Mrs. Sampson's mother was Caroline (Cook) 
Ryer, a sister of the late Isaac Cook, of St. 
Louis, and she is a qreat-granddaughter of 
Major Daniel Denniston, of New York, who 
was an officer on General Washington's staff 
in the War of the Revolution. Their chil- 
dren are Marjorie, Hazel, Maybell and Helen 1 
Sampson. 

Samuel, Webster Marshall, who has 

long occupied a conspicuous position in the 
business circles of St. Louis, was born in Clay 
County, Missouri, March 7, 1834. His father,, 
Edward M. Samuel, was a native of Kentucky, 



SANDER. 



1983 



and his more remote ancestors in the paternal 
line came from Wales to this country at an 
early date and settled in Virginia. His mother's 
maiden name was Elizabeth Garner, and she 
also came of a Kentucky family of Virginia 
antecedents, one of her great-grandfathers 
having been Colonel John Trigg, of Virginia, 
who served as a commissioned officer in the 
Revolutionary Army under Washington, and 
was afterward a member of Congress from 
Virginia. Edward M. Samuel came to Mis- 
souri from Kentucky in 1829, and established 
his home in Clay County, where he was long 
prominent as a merchant and as president of 
the branch of the Farmers' Bank operated at 
Liberty, in that county. He removed to St. 
Louis in 1865, engaging here in commercial 
pursuits, and later founding the Commercial 
Bank, of which he was president until his 
death. After completing his education at Cen- 
tre College, of Danville, Kentucky, Webster 
M. Samuel returned to his home in Clay 
County, where he was associated with his 
father until 1858, when he came to St. Louis 
and embarked in the grain and commission 
business as head of the firm of Samuel & Al- 
len. He was not actively engaged in business 
during the Civil War, but in 1865 he again 
became identified with the grain trade in St. 
Louis as a member of the firm of E. M. Sam- 
uel & Sons, and has ever since been one of 
the most prominent and successful operators 
in St. Louis in cereal products. He became 
connected with the Merchants' Exchange in 
1865, and in 1871 was made a director of that 
organization. In 1873 he was made vice- 
president, and in 1874 president of the Ex- 
change, and has not only served it with zeal 
and ability as an official, but has since been 
one of its most influential members, and one 
of those most active in promoting the welfare 
i of an institution which has done much to de- 
1 velop the trade and commerce of St. Louis. 
i Since early manhood he has been an active, 
forceful and energetic personality, and many 
enterprises which have contributed to the up- 
j building of the city and the development of 
Western business interests have been indebted 
to him for material encouragement and as- 
jsistance. As a young man he was connected 
with the famous "Pony Express," instituted 
|by Russell, Majors & Waddell, holders of gov- 
ernment freighting contracts, which traversed 
jthe route of the Union Pacific Railway and 
carried the mails from St. Joseph to San Fran- 



cisco. To this enterprise Mr. Samuel gave his 
personal attention for a time, making more 
than one tour of inspection along the line 
when the undertaking was perilous, as well as 
arduous. In later years he was a director of 
the Missouri Pacific Railroad, and was identi- 
fied with other corporations as a director of 
the Commercial Bank, and president of the 
Phoenix Insurance Company. In 1889 he 
organized the United Elevator Company, and 
was president of that corporation until 1895. 
Ever since he became a resident of St. Louis 
and interested in the progress and develop- 
ment of the city, he has been an earnest advo- 
cate of the improvement of the Mississippi 
River, and was vice-president of the Jetties 
Company, organized to aid Captain James B. 
Eads in constructing the jetties at the mouth 
of the river. At different times he has also 
acted as a member of delegations sent to 
Washington to urge upon the government 
authorities the importance of facilitating river 
navigation, and has contributed materially to- 
ward securing favorable legislation looking 
to this end. He has manifested, in all re- 
spects, a broad public spirit, and as an enter- 
prising and influential man of affairs has been 
much in the public eye, and in that sense has 
been a public man, although he has held no 
political office, save that of member of the city 
council, in which body he served four years. 
He was reared under Whig political influ- 
ences, but since that party passed out of ex- 
istence has affiliated with the Democratic 
partv. He is a Presbyterian churchman, and 
a communicant of Central Church of that de- 
nomination in St. Louis. He married. No- 
vember 10, 1857, Miss Annie M. Russell, 
daughter of William II. Russell, of Lexing- 
ton, Missouri, who was head of the old 
freighting firm of Russell, Majors & Waddell, 
and who did an extensive business in the 
transportation of government supplies to dif- 
ferent points in the far West during the years 
immediately preceding the Civil War. Mr. 
Russell was also the originator of the "Pony 
Express," previously mentioned in this con- 
nection. 

Sander, Elmo, one of the oldest and 
most prominent citizens of St. Louis, was born 
in the City of Koethen, the old capital of the 
dukedom of Anhalt-Koethen, Germany, in 
1821. Coming of good family, he was care- 
fully educated, ami received his doctor's de- 



1984 



SANGUINET. 



gree from the University of Berlin, where he 
had studied medicine, chemistry and the natu- 
ral sciences. Instinctively a lover of free gov- 
ernment, he had courage as well as convic- 
tions ; and the result was that in 1848-9 he was 
among those German "Liberals" who gathered 
at Baden, and declared themselves unalter- 
ably opposed to the established form of gov- 
ernment. When the provisional government 
was formed he became Assistant Minister of 
War, and held that position until the Revolu- 
tionary movement was suppressed. As is well 
known, most of those who were the leaders of 
this movement were either condemned to 
death or sentenced to long terms of imprison- 
ment, but Dr. Sander was one of those who 
escaped the penalties of unsuccessful revolu- 
tion. Eluding the King's officers, he went to 
Switzerland, and remained in that country un- 
til 1851. In that year he came to the United 
States, and in January of 1852 established his 
home in St. Louis. Being an experienced 
pharmacist, he opened a drug store in the Bar- 
num Hotel Block, at the corner of Walnut and 
Second Streets, in 1853, and at once built up a 
prosperous business. In 1865, after the com- 
pletion of the Southern Hotel, he opened a 
second drug store in that hotel, and conducted 
both stores until 1873. I n tnat . vear ' ie so 'd 
his interests in these drug stores to his part- 
ners, but for several years thereafter he con- 
tinued to opeiate the laboratory which he had 
established in connection with his drug busi- 
ness in 1868. Finally he severed his connec- 
tion with the drug business entirely, and since 
that time he has been engaged in the manu- 
facture of artificial mineral waters, his factory 
being, at the present time, the most extensive 
of its kind in the West. His scientific attain- 
ments, no less than his business qualifications, 
have given him prominence in the citv in 
which he has lived for almost half a century, 
and ever since its organization he has been a 
member of the St. Louis Academy of Sciences. 
He has also been one of the leading spirits in 
building up the St. Louis School of Pharmacy, 
in which he occupied, for several years, the 
chair of "materia medica." He was the author 
of the law creating, in Missouri, a State Board 
of Pharmacy, before which every druggist 
must give proof of his ability to practice his 
profession, and which has proven a very wise 
safeguard of the public welfare. During all 
the years of his residence in St. Louis Dr. San- 
der has been known as one of the most Erenial 



and companionable of men. His ripe learn- 
ing and varied experience, his wit and vivacity, 
his benevolence and kindness of heart have all 
helped to enlarge the circle of his friends, and 
among all his contemporaries none have been 
held in higher esteem. 

SJiiifyuiiiet, Charles, pioneer, and first 
of the name in St. Louis, was born in Mon- 
treal, Canada, the son of a French physician 
and surgeon who was sent to Canada early in 
the eighteenth century, being assigned to duty 
at one of the military posts of what was then 
known as "New France." This Charles San- 
guinet came to St. Louis within a few years 
after the founding of the place, and in 1779 
married Marie Conde, daughter of Dr. Andre 
Auguste Conde, the first physician and sur- 
geon to practice 'his profession in the newly 
founded settlement, on the west bank of the 
Mississippi, which has since been developed 
into a great city. Elsewhere in these volumes 
will be found a complete sketch of Dr. Conde, 
and it is only necessary to say of him in this 
connection that he was post surgeon in the 
French service at Fort Chartres when the Eng- 
lish took possession of the Illinois country in 
1775. He joined Laclede immediately after 
the surrender of Fort Chartres, accompanied 
by his wife and his eldest daughter, who later 
became the wife of Charles Sanguinet. The 
first Charles Sanguinet was a successful trader, 
who acquired a considerable fortune and 
reared a large family, his descendants at the 
present time being numerous and closely al- 
lied with the most prominent of the old French 
families of St. Louis. His son, CHARLES 
SANGUJINET, usually known in the later 
records of the family as Charles, Sr., was born 
in St. Louis, in 1781. He was reared in the 
old French town, which was then known to 
the outside world only as a trading-post, and 
educated in the Catholic parochial school of 
that period. He married into another of the 
early French families, Cecile Brazeau having 
been his wife's maiden name. Their marriage 
took place in 1817, and they reared a family 
of thirteen children, five of whom survived 
their father, and two of whom, Marshall P. 
Sanguinet and Mrs. Virginia Nadeau, were 
living in 1897. Charles Sanguinet, the sec- 
ond, was. like his father, a fur trader and in 
later years a merchant. Prior to his marriage 
he spent some years in New Orleans, to which 
place he was sent by his parents in accordance 



SANITARY FAIR— SARGENT. 



1 985 



with the custom then prevalent among the 
wealthier French settlers in St. Louis of send- 
ing their sons to the older and larger town, 
which was the capital of the Province of Louis- 
iana, where their education received the fin- 
ishing touches. After completing 'his educa- 
tion, he first emibarked in the grocery business 
in New Orleans, but later returned to St. 
Louis, married and became identified with the 
business interests of his native town, as al- 
ready stated. He was one of the more enter- 
prising, as we'll as one of the wealthier, pio- 
neers of St. Louis ; was a large owner of real 
estate in the city and in St. Louis County, and 
a pioneer also in developing the lead mining 
industry of Galena, Illinois. He was a devout 
Catholic in bis religious affiliations and in all 
respects a most worthy and estimable citizen. 
SAXGUINET, MARSHALL P., in early life 
a banker and in later years prominently iden- 
tified with the real estate interests of St. Louis, 
was born in this city January 29, 1826, son of 
Charles and Cecile (Brazeau) Sanguinet. He 
also was reared in St. Louis and educated 
at a private school, of which Ezra Mondy, a 
noted old-time educator, was principal. The 
house in which he was born was for long years 
a sort of land-mark in the environs of St. 
Louis. It was a stone building on the Bra- 
zeau farm and occupied a site near the inter- 
section of Lesperance and Kosciusko Streets, 
in South St. Louis. Coming of good family 
he enjoyed the best social and educational ad- 
vantages as a youth, and when he was old 
enough to turn his attention to business pur- 
suits, he entered the old-time banking house 
of L. A. Benoist & Co., as teller. In this po- 
sition he was thoroughly trained to the bank- 
ing business and retained his connection with 
the banking house of Benoist & Co. thirteen 
years. At the end of that time he became as- 
sociated with Sanguinet H. Benoist in a bank 
of which they were the owners and managers. 
In 1859, having abandoned banking as an oc- 
cupation, he embarked in the real estate busi- 
ness, in which he was successfully engaged for 
many years thereafter and until he retired to 
enjoy the large fortune which he had accumu- 
lated. When he first turned his attention to 
this business, his was one of only five firms 
regularly engaged at that time and devoting 
their entire attention to operations in real es- 
tate. He witnessed the laying out of many 
new additions to the city and saw the annual 
voiume of real estate transactions arrow from 



a comparatively small amount to many mil- 
lions of dollars. During the time in which 
he was actively identified with the real estate 
interests of the city, improvements multiplied 
and values increased, until down town prop- 
erty became worth as much per front foot as 
it had brought per acre during the earlier years 
of his business career. To the development 
which has brought about this increased valua- 
tion, Mr. Sanguinet has contributed his full 
share and he is deservedly numbered among 
the old and honored citizens of St. Louis, al- 
though he has resided for some years in the 
beautiful suburban town of Kirkwood. Born 
and reared a Catholic, he has followed in the 
footsteps of his parents, and from childhood 
up has been a devout member of the Catholic 
Church. He was one of the first members of 
the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and for 
many years was its treasurer. He married, in 
1855, Miss Ann E. Betts, daughter of R. H. 
Betts, a well known resident and business man 
of St. Louis prior to his death. Of the chil- 
dren born of their union, nine sons and one 
daughter were living in 1897. They were 
Marshall Robert Sanguinet, a prosperous arch- 
itect of Fort Worth, Texas ; Frank Sanguinet, 
also a resident of Texas ; Conde L. Sanguinet, 
Eugene Sanguinet, Belle Sanguinet, Charles 
A. Sanguinet, Benoist Sanguinet, William M. 
Sanguinet, Alexis G. Sanguinet and Paul M. 
Sanguinet, all of St. Louis. Three children, 
Joseph C, Annie Cecile and Aloysia Sangui- 
net, are dead. 

Sanitary Fair. — See "Mississippi Val- 
ley Sanitary Fair." 

Santa Fe, First Trip to.— James Purs- 
ley and two companions are said to have been 
the first Americans to visit the old city of 
Santa Fe. They started from St. Louis in 
1802, on a hunting trip, and traversed the 
plains of Kansas, then called the "American 
Desert." 

Sargent, Clarence Spalding, clergy- 
man, was born in Gilmanton, New Hampshire, 
July 29, 1855, son of Rev. Roger M. Sargent, 
D. D. He was graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1876, and from Yale Theological 
Seminary in 1879. October 1st of rhi 
named year he was ordained to the ministry 
of the CoiiQ'reerational Church, and thereafter 



1986 



SARGENT— SARPY. 



preached two years in Maine, five years in New 
Haven, Vermont, and seven years in Adams, 
Massachusetts, before coming to St. Louis, 
In January of 1894 he accepted a unanimous 
call i" the Central Congregational Church of 
this city, of which he has since been pastor, 
and the same year received the honorary de- 
gree 1 <i docfc >r of di\ init) . lie has been presi- 
dent of the Evangelical Alliance and of the 
Congregational Club of this city, and is a trus- 
il Kidder Institute and other institutions. 
His baccalaureate and other addresses have 
attracted marked attention, and he is known as 
a popular and able preacher. Since his com- 
ing to St. Louis he has been actively identified 
with various 'benevolent, missionary, reforma- 
tory and social enterprises for the benefit of 
the community, and has been prominent in ad- 
vancing the interests of all churches, as well 
as his own. which has practically doubled its 
membership during his pastorate. 

Sargent, Roger 31., clergyman, was 
born September 7, 1824, in Barton, Vermont, 
and came of Puritan ancestry. In 1846 he was 
graduated from Dartmouth College, and in 
1849 from Andover Theological Seminary. 
He was ordained to the ministry in Center 
Church, of Gilmanton, New Hampshire, April 
27, 1N52, and preached there during eight suc- 
ceeding years. Thereafter he was stationed 
eleven years at Farmington, New Hampshire, 
and three years at Princeton, Massachusetts, 
at Monticello Seminary Church, and other 
churches in Illinois, and some months in 1875 
at Webster Groves, Missouri, and later at 
I law K\ . Massachusetts. In 1894 be came to 
St. Louis to reside with his son, Rev. Clarence 
S. Sargent, and has supplied various churches 
in this city temporarily since that time. Hav- 
ing taught school in early life, he has always 
been warmly interested in educational matters, 
has served at different times on various local 
sohoi '1 ci Hnmittees and as a county school com- 
missioner, and was a member of the State 
board of education in New Hampshire for two 
terms. He was twice chosen secretary of this 
board and prepared two of its annual reports. 
In connection with his pastoral and educa- 
tional work he lias been a contributor from 
time to time to the newspaper press and has 
twice tilled editorial positions temporarily. He 
has held the positions of trustee and member 
of examining committees of various institu- 
tions, and at the request of a ministers' meet- 



ing of the church, prepared, in 1898^ an 
historical sketch of "The Congregational 
Churches of St. Louis." The degree of doc- 
tor of divinity has been conferred upon him by 
his alma mater. 

Sarpy, Gregoire Herald, pioneer, 
was born near Agen, capital of the department 
of Lot-et-Garonne, France, in 1764, and died 
in St. Louis in 1824. He was one of several 
brothers who were among the French colonists 
of Louisiana and came to St. Louis about the 
year 1786. He married Pelagie Labadie. a 
daughter of Sylvester Labadie, and grand- 
daughter of Madame Marie Therese Chouteau, 
and became the progenitor of a family which 
still has numerous representatives in St. Louis, 
but none bearing the family name. 

Sarpy, John B., pioneer, was born in 
the Province of Gascony, France, and came to 
Louisiana some time before the founding of 
St. Louis. He was engaged in business as a 
merchant in New Orleans for some years and 
came from there to St. Louis two years after 
Laclede founded his trading-post. Here he 
became a conspicuous figure among the mer- 
chants and fur traders and continued in busi- 
ness in St. Louis for something more than 
twenty years, returning then to New Orleans, 
where he died in 1798. He was an elder 
brother of Gregoire Berald Sarpy and uncle to 
John B. Sarpy, the last named of whom was a 
distinguished citizen of St. Louis in later years. 

Sarpy, John Baptiste, pioneer mer- 
chant, was born in St. Louis, January 12, 1799, 
and died in this city, April 1, 1857. His par- 
ents were Gregoire Berald and Pelagie Chou- 
teau (Labadie) Sarpy, and he was a great- 
grandson of Madame Marie Therese Chou- 
teau. He was reared and educated in St. 
Louis and at an early age entered the service 
of Pierre Chouteau & Co., merchants and fur 
traders, as a clerk. After a time he became a 
partner in this famous old-time trading estab- 
lishment and for many years was prominent in 
the conduct and management of its affairs. 
He was a successful merchant and financier, 
and not only acquired a handsome fortune, but 
took so prominent a part in forwarding com- 
mercial and other enterprises calculated to 
build up the city of St. Louis that, for many 
years he occupied a position hardly second to 
that of any other citizen of the place in popu- 



SARSFIELD CLUB— SASS. 



L987 



larity, prestige and influence. He was one of 
the original projectors of the Missouri Pacific 
Railroad, and his name appeared on the first 
memorial presented to Congress asking for a 
land grant in aid of this railway enterprise, 
and 'he was also an incorporator of the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railroad Company as it was first 
organized. He did not live to see the railway 
completed, but he was nevertheless entitle'd to 
the credit for setting on foot an enterprise 
which contributed so largely to the prosperity 
of St. Louis. Always oonspicuous for his in- 
terest in everything calculated to promote the 
welfare of his native city, he aided public im- 
provements and the development of transpor- 
tation facilities in various ways, and Other kin- 
dred enterprises found in him always an ar- 
dent champion and liberal supporter. A man 
of wealth and station, his influence was ex- 
erted in numerous ways to build up the city 
and improve the condition of the people, and 
whenever opportunity offered his public spirit 
was made manifest. The great flood of 1844 
brought much suffering to the people of St. 
Louis and Che inhabitants of the valley adja- 
cent to the city, and the wealthier residents of 
the city were called upon to contribute to their 
relief. Mr. Sarpy was one of the leaders in 
ministering to the wants of the sufferers, and 
he rendered valuable services in this connec- 
tion as a member of both the advisory and re- 
lief committees. In 1846, when Missouri raised 
a considerable force of volunteers for service 
in the Mexican War, he evinced at the same 
time 'his generosity and his patriotism by con- 
tributing largely to the fund raised in St. Louis 
to equip these troops. While he never held a 
public office more important than that of al- 
derman, for the reason that he had no taste for 
office-holding, he took a deep interest in poli- 
tics and was prominently identified with many 
important political movements during- the 
early history of Missouri as a State. He was a 
typical old-line Whig, devotedly attached to 
Webster and Clay, with 'both of whom he had 
a personal acquaintance. On the occasion of 
Webster's visit to St. Louis, in 1837, he was 
vice-president of the meeting held in honor of 
the great expounder of the constitution, with 
a festival and a barbecue as unique features of 
the entertainment. He was a member of the 
famous "Whig vigilance committee,"' which 
had much to do with bringing about the nom- 
ination of William Henry Harrison for Presi- 
j dent of the LTnited States, and many of the 



noted old-time Whig politicians were his warm 
personal friends, some of the most distin- 
guished men who belonged to that party in his 
day being at different times his guests in St. 
Louis. Mr. Sarpy was a man of attractive 
personality and is remembered by many per- 
sons still living as a genial gentleman of the 
old school, a hospitable entertainer, who was 
always courteous in manner and who yet had 
great force of character and a dignified 1 iear- 
ing peculiar to himself. The home in which 
he spent the later years of his life occupied a 
quarter of the block at the corner of Sixth and 
Olive Streets, and was one of the noted old- 
time mansions of St. Louis. He was twice 
married — first, in J820, to Adele Cabanne, 
daughter of Jean Pierre Cabanne, and after her 
death, in 1835, to Martha J. Russell, daughter 
of James Russell, of Oak Hill, Missouri. The 
only surviving members of his family are two 
daughters, Virginia Sarpy, horn of his first 
marriage, who is now Mrs. Armand Peugnet, 
and Julia Anne Adele Sarpy, now the widow 
of Colonel J. L. D. Morrison, for many years 
a leading member of the St. Louis bar. 

Sarsfield Club. — A club founded Sep- 
tember 1, 1896, at 1923 O'Fallon Street, with 
Andrew F. Barry, president, and Eugene 
Daly, secretary. It is composed of young 
Irish- Americans, its purpose being social in- 
tercourse and entertainment. It buries its 
members when they die, but has no other 
beneficiary feature. It gives picnics, excur- 
sions and occasionally balls. 

Sass, Richard F., who was long con- 
spicuously identified with the steamboat- 
ing interests of St. Louis, was born in 
Charleston. South Carolina, November 19, 
18 1 5, son of Edward G. and Mary S. 
Sates. IK- was one of a family of nine 
children, and the only one who survived 
beyond the Civil War period, his eldest 
brother, Jacob Keith Sass, a Charleston bank- 
er — and the only member of the family other 
than himself living at that time — having died 
during the siege of Charleston as a result of 
the exposure to which he subjected himself 
while seeking to convey the funds of his bank 
to a safe place in the interior of the State. 
Richard F. Sass was well educated in the 
schools of Charleston, and upon quitting 
school became connected with a large whole- 
sale dry mods house of that citv, in which he 



1988 



SAUGRAIN. 



was employed until January of 1841. At that 
time he married -Miss Charlotte Auguste Law- 
rence, of Boston, Massachuseets, and imme- 
diately afterward went with his wife to the 
New England metropolis. After spending 
two months visiting their friends in Boston, 
the young couple decided to establish their 
home in the West and started for St. Louis, 
traveling by stage and canal-boat to Buffalo, 
New York. At Buffalo they took a steam 
propeller and were landed — at the end of a 
long and tedious trip around the lakes — at 
what was then little more than the village of 
Chicago. From Chicago they traveled by 
stage to Peoria, Illinois, over roads almost im- 
passable in places, the passengers being com- 
pelled to disembark at frequent intervals to pry 
the stage out of the mud. At Peoria they 
took passage on the steamer "Mungo Park," 
and in due time arrived at St. Louis. It is of 
interest to note in this connection the condi- 
tions which existed in St. Louis at the time of 
his arrival, because it serves to show the won- 
derful progress and development of which he 
has been witness. At that time the city ex- 
tended westward only as far as Seventeenth 
Street, and the large area which now consti- 
tutes the finest residence portion of the city 
was made up of farming lands, forests and un- 
occupied commons. James H. Lucas, Ber- 
nard Pratte, B. \V. Alexander, Colonel J. B. 
Brant, Thomas H. Benton, George Collier, 
Edward Walsh, W. F. Christy, and many other 
prominent citizens of that day lived in a dis- 
trict which is now occupied entirely by busi- 
ness houses, but which was the fashionable 
"West End" of that period. The business of 
the city was confined mainly to the river front, 
Second, Third and Main Streets, and the prin- 
cipal churches were the Catholic Cathedral, 
between Second and Third Streets, on Walnut 
Street ; Christ Church — Episcopalian— at the 
corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets ; Central 
Presbyterian, at the corner of Eighth and Lo- 
cust Streets ; First Presbyterian, at the corner 
of Fourteenth Street and Lucas Place ; Cen- 
tenary Methodist, at the corner of Fifth and 
Pine Streets : and the Unitarian Church, at the 
corner of Fourth and Pine Streets. Street 
cars had not then been dreamed of. and the 
transfer business of the city was conducted bv 
omnibus lines, one of which was controlled by 
Erastus Wells, and tin- nther by Captain Case. 
Immediately after his arrival in St. Louis, Mr. 
Sass became connected with the line of packet- 



boats then plying between this city and Peru, 
Illinois, as clerk on the "Mungo Park," the 
boat which had landed him here. Later he 
was a clerk on the steamer "Panama," of the 
same line until he was made master of the 
steamer "Chicago," built and put into service 
as a United States mail boat. After following 
the river some years, he abandoned it to be- 
come purchasing and shipping clerk in the 
large grain commission house of Tucker & 
Lawrence. After the failure of this house, his 
large acquaintance with river men prompted 
him to establish in St. Louis a general steam- 
boat agency, through which he became the 
representative of nearly all the boats running 
on the upper and lower Mississippi, the Mis- 
souri, Illinois and Ohio Rivers, and also of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. This 
agency he conducted successfully for many 
years and also operated a line of steamers be- 
tween Jefferson City and Omaha, in connec- 
tion with the Missouri Pacific Railway, after 
that line was completed to Jefferson City. 
During his long and active business career he 
enjoyed the high esteem of all who were 
brought into contact with him, and in his old 
age has been regarded as one of the most in- 
teresting of the survivors of the golden era of 
steamboating on the Mississippi River and its 
principal tributaries. His earliest church af- 
filiations in St. Louis were with Christ Episco- 
pal Church, then under charge of Rt. Rev. 
Cicero Hawes, bishop of Missouri. At a later 
date, he joined the Methodist Church, of which 
his second wife was a communicant, and has 
since been a faithful churchman of that de- 
nomination. His first wife died in 1856, and 
in 1858 he married Miss Victoria Hamilton, 
of St. Louis. Ten years later, the second Mrs. 
Sass died, and in 1870 he married Louisa S. 
Leidy, of Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, who is 
still living. Of his first marriage, four chil- 
dren were born, none of whom survive. Three 
children were born of his second marriage, of 
whom Richard F. Sass, Jr., is now living and 
engaged in business in St. Louis. By his last 
marriage he has two children, Clinton Boyle 
and Lula Sass. 

Saugrain, Antoiue Francis, physi- 
cian, was born in Versailles, France, Febru- 
ary 17, 1763. In his young manhood he met 
in Paris Dr. Benjamin Franklin, and through 
his representations was induced to come to 
this country. After spending some time in 



SAUVOLLE— SAWYER'S BEND. 



1989 



Philadelphia, he left there in the winter of 
1787-8 and came west as far as Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania. The following spring he joined 
the party of Frenchmen that established a set- 
tlement on the site of the present city of Gal- 
lipolis, Ohio. He married, in 1793, Genevieve 
Rosalie Michaud, and in the year 1800 came 
from Gallipolis to St. Louis, accompanied by 
his family and that of 'his father-in-law, John 
Michaud. Having studied medicine, he en- 
tered at once upon the practice of his profes- 
sion 'here and, when Upper Louisiana was 
formally transferred to the government of the 
United States in 1804, he was the only physi- 
cian practicing in St. Louis. From that time 
until his death, which occurred May 20, 1820, 
he was actively engaged in practice and held 
a prominent place among the physicians of 
that period. 

Sauvolle. — See "Le Moyne." 

Sawyer, Frank Orville, merchant, 
was born December 22, 1835, in Exeter, Xew 
Hampshire, son of Almon and Charlotte Neil 
Sawyer, the first named born in 1803 at Nor- 
wich, Vermont, and the last named born in 
1807, at Limington, Maine. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Charlotte Neil Libby, 
belonged to the sixth generation of the de- 
scendants of Captain John Libby, who came 
to this country from England and settled at 
Oak Hill, in the town of Scarborough, Maine. 
Esquire Aibner Libby, who was the grandson 
of Captain John Libby and grandfather of 
Frank O. Sawyer, removed to Limington, 
Maine, in 1792, and for forty years thereafter 
was magistrate and acting attorney for the en- 
tire town. In the paternal line Mr. Sawyer is 
descended from Thomas Brigham Sawyer, 
who came from England to this country in 
1635 in the ship "Susan and Ellyn," and set- 
tled near Cambridge, Massachusetts. Mr. 
Sawyer's father emigrated with his family from 
New Hampshire to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1839, 
and engaged there in the manufacture of oil- 
cloth, he having been the first manufacturer of 
[that fabric who carried on his business in the 
IWest. He lived during the remainder of his 
lli'fe in Cincinnati and died there in 1878. For 
many years he was one of the active old-line 
[Whigs of Ohio, and was the warm personal 
[friend of Justice John McLean, of the United 
States Supreme Court, in his day one of the 
most pronounced opponents to slavery in pub- 



lic life. Reared in Cincinnati, Frank O. Saw- 
yer was educated there, graduating from 
Woodward College with the degree of bach- 
elor of arts. In 1859 he came to St. Louis 
and engaged in the wholesale paper trade, with 
which he has been continuously identified up 
to the present time. He has long been presi- 
dent of the Sawyer Paper Company, a com- 
mercial institution widely known throughout 
the country, and as a business man and a citi- 
zen, enjoys the high esteem of the people 
among whom he has lived for nearly forty 
years. At the beginning of the Civil War he 
was sworn into the Federal military service by 
Captain (afterward General) Nathaniel Lyon. 
and was a member of the company com- 
manded by Captain George Rowley, which 
served three months and participated in the 
early battles of the war in Missouri. He be- 
came a member of the Unitarian Church of 
the Messiah, of St. Louis, under the pastorate 
of Rev. Dr. William G. Eliot, and is still a 
member of that church. Politically, he has af- 
filiated with the Republican party since it came 
into existence. In 1856 he became a member 
of the Masonic order, and since then he has 
held numerous official positions in that con- 
nection and has attained the thirty-second de- 
gree rank in Masonry. Mr. Sawyer married. 
May 16, 1872, Miss Ellen S. Knowlton, of 
1 '.unker Hill, Illinois. Mrs. Sawyer is the 
daughter of Samuel Knowlton, who came 
from Connecticut to Illinois and settled in 
Bunker Hill in 1840, and is a lineal descendant 
of Colonel Thomas Knowlton, who com- 
manded the "'Knowlton Rangers" of Revolu- 
tionary fame, and who was killed while leading 
a charge at the battle of Harlem Heights. It 
was this Colonel Knowlton of whom Wash- 
ington said, in a general order issued the day 
after the battle : "The gallant and brave Col- 
onel Knowlton, who was an honor to any 
country, fell yesterday while gallantly fight- 
ing." A large bronze statue of Colonel 
Knowlton was unveiled at Hartford, Connec- 
ticut, November 13, 1895. The living chil- 
dren of Mr. and Mrs. Sawyer are Frank 
Knowlton Sawyer — who married, in 1897, Isa- 
bella Lucas, daughter of J. B. C. Lucas, of St. 
Louis; and one daughter, Mary Knowlton 
Sawyer. 

Sawyer's Bend. — The channel which 
the Mississippi River made for itself west of 
Gabaret Island about 1817, so called since on 



1990 



SCANLAN. 



account of the numerous snags, or "sawyers," 
which planted themselves therein. It has 
been know n among river men as a "steamboat 
graveyard," it being stated on good authority 
that thirty boats and barges have wrecked 
there since [833. Many of these wrecks have 
become enitbnrbed in Gatraret Island. See als 
"I [arbi ir if St. Louis." 

Scanlan, Mary F., Who has graced wo- 
man's sphere in the social circles of St. Louis 
and earned the gratitude of the public by her 
kindly benevolence and charity, was born in 
Cahokia, Illinois, daughter of Samuel C. and 
Melaine (Jarrot) Christ}'. Her father was 
prominent in his day as a man of affairs, and 
her mother was a daughter of Nicholas Jarrot, 
one of the most distinguished of the French 
colonist.- <>f the Illinois country. Born in 
France. Nicholas Jarrot came to the United 
States at the time of the Revolution of 1792, 
which plunged his native land into anarchy 
and disorder, and in 1794 he established his 
home in Cahokia. Within a few years after 
coming to this country, he acquired a fortune 
as a merchant and trader, and became the 
owner of a large landed estate. He was a 
leading spirit in shaping the influences which 
invited immigration to Southern Illinois and 
Northern Missouri, and in that sense helped 
to lay the foundation's of the two great com- 
monwealths. A liberty-loving Frenchman, he 
found in free America a congenial atmos- 
phere and readily adapted himself to the new 
conditions by which he was surrounded. He 
was a staunch friend and supporter of the 
government of the United States in es- 
tablishing its authority over the terri- 
tory embraced in both the States of Illi- 
nois and Missouri, and was major of a bat- 
talion of St. Clair Count} militia which, at the 
beginning of the present century, rendered 
valuable services in protecting the French and 
American settlements against the depredations 
of hostile Indians. His home in Cahokia, 
erected in [796 and long known as the "Jarrot 
Mansion." was probably the first house built 
of brick in the Mississippi Valley and was one 
of the wonders of it- day. Nearly all the ma- 
terials of which it was constructed were im- 
ported, and along with these materials came 
the workmen who built the walls. Still "in a 
fair state of preservation at the end of more 
than a century of existence, this historic home- 
stead is now the property of Mrs. Scanlan, 



having passed to her in part by inheritance and 
in part by purchase. In this old homestead 
she was born, and during the earlier years of 
her life she lived in the delightful atmosphere 
which had long pervaded it. Not only were 
the influences which surrounded her in child- 
hood conducive to culture and refinement, but 
the sympathetic nature which she inherited 
from her mother — a gentlewoman of the old 
. m 'ted for her Christian charity and acts 
of beneficence — was developed to maturity by 
both precept and example. Reared in the Cath- 
olic Church, - u was educated at the Convent 
of the Visitation of St. Louis, and so in after 
leaving school entered upon a brilliant social 
carver. In [858 -he married Lieutenant John 
R. Church, of the United States Army, who 
had shortly before that graduated from West 
Point, and soon afterward went with her hus- 
band to Fort Washita, a military post in the 
Indian Territory, at which he was stationed 
until near the breaking out of the Civil War. 
Horn and reared in a Southern State, and lov- 
ing the South and its people, when the con- 
flict between the States began. Lieutenant 
('.lurch resigned his commission in the army 
and tendered his services to the Confederate 
gi ivernment.' The tender was accepted and he 
was commissioned a colonel of volunteers and 
assigned to staff duty. In this capacity he 
served — winning distinction as a brave and 
chivalrous officer — until the second year of the 
war, when death ended his brilliant and prom- 
ising career. His wife, who had accompanied 
him to the South, sought after his death to 
return with her two infant sons to her home in 
St. Louis, Inn it took six weeks to accomplish 
her purpose, and but for the fact that she had 
many friends in both armies and exercised in- 
finite tact in bringing to bear influences which 
obtained for her a passage through the lines, 
she would doubtless have had to remain much 
longer in close proximity to the scene of hos- 
tilities. Returning to her old home, saddened 
by the affliction which had fallen upon her. she 
found a measure of consolation in church and 
charitable work, and thus linked her name 
with public institutions to which she has since 
been both friend and benefactress. At the 
clo of the war. when the Southern people 
found themselves in a veritable "valley of the 
shadow." by reason of its devastating effects, 
she was one of the noble women of St. Louis 
to whom their condition appealed most 
stroiiglv, and who set on foot the movement 





/ 



SCAXLAX. 



1991 



which resulted in the 'holding of the great 
Southern Relief Fair, through which aid was 
extended to thousands of the sufferers. In 
later years she has been a zealous member of 
the "Daughters of the Confederacy," and has 
aided in many ways to carry .forward the good 
work of that organization. Devoted to her 
church, she has been a tireless worker in its 
behalf, dealing always with practical affairs in 
a thoroughly practical way, evidencing alike 
her resourcefulness and strength of character. 
She was one of the organizers of a movement 
conducted by ladies which lifted a heavy debt 
from the 'Church of the Annunciation, at the 
corner of Sixth Street and Chouteau Avenue, 
and also assisted in erecting the school build- 
ing connected with this church. She was one 
of the originators of the movement which re- 
sulted in the building of the Augusta Free 
Hospital — now called Martha Parsons Hospi- 
tal — for the care of indigent sick children, and 
continued to be one of the most helpful friends 
of that institution until it had been established 
on a firm foundation, when she withdrew from 
participation in its management to give atten- 
tion to other cares and duties. For many 
years she was president of the Visitation Con- 
vent Sodality, of Cabanne Place, and also of 
the Sacred Heart Sodality. The building of the 
new Catholic Cathedral is being facilitated by 
her substantial aid and encouragement, and 
every enterprise designed to better social and 
moral conditions in St. Louis has had her earn- 
est sympathy and hearty support. After 
seven years of widowhood, she married, in 
1869, James J. Scanlan, a native of Philadel- 
phia, who had been for some years prominent 
I in the business circles of St. Louis. Five chil- 
dren were born of their union, and (in later 
I years Mrs. Scanlan went abroad with her fam- 
ily and resided five years in the Old World, ed- 
I ucating her sons. Returning to St. Louis at 
I the end of that time, she resumed a leadership 
I which she had long enjoyed in social circles 
j and for which her graces and accomplishments 
I eminently fitted her. Her home has always 
I been one of the principal centers of the most 
! refined and highly cultivated society in St. 
i Louis, and on numerous occasions it has been 
the scene of great social functions. An event 
of both historic and social interest of the high- 
est character was the reception and ball given 
I by Mrs. Scanlan at her beautiful home, 3535 
Lucas Avenue, December 12, 188 1, to the de- 
scendants of the French officers who had 



fought with the Duke de Rochambeau, the 
Duke de Grasse, and General Lafayette under 
the command of Washington in the War of In- 
dependence. These French military and 
naval officers were the guests of the nation to 
assist in the celebration of the centenary anni- 
versary of the surrender of Yorktown, Octo- 
ber 19, 1 88 1. The members of the delegation 
who, after the celebration, visited St. Louis, 
were : General Boulanger, representing the 
French Army; Colonel Bossan, of the 
Dragoons ; Captain Sigismond de Sahune, of 
the Hussars; Captain Gouvion, of the artil- 
lery, whose grandfather directed the artillery 
at Yorktown ; the two brothers Aboville, cap- 
tains in the cavalry ; the Count Charles d'Ol- 
lone, and the Viscount Victor d'Ollone, his 
son; Colonel Octave Bureaux de Pusy, Maxi- 
milien de Sahane and his brother Sigismond — 
the three last mentioned grandsons and grand- 
nephews of General Lafayette ; and the Mar- 
quis de Lestrade, grandson of a naval officer 
under De Grasse. Captain Henri de la Chere, 
military attache of the French legation at 
Washington, chaperoned the party during 
their entire tour through the United States. 
At the first visit the French delegates made to 
St. Louis they were invited on the floor of 
the Merchants' Exchange, where both Gen- 
eral Boulanger and Colonel de Pusy made 
eloquent speeches. Among the things Gen- 
eral Boulanger said, this fact was mentioned : 
"-We have visited no city in the United States 
but once, but to show our affection for St. 
Louis, after our visit to California, instead of 
going by the Southern Pacific to New Orleans, 
we shall return to St. Louis to accept the 
charming invitation o'f a reception and ball 
tendered to us by Madame Scanlan." All the 
officers stationed at the barracks who had also 
given their French comrades-in-arms a splen- 
did reception and luncheon, were invited to 
Mrs. Scanlan's house. The brilliant uniforms 
of the distinguished guests, the exquisite toilets 
of the ladies, and the regal appearance of the 
hostess, made a picture that will never be for- 
gotten by those who had been honored with an 
invitation. All the elite of French and 
American society were invited. It was a no- 
ted and striking fact that nearly all the Ameri- 
can ladies invited spoke French. The French 
delegates were enthusiastic in their declara- 
tions that nowhere in this country had such a 
splendid social affair been given to them as 
this reception and ball, and nowhere had they 



1992 



SCHAEFER. 



seen so many beautiful ladies gatherer 1 to- 
gether on one occasion. The late George M. 
Pullman tendered to -Mr. Emile Karst, French 
consular agent in St. Louis, the use of a 
palace car For the delegation on their intended 
visit to New Orleans. On the arrival of the 
delegates in St. Louis, the French citizens gave 
them a reception and a banquet at the St. Louis 
Club. The Irish-Americans, Dr. Thomas 
O'Reilly and Honorable O'Neill Ryan at the 
head, thought it the right filing to manifest 
their friendship for France and her represen- 
tatives by giving them a grand escort at their 
departure. Major Harrigan sent the mounted 
police to head the procession, the officers of 
the barracks sent the famous Arsenal band, the 
Wolf-Tone rifles turned out, each delegate had 
as escort in his carriage a prominent Irish- 
American, and the streets. from the hotel to the 
depot, were jammed with people. Shortly be- 
fore the train started, the band played the 
"Marseilles" hymn, and General Boulanger 
left his seat in the car to go down on the plat- 
form to shake the hand of Colonel Lewis, the 
leader, to thank him for the compliment, and 
the admirable manner in which the national 
hymn of France was rendered. In January 
following, the delegation returned to France. 
In their correspondence in later years, with 
their St. Louis friends, they referred, with 
pleasure, to the delightful ball at Mrs.Scanlan's 
as the most enjoyable entertainment given to 
them in the United States. At her home, too, 
Mrs. Cleveland was a guest on the occasion of 
the President's visit to St. Louis during the 
administration of Mayor David R. Francis, 
.and the reception given by Mrs. Scanlan in 
Mrs. Cleveland's honor was the distinguishing 
feature of the entertainment planned for the 
first lady of the land at that time. Another 
social event which delighted the best society 
of St. Louis was that which attended the for- 
mal entrance into society of her only daugh- 
ter. Miss Marie Therese Christy Scanlan, a 
charming young lady, who completed her edu- 
cation at the Convent of the Visitation, of 
Georgetown. District of Columbia, and re- 
turned to her home in 1897. In i8q8 Miss 
Scanlan enjoyed the distinction of being 
crowned Queen of the Veiled Prophet's ball. 
The other children of Mrs. Scanlan are Alonzo 
Christy Church, one of two sons born of her 
first marriage, and Phillippe Christy and An- 
dre Christy Scanlan, born of her second mar- 
riage. 



Schaefer, Louis, was born February 5, 
1844, near Kerthof Kreis, Alsfeld, Hesse-- 
Darmstadt. Germany. His father, Heinrich 
Schaefer, who was a butcher by trade, and his 
mother, whose maiden name was Maria Hei- 
ser, were both born in the same neighborhood 
in which the son was born and reared. His 
paternal grandfather was a captain of the 
Guards, and his maternal grandfather was. 
during his lifetime, a high judicial officer. His 
parents being prosperous, financially, Mr. 
Schaefer was carefully educated in the schools 
and gymnasium of his native town, after 
which, in accordance with the well-established 
German custom, he began learning the trade 
which his father had followed. He was of an 
adventurous disposition, however, and when 
little more than sixteen years of age, he 
left home, with the blessings of his father and 
mother, and sailed for the United States, to 
join friends of the family, who had sent back 
to Germany glowing accounts of the advan- 
tages and opportunities of this country. He 
arrived in St. Louis in the summer of i860, and 
soon after his coming to this city entered the 
employ of his cousin, Henry Springer, who 
was then a prominent butcher on the Union 
Market. He worked for Mr. Springer until 
the Civil War began, and then, carried away 
by the military ardor of that period, enlisted in 
Company I of the Eighty-fourth Missouri In- 
fantry Regiment, commanded by Colonel Nor- 
man J. Colman. After the war he returned 
to this city, and worked at his trade until 1868, 
when he had saved money enough to establish 
himself in the business which has since devel- 
oped into the gigantic enterprise conducted by 
the St. Louis Dressed Beef and Provision 
Company. Of this corporation Mr. Schaefer 
is now president, and an idea of the magnitude 
nf the entequrise of which he is the head may 
be obtained from the statement of the fact that 
its plant covers a space of four and a half acres 
in Rock Springs, between the Manchester 
Road ami Chouteau Avenue. In this plant 
nearly three hundred men are employed regu- 
larly, and the corporation has branch houses 
in New York City, Brooklyn, Fall River, Mas- 
sachusetts, and at other places. Mr. Schaefer 
and his associates have nearly three-quarters 
of a million of dollars invested, own their own 
ice manufacturing plant, which has a capacity 
of one hundred tons a day, and have also their 
own refrigerator cars, which may be seen daily 
in all parts of the U/nited States. In addition 



SCHEME AND CHARTER. 



1993 



to giving general supervision to the affairs of 
this great commercial and manufacturing en- 
terprise, Mr. Schaefer is also a director of the 
St. Louis Mutual Building Association, and 
has other business interests of consequence and 
magnitude. He has taken an active interest 
for years in various charitable, educational and 
fraternal organizations, an'd is a director of the 
German Orphans' Home, located on the Nat- 
ural Bridge Road ; of the Northwest Turners' 
Liederkranz Hall Association ; and first speak- 
er of the Humboldt Turnverein ; and has also 
been president of the St. Louis Liederkranz 
Society for over twenty years. He is a leading 
member of the Order of the Sons of Herman, 
and has served as grand president and grand 
treasurer of that organization for Missouri, 
and was a delegate to the national convention 
of the order, held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
in 1873. For many years he was treasurer of 
the Butchers' Union, and attended regularly 
as a delegate the national conventions of the 
union, in some of which he 'held important 
official positions. He was elected a mem'ber 
of the city council during Mayor Swing's ad- 
ministration, and served faithfully and effi- 
ciently in that body during one term, refusing 
a renomination offered him to give attention 
to his large business interests. He has 
strongly developed artistic tastes, which have 
found expression in his love df music and his 
endeavors to advance musical culture in St. 
Louis, and he has himself participated as a 
tenor in national singing festivals, held in Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin; Cleveland, Ohio; Buffalo, 
New York ; St. Louis and New Orleans. He 
has also s'hown a German's love of athletics 
and gymnastics, and is at the present time, 
1898, a member of the Baeren Biege, a branch 
of the German Turnverein, composed of elder- 
ly gentlemen, some nearly sixty years of age, 
who still go through the same exercises with 
which Father Jahn regenerated the German 
nation after the Napoleonic domination of al- 
most all Europe. On the 26th day of Decem- 
ber. 1868, Mr. Schaefer was married to Miss 
Bertha Dierberger, who came of a well known 
and highly respectable German family of St. 
Louis, and their union has been blessed with a 
large family of children. Those now living 
are Mrs. Edward Bardes, of Cincinnati, Ohio; 
Airs. Louis Denning. Louis. William, Bertha, 
Ella, Edward, Louise, and Lillie Schaefer. 
Two of his sons, Louis and William, are now 
associated with their father in business. Com- 



ing to St. Louis a poor and almost friendless 
boy, Mr. Schaefer has, by dint of energetic ef- 
fort and sagacious conduct of his business af- 
fairs, risen to a position of prominence in the 
'commercial world. While steadily adding to 
his possessions, he has made liberal use of his 
means in aid of various humanitarian move- 
ments, and he has been a generous contributor 
to many charitable institutions and religious 
organizations without regard to their sectarian 
character. Although now a man of large 
means, he is still as unassuming and unosten- 
tatious as in the years of his comparative pov- 
erty, and his genial face is seen regularly at his 
old-time stands in the market place, where he 
still gives attention, as of old, to his patrons. 

Scheme and Charter. — The name 
given to the measure combining a scheme of 
separation between the city and county of St. 
Louis, and a new charter for the city, which 
was ratified by a vote of the people August 22, 
1876, and became the organic law of the 
county and city sixty days thereafter, October 
22, 1876. It was a measure of vast impor- 
tance and great advantage to the city, and was 
not attended by any disadvantages to the 
county, indeed, it may be said to have resulted 
to the benefit of the county, as well as to the 
city, although it involved the severance df an 
ancient and original relation, and deprived the 
county of the claim it had long asserted over 
revenues derived mainly from municipal 
sources. It had its origin in the constantly in- 
creasing awkwardness and cumbrousness of a 
county court, in some respects a rural body, 
and expending its income mainly on roads and 
bridges in the country, having its seat of au- 
thority and holding its sessions in the city, 
and having a large control over city affairs. 
This county court had become a burden and 
impediment to the city, partly through its ex- 
travagance, its abuses and its irresponsibility, 
and partly through its restriction on the lib- 
erty of action of a prosperous and powerful 
municipality. The municipal population in 
1870 was 310.000, and the population of the 
county outside the city limits. 27,000, much 
less than one-tenth : and the taxable wealth of 
thedtv was Si 47.068,800, and that of the county 
outside. $14,000,000, less than one-tenth. And 
vet. although the city possessed more than ten 
times as great a population, and more than 
ten times as much wealth, and paid more than 
ten times as large a share of the county taxes, 



!!•!•+ 



SCHEME AND CHARTER. 



as the rural part of the county, the county out- 
numbered and outvoted the city on the bench 
it the county court, and, of course, controlled 
the body which had authority to assess the tax- 
able property, levy and collect the taxes there- 
on, and expend the revenues. This irksome 
condition to the city was made more irksome 
by the too frequent defalcations in the office of 
county collector, the extravagant expendi- 
tures on roads, bridges and county institutions 
outside the city, and the squandering of large 
and increasing sums for counselor's fees and 
opinions. The dissatisfaction, however, did 
not at first take the form of a demand for sep- 
aration between city and county. There was 
no precedent for such a thorough and radical 
measure as that, and as the county is an an- 
cient institution, and a chief subdivision of the 
Sta'te, it was thought that, whatever remedy 
for the trouble might he adopted, it must leave 
the city in the county. Such partial measures 
as could be from time to time thought of 
were resorted to. ami the Legislature was ap- 
pealed to at nearly every successive session to 
give the city a "new charter," or an "amended 
charter." giving to the city greater control 
over its municipal interests. On one occasion 
the abuses under the old county court became 
so great that the Legislature abolished it out- 
right and substituted for it a board of county 
commissioners. The new arrangement work- 
ed very well for a time, but ultimately fell 
into the habits of the old county court, and 
there continued to he demands from the city 
for further amendments to its charter to bring 
relief. At one time it was proposed to extend 
the city limits so as to take in the entire county 
and subject the rural population to municipal 
control. When the State Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1875 was called for the purpose of 
forming a new Constitution for the State, a 
small number of advocates of municipal reform 
recognized that the opportunity had come for 
securing to tibe dit) relief from its hampered 
condition and a larger control over its own 
government. Popular feeling in the county 
did not look with favor upon a separation, and 
the machinery of the parties in the city was 
openly arrayed against it, and it was not until 
near the close of the State Convention that 
provision was made in the new Constitution 
for .allowing the people of St. Louis to extend 
the limits of the city "so as to embrace the 
parks now without its boundaries and other 
convenient and contiguous territory, and to 



frame a charter for the government of the city 
thus enlarged." The precedent conditions 
were that the city council and county court 
should meet in joint session and order an elec- 
tion for a board of thirteen freeholders, whose 
duty should he "to propose a scheme for the 
enlargement and definition of the boundaries 
of the city, the reorganization of the govern- 
ment of the county, the adjustment of the rela- 
tions between the city thus enlarged and the 
residue of St. Louis County, and the govern- 
ment of the city thus enlarged by a charter in 
harmony with and subject to the Constitution 
and laws of Missouri, which shall, among other 
things, provide for a chief executive and two 
houses of legislation, one of which shall be 
elected by general ticket." It was further pro- 
vided that the Scheme and Charter, formed by 
the board o'f freeholders, should be completed, 
and a copy returned to the mayor of the city, 
and another to the presiding officer of the 
county court within ninety days after the elec- 
tion of the said board. The scheme was to be 
submitted to the qualified voters of the whole 
county, and the charter to the qualified voters 
of the city so enlarged. The freeholders — 
George H. Shields. James O. Broadhead, F. 
H. I.utkewitte. George W. Parker, Silas Bent, 
M. 1 hvight Collier, Henry T. Mudd, George 
Penn, M. H. Phelan and Samuel Reber — per- 
formed their task, and the Scheme and Charter 
were submitted to vote and ratified — the 
scheme by a majority of 1.253, anc ' the charter 
by a majority of 5,222. 

The scheme of separation provided that the 
city should have all the county property and 
buildings embraced within the extended limits, 
including, besides the courthouse, the Four 
Courts and jail, the asylum for the insane, and 
the poor house farm, the parks, public roads 
and highways; and, in consideration of this, 
should assume all the county debts and the 
park tax, which before had been levied on all 
county property. The severance between the 
city and county as newly organized was com- 
plete, and the authority of the county court of 
St. Louis County over and in the city ceased 
forever, and the functions toward the State, 
formerly performed by the county court and 
the county officers, are now performed by the 
municipal assembly and the city officers: and 
the city has its own sheriff, coroner, public ad- 
ministrator, and recorder of deeds. 

Tite new charter very largely extended the 
city limits, giving a river front from a point 



SCHEME AND CHARTER. 



L995 



200 feet south of the mouth of River des Peres, 
on the south, to fhe northern boundary of 
United States Survey No. 114, where it strikes 
the river on the north — about nineteen miles ; 
— with a western line varying from three to six 
miles out from the river — enclosing an area of 
sixty-two and one-half square miles, divided 
into twenty-eight wards. And this enlarge- 
ment of area was accompanied with an en- 
largement of the city's authority of still great- 
er importance and value. The legislative body 
is called the municipal assembly, composed of 
two branches — a council of thirteen member-, 
chosen on a general ticket, and holding office 
for four years ; and a house of delegates, one 
from each ward, chosen every two years. The 
salary of members of the assembly is fixed at 
$300 a year. The executive and administra- 
tive department consists of a mayor, comptrol- 
ler, auditor, treasurer, register, collector, re- 
corder of deeds, inspector of weights and 
measures, sheriff, coroner, marshal, public ad- 
ministrator, president of the board o'f asses- 
sors, and president of the board of public im- 
provements — all chosen by the qualified voters 
and holding office for four years — and a city 
counselor, district assessors, superintendent of 
workhouse, superintendent of house of refuge, 
superintendent of fire alarm and police tele- 
graph, commissioner of supplies, assessor of 
water rates, two police justices, attorney, jailer 
and five commissioners on charitable institu- 
tions, all appointed by the mayor, and holding 
office for four years. There are also five com- 
missioners appointed by the mayor — street 
commissioner, sewer co i mimiissioner, water 
commissioner, harbor and wharf commissioner 
and park commissioner, who, with the presi- 
dent thereof, constitute the board of public 
improvements. The tax rate for municipal 
purposes can not exceed one per cent in the 
old limits, and for the payment of the valid in- 
debtedness of the city only such rate as may 
be required : and in the new limits the rates 
may not exceed four-tenths of one per cent for 
municipal purposes, and one-tenth of one per 
cent for debt purposes. 

The new charter gave to the city a power 
over its own affairs which it had never pos- 
sessed before, and released it from the necessity 
of going before the State Legislature with re- 
quests for additional authority to do what its 
welfare suggested or demanded. The in- 
creased term of office, the constitution of its 



legislative body, the provisions for construct- 
ing and .managing public works, and for ob- 
taining supplies for the city institutions, and 
the fixing of a time for appointment to office 
are all radical changes, and marked a new era 
in the city government, and it has worked so 
satisfactorily and accomplished its purposes so 
well that after twenty-two years' experience 
only one amendment to it has been made by the 
Legislature — an amendment taking away the 
freehold qualification for mayor. A few trivial 
amendments have been made by the municipal 
assembly, and ratified by vote of the people, 
the only one possessing importance being the 
provision authorizing the assembly to provide 
for a general sprinkling of the streets. The 
public institutions are well managed; the effi- 
ciency of all the departments of government 
has been notably improved; the municipal 
debt, though increased in 1876, by the city's 
assumption of the $6,824,000 county debt, has 
been steadily reduced ; the city's credit is !vgh- 
er than it ever was before; and, in addition to 
this, it may be said that the period since the 
adoption of the Scheme and Charter has been 
one of unsurpassed prosperity, marked by 
more improvements than any previous era of 
its history. In 1876. when the Scheme and 
Charter took effect, the taxable valuation, real 
and personal, was $166,441,110; in 1898 it was 
$353,988,510, an increase of $187,547,400, or 
more than double. The taxable wealth of the 
city, therefore, has increased more in the twen- 
ty-two years since the adoption Of the Scheme 
and Charter than in all its previous history. It 
is this era that has brought the opening of two 
bridges across the Mississippi at St. Louis, the 
granite reconstruction of the streets, the intro- 
duction of electricity on street railways, and 
the vast extension of these railways, the tall, 
modern buildings, the boulevards, the im- 
provement of extensive vacant areas into resi- 
dence districts, marked by noble mansions, tine 
improvement of the parks, and the bringing of 
them within easy reach by electric cars, and 
the Cnion Station, with its vast system of ac- 
cessories for the accommodation of the pas- 
senger traffic of the city. No proposition of 
return to the old order of relations between the 
city and county has ever been made by either, 
and it may be assumed, therefore, that the sep- 
aration is for all time. The County of St. 
Louis underwent a reorganization imme- 
c'.a'tely after the separation, established Gay- 



1996 



SCHILLER VEREIN— SCHLANGE. 



ton .i~ ; :~ seat, and erected there a courthouse 
and jail, and the new government has worked 
satisfactorily ever since. 

Schiller Vereill.— A strictly literary so- 
cietv, organized February 9. [896, for the pur- 
pose "i cultivating Baste for German classic 
literature. It ha- about three hundred mem- 
bers, Dr. George Richter, president, and Rev. 
Max Hempel, secretary. On the 13th of No- 
vember, 1898, tlie Verein dedicated a statue 
of Schiller, donated by Colonel Charles G. 
S'ti'fel, in North St. Louis Park. 

Sclllailge, Joseph, merchant and manu- 
facturer, was born September 28, [845, in the 
North of Germany, and died in St. Louis No- 
vember 9, [898. When a lad rive years of age, 
he came, with his parents to this country, land- 
ing in New ( Means and coming from there di- 
rect to St. Louis. Until he was eleven years 
if age, he attended the parochial schools of this 
city, but, thereafter his educational advantages 
were limited to attendance at night schools, as 
he was obliged to work industriously every 
day. He finished his studies at a well known 
commercial college, thus acquiring a practical 
education, which well-fitted him for the busi- 
ness of his later life. In 1864 he engaged in 
business with !■" rank P.rinkmann as a wholesale 
and retail dealer in tobacco, cigars and snuff, 
and later in leaf tobacco, the style of the firm. 
being Brinkmann & Schlange. Ten years 
later this partnership was dissolved, and Mr. 
Schlange associated himself with John C. Tie- 
meyer & Co.. in the leaf tobacco trade, their 
place of business being at 21, and 25 South 
Second Street, and in 1X80 removed to the 
southeast corner of Walnut and Second Street. 
This firm was succeeded in 1891 by the John 
C. Tiemeyer Leaf Tobacco Company, a cor- 
poration with a paid-up capital of $250,000. 
hailing health compelled him to practically re- 
tire from business some years before his death, 
and, accompanied by his wife, he traveled ex- 
tensively, in the hope of repairing his shat- 
tered energies. When Mr. Tieinever died, in 
[896, Mr. Schlange succeeded him as president 
if the company, and had practically closed up 
its affairs at the time of his death. A man of 
untiring industry and close application, he was 
a familiar figure in business circles for many 
years, and his strict integrity and upright deal- 
ings made him popular with all those with 
whom he had business relations. Through his 



own efforts he acquired a fortune, and was 
regarded by all who knew him as one of the 
worthy, self made men of St. Louis. His na- 
ture was genial and kindly, and he was a popu- 
lar man in social circles, while those brought 
into contact with him in the home circle were 
devotedly attached to him. lie was a member 
of tin- Catholic Church, a patron of St. Vin- 
cent's 1 Irphan Asylum, and St. Mary's School 
and other Catholic institutions. In politics, 
he affiliated with the Democratic party. For 
many years he was numbered among the 
members of the .Merchants' Exchange, and 
was recognized in that body as one of its most 
honorable and upright members. May 11, 
1S75. lie married Miss Helen E. Tiemeyer, 
daughter of John C. Tiemeyer, of whom ex- 
tended mention is made elsewhere in these 
volumes. The surviving members of his fam- 
ily are Mrs. Schlange, and three children, John 
1.. Eugene H. and Marie H. Schlange. 

Schaeffer, Nicholas, manufacturer, was 
born December 4. '814, in the town of Mar- 
len'heim, near Strassburg, in what was then the 
French, but is now the German, Province of 
Alsace. He was sixth of the seven children of 
an industrious and fairly well-to-do shoe- 
maker, who died When the son was but two 
years of age. In consequence of this orphan- 
age, the family was reduced to straitened cir- 
cumstances, and being put to work very early 
in life, Nicholas Schaeffer received but little 
education. When he yvas fourteen years old, 
he was apprenticed to a manufacturer of soaps 
and candles in the famous old town of Strass- 
burg. and worked there until 1832, when he 
accompanied his mother and three brothers to 
this country. At tJhe end of along and tedious 
voyage, they landed in the city of Baltimore, 
where they purchased a horse and wagon, and 
set out for the far-off town of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Their household effects, the greater part of 
which they had brought with them from Ger- 
many, were sent forward on the freight-wag- 
ons, anil the mother and her sons started on 
their long journey over the mountains. At 
Hagerstown, Maryland, where they stopped 
for rest and refreshments, their horse was 
stolen, and the most diligent efforts failed to 
effect it-, recovery. Unable to purchase an- 
other horse, they sold the wagon and harness, 
and the mother was given transportation on 
one of the heavy freight wagons, while the 
sons, strong and able-bodied, made the jour- 



SCHLANGE. 



1!(!I7 



nev to Wheeling, West Virginia, on foot. 
There they took passage on a river steamer, 
and in due time arrived at Cincinnati. There 
Nicholas Schaeffer, being unable to obtain 
employment at the trade which he had mas- 
tered, hired himself to a stonemason, and, as 
he had no knowledge of the mason's craft, 
could do no better than put in his time mixing 
mortar at seventy-five cents a day. After that 
he worked for a time in a tannery at fifteen 
dollars a month, but finally succeeded in ob- 
taining employment at his trade and a raise of 
salary to thirty dollars a month. He worked 
two years in Cincinnati at his trade, and at 
the end of that time, he went to New Orleans 
with two hundred and fifty dollars in his 
pocket. Disappointed in finding remuner- 
ative employment in that city, he next went 
to Vicksburg, Mississippi, where he had no 
better luck. His money being by this time 
exhausted, he worked three months in a stone 
quarry, and, after that was for a time steward 
of the old "Mansion House," at Vicksburg. 
After seven months of this service, he re- 
turned to Cincinnati and joined two of his 
brothers in a flat-boating enterprise, which 
proved fairly profitable. The financial crisis 
of 1837 prostrated the river business, and he 
went again to Vicksburg, where he engaged 
in general merchandising, with such success 
that he accumulated thirty-five hundred dol- 
lars. With this amount as the proceeds of 
his business, which he had sold out, he re- 
turned to Cincinnati, purchased an outfit for 
the manufacture of soap and candles, and es- 
tablished himself in that business in Vicks- 
burg. For six months his business pros- 
pered, but at the end of that time the pros- 
pects of continued success were not bright, 
and he sold out and sought a new location. 
This brought him to St. Louis, where he laid 
the foundation of what afterward became a 
vast business, in the year 1839. He first es- 
tablished his factory at the corner of Cherry 
and Main Streets ; removed it a year later to a 
location on Main Street, between Cherry and 
Wash Streets, and in 1844, to the location on 
Washington Avenue, between Nineteenth and 
Twenty-first Streets, which it had since occu- 
pied and where the business had grown to im- 
mense proportions. For nearly fortv vears 
the establishment thus founded and built up 
under Mr. Schaeffer's management was the 
largest soap and candle manufactory in the 
West, and the industry made its owner and 



promoter one of the wealthy men of St. Louis. 
He held many positions of honor and trust in 
the city, some 1 if which were of a public char- 
acter and others semi-public in their nature. 
For many years he served as a member of the 
city council, and at different times was presi- 
dent of the Pacific Insurance Company, a 
director of the St. Louis Fire & Marine In- 
surance Company, president of the St. Louis 
French Window Glass Company, a director 
and vice-president of the Illinois & St. Louis 
Railway Company, president of the Biddle 
Market Savings Lank', and vice-president of 
the Merchants' Exchange. A Catholic in his 
religious affiliations, he was one of the found- 
ers and long a member of St. Nicholas' 
Church, at the corner of Lucas Avenue and 
Nineteenth Streets. He married, in St. Louis, 
in 1843, Miss Anna Maria Lay, who was born 
in the Province of Hesse-Darmstadt, Ger- 
many. Mr. Schaeffer died January 3, 1880, 
and his widow, November 29, 1890. 

Schmidt, Charles C, clergyman, was 
born November 8, 1843, in Bonfeld, King- 
dom of Wuerttemberg, Germany, son of John 
A. and Rosina (Bertsch) Schmidt. The elder 
Schmidt, who was a shoe manufacturer by oc- 
cupation, came to this country in 1852 with his 
family, and after residing some years in Tus- 
carawas County, Ohio, removed to the north- 
western part of that State, and subsequently 
to Indiana, dying at Seymour, in the Stat'. 
last named, in 1896. The son obtained the 
rudiments of an education in his native land, 
and was fitted for college in the parochial 
schools of the Lutheran Church in Ohio and 
Indiana. He completed his academic studies 
at Concordia College of Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
graduating from that institution in the class 
of 1865, and then studied theology at Concor- 
dia Theological Seminary of St. Louis, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1868. 
Before graduating from the Theological 
School, he served for a time as vicar of a 
church in Chicago, and immediately after his 
graduation, accepted a call from Emanuel 
Church, of the Lutheran faith, in New York 
City. He remained in New York four years, 
and then came to Elyria. Ohio, where lie 
served a five-year pastorate. St. Paul's Lu- 
theran Church, of Indianapolis, called him to 
that city in 1877. and he was the pastor of that 
church for ten years thereafter. At the end 
of that time he accepted a call to Holy Cross 



L998 



SCHLOSSSTEIN. 



Church, of St. Louis, and has since faithfully 
served that church, his pastorate having cov- 
ered at the present time (1898) a period of 
eleven years, lie is president of the Western 
District of the Synod of Missouri, and presi- 
dent also of the board of trustees of the Con- 
cordia Theological Seminary, wields a large 
influence in church affairs, and has contributed 
much in the advancement of the educational 
interests of Lutheranism, and to the extension 
of church work in general. Mr. Schmidt has 
been twice married — first, to Miss Mary 
Wyneken, of Cleveland, Ohio, who died in 
[889. In 1 So 1 he married for his second 
wife Miss Marianna Stoeckhardt, born in the 
Kingdom of Saxony, Germany. His chil- 
dren are Bertha, Carl, Louisa, Ernest, Paulina, 
Emma. Martin, Alfred, George, and Magda- 
lena Schmidt. 

Schlossstein, Adolphus, physician, 
was born in Albisheim, Bavaria, January 27. 
1841, son of John and Fredericka (Latter) 
Schlossstein. After receiving a classical edu- 
cation in the gymnasium at Zweibruecken, he 
spent five years in the completion of a univer- 
sity course of study, attending successively 
the Universities of Erlangen, Heidelberg, and 
Wuerzburg. At the end of this thorough 
course of scholastic training and preparation 
for a professional career, and after he had re- 
ceived his doctor's degree, he continued his 
studies and researches in the field of medical 
science at the hospitals of Munich and Frank- 
enthal, Rhenish Bavaria, for another year, and 
then entered the German Army as a surgeon, 
and was on active duty in field hospitals from 
June, 1866. to the fall of the same year. After 
visiting and inspecting the hospitals of Vienna, 
Berlin, Prague, and other cities, he then came 
to the United States, and, late in the year 1N07. 
established his home and began the practice of 
his profession in St. Louis. Here he soon 
built up a large and lucrative practice, and for 
many years has occupied a place among the 
most thoroughly well educated and highly ac- 
complished physicians of the city. Progress- 
ive in his nature and methods, he has kepi 
abreast of the latest developments of medical 
science, broadening his knowledge of profes- 
sional work, both by careful study of medical 
literature and the observations made through 
extensive travels. In 1875 nc revisited Eu- 
rope for the purpose of making a series of in- 
vestigations in the line of his professional 



work, and in [886 spent some time in Cuba 
for observation and pleasure. In 1896 he 
spent the year in extensive travel through 
Germany, Italy, France, and the British Isles. 
Eminently successful as a medical practitioner, 
he has been hardly less conspicuous as an able 
and sagacious business man. Becoming iden- 
tified with his brother, the late George Schloss- 
stein, in the manufacture of window glass, he 
has aided in building up a flourishing glass 
manufacturing industry, and is now president 
of the French Window Glass Manufacturing 
Company of Missouri, a corporation doing 
business in St. Louis, and also of the Dunkirk 
Window ( ilass Company, which operates a 
large manufacturing plant at Dunkirk, Indi- 
ana. He is identified professionally with the 
St. Louis Medical Society and the Society of 
German Physicians, and socially with the Lie- 
derkranz and other societies, and is known in' 
both professional and social circles as a man 
of numerous and varied accomplishments. 
Dr. Schlossstein has been twice married — first, 
in 1871. to Miss Bertha Schaeffer, daughter of 
Nicholas Schaeffer, a well known soap manu- 
facturer of St. Louis. The first Mrs. Schloss- 
stein died in 1873. and in 1875 Dr. Schlossstein 
married Miss Caroline Schaeffer, a sister of his 
first wife. Adolphus G. Schlossstein, a son 
born of his first marriage, who graduated 
from the St. Louis Medical College, is now 
1 1S081 completing his medical education in 
Vienna, after having studied at Heidelberg, 
Munich and Berlin. 

Schoen, Isaac Aaron, one of the 

chief representatives, at the present time, of 
the fur trade, one of the oldest of all branches 
of trade in St. Louis, and that upon which the 
city was founded, was born in this city Xo- 
vember 4. 1858, son of Aaron and Betty 
(Schwich) Schoen. Both his parents were 
horn in Germany, but removed to this coun- 
try in [846, anil established their home in St. 
Louis. His father, who was a merchant and 
man of wealth, removed later to Chicago, and 
(lie si m was educated in that city and at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, Germany, starting out in 
life well equipped, by scholastic training, for 
either a business or professional career. He 
firsl became connected with the fur trade in 
[874 as an employe of a St. Louis house, and 
five years later became head of the house of 
Schoen & Savers, engaged in the same line of 
business. This partnership was dissolved in 



SCHLOSSSTEIN. 



1999 



1882, and he then became connected with the 
Anglo-American Packing Company, of Chi- 
cago, and an operator also on the famous 
Board of Trade of that city. Unfortunate in 
his speculative enterprises in this instance, he 
left Chicago — to use a trite form of expres- 
sion — a poorer, but wiser, man, and again be- 
came identified with the fur trade in St. Louis 
as buyer for and representative of a large New 
York exporting house. This position he held 
for six years, and then originated the idea of 
establishing in this city a brokerage business 
in furs, through which he might supply both 
Eastern and foreign demands. The project 
was inaugurated, and succeeded beyond his 
most sanguine expectations, all the great fur 
houses of this country and of England and 
France as well becoming to a greater or less 
extent his patrons. To supply this demand, 
he has visited regularly and made purchases 
from all the principal fur merchants of the 
United States and Canada, and the business 
which he established as an experiment in 1889 
has grown to such proportions that he is as 
widely known to the fur trade as were some 
of the pioneers in that line of business in St. 
Louis. His business is the largest of its kind 
in the United States, and it is of interest to 
note in this connection that, while the charac- 
ter of the business has changed since the davs 
of the old French traders, St. Louis still re- 
tains its prestige as the Western headquarters 
of the fur trade in America. The trade in 
which Air. Schoen is engaged is not to-day 
surrounded with the glamour which attached 
to it in early days, and it has been shorn of the 
romance and adventure incident to it fifty 
years ago and more, but it is none the less an 
important branch of commerce, and still yields 
rich returns to those engaged in it, who have 
accommodated themselves to its changed con- 
ditions. In the multiplicity of commercial 
enterprises it has lost its old-time prestige, 
is quietly conducted, and has been, in a meas- 
ure, lost sight of, but it still serves to draw to 
St. Louis the trade of remote regions and to 
keep the city in touch with many of its old- 
time markets. Prior to 1897 Mr. Schoen was 
known to the business circles of St. Louis only 
as a shrewd and enterprising fur trader, but in 
that year he became conspicuous for his op- 
erations in the broader field of speculative in- 
vestments. Believing that the remarkable 
business depression which had prevailed for 
some years prior to that time had come to an 



end. and that an era of activity had been in- 
augurated which would bring about a general 
appreciation of values, he began trading ex- 
tensively in grain and stocks. The success 
which attended his operations was phenome- 
nal, and i ild traders were amazed at the mag- 
nitude of his transactions and the rapid strides 
which he made in the acquisition of wealth. 
In a surprisingly short time the fur trader of 
modest means was transformed into a man of 
fortune. He was married, in 1893, to ^'> ss 
Florence Hellman, daughter of a retired mer- 
chant, of Cincinnati, and being a man of do- 
mestic tastes, prefers the enjoyment of his 
home to clubs and social functions. 

Schuchmaim,GrUStavus,was bun No- 
vember 13, 1850. in St. Louis, son of Philip 
and Catharine (Weber) Schuchmann. His par- 
ents were among the early German settlers in 
St. Louis, and the son was reared in this city, 
obtaining his education at the noted old-time 
private school known as Wyman University. 
When he was nineteen years of age he began, 
in a small way, the business in which he later 
became famous, and which caused him to be- 
come the founder of one of the great meat- 
packing establishments of St. Louis. His 
earliest venture in this line was supplying 
meats to steamboats plying on the Mississippi 
River, and from 1875 to 1880 he furnished 
meats under contract to various city institu- 
tions. In the year 1880 he organized the 
American Meat Canning Company, of which 
he became president in 1882. He was. from 
the start, the moving spirit in the conduct of 
the business of this corporation, and grad- 
ually acquired all the stock, becoming sole 
owner of the plant and its appurtenances. As 
manager of this establishment, he built up a 
very large business, which extended over a 
wide range of territory and had numerous and 
varied ramifications. He continued at the 
head of this corporation until 1885. when he 
disposed of all his interests in the meat can- 
ning industry and turned his attention to op- 
erations in real estate. In this field of enter- 
prise he soon became a conspicuous figure, 
purchasing and improving much property 
and being instrumental in giving to the city 
some of its most attractive buildings. He was 
the originator of the movement which re- 
sulted in the erection of the Chemical Build- 
ing, purchasing the property himself and aft- 
erward associating with him other gentlemen, 



2000 



SCHLOSSSTHIN. 



whose combined efforts gave to St. Louis one 
of the handsomest office buildings in the West. 
He acquired large property interests also on 
Washington Avenue, and was one of the prime 
movers in inaugurating the Washington Bou- 
levard enterprise, an improvement for which 
the cit) is largely indebted to his energetic ac- 
tion, liis sagacity and foresight. Experience 
lias proved that he has been remarkably ac- 
curate in his judgments of the value of real 
estate and in his forecasts of growth and de- 
velopment in various portions of the city. As 
a result his contemporaries in business circles 
have set a high value upon his judgment, and 
few men are regularly consulted by so large 
a number of clients in matters pertaining to 
city realty and investments therein. Of san- 
guine temperament and vigorous mentality, 
he acts promptly under all circumstances, and 
his action is of that forceful character which 
never fails to be productive of the best results. 
His career and the success which he has 
achieved as a man of affairs entitle him to a 
prominent place among the self-made men of 
St. Louis, and those whose fortunes have been 
accumulated by persistent and well-directed 
efforts. Having been absorbed all his life in 
business affairs, he has given little attention 
to politics, and has never been in any sense 
a partisan, voting for men and measures as 
they commended themselves, from time to 
time, to his judgment and convictions. His 
religious affiliations are with the Presbyterian 
Church, but he is a broadly liberal churchman, 
and has been hardly less generous in his con- 
tributions to other churches than to the one 
in which he holds membership. March 18, 
[880, he married Miss Mina Soderer. daugh- 
ter of Alois Soderer, of St. Louis. Their chil- 
dren are Alois Soderer Schuchmann and Lillie 
Schuchmann. 

SHilossstoin, (»eorj>e, manufacturer, 
was born in Albisheim, in Rhenish Bavaria, 
Germany, January 30, [832, and died in St. 
Louis Januar) _>u. [897. His parents were 
John and Fredericka (Lauer) Schlossstein. 
and his father, who was a well-to-do man of 
affairs, was a miller by occupation. The son 
received a liberal education in the schools of 
his native town, and prior to his coming to 
this country, had received some business 
training under the guidance of his father. He 
came to the United States in 1851, a boy nine- 
teen years of age. and found his first emplo) 



ment in Cincinnati. Ohio, where he worked 
in a brewery for fifty cents a day and boarded 
himself. He was employed at various kinds 
of work for several years, finally coming to St. 
Louis in [853. In 1851; he engaged in the 
retail grocery trade in this city, and later be- 
came a wholesale and retail dealer in. and im- 
porter of, wines, liquors and cigars. Having 
accumulated considerable capital in this busi- 
ness, he abandoned commercial pursuits in 
1878 and engaged in the manufacture of win- 
dow glass as junior member of the firm of 
Schaeffer & Schlossstein. In 1880 he pur- 
chased his partner's interest in this business 
and formed a stock company, which was in- 
corporated as the French Window Glass Man- 
ufacturing Company of Missouri. Of this 
corporation Mr. Schlossstein became president 
and treasurer, conducting its operations suc- 
cessfully and giving it a prominent place 
among the industries of St. Louis. In 1893 
he was attracted to one of the Indiana natural 
gas fields by the advantages which it offered 
to manufacturers ; and, while still continuing 
his St. Louis business, incorporated the Dun- 
kirk Window Glass Company, with a capital 
of $50,000, which built an extensive glass man- 
ufacturing plant at Dunkirk. Of this corpo- 
ration, Mr. Schlossstein became president and 
treasurer, and held those offices up to the time 
of his death, but the active conduct and man- 
agement of the new enterprise was left to his 
son, George A. Schlossstein, the elder Schloss- 
stein continuing to reside in St. Louis and 
visiting the Indiana works only when occa- 
sion required. At this plant — which has con- 
tinued its operations since the death of its 
founder, with Dr. Adolph Schlossstein as pres- 
ident and treasurer, and George A. Schloss- 
stein as vice-president, secretary and general : 
manager — one hundred and fifty men are em- 
ployed and one hundred thousand dollars are | 
paid out annually for labor. During his long 
residence in St. Louis George Schlossstein was j 
recognized as a man of superior ability, and he 
was actively identified with other enterprises 
in addition to those of which mention has been j 
made, and through which he accumulated a | 
fortune. He was a shareholder and director 
in the Jefferson Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, and one of the founders of the St. Louis j 
Mutual House-Building Company, with 
which he was also for twenty years officially - 
connected as a director. He was a conspicu- 
ous figure in the numerous German societies, I 



SCHLOSSSTEIN. 



2001 



prominent among them being the Liederkranz 
Society, the Concordia Turner Society, and 
the Germania Club, in all of which he held 
memberships, and the interests of which he- 
helped to foster and promote. An excellent 
business man, he was also a public-spirited 
citizen, always ready to aid worthy enter- 
prises and to contribute in every way in his 
power to the betterment of moral and social 
conditions in the city which became his 
adopted home. He was also a great lover of 
music. He traveled extensively at different 
times during his life, revisiting Europe in 
i860, 1867 and 1892. A staunch Unionist in 
sentiment, he was among the German-Amer- 
icans of St. Louis who contributed to the full 
extent of their ability to the suppression of 
the secession movement during the Civil War 
period. Prominent among the earliest advo- 
cates in St. Louis of the cremation of the dead, 
he became one of the founders of the St. Louis 
Crematory, was a stockholder and director in 
the organization controlling that institution, 
and at his death his remains were incinerated 
and his ashes now occupy a niche in the Co- 
lumbarium. He married, in 1862, Miss Mary 
Silberg, of Cleveland, Ohio, daughter of Fred- 
erick Silberg, one of the pioneers of that city, 
and is survived by his widow and nine grown 
children. The children are Bertha, Frieda, 
now Mrs. Otto F. Meister; George A., Lena, 
now Mrs. Herman C. Meister ; Augusta, 
Louis A., Emma, Edward C, and Marie 
Schlossstein. George A. Schlossstein, eldest 
of the sons, who graduated from the Manual 
Training School of Washington University, 
is now (1897), as has already been stated, vice- 
president and general manager of the Dunkirk 
Window Glass Company, and a prosperous 
man of affairs. Louis A. Schlossstein, who is 
also a graduate of the Manual Training 
School, and wdio spent three years in the en- 
gineering department of Washington Univer- 
sity, is a mechanical draftsman in the employ 
of the Boyer Machine Company, and Edward 
Schlossstein, the youngest son, is a student in 
the St. Louis High School. 

Schultz, William, merchant and man- 
ufacturer, was born May 12, 1856, in St. 
Louis, son of Henry and Marv (Langbein) 
Schultz. both natives of Germany, who came 
to this country about the year 1844 and estab- 
lished their home at once in St. Louis. Mr. 
Schultz obtained his earlv education in the 



private schools of the city, attending fur a 
time a somewhat noted institution of learning 
of this character known as Walther College. 
Although he was ambitious to complete a full 
classical course of study, he had nut the means 
to defray collegiate expenses and was obliged 
to seek remunerative employment. At the 
same time, however, he entered upon a regular 
attendance at the night schools of the city. 
continuing this course of study for three years, 
and covering the ground usually gone over 
in a college course. Pie obtained his earliest 
business experience in the wholesale grocery 
house of Morris, Taylor & Co., by whom he 
was employed two years. At the end of that 
time he entered the employ of Rice & Byers, 
and after serving this firm several years as 
clerk and traveling salesman, was made man- 
ager of the establishment in 1876. Four 
years later he became interested as a stock- 
holder in their business, which was then in- 
corporated under the name of the F. R. Rice 
Mercantile Cigar Company. After the forma- 
tion of this corporation, Mr. Schultz and his 
associates broadened the field of their opera- 
tions materially, and have gained a celebrity 
enjoved by few establishments of the kind in 
the United States. In addition to running a 
large manufactory, the product of which is in 
excess of ten million cigars annually, they are 
also importers of cigars to the extent of fifteen 
-millions annually. Between two and three 
hundred men find regular employment in their 
factory, almost a score of traveling salesmen 
are in their employ, and much additional labor 
is emp'oyed in less important capacities. Mr. 
Schultz is now vice-president of this famous 
manufacturing and commercial establishment, 
and once a year makes a trip to Havana, 
where he gives his personal attention to the 
selection of tobaccos to be used in the manu- 
facture of brands of cigars which have become 
known all over the United States. Few to- 
bacconists in this country have made so care- 
ful a study not only of the different pr< icesses 
of manufacturing cigars, but of different 
grades of tobacco, the effects of "aging" and 
other matters essential to the production of 
high-grade goods, and an interesting feature 
of his operations is the keeping on hand at all 
times of a stock of tobacco sufficient for one 
to two years' consumption, to improve its 
quality. His business interests have occupied 
his entire time and attention, and. although 
his personal popularity and recognized fitness 



2002 



SCHLOSSSTEIN. 



for public trusts have caused him to be solic- 
ited at different times to become a candidate 
for office, he lias declined such proffered hon- 
ors. His political convictions are, however, 
well defined, and as a firm believer in the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party he has contrib- 
uted to its success at the polls and in various 
political campaigns. A member of the Ger- 
man Lutheran Church, he has been active in 
church work, and is superintendent of a Sun- 
day-school which has an attendance of six 
hundred and forty scholars and sixty-four 
teachers. He married, in 1876, Miss Caroline 
C. Hopmann, and has two children — Estella 
and Lydia Schultz. 

Sehiele, Theodore, was born in the 
town of Fellheim, Kingdom of Bavaria, ( ier- 
many, September 3, 1827. and died in St. 
Louis February 2j. 1898. His father was 
Samuel Sehiele. who died in Xew York City 
in 1866. he having come to this country some 
years before that and engaged in merchandis- 
ing in the Eastern metropolis. His wife, the 
mother of Theodore Sehiele, was Esther Hoff- 
heinier before her marriage. Theodore 
Sehiele was thirteen years of age when the 
family came to the United States, and he com- 
pleted a thorough education, which had be- 
gun at a private school in Germany, in the 
schools of New York City. After quitting 
school he first worked for a time in a New 
York broker's office, and then learned the 
jeweler's trade with a Xew York house, in 
which lie was employed for eight years. At 
the end of that time, and in the vear i860, he 
came to St. Louis, and for several years there- 
after was engaged with his brother in the 
wholesale millinery trade in this city as head of 
the firm of T. & M. Sehiele. Afterward he 
was connected for five years with the whole- 
sale dry goods house of J. Weil & Co., and 
still later was partner in the Sehiele Manu- 
facturing Company, lie was well known in 
both the business and social circles of the city, 
and was one of the founders of tin social or- 
ganization which later became the Columbian 
Club, lie was also well known as a member 
of the Masonic order, affiliating with Pride of 
the West Lodge, lie was a capable business 
man and a most estimable gentleman in all re-' 
spects, and those who were brought into '.lie 
most intimate relations with him entertained 
for him a fond regard and deeply deplored his 
death. He lived a quiet life, his purse always 



open to the needy; conducted his business af- 
fairs with good judgment and discretion, and 1 
at his death left to those whom he had gath- J 
ered around him in the family circle, and who \ 
had always been the objects of his tenderest 
solicitude, a comfortable home. Mr. Sehiele 
married. July 29, 1866, at Syracuse. Xew 
York, Miss Sara Newcity. Of six children 
born to them those who survived their father 
were Samuel T. Sehiele, Harry L. Schick, Es- 
sie Sehiele, Cora Sehiele, and Blanche Sehiele. 

Schlossstein, Louis, manufacturer, j 
was horn October 14, 1834, in Albisheim. 
Kingdom of Bavaria. Germany, son of John \ 
and Fredericka (Lauer) Schlossstein. He j 
was educated in the Latin schools in Kirch- 
heim and Gruenstadt, and then served an 1 
apprenticeship of three and a half years to I 
the brewer's trade. Follow-ing the custom of I 
German tradesmen, he then set out to spend ! 
his "Wanderjahre," traveling about the cottn- 
trv, learning something of the world, and 
gaining, at the same time, increased know!- I 
edge of his craft by working at his trade in 1 
different cities. These journey ings were pro- 
longed over a period of five years, during I 
which he traveled throughout both < iermany 
and France. In 1858 he came to this country j 
and became a resident of St. Louis, to which 
his brother, George Schlossstein, had preceded 
him. He was employed in various capaci 
ties and in different breweries thereafter, un- 
til he became foreman of the Uhrig Brewery, 
a position which he filled for four years. In 
1865 he embarked in the manufacture of beer 
as junior member of the firm of Feuerbacher 
& Schlossstein. proprietors of the Green Tree 
Brewery. A master of the art of brewing 
beer. Mr. Schlossstein contributed largely in 
this connection to the building up of one of 
the great manufactories of this character, for 
which St. Louis has long been famous. Theifi 
business developed to very large proportions, 
ami their trade extended over a wide area of 
territory, yielding rich returns. In June of 
iSS. 1 the Green Tree Brewery was consoli- 
dated with sixteen other St. Louis breweries, 
under the name of the St. Louis Brewing As- 
sociation, which five months later sold out 
to a syndicate of English capitalists. After 
the absorption of their business by this new' 
corporation, Mr. Schlossstein continued to act 
as manager of the plant of which he had pre- 
viously been part owner, until 1892, when he 



SCHLOSSSTEIN. 



2003 



resigned this position to give attention to his 
large property interests and devote himself to 
the care of the fortune which he had accumu- 
lated. Devoting himself entirely to business 
pursuits, he has taken no active part in the 
conduct of public affairs, but in his exercise 
of the right of suffrage he has always voted 
for the candidates whom he deemed best quali- 
fied to fill the offices to which they aspired, 
and his political action has been independent 
and free from partisan bias. His religious 
views are broadly liberal. May 7, 1863, he 
married Mrs. Josephine Uhrig, widow of Ig- 
natius Uhrig. With this marriage he re- 
ceived into his home two children of Mrs. 
Uhrig by her former marriage — Caroline, 
aged ten years, and Mary, aged three years — 
these little ones having been fatherless for 
some years. To them Mr. Schlossstein gave 
as tender affection as though they had been 
his own children, and was ever regarded by 
them with all the love and devotion children 
could feel for an own parent. Caroline, now 
Mrs. Seitz, is yet living; her sister, Mary, be- 
came Mrs. Nicolaus, and died April 6, 1899. 
One child, Katie, was born of Mr. Schloss- 
stein's later marriage. She is now the wife 
of Mr. C. Marquard Forster. Mr. Schloss- 
stein is most comfortably situated, both in 
home and business life. He gives close per- 
sonal attention to the management of the in- 
terests committed to his care, and is held in 
the highest esteem by all who are brought 
into contact with him. 

Slayback, Alonzo William, lawyer, 
was born at Plum Grove, Missouri, July 4, 
1838, and died in St. Louis October 13, 1882. 
At ten years of age he was left fatherless and 
almost entirely without means, and to obtain 
an education and fit himself for the duties of 
later life by his own efforts was the task which 
confronted him in early youth. By dint of 
persistent effort and hard work he succeeded 
in fitting himself for college, and his natural 
precocity enabled him to complete a course 
of study at the Masonic College of Lexington, 
Missouri, before he was eighteen years of 
age. He became a fine classical scholar, mas- 
tered several modern languages, and entered 
upon his course of preparation for the bar un- 
der favorable auspices, notwithstanding the 
fact that he had labored under main - disad- 
vantages. He studied law under the precep- 
torship of Bela Hughes, an eminent lawver of 



St. Joseph, Missouri, and was admitted to the 
bar in that city in 1857, when he was twenty- 
years of age. There he established himself 
in practice as the partner of Joseph 1'.. 1 Irubb, 
and had entered upon what promised t" be 
a brilliant professional career when the (nil 
War began. Chivalrous by nature, and in 
full sympathy with the Southern cause, he 
could not do otherwise than become a par- 
ticipant in the great conflict, and in Septem- 
ber of [86] he was elected colonel of a regi- 
ment of Missouri State Guards, which he had 
organized, and served under General Sterling 
Price until the end of the term for which he 
had enlisted. Upon the expiration of this 
term of service he at once re-enlisted as a 
private soldier, and was regularly mustered 
into the Confederate Army, lie was soon 
appointed captain of ordnance on the staff of 
General Martin Greene, and after the skirmish 
at Farmington, Missouri, was recommended 
for promotion. General Price ordered him 
west of the Mississippi River, and he was serv- 
ing in Shelby's command when stricken down 
with typhoid fever in Arkansas. A long and 
serious illness followed, and after his recov- 
ery he was ordered into service as a bearer 
of special dispatches to Richmond and recom- 
mended for duty in line. Soon afterward he 
recruited a regiment of lancers in Southeast 
Missouri, of which he became colonel, his reg- 
iment being assigned to Colonel Jo Shelby's 
old brigade, in which he served to the close of 
the war. He was a brilliant, dashing and in- 
trepid soldier, and seemed to be absolutely 
fearless. He inspired those serving under his 
command by his eloquence and by his own 
high courage in the face of danger, and had 
mam- thrilling experiences during his mili- 
tary career. During a stolen visit to his wife, 
at Lexington, Missouri, he was captured and 
imprisoned in the old Masonic College, which 
was then being used as a military prison. He 
soon contrived, however, to effect his escape, 
and returned to his command unharmed, al- 
though he had been in great peril by reason 
of the daring manner in which he took leave 
of his guard and the enemy. After the war 
he went with General Shelby to Mexico, and 
remained in voluntary exile until [866. In 
July of that year, having been amnestied by 
the government at Washington, he returned 
to Missouri and resumed the practice of his 
profession in St. Louis. For a time he prac 
ticed in partnership with Richard Spencer, 



2(101 



SCHMIEDIXG. 



Lnt later associated himself with H. A. Heuss- 
ler, and at the time of his death was a member 
of the firm (if Broadhead, Slayback & Heuss- 
ler. \t tlu- bar he soon became known as an 
advocate of great ability, wonderfully effective- 
in his arguments before courts and juries. 
Commanding in appearance and impressive in 
manner. his personal magnetism supplemented 
his splendid attainments to a remarkable de- 
gree, and not only at the bar. but in political 
and other circles in which he moved, he was 
always an impressive figure. His practice was 
largely in the civil courts, and court records 
show that mi "tie of his contemporaries at the 
bar lost fewer cases than did he. While he 
was tier}- and impetuous to a degree, he was 
warm-hearted, generous and courtly, and was 
numbered among the gentlemen of the "old 
school" then in practice at the St. Louis bar. 
His death was tragical and deeply moved the 
people of St. Louis. For many years he had 
been a prominent figure in the politics of the 
State. In 1876 he was ia delegate to the Dem- 
ocratic National Convention, which nominated 
Samuel J. Tilden for the presidency of the 
United States. The same year he was a can- 
didate for Congress from the Second Missouri 
district, but was defeated. He participated 
actively in subsequent campaigns, and, in 1882, 
made a spirited canvass in behalf of his law 
partner, Colonel lames O. Broadhead. who 
was a candidate for Congress. In the course 
of this campaign he became involved in a con- 
troversy with John A. Cockeril'l, then editor 
of 'the "Post-Dispatch." On the 1 3th of Octo- 
ber there appeared in that paper a personal at- 
tack .in Colonel Slayback. which aroused his 
indignation, and he sought the editor to pro- 
tect against the injustice done him, and to ask- 
that the objectionable article be suppressed in 
the second editi in of the paper. An encounter 
between him and ( 'ockerill resulted from his 
visit to the editorial room, and Colonel Slay- 
back was instantly killed. His death aroused 
the impassioned sympathy of a wide circle of 
friends in St. Louis, to whom he had endeared 
himself by many noble qualities of head and 
heart, and a thousand generous acts. The 
Merchants' Exchange, for whom he had long 
acted as legal counselor and advisor, placed 
on record an almost unparalleled tribute to 
his worth and an expression of deepest sorrow 
at his demise. Men spoke of him as .me who 
had scattered sunshine along his pathway 
through life, a friend always of tin- poor, a 



'helper of the needy and a champion of the op- 
pressed. I li- generous nature and charitable 
di-position had caused him to leave his family 
in somewhat straitened circumstances, and 
steps wire at once taken by the citizens of St. 
Louis to testify to their appreciation of the 
man by making substantial provisions for the 
care and comfort of those who had been de- 
pendent upon him. By means of public bene- 
fits, and in other ways, a large sum was raised 
for this purpose, and in no instance in the his- 
tory of St. Louis has the death of a citizen 
been followed by a more striking testimonial 
of popular affection and esteem. In his home 
life. Colonel Slayback was peculiarly happy. 
The idolized head of an ideal family circle, he 
was loving and lovable" under all circum- 
stances in social circles he was charmingly 
and delightfully companionable, and his sym- 
pathies with the poor caused him to count that 
day lost in which he did not do some kindly 
act. 1 Ie was a member of the Merchants' Ex- 
change Benevolent Society, of the University 
Club, the Law Library Association, the Home 
Circle, and the Legion of Honor; was an hon- 
orary member of the Knights of St. Patrick, 
and of tlie St. Louis National Guards, and a 
leading member of the St. Louis Bar Ass tcia- 
ti on. of which he served two terms as vice- 
president. He married, in 1859, Miss Alice A. 
Waddell. daughter of William P.. Waddell, 
who was ;i member of the old firm of Russell, 
Majors & Waddell. of "Pony Express" fame. 
There was something of romance in the early 
life of Colonel Slayback. lie and Mrs. Slay- 
back were companions in childhood and were 
betrothed at an early age. A misunderstand- 
ing resulted in an estrangement, which lasted 
four years, and then they met again.. Recon- 
ciliation followed and they were married, Mrs. 
Slayback receiving" a handsome settlement 
from her father. They were separated again 
soon after the birth of their eldest child by the 
Civil War. Mrs. Slayback remaining with her 
father when her husband went into the field. 
When Colonel Jo Shelby made his raid into 
Missouri, he brought news that Colonel Slay- 
back had been left behind, in Arkansas, des- 
perately ill of typhoid fever. Mrs. Slayback at 
once prepared to go to the bedside of her hus- 
band, which was at that time a most hazard- 
ous undertaking, as she must pass through 
the enemy's lines. Refused a permit to go 
through the lines, she accepted banishment 
papers, and. after many weary miles of travel, 




^c ^ 




SCHMIEDING. 



2005 



mostly in army wagons, she reached Napo- 
leon, Arkansas, to learn that her husband had 
been transferred to the hospital at Shreveport, 
Louisiana.- Thlilther she went and found, at 
last, the object of her search, unable to raise 
his head from his pillow. Her presence, how- 
ever, was an inspiration to his recovery, and 
he lived to gain further distinction as a soldier 
and a citizen. Mrs. Slayback was compelled 
to remain South until the close of the war. and 
until that time she did not see (again her child, 
which had been left behind with its grandpar- 
ents. Five children were born to them, after 
they established 'their home in St. Louis. One 
daughter, Grace, died lin 1889. The other 
children are Susie, Minnette, Catharine, Mabel 
and Alonzb William Slayback, Jr. 

Schmieding, Charles William, mer- 
chant and financier, was born in Louisville, 
Kentucky. December 5, 1845. His parents, 
Frederick E. and Clara Louise (Kayser) 
Schmieding, removed to St. Louis when he 
was three yeans old. He grew up in this city, 
and was educated in the public schools, leaving 
the High School at the beginning of the Civil 
War, in 1 861. He served his apprenticeship to 
the busin'ess of merchandising in the wholesale 
grocery house of Henry Gildehaus & Co., 
where he worked himself up to a responsible 
position within a few years. In 1867 he made 
a trip to Europe, and, upon his return, em- 
barked in the wooden ware business, with 
Messrs. Richard D'Oench and Max Krug as 
his partners, the firm's name being Schmied- 
ing, D'Oendh & Co. In 1874 he severed his 
■connection with this house, and, associating 
himself with F. E. Udell, formed the firm of 
Udell. Schmieding & Co., wholesale dealers in 
wooden and willow ware. This firm did a very 
large business, and one which extended all 
over the Western and Southern States, its 
trade in these commodities being. With a 
single exception, larger than that of any other 
house in the West. In 1883 Messrs. Udell, 
Schmieding & Co. sold their establishment to 
Samuel Cupples & Co., and the same year Mr. 
Schmieding organized the St. Louis Cattle 
Company, which has since owned extensive 
ranches in Texas. Prior to 1883 the business 
of cattle raising in that region had been very 
profitable, but, just at that time, there was a 
sudden change for the worse, as a result of 
overproduction, and consequent depression of 
prices. A long period of hard times for the 



cattle raisers followed, and many of them were 
forced into bankruptcy. During this period 
Mr. Schmieding managed the affairs of the 
St. Louis Cattle Company in such a way as to 
avoid serious losses and keep the corporation 
and its properties in such condition that when 
an improvement in the prices of cattle came at 
last, he and his associates were able to take 
advantage of the situation, lie saw the era 
"i prosperity fur which he and his associates 
had waited so long, fairly inaugurated, but did 
nut live to witness the complete .success of the 
enterprise, which he had labored so faithfully 
and intelligently to build up. He was a di- 
rector and vice-president 'of the Fourth Na- 
tional I Sank, and was regarded in business 
circles of St. Louis as an expert financier, 
whose advice and counsels were of great value 
to the board of directors of this institution. 
The removal of the bank to its present hand- 
some quarters, and the fitting up of a modern 
banking house, as a result, was due, in great 
measure, to his zeal and energy, and his pride 
in the monetary institution, which his father' 
had helped to found and build up. Mr. 
Schmieding was identified, also, with various 
others enterprises and was president of the St. 
Louis Fireworks Company, to the financial 
success of which he contributed very largely. 
He stood high in the esteem of his many 
friends, in both business and social circles, his 
urbane manners and kind disposition winning 
the hearts of all who were fortunate enough to 
become acquainted with him. Ili> sudden and 
unexpected death, 'at the age of fifty-two years, 
caused by heart failure. January 31, 1898, when 
he was apparently in the best Of health, came 
as a severe shock to a large circle of friends 
and occasioned deep grief among all those 
who had enjoyed an intimate acquaintance 
with him. 

Steedman, Isaac G. W., physician, 

was born in Lexington County. South Caro- 
lina, in 1835. son "' Reuben and Elizabeth 
(Fox) Steedman. Springing from one of the 
old families of South Carolina, he was born 
to the rich inheritance of a gddd name, high 
courage, sound morals and a vigorous intel- 
lect. A strain of martial blood runs through 
the Steedman family, and, beginning with the 
ilial wars, its representatives have achieved 
distinction in almost every struggle in which 
riie American people have been participants. 
Many of them were among the patriots of the 



200t; 



SCHMIEDIXG. 



Revolutionary era. and in subsequent wars 
they were valiant defenders of cherished rights 
and principles. Dr. Steedman obtained his 
higher education alt the South Carolina Mili- 
tary Academy, and it is of interest to note in 
this connection the fact that five of bis near 
relatives, bearing the same name, were stu- 
dents at this institution within a period of a 
dozen years. Colonel J. M. Steedman, his 
double first cousin, who was graduated in the 
class of [854, served gallantly in 'the army of 
Northern Virginia throughout the Civil War. 
Captain S. 1 >. Steedman. his brother, of the 
class of 1862, was adjutant of the Firsl Ala- 
bama Regiment during the war. Another 
brother, X. W. Steedman. of the class of 1864, 
served as a lieutenant to the close of the War, 
and two younger brothers were students at the 
academy at a later date. Dr. Steedman was 
graduated from the academy in the class of 
[856, and immediately afterward attended his 
first ci nirse 1 if lectures at South 'Carolina Medi- 
cal College, of Charleston. After that he at- 
tended 'two courses of lectures at New Orleans, 
receiving his doctor's degree from the Medical 
Department of the University of Louisiana in 
[859. He then entered upon his professional 
lab irs in Wilcox County, Alabama, a prosper- 
ous region in the heart of the cotton-growing 
country, and 'had fairly established himself in 
practice when the Civil War began. When it 
became apparent that there was to be a resort 
to arms to settle issues which had been raised 
between the Northern and Southern States, 
his chivalrous nature responded to the call of 
the South, and. relinquishing his practice, he 
recruited a company of a hundred men, and 
entered the Confederate Army as a captain of 
volunteers. He was soon afterward promoted 
to the colonelcy o'f the First Alabama Regi- 
ment, and was in command of Fort Barrancas, 
on Pensacola Bay, Florida, during the latter 
part of 186 1 and the early part of 1862. de- 
fending; the fort successfully against two bom- 
bardments by the Federal naval forces. Tn 
March, r862, after his regiment had been re- 
cruited to its full Strength, he was ordered to 
Island No. 10, which was considered the ke\ 
to the navigation of the lower Mississippi 
River. There the regiment became a part of 
the Confederate force which offered such pro- 
longed and determined resistance to the pow- 
erful Union fleet .and land forces sent against 
it, but which was finally compelled to surren- 
der the island on the 8th of April, at the end 



of a six weeks' siege. After the surrender 
Colonel Steedman, then seriously ill, was 
brought to St. Louis as a prisoner of war. and 
incarcerated in old Gratiot Street prison. 
When he recovered from his illness he was 
transferred to the military prison at Camp 
Chase, near Colum'bus, Ohio, and later was 
sent to Johnson's Island, in Lake Erie, where 
he was held for four months, acting, while 
there, under Federal authority, and by request 
of his fellow prisoners, as physician to the hos- 
pital within the prison walls. In October of 
1862 he was returned to the Confederate serv- 
ice through an exchange of prisoners, and at 
once resumed command of his old regiment, 
which he recruited to its full complement of a 
thousand men within a month. Being then 
assigned to duty at Port Hudson, he remained 
there until that place was surrendered to the 
Union Army on the 8th of July. 1863. This 
defense of Port Hudson has hardly a parallel 
in the 'history of American warfare for stub- 
born resistance and spirited fighting against 
overwhelming odds. The siege began early in 
May, 1863, and the investment of the fort was 
soon Completed by the Federal troops under 
the command of Genera! X. P. Banks. For 
sixty-four days thereafter its defenders were 
under fire night and day. Repeated assaults 
were made by the Federal troops, which were 
as often repulsed by the Confederates, who 
fought with desperate bravery and during 
the siege inflicted upon the Union forces in 
killed and wounded a loss equal to the whole 
number of Confederate 'troops engaged. Night 
and day they were in the trenches, and the 
only relief they got was in being shifted, from 
time to time, from the most exposed to the 
least exposed positions. Through sickness, 
starvation, killed and wounded, the besieged 
Confederate force was reduced from 8.000 to 
3.000 men capable of bearing arms, and it was 
this force which finally surrendered to an army 
of 30.000. when it was learned that Vicksburg 
had fallen, and that a further defense of Port 
Hudson was useless. Again taken prisoner, 
Colonel Steedman was held at different North- 
ern prisons until June 28. 1865, when he was 
finally released at Fort Delaware. The war 
being ended, he resumed the practice of his 
profession, establishing; himself in St. Louis, 
which he had first visited as a prisoner of war. 
His selection of this location was, perhaps, in- 
fluenced to some extent by the fact that dur- 
ing" his first visit to the citv, which, as has been 



A'% 





^^. 



SCHMIEDIXG. 



2IKI7 



state'd, was imt made under the most favorable 
auspices, he 'had formed a most charming and 
agreeable acquaintance. The prisoners con- 
fined in old Gratiot Street prison had, from 
time to time, received kindly attentions from 
the family of Honorable James Harrison, 
whose residence was opposite the prison. It 
thus happened tihat Colonel Steedman became 
acquainted with Mr. Harrison's daughter, 
Dora Harrison, and wlhen he came to St. Louis 
to begin the pradtice of medicine this acquaint- 
ance was renewed, ripened into love, and in 
October of 1865 they were married. Their 
home has ever since been in this city, and until 
1880 Colonel Steedman was an active and suc- 
cessful practitioner of medicine. In 1880 he 
retired from professional labors, and, after 
spending some time albroad, returned to this 
city to give his attention thereafter to large 
private business interests, and devote himself 
to the study of the sciences, for which he has 
always had a special fondness. Although no 
longer a practicing physician, he has contin- 
ued to take a warm interest in the develop- 
ments of medical science, and has also devoted 
much of his time to research and investigation 
in the broad field of the natural sciences, and 
is known to the public generally as a scholarly 
and accomplished man. 

Schniiedinj>-, Frederick Edward, 

merchant, was born in Bielefeld, Province 

of Westphalia, Prussia, September 2, 1812, and 
died in St. Louis, November 24, 1891. The 
history of his life when told to the rising gen- 
eration sounds to them like a fairy tale, but 
his experiences were not unlike those of most 
of the German and other emigrants to Amer- 
ica in earlier years. He received a liberal edu- 
cation in the schools of his native city, and, at 
the age of fifteen years, after he had passed 
through the second class of 'the "gymnasium," 
or, as it would be termed in an American city, 
high school, he began serving a five years' ap- 
prenticeship in a forwarding and commission 
business at Minden, Prussia. There he ac- 
quired a thorough and practical knowledge 1 if 
merchandising. After he had finished his 
apprenticeship he became bookkeeper and 
Cashier in the sugar refinery of VonS'oebben, 
at Minden, holding that position for several 
years thereafter. During this time he heard 
wonderful stories of the opportunities awaiting 
enterprising men in America, and of the ease 
with which fortunes were being: made in this 



Country. As a result he determined to come 
hither, and, in 1835, embarked aboard a vessel 
bound for New York, accompanied by his two 

sisters and their families. Prom New York 
thej 1 aime w est, ami railroads not beiog in ex- 
istence at that time, they traveled a consider- 
able part of the way by canal boat, the men 
walking most of the time along the tow-path 
of the canal, while the women wen- housed in 
cramped and narrow quarters on the boat. In 
Ohio Mr. Sehmieding's brothers-in-law, 
Messrs. W'uelhng and Pauk, established their 
homes and engaged in farming, while Mr. 
Schmieding, who never had any experience in 
the business of husbaindry, went on to Cincin- 
nati, where he established, after all his efforts 
to get a position in a mercantile establishment 
had failed, a tallow candle factory. In this 
enterprise his money melted away, very much 
like the candles themselves, and. becoming 
disgusted with the disastrous results, as well as 
the odors, of the candle factory, he turned his 
attention to the more agreeable pursuit of 
manufacturing can de cologne. His enter- 
prise in this field was not appreciated by the 
people of Cincinnati, and, in order to realize 
on the stock which he had on hand, lie was 
obliged to take it to New Orleans, where he 
found a fairly good market. Returning by 
way of St. Louis, he reached the last-named 
citv, where he had intended to spend some 
. davs. in time to see a negro, who had commit- 
ted an atmcious murder, burned alive at the 
stake, and the atrocity of this punishment im- 
pressed him so unfavorably with the place that 
he left almost immediately, and made his way 
as rapidly as possible to Louisville. Kentucky. 
Pie was almost entirely without means at that 
time, but he had the instincts of a merchant, 
and alter working for a time for hi- bOard lie 
determined to make another effort to start in 
business for himself. Purchasing a small 
show case, lie filled it, as nearly as his means 
and credit would allow, with com'bs, pencil's, 
pen points, razors, pocket book--, etc., and 
waited for customers, as a sidewalk merchant. 
At the corner of Bullitt and Water Streets, in 
Louisville, the former cashier of a great mer- 
chandising establishment in Minden, and the 
man who was later to become a rich and hon- 
ored merchant of St. Louis, stood day in and 
day out, in sunshine and rain, patiently wait- 
ing for patrons, and. although it was a severe- 
test of his courage and endurance, he -tuck to 
this business until he was able to do better. For 



.'(MIS 



SCHMIKDING. 



more fhan a year he followed rh is humble oc- 
cupation, but at the end of that time he had 
saved money enotvgh to enable him to enter 
into a partnership with some German friends 
in thi' clothing business, lie had now a roof 
over his head, under which to do business. 
and his prospects began to brighten. Through- 
out this trying period one of his chief consi >- 
lations, and a great comfort to him was his 
love of literature and music, and no matter 
how uncomfortable his condition and environ- 
ments may have been at any time, the muses 
were his friends, encouraging and inspiring 
him to continued efforts. In February of 
[848 he concluded to join relatives who had 
settled in St. Louis, and disposed of 'his busi- 
ness in Louisville. Coming to this city with 
his brother-in-law, William Kayser. he estab- 
lished a hardware Store on Broadway, nea-r the 
old Broa'diway Market, and close attention to 
business enabled him to build up a large trade 
within a few years. The retail si ore which he 
had established, expanded, in the course 'of 
time, into a wholesale house, or ra'ther, into a 
house having both wholesale and retail de- 
partments, and the firm of F. E. Schmiieding 
& Co. became one of tin- leading hardware 
firms of St. Louis. Mr. Sc'hmieding con'tin- 
ued to be identified with this business until 
[872, when he sold his interest to his junior 
partner, F. A. Wifete, and turned his attention 
to banking affairs, and the care of his estate, 
lie was one of the founders and first president 
of the Broadway Savings Bank, from which 
he withdrew iin 1864 to become associated with 
other gentlemen in the founding of the Fourth 
National Bank, n'OW one of the leading bank- 
ing and financial institutions of St. Louis. He 
was a director of this bank until shortly before 
In- death, and was one of the founders, also, 
and for many years a director, of the Jefferson 
Fire Insurance Company of St. Louis. 

Smith, James Abraham, who has 

long been a well known citizen of St. Louis, 
was born April 5, [822, in Loud. m. England, 
son of James A. and Jane Smith. I lis parents 
resided in the same English homestead For 
thirty year- prior to 1856, and in that year 
came to this country, where both died twenty 
years later. The .-on was educated at Chis- 
wick, in Middlesex. England, under the au- 
spices of a British and foreign school society, 
receiving what would be termed a common 
school education in thi- country. When four- 



teen \ear- of age he began serving a seaman's 
apprentice-hip. and. for seven years thereafter, 
was on vessels sailing on the English coast. 
< >ne year after completing this apprenticeship 
he passed his examination before the board of 
Trinity, at the British Admiralty office, in 
London, and obtained a certificate, or license, 
a- master on the coast of Great Britain and 
Ireland. That was in 1844, and he was then 
only twenty-two years of age. Soon after 
that, he became a master and. finally, an owner 
of coasting vessels on the English coast. He 
was thus engaged until 1854, when he immi- 
grated to this country, and made St. Louis 
his home. For fifteen years thereafter he was 
connected with the river transportation inter- 
ests, and during that time was master and 
owner of various boats plying on the Illinois 
and Mississippi Rivers. lie severed his con- 
nection with the steannboating business in 1869 
and from that date until 1889 -was engaged in 
the wholesale and retail ice trade in St. Louis, 
doing a large business and becoming famil- 
iarly known locally as "the ice king." During 
the Civil War he was in the employ of the goC* 
eminent a considerable portion of the time, 
and engaged in towing barges, laden with ice, 
from Dubuque, Iowa, Lake Pepin and from 
Kingston, and Peoria, Illinois, to Memphis, 
Yicksburg and other Southern cities. While 
engaged in the ice business, in which he was 
very successful, in a financial way, he had, at 
different times, some perilous experiences, 
and, as a result of one of these experiences, he 
once had the pleasure of reading his own obit- 
uary. In January of 1873 the Mississippi 
River was frozen over, opposite North Market 
Street, so that wagons crossed from one side 
to another, on the ice. Mr. Smith, his son, 
S. L. Smith, and James E. Flynn, were, on the 
[0th day of January, at noon, in the middle of 
the river, fixing up a slide and platform by 
means of which ice cut from the river, could 
be loaded on the wagons, backed up to the 
platform. lie observed that his carpenters 
had set the posts supporting the platform on 
top of tl u - ice. and that, as a result, the plat- 
form was continually sliding about and in 
constant danger of going into the river. To 
remedy this. Mr. Smith cut notches in the ice, 
-el tin- post, [ n these notches, and filled the 
hoh-s tints made with water, which quickly 
congealed and held the posts and platform se- 
curely in place. This action, as subsequent 
evi tits proved, saved his life. That day there 




. ' ••' ' ' s? t^^CSf 



/? 1 ? , , 



,,,/s % 



SCHNAIDER. 



2009 



was a rise of five feet in the river further north, 
and the rush of waters, which came down sud- 
denly, raised the great body of ice in the river 
opposite St. Louis clear of both shores, and 
started it down stream. Mr. Smith's son and 
Mr. Flynn, who were on the ice with him at 
the time, made a run for the shore, and were 
rescued by men who threw planks across the 
open space between the ice and the river bank. 
Mr. Smith himself remained on the platform, 
which he 'had had constructed, hoping- that the 
ice floe would stop at the bridge. The break- 
up of the ice attracted thousands of people to 
the river bank, who noted his peril and 
thought his death inevitable. When the ice 
struck the pier of the bridge, it was broken 
up. and a piece about twenty-five feet square 
was left as a float for Mr. Smith's platform. 
This piece cracked diagonally from corner to 
corner, and but for the fact that the posts, 
which had been fastened securely in the ice, 
held the two pieces together, he would have 
gone, platform and all, into the raging waters. 
As it was, the <cake of ice continued to float 
down the river until it reached Arsenal Island, 
where he Was rescued by a skiff sent out from 
the levee. There had been great excitement 
during the afternoon in the city, and an even- 
ing paper had published an account of Mr. 
Smith's being swept away by the flood, and a 
flattering obituary notice in that connection. 
When he arrived at his home, he found that a 
number of friends had gathered there to con- 
dole with his wife, Who, however, did not share 
their apprehensions, saying she felt sure that 
her husband would never be drowned, be- 
cause he had been raised in the water, and 
was amphibious. Mr. Smith read with inter- 
est the notice of his death, and jocularly re- 
marked that he had never known before what 
a good and useful citizen he had been. He 
has long been well known as a member of the 
Masonic fraternity in St. Louis, having be- 
come a member of Keystone Lodge, No. 243, 
in 1872. In 1873 he was made a member of 
Royal Arch Chapter, No. 8, and in 1874 a 
member of St. Louis Gommandery of Knights 
Templar. He has been twice married — first. 
in 1843, to Miss Elizabeth Ann Birch, who 
was born December 18, 182 1, in London, Eng- 
land, and died in St. Louis, August 9, 1884. 
In 1889 he married, for his second wife. Jennie 
Loretto Bedford, born May 17, 1865, in Mem- 
phis, Tennessee. Five children, all born of his 
first marriage, were living in 1898. They 
66 



were Elizabeth Ann Smith, who was born in 
1844, and became Mrs. Judd ; James A. Smith, 
Jr., born in 1845 ; Stephen Lawrence Smith, 
born in 1847: Arthur Frederick Smith, born 
in 1853; and Henry Richard Smith, born 111 
1854. All his children were born in England. 

Sclniaider, Joseph, manufacturer, was 
born at Zell am Hammersbach, 111 the Province 
of Baden, Germany, February 2. [832, and 
died in Heidelberg, Germany, in the autumn 
■ if 1X81. Fhitil he was fifteen year> of age he 
continued to reside in his native town, ami in 
the schools of that place obtained an education 
which fitted him for business pursuits and en- 
abled him in later years to become an emi- 
nently successful man of affairs. When he 
was fifteen years old he went to the noted old 
town of Rastadt, situated on the Murg, four- 
teen miles southwest of Karlsruhe, and known 
as one of the strongest fortresses in Germany. 
In that historic city he passed the next three 
years of his life, serving an apprenticeship to 
the 'brewer's trade, and mastering it with char- 
acteristic German thoroughness. Going then 
to Stras'burg, he became foreman of a large 
brewing establishment in that city, and re- 
mained there until his adventurous disposition 
and his desire to see something of the world, 
prompted him to enter upon a series of travels 
through France and Germany, in the course 
of which he spent more or less time working 
at his trade in various cities and towns, thus 
thoroughly familiarizing himself with the most 
approved processes of manufacturing beer and 
other malt beverages. Equipped with both a 
theoretical and practical knowledge of the 
business in which he proposed to engage, he 
came to this country in 1854, proceeding at 
once to St. Louis, which was thereafter his 
home as long as he lived. Fie first became 
identified with the brewing business in this 
city as foreman o'f the odd Philadelphia brew- 
ery, Which was located on Morgan Street. In 
[856, however, he embarked in business for 
himself, and erected the Green Tree brewery, 
this plant, which he operated iin company with 
a partner, being located on Second Street. 
After operating this brewery successfully seven 
years, they built a larger and better equipped 
brewery on Sidney Street, in which Mr. 
Schnaider retained his interest until 1865. 
Disposing of his interest in this establishment 
in the year last named, he at once erected a 
new brewerv on Chouteau Avenue, be' ween 



2010 



SCHOFIELD— SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING. 



Mississippi and Armstrong Avenues, and con- 
nected with it a pleasure garden of the kind so 
common in Germany, then, however, an in- 
novation in St. Louis. This garden not only 
became the most famous resort of its kind in 
St. Louis, hut was widely known throughout 
the country. It was famous during the years 
immediately following the Civil War for its 
high-class musical and other entertainments, 
and its general good cheer. In a business 
way it proved an exceedingly profitable en- 
terprise and Mr. Schnaider speedily acquired 
a large fortune. Personally he was exceed- 
ingly popular with all classes of people, and 
few men in the city had a larger circle of ac- 
quaintances or were more generally esteemed 
by those with whom they were brought in 
contact. In 1879 the large business which he 
had built up was incorporated under the name 
of the Joseph Schnaider Brewing Company, 
in order that it might continue uninterrupted 
in case of his absence from the city, or his 
death. Some time after Mr. Schnaider went 
abroad, seeking rest from the cares of business 
and hoping to regain his health, which had 
been seriously shattered by his unremitting at- 
tention to his numerous commercial and man- 
ufacturing interests, and while sojourning in 
the land in which he was born, his ailment re- 
sulted fatally, notwithstanding the fact that the 
physicians of the most famous medical edu- 
cational center of the world made every effort 
to prolong his life. Accompanied by his de- 
voted wife, who was with him at the time of 
his death, his remains were brought back to 
St. Louis, and buried in the city which had 
been the scene of his great business success, 
and to which he had always been a loyal 
adopted son. Mr. Sdhnaider was a man of 
kind 1 - and humane impulses, and his acts of 
beneficence as a citizen of St. Louis were al- 
most numberless. He married, in 1856, Miss 
Elizabeth Sedler, and at the time of his death 
left seven children — three sons and four 
daughters. 

Schofield, John Hyperion, pub 

lisher. was born in the city of Leeds, York- 
shire, England, June 16, 1850. His father. 
Abraham Schofield, of Saddleworth, England, 
was a lineal descendant of Lord John Scho 
field, and his mother, whose maiden name was 
Hussey, and whose birthplace was Leeds. Eng 
land, came of a family prominent in letters 
and also in woolen manufacturing. John II. 



Schofield came from England to the. United 

States with his parents when he was seven 
years of age. The family settled in Whitins- 
ville, Worcester County. Massachusetts. 
where the subject of this sketch was graduated 
from the public schools, and subsequently 
from the Worcester Institute of Technology. 
He next served a three years' apprenticeship 
in the Whitins Machine Works, and also 
worked in every department of the cotton 
mill, learning the manufacturing business 
thoroughly. Subsequently he instituted the 
Rhode Island Shorthand College, which was 
located at 64 North Main Street, in the city of 
Providence. He was recognized in those 
days as a very' proficient stenographer, and 
was at different times employed by the State 
of Rhode Island, and at one time was Supreme 
Court reporter at Washington. He was also 
employed on the "Providence Star and Press," 
and for ten years was on the editorial staff of 
the "Providence Journal and Bulletin," then 
owned by United States Senator II. B. An- 
thonv. Mr. Schofield next bought out the 
"Rhode Island Democrat," and in the autumn 
of 1884 started the "Providence Evening 
Mail," a daily penny paper. In 1S90 he sold 
his newspaper property in Rhode Island and 
became editor and publisher of the "Butchers' 
and 1 'ackers' Magazine." of St. Louis, which 
he has succeeded in making known through- 
out the length and breadth of the land. He 
also purchased the "St. Louis Truth," and the 
"North End Leader," of St. Louis, which he 
consolidated with the "Missouri Gazette," an 
ably edited and popular weekly newspaper! 
which enjoys a large circulation. Since his 
coming to St. Louis Mr. Schofield has taken a 
prominent place among the newspaper man- 
agers and editors of the city, and is especially 
well known throughout the West to the trade 
interests of which he has been the recognize! 
newspaper representative. 

School Of Design. — An art institution— 

thi' nature of which is evidenced by its name 
— founded by Mrs. John B. Henderson in 
[878, and which flourished for some years in 
St. Loins. Lack of encouragement and finan- 
cial aid ultimately caused the school to perma- 
nently close its doors. 

Srhool of Engineering. — See "Wash- 
ington University. " 



SCHOOLS OF THE PIONEKR PERIOD. 



201] 



Schools of the Pioneer Period. — 

The settlers of St. Louis were mostly an illit- 
erate peasantry. Not one in twenty could 
read or write. They were humble farmers 
and rude artisans, whom poverty had deprived 
of the means of education. For some time 
after the settlement of this hamlet, the num- 
ber of children was probably too small for the 
maintenance of a school. For more than 
twenty years after the foundation of the vil- 
lage, the public records contain no allusion to 
the establishment of a school. All the early 
schools were private. It was more than half 
a century before the erection of the first pub- 
lic school house. The name of the first school 
teacher in St. Louis was Jean Baptiste Tru- 
deau. He is the only instructor whose name 
is mentioned in the French archives. Mr. 
Trudeau came to St. Louis from New Orleans 
in 1774, and established a school for boys in 
the southern portion of the village. His edu- 
cation entitled him to the patronage which he 
received. The sons of the principal men 
were confided to his tuition. The children of 
his cousin, Lieutenant-Governor Trudeau, 
were educated by him. Mr. Trudeau was in 
1820 still following his vocation, according to 
Paxton's Directory. His school was then lo- 
cated on the south side of Pine Street, between 
Main and Second. Mr. Trudeau taught 
school in St. Louis about half a century, but 
died in poverty, the profession to which he 
had devoted his life barely affording him the 
means of subsistence. 

The second school of which there is any 
record was kept by Madame Marie Payant 
Rigauche. This school was opened in the be- 
ginning of 1797 in Joseph Mainville's old log 
house, on the east side of Main Street, just 
south of Locust Street. Madame Rigauche 
taught for about two years. It is probable 
that she retired from teaching in 1799, for 
after that year no record mentions the exist- 
ence of her school. 

Under French and Spanish rule the lan- 
guage used in the schools of St. Louis was 
French. It may naturally be presumed that 
the instruction was very superficial. The 
school books were of the most elementary 
character. Even in case of the richer families, 
the teaching was confined to a few of the 
principal branches, while the poorer children, 
from the inability of their parents to do better, 
either received no instruction or were taught 
only the simplest rudiments. The course of 



study then comprised only reading, writing, 
spelling, and possibly the elements of arith- 
metic. The schools kept by Mr. Trudeau 
and Madame Rigauche are probably the only 
ones that existed under the French and Span- 
ish regimes. The first English school in St. 
Louis was established in 1804 by a man named 
Rotchford. His successor was George Tomp- 
kins, of Virginia, who became chief justice 
of the Supreme Court of Missouri. The De- 
bating Society, instituted in connection with 
Mr. Tompkins' school, became famous for the 
ability of its members and the brilliancy of its 
discussions. It was in this training school 
that Joshua Barton and Edward Bates devel- 
oped and disciplined forensic powers which 
at a later day achieved distinction in the coun- 
cils of the nation. After the transfer of Lou- 
isiana to the United States, in 1804, inter- 
course between the different sections of the 
country became more general, and the voung 
men of St. Louis began to be sent away from 
home to be educated. The seminaries estab- 
lished in Lexington, Bardstown, and Spring- 
field, Kentucky, had already attained a repu- 
tation for their excellence. To these institu- 
tions many St. Louis youths were sent. In 
1804 and 1805 several young men went from 
St. Louis to West Point and graduated with 
distinction. < )f this number were Charles 
Gratiot, Jr., who in 1836 became chief of the 
United States Engineer Corps. Robert Lu- 
cas, the eldest son of Judge John B. C. Lucas, 
Baronet Yasquez. and later. Pharamond 
Chouteau, son of Pierre Chouteau, Sr., were 
also educated at West Point. In addition to 
those who have been named in the foregoing 
sketch, the following were also pioneer teach- 
ers and had schools in St. Louis in 1821 : Mrs. 
Agnes Gay. ladies' seminary, on Third Street. 
above Market: Mrs. Lucinda Snow, ladies' 
seminary, at the southwest corner of Main and 
Pine Streets ; Miss LeFavre. French seminary, 
at the northwest corner of Main and Elm 
Streets; Rev. Salmon Giddings, school fur 
bovs, on the south side of Market Street, west 
of Fourth; Zebulon Pendleton, private school 
at the southwest corner of Third and Spruce 
Streets: William Macklin, school at the south- 
west corner of Second and Prune Streets; 
Moses E. Wilson, school on North Third 
Street, above Bastion; Maurice Laurent, writ- 
ing school, at 46 South Main Street: Francis 
Reamer, French school, at the northwest cor- 
ner of Second and Poplar Streets : and Francis 



2012 



SCHOOLS, PAROCHIAL. 



Rochford, school on the north side of St. 
Charles Street, above Fifth Street. In the fall 
of 1820 the college established by Rt. Rev. 
Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg. from 
which sprang St. Louis University (which 
see), was opened. Rev. Francis Neil, Rev. 
Leon Days, Rev. Andreas Ferrary, Rev. Aris- 
tides Anduze. Rev. Michael Saulnier, Samuel 
Smith, Patrick Sullivan, Francis M. Guyot, 
and John Martin constituted the first faculty. 
The first public school house in St. Louis was 
built in 1837. It was situated at the southwest 
corner of Fourth and Spruce Streets. David 
II. Armstrong was the first public school 
teacher in St. Louis. He opened this school 
in April, 1838. The second public school 
house, located at the northeast corner of 
Cherry and Broadway, was built in the latter 
part of the same year. The third school 
house was erected about 1S40, on the east side 
of Sixth Street, between Locust and St. 
Charles Streets. 

Schools, Parochial. — Parochial schools 
are those which are maintained in con- 
nection with a church, and are conducted by 
the pastor, or by some teacher appointed by 
him. Their existence is ownig to the con- 
scientious conviction of their supporters that 
education fails of its proper end unless reli- 
gious instruction be comprehended in it. and 
made a part of it. The support of these 
schools is derived almost entirely from the tui- 
tion fees paid by parents, the cost, in most 
cases, being about the same as in private 
schools of similar grade. The children of in- 
digent parents are admitted free of expense. 
Tf the receipts from tuition do not suffice f r 
the support of the school, the deficit is made 
up by the church. The parochial schools in 
St. Louis generally have adequate buildings, 
ample equipment, and a curriculum ranking 
with that of the public school system, it being 
the purpose of the authorities in the various 
parishes to afford no reason for their reli- 
gionists to prefer other schools to their 
own. In English-speaking congregations, 
the schools only differ from the public schools 
in the religious instruction that is given. In 
schools belonging to non-English-speaking 
congregations, the foreign tongue is only .sup- 
plemental for the preservation of the lan- 
guage. English text-books being used as com- 
monly as in any public school. This is true 
of lnvtli Catholic and Lutheran schools. It is 



further to be said of the parochial schools of 
St. Louis that they grew out of the necessi- 
ties of the times then existing, fully as much 
.1- out of any sense of religious duty. The 
State was in its formative period, and no pro- 
vision had yet been made for public in- 
struction. Schools could be established 
through but two agents. The one was the 
individual teacher, teaching to earn a liveli- 
hood. The individual teacher disappeared 
after a time, and there was seldom another to 
take up his work. The other was the pastor. 
His labor was one of system ; and when he 
passed away the system remained, and there 
was a successor to continue work under it. 
Two great bodies of Christians make the edu- 
cation of their youth in the parish school a 
subject of the very first importance. In the 
sym idical assemblies of the Lutherans, elabor- 
ate reports of school work are required, and 
all possible aid is afforded in the training of 
teachers, and the assignment of them as their 
ability may warrant and necessity demand. 
In the Roman Catholic Churches, under the 
instructions laid down by the council of Balti- 
more, in 1886, the institution and maintenance 
of parochial schools is made obligatory, ex- 
cept in cases where the difficulties are insuper- 
able. 

The first parochial school in St. Louis was 
one formed in connection with a congregation 
organized under the Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod of Missouri, Ohio and other States, as 
that body is officially styled. This school dates 
with certainty from 1841, and it is evident that 
its existence began in the year preceding that. 
Its room was in a building on Poplar Street, 
the congregation with which it was connected 
worshiping in the basement of the Episcopal 
( iimvli. The teacher was Candidate Buen- 
ger, serving under the pastoral supervision of 
Carl YValther, one of two brothers who were 
conspicuous in leading the liberty-seeking 
Saxons from their native land to America, in 
[838-9. The influx of that people soon be- 
came rapid and constant, and in 1842 Trinity 
Church was built, and the basement was util- 
ized for school purposes. This was the first 
edifice erected in St. Louis by this denomina- 
tion. In 1844 a branch school was estab- 
lished, and out of this grew Immanuel Church. 
From this time on, and particularly for a few 
\ ears beginning in 1848, immigration flowed in 
fredy, and churches and schools multiplied 
rapidly. In 1898 there were in the city of St. 



SCHOOLS. PUBLIC. 



2(113 



Louis 1 6 Lutheran schools, 39 teachers, and 
2,659 Pupils. In some schools 'the pastor as- 
sists in teaching; in small schools She is sole 
teacher. 

In 1843, with the establishment of St. Mark's 
Church on Soulard Street, and St. Peter's 
Ohuroh on North Fourteenth Street, these 
being the first in St. Louis under the German 
Evangelical Synod of North America, a school 
was opened under the superintendence of the 
Rev. George W. Wall, the pastor of the two 
congregations, with Franz Staeger as teacher. 
He remained in this work continuously for 
more than twenty-five years, and died but re- 
cently. Other churches and schools followed 
rapidly, as immigration increased. In 1898 
there were in St. Louis seventeen schools, 
conducted under the auspices of this denomi- 
nation, with thirty-four teachers and 1,743 pu- 
pils. In these schools, as we'll as in those un- 
der the Missouri Synod, the male teachers are 
usually young men who are in preparation for 
the ministry. 

When it became evident that St. Louis was 
to become something more than a trading- 
post, the Catholic missionaries opened various 
schools for the children of the immigrants, 
substantially all of whom were of their faith. 
Yet true as this is, Catholic authorities do not 
claim an earlier date than 1843 f° r the estab- 
lishment of their first parochial school, which 
was for boys only, and met in the basement of 
the then unfinished St. Xavier Church, more 
commonly called "the College Church," on the 
southwest corner o'f Ninth and Green Streets. 
This was March 25, 1843. May 8th 'following 
three Sisters of Charity, recently "from Em- 
metsburg. Maryland, began a like school for 
girls in a house on the south side of Washing- 
ton Avenue, between Seventh and Eighth 
Streets. Through the effort of the Rev. Father 
Carroll, pastor of St. Xavier's Church ("after- 
ward first bishop of Covington, Kentucky), a 
school and residence for the sisters was erected 
on the corner of St. Charles and Tenth Streets. 
in time for occupancy in September of the 
same year. At the time there were but two 
Catholic churches in St. Louis, the Cathedral, 
on Walnut Street, and the College Church, be- 
fore mentioned. In subsequent years the 
number of churches and schools increased 
rapidly. In 1898 there were in the city of St. 
(Louis 46 Catholic parochial schools, with 387 
teachers, and 16,628 pupils, divided as follows : 
English, 21 schools, 148 teachers, 6,534 pupils ; 



German, 19 schools, 156 teachers, 8,118 pupils ; 
German-English, 1 school, 15 teachers, 513 
pupils; Bohemian, 2 schools, 13 teachers, 721 
pupils ; Polish, 2 schools, 12 teachers, 622 pu- 
pils ; colored, 1 school, 3 teachers, 120 pupils. 
The greater number of the teachers are fe- 
males, drawn from the various religious teach- 
ing orders. 

Schools, Public. — The history of the 
public schools of the city of St. Louis begins 
with the act of Congress, approved June 13, 
1812, giving to inhabitants of several towns 
and villages of the Territory of Missouri cer- 
tain village lots and common field lots for the 
support of schools in the respective towns and 
villages. St. Louis was one of these towns 
and villages, and it took measures to get pos- 
session of the vacant lots, procuring the pas- 
sage of a bill in the Territorial Legislature es- 
tablishing a board of trustees to take charge of 
the land, rent or sell it, and apply the proceeds 
to the maintenance of schools. Of this first 
school board of St. Louis, William Clark, the 
Territorial Governor, William C. Carr, Thom- 
as H. Benton, Bernard Pratte, Auguste Chou- 
teau, Alexander McNair and John P. Cabanne 
were the members. They met on the 20th of 
April. 1817, electing Governor Clark chair- 
man, and Thomas H. Benton, secretary. 
Measures were taken to survey and plait the 
vacant lots. In 1833 the State Legislature 
granted a new charter, making the entire White 
population of St. Louis a corporate body styled 
the board of president and directors of the St. 
Louis Public Schools, and providing for the 
election by the people of six directors. The 
names of the first members of this new school 
board should always be mentioned in any his- 
tory of the St. Louis schools. They were Ed- 
ward Bates and John P. Reily, for South 
Ward : Josiah Spalding and Judge Mary P. 
Leduc, for Middle Ward ; Cornelius Campbell 
and Hugh O'Neil, for North Ward. In 1834 
the first money was received for rental of lands, 
but no school building was commenced until 
1836, when $2,000 each for two houses 
was appropriated, the same to be built on 
the plan submitted by Elihu H. Shepard. The 
south school house was situated on the corner 
of Spruce and Fourth Streets, and the north 
school house was located on the corner of what 
are now Broadway and Cherry Street. On 
the first Monday in April, 1838. the south 
school was opened with David Armstrong and 



2014 



SCHOOLS, PUBLIC. 



Mary H. Salisbury as teachers (salaries respec- 
tively $900 and $500 per annum). The north 
school opened soon after with Edward Leavy 
and Sarah Hardy as teachers. A committee 
of school visitors was appointed, among which 
may he recognized the names of citizens well 
known in St. Louis history. They were Wilson 
Primm, James M. Green, Bryan Mulianphy, 
Beverly Allen, William Carr Lane, Elihu H. 
Shepard and George K. Budd. This commit- 
tee -examined and appointed teachers. 

In 1841 School No. 3, the old Benton school, 
situated on Sixth and Locust Streets, was 
built, costing nearly eleven thousand dollars. 
In the next twelve years the following schools 
were built : The Clark, the Mound, the Jef- 
ferson, the Eliot, the Laclede and the Web- 
ster. A high school was -opened in February, 
1853, ' m apart of the Benton school building, 
and in 1854 a new building on the corner of 
Fifteenth and Olive was opened to receive its 
pupils. On motion of William G. Eliot, in 
1848, a resolution was adopted to prepare a 
memorial to the General Assembly of Mis- 
souri amending the charter and authorizing 
the school board to levy a tax of one-tenth of 
one per cent for the use of the schools. The 
Legislature granted the tax and a special elec- 
tion of the tax-payers of St. Louis approved it. 
Between 1840 and 1850 the population of St. 
Louis had increased from 16,469 to 77,860. 
The first tax levied by the school board 
amounted to $18,000. This was in 1850. But 
in 1854 the school board received its propor- 
tion 'of the State revenue for the support of 
free schools, amounting to one-quarter of the 
entire State revenue. St. Louis received $27,- 
456. and this added to the $50,000 collected 
from the one -mill tax gave a total income of 
more than $87,000. In 1857 Ira Divoll suc- 
ceeded John H. Tice in the office of city super- 
intendent of schools. The Normal School 
was established that year with Richard Ed- 
wards from the Normal School at Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, as its principal. Mr. Divoll 
pushed forward vigorously the reforms in 
school building and the plans which he recom- 
mended have been substantially adhered to in 
the entire subsequent history of the schools. 
These reforms related to the construction of 
school houses, the size of the rooms, methods 
of lighting and heating, styles of furniture, 
modes of organization and classification of 
schools, methods of instruction. The build- 
ings were modeled on the plan first introduced 



into Boston in the celebrated Quincy School 
of 1848. The capacity of schools at this time 
1 1857) amounted to 5.361 seats ; the city, how- 
ever, contained 135,000 inhabitants, and the 
school attendance should have been from 
twenty to twenty-five thousand. Since 1847 
the migration into St. Louis had increased 
enormously and it was high time that the board 
of public schools should take into considera- 
tion a new policy with regard to the increase 
of school accommodations. The Clay school, 
corner Tenth and Farrar Streets, was the first 
graded school completed in 1859 and followed 
immediately by the Washington, Eleventh 
and Poplar Streets, and the Everett, Eighth 
and Cass Avenue. Improvements were made 
from time to time on the style of building 
adopted in these structures, but the general 
plan has been substantially retained in all the 
architecture that has followed in St. Louis. 
The foundation idea of it is that there should 
be four rooms on each floor, each room placed 
at the corner and getting light from two win- 
dows at the back of the room and two win- 
dows at the side of the room, thus insuring a 
sufficiency of light and a sufficiency of ventila- 
tion in the hot days of the St. Louis summer. 
A hallway passes through the building from 
side to side, separating two rooms on the left 
and two rooms on the right. Stairways for 
the boys separate from the stairways for the 
girls, lead to separate play grounds. Under 
this arrangement each teacher instructs two 
classes and supervises their studies. A school 
organized in this way can be managed with 
very much less corporal punishment than on 
the earlier plan (that of the Benton and Frank- 
lin buildings) and where a school of five hun- 
dred pupils would have from one to two hun- 
dred Cases of corporal punishment in the 
course of one week in 1857, it Was not uncom- 
mon for a school of seven hundred pupils in 
1877 to have only two cases of corporal pun- 
ishment a week. By Mr. Divoll's recommen- 
dation the school board passed a rule promis- 
ing to select for promotion those teachers who 
succeeded in managing their schools by a 
minimum amount of corporal punishment. 
Corporal punishment was not forbidden, but 
this rule proved a very wise measure, inasmuch 
as it reduced in a few years the corporal pun- 
ishment to one per cent of its former amount 
and at the same time elevated the average dis- 
cipline of the schools. In the school discip- 
line great stress was laid upon regularity and 



SCHOOLS. PUBLIC. 



2015 



punctuality, and. while in 1857 there was as 
many as three hundred cases of tardiness per 
year for each one hundred pupils, by ICS76 this 
number had been reduced to one-sixth the 
former number. This, of course, meant great 
attention on the part of parents and pupils to 
punctuality. In a civilization which uses ma- 
chinery and accomplishes great results the 
habit of being on time is very important. Un- 
der Mr. Divoll the first program of the course 
of study was made out. By general inquiry 
throughout 'the schools it was found what the 
pupils in each grade could accomplish in a 
term of ten weeks of s'tudy. 

The act of the General Assembly permitting 
a city tax levied by the school board for one- 
tenth of one per cent in 1850 has already been 
mentioned. This continued in force until 
1864. The rapid increase of the city at this 
time showed the need of more considerable 
funds and Mr. Divoll's agitation of the ques- 
tion led first to action on the part of the school 
board, resulting .in a memorial to the Legisla- 
ture, who granted permission to raise the tax 
to two-tenths of one per cent in 1865, and in 

1867 it was raised to three-tenths. From 

1868 and after it was fixed at four-tenths of 
one per cent, where it has remained since. The 
revenue from the lands reached $64,905 per 
annum while the four mill tax reached $1,21 1,- 
298 for the year 1895. Besides this, the State 
school fund, including the interest on bonds 
owned by the State for schools, added to one- 
fourth of the State revenue, equaled the sum of 
$137,003, making a total from these three items 
of $1,413,206 for the year 1895. Under Air. 
Divoll's policy the board began as early as 
1864 to take special measures to draw into the 
public schools the German-speaking popula- 
tion. The German language taught by na- 
tive Germans was introduced into a few of the 
large schools situated in parts of the city where 
the German population was large. One les- 
son a day was given in the German language. 
It was the proclaimed policy to give the chil- 
dren of Germans a knowledge of English and 
the advantages of school association with An- 
glo-Americans, it being desirable that these 
two classes of the population should not grow 
up as two hostile castes, but, on the contrary, 
that they should grow up as fellow pupils and 
make a homogeneous population for St. Louis. 
It was assumed that German pupils should 

j not lose their command of their native tongue 
■ while thev learned English. The number of 



Germans taking advantage of this new ar- 
rangement in the schools increased rapidly and 
by the year 1869-70 there were 6,213 ( out °f 
the fratennalizing of the 'two classes, German 
and by 1878-9 the number had increased to 
20,428 out of a total of 48,836, and 5.005 of 
these pupils were Anglo-Americans. The 
study of German by Anglo-Americans was en- 
couraged with the view above stated, namely 
the fraternizing of the two classes, German 
ami Anglo-Americans. Perhaps no step has 
been taken in the schools of the nation of so 
great importance as this one of bringing to- 
gether the German-Americans with the Anglo- 
Americans in the same school. For the St. 
Louis plan was followed throughout the 
Northwestern States west of Indiana. The 
result has been a complete removal of barriers 
between German-American and Anglo-Ameri- 
can business men of these States. Affiliation 
bv marriage, too, has removed still further the 
national differences. That at a later date the 
study of German was abolished in the schools 
of St. Louis by a vote of 'the people sbows that 
a large number of German-Americans who 
had completely affiliated themselves with the 
Anglo-Americans had come to feel that there 
was no longer any need for the special study 
of German in the schools. A class of citizens 
migrating from a foreign country to America 
will be held to a higher standard of character 
'if it does not break off family ties with the 
stock left in the old country. If the German 
children keep up their German side by side 
with their English they will be likely to retain 
relations for at least two generations with the 
European stock. This will not prevent their 
becoming Americanized in the good sense of 
the word, hut it will add a certain strength of 
character to the German-American contingent 
of the population. This argument proved 
valid in St. Louis and in the other -cities in the 
Northwest following the St. Louis plan. In 
Cincinnati a different plan had been estab- 
lished. In a certain part of the city the schools 
were taught by German teachers using the 
German language for half the day. and by 
English teachers using the English lan- 
guage a second half of the day. This, 
as one would expect, prevented Anglo- 
Americans from attending the same school 
with the German pupils and therefore led to 
the settlement of Cincinnati in two parts, one 
part native American and the other pan Ger- 
man. The consequence of this isolation of 



2016 



SCHOOLS, PUBLIC. 



the two classes of citizens is felt to this day in 
Cincinnati, and to a still grea'ter degree in 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Divoll had recommended 
as early as 1850 the adoption of German in the 
schools, and four years "before, his predecessor, 
Mr. Tice, had strongly urged upon the board 
the same measure. St. Louis was a very com- 
posite city. According to the census of St. 
Louis County in 1870, 124,378 were foreign 
born, being mostly the older population, and 
2^j~<^j (being mostly children) had one or 
both parents of foreign birth, leaving only 98,- 
397 of native parentage. Of the foreign 'born 
65,936 were Germans, 34,803 Irish, 9,843 
British. 3.310 French, 3.265 Swiss, 2,733 Bo- 
hemians. 

Another one of Air. DivolFs plans touched 
the education of the colored people and the es- 
tabli-liment of colored schools for their accom- 
modation. There were three schools for col- 
ored people situated in the northern, middle 
and southern parts of the city, established in 
1866. This nunvher of schools has been in- 
creased sufficiently to supply the wants of the 
colored people. The Washington School, on 
Eleventh and Spruce Streets, was set apart for 
a colored high school, under the name of the 
Sumner High School, in the year 1875. 

A more important measure was the estab- 
lishment of the public school library. Mr. Di- 
voll began as early as i860 to advocate a gen- 
eral library as an auxiliary of the schools. He 
was accustomed to say that the schools teach 
how to read, the library should furnish what to 
read. In 1865 the "Public School Library So- 
ciety of St. Louis" was formed, and chartered 
by act of Legislature. By May, 1869, the li- 
brary had increased to upwards of twelve thou- 
sand volumes with an annual membership of 
thirty-five hundred. At this time by deed of 
agreement the library was transferred to the 
school board, and in May. 1874. the library had 
increased to 36,500, with an annual issue of 
books for home use of 96,682. In June of that 
year the library was opened for the first time 
as a free public library supported by the board 
of public schools. Although this library has 
since been separated from the control of the 
board of public schools and made a free public 
library for the city of St. Louis, yet its close 
connection with the schools has been retained. 
It is one of the noblest educational institutions 
in the city of St. Louis. 

In May, 1868. W. T. Harris became superin- 
tendent, remaining superintendent until May, 



1880, but there was no change in the general 
policy of the management of the schools. Mr. 
Harris had been elected assistant superintend- 
ent the year before at Mr. Divoll's request. 
In 1X71 a system of instruction in natural 
scien'oe was adopted, giving one lesson per 
week of sixty minutes to each class of pupils 
in the eighth grades of the elementary schools. 
The first year's course of study took up an 
outline of b itany. In the second year of the 
primary school there was a similar study of the 
outlines of zoology and physiology, and in the 
third year the elements of physical science or 
natural philosophy so far as to explain the 
child's playthings. The fourth year took up 
again the study of botany in a more systematic 
manner and with special reference to the differ- 
ent species of plants and their uses for food, 
clothing, medkine and the arts: the fifth year 
the classification of different animals and spe- 
cial subjects in physiology ; the sixth year na- 
tural philosophy again and astronomy. An- 
other course in natural science still more sys- 
tematic began in the seventh year, taking up 
geology and meteorology, and in the eighth 
year an outline of natural philosophy with spe- 
cial reference to the understanding of the con- 
struction of machinery. It will be observed 
that this formed a spiral course taking the chil- 
dren of the elementary school over the three 
great branches of natural science three times. 
In 1877 a similar course of lessons in history 
was adopted, taking up also one hour a week 
and arranged in a spiral form. 

In 1873-4 the first experiment was made in 
the adoption of the kindergarten into the pub- 
lic school system. Miss Susan E. Blow of- 
fered to take charge of the instruction of a 
teacher in the supervision and management of 
a kindergarten, provided the school board 
would furnish rooms and a salaried teacher. 
In the next year, 1874-5, there were three 
morning kindergartens and one afternoon kin- 
dergarten established, and from that time on 
the kindergartens rapidly increased until the 
year 1879 there were fifty-three in all, twetnty- 
seven of diem being held in the forenoon, and 
twenty-six in the afternoon, with a total enroll- 
ment of 6.202. This was the first successful 
experiment ever made of adopting the kinder- 
garten into a public school system. Miss 
Blow continued to give her services to the 
cause of the kindergarten and the success of 
the kindergarten system is due to her efforts. 
A large number of voun<r women came to her 






SCHOOLS, PUBLIC. 



2017 



training classes and learned the new method 
of teaching young children. From two to 
three hundred attended the weekly lessons 
held by Miss Blow, and it was stated by die 
superintendent that the 'benefit to these per- 
sons as a preparatory education for the family 
was worth the total sum expended by the 
school 'board in the support of the kindergar- 
ten. Many of the new kindergartens were es- 
tablished in those parts of the city in which the 
poorer people resided. 

The St. Louis public schools have been en- 
tirely secular in their instruction. Inasmuch 
as the schools were founded on a grant of the 
general government and destined for tlie bene- 
fit of all classes of citizens without distinction 
of religious belief, a resolution was offered by 
Rev. Dr. William G. Eliot at a mass meeting 
in 1838, before the opening of the first school, 
declaring it to be improper to introduce reli- 
gious exercises or reading of the sacred Scrip- 
tures in schools supported by public moneys 
set apart for the 'benefit of all classes of be- 
lievers. These resolutions were adopted with- 
out dissent. A policy begun by Mr. Divoll as 
superintendent and continued under his suc- 
cessors offers to ail 'parents, who desire it, per- 
mits to allow their children to be absent once 
or twice a week, for an hour or two on each 
occasion, to attend religious instruction in the 
church to which they belong. It was usual in 
the seventies to grant from two to three thou- 
sand permits of this kind to children, mostly 
of the Lutheran and the Catholic churches. 
The St. Louis schools have differed somewhat 
from the schools of other cities in the fact that 
great pains has been taken to prevent the evil 
effects ascribed to what is called the "lock 
step.'' This evil has led to the frequent com- 
plaint that "under the graded school system 
the work of the school roo-m becomes monot- 
onous and like a treadmill." It 9erves as a 
kind of Procrustean bed to hold back the tal- 
ented pupil and destroy his industrious habits, 
while it disheartens the dull pupil who finds 
himself not able to keep 'up with the average 
of the class. The effect of placing pupils of 
different degrees of advancement in the same 
class will be to unduly urge the backward ones 
while the pupils in advance of the average in 
the class will have too little work assigned 
them. When bright scholars are kept back 
for dull ones they acquire loose, careless habits 
of study. When the pupils of slower temper- 
ment are strained to keep pace with quick and 



bright ones they become discouraged and de- 
moralized. Even when pupils are well classi- 
fied at the beginning of the year, differences 
begin to develop from the first day and after 
two or three months of good instruction a 
large interval has developed between the ad- 
vancement of the slow ones and that of the 
bright ones. Besides difference in tempera- 
ment there is difference in regularity of attend- 
ance on account of sickness and family neces- 
sities ; these things affect the rate of progress. 
Moreover, the degree of maturity and amount 
of previous study develop differences. Classi- 
fication in a school is never absolute. No pu- 
pils are of exactly the same degree of progress. 
There are probably no two pupils alike in abil- 
ity to do the daily work of the class. From 
this it is evident that there should be frequent 
reclassification. There should be promotions 
of a few of the best pupils from below into the 
class above, and a few promotions from the 
best of that class to the next class beyond. 
After such promotion has been made through 
all or a portion of the classes of a school from 
the lowest, each class will find itself composed 
of fair, average and poor scholars, together 
with a few of the best from the next lower class 
in place of the few that each has lost by promo- 
tion. New hope will come to those pupils who 
were before the poorest in the class, and there 
will be new stimulus given to the best pupils, 
who have been promoted to a higher class, for 
they will have to work earnestly to attain and 
hold a good rank in the new class. But the 
quick and bright ones thus promoted will 
gradually work their way toward the top of 
the class again. The slow ones in the class 
may be passed by successive platoons of bright 
ones introduced into the class from below, but 
thev will pick up new courage on every occa- 
sion when they find themselves brought to the 
top of the class by the process of transferring 
the bright ones who had begun to lead them 
at too fast a pace. 

St. Louis early took the lead in advocating 
this reform of the graded school system, and 
its beneficial effects extended from the lowest 
primarv grade to the highest class in the high 
school. In the average elementary school the 
intervals between classes of the first and sec- 
ond year's work averaged eight to ten weeks, 
making possible the transfer of the bright pu- 
pils to the next class above without fording 
them to take too long steps. On the other 
hand the old-fashioned plan of having one ex- 



2018 



SCHOOLS, PUBLIC. 



animation for admission to the high school per 
annum was abolished and classes were ad- 
mitted two, three, and even four times a year 
arc. irding to the needs of the schools. As the 
number in the first year of the high school 
work nearly equaled the aggregate of pupils in 
the second, third and fourth years, the experi- 
ment was tried of forming branch high schools 
in different parts of the city in which could be 
bn iught together the eighth year pupils of the 
elementary school and the first year of the high 
school, thus rendering it unnecessary to send 
children from the age of thirteen to fifteen 
years a long distance to a central school. 

In the organization of the St. Louis schools 
tlu' wise policy was early adopted (1865) of 
placing the strongest teachers in charge of the 
youngest pupils just entering school. Pre- 
viously it had been the custom on promoting 
teachers from the ranks to higher positions to 
place them in charge of the advanced pupils 
only. In consequence of this reform the pu- 
pils just entering school came under the best 
influences and started on their career under the 
most favorable circumstances. It is easy to 
believe that the first three years work in the 
St. Louis primary schools was better than that 
given in any other city in the United States. 
This at least was the opinion of the superin- 
tendents of the largest cities of the West who 
visited St. Louis and inspected die work of 
the primary schools. 

Another circumstance aided to make the 
instruction in the primary grade more effi- 
cient. In [867 the school board introduced 
what is known as "Leigh's Phonetic Method in 
Teaching Reading" with an alphabet modified 
in such a way as to make each letter represent 
only one elementary sound, while the general 
appearance of the word was preserved, all silent 
letters being printed in hair lines. It was 
found that half a year's study of the phonetic 
system made the child a fluent reader not only 
in the modified type of the Leigh system, but 
also in the ordinary type of the primer. One 
of the most important agencies in the St. Louis 
public school system was brought in by the 
establishment o'f the city normal school in 
1857. The graduates of this school have am- 
ply proved the value of the training they have 
received by the fact that from their number 
have been selected the larger proportion of 
those teachers who are called to come up out 
of the lower ranks and take position in the 
higher and more important places, having 



shown tiuir compentency by doing efficient 
vvi >rk first in the lower grades. 

I append here a historical table from the 
year [857 to the year 1895 showing the total 
number enrolled in the schools and the aver- 
age number belonging for each year, and also 
a ;e md exhibit giving the names of the presi- 
dents of the board of public schools since its 
organization in 1833 : 





Whole .No 


Enrolled in Day Schools. 




Vears. 








Average No. 










Belonging. 




Boys 


Girls 


Total. 




1857 5s . . 


5.058 


4.7'i 


9.769 


5,814 


1858-59 . . 


5 1 ■ 


4.769 




■ 


1859 60 . 




5,409 


",342 


7.040 


1860-61 . . 


6,347 


5819 


12,166 




1861-62 . . 


2,909 


: 


5.787 


1 654 


1S62-63. . 


4.n6 


3.9*9 


8,105 


5.27-' 


1863 -.1 


6.139 


6.210 


12,340 


7.7'5 


iXr.4-65 . 


• 


6966 


13.9^6 


9.oqj 


1865-66 . 


7,256 


7.300 


14.566 


9-593 


1866-67 . . 




7.461 


15,291 


10,754 


,86; 


9.-'46 


9.214 


18,460 


12.2s: 


1568-69 


io,757 


10,429 


2 1 , 1 st, 


15,282 


1869-70 . . 


'2,175 


12.17-' 


24.347 


17.670 


1870-71 . . 


13,68s 


13.899 


27,587 


19.844 


1*71-72. • 


15.085 


15.209 


30.294 




1872-73. • 


16.895 


17.035 


33928 


23,002 


1873-74 • • 


l6,S25 


17.44 s 


34.273 


24.73I 


1874-75. • 


;.' a 


is, 249 


35,941 


26, is; 




16,825 


19.535 


38,390 


27 501 


■876-77. - 




21,707 


42.436 


29.774 


[877 7fc . . 


24.379 


25.199 


49.578 


35 7'o 


1878-79 . . 


.'4,' 5! 


24.781 


48,836 


35.86o 


1879-80 




2f>,i95 


51,241 


37.150 


1SS0 81 . . 


25.076 


26.505 


5l,58l 


:7.5s- 


1881-82 . . 


25,670 


27.380 


53.050 


38.9 6 


1882-83 . 


26.558 


28.402 


54,900 


39469 


1883-84 . . 


25.670 


27,457 


53.127 


39.170 


1S84-85 . . 


26.430 


27.561 


53,991 


40.186 


1885-86 . . 


26.737 


27,716 


54,453 


41,826 


i»6-87 . . 


z6.g ; 


28,387 


55.3'4 


41.816 


1887-88,. . 


27.684 


29,390 


57,074 


43.001 


1 888-89 ■ ■ 


27,696 


29.45" 


57.147 


44,000 


1889-90 . . 


2S.40Q 


29,907 


58.316 


44.983 


1S90-91 . . 


28,900 


30,793 


59.693 


45,770 


I«UI-Q2 . - 


50.263 


32,172 


62.435 


48,143 


1892-93 . . 


31,493 


55.676 


65.169 


49,451 


■&J3-94 • • 


5?. 7'" 


35.120 


68,839 


53.618 


1894-95 ■ • 


34.592 


56,056 


70,428 


55-272 



The following is a list of It'll e presidents of 
the board since its organization in 1833 : 

Alary P. Leduc, 1833-40; Joseph Tabor, 
1X40; Samuel Willis, 1841 ; V. M. Garesche, 
1842: Elijah Hayden, 1843; Thomas H. 
West. 1X44; Nathan Ranney, 1845; Ed- 
ward Bredell, 1846-7 ; John H. Tice, 
1X48; Wm.G. Eliot, 1849-50; Edward Wyman, 
1850; Charles L. Tucker, 1851-2-3; Isaiah 
Forbes, 1854-5; Carlos S. Greeley, 1856; W. 
W. I ireene, 1857; EdWard Wyman, 1858; S. 
11. Bailey, 1859; Edward Wyman, 1860-1; 
Robert Holmes, 1862-3; S. D. Barlow, 1864 
and 1867: Felix Coste, 1865. 1868-72. 1874; 
James Richardson. 1866; Joshua Cheever, 
1873; Thomas Richeson, 1875-6-7-8; Eber 
Peacock. May to November, 1877; Robert J. 
Hill. 1X7(1; Frederick X. Judson. 1880-81, 
[887 X; Henry E. Harrington. 1882-3; Henry 




^ 



yfrrTJ fT^/o^^U*"^ 



SCHOTTEN. 



2019 



Hickman, 1884-6; Charles F. Miller, 1889-90; 
Richard Bartholdt, 1891 ; Gist Blair, 1892; 
Frederick W. Brockman, 1893-5 ; Paul F - 
Coste, 1895-7; Edward C. Eliot, 1897-9. 

William T. Harris. 

Schotten, William, merchant and man- 
ufacturer, was born September 26, 1819, in 
the town of Neuess, near Duesseldorf, Ger- 
many. His father was a man of limited means, 
and he soon learned, in boyhood, the lessons 
of industry and economy, which contributed 
so much to his success in later years. After 
receiving a parochial school education he was 
employed by a physician of large practice, who 
lived in the neighborhood of his father's home, 
and his training under the guidance of this 
admirable gentleman further fitted him for a 
useful and honorable career. In 1847 he came 
to the United States, and was attracted to St. 
Louis by knowledge of the fact that a con- 
siderable number of his countrymen had at 
that time found homes in this city. Soon 
after his arrival here he established a small 
spice factory, on Walnut Street, opposite the 
Cathedral, and began business by grinding his 
stock himself on a hand-mill, and then acting 
as his own salesman in disposing of his prod- 
ucts in the city. He had to overcome many 
obstacles, which would have discouraged a 
less determined man, but he labored with re- 
markable vigor and perseverance and planned 
with the sagacity of the born merchant. As 
a result the products of his little factory soon 
obtained celebrity, not only in St. Louis, but 
in Chicago, Cincinnati and other large cities 
j of the West. As his trade expanded his fa- 
| cilities for manufacturing were increased, and 
' at his death he had built up a business aggre- 
i gating about two hundred thousand dollars 
< annually, which was a large trade for those 
i days. He had also laid the foundation of a 
> permanent commercial institution, and under 
i the management of his sons. Hubertus and 
i Julius J., it has since largely expanded its 
I trade, and has come to be known as one of the 
j most famous houses of its kind in the United 
! States. In 1897 this house celebrated the 
I fiftieth anniversary of its founding, the busi- 
; ness still being carried on under the name of 
i William Schotten & Co. On that occasion a 
I most interesting souvenir was published and 
presented to the public, in which a historical 
I sketch of the house was given with numerous 
1 handsome illustrations, showing the present 



methods of conducting the vast business 
which has been developed from the primitive 
plant established by -Mr. Schotten. In addi- 
tion to this enterprise Mr. Schotten engaged 
in the milling business on North Alarket 
Street, opposite the old Missouri Railroad de- 
pot. For some years he was prominently 
identified with this interest in St. Louis, but 
the venture did not prove entirely satisfactory, 
and in the later years of his life he confined 
himself entirely to the operation of his spice 
mill. Air. Schotten was twice married, and 
left three sons, Hubertus, born of his first 
marriage, and Julius J. and Henry E., born 
of his second marriage. Hubertus succeeded 
his father in the management of the business, 
and he, at his death, was succeeded by Julius 
J. Schotten, both worthy sons of a worthy 
father. In 1870, four years before his death, 
which occurred in 1874, Mr. Schotten visited 
Europe, and remained there a year, revisiting 
at the same time the scenes of his early life, 
and adding to his knowledge of the business in 
which he was engaged. At one time he was 
a director in the Iron Mountain Bank, of this 
city, but with this exception he held no offi- 
cial position, having no taste for prominence 
in public affairs. In politics he was an inde- 
pendent, and his religious affiliations were 
with the Catholic Church, of which he was a 
faithful and generous member. 

Schopp, John, was born September 28. 
1844, in Germany, and died in St. Louis, July 
30, 1896. His parents were Henry and Cath- 
arine (Weismann) Schopp. who immigrated 
to this country in 1869, and both of whom 
died in St. Louis. After obtaining a practical 
education in the German schools John Schopp 
was employed in a flouring mill, operated by 
one of Ids uncles, in a German town, until 
i860. He then came to this country, and to 
St. Louis, to which city he was attracted by 
reason of the fact that his uncle. Jacob Schopp, 
had established his home here. For a time 
after his arrival in St. Louis he worked on a 
farm near the city, and later began working 
for his uncle, who was engaged in a small way 
in the produce and commission business on 
Broadway. In 1862, having some means at 
his command, he himself established a com- 
mission business, with his brother as a part- 
ner, under the firm name of Jacob Schopp & 
Bro. Together they purchased a lot at the 
corner of Third and Morgan Streets, on which 



202H 



SCHOTTFX. 



they built a store, and at that location they car- 
ried on a profitable business for a quarter of a 
century thereafter. In 1893 Mr. Schopp re- 
tired from active participation in the grain 
business, lie having by that time accumulated 
a comfortable fortune, and feeling that there- 
was no reason why he should not enjoy, dur- 
ing the remainder of his life, the fruits of his 
well directed efforts, undisturbed by business 
cares and responsibilities. He was exceed- 
inglv fond of travel, and in 1885, 1888 and 
1893 made trips abroad, on the last of which 
he was accompanied by his wife. 

Scudder, John A., long one of the 
leading representatives of the river transporta- 
tion interests of St. Loiiis, was born at Mays- 
ville, Mason County, Kentucky. June 12, 1830, 
son of Dr. Charles and Mary H. Scudder, the 
first named a native of New Jersey, and the 
last named of Virginia. At an early age he 
came to St. Louis and became identified with 
steamboat interests. He was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Memphis & St. Louis Packet 
Company, and became president of that com- 
pany in 1870. Addressing himself to the task 
of consolidating and harmonizing the steam- 
boat interests on the lower Mississippi, he suc- 
ceeded in greatly expanding the operations of 
the corporation of which he had become the 
head. The Memphis Packet Company pur- 
chased the line of steamers running to Yicks- 
burg in 1869. and in 1874 adopted the trade- 
mark which caused it to become known as the 
Anchor Line. Captain Scudder introduced 
on Western steamboats the restaurant plan of 
catering t" passengers, and also inaugurated 
various other improvements, calculated to 
promote the comfort and convenience of pa- 
trons of these boats. In 1871) the charter of 
the Memphis & St. Louis Packet Company 
expired, and the corporation was reorganized 
as the St. Louis & Vicksburg Anchor Line. 
Captain Scudder became president and chief 
executive officer of this line, and retained that 
position for many years. In 1877 lie was 
elected president of the Merchants' Exchange 
of St. Louis, and he has held various official 
positions in connection with corporate bodies 
He married, in [852, Miss Mary A. White. 

Shepley, John Rutledge, lawyer, was 

born in the city of Saco, Maine, pine I ;. 1817. 
and died in St. Louis, < Ictober 1 1. 1884. 1 1 is 
parents were Ether and Anne (Foster) Shep- 



ley, and his paternal ancestors were among 
the early settlers at Groton, Connecticut. 
- 1 ral of these ancestors held local offices at 
< Iroton, and Joseph Shepley was a member of 
the Connecticut State Convention of 1788. 
The grandfather of John R. Shepley was a 
Revolutionary soldier. The Maine branch of 
the family achieved special distinction at ihe 
bar and in public life. Ether Shepley, the 
father of John P., was a member of the con- 
vention which framed the Constitution of 
Maine in lN_>o. represented that State in the 
LJnited States Senate at a later date, and still 
later was chief justice of Maine. ( hie of his 
sons, George F. Shepley, achieved distinction 
as a Pinion general in the Civil War. and later 
was a United States circuit judge in Maine. 
Inheriting a large share of intellectual vigor, 
and a peculiar fitness for the law. John R. 
Shepley enjoyed fortune's favor in earlv life, 
and was graduated from Bowdoin College 
with class honors in 1837. Immediately after- 
ward he entered Harvard Law School, and 
was graduated from that institution in the 
class of 1839. Two years later he determined 
to seek a Western field in which to engage in 
the practice of his profession, and in 1841 
came to St. Louis, bearing a warmly com-; 
mendatory letter of introduction from the re- 
nowned Justice Joseph Story, who was then 
dean of the Harvard Paw School. This letter 
was written to P. D. Tiffany, also a graduate 
of Harvard, who had established himself in 
practice in this city, and Mr. Shepley was in- 
vited to enter the office of Spalding & Tiffany 
to Familiarize himself with Missouri methods 
of practice. Later he became a partner in the 
firm, which was succeeded later by the firm of 
Glover & Shepley, a law firm which occupied 
a place in the front rank of Western law firms 
for many years. 

Sale, Moses Nathaniel, lawyer, was 
born < tctobcr 17. 1857, in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, son of Isaac and Henrietta Sale. His 
parents, who were natives of Germany, im- 
migrated to this country shortly before their 
marriage, and settled in Kentucky, where they 
reared a family of six sons and six daughters, 
all born in the United States. Moses N. Sale 
was reared in Louisville, and, after fitting 
himself for college in the public schools of 
that city, entered the University of Louisville, 
where he completed a classical course of 
studv. Me then read law under the precep- 



SCHOTTEN. 



2021 



torship of Honorable James Speed, who was 
Attorney-General in Lincoln's cabinet, spend- 
ing four years in Mr. Speed's office. In the 
meantime he attended the regular course of 
lectures at the Law Department of the Uni- 
versity of Louisville, and received the degree 
of bachelor of laws from that institution in 
1870. He began the practice of law in Louis- 
ville, but left that city to come to St. Louis in 
1881, and has since been a member of the bar 
of the city, at which he has gained well merited 
distinction. 

ScllOtten, HubertllS, merchant and 
manufacturer, was born May 28, 1855. in St. 
Louis, and died here September 22, 1898. He 
was the eldest son of William Schotten, a na- 
tive of Germany, who came to St. Louis in 
the earlv "forties," and established himself in 
business, in a small way, as a dealer in spices. 
His mother having died in his childhood, the 
son was reared and educated under the care 
and guidance of his father, who sent him, after 
he had received the usual course of instruction 
in preparatory schools, to a college conducted 
by the Franciscan Brothers, near Effingham, 
Illinois. There he pursued a four-years' 
course of study, and then, returning to St. 
Louis, began assisting his father in his busi- 
ness, evincing from the start a remarkable 
aptitude for commercial pursuits. The elder 
Schotten was a strict and exacting man, and 
had good, old-fashioned German notions 
about the value to a young man of thorough 
industrial training. It followed, therefore, as 
a natural consequence, that he impressed his 
views upon his son, and that the young man 
had an opportunity to become thoroughly 
familiar with good, honest, hard work. When 
he was eighteen years old his father died, leav- 
ing a business which had grown from modest 
beginnings to very considerable proportions. 
It devolved upon Hubertus Schotten, young 
as he was, to assume the management of this 
business, and under his direction it progressed 
steadily from the start. He soon demon- 
strated that he was a born merchant, and, in 
addition to having the commercial instinct 
largely developed, he had the energy and in- 
domitable will power which recognizes no ob- 
stacles which may not be overcome. Five 
years after he took charge of the business he 
was given an interest in it, and two years later 
the interest of his father's estate was with- 
; drawn, leaving; him and a voung;er brother sole 



owners and proprietors of the establishment. 
From this time on the enterprise and activity 
of Mr. Hubertus Schotten expanded the busi- 
ness rapidly, until it took rank among the 
great spice houses of the country. Not only 
did Mr. Schotten build up an important com- 
mercial establishment in the sense that it is 
one which transacts annually a large volume 
of business, but in the sense also that it is one 
which enjoys an enviable reputation for in- 
tegrity and fair dealing. It celebrated some 
time before Mr. Schotten's death the fiftieth 
anniversary of its founding, and it is of interest 
to note the fact in this connection that the 
elder Schotten was at the head of the business 
for twenty-five years, and that the son was 
president of the corporation which succeeded 
the original firm for the same length of time. 
Hubertus Schotten grew up in this house, 
worked his way to its head by the force of his 
energy and ability, and at the time of his 
death was a recognized leader among the 
younger merchants of St. Louis. He took a 
good citizen's interest in politics and public 
affairs, and at times rendered valuable services 
to the Republican party, with which he affili- 
ated. A Catholic churchman, he gave liber- 
ally to the church and its institutions, and also 
to various other charitable and benevolent en- 
terprises. In 1880 he married Miss Addie 
Helming, daughter of B. H. Helming, an old 
■resident of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and the 
union proved in all respects a happy one. The 
surviving members of his family are Airs. 
Schotten arid three children, Mary Beatrice, 
Marcellus J., and Hubertus A. Schotten. 

Souther, Warren Abbot, merchant, 
was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, October 
1, 1837. and died in St. Louis, where he had 
been actively engaged in business for a quarter 
of a century, July 20, 1887. He belonged to 
an old New England family, the earliest rep- 
resentative of which in America was Nathaniel 
Souther, first secretary of Plymouth colon \ 
The progenitors of the family numerously rep- 
resented in New England at a later date were 
Joseph and Elizabeth Souther, who settled at 
Boston '-n 1657. The parents of Warren A. 
Souther were Timothy and Eliza P. (Green- 
ough) Souther, natives of Massachusetts, who 
removed to Alton. Illinois, in 1X42. when he 
was five years old. He was reared at Alton 
and educated in the schools of that city, and 
at Shurtleff College, in Upper Alton. After 



2022 



SCHOTTEN. 



completing his education he entered the em- 
ploy of the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 
Company.and was stationed at Hannibal, Mis- 
souri, in the service of that corporation, when 
the Civil War began. The prospect that Mis- 
souri would become a battleground in the im- 
pending struggle caused the Unionists of the 
State to make early preparations to do battle 
with the enemies of the Union, and Mr. 
Souther, whose antecedents, training and edu- 
cation made him intense!} loyal to the general 
government, was among the volunteers en- 
rolled in the Hannibal battalion. lie served 
two years in the Union Army, and then came 
tn St. Louis, where he embarked in business 
with his brother, E. E. Souther, as an iron 
merchant. Together they established a busi- 
ness which prospered under careful and intel- 
ligent management, and the present E. E. 
Souther Iron Company, one of the oldest and 
mosl widely known houses dealing in iron in 
St. Louis, is successor to the original house 
of E. E. Souther & Bro. Warren A. Souther 
contributed largely to the upbuilding of this 
eminently successful commercial house. lie- 
was an active, earnest, energetic man, of 
admirable business qualifications, and his 
methods were such that he not only gained 
patronage with east-, but having gained, re- 
tain! d it. as he retained the friendship of those 
with whom he came into contact in the ordi- 
nary affairs of life. His perceptions were keen. 
his knowledge of the underlying principles of 
trade broad, and his observance of the ethics 
of trade of the strictest sort. He pushed his 
business vigorously, but his methods were al- 
ways those of an honorable merchant, and 
anything other than fair dealing was entirely 
foreign to his nature. A man of broad ca- 
pacity and methodical habits, he dispatched 
business rapidly, and was able to give atten- 
tion to various enterprises other than the one 
with which he was most prominently identi- 
fied. He was largely interested in the Mis- 
souri Bolt & Nut Company, and at the time 
i f his death was president of that corpora ion. 

Schott, Augustus H., physician, was 

born January jo. 1850. in the city of Hanover, 
Germany, son of George and Marie (Rabe) 
Schott. His father, who was a prosperous 
carriage manufacturer in Hanover, left < ier- 
man) in [851 to come to America, landing 
first at Quebec, Canada. From there he came 
after a time to Muscatine. Iowa, and thence 



to St. Louis, arriving here about the year 1854. 
In 1 86 1 the family removed to Alton, Illinois, 
and there the father was engaged in the busi- 
ness of carriage making for many years there- 
after. Dr. Schott obtained his early educa- 
tion in the public schools of Alton, and com- 
pleted his academic studies at Shurtleff Col- 
lege, of I'pper Alton. He began the study of 
medicine in 1870 under the preceptorship of 
Dr. Perry E. Johnson, of Alton, and after- 
ward attended regular courses of lectures at 
the Homeopathic Medical College, of Mis- 
souri, during the years 1871 to 1873. He re- 
ceived his doctor's degree from that institu- 
tion in 1873. and immediately afterward be- 
gan practicing his profession in the city of 
Alton, taking charge of the business of his 
former preceptor, Dr. Johnson. He was in 
successful practice in that city until 1881, 
when he sought a larger and more lucrative 
field cf practice, and one to which he was ad- 
mirably adapted by nature, educational attain- 
ments and experience, in St. Louis. Here he 
impressed himself upon his professional 
brethren, and that portion of the public with 
which he was brought into contact as a skill- 
ful and accomplished physician, and soon 
built up a large practice. He also identified 
himself with educational work, and was made 
a member of the board of trustees of the 
Homeopathic Medical College, of Missouri, 
and in 1883 was elected to the professorship 
of paedology in that institution. He filled 
this chair until 1889. gaining such distinction 
as an educator and lecturer that he was then 
assigned to the chair of theory and practice in 
the same institution, a position which he still 
retains, and which he has filled with signal 
ability. 

Schotten, Julius .John, merchant and 
manufacturer, was born June 9, 1858. in St. 
Louis, son of William Schotten, who founded 
the business to which the son has succeeded, 
and which he is so successfully conducting at 
tin present time. After attending St. Mary's 
School and St. Louis University until he was 
fifteen years of age he entered the employ of 
the Iron Mountain Bank, of this city, as book- 
keeper, his purpose being to gain through this 
connection a practical knowledge of banking 
and financial affairs. After serving the bank 
faithfully and efficiently two years he left it 
soon alter his father's death to become con- 
nected with the manufacturing and conuner- 



SCHRAUBSTADTKR. 



202 



cial house which the elder Schotten had es 
tablished and built up. I lis elder brother, 
Hubertus Schotten, having assumed the man- 
agement of the business, they were associated 
together until Hubertus Schotten's death, 
each supplementing the efforts of the other in 
such a way as to bring about the best results 
in the expansion of their trade and the devel- 
opment of their commercial enterprise. In 
the fall of 1897 the active management of the 
business devolved upon Julius J. Schotten, 
and since the death of his brother he has been 
sole proprietor of the firm which bears the 
name William Schotten & Co. Established in 
1847, this house is now famous for the high 
quality of its products, and as importers and 
wholesale dealers in teas, coffees and spices 
the firm is well known to the trade, both do- 
mestic and foreign, and where known is thor- 
oughly appreciated for its admirable business 
methods and the high character and integ- 
rity of those having its interests in charge. A 
typical Western man of affairs, active, ener- 
getic and resourceful, Julius J. Schotten has 
contributed largely to the upbuilding of this 
establishment, and although still a young 
man, he has made an enviable reputation in 
the business world. He has been frequently 
importuned to accept official responsibilities 
in connection with banks and other corpora- 
tions of the city, but feeling that his commer- 
cial interests demanded his entire time and at- 
tention, he has declined. His religious affilia- 
tions are with the Catholic Church, and dur- 
ing the year 1896-7 he was president of the 
Marquette Club, then one of the noted social 
clubs of St. Louis, composed of members of 
the Catholic Church. November 15, 1881, 
Mr. Schotten married Pauline C. Feldman, 
daughter of John A. Feldman, a prominent 
south-side merchant of St. Louis, who at one 
time served as city treasurer. Their children 
are Jerome J., and Zoe Louise Schotten. 

i Schraubstatlter, Carl G., one of the 

imost noted of American typefounders, was 
jborn May 19, 1827. in the city of Dresden. 
Germany, son of Carl G. and Henrietta (Witt- 
shaber) Schraubstadter. After completing 
!his education at the school of Rath und That, 
iat Dresden, he was apprenticed to Meinhold 
!& Sons, royal printers and publishers, who 
conducted a large printing and publishing es- 
tablishment in his native city, and who also 
'manufactured their own tvpe. He served a 



six-years' apprenticeship \\11I1 this linn, unk- 
ing during that time an immense quantit) <>i 
type with molds and ladle by the old-time hand 
process, casting machines not being in use at 
that time. Quitting the •establishment of 
Meinhold & Sons in 1S47 he afterward 
worked as a journeyman printer and type- 
maker at Buda-Pest, in Hungary; Prague 
and Linz, in Austria; Munich, in Bavaria, and 
Frankfort-on-the-Main. At the end of this 
varied and interesting series of experiences in 
Germany he went to England, and after re- 
maining there a short time came, in 1854. to 
the United States. He came to this country 
to -ratify his fondness for travel, rather than 
with the intention of remaining here, but was 
so impressed with the advantages and oppor- 
tunities which it offered to young men that 
he decided to make it his home, and entered 
the employ of James Connors" Sons, then 
famous as American typefounders. After 
working in this establishment for a short time 
he accented a position in the Boston Type 
Foundry, with which he continued to lie con- 
nected as an employe and part owner for 
twenty years thereafter. His steady habits 
and industry, coupled with superior mechan- 
ical skill, made him a valuable employe, and 
enabled him also to lay aside each year a con- 
siderable amount of money saved from his 
earnings. With these savings he purchased. 
in. 1865. an interest in the type foundn . taking 
charge at the same time of its mechanical de- 
partment. He was part owner of this estab- 
lishment in 1872, when the great tire of that 
year destroyed its building and much of its 
material, the foundry's valuable machines and 
matrices being saved only through his vigor- 
ous efforts and the efforts of employes whom 
he called to his assistance. He aided in re- 
establishing this type foundry during the two 
years following, and severed his connection 
with it in 1874 to come west. Coming to St. 
Louis in that year, he formed an association 
with James A. St. John, and established in 
this city the Central Type Foundry, operated 
thereafter by a corporation, of which Mr. 
Schraubstadter became president, Mr. St. 
John acting as secretary and business man- 
ager. Taking charge of the mechanical de 
partment of this establishment. Mr. Schraub- 
stadter made it famous for the excellence of 
the tvpe which it manufactured, and the busi- 
ness proved remarkably successful in a pecu- 
niary way. In April of 1888 Messrs. Schraub- 



2024 



SCHRAY— SCHREIBER. 



stadter and St. John purchased a controlling 
interest in the Boston Type Foundry, and 
thereafter, until [892, they operated large type 
foundries in both Boston and St. Louis. In 
[892 they sold both the Central and Boston 
I \|i, Foundries to the American Type Foun- 
dry Company, and both retired from busi- 
ness with well earned fortunes. During the 
eighteen years in which Mr. Schraubstadter 
had charge of the practical department of the 
Central Type Foundry, the type-making art 
made its greatest development in America, 
and many changes and improvements in the 
pn cesses of type-making were due to his in- 
genuity. He aided in perfecting the manufac- 
ture of raised type used in printing for the 
blind, and certain kinds of type used in ori- 
ental countries were also made under his 
supervision. The Central Foundry was one 
of the leading establishments of its kind west 
of the Mississippi River, and it was at all 
times during its existence an important factor 
in the type-making trade. Personally and as 
a citizen of St. Louis Mr. Schraubstadter was 
a man of large influence and great popularity. 
He was an excellent singer, and in his younger 
days appeared in private and charitable enter- 
tainments both in Boston and St. Louis, and 
held membership in the Orpheus Society, of 
Boston, and the Liederkranz Society, of St. 
Louis. In many ways he contributed to the 
advancement of musical culture in St. Louis. 
and his death — which occurred November 
12. 1897 — robbed the city of one who was a 
cultivated and accomplished gentleman, as 
well as a sagacious business man, and one who 
contributed thousands of dollars to charities, 
educational institutions, and reformatory 
movements: who aided many young' men to 
establish themselves in life, and whose good 
deeds and kindly acts caused him to be uni- 
versally beloved. lie married, in i860, Miss 
Augusta Stern, of Cassel. Germany, and Mrs. 
Schraubstadter and nine children born of this 
union survive their father. The sons are 
Carl William, William V, Oswald, Richard, 
George and Ernest Schraubstadter. of whom 
Carl William, Oswald and William A. are still 
identified with the type manufacturing busi- 
ness as proprietors of the Inland Type Foun- 
dry, of this city. William A. Schraubstadter. 
the second son, has achieved distinction in 
connection with the art of type-making, and is 
a recognized authority on everything pertain- 
ing to it. The daughters of Mr. and Mrs. 



Schraubstadter are now Mrs. Ida Sohm, 01 
Dresden, < lermany ; Mrs. Emma Goerts, of St. 
Louis, and Mrs. Allie J lacker, of Houston, 
Texas. 

Schray, William, was born March 7, 
1834, in WiKTitcmberg, Germany, son of 
Conrad and Christina Schray. After com- 
pleting a good education he served an ap- 
prenticeship to the business of floriculture and 
landscape gardening with a famous florist of 
Stuttgart, Germany. After that he was cm- 
ployed in the city of Munich and other parts 
of Bavaria until 1852, when he came to St. 
Louis. He was variously employed in this 
city until 1855, when he became a landscape 
gardener and florist for the late Henry Shaw, 
founder of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, for 
whom he worked twt> years. In 1857 he es- 
tablished himself in business as a florist and 
nurseryman at the corner o'f Pennsylvania and 
Gasconade Avenues, at which place he has 
since built up a large and prosperous business. 
In [898 he had been forty-one years at the 
same location, engaged in the cultivation of 
tree< and flowers, and carrying on both a 
wh I'lesale and retail business. He is 1111m- 
bered now among the pioneer German- Ameri- 
can residents of die city, is widely known 
among his fellow-countrymen in St. Louis and 
justly esteemed by all classes of people. He 
served during one year as a park commission- 
er and has aided in 'beautifying the public 
pleasure-grounds of the city, as well as in the 
ornamentation of private grounds and the 
stocking of private conservatories. May 12, 
1857. lie married Miss Pauline M. Weber, 
daughter of Frederick Weber, one of the Ger- 
man pioneers of St. Louis, who died in 1859, 
leaving some valuable realty which Mr. 
Schray purchased and subdivided into eight- 
een city lots a year later. Mr. and Mrs. 
Schray have two sons, Enid and Julius F. 
Schray, both of whom are associated with their 
father in business. 

Schreiber, William, manufacturer, 
was horn December 18, 1843,111 Meiningen, 
1 lermany, sou of Professor Carl and Agnes 
Schreiber. His father, who was a German 
educator of prominence, was for many years 
at the head of a private school for boys, and at 
this institution William Schreiber was edu- 
cated. Being inclined to the occupation of 
tradesman, he left home in his youth and went 



SCHUYLER. 



2025 



to the city of Munich, where he learned the 
brewer's trade. Coming then to the United 
States and establishing his home at Belleville, 
Illinois, he worked in a brewery there until 
January of 1864, when he enlisted as a private 
soldier in the Seventh Illinois Cavalry Regi- 
ment, with which he served as a Union sol- 
dier until discharged at -tihe close of the war in 
1865. As a soldier he made a creditable rec- 
ord and had gained promotion to a sergeaney 
when he was finally mustered out:. After the 
War he came to St. Louis and entered the em- 
ploy of Tobias Spengler, who was then die 
owner and operator of what was known as the 
Bremen Brewery. Close application to his 
work and business capacity which made him 
invaluable to 'his employer soon gained for him 
promotion to a managerial position, and later 
he became a partner in the brewery. Grad- 
ually its entire management drifted into his 
hands and when this brewery was sold by its 
owners to the English syndicate which ac- 
quired so many valuable properties of this 
character in St. Louis some years since, he be- 
came a director o'f the new corporation known 
as the St. Louis Brewing Association, contin- 
uing to act as manager of the Bremen Brewery 
until his death, which occurred March 1, 1895. 
As a result of his business operations, he ac- 
quired a comfortable fortune and became 
known to the St. Louis public as a capable 
and enterprising man of affairs, a thoroughly 
■good citizen, and a kind-hearted, genial gen- 
tleman. He served for a number of years as 
a director of one of the orphans' homes of the 
city and contributed to various public chari- 
ties, but delighted most in seeking out and 
helping those who needed help, performing 
these labors of love so quietly that even mem- 
bers of his own family did not know of cases 
pf distress which he had relieved and lives 
;«vhich he had brightened until told of it after 
liis death. He was a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic and the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen, and belonged also to 
numerous societies, in all of which he was de- 
servedly popular. May 24, 1876. he married 
■diss Kate Spengler, daughter of his old em- 
ployer, friend and business partner, Tobias 
Epengler. The children born to them were : 
Clotilde, William, Tobias and Irma Schreiber. 

Sclmyler,3Ioiitgoiiiery,dean of Christ 
'hurch Cathedral, St. Louis, was born in Xew 
; ork City, on January 9, 1814. He was the 



sixth in descent from Philip Pieterse Van 
Schuyler, who had emigrated from Holland 
about 1645 an 'd settled near Albany. 

General Philip Schuyler the well known 
Revolutionary hero, was a cousin of his grand- 
father, and his grandmother, Hester Dey, was 
a personal friend of Washington, who fre- 
quently visited the hospitable mansion of her 
father. His own father, Anthony Dey Schuy- 
ler, was a prosperous wholesale merchant and 
importer in our metropolis, until the War of 
1812, and the consequent financial depression 
made him a bankrupt. Having paid his cred- 
itors in full, he, with the remainder of his for- 
tune, purchased land near Ovid, on the shores 
of Seneca Lake, Xew York, which he farmed 
successfully till his death, in 183 1. 

Montgomery Schuyler, the second of a fam- 
ily of twelve children, grew up on the farm, 
and after a thorough preparation at the Ovid 
Academy entered Hobar't College, Geneva, 
Xew York, at the age of 16. He. however, 
did not finish his education at this institution, 
but graduated in the class of 1834 at Union 
College, Schenectady. For a short time he 
taught school at Ovid while studying law. and, 
in the same year took a trip through the West. 
Like many young men of this time he intended 
to make a place for himself in the new lands 
which were then being rapidly opened up by 
the tide of emigration. Chance led him to the 
little village of Marshall, Michigan, which was 
then at the height of the feverish "boom" 
which swept over the Great West, prior to the 
panic of 1837. Here he turned his hand to al- 
most everything in the way of making money. 
He was a speculator in real estate, ran a saw 
mill, was part proprietor of the stage line be- 
tween Detroit and tine rising village of Chica- 
go, a director in the local bank and even prac- 
ticed law in the justice courts. He was neve, 
admitted to the bar, because in his very first 
case having secured the acquittal of a man 
whom he knew to lie guilty the matter so 
preyed on his conscience that he gave up all 
hope of forensic distinction. In 1836 he made 
a trip still farther west by way of Chica . 
St. Louis, but judging that the chances for the 
growth of these two places were not so flat- 
tering as those of little Marshall, he returned 
to that place, where, after his marriage with 
Sarah Sandford, of Ovid, Xew York, he 
lished the first hardware store in Calhoun 
Count v. Two daughters and a son were born 
to him. all of whom died in infancv. But, 



2026 



SCHUYLER. 



though successful in business and one of the 
leading merchants of this little town, he was 
not contented. Ever since his graduation he 
had been haunted by 'the feeling that his voca- 
tion was the ministry, and in the midst of his 
multifarious enterprises he had been the lead- 
ing spirit in the organization an'd erection of 
an Episcopal church, in which he often offi- 
ciated as lay reader. His success in this work 
finally determined him to enter the ministry, 
and after the proper preparations in theology 
he was ordained deacon May 17. 1841. His 
first parish was Trinity Church, Marshall, 
which he had done so much to establish. His 
wife died the same year, but his bereavement 
only seemed to stimulate his energy in his di- 
vine calling, lie was ordained priest Febru- 
ary H). 1842, and so successful were his labors 
that the church had to be enlarged to hold the 
growing congregation. His popularity spread 
over the surrounding country, and he re- 
ceived calls .from all the towns of any conse- 
quence in that section of Michigan. In 1843 
lie organized the parish of St. Thomas, Battle 
Creek, thirteen miles from Marshall, officiating 
at both places. The same year he married 
Lvdia Eliza Roosevelt, of Skaneateles, New 
York. There were three children Of this mar- 
riage. Montgomery Roosevelt, Frank, who 
died in infancy, and Louis Sandfcvrd. who be- 
came a clergyman and died in Memphis in 
1878, having gone there to minister to the vic- 
tims of the yellow fever. In 1844 he accepted 
a call to Grace Church, Lyons, New York, and 
after serving there a little over a year he un- 
dertook the charge of St. John's parish. Buf- 
falo, just organized. For ten years he labored 
with great success in this field, building what 
was then the largest church in Western New 
York, and filling it with a devoted congrega- 
tion. Here his second wife died in 1852. In 
7854 he accepted a call to Christ Church. St. 
Louis, which then occupied the southwest cor- 
ner of Broadway (Fifth Street) and Chestnut 
Street. Shortly before he left Buffalo he mar- 
ried Sophie Elizabeth Norton, of that city. 
Eight children were born of this marriage, all 
of'whoni survive him. William, Eleanor. Wal- 
ter, Philip (an Episcopal clergyman), Mary, 
Gertrude, Eugene and Sophie. The cangre 
gation of Christ Church, before his arrival, had 
been falling off for several years owing to va- 
rious causes; but here, also, bis labors were so 
successful that in a little over a year the church 
was filled to overflowing, and many desirous 



of obtaining seats could not be accommodated. 
He therefore turned his attention to the project 
of building a new church, which was to be the 
largest in the city and a noble monument to 
t'ne glory of his Divine Master. The lot where 
the church now stands on Thirteenth and Lo- 
cust, facing what was then Missouri Park, was 
purchased and the foundations begun in 1851). 
In i860 the old church was sold and taken 
down and the congregation then held services 
in the old Mercantile Library Hall, expecting 
soon to move into the new edifice. But the 
oncoming and outbreak of our Civil War so 
paralyzed business in our State, then the cen- 
ter of the earliest conflicts of the struggle, that 
it was found impossible to raise money for thfj 
continuation of the work, which was sorrow- 
fully abandoned in 1861, and the congrega- 
tion worshiped for over a year in St. Paul's 
Church building on the southwest corner of 
Seventeenth and Olive Streets. Dr. Schuyler' 
was a Northern man, with strong Union senti- 
ments, and as many of his congregation were 
Southern sympathizers, it seemed for awhile, 
in the midst of the bitterness aroused by the 
strife of that year in and about our city, that 
he would be forced to leave his charge. But 
when he spoke of resigning it was urged on all 
sides that the life of the parish depended on 
his continuing with it, and so. though the re- 
cipient of two calls to churches in Western 
.Yew York, he decided to remain and finish the 
work he had begun. It had always been his 
principle never to preach political sermons in 
his pulpit, and so, though he never concealed 
his opinions, his parishioners soon saw that as 
the "messenger of Cod" he was no respecter 
of persons. Northern and Southern, rich and 
poor, slave and free, reputable and criminal all 
received the same boundless sympathy, the 
same religious comfort and aid. In the mili- 
tary hospitals he gave his services to (Jrtiol 
and Confederate soldiers alike. He was a 
member of the Western Sanitary Commission, 
and in 1862 received the appointment to the 
post of chaplain of the hospitals. But in the 
midst of these labors his thoughts never wan- 
dered from the unfinished church whose aban- 
doned foundations looked like some desolate 1 
ruin. As the Confederate forces retired from 
the vicinity of St. Louis, business in the city 
began to revive, and money could be raised for 
the prosecution of the work. In 1862 the 
Chapel was finished an'd the congregation 
again had a definite home, and at the close of 






SCHROERS. 



2027 



the next year tit was determined to continue 
the main church. With the early spring of 
1864 'tfbe work was recommenced and carried 
on in the face of many difficulties. The chief 
obstacle to be overcome was the desire on the 
part of some to build further west, as it was 
evident that this locality would sOon be in the 
midst of the business district. But Dr. Schuy- 
ler, though he also saw the westward tendency 
of the population, wished the church to he 
built and to remain where it was — a down- 
town church, for rich and pdor alike, like old 
Trinity Church in New York City. And hav- 
ing with all his lovable and loving disposition, 
I an indomitable will, he carried his point and 
,011 Christmas day, 1867, the church was com- 
pleted — a'll except the tower, the flying but- 
tresses and west porch. Unfinished as it is, it 
I remains to-day the largest and, architecturally, 
[the finest Episcopal 'church west of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

In 1880 the heavy debt incurred in building 
the church was paid off, and in 1888 the 
church was endowed and made into a Cathe- 
dral. Dr. Schuyler being the first dean. Thus 
was his idea realized — the church would re- 
main in its present place a mission station in 
the midst of the swirl of business life. His 
purpose was still furthered by the erection of 
the .Mary E. Bofinger Memorial Chapel and 
the Schuyler 'Memorial House. The latter, a 
building containing every facility for mission 
iwork, being erected as a memorial of the fif- 
tieth anniversary 'of his ordination to the priest- 
hood. 

For almost the entire period o>f his connec- 
tion with Christ Church, he was president of 
the" standing committee ( of the diocese, and 
was elected delegate to all the general conven- 
fions off the church, until the weight of in- 
creasing years caused him to decline the 
non'or. He was one of the founders and most 
active supporter of St. Luke's Hospital, and 
until 'his death officiated as chaplain in that 
institution. Dr. Schuyler died, after a short 
llness, on March to, 1896. in the eighty-third 
cear of his age and the forty-second year of his 
rectorship of Christ Church. To the very last 
jie had been at his post, and the fatal illness 
pad been caused by exposure at the funeral of 
line of his old parishioners. 

For forty-two years Dr. Schuyler was one 
if the most conspicuous personalities in the 
pbere of religion and morals in St. Louis. He 
iyas, in a sense, the property of the public ; 



everybody knew him and respected him. 
There was a benignity and loveableness about 
him that won all hearts and kept men loyal to 
him through all vicissitudes. With this, how- 
ever, there was no yielding in matters of prin- 
ciple or duty ; and of the rights of the church 
and his order he was quietly, but inexorably, 
tenacious. Whatever the inclemency off the 
weather, or his own infirmity, he never refused 
or delayed the rites of religion to any human 
being, however humble, and his tenderness 
and bounty to the poor were proverbial. Ik- 
loved the church's liturgy. In celebrating the 
sacraments lie exhibited a reverence amount- 
ing to awe and inspired the same feeling in the 
worshiper. His reading of the services, from 
the font to the grave, w-ill long be remembered 
as the most perfect, sympathetic and touching 
rendition of offices in themselves beautiful. 
His dignified and Comely presence, his ex- 
quisitely modulated voice and clear utterance, 
and, in his 'later years, the pathos of a beauti- 
ful and venerable old age, conspired to lend 
a sweet solemnity and impressiveness to the 
services in Christ Church that can never be for- 
gotten by those who participated in them. 
Throughout a long pastorate, tested by the 
transitions of civic growth, the changes in his 
congregation, pestilence and Civil War, he 
held, as few pastors have held, the love and 
reverence of three generations of men. To his 
blameless, religious and beneficient life all men 
bear witness, and the diocese of Missouri has 
recorded to bus memory that he was "a typi- 
cal priest of the church, and a faithful mem- 
ber of the Gospel of Jesus Christ." 

Schroers, John, newspaper publisher, 
was born in 1858, in Aix La Chapelle. Ger- 
many, that ancient city of the Rhine Province, 
which was founded by the Romans as a water- 
ing place, and was the favorite place of resi- 
dence of Charles the Great, who died there. 
In this city Mr. Schroers passed the early years 
of his life, and received a classical education. 
graduating from college with honors, when lie 
was sixteen years 'of age. Immediately after 
leaving college he came to this country, with 
native ability, a thorough education, and a de- 
termination to succeed in life as his only capi- 
tal. When he arrived in the United States, 
one of the first things which attracted his at- 
tention was the mining excitemen'l al Lead- 
ville. Colorado, and he determined to try his 
luck in that famous camp. When, however, 



2028 



SCHURZ. 



he had gotten as far West as Omaha. Ne- 
braska, he found himself out Off money, and, as 
a result, went to work in the Omaha smelting 
works. After remaining there some time he 
came to St. Louis, and began here his career 
as a newspaper man. He was first employed 
as a reporter on the "Yolksstimme des West- 
ens," on which he worked until [877, when 
tiiat paper suspended publication, and Sold its 
stock to the owners of the "Tribune." .Mr. 
Schroers then became a member of the staff of 
the " Anzeiger des Westerns," and for a number 
of years thereafter he did reportorial work for 
that paper, his contemporaries and associates 
in this field being such well known journalists 
as Walter B. Stevens, Frank O'Xeil, Stanley 
Waterloo, Eugene Field, Bert Waterloo, Flor- 
ence White, William Byars. William Kelso, 
Harry Wandell, John Jennings, and others. 
From the editorial department he was trans- 
ferred to the counting room, and his capacity 
for thoroughly systematizing its affairs, his 
business-like methods, and his enterprise and 
activity placed him at the head of the business 
department in 1884. In this capacity he in- 
fused new vigor into 'the conduct of the "An- 
zeiger des Westens," and was one of the prime 
factors in bringing about the consolidation of 
the German newspaper interests, under the 
management of the German-American Press 
Company of St. Louis, which took place in 
1808. Since then he has been identified with 
the "Westliche Post" and "Anzeiger des West- 
ens" and "The Sunday Mississippi Blaetter," 
as publisher and associate business manager. 
Mr. Schroers has been prominent also in ad- 
vancing the educational interests of St. Louis, 
and is a member of the city board of education, 
his appointment to that position being one 
which has received general commendation. A 
tall, soldierly-looking man. he is a conspicu- 
ous figure in any company, and his years of 
active newspaper work have made him one of 
the best known men of the city, and one of the 
most popular as well. He married Miss Carrie 
Daenzer, daughter of Carl Daenzer, founder of 
both the "Westliche Post" and the "Anzeiger 
des Westens." and for many years the accom- 
plished editor of the last named paper. The 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Schroers are Paul, 
Carl and Lotta Schroers. 

Schlirz, Carl, politician, lecturer and 
journalist, who gained his greatest distinction 
while a citizen of St. Louis, was bom in Lib- 



lar, near Cologne. Prussia, March 2. 1829. 
lie was educated at the Gymnasium of Co- 
logne and at the University of Bonn. At the 
beginning of the Revolution of 1848 he as- 
sociated himself with Gottfried Kinkel, profes- 
sor of rhetoric in the University of Bonn, in the 
publication of a liberal newspaper. He was 
implicated in an attempt to promote an insur- 
rection in Bonn in the spring of 1849, am l '^d 
with Kinkel to the Palatinate. He soon after- 
ward entered the revolutionary army as an 
adjutant, and took part in the defense of Ra- 
stadt. On the surrender of that fortress, he 
was fortunate enough to escape to Switzer- 
land, but in 1850 he returned secretly to < Ger- 
many and effected the escape of Kinkel from 
the fortress of Spandau. Immediately after- 
ward he went t<> Paris, and for a time acted 
there as the correspondent of certain German 
newspapers. In 1852 he came to the United 
States, and after residing three years in Phila- 
delphia, devoting his time largely to the study 
of the English language, he went to Wiscon- 
sin, settling in Warertown. He at once be- 
came a conspicuous figure in the politics of 
that State, and in 1856 delivered speeches in 
German in behalf of the Republican candi- 
dates for the presidency and State officers, 
which attracted general attention. In 1857 
toe was a candidate for Lieutenant-Governor 
of Wisconsin, but was defeated. In 1858 he 
removed to Milwaukee, and for a short time 
was engaged in the practice of law in that city. 
In 1859-60 he delivered a series of lectures in 
Xew England, which stamped him as an ora- 
tor of great power, his utterances being widely 
quoted and commented upon at that time. He 
was a delegate to the Republican National 
Convention which nominated Abraham Lin- 
coln for the presidency, in i860, and partici- 
pated actively in the ensuing campaign, deliv- 
ering speeches both in German and English. 
Soon after his inauguration President Lincoln 
appointed him Minister to Spain, but in De- 
cember of 1861 he resigned his mission to 
enter the Union Army as a participant in the 
Civil War. In the spring of 1862 he was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 
and in June took command of a division in 
the corps commanded by General Franz Si- 
gel, with which he participated in the second 
battle of Bull Run. In 1863 he was made a 
major-general of volunteers, and commanded 
a division of General O. O. Howard's corps 
at the battle of Chancellorsville. He was act- 



SCHWARTZ. 



2029 



ing commander of this corps for a time at Get- 
tysburg, and later took part in the battle of 
Chattanooga. During the summer of 1865 he 
was appointed a special commissioner by 
President Johnson to inquire into the condi- 
tion of the States Which had been in rebellion, 
and visited the Southern States for that pur- 
pose. He was Washington correspondent of 
the "New York Tribune" during the winter of 
1865-6. and dm the summer of the year last 
named founded the "Detroit Post." A year 
later he came to St. Louis, to become identi- 
fied with the "Westliebe Post" as its editor-in- 
chief. His great ability gave him at once a 
commanding influence among the Germans of 
this city, and 'the voting strength of that ele- 
ment in Missouri made him a leader in the Re- 
publican party of this State. The Republican 
National Convention, held in Chicago, in 1868. 
made him its temporary chairman, and he was 
the author of one of the most important reso- 
lutions in the platform adopted by that con- 
vention. In January of 1869 he was chosen 
United States Senator from Missouri, and 
served until the close of his term in 1875. Op- 
posed to some of the chief measures of Presi- 
dent Grant's administration, life helped to in- 
augurate the Liberal Republican movement 
in Missouri, and became one of the organizers 
of the Liberal Republican party in 1872, pre- 
siding over the convention that nominated 
Horace Greeley. In 1876 he favored the 
election of Hayes, and subsequentlv served as 
Secretary of the Interior during Hayes' ad- 
ministration. After his retirement from thecab- 
imet, he became the editor of the "New York 
Evening Post," and was not conspicuously 
active in politics again until 1884, when he fa- 
vored the election of Grover Cleveland to the 
presidency. In 1896 he again evidenced his 
independence of political parties by strenu- 
ously opposing the nominee of the Democratic 
party for the presidency, and condemning, in 
vigorous terms, the monetary plank in the 
Democratic platform of that year. After the 
death of George William Curtis he succeeded 
that distinguished orator and writer as the 
editor of Harper's Weeklv. 

Schwartz, Frederick William, a 

pioneer German-American of St. Louis, was 
born June 25, 1839, in the Province of West- 
phalia, Germany, and died in St. Louis No- 
vember 16. 1897. His parents were Herman 



and Catherine ( Bierman) Schwartz, and, after 
receiving a fairly good education, he came to 
this country with his widowed mother, his 
father having died on the ship on which thev 
sailed, and been buried in the ocean, arriving 
in St. Louis in 1853, at the age of 14 years. 
Here he was employed at such work as he 
could find to do until 1854, when he was ap- 
prenticed to the cigarmaker's trade. In 1856 
he attended for a time the Bryant & Stratton 
Business College, fitting .'himself thereby to en- 
gage in trade. In i860 he began doing busi- 
ness as a flour and feed merchant on Broad- 
way, and later engaged in the grain business 
with his brother under the firm name of Fred- 
erick & Herman Schwartz. He continued to 
be identified with this business until his death, 
and was eminently successful both in the ac- 
cumulation of fortune and in establishing an 
enviable reputation for strict rectitude and un- 
swerving integrity. He was a senior member 
of the Schwartz Bros. Commission Company, 
which had its place of business on the levee 
and Madison Street, and an office in the Mer- 
chants' Exchange. Mr. Schwartz built the 
Farmers' Elevator, located at the foot of Mad- 
ison Street, and the Mullanphy Bank Build- 
ing, and was also identified to a considerable 
extent at one time with river interests, having 
been owner of the steamers "Bald Eagle" and 
"Dora," and builder of the steamer "Belle of 
Calhoun" in 1895, s ' ie making her maiden trip 
on July 4th of that year. He was a member of 
the Merchants' Exchange, the Merchants' 
Exchange Benevolent Association, and the 
Mercantile Club, and was an active and useful 
man during his entire business career. He 
was a generous friend of religious, charitable 
and educational institutions, and was one of 
the founders of the Walther College, located at 
1033 South Eighth Street, in St. Louis. He 
was a member of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, and did much during his lifetime to 
extend its work and promote its interests. 
Politically, he affiliated with the Republican 
party, and during the Civil War he served as 
a member of the Home Guards of St. Louis. 

He was married to Miss Alice Oetter, then 
a resident of St. Louis, but a native of Joliet. 
Illinois, leaving at the time of his death his 
wife and eight children — six daughters and 
two sons — named, respectively, Augusta, 
Laura, Lydia. Mamie. Ella. Rudolph, ' Iscar, 
and Estella Schwartz. His eldest daughter, 



2030 



SCHWEITZER MAEXNERCHOR— SCOTTISH CLANS. 



Augusta, married tlu 
most prominent druj 
F. G. L'hlich. 



< inly son of one i it" the 
gists in St. Louis, .Mr. 



Schweitzer Maennercho r . — This 
was the name given to a song section of the 
Swiss Benevolent Society, which was incorpo- 
rated in 1874. Among the incorporators of 
this singing society were Francis Romer, John 
Jacklin, Henry Hotz and others, and in later 
years it became a popular musical organiza- 
tion. 

Scott, John, railroad builder, was horn 
on the 25th day of December, 1828, in the 
County of Roscommon, Ireland, and when 
nineteen years of age came to America to 
seek his fortune. In 1855 he arrived in St. 
Louis, where he has resided ever since. At 
the time of his arrival in this city there were 
no railroads in Missouri, and it became appar- 
ent to the business men of St. Louis that these 
arteries of commerce were necessary to de- 
velop the vast resources of the State. St. 
Louis was then emerging from the condition 
of a country town. She had in the past de- 
pended wholly upon the steamers plying on 
the great rivers for her trade. While this 
method of communication was adequate for 
the country tributary to the streams, it was 
entirely out of reach of the people living and 
seeking their homes and settlement in the in- 
terior. As a consequence, a railroad system 
was inaugurated, and three lines leading from 
the city were projected, namely, the North 
Missouri, the Missouri Pacific, with its South- 
west Branch, and the Iron Mountain. The 
roads were located and portions of them let 
for construction. The career of Mr. Scott as 
a railroad contractor commenced at that time, 
a calling he has successfully followed for over 
forty years. He is still in harness, associated 
with his sons, under the firm name of John 
Scott & Sons. The number of miles of rail- 
road he has constructed will reach into the 
hundreds. Besides the large contracts he has 
completed on the roads in this State, he lias 
also built railroads in the States of Kansas. 
Colorado, Texas and Arkansas, and the Ter- 
ritories of Xew Mexico and Arizona, and on 
the levee systems in the States of Mississippi, 
Arkansas and Louisiana he erected millions of 
cubic yards of embankments. A detailed 
statement of the work- he has accomplished 
would he interesting readinsr, but the fact is. 



he is too modest and unassuming to speak of 
himself or enter into any particulars of his 
achievements as a contractor. Probably 
there is not another man in this State who has 
given employment to more men than he, or 
who has exploded as many tons of powder in 
excavating and tunneling his way through the 
granite hills of Missouri. His prominence 
and reputation as a contractor is based upon 
his prompt execution of all his contracts. Xo 
matter what the expense to him, his work has 
alwa\ s been finished in the time specified, and 
fully up to the specifications. The companies 
for which he has worked have fully recognized 
this capacity, and also his promptness in liqui- 
dating all his obligations for labor and sup- 
plies. This method of doing business has 
1 iften secured for him a preference over other 
contractors who were bidding for work against 
him. The whole of his career has been 
marked by persevering industry and business 
sagacity of a high order. He has attained the 
fortune he came in his youth to seek, and has 
acquired wealth by honorable dealing in a 
broad field of enterprise. He has in a marked 
degree other attributes so proverbial witli his 
race, warm-heartedness and generosity, which, 
aside from business, makes him most compan- 
ionable with his associates and charitable to 
the needy. To arrive at a true estimate of a 
man's character, he must be judged by his in- 
tercourse with and his treatment of his fellow- 
men, together with his usefulness as a worker 
in the great human hive. On these lines, 
John Scott can be tried ami stand comparison 
with the best. 

In Davenport, Iowa, he married Miss Annie 
Killeen, of that city, a lady who has made his 
home life attractive and happy, and who. by 
the sweetness of Iter disposition and by her 
amiable character has endeared herself to 
every acquaintance. Their family consists of 
three sons and two daughters, all of whom 
have been brought up in this city. 

Scottish Clans.-- -The order of the Scot- 
tish Clans originated in St. Louis in 1878, 
when Janus McCash and other Scotchmen of 
St. Louis formed the nucleus of an organiza- 
tion which was designed to bring about a fra- 
ternal union of Scottish clubs in the United 
States and Canada. November 30, 1878 — 
St. Andrew's day — the Royal Scottish ( km 
was instituted, the declared object of the as- 
sociation being to unite Scotchmen and the 







n 



w 



■ 




L/ 



SCRIPPS— SCRUGGS. 



2031 



descendants of Scotchmen, embracing all who 
claim Scottish ancestry within a reasonable 
limit ; to cultivate fond recollections of Scot- 
land, its customs and' amusements, and to es- 
tablish a fund for the benefit of the heirs of de- 
ceased members, death benefits being fixed at 
:one and two thousand dollars. James Mc- 
Cash became the first royal chieftain, and 
Dugald Crawford, also of St. Louis, first vice- 
royal chieftain of the order. The Grand 
Clan of Missouri was organized December 13, 
1878. Clan Campbell and Clan Douglas, two 
subordinate clans instituted in St. Louis, are 
still in existence. 

' Scripps, John, clergyman, was the 
[third pastor of the Methodist Church in St. 
Louis. He was an Englishman by birth, but 
1 early came to America, and was a citizen of 
:Cape Girardeau, County, Missouri. He en- 
tered the ministry in 18 14. He was the first 
Methodist preacher to preach in St. Louis, 
which he did in 1817. While preaching to 
country congregations in St. Louis County. 
he ventured a few times into the town and 
preached at night in a Thespian hall, but made 
no effort to organize a congregation. He 
I was a sikllful penman, a distinct reader, and 
served the conference twelve years as its sec- 
retary. He lived to a good age, and the later 
years of his ministry were in Illinois. He 
.wrote much for the papers concerning the 
men and events of his times. His last home 
|was at Rushville, Illinois. 

Scruggs, Richard M ., merchant-phil- 
anthropist, is a native of Virginia, born Feb- 
iruary 10, 1822, in Bedford County, at the 
I family homestead, four miles from the county 
[seat, then called Liberty ville. and now Bed- 
[ford City. His father. Reaves S. Scruggs, 
;was a planter, and held high and influential 
social position, taking an active part in public 
affairs and prominent in political life, being a 
leader of his party in the county and represent- 
ing it in the Legislature. On his mother's, as 
well as his father's side, Mr. Scruggs had most 
reputable descent, the family of his mother, 
Mildred L. Otey, being prominent in that 
State and distinguished in public and profes- 
sional life. 

In that early day the advantages of educa- 
tion were meager, but Mr. Scruggs had the 
best the neighborhood afforded, and it com- 
prised a good English education. He had. 



however, thorough business training prepara- 
tory to the vocation for which he was destined 
and adapted by nature, as well as fitted b\ 
training. At the early age of fifteen he entered 
a store in Lynchburg as a clerk, remaining 
with it eight years, and subsequently for a year 
and a half was in the employ of one of the pro- 
prietors, who had established a large retail dry 
goods house at Richmond. He had rapid 
promotion, and notwithstanding his youth, 
held in both establishments the responsible 
position of confidential clerk and cashier. 

In his twenty-fifth year, in 1847, he left his 
native State to seek his fortune in a new coun- 
try and in a larger commercial field. Mis in- 
tended destination was New < Irleans, but stop- 
ping at Huntsville, Alabama, on a visit to a 
brother, who was in business there, he was of- 
fered and accepted an advantageous position 
in a branch office of a large Xew Orleans cot- 
ton house, which he held during his stay in 
that city till 1849. Then he met and formed 
an intimate acquaintance with Mr. M. Y. S. 
McClelland, the nephew of a leading and 
wealthy merchant of that place, and which be- 
came the occasion of Air. Scruggs' establish- 
ment in business in St. Louis. Mr. McClel- 
land's uncle proposed to the two young men 
to associate them as partners in a dry goods 
house, to be located at either Montgomery, 
Alabama: Memphis, Tennessee, or St. Louis, 
Missouri. ( >n visiting St. Louis, its location 
was at once selected, and in March. 1850. Mr. 
Scruggs began his business career, which has 
continued without interruption till this day, 
and with unbroken success and advancing dis- 
tinction, culminating in the founding and 
headship of the Scruggs, Yandervoort ec Bar- 
ney Dry Goods Company, one of the very larg- 
est in the L'nited States. The first firm name 
was McClelland, Scruggs & Co. In i860 he 
established also a wholesale house, the style of 
the firm being McClelland, Pye & Co., the re- 
tail business, in which he still retained an in- 
terest, being continued under the name of 
W. L. Yandervoort & Co. In consequence of 
the disturbances of the Civil War, the whole- 
sale house was discontinued in its second year, 
and he resumed personal charge of the retail 
store. Under new arrangements the style oi 
the firm in t86^ became Yandervoort, Mc- 
Clelland & Co. * In 1868 Mr. McClelland re- 
tired from the firm and from business vvitl an 
ample fortune, and a new partnership was 
formed under the present and corporate name 



2032 



SCRUGGS. 



of Scruggs, \ andervoort cc Barney Dry Goods 
( ompany. lis first location was at the south- 
west corner of Fourth and St. Charles Streets, 
which it occupied till August i, 1888, when it 
was removed to us present location at the 
southwest corner of Broadway and Locust 
Street, in the large and imposing building 
erected by the Mercantile Library Associa- 
tion, which was built with reference to occu- 
pation by the firm, and is furnished with ele- 
gant appointments and all modern facilities 
for the transaction of business. 

Notwithstanding the withdrawal of a large 
amount of capital upon the retirement of Mr. 
.McClelland, the new firm entered upon a ca- 
reer of extraordinary prosperity, and soon sur- 
passed the record of the former firm, with 
uninterrupted and stable increase exceeding 
year by \ ear its own record. From the first 
Mr. Scruggs has been, in both financial inter- 
est and control, at the head of the company, 
and under his presidency the volume of its 
business has grown to immense proportions, 
served 1>> over five hundred employes and 
noted for its thorough organization and supe- 
rior equipment, and its financial management 
and commercial probity and credit held in the 
highest repute both in our own and foreign 
ci iuntries. 

Mr. Scruggs is a born merchant, as well as 
educated and experienced in all branches and 
details of his line of business, having passed 
through all its grades from salesman to pro 
prietor. 1 1 is business career, including the 
preparatory training in subordinate positions, 
now covers a period of sixty-one years, and 
continues nol with lessened but increased re- 
sponsibilities and activity, owing to the n 1 1 nl 
death of Mi 1 hai les I Barney, who was s , 
long and actively connected with the linn 

Holding position in the front rank of the 
commercial community, it is a special distinc- 
tion of his public career that it embraces all 
forms of good citizenship, and in the wide 
range of his enterprise and activities lie has 
■ known and honored as :t public- 
spirited citi 1 d minded philanthropist 
and zealous churchman, as well as an eminent 
and successful merchant. 

When he came 1.. Si. 1 ,ouis in 1850, tin 
had jusl entered upon its modern history of 
growth, lis population at that time was onh 

. and the western boundan of tie 

poration was at Eighteenth Street and within 

1 limits north and south. 1 It now 



tends along the river front fifteen miles, and 
westward from six to eight miles, and the pop- 
ulation has multiplied tenfold). With this 
w ' mderful progress there has been demand 
for manifold forms of good citizenship, in 
which Mr. Scruggs has been actively enlisted. 
Though not a politician, he takes an earnest 
interest and active part in public affairs, and 
in measures of municipal reform and good 
government his name is prominent and none 
mi 're influential. He is alike conspicuous in 
enterprises for the establishment of the institu- 
tions of a great city and the advancement of its 
commercial standing and the promotion of its 
social elevation and moral welfare. In all 
such enterprises not only the influence of his 
name but his personal leadership is sought, 
and it is given with uncalculating and un- 
stinted devotion of time and money. 

Among many such instances of public 
spirit is his association with chief citizens and 
the prominent part he took in the founding of 
the great St. Louis Exposition, which has 
continental fame; and in connection with it, 
the three years" Autumnal Festivities, cover- 
ing the period of the Columbian Exposition, 
and intended to give the city world-wide re- 
pute. He was among the chief promoters of 
it. and in raising the large fund for that pur- 
post' his firm was the leading contributor in 
the sum of $10,000. He has been from the 
beginning the treasurer of the Exposition As- 
sociation. Its financial success has been phe- 
nomenal. The original capital stock was 
$5< 11 1.000 ; it has now property in various forms 
aggregating Si .000.000. 

A like distinction has attended the admin- 
istration of Mr. Scruggs in all the institutions 
with which he has been connected. One of 
the earliest, and now one of the most notable, 
of those institutions is the St. Louis Mercantile 
Library Association, of which Mr. Scruggs 
was a director for a number of years, and its 
president in 1870 and 1871, and still holds re- 
lation to it as one of the trustees. It was 
founded in 1845-6 with a financial basis in 
cash subscriptions of $2,307.25, and at the 
1 (he first year a membership of 283 and 
-|'oS volumes in library. At this date ( iSijo'I 
11s membership numbers 3.455. and volumes 
103.270. During .Mr. Scruggs' connection 
with the management an important measure 
was inaugurated by which the Library Assol 
ciation gradually acquired the ownership of 
the premises occupied by it. which had been 



•5m 



mmmmm 

wmm 




L 



SCRUGGS. 



2033 



erected and were owned by a separate corpora- 
tion. The property at that time was valued 
at $217,171.64; and during the period of his 
administration about $60,000 of the stock of 
that corporation was acquired. In the same 
period there was a large increase of the mem- 
bership of the association and 5,000 volumes 
added to the library. 

By appointment of Governors of the State 
he was a member and president of the board 
of trustees of the Missouri School for the 
Blind, from 1883 to 1890. This period marks 
a decided transition in the character of the in- 
stitution from that of its first years, when it 
was a mere asylum, occupied only with the 
care in food and shelter of that unfortunate 
class of persons, to a school proper for the 
blind, with the several departments of instruc- 
tion in letters, music, and industrial arts, in 
which they are trained and qualified for self- 
support and to take position as intelligent and 
useful citizens. The equipment of the school, 
accordingly, was much improved and en- 
larged, and it is said it now has one of the best 
plants for industrial training, and one of the 
largest libraries of embossed books, of any 
similar institution in the country. In music 
especially there is thorough training, and 
some of the graduates have made good rec- 
ords as performers, teachers and composers. 
A kindergarten was introduced in 1886, and 
has proved highly beneficial. During the first 
three years of Mr. Scruggs' presidency nearly 
100 new pupils had been admitted, which was 
twice as many as during any preceding three 
years, and the largest in the same length of 
time since the school was organized in 1851. 
The increase continued, and the number of 
pupils in 1888 reached 116. 

Another prominent public charity with 
which Mr. Scruggs has been connected is the 
Mullanphy Emigrant Relief Fund. It is a 
bequest to the city of St. Louis by Honorable 
Bryan Mullanphy for the relief of poor emi- 
grants and needy travelers, coming to St. 
Louis on their way. bona fide, to settle in the 
West. Since the year 1874 it has afforded re- 
lief to 8,484 emigrants and 13,227 travelers. 
It is under the management of a board of com- 
missioners elected by the city council, and 
Mr. Scruggs was a member and presi- 
dent of the board continuously for five years, 
from 1878 to 1882, both inclusive. The posi- 
tion was one of large and delicate responsi- 
bility, and required much personal supervi- 



sion for careful discrimination as to the in- 
tended beneficiaries of the fund and the ex- 
ercise of sound business judgment in its man- 
agement, estimated at $500,000, and consist- 
ing of real estate, improved and unimproved. 
During twenty years consecutively Mr. 
Scruggs has been actively connected with the 
St. Louis Provident Association, and during 
the past fifteen years its president. The asso- 
ciation was founded in i860, when in the rapid 
transition from the town to the populous city 
its social conditions required the organization 
of its charities and the adoption of methods of 
systematic benevolence. Theretofore, also, 
the relief of the poor and unfortunate had been 
supplied by individual benevolence ami the 
ministry of class societies of various kinds, 
and the necessity arose of care for the indigent 
not otherwise provided for. This sphere the 
association occupies, and is constituted and 
recognized as the representative of the benevo- 
lent sentiment of the community and almoner 
of its bounty, which is dispensed without dis- 
tinction of creed, color or nationality. There 
never having been municipal provision for out- 
door relief, this need for the greatest part is 
supplied by this association, and the material 
relief dispensed has been enormous, amount- 
ing to millions of pounds of breadstuffs and 
bushels of coal and an expenditure of $781,- 
292.08. Mr. Scruggs is thoroughly enlisted 
in this work, in sympathy with the helpless 
poor, that none should lack for food and fuel, 
but not less 'that material relief should be 
subordinate and tributary to their physical 
and moral elevation, which is the declared pri- 
mary and paramount aim of the association. 
Employment as the basis of relief is incorpo- 
rated among its fundamental rules, and it is 
the chief distinction of the administration of 
Mr. Scruggs that it has given practical effect 
to that cardinal principle of judicious charity 
by the introduction in all practical forms of 
industrial agencies, thus affording the means 
of self-help and thereby checking the ten- 
dency of physical relief to the degeneration of 
poverty into pauperism. On the other hand, 
by its rule of investigation before relief, and 
registry of its results and various repressive 
measures, the Association has become an in- 
valuable agency for the guidance and protec- 
tion of private benevolence, and the detection 
and repression of mendicity and imposture. 
In the prosecution of this plan and policy of 
the Association it has become the peer of any 



20H4 



SCRUGGS. 



similar institution in our country. Its finan- 
cial support has required a largely increased 
income, which has not been lacking, and is at- 
tributable, it is recognized by his associates. 
to the implicit confidence of the public in the 
personal integrity and level head of its presi- 
dent. The enlargement of its operations ur- 
gently required larger accommodations and 
facilities for its work and a permanent location 
for its central office, and has been provided for 
at a cost of $70,000. The invested fund avail- 
able for that purpose was less than half the 
cost: the remainder was Mr. Scruggs' indi- 
vidual donation. 

The above record, extended and distin- 
guished as it is, does not measure the extent 
of public service and benefaction rendered by 
.Mr. Scruggs. His charities are bestowed 
with a catholic spirit, and hardly an institution 
in the city that has not received his patronage ; 
and his public spirit is exceptional and inex- 
haustible, responsive to innumerable calls and 
claims for service. 

In no part of his career has he been more 
thoroughly enlisted nor rendered more signal 
service than as a lay churchman in the com- 
munion of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
South, llis zeal for the cause of religion is 
at the same time enlightened and self-consum- 
ing. In an all-comprehending Christian con- 
secration, he gives to it time, talent, substance, 
with unstinted and untiring devotion. I lis value 
as a counselor is not less marked, carrying into 
the administration of the church business prin- 
ciples and methods in the conduct of its finan- 
ces and infusing into it the spirit of business 
enterprise, proposing and forwarding large 
plans of church aggression. During the 
twenty-five years of his church membership 
he has been identified prominently with the 
progress of the denomination in St. Louis, 
and in the annual conference embracing South- 
east Missouri. Tin- St. John's Church, with 
which he united in 1873, was > n ' ts sixth year, 
and was burdened with a heavy debt and 1 ither 
wise much depressed. Chiefly through his 
instrumentality the debt was paid, and under 
wiser and more liberal administration of its 
affairs it soon developed into a first class sta- 
tion and took rank among tin- chief Protestant 
churches of the city. The Cook Avenue 
M. I.. Church, South, is a conspicuous monu- 
ment of his zeal, and perhaps the most conspic 
UOUS, as it is most distinctively and exclll 
sivelv his creation. It is especially notable 



in that its history is an exponent of char- 
acteristics of the man and of the type of his 
piety as a Christian and of his temper as a 
churchman. It had its origin in a mission 
Sunday-school established by St. John's 
Church, the superintendency of which .Mr. 
Scruggs had taken. He developed the mis- 
sion into a separate pastoral charge and trans- 
ferred his membership to it, going from the 
strong to the weak church, where he was most 
needed and could be most useful. The time had 
come when the frame structure which was the 
habitation of the mission must be succeeded 
by a church edifice, if there should be a future 
of commanding position and influence for the 1 
new society. The policy he adopted illus- 
trated not more his extraordinary liberality 
than his practical judgment. The locality re- 
quired a superior building. The feeble mis- 
sion could not have defrayed the cost of the 
foundation stones. He projected and com- 
pleted it at a cost of $75,000, more than half 
of which was at his own cost, and the remain- 
der raised by his personal effort and from 
among his personal acquaintances and busi- 
ness friends. The case was a feeble society in 
a costly church, and the policy of the enter- 
prise required a first class pulpit and equip- 
ment, which he maintained, at first almost 
wholly at his own expense, and as long as 
needed, till now the church ranks among the 
foremost of the denomination and is sought 
and served by its chief pastors. 

The zeal of Mr. Scruggs is thoroughly en- 
listed in church aggression, emulous of the 
reputation of the denomination and its appro- 
priate participation in the evangelical forces 
'if the' city. Especially in late years, in the 
rapid growth of the city, there is large and 
increasing demand for church extension an( 
sustentation and all manner and forms of city 
evangelization. In these measures and move- 
ments he is a chief counselor and leader. He 
has thus been identified with the addition of 
six new societies, with their building in the 
city and suburban towns, prominent among 
them the Lafayette Tark Church, in a choice 
residence section, and of the Marvin Church, 
in a crowded tenement district. 

Besides filling all the lay offices of the 
churches in which he held his membership] 
for many years he has been chosen a delegate 
to the annual conference. He participates 
actively in its deliberations, and especially in 
tin administration of its boards of missions 



SCRUGGS. 



2035 



and education, in both of which he has ren- 
dered invaluable service. The Conference 
School could not have been maintained with- 
out his interposition. At one time its doors 
were closed, and were reopened through his 
active agency, as well as financial aid in con- 
ducting an effort to discharge a debt on the 
property. When he became a member of the 
board of missions a heavy debt embarrassed 
all its operations and precluded any forward 
movement. The debt was at once done away 
with, and ever since the drafts of the board 
rank with the best commercial paper, and the 
large mission field of the Conference was 
speedily supplied with the regular pastorate, 
and the separate stations in principal towns 
have been multiplied from two to twelve. His 
relation to the Conference brought appeals to 
him for counsel and aid from every quarter of 
it. The account with benevolence in his 
ledger has a multitude of various entries, aid 
to parsonage and church building, relief to 
needy pastors, assistance to candidates for the 
ministry to obtain an education, and many 
similar acts of personal kindness and aid to the 
work of the Conference. In all its bounds he 
is known and loved. He has been frequently 
chosen as its representative in the General 
Conference, the highest legislative and judi- 
cial body of the denomination, and throughout 
the bounds of the connection, reaching from 
the Ohio to the Gulf, and from ocean to ocean, 
he has become known and honored as a prince 
in the Methodist Israel. 

The church work in which, perhaps, Mr. 
Scruggs takes the most personal interest is 
that of the Sunday-school in which he has 
been engaged for twenty-three years. In the 
second vear of his membership he was made 
superintendent of its Sunday-school ; and in 
1883 took also charge of its afternoon mission 
school, and till recently has conducted a school 
both morning and afternoon. He has both 
genius and love for this work, and on the one 
hand spares no expenditure of interest or 
money necessary for its equipment, and on the 
other hand his eminent adaptation secures the 
best and largest efficiency in the order and dis- 
cipline of the school, the competency and 
fidelity of teachers, and the attendance of 
scholars, the underlying aim their conversion 
and the school the nursery of the church. 

One of the most remarkable religious move- 
ments of the times is the national and interna- 
tional Sundav-School Association, in which 



Mr. Scruggs has become actively interested. 
He is one of the executive officers of the or- 
ganization in the State of Missouri, and since 
his connection with it there is a history of large 
plans and remarkable results. A Sunday- 
school Auxiliary Society has been organized 
in every county of the 114 counties in the 
State, and the movement is in progress for a 
similar organization in every township of 
every county. The undertaking was costly, 
but he pledged the cost. This wise and liberal 
management has advanced the State to the 
front in Sunday-school work — from the thir- 
teenth to the third in the table of statistics for 
the United States, and only excelled by three 
of the more populous States. His interest in 
the cause of Sunday-schools has become ab- 
sorbing, and has led to the publication of a 
monthly periodical under the title of the "In- 
ternational Evangel." As its name implies, 
a world-wide circulation is proposed for it. 
and its pretensions to be justified by the high- 
est standard of literary excellence, and as ad- 
vocate and exponent of the most advanced 
methods and highest ideals of Sunday-school 
organization and work. With his wonted 
large-minded and liberal public spirit, he has 
projected this enterprise, pursues it at large 
cost, intends its endowment, and cherishes it 
as the crowning benefaction of his public 
service. 

Mere verbal characterization is largely un- 
meaning. A man is known by what he does ; 
his portraiture is in his deeds, and his achieve- 
ments the measure of his value to the genera- 
tion in which he lives and of the honor of his 
name. Judged by this standard Mr. Scruggs 
is an uncommon man, and his life an extraor- 
dinary career. It is universally so regarded 
in the community in which he has resided for 
nearlv fifty years. A practical illustration of 
the distinction in which he is held has re- 
cently transpired in connection with the found- 
ing of the Barnes Hospital by the will of the 
millionaire, whose name it bears. He was a 
retired merchant, and had been cognizant of 
Mr. Scruggs' entire business career; and, 
though not himself a churchman, he knew the 
church life of Mr. Scruggs and his prominence 
in the Southern Methodist Church, under 
whose auspices the hospital was placed. He 
was first named of the three trustees in whom 
the entire custody and management of the 
magnificent bequest of $1,000,000 was vested, 
and his counsel was sought and followed in 



2036 



SCULLIN. 



tin- appointment of the other trustees. This 
new and immense trusl comes into his hands 
in tli' eventh year of his life. Be- 

sides tin' enlarged demands of his business 
grown to immense proportions, the calls and 
claims of civic and charitable and church en- 
terprises and institutions do not decrease, but 
multiply. He is still unhesitatingly respon- 
sive t" all and still equal to all. His physical 
is remarkably preserved; his energy is 
unabated and seems inexhaustible ; as busy 
and eventful as his life has been, there will 
remain at last unfinished work. Such a man 
can m it be superannuated — "ceasing at once to 
labor and to live." In the uproar and onward 
rush i if a city population few men only, when 
they drop out, are missed. He will be one 
of the few, and widely missed — in the mart of 
trade, at the altars of the church, at the coun- 
ei! board of trusts and charities — and in the 
intercourse of private life a thousand links of 
friendship broken. The only memorial of 
most men is their tombstone, without inscrip- 
tion other than birth and death; his is to be 
found embodied in monumental forms all 
along the pathway of his life — in the ambi- 
tions and achievements of a sterling manhood 
and a lofty Christian character. 

Scilllin, .John, railroad builder and 
street railway president, was born in St. Law- 
renc County, New York. August 17. 1836. 
I fis parents were Nicholls and Mary ( Kenney) 
Scullin, worthy people, who lived ami reared 
their family in a rural community. Air. Scul- 
lin attended, as a boy, the common schools of 
the region in which he was brought up, and 
1 icd the education which fitted him to 
become a successful man of affairs at the Pots- 
dam (Xew York) Academy. He was trained 

111 ' 1- honest, hard work from bo) li 1 up. 

and at an early age became connected with the 
business of railway construction on the I cum,' 
Trunk Railroad, of 1 lanada. In [863 he 
went west to Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and 
engaged in business there as a railroad con 
:. but a year later turned gold-hunter 
and wenl to Idaho, which then promised to de 
velop mto a veritable Eldorado. I [e was one 
01 a party which made the long journet to 
Virginia Cit\ with ox teams, and not only ex- 
pert need the hardships but encount< red the 
perils incident to such trips a t that early 
period. Much of the way they traveled 
through a region inhabited only by hostile 



Indians, and once . they were attacked and 
seven of the part}' were slain by the savages. 
When he finally reached Virginia City, after 
six months of travel, he was much disap- 
pointed with the outlook, and remained there 
only long enough to make necessary arrange- 
ments to get away. Returning to the East, 
he reached Xew York City in November of 
[865, and began planning to again engage in 
the business of railway construction. In 1866 
he established his home in Leavenworth, Kan- 
sas, and in the same year took a contract to 
construct a portion of the Central Branch of 
the Union Pacific Railroad. In pursuance of 
this and contracts subsequently entered into, 
he built forty miles of railroad, terminating 
at the town of Waterville, and now a part of 
the Missouri Pacific Railway system. He 
next ci instructed a portion of the Missouri 
Valley Railroad, from Savannah to Marys- 
ville, Missouri, and in 1868 built twenty-five 
miles of the Rock Island Railroad, extending 
from Plattsburgh, Missouri, to Leavenworth, 
Kansas. In the fall of 1869 he engaged in 
construction work on the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railroad, operating in the States of 
Kansas. Missouri and Texas, and the Indian 
Territory. He built, in all. two-thirds of this 
railway system, and later constructed portions 
also of the Galveston, Harrisburg & San An- 
tonio Railroad, and the Dennison & South- 
eastern Railroad. Meantime, while conduct- 
ing these extensive railway building opera- 
tions. Mr. Scullin had established his home 
in St. Kouis, and shortly after his coming here 
had become interested in street railway build- 
ing enterprises. He was interested in the con- 
struction of the Union Depot, Mound City, 
and Jefferson Avenue lines, but as an investor, 
rather than as a manager and operator. In 
1882 he was made general manager of the 
Mexican National Railroad, with headquarters 
in the City of Mexico, but returned to St. 
Louis the following year to become most 
prominently identified with the transportation 
interests of the city. Immediately after his 
return from Mexico, he was made president 
of the Wiggins Ferry Company, a position 
which he still retains. He has since then 
identified himself with many other enterprises, 
financial and otherwise, and has held official 
positions in the Mississippi Valley Trust Corn- 
pan v. the St. Louis National Bank, the St. 
Louis Trust Company, and other equally well 
known and well managed corporations. He 






£n^L 



SCULLIN— SEARS. 



2037 



is best known to the public, however, as a 
street railway owner and operator, and in this 
field of enterprise few men in the United States 
have attained greater celebrity. With the 
Union Depot line as a nucleus, he began build- 
ing up, some years since, what is now known 
as the Union Depot System of street railways, 
one of the most extensive in the United States. 
In 1898 its cars were carrying in the neigh- 
borhood of 2,000,000 passengers per month, 
and a liberal system of transfers enabled its 
patrons to ride from one end of the city to the 
other, by a choice of routes, for a single fare. 
The old Mound City Railway and the Benton- 
Bellefontaine line are now a part of this sys- 
tem, and many links and new lines have been 
constructed under Mr. Scullin's supervision 
and with the capital at his command. He has 
been president and chief executive officer of 
the corporation since this vast enterprise was 
formulated, and the system, as it exists to-day, 
is a monument to his broad capacity and finan- 
cial acumen. He married, in 1859, Miss Han- 
nah Perry, of Montreal, Canada, and has five 
children. His eldest son, Harry Scullin, is 
now vice-president of the Union Depot Rail- 
road Company. His eldest daughter is now 
Mrs. De Gest, of Paris, France, and his 
younger children are Frederick, Lenore, and 
Charles Scullin. 

Scullin, Harry, street railway manager, 
was born October 6, 1866, in Fort Leav- 
enworth, Kansas, son of John Scullin, the 
noted street railway owner and capitalist, of 
whom extended mention has been made in 
this connection in the preceding sketch. He 
was educated at St. John's College of New 
York and at St. Louis University. Leaving 
school when he was eighteen years of age, he 
spent the two years following on a stock ranch 
in the Indian Territory, and then came to St. 
Louis, where he accepted a clerkship in the 
office of the Union Depot Railway Company. 
In 1887 he assisted his father in construction 
j work on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. 
! Returning to St., Louis in 1888, he became 
! timekeeper and purchasing agent for the Jef- 
| Terson Avenue Street Railway, and in 1890 
: was made secretary of the company operating 
1 that line. In 1891 he was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the Union Depot Railway Company, 
and in 1892 became both vice-president and 
1 general manager of that corporation. In 
1 1895 ne was made president of the Grand Ave- 



nue Railroad, and has continued, up to the 
present time, to be prominently identified with 
the street railway interests of the city. As a 
street railway manager, he has shown marked 
executive ability and a thorough knowledge 
of everything pertaining to intramural railway 
traffic. December 26, 1887, Mr. Scullin mar- 
ried Miss Julia Frye Woodward, daughter of 
Frederick Woodward, and a near relative of 
the noted Carlin family of Illinois. Their 
children are Mary, Julia, Eugenia, and Lenore 
Scullin. 

Hears, Edmund Hamilton, educa- 
tor, was born April 20, 1852, in Wayland, 
Massachusetts, son of Rev. Dr. Edmund H. 
and Ellen (Bacon) Sears. His father was a 
well known clergyman of the Unitarian de- 
nomination, author of several religious works, 
of two famous Christmas hymns, and also of 
a historical romance, "Pictures of the Olden 
Time," in which he traced the first members 
of the Sears family who settled in America. 
The genealogical record of the family shows 
that it was founded in this country by Richard 
Sayer, or Sears, who came to Plymouth, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1829. Edmund H. Sears was 
fitted for college at the Boston Latin School, 
and entered Harvard University in 1870. As 
a collegian, he gave special attention to the 
Latin, Greek, French, and German languages 
and to history and political economy. He also 
took an active interest in college athletics, in 
which he was somewhat prominent. After 
graduating from Harvard in the class of 1874, 
he adopted teaching as his profession, and for 
a year thereafter was in Virginia doing mis- 
cellaneous school work. He then received an 
appointment to teach Latin and Greek in the 
University of California, located at Berkeley 
in that State. This position he held for eight 
years, and has always looked back to his ex- 
perience there with much satisfaction on ac- 
count of the time he was able to devote to spe- 
cial research, and also because of the benefit 
he derived from contact with a vigorous, 
growing and peculiarly interesting type of 
American civilization. In 1884 he returned 
to his native State, and, after spending a year 
in the study of history and literature, estab- 
lished a school for girls in Boston, which he 
conducted for six years. His experience there 
was interesting, but unsatisfactory, because the 
people of Boston patronize private schools al- 
most entirelv from social consideration, and a 



2038 



SECESSION" LEGISLATURE— SEDDON. 



school which is democratic and truly Ameri- 
can in spirit can not easily prosper in that held. 
As a result (if this condition of affairs, he was 
glad to abandon the school which he had es- 
tablished, and in [891 he came to St. Louis to 
take charge of Mary Institute, which he found 
to be far superior to any of the private schools 
for girls in Boston. Since his work here he- 
pan he has made many changes in the insti- 
tute, and has kept it in touch with the most ad- 
vanced educational thought of our age and 
country. An able, as well as an experienced, 
educator, he has made himself widely known 
throughout the West. In principles polit- 
ical .Mr. Sears is a Jeffersonian Democrat, but 
at the present time is chiefly interested in 
maintaining the gold standard of our national 
currency, and declares himself ready to vote 
with the party which is most trustworthy in 
financial matters. For many years he has 
been an active member of the New Jerusalem, 
or Swedenborgian, Church. He belongs also 
to the University Club and the Round Table. 
June [9, 1895, he married Miss Helen Clark 
Swazey, of Springfield, Massachusetts. Mrs. 
Sears is the daughter of George Washington 
Swazey, who was long the leading homeo- 
pathic physician of Western Massachusetts. 

Secession Legislature. — This was the 

name given to the Legislature convened at 
Neosho, Newton County, by Governor Clai- 
borne F. Jackson in the autumn of 1861, after 
he had abandoned the State capital because 
of his fear of being placed under arrest by the 
Federal authorities, and after his office had 
been declared vacant by a "Union" State con- 
vention, which established a provisional State 
government. Pursuant to Governor Jack- 
son's call, about forty representatives and 
something like a dozen Senators met in Ma- 
sonic Hall, in Neosho, October 21, 1 86 1 , and 
went through the form of effecting an organ- 
ization of each house, although less than a 
quorum of each body was present. Follow- 
ing this action, the Legislature remained in 
session until October 28th. an ordinance of 
secession and provisional union with the Con- 
federate States being the only important act 
passed. On the day last mentioned the Leg- 
islature adjourned to meet at Cassville. Barry 
County, October 31st following. It recon- 
vened on that date at Cassville and passed va- 
rious bills and resolutions and confirmed Gov- 
ernor Jackson's appointment of Sterling Price 



as major-general, and N. W. Watkins. Thomas 
A. Harris. A. E. Steen, [ohn B. Clark, W. V. 
Slack, M. M. Parsons, J. II. McBride, and 
lames S. Rains as brigadier-generals of the 
Missouri militia. This session ended Novem- 
ber 7th, and another session was to have been 
held in New Madrid in March, 1862, but be- 
fore that time arrived, all hope of committing 
Missouri to the secession movement was aban- 
doned. (See also "Politics" and "Civil War.") 

Secret Service. — A branch of the gov- 
ernment secret service is maintained in St. 
Louis under the auspices of the United States 
Treasury I )epartment. Its chief duty is to 
seek out and bring to justice those engaged 
in making or circulating counterfeit money. 

Secret Societies. — See "Masons," "( >dd 
Fellows," etc. 

Seddoil, James A., lawyer, was born 
March 9. 1850, in Richmond, Virginia, son of 
the distinguished lawyer and statesman, James 
Alexander Seddon, who represented the Rich- 
mond district in Congress prior to the Civil 
War. served as member of the Peace Conven- 
tion, which met in Washington in February 
of 1861, and later was Secretary of War of the 
Confederate government. He is descended 
in the paternal line from John Seddon. of 
Lancashire, England, who settled in Stafford 
County. Virginia, in colonial days, and his 
mother, whose maiden name was Sarah Bruce, 
also came of an old Virginia family. He was 
educated at the University of Virginia, from 
which institution he was graduated with the 
degree of master of arts. He then completed 
the course of study in the law department of 
the University, from which he received the 
degree of bachelor of laws. In December of 
1N72 he came to St. Louis, and the year fol- 
lowing was admitted to the bar of this city. 
He entered at once upon the practice of his 
profession, and soon demonstrated that he had 
inherited much of the genius of his distin- 
guished father, and that he had made choice 
of a calling to which he was admirably adapted. 
In later years, he formed a partnership with 
James L. Blair, son of General Frank P. Blair, 
an association which is historically interest- 
ing by reason of the fact that it brought to- 
gether tin- sons of two of the most distin- 
guished men of the war period, one a Federal, 
and the other a Confederate leader. Mr. Sed- 



SEHON— SENTKR. 



2039 



don has since been head of the firm of Seddon 
& Blair, and having given special attention to 
commercial law, has become recognized as 
one of the foremost members of the bar of 
Missouri in that branch of practice. In 1887 
Mr. Seddon was appointed Judge of the Cir- 
cuit Court of St. Louis by Governor Marma- 
duke to fill out the unexpired term of Tudge 
Amos Thayer, and graced the bench as he has 
honored his profession in the active practice 
of law. Politically he has always been identi- 
fied with the Democratic party, but has been 
too much devoted to his profession to take an 
active interest in politics. In person and man- 
ners, he is a typical Virginian, a genial gen- 
tleman, as well as an accomplished lawyer. 
He married, in 1888, Miss Louise Quarles 
Scott, of St. Louis, who died in 1894, leaving 
two children — Bruce and Scott Seddon. 

SellOn, Edmund W., clergyman, was 
an eloquent preacher in Ohio, and was a spe- 
cial transfer to Missouri to serve the Meth- 
odist Church in St. Louis in 1833. lie re- 
mained only one year, and then returned to 
Ohio, and was prominent in the Methodism 
of Cincinnati. He was in the General Con- 
ference of 1844, out of which grew the Louis- 
ville Convention that formed the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. He was born and 
reared and commenced his ministry in West 
Virginia, and, though a delegate at the Xew 
York General Conference in 1844, he voted 
with the South in all matters of contention. 
In 1845 he adhered to the Southern organiza- 
tion, and established a congregation of the 
M. E. Church, South, in Cincinnati in a leased 
Presbyterian house of worship. From Cin- 
cinnati he went to Louisville, Kentucky; 
served two congregations there ; was then 
elected missionary secretary, which office he 
filled till after 1862— eighteen years in all. 
He died in Louisville, June 7. 1876. He was 
a man of splendid personal appearance, an elo- 
quent and popular preacher and charming 
platform speaker. His election to the mis- 
sionary secretaryship occurred in St. Louis at 
|the General Conference of 1850. 

Self Culture Hall Association.— 

See "Ethical Societv of St. Louis." 



Seminole 

Seminoles." 



War.— See "War With the 



Senter, William Marshall, who has 

long been one of the mot prominent 11. 
gaged in the cotton trade of the United States, 
was born April 11. 1831, a t Lexington, Ten 
nessee. His father was a prosperous farmer, 
and until lie was eighteen years of age the 
son assisted the elder Senter on the farm, -I. 

taming, in the meantime, a g 1 common 

school education. Leaving the farm at that 
age, he served an apprenticeship to the dry 
goods business at Trenton, Tennessee, and 
then embarked in the same business at that 
place on his own account. In 1863 he re- 
moved to Columbus. Kentucky, and from 
there came a year later to St. Louis, where he 
entered a broad field of enterprise, to which 
he has proven himself remarkably well 
adapted. The cotton market of St. Louis was 
then in its infancy, the war having temporarily 
diverted a portion of the trade in that staple 
to this city. His attention being attracted in 
this direction, Mr. Senter became impressed 
with the idea that this traffic could be re- 
tained. Notwithstanding the fact that the re- 
ceipts of cotton fell off materially during the 
years immediately following the close of the 
war, he continued to be firm in tihis belief and 
labored intelligently and industriously to bring 
about a -realization of his hopes and predic- 
tions. In 1870 he helped to organize the Cot- 
ton Association, and three years later was 
one of the moving spirits in founding the pres- 
ent Cotton Exchange, of which he was first 
vice-president. Diligent and well directed ef- 
forts to build up the cotton trade of St. Louis 
ultimately began to show satisfactory results, 
and during the year 1871-2 there was an in- 
crease, in round numbers, of sixteen thousand 
bales in Itihe St. Louis receipts. The comple- 
tion of the Iron Mountain Railroad opened a 
highway to the rich cotton fields of Arkansas 
and Texas, and gave a great stimulus to the 
trade. Then it was proposed by Colonel 
Paramore to build a gigantic cotton compress 
in this city, and Mr. Senter became an a 
colaborer in this enterprise. As a result, the 
St. Louis Cotton Compress Company was or- 
ganized, which has since operated the largest 
compress and warehouse in the world. Mr. 
Senter was made vice-president of this corpo- 
ration in the beginning and for nearly a score 
of years he has been its president. For some 
years he was a director of the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, and later he was a member of the 
directorate and vice-president of the corpora- 



SESSINGHAUS— SEVEN WISE MEN. 



tii hi which constructed the railway known as 
the "G tton Bell Linle," and was one of the 
mosl active promoters of that enterprise. 
Since St. Louis has 'been .one of the recognized 
cotton marts of the country, the house of 
which Mr. Santer has been the head has 
handled vast quantities of cotton, the magni- 
tude of its business giving it first place among 
tin- cotton houses of the United States. Mr. 
Senter served man)- years as president of the 
Cotton Exchange and has also 'been vice-pres- 
ident of the Merchants' Exchange. 

Srssinyhiiiis, Theodore, manufactur- 
er, was born June 15. 1836, in W'ernsdheid, 
near Cologne, Genmany, and died in St. Louis, 
February 14, 1898. He was the son of Fred- 
erick W. and Wilhelmina (Wernseheid) Ses- 
singhaus, worthy people, the last named of 
whom catmie of an < old ami wealthy German 
family. His father was a miller and baker, 
and the son, as he grew up, learned something 
of the business in which he achieved a large 
measure of success in later years, and which 
made his name a familiar one to thousands of 
people. As a hoy he first attended school at 
Lingen, Germany, and afterward at the gym- 
nasium at Gummersbach. At the last named 
institution he pursued a course of study simi- 
lar to that of the high schools of American 
cities, gaining a good knowledge of the higher 
mathematics and also of the French and Eng- 
lish languages. Leaving school when he was 
something under fifteen years of age, he be- 
gan teaming the hardware business in the 
store of his uncle, Theodore Sessinghaus, at 
Voerde, Germany. He remained there four 
years, quitting his uncle's employ in 1856 to 
come to this country. He left Germany on 
the 17th of April of that year, and June 12th 
following arrived in St. Louis, to which place 
his father and brothers had preceded him. 
Here In- entered the employ of Otto Monnig, 
"in- of the old hardware merchants of St 
Louis. After working for him -for tour 
months, he joined his brothers, Charles and 
William, in the Hour runl feed business, and 
in this way became identified with the trade in 
which lie has since been conspicuously suc- 
cessful. \: the death of his brother, Charles 
Sessinghans, in 1863, Theodore Sessinghaus 
purchased the flouring mill, which had been 
operated therel if ore In the linn of Siemens & 
Sessinghaus, and at once associated with him- 
self his brothers, Gustavus ami Frederick 



The linn thus constituted took the name of 
Sessinghaus Bros., and their partnership con- 
tinued until 18S0. when the Sessinghaus Mill- 
ing Company was incorporated. Theodore 
Sessinghaus became president of this corpora- 
tion and until his death was the recognized head 
of a business Which has grown to very large 
proportions, and which made Mr. Sessinghaus 
very widely known to the flour manufacturing 
interests of the country and to the dealers in 
that commodity. He was long an influential 
manufacturer, being recognized as a man who 
made a close study of his business and made 
himself thoroughly familiar with all the fea- 
tures of the trade. In St. Louis he was known 
also as an influential member of the Mer- 
chants' Exchange, a man of sterling integrity 
and high character. He was a public man in 
the sense in which merchants and manufac- 
turers, whose names become familiar to large 
numhers of people, are public men, but from 
the time he became a resident of St. Louis his 
attention was given to business affairs and he 
held no political or other public office. The 
Civil War found him a staunch Unionist, and 
he served during that period as a member of 
one of the Home Guard companies of St. 
Louis, acting politically with the Republican 
part\-. Tie was ever after a member of that 
party, interesting -himself in promoting its suc- 
cess and the dissemination of its doctrines, but 
declining all proffers of political preferment. 
He was a member of the Order of Odd Fellows, 
having filled, at different times, all the offices 
in the lodge to which he belonged, and for 
man\- years was a member also of the Ancient 
' )rder of United Workmen. He married, in 
[865, Miss Bertha C. Kayser, of St. Louis, and 
had six children living at the time of his death. 

Seven Wise Men. — A secret benevolent 
and fraternal order, which is said to have orig- 
inated in New Orleans in 1852. Henry 
Bishop, who had been a member of the order 
in Xew Orleans, instituted a conclave in 1853, 
and in 1851) the Grand Conclave of Missouri 
»rgan'ized. For a time the order flour- 
ished in St. Louis, but during the Civil War 
its membership diminished materially, and the 
Northern conclaves declared their independ- 
ence of the Southern head of the order. For 
some years after the war there were three conj 
claves in St. Louis, but in later years the name 
of the order ceased to appear in published lists 
of fraternal organizations. 



SEWER COMMISSIONER— SEWER SYSTEM OF ST. LOUIS. 



2041 



Sewer Commissioner. — An officer ap- 
pointed by the mayor and boldling office for 
four years, who has under his special charge 
the construction, repairs and cleaning o>f all 
public, district sewers, inters, manholes and 
other appurtenances belonging thereto. Un- 
der the earlier city charters the sewers were 
included in the city engineer's department, the 
officer having special charge of them being 
called superintendent of sewers. William 
Wise was the first superintendent, and he was 
appointed to that office in i860. The office of 
sewer commissioner was created under the 
present charter, and Robert Moore became the 
first sewer commissioner in 1877. (See also 
"Sewer System of St. Louis.") 

Sewer System of St. Louis. — The 

sewer system of St. Louis, as established by 
the city charter, consists of three classes of 
sewers : public sewers, as main sewers and 
along the principal courses of drainage, which 
are paid for from general revenue ; district 
sewers, made within the limits of districts es- 
tablished by ordinance, the cost of which is as- 
sessed against the lots in proportion to area ; 
and private sewers, made by permission Of the 
board of public improvements and the sewer 
commissioner, at 'the cost of the owner. 

No better idea can be obtained of the drain- 
age facilities of the city than is to be gathered 
from the report of the board of public improve- 
ments of May 18, 1878, of which the following 
is a synopsis : 

"St. Louis is admirably situated for drain- 
age. Its sewers discharge into a river whose 
rapid current and immense volume dilute and 
remove the sewage matter before it bas time 
to work any injury to the public health. In 
this respect St. Louis is much more fortunate 
than many other large cities, whose drainage 
goes into bodies of water without current, in 
which, from the effects of the wind or tide, the 
sewage matter may be retained for a long time 
in dangerous proximity to the city. More- 
over, the formation of the ground is such that 
the sewers may, as a rule, be built with steep 
grades. This gives the double advantage of 
enabling the Work to be done with smaller 
conduits and of securing a current sufficiently 
rapid to clean the sewers without resort to 
flushing or manual labor. The only thing 
which in any way complicates the drainage of 
St. Louis is found in the many sink-holes 
which abound in the more elevated parts of the 
67 



city. The 'whole city is underlaid with a bed 
of limestone, -Which is broken in many places 
by fissures and seams. The surface water, 
finding its way through some vertical fissure, 
carries off more or less of the superincumbent 
earth, and gradually forms a conical indenta- 
tion in the ground. These indentations en- 
large and deepen until the apex of the cone 
reaches the nock, and the inclination of its 
sides becomes such that the water, in passing 
over it, no longer abrades the surface. When, 
from any cause, the fissure which has caused 
the formation of the sink-hole gets stopped up 
a pond is formed. These ponds, though at 
first harmless, become, as the country around 
them is built up, the receptacles of organic 
refuse and are the sources of disease. As a 
rule, it is found impracticable to keep them 
permanently open, and the only certain mode 
of removing the Water is either to fill them up, 
or to drain them by sewers. This, in many 
cases, makes necessary the construction of 
very deep sewers, and calls also for the more 
rapid extension of the system than the wants 
of the populaton would otherwise require." 

The following account of the sewer system 
of St. Louis, so far as it had been completed 
at the time of the adoption of the Scheme and 
Charter, is gleaned from the report of Robert 
Moore, seJwer commissioner, in 1878: 

"This system had its origin in the year 1849. 
For, though the city had built a number of 
small drains across the wharf to diralin the 
property between Main and Front Streets, and 
had authorized a number of private persons to 
construct like drain's at their own expense, 
nothing like a general plan or system had 
ever been adopted up to this time. But in this 
year, March 12, 1849, the General Assembly 
of the State passed 'An act to provide a gen- 
eral system of sewerage in the city of St. 
Louis.' Section 1 of this act directs the city 
authorities to 'cause by ordinance the city to 
be laid off into districts to be drained by prin- 
cipal and lateral or tributary sewers, having 
reference to a general plan of drainage by 
sewers for the whole city, and number and 
record the same.' Section 2 reads as follows : 
'Whenever a majority of the owners of real es- 
tate within any district shall petition for the 
construction of the sewers in the said district, 
the city council shall have power by ordinance 
to levy and collect a special tax on the real es- 
tate within said district so drained, not to ex- 
ceed one-half of one per centum per annum 



2042 



SEWER SYSTEM OF ST. LOUIS. 



on the assessed value of real estate, for the pur- 
pose of constructing -aid sewers, which tax 
shall lie annual!;, levied and collected as other 
city taxes, and shall constitute a lien on the 
i ■..' . ,i -m which it is assessed, and shall 
hi' ir tillered until the debt 

1 thereby .-'nail have been fully paid.' 
In August of the -time year, 1S40, .after the fail- 
tire o'i i drain 'Kayser's Lake.' 
in what was then the northwestern part .if the 

■ i sink-holes, there was p; 
an ordinance — No. 228] — .authorizing the con- 
struction of a sewer on Biddle Street, from 
Ninth Street t" the Mississippi River, and 
providing for the issue and sal'- of $50,000 in 
bonds to pay the cost thereof. In March, 
[850, this work was put under contract, Peter 
Brooks being the contractor, and Bernard 
Pratte, Samuel < Tity, Edward Walsh, J. B. 
Brant, and John O'Fallon securities, and was 

completed during the next year, at 1 
to the city of $112,843.12. Meantime, in July 
and August, [850, three ordinances were 
passed to carry into effect the provisions of 
: of March 12. 1849, just quoted. Two 
se- Ordinance 2,485 and 2514 — provide 
in addition to the Middle Street sewer. 
already established and in progress, there 
should be a large sewer on Poplar 5 
where it would receive the drainage from 
eau's Pond to the river: and also three 
other tributary sewers — one on Seventh Street 
running north into Biddle Street sewer; 
and two on Ninth Street, running, one into 
Biddle Street sewer, and the other into Pop- 
lar Street sewer. These five main sewers were 
initiated 'Public Sewers.' and were to be 
paid for by the city at large. The territory 
bounded north by Biddle Street, south by Pop- 
lar Street, east by the river, and west by Ninth 
Street, was then subdivided into districts, 
numbered from one up to thirty-three, each of 
which was t • be drained by what wa- denomi- 
nated a 'district, 1 nr ramoii, e cost 
if which was to be assessed up' m the dt 
drained in the manner set forth in the third or- 
dinance. This ordinance — No. 2,498 — pro- 
vides for the issuing of what were to be called 
'common sewer bond.-.' th'e proceeds ■ >1 
were to be used for the construction of district 
sewers and fi ir the le\ j ing 1 >f a tax annually 
upon the real estate within the district until the 
bonds issued for said district were extin- 
guished. This system remained without 
change for nearly ten war-, during which a 



number of sewers were built, and a cor- 
beling number of sewer bonds issued 
There was an ordinance, however — No. 4,306, 
approved January 15,1859 — which so far mod- 
ified the mode of payment as to allow the 
property owner to pay at once his whole share 

e, i-t 1 if the sewer, and bee erne 
exempted from the special tax for the liquida- 
tion of sewer bonds. With this modifi 
th ■ tern w mid seem t> 1 have been a \ ( ry 
go d one : bu1 it d »es n <t appear to have given 

f ir. in the amended 
proved March 14. [859, the whole system of 
paving for district sewers by mean- of b inds 
and an annual tax was abandoned for that now 
in force, b_\ which, after the completion of a 
cer, the whole c si is assess* 1 at 
once up mi the separate lots composing the dis- 
trict, in proportion to their area, and the spe- 
cial t.i x " bills given to the contractor in pay- 
ment for his work, he collecting them for his 
own use without the intervention of any city 
officer, or any payment into or out of the city 
treasury. Luring the same year, by ordi- 
nance No. 4.535. there was established for the 
first time a department of the city government 
styled t!te 'sewer department.' presided over 
l>v a committee of the city council, called the 
sewer committee, upon whom was devolved 
eire charge, maintenance and extension 
of the -ewer system, the city engineer being 
reduced to tile position of chief executive offi- 
cer of the sewer committee, with no powers 
except to earn out their instructions. This 
organization remained without material 
change up to the year 1877, when tlie present 
r went into effect, and even this made 
hardly any change, except to vest the man- 
agement of the sewers in the sewer eomniis- 
• and board of public improvements in 
place of the .-ewer committee." 

Since then no change in the system has 
been made, but the lack of funds necessary to 
extend public .-ewer- has induced a policy to 
establish large districts embracing entire wa- 
tersheds of from 100 to 600 acres, including 
the main stems within such districts, as a part 
of the district sewers. Under this rule, large 
areas have hern sewered which otherwise 
would ha^e waited indefinitely under aggra- 
vating unsanitary conditions. The assess- 
ments, of course, are proportionately higher, 
but the immediate benefits more than compen- 
sate and the method appears to be entirely 
actory to the property owners. The first 



SEWER SYSTEM OF ST. LOUIS. 



2043 



work of this kind was done in Yandeventer 
Avenue sewer district No. I, between Grand 
Avenue and Sarah Street, and west of Sarah 
Street from Duncan Avenue to St. Ferdinand 
Avenue, embracing 525 acres. The district 
was first established by ordinance No. 13,076. 
approved December 20, 1884, but opening al- 
leys and other preparations delayed the begin- 
ning of the work until June 22, 1886. It was 
completed December r, 1888, at a cost of 
$243,336.09. The length of the sewers, rang- 
ing in size from 12-inCh pipe to 81-2 feet in 
diameter, was 16.74 miles. 

A similar district adjoining on the west of 
the above mentioned, reaching to Taylor Ave- 
nue — West Mill Creek sewer district Xo. 4 — 
embracing 443 acres, with 14.65 miles 01 sew- 
ers, ranging from 12-inch pipe to 8 1-2 feet in 
diameter, was completed June 17, 1S92. An- 
other district, between Taylor Avenue and 
King's Highway, from Pine Street, northwest 
to Garfield Avenue — Euclid Avenue sewer dis- 
trict No. 1 — with 16.08 miles of sewers, rang- 
ing from 12-inoh pipe to 9 feet in diameter, 
draining 596 acres, was completed July 23, 
1897. Two other districts west of the above 
mentioned, to wit : Clarendon Avenue sewer 
district Xo. 3, with 102 acres, and Hodiamont 
Avenue sewer district Xo. 1, with 206 acres, 
are now in Course of con struct ion and nearly 
completed. 

In the southern part of the city two dis- 
tricts, draining the whole watersheds above the 
terminus of the public sewers, have recently 
been finished, to wit: the Southern sewer dis- 
trict No. 1, from Cherokee Street northwardly 
to Sidney Street, and between Louisiana Ave- 
nue and Spring Avenue, with 7.92 miles of 
sewers, draining 205,94 acres ; and Duncan 
Avenue sewer district No. 2, between Boyle 
Avenue and King's Highway, and Scott Ave- 
nue and Gibson Avenue, with 3.43 miles of 
sewer, draining 102.55 acres. Other large dis- 
tricts of this class are being prepared, and the 
system will be extended as fast as the neces- 
sary streets and alleys are opened. 

All the drainage of the city is direct into the 
Mississippi River, north of about Garfield 
Avenue, or North Market Street ; thence the 
dividing ridge between the Mississippi and 
Des Peres Rivers, runs southwardly along and 
near Taylor Avenue to the Wabash railroad ; 
thence on King's Highway to Manchester 
Avenue to the Pacific railroad ; along and near 
Tower Grove Ayenue, from the Missouri Pa- 



cific railroad to Arsenal Street ; along and near 
the Old Manchester road, thence a short dis- 
tance south of Arsenal Street, ea'stwardly to 
Spring Avenue ; thence southwardly along 
Spring Avenue 'to Gravois Avenue, south of 
Gravois Avenue along Grand Avenue to near 
Meramec Street, and south of Menaimec Street 
irregularly a few blocks west of Virginia Ave- 
nue. The drainage west of Taylor Avenue, 
tributary to the Des Peres River, north o'f For- 
est Park, is provided with an intercepting 
sewer, receiving all the foul waiter, or dry- 
weather flow, so that all the pollution of the 
river, through Forest Park, if any, must come 
from beyond the city limits. This sewer dis- 
charges into Mill Creek sewer, on Sarah Street 
and Pine Street, running on Pine Street to 
Euclid Avenue, Where it receives the ordinary 
dry-weather flow Of Euclid Avenue sewer dis- 
tricts Xo. 1 and Xo. 2 — nearly 700 acres — and 
by an automatic gate, this discharge is cut off 
when the storm-water rises to a certain height, 
so that the whole is discharged through an 
outlet sewer into the Des Peres River at a 
time when that stream is at flood height, car- 
rying with it what little foul water may remain. 
From Euclid Avenue and Pine Street, the in- 
tercepting sewer is continued westwardly on 
Pine Street, and through Forest Park to Lin- 
dell Avenue and Lake Avenue, with a branch 
on Lake Avenue northwardly to McPherson 
Avenue, intercepting the nine and one-half foot 
Clarendon Avenue sewcJr about 300 feet west 
of Lake Avenue. Thence it continues west- 
wardly on Lindeil Avenue, Union Boulevard 
and DeGivervlille Avenue, to DeBaliviere Ave- 
nue, with a branch on the latter ; northwardly 
to near Delmar Boulevard, to receive the foul 
water drainage from the sewer to be made in 
the valley between Belt Avenue and Hamilton 
Avenue. Thence it continues westwardly and 
northwardly along the Wabash railroad, Del- 
mar Boulevard and Hodiamont Avenue,, to 
Horton Place, where it intercepts the main 
stem of the Hodiamont Avenue sewer district 
No. 1, and receives on its way the tributary 
sewers of the same district, thus draining all 
the dry-weather flow north of the Wabash rail- 
road within the city limits tributary to the 
Des Peres River; and it will eventually be ex- 
tended, whenever necessary, to reach Other 
territory west and north of Forest Park. 

The drainage of that part of the city along 
Des Peres River is a matter requiring further 
legislation, as it affects territory beyond the 



2044 



SEWER SYSTEM OF ST. LOUIS. 



city limits, and should not be delayed much 
longer, especially that portion from Forest 
Park southwardly 'through the inhabited dis- 
trict. The system which will probably be 
adopbed will be to straighten and shape the 
channel of the river for the storm-water tl<:>>\. 
with an intercepting sewer along the side to 
carry off the foul water. The northern sub- 
urbs will also require attention, as Harlem 
Creek and Gingras Creek are becoming intol- 
erable through the inhabited portion of their 
courses. 

The sewerage of the old part of the city 
where the first sewers were made, has become 
unsatisfactory on account of the inadequate 
depth, since modern first-class buildings re- 
quire deeper drainage. But this has so far 
been remedied by private sewers, draining into 
the tunnel sewer on Eighth Street, and the 
customhouse sewer, on Ninth Street, both of 
which are deep enough for all purposes: and a 
system could be adopted to reconstruct and 
lower all sewers tributary to 'these deep sewers. 
Xearly every street terminating at the Missis- 
sippi River along the central part of the city 
is provided with a sewer. The public sewers 
discharging directly into the river, with size 
at their outlet, and the areas drained and trib- 
utary thereto, are tabulated as follows: 



KntQe 
M ill C 
l'.,,,la, 
Biddle 



^Ireet Sewer 




Street Sewer 




e Street Sewei .... 




in Si ivei 












Streel Sewer 




SI i . . t >. wei .... 




in Street Se%ver .... 






i 1 ^ 5'A 






Stl ' — ivei ... 




street Sewer 




eek Sewei 


,0 N |(j 


Mr., l -.run ... 


I .', retlti. . .1 1 1 . i 


St reel Sewei 




ers Street Sewei 




Street Sewei .... 


1'. ^ '.- 






ii \ Stn el Sewer . . . 


\ 1 


i A.VI n u. Sewer . , 


1 x =, 






Avenue -..«.•: .... 


8 



15,560 



There are also about twenty-five intermedi- 
ate ill rs, draining small areas direct- 
ly int. > the river, between Chouteau \v. nue and 
B-n rkh ■! Street. I if the ab nv menti >ned 

-. the Mil! 1 - deserves 

mention. This sewer, ilie largest in the city, 
dnainfi aboul 6,400 acres, 1 1 ten square miles. 



At its outlet, on LaSalle Street, it is 23 1-2 x 

14 feet, for a distance of 82 feet, and cost, in- 
cluding reconstruction, $7,916.42. Thence, 
for a distance of 563 feet, its dimensions are 
20 x 16 feet, representing an outlay of $80,- 
621.97; thence. 20 x 15 1-2 feet, for a distance 
of 797 feet, costing $77,956.79 ; thence 20 x 15 
feet, for a distance of 14.947 feet, costing $1,- 
1 >j< 1.344.62 : thence, 18 x 15 feet, for a distance 
of 3,235 feet, and 14 x 12 feet, for a distance of 
761 feet, costing $172,369.20; thence, 12 feet 
in diameter, for a distance of 1,382 feet, costing 
$26,974.91 ; thence, 10 1-2 feet in diameter, for 
a distance of 1,783 feet, costing $37,013.05; 
and thence, 10 feet in diameter, for a distance 
of 1,627 feet, costing $26,036.84; with a total 
length of 25.177 feet, or 4.77 miles, and repre- 
senting a total outlay of $1,499,233.80. It 
terminates as a public sewer at McPherson and 
Whittier Streets, and thence it is extended as a 
district sewer, beginning with 81-2 feet di- 
ameter, and ending with 2x3 feet on New- 
stead and Cottage Avenues, a distance of 1.65 
miles. The sewer was commenced in i860, 
and completed to Whittier street in 1891, at a 
cost, as above stated, of $1,499,233.80. The 
capacity of the sewer has proven inadequate 
in time- . if i xceedingly heavy rainfalls, as wit- 
by overflows in low places along its 

route. This is being remedied by the con- 
struction of a relief sewer from the intersec- 
tion of Thurman Boulevard and Park Avenue, 
westwardly on Park Avenue, and between the 
M issi >uri Pacific and the St. Louis & San Fran- 
cisco railroads, to the Des Peres River, di- 
verting in that stream the storm-water of about 
1. 1 '5" acres south of Park Avenue, the dry- 
weather (low only being continued to Mill 
Creek sewer. The cut-off alt the junction of 
Park Avenue and Thurman Boulevard will be 
made similar to that described at Pine Street 
and Euclid Avenue. This relief sewer is 12 i-2x 

15 feet in diameter, and is constructed from the 
I >' - Teres River eastwardly 2,830 feet, at a 
cost Of S55.745.87. To finish the work, a 
length of about 2,950 feet will be compara- 
tively more expensive, as it will go through a 

;it and rock excavation. The estimated 
ab. mt $100,000. Further relief can be 

plished by constructing the Poplar 
Street sewer, and intercepting the sewers on' 
Eighth, Ninth. Tenth, Twelfth, Eighteenth 
ami Twentieth Streets, cutting off from Mill 
Creek sewer about 1,000 acres. This proposed 
sewer was one of the first attempted, and soon 



SEXTON. 



after the constructon of the Biddle Street 
sewer, a section 12 feet in diameter from the 
river to Second Street, and another 15 feet in 
diameter from the -alley between Broadway 
and Sixth Street, westwardly to Ninth Street, 
was const riveted. The work was then aban- 
doned as impracticable on account of very 
troublesome quicksands. But it is now con- 
ceded that, with modern appliances, the sewer 
can be made without extraordinary difficulties 
at an expense of about $300,000. 

The preparing of plans for the extension of 
the sewer system is now very much facilitated 
by a topographical survey, made under the au- 
thority of ordinance No. 14,846, approved 
March 21, 1889. The survey was made by Mr. 
B. H. Colby, the present sewer commissioner, 
beginning in 1889, and finished in 1897. It 
is very complete and satisfactory. 

The total length, area drained, and cost of 
sewers in St. Louis, up to date, is as follows: 





5 S 
iJ 


013 

< H 

gn 

< 


* -a - 




4^3-89 


n.470 


i 5,928,531.7s 
5,164,031.16 


District sewers 


To which may be ndded for pri- 
vate sewers of a permanent 
character — cost unknown — 
approximately 


4S6 00 


11,470 
530 








l?,ooo 


Si 1.092.562 8S 



The following officers have been in charge 
of the sewer work in St. Louis since the begin- 
ning O'f the system : Samuel R. Curtis, city 
engineer, from 1850 to 1853 ; Henry Kayser, 
city engineer, from 1853 to 1855 ; J. B. Moul- 
ton, city engineer, from 1855 to 1856 ; Henry 
Kayser, city engineer, from 1856 to 1857; F. 
Hassendeubel, city engineer, from 1857 to 
i860 ; T. J. Horner, city engineer, and William 
Wise, superintendent of sewers, from i860 to 
1867; Ferd BischofT, city engineer, and Will- 
iam Wise, superintendent of sewers, from 1867 
to 1871 ; J. B. Moulton, city engineer, and 
William Wise, superintendent of sewers, from 
1871 to 1875 ; Walter Katte, city engineer, 
and William Wise, superintendent of sewers, 
1875 t° l &7&\ Charles Pfeifer, city engineer, 
and William Wise, superintendent of sewers, 
from 1876*0 1877; Robert Moore, sewer com- 
missioner, and William Wise, assistant sewer 
commissioner, from 1877 to 1881 ; William 
Wise, sewer commissioner, and Julius Moul- 



ton, assistant sewer commissioner, from 1881 
to 1883 ; Robert E. McMath, sewer commis- 
sioner, and William Wise, assistant sewer 
commissioner, from 1883 to 1891 ; R. R. 
Southard, sewer commissioner, and William 
Wise, assistant sewer commissioner, from 1891 
to 1895, and B. H. Colby, sewer commissioner, 
and William Wise, assistant sewer commis- 
sioner, from 1895 to the present time — 1899. 
William Wise. 

Sexton, Henry Clay, was born March 
29, 1828, in Wheeling, West Virginia, and 
died in St. Louis, December 31 1893. His 
parents were John and Phoebe Sexton, and 
the family to which he belonged settled in 
Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, his 
immigrant ancestor having been among the 
earliest colonists of that region. After gradu- 
ating from the Wheeling High School, in 
1844, Mr. Sexton followed his father's occu- 
pation, which was that of contractor and 
builder, until 1857, the family having in the 
meantime removed to St. Louis. In 1857 he 
was made chief of the old volunteer fire de- 
partment of this city, and in that capacity be- 
came widely known throughout the country. 
He was distinguished for his courage and 
bravery, good judgment and his kindness at 
heart. The men who served under him in the 
fire department were devotedly attached to 
him, for, although he was a strict disciplin- 
arian, he was always generous and forbearing. 
After the great Chicago fire of 1871 he was 
offered a salary of $15,000 a year to take 
charge of the fire department of that city, but 
declined the offer, preferring to remain in St. 
Louis. From 1862 to 1875, in company with 
his brother, John Sexton, he carried on a large 
contracting and building business in St. Louis, 
erecting many of the principal buildings of 
that era, among which were the Republican 
Building, the City Hospital, the House of In- 
dustry and others. He was collector of water 
rates in St. Louis during the administration of 
Mayor King. In 1862 General Schofield re- 
moved him from the position of chief of the 
fire department and confined him in the Gra- 
tiot Street Prison as a Southern sympathizer. 
He was reappointed chief in 1869, and held the 
office until 1885, when he resigned to become 
collector of internal revenue, which office he 
filled during President Cleveland's first ad- 
ministration. In his early life he was a Whig 
in politics, but later became a Democrat, and 



2046 



SHAFFNER— SHAMROCK SOCIETY 



continued to affiliate with that party as long 
as he lived. A member of the Southern 
Methodist Church, he was a devout Christian, 
and for many years was superintendent of the 
Mound Sunday-school. He was a member of 
the Masonic order, of the Legion of Honor, 
of the order of Elks, and a Knight of St. Pat- 
rick. July 4. 1850, he married Miss Sara La- 
vania Lyon, at Davenport, Iowa. The sur- 
viving children born of this union are Mrs. 
Jennie McCaw, Mrs. Addue Maxwell. .Mrs. 
Lavania Salter and Henry Clay Sexton. 

Shaffner, Louis II., was born in St. 
Louis, Missouri, April 10, 1842, son of Jacob 
and Eliza Shaffner. The elder Shaffner, a 
coppersmith by trade, and a native of Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, located in St. Louis at an early- 
date. After acquiring a practical education 
in the public schools- of St. Louis young 
Shaffmr served an apprenticeship to the car- 
penter's trade with Samuel C. McCormack, 
a contractor and builder. In 1874 he en- 
gaged in contracting and building on his 
own account, and is still engaged in that busi- 
ness, lie frequently employs 100 carpenters 
at a time, besides other labor in the prosecu- 
tion of his building contracts. Among the 
noted buildings erected by him is the Bow- 
man Dairy Company Block, Sixteenth and 
Franklin Avenue. He devotes most of his 
time to the construction of private dwellings, 
among which are many of the finest residences 
in St. Louis, lie is a good judge of real es- 
tate and other property, and has been fre- 
quently called upon by his neighbors to adju- 
dicate values. lie resides in his original 
homestead, which he has occupied continu- 
ous!) for thirty-seven years. Mr. Shaffner. 
dining the war, was engaged in rebuilding 
bridges of the Xorih Missouri Railroad, de- 
stroyed by the armies. lie is a Democrat, 
and has been a member of the Democratic 
committee in his precinct, and a judge of elec- 
tion. I le is a Methodist in religious belief and 
prominent as a member of the Masonic or- 
der, the Knights of Honor and the Legion of 
Honor. Mr. Shaffner has been twice mar- 
ried; first, to Miss Cora Ulray, of St. Louis, 
in r876. Mrs. Cora Shaffner died in March, 
[887, leaving six children— Eva (deceased), 
Belle, Daisy, wife of Charles Spiers; Louis S.. 
\rtliur and Alfred Shaffner. I lis second mar- 
riage was with Miss Rose Paine, of St. Louis. 



in 1889. Two children have been born of this 

marriage — Rose Ann and Mary Shaffner. 

Shakespearean Anniversary. — An 

interesting event took place in St. Louis, April 
23, [864, being the celebration of the three 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of Shake- 
speare, for tin- benefit of the Mississippi Valley 
Sanitary Fair. It was held in Mercantile Li- 
brary Hall. Locust and Fifth Streets, and was 
presided over by Major-General William 
Rosecrans, commanding the department. It 
was the mi >st noted amateur entertainment 
ever given in the city. It opened with Men- 
delssohn-Bartholdy's overture to "Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream," with a full orchestra 
conducted by Charles Balmer. followed by a 
reading from "As You Like It." by Judge 
Wilson Primm. A recitation from "Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream" was then given by .Miss 
< Ictavia Wetmore, a teacher in the public 
schools, and a young woman of decided his- 
trionic talents. There were in the first part 
readings from "Hamlet." "Othello" and 
"Julius ( acsar," by A. W. Alexander. J. B. 
Pearson and M. B. Denman. The second 
part, which also opened with an overture, was 
even more attractive. In this Dr. C. \Y. 
Stev* lis, superintendent of the County Insane 
Asylum ; Rev. Montgomery Schuyler, dean of 
Christ Church Cathedral; the veteran actor, 
Sol. Smith ; United States Senator Charles D. 
Drake, R. J. Morgan and Britton A. Hill gave 
Shakespearean selections. The programme 
was interspersed with vocal solos, duets and 
trios by the highest amateur talent of the city, 
including Edwina Dean Lowe, and closed 
with Locke's celebrated "Music of Macbeth." 
rendered by a large chorus of laches and genl 
tlemen, supported by an orchestra composed 
of the city's best professional talent, and con- 
ducted by August Waldauer. 

Shamrock Society. — A benevolent so- 
ciety formed in St. Louis in 1854. after the 
memorable riot of that year, among the viol 
thus of which were many Irishmen. The or- 
ganization took place at the house of Patrick 
Moran, at the corner of Eighth and Biddle 
Streets, and among the founders of the sol 
ciety wire M. J. Dolan, William Huse, Pat-k 
rick ( ('Neil, Edward Lester and others. Ed- 
ward Lester was the first president of the or- 
ganization. It provided for sick and death 
benefits. The society was partially disrupted 




<' 



SHAPLEIGH. 



2047 



during the Civil War, but at its close was re- 
organized and entered upon a prosperous ca- 
reer. 

Shapleigh, Augustus Frederick, 

merchant, was born in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, January 9, 18 10, son of Captain 
Richard and Dorothy (Blaisdell) Shapleigh. 
In the paternal line he is a descendant of Alex- 
ander Shapleigh, merchant and ship owner, of 
Devonshire, England, who came to this coun- 
try some time before the year 1635 as agent 
for Sir Ferdinand Gorges, and became the 
progenitor of the American branch of the 
family. This immigrant ancestor settled in 
the colony of Massachusetts, and built the first 
house at Kittery Point— now in the State of 
Maine — on the River Piscataqua. This fact 
is attested by the following entry which ap- 
! pears in the York court records for the year 
1650: "For as much as the house at the 
river's mouth, where Mr. Shapleigh first built 
i and Hilton now dwelleth ; in regard it was first 
j house ther bylt." In the early days many 
J important trusts under the British crown were 
! held by the descendants of Alexander Shap- 
| leigh, and portions of his possessions are still 
I owned by members of his family, constituting 
I a tenure of more than two hundred and fifty 
years. Major Nicholas Shapleigh, one of the 
;■ sons of Alexander, was especially prominent 
I in colonial affairs in the Province of Maine, 
I serving many years as a member of the coun- 
I cil, and as treasurer of the Province from 
1649 to 1653. He was commander of the 
militia from 1656 to 1663, made a treaty with 
the Sagamore Indians in 1678. was attorney 
for the lord proprietor, Robert Mason, and a 
representative in the Massachusetts general 
: court until his death. From Alexander Shap- 
! leigh to Augustus F. Shapleigh the line of de- 
j scent is through Alexander Shapleigh, son of 
[the first Alexander, Captain John Shapleigh, 
■ Major Nicholas Shapleigh, the second, Nich- 
olas Shapleigh, the third: Captain Elisha 
(Shapleigh, and Captain Richard Shapleigh. 
(Captain John Shapleigh was killed by the In- 
dians in 1706, who, at the same time, captured 
;his son, Major Nicholas Shapleigh, and car- 
ped him captive into Canada. Major Nich- 
olas Shapleigh served for a number of years 
las major of colonial troops, and his son, Nich- 
olas Shapleigh, served in the colonial wars in 
[the "Blue Troupe of York," one of the com- 
panies of Sir William Pepperell's regiment. 



Captain Elisha Shapleigh, one of the sons of the 
second Nicholas, raised the first company of 
the Second York County Regiment, and com- 
manded it as captain in the Revolutionary 
War. Captain Richard Shapleigh, the father 
of Augustus F. Shapleigh, was a seafaring 
man, and was master and owner of the ship 
"< iranville," which was wrecked off Rye- 
Beach, New Hampshire, in 1813. In this dis- 
aster Captain Shapleigh lost his life, and the 
son was left a half-orphan at fourteen years of 
age to assist his mother in the care of the fam- 
ily. His mother was the daughter of Abner 
Blaisdell, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
who served in the Revolutionary War as ser- 
geant in Captain Titus Salter's company of 
artillery, at Fort Washington, and later with 
Colonel John Langdon's Company of Light 
Horse Volunteers. Soon after the death of his 
father, Augustus F. Shapleigh, who had mas- 
tered the rudiments of an education, obtained a 
situation as clerk in a hardware store at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, where he worked one 
year for a salary of fifty dollars and boarded 
himself. After that he led a seafaring life for 
three years, in the course of which he made 
several European voyages. Then, at the so- 
licitation of his mother and sisters, he aban- 
doned the sea and again went to work- in a 
hardware store, accepting a situation with the 
firm of Rogers Brothers & Company, of Phil- 
adelphia. This connection began in 1829, 
and thirteen years of faithful and efficient 
services gained for him a junior partnership 
in the establishment. This firm extended its 
operations to St. Louis in 1843. and Mr. Shap- 
leigh was sent here to establish the hardware 
house of Rogers, Shapleigh & Company, 
which continued in existence until the senior 
member of the firm died. Thomas D. Dav 
was then admitted to the partnership, and the 
firm was reorganized and became Shapleigh, 
Day & Company. Under this name the busi- 
ness was conducted for sixteen years, and, Mr. 
Day then retiring, it was- succeeded by the firm 
of A. F. Shapleigh & Company. This firm 
continued in existence until 1880, when the 
enterprise was incorporated as the A. F. Shap- 
leigh & Cantwell Hardware Company. In 
1888 Mr. Cantwell retired, and the corporate 
name was changed to the A. F. Shapleigh 
Hardware Company, which is still retained. 
Since 1847 Mr. Shapleigh has been the head 
of this widely known establishment, and since 
it became a corporation, has filled the office of 



2048 



SHARP— SHAW 



president. He has trained to the business, as 
they grew up, his four sons, and Frank Shap- 
leigh is now vice-president, Richard W. Shap- 
leigh second vice-president,, and Alfred Lee 
Shapleigh secretary and treasurer of the cor- 
poration. The history of the house is a con- 
tinuous record of progress and prosperity, and 
the fiftieth anniversary of its establishment, 
with Mr. Shapleigh's name at the head of the 
firm, finds it occupying a position among the 
great business houses of St. Louis, and among 
the most widely known commercial establish- 
ments of the Mississippi Valley. In 1886 the 
company suffered a heavy fire loss, but the 
indomitable energy which had developed the 
business from a small beginning to large pro- 
portions speedily rehabilitated it and largely 
expanded the trade of the house, which now 
extends from Indiana and Ohio on the east, 
through the States of the West, Northwest 
and Southwest, to the Pacific coast. In build- 
ing up the wholesale hardware trade for which 
St. Louis has become famous Mr. Shapleigh 
has been a pioneer, and as merchant and citi- 
zen he has gained well-deserved prominence. 
In addition to his merchandising operations 
he has been identified with the State Bank of 
St. Louis as trustee and director since 1859, 
and served as a director of the Merchants' 
National Bank from 1862 to 1890. at which 
time he resigned the latter position in favor of 
his son, Alfred L. Shapleigh. lie has been 
president, also, of the Phoenix Fire Insurance 
Company, vice-president of the Covenant Mu- 
tual Life Insurance Company, and interested 
in the Hope Mining Company and the Granite 
Mountain Mining Company. A Presbyterian 
churchman, he has long- been a member of 
the Central Presbyterian Church, and polit- 
ical!} affiliated with the Whig party in early 
life, and since that party ceased to exist, has 
been a member of the Republican party. He 
was married in 1838 to Miss Elizabeth A. Urn- 
stead, of Philadelphia, and of eight children 
1>< >rn 1 >f their unii in. five si ins and 1 me daughter 
are now living. The daughter is now Mrs. 
J. Will Boyd, and the sons are Frank, Augus- 
tus P., Jr.,' Dr. John I',., Richard W., and Al- 
fred Pee Shapleigh. 

Sharp, Fidelio ('., lawyer, was born in 
Kentucky in the year 1820, and died in St. 
I ouis in [875. Ilis parents were Absalom 
and Maria 1 Rice) Sharp, and he was the grand- 
son of Captain Thomas Sharp, a Revolution 



ary patriot of tin- Virginia line. In Kentucky 
the family to which Mr. Sharp belonged had 
many representatives noted for their enter- 
prise and ability, and from an early day they 
were' influential citizens of that grand old 
commonwealth. Reared and educated in 
Kentucky, Fidelio C. Sharp was fitted for the 
law by a liberal education, and at the age oi 
twenty-one he was admitted to the bar. Two 
years later, and in the year 1843, he came to 
Missouri and settled in Lexington, where he 
fi irmed a partnership with John P. Campbell. 
Later he practiced in partnership with Judge 
William T. Wood, and still later with Judge 
Samuel Sawyer, of that city. In 1857 he 
came to St. Louis, and some time afterward 
became associated in practice with Colonel 
James ( ). Broadhead, at a later date United 
States Minister to Switzerland, and one of the 
honored public men of Missouri, as well as an 
eminent lawyer. The firm thus constituted 
became celebrated throughout the West for its 
successful conduct of litigation, and it is the 
testimony of old lawyers of St. Louis that Mr. 
Sharp had hardly an equal at the Missouri bar 
in the preparation and trial of cases in the 
"nisi prius" courts. For many years he was 
engaged as counsel in almost all the important 
cases which occupied the attention of the St. 
Louis courts, and devoted himself to the law 
with untiring assiduity, declining offers of 
political preferment and allowing nothing to 
divert him from the duties and labors of his 
calling. He was a devotee to his profession, 
but withal was a genial gentleman who knew 
well how to enjoy the amenities of life, and 
whose home was always a charmingly hospit- 
able one. He was twice married, and was sur- 
vived by six children. His son and name- 
sake, Fidelio C Sharp. Jr.. is now a well- 
known member of the St. Louis bar. 

Shaw, Henry, merchant and benefac- 
tor, was born in Sheffield, England, July 24, 
1800. His father, Joseph Shaw, was a native 
1 if I .eicester, but removed to Sheffield at a very 
early age. The mother, Sarah Hoole, whom 
he most resembled in disposition, was a native 
of that city. The father was a manufacturer 
of grates, fire-irons, etc., and had a large estab- 
lishment in Green Lane, Sheffield, which was 
afterward removed to Roscoe Place, both of 
which sites have long since disappeared before 
the advancing tide of brick and mortar. Prob- 
ably the earliest recollections of the boy were 




^^C#ny/KLZ£%u&<suS — -y 



SHAW. 



2049 



associated with the factory and warehouse, 
but he showed no tendency to tread in the pa- 
ternal footsteps in that respect, though the 
business habits and methods he was thus 
brought in contact with at that period, when 
the mind is "wax to receive and marble to re- 
tain," were of inestimable service to him at a 
later day. 

His primary education was obtained at 
Thorne, a village not far from his native town ; 
and his favorite place for study, we are told, 
was an arbor, half-hidden by blossoming vines 
and surrounded by trees and flowers. He 
seems to have been a lover of these from child- 
hood, and with his two sisters passed many 
happy hours in the little garden attached to 
the family residence, "planting and cultivating 
anemones and ranunculus," as he remembered 
and told after the lapse of nearly eighty years. 

From Thorne he was transferred to Mill 
Hill, about twenty miles from London. It is 
what is termed in England a "Dissenting" 
school, the elder Shaw being a Baptist ; but 
was considered among the best private insti- 
tutions of learning in the kingdom. Here he 
remained some six years, leaving probably in 
1817; and here he finished that part of his 
education which schools could give — the edu- 
cation that taught him how to educate him- 
self in the long and busy life upon which he 
was soon to enter. Mill Hill gave him an 
average knowledge of the classics, less of 
Greek than of Latin, and more than an aver- 
age knowledge of mathematics, which he de- 
veloped by subsequent study, for the mere 
love of the science apparently. He was for a 
long time regarded as the best mathematician 
in St. Louis. At both schools he was taught 
French, and became in later years an excel- 
lent French scholar. Undoubtedly he was 
introduced at Mill Hill to other modern lan- 
guages — German, Italian and Spanish — all of 
which — except perhaps German — he followed 
up more or less until the last years of his life, 
as well-thumbed grammars and dictionaries, 
and a good selection of Italian and Spanish 
books, abundantly prove. 

With this preliminary equipment the bov 
;took his place in the ranks of men by assist- 
ing his father at the home establishment for a 
iyear, and then, in 1818, came with him to Can- 
ada. His manly qualities must have shown 
themselves unmistakably by that time, for the 
isame year his father sent him to New Orleans, 
!mainly, it is understood, with the object of 



learning the mysteries of cotton-raising, 
though other business of no great consequence 
required his presence there. But his stay in 
Louisiana was short ; he did not like the cli- 
mate, nor were there any present or prospect- 
ive financial inducements to remain. He 
was now his own master, and decided to ex- 
change the South for the North and try his 
fortune in the then small and remote French 
trading post called St. Louis. Embarking on 
the "Maid of New Orleans," after a long and 
tedious voyage the youthful adventurer ar- 
rived at his destination, May 3, 1819. A ven- 
erable citizen — Mr. Frederick L. Billon — saw 
the steamer come to anchor at the foot of what 
is now Market Street, and was among the first 
to welcome the stranger. He says : "Mr. 
Shaw had come from England with a stock of 
cutlery to make his fortune in the New World. 
With little means, he began business on the 
second floor of a building which he found for 
rent, and for a time lived, cooked, and sold his 
goods in this one room. I have sat with him 
there many a time, playing chess during the 
long evenings. He cared little for society, 
and, while he went out to parties and balls oc- 
casionally, he seemed to avoid making ac- 
quaintances among the girls of that period." 
The reason of this was — so thinks Mr. Billon 
— "that he had come to make money solely, 
with the expressed intention of some day re- 
turning to his native heath to enjoy the re- 
sults of his early years of labor. He intended 
marrying some English girl, and for that rea- 
son avoided making female friends, fearing he 
might fall in love and thus spoil his well-de- 
fined plans." 

The capital which bought the "small stock 
of cutlery" and gave the young man his first 
start in life was furnished by his uncle, Mr. 
James Hoole, who lived to see the splendid 
success of the perilous investment, and for 
whose memory his nephew cherished the pro- 
foundest respect. 

While, very naturally and properly, the 
main object of Mr. Shaw at this, the decisive 
period of his career, was to "make money," 
and thereby secure that financial independence 
necessary for the accomplishment of higher 
purposes, and while in order to do this he will- 
ingly denied himself many youthful enjoy- 
ments, he did not push his prudent self-denial 
beyond reasonable limits. Then and always 
he knew how to harmonize business and pleas- 
use, how to use both without abusing either. 



2050 



SHAW 



and so to obtain the benefits of both with the 
fewest possible disadvantages. . . . W hen 
the balance sheet for 1839 was struck it 
showed, to the great surprise of Air. Shaw, a 
nel gain for the year of $25,000. He could 
nol believe bis own figures, and so went over 
them again and again until he could no longer 
doubt the fact. Telling the story many years 
afterward, he said it seemed to him then that 
"this was more money than any man in my 
circumstances ought to make in a single year," 
and he resolved then and there to go out of 
active business at the first opportunity. The 
opportunity presented itself very early in the 
following year, and was promptly improved 
by the sale of his entire stock of merchandise. 
So at forty years of age — only the noon of life 
— with all his physical and mental powers un- 
impaired and vigorous, Henry Shaw was a 
free man — and the possessor of $250,000 — 
equivalent to $1,000,000 in our day — with 
which to enjoy that freedom. The practical 
philosophy — usually called common sense, be- 
cause, perhaps, it is so very uncommon — 
which was the ruling feature of his character, 
was nev< r n ore clearly and happily displayed 
than in this retirement. To it he owed what 
has secured his grateful and generous remem- 
brance forever; to it we, and those who will 
come after us, owe the rare and precious gifts 
of perfected Xature, whose "infinite variety 
agi can not wither nor custom stale." 

In September, 1840, Mr. Shaw made his first 
visit to Europe, stopping on the way at Roch- 
ester, Xew York, where his parents and sisters 
resided. The youngest sister, now Airs. 
Morisse, accompanied him to England, from 
whence, after a length}' stay among relatives 
and friends, he proceeded to the Continent for 
an 1 tended tour. Returning to St. Louis in 
the autumn of 1S42, he arranged his affairs for 
another absence in Europe, which lasted about 
three years, during which time he visited all 
the then accessible European localities, to- 
gether with Constantinople and Egypt. A 
contemplated journey to Palestine was ar- 
rested by the prevalence of the plague. The 
journals kept and letters written in the course 
of these two absences abroad show, what 
might have been expected, that Air. Shaw did 
in it travel mereh tor the sake of traveling, but 
to see and hear what was most worth seeing 
and hearing. 

Early in 1S51 Mr. Shaw went abroad for the 
last time, drawn thither bv the first World's 



Fair, then being held in London. This final 
visit has a special and peculiar interest to us 
from the fact that out of it grew, indirectly, 
the Alissouri Botanical Garden and Tower 
Grove Park. According to his own state- 
ment, it was while walking through the 
grounds of Chatsworth — the most magnificent 
private residence in Europe — that the fruitful 
idea first dawned upon him. He said to him- 
self: "Why may 1 not have a garden, too; I 
have enough land and money fi >r something 
of the same sort in a smaller way." That idea 
could not have had a more lovely or more 
appropriate birthplace than the spot upon 
which the hereditary chiefs of the great house 
of Devonshire have for nearly three hundred 
years lavished all the resources of ample wealth 
and cultivated taste — the historic domain 
which William the Conqueror gave to his natu- 
ral son, William Peveril — which Sir Cavendish 
bought, and began to improve, in the reign 1 if 
Elizabeth ; which for thirteen years was the 
prison of Elizabeth-^ cousin and enemy, Mary 
Queen of Scots : which before and since has 
been famous in English song and store, and 
which to-day is a sight well worth crossing the 
ocean to see. 

Air. Shaw returned in December, 1S5 r . The 
mansion at Tower Grove had been finished in 
[849, and the one at the corner of Seventh 
and Locust Streets was then being built. 
From this time forward he was in St. Louis, 
with the exception of short summer vacations 
at the Atlantic coast or Northern lakes. Ap- 
parently a man of elegant leisure, he was in 
reality a very busy man for the next thirty 
years. An idler he never was until physical 
weakness compelled him to be such. The 
idea born at Chatsworth was developing and 
taking shape. 

In 1857 the late Dr. Engelman, then in Eu- 
rope, was commissioned in a general was by 
Air. Shaw to examine botanical gardens and 
obtain such suggestions as he might deem of 
value. The Alissouri Garden was begun, by 
trenching and other preliminary preparation, 
in that year. About the same time a corre- 
spondence was begun with Sir William J. 
Hooker, then director of Kew Gardens, who 
wrote, under date August 10, 1857: "Very 
few appendages to a garden of this kind are 
of more importance for instruction than a li- 
brary and economic museum, and these grad- 
ually increase, like a rolling snowball." This 
appears to have decided Air. Shaw to provide 



SHAW 



2051 



a small library and museum, the building for 
which was erected in 1858-9. The selection 
of books was largely entrusted to Dr. Engel- 
man, in consultation with Hooker, Decaisne, 
Alexander Braun, and others of his botanical 
friends. At the same time Dr. Engelmann 
urged upon Air. Shaw the purchase of the 
large herbarium of the then recently deceased 
Professor Bernhardt, of Erfurth, Germany, 
which was offered for sale at a very small price. 

In the summer of 1866 Mr. Shaw was for- 
tunate enough to secure the services of Mr. 
James Gurney, from the Royal Botanical Gar- 
den, in Regent's Park, London, whose prac- 
tical knowledge and experience, and faithful 
and conscientious devotion to his various du- 
ties, won the entire confidence of his employer, 
and contributed very largely to make garden 
and park what they are now. Mr. Shaw's 
personal supervision of both was, however, 
never abandoned ; and in this congenial em- 
ployment, and in perfecting arrangements for 
the continuance of the noble work he had so 
well begun, the last twenty-five years of his 
life were happily and appropriately spent. 

On the 24th of July, 1889, he received nu- 
merous visitors to congratulate him upon the 
commencement of his ninetieth year. He was 
weak physically, though able to meet them in 
the drawing-room at Tower Grove, and his 
mind was as clear as ever. This, however, 
was his last appearance in public. An attack 
of malaria upon an already enfeebled system 
speedily dissipated all hopes of recovery, and 
he died at 3 125 Sunday morning, August 25th. 
The death, peaceful and painless, occurred in 
his favorite room on the second floor of the old 
homestead, by the window of which he sat 
nearly every night for more than thirty years 
until the morning hours, absorbed in the read- 
ing which had been the delight of his life. 
This room was always plainly furnished, con- 
taining only a brass bedstead, tables, chairs, 
and the few books he loved to have near him. 
The windows looked out upon the old garden, 
which was the first botanical beginning at 
Tower Grove. On Saturday, August 31st, 
after such ceremonial as St. Louis never be- 
fore bestowed upon any deceased citizen, 
Henry Shaw was laid to rest in the mauso- 
leum long prepared in the midst of the garden 
he had created — not for himself merely, but 
for all the generations that shall come after 
him, and who, enjoying it. will "rise up and 
call him blessed." There, amid the trees, the 



grass, and the flowers which were so near and 
dear to him from infancy to old age ; with the 
soft evening sky bending over him like a ben- 
ediction, and the vesper song of birds min- 
gling with the farewell hymn, he was left to 
sleep the sleep that knows no waking. And 
so the long and useful life was rounded to its 
close. 

America was Air. Shaw's country, not 
merely by adoption, but by deliberate and well- 
considered choice — a choice which he never 
regretted, and of which he was always proud. 
When he retired from business he was in the 
prime of manhood, and with wealth amply 
sufficient in those days for the gratification of 
tastes far more luxurious than were his. It 
would have enabled him to live in England, 
or in any part of the Continent, much more 
easily and pleasantly, as a gentleman of leis- 
ure, than it was then possible to do in Amer- 
ica. He had nothing except personal prefer- 
ence to keep him here, and very much, one 
would suppose, to induce him to take up per- 
manent residence abroad. Yet after long and 
repeated absences — which, in most cases, 
would have ended in such residence — he re- 
turned to St. Louis to live and die ; to begin, 
carry forward, and consummate the life work 
with which his name will be forever asso- 
ciated. 

Yet while Air. Shaw was so thoroughly 
American in the true sense of the word, he 
was as thoroughly English in all those heredi- 
tary traits, ideas, and habits which are born 
in us, and not made by us, and which inevita- 
bly take their shape and color from the soil 
and stock from which we spring. "Blood is 
thicker than water," and the English blood 
transmitted by a long line of unmixed English 
ancestry was always strong in him. He did 
not love England the less because he loved 
America more, and his attachment for the land 
of his birth remained deep and ardent — though, 
undemonstrative — to the last. He liked to 
have about him things which reminded him 
of his old home. Much of his furniture in 
both his town and country house was of Eng- 
lish manufacture of fifty years ago ; most of 
the pictures and prints upon the walls were of 
English subjects, and he preferred to read his 
favorite authors in the English editions, 
through which he first knew them. He was 
systematic in everything, as Englishmen of his 
generation were much more than they are 
now. Systematic in personal habits — eating, 



SHAW— SHELLEY CLUB. 



drinking, sleeping, exercise and recreation — 
to which regularity, guided always by pru- 
dence, his remarkable health to advanced age 
was largely due. Systematic above all in his 
business. Promptness and punctuality were 
cardinal virtues with him. He put off nothing 
until to-morrow that could as well be done to- 
day. Whatever he did himself was well done, 
and what he could not do himself he placed in 
competent hands, and whenever practicable 
gave it careful personal supervision. His 
penmanship was clear and remarkably hand- 
some, and the books which contained the rec- 
ords of his public and private business would 
do honor to the best professional accountant. 
He made out the pay-rolls of both the garden 
and park up to the month of his death, and 
then allowed another to do it only because ut- 
terly unable himself to hold a pen. He man- 
aged business matters on strictly business 
principles, and in so doing knew no difference 
between a friend and a stranger. He would 
take no advantage, however legal, of either: 
but he expected both the friend and the stran- 
ger to be faithful in the discharge of financial 
obligations and contracts, as he himself was 
— and "his word" was ever "as good as his 
bond." He was a merchant of the old school, 
and his ideas of business honesty and honor 
belonged to the past rather than to the pres- 
ent ; nor did he ever, under any circumstances, 
change them in practice to suit present condi- 
tions. 

[Editor's Note. — The foregoing sketch of 
Air. Shaw is a part of a comprehensive review 
of his career written by Mr. Thomas Dim- 
mock, and published in "The Missouri Botan- 
ical < iarden."] 

Shaw, Hiram, was born in Castleton, 
Rutland County. Vermont, May 10, 1806, and 
died in St. Louis April 30, 1869. He oame to 
St. F.ouis in 1S31, and was one of the early to- 
bacco manufacturers of St. Louis, he having 
been, in part, the founder of the present widely 
known Liggett & Meyers Tobacco Manufac- 
tory. He was "He of the originators of the 
Washington Fire Company of the old volun- 
teer lire department, and was president of that 
company during almost the entire period of 
its existence. 

Shaw's Garden. — See "Missouri Bo- 
tanical Garden." 



Sheldon, Walter L., who has achieved 
distinction among the moral and religious 
teachers of the United States, was bom Sep- 
tember 5, 1858, in Rutland, Vermont, son of 
Preston and Cornelia (Hatch) Sheldon. His 
vouth was passed in Middlebury, Vermont, 
and he studied two years at Middlebury Col- 
lege. At the end of that time he entered 
Princeton University, from which institution 
he was graduated in the class of 1880. He 
then traveled a year in Europe and the East, 
and for two years was a student in the depart- 
ment of philosophy at the universities of Ber- 
lin and Leipzig, in Germany. Upon his return 
to this country he worked for two years with 
the Society of Ethical Culture of New York 
City. In the spring of 1886 he came to St. 
Louis to give three lectures at Memorial 'Hall 
on "Ethical Religion." The following au- 
tumn he was called to ibecome the lecturer of 
the new Ethical Society of St. Louis, which 
was started by the impulse of the lectures 
which had been given by Mr. Sheldon a few 
months before. He has been the lecturer of 
that society since that time. He founded the 
Self-Culture Hall Association as an education al 
movement for wage-earners, and has been di- 
rect! it of the educational work of that associa- 
tion since it came into existence. Other im- 
portant undertakings have grown up through 
the indirect influence of Mr. Sheldon, in Which, 
however, he has kept his name in the back- 
ground. In 1896 a volume of his lectures, un- 
der the title "An Ethical Movement," was pub- 
lished by the Macmillan Company, in New 
York and London. Two other volumes of his 
lectures are now in press, one in Chicago, and 
one in London. He married, in 1892, Miss 
Annie Plartshorne, daughter of Charles Harts- 
horne, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Shelley Club. —The idea of the Shelley 
Club of St. Louis had its birth in the mind of 
Mrs. Edward C. Sterling, as early as the spring 
of 1889, when, with the hope of making a cen- 
ter for the intellectual and literary life of the 
women of St. Louis, who had hitherto 'been 
working in separate groups, she sent out a 
programme, from house to house, among her 
friends, asking each to choose a subject for a 
paper. The following are among the topics 
offered for selection : "Shelley's Place in Lit- 
erature." "Shelley, the Man and the Poet," 
"Shelley's Friends and His Critics," "Shelley's 
C01 1 temporaries," "Shelley's Ideas of Society," 



SHEPARD. 



2053 



"Shelley's Political Views," "Shelley and the 
Godwins," '"Shelley and Byron," "Shelley's 
Views of Love," "Shelley's Views of Religion," 
and "'Shelley's Views of Nature." Papers 
were also written on all of the important 
poems. 

Some forty women responded to this call, 
each pledging herself to write a paper l on a se- 
lected topic, and to present it at the appointed 
time during the coming winter. In November 
of 1889 a meeting was called for orgianiizaJtian, 
at which Mrs. W. E. Fischel presided, when 
Mrs. Edward C. Sterling was chosen president, 
and Mrs. Anthony H. Blaisdell, secretary. 
The Shelley Ohio met at the homes of its mem- 
bers ; it had no initiation fee, no dues, it ad- 
mitted no visitors, and the only condition of 
membership — when invited — was to present a 
stipulated part of the day's programme. The 
club continued one season only, namely, the 
winter of 1889-90, dissolving then to reorgan- 
ize as the Wednesday Club of St. Louis, re- 
electing the same officers. 

The first meeting of the Shelley Club was 
held at the home of the president, Mrs. E. C. 
Sterling, November, 1889. The subject of the 
paper was "Shelley's Place in Literature," by 
Mrs. Blalisdell. The last meeting of the club 
was held in May, 1890, at the home of Mrs. 
George W. Allen, when the year's work was 
closed with the reading of the following verses 
by Mrs. Rufus J. Lackland: 

" TO MARY SHELLEY. 



"Thine to be the crown, and thine the palm, 

( )h, wounded heart of Mary ! 
And thine the precious healing balm, 

God's love that can not vary ! 
No mortal tone could answer thine. 

Thou note of perfect sweetness — 
Within the soul of love divine, 

Thy heart must find completeness. 



cad thv 



vhite 



the 



in joy elate 

No more their drooping sh 
With thee could soar no earth-bou 

The heavenly dove reclaims thee 
On, on, and up ! Thou constant sc 

God's love that failelh never. 
Will be thy bright and happy goal 

Forever and forever ! " 



Among the members of the Shelley Club 
were Mrs. Beverly Allen, Mrs. E. C. Sterling, 
Mrs. R. J. Lackland, Mrs. Hugh McKittrick, 
Mrs. Henry Stimson, Miss Beeson, Miss Mary 
McCulloch, Mrs. Daniel S.Tuttle, Mrs. Charles 
Damon, Mrs. Edwin Harrison, Mrs. John W. 
Harrison, Mrs. O. B. Pilley, Mrs. Era'stus 



Wells, Miss Yeatman, Mrs. Charles Briggs, 
Mrs. Edwin DeWolf, Mrs. Dexter Tiffany, 
Mrs. John Tiffany, Mrs. William L. Huse. 
Airs. \V. E. Fischel, Mrs. James N. Norms, 
Mrs. C. R Suter. Mrs. Henry Eliot. Mrs. Ed- 
ward Holden. Mrs. D. H. Smith, Miss Sarah 
E. Cole, Airs. J. J. Cole, Miss Jennie Jones, 
Miss Dozier, Mrs. Wiliam E. Ware, Mrs. 
Learned, Miss Cornelia Fischer, Mrs. E. C. 
Rice, Mrs. Gustave Baumgarten, Mrs. John 
Green, Mrs. William Schuyler, Miss Bruiere 
Mrs. George Plant, Miss Amelia Fruehte, Miss 
Stevenson, Mrs. E. B. Leigh, Mrs. Clara Free- 
born, Miss Gertrude Garrigues. and Mrs. An- 
thony H. Blaisdell. 

Mary McConnell Blaisdell. 

Shepard, Elilm HotHikiss, in his 

day one of the most distinguished citizens of 
St. Louis, was born October 15, 1795, at Hali- 
fax, Windham County, Vermont, and died in 
St. Louis March 19, 1876. His parents, Able 
Shepard and Sallie Dalrymple, were married 
at Colerain, Franklin County, Massachusetts. 
He was the eldest of eleven children born to 
them, and passed the early years of his life in 
Boston. The elder Shepard had been placed 
in business by his father at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, and later became confi- 
dential clerk to a firm engaged in trade in 
Canton, China. Afterward, he traded as a 
"merchant in the East Indies, until 1806, when 
he purchased a farm near Sackett's Harbor, 
Jefferson County, New York. To this farm 
he removed his family, and there be passed 
the remainder of his life, and is buried, with 
other members of his family, in the Shepard 
burying ground at that place. Elihu H. Shep- 
ard received his earliest educational training 
from his paternal grandmother, Esther Reed 
Shepard, who gave him his greatest inspira- 
tion, and taught him the value of the classics 
which he learned to love. He made his last 
visit to her in 1814, when she was eighty-five 
years of age, and read both Latin and Greek to 
her great delight. She was a classical scholar, 
a rare accomplishment for women in that day. 
When the War of 181 2 began. Mr. Shepard 
had entered Clinton College, but abandoned 
his studies to volunteer in his countrv's serv- 
ice. This interruption and his father's death 
in 1815 checked his collegiate course, but he 
continued his studies independentlv. After- 
ward, he studied law under the preceptorship 
of Judge Silas Stowe, of Lowville, and at in- 



205 J 



SHEPARD. 



tervals at h >me and elsewhere for a peri >d of 
eight vears, but never became a licensed law- 
yer, although the knowledge of the law which 
lis obtained ,vas of great value to him in 
his subsequent business career. In 1816 he 
began teaching school, in Martinsburgh, New 
York, and afterward taught two years in Low- 
ville Acadcmj . of Lewis County, in that State. 
],, [819 he spenl Four months in Upper Canada 
ng on the Masonic degrees bo the Ma- 
sons of the Forty-ninth Regimen* of British 
[nfantrv, then stationed at Kingston. At the 
end of thai time he went to New York 1 
where Ire joined the Columbian Expedition, 
and was made purser of the Columbian Navy. 
The expedition failed, and he left Jersey City, 
January 1. [820, for the West. After mak- 
ing a circuitous journey by land and water he 
stopped at Turkey Hill, a settlement about six 
miles from Belleville, Illinois. There the pe >- 
pie built a school house for him, in which he 
taught two years, among Ids pupils being Miss 
Man Th >mas, who became his assistant, and 
n-i lil- wife. In 1823 he removed to 
St. Louis, and became professor of languages 
in St. Louis I diversity. He held that position 
until [828, when he opened a private school, 
which was one of the famous local institutions 
of ilie cii\ m its day, and which 'be conducted 
until [836. He then interested himself in the 
e tablishment of the public school system in 
St. Louis, formulating the plan for the first 
public school committee. He was a member 
of the committee of three who examined the 
first teachers for the St. Louis public schools, 
and donated to the public school directors the 
lot on Marine Avenue, upon which the "Shep- 
ard School, Xo. 1." is now located. He also 
donated to the city of St. Louis a lot on Car- 
ondelel Avenue a~ .1 site for a market house, 
and what was known as the "Shepard Market" 
occupied this lot until it was removed to give 
place in a lire engine house, still in use. lie 
was a member of the committee which drafted 
the cons'titution of the "Central Fire Com- 
pany," a volunteer organization, and was its 
secreban as long as that office was without 
emolument, and no longer. ITe took an active 
pari in the erection of Masonic Hall, ait the 
1 orn T of Seventh and Market Streets, and of 
the first Planters' House, and was a stock- 
holder in the companies which erected both 
buildings. For a time he engaged profitably 
in steamboaiting. bu'l did nut enjoy a personal 
•are of these interests, and disposed of them. 



Through a circular which he sent out, July 10, 
1 Son. Mr. Shepard was the originator of the 
Missouri Historical Society, was one of the 
most active promoters of the organization, a 
charter member of the society, its first secre- 
tary, in [866, and its secretary again in 186S or 
1 Si Hi. In [850 he invested in lands in Wash- 
ington County, Missouri, and in company with 
rick Woolford began the manufacture 
of pottery front kaolin clay. The settlement 
which they founded in connection with their 
manufactory was called Kaolin. In 1852 he 
purchased his partner's interest in the lands 
and buildings, at that place, and until 1861 
.-pent much of his time and means in the im- 
pr ivement of his Kaolin estate, and the devel- 
opment of the industry of manufacturing kao- 
lin ware. There he erected an extensive pot- 
tery, to which he brought skilled potter.- from 
Staffordshire, England, and into which he in- 
troduced the most approved appliances for tiie 
manufacture of pottery. The clay was found 
in great abundance, what is technically known 
as the "Biscuit" proved perfect, and the enter- 
prise was pronounced a great success. I hit 
the imported workmen grew restless, and when 
the Civil War broke out the work ceased. 
Then came the destruction of the buildings, 
and other ravages of the War, which laid waste 
1 lie establishment at Kaolin, and, in 1864. Mr. 
Shepard returned to St. Louis, where he spent 
the remainder of his life in comparative re- 
tirement. At the beginning of the War of 
[812, .Mr. Shepard volunteered as a private 
soldier for the first thirty days' service. He 
took part in the fights at Sackett's Harbor, 
(Jueeiistown and Kingston, and was with the 
Sixteenth Regiment of Infantry when they 
were ambushed by the British and Indians at 
night. Afterward he was at Ogdensburgh, at 
French Hills, at Sandy Creek, and at Lundy's 
Lane, and was in action on ten battlefields. 
May 16, 1846, he enlisted for six months for 
service 111 the Mexican War. although he was 
then over fift\' yeafs of age. He entered as a 
private soldier, Company A — the St. Louis 
( '.ravs — of the St. Louis Legion of Infantry, 
commanded by Colonel Alton R. Ea.ston. He 
returned from Texas with his company, and 
May 10, 1847. enlisted again for the war. being 
commissioned captain of a company of his own 
raising. This company became Company A, 
of the Missouri Battalion of Infantry. I Aider 
Colonel East on, he was at Sante Fe and El 
Paso, was provost marshal of Chihuahua, and 







y}:. 



SHERIFF— SHF.RM AX. 



2055 



edited the "Chihuahua Union," the first num- 
ber of which was printed April 29, 1848. 
In May of 1861 he rejoined the "St. Louis 
Grays," and stacked arms with them at the 
surrender of Camp Jackson. He was confined 
with the regiment in the United States Arsenal 
by General Lyon's command, and was paroled 
with oither members of that regiment. In 
1864 he enlisted in Captain Clark's company, 
known as the "Old Guards," in the United 
States Army, and served with it until the close 
of the Civil War, retiring from the military 
service when he was seventy years of age. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he declined military com- 
missions offered him by General Lyon, com- 
mander of the Federal forces, and by Gover- 
nor Claiborne Jackson and General Sterling 
Price, who 'tendered him commissions in the 
Confederate Army. He was also a Democrat 
of the old school, favoring free trade, sound 
money and States' rights, and opposing the 
United States Bank, all centralization of power 
and the spirit of conquest. The only time he 
ever failed to vote the Democratic ticket at a 
national election was when General William 
Henry Harrison was a candidate for the presi- 
dency. He refused to vote against him be- 
cause of old-time war associations. He 
joined the Baptist Church, at Henderson, New 
York, when young, and after his coming to St. 
Louis, helped to build up the Second Baptist 
Church of this city. His school rooms in the 
earl_\- days of his residence here were also open 
for public speeches, and the Presbyterian, Epis- 
copal, Baptist and Unitarian Churches of this 
city, have all acknowledged his liberality to 
them at different times in the earl}' history of 
their organization. He was initiated into the 
Masonic order November 16, 1816, by Lodge 
No. 356 of Henderson, New York. He took 
all the degrees, and learned the lectures there, 
and, as has been already stated, afterward lec- 
tured to the British troops in Canada. He was 
the first Free Mason who taught the lectures 
of the Royal Arch and Knight Templar de- 
grees west of the Mississippi River, and 
taught them first to George H. C. Melody. 
Mr. Shepard was high priest of Missouri Royal 
Arch Chapter, in 1823, and again in 1846. He 
became a member of Wildey Lodge, No. 2, of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in 
1838, three months after its organization, and 
maintained unbroken connection with it unltiil 
his death, covering a period of nearly thirtv 
years, during which he filled all its offices. He 



was also a member of the Grand Lodge of Odd 
Fellows of the State and United States, and 
was ( hand Master in 1846. He married Mary 
Thomas, of Belleville, Illinois, August 10, 
1823. The only child born of this marriage 
was a daughter. Mary Melinda, who is now 
Mrs. Mary M. B'arclay. Mrs. Shepard, who 
was a woman of fine intellect, remarkable for 
her industry, patient perseverance, integrity 
and charitableness, died June 6, 1864. De- 
cember [8, 1866. Mr. Shepard married, as his 
second wife, Mrs. Catherine Card. One child, 
now Mrs. Edgar M. Hand, of South Dakota. 
was born of this marriage. 

Sheriff. — The sheriff is an ancienlt county 
officer, derived from the English law. He is 
the highest ministerial and executive officer of 
the countw invested with very important duties 
and powers ; preserving the peace, quelling and 
suppressing riots, insurrections and Other 
similar disturbances, apprehending felons and 
executing process. He may, in addition to his 
regular deputies, appoint special deputies, to 
serve for a time, not longer than thirty days, 
and he may put offenders in jail on their re- 
fusal or failure to give bail. One of his du- 
ties is to attend on all courts of record, but 
this general duty in St. Louis City is divided 
with the city- marshal, who attends on certain 
of the courts, while the sheriff attends on the 
others. The St. Louis sheriff is chosen by the 
people at the general election, and holds office 
for four years. 

Sherman, William Tecumseh, one 

of the most illustrious of American soldiers. 
wa's, for some years, a resident of this city, and 
occupied a home presented to him by his pa- 
triotic admirers in St. Louis after the war. 
General Sherman was born February 8, 1820, 
at Mansfield, Ohio, and died in New York, 
February 14, 1891. His father died in 1829, 
and he was adopted by Thomas Evving, long a 
United States Senator from Ohio, whose 
daughter he married, in 1850. He was gradu- 
ated from the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, in 1840. and saw his first 
active military service in the Seminole War. 
In 1853 he resigned from the army, became a 
broker in California, and, after practicing law 
for a while in Kansas, was made superintend- 
ent of a new military academy, established by 
•the State of Louisiana. When the conven- 
tion of that State passed the ordinance of se- 



SHIELDS. 



ipta/in Sherman resigned; was made 
Colonel of United States Infantry, in May. 
[861 ; and commanded a brigade at the battle 
of Bull's Run, having been made brigadier- 
general of volunteers in .May. In October, 
[861, he succeeded General Anderson in the 
command of the Department of Kentucky. 
The Secretar) of War asked him how many 
men he should require, lie answered: "Six- 
t\ thousand to drive the enemy from Ken- 
tucky: and two hundred thousand to finish the 
war in tins section." This estimate seemed so 
wild that he was reputed to lie insane, and was 
relieved of his command; but events proved 
that lie was mure sane than mosit other people. 
After tiie capture of Fort Donelson he was 
placed in command of a division of Grant's 
Army of the Tennesssee, and performed signal 

e m the battle of Sliiloh. "To his indi- 
vidual efforts," said Grant, "I am indebted for 
the success of that battle." There he was 
slightly wounded, and had three horses shot 
uivder him, and in May was made major- 
general. From July to November, 1862. he 
commanded at Memphis: and throughout the 
campaign against Vicksburg, December, 1862, 
to July. 1863. his services w ! ere most conspicu- 
ous and valuable. He commanded one olf the 
three corps in that siege. After the fall of 
Vicksburg he operated successfully against 
1 K-neral J. E. Johnston. In October, 1863, he 
was made commander of the Department of 
the Tennessee, and joined < irant at Chatta- 
nooga in the middle of November; was in the 
battle of Missionary Ridge, November 25th. 
and then moved to the relief of Burnside in 
East Tennessee. Early in [864 he made a de- 
structive march eastward from Vicksburg. In 
March he was appointed to command the ex- 
pedition against Vtlanta, Which he led with 

skill and success, from Chattanooga — 
May 6th to the capture of Atlanta in Septem- 
ber. He commanded in that campaign the 
Armies 1 >l the ( lumberland, the Tennessee, and 
tin < mio, numbering nearly one hundre '. 
thousand men. with two hundred and fifty-four 
cannon, lie chased General Hood, who had 
succeeded Johnston in command, inito North- 
ern Alabama, and, returning to Atlanta. 
marchi <' to the >ea, taking possession of Sa- 
vannah late in December. Then he pushed 

«vard through the Carolinas, encounter- 
ing Confederate forces here and there under 
Johnston, and, in April. 1865, received the sur 
1 thai leadei and hi- armv at I >ur- 



ham Station. General Sherman had been 
made major-general, United States Ami}, in 
August, 1S64. and was promoted to lieutenant- 
general in July, 1866. On March 4, 1869, he 
succeeded General! Urant as general-in-chief of 
the American armies of the United States. At 
his own request, and in order to make Sheri- 
dan general-in-chief, he was placed on the re- 
list, with full pay and emolument-. 1 m 
February 8, 1884. 

Shields, George Howell, lawyer and 
jurist, was born in Bardstown, Kentucky, ! 
June 19, 1842. son of George \Y. and Martha 
(Howell) Shields. The strength of character 
and vigorous intellectuality, which he has 
shown in public and professional life, come to 
him as a legitimate inheritance from a long 
line of worth}' ancestors in both the paternal 
and maternal lines, some of whom have been 
especially conspicuous in paving the way for 
tin- advancement of Western civilization. I lis 
father was a native of Pennsylvania, and early 
records of that State show that his great- 
grandfather, David Shields, was one of the 
defenders of Western Pennsylvania against the 
Indians, and a noted Indian fighter. The 
family emigrated to Ohio early in the history 
of that State, settling first in Athens County, 
and removing- later to Cincinnati. There 
George W. Shields, the father of George H. 
Shields, completed his education, and became 
by profession a civil engineer. Later he en- 
gaged in the building of turnpikes in Ken- 
tucky, surveyed the first railroad constructed 
in .Mi^issippi, and in 1844, three years after 
his marriage, came to Missouri, settling at 
Hannibal. At Hannibal he engaged in busi- 
ness operations, which resulted in his accumu- 
lation of a comfortable fortune, and for many 
years he was a leading man of affairs in that 
progressive and thrifty city. He was three 
terms chosen city engineer of Hannibal, and 
served six times as mayor of the city. During 
President Johnson's administration he served 
a- postmaster .also at Hannibal, and until his 
which occurred in 1880, he continued 
to reside there, being regarded by all who 
knew him as one of the. worthiest and most use- 
ful of Hannibal's pioneer citizens. Both he 
and his wife were of Scotch-Irish descent, and 
both cherished the 'orthodox Presbvterian faith 
of their ancestors. His wife, who was Martha 
A. Howell before her marriage, was the 
daughter of Daniel S. and Sarah (Shipp) How- 



SHIELDS. 



2057 



ell, pioneer settlers of Kentucky, who emi- 
grated to that State at an early date from New 
Jersey. The mother of Airs. Shields, who 
came of old Virginia stock, was a 'sister to Ed- 
mund Shipp, who was a lieutenant in trie War 
of 1812 and served with distinction under Col- 
onel George Croghan in his memorable de- 
fense of Fort Stephenson against the British 
and Indians. In the paternal line Mrs. 
Shields was a great-granddaughter of Major 
Ebenezer Howell, who was an officer in the 
New lersey line during the Revolutionary 
War, and a granddaughter of Caleb Howell, 
who was a light-horseman, or despatch-bearer, 
in the Revolutionary struggle. Their son, 
George H. Shields, after obtaining a gram- 
mar-school education, was sent, in 1859, to 
Westminster College, of Fulton, Missouri, 
where he continued his studies until 1861. He 
then returned to his home at Hannibal and be- 
gan the study of law under the precept or ship 
of Honorable W. P. Harrison, then a leading 
member of the bar of Northeast Missouri. 
When the Civil War began Mr. Shields' fami'ly, 
like many other families in the border States, 
was divided in its sympathies 'between the 
North and the South, one of his brothers enter- 
ing the Confederate Army, and Mr. Shields 
enrolling himself as a member of Company E 
of the Fifty-third Enrolled Missouri Militia 
Regiment. His 'company was commanded by 
Captain David Dubach, of Hannibal, and was 
frequently called into service to repel invasions 
and suppress the guerilla warfare of the Con- 
federates. While in this service he partici- 
pated in the spirited engagement at Palmyra, 
Missouri, where the Confederate captain, Joe 
Porter, captured the county jail and a part of 
Company E, while the balance of the company 
made a successful defense of the courthouse. 
Toward the dose of the war Mr. Shields was 
commissioned by Governor Gamble captain 
and assistant quartermaster of his regiment. 
While not engaged in the military service he 
continued his law studies during the war, and 
in the fall of 1864 he went to Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, and matriculated in the Louisville Law 
School as a member of the senior class. He 
was graduated from that institution with the 
degree of bachelor of laws in 1865, and. return- 
ing to Hannibal, was elected city attorney of 
that city in the fall of the same year. In the 
fall of 1866 his former preceptor, Mr. Harri- 
son, was elected to the circuit judgeship of his 
district and Mr. Shields succeeded to the office 



business and practice, which the exercisi of 
judicial functions forced Mr. Harrison tu re- 
linquish. About this time Mr. Shields was 
employed as counsel in a number of contested 
election cases in Northeastern Missouri, and, 
■being pitted against such eminent lawyers as 
Judge Redd, Colonel Thomas L. Anderson, 
Honorable Rufus Anderson and others, ac- 
quitted him self with such credit that he became 
recognized as a well equipped and well 
rounded lawyer, whose future was full of 
promise. A Unionist during the war, he had 
drifted easily and naturally into the Republi- 
can part}-, and as a young man was an active 
participant in all the political campaigns of 
that period. In 1870 he advocated 'the amend- 
ment of the Drake Constitution and the elimi- 
nation from that instrument of the provisions 
restricting the elective franchise and disqual- 
ifying as voters ex- Con federate soldiers and 
sympathizers. He was a delegate to the Re- 
publican State Convention of that year, which 
resulted in the bolt of "Liberal Republicans" 
and the orgianization of the Liberal Republican 
party, and during the campaign which fol- 
lowed acted with the regular organization, be- 
ing chosen a member of the lower branch of 
the Legislature, although he was the only can- 
didate on the Republican ticket elected in Ma- 
rion Count}-. As a member of the Legisla- 
ture, he served on the judiciary committee, 
'was chairman of the committee on constitu- 
tional amendments, and chairman also of the 
special committee appointed to adjust the claim 
of Captain James B. Eads against the State, 
growing out of the sale of the State's interest 
in the old State Bank. In recognition of his 
superior attainments as a lawyer, he was also 
selected by a body which was largely Demo- 
cratic in its composition to act as one of the 
House managers of the impeachment pro- 
ceedings against Judge Philander Lucas, his 
colleague being Honorable J. D. Sbowa/lter. 
In 1872 he acted as chairman of the Missouri 
State Republican Convention, which met at 
Jefferson City and selected delegates to the Na- 
tional Republican Convention, at which Gen- 
eral Grant was renominated for the presi- 
dency. At the convention held at St. Louis 
that year to nominate candidates for State of- 
fices he was nominated by his party for judge 
of the Supreme Court, but along with the 
other candidates on the Republican ticket suf- 
fered defeat and failed to reach a position for 
which he was eminently fitted. The follow- 



205.S 



SHIELDS. 



. this city and formed a 
law partnership wii i Hon irable John B. Hen- 
mi nued for ten 

:.' n ■ '1. rank 
among law firms of the West. Dur- 

ing this peri "I the firm was identified with 

: ;:uil litigati '11 i iccup) 
ing tlu- attend* >n of St. Louis courts within the 
mtnry. They were en- 
prosecu'tion of the famous 
'•whisky fraud" cases in 1875-6; were princi- 
holders 11 the impi >r 
Sfi wing >ut of tl 
Hint} b mds in aid of railway 
prises in Missouri ; and appeared as lead- 
ing counsel in several other cases of equal im- 
portance. In 1X75 Mr. Shields was elected a 
memb ntion charged with the 

ing the constitution • if 
»uri, and -at in that body as me ■ if 
Repub bers. \!th nigh h 

■lpless minority of the convention, be 
1 an important influence in shapin| 
new organic law of the State, and, while no 
»ns were adopted 
- , be approved O'f the instru- 
ment as a whole and was largely instrumental 
eining the vote on its adoption from be- 
coming a political one. In t8/6 he was made 
a member for the board of freeholders which 
Framed the segregate m < if St. 

Louis from St. Louis County and the charter 
for the government of St. Louis as an inde- 
pendent city. 'Phis board — which was c im- 
posed of such distinguished men as 1 
Jami i Br ladhead, ex Senati «■ I >avid 1 1. 
Armstrong, Silas Bent, Albert Todd, and 
in its p ilitical com- 
m, but notwithstanding this fact Mr. 
Shields was honored with its chairmanship. 
It- work was ratified by the people of St. 
Louis, and the • ity government thus instituted 
tee Keen regarded by people well versed 
in municipal affair- as a model form of govern- 
ment fo if tin countn . Dur- 
ing a period if near!} fifteen velars after 1876. 
Mr. Shields devoted himself assiduously to his 
professional duties, holding no iffice and par- 
ticipating in political campaigns 1 ml\ as a pop- 
ular campaign orator. In the line of his pro- 
fession h er, as a master in chan- 
: 1 oufts, acting as 
special master in the receivership of the Cot- 
ton Belt Railroad, and also in the noted ex- 
press 1 out of a contri >\ ers\ be 



tween the express companies and the railroad 
panics operating in Missouri. He was 
also referee in the State court in a contest be- 
tween the Wiggins Ferry Company and the 
ag > & Vlton Railroad Company over a 
ual contract for the ferriage of freight 
and passengers over the Mississippi River at 
St I. mis. in all these cases, which involved 
large interests and attracted at the time wide- 
spread attention, he exercised judicial func- 
videnced a profound knowledge of 
fble to the case- at bar and a 
liension also of the practical busi- 
ness propositions involved in the cfonitirover- 
111 [889, upon the reoomatnendalti in of 
ral John W. Noble, then Secretary of the 
Inter >r, be was called from his profes 
duties in St. Louis to take charge of an impor- 
tant department at the national capital. Ap- 
I : jident Harrison Assistant At- 
torney-General for the Interior Department, 
ntered upon the discharge of his duties, 
bi ing called upon to deal with the most com- 
plex question- relating to public lands. Indian 
affairs, pensions, mining, patents, r.r 
grants and other matters coming within the 
purview of the Interior Department, the legal 
business of which came entirely under his su- 
pervision. Many new questions growing out 
of the opening of the great Sioux Indian reser- 
vation the Cherokee strip, and other Indian 
lands fo settlement, controversies arising be- 
ad companies and settler- on 
public Land.-, and the conflicting claims to 
mineral land- engrossed his attention and were 
adjudicated in accordance with his decisions. 
At the close o'f Secretary Noble's administra- 
tion, which has not been surpassed in excel- 
in the history of the Interior Depart- 
ment, he acknowledged hi.- indebtedness to 
Mr. Shields for the valuable assistance ren- 
dered a- legal counsel in a highly complimen- 
tary 'e 

Many of the cases passed upon by Mr. 
Shields were later taken to the Supreme Court 
of the Lnited States, and in every instance the 
decision of the Interior Department was sus- 
tained, notably in the cases •which involved the 
ownership of tide lands in the Territories; the 
right of the railroad companies to mineral 
Lands not known to be such at the time of the 
location of the railroads, and others of equal 
importance. Toward the -close 01 his adminis- 
tration, President Harrison designated Mr. 
Shield- to act as agent and counsel of the 



SHIELDS. 



2059 



United States 'before the United States and 
Chilean Claims Commi'ssi'on. This service 
continued a year and a half under President 
Cleveland's administration, ad the claims of 
citizens of the United States against Chili aris- 
ing within the past seventy-five years being 
prosecuted by Air. Shields, while he defended 
the government against die claims of Chilean 
citizens against the United States arising with- 
in the same time. So ably did he represent 
the government in this capacity — the life of the 
commission expiring by limitation before its 
work had been completed — that when a new 
commission was contemplated Secretary of 
State Olney requested him to continue to act 
for the government. In 1894 Mr. Shields re- 
turned to St. Louis and resumed the practice 
of law. In 1895 he became associated with 
General Noble in the law firm of Noble & 
Shields, now regarded as one of the strongest 
at the Missouri bar. Mr Shields adheres to 
the religious faith of his Scotch Presbyterian 
ancestors, and for many years he was an elder 
of the Lafayette Park Presbyterian Church, of 
this city. During his residence in Washington 
he was an elder in the Church of the Covenant, 
and now sustains the same official relationship 
to the Second Presbyterian Church of St. 
Louis. He has long been prominent among 
the active Sunday-school workers of the coun- 
try and is a firm believer in the efficacy of early 
religious training and its conduciveness to 
good citizenship. In public life he has shown 
himself an ardent patriot, in full sympathy 
with the genius and spirit of our civil and re- 
ligious institutions, and in private and profes- 
sional life he has earned the kindest regards of 
his fellow- citizens. He is a member of Frank 
Blair Post of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
and president of the Missouri Society of Sons 
of the American Revolution, and for two vears 
was vice-president of the District of Columbia 
Society of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion. He was married, in 1866. to M'arv Har- 
Iri'son Leigh ton. 

Shields, Mary Harrison Leighton, 

]wife of Honorable Geo. H. Shields, is the eld- 
est daughter of Rev. John Leighton, D. D., 
and Sarah Bainbridge Richardson, born in 
1 Palmyra, Missouri. Her father, Dr. Leigh- 
|ton,was born in Ireland of Scotch-Irish parent- 
age, and belonged to the family of that name 
jwbieh has left its impress on English and Irish 
diistorv. He was a Presbvterian minister, a 



man of unusual attainments as a scholar and 
thinker, and wrote several books on theology. 
He was a pioneer preacher in Missouri, and 
there are few Presbyterian families in North- 
east Missouri who do not remember with 
pleasure his ministrations. His wife was a 
Kentuekian, from Frankfort, being the daugh- 
ter of Samuel O. Richardson, a noted lawyer 
of that place, and a captain in the War of 18 i_\ 
She is a woman of great strength of character, 
and still lives with her daughter, Mrs. Shields, 
and at the age eighty-two years retains her 
faculties and force of character. Mrs. Shields 
was for two years the secretary-general of the 
National Society of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, while Mrs. Benjamin 
Harrison was its president. She was one of 
the charter members of that society, her num- 
ber being thirty-four, and she greatly contrib- 
uted to its successful development by her 
energy and business-like methods as saoretary, 
and her tactful advice and smoothing over 
difficulties. On her return to St. Louis she 
was elected chapter regent of the St. Louis 
Chapter, and, with the aid of her staff officers, 
developed that Chapter from twelve to one 
hundred and eighteen members in a short 
time. In February, 1897, she was chosen 
State regent for the State of Missouri, and has 
organized chapters in several of our cities. 
She is director for the State of Missouri of the 
organization of the Children of the American 
Revolution, an order composed of lineal de- 
scendants of the heroes of 1776, who are not 
old enough to join the adult 'societies. They 
are taught to revere the flag and study the his- 
tory of their country, and to appreciate the 
blessings of the great republic. 

Mrs. Shields was the originator of the idea 
of a magazine to be published by the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, now known 
as the "American Monthly." She offered 
resolutions at the first Continental Congress 
in 1891, proposing that die American flag be 
displayed over every school house in the coun- 
try during study hours, and requesting all 
school teachers to teach the children the words 
and music of the "Star Spangled Banner." 
which was published all over the country, and 
as a result hundreds of school houses now dis- 
play the flag, and thousands of children "know 
the words" and music of our national anthem. 
She is also a member of the Colonial Dames 
of America, being a Dame of the Virginia So- 
ciety. She now holds the office of president 



2060 



SHOE MANUFACTURERS' AND JOBBERS ASSOCIATION. 



oniia'l Dames in Missouri. Mrs. 
.. is patri A i-nce, as she is a 

lineal desci ■ olond William Richard- 

.mmanded ihe Fourth Battalion oi 
the Maryland I lying Corps and the Fifth Bat- 
talion i i [i during the Re\ i 'lufi >n. and 
was a member of the Maryland Convention 
which ratified the I onstitution of the United 
States; of Captain John Crowley Richardson. 
of the Maryland Line Continental Army; of 
Benjamin Harrison, of Surrey (Virginia), who 
was a member of the House of Burgesses of 
Virginia as early as 1667, and of His Majesty's 
Council of Virginia as early as 1696; of Benja- 
min Harrison, of Berkely, speaker of the 
House of Burgesses from 1706 to 1710; of 
Benjamin Harrison of Berkely, who was a 
member of the House of Burgesses, and died 
1745; of Carter Henry Harrison (brother of 
Benjamin Harrison, the signer of the Declara- 
tion . if Independence, and the ancestor of Pres- 
idents Wim. Henry Harrison and Benjamin 
Harrison), who was captain in the War of 
1755. a very active member of the Cumberland 
County committee during the days preceding 
the Revolution, and the author of several reso- 
lutions and addresses to the people urging or- 
ganization and resistance to British tyranny ; 
of Robert Carter, known as "King" Carter, a 
very prominent man in the early history of 
Virginia; of ColoneJ Joseph Cabell, of Vir- 
ginia, who was a member of the House of Bur- 
gesses from [768 to 1775. and member of the 
first Revolutionary Convention in Virginia, 
and who commanded a regiment of militia a; 
the siege of Yorktown, and was present at the 
surrender of < ornwallis; of Dr. William Ca- 
hell. who was a surgeon in the British Navy, 
and settled in Virginia in 1725, and held many 
positions of trust and was one of the most in- 
fluential men of the Colony ; of Isham Ran- 
dolph, who was \djnt ant-General of Virginia 
in 1738, colond of Goochland County militia 
in [740, and a member of the House of Bur- 
gesses (his sister, Jane Randolph, married 
i» 1 Peter Jefferson, and from this mar- 
riage was horn I 'resident Thomas Jefferson); 
of William Randolph (T651-1711) the emi- 
grant, who was clerk- of Henrico ( ounty, hur- 
st'''", attorne) gen ral and member of the 
council; of Arthur Hopkins, high sheriff of 
Goochland, [739, colonel in 1 7 5 _» . and a mem- 
ber of the vestry of Sr. James Northern Parish. 
I hi- mi ither was a near relative 1 if < \ mrnn >d« ire 
A illiam Baiinbridge, and one of her mother's 



brothers died at sea while a midshipman in the 
United States Navy. 

Shoe Manufacturers' and Jobbers' 
Association. — An association organized in 
1 881 1 for the purpose of protecting and promot- 
ing- the interests of the shoe manufacturers and 
iol bers of St. Louis. It is composed of six- 
teen firms. The association usually has a 
monthly banquet. 

Shoenberg, Moses, merchant, was 

horn December 2, 1852, in Dayton, Ohio, son 
of Elias and Fannie Shoenberg. His father 
was for many years a commission merchant 
in Dayton, and resided there until about 
the year 1888, when he removed to Denver, 
Colorado. Moses Shoenberg was one 1 >f a 
family of seven children, of whom one brother 
is a^s iciated with him in business in St. Louis, 
while another is engaged in New York, and 
still another in the same line of business in 
Denver. As a boy Mr. Shoenberg attended 
the public schools of Dayton, leaving the High 
School to pursue a course of study in a com- 
mercial college, his intention being to thor- 
oughly fit himself for mercantile pursuits. 
After completing a course in the commercial 
college he went into business, and for a few 
years was associated with his father at Day- 
ton. He then went to Springfield, Ohio, and 
before he attained his majority became a part- 
ner in a commercial house in that city. There 
he continued in business for five years, when, 
coming west, he opened a branch establish- 
ment at Joplin, Missouri, of which he took 
charge in person. At the end of fifteen 
months the depression in trade at Joplin. re- 
sulting from the depreciation in the values of 
lead, caused him to close out this business. 
After this venture he went to Leadville, Colo- 
rado, and, in company with David May, em- 
barked in an enterprise in that famous mining 
center. For six years he had a prosperous 
business in that city, but at the end of that 
time the ill health of his wife necessitated his 
abandoning it in order to seek a climate better 
suited to her physical condition. Locating in 
Kansas City. Missouri, he embarked there in 
a mercantile venture with Bernheimer Bros. & 
Co.. in which he retained an interest until 1802. 
As dealers in dry goods Mr. Shoenberg and 
his associates became prominent among the 
merchants of Kansas City, building up one of 
the largest establishments of the kind west of 



SHORT. 



2061 



St. Louis. In 1892 he came to St. Louis, 
well fitted by his experience to operate in a 
larger field, and took charge of the institution 
known as "The Famous" store, in this city. 
This business he has since managed with rare 
skill and good judgment, exhibiting all those 
qualities which go to make up a successful 
merchant. Associated with him in this enter- 
prise are his two brothers, J. E. and L. D. 
Shoenberg, and David May, and under their 
management its trade has expanded rapidly 
until it has become universally recognized as 
one of the greatest commercial institutions of 
the city. Moses Shoenberg has been the ex- 
ecutive head of this establishment, and upon 
him has rested the chief responsibility for its 
management. While giving strict attention 
to the business of merchandising, to which he 
has shown himself to be admirably adapted, 
he has at the same time taken an active inter- 
est in public affairs, is a member of the Con- 
gregation Israel, in which he has served for 
four years as a trustee, and has been a gen- 
erous contributor to, and friend of, various 
philanthropic institutions and charitable en- 
terprises. For five years he has been a mem- 
ber of the board of directors of the Columbian 
Club. October 6, 1880, he married Miss 
Dolly Bernheimer, sister of his former part- 
ners of that name. He has one son, Sydney, 
seventeen years of age. who at the present 
time (1898) is attending Smith Academy with 
a view to entering upon a commercial career 
when he shall have finished his course of 
study. 

Short, Patrick, theatrical manager, was 
born at Armagh, Ireland, October 12, 1848. 
He received his early education at the public 
school, finishing at the academy of the Christ- 
tian Brothers. Recognizing the boundless 
field open to worth and energy in the great 
republic of the West, the subject of this sketch 
lost no time in setting sail for the United 
States, arriving in New York in the fall of 
1864. He at once proceeded to Joliet, Illi- 
nois, where he had a married sister. Here he 
secured his first position as night clerk at the 
old National Hotel, which position he retained 
until he removed to St. Louis, Missouri, in 
1869. Possessed of those sterling qualities of 
grit and energy which have made the men of 
the North of Ireland famous the world over, 
and which have led so many of them to posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility in everv city 



of the Union, Mr. Short was not long in secur- 
ing the looked-for opening. He found 
Charles A. Spalding, and Mr. Spalding found 
him. We say found, for it was a case of treas- 
ure trove on both sides. The result has been 
an association of upward of thirty years, which 
has proved highly satisfactory to all con- 
cerned, and which the vanishing years seem 
only to make more intimate ; for the two men 
are still loyally knit together, and it looks as 
if they were to remain so unto the end. Mr. 
Spalding has an abounding confidence in Mr. 
Short, whom he has steadily advanced from 
position to position, engaging him first as 
ticket-seller and assistant treasurer, and then 
advancing him to those of treasurer, business 
manager, and finally to that of manager of 
the Olympic. Mr. Short's services to Mr. 
Spalding have not, however, ended here ; for 
Mr. Spalding, himself residing in the East, 
has many interests in St. Louis, over which 
his trusted local manager exercises a close and 
constant supervision. When the Olympic 
and the Grand Opera House were pooled, 
1887 to 1890, Pat Short handled the finances 
of both houses, Mr. Norton being associated 
with him in the management of the Grand. 
During this period he was handling for Spal- 
ding not less than one million dollars annually ; 
yet such was the confidence placed in him by 
his employer that he was never asked, at that 
time or any other, to put up any bond or secu- 
rity whatever. This confidence has not been 
special, but universal. The word of Mr. 
Short is accepted by all his associates, much as 
a bank cashier's indorsement upon a note is 
accepted in the financial world. It goes with- 
out question. It need scarcely be said that he 
is one of the best-known men in the theatrical 
line to-day ; he is also one of the most popular 
and thoroughly informed. In his quiet, unos- 
tentatious way, there is nothing in the line of 
amusements that escapes him unobserved, 
and upon which he is not prepared to pass 
a shrewd judgment — though not in public, 
for, like most men of sagacity, he is a man of 
few words, though ever debonair and courte- 
ous. Though Mr. Short's best energies and 
ability have been uniformly devoted to the 
Olympic, which by his watchful and untiring 
efforts he has raised to its present unique po- 
sition at the forefront of legitimate drama in 
St. Louis, yet he has left the impress of his 
personality in other directions. He was the 
orsrinator of the modern summer garden 



SHOT MAKING. 



amusements, adding those better features to 
which they owe their present popularity, as 
centers of clean and wholesome outdoor en- 
tertainment. During the years [876 to 1886 
he conducted L'hrig's ( ave, since which the 
Forest Park Highlands, the Suburban Gar- 

nd other similar resorts have developed. 
Hi- management at Chrig's Cave was made 
11. ,iable by the introduction of several novel- 
ties, such as Daly's Company. He also pro- 

before an open-air audience all of Gil- 
bert & Sullivan's operas. What is known as 
English opera was then creating quite a furore 
in Li nidi hi. and gave to the operatic stage 
some of its present favorites. -Miss I i 
may be cited as an instance. Mr. Short is a 
big hearted man. even when measured by the 
standard of his profession, which has ever been 
famous, in bulb sexes, for large and noble 
generosity. It is a iv 'table fact that lie is never 
in a hurry. An excess of business never finds 
him unprepared or leaves him with so much 
as a hair turned. Around him things move in 
such excellent order that upon the close of the 
busiest day's work everything has reached its 
appi tinted end without hurt or friction. This 
1- 1 lie quality of the natural-born manag 
and this urbane gentleman possesses it in an 
eminent degree. By reason of it. to work 
with him, or under him. is a never-failing 
pleasure. His kindh eye and equally kindly 
voice inspire an enduring friendship, such as 

prings from personal esteem and confi- 
deuce. Though a member of many clubs, ho 
is in mi sense ■ if the word a society man. His 
time is whi ill}' dedicated t" the performance 
ni thi' serious duties of lite — to the work of the 
day and to home; to look after the interests of 
a generous employer, provide lor home ami 
family, and to live in good will with all men. 
such is apparently the aim and end of his use- 
ful and unostentatious life. In [876 Mr. 
Short married Margaret, daughter of Janus 
Joseph I humeri \. of St. Louis. ( >ne child, a 
daughter, May Short, was born of this union 
in the spring ■ if 1 877. 

Shot Making. Tin abundance of lead 
ol" choice quality in Missouri, and the ch. .ill- 
ness 1 if mining it, attracted attention at a com- 
paratively early day. Thirty years before St. 
Louis was first settled by Laclede and the 
Chouteaus, the lead mines of what is now 
Washington Count} wen worked and found 
to be rich and profitable. The chief demand 



for lead at that earl) day was for making bul- 
lets and shot to supply the hunters who 
roamed over the great West, on both sides of 
the .Mississippi. Moulding lead into bars for 
hunters, who would themselves mould it into 
bullets with the moulds which every rifleman 
carried in his pouch, was an easy and not ex- 
pensive business ; but making shot was a com- 
plex and expensive process, requiring capital. 
i'he first shot in Missouri was made at ller- 
culaneum, now extinct, which stood on the 
gri iiintl now occupied by Crystal City, on the 
Mississippi, thirty miles below St. Louis. The 
bluff at that place offered the advantage 1 if a 
fall that might be turned to account, and, as 
the lead mines were not far distant in the in- 
terior, a shot tower was erected on the bluff 
at the place as early as the year 1809, and did 
,1 good business until the lead trade was di- 
verted to other places. The shot tower at 
Herculaneum furnished a picture for the old 
geograph} text-books of Missouri for years 
after both it and the town had passed into his- 
torv. St. Louis was more fortunate. It be- 
came famous for a shot tower also ; indeed, the 
tall shot tower in St. Louis was. for many 
years, the chief distinction of the city with per- 
sons who lived in other States and had never 
visited it. The original tower was abandoned 
and replaced with a higher and better one 
long ago, and St. Louis has not been without 
its .hot tower from the year 1809. In 1897 
it had two great towers in active operation, at 
which were made nearly one-half the shot 
manufactured in the United States. These 
t< iwers ; re large and complete, ranking among 
the most perfect structures of the kind in the 
world, built of brick, and one hundred and 
eighty feet in height. The manufacture of 
shot has become almost perfect. For a long 
time it was difficult to secure the symmetrical 
roundness required in the tiny projectiles, be- 
cause the outer surface of the globules cooled 
too rapidly into a crust by falling into the 
water, before the interior had time to become 
solid also. The result of this unequal cooling 
was imperfections in shape, which made the 
shot untrue. Various devices were resorted 
to to remedy this trouble, but none were ef- 
fective except the elevation of the towers so as 
to increase the distance of the fall, and thus 
give the fluid globules time to become solid 
before reaching the water. In melting the 
had it is necessary to add a small proportion of 
arsenic, usually six to twelve pounds to a ton 



SHULTZ. 



2068 



of the lead, for the purpose of hardening the 
metal and rendering it less ductile. The lead 
obtained in various States differs in qualities, 
according to the locality. Our Missouri lead 
is known in trade as "soft Missouri," and ranks 
high for nearly all manufacturing purposes, 
and because of its softness, requires more ar- 
senic to harden it for shot manufacture. The 
furnace for melting the metal in a shot tower 
has to be at the top of the tower, and the ma- 
terials must be hoisted to that elevation. The 
lead is melted in iron pots and arsenic is put 
in, usually forty pounds to the ton of lead, and 
the pot covered and sealed with clay or mor- 
tar, to prevent the escape of the arsenical 
vapor. The fluid condition of the alloy thus 
formed is maintained for several hours by 
keeping it over the fire until the mixture is 
complete. The scum is then carefully re- 
moved and the melted metal run into pigs, and 
it is this composition that is used for temper- 
ing the melted lead for making shot. When 
the pure lead is melted, pigs of the composite in 
are added, and the quality of the mixture 
tested by taking out a ladle full and allowing 
a few drops to fall into a tub of water. If the 
drops are not round, more of the arsenic com- 
position is added, until the globules are even 
and perfect. 'When the melted mass is found 
to be as it should be, it is poured into cullen- 
ders, or hollow hemispheres of sheet-iron, ten 
or twelve inches in diameter, perforated with 
round, smooth holes, of uniform size in each 
cullender. The size of these holes determines 
the size of the shot, Xo. o being one-fiftieth of 
an inch in diameter, Xo. i being one-fifty- 
eighth of an inch, Xo. 2 one-sixty-sixth, X T o. 3 
one seventy-second. Xo. 4 one-eightieth. Sev- 
eral cullenders of the same size of perforations 
are used at the same time, supported on pro- 
jecting grates of a chafing dish of sheet-iron, 
like a triangle, placed directly over the tub of 
water at the bottom of the tower. The tem- 
perature of the melted lead is varied according 
to the size of the shot to be made. The fall is 
about one hundred and sixty feet, and by the 
time the globules reach the tub they have be- 
come solid, and, after remaining in the water 
a short time, are removed. They are after- 
ward subjected to a polishing process, and are 
then ready for market. St. Louis shot, like St. 
Louis white lead, have a high reputation, and 
are shipped to nearly all parts of the country. 
The city has been a center of shot manufacture 



since 1810, and it is probable that it will con- 
tinue to be so for many generations to come. 
D. M. Grissom. 

Sliultz, Chauncey Forward, who 

has been prominent in St. Louis for many 
years as a business man and public official, 
was born at Salisbury, Somerset County, 
Pennsylvania, May Jo. [824. J J is paternal 
grandfather, Jacob Sliultz, was a native of 
Switzerland, who emigrated from the little 
town of Poltz, near Berne, in [762, and com- 
ing to this country, settled in Somerset 
County, Pennsylvania. There he married, 
and there his son. Adam Sliultz. was born in 
[789. In the same county, Adam Shultz grew 
to manhood and married, in 1818, Nancy 
Shockey, daughter of Christian Shockey, a 
veteran of the Revolutionary War. who had 
enlisted in Captain Doyle's company of the 
First Pennsylvania Regiment in 1777, and 
served to the close of the war, witnessing the 
surrender of Lord Cornwa'llis. Two miles 
from the town of Salisbury may still be seen 
'the large two-story stone house, which was 
long die home of Adam Shultz, and in which 
Chauncey F. Shultz was born. Among the 
intimate friends of Adam Shultz was Chaun- 
cey Forward, father-in-law and law preceptor 
of the distinguished jurist Jeremiah S. Black, 
and Ohauncey Forward Shultz was named in 
his honor. The elder Shultz was a sagacious 
and enterprising man. who combined with 
somewhat extensive farming operations the 
operation of' a large tannery. From 1832 to 
[836 he was also engaged as a government 
contractor in the reconstruction of the old 
National Road through a portion of Maryland. 
When his son Chauncey was twelve vears old, 
he bought a farm in Allegany County, Marx- 
land, which was on the line of the old National 
Road, and through which also ran the historic 
military road constructed by General Brad- 
dock, in 1755, when he was marching from 
Fort Cumberland to Fort Duquesne, where 
he met his famous defeat in battle with the 
French and Indians. On this farm Adam 
Shultz laid out the town of Gramtsville. in 
1836, building there two hotels, one of which 
is still standing as a reminder of the old stage 
days, when from fifteen to twenty stages 
passed over the National Road daily, and when 
it was no uncommon thing for two hundred 
passengers to stop at Gramtsville for meals in 
the course of a day. The old town now gives 



SHULTZ. 



little evidence of its earlier prosperity ami im- 
portance. Adam Shu'ltz died there in 1864, 
but his wife lived Do l>e ninety-one years of 
age, and in 1891 celebrated her ninetieth birth- 
day at tin- residence of one of her sons in Ship- 
man. Illinois, when two hundred and twenty 
of hi r desci ndants were gathered together in 
honor of the occasion. The son of a prosper- 
ous man of affairs. Chauncey F. Shultz was 
carefully educated in his youth, and then 
served an apprenticeship to the tanner's trade. 
When he was twenty years of age. he was 
given charge of the tannery which his father 
had previously operated, and some time later 
engaged in the business of manufacturing 
leather on his own account. In 1857 he re- 
moved to Hampshire County, Virginia, and 
there, in company with Silas Reese, built and 
operated a large steam tannery. Two years 
later, several trips which he had made to the 
West having convinced him that this was a 

g 1 field in which to carry on the business oi 

manufacturing leather, he sold nut his \ ir- 
ginia interests and removed to St. Louis. 
Here he purchased the leather, hide and wool 
stock of Horace A. Conant, and later, asso- 
ciating with himself Terry Shultz, Thomas 
Kerr, William Samples, and J. A. J. Shultz as 
partners, established the business which he 
conducted successfully until 1874, when he re- 
tired from active participation in its conduct 
and management. At a later date he was one 
of the organizers of the Shultz Belting Com- 
pany, and acted as its purchasing agent from 
[880 to 1887. Prominently identified with 
trade and commerce in St. Louis, he has been 
equally prominent in public life, having always 
taken an active interest in local and general 
governmental affairs. I lis father was. from 

boyl d to old age, a Jeffersonian Democrat, 

and was fond of relating that when only fif- 
teen y< . during the political cam- 
paign of [804, he subscribed fift\ cents to help 
erect a Jefferson pole, when it took him three 
days to earn the fiftj cents. Following in the 
footsteps of his father, the sun has always been 
<me of the staunches! of Democrats as were 
all the nine s, ms of Vdam Shultz. In [854 
he served as one of the commissioners of \1 
legan\ County, Maryland, and in [874 was 
: presiding judge of the ( '. mnty ( 'ourl 
of St. Louis County. He also served as om 
of the commissioners of Forest Park, person 
ally signing all of the two million dollar issue 
mds fi <r the purchase and improvement 



of forest, O'Fallon and Carondelet Parks. 
In 1875 he was appointed by the court as- 
signee of the Western Savings Bank, and his 
skillful winding up of its affairs resulted in the 
depositors being paid in full. In 1887 Presi- 
dent Cleveland appointed him United States 
subtreasurer for St. Louis, and at the end of 
his four years' term of service, when he turned 
over to his successor more than $23,000,000, 
his cash balanced to a cent. When he first 
came to St. Louis Judge Shultz and his fam- 
ily united with the Central Presbyterian 
Church, at that time situated at the corner of 
Eighth and Locust Streets, and he has since 
been a conspicuously helpful friend of the re- 
ligious interests of the city. He helped to 
build the church at Garrison and Lucas Ave- 
nues, being deacon and trustee at this time, 
Rev. Dr. Brank, pastor, and later, when he re- 
moved to Compton Hill, in the spring of 1877, 
he and his family united with the Lafayette 
Park Presbyterian Church, which was in 
course of construction. He assisted in the 
building and was one of the trustees of that 
church. In 1890 he and his family transferred 
their membership to the Compton Hill Con- 
gregational Church, and when that church 
erected a new edifice at Compton and La- 
fayette Avenues, Judge Shultz was also deacon 
and president of the board of trustees, and 
superintended the building of the church. He 
was president also of the board of trustees of 
the Central Mission Church, at Eleventh and 
Locust Streets, from 1888 to 1891, and as a 
churchman has rendered many valuable serv- 
ices to the cause of Christianity. In 1848. at 
Hancock, Washington County. Maryland, he 
was married to Hadassah Chambers Brown. 
Mrs. Shultz was a great-granddaughter of 
Ben Chambers, the first white settler in Frank- 
lin County, Pennsylvania, and the founder of 
Chambersburg. This noted colonist served 
in Colonel William Thompson's battalion dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. and became a lieu- 
tenant in the Pennsylvania Regiment. His 
descendant. Mrs. Schultz, was born in Paris, 
Tennessee, in 1827. where her father, Dr. Wil- 
liam Maxwell Brown, died in 1836. Her 
mother then returned by stage to her father's 
home in Maryland, and there the daughter 
nut and married Judge Shultz. She died in 
1887. The children of Judge and Mrs. Shultz 
are Maxwell W. Shultz. Mrs. Addie Allison; 
Llewellvn Brown Shultz. and Marv Janet 
Shultz. 



SHULTZ— SHUMARD. 



2065 



Shultz, John A. J., manufacturer, 
was born at Grantsville, Maryland, April 27, 
1838, son of Adam and Nancy (Shockey) 
Shultz. His father, born in Somerset County, 
Pennsylvania, was the son of Jacob Shultz, 
who immigrated to this country from Switzer- 
land in 1762, and his mother was the daughter 
of Christian Shockey, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tionary War, who served in Captain Doyle's 
company of the First Pennsylvania Regiment 
from the year 1777 until the surrender of Lord 
Cornwallis at Yorktown. Two of the uncles 
of John A. J. Shultz on his father's side served 
through the War of 18 12- 14 under General 
Andrew Jackson, and his father, being an ar- 
dent admirer of that distinguished soldier and 
statesman, gave the son his name. After ob- 
taining a practical education in the village 
school of Grantsville, Mr. Shultz learned the 
tanner's trade under the guidance of his 
brother, Chauncey F. Shultz, and later pur- 
chased the tannery which his father had pre- 
viously operated, which he conducted there- 
after until the year 1864. In that year he 
came to St. Louis and embarked in the hide 
and leather business in this city. In 1872 he 
formed a copartnership with Colonel C. W. 
Ford in the tanning business, which continued 
in existence until 1873, when Colonel Ford 
died. Mr. Shultz then purchased the interest 
of his estate, and continued the business alone 
until 1876. During this time he had been ex- 
perimenting in the manufacture of a new kind 
of raw-hide belt, which he succeeded in per- 
fecting, patenting the process in the year last 
named. The introduction of this new process 
into the manufacture of belts, and the mani- 
fest superiority of the product, brought about 
something of a revolution in the belting busi- 
ness, and in the year 1877 Mr. Shultz began 
receiving so many orders for his raw-hide 
belts that he found it advisable to organize a 
corporation to conduct the business. Ac- 
cordingly the Shultz Belting Company was in- 
corporated under the laws of the State of Mis- 
souri, with a fully paid-up capital of $300,000. 
Mr. Shultz was made president of the com- 
pany, which at once began the operation of 
very extensive works at Bismarck and Barton 
Streets, in St. Louis. While this business 
proved exceedingly profitable and grew rap- 
idly, Mr. Shultz did not rest on his laurels 
as an inventor, but continued making experi- 
ments of various kinds in connection with his 
manufacturing operations, and has since pat- 



ented a number of very important devices. 
What is now known as his sable raw-hide 
belting is famous the world over, for the rea- 
son that the interior is raw-hide, with the 
surface only tanned, and because there is no 
possibility of the slipping of this kind of belt- 
ing with consequent loss of motion. Raw- 
hide lace leather is another invention which 
has given Mr. Shultz wide celebrity. His was 
the first raw-hide lace made in the world, and 
his manufacture the original and the best. In 
1890 he patented his woven leather belt, a tri- 
umph of ingenuity, which achieved success 
almost before the necessary protection was 
obtained. The works of the Shultz Belting 
Company, at the intersection of Barton and 
Bismarck Streets, have frontages of two hun- 
dred, and one hundred and forty-six feet, re- 
spectively, and buildings on Seventh and Bis- 
marck Streets are also a part of the plant. The 
process of manufacture is a very intricate and 
interesting one, and this, coupled with the en- 
terprise of the corporation of which Mr. 
Shultz is the head, and the wide distribution 
of its products, is carrying the fame of St. 
Louis far beyond the limits of the United 
States, the company having agents in all parts 
of the world, and selling its belting everywhere 
that belting is used. A thoroughly public- 
spirited citizen, Mr. Shultz has been closely 
identified with the progress and growth of St. 
Louis in various ways. He was one of the or- 
ganizers, and is a director of the Manufactur- 
ers' Association of St. Louis, the St. Louis 
Latin-American Club, and the Furniture 
Board of Trade. A Lutheran churchman, he 
was the founder of St. Mark's English Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church, of this city. He, 
with his wife, worked two years to bring to- 
gether the few Lutherans who organized this 
church in 1867, and the congregation thus 
founded has developed into the large and 
prosperous church organization of to-day, 
bearing the name above mentioned, and of 
which Rev. Dr. M. Rhodes is now pastor. In 
the year 1859 Mr. Shultz married Miss Mary 
E. Brown. Their children are Sallie K., now 
Mrs. J. A. Ferguson ; E. Brow-n. Edith, Mabel, 
John R., Charles F. and Fannie E. Shultz. 

Shumard, Benjamin Franklin, 

scientist, born at Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
November 24, 1820. His father. John Shu- 
mard, was of Huguenot descent, and was edu- 
cated for the ministry of the Methodist Epis- 



2066 



SHCMARD. 



copal < hurch, which, however, he did not en- 
ter, but became a merchant. J I is mother was 
Ann Catharine ( ictz, daughter of Peter Getz, 
who claimed to have invented the first fire 
engine used in America. John Shumard re- 
moved to Cincinnati in 1835, and the son was 
in Miami University, where he re- 
mained three years, diligently pursuing his 
studies, bul his father changing his residence 
li ; .1 bi Fore he was read) t< 1 gradu- 
al . he attended lectures in the Jefferson Med- 
ollege. He afterward, in 1841, entered the 
M' dical University of Louisville, where, at the 
end of his second course, he received his doc- 
tor's degree in a large class, of which he stood 
in the front rank. Settling in Hodgenville, a 
small town south of Louisville, he opened an 

iii'l began practice, but soon became ab- 
ed in natural history and other scientific 

5, almost to the exclusion 1 if his p 
sion as a physician. In a twelvemonth he was 
in Li misville. In ci >mpany w ith I'n ifes- 

ibb, a pr< ifessii mal anatomist fi ir whom 
he formed a strong friendship, he explored the 
rich held .11 organic remains in the vicinity of 
the Falls ( ity, and made collections of their 
fossils. M. Edward de Verneuil, president of 
the Geological Society of France, visiting 
Louisville in 1846, while touring America to 
>are the paleozoic formation of this coun- 
try with those of Europe, had the assistance 
of Dr. Shumard in his researches. The emi- 
nent French geologisl expressed great delight 
at finding among the young doctor's fossils 
evidence of the analog) to many of his own 
specimens at home. Dr. David Dale Owen, 
who had in charge the geological survey of 
the Northwestern territory under the direc- 
tion of 1 ongress, was in Louisville at the same 
time, and appoint! d I lr. Shumard one of his 
assistants, and the latter contributed largel) to 
the value of the reports on the geology of 
Iowa. Wisconsin and Minnesota, which rank 
among the ureal scientific productions of our 
country. in 1847 he and 1 ) r . Vandell pub- 
lished a memoir on "The 1 ieolog_\ of Ken- 
tucky," complimented l.\ mam European 
geologists. I )r. Shumard labored in the survey 
of the Territories until 1850, when he under- 
took, with Dr. Evans, a geological tour in 1 Ire- 
gon, where he was engaged eighteen month-, 
and, of which survey he made an inter, ting 
and valuable report. In [852, returning to 
Louisville, he married Miss E. M. \llcn. a 
ol fine literary attainments and love of 



science. lie was next employed on the pale- 
ontolog) of the Red River exploration, then 
just completed by his brother, Dr. George E. 
Shumard, in connection with Captain R. B. 
Marcv. In 1N53. on invitation of Professor 
G. C. Swallow, he removed to St. Louis to be- 
come assistant in the Missouri Geological Sur- 
vey. In this subordinate position he labored 
live years, when at last he received an appoint- 
ment commensurate with the qualifications 

nizi d by men of science everywhere. I [e 
was appointed by Governor Runnels, of Texas, 
to make a geological survey of that State, 
upon which work he entered with enthusiasm, 
and in which he zealously continued for two 
years, when he was removed by Governor 
Houston to make room for a political friend. 
Meantime he had worked over almost the en- 

1 -tern and middle portions of the State, 
and made a number of interesting discoveries. 
his collections showing deposits ranging from 
the most ancient strata up to the latest tertiary 
formations. His friends had hopes that he 
would be recalled to the work, but the Civil 
\\ ar coming on put an end to research in this 
science for a time. Dr. Shumard now turned 
his attention to his original profession, opened 
an office in St. Louis, and soon enjoyed a lu- 
crative practice. He was elected professor of 
obstetrics in the State University in 1866. and 
lectured acceptably two winters. His health 
had been declining several months, and b) ad- 
vice he sought a milder climate. The steamer 
upon which be took passage for New Orleans 
caught fire and burned above Vicksburg, and 
from the excitement and exposure pneumonia 
set in. He returned to St. Louis immediately, 
and died in the bosom of his family, April 14, 
[869. \l the time of his death he was presi- 
dent of the St. Louis Academy of Science, 
corresponding member of the Geological So- 
ciety of London, of the Imperial Geological 
Societ) of Vienna, of the Imperial Geological 
Society of Honnstadt, of the Academies of 
Science of Philadelphia, California, Cincin- 
nati, New ( Means, and of many others. Reso- 
lutions honoring his memory were passed by 
all of these. Few scientific writers have been 
more industrious. Innumerable contribu- 
tions were made by him to geological litera- 
ture in magazine articles and in papers read 
before academies, many of them prepared in 
the midst of laborious professional duties, all 
showing a vast amount of knowledge and re- 
search. Constant reference is made to them 



SIEBENMANN— SIGEL. 



2067 



in all the recent works relating to the geology 
of North America. Dr. Shumard was a mem- 
ber of the Sixteenth Street Presbyterian 
Church, in St. Louis, the gifted pastor of 
which, Dr. Brookes, had been for many years 
his warm personal friend. His wife and one 
daughter, Lizzie Allen Frank — they had four 
daughters — now survive. 

Siebenmann, Francis, was born in 
the city of Berne, Switzerland, November 19, 
1819, son of Jacob and Maria Siebenmann. 
After receiving what would be termed in this 
country a high school education he served an 
apprenticeship to the business of merchandis- 
ing, and in 1845 engaged in the wholesale 
cigar and tobacco business. May 22, 1846, 
he married Miss Caroline Julia Delporte, in 
Aarau, Switzerland, and leaving that country 
September 30, 1847, ne arrived in St. Louis 
January 1, 1848, and for several years after his 
coming thither he was employed in a clerical 
capacity with various merchandising estab- 
lishments and banking institutions. In 1867 
he became cashier of the American Bank, 
with which he was connected until 1870. 
During the ten years following he was en- 
gaged in the brokerage business, and since 
then has been identified with the coal trade of 
the city. On the 22A of May, 1896, he and his 
wife celebrated their golden wedding at their 
home, 2327 Geyer Avenue. Their surviving 
children are Mrs. Leicester Babcock, Fred- 
erick Emil, Frederick Arthur and Hedwig 
Siebenmann. 

Siemon, Frederick, manufacturer, was 
born January 5, 1817, in Hesse-Cassel, Ger- 
many, son of August and Helena (Kaatz) Sie- 
mon. His father, who for several years was 
a superintendent of German mails, and who 
also saw service as a sergeant in the German 
army, died in the fatherland in 1873. After 
receiving a practical education in the schools 
of his native town Frederick Siemon learned 
the cooper's trade, and also served a three and 
a half years' apprenticeship to the brewer's 
trade. Afterward he traveled throughout Ger- 
many, working in various towns and cities as 
a journeyman brewer until 1834, when he 
came to this country and established his home 
in St. Louis. He was first employed here bv 
Stephen Stock, who operated a brewery at the 
corner of Seventh and Main Streets, and from 
1836 to 1847 was foreman of a brewery located 



at the corner of Seventh and Sidney Street.--, 
in St. Louis. After making a visit to his old 
home he returned to St. Louis, and some time 
later embarked in the brewing business in 
company with Nicholas Eckerle, the firm be- 
ing known as the Eckerle ec Siemon Brewing 
Company. This firm established and operated 
a brewing plant located at the corner of Soul- 
ard and Third Streets, and built large beer 
vaults at Miami and Galena Streets, which 
later became the property of Adolphus Busch. 
In 1867 Mr. Siemon retired from active busi- 
ness with an ample fortune accumulated by 
judicious business operations and investments, 
and the exercise of that kind of economy 
which enabled him to add. from the start, to 
the $750 which constituted the sum total of 
his capital when he arrived in St. Louis. After 
his retirement he built a handsome residence 
at ^750 Marine Avenue, which has been his 
home for nearly a third of a century. During 
the Civil War Mr. Siemon was an adjutant in 
the Home Guards of St. Louis, and while serv- 
ing in that capacity participated in the his- 
toric capture of Camp Jackson. Politically he 
has been known for many years as one of the 
staunch Republicans of South St. Louis, and 
his religious affiliations are with the Protes- 
tant Church. September 16, 1853, he mar- 
ried Miss Augusta Roetcher, then a resident 
of St. Louis, but a native of Prussia. Their 
Surviving children are Ida, the wife of Eugene 
Muehlmann, of the Anheuser-Busch Brewing 
( iompany; Amalia, wife of Gustave J. Sapper, 
of Washington, Missouri, and Edmund Sie- 
mon, of Evansville, Indiana. 

Sigel, Franz, soldier, was born in Sins- 
heim, Baden, November 18, 1824. After com- 
pleting his studies at the gymnasium of Bruch- 
sal he entered the military school at Carlsruhe, 
and was graduated in 1834. When the Baden 
revolution began, in February, 1848. he raised 
a corps of volunteers, organized the Lake Dis- 
trict at Constance, led a body of more than 
4,000 volunteers against Freiburg, and was 
beaten in two encounters with the royal troops. 
He escaped across the French border, April 
28th, and made his way into Switzerland. The 
insurrection of May, 1849, recalled him to 
Baden. He was made commandant of the 
Lake and Upper Rhine District, then placed 
in charge of the Army of the Neckar. met the 
roval forces at Hoppenheim on May 30th. be- 
came Minister of War. and finallv succeeded 



SIMMONS. 



, hief command of the u oi ips. He 
fought in several battles under General Luuis 
Mieroslawski, whom he succeeded, conducted 
the army of 15,000 nun in retreat through 
three hostile army corps, and crossed the 
Rhine with the remnant into Switzerland on 
July 1 ith. While residing at Lugano he was 
arrested by the Federal authorities in the 
spring of 1851, and delivered over to the 
French police, who conducted him to Havre 
with the intention of placing him on a ship 
luiiuid for the United States. lie, however, 
went to England, lived in London and 
Brighton, and in May. 1852, sailed for New 
York. After his marriage to a daughter of 
Rudolph Dulon he taught in the latter's 
school, at the same time translating manuals 
of arms into German, and conducting "Die 
Revue," a military magazine, till 1858, when 
he was called to St. Louis as teacher of mathe- 
matics and history in the German Institute. 
At the beginning of the ( ivil War he organ- 
ized a regiment of infantry and a battery, 
which rendered efficient service at the occupa- 
tion of the arsenal and the capture of Camp 
Jai 1 son. In June. 1861, he was sent with his 
regiment and two batteries to Rolla, whence 
he marched to Xeosho and compelled the re- 
treat of General Sterling Price into Arkansas. 
I fe took part in the fight at Dug Springs, and 
after the battle of Wilson's Creek conducted 
the retreat of the army from Springfield to- 
ward Rolla. He was commissioned as briga- 
dier general, to date from May 17, 1861. In 
the autumn campaign of General John C. Fre- 
mont he had command of the advance guard, 
and in the retreat from Springfield he com- 
manded the rear guard, consisting of two di- 
visions. He took command of the right wing 
of the troops assembled under General Samuel 
R. Curtis at Rolla, and gained the battle of 
Pea Ridge by a well-timed assault, lie was 
thereupon made a major general, dating from 
March 21, [862, and was ordered to the East 
and placed in command of the troops at Har- 
per's Ferry. Mr co-operated in the movi 
men! against General Thomas J. Jackson at 
Winchester. When General John Pope was 
placed in command of the newly created Army 
of Virginia, Sigel, in command of the First 
< 'orps, took part in tin 

ning with Cedar Creek and ending with Bull 
Run. where he commanded the right wing and 
won the first day's fight, a decided adva 
>ii. After the battle he coven 



retreat to Centreville. His corps held the ad- 
vanced position at Fairfax Courthouse and 
Centreville. He commanded the Fourth 
Grand Reserve Division until that organiza- 
tion was abolished, when he resumed com- 
mand of the Eleventh Corps, took leave of ab- 
sence on account of failing health, and was 
superseded by General Oliver O. Howard. In 
June. 1863, he took command of the reserve 
armv of Pennsylvania, and organized a corps 
of 10,000 men to aid in repelling Lee's in- 
vasion. In February, 1S64, President Lin- 
coln appointed him to the command of the 
Department and the Army of West Virginia. 
He fitted out an expedition that operated under 
General George Crook in the Kanawha Val- 
lev. and led a smaller one of 7,000 men 
through the Shenandoah Valley against 
Lynchburg and Staunton, but was defeated 
by < ieneral John C. Breckinridge at New 
Market. He was thereupon relieved, and in 
June. 1864. put in command of the division 
guarding Harper's Ferry. He repelled the 
attack of General Tubal A. Early on Maryland 
Heights, but was relieved of his command 
soon afterward and retired to Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, to recruit his health. He re- 
signed his commission on May 4, 1865, and 
became editor of the Baltimore "Wecker." In 
September, 1867, he removed to New York 
1 itv. and has since resided there, holding at 
different times important public offices. 

Simmons, Edward ('., merchant, was 
born September 21, 1839, in Frederick, Mary- 
land, son of Zachariah T. and Louise (Helfen- 
stein) Simmons. His parents were natives, 
respectively, of Pennsylvania and Maryland, 
the father descended from New England an- 
cestors, and the mother of German antece- 
dents. Mr. Simmons came to St. Louis in 
1846, when he was seven years of age, and 
completed his education at the High School, 
which was then located on Sixth Street, be- 
tween St. Charles and Locust Streets. When 
he was sixteen years old he entered the employ 
of Childs, Pratt & Co.. hardware merchants, 
whose place of business was on Main Street, 
between Vine Street and Washington Ave- 
nue, and three doors north of the old State 
Bank of Missouri. After serving a three 
years' apprenticeship to the hardware busi- 
ness in this connection he entered the employ 
of Wilson, Levering & Waters, a new firm just 
embarking in business at 51 North Main 



SIMMONS. 



2069 



Street. Four years later Mr. Wilson retired 
from this firm, and January i, 1863, Mr. Sim- 
mons was admitted to a partnership in the firm 
of Levering, Waters & Co. Eighteen months 
afterward Mr. Levering died, and the firm 
then became Waters, Simmons & Co. This 
firm continued a successful business until 
1872, when Mr. Waters retired. Isaac W. 
Morton was admitted to partnership with Mr. 
Simmons, forming the firm of E. C. Simmons 
& Co. This partnership was succeeded in 
1874 by the corporation which took the name 
of Simmons Hardware Company, now con- 
ducting the largest hardware business in the 
world. Mr. Simmons was one of the first 
business men in St. Louis to take note of the 
liberal character of the laws of Missouri relat- 
ing to corporations, laws under which stock- 
holders are responsible only to the amount of 
the par value of the stock which they own. 
Simmons Hardware Company, which he or- 
ganized, and of which he became the chief ex- 
ecutive officer, was the first mercantile estab- 
lishment to incorporate in the United States, 
and therefore was the pioneer, whose example 
has been followed by thousands of similar cor- 
porations. At first the idea of incorporating 
a business of this character was looked upon 
with suspicion, but the public soon grasped the 
fact that this plan enabled the managers and 
principal owners of the business to interesl 
their employes as stockholders, and in that 
way to establish upon a healthy and equitable 
basis a system of profit-sharing which would 
be very effective in promoting the success of 
the enterprise. From boyhood up to the 
present time Mr. Simmons has been an en- 
thusiastic lover of the business in which he is 
engaged. Beginning as a boy in the dis- 
charge of the most simple duties, he gained 
experience in every detail of the business, mas- 
tering each department separately, and hence, 
as the scope of his operations became larger, 
he was vastly benefited by his practical knowl- 
edge of every phase of the hardware trade. 
He was among the first hardware merchants 
of the country to put traveling salesmen in 
the field, and it is now said that he has em- 
ployed more salesmen in this capacity than any 
other man in America. The selection of these 
men has always been a matter of pride with 
him, and it has been his constant aim to so ele- 
vate the business in which he is engaged as 
to make it better for his being in it. He has 
encouraged his salesmen to be upright, in the 



broadest sense of the term, to cultivate good 
habits and the strictest integrity of purpose. 
One of his favorite mottoes has been "that a 
salesman's duty is to help his customers to 
prosper," and one of the mottoes of the house 
under his guidance has been that "the recol- 
lection of quality remains long after the price 
is forgotten." Mr. Simmons has been par- 
ticularly fortunate, and has given evidence of 
his clear perceptions and good judgment of 
men in the selection of his staff of assistants, 
and it may be confidently asserted that there 
is not now in the United States a commercial 
house better organized, more systematically 
conducted, or founded upon a more enduring 
basis than that of the Simmons Hardware 
Company. On the 1st of January, 1898, owing 
to advancing years and impaired health, Mr. 
Simmons resigned the presidency of the com- 
pany, as did his associate and friend, Mr. Mor- 
ton, the first vice-presidency. Wallace D. Sim- 
mons, eldest son of Edward C. Simmons, who 
had been trained to the business under his di- 
rection, succeeded his father as president, and 
John E. Pilcher, who had been connected 
with the house for thirty-five years, succeeded 
to the vice-presidency. Edward H. Simmons, 
another of Mr. Simmons' .sons, is now a mem- 
ber of the board of directors, and the eight 
other members of this board have all been con- 
nected with the house for a quarter of a cen- 
tury or 'more. In this connection it may be 
stated that Mr. Simmons and Mr. Morton have 
established another precedent, which is likely 
to be followed in this country. They have 
accepted the positions of advisory directors, 
which means that they still retain their con- 
nection with the institution, although they 
have given up its active management and have 
shifted the larger share of its burdens and re- 
sponsibilities to other shoulders. Each day, 
however, they spend a portion of their time in 
the house, and are ready at all times to give 
to their successors the benefit of their many 
years of experience and of their ripened judg- 
ment. An evidence of the firm foundation 
upon which this great commercial institution 
has been established is found in the fact that 
during the first year after the retirement of 
Mr. Simmons and Mr. Morton, the business 
was even more successful than it had ever been 
before, and as there is a large element of youth 
as well as of ability in the present directorate, 
it is probable that the business will be con- 
ducted for another twentv-five vears with but 



SIMMONS— SIMPSON. 



a few changes i f management. Mr. Simmons 
has been a great factor in bringing trade from 
remote sections to St. Louis, the salesmen of 
his house, numbering more than two hundred 
in all. having been sent into not less than 
forty States and Territories, in all of which 
the\ have done a large and profitable busini ss 
This example has been followed by merchants 
er lines of business, and the result has 
been immensely beneficial to St. Louis. Air. 
Simmons has always been an enthusiast in re 
gard to the possibilities and advantages of St. 
Louis as a jobbing center, advancing for it the 
. J inn th li ii is the on) , large < d\ m the I nittd 
Mate- that has tributary to it the cotton and 
cereal producing regions of our country, 
-t iples which constitute the basis of c miraer- 
cial prosperity. In addition to his merchan- 
dising operations, he has Keen a director of 
ihi' Boatmen's Bank for seventeen years; was 
for a time a director in the St. Louis Xational 
Bank', and is now a director in the Xational 
Bank of Commerce, the largest financial in- 
stitution in the United States with a single 
e: ception. 1 le has also been a director of the 
St. Louis ITust Company since its organiza- 
tion. 1 luring the years i88o and 1SS1 he 
was a member of the St. Louis police board, 
which had to its credit the permanent closing, 
in a single night, of every public gambling 
in Si. Louis. lie has always taken a 
great interest in young men. and is easih ap- 
proached b\ his youngest or humblest em- 
pi' <} e. i re has belie; ed at all times that en- 
couragement is the greatest incentive to 
S "d conduct, and has watched the lives of his 
employes as closely as he could, with a view 
io benefiting them and advising them against 
lakes ; ( , Freqin nth made l.\ the \ oung 
While he is a broad-minded and liberal man. 
he has been pronounced in the matter of not 
employing habitual drinkers as traveling sales- 
men, believing thai trade procured in that way 
is not worth having, and it is a fact worthy of 
mention that out of respect lor his views' his 
large force of salesmen have abstained almost 
wholh from habitual drinking, and each has 
striven in his , , W n wa\ to elevate the plane , ,i 
traveling salesmanship. Mr. Simmons mar- 
ried. 1866, Mis, i larrie Welch, daughter of 
-''- W. and Luc\ Welch, of St. Louis. 
( if live children born to them, two daughters 
have died. Two of die three s ( ,ns are idei 
with the business which their father es 
tahlished, and the third son is finishing his 



studies at Yale University. Mr. Simmons is 
an active member of the Episcopal Church, 

and has .aided materially in advancing the in- 
terests of that denomination in St. Louis. 

Simmons, Wallace I)., merchant, was 
born November _'4, 1867, in St. Louis, 9011 of 
Edward C. and Garrie (Welch 1 Simmons. He 
was titled for college in the primary depart- 
ment of Washington University ami under 
private tutorage, and in 1886 entered Vale 
( College, from which institution he was gra lu- 
ated with the degree of bachelor of arts in the 
f 1890. January 1. 1891. he entered the 
employ of the Simmons Hardware Gotmp&ny, 
and. notwithstanding the fact that his father 
was the founder and head of tin house, he be- 
gan as till employes of that establishment do 
a bhorough course of training for the business. 
After serving in all the departments, includ- 
ing that of traveling salesman, he was made 
assistant treasurer of the company upon the 
resignation of one of the former officers, and 
held that position until January 1st of 1898, 
when his father reared from the position ■ if 
president, which the elder Sitamonis had held 
since the corporation was organized. As he 
had demonstrated his capacity as a business 
man and merchant and after his father's retire- 
ment became the active representative of a 
\er\ large interest in the house, he was elected 
by the stockholders to the presidency and still 
retains that position. This action of his busi- 
ness associates was a flattering testimonial to 
his ability as a man of affairs and ihe distinc- 
tion of being the official head of the greatest 
hardware house in the world is an honor such 
as is seldom conferred upon so young a man. 
lie is a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
1 hurch, in which he was confirmed in 18S4. 

Simpson, Robei't, physician, was born 
a: Port Tobacco, Maryland, and came west in 
1809, as assistant surgeon in the army, coming 
down the Ohio River from Pittsburg on a tlat- 
boat with a detachment of troops. At Fort 
Massac, Illinois, he left the flat-boats and came 
kit rest of the way on a keel boat with cor- 
delle, pole, oars and sails. He made his wajj 
up the Mississippi to Port Madison, and re- 
mained there for two \ ears. In 1812 he came 
to St. Louis, and made it his home. He was 
a man of sterling uprightness and possessed a 
capacity for business that caused him to be fre- 
quently called to responsible positions. In 



SINGLE TAX LEAGUE. 



2071 



1831 he was chosen alderman in the city coun- 
cil, and in 1839 he was elected comptroller, 
holding the office by successive re-elections 
till 1846. From 181 5 to 1818 he was post- 
master, and in 1847 was chosen the first treas- 
urer of the Boatmen's Savings Institution. 
He died in St. Louis, May 2, 1873. 

Single Tax League. — A voluntary or- 
ganization of both sexes, and without distinc- 
tion as to politics, religion, race or nationality, 
which was a natural coming together of kin- 
dred spirits for a union of effort in the propa- 
gation and advancement of the principles 
taught by the late Henry George and denomi- 
nated by him, early in the history of the move- 
ment, as "Single Tax, "a term recognized by all 
adherents of the philosophy as an insignificant 
and therefore unfortunate name for such a 
grand and noble cause. However, as this 
term is expressive of the methods proposed, 
and the English language fails to furnish a 
name that comprehends the full scope of Mr. 
George's ideas, this one is accepted as a per- 
manent fixture wherever the cause is launched 
into the arena of social and political discussion. 
That this is evident the course of events in for- 
eign lands, where Mr. George's philosophy has 
taken root and grown even more rapidlv than 
in the United States, attests, as the name 
■'Single Tax" has been or is being substituted 
for Other appellations as the name under which 
organized propaganda and political action is 
going on. Notably is this the case in Great 
Britain and her colonies, especially those of 
New Zealand and Australia. Even in Japan 
the movement with the name "Single Tax" is 
rapidly assuming considerable force under the 
guidance and inspiration of some of our Amer- 
ican missionaries, one of Whom is the Rev. 
Charles E. Garst. 

The single tax platform consists of the fol- 
lowing declaration of principles : "We assert 
as our fundamental principle that all men are 
equally entitled to the use of the earth, air and 
sunshine, and that the chief function of govern- 
ment is to protect the individual in these 
rights. The land being the source of all 
wealth and comfort, and exclusive, undisturbed 
possession of certain areas of land being a priv- 
ilege afforded by governmental protection 
only, and comprehending all other privileges, 
we further assert that taxation for the support 
of government should be based solely upon 
such privilege. 



"Therefore, no one should be permitted to 
hold land without paying to the community 
the value thereof, and from the fund so raised 
all expenses of government should be paid. 
We would, therefore, abolish all taxation ex- 
cept a tax upon the value of land, exclusive of 
all improvements. This system of taxation 
would dispense with a horde of tax-gatherers, 
simplify and purify government and greatly re- 
duce its cost. It would do away with the cor- 
ruption and gross inequality inseparable from 
our present methods. It would relieve the 
farmer, the workingman and the manufacturer 
of those taxes by which they are now unjustly 
burdened, and tax for public uses those val- 
ues due to the presence of population. It 
would make it impossible for speculators to 
hold land idle, and would open unlimited op- 
portunities for the employment of labor and 
capital which is essential to the solution of the 
labor problem." 

The league, which is the local branch of a 
national organization having like branches in 
all parts of the country, is what may be oalled 
a development from earlier efforts toward or- 
ganized propaganda. 

The first recorded efforts to co-operate in 
the teaching of "Single Tax" in the city were 
initiated in 1885 or 1886 by Hamlin Russell, 
journalist, now in New Jersey ; James A. Hill, 
at this time (1898) master mechanic of the 
Peoria & Pekin Union Railroad Company, 
and located at Peoria, Illinois ; Charles L. 
Deyo, journalist : and John G. Hummell. to- 
bacconist. The first meeting place was at Mr. 
Russell's residence, 3019 Dickson Street. 
Russell, Hill and Hummell later on joined the 
Knights of Labor, then at the zenith of its 
power, and labored assiduously for the spread 
of the George doctrine. From this beginning 
arose what was called the "Land and Labor 
Club of St. Louis," of which a large number 
of individuals formed the membership, some 
of them quite prominent in labor organizations 
and other civic bodies. Late in 1887 the 
movement took on another phase and the local 
organization evolutedinto what was known as 
the "Anti-Poverty Society," which was organ- 
ized on September 24th of that year. This 
name was inspired by the movement headed 
by Father McGlynn, in New York, following 
the George mayoralty campaign of 1886, which 
culminated in defeat, and later on in the 
formation of what was called the "Anti-Pov- 
erty Crusade," and was retained until the or- 



SINKING FUND. 



ganizaltion adopted another, after which the 
term "Anti-Poverty" gradually disappeared 
from the vocabulary of the Georgeites. 

On August 12, 1888, the change of name 
heretofore referred to took place and the "St. 
Louis Single Tax League'' was organized at 
1109 Washington Avenue, but this organiza- 
tion was composed of elements not entirely 
harmonious on clear-cut single tax principles. 
And, therefore, on the evening of January 1, 
[889, a number of straight-out single taxers 
met at the shoe store of Stephen M. Ryan, 1 125 
\< >rth Third Street, and agreed On a line of ac- 
tion which resulted in the reorganization of 
the league, with Hamlin Russell as president. 
The membership of the league at this time 
consisted principally of laboring men — using 
the term "laboring" in its contracted sense — 
but during the year following a number of ad- 
herents from the professional and educational 
circles were gathered in, some of them quite 
prominent in the community. Mr. Bronson 
C. Keeler was one of these, and to him, more 
than to any other individual in the country, are 
the people of the United States indebted for 
the movement which resulted in Congress or- 
dering the taking of a census of "home and 
farm mortgages" in 1890, and which caused 
the expenditure of more than a million of dol- 
lars, but which opened the eyes of the public 
to the startling fact that less than one-half of 
the people of our country owned their own 
homes free of mortgage indebtedness, and 
that of the people of St. Louis only fifteen per 
cent were likewise fortunately situated. The 
agitation which resulted in the action taken 
by Congress, as aforesaid, was initiated by Air. 
Keeler, who, early in 18S9. introduced a reso- 
lution in the Single Tax League bearing on 
the subject, and it was adopted. A committee 
was appointed to push the matter. This com- 
mittee was composed of the following named 
gentlemen, only one of whom is still a resident 
of St. Louis : B. C. Keeler, chairman. Ham- 
I/in Russell and H. Martin Williams; and by 
the expenditure of about one hundred dollars 
for literature and postage, the work Was so 
well done that other organizations, including' 
those <>f workingmen and farmers, took it up. 
and the result was as before stated. Only 
once in the history < f the league have the mem- 
bers 'engaged in organized political action. In 
1894 Mr. N. O. Nelson, a member of the 
league, was nominated by Single Taxers for 
Congress from the Twelfth District, on a 



straight free trade and single tax platform. 
The election resulted in a count for Mr. Nel- 
son of a few more than a thousand votes. 
Coming down to the present time in the his- 
tory of the league, its influence on the public 
mind has expanded with its age, until now it 
numbers in its membership many of the most 
substantial business and professional men of 
the city. 

At this writing (June, 1898), what is known 
as the "Equal Taxation Committee" of the 
league — S. L. Moser, chairman, and John J. 
McCann, counsel — is engaged in the practical 
work of calling attention to the non-enforce- 
ment of the present laws relating to the collec- 
tion of taxes and contesting the constitution- 
ality of license and personal property taxation 
in the courts of the State. It was this commit- 
tee that brought before Mie local board of 
equalization the matter of franchise taxation, 
calling especial attention to the gross under- 
valuation of street railway and other corporate 
property in the city. 

A- stated by one of the members of the 
league, the great strength of the organization 
and the movement which it seeks to advance 
•is its democratic and cosmopolitan character- 
istics. Rich and poor, educated and unedu- 
cated, Catholic and Protestant, Jew and Gen- 
tile. American and foreigner, and white and 
black, meet here on common ground, and. 
shoulder to shoulder, strive to push the cause 
of absolute justice and equality of opportunity 
throughout the land. L p CtJSTER. 

Sinking - Fund. — A fund for the gradual 
payment of the city debt. It consists of three- 
fourths of the net proceeds of the sales of oity 
commons in the year 1854, and three-fourths 
of the net proceeds of the city commons and 
other lands belonging to the city, when fur- 
ther sales shall be made: and three^fourths of 
the net proceeds of all sales of the city com- 
mons and other lands belonging to the city, 
subsequent to the year 1854 and prior to the 
adoption of the charter of 1876; also all rail- 
road stock belonging to the city in any rail- 
road terminating in the city, or opposite the 
same in the State of Illinois; and in addition 
$10,000 a year out of the general revenue of 
the city. Besides this, there is a sinking fund 
for the redemption or purchase of city bonds 
outstanding on the 7th day of April, 1890. It 
consists of that portion of the annual appro- 
priation of a sum not less than $1,200,000, 



SIRE. 



2073 



which is left after paying- the interest on the 
city debt. The moneys are to be invested in 
bonds of the city, which, when purchased, are 
to be canceled. 

Sire, Joseph A., merchant and fur 
trader, was born at La RoChelle, France, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1799, and died in St. Louis July 15. 
1854. He came of good family, his father 
'having been a teacher of languages in France, 
and his mother a lady of fine intelligence and 
High character. His father died during the 
childhood erf Che son, and when 'he was fifteen 
years 'of age, Joseph was encouraged by 'his 
mother to immigrate to the United States, 
France being at that time distracted by tire 
daring schemes and reckless 'ambition of Na- 
poleon Bonaparte, and the prospects of suc- 
cess for one who desired to engage in peace- 
ful pursuits being anything but promising in 
his native land. In those days itlhe sailing- 
vessel was the only means of transportation be- 
tween the Old and the New World, and on one 
of these vessels young Sire voyaged to the 
United States. Arrived at Philadelphia he 
presented letters of introduction to Vital M. 
Garesohe, then head of tile firm of Garesc'he 
& Rasazies, of that oity, and later a distin- 
guished 'citizen of St. Louis. Mr. Garesohe 's 
parents had been residents of La Rochelle, and 
>he extended a cordial welcome to the young 
Frenchman, whb oame to him from that place, 
and gave him employment. Thoroughly 
capable, intelligent and industrious, he soon 
gained the confidence of the firm of which Mr. 
Garesohe was the senior partner, and con- 
tin tied in its employ until 1826, when he came 
•west. Arriving in St. Louis, the letters of in- 
troduction which he brought with him to the 
French residents of this city gained for him 
admission into the best social circles and the 
friendship of all the prominent old Creole fam- 
ilies. He soon entered the emplov of Sylves- 
tre Labadie, a leading citizen of St. Louis, 
closely related to the Gratioits, Chouteaus, 
Prattes, Papins, Bertholds, Sbulards, and other 
prominent families. Mr. Labadie was the 
owner of a grist-mill, to which was attached 
the first saw mill ever established west of the 
Mississippi River. It was located on the bluff, 
near the foot of Ashley Street, and had rude 
and simple, though serviceable, machinery, its 
motive power being an elevated, circular 
tread-plane worked by oxen. Mr. Sire became 
connected with this establishment, gained the 



highest esteem of his employer by his faithful 
and valuable services, and the following year 
married his daughter. This unibn was a 
happy one while it lasted, but was of short 
duration, for within two years thereafter his 
wife and their only child died. Later Mr. Sire 
became associated in the fur trade with Pierre 
Chouteau and John B. Sarpy, owners of the 
American Fur Company. .After forming this 
connection he took charge of the 'annual ex- 
peditions of the company to the region at the 
headwaters -of the Missouri River. The com- 
pany erected, at different points throughout 
this region, stockade forts for protection 
against the warriors of the plains, and the suc- 
cess of its trading 'expeditions depended upon 
the courage, tact and resourcefulness of the 
men in charge of them. An expedition would 
always leave St. Louis in 'the spring of the year, 
with a cargo of trinkets, blankets, tobacco, 
guns, and ammunition, and would remain at 
the forts bartering with tlhe Indians unitil the 
opening of navigation in the following year 
enabled them to descend with their boats to 
St. Louis to dispose of their products and re- 
plenish their trading stock. The navigation 
of the Missouri, with its swift, turbid current, 
its snags and shifting channels, was fraught 
with danger, and, in addition, the "voyageurs" 
had also to be on the alert airways against the 
wily Indians. Peril lurked also within the 
fort, and sleepless vigilance was maintained 
lest some hostile band should invade its pre- 
cincts and murder every white man found 
therein. These forts were oases in the track- 
less 'wilderness, far more isolated than the fron- 
tier military posts of the government are to- 
day. The latter are united by telegraph, have 
regular mails, and are always in supporting 
distance of each other, but the trading-post 
had no other coimmunication with the outer 
world than by the "courrier du bois," who 
traveled from one fort to the other, or, per- 
haps, was sent to the settlements thousands of 
miles away with dispatches. These "cour- 
riers" were white men, who had lived so long 
among the Indians that they had acquired the 
same skill in guiding themselves ithrough 
trackless wildernesses by the light of tfbe stars 
at night, and by the bark of trees in the day 
time. Six years of Mr. Sire's life were passed 
in these distant forts, yet on his return to St. 
Louis so little had he been spoiled by his con- 
tact with barbarism that he was welcomed to 
the most exclusive circles of the city's society. 



.'iiTl 



SISTERHOOD OF PERSONAL SERVICE. 



After this In- remained at the office of the com- 
pany in St. Louis to organize and direct expe- 
ditions such as he had formerly commanded, 
.in! wasfhus engaged at the time of his death. 
I lis executive ability, organizing capacity, and 
personal knowledge of the conditions existing 
throughout the region in which their opera- 
v\ ore carried on were of great value to his 
Iks and contributed materially to the 
development of the business in which they 
were mutually interested. He left, at his 
death, a handsome fortune, accumulated in 
merchandising and in the fur trade, and is re- 
membered as one of the most upright and hon- 
• >ral>le, as well as one of the most successful, of 
the old-time merchants and traders. In 1852 
Mr. Sire married, for his second wife, Mrs. Re- 
becca W. Chouteau, widow of one of the mem- 
bers of St. Louis' most historic family. Mrs. 
Sire is still living, one of the most beloved of 
th' use who now remain to link the early history 
of St. Louis with the present day. 

Sisterhood of Personal Service. — 

With the influx of thousands of helpless refu- 
gees fleeing from inhospitableRussia,the char- 
itable Hebrews of the United States found 
themselves face to face with a most serious 
problem, namely, how to care for hundreds of 
utterly destitute men, women and children who 
knowing neither the language nor customs of 
this country, were the more to be pitied. Or- 
dinary methods of administering charity were 
soon found wholly inadequate by those in au- 
thority, and so new resources had to be in- 
vented and out of the necessities of the occa- 
sion, Sisterhoods of Personal Service were in- 
stituted in nearly all of our large cities, and 
the women of Israel became ministering angels 
tii • their downtrodden brethren and sisters from 
n climes. Dr. Leon Harrison, the 
rabbi of Temple Israel, is the founder of the 

St. Louis Si'sterh 1 of Personal Service, 

which, from its very inception, has done telling 

work anion- the unfortunate poor of our city. 

In the spring of [892 the first meeting was 

liehl in the Temple chapel. It was decided to 

divide the work into four sections — the kin- 

urten, where little ones, between the age 

1,1 three and a hall ami six years, should be 

taught and cared for, so tli.it by the time thev 

ready for the public schools they could 

easily take rank with the native -born pupils; 

second, the Domestic Economy Section, in 

which classes were to be formed where girls 



ranging from twelve to sixteen years of age 
should be taught the essentials of house work, 
cooking, table service — in fact, all that it is 
necessary for a girl to know of domestic work ; 
the third was to be the sick and needy section, 
the members of which were to pledge them- 
selves to visit and care for the helpless poor; 
while the fourth section was to establish 
"Friendly Clubs" for the working classes, 
where they would find relaxation and instruc- 
tion. Each section was to have its own guide, 
secretary and voluntary corps of instructors, 
and once a month the heads of these depart- 
ments were to report to the executive commit- 
tee, composed of a president, three vice-presi- 
dents, treasurer, two secretaries, and a board of 
directors. A constitution and by-daws were 
presented and accepted at the second meeting 
and, without delay, the first three of the sec- 
tions entered upon the splendid work laid out 
for them. How successfully they have per- 
formed their duties, hundreds who have been 
aided and encouraged will gladly testify to. 
Over two hundred names were enrolled the 
first few weeks, but as the dues were to be only 
three dollars per annum, it was evident from 
the very beginning that funds would have to 
be raised each year so that the work could be 
carried on as it had been generously planned. 
And the approach of each winter found the 
members of the Sisterhood engaged in some 
practical scheme for raising quite a sum of 
money, and as their righteous labors were in 
every instance crowned with success, the vari- 
ous sections could dispense their blessings with 
an open hand. Groceries, medicines, doctors' 
services, money for the payment of rents, ais 
loans, for transportation, all were furnished to 
those found worthy after the most thorough 
investigation by the matron and her assistants 
of the sick and needy section. 

To-day the Sisterhood is a part of the Fed- 
erated Jewish Charities of St. Louis, but its 
g» * >d work goes on just the same, and the kin- 
dergarten is the delight of many little ones. 
And the Domestic Economy classes, with their 
watchword — "Cleanliness is next to -Godli 1 
ness" — are the means of directing many young 
girls into the paths of neatness and home com- 
fort, while the sick and needy bless the coming 
of many charitable women into their lowly 
homes. 

For the first four years Mrs. Jonathan Rice 
was the Sisterhood's president. She was fol- 
lowed by Mrs. J. P. Weil, the present holder of 



SKETCH CLUB OF ST. LOUIS. 



2075 



this responsible position. The vice-presidents 
are Mrs. Louis Glaser, Mrs. Meyer Swope, 
and Mrs. A. Loth ; the treasurer, Mrs. Elias 
Michael; recording secretary, Mrs. Louis Bry ; 
corresponding secretary, Miss Shaba Harris ; 
guides, Mrs. Herman Herzog, Mrs. M. Weld- 
er, Mrs. Esther Gdtz, and Mrs. J. Wolfort. 
Aueelia Stix Rice. 

Sketch Club of St. Louis.— See "Art 
Development in St. Louis," and "Architec- 
tural Club, St. Louis." 

Slavery and Emancipation in St. 
Louis. — It has been 'impassible to ascertain 
from any records to which the writer has had 
access the date of the first importation of Afri- 
can slaves into the settlement which afterward 
became the city of St. Louis. It is, perhaps, 
an historical fact of no great importance ; it 
would serve merely to indicate with accuracy 
the duration of the stove system in this city. 
It would not mark the beginning of any social 
or political movement, as slavery had existed 
in the Province of Louisiana for generations 
before, and, at the time of Chouteau's expedi- 
tion in 1764, slaves were held in Ste. Gene- 
vieve, Calhokia, and all the older French set- 
tlements in the Mississippi Valley. It is not 
probable that the original band 'of thirty pio- 
neers brought slaves with them. In reading 
over their names, we find that they were mil- 
lers, carpenters, farmers, gunsmiths, traders, 
and blacksmiths. Men of these avocations 
could hardly have been slaveowners. They 
came, as all early settlers come into a new 
I country, to fell the trees and to Clear and cul- 
tivate the land, to build houses and stockades, 
and to set about supplying the little commu- 
nity with the necessities of life. They arrived 
at the site of the future city March 14th ; La- 
jclede moved over with his family from Caho- 
kia in the fallowing September, and it is more 
than probable that he owned slaves and 
brought them with him to his new home. In 
Ithe following year there was a great exodus of 
[the French from the territory east of the Mis- 
sissippi westward across the river, on account 
[of the recent cession to England. A sort of 
panic seems to have seized the settlers at the 
(thought of falling under English domination, 
land from all the surrounding posts and vil- 
lages whole families fled with all their goods 
land chattels to St. Louis that they might be 
Jsafe on French soil before the arrival of the 



British troops. In the same year several fam- 
ilies came up the river from New Orleans. It 
is idle to speculate about probabilities in his- 
torical matters, yet, from the fact that tlhese 
new-comers were from slave-holding towns 
and that they were possessed of sufficient for- 
tune to enable them to transport their whole 
establishments to a distant point, it is but rea- 
sonable to believe that some among them 
owned slaves and carried them to St. Louis. If 
this be correct, then slavery was established 
here as a feature of life in the village not later 
than 1765. On December 17, 1766, an inven- 
tory Was filed in the archives of St. Louis of 
the property of Daniel Blouin, which he had 
agreed to sell to John Daitchurut, amid it in- 
cluded "a negro man named Caesar, and Wis 
wife, Jeanet'ton ; four negro men, Marthurin, 
Batiste, Noyos and Jasmin." Air. Billon men- 
tions 'that the deed was executed in St. Louis, 
January 17, 1767. There is also on record an 
agreement entered into before the royal notary 
of the Illinois on August 14, 1768, whereby 
"Alexander Langtois, a traveling trader, liv- 
ing at the post of St. Louis, by these presents, 
voluntarily binds himself to Mr. Antoine Hu- 
bert, merchant, residing at the post of St. 
Louis," to go to the post of the Little Osages 
and there trade with the Indians as the clerk of 
Mr. Hubert. The instrument continues : 
"This agreement is made for the sum of eight 
hundred livres in peltries, deer-skins, or 
beaver, at the current price of the same at this 
post, which they will establish on the peltries 
of this trade on his arrival at St. Louis. It is 
also agreed that in case said Langtois will take 
a negro in place of the said sum of eight hun- 
dred livres in peltries, said Mr. Hubert obli- 
gates 'himself to deliver him one on the arrival 
of the couvoy from New Orleans in 1 the next 
spring, said negro to be sound and free from 
all disease, in which case the said Langtois will 
repay to Mr. Hubert said amount of eight 
hundred livres in the same manner in peltries." 
(Billou, Vol. 1, p. 62.) It is evident from this 
that the sale and barter of slaves was begun in 
St. Louis within two years after the city had 
been founded. 

At this time the famous Black Code of 
Louisiana, which had been proclaimed in 1724, 
was in force throughout the Province. It con- 
sisted of fifty-four articles and contained the 
most minute and specific provisions for the 
control and management, not only of the slaves 
but even of the free negroes, while it also de- 



2076 



SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN ST. LOUIS. 



fined and limited the powers of the masters. It 
is too lengthy to insert in full, but reference to 
a few sections is sufficient to show the condi- 
tions which it was designed to meet. If a 
master, for instance, allowed his slave to work 
on Sunday, the negro was confiscated. Negro 
clvi'ldren followed 'the condition of their 
mothers. If she was free they were born free, 
even though the father might be a slave ; if she 
were a slave the children 'became the property 
of her owners. Slaves could not be witnesses 
in either a civil or criminal action, except 
when there was a default of competent white 
witnesses, and in no event could they be wit- 
nesses either for or against their masters. 
They could not be parties to a civil suit nor 
complainants in criminal causes. If a slave 
struck his master, or any member of his family 
with sufficient force to cause a bruise or to 
draw blood, lie was liable to capital punish- 
ment, as he was also fur any other "outrages 
or acts of violence" committed against free 
White persons. Stealing of horses or cattle, 
"according to the circumstances of the case," 
was a capital offense. A runaway slave who 
did not surrender himself within one month 
after having been denounced to the authorities, 
"shall have his ears cutoff and shall be branded 
with the flower de luce on his shoulder. For 
the second offense within that time he shall be 
hamstrung and branded on the other shoulder. 
and for a third offense he shall be executed." 
When a slave was sentenced to death for a 
crime in which his master did not participate, 
he was to be appraised by two persons whom 
the judge appointed and the value of the slave 
was to be paid to the owner ; to raise this sum 
"a pri poi tional tax shall be laid on -each slave." 
The only punishments which masters could in- 
flict on their slaves were to have them whipped, 
lint 'inly with rods or ropes, and to put tlhem 
in irons. It" they racked or mutilated them 
the stoves so treated might be confiscated. In 
almost every ease where confiscation is pro 
vided for it is prescribed that the slave lie sold 
at public auction, and the proceeds handed 
Over to tin- nearest hospital. Husband and 
wite were not to be sold separately, when 
owned by the same master, and children under 
fourteen were nOI to be separated from their 
parents. A sia\ e owner over twent \ five years 
of age could manumit his slaves on obtaining 
a decree ol permission from the superior 
council, but to do this he had to satisfy the 
council that he had good and sufficient reasons 



for wishing to free his slaves. All negroes, 
whether free-born or manumitted slaves, were 
incapable of receiving donations, either by tes- 
tamentary disposition, or by gifts, "inter vi- 
vos," from the whites. The code contains 
also a mass of details, which it is not necessary 
1. 1 recite here. 

In those early days which we are now con- 
sidering the western part of the American 
continent was almost a "terra incognita," even 
to the European governments which claimed 
possessions therein. It was then a vast wil- 
derness where a few small settlements were to 
be found separated from each other by great 
distances of a trackless country infested by 
hostile Indians. The southern part of the 
Province was, of course, more quickly popu- 
lated, and the towns were in comparatively 
easy communication with each other. But in 
Upper Louisiana the conditions were quite 
different. Once a year the river settlements 
received consignments from New Orleans. It 
took months to complete the journey north- 
ward from the capital to the villages in the 
Province of Illinois. So remote were the set- 
tlements that in several cases considerable time 
elapsed 'before even civil authority was estab- 
lished in them. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that neither France nor Spain attempted to 
perform what may be called the less necessary 
functions of government, such as the taking 
of a census, or the procuring of Other accurate 
information concerning the state of the popu- 
lation. The cessions of Louisiana from one 
power to another and the political changes in 
Europe also tended to bring about this result. 
For these reasons 'the facts and statistics con- 
tained in such official records as are within 
reach of an inquirer in St. Louis are of the most 
unsatisfactory character for a research such as 
the present. The best information that can 
be obtained must be gathered from unofficial 
data, such as recorded wills, deeds and inven- 
tories ; but these, while interesting enough in 
themselves as evidence of particular transac- 
tions, do not supply sufficient material to en- 
able us to form a comprehensive idea of the 
part that slavery had in the early history of our 
city. It is practically an impossibility to as- 
certain the number of slaves held here at any 
given time during the colonial period, the 
numbers of whites, free colored and slaves, and 
the varying proportion which these classes 
bore to each other from year to year. It is 
true that, in 1769. General Alexander O'Reilly, 



SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN ST. LOUIS. 



2077 



soon after taking possession of the Province as 
Spanish Governor- General, ordered a census 
to be taken of New Orleans, and there is rea- 
son to believe that this was done with great ac- 
curacy. The population of the rest of the 
colony, however, was estimated on figures 
that can not be verified, and which were prob- 
ably founded on reports from traders and otlher 
travelers. The entire population of the Prov- 
ince in that year was 13,538, but of this total 
7,382 is credited to New Orleans and Tchou- 
pitoulas alone. St. Louis was supposed to 
have 891 inhabitants, and about half of the 
population of the entire colony was white. 
When no more accurate or complete informa- 
tion than this is obtainable it will be seen how 
difficult it is to present a satisfactory statement 
of the history of slavery in St. Louis in its 
early years. 

An incident occurred in St. Louis in 1779 
wlhich enables us to form some idea as to the 
sort of treatment accorded to disorderly slaves, 
and also as to the responsibilities to which 
their owners were subject. On the 21st of 
January a negro slave woman named Lorine 
attacked Marianne, a mulatto slave woman, in 
the course of a dispute concerning the right to 
Use a hole which bad been cut in the ice on 
Mill Creek, Where both were engaged in wash- 
ing. Lorine threw Marianne into the water, 
and would have drowned her, but that another 
slave woman dragged her out ; and then Lor- 
ine, after having beaten her severely, threw 
her into a fire, which was burning near by. 
The law acted promptly, and the offense met 
with a swift punishment ; tlhe trial Was had the 
next morning before Captain De Volsay, the 
post adjutant, as Governor De Leyba, being 
the owner of Marianne, had placed the matter 
in his hands. The court sentenced Lorine to 
receive one hundred lashes in public ; fifty on 
the same day at four o'clock, and the balance 
on the next day at the satne hour. It was "or- 
dered, furthermore, that Mr. Roubien and wife, 
owners of said slave, Lorine, be held responsi- 
ble for the appearance in case of the death of 
Marianne, and until her perfect recovery, and 
that they pay the surgeon's bill for attendance 
until her complete recovery, and all costs and 
charges of this prosecution." (Billon, Vol. I, 
p. 58.) The ownership of slaves, it will be 
seen exposed the master to liabilities which 
rniglWt be extremely serious in their results. 
The whole subject of the duties and rights of 
slaves — for they had rights which were recog- 



nized by law — the punishments which might 
be inflicted on Ithem, and the obligations of 
slave owners is covered by a decree of Baron 
de Cairondelet which he. promulgated in 1795, 
being, at that time, Governor- General of Lou- 
isiana, and which modified, to some extent, the 
more severe restrictions of the Black Code. 
It discloses a condition of society, which, to 
many of us, appears unintelligible, yet Major 
Amos Stoddard, who abhorred slavery and 
every feature of it, cites this decree in his 
"Sketches of Louisiana," as an example of 
philanthropic endeavor on the part of Caronde- 
let to ameliorate the condition of the slaves. 
It is interesting to note the fear of a slave in- 
surrection, which is apparent, and which is so 
carefully provided against in various articles. 
Major Stoddard's Version of this decree is as 
follows: "In 1795 he published an ordinance 
on the subject, by which he established the 
monthly allowance of corn in the ear to each 
slave at one barrel. It was recommended to 
masters to assign waste lands to tlheir slaves 
for the purpose of enabling them to raise the 
necessaries of life ; and if this allowance was 
denied them, they were obliged to furnish each 
of them with a linen shirt and trousers for sum- 
mer, and a woolen great coat and trousers for 
winter. Labor was to commence at the break 
of day, and to cease at the approach of night. 
Half an hour was allowed for breakfast, and 
two hours for dinner. Slaves were allowed 
on Sundays to rest or to work for themselves, 
except in time of harvest, when their masters 
were authorized to employ them, paying them 
about thirty cents each per diem. Punish- 
ments at one time, under a penalty of fifty 
dollars, were not to exceed thirty lashes ; but 
the stripes were allowed to be repeated after 
the interval of a day. It was permitted to fire on 
negroes who had deserted their masters ; also 
on those unarmed, if they refused to submit, 
when required, or presumed to defend them- 
selves against their masters or overseers, and 
likewise those who entered a plantation with 
an intent to Steal. Those who killed or 
wounded a negro, except in the above cases, 
were threatened with the severest penalties of 
the law. The amusements among slaves were 
restricted to Sundays, and the planters were 
forbidden, under a penalty of ten dollars, to 
suffer any strange negroes to visit their plan- 
tations after dark ; and they were also forbid- 
den, under a like penalty, to permit any in- 
trigues or plots of escape to be formed on 



2078 



SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN ST. LOUIS. 



their plantations by negroes belonging to 
others. No slave was permitted to leave the 
plantation of 'his master without a written per- 
mission, under a penalty of twenty lashes ; and 
if any slave was found riding the horse of his 
master without the like permission, he was 
liable to receive thirty lashes. Firearms, 
powder and lead, found in t'he possession of 
slaves, were liable to confiscation; and such 
slaves were adjudged to receive thirty lashes. 
No planter was allowed to employ more than 
two slaves to 'hunt for him at the same time ; 
and on their return from the chase they were 
obliged to deliver up their arms. No slave 
was allowed to sell anything, not even the pro- 
ductions of his own labor, without the permis- 
sion of his master." 

The purchase of Louisiana by Jefferson in 
1803 did not, of course, affect 'the right to hold 
slaves, as slavery was at that time a legalized 
institution in the United States. In the sub- 
sequent year, when the formal cession took 
place at St. Louis, the population of this city 
was 1,080, while tihe total free population of the 
district of St. Louis, which comprised all the 
region between the Meramec and Missouri 
Rivers, was 2,280, and the number of slaves 
was estimated at 500. In 1810, six years later, 
the slaves in St. Louis were reckoned between 
a fourth and a fifth of the population. The 
occupations in which they were employed were 
verv similar to those in which their descend- 
ants are usually to be found at tlhis day. A 
large number of them were household serv- 
ants, and as the town grew in size and wealth, 
and a more luxurious style of living became 
possible, great numbers of slaves were to be 
found in the private houses of the more pros- 
perous citizens. Every man of means had his 
body-servant, or valet, as he would now be 
called, and bis wife and daughters were at- 
I by their ne.qro maids. Not infre- 
quently a slave would be deeded to an infant 
for this purpose. The cooks, of course, were 
slaves, generally women : the Creoles were al- 
ways f 'ii-l -'f a good ami generous table, and 
in "darky cooking," improved, perhaps, by 
recipes brought from France, they found en- 
titv satisfaction, while the numerous dishes, 
which are favorites throughout the South to 
this day, are evidences of the gastronomic tal- 
ents of the old slave cooks, who first invented 
them. The keys of the store room were usual- 
ly committed to the care of some trusted fe- 
male slave, and she became the custodian of 



that precious store of household luxuries, the 
supplies brought with much trouble and ex- 
pense from New Orleans, and on her fell the 
responsibility of making the stock on hand last 
through the year, until the barges again came 
up the river in the following spring. Several 
of the larger places had private smokehouses, 
where the ham and bacon for family use were 
prepared. The 'mistress of the house took 
charge of the still room, an important depart- 
ment, where home-made wines, preserves and 
other delicacies, and sometimes medicines, 
were produced. The work was done by slaves 
who were especially trained for the purpose. 
This sort of education often began when the 
slave was a mere child, and it added consider- 
ably to his or her value in the market. The 
cooks, for instance, had with them in the 
kitchen, as assistants or scullery-maids, one or 
more young girls, to whom they imparted the 
secrets of their art, and who in time became 
skilled cooks themselves. The laundresses 
were also slave women, and on certain davs of 
the week the banks of the stream which is 
now confined in the Mill Creek sewer were 
crowded with the women washing the clothes 
in the running water, or beating them on flat 
rocks with wooden paddles, while the turf and 
bushes about were covered with the linen 
spread out to bleach. With few, if any, excep- 
tions, all the household servants in St. Louis 
for years were slaves. They were, of course, 
employed in other occupations ; they were lit- 
erally the hewers of wood and drawers of water 
for the community. Slave labor was used on 
the farms and kitchen gardens surrounding the 
city, and much of the heavy work of all kinds 
was done by them. With the development of 
steamboat traffic a new use was found for 
them, both in the carrying trade and along 
the river front. 

There is a memorandum in existence con- 
taining a record of the sale of all slaves belong- 
ing to the estate of Auguste Chouteau, and | 
t'he results are probably a fair indication of 
the price of slaves at that time. The sale took 
place September 15, 1830. This paper gives 
the names of the purchasers, the names and 
ages of the slaves, and the price paid for each, 
Of the thirty-seven slaves only one was not 
disposed of, and that was one Pitre, Chou- ! 
teau's old body-servant ; the reason for this 
exception becomes apparent when we find his 
age listed at one hundred and two years. The 
next in age was seventy-four, while there are 



SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN ST. LOUIS. 



2079 



others mentioned merely as infants, and sold 
with their mothers. The total proceeds of the 
sale were $10,869, giving an average price 
of almost $302 per slave. The highest price 
was paid by Hippolite Papin, who bought 
Joseph Clarice, aged eighteen, for $605, and 
Grand Louis, aged seventy-four, was knocked 
down to Henry Chouteau for $50, which was 
the cheapest purchase made. It may be noted 
that most of these slaves were bought by the 
immediate family and friends of Auguste 
Chouteau. 

In the course of time, as St. Louis became 
the metropolis of -the Mississippi Valley, it also 
naturally became the slave market for the sur- 
rounding country. Just as in the earlier days 
the merchant or trader went to New Orleans 
and bought his slaves there, so the farmer or 
planter, from either up or down the river, or 
from the "back country," would come to St. 
Louis, both to buy and sell his slaves. There 
were always a number of slaves on sale, from 
which he could make his choice ; and if he 
wanted to dispose of his human properties the 
chances were always in favor of his obtaining 
better prices in the city. As a natural conse- 
quence of this condition of affairs, there sprang 
up a class of slave dealers, or "nigger-traders," 
as they were then known, who made a business 
of buying and selling slaves like merchandise. 
Slaves were sometimes good investments, and 
several of these dealers acquired considerable 
fortunes by their speculations in this class of 
property. They were sometimes the auction- 
eers when slaves were sold at public vendue, 
and as an incident to their trade, they estab- 
isbed slave-pens, where their stock on hand 
could be maintained until disposed of, and 
where they could be examined by prospective 
purchasers, like horses in a paddock. These 
slave-pens were at different points in the older 
portions of the city, and, perhaps, the best 
known was on what is now South Broadway, 
on the corner of Clark Avenue, and by one of 
the strange turns of events it was used during 
the Civil War as a Federal prison. 

A word should, perhaps, be said concerning 
the treatment of the slaves by their masters. 
There seems to be no reason to doubt that, as 
a rule, the slaves in St. Louis were well cared 
for. Public opinion was in favor of it. While 
there were bad masters, it must not be forgot- 
ten that there were also bad slaves. The cases 
3(f cruelty and oppression were sure to become 
m'atters of public gossip, while, on the other 



hand, the master who treated his slaves with 
humanity, attracted no attention, because he 
did what was expected of him. The majority 
of the slaves were well housed, well fed and 
well clothed. In time of sickness medical at- 
tendance was provided for them, and the mas- 
ter and members of his family made it their 
business to see that proper attention was given 
to the sick among their slaves. The great 
terror of the slave's life was that he might be 
sent South. To be "sold down the river" was 
the most awful fate that could befall him. This 
shows, at least, that the slaves could imagine 
worse treatment than they received here. But 
perhaps the best evidence is the devotion 
and real affection which in so many cases 
the emancipated slaves showed to their old 
masters. They are a class which is becoming 
extinct, but every slave-holding family in the 
city knows of cases where their ex-slaves have 
maintained a loyal attachment to the persons 
who once owned them. Even at this day a 
few remain who follow the fortunes of "my 
old white people" with unselfish interest ; every 
birth, or death, or marriage in the family 
brings them to the house to share, with an 
humble but sympathetic participation, in the 
joys or sorrows of their former masters. Of 
course, there were slaves who attempted to es- 
cape. Generations of slaves' ancestors could 
not crush out the instinctive desire for freedom 
in the race. In looking over the files of old 
newspapers one finds in almost every issue 
advertisements of rewards for the capture of 
escaped slaves, with little pictures, all exactly 
alike, of the black man running, in great 
haste, with his stick and bundle over bis shoul- 
der, and of the woman, a bandanna tied about 
her head, who is apparently not as speedy in 
her flight — representations as conventional as 
i!h't cuts of steamboats, which still adorn the 
advertising columns of our newspapers. One 
gathers the impression from these notices that, 
to use the language in which they are couched, 
"my mulatto boy, Tom," and "my black wench, 
Lucy," must have given their owners consid- 
erable annoyance by their constant efforts to 
escape. But it is not fair to say that the slave 
was always fleeing from cruel treatment. The 
unavoidable and essential features of the slave 
system itself, the possible separation of hus- 
band from wife, or of parents from children, 
the public whipping post, the never ending re- 
straint, and all the other circumstances which 
must, of necessity, attend the institution of 



L'DSII 



SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN ST. LOUIS. 



slaven-, as shown by the slave laws of the 
period, are, in themselves, a sufficient expla- 
nation of the reason that so many slaves took 
a desperate chance to reach a strange land 
where they might find themselves penniless, 
homeless and friendless, but free. 

There was no agitation looking to the eman- 
cipation of the slaves during the French and 
Spanish periods of our history. In the tran- 
quil and conservative atmosphere of the 
French settlement, 'existing conditions were 
not questioned, and were accepted by one 
generation after another without change. Gen- 
eral Collot. in describing Upper Louisiana, in 
1796, says that the reply of the Creoles to any 
suggested innovation is always: "It is the 
custom; so it was with our fathers. I get 
along with it ; so. of course, will my children." 
Slavery was in the established order of things, 
and therefore there was no slavery question 
in French St. Louis. After the Louisiana 
purchase, however, and particularly after the 
admission of Missouri to the Union, the echoes 
of the abolition movement reached the western 
banks oi the Mississippi River. The State of 
Missouri itself entered the Union in the midst 
of a storm of partisan and sectional conflict at 
Washingt on, which was to lead the nation with 
an awful certainty into further dissension and 
unrest until it reached the climax of a civil 
war. But slavery was still to be permitted in 
Missouri, the State. The Missouri com- 
pramise, a'1'tbougb afterward declared by the 
Supreme Count to be worthless, as binding on 
subsequent legislation, gave both parties an 
opportunity to permit the admission of Mis- 
souri, without sacrificing their fundamental 
principles. Statehood was conferred on Maine 
at the same time, for. as Canning irad called 
upon the New World to redress the balance of 
the ( >ld, so the statesmen of that day called 
upon the free-soil \orth to preserve the 
countn from control by the slave-holding 
States of the South. The most interesting 
feature of the history of slavery in this city is 
undoubtedly the political struggle which was 
urged on this issue, for and against, but as a 
discussion of this subject would involve a 
repetition of the political history of the State 
at large, and even of the nation from 1820 to 
1865, and more particularly as it would tres- 
pass on the papers of those to whom such top- 
ic- a- the war and the secession and abolition 
movements have been assigned, it is not prac- 
tii ilbk to enter here into a review of those 



matters. There is one important incident, 
however, which it may be permissible to men- 
tion, as showing that the slavery question in 
Missouri might have met with an easy solu- 
tion if the foresight and wisdom of her po- 
litical leaders 'had not been rendered nugatory 
by an accident, which could neither have been 
foreseen nor prevented. In Switzer's "His- 
tory of Missouri" there is an account of a se- 
cret meeting held in St. Louis in 1827 or 1828, 
which was attended by the leaders of both 
parties representing all sections of the State. 
There were about twenty or thirty in the gath- 
ering which came together for the purpose of 
devising means to rid the State of slavery. 
Barton and Blair attended; and the result of 
their deliberations was the following plan of 
action : They agreed to bring, if possible, all 
the candidates at the coming election into the 
movement. On the same day. all over the 
State, resolutions, secretly prepared and print- 
ed, were to be publicly circulated in the form 
of anti-slavery memorials, and the machinery 
of both parties was pledged to procuring the 
signatures of the electors. The meeting was 
harmonious, and the delegates separated in the 
belief that their plan would be successful. 
Everything was in readiness when suddenly a 
story, emanating from an unknown source, 
went flying from mouth to mouth throughout 
the State to the effect that Alexander Tappan 
had entertained negroes at dinner, and that his 
daughters had been seen driving with 'them in 
his carriage. "Perhaps it was not true, but it 
was believed in Missouri, and raised such a 
furore that we dare not and did not let our me- 
morials see the light." The opportunity was 
lost forever, and slavery was thereafter to be 
considered only as a partisan question. It was 
but a few yeans later, in 1836. that a mob, on 
the night of the 21st of July, attacked the office 
1 if the St. Louis "Observer," an abolition news- 
paper, published by the Rev. Elijah P. Love- 
jo\ . The presses and 'Other contents of the 
building were wrecked and destroyed, and 
public feeling was so aroused that Lovejoy 
moved to Ait m. where he was killed the fol- 
lowing November, in attempting to defend his 
property against a similar attack. 

In 1854 a lawsuit was instituted in St. Louis, 
which, in its ultimate results, was destined to 
have the most far-reaching effects on the pub- 
lic events of the future. At the April term of 
that year in the United States circuit court for 
the District of Missouri, Dred Scott, a negro, 



SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN ST. LOUIS. 



2<>S1 



brought an action against John F. A. Sand- 
ford, the immediate purpose of which was to 
establish his freedom, and that of his wife and 
two daughters, whom Sandford claimed as his 
slaves. It was a case of trespass vi et armis, 
on the ground that Sandford had illegally 
taken them into custody. The case had been 
previously tried in the circuit court of St. Louis 
County, a State court, in which Scott had been 
successful, hut on Sand ford's appeal to the 
State Supreme Court that cause had been re- 
versed and remanded to the circuit court, 
where it was pending when Scott brought suit 
in the Federal court. The judgment there 
was against him, 'and he appealed to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. An ex- 
traordinary number of issues was raised, in- 
cluding the right of Scott to litigate, questions 
of citizenship and jurisdiction, the status of 
slaves and of free colored persons, the legal 
aspect of the slavery question, and several im- 
portant interpretations of the Constitution. 
Chief Justice Taney delivered one of the most 
weighty and exhaustive opinions that has ever 
been handed down from the Supreme Court. 
It is not necessary to discuss the case further. 
It was held that Scott had no standing in court 
as a litigant, and that he could not claim eman- 
cipation from the fact that his master had, at 
one time, removed 'him to a free State. His 
condition of slavery was confirmed, and as the 
case had aroused the interest of the entire 
country when slavery was a burning issue and 
a great political question, the decision of the 
court did much to aggravate the "irrepressible 
conflict." The Dred Scott case is one of those 
famous in American reports, and it has given 
rise to one of the most persistent misquotations 
of its language, for it will probably always be 
said, as it was said then, and as it is frequently 
Said to-day, that the court was of the opinion 
that "the negro has no rights which the white 
man is bound to respect." 

The Missouri Statutes of 1855 recognized 
the usual division of the African population of 
the State into two classes, the free negroes 
and mulattoes and the slaves. The laws in 
regard to free colored persons were very se- 
vere. No negro or mulatto could own fire- 
arms or ammunition, or any sort of weapon 
without a license from a justice of the peace. 
The county courts were required to have 
brought before them all free negroes and mu- 
lattoes in the county between the ages of seven 
and twentv^one years, and to bind them out 



to be apprentices or servants ; "but no colored 
apprentice shall be placed in company with a 
free white apprentice." No colored person 
could live in this State without a license, and 
these licenses were to he issued only to certain 
classes of them ; moreover, bond, not exceed- 
ing a thousand dollars, had to be given in se- 
curity for good behavior. The negro was not 
allowed to retain in 'his possession the license 
or other free papers, though he could obtain 
them in the event of his moving from one coun- 
ty to another, as they had to be filed with the 
clerk of the county court where he resided. No 
free negro or mulatto could emigrate into the 
State, or enter the State, unless in the service 
of a white man, or for the purpose of passing 
through. In either case the time that he could 
remain in the borders was limited. If he 
stayed longer he was liable to arrest, a fine of 
ten dollars, and expulsion. If the fine was not 
paid he was further liable to not more than 
twenty lashes, and the court could either or- 
der that he 'immediately leave the State or else 
hire him out until the fine, costs and expenses 
of imprisonment had been paid for by his la- 
bor. Any person keeping or teaching a school 
for the instruction of negroes and mulattoes 
in reading or writing was liable to a fine, not 
in excess of five hundred dollars and imprison- 
ment not exceeding six months. No meeting 
or assemblage for the purpose of religious 
'worship or preaching was permitted, where 
the services were performed by some of their 
own race, unless a sheriff, oonstable, marshal, 
public officer or justice of the peace was pres- 
ent. All meetings of negroes or mulattoes for 
the purpose of learning or religion, were de- 
clared unlawful assemblages, and it was made 
the duty of the public officers to suppress them. 
The slave laws of the same date recall in many 
instances the Black Code and the ordinance 
of Carond'elet. A master who hired his slave 
to another slave, or who allowed his slave "to 
go alt large upon the hiring of his own time, 
or to act or do as a free person, or to hire him- 
self, within this State," was to be fined between 
twenty and one hundred dollars for each of- 
fense, and the slave was to be held in jail until 
his owner gave bond that the offense would 
not be repeated. A slave going from the tene- 
ment of his master without written permission, 
or entering upon a plantation without the writ- 
ten consent of the owner or overseer, unless 
he was sent by his master on lawful 'business, 
was punished by flogging. "Insolent and in- 



ao82 SLOSS. 

suiting language of slaves to white people of September, 1862, and January, 1863, it was 
shall be punished with stripes at the discretion evident that freedom for the slaves throughout 
of a justice of th<- peace," was another provis- the country was an assured fact. In this man- 
ion of the code Xo one could allow more ner slavery in St. Louis came to an end after 
than five slaves belonging to others on his an existence of over a century. Henceforth 
propertv at the same time, and these could not the slaves were free, and had to work out their 
remain' more than four hours without the own salvation. Amendments to the Federal 
written consent of their owners. Ferrymen Constitution placed the matter beyond the pos- 
or other persons who carried a slave across sibility of doubt ; the "peculiar institution" 
the Mississippi without a written pass from his ceased to exist ; the slavery question was dead, 
owner was liable to the owner for the value of and the problem which had vexed the nation 
the slave, costs and damages, and the boat for so many years was settled forever, 
used for the purpose, or even for bringing the Julius L- Foy. 
slave from one point to another in the State, 

might be libeled. Most offenses committed Sloss, James L., merchant, was born in 

by the slaves were punished by stripes. Florence, Alabama, August 4, 1833, and died 

A comparison of the following figures, giv- in St. Louis August 17, 1882. His father, who 

ing the census of St. Louis in 1850 and in i860, came of Scotch-Irish antecedents, was a Pres- 

is interesting, as showing the decrease in the byterian clergyman, who was engaged for 

number of slaves, while the free population many years in ministerial work in the State of 

was steadily growing: Alabama. His mother was a daughter of 

[8s o. i860. Judge David Campbell, a native of Virginia, 

whites 73,806 .57.1:6 whose ancestors emigrated from the Highlands 

Free colored 1,398 j Scotland to Ireland during the reign of 

Slaves 2,050 1-4- ° ° 

Oueen Elizabeth. From Ireland representa- 

Total 77.860 160,773 ~ . , r a • 1 

fives ot the family came to America, and set- 
It only remains to record the death of slavery tied first in Pennsylvania, in 1726. From 
in St. Louis, and for this purpose it is neces- there they removed to Orange County, Vir- 
sary to look for a moment into the history glnia, in 1730. Judge Campbell, who came of 
of the State. On January 6, 1865, a Constitu- this Virginia family, was appointed first Fed- 
tioroal Convention of sixty-six delegates met eral judge of the Territory of Tennessee, which 
in the Mercantile Library Hall, in St. Louis, he had aided to separate from the State of 
to frame a new State Constitution, Which was North Carolina. He was of the same family 
to be submitted to the electors at the next as Colonel William Campbell, the hero of the 
election. The first committee appointed was battle of King's Mountain, of whom Lafayette 
named for the purpose of drawing up an article said that his services in that battle would "do 
of emancipation, and on January nth they his memory everlasting honor and insure him 
reported the following ordinance : "An ordi- a high rank among the defenders of liberty in 
nance abolishing slavery in Missouri: Be it the American cause." Reared in the most 
ordained by the people of the State of Mis- prosperous and progressive portion of the 
souri, in convention assembled: That here- State of Alabama, James L. Sloss received 
after in this State there shall be neither careful educational training in early youth, and 
slaver\ nor involuntary servitude, except in at fifteen years of age was well fitted to begin 
punishmewl of crime, whereof the party shall preparations for a business career. At that 
have been duly o invioted : and all persons held age he became a clerk in a store in Tuscumbia, 
to service or labor a> slaves are hereby de- Alabama, and at the end of a year's experience 
olared free " \ number of amendments were in that place returned to his native town of 
moved, mosl of them providing for a gradual Florence, where he wnas employed for six years 
emancipation, or for recompensing the slave thereafter as clerk and salesman in a commer- 
owners, bul the ordinance was finally carried cial establishment. Having by this time at- 
in its original form by a vote of sixty yeas, four tained his majority, he became ambitious to 
nays, and two absent. The new Constitution enter a more promising field oi enterprise than 
went into effect Juh 4, [865. Emancipation was afforded by the quiet Southern town of 
had been practically achieved before thai date. Florence, and, with this object in view, he went 
Vfter Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamations to Kansas. The fierce warfare between the 



SMALL. 



2083 



pro-slavery and anti-slavery 'dements of the 
population of Kansas, each seeking to gain the 
ascendancy in the organization of a pros- 
pective new State, and the turmoil incident 
thereto prejudiced 'him against Kansas, and 
turned 'his course into Missouri. Coming to 
St. Louis, he obtained a situation as book- 
keeper in the mercantile establishment of 
Chiles & Carr, and thus began his career in 
this city. At the end of a four years' connec- 
tion with this house 'he had saved something 
from 'his earnings, and had won the 'Confidence 
and friendship of many men prominent and in- 
fluential in business circles. With the small 
capital at' 'his command, and the assistance of 
his friends, he was inclined to engage in busi- 
ness on his own account in i860, but finally 
concluded to postpone the venture and await 
a more settled condition of affairs than then 
existed. A year later, however, he became 
junior member of the firm of Gilkeson & Sloss, 
and established a commercial house with which 
he continued to be connected to the end of his 
life, and which gained high standing among 
the business houses of the city. He was one 
of the leading promoters of various enterprises 
which served to 'bring to St. Louis the cotton 
products of the States further south and con- 
tributed materially toward making it one of 
the great cotton markets of the country. He 
was one of the founders of the St. Louis Cot- 
ton Compress Company in 1873, and for some 
years was a director of that corporation. He 
also served as president of the St. Louis Cotton 
Exchange, and while acting in that capacity, 
proved himself one of the ablest and most in- 
telligent promoters of the carton interests 
identified with the trade in St. Louis. Suc- 
cessful in his operations as a merdianlt, his en- 
terprise extended into Other fields, and he was 
connected with banking, insurance and Other 
corporations in various official capacities, and 
served also in the directory of the Texas & St. 
Louis Railway Company, which formerly op- 
erated the line of railway now known as the 
"Cotton Belt Route." He was a member of 
the Presbyterian Church, and an elder of the 
Compton Avenue Presbyterian Church from 
the time of its organization until his death. 
His Christianity was respected by all who 
knew him, even by those whose views differed 
radically from his own, for in his character 
was exemplified that rare combination of the 
successful business man and the consistent 
Christian, conscientious and scrupulo'iisly hon- 



est in all his dealings with his fellow-men. 
Mr. Sioss married, November 8, 1858, Miss 
Belle Blood, daughter of Captain Sullivan 
Blood, for many years a well known banker 
of St. Louis, of whom appropriate mention will 
be found elsewhere in these volumes. The 
paternal ancestors of Mrs. Sloss emigrated to 
the United States from England in 1639, and 
settled in Concord, Massachusetts. They 
were among the original petitioners for a plan- 
tation at Groton, Massachusetts, to which 
place her direct ancestor, Richard Blood, re- 
moved, and where he served as selectman and 
town clerk in 1668. Two later ancestors, one 
of whom was at the time but sixteen years of 
age, fought in the battles of Lexington and 
Bunker Hill, and were in the siege of Boston 
during the winter of 1775-6. Mrs. Sloss' ma- 
ternal grandfather, who was too young to en- 
list as a soldier in the Revolutio'nary War, ac- 
companied his brother, Captain Willis Hall, 
and was in active service, although he had not 
been regularly mustered into the colonial 
forces. 

Small, George H., merchant and pub- 
lic offidal, was born in Mason County, Ken- 
tucky, April 10, 1843, son ol f David and Mary 
A. (Doll'is) Small. When he was two years 
old, his parents removed from Kentucky to 
Missouri, settling in Lexington, the county 
seat of Lafayette County. They Continued to 
reside there until 1853, when his father took 
charge of a large farm in the southwestern part 
of Lafayette County, owned by Russell, Wad- 
dell & Majors, government contractors for the 
transportation of supplies to the various gar- 
risons and military posts in the West. At the 
end of a half dozen years devoted to the man- 
agement of this farm, the elder Small pur- 
chased a farm near Wellington, in the same 
county, on which he continued to reside until 
his death, which occurred in 1870, and on 
which his widow lived thereafter until her 
death, in 1879. George H. Small spent all 
the earlier years of his life in the country, and 
his early industrial training was that of the 
average farm boy. His education was ob- 
tained in the public schools supplemented by a 
course of study in a commercial college of 
Louisville, Kentucky. He was approaching 
manhood when the Civil War began, and in 
1861 enlisted as a private soldier in a com- 
pany of infantry belonging to Bledsoe's bat- 
talion. He served with this company until 



I'll- 1 



SMALL-POX— SMITH. 



after the battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, fought 
in March of [862, and afterward served with 
the Missouri Battery, commanded by Samuel 
F. T. Ruffner, of Lexington, Missouri, until 
the close of the war. He surrendered, with 
•nfi deraire troops, at Shreveport, Lou- 
isiana, 1:1 May, "i [865, and in the fall of thait 
year returned to his old home, in Lafayette 
County, Missouri. After devoting some time 
to the improvement of 'his education lie came 
to St. Louis, at the beginning of the year 1867, 
and engaged in business as a commission mer- 
chant, continuing to devote the larger share 
of his time and attention to that business for 
nearly thirty years thereafter, and attaining 
di erved prominence among the successful 
business men of the city. In 1SS9 he was ap- 
pointed police commissioner of St. Louis by 
1 iovermor David R. Francis to fill out an un- 
expired term of two years, and at the end of 
that time was reappointed for a full term of 
four years. This important office he held un- 
til he was called upon to assume the responsi- 
bility of caring for one of the most important 
financial departments Of the United States 
government as .Assistant United States Treas- 
urer at St. Louis. He was appointed to the 
treasurersliip by President Cleveland, as suc- 
cessor to < leneral Bernard G. Farrar, and en- 
tered upon the discharge of his duties in April 
of [895. The office to which he was appoint- 
ed in this instance is one which has uniformly 
been held in St. Louis by men of the highest 
character, noted alike for their sterling integ- 
rity and correct business methods, and Mr. 
Small lias sustained the high reputation of in- 
cumbents of the office. The only important 
office he has held oilier than those which have 
been mentioned was that of first vice-president 
of the Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis, 
winch lie Idled in 1S94. Politically he has 
In en identified with the Democratic partv ever 
since lie became a citizen of Missouri, and for 
many years lie lias been prominent in the 
councils of the part) IL was married, in 

[877, to Miss Ida M. Wetmore, a daughter of 
Dr. \. Wetmore. a leading physician of Clin- 
ton, towa. 

Small-Pox. See "Epidemics." 

Smith Academy.— See "Washington 

I m\ ersil \ ." 

Smith, Charles Henry, surveyor of 

the port of St. Louis, was born iii Cincinnati, 



Ohio, November 13. 1855, son of Henry and 
Anna ( Rinckhoff) Smith, the first named a na- 
tive of Manchester, England, and the last 
11 uned of Hamburg, Germany. His family 
removed to Xew Orleans during his early 
childhood, and he was educated in the public 
ami private schools of that city. Quitting 
school at an early age. he began work as a 
butcher's boy, and a little later found employ- 
ment as a cash boy in the commercial estab- 
lishment of D. H. Holmes & Co., of New Or- 
leans. At the end of a year he transferred his 
services to the mercantile house of Wallace & 
1 o., then the largest of the wholesale dry 
.oils houses of Xew Orleans, becoming a 
clerk in the credit department of that establish- 
ment. In [871 he severed his connection with 
Wallace X Co., and for five years thereafter 
was connected with a mercantile house at 
Homer, in Claiborn Parish, Louisiana. He 
came from there to St. Louis in 1876, and after 
his arrival here he studied telegraphy, and en- 
tered the employ of the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company. After serving that corpora- 
tion two years he was appointed manager of 
the Western city office of the American Dis- 
trict Telegraph Company, retaining that posi- 
tion until the year 1880. He resigned the 
managership of the District Telegraph to ac- 
cept a position with Honorable R. C Kerens, 
and was in his employ up to the time of his ap- 
pointment to the office he now holds. An 
enthusiastic Republican, he 'began taking an 
active interest in city, State and national poli- 
tics some years since, and has long been recog- 
nized as a leader of the young and progressive 
element of his party in Missouri. He was ap- 
pointed to the survivorship of the port May 
4, 1897, by President McKinley, was promptly 
continued by the United States Senate, and en- 
tered upon the discharge of his official duties 
May 15, 1897. He is an Episcopalian church- 
man, and affiliates with fraternal organizations 
as a member of the Legion of Honor and the 
Royal Arcanum. He is also a member of the 
Mercantile (dub and the Elks' Club, of St. 
Lntis, .and secretary and treasurer of a num- 
ber of corporations. December 14. 1881, he 
married Miss Sophia Hagemann, of St. Louis. 
Their children are Claude Henry. Richard 
Lester, and Gladys Amelia Smith. 

Smith, Elsworth Fayssoux, phy- 
sician, was born in St. Louis April 29, 1825, 
son if John B. and Louisa (McDougal) Smith. 



SMITH. 



2085 



His father, John Brady Smith, was an influ- 
ential and much respected merchant of St. 
Louis, who enjoyed the distinction of having 
been first president of the old State Bank of 
Missouri, and who was also first collector of 
the port of St. Louis, and State and county 
collector in the early history of the State. The 
mother of Dr. Smith was a daughter of Cap- 
tain Alexander Me Do u gal, of New York City, 
and a descendant of General Alexander Mc- 
Dougal, of Revolutionary fame, and a descend- 
ant also of Oliver Ellsworth, the renowned 
jurist, author of the hill creating the United 
States judiciary, and Chief Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court from ^796 to 
1799, ■when he resigned. Reared in St. Louis, 
Dr. Smith received his academic education at 
St. Charles College and St. Louis University, 
and was graduated from the classical depart- 
ment of the last named institution in the class 
of 1845. He then began the study of medi- 
cine, and in 1848 received his degree of doc- 
tor of medicine from St. Louis Medical Col- 
lege, then medical department of St. Louis 
University. Soon 'after his graduation from 
the medical college he entered 'the City Hos- 
pital of St. Louis as one of 'the first two in- 
ternes at that institution, Dr. John T. Hodgen 
being the other. From 1852 to 1854 he con- 
tinued his medical and scientific studies in 
Paris, France, and during the years 1864-5 
he again spent some time abroad, adding to his 
professional attainments through his inter- 
course with the most renowned physicians of 
that day and the superior clinical advantages 
afforded by the French hospitals. Except 
when pursuing his studies and investigations 
abroad, his entire professional life was spent 
in St. Louis, and as a practitioner he was 
eminently successful, occupying for many 
years a place among the leading physicians of 
the city. Early in his career he 'became iden- 
tified with the educational work of his profes- 
sion, being made demon strator of anatomy at 
the St. Louis Medical College in 185 1. He 
was appointed to the chair of physiology and 
medical jurisprudence in the same institution 
in 1868, and two years later was made profes- 
sor of clinical medicine and pathological anat- 
omy. This chair he continued to occupy un- 
til 1885, when he tendered his resignation of 
the professorship. In recognition, however, 
of the valuable services Which he had rendered 
to the institution and to the general public in 
that connection, his alma mater made him 



emeritus professor of clinical medicine and 
pathological anatomy after his resignation of 
the active duties of the position Which he had 
filled for fifteen years, and this honorary posi- 
tion he continued to hold until his death. As 
an educator he was no less distinguished than 
as physician, and was known to the profession 
as an able teacher, having the happy faculty of 
entertaining and instructing at the same time 
those who came under his preceptonshlp. The 
degree of doctor of laws was conferred upon 
him in recognition of his scholarly attainments 
and his ability as a medical educator. As a 
consulting' physician, he was widely known 
throughout the country adjacent to St. Louis, 
and he enjoyed to the fullest extent the con- 
fidence both of his profession and of the gen- 
eral puhlic. While visiting his daughter, Mrs. 
Crosby, in 1896, he accidentally sustained se- 
vere burns, which occasioned his death, at 
Fort Missoula, Montana, August 19th of that 
year. His professional life had been one of 
intense activity, and he had filled many im- 
portant positions in St. Louis, and rendered 
valuable services to his native city alt various 
times. During the Civil War he was acting 
assistant surgeon of the United States Army, 
having charge of the military small-pox hos- 
pital in this city, and serving also as surgeon 
to Eliot General Hospital. From 1866 to 
. 1869 he was surgeon to the United States Ma- 
rine Hospital in St. Louis. His high courage 
in the face of great danger and his chivalrous 
devotion to- his calling was made manifest dur- 
ing epidemics of cholera and small-pox, which 
prevailed in St. Louis while he was in the 
active practice of his profession, and on more 
than one occasion his heroic services called 
forth the warmest praise from his fellow-citi- 
zens, many of whom still hold him in grateful 
remembrance. He was first health officer of 
St. Louis, serving from 1857 to 1863, and was 
also a member of the first regular board of 
health created by act of the Legislature, serv- 
ing as third president of that board. His na- 
ture was philanthropic, and for many years he 
gave his professional services free to the pub- 
lic and charitable institution's of the city in the 
capacity of consulting physician. His relig- 
ious affiliations were with the Episcopal 
Church until shortly before his death, when 
he embraced the Roman Catholic faith. In 
i860 he married Miss Isabelle Chenie, daugh- 
ter of Antoine Leon and Julia (De Mun) 
Chenie, and his wife and five children are the 



2086 



SMITH. 



surviving members of his family. The chil- 
dren arc Dr. Elswortfh Smith, Jr., of St. Louis; 
|. I )c Mini Smith and J. Sheppard Smith, busi- 
ness men of this on ; Julia P. Smith, now the 
wife of Dr. William D. Crosby, a surgeon in 
•the United States Army; and Emilie De Mun 
Smith. Through her father Mrs. Smith, the 
widow of Dr. Ellsworth F. Smith, is a descend- 
ant of the founder of St. Louis, and is related 
also to the Ohenie family of Canada, represen- 
tatives of which achieved distinction in the 
( anadian Rebellion of 1837. 

Smith, Huntington, was born March 
15, 1N47, in Louisville. Kentucky. His father 
was Honorable Hamilton Smith, who gradu- 
ated from Dartmouth College in his young 
manhood, studied law under William Wirt, 
and .afterward practiced his profession for 
main years in Louisville, where he was also 
prominent as a financier and man of affairs. 
The elder Smith was for twenty-five years 
president of the American Cannel Coal Com- 
pany, which was one of the pioneer coal-min- 
ing enterprises of Kentucky. He was also a 
conspicuous figure in politics during a por- 
tion of his life; served as 'a member of the In- 
diana Legislature while residing in that State: 
was a delegate to the National Democratic 
Convention held in Chicago in [864, and also 
attended as a delegate the Democratic Xa- 
tional Convention held in Xew York in 1868, 
where he was recognized as the confidential 
friend and spokesman of Salmon P. Chase, 
who was regarded by many leading Demo- 
crats as an available candidate for the presi- 
dency at that time. The family to which Mr. 
Smith belongs was planted in New England 
early in the colonial era, his immigrant an- 
cestor, George Smith, having been recorder of 
die Dover Plantation— which afterward be- 
came Xew Hampshire from [640 to [653. 
1 >ne of the sons of this ancestor was foseph 
Smith, who was a large landowner in Xew 
Hampshire, and the line of descent to Hunt- 
ington Smith is through John Smith, select- 
man and town surveyor; Benjamin Smith, 
who was a selectman and held other offices in 
New Hampshire; Lieutenant John Smith, se- 
lectman; Honorable Valentine Smith, town 
surveyor, town clerk, member of the Legis- 
lature Of Xew Hampshire, and chief justice of 
the Court of Sessions < if Strafford (omit v. and 
Honorable Hamilton Smith, of whose career 
dental mention has already been made. 



The mother of Huntington Smith was Louise 
Rudd before her marriage, and she was a 
daughter of Dr. Christopher Rudd, of Ken- 
tucky, a descendant of one of the old Catholic 
families which came to America with Lord 
I ialtimore. Closely allied with the Rudd fam- 
ilv also, by marriage and otherwise, were the 
( arrolls, of Maryland, and the Palmers, an old 
Huguenot family of South Carolina. Hunt- 
ington Smith entered the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, Maryland, February 26, 1863, and 
was graduated from that institution. He was 
commissioned an ensign in the United States 
Navy July 22, 1869, and master July 12, 1870. 
He made his first visit to St. Louis in 1872, 
while still an officer in the navy, and May 15, 
1873, resigned, with the intention of making 
this city his home. In 1873 ' le entered upon 
a business career as a partner in the real estate 
firm of Andrew McKinley & Co., and in 1876 
engaged on his own account in the real estate 
business, which he has since conducted, be- 
coming well known as a man of affairs. While 
in the United States Navy, he served first in 
the European Squadron, next with the Asiatic 
Squadron, and afterward on the United States 
ship "Michigan" in the Great Lakes, having 
had the experience of circumnavigating the 
globe before he was twenty-three years of age. 
Some years after his coming to St. Louis he 
began taking an active interest in local mili- 
tary affairs, and was an officer of the Police 
Reserve Regiment from 1877 to 1882. At the 
beginning of the year 1882 he w r as commis- 
sioned a captain in the National Guard of Mis- 
souri by Governor T. T. Crittenden, but re- 
signed his captaincy before the close of the 
year. He has been prominent in the club 
circles of St Louis, and has been treasurer of 
the University Club since January, 1881. No- 
vember 15. [871, he married, in Terre Haute, 
Indiana, Miss Laura Griswold, daughter of 
Honorable William D. Griswold, of whom 
extended mention is made elsewhere in these 
vi ilumes. Their children are Griswold. Ham- 
ilton and Ralph Smith, and Huntington 
Smith, Jr. 

Smith, Irwin Z., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in West Granville, Hampden 
County, Massachusetts, and died in Albu- 
querque, New Mexico, ( )ctober 7, 1881. He 
passed the early years of his life on a farm, 
and after obtaining an academic education 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 



SMITH. 



2087 



New York. In 1847 ne came to St. Louis 
and began the practice of his profession in this 
city. After a time he formed a partnership 
with William D. Sedwick, under the firm 
name of Smith & Sedwick. Later he was a 
member of the firm of Knox, Smith & Sed- 
wick, and still later of the firm of Knox & 
Smith. In the fall of 1864 he was elected a 
member of the Missouri Legislature, and in 
1868, judge of the Circuit Court of St. Louis, 
lie was an able jurist and a lawyer of fine at- 
tainments, and throughout his professional 
career stood high at the bar of this city. He 
was twice married, first in 1857, to Miss Eliza- 
beth Kerr, and after her death, to Miss Isa- 
bella Fallen. 

Smith, John Brady, was born at 
Lexington. Kentucky, August 5, 1798, and 
died in St. Louis, March 16, 1864. His father 
was William Smith, of Culpeper County, Vir- 
ginia, who, while a young man, removed to 
Lexington, and, in 1797, was married to Eliza- 
beth Brady. In 1810 William Smith came 
with his family to St. Louis, and purchased a 
lot on the east side of Main Street, just north 
of Market, upon which, in 1812, he erected a 
brick house, the second one of the kind in the 
place. It was only seven years before that 
Louisiana had been ceded to the United 
States, and the few American-born citizens 
were prominent in political and business af- 
fairs, because man}- of the French residents 
did not take kindly to the change at first. 
William Smith was a leading spirit among the 
Americans, and an estimable citizen besides. 
He was made a director in the first bank or- 
ganized in the town, and was active and con- 
spicuous in all movements to advance the in- 
terests of the town. He came to his death 
September 28, 1817, the day after the Benton- 
Lucas duel, and it was a result of that unhappy 
affair. The duel aroused the deepest feeling 
in the community, and the day after it was 
fought, while a number of citizens were dis- 
cussing it in front of the Washington Hotel, 
on the southeast corner of Main and Pine 
Streets, an altercation arose between William 
Smith and William Thorp, in which the latter 
drew a pistol and shot Smith dead on the spot. 
John Brady Smith was the eldest of five chil- 
dren left by his father. He was educated in the 
St. Louis schools, and being of an enterprising 
spirit, with unusual capacity for business, he 
embarked in the drv goods trade when a 



young man. His first partner was Alexander 
Ferguson, and when, after several years of 
prosperous business, Ferguson retired, Mr. 
Smith took in his younger brother, and the 
firm was changed from Smith & Ferguson to 
Smith & Brother, at No. 7 North Main Street. 
The house continued to prosper, and Mr. 
Smith was one of the prominent merchants of 
that time. When the Bank of Missouri was 
organized, in 1837, he was made president. In 
1852 he was State and county collector, and 
afterward United States surveyor of the port 
of St. Louis, maintaining throughout his mer- 
cantile and official careers the highest reputa- 
tion for integrity and honor. He was a gen- 
tleman of the old school, grave, courtly and 
dignified, and when, in the latter years of his 
life, his well known figure appeared on the 
street, with his coat buttoned up to his chin, 
he seemed to be a connecting link between the 
old era and the new. He was a devoted friend 
and adherent of Thomas H. Benton, and was 
held in the warmest esteem by the distin- 
guished statesman. Mr. Smith was twice 
married, his first wife being Louisa A. Mc- 
Dougale, daughter of Alexander Mc- 
Dougale, of the British Army. The children 
of this union were Julia Penelope, who became 
the wife of John H. Wilson, and died in i860; 
Ellsworth Fayssoux Smith, and Charles Bland 
Smith, who married Miss Emilie De Mini, 
daughter of Jules De Mun, and who died in 
1889. The first Mrs. Smith died in 1832, and 
in 1833 he married her sister, Mrs. Penelope 
Hepburn, who died in 1864. 

Smith, Solomon F., actor, was born 
April 20, 1801, in Norwich, Chenango County, 
New York, and died in St. Louis April 20, 
1869. He began life as a clerk in Albany, 
New York, and after devoting three years to 
that occupation, apprenticed himself to a 
printing establishment in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. There he joined Drake's Dramatic 
Company, in 1820, but withdrew at the end 
of the season and studied law in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. In 1822 he became editor of "The In- 
dependent Press," a Jacksonian organ, and at 
the same time manager of the Globe Theater 
of Cincinnati. The theater enterprise proved 
unsuccessful, but the following year he trav- 
eled with his own company, gaining wide rep- 
utation as a comedian, his principal roles being 
"Mawworm," in "The Hypocrite;" "Sheep- 
face," in the "Village Lawyer." and "Billy 



2088 



SMITH— SXKLl). 



Lackaday," in "Sweethearts and Wive,-." In 
[853 he abandoned theatrical management 
and the stage, and settled m St. Louis, where 
he practiced law during the remainder of his 
life, lie was a member of the Missouri State 
Convention of 1861 ; was an unconditional 
Union man. and took an active part in form- 
ing a provisional government for the State and 
preventing it from joining the secession move- 
ment. He was the author of works entitled. 
"Theatrical Apprenticeship," published in 
Philadelphia in 1845; "Theatrical Journey 
Work." published in [854, and an autobiog- 
raphy, published in 1868. 

Smith, William, merchant and manu- 
facturer, was born April 1. [824, in the manu- 
facturing town of Chorley, Lancashire, Eng- 
land. He is the son of William Smith, a cot- 
tun spinner and manufacturer, who came to 
the United States in 1X41 . established his home 
first in Illinois, and later removed to St. Louis, 
where he died in [843. Mr. Smith was edu- 
cated in the parochial schools of Chorley and 
Southport, England, which he left at an earh 
age to go to the city of Roseau, capital of the 
Island of Dominica, in the British West In- 
dies. There he was first employed as a clerk 
by William Withnell, an architect and builder 
of Roseau, and a brother of John Withnell, a 
well known builder of St. Louis. He was in 
Mr. Withnell's employ two years, and then en- 
tered the mercantile house of Alexander Dal- 
rymple & Co., a firm which had its parent 
house at No. 11 Lime Street. London, and 
various branch establishments in both the 
East and West Indies. He continued in this 
emploj and remained on the Island of Do- 
minica until 1847, when he sailed from there 
on the clipper "Alicia." of Baltimore, for the 
United States. \fter touching at the island 
of St. Thomas and at the port of I 'once. Porto 
Rico, the vessel arrived in Baltimore about 
the first of July, 1847. Twelve days later Mr. 
Smith reached St. Louis, and soon afterward 
became an employe of the wholesale and retail 

dn g Is housi of Wolf, Hopper & Speck, of 

this city. In March of [850 he transferred his 
services to the brewing firm of Ellis & Samuel 
Wainwright, where he was assigned to dutv as 
bookkeeper. This linn operated at thai time 
what was known as the old Fulton Rrewerv, 
at the corner of Main and \lmond Streets. 
and Mr. Smith was connect* <1 with the brewery 
for seven years. Leaving it in [857, he 



formed a partnership with George and Zacha- 
riah linker, and embarked in the malting and 
brewing business as a member of the firm of 
Tinker Bros. & Co., which had a malt-house 
located at the corner of Third and Cedar 
Streets, and also operated the old Franklin 
Brewery, located on Seventeenth Street, be- 
tween Market Street and Clark Avenue. The 
business with which he thus became identified 
proved satisfactory to Mr. Smith in character 
and returns, and he continued it for thirty 
years thereafter. At the end of this period, 
and in the year 1887, he retired with a hand- 
some fortune, accumulated as a result of his 
energetic efforts and sagacious operations. 
Since that time he has devoted his attention to 
the care of his property interests and the en- 
joyment of that rest to which his age and suc- 
cess in life entitle him. He served during the 
Civil War as a member of Colonel Charles 
Tucker's regiment of Home Guards, and was 
a loyal supporter of the Union. For twenty 
years he was a member of the Merchants' Ex- 
change, and he is still a member of the Mer- 
chants' Exchange Benevolent Association. 
January 17. [882, he married Miss Fannie Dil- 
lon, adopted daughter of the late John With- 
nell, of St. Louis. 

Slieed, Thomas F., street railway man- 
ager, was born December 18. 1854. in Boone 
( omit v. Missouri, son of Thomas S. and Susan 
( Blanton) Sneed. Both his parents were born 
at Frankfort, Kentucky, and both belonged to 
families whose Kentucky history dates back 
to the pioneer days of that commonwealth. In 
both the paternal and maternal lines he is de- 
scended from ancestors who had the courage 
and hardihood to brave the perils of the fron- 
tier, ami who took an important part in pro- 
moting the advancement of Western civiliza- 
tion. He himself was reared in Boone 
County, Missouri, where he obtained a fair 
English education in the public schools. Dur- 
ing his boyhood his father — who had been a 
man of means before the war, but had lost his 
fortune through his devotion to the Southern 
cause — was employed as station agent on the 
Northern Missouri Railroad, and. quitting 
school at fourteen years of age. the son turned 
his attention to the study of telegraphy in con- 
nection with railroad work. After working 
for four years as a telegraph operator, he was 
employed on the Northern Missouri Railroad 
until 1876 as bag-gagemaster and express mes- 







O f> 




SNIDER. 



2089 



senger. He then went to Brookville, Kansas, 
where he was engaged in business one year as 
a hotel manager. Leaving Brookville at that 
time, he went to Denver, Colorado, as a store- 
keeper for the Kansas Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, and continued in the employ of that cor- 
poration until the spring of 1880. Coming 
then to St. Louis, determined to make this 
city his business headquarters, and resolved 
also to make the best of the situation in which 
he found himself placed, he obtained employ- 
ment first as a conductor on the Olive Street 
Railroad. Six months later he went to what 
was then known as the "Narrow Gauge" Rail- 
road, and which later became the Suburban 
Railroad, and for seven years thereafter filled 
the position of conductor on that line. In 
1887 his faithfulness and efficiency received 
deserved recognition from his employers and 
he was made superintendent of the line. Two 
years later he was promoted to general super- 
intendent of the entire Suburban Railroad sys- 
tem, and has ever since occupied that impor- 
tant and responsible position. This brief re- 
view of Air. Sneed's personal history attests 
the fact that the position which he has attained 
has been earned by years of hard work, and 
that he owes nothing to fortuitous circum- 
stances. The broad knowledge of street rail- 
way management, which he has shown in the 
position he now fills, was obtained by practical 
experience in subordinate positions, and un- 
derstanding thoroughly all the phases of the 
business in which he is engaged is the secret 
of his success. As an executive officer, he 
has no superior among the railway managers 
of St. Louis, and his capacity for handling 
great crowds of people has attracted marked 
attention in street railway circles. Thorough 
familiarity with modern street railway equip- 
ment, and careful consideration of constantlv 
changing conditions have been essential to the 
successful conduct of the business entrusted to 
his care, and the continued growth and devel- 
opment of the railway system which he has 
superintended afford the best evidences of 
his managerial ability. He has, in a sense, 
grown up with the Suburban Railway system, 
and has had much to do with developing a vast 
business interest, which represents in the ag- 
gregate a value of millions of dollars. It fur- 
nishes employment to a large number of peo- 
ple, with whom Air. Snccd has been brought 
into more direct contact than any other official 
of the company, and the harmonious relations 



which have existed between the employer and 
the employed in this instance give evidence of 
his ability to discipline and govern men, and 
attest also the fact that he deals with them 
in that spirit of fairness and just treatment 
which makes faithful servants and subordi- 
nates. The "Suburban Garden," one of the 
most attractive resorts of St. Louis, is largely 
indebted to .Mr. Sneed for its existence, he 
having been one of the originators and pro- 
moters of that enterprise. He has taken some 
interest in politics as a member of the Demo- 
cratic party, affiliating with the "sound money" 
wing of that party, and sat as a delegate in the 
Sound Money Democratic Convention, held 
at Sedalia in 1896. He is a Baptist church- 
man, and in a quiet way is a generous donor 
to charities and charitable institutions. May 
18, 1875, he was married to Miss Cora C. Con- 
ger, of Boone Count}', Missouri, and has two 
children — Edna May and Leo S. Snccd. 

Snider, Denton Jaqnes, was born in 

Mount Gilead, Ohio, on the 9th day of 
January, 1841. He graduated at Oberlin 
College in 1862. In 1864 he taught Eng- 
lish and American literature at the Christian 
Brothers' College, St. Louis, and later on was 
a teacher of several branches of learning in 
the St. Louis public schools. In the latter 
part of the "sixties'* and in the "seventies" he 
was a prominent member of several leading 
philosophical and literary societies, and during 
several years, of its existence was a lecturer at 
the School of Philosophy at Concord, Mas- 
sachusetts. He contributed frequently to the 
following St. Louis magazines, to-wit : "The 
Inland Monthly." "The Western," and "The 
Journal of Speculative Philosophy." 

During leisure hours he conducted classes 
for men and women in Roman and Greek his- 
tory. Homer, Herodotus. Shakespeare, and 
Goethe. Professor Snider has done more for 
the cause of higher education in St. Louis 
than anyone who has ever resided in the city, 
except Professor William T. Harris, LL. D., 
our present National Commissioner of Educa- 
tion. 

About the middle of the "seventies" he spent 
two or three years in European travel, visiting 
principally the classic grounds of the past. 

Professor Snider is the author of several 
works of higher literature noted for their ana- 
lytical insight, classic diction, and philosoph- 
ical power. While the art is not of the high- 



I'll! HI 



SNOW FLAKES— SNOW. 



est, it is nevertheless of a very high grade. 
Absorbed as he is in the contemplation of the 
central idea, he sometimes loses sight of the 
minor — though not always entirely unimpor- 
tant — details. He does not write for the popu- 
lar masses, but for the educated few. Popular 
applause, to him, has no seductive side. 

The writer of this, having been a pupil of 
Professor Snider's, and having the further 
honor of his friendship since a quarter of a 
century, prefers to further speak of his genius 
through others. Judge J. Gabriel Woerner, 
one of the ripest literary scholars of St. Louis, 
once said in a conversation with the writer : 
"Mr. Snider grasps the central thought of a 
poem, an epos or drama, and so unfolds it in 
its meaning, its beauty and power as to make 
it accessible to less gifted minds." And, as 
to his critical powers, that he has reared un- 
dying monuments to himself in his commenta- 
ries on the Shakespearean dramas, Goethe's 
"Faust," Homer's "Iliad," and Dante's "Di- 
vine Comedy" — "they reveal to us, like the 
seers in Holy Writ, the gospel of divine truth, 
as contained in what he I Snider) calls the lit- 
erary bibles of the world." 

1 1 is best poetry, Judge Woerner said, has 
not been put in book form, but only in printed 
slips tor distribution among his intimate 
friends. "The finest specimens of his poetic 
powers are contained in his 'Soul's Journey' 
(in three parts); 'The Triumph of Death,' 
'The Triumph of the Image,' and 'The 
Triumph of Reason.' This poem, or cycle of 
poems, is the outcry of his soul steeped in grief 
over the loss of his wife." 

His "Walk in Hellas," one of the most de- 
lightful of his books — •because he is upon the 
classical ground so dear to him — "infects the 
reader with that enthusiastic adoration of the 
beautiful which is Mr. Snider's divine gift from 

the Muses." 

1 'n ifessi ir Snider resided in St. Louis about a 
quarter of a century. Since some ten years he 
lives in Chicago, but he pays frequent visits to 
his old friend> in the < "it y i ii the Mounds. He 
is a widower, his wife having died in St. Louis 
in [874. lie has an only daughter who lives 
in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

His published works are: "A System of 
Shakespeare's Dramas" ("1877); "Delphic 
Days" (1880); "A Walk in Hellas" (1882); 
"Agamemnon's Daughter" 1 1SS5) ; "Epigram- 
matic Voyage" (i886);"A Commentary on 
Goethe's Faust" (1886); "A Commentary on 



Shakespeare's Tragedies" (1887); "Johnny 
Apple-seed," "World's Fair Studies" (1894); 
"The American State," "Psychosis," and two 
or three others of less importance. 

Alexander N. De Menil. 

Snow Flakes. — An appellation applied 
to the Democrats of Missouri in the 
rarl\ paft of the Civil War. Those who had 
been stvled "black Republicans," on account 
of their sympathy with the negroes, retorted by 
calling their political opponents "Snow- 
flakes," on account of their intense aversion to 
the negroes. 

Snow, Marshall Solomon, educator, 
was born August 17, 1842, in Hyannis, Massa- 
chusetts. His father was Rev. Solomon Pep- 
per Snow, and his mother's maiden name was 
Maria J. Pratt. His ancestors in the maternal 
line were New England farmers, while all his 
male ancestors in the paternal line during 
three centuries were sailors. His father was 
a sailor in early life, but at the age of twenty- 
six years left the sea and entered the Metho- 
dist ministry, preaching for fifty years there- 
after in New England. Marshall S. Snow 
was fitted for college at Phillips' Academy, of 
Exeter, New Hampshire, and was graduated 
from Harvard College with the degree of 
bachelor of arts in the class of 1865. In 1868 
the degree of master of arts was conferred 
upon him by his "alma mater." He was sub- 
master of the High School at Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts, during the school year of 1865-6, 
and master of the High School at Nashville, 
Tennessee, in 1866-7. I" 1867 he was ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics in the Uni- 
versity of Nashville, and a year later was made 
professor of Latin and principal of Montgom- 
ery Bell Academy, of the University of Nash- 
ville, retaining those positions until 1870. In 
the year last named he became professor of 
Belles Lettres in Washington LTniversity, of 
St. Louis, and occupied the chair until 1870. 
in which year he was made professor of 
history in Washington University and has 
ever since filled that chair. He was registrar 
of the college from 1870 to 1877, and has been 
dean of the college since the latter year. He 
was a charter member of the University Club 
of St. Louis, of which he was chosen an offi- 
cer soon after its organization, and from 1892 
to 1 896 he was president of that club. He is a 
member of the New England Society of St. 



SNYDER. 



2091 



Louis, which he served as president in 1894-5, 
and a member of the Missouri Historical So- 
ciety, of which he has been president since 
1894. He is also a member of the American 
Historical Association, a member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Political Science, honorary 
member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, and corresponding member of 
the Minnesota Historical Society. An 
Episcopalian churchman, he is a com- 
municant of Christ Church Cathedral 
with which he is officially identified as junior 
warden and member of the Cathedral Chapter. 
He is also a member of the standing commit- 
tee of the diocese of Missouri and its secretary, 
and secretary of the Parochial Trust Fund of 
the diocese. July 9, 1867, Professor Snow 
married Miss Ellen Frances Jewell, of Exeter, 
New Hampshire. 

Snyder, John, clergyman, was born 
June 14, 1842, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
He is of German extraction in the paternal 
line, the immigrant ancestor of the family to 
which he belongs having come from Germany 
to this country and settled in Pennsylvania 
about the year 1750. Lutheranism was the 
religious faith handed down to him from this 
ancestry, while his maternal ancestors be- 
longed to the Society of Friends, or Quakers. 
He was educated in the schools of Philadel- 
phia and then took the divinity course in the 
Theological School of Meadville, Pennsylva- 
nia, from which institution he was graduated 
in 1869. Soon after his graduation he was 
settled as pastor of the Third Unitarian 
Church, of Hingham, Massachusetts, and 
filled that pastorate until January of 1873, 
when he was called to the Church of the Mes- 
siah, of St. Louis. He succeeded, as pastor 
of the last named church, Rev. Dr. William G. 
Eliot, renowned both as preacher and educa- 
tor, a man of untiring energy and rare admin- 
istrative ability, who had been engaged in all 
sorts of public and philanthropic enterprises, 
and whose influence had been potent for good 
not only in St. Louis, but throughout the en- 
tire Southwest. To be called upon to minister 
to a congregation which had enjoyed for many 
years the rare privilege of receiving its reli- 
gious instruction from so learned and accom- 
plished a man as Dr. Eliot was a flattering 
compliment to Dr. Snyder, who was then not 
] thirty years of age; at the same time it was a 
;call which carried with it grave responsibilities. 



Accustomed to hearing discourses represen- 
tative of the highest order of intellectuality and 
the most advanced religious thought from the 
old pastor, the members of this congregation 
could be satisfied with nothing less from the 
new, and to meet and fill the measure of their 
expectations was a task of no ordinary magni- 
tude. That Dr. Snyder succeeded in doing 
this is evidenced by the fact that for more than 
twenty-five years he has continued to fill the 
pastorate of the Church of the Messiah and 
that during all these years, as in its earlier his- 
tory, this church has been famous for the 
strength, originality, beauty and timeliness of 
its pulpit utterances. From the time of his 
coming to St. Louis until now, Dr. Snyder has 
ranked among the most attractive and elo- 
quent pulpit orators of the city and as one of 
the ablest representatives of a liberal and pro- 
gressive theology. His utterances have evi- 
denced profound research, deep thought and 
an intimate acquaintance with the best litera- 
ture of all ages and have been characterized 
by impassioned earnestness and charming 
dignity and eloquence. As a moral teacher 
outside of the pulpit he has long been one of 
the most active and useful of the ministers of 
St. Louis. He has been at the head of many 
movements designed to promote general cul- 
ture and intelligence, and in connection with 
his church work has conducted various classes 
whose studies have covered a wide field of re- 
search. Reform movements having for their 
objects the betterment of political, social or 
moral conditions have invariably appealed to 
him strongly, and having at all times the cour- 
age of his convictions, he has never failed to 
lend to such measures his active aid and co- 
operation. As a consequence, he has on va- 
rious occasions taken a conspicuous part in 
political campaigns, and in his political, as in 
his religious utterances, he has demonstrated 
that he is at the same time a man of broad and 
liberal spirit and profound convictions. While 
keeping in mind always the dignity of his high 
office, there is little of the cleric about him in 
every-day life. Delightfully companionable, 
and charming all he meets with his wit and 
repartee, he is always a welcome guest on so- 
cial occasions and is known as one of the hap- 
piest of "after-dinner speakers." As a writer 
on various timely topics, he is well known in 
the realm of literature, and he has been a fre- 
quent contributor to newspapers, magazines, 
and other journals, and is the author of the 



2092 



SO AT AND CANDLE TRADE-SOCIAL DEMOCRACY. 



historical sketch of "Unitarianism in St. 
Louis," published elsewhere in these volumes. 
He married, in 1869, Miss Margaret A. Kin- 
niff, of Meadville, Pennsylvania, and has 

reared a family of eight children. 

Soap and Candle Trade. — The trade 
in snap and candles of St. Louis consists al- 
most entirely in the manufacture of these ar- 
ticles for the supply of the local market and 
shipments to other markets. The receipts of 
snap and caudles from outside points are com- 
paratively small, because the factories of St. 
I .< mis are. and for many years have been, capa- 
cii his enough to supply the local city trade and 
the wants of all the territory tributary to the 
city. In 1875 the shipments were, of candles, 
83,829 boxes, and of soap. 126,332 boxes; in 
[892, they were, of candles, 124,942 boxes, and 
1 if si iap, 642,983 boxes ; and in 1896 they were, 
of candles, 155,685 boxes, and of soap, 656,009 
boxes. The annual value of the trade was es- 
timated at $3,000,000. 

Social Democracy. — The Social Dem- 
ocratic movement is a transition of the labor 
problem. As conceived and promulgated by 
its best and most intelligent advocates, it is the 
embodied demand for the restoration of the 
land and the instruments of production to the 
people, and for a distribution of the products 
of labor in conformity with improved methods. 
The contrast between a highly developed pro- 
ductive system and a receding system of dis- 
tribution is held by the advocates to be shown 
in the operations of the large corporations and 
trusts, with their armies of producers, in con- 
tinual proximity to poverty, the corporation 
receiving the product being able with the pro- 
ceeds t' > cl< ise their fact< iries for a period equal 
to the time operated and continue to pay high 
salaries to their officers. Co-operative pro- 
duction by the linest and fastest machinery is 
an unmistakable step in the evolution of in- 
dustry, bul it is held that this demands a simi- 
lar development in distribution. Labor 
unions, organizations of self-defense, have 
been able' to stem the downward tendenC) of 
wages. I '.ui it is contended that while fight- 
ing for maintenance of wages, reduction of 
hours and respectful treatment, the labor 
unions, by increased com petition and the con 
centration of wealth in fewer hands, have been 
gradually brought to a change of tactics. This 
alternative, as seen b\ the American Railway 



Union, came as a result of the loss of its great 
strike at Chicago in 1894. and as a conse- 
quence there was evolved, in June. 1897, a 
powerful organization with a new name, a new 
aim and new friends. It came out the cham- 
pion of a universal brotherhood. Eugene V. 
Debs, the hern of the Chicago strike, was 
elected national chairman. A national organ, 
"The Social Democrat,'' was immediately pro- 
jected, headquarters established at Chicago, 
and a declaration of principles promulgated 
as follows : 

1. The public ownership of all industries 
controlled by monopolies, trusts and com- 
bines. 

2. The public ownership of all railroads, 
telegraphs, telephones, all means of transpor- 
taition, communication, water works, gas and 
electric plants, and all other public utilities. 

3. The public ownership of all gold, silver, 
copper, lead, coal, iron and other mines; also 
all oil and gas wells. 

4. Reduction of the hours of labor in pro- 
portion to the progress of production. 

5. The inauguration of a system of public 
works and improvements for the employment 
of the unemployed, the public credit to be 
utilized for that purpose. 

6. All useful inventions to be free to all. the 
inventor to be remunerated by the public. 

7. The establishment of postal savings 
banks. 

8. The adoption of the initiative and the 
referendum, the imperative mandate and pro- 
portional representation. 

1 'receding these demands, the platform de- 
clared that one of the States of the Union, 
thereafter to be determined, should be selected 
for the concentration of the supporters and 
the introduction of the co-operative industry. 
The first steps in St. Louis to join the Social 
Democracy were taken simultaneously by sev- 
eral groups of men and women, who, under 
a call issued by \Y. K. Gordon for a meeting 
at ( iarrison Avenue and Olive Street, there 
and then formed Branch Xo. I, of Missouri, 
with the following as some of the well known 
names on its membership list : Harry C. Yroo- 
inan, Sheridan \Yebster, W. C. Bohannen, W. 
A. Hall, T. L. Talbot, E. D. Waldorf. L. E. 
Hildebrandt, S. Schmall, G. A. Hoehn, Dr. 
Theodore Crusius, A. F. Haeussler, Miss I. M. 
Witherell, Dr. L. H. Davis, George Taylor 
and A. I-".. Sanderson. Branch Xo. 1. soon | 
firmly established with a good membership, 



SOCIALER SAENGERCHOR— SOCIAL SCIENCE CLUB OF ST. LOUIS. 2093 



which grew to nearly one hundred in number 
in a short while, began a vigorous campaign 
for the principles enunciated. The platform 
meetings were held weekly, first at iooo Olive 
Street (Painters' Hall) and later at 1223 North 
Broadway, where it meets to-day, with a lec- 
ture by a good speaker for every meeting. 
Five more branches were soon started in St. 
Louis, all of which at the present time (1898) 
enjoy a steady growth. Agitation and dis- 
tribution of literature are busily pushed. Here 
also the movement added to its working force 
many good and well known men and women, 
including Dr. and Mrs. Charles Shattinger, 
Frank Ujka, Carl Meier, H. C. Nelson, V. 
Marchal, and J. L. Franz. At this time Rev. 
Harry C. Vrooman, with fifteen other clergy- 
men of St. Louis, have an auxiliary society. 
The branches of St. Louis, in order to co-oper- 
ate in some things, like giving festivals or go- 
ing into political campaigns, instituted a joint 
executive board, composed of three delegates 
from each branch. On two occasions partic- 
ularly there have been notable popular demon- 
strations. The first was at the time of the La- 
bor Convention held to consider the coal 
strike in the fall of 1897; the second, a festival 
given at the Bohemian Gymnasium by the 
united branches of St. Louis. At one meet- 
ing held at the courthouse the crowd had be- 
come very great, the speakers receiving many 
words of encouragement, but the police on 
this occasion were unfriendly and, notwith- 
standing a mayor's permit allowing the speak- 
ers to speak from the courthouse steps, or- 
dered them to desist, and upon their refusal, 
arrested them. They were arraigned the next 
day before Judge Peabody, but were acquitted 
with a dissertation by the judge upon the 
rights of free speech. After the existence of 
the Social Democracy for one year, the Na- 
tional Convention, with delegates from 
branches all over the Union, met at Chicago to 
determine the policy and tactics to be used in 
the ensuing year. It soon developed that the 
convention contained two factions, nearly 
equally divided, one contending that coloniza- 
tion was the prime issue ; the other, political 
organization and action at the ballot-box. 
The difference of opinion concerning which 
should be the prime, and which the subser- 
vient, issue was sufficient to cause a split into 
two parties, "The Social Democracy of Ameri- 
ca," and "The Social Democratic Party of 
America." _ Julius G. Friton. 



Socialer Saengerchor. — A German 
singing society organized September 13, 1850. 
Its first president was Herr Holzmann and its 
meetings were held in Kossuth Hall on South 
Second Street. Its first concert was given 
November 30, 1850. In the early part of the 
following year it established a library, and in 
October of 1852 a debating club was formed 
in connection with the society. It prospered 
and was known as one of the representative 
German institutions of the city until it was 
temporarily broken up by the Civil War. 
After the war it was reorganized, and in 1868 
was incorporated, with Conrad Kellerman, 
Clemens A. Schnake, Henry Thon, Philip 
Nolting and others as promoters of the enter- 
prise. 

Social Evil Ordinance. — The city 
council of St. Louis, in 1870, passed an ordi- 
nance designed "to regulate and suppress" the 
social evil, by subjecting the keepers and in- 
mates of immoral resorts to a rigid system of 
medical inspection and requiring them to pay 
certain fees, hospital dues, etc., at stated inter- 
vals. The system of dealing with this evil thus 
inaugurated amounted, in effect, to the licens- 
ing of prostitution and the moral sense of the 
community was deeply outraged by the inno- 
vation. As a result of the prevailing senti- 
ment and an aversion of the courts to enforc- 
ing the provisions of the ordinance it soon be- 
came inoperative and the attempt to "regulate 
and restrain'-' a great evil in this way, proved a 
failure. The Legislature of Missouri has since 
placed it beyond the power of any munici- 
pality to attempt to regulate the evil by giving 
to it the sanction of the law. This is said to 
have been the only attempt made in this coun- 
try to "regulate" the social evil by an enact- 
ment of this character. 

Social Science Club of St. Louis. — 

The Social Science Club was — and is — an or- 
ganization, under the leadership of the Rev. 
R. A. Holland, composed of thinking men and 
women of St. Louis — regardless of creed, na- 
tionality, or political views — who are conspicu- 
ously interested in the elucidation of the social 
problem. Though at times, when the inter- 
est ran high, two hundred strong, this club 
had its beginning at a preliminary meeting 
called by Mrs. Anthony H. Blaisdell at her 
home, January 21, 1892, with the purpose of 
forming a class for the study of social science 



209-1 



SOCIAL SETTLEMENT. ST. LOUIS. 



under the direction of Dr. Holland. Twenty- 
five persons responded to this call, and Dr. 
Holland addressed the meeting on the subject 
of the Christian Socialism movement emanat- 
ing; from Oxford, England. Those present 
then and there organized themselves into the 
"Social Science Club of St. Louis," with Dr. 
Holland as president, and Mrs. Blaisdell as 
secretary. It was further decided to hold 
semi-monthly meetings at the homes of its 
members, as invited, until permanent quarters 
could be secured. Laveleye's ''The Socialism 
of To-day" was selected as the book to guide 
the discussion. The club increased rapidly in 
members and by the close of its first season 
most of the private houses were found inade- 
quate to entertain it. 

The ground covered by the club the first 
winter was chiefly the investigation of what 
had preceded and produced the present inter- 
est in social science — Fichte, Mario, Karl 
Marx, LaSalle and Bakunin. When addi- 
tional light was needed on any point, it was 
the policy of the club to invite outside speak- 
ers, and to this end Father Huntington and 
Rev. VV. I '. C. Bliss visited the club and gave 
their views on "Collectivism and Land Nat- 
uralization." 

In the autumn of 1892 the club was offered 
the use of the Guild's room in St. George's 
Church, in which thereafter all meetings were 
held. The first vice-president selected was 
Mr. ( 'harles ( ilaflin Allen, who presided in the 
absence of Dr. Holland. Later, both Mr. I. 
II Lionberger and Mr. R. Graham Frost 
served the club in the same capacity. The 
men who took part in the program of the club 
were drawn from every profession and trade — ■ 
theology, medicine, the bar, as well as those 
actively interested in educational work, in 
manufactures, m engineering, and in commer- 
cial pursuits, \ 1 m ■ mi-- these were General 
John W. Noble, Professor William M. Bryant, 
X. ( >. Nelson, ( :onde B. Pallen, James A. Sed- 
don, Alexander Cochran, Frederick M. Crun- 
den, Jesse McDonald, Rabbi Leon Harrison, 
Rabbi Samuel Sale. Rev. J. \V. Lee, Rev. Wil- 
liam Short. Professor Sears. Rev. Gustavus 
Tuckerman, Charles Gildehaus, Werner Stille, 
Dr. F. Louis Soldan, Judge J. < 1. Woerner, F. 
W. Lehmann, Chancellor Chaplin and others. 
Vmong the women who from time to time 
led discussions before the club were : Mrs. Ed- 
win C, Cuclnr.an. Mrs. Lydia Fuller Dickin- 
son, Miss Thekla I'.ernavs. Mi.ss Leonora Hal- 



sted, Miss Grace Gilfillan and Miss Fannie 
Chamberlain Brown. 

The debates, though always guided by the 
chairman, as far as might be, into the region of 
impersonality, were not altogether without 
lirai. owing to the earnestness of those en- 
gaged in the discussion and to the reality of 
the problem presented, for the Social Science 
Club was made up of persons professing every 
possible shade of economic philosophy. Some 
of the subjects considered were as follows : 
"When is it Right for the Individual to Resist 
the State ?" "Do We Need a Stronger Govern- 
ment?" "Altruism and Economics," "The So- 
cial Inferno," ''The Problem of the Poor," 
"The Aim of Punishment," "Organized La- 
bor," "Economic Principles of Democracy," 
"Justice," "Marriage," "What can Women do 
for Women?" "Natural Rights," "Is Social 
Democracy Possible?" and "Social Evolu- 
tion." 

In the autumn of 1895, in consequence of 
Dr. Holland's failing health, the Social Science 
Club regretfully disbanded. 

Mary McConxell Blaisdell. 

Social Settlement, St. Louis. — The 

Social Settlement idea, which is so rapidly ex- 
tending in the large cities of England and the 
United States, is simply a practical working 
out of the belief in universal brotherhood. A 
household is established in a congested tene- 
ment district which is carried on by permanent 
residents, reinforced by temporary residents, 
the latter giving such time as they can spare 
from the claims of other duties, remaining gen- 
erally for a month at a time. The. promoters 
of Social Settlements believe that by residence 
among the people upon whom the hardships 
of life fall heaviest, thus sharing to some ex- 
tent their circumstances and environments, 
they can best understand and sympathize with 
them, win their friendship and confidence, and I 
be truly their neighbors and helpers. Such 
residence has, in some instances, changed the 
character of an entire district, not only moral- 
ly and socially, but by causing improvements 
in streets and buildings, and in general sanita- 
tion, which results could be accomplished 
only through intelligent and persistent effort 
1 if actual residents. 

I he St. Louis Social Settlement owes its 
beginning and successful continuance to the 
warm heart, bright intellect and untiring la- 
bors of Mrs. Lucy A. Wiggin, who, though 



SOCIETE DU 14 JUILLET. 



2095 



constantly fulfilling the arduous duties of a 
teacher in the public schools, has in addition 
carried on this exacting enterprise with equal 
energy and ability. It is a further develop- 
ment of the Working Girls' Free Library and 
Evening School, located for so many years on 
Lafayette Avenue, which was started by Mrs. 
Wiggin in 1886, for the benefit of girls em- 
ployed in mills and factories, and which, after 
nine successful years, led to the Social Settle- 
ment, which covers a wider field of usefulness. 
In September, 1895, a house was secured on 
Second and Victor Streets, where the Settle- 
ment was organized. The first floor consists 
of a large assembly hall, which is also the li- 
brary, and above this are six living rooms. 
Here a home life is maintained, and pleasant 
and hospitable relations with the neighbors 
are cultivated. Mrs. biggin, as manager of 
the Settlement, has resided there much of the 
time, Mrs. Virginia C. Logie relieving Mrs. 
Wiggin from August, 1897, until April, 1898. 
Among others who have been residents are 
Mrs. S. E. Fifield, Miss L. E. M. Smith, and 
Mr. L. D. Goodman. Much help is received 
from outside workers, who assist with classes 
and contribute to the various entertainments 
and other features of the work, among them 
being Mr. E. H. Babbitt, Miss Rugg, Miss L. 
M. Clinton, Miss Barlow, and others. The 
library is open on Sunday afternoons and is a 
center from which good has radiated. The 
evenings of the week are devoted to the vari- 
ous clubs, among which are the "Lend a 
Hand," whose membership includes girls 
from ten to eighteen years old, who are enter- 
tained with stories, recitations and music ; the 
"Young Women's Ideal Club," whose object 
is entertainment and mutual benefit ; and a 
"Young Men's Club." One evening is set 
apart for little boys who are brought in from 
the streets and entertained with games, music 
and stories. The little girls have formed a 
"Beautiful Lady Club." A sewing school is 
carried on Saturday afternoons, to which the 
mothers are invited. Lessons in physical cul- 
ture and dancing have also been given, and a 
great number of literary and musical entertain- 
ments. A number of boys, girls, and mothers 
with their babies, were afforded, by groups of 
from ten to twenty at a time, a week's vacation 
at Le Claire, Illinois. Numerous excursions 
have also been arranged, and an annual picnic 
is held at Mrs. Wiggin's home in the suburbs. 
It was found that many infants and small chil- 



dren were left to the insufficient care of older 
children while their mothers were away at 
work. This led to the opening of a day nur- 
sery in an adjacent building, where the little 
ones are well cared for from 6 a. m. to 7 p. m., 
the mothers who can do so paying five cents 
a day for each child. Employment and aid 
have also been obtained for many. The aver- 
age weekly attendance at the various clubs and 
classes has been 310, and would be greater if 
the quarters were larger and better adapted to 
the purposes of the work. The hall is crowded 
at the entertainments. The main source of 
revenue has been the annual gift of one hun- 
dred dollars each from the following gentle- 
men and business firms acquainted with the 
work from the start: Colonel George E. 
Leighton, Mr. Emerson MacMillan, New 
York; the late Mr. B. H. Brownell, Mr. Ellis 
Wainwright, the late Mr. James T. Drum- 
mond, the Catlin Tobacco Company, and the 
Drummond Tobacco Company, Mr. Joseph 
Franklin, Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Culver, and 
many other men and women have also lent 
generous assistance to the pioneer Social Set- 
tlement of St. Louis. Such an institution is 
constructive and benefits the community by 
cutting off the supply of new recruits drifting 
annually, in all great cities, to vicious lives. 

Sooiete du 1-t Juillet. — On the 14th 
day of July, 1880, the first St. Louis celebra- 
tion of the French National Fete took place. 
Since that date the fete has been one of the 
annual amusement features of St. Louis. Its 
object is to befittingly commemorate the bene- 
ficial results to humanity which accrued from 
the French Revolution in the death of feudal- 
ism and the birth of universal liberty. The 
fete is annually held in a public garden or park, 
which is handsomely decorated and illumi- 
nated, and the program consists of two ora- 
tions, one in French and one in English, by 
prominent citizens, an address in English by 
the mayor of the city, and one in French by the 
consular agent of France. The "Marseillaise," 
the "Salut a la France." the "Star Spangled 
Banner," and "Hail Columbia" are sung by 
noted lady singers in appropriate costumes. 
A musical concert composed of classic and 
popular French and American selections, a 
generous display of fireworks, an a! fresco 
ball, and other features, yearly bring five or 
six thousand people to the celebration. The 
fete is not an exclusively French one, as fully 



2096 



SOCIETY OF ACCOUNTANTS— SOLDAN. 



one-half of the yearly attendance is composed 
of naturalized Swiss, Belgians and Canadians, 
descendants of French people born in the 
United States, and Americans. In the decora- 
tions every French Hag is crossed by an 
American, and the bunting of the two nations 
intertwine. Many inconveniences having 
arisen in the conduct of the fete from the want 
of a regularly organized and responsible asso- 
ciation to take charge of its many preparatory 
details, the Society of the 14th of July was 
founded in March, 1S96. since which date it 
has had exclusive charge of the fete. The So- 
ciete du 14 Juillet now numbers seventy mem- 
bers, its officers for 1899-1900 are: Presi- 
dent. Dr. Armand Derivaux; vice-presidents, 
Eugene Felix and Alexander N. De Menil; 
secretary, Paul E. Juillard; treasurer, Gustave 
M. Biston; directors, Francis Kuhn, Louis B. 
Gabard, Joseph Bornecque, Professor Paul 
Peltier. Louis Guyot and Joseph M. Layat; 
honorary president, Louis Seguenot, consu- 
lar agent 1 >f France. 

Alexander N. De Menil. 

Society of Accountants. — The St. 

Louis Society of Accountants was organized 
< Vtober 14, [896, with F. J. Spindler as presi- 
dent ; C. A. Sweetland, vice-president ; Charles 
H. Lyle. secretary; F. J. Dardis, treasurer, 
and E. E. Hickok, librarian. The object is 
"the mutual benefit and welfare of its members 
by uniting fraternally all accountants and 
bookkeepers who are morally and sociably eli- 
gible and acceptable, and competent in their 
profession." It was at one time a member of 
a national federation, called the National So- 
ciet\ of Accountants, but this body was al- 
lowed to fall to pieces, and now the local so- 
cieties in the large cities act by themselves. 
In [898 it had about sixty members. 

Sodalities. — See "Catholic Societies." 

Soderer, Alois, was born in Baden, 
Germany, November _>_>, [816, son of August 
and Catherina (Neidinger) Soderer. and died 
in St. Louis. March 31, [899. He receive. 1 a 

good education and then spent several years 
in Marseilles and Paris, France, where he 
learned the butcher's trade, which be had thor- 
oughly mastered before coming to this coun- 
try, lie came to the United Stales in [837, 
and first established himself in business at 
Louisville, Kentucky. After remaining there 



a year he came to St. Louis and soon built up 
a prosperous butchering establishment and 
meat market in this city, with slaughter houses 
located at Twenty-third Street and Franklin 
Avenue, and with sales stall at the old Round 
Top Market, at Third and O'Fallon Streets. 
While thus engaged his surplus earnings were 
very judiciously invested in real estate, and as 
the business in which he was engaged was a 
lucrative one in those days, he acquired a very 
considerable amount of realty within a few 
years after he came to this city. In the fall of 
1843 he returned to Germany and spent sev- 
eral months visiting his old home and the 
scenes with which be bad been familiar in his 
earlv life. After coming back to St. Louis 
he continued in the meat trade until 1856, 
when he turned his attention to the improve- 
ment of real property which he had acquired, 
erecting numerous buildings and making 
many improvements creditable to the city, as 
well as to himself. He continued the work 
thus begun until, in 1898, he was the owner of 
four store buildings on Franklin Avenue, six 
store buildings on Market Street, two store 
buildings on Morgan Street, and numerous 
dwellings on Twenty-third Street and Franklin 
Avenue. In all, he had erected and was the 
owner of forty-three buildings, a very substan- 
tial contribution to the growth and improve- 
ment of St. Louis. In 1853 he removed to the 
country and lived in a rural neighborhood un- 
til 1868. In the year last named he returned 
to the city, where he resided until his death. 
He revisited Europe, accompanied by his 
wife, in 1882 ; at different times traveled exten- 
sively in this country, and after 1896 lived in 
retirement, giving himself up to the quiet en- 
joyment of his ample fortune. In politics he 
was a Republican, and in religion a Catholic. 
May 1, 1844, ^ lr - Soderer married Miss Caro- 
line Jackman, then a resident of Baden, Ger- 
many. Four children born of their union 
survive, of whom Caroline is now the wife of 
Frank Simon, of St. Louis; Josephine is the 
wife of Adam Weber, of St. Louis; and Min- 
nie is the wife of Gustave Schuchmann, of St. 
Louis. Alice Soderer is unmarried. 

Soldan, Frank Lonis, educator, was 
born < Ictober 20, 1842, in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, 1 iermany, son of John J. and Caroline 
(Elssman) Soldan. He was educated in the 
German schools and came to the United States 
and to St. Louis a youth twenty years of age. ' 



SOLDIERS, FIRST IN ST. LOUIS-SOLDIERS' HOME. 



2097 



The year 1863 was the date of his arrival in this 
city, and in 1864 he assumed charge as princi- 
pal of one of the largest private schools in the 
city, which was then located on Broadway, 
near Market Street. He was principal of this 
school until 1868, in which year he was ap- 
pointed teacher of modern languages in the 
St. Louis High School. While thus engaged 
he took a leading part in the monthly meet- 
ings of teachers in the literary and 
scientific work of several organizations, 
&nd presented a number of essays and 
papers in various societies which stamped 
him as a profound thinker and close 
student. Dr. William T. Harris, now chief of 
the bureau of education of the L'nited States, 
was then superintendent of schools in St. 
Louis, and Mr. Soldan belonged to the little 
circle of scholarly men and women who gath- 
ered about him for the study of philosophy. 
In 1870 he was appointed assistant superin- 
tendent of public schools, and during his in- 
cumbency of this office did important work. 
In the primary department of the schools the 
introduction of the system of writing, instead 
of printing, the letters on the slates, and of 
arithmetic, into the work of the first year were 
to a great extent due to his efforts. 

In 1871 he was made principal of the Nor- 
mal School, and under his management it be- 
came widely known for its efficiency and high 
character as an educational institution. In 
the fall of 1887 the High School and Normal 
School were united under his management and 
in this broader sphere the value of his services 
in behalf of popular education was greatly in- 
creased and he gained added celebrity both on 
account of his ability as a teacher and as an 
executive officer. In 1895 the St. Louis 
School Board tendered him, unsolicited, the 
position of superintendent of the schools of St. 
Louis, and two years later, when an entirely 
new board of education was placed in charge 
of the schools through a change in the school 
laws, he was unanimously re-elected to the 
office of superintendent of instruction. Mr. 
Soldan's educational work as a writer and a 
lecturer has extended far beyond the limits of 
St. Louis and has caused him to become rec- 
ognized through the country at large as one 
of the ablest educators identified with the pub- 
lic school system. The papers which he has 
presented, from time to time, before the Na- 
tional Educational Association have al- 
wavs found a circle of attentive listen- 



ers and readers. In 1883, at the meet- 
ing of the association held at Madison, 
Wisconsin, at which over seven thousand 
teachers were in attendance, he was elected 
president of the association. In 1880 he re- 
ceived a call from South Carolina to organize 
the first Normal Institute for teachers held in 
that State, and the success of this enterprise 
was an important factor in accelerating the 
educational revival which Hugh S. Thompson, 
later Governor of the State, Professor E. S. 
Joynes, and their associates brought about, 
and which led to the re-establishment of the 
time-honored L T niversity of South Carolina, 
and in the renewal of educational activity and 
enthusiasm throughout the State. Mr. Sol- 
dan's contribution to the cause of popular edu- 
cation in this connection was thoroughly ap- 
preciated by the South Carolina educators, 
and at the first commencement exercises of the 
re-established South Carolina LTniversity that 
institution honored him by conferring upon 
him the degree of doctor of laws. He has 
done much literary work in addition to his ed- 
ucational activity, and during the past twenty- 
five years has delivered series of lectures each 
winter in St. Louis and elsewhere on literary 
and philosophical subjects. 

Soldiers, First in St. Louis. — When 
Captain St. Ange de Bellerive came to St. 
Louis in 1765, after surrendering the Illinois 
country to the representatives of the British 
government, he brought with him about twen- 
ty soldiers, who had constituted a portion of 
the garrison of Fort Chartres. These were 
the first soldiers stationed at the new settle- 
ment. Captain Francisco Rios, who built old 
Fort Charles the Prince (which see), brought 
the second company of soldiers to St. Louis, 
in 1767. One company of the Spanish regi- 
ment called the "Stationary Regiment of 
Louisiana" was stationed at St. Louis during 
the thirty-five years of Spanish domination. 
These troops served as a kind of military po- 
lice under command of the Lieutenant-f lov- 



Soldiers' Home. — This institution, lo- 
cated at St. James, in Phelps County. Mis- 
souri, on the St. Louis & San Francisco 
Railroad, had its origin in a meeting of the 
Women's Relief Corps of Missouri, an organ- 
ization for the relief of sick and wounded 
Union soldiers during: the Civil War. There 



SOLDIERS ORPHANS' HOME— SONS OF MALTA. 



had been established after the war, in various 
States, asylums and homes for soldiers alone 
— and at a meeting of Blair Post, No. 3, of the 
Women's Relief Corps, in the year 1891, the 
suggestion was made that there was needed 
in Missouri a soldiers' home. It was favor- 
ably received, and arrangements were begun 
for securing such an institution. A circular 
—ued soliciting contributions and invit- 
ing propositions for a site. The result was the 
location of the home at St. James, in Phelps 
County, one hundred miles from St. Louis — 
the mansion being the gift of the mayor and 
citizens of St. James. For one year the prop- 
erty was held by a board of trustees in trust 
for the Women's Relief Corps, and then it was 
formally presented to that organization. In 
1894 it was incorporated, representing, with 
the house and fifty-nine acres of ground, a 
value of $10,000. Money for the support of 
the home was secured by donations, enter- 
tainments, and a booth conducted by the Re- 
lief Corps in the St. Louis Exposition. The 
formal dedication took place in St. James on 
the 25th of October, 1896, the occasion being 
doubly memorable by a mournful event con- 
nected with it. A large excursion party that 
left St. Louis on the St. Louis & San Fran- 
cisco Railroad, in the morning, came in col- 
lision with another train at Valley Park, re- 
sulting in ten persons being killed and a num- 
ber wounded — the most distressing railroad 
casualty since the Gasconade Bridge accident 
in [855. A year after the dedication of the 
home it was taken in charge by the State, and 
made a State institution, supported by regular 
appropriations from the State Treasury. The 
act of the Legislature provides for the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of "a home for dis- 
abled and indigent, honorably discharged 
I • deral soldiers and sailors of Missouri of the 
Civil and Mexican Wars, and their aged wives, 
and the honorably discharged indigent army 
nurses who served in the Federal Army." In 
addition to the State appropriation, the Fed- 
eral government gives $100 a year for each in- 
mate. In [898 there were about seventy in- 
mates, twelve of them being females, W. D. 
I randall being superintendent and Georgia 
( 'randall matron. 

Soldiers' Orphans' Home.— An in- 
stitution established in 1862 by the West- 
ern Sanitary ( ommission of which James E. 
Veatman, Carlos Greeley, Rev. Dr. Eliot, Dr. 



J. B. Johnson and George Partridge were ac- 
tive members. The business of the sanitary 
commission was to look after sick and 
wounded Union soldiers in the Civil War, and 
when the war was over it had a considerable 
amount of money in its hands which it used for 
the purchase of Webster College, at Webster 
Groves, for a home for soldiers' orphans. Ad- 
ditional buildings were erected and the insti- 
tution placed in charge of ladies with a board 
of gentlemen managers. At one time there 
were one hundred orphans in the home, but 
the number diminished with the lapse of years, 
until only half a dozen were left, and then the 
institution was turned over to the Protestant 
Home on Seventh Street, between Morgan 
and Franklin Avenue, in which a pestilence 
was prevailing, requiring the removal of the 
inmates, the sanitary commission receiving 
$34,000 for the property. The Protestant 
Home was moved to Webster Groves and has 
had possession of the buildings ever since. 

Sons of Benjamin. — A Jewish frater- 
nal and benevolent organization which origi- 
nated in New York, and the governing body of 
which maintains its headquarters in that city. 
There are three lodges of the order in St. 
Louis. 

Sons of Herman. — A secret society, 
which is composed exclusively of Germans, 
and which was organized in New York, in 
1840. It combines social, fraternal and bene- 
fit features, and has steadily grown in popular 
favor in St. Louis since the organization of the 
first lodge here, in 1867. The charter mem- 
bers of this lodge were Alexander Bergfield, 
Hermann Huss, Louis Kusehagen, Heinrich 
Wiecke and A. M. Beck. The grand lodge of 
Missouri was organized February 28, 1868, 
with Alexander Bergfield as grand president; 
H. W. Lindemann, grand vice-president ; W. 
II. Mueller, grand secretary; F. Zoll, grand 
treasurer; Hermann Huss, grand guide; and 
Louis Kusehagen, grand sentinel. All of the 
first officers of the grand lodge were members 
of the three St. Louis lodges then in existence. 
There were twenty-four lodges in existence in 
tlie city in T89S. 

Sons of Malta. — A mystic society, which 
came into existence in St. Louis in 1855, 
ami which about the same time seems to have 
been represented in nearly all the larger, and 



SONS OF ST. GEORGE— SONS OF TEMPERANCE. 



2099 



many of the smaller, cities of the country. It 
is said to have originated at Mobile, Alabama, 
once the queen of mystic society cities, and 
to have been, in a sense, the outgrowth of 
Mardi Gras festivities. The chief purpose of 
its existence was to provide fun and merriment 
for its members, but the genial spirits who 
were attracted to the organization were no 
less prone to make generous exhibitions of 
their sympathy with suffering mankind than 
they were to laugh at the follies of their fel- 
lows. The first lodge of Sons of Malta was 
organized, and its meetings were held in a 
room over the banking house of Allen, Copp 
& Nisbet, at the corner of Second and Chest- 
nut Streets, and at a later date there were at 
the same time two lodges in existence in the 
city, one of which held its meetings over De 
Bars' Theater, while the other met in rooms 
over the Chestnut Street police station. The 
code of ceremonies of the order appears to 
have been a flexible one, subject to such modi- 
fications as the temper of a candidate for initi- 
ation might render expedient, or such innova- 
tions as circumstances and the wit of the initi- 
ated might suggest. The initiatory ceremonies 
were the source of all the merriment and hi- 
larity for which the institution became famous, 
and were of a most ludicrous and mirth-pro- 
voking character. Staid and dignified men 
were solicited to become members in some in- 
stances, and, having passed through the ordeal 
of making themselves ridiculous for the 
amusement of others, were not averse to tak- 
ing their places among those who laughed at 
the antics of later victims. The St. Louis 
lodges, which, at that time, had a membership 
of more than one thousand, were largely com- 
posed, however, of men, then young, many 
of whom have since become prominent in vari- 
ous walks of life, and some of whom still de- 
light their friends with reminiscences in this 
connection. While the society of the Sons of 
Malta is remembered as a fun-loving and fun- 
making organization, many beneficent acts 
should appear to its credit in the record of its 
existence. All the moneys which it collected, 
save what was necessary to pay rent, gas bills 
and other incidental expenses, were appro- 
priated to charitable uses, and systematic ef- 
forts were made under its auspices to seek out 
and relieve those in distress. While the insti- 
tution existed in St. Louis, it was not an in- 
frequent occurrence for one hundred Sons of 
Malta to assemble at their "den," or lodge 



room, organize themselves into a grotesque 
procession of hooded and sheeted figures, and 
march to previously designated houses of poor 
and needy people to supply them with food and 
other necessaries of life. On other occasions, 
wagons, loaded with flour, meat and provis- 
ions, formed a feature of these "Good Samari- 
tan" processions, and widows and orphans 
blessed the Sons of Malta for their bounteous 
gifts. During the winter of 1855-6 there was 
much suffering among the poor of St. Louis 
on account of the long continuance of intensely 
cold weather, and many of those who felt the 
rigors of that winter were indebted to this or- 
der for timely assistance. It continued in ex- 
istence in St. Louis until 1861, when Provost 
Marshal McKinstry destroyed the furnishings 
of its lodge room, and issued an order prohib- 
iting further meetings, giving as a reason for 
so doing, its alleged disloyalty to the govern- 
ment. An expose of coarse and vulgar fea- 
tures of the order's ritual appeared in Frank 
Leslie's illustrated newspaper in i860, and 
public sentiment became arrayed against it to 
such an extent that within a few years there- 
after it ceased to exist. 

Sons of St. George. — This order, 
named after the patron saint of England, orig- 
inated in Pennsylvania, in 1876. It is a secret 
benefit society composed of persons born in 
England, or whose father or grandfather or 
mother or grandmother was English. The 
membership age is between eighteen and fifty 
years, and a belief in a Supreme Being is one 
of the conditions required. The order in the 
LTnited States numbers about forty-five thou- 
sand members, with four hundred and twen- 
ty-three lodges. Wellington Lodge, No. 419, 
was established in St. Louis March 8, 1897. 
Nelson Lodge was organized in St. Louis, No- 
vember, 1898. The lodge meetings are held 
the second and fourth Mondays of each month. 

Sons of Temperance. — The name of 
a fraternal order, designed to promote total 
abstinence from the use of intoxicating liquors. 
It was founded in New York in the year 1842, 
and had the attraction of being a secret or- 
ganization with pleasing ritualistic features. 
A great wave of temperance sentiment was 
sweeping over the country at that time, and 
the organization spread rapidly to all parts of 
the United States and Canada. The national 
division of the order was petitioned by A. 



SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



Spalding and others for a dispensation to 
found a division in St. Louis, in February of 
1X44. The dispensation was granted in due 
time, and St. Louis Division, No. 1. was insti- 
tuted the same year. In 1847 the Grand Di- 
vision of Missouri was instituted by William 
S. Stewart, deputy M. W. P., with Rev. C. B. 
Parsons, D. D., as first grand worthy patri- 
arch. There were at that time five divisions 
in the State, and among those prominent in 
advancing the work of the order in Missouri 
were Bernard Bryan, Ira Vail, J. R. Lackland, 
Rev. \Y. Z. Prottsman, Jonathan Jones, and 
others. The representative of the State in the 
National Division reported 3,370 members in 
the divisions of Missouri, in 1841). In 1858 
there were twenty-eight divisions in St. Louis, 
and 1 nit.' hundred divisions in all, in the State. 
The Civil War blighted this organization, as it 
<lid many other institutions, and its member- 
ship declined until the order ceased to exist in 
St. Louis. 

Sons of the American Revolution. 

1 he public festivities in the cities ct tne land 
celebrating the hundredth anniversaries of 
the principal events of the Revolution, rekin- 
dled the tires of patriotism in the hearts of the 
people. Jt was then discovered that the old 
Revolutionan soldiers had disappeared; that 
historic landmarks in large cities had given 
way to new buildings; that many of the Revo- 
lutionarj battlefields were destitute of tablets 
Or stones commemorating the deeds of our 
anc< stors; the graves of Revolutionary heroes 
were lost or forgotten, and that the utilitarian 
age was crowding sentiment and gratitude out 
of existence. • Mi ( Ictober 22, 1875, a meet- 
ing was held in San Francisco, where the idea 
of organizing the descendants of Revolution- 
ary soldiers and sailors was suggested. It 
was determined thai in the celebration of 
the 4th of July. 1S70. the sons ami grand- 
- 'ii- > if -neli -1 ildiers should he a feature of the 
parade. Nearly forty of such descendants 
i' " '1. pari in tie processii m in San Franciso 1 
on that day. When the parade was over these 
descendants marched to the Palace Motel and 
organized a society, which still exists, and is 
now the California Society of the Son, of the 
\merican Revolution. The name of the or- 
ation a! that time was "The Si ms - \< \ 

olutionary Sires." "Lineal descent, g 1 

character and fair repute" were the only tests 
of membership. The organization provided 



for a junior society, auxiliary local branches, 
coequal societies in other States, and a repre- 
sentative national body. 

The matter of organizing such a society also 
was talked of in the East, and it is said that a 
call was made in 1876 for a meeting on Feb- 
ruarv _>2d to organize an association of the 
"Sons of the Revolution," but no definite ac- 
tion was taken until December 4, 1883, when 
that society was organized at Fraunces' Tav- 
ern, in New York, and April 19, 1884, a con- 
stitution was adopted. The New York so- 
cietv was more social in its character than the 
California society, and the membership was 
not limited to lineal descendants, but accept- 
able collaterals were admitted. Some differ- 
ence- as to the character of the organization 
arose between those who were anxious to or- 
ganize State societies and the New York so- 
ciety, which claimed that the other organiza- 
tions should be auxiliary branches to the New 
York society, which was not satisfactory to 
some of the other States. 

In 1888, at the instigation of Revolutionary 
descendants in New Jersey, the idea was 
adopted of organizing State societies of Sons 
of the Revolution, and calling a convention of i 
the whole for the purpose of national organi- 
zation. The object was not to organize a sep- 
arate society, but to see if differences could 
not be harmonized. This convention met in j 
New Yortc, April 30. 1889, the hundredth an- j 
niversary of Washington's inauguration as j 
President. Every existing society was invited . 
and delegates from thirteen were present, in- 
eluding California. The New York society 
refused to recognize the others except as aux- ] 
iliary branches, and took no further part in the 
convention. Pennsylvania affiliated with New 
Y'ork. The other States, after careful consid- J 
eration, formed a national society, based upon 
the equality of the States, and chose the name ' 
of "The Sons of the American Revolution." 
"The Sons of the American Revolution" be- 
gan their independent existence with eighteen 
State-, the "Sons of the Revolution" had two. 
Several years later the "Sons of the Revolu- 
tion" repealed the clause in their constitution 
which had made the breach, and began or- 
ganizing State societies, and now have such 
State societies in many of the States, and later 
they repealed the clause of their constitution 
admitting collaterals. Henry Hall, the his- 
torian-general of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, in a report made to the national 






SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



2101 



society in 1897, from which the above facts 
are taken, says : "'As for the Sons of the Amer- 
ican Revolution, their popular methods, their 
thorough Americanism, their public spirit and 
incessant enterprise, their exclusion of collat- 
erals and rigid examination of credentials have 
so commended them that they have won gen- 
eral approbation, and thousands of men of the 
highest professional, financial and social sta- 
tion have joined their membership, and they 
have so stimulated patriotic sentiment that the 
United States is filled with hereditary associa- 
tions. They have never knowingly admitted 
any person not of lineal descent. It is they 
who established the annual celebration of Flag 
Day, the formation of local chapters, the sys- 
tem of open monthly meetings and free dis- 
cussion." 

The object of the two societies is practically 
the same, and within recent years there is very 
little substantial difference between the two 
societies. In 1893 negotiations as to the con- 
solidation of the two societies, which was 
greatly desired by the rank and file of both, 
failed by the action of the Sons of the Revo- 
lution requiring new conditions to be added 
to the "basis of union" after such basis had 
been unanimously reported by a joint com- 
mittee appointed from the two societies : and 
later, in 1897. negotiations looking to a union 
of the two societies resulted in the appoint- 
ment of committees from each, which made a 
report which was considered by the respective 
national societies in Cincinnati in October, 
1897, and was adopted by the Sons of the 
American Revolution, and also by the Sons 
of the Revolution, with the condition that it 
should be submitted to the State societies for 
ratification. This was done, and substantially 
all of the State societies of the Sons of the 
American Revolution adopted the proposed 
constitution for the united societies, but the 
majority of the State societies of the Sons of 
the Revolution, under the leadership of the 
New York society, declined to ratifv the ac- 
tion of their national society, and the two 
i bodies still remain separate. This is greatlv 
to be regretted, as it impairs the efficiency of 
j both ; keeps many eligible and patriotic de- 
scendants of Revolutionary sires out of both 
i organizations, and greatly disparages the in- 
1 fluence of both societies. It is to be hoped 
that wiser counsels will prevail, and the two 
1 societies will unite in the near future on some 
I satisfactory basis. 



The object of the society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution is thus stated in its na- 
tional constitution : "The objects of this so- 
ciety shall be to perpetuate the memory of the 
men who, by their services or sacrifices dur- 
ing the War of the American Revolution, 
achieved the independence of the American 
people ; to unite and promote fellowship 
among their descendants ; to inspire them and 
the community at large with a more profound 
reverence for the principles of the govern- 
ment founded by our forefathers ; to encour- 
age historical research in relation to the Amer- 
ican Revolution ; to acquire and preserve the 
records of the individual services of the patri- 
ots of the war, as well as documents, relics and 
landmarks; to mark the scenes of the Revolu- 
tion by appropriate memorials ; to celebrate 
the anniversaries of the prominent events of 
the war ; to foster true patriotism ; to main- 
tain and extend the institutions of American 
freedom, and to carry out the purposes ex- 
pressed in the preamble to the Constitution of 
our country and the injunctions of Washing- 
ton in his farewell address to the American 
people." 

In 1898 the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion aggregated 9,141 active members. There 
are thirty-eight State societies, including one 
in the District of Columbia, one in Hawaii and 
one in France. Among its members are some 
of the most distinguished men of the times, 
such as the I 'resident of the United States, 
senators, foreign ambassadors, members of 
Congress, Governors of States, and many who 
have attained distinction in their profession 
or in business. The society is intensely demo- 
cratic, making no test of membership save that 
of lineal descent from Revolutionary stock 
and reputable character. It is patriotic rather 
than social, although its annual banquets 
show that a spirit of comradeship exists among 
its members. The present officers of the na- 
tional society are as follows : Honorable Ed- 
win Shepard Barrett, of Concord, Massachu- 
setts, president ; Honorable Franklin Murphy, 
Newark, New Jersey; General Joseph C. 
Breckinridge, U. S. A., Washington. D. C. ; 
General Thomas M. Anderson. U. S. A., Ma- 
nilla ; Honorable James M. Richardson. Cleve- 
land, Ohio; Honorable John Whitehead, Mor- 
ristown. New Jersey, vice-presidents ; Captain 
Samuel E. Gross, Chicago, Illinois, secretary : 
General C. W. Haskins, New York City, treas- 
urer; General A. Howard Clark, Washington, 



2102 



SONS OF THE REVOLUTION. 



D. C, registrar-general; Honorable Edward 
M. Gallondet, Washington, D. C, historian- 
general ; Rev. Rufus \\ . ( lark, 1 ). D., Detroit. 
Michigan, chaplain-general. 

The Missouri society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution was organized April 23. 
iSSi 1. and in that year became a member of the 
national society. Its first president was Jo- 
siah Fogg. It was incorporated March 10. 
1891, with the Honorable Nathan Cole as 
president. He was succeeded by the Honor- 
able Edward C. Cabell, and he by the Honor- 
able Geo. E. Leighton. The society has about 
two hundred members, with a large chapter 
in Kansas City, and members in various parts 
of the State. Its present general officers are 
as follows : Honorable George H. Shields, 
president; Honorable E. O. Stanard, Honor- 
able J. L. Robards. Honorable Gains Paddock, 
Honorable C. II. Sampson, vice-presidents; 
Judge Sam'l Treat. Honorable Ceo. E. Leigh- 
ton. Honorable Nathan Cole, Honorable Jo- 
siah Fogg, honorary vice-presidents; Melvin 
H. Stearns, secretary: I. Shreve Carter, treas- 
urer; J. M. Fulton, registrar; Horace Kep- 
liart, historian; Rev. S. J. Niccolls, D. D.. 
chaplain. George H. Shields. 

Sons of the Revolution. — The centen- 
nial anniversary of American independence in 
[876 led to the organization of the society of 
the Sons of the Revolution, in a call issued 
by Mr. John Austin Stevens, of New York, 
inviting all who were descended from officers 
or soldiers to meet at the rooms of the New 
York Historical Society, February 22, [876, 
to organize a society under the name of "Sons 
of the Revolution." Up to this time the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, organized in [783 by 
the officers of the Revolution, had been the 
only society commemorating that period. The 
membership having always been limited to 
one descendant al a ti - Idesl male 

line of an officer, had restricted its growth, and 
1 neral observance of the centennial anni- 
versary led to a demand for a societ) organ- 
ized on broader lim s, so as to admit all de- 
1 mts, whethi ■ d from an officer, 

soldier, sailor or one prominenl in the civil 
service. 

After the organization in 1876, and on ac- 
count 1 if a want of public interest, the 
lay dormant until December 4, 1883, whei m 
the occasion of the one hundredth anniver 
sarv of Washington's farewell to his officers. 



the society was revived at a banquet held at 
Fraunces' Tavern, in New York, in the identi- 
cal room where Washington had formally 
bade farewell to his officers. Shortly after- 
ward the Pennsylvania society was organized, 
then the District of Columbia, and in 1890 a 
general society was formed, which is now rep- 
resented in thirty-one States, with a member- 
ship of 7,000. 

The societ}' is strictly a non-political, non- 
partisan, non-secret organization, but is patri- 
otic in its broadest sense, and is organized to 
''keep alive among ourselves and our descend- 
ants the patriotic spirit of the men who, in 
military, naval or civil service, by their acts or 
counsel, achieved American independence; to 
collect and secure for preservation the manu- 
script rolls, records and other documents re- 
lating to the War of the Revolution, and to 
promote intercourse and good feeling among 
its members, now and hereafter." 

The eligibility rules require an applicant to 
be a lineal male descendant, above the age of 
twenty-one years, from an ancestor who was 
either a military, naval or marine officer, sol- 
dier or sailor, or marine or official in the serv- 
ice of any one of the thirteen original colonies 
or States, or of the national government rep- 
resenting or composed of those colonies or 
States, assisted in establishing American in- 
dependence during the War of the Revolution 
between the 19th day of April, 1775, when 
hostilities commenced, and the 19th day of 
April, 1783, when they were ordered to cease. 
An official in the civil service must have been 
of such a character as to have caused the ar- 
rest of the official for treason against Great 
Britain. 

The society of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion in Missouri was organized in St. Louis, 
February 22, 1894, with forty-nine charter 
members. It has had a steady and remark- 
able growth, and now numbers 400 members. 
There are two local chapters auxiliary to t lie 
State society, one at Kansas City, with ninety 
members, and at St. Joseph, with fifty mem- 
bers. The State society celebrates Washing! 
ton's birthday in St. Louis by a banquet, and 
is engaged in enlisting the attention of the 
pupils of the High Schools and schools of 
equal grade in the State of Missouri in the 
study of the history of the Revolution by of- 
fering gold, silver and bronze medals as prizes 
for the most meritorious essays. The medals 
are presented to the successful contestants at 




( 




SONS OF VETERANS— SOPER. 



2103 



the banquet of the society February 22d each 
year, and the idea has proven very popular 
among the scholars. 

The present officers of the State society are : 
President, Rt. Rev. Daniel Sylvester Tuttle, 
D. D., S. T. D., St. Louis ; vice-president, 
Honorable Henry Hitchcock, St. Louis ; sec- 
ond vice-president, Captain Abiel Leonard 
Smith, U. S. A., Kansas City ; third vice-presi- 
dent, Honorable Amos Madden Thayer, St. 
Louis ; secretary, Henry Cadle, Bethany ; as- 
sistant secretary, Ewing McGready Sloan, St. 
Louis ; registrar, Thomas James, Kansas 
City ; treasurer, Henry Purkitt Wyman, St. 
Louis, 101 South Main Street; chaplain, Rev. 
Michael Burnham, D. D., St. Louis; historian, 
Professor Calvin Milton Woodward, Ph. D., 
St. Louis; marshal, Alfred Lee Shapleigh, St. 
Louis ; board of managers, Rt. Rev. Daniel 
Sylvester Tuttle, Honorable Henry Hitch- 
cock, Henry Cadle, William Goddin Boyd, 
Stoughton Walker, James Hamilton Mc- 
Cord, John Alexander Ross, James Lawrence 
Blair, Wallace Delafield, George Amos New- 
comb, Norris Bradford Gregg, Honorable 
Selden Palmer Spencer, George Oliver Car- 
penter, Jr., Robert Elisha Carr, William 
Magraw Reid ; delegates to general society, 
Henry Cadle, Edwin McKaig Clendening, 
Henry Clarkson Scott, Milton Tootle, Jr., 
Charles Breck Adams ; alternates, William 
Romaine Hodges, Howard Elliott, Robert 
McCulloch, James Lewis Lombard, Walter 



Bond Dousdas. 



Henry Cadle. 



Sons of Veterans. — The military order 
'of Sons of Veterans owes its origin to Major 
I A. P. Davis, who instituted the first camp in 
I Philadelphia in 1878. A national organiza- 
tion was effected at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
in 1881, and in 1897 there were in the United 
.States 680 camps, with an aggregate member- 
jship of 33,000. Like the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, established immediately after the Rev- 
olutionary War, it was designed to perpetu- 
!ate the memory of the achievements of Amer- 
ican patriots who had served their country on 
fthe field of battle, through the bonding to- 
jgether in fraternal relationship of their male 
[descendants. Those admitted to membership 
jare the sons of officers and soldiers who served 
in the Union Army during the Civil War who 
have reached f he age of eighteen years, and 
jare of good moral character, and provision 
;has since been made for the perpetuation of 



the order through successive generations. 
During the earlier years of its existence the 
membership of the order was confined mainly 
to the Eastern States, but in time was ex- 
tended throughout all the Northern States. 
The first camp organized in Missouri was in- 
stituted at St. Joseph in 1883. In the same 
year General George H. Thomas Camp was 
organized in St. Louis with fifteen charter 
members, two of whom are Charles A. Schoen- 
ing and Charles C. Belke, still actively identi- 
fied with the work of the order. At the end 
of an existence of four years, this camp sur- 
rendered its charter. In the fall of 1885 the ten 
camps then in existence in the State, through 
duly chosen representatives, formed the Mis- 
souri Division of the Sons of Veterans, elect- 
ing Charles S. Crysler colonel in command of 
the division. The next camp organized in St. 
Louis was General F. Schaefer Camp, No. 28, 
which came into existence October 28, 1886. 
Since then the following camps have been in- 
stituted in the city: General John C. Fre- 
mont Camp, Xo. 35, February 3, 1887; Ad- 
miral Porter Camp, No. 47, May n, 1887; 
General John W. Noble Camp, No. 51, June 
3, 1887; Colonel D. P. Slattery Camp, No. 85, 
September 7, 1888; Major Leo Rassieur 
Camp, No. 4, July 21, 1893, and Elijah P. 
Lovejoy Camp, No. 100, composed of colored 
men, March 19, 1889. The first division com- 
nrander elected from St. Louis was B. W. 
Frauenthal. Others elected from this city 
have been E. W. Raymond, 1892; E. L. Gott- 
schalk, 1894, and the present division com- 
mander, E. E. Schoening, elected in 1897. 
The official title of the division commander is 
colonel, and that of the commander of a camp, 
captain. The number of camps in the State 
in 1897 was forty-eight, with a membership of 
955. In the city of St. Louis there were in 
existence at the same time seven camps, with 
a membership of 250. 

Sopor, Arthur W., railway manager 
and financier, was born July 16, 1838, in 
Rome, New York, eldest son of Albert and 
Esther Soper. He was educated at Rome 
Academy under the preceptorship of Pro- 
fessor Frank Moore, leaving that institution 
when he was seventeen years of age to be- 
gin work in his father's office and lumber 
yard. He entered the railway service in 1S58. 
beginning as a clerk in the freight office at 
Rome, New York, of the Rome, Watertown 



2104 



SOULARD MARKET MISSION— SOUTHERN HOTEL. 



& Ogdensburg Railroad. In 1861 he was ap- 
pointed a clerk in the office of the superin- 
tendent of that road, and held that position 
for two years. Thereafter for one year he was 
a passenger conductor on the same road, then 
clerk in the general superintendent's office for 
three years, and assistant superintendent for 
four years. Soon after Addison Day — under 
whom he had served as assistant superintend- 
ent of the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg 
Railroad — came to St. Louis to accept the 
superintendency of the St. Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain & Southern Railway, he tendered Mr. 
Soper the position of assistant superintendent 
on this line. He accepted the position thus 
offered him. and came to St. Louis in Feb- 
ruary of 1871, to become identified with West- 
ern railway management. Mr. Day resigned 
the superintendency at the end of a year, and 
Mr. Soper became his successor. At a later 
date he served this corporation as general 
superintendent, and still later as general man- 
ager, and became recognized as one of the 
most efficient and capable railway managers 
in the West. The affairs of the road prospered 
under his supervision, and while building up 
this line of railway he contributed in no small 
degree to the prosperity of St. Louis. After 
ten years of service on the Iron Mountain 
road he resigned the position of general man- 
ager and removed to New York City to en- 
gage in business there, leaving behind him in 
St. Louis a host of sincere friends and admir- 
ers, many leading citizens and business nun 
uniting in the presentation to him of a hand- 
some silver service and resolutions bearing 
testimony to the esteem in which he was held. 
at the time of his departure for the East. 
Soon after his removal to Xew York he be- 
came identified with various important inter- 
ests incidental to railway enterprises, which 
prospered under his management and devel- 
oped to large proportions. In 1889 he be- 
came president of the Safety Car Heating & 
Lighting Company of Xew York, the affairs 
of which he has since controlled and directed 
in a remarkably successful manner. In Mr. 
SopeCs mental make-up there is a happy 
blending of the "suaviter in modo" and the 
"fortitcr in re." Endowed with great energy, 
both physical and intellectual, he is just the 
kind of man who succeeds in whatever he un- 
dertakes. When general manager of the St. 
Louis & Iron Mountain system, under the 
presidency of Mr. Thomas Allen. Mr. Soper 



accomplished much for the promotion of the 
commercial interests of St. Louis, for which 
he is still held in grateful remembrance by the 
citizens of this city. 

Soulard Market Mission. — A mis- 
sion organized the second Sunday in July of 
1875, with an attendance of thirty-five officers, 
teachers and scholars, at the corner of Eighth 
Street and Chouteau Avenue. It was re- 
moved to Soulard Market Hall, at the corner 
of Eighth and Carroll Streets, in September 
of 1877. May 27. 1896, the building which it 
occupied was destroyed by the cyclone. Its 
average attendance during the three months 
preceding that catastrophe had been 1,046. 
The corner stone of a new building for its oc- 
cupancy was laid October 30, 1896, at the cor- 
ner of Menard and Julia Streets, and this 
building was dedicated Sunday, May 2. 1897. 
The name was changed to Menard Street Mis- 
sion December 29, 1896. One of the highest 
tributes ever paid to an evangelizing work was 
paid to this mission by the chief of police of 
St. Louis, who at one time said : "The re- 
straining influence of Soulard Market Mission 
is worth one hundred policemen a year to that 
part of the city." 

South Broadway 3Ierchants' Asso- 
ciation. — This association was organized 
August 8, 1895, w i tn C. H. Thuner for presi- 
dent, William Ottend for vice-president, and 
E. A. Rollman for secretary, its object being 
to "improve the business facilities of the mer- 
chants of South Broadway, by obtaining all 
possible connections with the different lines of 
railway running south, southwest and west : 
by the passage of such ordinances as will bene- 
fit South Broadway by advertising; by festi- 
vals, by parades, and by such other methods 
as will attract the attention of the citizens and 
families to the different merchandise offered 
by the merchants of South Broadway." Reg- 
ular meetings are held twice a month. In the 
fall of 1897. although the association was little 
more than two years old, it had given three 
elaborate and beautiful parades, and distin- 
guished itself for enterprise and public spirit. 

Southern Hotel.— The Southern Ho- 
tel was the outgrowth of a movement on the 
part of public-spirited citizens of St. Louis to 
supply the city with hotel accommodations 
which should be in all respects equal to those 



SOUTH ST. LOUIS— SOUTH SIDE DAY NURSERY ASSOCIATION. 2105 



of the older and larger cities of the United 
States. A stock company was chartered to 
build the hotel in 1857, and the block bounded 
by Fourth, Walnut, Fifth and Elm Streets was 
purchased as the site of the proposed struc- 
ture. Work on the foundation was begun in 
1858, but the enterprise languished until i860, 
when new life was infused into the project by 
Thornton Grimsley, John A. Brownell, George 
Knapp, Henry T. Blow, John J. Anderson, 
Charles McClaren, Robert K. Woods, B. M. 
Runyan and Taylor Blow, who associated 
themselves together to complete the hotel. 
The magnitude of the enterprise and the de- 
moralization of the business of the city inci- 
dent to the Civil War occasioned delays in the 
work, and the building was not completed un- 
til 1865. Built of stone, in the Italian style of 
architecture, six stories high, it was both a 
handsome and commodious structure, admir- 
ably adapted in every respect to the purpose 
for which it was designed. It was opened 
December 6, 1865, with a grand ball, and for a 
dozen years thereafter was famous among the 
hotels of the United States. It was destroyed 
by fire on the morning of April 11, 1877. The 
guests and employes of the hotel who were 
asleep in the building at the time the fire was 
discovered numbered several hundred, and the 
lives of those on the fourth, fifth and sixth 
floors were almost immediately placed in dire 
peril, the ordinary avenues of exit being shut 
off by the flames which swept up the elevator 
shaft, and the stifling smoke which filled the 
halls and corridors. Little attempt was made 
by the firemen to stay the progress of the 
flames, the destruction of the building being 
inevitable, but every effort was made to save 
the lives of those in the doomed structure. 
Many persons narrowly escaped death by fire 

I or fall, and thirteen lives were lost. The vic- 
tims were Rev. A. R. Adams, vicar of the 
Parish of Stockross, Berkshire, England ; 
George F. Gouley, secretary of the Masonic 
Grand Lodge of Missouri; Henry Hazen, of 
New Castle, Pennsylvania ; Charles A. Tier- 
nan, Mrs. W. S. Stewart and Andrew Einst- 
man, of St. Louis ; H. J. Clark, wife and child, 
of North Adams, Massachusetts ; Abbie Mo- 
ran, Mary Dolan and Kate Reilly, domestics 
in the employ of the hotel, and an unknown 
man. Other persons were reported missing, 
but whether or not they perished in the flames 
is unknown. A project for the rebuilding of 
the hotel took definite shape in 1879, with 

69 



Thomas Allen and George Knapp as chief 
promoters of the movement. The work of 
rebuilding was prosecuted under the direction 
of Mr. Allen, and a structure regarded as ab- 
solutely fire-proof was erected on the site of 
the burned building. It was opened with ap- 
propriate ceremonies May 11, 1881, and has 
since held a prominent place among the more 
noted hotels of the country. It has been es- 
pecially famous for the accommodations af- 
forded to political conventions and other na- 
tional gatherings in St. Louis. 

South St. Louis. — The name given to 
an addition to St. Louis dedicated May 11, 
1836, by Samuel S. Rayburn, William S. 
Stamps, John Withnell and twenty others. It 
included territory lying between the old Arse- 
nal and Marine Hospital. The name South 
St. Louis, as used at the present time, applies 
to all the southern portion of the city. 

South St. Louis Square was dedi- 
cated by the city in 1882, and contains 1.66 
acres. It is situated between South Broad- 
way and Pennsylvania Avenue, and Courlois 
and Schirmer Streets. Trees have been 
planted and improvements made at a cost of 
$8,145.97. An appropriation of $800 for 
maintenance was made for the fiscal year end- 
ing in 1898. 

South Side Day Nursery Associa- 
tion. — An association organized March 17, 
1886, its object being to provide perfect care 
for young children whose mothers have to 
leave them during the day in order to earn the 
family support. After a sufficient amount of 
money had been collected to inaugurate the 
enterprise a building was erected at the cor- 
ner of Tenth and Julia Streets, which still re- 
mains the home of the pioneer of the numer- 
ous day nurseries now in operation in St. 
Louis. A matron was secured and the nur- 
sery was formally opened May 3, 1886, and in- 
corporated July 16, 1888. Here a mother, if 
a breadwinner, may take her child in the morn- 
ing and leave it for the day with people com- 
petent and willing to give it most excellent 
care, including a bath, fresh clothing, health- 
ful food, toys and amusements, and, for those 
old enough to profit thereby, kindergarten in- 
struction. The ages of the children vary from 
a few weeks to six years. Inasmuch as the 
aim of the nursery is to help those who wish to 



Jim; 



SOUTHWEST EXPEDITION— SPANISH BOARD OF TRADE. 



help themselves, and to increase, rather than 
to diminish, self-respect, mothers pay for serv- 
ices rendered at the rate of five cents per day. 
At the beginning the daily cost to the nursery 
for the care of each child was thirty-three and 
one-third cents, but through the large increase 
in attendance the association has been enabled 
to provide the same comforts at less expense. 
The money received from the mothers being 
a very small part of the amount needed to 
carry on the work, the balance is supplied by 
the annual membership fee of three dollars, 
the life membership fee of $100, and by gifts 
of money and supplies. The association, 
through earnest effort, has been enabled to 
purchase their building, to enlarge it and put 
it in the best sanitary condition. The re- 
ports for the eleven completed years present 
the following facts: Total number of attend- 
ances for one day, 60,152; total number days' 
work of mothers, 41,102 ; total earnings of the 
mothers, over $42,000; expense of conducting 
the nursery, $16,500. The financial value of 
the charity does not exceed the moral influ- 
ence. The mother, weary after a day of toil, 
receives her child, happy, clean, improved 
physically and mentally, and is encouraged 
and influenced thereby to habits of cleanliness 
and thrift. The officers for 1898 were: Presi- 
dent, Mrs. C. M. Woodward; vice-president, 
Mrs. Anthony Ittner; secretary, Mrs. J. B. 
Johnson, and treasurer, Mrs. J. M. Miller. 
Martha S. Kayser. 

Southwest Expedition. — By this 
name is known a military march from St. 
Louis to the western border of Missouri in 
the year 1851). The struggle of the North and 
South for the mastery of Kansas had produced 
a condition of constant turmoil on the border. 
Tli'- vicinity of Mound City, in Kansas, was 
one of the scenes of operations of John Brown. 
Jennison, Montgomer) and other Free State 
leaders, who were accused of making incur- 
sions into Bates and adjoining Missouri coun- 
ties for the purpose of enticing slaves away 
from their homes and removing them north 
by the "underground railroad." Consider- 
able foraging and other depredations were 
likewise charged to their account. On the 
other hand, these deeds of the Kansas "jay- 
hawkers" were counterbalanced by raids into 
Kansas by Missouri "border ruffians," as they 
were called. At all events, a condition of law- 
lessness certainly prevailed, not seldom break- 



ing out in bloody outrages. A judge of the 
United States District Court at Fort Scott 
complained to the President that he was pre- 
vented from the exercise of his duties by a 
band of marauders, and this was transmitted 
by President Buchanan's Attorney-General to 
Governor Stewart. The latter had been in re- 
ceipt of numerous calls for protection, and had 
taken some steps, which for a time allayed the 
disturbances. In January, 1859, he called on 
the Legislature for an appropriation to enable 
the State to suppress the troubles. Accord- 
ingly, $30,000 was appropriated. Quiet was 
restored for a time, but in the fall of i860 Gen- 
eral D. M. Frost, in command of the First Di- 
vision of Missouri militia, with a roster of 
about 650, was called upon to summon his 
command and proceed to the border forth- 
with. This division was composed entirely of 
the citizen soldiery of St. Louis, and as it was 
the same that assembled at Camp Jackson in 
May following, the reader is referred for the 
details of its organization to the part of this 
work treating of that subject. The expedi- 
dition set out by the Missouri Pacific Railroad, 
debarking at Tipton, then its western term- 
inus, and from that point marched overland to 
within a few miles of the Kansas line. Mean- 
while, a detachment of Federal cavalry, under 
Captain Nathaniel Lyon, had reached Mound 
City. There was no enemy in sight, nor any 
evidence that there had been any organized 
force in that neighborhood. What had been 
called "Montgomery's Fort" was an old log 
granary or storehouse, and Mound City itself 
bore the appearance of a small, peaceful New 
England village. A detail was made to re- 
main in the neighborhood of Fort Scott, on 
the Missouri side, and the rest of the troops 
took up the line of march homeward, where 
they arrived in due season, and were cordially 
welcomed by their friends. 

Spanish-American War. — See "War 
with Spain." 

Spanish Board of Trade An insti- 
tution of which mention is sometimes made in 
the early history of Spanish-American colo- 
nies. It was a court established by Ferdinand 
of Spain in 1507, to which he committed the 
administration of American affairs. The 
court was called "Casa de Contratacion," or 
Board of Trade. 



SPANISH CLUB— SPANISH INTRIGUES IN THE WEST. 



Spanish Club. — See "Latin-American 
Club of St. Louis." 

Spanish Domination. — See "Domi- 
nation, Spanish." 

Spanish Explorers. — See "Explorers." 

Spanish Governors. — See "Govern- 
ors, French and Spanish." 

Spanish Intrigues in the West. — 

The political intrigues in the West in the pe- 
riod immediately following the Revolutionary 
War, were of a most exciting character, and 
England, France and Spain were each in- 
volved in schemes to check the progress of the 
United States and restrict its governmental 
authority to narrow territorial limits. Of all 
the schemes presented to the Western colo- 
nists, by means of which it was hoped to allure 
them from allegiance to the Union, that pre- 
sented by the Spanish intriguants and their 
American confederates was the most seduc- 
tive, and doubtless came nearest realizing the 
hopes of its promoters. In 1785 every por- 
tion of the West which was settled at all was 
settled by a people who had become deeply 
imbued with the feeling that a union of the 
West with the Eastern colonies, which- had 
waged a successful war against England, 
would be harmful rather than advantageous to 
the West. The brave, hardy and spirited pio- 
neers of Kentucky were engaged in a life and 
death struggle with hordes of Indians, and 
Virginia, the mother colony, seemed unable to 
give them any protection, and afforded them 
but little assistance in establishing and extend- 
ing their settlements. These settlers had pe- 
titioned Virginia and Congress also to allow 
Kentucky to become an independent State, 
and their petitions had been disregarded and 
ignored. The treatment which they had re- 
ceived from Virginia, and from the Congress 
which then represented the government of the 
United States, had weakened their allegiance 
to both, and the inability or indisposition of 
the government to provide for the free naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi — of vital importance to 
them — still further irritated them against the 
authority to which they were subject. With 
the termination of the Revolutionary War, 
Spain had shown an aggressive spirit in the 
assertion of her territorial boundaries in Amer- 
ica. She not only claimed all west of the Mis- 



sissippi, as accorded her in the treaty of Paris, 
1763, but asserted a right to both sides as high 
up the river as Kentucky, and even attempted 
to engage with England to insist upon the Al- 
leghany Mountains as the western boundary 
of the United States. In 1787 Mr. Jay, who 
was Secretary of Foreign Affairs under the old 
confederation, made a preliminary treaty with 
Don Gardoqui, the Spanish Minister, subject 
to the assent of the Continental Congress, by 
which the exclusive control of the navigation 
of the Mississippi River was to be conceded to 
Spain in return for certain commercial privi- 
leges. Seven of the United States consented 
to the treaty, but it failed of ratification, the 
consent of nine States thereto being required. 
When the purport of the negotiations became 
known, great indignation prevailed in Ken- 
tucky at the bare suggestion of conceding to 
Spain such exclusive powers over the naviga- 
tion of the river as she then exercised. This 
feeling was moderated somewhat by the adop- 
tion by Congress, September 16, 1788, of a res- 
olution which declared "that the free naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi is a clear and essential 
right of the United States, and that the same 
ought to be considered and supported as 
such." This was an unequivocal assertion of 
the right of free navigation, but no effort was 
made to enforce it, while Spain made a prac- 
tical exemplification of her purpose to main- 
tain her claims, by seizing, upon every occa- 
sion, boats attempting to descend the river 
without permission and confiscating them and 
their cargoes. Failing in his diplomatic ad- 
venture with the government, the wily Span- 
iard sought to make terms with the people of 
Kentucky which would, at the same time, 
strengthen Spain and weaken the United 
States. To them were held out the allurements 
of commercial advantages to be obtained if 
they would set up an independent government 
and negotiate as a separate community or 
place themselves under the protection of the 
Spanish government. Wearied and disheart- 
ened by the neglect of their interests by Vir- 
ginia and the general government, citizens of 
Kentucky, who were incorruptible, and who 
had only the best of motives at heart, listened 
tentatively to these suggestions, while others 
of commanding ability and unbounded capac- 
ity for intrigue, subsidized by representatives 
of the Spanish government, labored assidu- 
ously to further these schemes. Fortunately, 
however, the adoption of the Constitution 



2108 SPANISH POND— SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY, ST. LOUIS MOVEMENT. 



and the formation of the Federal government, 
which was followed by prompt action looking 
tu the admission of Kentucky as a State, 
caused the failure of the negotiations and pre- 
served Kentucky to the Union. For the time 
being, the new State relegated the question of 
free navigation of the Mississippi to the future 
and gave attention to the inauguration of a 
State government, but in a few years the agi- 
tation was renewed and led first to a treaty in 
which Spain conceded the right of navigation 
claimed by the United States, and later to the 
acquisition of Louisiana. The history of 
Spanish intrigues in this connection, and the 
extent to which citizens of the United States 
were involved therein, has never been fully 
written, but the revelations of later years 
proved that many persons in high places were 
engaged in the attempt to rob the UJnited 
States of a part of its possessions, and that a 
considerable number of such persons were 
pensioners of the Spanish government. 

Spanish Pond. — A central point in the 
settlements surrounding St. Louis in its early 
history. It was twelve miles due north of St. 
Louis, and was the home of Jacques de St. 
Vrain, brother to Lieutenant-Governor De- 
lassus. 

Speculative Philosophy, St. Louis 

Movement. — A history of intellectual 
progress in our city would be far from com- 
plete without an account of what is known as 
the St. Louis Movement of Speculative Phi- 
losophy and Art Criticism, which had its ori- 
gin in the advent hither of Dr. William Tor- 
rey Harris — now United States Commissioner 
of Education— in the year 1858, and finally 
culminated in the organization of the St. Louis 
Art Society and the Kant Club, two societies so 
interwoven in membership, general aims and 
sympathies, as to necessitate their close asso- 
ciation in any adequate description of their 
work and influence, though they were always 
distinct as organizations and in a considerable 
part of their membership. They were parallel 
organizations, and, as hinted above, always 
mutually sympathetic in their work, the one 
tracing out laboriously, but earnestly, through 
many toilsome years, the evolution of the cate- 
gories of pure thought ; the other affording by 
the presentation of some classic work of art. 
the joy of interpretation which consisted in 
the recognition of those ideas which the artist 



had unconsciously embodied ; thus each so- 
ciety was complementary to the other, and be- 
came, as it were, the very body and soul of 
"the St. Louis movement." As silent, but 
eloquent, evidences of his forceful influence, 
they ceased to exist as organizations, on the 
departure from St. Louis in that year, 
1 88 1, of the great man whose inspiration 
and example of persistent zeal during all 
those years of preparation had been the 
living source of their activity. But this 
departure of Dr. Harris for wider fields of 
usefulness, to play a more important and hon- 
orable part upon the national stage, did not 
by any means mark a cessation of influences 
here at home, for he left behind him coworkers 
and disciples, old and young, identified with 
different periods of his sojourn here, who, fired 
with the holy zeal of his example, were ready 
and willing and able to take up the good work 
where the master left it, and to carry it for- 
ward indefinitely; this secondary movement 
legitimately succeeding the first, took the 
varied form of a multiplicity of clubs for spe- 
cial study and work, each led by a worthv 
graduate of the St. Louis movement. These 
still "live and move and have their being," 
perpetuating the spirit and results of those 
early, memorable days. 

A supreme moment in the history of philos- 
ophy in America was that when William T. 
Harris, then fresh from Yale College, a youth- 
ful student of "Kant's Critique of Pure Reason" 
and of Goethe's "Faust," first met and felt the 
masterful influence of our distinguished fel- 
low-citizen, the Honorable Henry C. Brock- 
meyer, who then and there indicated to the 
young student the two pathways along which 
he was destined in future to tread with so 
much success to himself and with so much ul- 
timate benefit to the philosophic consciousness 
of his countrymen. It was Governor Brock- 
meyer who introduced Mr. Harris to the phi- 
losophy of Hegel, as vastly superior to that 
of Kant, and who also furnished his young 
friend with the philosophic "art form" and 
"content" of Goethe's "Faust," an interpreta- 
tion afterward embodied in his well known 
"Letters on Faust." 

Thus fell into the fertile brain of Dr. Har- 
ris from the same hand those seeds which 
were destined to expand and fructify into that 
philosophic view of life and of art criticism 
which was to characterize his future life, and 
here in our citv was to result in the formation 






SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY, ST. LOUIS MOVEMENT. 



2109 



of those two kindred organizations, the St. 
Louis Art Society and the Kant Club. 

This society was established in the year 

1867, and continued to 

St. Louis Art meet at irregular, but more 

Society. or less frequent, intervals 

at the residences of its 

members. Those who in those early days of 

the society extended to it the hospitality of 

their homes were Mrs. Beverly Allen (sister 

of Mr. James E. Yeatman, who was also a 

patron and friend of the society from the first) ; 

Mrs. William Hazard, and, somewhat later in 

its history, Mrs. Rufus J. Lackland. 

It embraced in its early membership, among 
others, of whom a record is wanting, Miss 
Anna C. Brackett, Miss Mary E. Beedy, Mrs. 
Ella S. Morgan, Dr. and Mrs. John Green, 
Miss Susan V. Beeson, Mrs. Lue Childs Fell, 
Mr. John Jay Bailey, Mr. Denton J. Snider, 
Mr. Thomas Davidson, Mr. Conrad Diehl, Mr. 
William C. Ball, Dr. F. Louis Soldan, Dr. 
William M. Bryant, Miss Susan E. Blow, Miss 
Gertrude Garrigues, Mr. Brandt V. B. Dixon, 
Mr. Lewis J. Block, Mr. F. W. Crunden, Miss 
Amelia C. Fruchte, Mrs. Anthony Blaisdell, 
Miss Mary C. McCulloch, Dr. Robert A. Hol- 
land, and Mr. F. E. Cook. 

In the year 1878, owing to a change of man- 
agement, which carried the organization away 
from the original intentions of its founders, 
the former membership ceased to attend its 
meetings, but still continued to meet infor- 
mally, as before, at the residences of its mem- 
bers. At this period Mrs. General John W. 
Noble, assisted by her gifted sister, Miss Le- 
nora Halsted, hospitably entertained the mem- 
bers of the society. 

The very last meeting was held in 1881, at 
the residence of Dr. R. A. Holland. On that 
occasion it so happened that Governor Brock- 
meyer, with probably accidental but eminent 
fitness, closed, as he had introduced years be- 
fore, the career of this society, with a remark- 
able paper on Goethe's "Faust," with un- 
equaled brilliancy and genius. It was a no- 
table gathering. Among the many present 
were Dr. Harris, Mr. Snider, Dr. Holland, 
General Noble, Judge Woerner, Mr. Dixon, 
Miss Garrigues, Miss Beeson, Miss Fruchte, 
Mrs. Blaisdell, and Miss McCulloch. 

The formal mode of procedure at the meet- 
ings of this society was to have a paper read 
upon some representative work of art, this to 
be followed by a study of the work itself, con- 



cluding with extempore comments and re- 
marks by the membership. As an indication 
of the character of the work of the society the 
following selected list of papers is subjoined : 

1. 1867 — "Raphael's Transfiguration," by 
Dr. Harris. 

2. 1867 — "Leonardo da Vinci's Last Sup- 
per," as treated by Goethe, translation of, by 
Mr. D. J. Snider (a fine engraving presented 
for study). 

3. "Beethoven's Fifth Symphony" and 
"Moonlight Sonata," by Dr. William T. Har- 
ris. Played by Colonel Charles S. Bernays 
and Mrs. Arnold Strothotte. 

4. December, 1868 — "Beethoven's Sinfonia 
Eroica," by Colonel Charles S. Bernays. 

5. 1869; — "Michael Angelo's Last Judg- 
ment." 

6. 1871 — "Restoration of the Venus of 
Melos," by Mr. Lewis J. Block. 

7. 1873 — "Remarks on the Madonna Sis- 
tina" (Tieck). 

8. 1874 — "Thoughts on the Music of Bee- 
thoven," by Dr. William T. Harris. (Illustra- 
tion — F major sonata, piano and violin;. 

9. June 11, 1874 — "The Fair God" (a 
critique), by Mr. F. E. Cook. 

10. 1875 — "Dante," by Dr. F. Louis Sol- 
dan. 

11. 1876 — "Interpretability of Music," by 
Mr. Block. 

12. 1876 — "The Niobe Group," by Mr. 
Thomas Davidson. 

13. 1877— "Michael Angelo's Fates," by Dr. 
Harris. 

14. 1877 — "System of Shakespeare's Plays," 
by Mr. D. J. Snider. 

1=;. 1878 — "Clarence" (an original drama), 
by Mr. D. J. Snider. 

One of the lasting results of the work of the 
society was the purchase of a large and choice 
collection of autotypes of the best-known ex- 
amples of art, which may still be viewed and 
enjoyed at the Public Library, where they 
were permanently placed by the society. 

The preliminary organization out of which 
the Kant Club grew met 
The Kant Club. first in 1865, in the law 
office of Governor Henry 
C. Brockmeyer. This was called the Philo- 
sophical Society. It consisted, besides Gov- 
ernor Brockmeyer and Dr. Harris, of Judge 
Gabriel Woerner, Professor George H. Howi- 
son, Mr. Adolph E. Kroeger, Dr. Horace H. 
Morgan, and Mr. Britton A. Hill. Its discus- 



2110 



SPENCER. 



sions took a wide range — and were deemed of 
sufficient importance to cause to be invited to 
St. Louis Ralph Waldo Emerson, A. Bronson 
Alcott, and Julia Ward Howe, who came un- 
der the auspices of this society — were contin- 
ued occasionally from year to year, and grad- 
ually grew into what is now known as the 
Kant Club. 

This club was organized in the year 1874-5. 
Its first season was given to ''Kant's Crit- 
ique on Pure Reason," using Meikeljohn's 
translation and Kuno Fischer's commen- 
tary (in Mahaffy's translation). The second 
season (1875-6) was devoted to "Wallace's 
Translation of Hegel's Logic" (using as aids 
"Stirling's Secret of Hegel" and the critical 
and explanatory articles and translations of 
the "Journal of Speculative Philosophy," this 
latter quarterly publication being not the least 
of the results of the St. Louis movement. It 
was the first and at that time the only jour- 
nal of speculative philosophy published in 
English. Its influence has since been world- 
wide). The third season (1876-7) witnessed 
a large increase in the numbers of the club, 
as well as in the interest manifested. "Hegel's 
Logic" furnished the basis of its yearly work 
until its conclusion in the departure of Dr. 
Harris from the city (1881). 

Its specific work from 1877 to 188 1 was the 
interpretation of "Hegel's Doctrine of Reflec- 
tion" by Dr. Harris, and from 1878 on, the 
translation and publication of the entire sec- 
ond volume of "Hegel's Logic" (essence) for 
and before the club by Dr. Harris, with the as- 
sistance of Mr. James S. Garland, secretary. 

The first and only president of the club was 
Mr. Francis E. Cook. Its regular member- 
ship consisted of Dr. William T. Harris, Den- 
ton J. Snider, Dr. Robert A. Holland, Miss 
Grace C. Bibb, Dr. William M. Bryant, Mr. 
James S. Garland, Mr. Edward H. Long, Mr. 
George B. Lane, Rev. Lyman Allen, and 
Francis E. Cook. The club met every Satur- 
day evening, alternately at the residences of 
Dr. Harris and Mr. Cook, with the exception 
of the last season (1880-1), when all the meet- 
ings were held at the home of Dr. Holland. 

Aside from the general effect of the St. 
Louis movement, as indicated above, it is a 
further fact that both Emerson and Alcott be- 
came interested in Hegel through Dr. Harris, 
and it was they who induced the latter gentle- 
man to start the Concord School of Philoso- 
phy (1882-5), which might with much pro- 



priety have been called "The St. Louis Kant 
Club abroad." 

It is also a fact that the influence of this 
movement has extended to the English and 
Scotch universities, modifying their courses of 
study therein. 

In those seats of learning and at Heidelberg 
the work of these St. Louis societies is well 
known. Francis E. Cook. 

Spencer, Corwin H., was born De- 
cember 13, 1851, in Morgan County, Ohio, 
son of David and Angeline (Israel) Spencer. 
His father was a farmer, and the son obtained 
as a boy such education as he could gain in 
the country schools of Morgan County, sup- 
plemented later by a course of study at the 
High School of Malta, Ohio. Until he was 
seventeen years old, he worked on his father's 
farm, and thereafter for several years added to 
both his intellectual and financial resources 
by teaching school during the winter months 
of each year. In 1873 he went to McCon- 
nellsville, Ohio, where he was employed as a 
clerk in a general store, and gained his first 
experience in mercantile pursuits. In 1874 
he came to St. Louis, and after completing a 
course of study at Bryant & Stratton's Col- 
lege, which consumed most of the money he 
had saved up to that time, he entered the old 
house of Harlow, Gelston & Co., as a book- 
keeper and grain salesman. He quickly mas- 
tered the intricacies of the grain trade, and in 
1876 became a member of the firm, which then 
took the name of Harlow, Spencer & Co. 
Their business was prosperous, and they were 
among the leaders of the St. Louis market 
until 1882, in which year, on account of large 
advances to farmers in the Mississippi Valley, 
who were unable to meet their obligations in 
consequence of there having been three con- 
secutive years of crop failures, due to floods 
and river overflows, the firm was compelled to 
suspend operations. Undaunted by this ill 
fortune, Mr. Spencer began anew, entering 
into an arrangement with the firm of W. T. 
Anderson & Co., under which that firm fur- 
nished capital with which he purchased grain 
on joint account. This venture was a success 
from the beginning, and, in a short time, he 
had retrieved his losses and was again among 
the leaders of St. Louis' grain interests. In 
1889 he organized the firm of C. H. Spencer 
& Co., and in 1890, having purchased the ele- 
vator at Madison, Illinois, this firm was reor- 



SPENCER. 



2111 



ganized and incorporated as the C. H. Spencer 
Grain & Elevator Company. He continued 
to act as president and general manager of 
that company until July i, 1897, when, on ac- 
count of failing health, he closed out his St. 
Louis business. After spending a short time 
in. Southern California, which resulted in 
greatly improving his health, he returned to 
St. Louis and to active business life. Since 
then he has devoted his time mainly to the 
operation of the Southern Electric Railway, 
he having been elected president of the corpo- 
ration owning that line in 1897. The stock 
of this corporation is largely owned and con- 
trolled by himself and the estate of Charles F. 
Orthwein. Under his management the busi- 
ness of the line has grown steadily and rapidly, 
and the stock of the corporation has greatly 
increased in value. He is also president of 
the Xational Railway Company. As in ear- 
lier years, he is still a leading spirit ''on 
'Change," and his views concerning market 
conditions are as much sought after by op- 
erators on the floor of the Merchants' Ex- 
change at the present time as ever before. 
He was elected president of the Merchants' 
Exchange in 1896, after one of the most hotly 
contested campaigns since the organization of 
the Exchange. At the end of his term he re- 
tired from that office with the reputation of 
having been one of its most popular and effi- 
cient presidents. For the past two years he 
has been chairman of the board of managers 
of the St. Louis Traffic Bureau, an organiza- 
tion which seeks to obtain for St. Louis the 
best possible transportation rates and facili- 
ties, and in that capacity he has done much 
to protect and promote the trade and manufac- 
turing interests of the city. He has also been 
conspicuously identified with the Business 
Men's League, and is vice-president of that 
organization. He is interested in the grain 
trade outside of St. Louis as a large stock- 
holder and director in the Allen. Grier & 
Zeller Grain Company, of Chicago, and is a 
member of the New York Produce Exchange. 
His knowledge of crop conditions caused him 
to be a leader in the market during the season 
of 1897-8, but, unlike Mr. Leiter, of Chicago, 
when wheat reached its actual value he sold 
out, realizing a handsome profit for himself 
and his associates. He is a director in the 
Continental National Bank of St. Louis, and in 
business circles is recognized as a capable and 
sagacious financier. He has long enjoyed, 



also, the enviable distinction of being a thor- 
oughly public-spirited man, ready to respond 
to any appeal in aid of movements to promote 
the commercial or industrial prosperity of the 
city, and equally ready to aid its charities and 
all the agencies for the betterment of social 
and moral conditions, fdentified with the 
Republican party politically, he has from time 
to time taken an active interest in promoting 
its welfare and advancing the principles for 
which it stands. He is a Presbyterian church- 
man and a generous friend of the church and 
kindred institutions. A member of the St. 
Louis, Commercial, Noonday, and Country 
Clubs, he is in close touch with the social, as 
well as the commercial, life of St. Louis. Feb- 
ruary 23, 1875, he married Miss Mary E. Har- 
low, of Kimmswick, Missouri. Their chil- 
dren are Harlow Bates, Ruth Anne, Lula, and 
Hazel Spencer. 

Spencer, Seidell P., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in the city of Erie, Pennsylvania, 
September 16, 1862, son of Samuel Selden and 
Eliza Deborah (Palmer) Spencer. His early 
educational training was obtained in the pub- 
lic schools of Erie, and he was then fitted for 
college at Hopkins' Grammar School, of New 
Haven, Connecticut. At the end of his gram- 
mar school course he entered Yale College, 
and was graduated with honors from that in- 
stitution in the class of 1884. Immediately 
after his graduation from Yale he came to St. 
Louis, his intention being to fit himself for 
admission to the bar, and to then enter upon 
the practice of law in the West. Entering the 
St. Louis Law School, he began at the same 
time a dilligent course of reading and study, 
outside of the law school, and in 1885, a year 
before his graduation, he was admitted to 
practice in the Circuit Court of St. Louis. He 
entered upon his professional career in this 
city immediately after receiving his bachelor's 
degree from the law school, and in a compara- 
tively short time had impressed himself upon 
the public and the bar as a young man of very ' 
superior attainments. He had at the begin- 
ning also the happy faculty of making friends 
wherever he went, and soon gained wide per- 
sonal popularity, as well as an established po- 
sition at the bar. In 1895 ne was nominated 
for member of the State House of Representa- 
tives, on the Republican ticket, and. being 
elected to that body, took rank among its 
ablest members. As a legislator he was con- 



2112 



SPENCER. 



scientious, high-minded, true to the best in- 
terests of the people at large and the constitu- 
ency which he represented, a tireless worker 
and faithful and competent public servant. He 
was chairman of the House committee on 
banks and banking, a member of the commit- 
tees on judiciary, ways and means, militia, 
rules, and of the "Republican steering com- 
mittee," serving the last named committee as 
its secretary. Although one of the youngest 
members of the House of Representatives, he 
was throughout its session one of its recog- 
nized leaders, and influenced to a large ex- 
tent its legislation and policies. In 1896 he 
was nominated on the Republican ticket for 
judge of the Circuit Court of St. Louis, and 
at the ensuing general election was chosen to 
that office by a flattering majority. Since he 
donned the judicial ermine he has proven him- 
elf master of the situation, as he has of every 
other situation in which he has been placed 
since he became a citizen of St. Louis. A 
scholarly and refined gentleman, he is at the 
same time vigorous in thought and action, 
and his progressive methods as a judge of the 
court, his fairness and courtesy to lawyers and 
litigants, and his unswerving rectitude, have 
won for him the highest commendation. 
Promptness in meeting every engagement, 
admirable precision and a happy faculty of 
dispatching the business of the court rapidly 
have been distinguishing characteristics of his 
administration on the bench. In 1898 he was 
elected president of the Missouri Bar Asso- 
ciation. In December of 1898 he was elected 
secretary of the Missouri Conference of 
Judges, an organization composed of the ju- 
diciary of the State, which was formed for the 
purpose of considering and reporting to the 
Legislature upon omissions, uncertainties and 
incongruities in the statute law. In this office 
he was the successor of Judge Shepard Barclay, 
who had shortly before that retired from the 
supreme bench. From the time of his coming 
to St. Louis up to the present he has been 
known as a firm believer in the principles of 
the Republican party. For several years he 
filled the chair of medical jurisprudence in 
Missouri Medical College, and he has never 
ceased to be interested in advancing the cause 
of popular education. He is a member of the 
St. Louis and Mercantile Clubs, and is an ac- 
tive worker in church circles, and a generous 
friend of benevolent institutions. Judge 
Spencer married Susan B. Brookes, daughter 



of Rev. James H. Brookes, D. D., for many 
years one of the most noted of Western cler- 
gymen. Their children are James Brookes, 
Selden Marvin and Oliver McLean Spencer. 

Spencer, Horatio N., physician, was 
born July 17, 1842, at Port Gibson, Missis- 
sippi, son of Horatio N. and Sarah (Marshall) 
Spencer. His grandfather, Israel Selden 
Spencer, was a Revolutionary soldier, who en- 
tered the colonial army and fought through 
the seven years' struggle to establish the inde- 
pendence of the American colonies. Reared 
in Port Gibson, Dr. Spencer obtained his early 
education under private tutorship, and then 
entered Alabama University, from which in- 
stitution he was graduated in i860, when 
eighteen years of age. When the Civil War 
began he enlisted in the Confederate Army, 
and served to the end of the great conflict, 
discharging his duties as a soldier with zeal 
and fidelity, and winning commendation on 
numerous occasions for gallant and meritori- 
ous conduct. At the close of the war he 
turned his attention to the study of medicine, 
and was graduated from the College of. Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons of New York City, re- 
ceiving his doctor's degree in 1868. He then 
went abroad and devoted two years to research 
and investigation in the line of his profession 
in the hospitals and medical educational cen- 
ters of Europe. Returning to the United 
States at the end of that time, he established 
himself in St. Louis in 1870, and quickly im- 
pressed himself both upon the medical pro- 
fession and the general public as a physician 
of broad knowledge and superior practical 
skill. Confining himself exclusively to the 
treatment of diseases of the nose and ear, he 
has attained wide celebrity as a specialist, and 
has built up a practice among the largest and 
most remunerative of any with which St. 
Louis physicians have been favored. In rec- 
ognition of his skill in the treatment of the 
diseases to which he has given special atten- 
tion, he was elected to a professorship in Mis- 
souri Medical College, and as an educator 
ranks among the leaders of his profession in 
the city. While his talents and brilliant at- 
tainments command the admiration of the 
medical fraternity of St. Louis, his personal 
magnetism and agreeable traits of character 
have served also to popularize him among 
his professional brethren, and he enjoys to a 
remarkable degree the warm friendship and 



SPENCER. 



2113 



kindly regard of all with whom he is brought 
in contact in the affairs of everyday life. He 
has been twice married. His first wife was a 
Miss Kirtland, of Memphis, Tennessee, who 
died in 1885. Two years later he married Miss 
Elizabeth Porcher Dwight, of Charleston, 
South Carolina. His children are three 
daughters and two sons, all born of his first 
marriage. 

Spencer, Charles H., was born March 
12, 1849, in the town of Keene, New Hamp- 
shire, and died in St. Louis, July 6, 1886. His 
parents were Charles and Emily (Parker) 
Spencer, worthy New England people, and the 
first five years of his life were spent in the town 
in which he was born. His father's family 
then removed to Boston, and he was educated 
at what was known as the Lincoln School, of 
that city. In consequence of his ambition to 
enter upon a business career he left school at 
an early age and found employment in the 
office of Messrs. James & Stetson, lumber 
merchants of Boston. He remained in their 
employ until he was nineteen years oi age, 
and having by that time learned the business 
thoroughly, he came to St. Louis to accept a 
more remunerative position with his uncle, 
J. H. Parker, who was engaged in the lumber 
trade in this city. In 1874 the lumber firm oi 
H. S. Parker & Co., of which his uncle had 
been a member, and with which Mr. Spencer 
had been identified from the time he came 
west, was succeeded by the Parker-Spencer 
Lumber Company, which continued in exist- 
1 ence until 1880. In 1881 he connected him- 
! self with the Schnelle & Querl Lumber Com- 
! pany. organized as a corporation, becoming 
secretary of the company, and also a stock- 
holder. He continued to retain this position 
until his death, and was known as a business 
, man of fine capacity and high character. His 
] integrity was unimpeachable, and during his 
\ career of more than twenty years in this city 
he won golden opinions from all with whom 
; he was brought into contact, and enjoyed the 
unqualified respect of his neighbors and ac- 
quaintances. 

Shapleigh, John B., physician, was 
born October 31, 1857, son of Augustus F. 
and Elizabeth (Umstead) Shapleigh, the for- 
mer a native of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
; and the last named of Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. His paternal grandfather was Richard 



W. Shapleigh, a seafaring man, who was 
owner and captain of a vessel lost in sight of 
Portsmouth Harbor with all on board. Dr. 
Shapleigh was educated at Washington Uni- 
versity, of St. Louis, from which institution he 
was graduated with the degree of bachelor of 
arts in 1878. Immediately after completing 
his academic education he began the study of 
medicine, and received his doctor's degree 
from St. Louis Medical College in 1881. He 
then served as an interne in the City Hospital 
for one year, and in the Female Hospital of 
St. Louis for another year, after which he 
went to Vienna, Austria, for the purpose of 
making a special study of diseases of the ear, 
his design being to make that branch of prac- 
tice his specialty. On his return to St. Louis 
in the spring of 1885 he began the practice of 
his profession, and has since attained well 
earned prominence among his professional 
brethren. His success as a practitioner, his 
chivalrous devotion to his profession and his 
readiness to respond to every demand made 
upon him in the line of professional duty have 
caused him to become closely identified with 
medical educational work, and with various 
eleemosynary institutions in St. Louis. He 
is professor of otology in St. Louis Medical 
College, a member of the staff of St. Luke's 
Hospital, and also of the staff of St. Louis 
Protestant Flospital. Deeply interested in 
everything tending to promote progress with- 
in the lines of his profession, he has very nat- 
urally allied himself with the various organi- 
zations of physicians and surgeons having in 
view the elevation of professional standards, 
and he is a member of the American Academy 
of Medicine, of the American Otological So- 
ciety, of St. Louis Medical Society, and of the 
Medical Society of Hospital Alumni. His re- 
ligious affiliations are with the Presbyterian 
Church, and he is identified with fraternal so- 
cieties as a member of the Legion of Honor. 
October 27, 1886, he married Miss Anna P. 
Merritt, daughter of Jacob Merritt, of St. 
Louis. 

Stewart, Alphonso Chase, lawyer, 
was born August 27, 1848, in Lebanon. Ten- 
nessee, son of Alexander P. and Harriet By- 
ron (Chase) Stewart. His father, who was a 
graduate of West Point, entered the Confed- 
erate Army at the beginning of the Civil War 
as a major of artillery, and attained the rank of 
lieutenant-general before the war closed, tak- 



2114 



SPENGLER. 



ing part in the campaigns in Tennessee and 
Alabama, and retiring with an enviable record 
as a brave and efficient commander. The 
mother of Alphonso C. Stewart belonged to 
the noted Chase family, of which Chief Justice 
Salmon P. Chase, Samuel Chase, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
and Bishop Philander Chase, of the Episcopal 
Church, were distinguished representatives. 
In 1863, when he wa*s but fifteen years of age, 
Alphonso C. Stewart entered the Confederate 
Army and served with the forces commanded 
bv General Wheeler until very shortly before 
the close of the war, when he was appointed 
cadet on his father's staff, and remained with 
Stewart's corps until the war ended. After 
the war he completed his education, which was 
begun during that unhappy period, attending 
first the private school of Nathaniel Cross, at 
Edgefield, Tennessee, later the Alabama Mili- 
tary Institute, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and 
still later Cumberland University, of Lebanon, 
Tennessee, being graduated from the last 
named institution with the degree of bachelor 
of laws in the class of 1867. After his gradu- 
ation he remained at the university for another 
year as a post-graduate, being still under age, 
and during that time was presiding judge of 
the university moot court. After a second 
graduation in 1868, being still under age, and 
hence ineligible to the bar by general law, he 
was, nevertheless, specially admitted to the bar 
of his native county by a special legalization 
of the county court for that purpose, which 
removed his age disability and admitted him 
to practice. In i860 he removed to Winches- 
ter, Tennessee, and began the practice of his 
profession there, in partnership with Tobias 
Turney, brother of Honorable Peter Turney, 
late Governor and Supreme Court justice of 
Tennessee. At the end of a year this partner- 
ship was dissolved, and after practicing ah me 
for another year Mr. Stewart removed to Mis- 
sissippi, where he became associated in prac- 
tice with Honorable Sylvamis Evans, one of 
the leading lawyers of that State. He prac- 
ticed three years in Mississippi, and then came 
to St. Louis, where he became, after a time, a 
member of the firm of King, Phillips & Stew- 
art. Six months later this partnership was 
dissolved, and a new partnership formed 1>\ 
Mr. Stewart and Judge Phillips, who built up 
a large practice as commercial and corpora- 
tion lawyers. They were the general solicit- 
ors for the Texas & St. Louis Railwav Com- 



pany, and the St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas 
Railway Company, and counsel for the St. 
Louis Cotton Compress Company. In the 
celebrated Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Rail- 
road receivership case, which resulted in fore- 
closure proceedings and the reorganization of 
the Wabash Company, they represented the 
first mortgage bondholders, and they were 
also attorneys in the noted case in which it 
was first decided by a Missouri court that a 
corporation had the right to make a general 
assignment for the benefit of its creditors. In 
the autumn of 1890 Mr. Phillips and Mr. Stew- 
art admitted to partnership with themselves 
Edward Cunningham, Jr., and Edward C. El- 
liot, and the firm became Phillips, Stewart, 
Cunningham & Elliot. The present firm of 
Stewart, Elliot & Cunningham is the successor 
to the above mentioned firm, and occupies a 
commanding position at the St. Louis bar. 
In 1889 Mr. Stewart, with other gentlemen, 
organized the St. Louis Trust Company, and 
he acted as secretary and counsel for the com- 
pany until 1891, when he resigned the secre- 
taryship, but retained the position of counsel. 
Either in his professional capacity or as a 
stockholder and official he is connected with 
the St. Louis Trust Company, the St. Louis 
Cotton Compress Company, The Schultz 
Belting Company, The Merchants' Life Asso- 
ciation of the United States. The Southwest- 
ern Improvement Association, and the Jasper 
County Electric Power Company. His pro- 
fessional career began when he was twenty 
years of age, and he has since been one of the 
busiest of busy practitioners, and at the same 
time has been so closely identified with busi- 
ness enterprises that he is equally prominent 
as a lawyer and a man of affairs. Mr. Stewart 
married, in 1873, Miss Elizabeth Smith, 
daughter of Samuel Smith, of Winchester. 
Tennessee, one of the leading citizens of that 
portion of the State. Their children are 
Samuel Smith and Harriet Chase Stewart. 

Spongier, Tobias, who was one of the 

pioneer brewers of St. Louis, a man of largo 
wealth, and in all respects a most estimable 
and worthy citizen, was born December 16, 
1816, in the town of Lautenbach, Province of 
Baden, Germany, son of Adam and Elizabeth 
(Mangold) Spengler. After obtaining in the 
< ierman schools what would be called in this 
country a common school education he was 
apprenticed to a soap manufacturer, and after 







9 <^ 



4p+S 



SPENGLER. 



2115 



having mastered this trade with the thorough- 
ness which German custom exacts before per- 
mitting a young man to begin work as a jour- 
neyman, he came to this country. Reaching 
the United States in 1850 he came west as far 
as Indiana, and his first knowledge of the 
habits and customs of the people of this coun- 
try was gained while working in that State. 
In 1852 he came to Belleville, Illinois, and es- 
tablished, in a small way, a soap manufactory 
of his own. He had brought with him to this 
country the frugal and industrious habits and 
the approved economic theories of the father- 
land, and the business which he had estab- 
lished grew steadily, and was yielding him a 
comfortable income in 1856, when he decided 
to remove to St. Louis. Disposing of his 
business at Belleville, he purchased a primitive 
brewery, which had previously been operated 
by his brother-in-law in North St. Louis, and 
taking charge of this plant, gradually devel- 
oped it into one of the important brewing in- 
dustries of St. Louis. His son, Tobias Speng- 
ler, Jr., and William Schreiber, his son-in-law, 
became associated with him at a later date, and 
the business was conducted as a copartnership 
until 1886, when it was incorporated as the 
Bremen Brewing Company, with the elder 
Mr. Spengler as president. He continued to 
hold that position, and to give the business the 
benefit of his supervision and practical experi- 
ence until his death, which occurred July 19. 
1887 ; two years later — June 1, 1889 — the plant 
became a part of the extensive system of brew- 
eries purchased and still operated by a wealthy 
English syndicate in St. Louis. During all 
the years of his active life as a manufacturer 
and business man Mr. Spengler enjoyed to a 
large extent the good will and esteem of his 
contemporaries among the merchants and 
manufacturers of the city, and had the good 
fortune to be especially beloved by the large 
number of persons to whom he had sustained 
the relation of employer. Those who came 
into contact with him in this connection found 
in him a true friend, always solicitous for their 
welfare and anxious to assist them in better- 
ing their condition in life. His accumulation 
of a large fortune enabled him to gratify a nat- 
urally refined taste, and at the same time to 
evidence his devotion to his home and family. 
His tastes were domestic, and at his fireside he 
found the chief enjoyment of life. In a home 
furnished with every luxury, he gathered about 
him those endeared to him by family ties and a 



circle of most devoted friends, and passed the 
closing years of his life in rare enjoyment of 
fortune's favors. Among the German socie- 
ties in St. Louis he was especially popular, and 
he was ever ready to encourage the upbuilding 
of these institutions designed to preserve the 
customs, usages and traditions of the father- 
land, and many of them were recipients of his 
generous benefactions. He married, August 
15, 1846, Miss Christine Seelinger, also born 
in Germany, who survives her husband. His 
only surviving children are Mrs. Catharine 
Schreiber, widow of William Schreiber, and 
Miss Christine Spengler. 

Stagg-, Hannah Isabella, was born 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, daughter of John and 
Hannah Davis. Her parents were worthy 
members of the Society of Friends, whose 
place of nativity was Bedford County, Vir- 
ginia, from which they removed to Cincinnati 
when that place was a small village on the 
western border-line of civilization. Her father 
engaged in merchandising and assisted in lay- 
ing the foundations on which the Ohio village 
afterward rose to the honor and eminence of 
the "Queen City of the West." At Cincin- 
nati Mrs. Stagg was educated under the tu- 
torage of a private teacher and at the school 
.of Mrs. Mary Tallant, and there, too, she was 
.married, in the year 1842, to Henry Stagg. 
Shortly after their marriage they came to St. 
Louis, Mr. Stagg engaging in the business of 
financial and insurance agent, and Mrs. Stagg 
entering at once into the active charitable and 
church work which has since been, in large 
measure, the occupation of her life. Mr. 
Stagg maintained his agency business until his 
death, in the year 1887. Mrs. Stagg was 
prompt to take part in enterprises in which she 
could do most good, and her zeal and intelli- 
gence in counsel and action soon caused her 
to be recognized as a leader among other good 
women in the work of building up the churches 
and charitable institutions of St. Louis. When 
the Civil War broke out she took a firm stand 
on the Union side, although it involved a sev- 
erance of the ties that bound her to many 
Southern friends, and when an organized ef- 
fort was called for to make provision for the 
sick and wounded soldiers in St. Louis, Mrs. 
Stagg became a charter member of the La- 
dies' Union Aid Society, formed at the sugges- 
tion of Mrs. John C. Fremont after the battle 
of Wilson's Creek, in which General Nathan- 



2116 



SPIEGELHALTER. 



iel Lyon lost his life. Throughout the trying 
period that followed she was one of the most 
active workers in this organization, and in 
1864 she served as a member of the execu- 
tive committee, under whose admirable and 
efficient supervision and management the 
great Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair was 
held in St. Louis. The purpose of this fair 
was to raise funds with which to provide for 
the better care of the disabled sick and suffer- 
ing Union soldiers, and it was owing to the ac- 
tive sympathy and liberality of the people of 
St. Louis, directed by the intelligent and pa- 
triotic women of the Ladies' Union Aid So- 
ciety, that the enterprise proved so great a suc- 
cess. When the restoration of peace relieved 
the patriotic women of their duties and re- 
sponsibilities as auxiliaries of the Union Army, 
Mrs. Stagg turned her attention again to 
church and charitable work. She has been a 
member of the board of managers of the St. 
Louis Protestant Orphan Asylum for more 
than forty years, and for several years has filled 
the office of secretary of the board. All en- 
terprises and reforms that sought to improve 
the condition of the weak and unfortunate 
could claim her sympathy and enlist her assist- 
ance, and in many of these she is gratefully re- 
membered. Mrs. Stagg became a resident of 
St. Louis when it was a small city, located 
in what was at that time considered the "Far 
West." and when Indians were a common 
sight on the streets, though their hostility 
never took a more dangerous form than appro- 
priating articles that excited their barbaric 
fancy. The western limit of the city was Sev- 
enth Street, beyond which were forests and 
farms. She has witnessed its amazing growth 
and shared its trials of flood and fire, of war 
and pestilence. She remembers the great 
flood of 1844, when the river rose to a greater 
height than it has ever reached since ; and the 
double calamity of fire and scourge in the year 
1849, when the conflagration on the levee and 
in the harbor was followed by a visitation 
■ if cholera, which decimated the population. 
She has a vivid remembrance of the tragic 
events in the history of the city — the falling of 
Laclede Hall and the disaster at the Gasconade 
bridge; ami on the other hand, she has pleas- 
ant memories of happier things — the opening 
of Shaw's ( harden to the public, the dedication 
of Forest Park and the other parks, and the 
building of the Fads bridge. She has been 
contemporary with many whose names are as- 



sociated with the growth and prestige of the 
city — of men who have advanced its manufac- 
turing interests, built its churches, established 
its schools and founded its libraries and char- 
ities ; and she has been associated with women 
whose graces and culture have adorned our 
social life, and whose names are imbedded in 
the history of our benevolent institutions. She 
has been a close observer and student of events 
in which she took part, and when she indulges 
in reminiscences of the more than fifty years 
which she has lived in St. Louis it is equally a 
charm and a profit to listen to her. She has 
been an active writer all her life, and the pro- 
ductions of her pen betray the woman of wide 
observation, culture and taste. In church 
work she was associated with Rev. T. M. Post, 
the Congregational clergyman so well known 
and warmly esteemed in his life time for his 
benign character and scholarly attainments, 
and some of her most pleasant recollections 
are connected with this association. Of the 
five children born to Mrs. Stagg, two were liv- 
ing in 1898 — Virginia Isabella Stagg, wife of 
M. S. Forbes, of St. Louis ; and William Lewis 
Stagg, a resident of Springfield, Illinois. 

Spiegelhalter, Joseph, physician, was 
born August 6, 1834, in the town of Obern- 
dorf, kingdom of Wuerttemberg, Germany, 
son of Joseph and Johanna (Zippehli) Spiegel- 
halter. He received a liberal education in the 
schools of his native town, but was unable to 
realize his ambition to take a university course 
for the reason that his father had a large fam- 
ily and could not afford the expense. In 
1854, when the Crimean War threatened to in- 
volve all Europe in the hostilities, he con- 
cluded to emigrate to the United States before 
he had reached the age at which he would be- 
come liable to military duty. When he ar- 
rived in this country, although he had learned 
the English language at home, he encountered 
the difficulties in obtaining satisfactory em- 
ployment usually encountered by young for- 
eigners who have no friends to assist them in 
getting a start. Some friends whom he met 
in Philadelphia advised him to try teaching 
school in the country, and, acting upon this 
advice, he went to Reading, Pennsylvania, 
where he passed the required examination and 
obtained a teacher's certificate. He was soon 
afterward employed to take charge of a school 
in Long Swamp Township of Berks County, 
which he taught during the winter of 1854-5. 





^7o ■ <V^z-e- i^c^^c^ 



SPIEGELHALTER. 



2117 



That he was successful as a teacher was evi- 
denced by the fact that when the superintend- 
ent of schools for that county visited his school 
he was offered a position in the Normal School 
at Reading, which he declined, saying that he 
was a teacher from necessity and not from 
choice. In the spring of 1855 he returned to 
Philadelphia and found employment in a drug 
store owned by Dr. Vasey, a physician in ac- 
tive practice. While employed in this capac- 
ity he had access to the doctor's library and 
thus began the study of medicine. Later he 
went to Chicago and while engaged as a drug 
clerk in that city, he continued his medical 
studies during his leisure hours. In 1857, after 
recovering from a serious illness, he deter- 
mined to go to New Orleans, but, learning 
upon his arrival in St. Louis that yellow fever 
was raging in that city, he spent some time 
here, thus gaining his first knowledge of the 
city which has now been his home for many 
years. Later he proceeded to New Orleans 
and found employment in a French drug store, 
his purpose being to perfect his knowledge of 
the French language. The following year 
yellow fever again made its appearance in New 
Orleans and caused him to return to St. Louis. 
While employed here in a drug store he at- 
tended medical lectures at Humboldt Medical 
Institute and had made considerable progress 
toward the realization of his ambition to be- 
come a physician when the Civil War inter- 
rupted his studies. When President Lincoln 
issued his first call for troops, Dr. Hammer, 
who was at the head of the Medical Institute, 
organized the students into a military com- 
pany, which was drilled by Peter J. Osterhaus, 
who later became one of the most distin- 
guished generals of the Union Army. Sworn 
in as a special police force, this company had 
for some time done guard duty at the arsenal, 
and when hostilities began most of those who 
had composed it entered the Union Army in 
various branches of the service. Dr. Spiegel- 
halter enlisted in the Fifth Regiment of Mis- 
souri Infantry and served during three months 
as lieutenant of Company I of that regiment, 
participating as such in the battles of Carthage 
and Wilson's Creek, and commanding his 
company in the last named engagement. At 
the end of the term for which he had enlisted 
he was discharged and in the fall of 1861 re- 
sumed his medical studies. He was graduated 
from the Medical Institute early in 1862, 
and immediately afterward, after being exam- 



ined by a military board of medical men, of 
which Dr. I. T. Hodgen was president, he ac- 
cepted the position of assistant surgeon of the 
Twelfth Missouri Volunteer Infantry Regi- 
ment, Colonel Osterhaus, in preference to that 
of surgeon of the Thirteenth Missouri Infan- 
try, which had been tendered him. He joined 
this regiment at Batesville, Arkansas, shortly 
after the battle of Pea Ridge, but was soon 
afterward ordered to take charge as surgeon 
of the medical department of the Seventeenth 
Missouri Infantry. Shortly afterward he was 
ordered to escort a lot of wounded men to the 
hospital at Batesville and was retained there 
by the order of General Curtis to act as assist- 
ant post surgeon. He filled this position un- 
til the army moved through the swamps to 
Helena, Arkansas, and on this march he had 
charge of the hospital train containing the sick 
and wounded of Osterhaus' division. While 
at Helena he was all the time on detached serv- 
ice, acting at different times as surgeon to near- 
ly every regiment of the division, and accom- 
panying nearly every expedition. During the 
first attack onVicksburg and at thesubsequent 
capture of Arkansas Post he suffered to such 
an extent from hardships and exposure to rain 
and cold that his health broke down. After 
lying ill of inflammatory rheumatism several 
weeks in camp at Young's Point, he was sent 
to the Officers' Hospital at Memphis, Tennes- 
see. In May of 1863 he had recovered suffi- 
ciently to rejoin his command at Grand Gulf 
and participated in the march to Jackson and 
Vicksburg. In the memorable charge of Gen- 
eral Steele's command on the center of the 
Confederate works at Vicksburg, May 22, 
1863, the command was subjected to the cross- 
fire of the enemy three times before reaching 
the point of beginning the charge, in which, 
when finally made, the Twelfth Missouri In- 
fantry lost 120 men in killed and wounded. 
Dr. Spiegelhalter was the only surgeon in the 
division who accompanied the troops in the 
charge and worked until 2 a. m., of the follow- 
ing morning in attending to the wants of the 
wounded. He continued with his regiment 
and was promoted surgeon while on the march 
to Chattanooga. During the Chattanooga 
campaign, participating in the battles of Look- 
out Mountain, Missionary Ridge and Ring- 
gold. After the battle of Ringgold — in which 
his regiment suffered severely — General Os- 
terhaus obtained a special order from General 
Grant authorizing Dr. Spiegelhalter to seize 



2118 



SPIEGELHALTER. 



any available house in Chattanooga and con- 
vert it into a hospital for the wounded officers 
of the First Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. 
At this hospital he treated the wounded offi- 
cers, caring for them until such time as they 
wire able to endure transportation and then 
escorted them to their respective homes. As 
an army surgeon Dr. Spiegelhalter was ex- 
ceedingly popular among his comrades, mak- 
ing it a point to be always with them in battle 
and ready to render them such service as might 
be needed. During the Georgia campaign 
he was appointed a member of the operating 
corps of the First Division field hospital, but 
as he had no assistant, he caused it to be ex- 
pressly understood that he should be permitted 
to stay with his regiment while it was under 
tire and would be required to report for duty 
at the hospital only when his command was 
not engaged. He was a bold and successful 
operator and the many bloody engagements 
in which his regiment participated gave him 
ample opportunity to show his skill. That he 
was equally successful in administering to the 
troops under his care as a physician and sani- 
tarian is evidenced by the fact that when Col- 
onel Wangelin made his final report to the 
Adjutant-General of the State of Missouri, 
that report contained the following statement : 
"The Twelfth Missouri Infantry has always 
been a remarkably healthy regiment, doubt- 
less in great part owing to the efficiency of its 
medical officers. Its reduction to such a small 
number as it presented when mustered out was 
caused by actual loss in battle." After the fall 
of Atlanta the Twelfth Regiment was sent 
home to be mustered out, its term of service 
having expired, and although the chief medi- 
cal director wished to retain Dr. Spiegelhalter 
as contract surgeon on the staff of General Os- 
-terhaus, he felt that his services were not 
longer needed and preferred to return home 
•with his regiment. Had he known that Sher- 
man's Army would march to the sea, he would 
have accompanied it, and still regrets that he 
was not a participant in that famous march. 
After leaving the army he began the practice 
of his profession in St. Louis, and in 1865 was 
appointed health officer of the city by Mayor 
Thomas. The city board of health then con- 
sisted of five councilmen, with the health offi- 
cer as ex officio member and the executive 
officer of the board. When cholera appeared 
in European ports in 1865, Dr. Spiegelhalter 
warned the board of health of the impending 



danger to this country, but his warnings were 
unheeded and the city council failed to make 
the appropriation necessary to enable the 
health authorities to deal with the epidemic of 
the following year. When the epidemic came, 
prompt action was necessary, and with the aid 
of Honorable Erastus Wells, money was ob- 
tained with which to carry on the necessary- 
work of sanitation. Dr. Spiegelhalter organ- 
ized committees of citizens in every ward to 
aid in this work, and by thorough organiza- 
tion of these aux