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EncyclnpeWa gf Massachusetts 

Biographical — Genealogical 


Compiled with Assistance of the Following 



Former Librarian of Woburn Public Library; 
Historian of New England Historic-Genea- 
logical Society; Author of "History of Arling- 
ton," "Bibliography of Woburn," "History of 
the Cutter Family," etc. 


Member of American Institute of Architecture, 
etc.; Author of "Homes and How to Make 
Them," and other popular works; Lecturer, 
and frequent contributor to leading magazines 
and newspapers. 


Librarian of Berkshire Athenaeum and Mu- 
seum; Secretary of Berkshire Hi.storical Soci- 
ety; Author of "Three Kingdoms;" "World of 
Matter;" "Translation into English, Hexameters 
of Virgil's Aeneid;" Joint Author "American 
Plant Book;" "Barnes' Readers;" "One Thou- 
sand Blunders in English." 


Member of Connecticut Valley Historical Soci- 
ety, and W^estern Hampden Historical Society; 
Author of "History of the Town of Westfleld, 


Charter Member, ex-President and for fifteen 
years Librarian of Worcester Society of Antiq- 
uity, and Editor of its Proceedings; Author of 
"Ilawson Family Memorial," "The Crane Fam- 
ily," in two volumes, "History of 15th Regi- 
ment in the Revolution," and Compiler of a 
Number of Genealogies of the Prominent Fam- 
ilies of Massachusetts. Member of the New 
England Historic-Genealogical and other His- 
torical Societies. 


Clerk and Treasurer of Bostonian Society; 
Director of Brookline Historical Society; Sec- 
ond Vice-President of Mass. Soc. S. A. R.; 
Chairman Membership Com. Mass. Soc. Colo- 
nial Wars; Member Board of Managers, Mass. 
Soc, War of 1812; Treasurer of Read Soc. for 
Genealogical Research. 


Ex-President of Essex Institute; Member of 
Massachusetts Historical Society; ex-Repre- 
sentative and ex-Mayor of Salem. 


President of Old Bridgewater Historical Soci- 
ety; President of Dyer Family Association. 









Both justice and decency require that we should bestow on our forefathers 
an honorable remembrance — Thucydides 


^ROM the earliest days, when the English first set sturdy foot upon its 

soil in Plymouth and Provincetown, Massachusetts, at that time 

embracing all New England, in the affairs of the whole Continent has 

been a factor to be reckoned with. Problems facing the Pioneers, 

equal in importance to any which have since presented themselves, 

required and received the very highest order of intelligence in their 

solution. From the day of Winthrop, Bradford, and Endicott, the 

times have demanded Men; and the Men of Massachusetts, as well as its noble Women, 

have been of the sterling sort who met any and all emergencies with courage, fortitude, 

sagacity, and a conquering spirit. 

As Edward Everett has truly said, "Massachusetts is but a speck, after all, upon the 
map of the world ; but her influence has been felt from sea to sea and from pole to pole.' 
In this historic treatment of the facts relating to the Men and Women of the State, it is 
fitting that the "indomitable spirit" of the Forefathers should appear; and that the same 
characteristics with which they fought and conquered the absorbing conditions around 
them should prove that there is much in heredity. The same stout spirit which sent 
Winthrop to Plymouth, sent Pynchon and Williams forth to find even greater liberty. 
They desired most of all to carry out their own plans for self-government and to make 
their own codes, independent of the Mother-land. Their earliest care was to encourage 
the shipping interests, well realizing that the sea and rivers afforded the first highways 
through which the commerce of the world and their communication with the rest of 
mankind was to pass. The transportation agitations of to-day are a direct and logical 
inheritance from the ancient seaboard. How to get somewhere, and move commodities 
to and from elsewhere, are questions which have ever been paramount in the minds of 
Massachusetts people. The solution of this one problem of transportation, in the 
course of which seemingly unconquerable obstacles were surmounted, together with 
their triumphs along all other lines, make the history of the Men and Women of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts as entertaining and as fascinating as any story. 

Through the lives of the individuals selected for this work runs a golden thread, — 
the unconquerable spirit, — showing without any further proof that theirs is an heredity 
of which none need be ashamed. No part of the world has had more weighty problems, 
and no other grouping of its inhabitants has met more wisely or manfully the exacting 

conditions, or suited itself more sanely to its environments. It is well that Massachu- 
setts Men and Women should be proud of their heritage, for no State in the Union has 
more reason to feel a just pride in both its progress and achievement. As a great w^riter 
and preacher has well said, "The importance of every event in History is to be judged 
by its more or less close association with the voyage of the 'Mayflower/ and the immortal 
'Compact' drawn up and signed in its cabin." From that distinctly Massachusetts 
moment, the basis of the highest law and essential history has had its origin. 

Every State in the Union points with pride to the Massachusetts men and women 
within its borders, many of them occupying positions of trust and honor. The interest 
in this book may well be limited only by the ocean's expanse. 

The work has had editorial supervision by an antiquarian and genealogist of high 
standing, Mr. William Richard Cutter, A. M., Historian of the New England Historic- 
Genealogical Society, Librarian Emeritus of Woburn Public Library, author. Efficient 
aid has also been given by the following named gentlemen : Eugene C. Gardner, mem- 
ber of American Institute of Architecture, etc., author ; Harlan Hoge Ballard, A. M., 
Librarian of Berkshire Athenaeum and Museum, Secretary of Berkshire Historical 
Society, author; Rev. John H. Lockwood, A. M., member of Connecticut Valley His- 
torical Society and Western Hampden Historical Society, author; Hon. Ellery Bicknell 
Crane, charter member, ex-President and many years Librarian of the Worcester Soci- 
ety of Antiquity and Editor of its Proceedings, member of New England Historic- 
Genealogical and other historical societies, author ; Charles French Read, Clerk and 
Treasurer of Bostonian Society, director of Brookline Historical Society, and officer and 
member of various other historical societies ; Robert Samuel Rantoul, ex-President of 
Essex Institute, member of Massachusetts Historical Society; E. Alden Dyer, M. D., 
President of Old Bridgewater Historical Society, and of Dyer Family Association. 

If in any case a narrative is incomplete or faulty, the shortcoming is usually ascrib- 
able to the paucity of data obtainable, many families being without exact records in their 
family line ; while, in some instances, representatives of a given family are at disagree- 
ment as to the names of some of their forbears, important dates, etc. 

It is confidently believed that the present work will prove a real addition to the 
mass of annals concerning important people of Massachusetts, and that, without it, much 
valuable information would be inaccessible to the general reader, or irretrievably lost, 
owing to the passing away of custodians of family records and the consequent disap- 
pearance of material in their possession. 




r('a^rn d 


ADAMS, Samuel, 

Leader in the Revolution. 

Samuel Adams has been given the lofty- 
title of "The very soul of the Patriot party 
in the Revolution." He was a leading 
spirit in the first Continental Congress, 
and the first to publicly advocate inde- 
pendence. His eloquence hastened the 
famous Declaration. Great Britain felt his 
great force as an opponent, and, realizing 
that the colonies could never be brought 
into subjection as long as such fearless 
advocates of liberty were unrepressed, 
exempted two men — Samuel Adams and 
John Hancock — from its proffers of for- 
giveness to those who might return to 
their allegiance. 

Samuel Adams was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, September i6, 1722, son 
of Samuel and Mary (Fifield) Adams. 
His grandfather, John Adams, was a sea 
captain, brother of Joseph Adams, of 
Braintree, who was grandfather of John 
Adams, second President of the United 
States, and grandson of Flenry Adams, 
the first American ancestor, who came 
from Devonshire, England, about 1636, 
and built his home near Mount Wollas- 
ton, Quincy, Massachusetts. The elder 
Samuel Adams was a man of great wealth 
for the time, a brewer and ship owner, 
and the proprietor of a large estate front- 
ing on Boston harbor, on which he built 
a palatial mansion. He was a member of 
the legislature of the colony, a justice of 
the peace, selectman, deacon in the Old 
South Church, and a man who com- 
manded the respect of his neighbors. He 
organized the "caulkers club" of Boston, 
made up of influential business men en- 
gaged in the shipping business, who met 

to determine on the men best fitted for 
the office, and from this club was derived 
the word "caucus," as applied to political 

The young Samuel Adams enjoyed the 
companionship of the best people of Bos- 
ton, and was influenced by a rigidly pious 
mother. As a boy, he met all the strong 
men of the colony who were accustomed 
to gather at his father's house, and, as a 
listener, early caught the spirit of liberty 
that pervaded the atmosphere of the 
period. When he entered Harvard Col- 
lege he was far advanced in general in- 
formation, and was diligent and studious. 
He was graduated in 1740, when only 
eighteen years old, and at the wish of his 
father he entered upon a course in theol- 
ogy, expecting to become a clergyman. 
This, however, did not suit his views, 
and he began to study law, which, at the 
wish of his mother, he abandoned to 
learn business in a counting room. Upon 
arriving at his majority in 1743, he at- 
tended the commencement exercises at 
Harvard, and there received his degree 
as Master of Arts, his thesis being on the 
proposition that "it is lawful to resist the 
supreme magistrate if the commonwealth 
cannot be otherwise preserved." Seated 
on the platform during its delivery was 
Governor Shirley and the other crown 
officials who represented the "supreme 
magistrate." Young Adams was a strict 
Calvinist, and a zealous member of the 
Old South Church. His father gave him 
one thousand pounds that he might begin 
business for himself, but he lost the whole 
amount, a half by a bad loan, and the 
other half in his business. Next he joined 
his father in carrying on a malt house on 


his father's estate on Purchase street. 
Plis father died in 1748 and left him one- 
third of his estate, in 1749 he married 
Elizabeth Checkley, daughter of the min- 
ister of the New South religious society 
in Summer street, which his father had 
been instrumental in founding in 1718. 
He continued the business of the malt 
house, and this gave rise to the title 
"Sammy the Alalster," bestowed upon 
him by his political opponents. Massa- 
chusetts having issued paper money and 
coin having been driven out of circula- 
tion, an inflation of prices resulted, at- 
tended with disastrous fluctuations. Brit- 
ish merchants trading with the colony 
complained of the paper currency, and 
the people, as represented in the legisla- 
ture, opposed the board of trade, which 
was sustained by the governor. This con- 
dition led to the formation of two bank- 
ing companies, the people subscribing for 
the stock of the "land bank," or "manu- 
factory scheme," which issued one hun- 
dred and tifty thousand pounds, redeem- 
able in produce after twenty years, and 
^Jr. .\dams' father became a large share- 
holder. The "silver scheme" was patron- 
ized by the merchants, who issued one 
hundred and ten thousand pounds in 
notes, to be redeemed in silver in ten 
years. The land bank stockholders, eight 
hundred in number, were influential in 
the legislature, and as a political power 
caused the removal of Governor Belcher. 
The plans of both of these banking com- 
panies were frustrated by an act of parlia- 
ment that was extended to the colonies, 
an old law of England forbidding any 
joint stock company having over six 
shareholders, and the two banks were 
therefore obliged to redeem their script 
and suspend business. As the individual 
shareholders were personally responsible, 
this brought ruin to many of the larger 
holders. In 1758 an attempt was made 
to seize the Adams estate to satisfy a 

claim against his father on account of his 
personal liability in the "land bank." 
Samuel Adams resisted the attempt, and 
held off the levy until the colonial legis- 
lature released the directors from per- 
sonal liability. In 1756 he was made col- 
lector of taxes, and as the payment of 
taxes was slow, the delinquency was re- 
corded in the Boston town records as 
against the collectors, naming the sum to 
be nine thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-eight pounds. The Tories charged 
the deficiency against Adams; and Plutch- 
inson, the last royal governor, in his his- 
tory of the colony, called it a "defalcation." 
In the transactions of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society for 1883 a complete 
disproval of the charge is recorded. In 
1757 Mr. Adams' wife died and left two 
children, a son and a daughter. His malt 
house was a failure. He had lost his 
other property, save only the ancestral 
b.ome on Purchase street, and this was 
much out of repair. 

In this dark hour, he was one of five 
men appointed by the town of Boston to 
instruct the representatives just elected 
to the General Court as to the wishes of 
the people of the town of Boston, and 
Samuel Adams wrote out America's first 
protest against the plan of Lord Gren- 
ville for taxing the colonies. Indeed, in 
his capacity as clerk of the legislature, 
he was the author of nearly all the papers 
that were drawn up against impositions 
of the British government. The patriot 
party found in him its very soul. His 
instructions were read before the General 
Court on Ma}' 24, 1764, and the original 
draft of the document is preserved, hav- 
ing been the property of George Ban- 
croft, the historian, at the time of his 
death. On December 6, 1764, Mr. Adams 
was married to Elizabeth Wells. 

In Boston, the news of the passage of 
the Stamp Act by the British Parliament 
called out determined resistance. Hutch- 


inson's house was destroyed, and his fam- 
ily barely escaped the infuriated mob. 
The General Assembly was to convene 
in September, and Samuel Adams again 
prepared the instructions for the Boston 
members. John Adams had written the 
instructions for the Quincy members, and 
"The Gazette" printed both documents. 
Samuel Adams was elected to a vacancy 
in the Assembly on September 27. 1765, 
and the da}^ he was sworn in. Bernard, 
the royalist governor, prorogued the leg- 
islature. In October, 1765. he began his 
service in behalf of revolution as the only 
remedy for oppression, and advocated it 
in the Colonial Assembly continuously 
until 1774, when he was sent as a repre- 
sentative to the Colonial Congress at 
Philadelphia, and there continued the 
agitation. All the energies of the man 
were poured out in the cause he loved ; 
he gave little thought to the accumula- 
tion of money, and his was the pure, in- 
corruptible patriotism that scorns to ac- 
quire it in public office. Most of his life 
he was poor. His more frugal wife soon 
attended to all money matters, and it was 
not tmtil after the death of his only son, 
who left him a small property, that he 
was in comfortable circumstances. On 
the same day of the occurrence of the 
"Boston massacre," at the town meeting 
held in the Old South meeting house, 
March 5, 1770. Mr. Adams, as chairman 
of the committee, communicated to Gov- 
ernor Hutchinson the demand of the in- 
habitants that the troops should be re- 
moved from the city. Hutchinson offered 
to remove one regiment, and Adams re- 
turned through the crowded streets to 
the meeting house, quickly passing the 
watchword, "both regiments or none," 
and when the vote was demanded, the 
five thousand voices shouted "both regi- 
ments or none." Adams returned with 
the ultimatum of the people, and warned 
Hutchinson that if the two regiments 

were not removed before nightfall they 
remained at his peril, and before the sun 
set they were removed to the castle in 
the harbor. The people of Massachusetts 
next demanded that judges holding office 
at the pleasure of the king should be paid 
by the crown, and not by the colonies, 
and at the same time the judges were 
threatened with impeachment if they ac- 
cepted a penny from the crown. Adams, 
when Hutchinson refused to convene the 
legislature to decide the question of the 
judges' salaries, proposed "committees of 
correspondence" in each town to consult 
as to the common welfare. This, legally 
a proper act, was virtually an act of revo- 
lution, as the governor had no power over 
such an organization. Within a month 
eighty towns had chosen committees, and 
the system, that afterwards extended to 
all the colonies, was in operation. It was 
by such stages that the revolutionary 
government was formed, with Samuel 
Adams as the leading spirit. 

When the legislature convened at Salem. 
June 17, 1774, he locked the doors, put 
the key in his pocket, and carried through 
his plan for convening a congress of the 
colonies at Philadelphia on the first of 
."■September. A Tory member, feigning 
sickness, was let out, and informed Gov- 
ernor Hutchinson, who, however, could 
not gain admission to serve a writ to dis- 
solve the assembly, and when the busi- 
ness at hand was finished, the last Massa- 
chusetts legislature under sovereign au- 
thority had adjourned sine die. James Bow- 
doin, Thomas Gushing. Samuel Adams, 
John Adams and Robert Treat Paine 
were elected to meet the delegates from 
other colonial assemblies in Philadelphia, 
and five hundred povmds was appro- 
priated to pay their expenses, each town 
being assessed according to the tax list. 
Gushing, the two Adams and Paine de- 
parted from Boston on August 10. 1774. 
in a stage coach, Bowdoin being detained 


by the illness of his wife. In the first 
meeting of the Continental Congress it 
was proposed to open the session with 
prayer, but this was opposed by John 
Jay, an Episcopalian, on the ground that 
the members belonging, as they did, to 
various sects and denominations, could 
not be expected to unite in formal wor- 
ship. Samuel Adams replied that he was 
no bigot, and could hear a prayer from a 
gentleman of piety and virtue, who was 
at the same time a friend of his coun- 
try ; that he was a stranger in Phila- 
delphia, but he had heard that Mr. Duche 
deserved that character, and therefore he 
moved that Mr. Duche, an Episcopal 
clergyman, might be desired to read 
prayers to Congress. New York, Vir- 
ginia and South Carolina had been dis- 
trustful of the extreme policy hereto- 
fore pursued by Massachusetts, but this 
evidence of friendship from her most 
prominent representative disarmed oppo- 
sition ; and the delegates from these colo- 
nies, mostly Episcopalians, were greatly 
pleased, as were those from Pennsyl- 
vania, Mr. Duche being the most popular 
preacher in Philadelphia. On November 
9. 1774. Adams was back in Boston, 
organizing and promoting rebellion. 

On the fifth anniversary of the Boston 
massacre, March 5, 1775, Samuel Adams 
presided at a gathering in the Old South 
meeting house, and Joseph Warren de- 
livered the oration. The city was occu- 
pied by eleven regiments of British 
troops, and many of the officers were in 
the meeting, but Adams' tact as presiding 
of^cer prevented an outbreak. In A.pril 
followed the expeditions of the British 
troops to Concord and Lexington, and the 
attempted seizure of the stores gathered 
there, which aroused the people, who 
successfully drove them back. Adams 
and Hancock had departed from Boston 
for Philadelphia secretly, as General Gage 
had published his instructions from the 

British government to arrest Samuel 
Adams and "his willing and ready tool," 
John Hancock, and send them over to 
London to be tried for high treason. A 
plan was made to seize them at Lexing- 
ton, April 19, but they were forewarned 
by Paul Revere, while stopping at the 
house of Rev. Jonas Clark. There was a 
guard about the house, and when Revere 
rode up to warn the patriot leaders he 
was told not to make so much noise. 
"Noise !" was his reply, "you'll have noise 
enough before long; the Regulars are 
coming on." After the warning by Re- 
vere, Adams and Hancock went to a 
hill, southeast of Mr. Clark's, then well 
wooded, and remained until the British 
troops had passed on to Concord. They 
were afterwards taken to the home of 
Madam Jones in Burlington, and from 
thence, on a new alarm, they went to 
Billerica. While walking in the field, 
after hearing the firing at Lexington, 
Adams said to one of his companions, "It 
is a fine day." "Very pleasant," was the 
reply, having reference to the brightness 
of the dawning day. "I mean," was the 
earnest and prophetic reply, "I mean this 
is a glorious day for America." They 
made their way to Philadelphia in time 
for the second session of Congress, May 
10, 1775. Here Adams stood almost alone 
in proposing immediate separation from 
the mother country. On June 12th Gen- 
eral Gage proclaimed pardon "to all per- 
sons who should lay down their arms and 
return to the duties of peaceful subjects, 
excepting only from the benefits of such 
pardon, Samuel Adams and John Plan- 
cock, whose ofifences are of too flagitious 
a nature to admit any other consideration 
than that of condign punishment." The 
army, hastily gathered around Boston, 
and which had done so good service at 
Concord and Lexington, was adopted by 
Congress through the efforts of Samuel 
and John Adams, and on his return home 

'tJt e/ia ncoc'h' 


he found that the "Territory of Massa- 
chusetts Bay" had been founded, and that 
he had been made one of the first 
eighteen councillors ; shortly after he was 
made Secretary of State, and forthwith 
he made his home in Cambridge. 

On June 17, 1775, was fought the battle 
of Bunker Hill, in which General War- 
ren was killed; on July 4, 1776, the 
Declaration of Independence was signed, 
and Samuel Adams "reached the most 
triumphant moment of his life." He 
aided in framing the State constitution 
of Massachusetts in 1780, but hesitated 
in accepting the constitution of the United 
States as framed in 1787; although he did 
not actively oppose it; and in the Massa- 
chusetts convention of 1788, having the 
document under consideration, he for two 
weeks sat silent listening to the argu- 
ments of the other members. He then 
decided to support it, reserving only the 
condition that the new congress should 
consider amendments in the nature of a 
bill of rights. His decision to act secured 
Massachusetts to the Union, and carried 
the convention by a vote of one hundred 
and eighty-seven yeas to one hundred 
and sixty-eight nays. It was this pro- 
posed amendment of Samuel Adams that 
led to the attaching of the first ten amend- 
ments to the constitution as declared in 
force December 15, 1791. In 1789 Mr. 
Adams was elected Lieutenant-Governor 
of Massachusetts, and in 1794 was chosen 
its Governor, serving three terms. On 
retiring from the executive office of Mas- 
sachusetts in 1797, Samuel Adams retired 
to private life, taking up his residence on 
Winter street, Boston, where he died Oc- 
tober 2, 1803. 

His only son, Samuel, was educated at 
Harvard, graduating with the class of 
1771. He then studied medicine with Dr. 
Joseph Warren, and served as surgeon 
in the Continental army, whereby he so 
undermined his health that he died in 
Boston in 1788. 


r<eader in the Revolution. 

To the name of John Hancock attaches 
the high distinction of being a very prime 
leader in the events leading up to the 
American Revolution, and so obnoxious 
to the British government that he, with 
Samuel Adams, was specially exempted 
from the immunity promised to rebels 
who would anew testify to their loyalty 
to the crown. 

He was born at Quincy, Massachusetts, 
January 12, 1737. His father, the Rev. 
John Hancock, was ordained as a Congre- 
gational minister at Braintree (now 
Ouincy), Massachusetts, November 2, 
1726, and continued there until his death 
in 1744. 

His uncle Thomas took charge of his 
education, sending him to Harvard, 
where he was graduated in 1754, at the 
age of seventeen. When his collegiate 
life was ended, his uncle entered him as a 
clerk in his counting-house, and in 1760 
sent him to England, and while he was 
there, the death of George II. and the 
accession of George III. occurring, he 
was present both at the funeral of the 
former and the coronation of the latter. 
Returning to Boston, his uncle's death 
left him, at the age of twenty-seven 
years, in possession of one of the largest 
estates within the province of Massachu- 
setts. The first public office which he 
held was that of selectman for the town 
of Boston, and he performed his duties 
for a number of years. When he was 
twenty-nine he was chosen a representa- 
tive of Boston in the General Assembly 
of the province, having for his colleagues 
James Otis, Samuel Adams, and Thomas 
Gushing. Mr. Hancock's convictions, his 
fortune, his business connections, and his 
social and public positions naturally 
made him a leader in observing and in 
planning to thwart the movements of the 
British ministry, which ultimately led to 
the American Revolution. When the 


"Boston Massacre," March 5, 1770, occur- 
red, Hancock was a member of the com- 
mittee appointed by the citizens which 
waited on the governor to demand the 
withdrawal of the troops and iinally 
accomplished that purpose. Coming 
continually into notice by his pronounced 
opinions and their fearless advocacy, he 
was approached by the magnates of the 
royalist party, and an attempt was made 
to secure his adhesion to the British 
administration, alike by intimidation and 
fiattery, but to no purpose. Having been 
selected by his townsmen for the pur- 
pose, he delivered a public oration on an 
anniversary of the "Massacre," com- 
memorating it. It was glowing and fear- 
less in its denunciation, and naturally 
offended the governor. His standing in 
the Provincial Assembly, of which he had 
been elected speaker (although the choice 
had never been confirmed by the Gov- 
ernor), and as an elected member of the 
Executive Council with his outspoken 
and active opposition to the encroach- 
inents of the British ministry, marked 
him as a man for condemnation ; and it 
was in part to secure his person and that 
of his compatriot, Samuel Adams, that 
the military expedition was sent out from 
Concord, from Boston, in April, 1775. 
The night before the battle of Lexington 
(April i8th) Adams and Hancock lodged 
in that village, and, as the soldiers ^ent 
to arrest them entered the house where 
they were, by one door, they withdrew 
by another. On June 12, 1775, was pub- 
lished the proclamation by General Gage, 
commander of the British troops at Bos- 
ton, offering pardon to all rebels, except 
Adams and Hancock, whose offenses, it 
was declared, "are of too flagitious a 
nature to admit of any other consider- 
ation than that of condign punishment." 
In October, 1774, the Massachusetts 
Provincial Congress unanimously elected 
Hancock its president. In 1775 he was a 

delegate to the Continental Congress at 
I'hiladelphia, and was its first president, 
holding the office from May of that year 
until C)ctober, t^yj", when he resigned 
and retired to his native village. On 
July 4. 1776, his bold signature, now so 
familiar, was affixed to the Declaration of 
Independence of the United States. The 
fact that, as first published, it went 
abroad to the world with only his official 
signature appended to it, brought him 
still more conspicuously before the public 
eye than before. His congressional 
duties were performed with wisdom and 
dignity. In 1776 he had been commis- 
sioned major-general of Massachusetts 
militia, and in August, 1778, he com- 
manded the Massachusetts troops in the 
ineffective Rhode Island expedition. He 
was also a member and president of the 
Massachusetts Constitutional Convention 
of 1780, and, when the State government 
went into operation, was the first gov- 
ernor of the commonwealth, being the 
earliest candidate ever chosen for that 
station by the voluntary suft'rages of a 
free people. To that office he was chosen 
for five successive years, and then, after 
an interval of two years, was again 
elected, and by annual reappointment 
occupied the Governor's chair to the close 
of his life. In the presidential election of 
1789 he received four electoral votes. 
After the general government was or- 
ganized and had gone into operation, in 
a suit against the State of Massachusetts 
before a court of the United States, he 
refused to respond to a summons to an- 
swer the prosecution, on the ground that 
an independent State could not be ar- 
raigned for trial before a civil tribunal. 
Flis contention was sustained, and the 
recurrence of such an event was subse- 
quently prevented by an amendment to 
the Federal constitution. 

Governor Flancock married Miss 
Quincy, of Boston. His only son dying 



It was here that Otis, Adams, Quincy, Warren, 
Hancock and numerous other leading patriots 
met to oppose the authority of England. 


in his youth, he had no child to perpetuate 
his name or inherit his fortune. The 
latter was therefore employed by him for 
useful and benevolent purposes, includnig 
large gifts to Harvard College. His 
patriotism cannot be questioned, in view 
of the events of his life that have been 
detailed — its strength is attested by the 
fact that he said to a patriotic club 
at one time: "Burn Boston, and make 
John Hancock a beggar, if tiie public 
good requires it"; and when, in 1776. 
Washington had orders from the Conti- 
nental Congress to destroy Boston if it 
became necessary, in order to dislodge 
the eneni)-, Hancock wroie to the com- 
mander-in-chief that, although j^robably 
the largest property owner in the city, he 
was "anxious the thing should be done 
if it would benefit the cause." Yale and 
Princeton colleges conferred upon him 
the degree of x\. M. in 1769; Brown Uni- 
versity that of LL. D. in 1788; and Har- 
\ard, his ahna riiatcr, the same degree in 
1792. He died at Quincy, Massachusetts, 
October 8, 1793. 

OTIS, James, 

Patriot of the Revolution. 

This gifted man was a principal figure 
in the events leading up to the Revolu- 
tion, and until the achievement of inde- 
pendence. John Adams, who had been 
closely associated with him, and who be- 
came the second President of the United 
States, said of him. "I never knew a man 
Vv'hose love for his country was so sin- 
cere ; never one who suffered so much ; 
never one whose services for any ten 
years of his life were so important or so 
essential to the cause of his country, as 
those of jMr. Otis from 1760 to 1770." His 
later years were marked by impairment 
of his brilliant intellect, and his death 
was tragic. 

He was born at Great Marshes, now 
West Barnstable, Massachusetts, Febru- 

ary 5, 1725. He was the eldest son of 
James Otis of Barnstable and Mary 
Allyne of Connecticut, and was descended 
in the fifth generation from John Otis, 
one of the earliest Massachusetts set- 
tlers. He was prepared for college by 
Rev. Jonathan Russell, and, entering 
Harvard in 1739, was graduated A. B. in 
1743, and A. M. in 1746. For eighteen 
months after his graduation he devoted 
himself wholly to a study of literature, 
and throughout his whole life was an as- 
siduous reader of the ancient and modern 
English classics. He studied law under 
Jeremiah Gridley, and at the age of 
twenty-one was admitted to the bar at 
Plymouth, where he continued the prac- 
tice of his profession until 1750, and then 
settled in Boston. There the talents and 
characteristics which gave force to his 
subsequent public career soon placed 
him at the head of his profession. By 
industrious study he always made him- 
self secure in his premises; as an orator 
he was unusually gifted, bold, energetic, 
decisive, and with a command of lan- 
guage that carried conviction as surely 
as did the incontrovertible positions he 
maintained. Chief Justice Hutchinson, 
who was one of his strongest opponents, 
testifies that "he never knew fairer or 
more noble conduct in a pleader than in 
Otis ; he always disdained to take advan- 
tage of any clerical error, or similar in- 
advertence, but passed over minor points 
and defended his causes solely on their 
broad and substantial foundations." 
Numerous instances have been recalled 
by his biographers, proving that Otis was 
in the habit of refusing to support a cause 
imless he himself felt convinced of its 
justice ; and his reputation for ability and 
probity was so great that he was retained 
to plead in difl'erent parts of the country, 
once going as far as Halifax. In Boston 
he received the appointment of Advocate 


While thus busily engaged in his pro- 
fession, and enjoying reputation as the 
leading lawyer of the province, he con- 
tinued to devote himself to the study of 
literature as well, and during this period 
composed two works, the "Rudiments of 
Latin Prosody." published in 1760. and a 
Greek prosody which remained in manu- 
script. Mis public career was begun in 
1760. In that year the first unpopular 
acts of the arbitrary home administration 
were beginning to excite discontent, 
which was heightened when an order 
was received in council to carry into 
effect the acts of trade. Application was 
then made in the Massachusetts Supreme 
Court for writs of assistance, i. e., war- 
rants to search in private houses for 
smuggled goods ; and these processes 
were so far-reaching and so liable to in- 
tolerable abuse that Chief Justice Sewall 
expressed doubts of their legality or of 
the authority of the court to grant them. 
Sewall died shortly afterwards, and Colo- 
nel Otis, the father of James Otis, applied 
for appointment as his successor, but was 
set aside and the ofifice given to Hutchin- 
son. In the following year Otis was 
called upon in his official capacity to 
maintain the case of the government, but 
the proposed measures were so obnoxious 
to him that he resigned his position of 
Advocate General rather than support 
them, and instead, with Thatcher as his 
colleague, engaged as counsel in behalf of 
the opposing merchants of Salem and 
Boston. His former preceptor, Jeremiah 
Gridley. argued the case for the crown, 
but the afifectionate relations between the 
two were not interrupted by this circum- 
stance. Otis' speech, which unhappily 
has not been preserved, was a masterly 
one ; he pointed out the extreme license 
which would be rendered possible by the 
search warrants, and then, passing be- 
yond the immediate question, showed 
that the principles involved would en- 

danger the freedom of the colonies. The 
occasion has thus been described by John 
Adams : "Otis was a flame of fire. With 
a promptitude of classical allusions, a 
depth of research, a rapid summary of 
historical events and dates, a profusion 
of legal authorities, a prophetic glance of 
his eyes into futurity, and a rapid torrent 
of impetuous eloquence, he hurried away 
all before him * '■" * Then and there, the 
child, Independence, was born." Enemies 
of Otis ascribed the stand taken by him 
to revenge for his father's non-appoint- 
ment to the bench, but Adams and all who 
were engaged with him in the political 
struggle of the time indignantly denied 
the imputation, and, indeed, the fact that 
he resigned a more remunerative office 
with a fair hope for favors from the 
crown, makes it seem certain that his 
motive was a higher one. However, that 
may be, he carried triumphantly the cause 
which he supported, and thereafter he was 
accredited the most popular leader and 
powerful orator in the opposition to arbi- 
trary measures in the colonies. 

Otis was now so popular that in May, 
1761, he was sent to the legislature. 
There he, more than any other individual, 
became an object of great dislike to Gov- 
ernor Bernard His reputation as a leader 
of the popular party was extended to 
England, where the statesman who fav- 
ored the colonists maintained their posi- 
tion by quotations from his writings and 
speeches. He opposed every act of the 
governor which seemed to him to sug- 
gest the assumption of arbitrary power, 
and severely criticised the unconciliatory 
messages of that unpopular official. He 
led in censuring a trifling grant made by 
the governor without the consent of the 
house, and being appointed on a commit- 
tee of three to prepare an answer to the 
governor's message in return, he pub- 
lished, in 1762, a political pamphlet, en- 
titled "A Vindication of the Conduct of 



the House." This is said by Adams to 
contain the germ of all subsequent writ- 
ings in France and America on the sub- 
ject of the rights of free speech. At this 
time Otis preserved the hope of uniting 
the colonies more closely to the mother 
country by concessions wrung from the 
home government, and, while earnestly 
supporting his principles, he was anxious 
not to give offense to the authorities in 
England. In 1764 he published a second 
pamphlet on the "Rights of the Colonies," 
in which he preserved a moderate tone, 
and endeavored to conciliate both parties. 
The pamphlet attracted much attention 
in England, and some approbation, but 
was censured as lukewarm by the most 
ardent of the Americans. His next work, 
"Considerations on Behalf of the Colo- 
nists," which appeared in 1765, was more 
bitter in tone, for new aggressions had 
excited his anger, and he felt himself 
personally injured because of letters cen- 
suring him sent by the governor and 
others to the home authorities. The 
Stamp Act Congress which met in New 
York in October, 1765, was called on his 
motion of four months previous, and he 
was one of its most spirited members. 
In June, 1766, Otis proposed and was 
made chairman of a committee to open 
a gallery in which, for the first time in 
history, the public were officially invited 
to listen to the debates of the legislative 
body. He was elected speaker of the 
house in May, 1767, but the election was 
negatived by the governor. At the open- 
ing of the session of 1768, the house ap- 
pointed a committee to consider the situ- 
ation of public affairs, and Mr. Otis drew 
up most of the important documents pre- 
pared by it. A petition was sent to the 
king, asking redress of grievances, and 
letters were despatched begging the as- 
sistance of several leading English states- 
m,en ; but, failing to receive a favorable 
reply, they finally published on February 

II, 1768, a circular letter drafted by Otis 
and revised by Samuel Adams, in which 
the Assembly called upon other colonies 
to aid in resisting the encroachments of 
the home government. When the legis- 
lature was called upon by the governor 
to rescind this document on the ground of 
its being treasonable, Otis made a speech 
in which he exhorted his colleagues to 
lefuse compliance, and which his oppo- 
nents pronounced "most violent, abusive 
and traitorous." He had by this time 
withdrawn from the practice of his pro- 
fession and devoted himself entirely to 
public affairs, not only leading the inde- 
pendent party in the legislature, but writ- 
ing frequently for the public press, and 
haranguing, it is said, with more force 
vhan elegance, the numerous political 
meetings called by the citizens. His 
talents, rather brilliant than well- 
balanced, marked him as one better fitted 
to arouse than to guide the people. His 
public career was practically closed by a 
quarrel with some customs officers ; a 
stroke upon the head, inflicted in the 
course of the melee, aggravated a tend- 
ency already existing towards insanity, 
and he was ever after subject to fits of 
aberration. He won a verdict of £2,000 
from Robinson, his chief assailant, but on 
receiving an apology from him refused to 
claim the money. After this, he was un- 
equal to any continued effort. In a fit of 
insanity he destroyed all his manu- 
scripts — papers which would be of great: 
value to the historian, and, while de- 
mented, escaped from the house of his 
sister. Mrs. Warren, and took part in the 
battle of Bunker Hill. Later he was re- 
moved to Andover, Massachusetts, where 
on May 2t„ 1783, he came to his death by 
a stroke of lightning, a fate for which he 
had frequently expressed a preference. 

He was married, in 1755, to Ruth Cun- 
ningham, of Boston, who survived him, 
remaining a loyalist until her death. 



REVERE, Paul, 

A Hero of tlie Revolution. 

Paul Revere was born in Poston, Mas- 
sachusetts, January i, 1735, of French 
descent. I lis grandfather, a Huguenot, 
lived on the island of Guernsey, from 
which place his father emigrated to Bos- 
ton, where he learned the trade of a gold- 
smith, and was married. 

Paul Revere was brought up to his 
father's trade, in which he became very 
skillful, being employed to execute fine 
engraving on the silver plate which w^as 
so much in use among the old colonial 
families. The breaking out of the French 
and Indian war stirring military ambition 
in the soul of the young man. he volun- 
teered his services, received a commis- 
sion as lieutenant of artillery, and for a 
time was stationed at Fort Edward, on 
Lake George. After the war he married, 
resuming his trade of goldsmith, and be- 
coming also deeply interested in the me- 
chanical and manufacturing arts in gen- 
eral. He learned the art of engraving on 
copper, and produced portraits of dis- 
tinguished men of the time, as well as an 
engraving which represented the repeal 
of the stamp act in 1766. He did other 
work with a patriotic tendency, publish- 
ing, in 1770, an engraved print of the 
"massacre" in King street, which took 
place March 5th of that year. An act of 
the British parliament having made the 
judges in the colonies independent of the 
people, he was one of the members of a 
grand jury (the last such body under the 
crown) wdiich refused to act in conse- 
quence thereof. In 1775. on the issue 
of paper money by the colony of Massa- 
chusetts, he engraved the plates for it. 
lie was afterward sent by the Provincial 
Congress to Philadelphia, where the only 
[)Owder-mill in the country was located, 
and where he was directed to learn the art 
(jf making powder, with the result that on 

liis return he set up a small powder-mill, 
which he managed successfully. 

Paul Revere's great feat, however, was 
his remarkable ride, so vigorously and 
poetically described in the verse of Long- 
fellow. The night before the battle of 
Lexington, he had engaged to carry ex- 
p^ress, from General Warren to Samuel 
Adams and John Hancock, the news of 
the actual movement of the British from 
I'oston, whenever it should take place, in 
[lursuance of their design to make a de- 
scent upon Concord for the sake of the 
stores and arms which were there. Warn- 
ed by a signal given by a comrade from 
a church tower in Boston, Paul Revere 
rode at full speed from Charlestown to 
liis destination, arousing as he passed, in 
the still hours of the night, occupants of 
the farm-houses, with the cry. "The Brit- 
ish are coming!" Thus the minute-men 
were ready the following day to meet the 
British soldiery when they arrived to 
carry out the object of their expedition. 
Paul Revere succeeded in eluding the 
pickets which had been placed by General 
Gage on the roads between Boston and 
Lexington, and reached the latter place 
before the head of the British column, 
which, on its arrival in the early morning, 
was opposed by about seventy militiamen 
who had formed on the town common 
under command of Captain John Parker. 
The British under Major Pitcairn attack- 
ed this little body, which stubbornly held 
its ground until a number of the men had 
fallen dead or w^ounded, when they re- 
tired, keeping up a scattering fire on the 
British. The latter succeeded in their 
object at Lexington and Concord, but the 
fighting fired the souls of the patriots, 
and aw^akened the spirit which eventually 
freed the colonies. Paul Revere was one 
of those who planned the destruction of 
the tea in Boston harbor, and in the sum- 
mer of 1779 he was a member of the un- 
fortunate Penobscot expedition. After 


ePaui 3i. 



the war closed, he set up a furnace at 
Canton, near Boston, where he employed 
himself in casting church bells, prosper- 
ing in his work, and educating a large 
family of children. He died in Boston, 
in Mav, 1818. 

WARREN, Joseph, 

A Hero of Bunker Hill. 

Joseph \\'arren was born at Roxbury. 
I\lassachusetts, June 11, 1741. His an- 
cestry is traced back in the Boston town 
records to the year 1659. His grand- 
lather, Joseph Warren, was among the 
first settlers of Roxbury, and his father 
was a reputal)le farmer in that part of 
Roxbury now called Warren street, 
where he devoted himself principally to 
fruit raising. He was in moderate cir- 
cumstances, was much respected, and 
several times elected to municipal ofHces. 

Joseph \\'arren received his prelim- 
inary education at the grammar school 
of the town, which was noted for its ex- 
cellence, and at the age of fourteen was 
admitted to Harvard College. There he 
sustained the character of a youth of 
talent, agreeable manners, and generous, 
independent disposition, united with 
great personal courage and determina- 
tion. An anecdote which still survives 
him among the traditions of the college 
illustrates these latter characteristics. 
Some of his classmates had set on foot a 
project to which he was opposed, and had 
arranged a meeting to discuss it in one 
of the upper rooms of an old dormitory. 
With the purpose of excluding him, they 
securely barred the door. Warren, aware 
of their plans, quietly ascended to the 
roof, slid down to the eaves, grasped the 
water-spout, and sprang in at the open 
window. The building was old, the water- 
spout weakened by the rains of a century, 
and it was no sooner relieved of his 
weight than it fell to the ground, where, 
had it fallen a moment before, he would 

have been injured, if not killed. He gave 
a moment's glance at the battered spout, 
then turned around, and saying it had 
served his purpose, without a trace of 
emotion entered into the discussion with 
his classmates. The courage and self- 
possession thus displayed by a lad of 
about sixteen years, disclosed the quali- 
ties that were to make him a leader in the 
turbulent times that were approaching. 

He was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1759. and then studied medicine under 
an eminent Boston physician of the day, 
and was admitted to practice, soon acquir- 
ing a high position in his profession. In 
1764 the smallpox, then the most dreaded 
scourge of the human race, raged in Bos- 
ton, carrying off people by hundreds. 
\'accination was at that time unknown, 
and in a large majority of cases the 
disease was fatal ; but Warren braved the 
contagion, went about freely among the 
suft"erers, ministered to their needs, and 
treated them with such skill as to save 
many lives. His fame spread throughout 
Boston and the neighboring towns; and 
this, with his engaging appearance, cour- 
teous address and recognized abilities, 
won for him the esteem and confidence 
of the community. He was undoubtedly, 
then and afterwards so long as he lived, 
the most popular young man in Massa- 
chusetts. A high standing in his profes- 
sion, and resulting wealth and influence, 
were now distinctly before him. But in 
the following year the passage of the 
Stamp Act awoke his patriotic sym- 
pathies, and a close friendship with 
Samuel Adams doubtless imbued him 
with ideas of resistance to the tyranny of 
the British government. Resistance, at 
this period, did not contemplate forcible 
opposition, it was confined to written 
remonstrance in the public journals, and 
in this Warren bore a distinguished part, 
rjne of his letters in 1768, addressed to 
Sir Francis Bernard, the Colonial Gov- 



ernor, not only greatly aroused the people 
but so strongly excited the animosity of 
Bernard that he proposed to the British 
cabinet that its author should be pro- 
ceeded against for treason. Warren was 
also an effective speaker, and in 1772 was 
invited to deliver the annual oration that 
was then given on the anniversary of the 
so-called "Boston Massacre." Ble was 
appointed a second time to this duty on 
March 6, 1775, but on that occasion it 
was at his own solicitation. Some British 
officers had said publicly that it should 
cost any man his life who presumed to 
speak at that anniversary. This threat 
determined Warren to make an issue 
with the authorities. At an early hour 
the old South Meeting-house was crowd- 
ed to overflowing, forty British of^cers 
being present, some of whom occupied 
the pulpit stairs, and even seats within 
the pulpit itself. The church was so 
thronged that Warren could not force 
his way through the press at the public 
entrance, and he could gain admittance 
only by a ladder placed at a window in 
the rear of the pulpit. Seeing his cool 
determination, the officers in the pulpit 
who had proposed to make trouble, made 
way for him to pass, and permitted him 
to begin his address, which had for its 
sul)ject "The ])aleful influence of standing 
armies in time of peace." A profound 
stillness jiervaded the assemblage. It 
wanted but a few weeks of the battles of 
Lexington and Concord, and all felt that 
a crisis was approaching. They looked at 
one another with anxious but determined 
faces, resolved to visit instant vengeance 
upon any British officer who should at- 
tempt to carry out the threat of assassina- 
tion. It required less cool courage to 
fight bravely than to think clearly and 
connectedly in the presence of personal 
danger: but there was in Warren now, 
not only the calmest intrepidity, but an 
intense and high-souled defiance which 

gave to his words — even when read now 
at the end of more than a century — an 
eloquence that stirs the blood like the blast 
of a bugle. Such another scene has seldom 
occurred in the history of this country. 

The crisis came soon afterward. On 
April 18, 1775, Warren had learned that 
the British commander was to march a 
strong body on the following day to 
seize the military stores that had been 
gathered by the patriots at Concord. In- 
stantly he arranged with Paul Revere to 
ride to Concord at nightfall, to warn the 
country that the British were coming, 
and, before he set out, to light two lan- 
terns in the steeple of Christ Church in 
Salem streec, which should be the signal 
that an attempt was about to be made to 
capture the supplies. Revere's ride has 
been sung by Longfellovv. It lighted the 
fires at Lexington and Concord. Early on 
the morning of the nineteenth, a mes- 
senger rode in haste to the door of War- 
ren's house, with tidings of the battles. 
Warren summoned his pupil. Dr. Eustis. 
and asking him to care for his patients 
during the day, mounted his horse, and 
proceeded to the Charlestown ferry. 
There he met a friend, to whom he said : 
'Keep up a brave heart. They have be- 
gun it — that either party can do ; and 
we'll end it that only we can do." He 
was chairman of the Committee of Safe- 
ty, and he probably rode on to a meet- 
ing of the committee held at the "Black 
Horse,' in Menotomy, now Arlington, 
for he was there at noon when the militia, 
under General Heath, inflicted a severe 
I)unishment upon the retreating British. 
He was by the side of Heath, and in the 
hottest of the fire, when a musket ball 
cut oft" his hair close by the ear. After 
the fashion of the day, the lock was rolled 
and pinned, and it must have required a 
near shot to cut it away. He was with 
the force that followed the British on 
their retreat, and his cool, collected brav- 



It has been called a perfect model of a New Eng- 
land meeting-house of the highest style of the 
olden time, and its walls have echoed to the pa- 
triotic words of Warren, Otis, Hancock and others 


ery won universal admiration. He was 
at this time president of the Provincial 
Congress, then holding its meetings at 
Watertown, and when it was adjourned 
on each day, he uniformly rode over to 
the camp then forming at Cambridge. 
There day by day he won "golden opin- 
ion from all sorts of men," and when the 
militia was ordered to occupy Breed's 
Hill, he had been so often among them 
that he was generally known. On June 
14th he had been commissioned a major- 
general, and it was perhaps on this ac- 
count that Colonel Prescott and General 
Putnam offered him command when the 
British troops were seen to be approach- 
ing for the battle which will be forever 
memorable as that of Bunker Plill. He 
declined the command, but, arming him- 
self with a musket, took a position in 
the ranks, and fought as a common sol- 
dier. Now and then he would leave the 
ranks to encourage the men, but he kept 
on loading and firing until his ammuni- 
tion was exhausted, when he set out to 
leave the field with the retreating 
patriots. He was among the last, and 
was still facing the enemy, when a ball 
struck him in the forehead, and he fell, 
on the never-to-be-forgotten June 17, 
1775. His remains now rest in Forest 
Hill Cemetery. West Roxbury. The 
death of Warren spread universal sorrow 
among the people everywhere ; but it was 
the signal for a general uprising through- 
out the country. Foreigners have often 
asked why Americans should have built 
a monument to commemorate a defeat. 
Technically it was a defeat, but in reality 
it was a victory, for it led to the independ- 
ence of a nation. 

LINCOLN, Benjamin, 

Revolutionary Soldier. 

General Benjamin Lincoln was one of 
the most active and at the same time one 
of the most unsuccessful soldiers of the 

Revolution. It is a historic fact that he 
never conducted a campaign or made an 
attack which did not prove disastrous to 
his own forces. His conduct was long 
the theme of acrimonious discussion, but 
without reflection upon his loyalty or 
personal courage. He was a man of fine 
personal character, and unswerving in- 
tegrity, and he left behind him a reputa- 
tion strangely out of proportion to his 
actual services. 

He was born at Hingham, Massachu- 
setts. January 24, 1733, his family being 
among the first settlers in Hingham, 
where his father was a farmer and malt- 
ster. Being in only moderate circum- 
stances, the latter was able to give his 
son only a common-school education. 
When twenty-two years of age, the 
young man, who was robust and active, 
was appointed adjutant of a regiment of 
militia commanded by his father, in 
which he afterward rose to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. At the outbreak of 
the Revolution he was forty-two years 
old. He took sides with the colonies from 
the outset, was made a member of the 
Provincial Congress in 1775, was appoint- 
ed brigadier-general of militia the next 
year, and was soon after promoted to 
major-general. In October, 1775, he 
joined the army at New York, and after- 
ward went with Washington into New 
Jersey, being soon commissioned major- 
general in the Continental army. At 
Bound Brook, General Lincoln was at- 
tacked by Cornwallis, at the head of a 
large force, and, through the careless- 
ness of the patrols, the enemy almost 
succeeded in entering the camp without 
an alarm being given. Lincoln, however, 
rallied his troops with remarkable rapid- 
ity, and succeeded in leading them off 
into the mountains with comparatively 
small loss. In July, 1777, he was ordered 
by General Washington to join the Army 
of the North, under the command of 



Gates, which was opposing the advance 
of General Burgoyne. The expeditions 
which his forces undertook were fairly 
successful, and proved of the greatest 
importance in the ensuing battle of Sara- 
toga. Lincoln was in command within 
the American lines, but was not person- 
ally present at the battle of October 7th, 
and on the next day he had the misfor- 
tune, while reconnoitering, to come upon 
a l)ody of the enemy, Avho fired a volley 
of musketry, and he was badly wounded 
in the leg. He was invalided for several 
months at Albany, and was then con- 
veyed to his home at Hingham, where he 
was obliged to submit to several painful 
operations. Though lamed for life, in 
August. 1778, he had sufficiently recov- 
ered to rejoin the army, and was desig- 
nated by Congress to the chief command 
of the Southern Department. In Decem- 
ber, 1778, he reached Charleston, which 
w^as threatened by General Prevost, 
Savannah being already in the possession 
of the British. Obliged to organize a new 
army, he was not in sufficient strength to 
begin offensive operations until the 
spring, when for two or three months the 
opposing armies were operating ineffec- 
tually through northern Georgia and Car- 
olina. During this period. General Lin- 
coln made but one sharp attack, on June 
19th, at Stone Ferry, and from which he 
was obliged to retire with considerable 
loss. An attack on the British in Savan- 
nah, October, 1779, in which General Lin- 
coln's forces were aided by Count d' 
Estaing, also proved unsuccessful, and 
the Americans were obliged to retire, 
Count Pulaski being mortally wounded at 
the head of a body of cavalry. It was 
claimed for Lincoln, however, that if his 
orders had been obeyed, he would have 
won a signal victory. General Lincoln 
repaired again to Charleston, which he 
endeavored to put in a defensive con- 
dition, at the same time asking Congress 
for a reinforcement of regular troops. 

Sir Henry Clinton arrived before the city 
in February, 1780, and after formidable 
preparations, made a successful attack, 
and the city capitulated in May. General 
Lincoln surrendered under the capitula- 
tion, and was paroled, returning to Mas- 
sachusetts, and in November, was ex- 
changed. In the campaign of the follow- 
ing year, he commanded a division under 
Washington, and at the siege of York- 
town he was appointed to conduct the 
surrendering enemy to the spot where 
their arms were deposited. 

In October, 1781, General Lincoln was 
appointed Secretary of War by Congress 
and while still retaining his rank in the 
army. lie held this position for two 
years, when he resigned and returned 
home. When Shay's rebellion broke out 
in Massachusetts in 1786-87, General 
Lincoln was appointed by the governor 
and council to command the force sent 
against the rebels. He came upon Shay 
at Amherst, where he was preparing to 
intrench himself, and, making a night at- 
tack, captured a large number of Shay's 
followers. In 1787 Lincoln was elected 
Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts, 
and he was also a member of the conven- 
tion to ratify the new constitution. Later, 
President Washington appointed him 
Collector of the Port of Boston, a position 
which he held for a number of years. 

He possessed considerable literary 
ability, and received from Harvard Col- 
lege the degree of M. A. He was a mem- 
ber of the American Academy of Arts and 
vSciences, and of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. Lie was deeply interested 
in natural history, and wrote papers on 
the migration of fishes and on the ravages 
of worms in trees. He also published 
essays entitled "Indian Tribes: the 
Causes of their Decrease ; their Claims, 
etc.," and "Observations on the Climate. 
Soil and Value of the Eastern Counties 
in the District of Maine." He died on 
May 9, 1810. 


jj^^cc^ (^^ i^i/n^u^^-^ 


PUTNAM, Israel, 

Distinguished Revolutionary Soldier. 

Israel Putnam was born in Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, January 7, 1718, twelfth 
child of Joseph (half-brother of Edward) 
and Elizabeth (Porter) Putnam, grand- 
son of Thomas and Mary (Verne) Put- 
nam and of Israel and Elizabeth (Ha- 
ihornej Porter, and great-grandson of 
John Porter, of William Hathorne and 
of Jolm and Priscilla (Gould) Putnam, all 
immigrants from England about 1630- 
1634, and settlers in Salem, Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony. 

Israel Putnam's father died when he 
was quite young-, and his mother marry- 
ing- Captain Thomas Perley, of Boxford, 
he was brought up on the farm of his 
stepfather, receiving a portion of his 
father's farm near Salem, on reaching 
his majority. In 1739 he married Han- 
nah, daug-hter of Joseph and Mehitable 
(Putnam) Pope, and with his brother-in- 
law, John Pope, removed to Mortlake. 
Connecticut, and settled on a farm pur- 
chased from Governor Belcher. He 
brought his wife and child to this place in 
the autumn of 1740, and the next year 
became sole owner of the estate. He 
planted fruit and shade trees in orchards 
and along the highways which he laid out 
through the place. His success in farm- 
ing, as an orchardist, and in sheep rais- 
ing, made him the leading citizen of the 
community, and he was an early pro- 
moter of good neighborhood schools. He 
was captain in the regiment of Colonel 
Ephraim Williams, raised to protect the 
northern frontier from the invasion of the 
French in 1755, when he joined the army 
of General Phineas Lyman in the expedi- 
tion to Lake George and Crown Point, 
and was present at the defeat of the colo- 
nial army by Baron Dieskau. near Lake 
George, September 8. 1755, followed by 
the successful battle that resulted in the 
annihilation of the army of Dieskau, and 

MASS— 2 

the baronetcy of William Johnson. Put- 
nam displayed such unusual skill in In- 
dian warfare that he was made an inde- 
pendent scout, and operated with the 
rangers under Major Robert Rogers. 
After spending the winter of 1755-56 at 
home, he joined General Abercrombie at 
Fort Edward, and his exploits in saving 
the powder magazine during a tire in the 
fort, his rescue of a party of soldiers by 
passing the rapids of Fort Miller in a 
batteau, and his recapture of provisions 
and military stores seized by the French, 
his capture, torture, escape, and final ex- 
change, form an important part of the 
history of the French and Indian war. He 
was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and 
commanded his regiment in the success- 
ful expeditions of General Amherst 
against Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 
1759, and against Montreal in 1760. He 
accompanied General Lyman to the West 
Indies in 1762, and took part in the cap- 
ture of Havana, August 13, 1762, and in 
1764 was promoted to colonel and joined 
Bradstreet in his march to the relief of 
Detroit, besieged by Pontiac. He had 
spent his winters at home, and in 1765 
resumed farming, also conducting an inn 
in Mortlake Manor, which had been set 
off from Pomfret in 1751. Colonel Put- 
nam became a member of the church, a 
selectman of the town, deputy to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and in the winter of 1772- 
/T, accompanied General Lyman to in- 
spect the lands on the Mississippi river 
near Natchez, Mississippi, given to the 
Connecticut soldiers for their services in 
ihe French and Indian war. 

He was a Son of Liberty, having joined 
the order in 1765, and when General Gage 
was in Boston he visited him, and de- 
clared his allegiance to the cause of the 
colonies, but soon changed his views. 
Hearing of the battle of Lexington, while 
ploughing in his field, he mounted his 
horse, rode all night, and reached Cam- 



bridge, Massachusetts, the next morning. 
He proceeded the same day to Concord, 
whence he sent a messenger back to 
Pomfret to have the militia assemble. 
The next week he returned home, and 
was appointed brigadier-general by the 
legislature, and was given command of 
the militia of the colony. He joined the 
patriot army at Cambridge, and com- 
manded at the battle of Bunker Hill, June 
^7' ^775- O" June 19 he was made 
major-general in the Continental army, 
and placed in command of the division 
stationed at Cambridge. He was next 
ordered to chief command of the army at 
New York, and on his arrival, April 4, 
1776, proceeded to place the city in a 
condition of defense, to this end declar- 
ing martial law. Washington arrived 
April 13. and continued the work so effi- 
ciently begun by Putnam, who remained 
second in command. On August 17, 
Putnam announced to Washington the 
arrival of General Howe's fleet off Sandy 
Hook, and on August 22, fifteen thousand 
royal troops crossed from Staten Island 
to Gravesend, Long Island. On August 
24 he succeeded General Sullivan in 
command of Brooklyn Heights, and his 
army was defeated August 27, and forced 
to cross the East river to New York, witli 
his five thousand men. On the retreat to 
Harlem, he commanded the rear-guard, 
and after distinguishing himself in the 
battle of Harlem Heights, he was sent 
with a detachment to the support of Gen- 
eral McDougall at White Plains, but ar- 
riving too late, crossed the Hudson river 
to Fort Lee, where after the capture of 
Fort Washington, November 26, 1776, 
and the discovery of the treachery of 
General Charles Lee, he was placed in 
command of the troops in Philadelphia, 
where he constructed fortifications and 
prepared the city against threatened Brit- 
ish attack. In January, 1777, he went into 
winter quarters at Princeton, New Jer- 
sey, and in May, 1777, was transferred 

to the command of the troops in the 
Highlands of the Hudson river, with 
headquarters at Peekskill, from which 
post he was forced by the British to re- 
treat to Fishkill in October, but re- 
occupied Peekskill on the retirement of 
Sir Henry Clinton to New York. His 
delay in complying with Washington's 
directions to reinforce the army at Phil- 
adelphia, now threatened by Howe and 
Clinton, brought a severe reprimand from 
the commander-in-chief, and he was 
ftlaced on recruiting duty in Connecticut. 
He defended the State against the raids 
of Governor Iryon, when Danbury was 
burned, April 26, 1777, and during the 
winter of 1778-79, made his escape from 
Tryon's cavalry by dashing down the 
precipice at Greenwood. He commanded 
the right wing of the American army at 
the battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778, 
and at West Point on the Hudson, July to 
December, 1779, and while on his return 
to Washington's headquarters at Morris- 
town after a visit to Pomfret. he was 
stricken with paralysis at Hartford, Con- 
iiecticut, and this disease closed his mili- 
tary career. 

He married, as his second wife, in 
1767, Deborah (Lathrop) Avery Gard- 
ner, widow of John Gardner, and she ac- 
companied him on most of his campaigns, 
and died at his headquarters in the High- 
lands in 1777. An equestrian statue by 
J. O. A. Ward was unveiled in Brooklyn, 
Connecticut. June 14, 1888. Lives of 
General Israel Putnam have been writ- 
ten by David Humphreys (1790) ; by O. 
W. B. Peabody in Sparks' "American 
Biography"; by William Cutler (1846); 
by the Rev. Duncan N. Taylor, D. D. 
(1876), and by William Farrand Living- 
ston (1901). In the election of names for 
a place in the Hall of Fame for Great 
Americans, New York University, Octo- 
ber, 1900, his name in "Class N, Soldiers 
and Sailors," received ten votes. He died 
in Brooklyn, Connecticut, May 29, 1790. 

Bunker Hill Monument. 


PRESCOTT, William, 

Revolutionary Soldier. 

William Prescott was born at Groton, 
Massachusetts, February 20, 1726, son of 
Judge Benjamin Prescott. His family 
were early English settlers in Massachu- 

\\'illiam Prescott is first heard of in 
the French and Indian war, as a lieuten- 
ant of the provincial troops which cap- 
tured Cape Breton in 1758. His conduct 
during that campaign was so commend- 
able that the British general offered to 
procure for him a commission in the regu- 
lar army, but he declined it in order to 
return home to his family. From this 
time until the approach of the Revolu- 
tionary War, he remained on his farm at 
Pepperell. filling certain town offices, and 
enjoying the esteem and affection of his 
fellow citizens. On the outbreak of the 
trouble between the colonies and the 
mother-country he took a deep interest 
in afi'airs, and in 1774 was appointed to 
the command of a regirhent of minute- 
men organized under authority of the 
Provincial Congress. On receiving no- 
tice in April, 1775, of the intended oper- 
ations of General Gage against Concord, 
he marched his regiment to Lexington, 
but the British troops had retreated be- 
fore he arrived. Prescott then joined the 
army at Cambridge, the greater number 
of his officers and men volunteering to 
serve with him for the first campaign. On 
June i6th three regiments were given to 
Colonel Prescott, who was ordered to 
Charlestown to take possession of Bunker 
Hill, and to throw up works for its de- 
fence. At this time the British force in 
Boston numbered about six thousand 
effective men, including regiments and 
parts of regiments of the very elite of the 
British army, besides six companies of 
royal artillery and two battalions of 
marines. These troops were in barracks 
or intrenched camps on Boston Common, 

"the Neck," and "Fort Hill," on the east; 
Copp's Hill on the north, and Beacon Hill 
on the west and south. On Copp's Hill 
was a battery commanding Charlestown, 
and strong works had been carried 
across "the Neck" toward Roxbury. In 
the actual conflict at Bunker and Breed's 
hills, the numbers on each side were 
about equal, fluctuating during the day 
between two thousand and three thous- 
and men, though probably not more than 
fifteen hundred Americans manned their 
lines, at any one time during the engage- 
ment. The headquarters of the Ameri- 
cans were at Cambridge, where General 
Artemas Ward, who was in nominal com- 
mand, remained during the action. The 
fighting was supposed to be conducted 
under the directions of a Committee of 
Safety, but Colonel Prescott was prac- 
tically in command, with Warren, Stark, 
Putnam and others under him or co- 
operating with him. On the morning of 
June 17, 1775, heavy cannonading 
aroused the garrison, and the inhabitants 
of Boston, from whose housetops large 
bodies of provincial militia could be seen 
busily at work, intrenching Breed's Hill, 
in Charlestown. The British ships of war 
in the river had opened fire upon the 
workmen, who were also fired upon by 
the battery of field guns on Copp's Hill. 
General Gage sent a considerable force 
under General Howe to attack and dis- 
lodge the Americans — ten companies of 
light infantry, ten of grenadiers, and some 
companies of royal artillery, with twelve 
guns. These troops embarked about 
noon, in two divisions, and landed with- 
out opposition at Morton's Point, near 
the head of the present Chelsea bridge. 
In one of the boats engaged in forward- 
ing the troops, was Cuthbert Colling- 
wood, afterward Admiral Lord Colling- 
wood, of the British navy, who was Lord 
Nelson's second in command at the great 
naval battle of Trafalgar. On landing. 



General Howe formed his troops in three 
lines, and then sent back to Boston for 
reinforcements. Since midnight of the 
i6th the Americans had thrown up a re- 
doubt with an embankment upon its left 
flank, extending about one hundred yards 
towards the Alystic river, the work hav- 
ing been performed by one thousand Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut men com- 
manded by Colonel Prescott. This forti- 
fied position was Breed's Hill, a neigh- 
boring eminence to Bunker Hill, and was 
selected as offering the best opportunity 
for defence. The line to the Mystic river 
was extended by a low stone wall topped 
with wooden rails, near the base of 
Bunker Hill, the entire line strengthened 
with fence rails and whatever timbers 
were convenient. Here Connecticut and 
New Flampshire men, under Knowlton, 
Stark and Reed, brought into action two 
light six-pounders, supporting their bat- 
tery with a sharp fire from the riflemen. 
General Putnam, who had seen service in 
the French and Indian war, is credited 
with having done effective work in stimu- 
lating the courage of his men, and in 
taking advantage of positions which he 
saw were important. In the meantime 
some few reinforcements had reached the 
Americans, while General Howe's force 
had been strengthened by the Forty- 
seventh Regiment, the First Marine Bat- 
talion under Pitcairn, and some additional 
companies of light infantry and grena- 
diers. About three o'clock in the after- 
noon the fighting was begun by the Brit- 
ish artillery, while Howe formed his 
troops in columns of attack. The grena- 
diers marched directly for the rail fence, 
while the light infantry moved by the 
right to flank it, and take it in reverse, 
General Howe personally superintending 
the attack. On the left, under General 
Pigott, all the other regiments advanced 
in line against the breastwork and re- 
doubt. Howe's plan was to break through 

the American left, and attack the redoubt 
and breastwork from the rear, thus cut- 
ting off the Americans while retreating. 
Unfortunately for the British, they failed 
to capture the rail fence, and the plan 
failed. The British troops began firing 
as soon as they came within musketshot 
of the American works ; but the provin- 
cials, who had been ordered to reserve 
their fire until they "could see the whites 
of their enemies' eyes," remained silent 
until the English battle-line crossed the 
fatal boundary, and on the moment a 
blaze ran along the whole line, when the 
smoke lifted, it was seen that whole com- 
panies had withered away, while the 
bugles were sounding a recall, and the 
British veterans were retreating to the 
shore, followed by the exulting cheers of 
the Americans. The same policy was 
followed all along the American line, 
with the same result. Howe, now per- 
ceiving that Charlestown gave some cover 
to the provincial marksmen, ordered the 
village to be set on fire, which so exas- 
perated the Americans that when the 
British made their second attack the 
American fire was even brisker, and 
many valuable British officers fell. The 
situation being perceived from Boston, a 
second reinforcement of marines was sent 
to Howe, while General Clinton himself 
crossed in a boat wath Howe, and Pigott 
led the light infantry and grenadiers for 
their third attack on the breastwork and 
rail fence. By this time powder was fail- 
ing the provincials, and the British artil- 
lery had driven the defenders of the 
breastworks into the redoubt. A deadly 
\olley staggered the British column, but 
it pressed on, and this time, passing over 
the works, a hand-to-hand encounter fol- 
lowed. The battle was now practically 
ended, and the day lost to the Americans, 
though they kept up a desultory firing 
while on retreat. The gallant Dr. War- 
ren, who had come out and volunteered 



as a private soldier, was left on the field. 
Slowly the provincials gave ground be- 
fore the pursuing enemy, but soon, in 
spite of the efforts of Prescott, Putnam, 
and other officers, the retreat became a 
rout. Howe's troops bivouacked on the 
ground, and passed the night lying on 
their arms or throwing up intrenchments. 
More than one thousand of the flower of 
the British soldiery lay dead and wounded 
in front of the American lines. The Ameri- 
cans lost over four hundred in killed and 
wounded, and five of the six small field 
guns which they took into action. They 
took a more advanced position than they 
had occupied on the peninsula, and from 
that day a British column was never seen 
on the shore of the mainland, the contest 
for the possession of Boston being reduced 
to a question of artillery practice. From 
a report of the share of the Fourth, or 
"King's C^wn," Regiment in the battle of 
]^)Unker Hill is extracted the following: 

The King's troops had to advance on a hot 
summer's day in the face of a sharp and well- 
directed fire, and to ascend a steep hill covered 
with grass, reaching to their knees, and inter- 
sected with walls and the fences of various en- 
closures. Twice they were stopped, and twice 
they returned to the charge, and by their un- 
daunted resolution and steady perseverance they 
eventually triumphed over twice their own num- 
bers, and carried the heights at the point of 
the bayonet. This proved one of the most san- 
guinary battles on record, and the superiority 
of the British troops was preeminently displayed. 
The two flank companies of the "King's Own" 
had one sergeant and thirteen rank and file 
killed, and two captains, two lieutenants, one 
sergeant, one drummer, and twenty-nine rank 
and file wounded. 

General Burgoyne witnessed the battle 
from Copp's Hill, while he and Lord 
Percy remained on duty in Boston. The 
former cannonaded the American force 
at Roxbury, from the British lines on 
Boston Neck, in order to prevent rein- 
forcements being dispatched to the battle- 

field. In a letter to Lord Stanley, Fiur- 
goyne says : 

Howe's disposition was extremely soldierlike; 
in my opinion it was perfect. As his first arm 
advanced up, they met with a thousand impedi- 
ments and strong fences, and were much ex- 
posed. They were also very much hurt by the 
musketry from Charlestown, though Clinton and 
I did not perceive it till Howe sent us word 
by boat, and desired us to set fire to the town, 
which was immediately done; we threw a parcel 
of shells, and the whole was instantly in flames. 
Our battery afterward kept up an incessant fire 
on the heights. It was seconded by a number 
of frigates, floating batteries and one ship of the 

This letter shows under what sharp 
firing the Americans held their own, al- 
though totally inexperienced in fighting, 
and behind only the slightest of fortifica- 
tions. The Americans being defeated, 
and the king's troops in possession of the 
intrenchments. General Howe sent to 
General Gage for additional reinforce- 
ments, and obtained four regiments of 
foot, the Second Marine Battalion, and a 
company of artillery with six guns. Their 
victory had gained for them about one 
hundred and forty acres of fine lands, 
with all the gardens and orchards belong- 
ing to Charlestown — a matter of con- 
siderable importance to the British, who 
were holding Boston, as insuring a suffi- 
ciency of vegetables and fruit. The exact 
number of officers and men killed and 
wounded on the British side was one 
thousand and forty-one. of whom ninety- 
two were officers. Dr. Warren was 
wounded and lying in the trenches, when 
a British soldier perceiving him prepared 
to run him through the body with his 
bayonet. The doctor desired that he 
would not kill him ; he was badly wound- 
ed, he said, and could not live a great 
while longer. The soldier thereupon 
swore that he would kill him for doing 
more mischief than anvone else, and im- 



mediately ran him through the body. The 
doctor had been conspicuous during- the 
engagement, in a hght colored coat, with 
a white satin waistcoat laced with silver, 
and white breeches with silver loops, 
which the soldier was seen to strip from 
his body. He was supposed by the Brit- 
ish to be the commander of the American 
army on that day. Colonel Prescott lost 
nearly one-quarter of his own regiment 
in the action. When he was at length 
forced to order a retreat, he was one of 
the last who left the intrenchments. He 
was so convinced that the enemy were 
disheartened by the severe and unex- 
pected loss which they had sustained, 
that he requested the commander-in-chief 
to give him two regiments, and he would 
retake the position the same night. In 
regard to the disputed command at 
Bunker Hill, Bancroft says: "No one ap- 
peared to have any command but Colonel 
Prescott. and his bravery can never be 
enough acknowledged and recorded." 

Prescott continued in the service until 
the beginning of 1777, when he resigned 
and returned home ; but in the autumn of 
the same year he went as a volunteer to 
the northern army, under General Gates, 
and assisted in the capture of General 
Burgoyne, and this was his last military 
service. Pie was subsequently for several 
years a member of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, and died on his estate at 
Pepperell, October 13, 1795. 

GERRY, Elbridge, 

Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

h21bridge Gerry was born in Marble- 
head, Massachusetts, July 17, 1744, son 
of Thomas and Elizabeth (Greenleaf) 
Gerry. His father was a native of New- 
ton-Abbot, England, and emigrated to 
America in 1730, settling in the place 
where the son was born, and where he 
became a prosperous merchant. 

He graduated from Harvard College in 

1762, and in 1765 delivered a master's 
oration in which he opposed the Stamp 
Act and other revenue measures adopted 
by the mother country, to the oppression 
of the colonists. He engaged in mercan- 
tile business, in which he amassed a for- 
tune. Lie represented Marblehead in the 
General Court almost continuously from 
1773 to 1814. In 1773, with Hancock and 
Orme, he was appointed on the Commit- 
tee of Correspondence which was so 
powerful an agency in forwarding the 
Revolutionary cause. He was a w-arm ad- 
herent of Samuel Adams, and was a dele- 
gate to the Provincial Congress that met 
annually at Cambridge and Watertown, 
and served on a committee in the collec- 
tion of ammunition and supplies for the 
militia. He drew the bill adopted in 1775 
for the establishment of an admiralty 
court for the protection of privateers and 
the distribution of prize money, a measure 
that led up to the establishment of a 
national navy. He was a delegate to the 
Continental Congress in 1776-80 and 1783- 
85, and was a member of the committee 
to provide supplies for the army, and on 
the standing committee on the treasury. 
He was one of the first to advocate a 
Declaration of Independence, seconded 
the motion for its adoption, and affixed 
his signature to the immortal paper. With 
Morris and Jones he was sent by Con- 
gress in 1778 to visit Washington at his 
headquarters on the Schuylkill, to de- 
termine the cause for the failure to prose- 
cute a vigorous campaign, and upon their 
report was based some question of the 
military ability of the commander-in- 
chief. This was no doubt encouraged 
by the extensively circulated "Conway 
Cabel" circulars, and brought upon the 
New England delegates charges of com- 
plicity in a determined effort to supplant 
Washington by the promotion of General 
Gates. In 1799, when peace negotiations 
were opened, he insisted on the protec- 



tion of the fishing- rights of the colonies. 
As chairman of the treasury committee 
he investigated the accounts of General 
Benedict Arnold, and thus gained the dis- 
pleasure of that officer. He vacated his 
seat in Congress in February, 1780, upon 
the ground that the sovereignty of Mas- 
sachusetts had been violated by the re- 
fusal of Congress to order the ayes and 
nays on a question of order presented by 
him ; and in this he was sustained by the 
Massachusetts Legislature, which for- 
mally protested against the action of Con- 
gress in the matter. The General Court 
returned him as a delegate in 1783. In 
the meantime he had been elected to both 
houses of the State legislature, but de- 
clined a seat in the senate, preferring to 
serve in the house. He was a member 
of the committee to arrange a treaty of 
peace with Great Britain. Fie opposed 
the organization of the Society of the 
Cincinnati as unrepublican. In 1783 he 
was the chairman of two committees to 
examine sites for a Federal capital. 

He was a member of the Federal Con- 
stitutional Convention in New York in 
1789, and in that body exerted his influ- 
ence to prevent the incorporation of any 
monarchical features in the instrument; 
and, when the constitution as adopted was 
presented, he joined Randolph and Ala- 
son in refusing assent, upon the ground 
that that instrument gave too much power 
to the President. Upon his return to 
Massachusetts he was refused an election 
to the State Constitutional Convention, 
but was invited to attend its sessions for 
the purpose of answering questions of 
fact with reference to the constitution, 
but, when reminded of the limitations of 
his position, he withdrew. He was elected 
as a Republican to the First and Second 
Congresses, 1789-93. With Marshall and 
Pinckney he vv^as appointed by President 
Adams an envoy to France, to secure 
indemnity for French depredations on 

United States commerce. The conduct 
of Talleyrand disgusted Marshall and 
Pinckney and they returned home. Gerry 
remained, hoping to avert a war with 
France, but his efiforts were unsuccess- 
ful and he was called home by his gov- 
ernment. He was the Republican candi- 
date for Governor, and was defeated by 
Caleb Strong by a small majority, but 
was elected to the office in 1810 and again 
in 181 1. His dismissal of all civil office 
incumbents and appointment of Repub- 
licans, together with redistricting the 
State in the interests of his party (the 
origin of the word "gerrymander" as ap- 
plied to certain political trickeries), lost 
to him the control of the State govern- 
ment, which, with the next national Con- 
gress, passed into the control of the Fed- 
eralist. In 1812 he was elected Vice- 
President, on the same ticket with Presi- 
dent Madison, and he presided over the 
Senate during the first, second, and part 
of the third, session of the Thirteenth 
Congress, to the time of his death, in 
Washington City, November 23, 1814. 

He was a fellow of the American x\cad- 
emy of Sciences, and received the honor- 
ary degree of Doctor of Laws from Har- 
vard College. He married Ann, daughter 
of Charles Thompson, clerk of the Conti- 
nental Congress and she survived him, 
with six dauofhters and three sons. 

ADAMS, John, 

Distingaislied Statesman, President. 

John Adams, second President of the 
United States, and Father of the American 
Navy, was born at Braintree (Ouincy), 
Massachusetts, October 19 (o. s.), 1735, 
son of John and Susanna Boyleston 
Adams. His first American ancestor, 
Henry Adams, Puritan, emigrated from 
Devonshire, England, in 1636, he having 
been granted a tract of land embracing 
forty acres at Braintree, in the Province 
of Alassachusetts. He broufrht over with 



him eight sons, and was one of the origi- 
nal proprietors of the town of Braintree. 
It was the custom of the Adams family 
to educate the eldest son of each genera- 
tion for some profession, and John was 
carefully prepared for Harvard College, 
which he entered in 175 1, graduating 
thence a Bachelor of Arts, in 1755. While 
at college, a great future was predicted 
for him, the acuteness and originality of 
his mind and the frankness and inde- 
pendence of his character being fully 
recognized even at that early date. Im- 
mediately after his graduation he accept- 
ed an invitation to take charge of the 
grammar school at Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts. The occupation of teaching, 
however, did not prove at all congenial 
to the high spirited and ambitious youth, 
and in a letter dated at Worcester, Sep- 
tember 2, 1755, he thus facetiously de- 
scribes, for the edification of his friend, 
Robert Cranch, "the situation of my 
mind :" 

When the nimble hours have tackled Apollo's 
courses, and the gay deity mounts the eastern 
sky, the gloomy pedagogue arises, frowning and 
lowering like a black cloud begrimed with un- 
common wrath, to blast a devoted land. When 
the destined time arrives he enters upon action, 
and, as a haughty monarch ascends his throne, 
the pedagogue mounts his awful great chair and 
dispenses right and justice through his empire. 
His obsequious subjects execute the imperial 
mandates with cheerfulness, and think it their 
high happiness to be employed in the service 
of the emperor. Sometimes paper, sometimes 
pen-knife, now birch, now arithmetic, now a 
ferule, then A, B, C, then scolding, then flatter- 
ing, then thwacking, calls for the pedagogue's 
attention. At length, his spirits all exhausted, 
down comes pedagogue from his throne and 
walks out in awful solemnity through a cringing 
multitude. In the afternoon he passes through 
the same dreadful scenes, smokes his pipe, and 
goes to bed. The situation of the town is quite 
pleasant * * * but the school is indeed a 
school of affliction. A large number of little 
runtlings just capable of lisping A, B, C, and 
trouljling the master. But Dr. Savil tells me for 

my comfort, "by cultivating and pruning these 
tender plants in the garden of Worcester, I shall 
make some of them plants of renown and cedars 
of Lebanon." However this be, I am certain 
that keeping this school any length of time 
would make a base weed and ignoble shrub 
of me. 

It was his father's wish that he should 
enter the ministry, and in various letters 
written to friends are found recorded his 
strong predilection for preaching. But, 
after long and careful deliberation, in 
which he weighed the advantages and dis- 
advantages of a career as lawyer, doctor, 
clergyman, soldier, farmer and merchant, 
he iinally decided to adopt the legal pro- 
fession, llis great objection to entering 
the ministry was the frigidity of Calvin- 
ism, and his father, respecting his views. 
though not coinciding with them, per- 
mitted him to follow his inclination in 
the matter, lie was peculiarly adapted 
for the profession he had chosen ; for, in 
addition to his superior mental endow- 
ment, he was possessed of a sound con- 
stitution, a clear, resonant voice, a lively 
sensibility, high moral sense, great self- 
confidence and oratorical gifts of a high 
order. In September, 1756, he entered 
the office of Colonel James Putnam, a 
distinguished lawyer of W^orcester, and 
arjplied himself with great diligence to 
the study of the law, continuing his teach- 
ing meantime as a means of livelihood. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1758, being 
presented by Mr. Jeremy Gridley, then 
Attorney-General of the province, and 
one of the most eminent lawyers and 
scholars of the time. It was upon the 
advice of Mr. Gridley, who entertained a 
high opinion of his ability, that he made 
an especial study of civil law, and in this 
he acciuired that complete inastery of the 
subject which was of such vital impor- 
tance to him in after years. He com- 
menced practice in the little village of 
Braintree, and lived at the old homestead 



until his marriage, on October 25, 1764, 
to Abigail, daughter of Rev. William 
Smith, pastor of the First Congregational 
Church of Weymouth. Miss Abigail's 
older sister, Mary, had married Richard 
Cranch, a lawyer of some reputation and 
considerable wealth. The suit of Mr. 
Adams, who had neither fame nor for- 
tune, was not looked upon with favor by 
anyone at the parsonage save Miss Abi- 
gail herself. It was the custom in those 
days to have a marriage sermon, and Dr. 
Smith permitted his daughters to choose 
their own text. When Mary was mar- 
ried, her text was, "Mary hath chosen 
that good part which shall not be taken 
away from her." Father Smith empha- 
sized "that good part," which was obedi- 
ence. John and Abigail heard the ser- 
mon, and, when the time came for Abi- 
gail to choose a text, she selected, "John 
came neither eating nor drinking, and 
they. said, 'he hath a devil'." Dr. Smith 
objected, but Abigail insisted, and the 
text was used to the great amusement of 
the friends and parishioners. Mr. Adams 
had great reason to delight himself in his 
wife ; for, in addition to the fact that his 
marriage with her brought him into alli- 
ance with several families of note and in- 
fluence, she was a woman of noble char- 
acter, charming manner, calm judgment, 
ready resource, and uncompromising pa- 

The first year of his marriage was spent 
in P>raintree. and he began to take an 
active part in the conduct of the affairs 
of the village. He had before held the 
office of surveyor of public highways, and 
was now chosen selectman, overseer of 
the poor, and assessor. But, though he 
had not heretofore taken any prominent 
stand before the public, many passages 
from the early pages of his diary, and 
from letters written in young manhood, 
foreshadow the statesman and patriot he 
was destined to become. As early as 1755, 

during the dark days of the war with 
France, he had written : "All that part of 
creation which lies within our observa- 
tion is liable to change. Even mighty 
states and kingdoms are not exempted. 
If we look into history we shall find some 
nations rising from contemptible begin- 
nings and spreading their influence till 
the globe is subjected to their way. When 
they have reached the summit of gran- 
deur, some minute and unsuspected cause 
commonly effects their ruin, and the em- 
pire of the world is transferred to some 
other place. Immortal Rome was first but 
an insignificant village, * * * but by de- 
grees it rose to a stupendous height * * ♦ 
But the demolition of Carthage by re- 
moving all danger, suffered it (Rome) to 
sink into debauchery, and made it, at 
length, an easy prey to barbarians. Eng- 
land, immediately upon this, began to in- 
crease * * * in power and magnificence ; 
and is now the greatest nation upon the 
globe. Soon after the Reformation a few 
people came over into this new world, 
for conscience sake. Perhaps this appar- 
ently trivial incident may transfer the 
seat of empire into America. It looks 
likely to me." Here is exhibited the stu- 
dent looking into the past and seeing 
clearly by the aid of its light the glory 
of the future, unclouded by the gloom of 
the present. He saw, even at that early 
day, that it was only through union that 
the colonies could ever hope to achieve 
self-government. "The only way," wrote 
he, "to keep us from setting up for our- 
selves is to disunite us. Divide ct iuipera." 
The passage of the obnoxious Stamp 
Act in 1765 was the occasion which roused 
into action all the dormant faculties of 
Mr. Adams' mind, and from that time he 
was prominent in all the measures taken 
to protect the colony from the exactions 
of the mother country. Fearless in the 
expression of his honest convictions he 
wrote at this time: "Be it remembered, 



liberty at all hazards be defended ; * * * 
we have an indisputable right to demand 
our privileges against all the povv^er and 
authority on earth." To Mr. Jonathan 
Sewall, a friend of his youth w^ho had 
espoused the Royalist cause, and who 
urged upon Mr. Adams the hopelessness 
of entering into a contest with so irre- 
sistible a foe as England, he said: "I 
know that Great Britain is determined on 
her system ; and that every determination 
determines me on mine. You know I 
have been constant and uniform in oppo- 
sition to all her measures. The die is now 
cast, I have passed the Rubicon ; sink or 
swim, live or die, survive or perish, with 
my country, is my unalterable determina- 

At a town meeting held immediately 
after the announcement of the passage of 
the Stamp Act, he presented a series of 
resolutions in regard to the measure, 
which was intended for the instruction 
of the representatives to the assembly. 
The resolutions were unanimously adopt- 
ed, and, being published in Draper's 
paper, were adopted by forty other towns 
in the province, for the instruction of 
their respective representatives. It was 
at this time that he wrote a number of 
articles for the "Boston Gazette" under 
the title, "An Essay on Canon and Feudal 
Laws." His aim in writing was not to 
elucidate the principles of either canon or 
feudal law, but to hold them up as objects 
of abhorrence, that Americans might see 
the conspiracy between Church and State 
for the oppression of the people. He 
wished to inculcate genuine principles 
of freedom ; to call attention to the truth 
that the only legitimate foundation for a 
government is the will and happiness of 
the people ; and to arouse Americans to 
the assertion and defence of their rights. 
These papers were reprinted in London 
under the title, "A Dissertation on the 
Canon and Feudal Law," and were gen- 

erally attributed to Mr. Jeremy Gridley, 
then Attorney-General of the province. 
In December, 1765, Mr. Adams appeared 
with Otis and Gridley before the Gov- 
ernor and Council, to ask for the reopen- 
ing of the courts, contending that the 
Stamp Act was illegal, the colonies hav- 
ing no representative in Parliament. "The 
freeman," he said, "pays no tax, as the 
freeman submits to no law but such as 
emanates from the body in which he is 

In 1768 he moved to Boston, occupying 
v/hat was known as the "White House," 
in Brattle Square. Governor Bernard 
offered him the office of Advocate-Gen- 
eral, but although ambitious and needing 
the emoluments of the offtce, he declined, 
lest he should hamper his own freedom 
of action. He would not even accept the 
appointment of justice of the peace. At 
the time of the "Boston Massacre" in 1770, 
notwithstanding his sympathies with the 
people, he defended Captain Preston and 
the soldiers under his command, nor did 
this straightforward manliness harm him, 
for in the same year he was elected to the 
(jeneral Court. His defence of Captain 
Preston and all the attendant circum- 
stances have been held to be the first 
critical period of his life. His election 
to the House of Representatives commit- 
ted him to a more public adherence to 
the cause of the people. From this time 
he was active in all political measures, 
though he recognized the precarious con- 
dition of matters affecting private and 
public life, and felt that he was surrender- 
ing ease and safety. He said: "I con- 
sider the step a devotion of my family to 
ruin, and of myself to death. I have de- 
voted myself to endless labor and anxiety, 
if not to infamy and death, and that for 
nothing except what indeed was and ought 
to be in all, a sense of duty." When his 
wife was told his decision and what peril 
it might involve, the brave, true-hearted, 



patriotic woman exclaimed, though with 
eyes streaming with tears : "You have 
done as you ought, and I am wiUing to 
share in all that is to come, and to place 
my trust in Providence." 

In 1773 Mr. Adams came into direct 
conflict with Governor Hutchinson. The 
latter had been foiled in his attempts to 
tax the colonies without their consent, 
and this largely through the influence of 
Mr. Adams, who had drafted a paper on 
the whole matter and defended it. Hutch- 
inson's letters to the British government 
had been mysteriously obtained and sent 
to Boston by Franklin. These letters im- 
plicated Hutchinson and Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Oliver in a conspiracy against the 
liberties of the colonies. John Adams, 
who had been elected a member of the 
General Court on IMay 25th of that year, 
was present when the letters were read 
and commented upon, and was influential 
in carrying the vote to publish them, and 
in inspiring the address to the king ask- 
ing for the removal of Hutchinson and 

Mr. Adams is known as the "Father of 
the American Navy." His earliest efforts 
in behalf of this important arm of the 
public service were directed to fitting out 
vessels of war to protect the seaport 
towns of New England against English 
depredations early in the war for inde- 
pendence. Afterwards, when a delegate in 
Congress, he secured appropriations for 
the aid of the navy, and as President on 
the outbreak of the trouble with France, 
he organized the Navy Department to 
take the place of the former Board of 
Admiralty. Six frigates, eighteen sloops 
of war and ten galleys were ordered to 
be built or purchased and put in commis- 
sion. Then followed actual hostilities at 
sea, and several French vessels were cap- 
tured. Other vessels of considerable arma- 
ment were authorized. Three well-known 
frigates, the "United States," the "Con- 

stitution" and the "Constellation," were 
by his recommendation manned and em- 
plo}ed by Act of Congress, July i, 1797. 
When the controversy with France was 
settled, March 3, 1801, the President was 
instructed to dispose of the ships be- 
longing to the navy, excepting thirteen 
frigates — seven to be laid up in ordinary, 
and six held ready for service. 

Mr. Adams largely influenced the action 
of the General iVssembly in bringing 
about the impeachment of Chief Justice 
Oliver, and in consequence the court was 
not reopened until aftei: April 19, 1775, 
when the provincial government was in 
authority. The time had now arrived 
when more decisive measures were neces- 
sary, and the era of physical force was 
inaugurated. "Reason was exhausted, and 
nothing was left but arms." The First 
Continental Congress was called by the 
Assembly convened June 17, 1774, at 
Salem, and holding its sessions with 
closed doors. ]\Ir. Adams was chosen one 
of the five delegates from Massachusetts. 
The matters to be considered were the 
five Acts of Parliament, the Boston Port 
Bill, and the Regulating Act, introductory 
to the measures looking to final independ- 
ence. Munitions of war were gathered 
and stored away in readiness for any 
emergency. The second Continental Con- 
gress was brought face to face with the 
necessity for an army well officered and 
equipped. New England had inlisted six- 
teen thousand men for the siege of Bos- 
ton, and, in view of the existing state of 
affairs and the need for the colonies to 
present a united front, John Adams, on 
June 15, 1775, nominated Washington as 
commander of the colonial army. This 
has been regarded as the second masterly 
act in his life. In May, 1776, Mr. Adams 
introduced in the Colonial Congress a 
resolution giving the separate colonies 
independent government, and at last was 
able to carry it, despite the opposition of 


the delegates representing the Middle 
States. This, Mr. Adams declared, cut 
the "Gordian knot," and in the next 
month Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, 
moved the resolution of independence, 
which Mr. Adams seconded in a speech 
so able, unanswerable, and convincing 
that jelTcrson declared him to be the 
"Colossus of that debate." This was the 
third conspicuous event in his career. 
The further consideration of Mr. Lee's 
resolution was postponed to the ist of 
Jul}', a committee being formed which 
should put into fitting language a declara- 
tion to accompany the resolution. The 
committee was chosen by ballot, and con- 
sisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and 
Robert R. Livingston. Mr. Lee's resolu- 
tion was debated July ist and 2d; on the 
latter day it was adopted ; then the act of 
Congress setting forth the Declaration of 
Independence, after being debated on the 
2d, 3d and 4th days of July, was passed 
on the 4th. On the 19th the act was 
ordered to be engrossed, and signed by 
every member of the Congress. This was 
done August 2d by those present ; after- 
wards it was signed by those absent or 
who were elected and took their seats in 
that year. The day after the adoption of 
Mr. Lee's resolution, Mr. Adams wrote 
to his wife: "Yesterday the greatest ques- 
tion was decided which ever was debated 
in America, and a greater never was nor 
will be decided among them. A resolu- 
tion was passed without one dissenting 
colony, 'that these united colonies are, 
and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent States.' The day just passed, the 
Fourth of July, 1776. will be a memorable 
epoch in the history of America. 1 am 
apt to believe it will be celebrated by suc- 
ceeding generations as the great anni- 
versary festival. Tt ought to l)e com- 
memorated as the day of deliverance, by 
solemn acts of devotion to God Almi,"-htv. 

It ought to be solemnized with pomp and 
parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, 
bells, bonfires, and illuminations from one 
end of the continent to the other — from 
this time forward, forevermore." 

In 1777 Adams was sent as commis- 
sioner to France, and returned in 1779, 
leaving Franklin as minister plenipoten- 
tiary. Fle was chosen a delegate to the 
convention charged with the duty of fram- 
ing a new constitution for Massachusetts, 
but was unable to serve, as he was sent 
to Great Britain as commissioner to treat 
for peace. Despite some trouble with 
Minister Vergennes in Paris, he was able 
to secure concessions which bore fruit in 
the treaty of 1783. The fourth conspicu- 
ous event in Mr. Adams' life was the 
negotiation of the Dutch loan in October, 
1782, Holland having formally recognized 
the independence of the United States in 
April preceding. Holland had good cause 
for complaint against England. Her peo- 
ple were stirred to indignation because 
of the plunder of St. Eustatius. They 
were predisposed, therefore, to extend 
sympathy and help to any country con- 
tending against England. Just at this 
time, moreover, came the news of Lord 
Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown, Octo- 
ber 19, 1781. Mr. Adams before this had 
made use of every opportunity to intro- 
duce, as it were, America to Holland. He 
invited the liberty-loving people of the 
Hague to clasp hands with the liberty- 
loving people of America. It was done; 
a treaty of commerce was concluded, a 
loan of $2,000,000 effected, and Adams 
held his success to be so considerable, 
that he wrote with exultation : "One 
thing, thank God! is certain, I have 
planted the American standard at the 
Plague. There let it wave and fly in 
triumph over Sir Joseph Yorke and Brit- 
ish pride. I shall look down upon the 
flagstaff with pleasure from the other 
world." L'ollowing this event came the 



series of complications in Paris connected 
with the treaty of peace with England in 
1783. Matters were so dexterously man- 
aged by Mr. Adams and Mr. Jay that 
Vergennes was outgeneralled, and a bril- 
liant success achieved. This triumph of 
diplomacy may be called the fifth distin- 
guished event in his public life. In May, 
1785, while still engaged in negotiating 
a treaty with Prussia, and in securing 
recognition, commercial and otherwise, 
by foreign powers, he was appointed min- 
ister to the Court of St. James. His stay 
in England was by no means agreeable to 
him. His brusque manners, with his un- 
doubted skill in diplomacy, appealed to 
the bluff Englishman's respect for fear- 
lessness in speech and conduct, but the 
time had not come for cordial, pacific 
measures — the result of the war was too 
recent, and British pride too sensitive. 
The king grew frigid, and the courtiers 
froze. No satisfactory solution could be 
agreed upon as to the surrender of west- 
ern ports on or near the Great Lakes, 
consequent largely upon the inability of 
the United States to meet its pecuniary 
obligations to the full. It was more than 
hoped and was expected that the repub- 
lican experiment would fail, that the 
States would fall apart like a rope of 
sand, and the disheartened people turn 
back to the "leeks and garlic" of Great 
Britain. I\Ir. Adams, finding his mission 
abroad to some extent fruitless, and be- 
lieving that some other person than him- 
self would be more agreeable to the court, 
and, under existing circumstances, more 
efficient, asked to be recalled in 1788. His 
request was granted, and he received the 
thanks of Congress for his "patriotism, 
perseverance, integrity and diligence." 

By this time efforts were being made 
to formally organize the government 
under the constitution. Washington was 
chosen president, and Adams vice-presi- 
dent. The difference in the number of 

votes cast respectively for these conspicu- 
ous positions — sixty-nine for the Presi- 
dency and thirty-four for the Vice-Presi- 
dency — was a matter of chagrin to Mr. 
Adams, who knew the value of his serv- 
ices and his self-sacrificing devotion to 
the country. He was staunch in support- 
ing the policy of the President, and was 
able to direct the action of the Senate on 
many questions on which as presiding 
officer, he held the balance of power in 
cases of tie vote. A marked divergence 
in men's views of various political ques- 
tions now gave rise to two distinct 
parties — the Federalist, known afterward 
as Whig and then as Republican ; and the 
ether, first known as Republican, and 
then as Democratic. Mr. Adams was a 
pronounced Federalist. At the second 
presidential election the opposition to 
^Ir. Adams, consequent upon his "Dis- 
courses on Davila." concerning ques- 
tions that rose out of the French revo- 
lution, centred on George Clinton as can- 
didate for the vice-presidency. Adams 
was, however, reelected; and in 1796 
Washington, refusing to entertain the 
thought of a third term, Mr. Adams was 
chosen president of the United States in 
1796, after a prolonged and acrimonious 
contest. When Mr. Adams came into the 
presidency, he retained Secretary of State 
Timothy Pickering, who had been ap- 
pointed by Washington. On May 13, 
1800, he removed him as not being in 
sympathy with his administration, and 
appointed John Marshall, of Virginia, 
who retained the position until January 
27, 1801. when Adams made him Chief 
Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court, to succeed Oliver Ellsworth. In 
the War Department he retained James 
McHenry, who had served as secretary 
under Washington, until he resigned Alay 
13. iSoo. when he appointed Samuel Dex- 
ter, of Massachusetts, who retained the 
portfolio until January i, 1801, w^hen he 



resigned to take the treasury portfolio. 
Adams then appointed Roger Griswold, 
of Connecticut. In the treasury depart- 
ment he found Oliver Wolcott, who had 
succeeded Alexander Hamilton, and Pres- 
ident Adams continued him as secretary 
until November 8, 1800, w^hen he resigned, 
and was at once appointed United States 
Judge of the Supreme Court of the Sec- 
ond District. Mr. Adams appointed Sam- 
uel Dexter secretary, January i, 1801. In 
the Navy Department, Mr. Adams re- 
tained Washington's appointee, Benjamin 
Stoddert, throughout his administration. 
As Attorney-General, Mr. Adams re- 
tained Charles Lee, and James Haber- 
sham as Postmaster-General, both hav- 
ing served in Washington's administra- 
tion. Then followed a time of storm. 
France discriminated against American 
commerce, refused to treat with the com- 
missioners who were appointed, and who 
were so insulted by the envoys of Talley- 
rand that Mr. Adams was compelled to 
advise Congress of the failure of the mis- 
sion and the necessity to prepare for war. 
Papers were called for, and the famous 
"X. Y. Z. correspondence" submitted. 
The excitement in America spread to 
England and Europe. "Millions for de- 
fence, not one cent for tribute," was the 
cry throughout the States. "Hail Colum- 
bia" sung itself out of the hearts of the 
people, l^alleyrand was burnt in effigy ; 
letters of marque were issued ; and an 
alliance with Great Britain against France 
was projected. France weakened. Mr. 
Adams decided to avoid war. Commis- 
sioners appointed to treat with France 
reached Paris to find the direction of 
affairs in the hands of Napoleon. All 
events conspired to disintegrate the Fed- 
eralist party. In the election of 1800 
Adams was refused a reelection. His last 
official act notable for its influence upon 
the dignity of the national judiciary, was 
the appointment of John Marshall as 

Chief Justice of the United States. Mr. 
Adams refused to attend the inauguration 
of his successor, and returned to his home 
in Quincy. In his old age the political 
(lififerences between himself and Jefferson 
were adjusted, and they corresponded on 
friendly terms. Mr. Adams freely ex- 
I^ressed his opinions on public affairs in 
letters and essays written mainly to meet 
the exigencies of the time. His writings 
had the merit of being earnest and force- 
ful. His most important publications 
are: "Canon and Federal Laws" (1765); 
"Rights and Grievances of the American 
Colonies" (1774) ; "Plans of Government 
of the Independent States" (1776) ; "The 
Constitution of Massachusetts" (1779) ; 
"Defence of the American Constitutions" 
(1786). Other papers given to the press 
were published in the journals of the day. 
He insisted that the main points in the 
Declaration of Independence belonged to 
him. Referring to a letter written when 
he was a young man twenty years of 
age, he says: "Jefferson has acquired 
such glory by his Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, in 1776, that, I think, I may 
boast of my declaration of independence 
in 1755, twenty-one years older than his 
* * * The Declaration of Independence 
of 4th of July, 1776, contained nothing 
but the Boston Declaration of 1772, and 
tlie Congressional Declaration of 1774. 
Such are the caprices of fortune ! The 
Declaration of Rights (of 1774) was 
drawn by the little John Adams; the 
mighty Jefferson, by the Declaration of 
Independence of 4th of July, 1776, car- 
ried away the glory of the great and the 

I\Ir. Adams lived to see his son Presi- 
dent of the United States, and to enter 
upon the fiftieth anniversary of American 
independence. The day seemed to recall 
the scenes of fifty years ago, and his last 
audible words were : "Thomas Jefferson 
still survives." It is a strange coinci- 


Major General Artemas Ward. 


dence that the "Father of the Declara- 
tion" had breathed his last that very day, 
and a few hours before the death of the 
great man who inspired the immortal 
document. He died July 4, 1826. 

WARD, Artemas, 

Revolutionary Soldier, Jurist. 

General Artemas Ward, revolutionary 
soldier, jurist and legislator, was born 
at Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber 27, 1727, the son of Colonel Nahum 
Ward, and a descendant of William 
W^ard, who settled at Sudbury. Massa- 
chusetts, in 1639. 

He was graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in the class of 1748. He soon stepped 
into public life, shortly after his gradua- 
tion from college becoming a member of 
the Massachusetts General Assembly and 
of the Executive Council for Worcester 
county. In 1752 he was appointed a jus- 
tice of the peace, and in 1755 a major of 
militia. He took part in the expedition 
under General James Abercrombie against 
the French and Indians in Canada in 
1758, and received promotion to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel of the Third Massa- 
chusetts Regiment. He became active in 
political matters in his native colony, and 
when contentions arose between the colo- 
nists and the representatives of the home 
government, he was so pronounced in his 
support of the American cause that the 
governor withdrew his commission in 
1766. In 1774 he was displaced from the 
house of representatives by the "man- 
damus councillors." The Provincial Con- 
gress commissioned him brigadier-gen- 
eral, October 27, 1774, and captain-general 
of the Massachusetts troops on April 22, 
1775. two days after the beginning of the 
siege of Boston. As senior officer of the 
Massachusetts troops, he was given a 
position superior to the officers com- 
manding troops from Connecticut. Rhode 
Island and New Hampshire. On May 20th 

of the same year he received a commis- 
sion as general and commander-in-chief of 
the Massachusetts troops, and was in 
nominal command during the battle of 
Bunker Hill. Like Warren, he opposed 
the fortification of Bunker Hill, but was 
overruled in council. He remained at 
headquarters at Cambridge, and detailed 
Colonel Prescott to command during the 
engagement. He was severely criticized 
at the time for not reinforcing the troops 
actually engaged against the British, but 
this course was necessary, partly because 
lie felt obliged to guard other possible 
points of attack, and partly owing to the 
lack of ammunition. After Prescott's re- 
treat, that officer begged for fifteen hun- 
dred men to retake the works, but Gen- 
eral Ward refused his request. General 
Ward remained in command in Boston 
until the arrival of General Washington, 
under whom he was appointed first major- 
general in the army on June 17. He had 
command of the right wing of the army 
at Roxbury until April, 1776, when he re- 
signed his commission, but at the earnest 
request of Washington and of Congress 
he served somewhat longer. 

In 1776 General Ward became Chief 
Justice of the Worcester county court, 
member and president of the Executive 
Council in 1777, and in 1779 was elected 
to the Continental Congress, but did not 
take his seat. He was for sixteen years 
in the Massachusetts Legislature, and in 
1785 was speaker of that body. In 1791 
he was reelected to Congress, and was 
continued in his seat until March 3, 1795. 
In December, 1786, while he was on the 
bench, Daniel Shays, at the head of his 
band of insurgents, attempted to prevent 
the session of the court, and Judge Ward's 
action throughout this affair was after- 
wards commended as strong and judi- 
cious. He was "highly esteemed for politi- 
cal integrity, independence of spirit, and 
attention to duty." 



He died at Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 
October 28, 1800. Of his children, Cap- 
tain Nahum Ward was a Revolutionary 
soldier; Artcmas Ward Jr. became Chief 
Justice of Massachusetts; and Thomas 
W. \\ ard was a magistrate and sheriff 
of Shrewsbury for eighteen years. 

PUTNAM, Rufus, 

Revolutionary Soldier, Founder of Ohio. 

Rufus Putnam was born in Sutton, 
Massachusetts, April 9, 1738, son of 
Elisha and Susanna (Fuller) Putnam, 
grandson of Edward (half-brother of 
Joseph) and Mary (Hall) Putnam, and 
of Jonathan and Susan (Trask) Fuller, 
great-grandson of Thomas Putnam, and 
great-great-grandson of John and Pris- 
cilla (Gould) Putnam. His grandfather, 
Edward Putnam, and General Israel Put- 
nam's father, Joseph Putnam, were half- 

Rufus Putnam's father died in 1745, 
and Rufus was taken into the family of 
his grandfather, Jonathan Fuller, at Dan- 
vers, Massachusetts, where he attended 
school two years. His widowed mother 
married Captain John Sadler, of Upton, 
and young Putnam was taken to his step- 
father's home. He had no school privi- 
leges, and when sixteen years old was 
apprenticed to a millwright in North 
Brookfield, and devoted his leisure time 
to study. At the age of nineteen he en- 
listed in Captain Ebenezer Leonard's 
company for service on the northern 
frontier against the French and Indians, 
and reaching Fort Edward in April, 1757. 
was made a scout in the company of 
Captain Israel Putnam. He declined a 
lieutenant's commission in 1759 and re- 
turned to Massachusetts, settling in New 
Braintrce, where he followed the occu- 
pations of millwright and farmer. With 
Colonel Israel Putnam and other officers 
of the colonial army, he explored lands in 
East Florida granted by parliament to 

provincial officers and soldiers, and in 
January, 1773, surveyed the supposed 
grant, which proved to be of no value. 
He was made lieutenant-colonel of Colo- 
nel David Brewer's Worcester county 
regiment ni 1775, joined the American 
army at Roxbury, and was appointed en- 
gineer in charge of the works about Bos- 
ton. On the night of March 4-5, 1775, 
he constructed the fortifications on Pros- 
j)ect Hill, Dorchester Heights, a master- 
ly piece of engineering, which compelled 
the evacuation of Boston, March 17, 1776, 
saving Washington the necessity of at- 
tacking with an inferior force the British 
army entrenched in Boston. He also 
constructed fortifications for the defence 
of Providence and Newport, Rhode 
Island, in December, 1775. He was trans- 
ferred to New York when General Israel 
Putnam commanded that city, and plan- 
ned its defences. He was appointed chief 
engineer of the Continental army with 
the rank of colonel, August 11, 1776. and 
took part in the battle of Long Island, 
August 2-j, 1776, and in the retreats of 
the army to Harlem and across into New- 
Jersey. He directed the construction of 
the temporary fortifications that protect- 
ed the rear of Washington's army and 
prevented the enemy capturing the bag- 
gage trains and stores. Congress, dis- 
appointed that New York had fallen into 
the possession of the enemy, and fearing 
for the safety of Philadelphia, questioned 
the engineering skill of Colonel Putnam, 
and he resigned, December 8, 1776. 
Washington, however, stated that he was 
the best engineer in the army, whether 
American or French. Upon returning to 
Massachusetts, Putnam became colonel 
of the I'^ifth Massachusetts Regiment un- 
flcr Cicneral Gates, and in the campaign 
that culminated in the surrender of Gen- 
eral Burgoyne's army at Saratoga, Octo- 
ber 17, 1777, he l)ore a conspicuous [)art. 
In March, 1778, he sui)crintended the con- 



struction of the defences of the Pligh- 
lanu'^ of the Hudson, in the neighbor- 
hood of West Point, building Forts Wyl- 
lis, Webb and Putnam, the last being 
iiamed for him by General McDougall. 
He also commanded a regiment in Gen- 
eral Anthony Wayne's brigade, joining 
the American forces at Peekskill in June, 
1778, and was in active service from the 
battles of Stony Point to the close of the 
campaign. Transferred to Boston, he 
obtained relief from the government for 
the Massachusetts troops in 1780. and 
was engaged some months in 1782 in ad- 
justing the claims of citizens of New 
York for damages caused to their prop- 
erty by the war. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general, January 8, 1783, and 
by direction of Washington reported a 
comprehensive plan for fortifying the 
whole country, which was submitted to 
Congress but not acted upon, owing to 
the opposition in that body to preparing 
for war in time of peace. He purchased 
the confiscated property of Daniel Mur- 
ray, an absentee, at Rutland, Massachu- 
setts, in 1780, and made it his home. He 
was aide to General Benjamin Lincoln in 
quelling Shay's rebellion in 1787, and 
represented his town in the General 
Court of Massachusetts in 1787. He 
planned the settlement of Ohio Territory 
by a company of veteran soldiers from 
New England in 1782, and in his plans 
made the exclusion of slavery an inflex- 
ible condition. He urged the matter up- 
on General Washington, 1782-87, as 
shown by his correspondence, and the 
President in turn urged the scheme upon 
Congress, but could get that body to take 
no interest in it. Washington therefore 
secured the appointment of Putnam by 
Congress as surveyor of the Northwest 
Territory, and Putnam sent General Tup- 
per as his deputy to examine the country 
in the winter of 1785-86. The two vet- 
erans met at Putnam's home in Rutland, 
MASS-3 33 

Massachusetts, January 9, 1786, and 
planned the meeting of the veteran sol- 
diers of Massachusetts in Boston, March 
I, 1786. When the Ohio Company was 
organized in 1787, Putnam was made 
director of all their affairs. He sent 
Samuel H. Ir'arsons to Congress in 1787 
to negotiate the purchase, but when he 
retired unsuccessful, Putnam sent Man- 
asseh Cutler, who secured the Territory, 
including the provision to exclude slavery 
by the passage of the ordinance of July 
13, 1787, the sum to be paid as fixed by 
the measures passed July 27, to be $1,- 
500,000, the veteran soldiers settling in 
the Territory to surrender their claims 
for half pay. General Putnam then or- 
ganized his band of forty-eight men, jour- 
neyed to Ohio, reaching Marietta on 
April 7, 1788, where they made the first 
permanent settlement in the eastern part 
of the Northwest Territory. The cen- 
tennial of the settlement was celebrated 
by the States carved out from it, April 
7, 1888, when Senator Hoar, of Massachu- 
setts, delivered the oration, in which he 
took occasion to give General Putnam 
his rightful place in the history of the 
settlement of the Northwest. General 
Putnam was appointed judge of the Su- 
preme Court of the Territory in 1789, and 
was commissioned brigadier-general, 
United States Army, May 4, 1792, serving 
with General Wayne in the operations to 
quell the Indian trouble on the frontier. 
He was United States commissioner to 
treat with the Indians, 1792-93, which led 
to a treaty with eight Indian tribes at 
Point Vincent, September 27, 1792. He 
resigned his commission in the army, 
February 15, 1793, and was Surveyor- 
General of the United States, 1793-1803; 
a founder of Muskingum Academy, 1798; 
cind a trustee of the Ohio University, 
1804-24. He was a delegate to the Ohio 
Constitutional Convention of 1802, where 
his determined opposition prevented by 


one vote the introduction of a clause pre- 
serving the rights of slaveholders within 
the State. He was one of the organizers 
of the first Bible Society west of the Al- 
leghanies in 1812. 

He was the last living officer of the 
Continental army. His manuscript diary 
was placed in the library of Marietta 
College, Ohio. A tablet placed on his 
house at Rutland, Massachusetts, by the 
Society of the Sons of the Revolution, 
was unveiled, September 17, 1898, Sena- 
tor George Frisbie Hoar delivering the 
address, "Rufus Putnam. Founder and 
Father of Ohio" (1898). Senator Hoar 
also delivered the oration, "Founding of 
the Northwest," at the Marietta Centen- 
nial celebration, April 7, 1888 (published 
1895), and the oration published in the 
"Evacuation Day Memorial, City of Bos- 
ton" (1901). He was married (first) in 
April, 1761, to Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Ayers, of Brookfield; she died 
in 1762. He married (second) January 
10, 1765, Persis, daughter of Zebulon 
Rice, of Westboro. General Rufus Put- 
nam died in Marietta, Ohio, May 4, 1824. 

DANA, Francis, 

Patriot of tlie Revolution. 

Francis Dana, statesman and jurist, was 
born at Charlestown, Massachusetts, 
June 13, 1743, son of Richard Dana, who 
was a leader of the Massachusetts bar 
and a jurist. 

Francis Dana was graduated from Har- 
vard College in 1762, and studied law 
with Edmund Trowbridge, of Boston, 
Massachusetts. Admitted to the bar in 
1767, he at once entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession in that city. He 
soon became an ardent opposer of the 
measures of the British parliament 
against the American colonies, joining 
the associated Sons of Liberty, and acting 
with the foremost of the patriots. In 
1774 he was a delegate from Cambridge, 

Massachusetts, to the first Provincial 
Congress of Massachusetts. He passed 
the year 1775 ^^ England, in conference 
with persons of political influence, and 
when he had returned in 1776 he inform- 
ed General Washington that there was 
no reason to look for peaceful relations 
with Great Britain. From May, 1776, to 
1780, he was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Executive Council, and in 1776-78, a 
delegate to the Continental Congress. In 
November, 1776, he was elected to the 
Congress which framed the articles of 
confederation, and was reelected in 1777. 
He was a member of the congressional 
Board of War, and chairman of the com- 
mittee charged with the reorganization of 
the United States army. He remained in 
Washington's camp at Valley Forge, 
Pennsylvania, with the other members of 
the committee, from January to April, 
1778, and, with Washington, drew up the 
plan of annual drafts which was con- 
firmed by Congress. With Gouverneur 
Morris and William H. Drayton, he 
served on the congressional committee 
to which Lord North's conciliatory bills 
were referred (1778), and on the report 
of this committee the advances of the 
British minister were unanimously re- 
jected. Dana accompanied John Adams 
to Paris as secretary of legation, in 1779, 
and from December 19, 1781, until 1783, 
he was United States ]\Iinister to Russia. 
He was a member of the Continental 
Congress in 1784, and took his seat, but 
on January 18, 1785, Governor Hancock, 
of Massachusetts, appointed him one of 
the justices of the Supreme Court of that 
State. He was elected a delegate from 
Massachusetts to the convention that 
framed the Federal constitution, but his 
judicial duties and the state of his health, 
which had been impaired in St. Peters- 
burg, prevented his attendance. Dana, 
however, strongly advocated its adoption 
in the Massachusetts State Convention. 



On November 29, 1791, he was appointed 
Chief Justice of Massachusetts, and serv- 
ed as such for fifteen years, retiring in 
1806. In 1797 he declined a special mis- 
sion to France. 

Judge Dana was one of the founders 
of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, and its vice-president. He mar- 
ried a daughter of William Ellery. His 
correspondence while in Europe will be 
found in "Spark's Diplomatic Corre- 
spondence," volume viii. Judge Dana 
died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 
2q. 1811. 

POOR, Enoch, 

Distinguished Revolutionary Officer. 

General Enoch Poor was a Revolu- 
tionary soldier, who after brilliant mili- 
tary service died in his uniform, before 
was ended the struggle which had en- 
gaged his heroic effort. 

He was born at Andover, Massachu- 
setts, June 21, 1736, receiving his educa- 
tion in the same town. He then settled 
in Exeter, New Hampshire, where he was 
engaged in shipbuilding and mercantile 
business at the time of the battle of Lex- 
ington. The New Hampshire Assembly 
having resolved to raise troops, Enoch 
Poor went to recruiting, and was given 
command of one of the three regiments 
which were formed. After Boston was 
evacuated by the British he was sent with 
his command to New York, and was 
afterwards transferred to the Eighth Con- 
tinental Regiment, and later joined Ar- 
nold's expedition to Canada. On the re- 
treat the Continentals were marched to 
Crown Point, where they concentrated, 
meanwhile strengthening, under Colonel 
Poor's direction, the defences of that post, 
which was soon after evacuated, against 
the urgent advice of General John Stark. 
Colonel Poor and others. On February 
'^1, 1777, Colonel Poor received his com- 
mission as brigadier-general, and in the 

Saratoga campaign against Burgoyne he 
held a prominent command. At the battle 
of Stillwater his brigade is said to have 
borne two-thirds of the entire American 
loss in killed, wounded and missing, while 
at the battle of Saratoga he led the ad- 
vance. After Burgoyne's surrender Gen- 
eral Poor went to Pennsylvania, where 
he joined Washington, sharing with him 
the Jersey campaign and the sufferings at 
Valley Forge. In the summer of 1778, 
in command of his brigade. General Poor 
pursued the British across New Jersey, 
distinguishing himself at the battle of 
]\Ionmouth, where he fought under the 
command of Lafayette. When General 
Sullivan undertook his expedition against 
the Six Nations in 1779, General Poor 
commanded the Second, or New Hamp- 
shire brigade. In August, 1780, he was 
placed in command of a brigade of light 
infantry, but he was attacked by a fever 
which resulted in his death, September 8, 
17S0. General W^ashington, who held 
Poor in the highest esteem, declared him 
to be "an officer of distinguished merit 
v.'ho, as a citizen and a soldier, had every 
claim to the esteem of his country." La- 
fayette, who also greatly admired him, at 
a banquet given in his own honor in New 
Flampshire, in 1824, remembered General 
Poor in a toast. A fine monument marks 
his grave at Hackensack, New Jersey, 
where his death occurred. 

QUINCY, Josiah, 

Patriot of tlie Revolution. 

Josiah Ouincy was born in Boston, 
January 23, 1744. He acquired the rudi- 
ments of a classical education at Brain- 
tree, and in 1759 entered Harvard Col- 
lege, where he distinguished himself for 
upright conduct and bright scholarship, 
and whence he was graduated in 1763. It 
is said that his compositions during his 
college period showed that he was even 
then conversant with the best writers of 



the French and English schools. He read 
law in the office of Oxenbridge Thatcher, 
an eminent Boston lawyer, who was as- 
sociated with James Otis in the cele- 
brated argument against the "writs of 
assistance." By the death of Mr. That- 
cher before Quincy had completed his 
legal studies, leaving the charge of the 
business of the office in the latter's hands, 
he succeeded to an extensive and lucra- 
tive practice. 

He early made himself conspicuous by 
the ardor with which he wrote and spoke 
against the encroachments of the mother 
country, and only twenty days previous 
to the "Boston Massacre," in 1770, in 
answer to the question, "What end is the 
non-importation agreement to answer?" 
said : 

From a conviction in my own mind that Amer- 
ica is now the slave of Britain; from a sense 
that we are every day more and more in danger 
of an increase in our burdens and a fastening of 
our shackles, I wish to see my countrymen break 
oflf forever, all social intercourse with those 
whose commerce contaminates, whose luxuries 
poison, whose avarice is insatiable, and whose 
unnatural oppressions are not to be borne. That 
Americans well know their rights, that they will 
resume, assert, and defend them, are matters of 
which I harbor no doubt. Whether the arts of 
policy or the arts of war will decide the con- 
test, are problems that we will solve at a more 
convenient season. He whose heart is enamored 
with the refinements of political artifice and 
finesse, will seek one mode of relief; he whose 
heart is free, honest and intrepid, will pursue 
another, a bolder and a more noble mode of 

One of the most extraordinary episodes 
in the history of the Revolution, and one 
which brought the absolutely just char- 
acter of Mr. Quincy to the notice of both 
his own time and of posterity, was con- 
nected with the "Boston Massacre," of 
March 5, 1770. in which five citizens were 
killed by the British soldiers. Captain 
Preston and the eight British troopers 

who were tried for this offense were de- 
lended by Mr. Quincy and John Adams, 
the former opening and the latter closing 
the argument. The result was that Cap- 
tain Preston and six soldiers were ac- 
quitted, while two were convicted of 
manslaughter only. Such an administra- 
tion of justice in the midst of an excited 
£:nd furious people was at once startling 
and sublime. Through 1771 and 1772 Mr. 
Quincy continued his professional and 
political labors with industry and zeal, 
but in February, 1773, he was obliged to 
take a voyage to Carolina for the preser- 
vation of his life, which was threatened 
by a pulmonary complaint. In Charles- 
ton, and on his return through New York 
and Philadelphia, he made acquaintance 
with the eminent lawyers and patriots of 
the day. September 28. 1774, he sailed 
from Salem, Massachusetts, on a special 
mission to London in behalf of his coun- 
try. In London he had a conference with 
Lord North, v/ho seemed more anxious to 
intimidate him by reference to the inex- 
haustible resources of Great Britain than 
to placate those in whose behalf he came. 
Meanwhile, however, he found himself 
sustained in his views and his efforts by 
Lords Chatham and Camden, Selden and 
others whose influence in the British 
councils seemed to be strong. Mr. 
Quincy returned to America in the spring 
of 1775 in declining health. In an inter- 
view with Dr. Franklin, just before he 
left London, the latter said to him : "New 
England alone could hold out for ages 
against Great Britain, and if they were 
firm and united in seven years would con- 
quer." After being at sea a few weeks, 
Mr. Quincy became convinced, as his 
condition grew worse, that death was in- 
evitable. April 2ist he dictated his last 
letter, and his last recorded words. Re- 
ferring to the sentiments of many learned 
and eminent friends of America whom 
he had met in England, he said: "To 



Quincy Mansion, Quincy, Massachusetts. 


commit their sentiments to writing is 
neither practicable nor prudent at this 
time. To the bosom of a friend they 
could entrust what might be of great 
advantage to my country. To me that 
trust was committed and I was, immedi- 
ately on my arrival, to assemble certain 
persons to whom I was to communicate 
my trust and had God spared my life it 
seems it would have been of great service 
to my country ; had Providence been 
pleased that I should have reached Amer- 
ica six days ago I should have been able 
to converse with my friends. 1 am per- 
suaded that this voyage and passage are 
the instruments to put an end to my be- 
ing. His holy will be done." He died 
v.hen the vessel was in sight of land, and 
his remains were afterward removed to 

His life by his son, Josiah Quincy, 
president of Harvard College, was pub- 
lished in 1855. He possessed the power 
to seize boldly tipon the attention of an 
audience, and in his popular harangues it 
was his custom to produce the restilts of 
his extensive reading in a simple and 
forcible manner; he was familiar with 
the best writers in poetry and prose, espe- 
cially the English dramatists, and fre- 
quently quoted from them. On the ar- 
rival of the obnoxious tea in Boston har- 
bor, in November, 1773, a town meeting 
was held and resolutions were passed 
calling on the consignees not to receive 
it. Mr. Quincy spoke on this occasion 
in the following language: 

It is not, Mr. Moderator, the spirit that vapors 
within these walls that must stand us in stead. 
The exertions of this day will call forth events 
that will make a very diflferent spirit necessary 
for our own salvation. Whoever supposes shouts 
and hosannahs will terminate the trials of to-day 
entertains a childish fancy. We must be grossly 
ignorant of the importance and value of the 
prize for which we contend; we must be equally 
ignorant of the power of those combined against 
us: we must be blind to that malice, inveteracy 

and insatiable revenge which actuate our ene- 
mies, public and private, abroad and in our 
bosom — to hope that we shall end this con- 
troversy without the sharpest conflicts, to flat- 
ter ourselves that popular resolves, popular 
harangues, popular acclamations and popular 
vapor will vanquish our foes. Let us consider 
the issue, let us look to the end. Let us weigh 
and consider before we advance in those meas- 
ures which must bring on the most trying and 
terrible struggle this country ever saw. 

Mr. Quincy possessed those attributes 
of voice, figure and action which are es- 
sential to complete the charm of 
eloquence. His face is said to have been 
instinct with expression and his eye in 
particular glowed with intellectual splen- 
dor. He died April 26, 1775. 

PICKERING, Timothy, 

Soldier, Jurist. Cabinet Ofilcial. 

Timothy Pickering was born at Salem, 
Massachusetts, July 17. 1745. He was 
the great-great-grandson of John Picker- 
ing, a carpenter, who came to New Eng- 
land in 1630, and died at Salem in 1657. 

He graduated from Harvard College in 
1763, and in 1768 was admitted to the 
bar. He did not obtain much repute as 
a law3'er, being more interested in mili- 
tary affairs. He held for a time the ap- 
[)ointment of register of deeds for Essex 
county. In 1766, he entered the militia 
service, was commissioned lieutenant, 
and in 1775 was elected colonel. On the 
day of the battle of Lexington he is said 
to have marched with his men to Med- 
ford in order to intercept the enemy, but 
was not in time to participate in the 
fight. In September, 1775, Colonel Pick- 
ering was appointed judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas for Essex county, and 
of the INIaritime Court for the district in- 
cluding Boston and Salem. In that year 
he published a small work entitled "An 
Easy Plan of Discipline for the Militia," 
which was adopted by Massachusetts 
and was used for some time by the Con- 



tineutal army. In May, 1776, Pickering 
was a representative to the General 
Court. In the following December he 
commanded the Essex regiment of seven 
hundred men, and joined Washington's 
army at Morristown in February, 1777 
The commander-in-chief, being favor- 
ably impressed with him, offered him the 
position of adjutant-general, which he ac- 
cepted. He marched with the army 
through Pennsylvania, was present at the 
battles of the Brandywine and German- 
town, and when the Board of War was 
organized, was made one of its members. 
In August. 1780, he succeeded General 
Greene as quartermaster-general, and it 
is related that he managed his department 
so wisely that Washington was enabled 
to make his extraordinary march from 
the Hudson river to Chesapeake Bay 
without being at any point detained for 
lack of supplies. Colonel Pickering was 
present at Yorktown on the occasion of 
the surrender of Cornwallis. He left the 
office of quartermaster-general in 1785, 
when the position was abolished. In that 
year he settled for a time in Philadelphia, 
and conducted a commission business, 
but two years later removed with his 
family to the Wyoming Valley, Pennsyl- 
vania. Here he became involved in a 
local insurrection and with difficulty es- 
caped with his life. In 1788 he was cap- 
tured by masked men and kept prisoner 
for three weeks, but was finally set free. 
Disorder existed in Wyoming for a num- 
ber of years, and it is claimed that Colo- 
nel Pickering succeeded in remedying it. 
In 1789 he was a member of the Pennsyl- 
vania Constitutional Convention, and in 
the latter part of 1790 Washington em- 
ployed him in negotiations with the In- 
dian tribes, in the course of which he 
concluded a treaty between the United 
States and the Six Nations in 1791. He 
was a favorite of the Indians and was 
invariably successful in quieting them 

whenever they were aroused to overt 

From 1791 to 1795, Colonel Pickering 
held the position of Postmaster-General. 
On January 2, 1795, he succeeded Gen- 
eral Knox as Secretary of War, in which 
position he had charge of the Indian de- 
partment and also of the navy. He was 
prominent in organizing the Military 
Academy at W^est Point, and personally 
directed the building of the three famous 
frigates "Constitution," "Constellation" 
and "United States." In August, 1795, 
on the resignation of John Randolph, 
Colonel Pickering was placed temporarily 
in charge of the Department of State, and 
in the following December he was ap- 
pointed to that office, which he continued 
to hold until removed by President 
Adams in May, 1800, an act which was 
mainly occasioned by Mr. Pickering's 
adhesion to the principles of Hamilton. 
On being removed from office, Mr. Pick- 
ering found himself heavily in debt, but 
the owner of some land in the backwoods 
of Pennsylvania, whither he went accom- 
panied by his son and a few laborers and 
there cleared several acres and built a 
log hut for his family. His native State 
liad always urged upon him a return to 
his original allegiance, and when he left 
the army had offered him the appoint- 
ment of Associate Justice of the State 
Supreme Court, which he declined, giv- 
ing as a reason his incapacity to fitly 
occupy the position. His Massachusetts 
friends now purchased some of his lands, 
and with the money thus obtained he paid 
off his debts and found himself with 
nearly $15,000 in hand. He settled in 
Danvers, Massachusetts, where he rent- 
ed a small farm, which he cultivated with 
his own hands. In 1802 he was appointed 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas at Essex, and in 1803 was elected 
United States Senator. He continued to 
hold his seat in the upper house until 



1811, being prominent in the discussion 
of all public affairs as an extreme Feder- 
alist. He became so unpopular by his 
opposition to certain public acts, that in 
1809 a Philadelphia mob hanged him in 
effigy, and various charges were made 
against him with the design of ruining 
him, but without success. He retired 
from the Senate in 1812, and for a time 
lived on a farm at Wrentham, Massachu- 
setts. In 1814 he was a member of Con- 
gress, and in 1817 of the Massachusetts 
Executive Council. He was one of those 
New England leaders who were conspicu- 
ous in politics in the early part of the 
century for their extremist views amount- 
ing for some time to an intention to cause 
the secession of New England from the 
Union. These opinions brought about 
the celebrated Hartford convention, 
which Pickering favored, although he 
was not present during its session. Colo- 
nel Pickering's life was written by his son. 
Octavius Pickering, completed after the 
latter's death by Charles W. Upham, and 
published in Boston, 1867-73. ^^ mar- 
ried, April 8, 1776. Rebecca White, an 
English lady, who died a year before him- 
self. Colonel Pickering died in Salem, 
January 29. 1829. 

KNOX, Henry, 

Distingnislied Revolutionary Officer. 

General Henry Knox was one of the 
most conspicuously useful men of the 
Revolutionary period, and his career 
abounded in unique incidents. He was 
the master artillerist of the army, and an 
engineer officer of unusual ability. He 
was a member of the court martial which 
sentenced the accomplished Major Andre 
to death, and he was one of the founders 
of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 
July 25, 1750. His paternal ancestors 
were from the Lowlands of Scotland, but 
the tradition is that those of them who 

first settled in America came from the 
vicinity of Belfast, Ireland, to Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1729; although Wil- 
liam Knox, his father, w^as a native of 
St. Eustatia, one of the West Indian 
islands. Knox's mother was Mary, daugh- 
ter of Robert Campbell, of Boston. The 
father was a shipmaster, and owned a 
wharf and small estate on Sea street, near 
Summer street, which he was compelled 
by misfortune to relinquish, and in 1759 
he went to St. Eustatia, where he died in 
1762, at the age of fifty, his wife dying in 
Boston in 1771, at the age of fifty-three. 
Henry Knox was the seventh of ten sons. 
The house in which he was born was 
standing in 1873. 

After the death of his father, Henry 
Knox was employed by Wharton & 
Barnes, booksellers, on Cornhill, in Bos- 
ton. Of a robust and athletic frame and 
of resolute character, he was foremost in 
the contests between the north and sou+h 
ends, the rival sections of the city, to the 
latter of which he belonged, and it is 
related that once during the celebration 
of "Pope's Night," the wheel of the car- 
riage which sustained the pageant giving 
way, Knox, in order to prevent the dis- 
grace sure to result from its non-appear- 
ance, and the consequent triumph of the 
adverse party, substituted his own shoul- 
der, and bore the vehicle without inter- 
ruption through the conflict. W'hen he 
was eighteen years old he joined a mili- 
tary company, and when the Boston gren- 
adier corps was organized by Captain 
Joseph Pierce, he was second in com • 
mand. Conversing with British officers 
who frequented a book-store in which he 
was employed, and by study of military 
works and careful obser\-ation of the 
evolutions of the British troops in Bos- 
ton, he soon attained proficiency in the 
theory and practice of the militar}' art. 
When he reached his majority, he en- 
gaged in business on his own account as 



a bookseller, opposite Williams Court, on 
Cornhill, Boston, and his store became 
a great resort for British officers, with 
whom he maintained a pleasant acquaint- 
ance althoug-h he himself was thoroughly 
identified with the "Sons of Liberty." 
His business throve until the gathering 
storm of the American Revolution, and 
in particular the Boston port bill dis- 
turbed all business enterprises. Subse- 
quently, while he was with the American 
army which besieged Boston, his store 
was robbed and pillaged. This, with in- 
debtedness for his stock at the time of 
the outbreak of hostilities, was the 'source 
of pecuniary embarrassment of which 
Knox was not fully relieved at lii? death, 
although long after the war ho paid tho 
house of Longmans. Green & Companv, 
of London, more than £ 1,000 on the old 
account. By the bursting of his fowling- 
piece, July 24. 1773. while on a gunning 
excursion, he lost the two smaller fingers 
of his left hand, and about a montl'; after 
this occurrence, in a military parade 
where he appeared with the wound hand- 
somely bandaged with a scarf, he attract- 
ed the attention of his future wife. Miss 
Flucker, whose father was an aristocratic 
loyalist of great family pretensions, and 
secretary of the province of Massachu- 
setts Bay. She visited his book-store, 
acquaintance ripened into intimacy in- 
timacy into love, and although Lheir 
union was opposed by her famil;/. they 
were married, at Boston, June 16, 1774. 

A year later, Knox left Boston in dis- 
guise, his departure having been inter- 
dicted by Gage, the British general, lie 
was accompanied by his wife, who had 
quilted into the lining of her cloak the 
sword with which her husband was to 
carve out a successful military career. 
Flattering promises had been held out to 
Knox to induce him to attach himself to 
the royal cause, but he was not to be 
withdrawn from that which he had es- 

poused. From the headquarters of Gen- 
eral Artemas Ward, he was actively en- 
gaged in recruiting service ; he was 
closely observant of the movements of 
the British troops, and upon his reports 
the American general's orders for the 
battle of IJunker Hill were issued. His 
wife was safely bestovv-ed at Worcester, 
Massachusetts, and he then aided in the 
construction of defensive works for the 
various camps around the beleaguered 
town of Boston. Their labors continued 
some months, and in this work he acquir- 
ed skill as an artillerist. Knox had pre- 
viously attracted the attention of John 
Adams, who now wrote to him requesting 
his views as to plans for the reorganiza- 
tion of the army, and other correspond- 
ence with Adams ensued. Knox had also 
Ijecome familiar with General Washing- 
ton, and on November 17, 1775. he was 
appointed by the Continental Congress 
colonel of its single artillery regiment. 
He received his commission when he re- 
turned to the army at Boston irom his 
successful journey to Fort Ticonderoga. 
in New York, bringing to Boston heavy 
cannon and stores to be used by the 
Americans in their operations against 
that city. A memorable incident of this 
journey was Knox's encounter with the 
brave but unfortunate Andre, of the Pirit- 
i^h army, who had been taken prisoner 
by General Montgomery at St. John, and 
was then on his way southward to be 
exchanged. Their short acquaintance 
was mutually pleasant, but a few years 
afterwards Knox was called to the pain- 
ful duty of sitting in judgment vp^n 
Andre, as one of the military tribun A 
which condemned the latter to death. 

When Boston was evacuated by the 
British. Knox's engineering ability was 
called into Connecticut and Rhode Island. 
At New Y'ork City in the summer of 1776 
his quarters were at the Battery, near 
tho';e of Washington, with whom he 



crossed to Long Island daily, prior to the 
disastrous engagement on August 27th. 
His regiment was engaged in the action, 
but on that day he himself was "obliged 
to wait on my Lord Howe and the navy 
gentry who threatened to pay us a visit." 
In the retreat of the Americans from 
New York to New Jersey. Knox nar- 
rowly escaped capture. At this time he 
wrote to his brother that his constant 
fatigue and application to business was 
such that he had not had his clothes off 
once for more than forty days. His let- 
ters are fdled at this date with appre- 
ciative praise of \\'ashington. with whom 
his relations were more and more i.'-ti- 
mate, and with pronounced criticism of 
the little ability shown by most of the 
officers with whom he was associated, on 
account of their extreme lack of military 
training and knowledge. In the critical 
moments after the loss of Fort Washing- 
ton (November 15. 1776) and the with- 
drawal of the American forces into New 
Jersey, Knox was one of those who 
strengthened Washington s hands and 
encouraged his heart. His friendship 
with General Nathaniel Greene was now 
most cordial. Knox superintended the 
crossing of the Delaware river by the 
Americans before the battle of Trenton. 
New Jersey (December 26. 1776), his 
stentorian voice making audible the or- 
ders of his chief above the fury of the 
stormy elements. He took part in the 
battle of Princeton, New Jersey, in Janu- 
ary, 1777, and after it was over urged 
upon Washington that the army go into 
winter quarters at Morristown. New Jer- 
sey. This was done, and Knox was then 
<ent eastward to superintend the casting 
of cannon and the establishment of labor- 
atories, and recommended Springfield, 
Massachusetts, as the place where these 
ought to be set up. In May. 1777, he was 
associated with General Greene in plan- 
ning the defenses of the Hudson river. 

In the operations of the American army 
by which General Washington sought to 
prevent the British occupation of Phila- 
delphia, Knox had his full share of ac- 
tivity. In the battle of Brandywine his 
regiment was noted for its coolness and 
intrepidity. He was in camp at X'alley 
Forge. Pennsylvania, during the winter 
of 1777-7S, and also in the eastern States, 
on the business of his department. At 
the battle of Monmouth, New Jersey, he 
reconnoitered in front, rallied the scat- 
tered troops and protected the rear with 
a brisk fire from a battery planted in the 
night. Of the services of the artillery, 
Washington said in general orders that 
he could with pleasure inform General 
Knox and the officers of the artillery, 
that the enemy had done them the justice 
to acknowledge that no artillery could 
have been served better than the Ameri- 
can. In January, 1781, Washington sent 
him to the eastern States to represent 
the suffering condition of the American 
troops, and while there wrote to him to 
■'procure the articles necessary to a cap- 
ital operation against New York, or other 
large cities which were then occupied by 
the British.'' It having been decided to 
operate against Lord Cornwallis in Vir- 
ginia (fall of 1781), Knox's skill and en- 
ergy in providing and forwarding heavy 
cannon for the siege of Yorktown caused 
Washington to report to the president of 
Congress that "the resources of his genius 
supplied the deficit of means." The 
PVenchman. De Chastellax, in his "Travels 
in North America," declared of him : "The 
artillery was always very well served, 
the general (Knox) incessantly directing 
it, and often himself pointing the mor- 
tars ; seldom did he leave the batteries * 
* * * * The English marveled at the exact 
fire and the terrible execution of the 
French artillery, and we marveled no less 
at the extraordinary progress of the 
American artillery, and at the capacity 



and instruction of the officers. As to Gen- met to take a final leave of their beloved 

cral Ivnox, but one-half has been said in 
commending his military genius. He is 
a man of talent, well instructed, of a 
buoyant disposition, ingenuous and true; 
it is impossible to know him without 
esteeming and loving him." Washington 
also praised Knox highly for his excellent 
ability in arranging the cartel for a gen- 
eral exchange of prisoners in connection 
with Governor Morris at the close of the 
war. He was made major-general, March 
22, 1782, to date from November 15, 1781. 
In December, 1782, he was chairman of 
'c. committee of officers to draft a petition 
to Congress, which stated the amounts of 
pay then due them, made a proposal that 
the half-pay for life should be commuted 
for a specific sum, and requested that se- 
curity be given them by the government 
for the fulfillment of its engagements. 
The failure of Congress to make satisfac- 
tory reply to this commtmication pro- 
duced the famous "Newburg Addresses," 
by which the officers' feelings were 
wrought up to the highest pitch. At this 
point, Knox joined with Washington in 
composing the discontented and muti- 
nous spirit which had appeared. The sub- 
ject of the officers' complaints was again 
considered in Congress, and the com- 
mutation and other provisions asked for 
in the memorial v/ere granted. 

In order to perpetuate the friendships 
formed with each other by the officers of 
the army, General Knox founded the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, which came into 
being in May, 1783. He was its secre- 
tary until 1800, in 1805 became its vice- 
president, and in 1783 was also vice- 
president of its Massachusetts branch. 
He entered New York City on November 
25> ^7^?!' ^i the head of the American 
troops, upon its evacuation by the Brit- 
ish. December 4 (1783) at Fraunce's 
tavern in New York, the principal officers 

general. Washington entered the room 
and, taking a glass of wine in his hand, 
with a few words of farewell, continued; 
"I cannot come to each of you to take my 
leave but shall be obliged to you if each 
of you will come and take me by the 
hand." Knox, who stood nearest to him, 
turned and grasped his hand ; and, while 
tears flowed down the cheeks of each, 
the commander-in-chief kissed him. This 
he did to each of his officers, while tears 
and sobs stifled utterance. In January, 
1794, Knox arrived at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, and took up his residence at Dor- 
chester. Pie discharged some civil duties 
thereafter in his native State, but on 
March 8, 1785, Congress elected him Sec- 
retary of War, with a salary of $2,450. 
In May, 1789, on the formation of the 
United States government, he was con- 
tinued in this office. In connection with 
Thomas Jefi'erson, a fellow cabinet-offi- 
cer, he brought about the establishment 
of the United States navy, in 1794. De- 
cember 2yth of the same year he resigned 
his secretariat for private reasons, and 
spent the closing years of his life in 
Maine, in the cultivation and improve- 
ment of an extensive tract of land, part of 
which Mrs. Knox had inherited from her 
grandfather, and the residue of which he 
had bought from the other heirs. Here 
he dispensed a charming hospitality, and 
was measurably sticcessful in the pecun- 
iary managemnt of his enterprise, includ- 
ing the founding and building up of the 
town of Thomaston. He had a fine pri- 
vate library, part of it in the French lan- 
guage. His "Life and Correspondence," 
by F. S. Drake (Boston, 1873), has been 
freely used in the preparation of this 
sketch. He died at home. October 21. 
1806, in consequence of having swallowed 
a chicken-bone. 



GUSHING, Thomas, 

Prominent in tlie Hevolation. 

Thomas Cashing was born in Boston,. 
Massachusetts, March 24, 1725, son of 
Thomas and Mary (Broomneld) Cushmg, 
grandson of Thomas and Deborah (Thax- 
ter) Cushing, great-grandson of John and 
Sarah (Hawke) Cushing, and great-great- 
grandson of Matthew and Nazareth 
(Pitcher) Cushing, who emigrated from 
England in 1638 and settled in Hingham, 
Massachusetts. His father was a promi- 
nent Boston merchant, a representative in 
the General Court in 173 1 and speaker, 
1742-46. Samuel Adams was for a time 
employed in his counting house, and be- 
ing four years older than Thomas Cush- 
ing Jr., had a powerful influence in shap- 
ing the political sentiment of the future 

Thomas Cushing Jr. was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1744. He was a rep- 
resentative in the General Court of Mas- 
sachusetts, 1761-69; and in 1767, when 
Governor Bernard would not allow James 
Otis to serve as speaker, he was elected 
in Otis's stead. He was speaker from 
1767 to 1774, but did not prove a strong 
leader for the patriots. With John Plan- 
cock he opposed the formation of com- 
mittees of correspondence as suggested 
by Samuel Adams, and when appointed 
on one of the committees refused to 
serve. Still, John Adams credits him 
with obtaining secret intelligence useful 
to the patriot leaders, and in June, 1774, 
he was elected a delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress, and was re-elected in 
February, 1775. In the king's instructions 
to General Gage in 1775, Cushing was in- 
cluded with John Hancock and Samuel 
Adams as subjects not entitled to par- 
don for their crime of treason. When 
Massachusetts formed a new government 
in 1775, Cushing was elected to the coun- 
cil. In Congress he opposed the Declar- 
ation of Independence, and in the elec- 

tion of January 19, 1776, for delegates to 
Congress, he did not receive a single vote. 
He was Commissary-General of Massa- 
chusetts in 1775 ; judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas and of Probate, 1776-77; 
declined a seat in the Continental Con- 
gress in 1779; and was Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts. 1780-88, and act- 
ing governor in 1788. He was elected a 
member of the convention to ratify the 
Federal constitution, which met in Janu- 
ary and February, 1788. 

Harvard College gave him the degree 
of Doctor of Laws in 1785, and Yale gave 
him an honorary Master of Arts in 1750. 
He was a fellow of Harvard College, 1786- 
88 ; a founder of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences ; and an agent of the 
British Society for Promoting the Gospel 
in New England. He died in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 28, 1788. 

PAINE, Robert Treat, 

Patriot and Jurist. 

Robert Treat Paine was born in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, March 11, 1731, the 
son of Thomas Paine, grandson of James 
Paine, great-grandson of Thomas Paine, 
and great-great-grandson of Thomas 
Paine, who came from England about 

Pie entered Harvard University at four- 
teen years of age, supporting himself by 
teaching while engaged in the study of 
law. In 1755 he was chaplain of provin- 
cial troops in the north for a few months. 
Afterward he occasionally preached in 
the regular pulpits of Boston, although 
living at Taunton, Bristol county, where 
he practiced his profession as a lawyer, 
and was a rival of Timothy Ruggles at 
the bar. At this period he carried on an 
interesting correspondence with Jonathan 
Sewall, John Adams, and a merchant 
(Elliott) of Boston, and in 1768 was a 
member of the convention which met 
upon the dissolution of the General Court 



by the governor for refusing to rescind 
the circular letter to the other colonies 
calling for concerted action against in- 
fringement of their chartered rights. In 
1770 he was employed by the citizens of 
Boston for the prosecution of the perpe- 
trators of the "Boston Massacre," and in 
1773 was chairman of a large committee 
in Taunton for resistance to threatened 
tyranny. The same year, as a member of 
the General Assembly, he assisted in the 
impeachment of the Chief Justice of the 
province, Peter Oliver, on the charge 
of receiving his stipend from the king, 
instead of a grant from the Assembly, as 
usual. In 1774 he was appointed a dele- 
gate to the first Continental Congress, in 
a convention called upon the adjourn- 
ment of the General Court to Salem ; and 
from this year until 1779 served with 
energy and devotion in all the important 
committees of Congress, spending part of 
his time also in the legislature of his own 
State. In 1775 he was active in pro- 
moting the manufacture of saltpetre and 
cannon, visited the northern army under 
command of Schuyler, and declined the 
office of Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts. In 1776 he, 
with Rutledge and JefTerson, reported 
rules for the conduct of Congress in de- 
bate, and on July 4 he voted for and 
signed the Declaration of Independence. 
In 1777-78 he was for a time speaker of 
the Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tives, was appointed Attorney-General of 
the State, and in the last year served on 
a committee to regulate the price of labor, 
provisions and manufactures, on account 
of the depreciation of the Continental 
currency, and to relieve the suffering of 
the soldiers. In 1779 he was a member 
of the Executive Council of Massachu- 
setts, and also of the convention which 
framed the constitution of the State, 
under which he held the office of Attor- 
ney-General until 1790. when he became 

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 
and retained the office until seventy-three 
years of age. 

Resigning in 1804, he became a coun- 
sellor of the commonwealth. A friend to 
the constitution, he supported Washing- 
ton and Adams, tie was a founder of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
in 1780, and received the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws from the University 
of Cambridge. At once a Puritan and a 
patriot, he was devoted to the religious, 
civil and literary institutions of his coun- 
try, and in the language of his eulogizer. 
"rejoiced in its good, lamented its delu- 
sions, was impressed with its dangers, 
and prayed for its peace," having labored 
for its foundation. 

He married Sally Cobb, daughter of 
Thomas Cobb, and sister of General 
David Cobb. He died May 11, 1814, re- 
taining his faculties unimpaired to the 

EUSTIS, William, 

Man of Many Abilitiea. 

William Eustis, surgeon in the Revo- 
lution, cabinet official, diplomat, and 
tenth Governor of Massachusetts, was 
born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 
10, 1753, son of Benjamin Eustis, an emi- 
nent physician. 

William Eustis was a student at the 
Boston Latin School, and afterwards at 
Harvard College, from which he was 
graduated in 1772. Having determined 
upon the medical profession as his calling 
in life he began his studies in the office 
of the celebrated Dr. Joseph Warren, of 
Boston, who fell at the battle of Bunker 
Hill, and almost at his side. Dr. Eustis 
was at this time an efficient practitioner, 
and he was at once appointed surgeon of 
a regiment, from which he was soon 
transferred to the charge of a hospital. 
In 1777, and during the greater part of 
the war. he occupied for hospital purposes 


\ J 



the spacious family mansion of Colonel 
Beverly Robinson, a royalist, on the east 
bank of the Pludson river, opposite West 
Point, the same which at another time 
was the headquarters of General Bene- 
dict Arnold. He was subsequently made 
senior surgeon, and continued to serve as 
such until the end of the war. He then 
practiced his profession in Boston, but 
temporarily left the city in 1786-87, to 
serve as surgeon with the forces sent out 
to suppress Shay's rebellion. 

His public career began in 1788, when 
he was elected to the Massachusetts 
Legislature, in which he served until 
1794. He represented his district in the 
Seventh and Eighth Congresses, 1801-05. 
In 1809 President Madison called him to 
liis cabinet as Secretary of War. Before 
leaving Boston to enter upon the duties 
of that office, he was married to Caroline, 
daughter of John Langdon. Governor of 
New Hampshire, and they made their 
bridal tour in a coach, the journey to 
Washington City occupying two weeks. 
At the close of the year 1813, President 
Madison appointed him United States 
Minister to the Netherlands, and he was 
continued in his place throughout IVIadi- 
son's second administration. He was a 
Representative from Boston in the Six- 
teenth and Seventeenth Congresses, 18 19- 
2T,. He was elected Governor of Massa- 
chusetts in 1824, was reelected in 1825, 
and died in office, February 6th of the 
same year. 

During his first gubernatorial term. 
Governor Eustis entertained the General 
Marquis de Lafayette at his summer resi- 
dence, Shirley Place. Roxbury, near Bos- 
ton, the occasion being memorable among 
the public functions accorded by the citi- 
zens of the new republic to the distin- 
guished visitor on his last visit to the 
United States. Harvard College con- 
ferred upon Governor Eustis the degree 
of Master of Arts in 1784, and that of 
Doctor of Laws in 1823. 

WARREN, John, 

Distinguished Early-Day Surgeon. 

John Warren was born at Roxbury, 
Massachusetts, July 2/, 1753, son of 
Joseph and Mary (Stevens) Warren, and 
brother of General Joseph Warren. His 
earliest American ancestor was Peter 
Warren, a mariner, whose name appears 
on the town records of Boston in 1659. 
He had a son Joseph, who lived in Rox- 
bury, on what is now Warren street, and 
died there in 1729. His son Joseph, a 
farmer, who was well known for his en- 
thusiasm in fruit raising, developed a cer- 
tain variety of apple long known in that 
part of the country as the W^arren russet. 

John Warren was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1771. having supported himself 
through college, and studied medicine 
under his brother. Dr. (General) Joseph 
Warren. His interest in the cause of 
freedom led him to abandon an intention 
of emigrating to Surinam, and in 1773 he 
began practice in Salem. He took part 
at Lexington, both as combatant and as 
physician, and was at Bunker Hill, where 
he was wounded by a sentry. Deeply 
moved by the death of his brother, he 
wished to join the army as a soldier, but 
his mother dissuaded him. He became 
hospital surgeon at Cambridge, then ac- 
companied the army to New York, Tren- 
ton and Princeton, and returned in 1777 
to establish a military hospital at Bos- 
ton, of which he had charge until the end 
of the war. 

Dr. Warren was a man of great ability 
in his profession. In 1780 he gave the 
Boston Medical Association a course of 
dissections, and another in 1781, which 
was opened to the students of Harvard. 
In 1 78 1 he performed the operation of re- 
moving the arm at the shoulder joint. In 
1783 he became Professor of Anatomy 
and Surgery in the newly opened medical 
department of Harvard College, and for 
twenty-three years was the only instruc- 
tor, often driving twenty miles to meet 



his classes, when the ferry was blocked 
by ice. The removal of the school from 
Cambridge to Boston in 1810 marked "a 
great advance in American medical 
science." Dr. Warren was the first sur- 
geon of his time in New England, if not 
in the United States. In 1784 he bore a 
leading part in establishing a smallpox 
hospital, and in 1792 inoculated fifteen 
hundred persons. In 1798 he made a 
study of yellow fever, and determined its 
non-contagious character by inhaling the 
breath of patients. He was one of the 
first to introduce the healing of wounds 
by the first intention. 

In Dr. Warren's later years he was 
president of the State Medical Associa- 
tion (1804-15). of the Humane Society, 
and of the Agricultural Society ; and 
grand master of the Massachusetts Lodge 
of Free Masons. Besides a "View of the 
Mercurial Practice in Febrile Diseases," 
he wrote much for the "Communications 
of the Medical Society," for the "New 
England Journal of Medicine and Sur- 
gery," and for the "Memoirs of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences." A 
popular public speaker, he was chosen to 
deliver the oration at the first Fourth of 
July celebration in Boston. He was noted 
for fast driving ; all vehicles turned aside 
for his, and a military parade once 
stopped to let him pass. Though he had 
a lucrative practice, he lost much of his 
property by endorsing for a colleague. 
In 1777 he was married to Abby, daugh- 
ter of Governor John Collins, of Newport, 
Rhode Island. His eldest son, John C. 
Warren, became a physician of note ; and 
another son, Edward Warren, was also a 
physician, who published a number of 
medical writings and wrote a life of his 
father. A daughter became the wife of 
Dr. John Gorham, of Harvard University, 
and another daughter was married to Dr. 
John B. Brown, of Boston. Dr. Warren 
died in Boston, Massachusetts, April 4. 

LYNDE, Benjamin, 

£arly-Day Jurist. 

Benjamin Lynde was born at Salem, 
Massachusetts, October 5, 1700, son of 
Justice Benjamin and Mary (Browne) 
Lynde, and grandson of Simon Lynde, 
who emigrated from London to New 
England in 1650, and two years later was 
married to Hannah, daughter of John 

Benjamin Lynde Jr. entered Harvard 
College in 1714, and after his graduation 
in 1718, studied law and took his master's 
degree at Cambridge in 1721. He was 
then for several years naval officer for the 
port of Salem, and in 1734 was appointed 
a special judge of the Court of Pleas for 
Suffolk. Five years later he was made 
one of the standing judges of the Com- 
mon Pleas for Essex county, and in 1745, 
the year of his father's death, he was 
raised to the superior bench of the prov- 
ince. Appointed a member of the Coun- 
cil in 1737, he served for many years, but 
declined a reelection in 1766, in conse- 
quence of the controversy that arose in 
that year between the house and govern- 
ment as to the right of judges to sit as 
councillors. In 1770 he presided at the 
trial of the British soldiers who under 
Captain Preston fired on the mob in State 
street, Boston. The following year he 
was appointed Chief Justice of Massachu- 
setts. Fle resigned this post in 1772, and 
two years later he was one of the signers 
of the Salem address to General Thomas 
Gage. During the latter years of his life 
he was judge of probate for Essex, hold- 
ing this post until the breaking out of 
the Revolution. Judge Lynde was noted 
for his learning, liberality and public 

He was married, November i, 1731, to 
Mary, daughter of Alajor John Bowles, 
of Roxbury. He died at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, October 5, 1781. 



OLIVER, Peter, 

Jurist, Litteratenr. 

Peter Oliver was born in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, March 26, 1713, brother of 
Lieutenant-Governor Andrew Oliver. He 
was graduated at Harvard College in 
1730, and then resided with his family on 
his estate in Middleborough, holding at 
the same time several offices in Plymouth 
county. Although he was not educated 
for the law, he was raised to the bench of 
justice of the Supreme Court, September 
14, 1756, and fifteen years later was ap- 
pointed Chief Justice, and made one of 
the mandamus councillors. In 1774 he 
was impeached by the House of Repre- 
sentatives and suspended for refusing to 
receive a grant from the province in lieu 
of a fixed salary from the crown. He 
attempted to hold court under military 
protection in spite of his legal suspension, 
but the jurors refused to serve on the 
ground of the unconstitutionality of such 
action. Having openly supported the 
royalists and incurred the enmity of the 
colonists, when the British troops aban- 
doned Boston with other loyalists, he ac- 
companied them. He then went to Eng- 
land and lived for several years on a pen- 
sion from the crown. On leaving this 
country he took with him a copy of the 
manuscript history of William Hubbard, 
also a collection of records and papers 
pertaining to the history of the early 
Plymouth settlements. 

Judge Oliver was a talented writer in 
prose and poetry, and fond of antiquarian 
studies. Besides numerous contributions 
to the Tory paper, "Censor," in which 
he skillfully defended his loyalist views, 
he published : "Speech on the Death of 
Isaac Lothrop" (1750) ; "Poem on the 
Death of Secretary Willard" (1757) ; 
"The Scriptural Lexicon" (1784-85), and 
a poem in English blank verse, which 
forms the twentv-ninth in "Pietas et 

Gratulatio" (1761). He received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws from the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. He died in Birmingham, 
England, October 13, 1791. 

WILLIAMS, Ephraim, 

Founder of 'Williams College. 

Ephraim Williams was born in New- 
ton, Massachusetts, February 24, 1715, 
son of Colonel Ephraim Williams (1691- 
1754) ; grandson of Isaac Williams (1638- 
1708), and great-grandson of Robert Wil- 

He was a sailor in his youth, but in 
1740, at the outbreak of the French and 
Indian war, joined the American army 
and served in Canada, attaining the rank 
of captain. In 1750 he erected Fort Mas- 
sachusetts, on a tract of land granted 
him by the crown, and in 1751 he was 
appointed commander of the forts in the 
Hoosac Valley. In 1755 he commanded 
a regiment of Massachusetts troops to 
lake part in the expedition against Crown 
Point under Sir William Johnson, and 
while making a reconnoisance of Baron 
Dieskaw's force he was surprised by the 
enemy, and mortally wounded. His 
brother Thomas (1718-1775) was a fur- 
geon in the army in the invasion of Can- 
ada ; was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, 
and on the close of the campaign prac- 
ticed medicine in Deerfield, IMassachu- 

Ephraim Williams bequeathed his prop- 
erty to found a free school at Williams- 
town, Massachusetts, and in 1785 a school 
building (now known as West College) 
was erected. In 1793 the State of Massa- 
chusetts granted the school a charter as 
Williams College, and donated $4,000 for 
the purchase of books and philosophical 
apparatus. Ephraim Williams died near 
Lake George, New York, September 8, 
1755- . .' 



BOWDOIN, James, 

Scientist, Statesman, Governor. 

James Bowdoin was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, August 7, 1726, grandson 
of Pierre Baudouin, a French Huguenot 
who immigrated to America in 1687, ^^^ 
settled in Boston in 1690. He was gradu- 
ated from Harvard in 1745. Two years 
later the death of his father put him in 
possession of a large fortune which as- 
sured his independence in following his 
inclinations in regard to his life work. 
Naturally of a studious bent, he became 
interested in scientific subjects, and in 
1750 visited Philadelphia, and made the 
acquaintance of Benjamin Franklin, who 
communicated his ideas on electricity to 
the young man. The friendship thus 
formed was cemented by a frequent cor- 
respondence of a scientific as well as of 
a friendly nature. In one of his letters to 
Franklin, Mr. Bowdoin advanced the 
theory that the luminosity of the sea is 
caused by the presence in it of phos- 
phorescent animalcula, a theory which 
Franklin endorsed and which has since 
been generally accepted. This corre- 
spondence was later on read by Franklin 
before the Royal Society, and afterwards 
published by him. 

In 1753 Mr. Bowdoin became a mem- 
ber of the General Court of Massachu- 
setts, a position which he held until 1756, 
when he was made a member of the coun- 
cil. As a councillor he was determined 
and zealous in his opposition to the en- 
croachments of the royal governors. This 
roused the ire of Bernard, who in 1769 
refused to confirm his election, but he 
was immediately elected to the Assembly, 
and in 1770, when Hutchinson became 
governor, he resumed his seat in the coun- 
cil and maintained it until 1774. The 
answers of the council to the insolent as- 
sumptions of Bernard and Hutchinson 
Avere largely drafted by James Bowdoin, 
as those of the assembly were bv James 

Otis and Samuel Adams. Hutchinson 
himself says: "Bowdoin was without a 
rival in the council." and he was called 
by Lord Loughnorough "the leader and 
the manager of the council of Massachu- 
setts." In 1774 his election as councillor 
was again negatived, this time by Gov- 
ernor Gage, and a few months later "His 
Majesty's Council" ceased to exist. Bow- 
doin was elected to the Continental Con- 
gress, but ill health prevented his taking 
his seat. In August, 1775, the Provincial 
Congress assembled at Watertown, a 
body of twenty-eight councillors was 
elected, and he was chosen its president. 
In 1779 he presided over the convention 
which framed the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, a convention made notable by 
the men of learning, talents and patriot- 
ism who composed it. During 1785 and 
1786 he was Governor of Massachusetts. 
In his first address he made suggestions 
which resulted in the legislature passing 
resolutions in July, 1785, recommending 
a convention of delegates from all the 
States. During his governorship oc- 
curred the famous Shay's rebellion, and 
its speedy suppression was altogether due 
to his vigorous and timely measures. The 
public treasury lacking funds to supply 
the expenses of the four thousand militia 
put into active service, Governor Bow- 
doin headed a subscription list, and the 
amount necessary was furnished by the 
people of Massachusetts. His energy on 
this occasion was odious to certain par- 
tisans, and no doubt caused his defeat in 
the next gubernatorial election, when he 
was a candidate against Hancock. He 
was a member of the convention which 
formulated the Federal Constitution in 
1787. Mr. Bowdoin was a personal friend 
of George Washington, and was held in 
esteem by all who were foremost in the 
public afifairs of that critical era. 

His political activities did not prevent 
his interest in the polite arts. He helped 



to found and liberally endowed the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, of 
which he was the first president ; and the 
Massachusetts Humane Society in part 
owed its origin to him. He received the 
degree of Doctor of Laws from Edin- 
burgh University, and was made a fellow 
of Harvard College and of the Royal Soci- 
eties of London and Edinburgh. He was 
the author of a poetical paraphrase of 
Dodsley's "Economy of Human Life," 
and of some Latin and English epigrams 
and poems which were incorporated in a 
volume published by Harvard College, 
entitled "Pietas et Gratulatio," as well as 
of several papers on scientific subjects. 
Bowdoin College, so liberally endowed by 
his son James, was named in his honor. 
He died in Boston, November 6, 1790. 


Governor, Man of Ability. 

James Sullivan, fifth Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, and a man of commanding 
ability in both public life and individual 
concerns, was born at Berwick, Maine, 
April 22, 1744, fourth son of John and 
Margery (Brow^n) Sullivan His g'-and- 
father, Major Philip Sullivan, of Ardea. 
an officer in the Catholic army against 
William of Orange, was of the fourth 
generation in descent from Daniel O'Sul- 
livan, chief of Beare and Bantry. After 
the surrender of Limerick, preferring 
exile to apostasy, he went to France, in 
company with Sarsfield, and there, shortly 
after the birth of his son John, was killed 
in a duel. The family is an ancient one 
in Ireland, and of so distinguished a 
lineage that, in the words of Jeremy 
Bentham, "in point of antiquity and early 
preeminence, they can vie with the most 
distinguished in Europe." The glorious 
exploits of the Clan O'Sullivan in battle 
are frequently set forth in the ancient 
chronicles of the South of Ireland, and it 
is well established that previous to the 

MASS— 4 

English conquest in 1170, they were the 
free rulers of the kingdom of Munster. 
After the death of William of Orange, 
John Sullivan returned to Ireland, only 
to face the distress and poverty which 
had fallen to the lot of most of his Cath- 
olic countrymen. He accordingly deter- 
mined to seek his fortune in America, and 
in 1723 set sail from Limerick. On this 
voyage he made the acquaintance of his 
future wife, then a child of nine years. 
After several romantic episodes, he was 
married to her about 1732, and settled 
on a farm of some seventy-seven acres, 
near Berwick, Maine. Although it is 
stated that he never relinquished his an- 
central faith, it seems that he had few 
opportunities to live up to its require- 
ments in his later years, and, as a conse- 
quence, his children were reared under 
Protestant influence. In his old age he 
was singularly imposing and venerable in 
appearance, and, although he lived to the 
extraordinary age of one hundred and 
five, retained his faculties to the last. 

James Sullivan was educated as well 
as the facilities of the time and conditions 
would warrant, but his strong mental 
abilities enabled him to make much of 
small advantages and become cultured 
almost before his store of knowledge had 
passed much beyond the rudiments. 
Throughout youth he worked at agricul- 
ture, devoting all his spare moments to 
reading ; but the severe fracture of one of 
his limbs, sustained while felling a tree, 
resulted in permanent lameness, and pre- 
cluded entrance upon the life of a soldier, 
as his parents had intended. He there- 
fore commenced the study of law, under 
his brother John, later distinguished as 
General Sullivan, of the Revolutionary 
army, and as judge of the United States 
District Court of New Hampshire. Sulli- 
van's prominence in after-life is all the 
more creditable when we consider that 
again, in the reading of law, he was faced 



with limited facilities in inadequate text- 
books and absence of all regular instruc- 
tion. His natural talents were equal to 
every difficulty, and before his thirty- 
second year he was recognized as one of 
the foremost men at the bar. After his 
admission he settled at Georgetown, 
Maine, but soon returned to Biddeford, 
where he was for some time king's attor- 
ney for York county. 

Through his inherited love of liberty 
and strong sympathy with the colonies 
against England, he became a leader in 
the events that led up to the revolution. 
He was a member of the Provincial Con- 
gress of Massachusetts in 1775, and was 
by that body appointed one of a commit- 
tee of three for a secret mission to Ticon- 
deroga, which, largely through his tact 
and diplomacy, was brought to a success- 
ful issue. In January, 1776, he was made 
one of the judges of the Superior Court, 
then the highest judicial tribunal in the 
colony, where he was a colleague of John 
Adams and William Gushing, and served 
until February, 1782. In that year the 
legislature was obliged by the general 
poverty to reduce his salary to three hun- 
dred pounds, which necessitated his res- 
ignation, since even when receiving a 
higher rate of compensation, he had been 
unable to more than meet his traveling 
expenses while on circuit. Meanwhile, 
in 1779, he was a delegate to the State 
Constitutional Convention; in 1784 and 
1785 a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress ; and was several times elected a 
member of the State Legislature from 
Boston. In 1784 he was appointed on a 
committee, with John Lovell and The- 
ophilus Parsons, to meet a similar com- 
mission from New York regarding the 
dispute that had arisen between the two 
States over the boundary question. 
Again, in 1796, by appointment of Presi- 
dent Washington, he served as commis- 
sioner, under the fifth article of the treaty 

with Great Britain, to fix the boundary 
line between the United States and Can- 
ada, a delicate task, which he discharged 
with his usual tact and ability. The lines 
then determined on have since continued 
practically the same. In 1787 Sullivan 
was chosen a member of the Executive 
Council of the State, and judge of probate 
for Suffolk county, and in 1790 became 
Attorney-General, an office held by him 
until 1807. It was in this office that he 
won particular distinction from the start. 
He insisted, upon his appointment, that a 
regular salary should be fixed for his 
services, instead of the system of fees 
hitherto in vogue, although this was 
greatly to his pecuniary disadvantage. 
His skill as a lawyer and pleader were 
frequently brought to the test in this con- 
nection, especially in the famous Fair- 
banks and Selfridge murder trials, where 
the best legal talent in the State was 
arrayed against him. He secured a con- 
viction in the former case on a chain of 
circumstantial evidence, despite the stren- 
uous efforts of the opposing counsel, who 
was evidently convinced of his client's 
complete innocence. In his practice, Sul- 
livan was a great exemplar of precision 
in the use of legal forms and a keen power 
of logical analysis ; and yet, by his im- 
passioned oratory and vigorous appeals 
to their sympathies, he was one of the 
most noted jury lawyers of the time. He 
enjoyed almost universal popularity until 
his strong opposition to certain points 
of the Federal constitution and statutes, 
notably the national bank system, and his 
outspoken support of the French repub- 
lic — matters on which feeling ran high in 
those times — gradually alienated some of 
his closest friends and associates. In 
these matters, however, he sacrificed 
much of his feeling for the sake of peace 
and moderation. 

Among his most notable public services 
was the planning and successful carrying 



out of the Middlesex canal, constructed 
to connect the Merrimack with the 
Charles river at Charlestown. He was 
president of the company from its incor- 
poration, in 1793, until his death. The 
first surveys were made by an English 
engineer named Weston, a pupil of James 
Brindley, and it is stated that the first 
leveling instrument ever used in the 
United States was there employed by 
him. The work of construction was su- 
perintended by Colonel Loammi Bald- 
win, of Woburn, Massachusetts, one of 
the foremost contractors of the day. In 
1807 and again in 1808 he was chosen 
Governor of Massachusetts on the Re- 
publican ticket, but died soon after his 
election for a second term. His published 
writings are numerous, and include: "Ob- 
servations on the Government of the 
United States" (1791) ; "Dissertation on 
Banks" (1792) ; "History of Maine" 
(1795) ; "The French Nation Defended" 
(1795) ; "Causes of the French Revolu- 
tion" (1798) ; "History of Land Titles in 
Massachusetts" (1801) ; "Constitutional 
Liberty of the Press" (1801) ; "Corre- 
spondence with Col. Pickering" (1808), 
and a "History of the Penobscot In- 
dians," published in the Massachusetts 
historical collections. He projected a his- 
tory of criminal law in Massachusetts, 
but the manuscript is said to have been 
left in an unfinished condition, and no 
part of it has been printed. Governor 
Sullivan was one of the ten original mem- 
bers, and long president, of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, and a mem- 
ber of the American Society of Arts and 
Sciences. In 1780 Harvard conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. 
He was an earnest Christian throughout 
life, and a generous contributor to all re- 
ligious and beneficient objects. 

He was married, February 22, 1768, to 
Hetty Odiorne, of Durham, Maine. His 
son, John Langdon (1777-1865), was a 

noted engineer and inventor, and another 
son, William (1774-1839), gained emi- 
nence at the bar. (See "Life of James 
Sullivan," by Thomas C. Amory, pub- 
lished in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1859). 
Governor Sullivan died in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, December 10, 1808. 

BALDWIN, Loammi, 

Soldier, Scientist. 

Loammi Baldwin was born at North 
Woburn, Middlesex county, Massachu- 
setts, January 21, 1745, third child of 
James and Ruth (Richardson) Baldwin. 
He was a descendant of Deacon Henry 
Baldwin, who emigrated to Massachusetts 
in 1630, probably with Winthrop's colony, 
lived at Charlestown, which he repre- 
sented in the General Court, was one of 
the first settlers of Woburn, and was a 
subscriber to the "town orders" drawn 
up at Charlestown for the regulation of 
the projected new settlement in Decem- 
ber, 1641. 

In early life he discovered a strong de- 
sire for acquiring knowledge, and attend- 
ed the grammar school in Woburn under 
the instruction of Master John Fowle, a 
noted teacher of that time ; the school 
was a movable one, being- kept at suc- 
cessive periods first in the centre of the 
town and secondly at the precinct, or the 
jDart of Woburn now incorporated in the 
town of Burlington. At a more advanced 
period of life, with the intention of ob- 
taining a thorough acquaintance with 
natural and experimental philosophy, he 
would walk from North Woburn to Cam- 
bridge, in company with his school mate, 
Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, 
and attended the lectures of Professor 
John Winthrop at Harvard College, for 
which liberty had been given, and upon 
their return home on foot they were in the 
habit of illustrating the principles they 
had heard enunciated in the lecture room 



by making rude instruments for them- 
selves to pursue their experiments. 

He was present at the battle of Lexing- 
ton. As early as 1768 he had enlisted in 
a company of horse guards, and was not 
wholly destitute of military experience 
when summoned a little before the break 
of day to the field at Lexington and Con- 
cord on April 19, 1775. In his own state- 
ment he says: "We mustered as fast as 
possible. The town turned out extra- 
ordinary, and proceeded toward Lexing- 
ton." Holding the rank of a major in 
the militia, he says : "1 rode along a little 
before the main body, and when I was 
nigh Jacob Reed's (at present Duren- 
ville) I heard a great firing; proceeded 
on, soon heard that the Regulars had fired 
upon Lexington people and killed a large 
number of them. We proceeded on as 
fast as possible and came to Lexington 
and saw about eight or ten dead and 
numbers wounded." He then, with the 
rest from Woburn, proceeded to Concord 
by way of Lincoln meeting house, ascend- 
ed a hill there, and rested and refreshed 
themselves a little. Then follows a par- 
ticular account of the action and of his 
own experience. He had "several good 
shots," and proceeded on till coming be- 
tween the meeting house and Buckman's 
tavern at Lexington, with a prisoner be- 
fore him, the cannon of the British began 
to play, the balls flying near him, and for 
safety he retreated back behind the meet- 
ing house, when a ball came through near 
his head, and he further retreated to a 
meadow north of the house and lay there 
and heard the balls in the air and saw 
them strike the ground. ^Vol)urn sent 
to the field on that day one hundred and 
eighty men. 

At the beginning of the war he enlisted 
in the regiment of foot commanded by 
Colonel Samuel Gerrish. Here he was 
rapidly advanced to be lieutenant-colonel, 
and upon Colonel Gerrish's retirement in 

August, 1775, he was placed at the head 
of the regiment, and was soon commis- 
sioned its colonel. His regiment was 
first numbered the Thirty-eighth and was 
afterwards numbered the Twenty-sixth, 
its original eight companies being in- 
creased to ten. Till the end of 1775, 
Colonel Baldwin and his men remained 
near Boston; but in April, 1776, he was 
ordered with his command to New York 
City. On April 19 of that year he was 
at New York; on June 13, 1776, at the 
Grand Battery there; on June 22, the 
same ; and on December 26, 1776, his 
regiment, commanded by himself, "went 
on the expedition to Trentown" (Tren- 
ton). In this regiment was one company 
from Woburn, commanded by Captain 
John Wood. On the memorable night of 
December 25, 1776, in the face of a vio- 
lent and extremely cold storm of snow 
and hail. General Washington and his 
army crossed the Delaware to the New 
Jersey side, and took by surprise the 
next morning at Trenton about one thou- 
sand Hessian troops commanded by Colo- 
nel Rahl, and Colonel Baldwin and his 
men took part in this daring and success- 
ful enterprise. 

Colonel Baldwin's experience in the 
campaigns in New York and New Jersey 
is told in his letters to his family at 
home, and many of these letters have 
been sacredly preserved by his descend- 
ants. During 1775-76 he was stationed 
with about two hundred or more of his 
men at Chelsea, while other companies 
of his regiment were stationed about 
Boston at Brookline and Medford. The 
"History of Chelsea," published by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, con- 
tains a great mass of material relating to 
the stay of a portion of the regiment at 
Chelsea, where their duties were those 
mostly of guards. 

Colonel Baldwin resigned from the 
arm}- in 1777 on account of ill health. His 



subsequent life was spent in his native 
place, and was marked by an enterprising 
spirit and the active habits of his youth. 
He had a talent and capacity for busi- 
ness. In his public career he was ap- 
pointed on many committees on impor- 
tant town business ; the records of the 
town and many autographic town papers 
are ample evidence of this. He was ap- 
pointed high sheriff of Middlesex county 
in 1780, and was the first to hold office 
after the adoption of the State constitu- 
tion. In 1778-79-80. and the four follow- 
ing years, he represented Woburn in the 
General Court. In 1794 he was a candi- 
date for election to Congress, and had all 
the votes cast in Woburn but one. In 
1796, on three trials for the choice of the 
same office, he had all the votes for the 
first two in Woburn, and on the third 
seventy-four votes out of the seventy- 
six cast in Woburn. At other elections 
he was a prominent candidate among 
those held up in Woburn for the offices 
of State Senator. Lieutenant-Governor 
and Presidential Elector. 

From his acquaintance with mathe- 
matics and the arts and sciences of his 
time, he was chosen a member of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
and to the publications of that body he 
contributed two papers, entitled. "An ac- 
count of a Curious Appearance of the 
Electrical Fluid" (Memoirs Am. Acad., 
vol. i. 1785. pp. 257-259) ; and "Observa- 
tions on Electricity and an Improved 
Mode of Constructing Lightning Rods" 
(Memoirs, vol. 2, pt. 2, 1804. pp. 96-104). 
The first paper was written in 1783. and 
the "curious appearance" described was 
produced by raising an electrical kite at 
the time of a thunder shower. The ex- 
periments, however, were made in July, 
1 77 1. At that time the author mentions 
that there stood some lofty trees near his 
house, and also a shop near by it. His 
parents and neighbors witnessed the 

"electrical eft"ect" he succeeding in pro- 
ducing. The date of preparing the sec- 
ond article was January 25, 1797. Colo- 
nel Baldwin wrote a sketch of Count 
Rumford which was printed in a local 
publication in 1805. He w-as also the 
author of a report on the survey of the 
I'oston and Narragansett Bay Canal, 
1S06. He was elected a fellow of the 
Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1782, 
and was a member of the council 1785 to 
1796, and from 1798 to 1807. (Further, 
see Cutter, "Local History of Woburn," 
p. 203). lie received from Harvard Col- 
lege the degree of Master of Arts in 1785. 

He was not one who for the sake of 
popularity would sacrifice his principles 
of duty to the public, though, as shown 
by the votes above, he was deservedly a 
favorite with his townsmen and fellow 
citizens generally. Thus he protested 
with others against the action of the 
town in xj^y in the time of Shay's Re- 
bellion, when the majority of the citizens 
of Woburn voted not to give any encour- 
agement to the men called out to go on 
the present expedition, nor to aid or as- 
sist it. Against this proceeding of the 
town. Colonel Baldwin and thirty-six 
others at once entered their protest, and 
two days after, the town itself recon- 
sidered the votes it had passed on this 
subject. He took a prominent part in the 
construction of the Middlesex canal, com- 
pleted in 1803. one of the earliest enter- 
prises of the sort in the United States. 

To him the discovery and the introduc- 
tion to public notice and the earliest cul- 
tivation of the Baldwin apple, about 
1784, has been justly ascribed. He was 
one day surveying land at a place called 
Butters' Row. in Wilmington, near the 
bounds of that town. Woburn and Bur- 
lington, when he observed one or more 
birds of the woodpecker variety flying 
repeatedly to a certain tree on land of a 
Mr. James Butters. Prompted by curi- 



csity to ascertain the cause of their at- 
traction, he at leng-th went to it, and 
found on the ground under it apples of 
an excellent flavor and well worth culti- 
vating; and returning to the tree the next 
spring, he took from it scions to graft 
into stocks of his own. Other persons 
induced by his advice or example grafted 
trees of theirs from the same stock ; and 
subsequently when Colonel Baldwin at- 
tended court or went into other parts of 
the county as high sherift, he carried 
scions of this apple and distributed them 
among iiis acquaintance, so that this 
species of fruit soon became extensively 
known and cultivated. The original tree 
remained, it is said, till 1815, when it was 
blown down in the famous "September 
gale." The apple thus became known as 
the "Baldwin apple." 

His name is also associated with that 
of the celebrated Count Rumford. In 
childhood they were opposite neighbors, 
playmates and schoolmates. They at- 
tended lectures at Harvard College to- 
gether. Baldwin befriended him when 
arrested by one of the local military com- 
panies as a person inimical to the cause 
of the colonies, and he was tried and ac- 
quitted by a court of which Baldwin ap- 
pears to be one of the members. To the 
last, though separated by the ocean and 
political preferences, they were enthusi- 
astic friends and correspondents — the one 
was an American officer, and the other 
an officer in the opposing British forces. 

The history of his house, which is still 
standing at North Woburn, may be told 
in the following words taken from the 
recorded statements of different members 
of his family at different periods. The 
house was built in 1661. as appeared by 
the date on a timber which was lying 
about the house in 1835. It was owned 
by Henry Baldwin from 1661 to his death 
in 1697, '1"^ ^ic was succeeded by his son 
Henry, who latterly went to New Hamp- 

shire. The latter Henry was succeeded 
in ownership by James, who died June 
28, 1791, son of Henry; Loammi, son of 
James, to 1807, who put on a third story 
in 1802 or 1803. Benjamin F. Baldwin, 
son of Loammi, was the owner from 1807 
to 1822; Loammi (second) and Mary and 
Clarissa Baldwin were joint owners from 
1822 to 1836; and George R. Baldwin, 
sole owner, from 1836 to his death, Octo- 
ber ir, 1888. Mrs. Catharine R. Griffith, 
daughter of George Rumford Baldwin, 
was the last recorded owner (1907). 
Colonel Loammi Baldwin's estate em- 
braced from his inventory, which is very 
lengthy, a very large amount of land in 
1801, according to a town assessor's list, 
two hundred and twelve acres. His son, 
Benjamin F. Baldwin, occupied his estate 
from 1807 to about 1822. as above men- 

The selectmen of Boston, at a meeting 
on April 15, 1772, paid Loammi Baldwin, 
of Woburn, forty dollars, the premium 
they adjudged to him for raising the 
greatest number of mulberry trees in re- 
sponse to an advertisement published in 
"Edes and Gill's Gazette," 1768. The se- 
lectmen took a receipt of Baldwin, and 
also an obligation to dispose of one-half 
the trees under the conditions mentioned 
in said advertisement. The first premium 
was awarded to Loammi Baldwin. Under 
this competition Mr. John Hay, of Wo- 
burn, received twenty dollars as the 
premium adjudged him for raising the 
third greatest number of mulberry trees. 
The statement in the advertisement was 
that a gentleman of Boston had deposited 
one hundred dollars with the selectmen 
to be distributed as premiums to encour- 
age the raising of mulberry trees in the 
province. The conditions of the awards 
were also given. The name of the donor 
was William Whitwell. 

Colonel Baldwin was twice married ; 
first to Mary, daughter of James Fowle, 


Xoamml ^ald^^in ^'ouss. Woburn, j^ass. 


of Woburn ; she bore him four sons and 
a daughter. He married (second) Mar- 
garet, daughter of Josiah Fowle, of Wo- 
burn ; she bore him a daughter, Clarissa, 
who became the wife of Thomas B. 
Coolidge ; and a son, George Rumford. 

STRONG, Caleb, 

Early Senator and Governor. 

Caleb Strong was born in Northamp- 
ton, Massachusetts, January 9, 1745, son 
of Lieutenant Caleb and Phebe (Lyman) 
Strong, grandson of Jonathan and Mehit- 
able (Stebbins) Strong, and of Captain 
Moses and Mindwell (Sheldon) Lyman, 
and a descendant of Elder John and Abi- 
gail (Ford) Strong. Elder Strong (1605- 
99), who emigrated from Plymouth. Eng- 
land, in 1630, was one of the founders of 
Dorchester, IMassachusetts, and eventu- 
ally located in Northampton, Massachu- 
setts, in 1659. 

Caleb Strong studied under the Rev. 
Samuel Moody, of York, Maine, and at 
Harvard College, from which he was 
graduated Bachelor of Arts in 1764, re- 
ceiving the ]\Iaster's degree in 1767. He 
studied law under Major Joseph Hawley, 
of Northampton, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1772. Pie was a member of the 
Committee of Correspondence and Safety, 
1774-75 ; a representative in the General 
Court, 1776-78, and county attorney. 
1776-1800. He was State Senator, 1780- 
88, and declined a seat on the supreme 
bench in 1781. He was a member of the 
convention that formed the State consti- 
tution of Massachusetts, serving on the 
committee that drew up that instrument ; 
and a delegate to the United States Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1787. but did 
not sign the instrument. With Thomas 
Dalton he was elected one of the first 
United States Senators from Massachu- 
setts, and drew the long term of four 
years ; he was reelected for six years, his 
second term to expire March 3. 1799, but 

resigned in 1796, and Theodore Sedgwick 
took his seat, December 6, 1796, and com- 
pleted his term. He was Governor of 
Massachusetts, 1800-07 ; presidential elec- 
tor in 1809, and again Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, 1812-16. During his second 
term as Governor he opposed the war 
with England, and refused the request of 
the President to furnish troops, claiming 
that the decision rested with him as to 
when the militia should be called out, in 
which opinion he was upheld by the Su- 
preme Court. After the withdrawal, how- 
ever, of the national troops, he made 
proper and sufficient provision for the de- 
fence of the State. After 1816 he resumed 
the practice of law in Northampton. 

He received the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Harvard College in 
1801 ; was a fellow of the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences, and a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical Soci- 
ety. He was the author of: "Speeches, 
and Other Papers. 1800-1807" (1808). 
His biography was written by Alden 
Bradford (1820). See also "The Strong 
Family" by Benjamin W. Dwight (2 vols., 

He was married. November 20, 1777, 
to Sarah, daughter of the Rev. John and 
Sarah (Worthington) Hooker, of North- 
ampton, and they had nine children. Gov- 
ernor Strong died in Northampton. Mas- 
sachusetts. November 17, 1819. 

SUMNER, Increase, 

La^iryer, Jnrist, Governor. 

Increase Sumner was born at Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. November 27, 1746, the 
son of Increase Sumner, a farmer, who 
had succeeded in acquiring a considerable 
property. The earliest American ances- 
tors came from England, and settled in 
Dorchester, near Boston. Increase Sum- 
ner the elder, was noted for his colossal 
size and great strength of muscle, as well 
as for his frug'ality. his industry and his 



success. He died in 1774. having had 
eight children, only three of whom sur- 
vived him — his son Increase, and two 

The subject of this narrative o])tained 
the rudiments of learning in the public 
grammar school of Roxbury, where he 
made such progress that his father was 
induced to send him to Harvard, which 
he entered in 1763. There he entirely 
justified the hopes and predictions of his 
friends, being graduated with distinction 
in 1767. On leaving college, he took 
charge of the school where he had re- 
ceived his preparatory education, and 
after three years entered the office of 
Samuel Quincy, an eminent barrister, 
brother of Josiah Ouincy. In 1770 he- 
was admitted to the bar, and began prac- 
tice in Roxbury. He was found to be in- 
telligent and worthy of confidence, and 
his business soon became important and 
lucrative. In 1776 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the Great Court, in which he con- 
tinued to represent his native town until 
1780, when he was elected State Senator 
from the county of Norfolk. He was a 
member of the two conventions of 1777 
and 1779, on a form of government; and 
of the Massachusetts convention of 1789, 
on the adoption of the federal constitu- 
tion. The convention of 1777 published 
at the conclusion of its sitting, what was 
styled the doings of "The General Con- 
vention of the Commonwealth of the 
State of Massachusetts," declaring the 
same to be a free state, and ofifering a 
preamble and rough draft of a constitu- 
tion. The latter, however, was rejected. 
The convention of 1779 met for the pur- 
pose of making a constitution for the 
commonwealth, and held sessions from 
time to time between the first week in 
September and the middle of June follow- 
ing, during which time the debates are 
said to have been spirited and dignified. 

but no trace of any of them remains in 

In June, 1782, Sumner was chosen a 
member of Congress, but never took a 
>eat. in that bod}-, as, in August follow- 
ing, he was made Associate Judge of the 
Supreme Judicial Court. He was at that 
time only thirty-six years of age, but the 
public had confidence in his integrity and 
ability, and the court considered him an 
acquisition, lie continued on the bench 
until 1797, when he was elected Gov- 
ernor of the commonwealth. He was re^ 
elected the two following years, but on 
the occasion of his last election was on 
his deathbed, and there the oath of office 
was administered to him. in order that 
he might be legalh' qualified, and the 
Lieutenant-Governor be thus empowered 
to act in case of his demise. When this 
occurred, it produced general sorrow in 
Massachusetts — indeed it is said that no 
death except Washington's had ever been 
more deeply deplored in Massachusetts. 
H^is funeral took place on June 12th, su- 
perintended by a committee of the legis- 
iature, and the ceremonies are said to 
have been the most solemn and splendid 
ever witnessed in the commonwealth. 
All classer- of citizens mourned him, and 
badges of respect to his memory were 
Aery generally worn for forty days. At 
the time when Mr. Sumner was made 
Governor of Massachusetts, the country 
was prosperous, but the people were ap- 
prehensive for the future. The effect of 
the French revolution was beginning to 
be experienced in this country, and it 
was felt in Massachusetts that it was 
necessary to have at the head of the com- 
monwealth a man whose virtues in pri- 
vate life were unassailable, and whose 
general reputation placed him out of the 
reach of slander. 

Governor Sumner was married, Sep- 
tember 30, 1779, to a daughter of William 
ITyslop, of Brooklyn, formerly a distin- 



guished merchant of Boston. They had 
a son and two daughters. Mrs. Sumner 
survived her husband ten years. The 
date of Governor Sumner's death was 
June 7. 1799. 

OSGOOD, Samuel, 

Statesman, Cabinet Oificial. 

Samuel Osgood was born at Andover, 
Massachusetts. February 14. 1748. He 
was fifth in descent from John Osgood, 
of Andover, England, who came to Mas- 
sachusetts about 1630, and gave its name 
to the town of Andover. 

After graduation at Harvard College 
in T770, he studied theology, but, on ac- 
count of ill health abandoned his studies, 
and engaged in mercantile affairs. In 
1774 he was a delegate to the Essex 
county convention, and was repeatedly 
a member of the Massachusetts Legisla- 
ture, and subsequently of the Massachu- 
setts Provincial Congress in which he 
served on various important committees. 
He was a captain of militia at Lexington 
and Cambridge, Massachusetts, in April, 
1775; and in 1775 and 1776 served as 
aide-de-camp on the staff of General Ar- 
temas Ward, of the American army, with 
the rank of colonel. He was also a mem- 
ber of the ^Massachusetts Board of War, 
to serve as such leaving the army, in 1776 
with the rank of colonel and assistant 
commissary, and in prospect of further 
military honors. He sat in the Massachu- 
setts House of Representatives until 1780, 
when he entered the State Senate. From 
1780 to 1784 he was a Massachusetts dele- 
gate to the Continental Congress. In 
T782 he was chairman of a delegation 
sent to Rhode Island to urge assent to 
Alexander Hamilton's resolution concern- 
ing the duty on imports. From 1785 to 
1789 he was first Commissioner of the 
United States Treasury, and from 1789 
to 1791 the first Postmaster General. 
When the seat of the United States gov- 

ernment was removed to Philadelphia in 
1791, he resigned the Postmaster-Gen- 
eralship and continued his residence at 
New York City, whence he was subse- 
quently sent to the State Legislature, and 
became its speaker. From 1801 to 1803 
he was a supervisor of New York City, 
and from that time until his death in New 
York, was United States Naval Officer of 
the port. 

He published several volumes on re- 
ligious subjects, and one on the subject 
of chronolog}'. His correspondence with 
eminent men was extensive ; he was well 
versed in science and literature, and was 
distinguished for integrity, public spirit 
and piety. He was a charter member of 
the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. He married (first) Martha 
Brandon, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
who died without issue. He married 
(second) Maria (Bowne) Franklin, 
widow of Walter Franklin, of New York 
City, and daughter of Daniel Bowne of 
Flushing, Long Island. Their daughter. 
Martha Brandon, became the wife of Ed- 
mond C. Genet, the French Minister to 
the United States, who was recalled by 
his government under complaint from the 
American government that he was inter- 
fering in its domestic politics. Mr. Os- 
good's house in New York was in Frank- 
lin Square, and was Washington's head- 
quarters when he reached the city. He 
died August 12, 1813. 


La^vyer, Cabinet Officer, Governor. 

Levi Lincoln, sixth Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, and United States Attorney- 
General, was born at Hingham, Massa- 
chusetts, May 15, 1749* son of Enoch and 
Rachel ^Fearing) Lincoln. He was a de- 
scendant of Samuel Lincoln, of Hingham, 
who came to this country from Hingham. 
England, in 1637. 

Levi's father was a farmer, who gave 



his son such education as he could, and 
the son, in his leisure time, succeeded in 
preparing himself for college, and entered 
Harvard, where he was graduated in 
1772. Although his education had been 
shaped with a view to the study of the- 
ology, he was influenced to adopt the 
legal profession by the deep impression 
made on his mind at hearing John Adams 
argue a case in Boston, with his accus- 
tomed vigor and eloquence. He began 
forthwith to read law in the office of Jo- 
seph Hawley, of Northampton, and sub- 
sequently settled in Worcester, where 
he began practice and continued his resi- 
dence until his death. He played a promi- 
nent part in the movement for the aboli- 
tion of slavery in Massachusetts, and 
continued active in political affairs until 
the outbreak of the Revolution. After 
the battle of Lexington, he accompanied 
a detachment of minute-men to Cam- 
bridge, and was for several weeks at- 
tached to the besieging army before Bos- 
ton. Returning to Worcester, he was 
chosen upon the Committee of Corre- 
spondence, and further displayed his zeal 
for the cause of independence by numer- 
ous patriotic appeals, and a series of com- 
munications to the press, entitled "A 
Farmer's Letters."' He rapidly achieved 
distinction at the bar of Worcester 
county, and was successively county 
prosecutor, clerk of the court, and judge 
of probate. In 1781 he was a delegate to 
the State Constitutional Convention, and 
in the same year refused an election to 
Congress. He was a member of the Gen- 
eral Court of the State in 1796, and dur- 
ing 1797-1800 of the Senate. In 1800 he 
was elected to Congress, where he served 
for only a few weeks before his appoint- 
ment as Attorney-General in the cabinet 
of President Thomas Jefferson. He also 
discharged the duties of Secretary of 
State until Mr. Madison's arrival in 
Washington. In 1805 'le resigned from 

the cabinet, and, returning to Massachu- 
setts, resumed his former prominence in 
public affairs, serving in 1806, 1810 and 
181 1 as member of the State Executive 
Council. He was Lieutenant-Governor 
of Massachusetts in 1807-09, and during 
several months of the latter year, owing 
to the death of Governor James Sullivan, 
was Acting-Governor. In 181 1 Governor 
Lincoln was appointed by President Mad- 
ison to be Associate Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court, but, threatened at 
this time with total blindness, he declined 
the position. He afterward recovered his 
sight sufficiently to enable him to devote 
necessary attention to his farm, and to 
indulge himself somewhat in classical 
studies. Governor Lincoln was an or- 
iginal member of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences ; of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, and other learned 
bodies. He was author of the notable 
"Farmer's Letters" which were a marked 
feature of the political discussions inci- 
dent to Adams' administration. 

He died in Worcester, Massachusetts, 
April 14, 1820. Llis widow, who was a 
daughter of Daniel Waldo, died in the 
same place, eight years later, and was 
followed to the grave by two sons, both 
governors — Levi, of Massachusetts, and 
Enoch, of Maine. 

THOMAS, Isaiah, 

Pioneer Printer and Editor. 

Isaiah Thomas was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 19, 1749, son of 
Moses Thomas. He served as appren- 
tice to Zachariah Fowles, printer, and 
was in his employ from 1755 to 1766, and 
whose partner he became in 1770, having 
meanwhile visited the W^est Indies and 
Nova Scotia. 

In connection with Fowles he founded 
"The Massachusetts Spy," a W^hig publi- 
cation, after a few months becoming sole 
editor, and for his opposition to British 



oppression was ordered to be prosecuted 
by Governor Hutchinson in 1771, but was 
not indicted. On account of its independ- 
ent policy, w^hich was displeasing to many 
in Boston, in April, 1775, he removed 
"The Spy" to Worcester, which became 
its permanent location with the exception 
of its temporary publication in Boston, 
in 1776-77. He was associated with Paul 
Revere in giving the memorable warn- 
ing of the advance of the British on 
April 18, 1775, and took part in the battle 
of Lexington. In 1775 he began the pub- 
lication of the "New England Almanac," 
and which he maintained until 1817. He 
was a pioneer in importing and using 
music-type, in 1786. He published books, 
and was joint printer of the "Farmer's 
Museum," Walpole, New Hampshire, and 
in 1788 founded the firm of Thomas & 
Andrews, book-publishers, Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, with branches in various 
other cities, publishing the "Massachu- 
setts Magazine" eight volumes, 1789-96; 
a folio Bible, 1791 ; Watts' "Psalms and 
Hymns," and almost all the Bibles and 
school books in common use in that day. 
He founded the American Antiquarian 
Society of Worcester, acting as its first 
president. He received the honorary de- 
gree of LL. D. from Allegheny College, 
Pennsylvania, in 1818. He was the author 
of a "History of Printing," in two vol- 
umes. His extensive library, which con- 
tained a valuable file of newspapers, he 
bequeathed to the Antiquarian Society, 
as well as land and a hall, with property 
amounting to $24,000 for its maintenance. 
See memoir by Benjamin L. Thomas 
(1874). He died in Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, April 4, 1831. 

CABOT, George, 

Constructive Statesman. 

George Cabot was born in Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, December 3, 175 1. He re- 
ceived a careful preparatory education, 

and studied for two years at Harvard 
College. Then, moved probably by a 
restless disposition and a desire for 
knowledge and experience, he went to 
sea. His abilities seem to have been of 
the best, since before his majority he was 
placed in command of a ship, with which 
for several years he was engaged in for- 
eign trade, and soon after his return home 
in 1775 he was chosen a delegate to the 
first Massachusetts Provincial Congress, 
assembled at Concord. In this body he 
at once rose to prominence through the 
advocacy of political and economic prin- 
ciples, characterized by sound judgment 
and common sense, in vigorous opposition 
to the proposed measure for establishing 
a maximum of prices on all necessities 
(this he correctly termed the worst pos- 
sible course to pursue in raising funds 
for public expenses, and at the same time 
maintain the state), and defended the 
right of free commerce. Thereafter he 
was esteemed one of the foremost auth- 
orities on economics in the country, and 
enjoyed the high regard of such promi- 
nent public characters as Washington, 
Ames and Hamilton, greatly assisting the 
last-named in formulating his financial 
policy, with manifold observations de- 
rived from his knowledge of commercial 
matters. Later he became a member of 
the convention that framed the constitu- 
tion of Massachusetts, and also of that 
v/hich m 1788 adopted the newly formu- 
lated Federal Constitution, in behalf of 
which he discovered great zeal and en- 
ergy. From 1 79 1 until 1796 he served 
with distinction in the United States 
Senate from Massachusetts. 

When the office of Secretary of the 
Navy was created, he was the first choice 
of President Adams for the position, to 
which he was appointed May 3, 1789, but 
which he resigned on the 21st of the 
month, and retained his seat in the Sen- 
ate. He served in the Council of Massa- 



chusetts in 1808, and was made president 
of the eastern convention at Hartford 
in 1814, being chosen to the latter posi- 
tion for his profound knowledge of politi- 
cal economy. After this period he retired 
from public life, and devoted himself to 
business pursuits until his death. 

Mr. Cabot possessed a singularly alert 
and penetrating mind, and his ability to 
grasp and define situations was remark- 
able. From his well-stored memory he 
was able to marshal an array of facts 
bearing upon almost any situation, and 
enforce his views with a fascinating elo- 
quence. His daughter became the wife 
of President Kirkland, of Harvard Col- 
lege. The "History of the Hartford Con- 
vention," published in 1833 by Theodore 
Dwight, give his views on financial 
policy. He died in Boston, April 18, 1823. 

BROOKS, John, 

Veteran of the Revolution, Governor. 

John Brooks was born at Medford. 
Massachusetts, May 31, 1752. He worked 
on his father's farm, and attended the 
village school at irregular intervals until 
his fourteenth year, when he was taken 
into the home of Dr. Simon Tufts, the 
family physician, to be educated for the 
medical profession. Having completed 
his professional studies, he began the 
practice of medicine at Reading, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1773. 

Upon hearing of the march of the Brit- 
ish to Lexington and Concord, in 1775, 
he ordered out a militia company which 
he had been drilling for some time, and 
proceeded to the scene of battle, where 
he so distinguished himself by his brav- 
ery and efficiency that he was given a 
major's commission in the provincial 
army. He was active during the night 
preceding the battle having been sent 
with a despatch from Colonel Prescott 
to General Artenias Ward. In 1777 he 
was made lieutenant-colonel of the 

Eighth Massachusetts Regiment, and, as 
commander of the regiment, took an active 
and gallant part in all the battles and 
manoeuvres of the northern army, which 
terminated in Burgoyne's surrender. He 
was with Washington in all the hard- 
ships of Valley Forge. Early in 1778 he 
was promoted to a colonelcy, and in June 
of that year distinguished himself at the 
battle of Monmouth As a tactician he 
was acknowledged to be second only to 
Baron Steuben, and after that officer be- 
came inspector-general, Colonel Brooks 
was associated with him in establishing 
in the army a uniform system of drill and 

After the return of peace and the dis- 
banding of the army, Colonel Brooks re- 
rurned to the practice of his profession, 
establishing himself at Medford. He was 
active in militia alifairs, and served for 
many years with the rank of major-gen- 
eral. He was a member of the State Con- 
vention which met in 1788 to ratify the 
Federal Constitution, and in 1795, by ap- 
pointment of General Washington, be- 
came marshal of his district and inspec- 
tor of revenues. From 1812 to 1815 he 
served as Adjutant-General of the .State, 
and in 1816 was elected Governor. He 
was elected seven consecutive years, and 
then declining to be again a candidate, 
he retired to his Medford home and re- 
sumed his practice. 

Harvard College gave him the honor- 
ary degree of A. M., and in 1816 those 
of M. D. and LL. D. He was president 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society 
from 1817 until his death, and in his 
will he bequeathed his library to the 

society. A discourse delivered before 
the Society of the Cincinnati (1787), one 
before the Humane vSociety (1795), a 
eulogy on Washington (1800), and a dis- 
course on pneumonia, delivered before 
the Massachusetts Medical Society 
ri8o8), have been published. He died 
March i, 1825. 


Count Rum ford, original grantee of Concord 


DANE, Nathan, 

Benefactor of Harvard College. 

Nathan Dane, a man of great abilit}-, 
was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, De- 
cember 27, 1752, son of Dr. John Dane, 
who came from England in 1636 and set- 
tled in Agawam, Massachusetts, with his 
brother, the Rev. Francis Dane, who in 
1648 was ordained second minister of the 
church at Andover. 

Nathan Dane was brought up on his 
father's farm till he reached his majority, 
was graduated at Harvard in 1778. and 
became a school teacher, and in 17S2 a 
lawyer in Beverly, Massachusetts. He 
was a representative in the Massachusetts 
Legislature, 1782-85 ; a delegate from 
Massachusetts to the Continental Con- 
gress, 1785-88, and when Massachusetts 
and the other States ceded their territorial 
rights to the general government, he was 
a member of the committee on territory, 
of which James Monroe was chairman. 
He introduced in the report of 1786 the 
right of liabcas corpus and of trial by 
jury as conditions of admission of the 
Northwest Territory. He submitted the 
report of the committee to Congress. 
amended by a provision for the abolition 
of slavery, as suggested by Manasseh 
Cutler, and on July 5, 1786, the ordinance 
was unanimously adopted. In the same 
ordinance he incorporated a prohibition 
against laws impairing the obligation of 
contracts, which was afterward made a 
part of the constitution of the United 
States. He was a member of the State 
Senate, 1790-91 and 1794-97. In 1795 he 
was a commissioner to revise the laws 
of Massachusetts. He was a presidential 
elector in 1812, a member of the Hart- 
ford Convention of 1814, and was elected 
a delegate to the State Constitutional 
Convention of 1820, but did not serve on 
account of deafness. He was a Bible 
student, devoting his Sabbaths, when not 
attending public worship, to studying 

from the original languages. In 1829 he 
gave $10,000, increased in 1831 to $15,000, 
to found the Dane Professorship of Law 
in Harvard Law School, conditioned on 
the appointment to the chair of his friend, 
Joseph Strong, who held it, 1829-45. 
Dane Hall, erected in 1832, was named in 
his honor. 

He was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural Society, and president 
of the Society for the Suppression of In- 
temperance. In 1816 Harvard conferred 
on him the honorary degree of LL. D. 
He revised and published: "Charters 
Granted in Massachusetts" (1811) ; "The 
Statutes of Massachusetts" (1812) ; "A 
General Abridgement and Digest of 
American Law" (nine volumes, and ap- 
pendix. 1823-30). He died in Beverly, 
Massachusetts, February 15, 1835. 

THOMPSON, Benjamin, 

Man of Many Abilities. 

Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) 
was born in North Woburn, Massachu- 
setts, March 26, 1753, son of Benjamin 
and Ruth (Simonds) Thompson, and a 
descendant in the fifth generation of 
James Thompson, who immigrated to 
New England with John \\'inthrop in 
1630, and was one of the subscribers to 
the original town orders of Woburn 
(then Charlestown village) in 1640. Ben- 
jamin Thompson Sr. died in 1754, and his 
widow married Josiah Pierce, of Woburn, 
about 1756. 

Benjamin Thompson Jr. attended the 
common schools of W^oburn, and private 
schools at Byfield and Medford, Massa- 
chusetts. He became an apprentice clerk 
to John Appleton, an importer of Brit- 
ish goods at Salem. Alassachusetts, 1766- 
69, and subsequently to a dry-goods mer- 
chant of Boston. He devoted his leisure 
to the study of mathematics, French, 
music, drawing, and to mechanical and 
philosophical experiments. He studied 



medicine with Dr. John Hay in Woburn ; 
and attended, with his friend, Loammi 
Baldwin (q. v.), a course of scientific 
lectures at Harvard College, besides 
teaching school in Wilmington and Brad- 
ford, and in Rumford (Concord), New 
Plampshire. He was married in Janu- 
ary, 1773, to Sarah, daughter of the Rev. 
Timothy Walker, and widow of Colonel 
Benjamin Rolfe, of Rumford, New 

He was commissioned major of the 
Second Provincial Regiment by Governor 
U'entworth, an appointment which 
caused him to be suspected of disloyalty 
to the cause of liberty in 1775. His house 
was mobbed, and he sought refuge in 
flight to W^oburn, leaving his wife and 
mfant daughter in Rumford. At Wo- 
burn he was arrested, but after a trial 
before his townsmen was acquitted of the 
charge of disloyalty. Plis unsuccessful 
application to General Washing-ton for a 
commission in the Continental army, the 
result probably of his connection with 
the provincial militia in New Hampshire, 
caused him to leave Woburn, October 7, 
1775, and he proceeded overland to New- 
port, Rhode Island, and went thence 
on board the British frigate "Scarbor- 
ough" to Boston. This flight was fol- 
lowed in 1778 by his proscription, and in 
1781 by the confiscation of his property. 
On the evacuation of Boston in 1776, he 
was sent with the news to England, 
where he was received with favor and 
taken into the office of Lord George Ger- 
main, one of the Secretaries of State, by 
whom he was appointed secretary for 
Georgia. Having resumed his scientific 
studies and experiments in gunpowder, 
he published the results of some of his 
investigations in the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of London, of which he 
was elected a fellow, April 22, 1779. He 
served as under-secretary for the colonics 
in 1780, and in 1781, in pursuance of his 

commission as lieutenant-colonel com- 
mandant of the King's American dra- 
goons at New York, he returned to Amer- 
ica, landing, in consequence of contrary 
winds, at Charleston, South Carolina, 
where he remained for a short time in 
command of various companies of de- 
tached cavalry, on one occasion routing 
General Marion. Upon his arrival in 
New York he raised his regiment of dra- 
goons and encamped near Flushing, 
Long Island. At the close of the war, 
the regiment, having seen no active ser- 
vice, was disbanded, and Colonel Thomp- 
son returned to England. 

On his way to Vienna to join in the 
threatened war between Austria and the 
Turks, he was the guest of Prince Maxi- 
milian, at Strasburg, who gave him a 
friendly letter to his uncle, the Elector 
of Bavaria. The introduction resulted in 
an invitation to enter the latter's service, 
and having visited England to obtain per- 
mission from the British government, 
where he also received the honor of 
knighthood from George HI., he returned 
to Munich in October, 1785, was taktn 
into the Elector's intimate service as aide- 
de-camp and chamberlain, and furnished 
with a magnificent equipment, including 
a residence, a corps of servants, and mili- 
tary stafif. Pie introduced a new system 
of "order, discipline and economy among 
the troops" ; organized a military acad- 
emy ; founded workshops for the soldiers, 
and also for the mendicants of the city 
of Munich, thereby regulating the fearful 
pauperism of the times ; and established a 
hospital for those too infirm for active 
labor. Pie was also interested in the im- 
provement of public roads and highways, 
and converted a waste region of some six 
miles in circumference into a garden, in- 
cluding a valuable stock-farm, and known 
as the English Garden, wherein a monu- 
ment to the founder was placed in 1795. 
Sir Benjamin Thompson was made a 



knight of the order of St. Stanislaus by 
the King of Poland; commissioned elec- 
tor pro tempore; subsequently made 
commander of the general staft ; was 
appointed privy councillor of state, and 
head of the war department, and in 1791 
was invested with the rank of a Count of 
the Holy Roman Empire, choosing Rum- 
ford as the title of his new dignity. 

In addition to his experiments as a poli- 
tical economist, Count Rumford. engaged 
in meteorological research ; investigated 
the properties of gunpowder, in which he 
had always been actively interested ; and 
the nutritive value of various articles of 
food, with special reference to the prac- 
tical relief of the poor, even publishing 
rules for the construction of public kitch- 
ens. He is also accredited the honor of 
discovering the true doctrine of heat, and 
consequently of the correlation and equiv- 
alence of physical forces. In 1795-96 he 
visited Italy and Great Britain for the 
benefit of his health. He secured the suc- 
cessful adoption of many of his charitable 
measures, especially that of the public 
kitchen, in Edinburgh, London and I^ub- 
lin, and received in the last city the 
thanks of the grand jury, a complimen- 
tary letter from the viceroy of Ireland, 
and election to the Irish Royal Academy 
and Society of Arts. 

While in England, Count Rumford was 
joined by his daughter, Sarah Thomp- 
son, who was then twenty-two years of 
age, her mother having died January 19, 
1792, at Rumford, New Hampshire. Slie 
was received at the court of Munich as 
a countess, and pensioned by the Elector. 
Count Rumford was recalled to Munich 
as head of the Council of Regency, with 
absolute powers. This included the chief 
command of the Bavarian army in the war 
then waging between Austria and France. 
and he accomplished the withdrawal of 
both armies from the city without in- 
volving the Bavarian government in the 

war. His health again compelieu hi.n to 
leave Bavaria in 1798, and he was ap- 
pointed Bavarian minister to England, 
but, as he was a British subject, he was 
not accepted. The Countess Sarah went 
back to America about this time, and 
Count Rumford also thought seriouslv of 
returning to his native country, and to 
that end engaged in correspondence with 
Rufus King, United States Minister to 
England, as to the possibility of a re])eal 
of legal disabilities in his favor, should 
he present himself. This resulted ui a 
cordial acknowledgement of his achieve- 
ments from President Adams, and the 
choice of the offices of lieutenant and in- 
spector of artillery or engineer and su- 
perintendent of the Military Academy, 
an offer of which he did not aval; him- 
self, becoming involved in the founding 
of the Royal Institution at London m 
1799. and serving as its secretary until 
he resumed his residence on the conti- 
nent in May, 1802. Meanwhile his patron, 
Charles Theodore, had died, and his suc- 
cessor being disinclined to reinstate 
Count Rumford in his former place of 
eminence, he made his home in Paris, 
whc-e he was married, October 24. 1805. 
to ]\[arie Anne Pierset Paulze. widow of 
Lavoisier, the celebrated chemist. After 
their separation in 1809, his wife retain- 
ed possession of their city mansion, and 
he retired to a villa in Auteuil, where his 
daughter joined him. and where, occupied 
with philosophical experiments and in the 
composition of essays on scientific sub- 
jects, he passed the remainder of his life, 
Count Rumford was a member of the 
academies of Munich and Manheim. 

De Candolle, the Swiss botanist, said 
of Rumford's personal appearance in later 
life : "The sight of him very much re- 
duced our enthusiasm. \\> found him a 
dry, precise man, who spoke of benefi- 
cence as a sort of discipline, and of the 
poor as we had never dared to speak of 



vagabonds." Speaking of Rumford's 
second wife, he said: "I had relations 
with each of them, and never saw a more 
bizarre connection. Rumford was cold, 
calm, obstinate, egotistic, prodigiously oc- 
cupied with the material element of life, 
and the very smallest inventions of de- 
tail. He wanted his chimneys, lamps, 
coffee pots, windows, made after a certain 
pattern, and he contradicted his wife a 
thousand times a day about the house- 
hold management." Here we draw the 
veil. Another has said : "We enter into 
the labors of Count Rumford every day 
of our lives, without knowing it or think- 
ing of him." Professor John Tyndall 
said: "Men find pleasure in exercising 
the powers they possess, and Rumford 
possessed, in its highest and strongest 
form, the power of organization." 

He gave $5,000 to the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences, and also to the 
Royal Society of London, for the estab- 
lishment of a Rumford medal to be 
awarded for the most valuable practical 
investigations in light and heat, and was 
himself the first recipient of the medal 
from the Royal Society. With his daugh- 
ter, he founded the Rolfe and Rumford 
asylums in Concord, New Hampshire, 
Countess of Rumford, who died in Con- 
cord in 1852, bequeathing $15,000 to the 
New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, 
and other liberal sums to public chari- 
ties. In his will, Count Rumford left to 
Harvard College a sum for the founding 
of the Rumford professorship and lecture- 
ship on the application of science to the 
useful arts, and his collection of appa- 
ratus, specimens, and original models, 
with, to the Royal Institution in 
London. In addition to his monument 
in the English Garden at Munich, he is 
also commemorated by a bronze statue 
in its principal street, and by a portrait 
in the Royal Society's rooms in London, 
and one at Harvard LTniversitv, Cam- 

bridge, Alassachusetts. His name in 
Class H, Scientists, received nineteen 
votes for a place in the Hall of Fame for 
Great Americans. New York University, 
October, 1900, and was fifth in the class 
of nineteen names suggested. 

Pie was the author of: "Essays, Poli- 
tical, Economical and Philosophical" 
(three volumes, London, 1796; volume iv., 
1802; American edition, 1798-1804), many 
of which were originally published as 
pamphlets in French, English and Ger- 
man, and "Rumford's Complete Works," 
published posthumously (Boston. 1870- 
1875), with a memoir of the author by 
George E. Ellis, and containing the cor- 
respondence of his daughter, Sarah 
Thompson. His life was also written by 
James Renwick, in Sparks's "American 
Biography" (1845). Count Rumford died 
in Auteuil. France. August 25. 1814. 

ADAMS, John Quincy, 

President of tlie United States. 

John Quincy Adams, sixth President 
of the United States, was born in Brain- 
tree (Ouincy), Massachusetts, July ii, 
1767. son of John and Abigail Smith 
Adams. Many unusual circumstances 
and influences conspired to train his mind 
and form his character on a broad and 
heroic plafi. The air he breathed was 
charged with patriotism. His father was 
one of the foremost leaders in all the 
stirring events of those most stirring 
times, and "liberty," "freedom," and "in- 
dependence" were household words in the 
family. Pie was named for John Ouincy. 
his maternal great-grandfather. 

His early schooling was received from 
a mother whose strength and poise of 
mind and character were exceptional. 
When he was ten years of age his father 
was appointed by Congress joint com- 
missioner with Benjamin Franklin to 
negotiate an alliance with France. Pie 
accompanied his father to Paris, where 


Jj 2 , cA^loj^yJ) 


lie not only attended school, but enjoyed 
the benefit of daily instruction and con- 
versation of Benjamin Franklin and 
some of the most scholarly men of the 
court. After a residence of eighteen 
months in France, father and son return- 
ed to America ; but their stay was 
destined to be brief, for in three months 
the father was again dispatched on a for- 
eign mission, this time to negotiate a 
treaty of peace with England and again 
the son accompanied him. They arrived 
in Paris in February. 1780, after a tem- 
pestuous and most eventful voyage and 
remained until the following summer, 
when they proceeded to Holland, the 
elder Adams having been commissioned 
to arrange a treaty with that country. 
John Quincy Adams was placed at school 
in Amsterdam, and afterward entered the 
academical department of the Leyden 
University. In July, 1781, when but four- 
teen years old. he became private secre- 
tary and interpreter to Francis Qana. 
Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of 
St. Petersburg, retaining the position 
until Mr. Dana's relinquishment of the 
office in October. 1782 — the only case on 
record where so young a man was en- 
trusted with so responsible a government 
position. Leaving St. Petersburg, he 
made an extended tour through Norway. 
Sweden, Northern Germany, and Hol- 
land, to France, where he joined his 
father, who had returned to Paris after 
successfully accomplishing the business 
which had taken him to Holland. Acting 
as his father's secretary, he assisted in 
preparing the document which later "dis- 
persed all possible doubt of the independ- 
ence of his country." During the next 
two years he continued to act as his 
father's secretary, accompanying him on 
his various public missions. In 1785, upon 
his father's acceptance of the appointm.ent 
of Minister to England, John Quincy re- 
turned to the United States, and after 
MASS-5 65 

some preparatory study entered the jun- 
ior class of Harvard College in March, 
1786, and was graduated from that in.sti- 
tution in 1787. Entering the ofTice of 
Theophilus Parsons, of Newburyport, he 
applied himseli to the study of law, and 
upon admission to the bar in 1790 com- 
menced practice in Boston. He at this 
tmie contributed articles on timely topics 
to the newspapers under the pen names, 
"Publicola," "'Marcellus," and "Colum- 
l.nis." '"Union at home, and independence 
of all foreign combinations abroad," the 
two principles on which his future states- 
manship was to rest, are clearly set forth 
in these articles, and when their author- 
ship (generally accredited to his father) 
was discovered, he was hailed as a 
worthy son of his illustrious sire. Wash- 
ington appointed him Minister to the 
Netherlands in 1 794, and to Portugal in 
1796, though his father's election to the 
presidency at this juncture interfered 
with his acceptance of the latter office. 
On July 26, 1797, he was married to 
Louisa Catherine, daughter of Joshua 
Johnson, of Maryland, consular agent of 
the United States at London. In the same 
year (1797) he was appointed minister to 
the Court of Berlin, the appointment be- 
ing made by his father, after consulta- 
tion with Washington, who strongly ad- 
vised the promotion. During his resi- 
dence at Berlin he succeded in effecting 
a treaty of amity and commerce with the 
king of Sweden, and at this period he also 
translated into English Wieland's "Ober- 
on," and wrote a series of entertaining 
letters describing a journey through Si- 
lesia, which were afterwards published in 
Philadelphia and London, and translated 
into several European languages. On the 
termination of his father's administration 
he was recalled at his own request, and 
returned to his native land, where he re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. 
In 1802 Mr. Adams was elected to the 


Massachusetts Senate, and later in the 
same year to the United States Senate, 
lie took his seat March 3, 1803, a most 
unpropitious moment for the son of his 
father, and his life as a Senator was not 
agreeable. The party had fallen into fac- 
tions during the administration of John 
Adams, and his political enemies, not 
satisfied with his dov/nfall, now seized 
with avidity every opportunity of venting 
their malice upon his son. He was sub- 
jected to insults which for the most part 
he bore with imperturbable equanimity. 
"His very presence in Congress was ig- 
nored, and his desires and acts were held 
in utter contempt"; he was treated with 
studied neglect and discourtesy. Nor 
was this altogether on his father's ac- 
count. He, himself, was wilfully mis- 
judged ; his independent course of speech 
and action was misconstrued. His pur- 
pose, in every act, was for the interest 
of the nation. As he wrote in his diary: 
"I feel strong temptation and have great 
provocation to plunge into political con- 
troversy, but I hope to preserve myself 
from it by the considerations which have 
led me to the resolution of renouncing. 
A politician in this country must be the 
man of the party. I would fain be the 
man of my whole country." While he 
favored the acquisition of Louisiana 
which Mr. JefTerson desired, he denied 
the justice and the constitutionality of 
the methods proposed. Ihe resolutions 
he offered were rejected. In the trial of 
Samuel Chase, of the United States Su- 
preme Court, and of John Pickering, Dis- 
trict Judge of New Hampshire, he was 
staunchly for acquittal, and held that Mr. 
Jefferson's course was subversive of the 
honor and power of one of the three im- 
portant branches of the government. In 
1805 he made an effort to have a tax 
levied on every slave brought into the 
country. In 1806 he introduced a reso- 
lution condemning the British practice 

of searching ships, and demanded the res- 
titution of American property seized by 
Great Britain. In 1808 Timothy Picker- 
ing, his associate in the Senate, wrote a 
letter to the governor of Alassachusetts, 
in which he vehemently opposed the em- 
bargo act and all that accompanied it. 
Mr. Adams replied defending President 
Jefiferson and declaring the embargo dig- 
nified, patriotic and necessary. This let- 
ter excited great political opposition. The 
Federalists declared he had betrayed their 
cause without good reason, and to mark 
their reprobation they caused an election 
to be held, although Mr. Adams' term of 
service would close on March 3rd the 
next year. James Lloyd was chosen his 
successor by a majority of thirty-five in 
a vote of four hundred and sixty-one. 
Mr. Adams immediately wrote a dignified 
letter of resignation, which was accepted. 
During his senatorial term, in the sum- 
mer of 1805, he had been chosen Profes- 
sor of Rhetoric and Oratory in Harvard 
College. He accepted the position and 
began his first course of lectures in July, 
1806, and continued to fulfill the duties 
of the professorship until his appointment 
in the summer of 1809 as Minister to 
Russia. President Madison had nomi- 
nated him in March, but the Senate de- 
cided it to be inexpedient at that time to 
authorize the mission. Three months 
later, however, the nomination was con- 
firmed by a vote of nineteen to seven, and 
for over four years he had his residence 
in Russia. He was received with great 
courtesy, and appears to have enjoyed 
his mission exceedingly. During his resi- 
dence abroad, Mr. Madison offered him a 
seat on the bench of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, which he declined. 
Meanwhile the war of 1812 occurred, and 
the Czar proffered his services as arbi- 
trator between the United States and 
Great Britain. This Great P.ritain de- 
clined, but suggested a mutual confer- 



ence of commissioners at Ghent, which 
was assented to, and in December, 1814, 
terms of peace were agreed upon by 
which, under Mr. Adams' wise diplomacy, 
special fishery advantages were secured 
to the United States. A new commercial 
treaty was negotiated July 13, 181 5, about 
six weeks after his appointment as min- 
ister to England. He remained in Great 
Britain till he received from President 
Monroe an appointment as Secretary of 
State. During his occupancy of this office 
he secured the cession of Florida through 
the Spanish Minister, Senor Onis, in con- 
sideration of the payment of $5,000,000 
to liquidate claims against Spain by 
American merchants. He stood by Gen- 
eral Jackson in upholding what he deem- 
ed the righttul claim of the United States 
to Spanish Florida, and favored the rec- 
ognition of the independence of the re- 
volted Spanish American colonies. By 
cautious policy he avoided all complica- 
tions with the South American colonies ; 
and emphasized and secured the authori- 
tative recognition of the so-called "Mon- 
roe Doctrine," of which he was one of the 
principal authors. 

In 1824 Adams, Jackson, Crawford and 
Clay were candidates for the presidency. 
The vote being indeterminate the choice 
was thrown into the House of Representa- 
tives, resulting in the election of Adams as 
president. John C. Calhoun was vice-presi- 
dent. On assuming the functions of office. 
President Adams appointed Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, to the portfolio of State ; 
Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, to the 
Treasury ; James Barbour, of Virginia, to 
the War Department ; and of Mr. Mon- 
roe's cabinet retained Samuel L. Southard, 
of New Jersey, as Secretary of the Navy ; 
John McPherson Berrian, of Georgia, as 
Attorney-General ; and John McLean, of 
Ohio, as Postmaster-General. There was 
but one change in his official family dur- 
ing his administration, when, on the ap- 

pointment of James Barbour as Minister 
to England, he made Peter B. Porter, of 
New York, Secretary of War. The ap- 
pointment of Clay as Secretary of State 
created much feeling, Mr. Adams being 
vehemently accused by Jackson and his 
partisans as having in this way consum- 
mated a bargain by which the presidency 
had been secured, and which was after- 
ward proved to have no foundation what- 
ever. During his administration, party 
lines became more distinct between the 
Whigs on one side, advocating high tariff, 
internal improvements, and a national 
bank ; and the Democrats on the other 
opposed to such measures. It was also at 
this time that the so-called '"spoils sys- 
tem" was agitated, Mr. Adams taking a 
position similar to the practice of civil 
service afterward adopted, but Jackson 
claiming that "to the victors belong the 
spoils." During President Adams' ad- 
ministration. General Lafayette was the 
nation's guest. He reached New York 
the middle dt .August, 1824. made a tour 
of the States which was virtually a con- 
tinuous triumphant ovation, and spent 
the last weeks of his stay at the 
White House in Washington, where he 
celebrated his sixty-eighth birthday, Sep- 
tember 6, 1825. He visited Jefferson, 
Madison and Monroe at their homes in 
Virginia, and took leave of President 
Adams and the country on the 7th of 
September. The parting between the 
President and the guest was touching. 
He embraced Mr. Adams twice and shed 
tears. The eloquent address of Mr. 
Adams and the admirable reply of Lafay- 
ette on this occasion are preserved. 

At the close of his administration, fail- 
ing of reelection, Mr. Adams returned to 
his home at Ouincy. His residence there 
was not long, however, as he was elected 
to Congress by the anti-Masonic party 
in 1831, and served as a national repre- 
sentative for about sixteen years. During 


his long term of service he was never 
deterred by threats or by the large ma- 
jority against him. He stood on principle 
and contended for the right, and nothing 
could make him swerve from any course 
whicii his conscience approved. On tak- 
ing his seat in Congress, his first act was 
to present a memorial of the "Friends" in 
Philadelphia concerning the abolition of 
slavery in the District of Columbia. In 
1835 he upheld Jackson in demanding 
from France the payment of $5,000,000 
agreed upon for injury done our com- 
merce in the Napoleonic war. This course 
was not approved by Massachusetts, and 
cost him a seat in the United States Sen- 
ate ; however, this did not move his great 
soul, but confirmed him in his independ- 
ence in adhering to what he deemed to 
be right. He was especially vigorous in 
defence of the right of petition, and it 
was with reference to it that the infamous 
"gag law"' was y)assed in 1836, which 
provided that "all petitions, memorials, 
resolutions or papers relating in any way 
or to any extent whatsoever to the sub- 
ject of slavery, or the abolition of slav- 
ery, .^liall. without being either printed or 
referred, be laid upon the table, and that 
no further action whatever shall be had 
thereon." Mr. Adams not only voted 
against this rule, but added a vehement 
protest, saying: "1 hold the resolution 
to be a direct violation of the Constitution 
of the United States, the rules of this 
house, and the rights of my constituents." 
Not only at this time, but at every sub- 
sequent session of the house, Mr. Adams 
was outspoken against it, and at last had 
the satisfaction of having it revoked in 
1845. ^^6 fJi^ "ot hesitate to express his 
detestation of slavery, and whenever any 
opening offered he uttered no uncertain 
words against it. With an anticipation 
of the future which was well nigh pro- 
phetic, he uttered words which became 
very significant in view of the Emanci- 

pation Act of 1863. Without any mental 
reservation or secret evasion of mind, he 
said in 1836, to the representatives of the 
slaveholding States and their northern 
pro-slavery friends: "From the instant 
that your slaveholding States become the 
theatre of war — civil, servile, or foreign — 
from that instant the war powers of the 
constitution extend to interference with 
the institution of slavery in every way 
in which it can be interfered with." 

A conspicuous instance of his ability 
to meet an unexpected crisis was given 
at the opening of the Twenty-sixth Con- 
gress in December, 1839. There was a 
double delegation from New Jersey, and 
this was made use of as a stumbling block 
in the organization of the house. When 
the house assembles for the first time in 
new session, having no officer, the clerk of 
the preceding Congress calls the members 
to order, reads the roll, and serves imtil 
a speaker is chosen. On calling the roll, 
when the clerk came to New Jersey, he 
refused to proceed. Motions were made, 
debate followed, but no organization 
could be efl'ected. "Towards the close of 
the fourth day," says Edward Everett, 
"Mr. Adams rose, and expectation wait- 
ed on his words. Having by a powerful 
appeal brought the yet unorganized as- 
sembly to a perception of its hazardous 
position, he submitted a motion requiring 
the acting clerk to proceed in calling the 
roll. This and similar motions had al- 
ready been made by other members ; the 
difficulty was that the acting clerk de- 
clined to entertain them. Accordinglv, 
Mr. Adams was immediately interrupted 
by a btirst of voices demanding. "How 
shall the question be put?" "Who will 
put the qtiestion ?" The voice of Mr. 
Adams was heard above the turmoil, "I 
intend to put the question myself!" That 
word brought order out of chaos. There 
was the master mind. A distinguished 
mcml)cr from South Carolina (Mr. Rhett") 



moved that Mr. Adams himself should 
act as chairman of the body till the house 
was organized ; and, suiting the action to 
the word, himself put the motion to the 
house. It prevailed unanimously, and 
^Ir. Adams was conducted to the chair 
amidst the irrepressible acclamations of 
the spectators. Well did Mr. Wise, of 
Virginia, say: "Sir, 1 regard it as the 
proudest hour of your life ; and if, when 
you shall be gathered to your fathers, 
I were to select the words which in my 
judgment are best calculated to give at 
once the character of the man, I would 
inscribe upon your tomb this sentence — 
'1 will put the question myself.'" 

In 1 841, at the age of seventy-four, he 
appeared at the bar of the Supreme Court 
of the United States to plead the cause 
of Cinque and thirty other Africans who 
had been enslaved, sold in Cuba, and 
who slew the master of the "Amistad," 
which was deporting them to their own- 
ers' plantations, drifted into the United 
States waters, and were claimed by the 
.Spanish authorities. The "old man elo- 
quent" made such a convincing plea for 
them that the captives were set at liberty, 
and were afterwards conveyed to their 
native shores through the contributions 
of generous philanthropists. 

Mr. Adams was stricken with paralysis 
in November. 1846. and was confined to 
th" house foi four moTUhs. lie recog- 
nized the fact that he Iiad been sealed 
by the hand of death, and his letters and 
]>apers after this time weie referred to by 
him as "posthumous." Recovering slight- 
ly, he resumed his attendance upon the 
sessions of the house, and on February 
21, 1848, while in his seat, experienced a 
second and fatal attack. He was removed 
from the representative hall to the speak- 
er's room and lingered in an unconscous 
condition until the 231 d, when, just be- 
fore death, he revived and said. "This is 

the last of earth" ; and after a pause added 
'T am content." 

Many of his letters, public papers, lec- 
tures, speeches, and eulogies have been 
published. Among them his "Letters on 
Silesia" (1800-1804) ; "Letter to Harrison 
Gray Otis on the Present State of our 
National Afifairs" (1808) ; "Review of the 
Works of Fisher Ames" (1809) ; "Lec- 
tures on Rhetoric and Oratory" (1810) . 
"Letters to his Son on the Bible" (1848- 
.-;9) ; "Reports on Weights and Meas- 
ures" (1821) ; "Letters to the Virginians 
in Answer to Slanders of General Alex- 
ander Smythe" (1823) ; "Eulogy on the 
Life and Character of James Monroe" 
(1831); "Dermott MacMorrogh, or the 
Conquest of Ireland" (1832) ; "Letters to 
Edward Livingston (against Free Mason- 
ry)" (1833); "Letters to William L. 
Stone and B. Cowell on Masonry and 
Anti-Masonry"; "Oration on the Lite and 
Character of Gilbert Motier de Lafayette" 
(1835) ; "Eulogy on the Life and Char- 
acter of James ]\Iadison" (1836) ; "Jub- 
ilee of the Constitution" (1839) ; and 
"Letters on the Masonic Institution" 
(1847). S^^ ^Iso "Memoir of the Life of 
John Ouincy Adams" (1858). by Josiah 
Ouincy ; "John Quincy Adams: Memoirs 
comprising portions of his Diary from 
1795 to 1848." edited by his son Charles 
I'^rancis Adams, twelve volumes, eight 
volumes (1874-77); "John Ouincy 
Adams" (Boston. 1882). by John T. 
Morse Jr., and "History of the Life, Ad- 
ministration and Times of John Quincy 
Adams" (1888). by J. R. Ireland, in vol- 
ume six of his "History of the United 


Inventor of the Cotton Gin. 

Eli Whitney was born in Westborough. 
Massachusetts. December 8, 1765. He 
engaged in the business of making nails 
bv hand, and bv his industrv saved suffi- 



cient money to defray his college ex- 
penses, and was graduated from Yale 
College, A. B., 1792, A. M. 1795. He was 
invited by the widow of General Nathan- 
ael Greene to make his home at her plan- 
tation, called Mulberry Grove, on the 
Savannah River in Georgia. He studied 
law, but abandoned it to follow his me- 
chanical bent. 

Giving himself to the problem of in- 
venting a machine for separating the lint 
of cotton from the seed, in 1793 he suc- 
ceeded in producing the saw cotton gin, 
consisting of two cylinders — one, revolv- 
ing with great velocity, to detach the 
lint from the seed by means of from fifty 
to eighty steel disks with sei rated edj,t,s ; 
and the other to rcmo\e the hnt from the 
saw teeth by means of stiff brushes. This 
machine, which, with a few improvements 
remains practically as it first came from 
Whitney's hands, has a capacity equal to 
that of three thousand pairs of hands in 
separating the lint from the seed, which 
process, up to the time of this invention, 
was the only means used in the separa- 
tion. Mr. Whitney was unable to preserve 
the secret of his invention, and, before he 
could obtain a patent, several gins, mod- 
eled after his own, had been put in oper- 
ation on various neighboring plantations. 
He formed a partnership with Phineas 
Miller, and removed to Connecticut to 
manufacture the machines, but, owing to 
frequent vexatious litigations caused by 
the infringement of his patent, he was 
obliged in 1796 to devote himself to the 
manufacture of firearms in order to ob- 
tain a livelihood. 

Removing to New Haven, Connecticut, 
he there originated the system of making 
the manufacture of different parts of a 
gun interchangeable He built an armory 
at Whitneyville, near New Haven, and 
filled a government contract for ten thou- 
sand stand of muskets. He subsequently 
received $50,000 from the legislature of 

South Carolina for the general use of 
the cotton gin, and was allowed a further 
royalty on every gin used in the State, 
but, considering the universal benefit de- 
rived from the invention, this was but 
small recompense. He established a fund 
of $500 at Yale College, the interest to 
be devoted to the purchase of books on 
mechanical and physical science. 

He was married, in 1817, to a daughter 
of Judge Pierpont Edwards. His 
"Memoir" was published by Denison 
Olmsted in 1846. He died in New Haven, 
Connecticut, January 8, 1825. 

PARKER, Isaac, 

Congressman, Jurist. 

Isaac Parker was born in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, June 17, 1768. He was gradu- 
ated from Harvard in 1786, prepared him- 
self for the bar, and settled in Castine, 
Maine, where he became eminent in his 
profession. In 1796 he was elected to 
Congress, in which he served until 1799, 
and was then appointed by President 
Adams United States marshal of the Dis- 
trict of Maine, holding office until 1801. 
In 1806 he settled in Massachusetts, when 
he was appointed a judge of the Supreme 
Court in that State, and presided as Chief 
Justice of that body from 1814 until his 
death. From 1816 until 1827 he was Pro- 
fessor of Law at Harvard College, and in 
1820 president of the Massachusetts Con- 
stitutional Convention. For eleven years 
he was a trustee of Bowdoin College, and 
for twenty years an overseer of Harvard, 
which gave him the degree of LL. D. in 
1814. He was distinguished for his scho- 
lastic acquirements, and the printed re- 
ports of his own decisions will remain 
unquestioned for ages. He published an 
"Oration on Washington" in 1800, and a 
"Sketch of the Character of Chief Justice 
Parsons" in 1813. 

His death occurred in Boston, May 26, 



LOWELL, John, 

Publicist, Litterateur. 

John Lowell was born in Newburyporti 
Massachusetts, October 6, 1769, son of 
Judge John and Sarah (Higginson) 
Lowell, and grandson of the Rev. John 
and Sarah (Champney) Lowell, and of 
Stephen JEL and Elizabeth (Cabot) Hig- 

He was graduated from Harvard, A. 
B., 1786, A. M., 1789. He studied law 
with his father, and was admitted to the 
bar in 17S9. His health began to fail, 
and in 1803 he retired from practice. He 
travelled in Europe from 1803 to 1806, 
and on his return devoted himself to liter- 
ature, writing on politics, agriculture and 
theology, under the signature, "Citizen of 
Massachusetts," "Massachusetts Law- 
yer," "Layman," and "Norfolk Farmer." 
During the war of 1812 he wrote con- 
stantly in support of the Federal policy, 
and when the Unitarian controversy 
broke out he published "An inquiry into 
the right to change the Ecclesiastical 
Constitution of the Congregational 
Churches of Massachusetts," which in all 
probability stopped the proposed plan for 
an arbitrary consociation of churches. He 
was the first man in the United States to 
establish a greenhouse on an ample scale 
and on scientific principles. His private 
charities were so extended that for many 
years he employed an almoner, with whom 
he placed a sum annually to be expended 
in fuel for the poor. He was a prominent 
promoter of the establishment of the 
Massachusetts General Hospital and of 
the Provident Institution for Savings ; 
president of the board of trustees and a 
member of the Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural Society, and a patron of the Boston 
Athenaeum. He was a fellow of Har- 
vard, 1810-22, and an overseer, 1823-27. 
He received the degree of LL. D. from 
Harvard in 18 14. He was a fellow of the 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
and a member of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. His political pamphlets 
were published in two volumes, and in 
1901 were still extant. Among the pam- 
phlets are: "Peace without Dishonor," 
"War without Hope," "Inquiry into the 
Subject of the Chesapeake" (1807), "Can- 
did Comparison of the Washington and 
Jefferson Administrations" (1810) ; "Dip- 
lomatic Policy of Mr. Madison Unveiled" 
(1810) ; and "Mr. Madison's War; a dis- 
passionate inquiry into the reasons al- 
leged by Madison for declaring an offen- 
sive and ruinous war against Great 
Britain" (1812). His theological writ- 
ings include "Are you a Christian or a 
Calvinist?" (1815). He married, June 8, 
1783, Rebecca, daughter of John and 
Katharine (Greene) Amory, of Boston. 
He died in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 
]\Iarch 12, 1840. 

KIRKLAND, John Thornton, 

Clergyman, Educator. 

John Thornton Kirkland was born in 
Herkimer, New York, August 17, 1770. 
son of the Rev. Samuel and Jerusha (Bing- 
ham) Kirkland, grandson of the Rev. 
Daniel Kirkland, a native of Saybrook, 
Connecticut, and of Jabez and Mary 
(Wheelock) Bingham, of Salisbury, Con- 
necticut, and a descendant of Myles 
Standish on his mother's side. 

He was a student at Phillips Andover 
Academy, 1784-86, and was graduated 
from Harvard College with distinguished 
honors in 1789. He was an assistant in- 
structor at Phillips Andover Academy, 
1789-90. He studied theology' with the 
Rev. Dr. Stephen West, at Stockbridge, 
Alassachusetts, 1790-92. Fie was tutor in 
logic and metaphysics at Harvard Col- 
lege, 1792-94, and at the same time pur- 
sued his theological studies. He was 
ordained and installed pastor of the New 



South Church, Boston, February 5, 1794, 
and served until 1810, when he was 
chosen to succeed Samuel Webber as 
president of Harvard College. Under his 
administration the institution prospered 
to a degree almost if not altogether unex- 
ampled. The course of studies was re- 
modelled and enlarged ; the Law School 
was established ; the Medical School was 
resuscitated and reorganized ; the Theo- 
logical School was erected into a separate 
department, with able and learned profes- 
sors and lecturers ; four permanent pro- 
fessorships were added, endowed and 
filled in the Academical Department, the 
salaries of all the instructors were in- 
creased ; liolworth. University and Divin- 
ity halls were erected at Caml)ridge. and 
the Medical College in Boston ; the gen- 
eral library was doubled by the gifts of 
the collections of Palmer, Ebeling and 
Warden, by the Boylston donation, and 
from various other sources, and the law, 
medical and theological libraries were in- 
stituted. A grant of $100,000 was obtain- 
ed from the Legislature, a sum still 
greater was bestowed in endowments by 
individuals, and $50,000 was collected by 
private subscription for theological edu- 
cational purposes. 

Dr. Kirkland retired from the presi- 
dency of Harvard University on account 
of ill health, March 28, 1828. He was 
married, Sei)tember i, 1827, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Hon. George Cabot. In 
1828 he traveled with his wife through 
the United States, and through Europe 
and the East in 1829-32. He was vice- 
president of the .\merican Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. He 
received the honorary degree of A. M. 
from Dartmouth College in 1792. and 
from Brown University in 1794; that of 
D. D. from the College of New Jersey in 
i8o2, and that of LL. D. from Brown 
Univcrsitv in 1810. He was the author of: 

"Eulogy on Washington" (1799) ; "Bio- 
graphy of Fisher Ames" (1809) ; "Dis- 
course on the Death of Hon. George 
Cabot" (1823). He died in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, April 26, 1840. 

MOORE, Zephaniah S., 

Prominent Educator. 

Zephaniah Swift Moore was born at 
I'almer, Massachusetts, November 20, 
1770, son of Judah and Mary Moore. His 
father removed to Wilmington, Vermont, 
in 1778, and he worked on the farm until 
1788. He attended a preparatory school 
at Bennington, Vermont, 1788-89, and 
was graduated from Dartmouth College, 
A. B. in 1793, and A. M. in 1796. 

He was in charge of an academy at 
Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1793- 
94, removing in the latter year to Somers, 
Connecticut, where he studied theology 
under the Rev. Dr. Backus. He was 
licensed to preach by the Tolland County 
Association on February 3, 1796, and was 
pastor at Leicester, Massachusetts, in 
that and the following years. Shortly 
after his removal to Leicester, he was 
married to a daughter of Thomas Drury, 
of Ward, Massachusetts. He was a trus- 
tee and the principal of Leicester Acad- 
emy, 1807-11; Professor of Latin and 
Greek at Dartmouth College, 1811-15; 
and president and Professor of Theology 
at Williams College, 1815-21. On May 
8, 182 1, he was made a trustee and elected 
the first president of Amherst College, 
then in process of organization, and on 
September 18, 1821, he was made pastor 
of the parish church. The college was 
opened on Sej)tember 19, 1821, and Dr. 
Moore began the matriculation of stu- 
dents. In addition to his duties as presi- 
dent, he was Professor of Divinity, 
taught the Oriental languages, and was 
the sole teacher of the senior class. The 
honorarv degree of D. D. was conferred 



^:xly 4>'i;-^^'^^^sJ— ^::,-t_. - 


on him by Dartmouth College in i8i6. 
He bequeathed several scholarships to 
Amherst College, three oi which were 
worth about $140 a year. He died at Am- 
herst, Massachusetts. June 29, 1823. 

BALLOU, Rosea, 

Clergyman, Autlior. 

The Rev. Hosea Ballon was born in 
Richmond, New Hampshire. April 30, 
1771, son of Maturin and Lydia (Harris) 
Ballou, and the youngest of eleven chil- 
dren. His father, a Baptist preacher, had 
moved to New Hampshire from Rhode 
Island, where his ancestors had dwelt 
since the days of Roger Williams. In 
making the move into the almost unbrok- 
en wilderness of New Hampshire, the 
father was actuated by a desire to im- 
prove the worldly prospects of his large 
family by becoming ;i landholder. He 
received no salary for his pastoral ser- 
vices, depending for support on what his 
farm would yield, in return for his own 
hard labor in ploughing, sowing and 
reaping. So poor was he that he could 
not provide sufificient clothing or food for 
his children, nor could he offer them any 
further educational advantages than such 
desultory instruction as he (himself but 
slightly educated), could give them in the 
few leisure moments which his toil filled 
days afforded. Pen, ink and paper were 
unknown luxuries in the household, and 
the only books in the family library were 
a Bible, a small English dictionary, an 
old almanac, and a worn pamphlet con- 
taining the story of the tower of Babel. 

Hosea's passion for knowledge was all- 
commanding. The Bible was his only 
text-book and his only guide to the fields 
of history, philosophy, poetry and litera- 
ture ; over its pages he pored whenever 
released from his work on the farm, and 
he thus acquired a verbal familiarity with 
its contents which was invaluable to him 
in after years. During a revival in 1789 

he joined the Baptist church, but was 
soon afterwards led by his study of "pre- 
destination," "election," "eternal repro- 
bation," and "total depravity," to doubt 
the tenets of the Baptist belief. He now 
came out boldly and put to the church 
authorities the questions that had so long 
been revolving in his mind. No answers 
were forthcoming, and he was excom- 
numicated as a dangerous heretic. At the 
age of nineteen he attended school for the 
first time. With the earnings he had 
accumulated in two or three summers of 
toil in neighboring villages, he paid his 
tuition at a private school for a few 
weeks, and at Chesterfield (New Hamp- 
shire ) Academy for one term. He then 
began to preach Cniversalist doctrines, 
supporting himself by teaching school 
during the week, or by performing farm 
labor. At first he believed and taugtit. as 
all so-called Universalists of the time be- 
lieved and taught, that salvation was for 
all. but only on the Calvinistic basis of 
atonement and imputed righteousness. 
By degrees, however, and after much 
careful study of the Scriptures, he formu- 
lated the belief, now accepted by ntne- 
tenths of the Universalist denomination, 
that "The Bible affords no evidence of 
punishment after death." He preached 
with rare power and eloquence, and had 
a marvelous gift not only for impressing 
the hearts of his hearers with the truths 
he uttered, but of stamping upon their 
memories the very words he used. He 
labored in various parts of New England 
during the first twenty years of his minis- 
try, and in 1817 accepted a call to the 
School Street Church of Boston, where 
he remained until his death. He ranked 
among the most gifted and able preach- 
ers of his time, being regarded in his own 
denomination as an oracle. To meet the 
growing demands of the infant denomi- 
nation, he wrote and published number- 
less hymns, essays, tracts, j^amphlets and 



controversial papers, which he scattered 
liberally. In 1819 he founded the "Uni- 
versalist Magazine," acting as editor for 
several years. In connection with his 
grand-nephew, Hosea Ballon (2d), he 
established in 1831 the "Universalist Ex- 
positor," which afterwards became the 
"Universalist Quarterly." After resign- 
ing the editorship of "The Expositor," in 
1833, he continued writing articles for it, 
and also for the "Universalist Magazine." 
The amount of labor he accomplished 
was phenomenal. His published works, 
it is estimated, would fill one hundred 
duodecimo volumes, and he preached 
more than ten thousand sermons. His 
most noteworthy publications are : "Notes 
on the Parables" (1804) ; "A Treatise on 
the Atonement" (1806) ; and an "Exami- 
nation of the Doctrine of a Future Re- 
tribution" (1846). See "Biography of 
Hosea Ballou" by his son Maturin M. 
Ballon (1852); and "Hosea Ballou; a 
Marvellous Life Story," by Oscar F. Saf- 
ford, D. D. (1889). He died in Boston. 
June 7, 1852. 

BOWDITCH, Nathaniel, 

Famous Mathematician. 

Nathaniel Bowditch was born at Salem, 
Massachusetts, March 26, 1773, son of 
Habakkuk and Mary (Ingersoll) Bow- 
ditch. His first American ancestor, Wil- 
liam Bowditch, emigrated from Exeter, 
England, and settled in Salem in 1639, 
where his only son, William, was col- 
lector of the port, who also left a son, 
William, a shipmaster, whose son Eben- 
ezer followed the same occupation. Eben- 
ezer was the father of Habakkuk, who 
became a shipmaster and cooper. 

Nathaniel Bowditch at the age of ten 
was taken into his father's cooper shop, 
and two years later was apprenticed to a 
ship chandler. Without an instructor, he 
became proficient in mathematics, ac- 
quired some knowledge of navigation 

and surveying, and studied Latin in order 
to read Newton's "Principia." In 1795 
he went to sea as a clerk, in 1796-98-99 
sailed as a supercargo, and in 1802-03 he 
made his fifth and last voyage, as master 
and supercargo. Every spare moment was 
devoted to study, and, beside perfecting 
himself in the French, Italian, Portuguese 
and Spanish languages, he advanced in 
mathematics. On May 28, 1799, he was 
chosen a member of the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences, and in May, 
1829, he was elected president of the 
academy, as successor to John Ouincy 
Adams. In 1804 he was made president 
of the Essex Fire and Marine Company, 
which position he held until he removed 
to Boston in 1823. During 1805-06-07 
he was engaged in making a survey of 
Salem, Marblehead, Beverly and Man- 
chester. In 1806 he was elected Hollis 
Professor of Mathematics in Harvard 
College, which he declined. In 1818 he 
declined the chair of mathematics in the 
University of Virginia, and in 1820 the 
chair of mathematics at West Point. In 
1823 he removed to Boston, where he be- 
came actuary of the Massachusetts Hos- 
pital Life Insurance Company, with a 
salary of five thousand dollars per annum. 
Mr. Bowditch was a member of the 
Edinburgh Royal Society, the Royal So- 
ciety of London, the Royal Irish Society, 
the Royal Astronomical Society of Lon- 
don, the Royal Society of Palermo, the 
British Association, and the Royal Acad- 
emy of Berlin, as well as of the chief scien- 
tific societies of America. In July, 1802, 
he received the honorary degree of Master 
of Arts, and in 1816 that of Doctor of 
Laws, from Harvard College. From 1826 
to 1833 ^^ ^^^ ^ trustee of the Boston 
Athenseum. Between 1814 and 1817 he 
translated four volumes of La Place's 
"Celestial Mechanics," the original manu- 
script copies of which were placed in the 
Boston Public Library, together with a 



bust of the translator, and the desk at 
which he did his work. He also pub- 
lished the "New American Practical 
Navigator"' (1802), which was the result 
of an attempt to correct the previous 
standard manual, in which he discovered 
over eight thousand errors. A "Memoir 
of Nathaniel Bowditch," by Nathaniel I. 
Bowditch (1839) ; "Discourse on the Life 
and Character of Nathaniel Bowditch," 
by Alexander Young (1838), and a 
eulogy, with an analysis of his scientific 
writings, by Professor Pickering (1838), 
make record of his life work. 

He was twice married; his first wife 
died seven months after their marriage, 
and in October, 1800, he was married to 
his cousin Mary, daughter of Jonathan 
Ingersoll. He died in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, March 16, 1838. 

WOODS, Leonard, 

Theologian, Author. 

Leonard Woods was born in Princeton, 
Massachusetts, June 19, 1774, son of Sam- 
uel Woods. He was graduated from 
Harvard, Bachelor of Arts, 1796; Master 
of Arts, 1799, and subsequently taught 
school. He studied theology, and became 
pastor of the Congregational Church in 
West Newbury, Massachusetts, 1798- 
1808. He was Abbot Professor of Chris- 
tian Theology, and the leading spirit in 
directing the policy of the Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, from 1808 to 1846, and 
was professor emeritus after the latter 
year. The honorary degree of Doctor of 
Divinity was conferred upon Professor 
Woods by the College of New Jersey 
(Princeton), and by Dartmouth in 1810. 
He was a founder of the American Tract, 
Temperance and Education Societies, and 
also of the A. B. C. F. M., serving as a 
member of its prudential committee 
twenty-five years, and was a fellow of 
the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. He was the author of: "Let- 

ters to Unitarians" (1820) ; "Lectures on 
the Inspiration of the Scriptures" (1829) ; 
"Memoirs of American Missionaries" 
(1833) ; "Examination of the Doctrine of 
Perfection" (1841) ; "Lectures on Church 
Government" (1843) J "Lectures on Swe- 
denborgianism" (1846) ; also of contribu- 
tions to the Panoplist (1805), and of a 
History of Andover Seminary, left in MS. 
His collected works were published in 
five volumes, 1849-50. 

He was married to Abigail Wheeler. 
Of their children, Harriet Newell 
(Woods) Baker was a well-known writer 
of juvenile books, and Margarette mar- 
ried the Rev. Edward A. Lawrence, D. 
D., of Marblehead, Massachusetts, whose 
■'Modern Missions in the East" she edited 
(1895). She also wrote "Light on the 
Dark River" (1854) ; "The Tobacco Prob- 
lem" (1885), and many articles on re- 
ligious subjects. Dr. Woods died in An- 
dover, Massachusetts, August 24, 1854. 


Educator, Clergyman. 

Heman Humphrey, second president of 
Amherst College (1823-44), was born at 
West Simsbury, now Canton, Hartford 
county, Connecticut, March 26, 1779. His 
father, a farmer in humble circumstances, 
was a man of good sense, unblemished 
morals, and possessed of a more than 
ordinary taste for reading. His mother, 
Hannah Brown Humphrey, had uncom- 
mon mental and moral capacity, and con- 
tributed much to the education of her 
fourteen children. 

Heman Humphrey attended such 
schools as there were in the neighbor- 
hood, working meanwhile on his father's 
farm. The best part of his education, 
however, he worked out for himself from 
a small parish library, many of whose 
volumes, chiefly of history, he read in 
the long winter evenings by the light of 
pine torches or the kitchen fire. From 



his seventeenth year until he was twenty- 
tive, he '"worked out" on the farms of 
wealthier neighbors every summer, and 
taught school every winter. Meanwhile, 
however, he became "converted" and was 
encouraged by his pastor to study for 
the ministry. i\fter only six months of 
uninterrupted study, during which he 
made all his preparation in Greek and 
much of his preparation in Latin and 
mathematics, he entered the junior class 
of Yale College, where he was graduated 
in 1805, receiving an oration for his ap- 
pointment, and having paid all the ex- 
penses of his own education, except some 
clothes furnished by his mother. He was 
thus well fitted to preside over a college 
whose students were to undergo a like 
experience. Having studied divinity six 
months with Rev. Air. Hooker, of Goshen, 
Connecticut, and having been licensed in 
October, 1806, by the Litchfield North 
Association, he accepted a call from the 
church at Fairfield. He was ordained 
March i6, 1807, and continued his pas- 
torate for about ten years. He w^as the 
leader of a great religious revival that 
took place during his ministry and a stir- 
ring temperance reformation. In Sep- 
tember, 1817, he received a call from the 
Congregational church, at Pittsficld, Mas- 
sachusetts, where his ministry was again 
remarkable for an unusual revival in re- 
ligion, lasting from 1820 to 1821. Ur. 
Humphrey's presidency of Amherst Col- 
lege began in the autumn oi 1823. and 
ended in the spring of 1845. ^i^ found it 
the charitable institution of Amherst ; he 
made it Amherst College. He found it 
the youngest and smallest of the New 
England colleges ; he made it second only 
to Yale in numbers, and foremost of all 
in the work for which it was founded, 
that of educating young men to be minis- 
ters and missionaries. Of those who were 
graduated under his administration, he 
lived to see four hundred and thirtv min- 

isters of the gospel, more than one hun- 
dred pastors in Massachusetts and thirty- 
nine missionaries in foreign lands. It 
was under his presidency that the church 
was organized, separate worship insti- 
tuted, the chapel built, and the pulpit 
made a power in the work of education, 
temperance, revivals and missions. Dr. 
Humphrey also left the stamp of his 
character upon the intellectual training 
of blie college, not so much in the curricu- 
lum, college laws and methods of study 
and teaching, as in the manner of think- 
ing and reasoning, the style of writing 
and speaking and the general tone of 
manners and morals. The first year after 
his resignation of the presidency he lived 
with his son-in-law, the Rev. l^Ienry Neil, 
at Hatboro, subsequently removing to 
Pittsfield, where he remained until his 
death. To the last he maintained a lively 
interest in Amherst College, attended its 
commencements and reunions, and again 
and again delivered memorable addresses 
before its alumni and students. Dr. 
Humphrey wrote much, especially for the 
religious press. His published works 
comprise eleven volumes. His most cele- 
brated address was "A Parallel between 
Intemperance and the Slave Trade," and 
his best known book is "Tour in France, 
(ireat Britain and Belgium." He died 
April 3, 1 861. 

STORY, Joseph, 

Distinguished Jurist. 

Joseph Story was born at Marblehead, 
Massachusetts, September 18, 1779, son 
of Elisha and Mehitable (Pedrick) Story. 
His father was a staunch patriot, active 
in all the revolutionary movements, and 
one of the "Indians" who helped to de- 
stroy the tea in the harbor of Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1776. 

Joseph Story was graduated from Har- 
vard College, Bachelor of Arts, in 1798, 
and received the Master of Arts degree 




in 1801. He studied law in the office of 
Samuel Sewall, and later with Judge Put- 
nam, of Salem. Admitted to the bar in 
July, 1801. he established himself in prac- 
tice in Salem. He declined the appoint- 
ment of naval officer of the port of Salem 
in 1803. He was a Democratic repre- 
sentative in the State Legislature, 1805- 
07, and was elected a representative to 
the Tenth Congress, to fill a vacancy- 
caused by the death of Jacob Crownin- 
shield, serving in 1808-09. He was again 
chosen a representative in the State Leg- 
islature in 1810, and became speaker of 
the house. He argued before the United 
States Supreme Court the great Georgia 
claim case in 1810. On November 18, 
181 1, he was appointed Associate Justice 
of the United States Supreme Court to 
fill the vacancy caused by the death of 
Justice Gushing, and held the office until 
his death. His circuit comprised the 
States of Maine. New Hampshire, Mas- 
sachusetts and Rhode Island, and, owing 
to the extreme old age of his predecessor 
his labors upon the circuit were multi- 
plied by the immense accumulation of 
business. He denounced the slave trade, 
and it was owing to his charges to the 
grand juries in 1819 that the traffic was 
brought to a close. He opposed the Mis- 
souri Compromise, and spoke in a public 
meeting held in Salem against the meas- 
ure. He was a member of the committee 
appointed to revise the constitution of 
Massachusetts in 1820, and opposed the 
motion that the legislature should have 
the power to diminish the salaries of the 
judges of the Supreme Court. He was 
Dane Professor of Law at Harvard Col- 
lege, 1829-45, and removed to Cambridge. 
Massachusetts. In 1831 he declined the 
office of Chief Justice of Massachusetts. 
After the death of Chief Justice John 
Marshall, he acted as Chief Justice in the 
United States Supreme Court until the 
confirmation of Roger B. Tanev. and 

again in 1844, during the illness of Taney. 
He was an overseer of Harvard College, 
1818-25 ; a fellow, 1825-45 ; a member of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society ; a 
fellow of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, and a member of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society. The honor- 
ary degree of Doctor of Laws was con- 
ferred on him by Brown in 1815, by Har- 
vard in 1821, and by Dartmouth in 1824. 
His name in "Class J, Judges and Law- 
yers," received sixty-four votes in the 
consideration of names for a place in the 
Hall of Fame for Great Americans, New 
York University, October, 1900, and was 
accorded a place with those of James 
Kent and John Marshall. He was the 
author of : "The Power of Solitude, with 
Fugitive Poems" (1804) ; "Selection of 
Pleadings in Civil Actions" (1805), and 
numerous text books on jurisprudence, 
including: "Commentaries on the Law 
of Bailments" (1832) ; "Commentaries 
on the Constitution of the United States" 
(3 vols.. 1833) ; "Commentaries on the 
Conflict of Laws" (1834) ; "Commentaries 
on Equity Jurisprudence" (2 vols.. 1835- 
36); "Equity Pleadings" (1838); "Law 
of Agency" (1839); "Law of Partner- 
ship" (1841) ; "Law of Bills of Exchange" 
(1843). ^n<^ "Law of Promissory Notes" 
( 1845). He edited "Chitty on Bills of Ex- 
change and Promissory Notes" (1809) ; 
"Abbot on Shipping" (1810). and "Laws 
on Assumpsit" (181 1), and contributed to 
the "North American Review," the 
"American Jurist." and the "Encyclo- 
paedia Americana." He left unfinished a 
"Digest of Law," which is in the Harvard 
Law Library ; and a collection of "Mis- 
cellaneous Writings" was published in 
1835. and an enlarged edition edited by 
his son. William Wetmore Story, ap- 
peared after his death (2 vols., 1851). He 
died in Cambridge. Massachusetts, Sep- 
tember 10, 1845. 



CHANNING, William Ellery, 

Clergyman, Reformer. 

William Ellery Channing was born in 
Newport, Rhode Island, April 7, 1780, son 
of William and Lucy (Ellery) Channing, 
and grandson of William Ellery, a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence. 

He attended school in Newport until 
his twelfth year, when he was placed 
under the care of his uncle. Rev. Henry 
Chambers, of New London, Connecticut, 
who prepared him to enter Harvard. He 
was graduated in 1798 with the highest 
honors, having attracted the attention of 
both faculty and students by the bril- 
liancy of his scholarship, the originality 
of his thought, and the remarkable charm 
of his personality. After his graduation 
he became tutor in the family of David 
Meade Randolph, of Richmond, Virginia. 
Though he there viewed slavery from its 
most attractive side, his innate hatred of 
the system was confirmed during his 
eighteen months in Richmond, and he de- 
clared "the influence of slavery on the 
whites to be almost as fatal as on the 
blacks themselves." His interest in poli- 
tics, both American and European, was 
positive, and his private letters written 
at that time disclose great breadth of 
mind and lucidity of expression. The love 
of luxury which characterized the Vir- 
ginians, he regarded as effeminate, and 
with unwise zeal he proceeded to curb 
his animal nature by the most rigid as- 
ceticism. He slept on the bare floor ex- 
posed to the cold, abstained from eating 
anything but the most necessary food, 
wore insufficient clothing, and made a 
practice of remaining at his study table 
until two or three o'clock in the morning. 
As a result, his once fine health was 
permanently destroyed. 

In July, 1800. he returned to Newport, 
where he remained a year and a half, de- 
voting his time to the study of theology, 
and to preparing the son of Mr. Randolph 

and his own younger brother for college. 
In December, 1801, he was elected regent 
of Harvard, and while performing the 
merely nominal duties of the office he 
pursued his theological studies. He be- 
gan to preach in the autumn of 1802, and 
in December received an invitation from 
the Federal Street Society, Boston, to be- 
come their pastor. At the same time he 
was urged to accept the pastorship of the 
Brattle Street Church, but, believing that 
he could accomplish more good in the 
weaker society, he accepted the first call, 
and was ordained June i, 1803. His 
earnestness and eloquence strengthened 
the little society, and in 1809 the number 
of listeners had so increased as to neces- 
sitate the building of a larger church edi- 
fice. In 1812 he was elected to succeed 
Dr. Buckminster as Dexter lecturer in 
the divinity school at Harvard College, 
but was obliged to resign in 1813. His 
fame and influence as a preacher were 
steadily increasing, while his physical 
strength was becoming enfeebled. In 

1822 his parishioners deemed it necessary 
to send him abroad to recuperate, and 
from May of that year until August of 

1823 he traveled over the whole world. 
In the spring of 1824 the Rev. Ezra Stiles 
Gannett was ordained the associate pas- 
tor of the Federal Street Society, and 
Mr. Channing was relieved of part of the 
care of the church. At the organization 
of the "Anthology Club" Mr. Channing 
contributed several essays to its journal ; 
and he wrote frequently for the "Chris- 
tian Disciple," which, in 1824, was en- 
larged and its name changed to the 
"Christian Examiner." In "The Exam- 
iner" there appeared the series of what 
he called "hasty effusions," which caused 
him to be recognized and admired by the 
world of letters. His subjects were: 
"Milton" (1826) ; "Bonaparte" (1827-28), 
and "Fenelon" (1829). Soon after this 
he was induced to collect and revise his 


writings, which resulted in "Miscel- 
lanies" the first volume of which was pub- 
lished in 1830. His theology broadened 
in advance of his time, and though his 
sympathies were with the Unitarian 
movement, his mind was too large and 
free to be bound by any sect. He was 
"a. member of the church universal, of the 
lovers of God and the lovers of man ; his 
religion was a life, not a creed or a form." 
In 1830 the state of his health again de- 
manded rest, and he made a voyage to 
the West Indies. Dr. Channing gradu- 
ally withdrew from church work to give 
his energies more to the outside world, 
the aim of his life being to promote free- 
dom of thought, and to bring about the 
abolition of slavery. In 1835, after years 
of preparation, he published his book on 
slavery, which was received with uni- 
versal commendation. He delivered lec- 
tures and addresses in the cause of eman- 
cipation whenever opportunity was ofifer- 
ed. His writings were collected and pub- 
lished in seven volumes, the last of which 
appeared in 1872. In 1820 Harvard con- 
ferred upon him the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity. See "The Life of William El- 
lery Channing, D. D." (the centenary 
memorial edition in one volume, 1882), 
by his nephew, William Henry Chan- 
ning. The Channing Memorial Church 
and Noble's heroic-size bronze statue of 
the great preacher stand in the Touro 
Park, Newport, Rhode Island. He died 
in Bennington, Vermont, October 2, 1842. 

SHAW, Lemuel, 

Jurist, Litterateur. 

Lemuel Shaw was born in Barnstable, 
Massachusetts, January 9, 1781, son of 
the Rev. Oakes and Susannah (Hay- 
wood) Shaw ; grandson of the Rev. John 
Shaw, who graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1729. His father was pastor of 
the West Parish, Barnstable, from 1760 
to 1807. 

He received his early education from 
his father, and later attended a prepara- 
tory school at Braintree, Massachusetts, 
then entering Harvard College, from 
which he graduated with the Bachelor of 
Arts degree in 1800, receiving the Master 
of Arts degree in 1803. After his gradu- 
ation he served as usher of the South 
Reading (Franklin) school, and also as 
assistant editor of the "Boston Gazette." 
He studied law in Boston and Amherst, 
and was admitted to the bar of Hills- 
borough county. New Hampshire, in 1804, 
and that of Plymouth county, Massachu- 
setts, in October of the same year. He 
engaged in practice in Boston, where he 
made his residence during the remainder 
of his life. He was a member of the State 
Legislature from 181 1 to 181 5, and in 
1819; a delegate to the State Constitu- 
tional Convention in 1820; and a State 
Senator in 1821-22 and 1828-29. In Sep- 
tember, 1830, he succeeded Isaac Parker 
as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts, and held that position for 
a period of thirty years, and until within 
less than a year of his death. He was a 
most accomplished and industrious jurist, 
and his published decisions comprise 
nearly fifty volumes. 

He was a man of literary ability and 
cultured tastes. He translated from the 
French the "Civil and Military Transac- 
tions of Bonaparte," and which he left un- 
published. His addresses include, a "Dis- 
course before the Humane Society of 
Massachusetts," in 181 1, and a Fourth of 
July oration in 1815. He received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 
183 1 from Harvard, of which college he 
was an overseer from 1831 to 1853 and a 
fellow from 1834 until his death ; and the 
same degree from Brown University in 
1850. He was a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts and New Eng- 
land Historical societies and of various 



local clubs, and a trustee of the Boston 
Library Society and the Boston Humane 
Society. He was twice married ; first to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Josiah Knapp, of 
Boston ; and (second) to Hope, daughter 
of Dr. Samuel Savage, of Barnstable, 
Massachusetts. Of his children, a son 
and namesake was a graduate of Harvard 
College, a practicing lawyer and a trustee 
of the Boston Public Library and the 
Boston AtheUcTum. Judge .Shaw died in 
Boston, March 30, 1861. 

EDWARDS, Justin, 

Clergyman, Edncator. 

The Rev. Justin Edwards was born in 
Westhampton, Massachusetts, April 25, 
1787. He was descended from Alexan- 
der (1655-1690), through Samuel, who 
died in 1749. 

He was graduated from Williams Col- 
lege in 1810; studied at Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1811-12; was ordained 
December 2, 1812, and had charge of the 
South Parish, Andover, 1812-27. He then 
preached at the Salem Street Church, 
Boston, 1828-29. He was a member of 
the executive committee of the American 
Tract Society, 181 7-21 ; corresponding 
secretary and business manager, 1821- 
29 ; helped to organize the American So- 
ciety for the Promotion of Temperance 
in 1825, and was its first agent, 1825-27. 
He resigned the pastorate of the Salem 
Street Church in 1829, and engaged as 
secretary of the American Temperance 
Society, 1829-36, in travelling and lec- 
turing in various parts of the country. 
He then served as president of Andover 
Theological Seminary, 1836-42. He was 
secretary of the American and Foreign 
Sabl)ath School Union, Boston, 1842-49, 
and organized the first temperance soci- 
ety in Washington. D. C. He received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Yale College in 1827. His published 
works include numerous sermons, tracts 

and addresses, of which millions of copies 
were distributed. He also edited the 
"Journal of the Temperance Society," and 
published the "Sabbath Manual and Tem- 
perance Manual.'' A memoir of his life 
by the Rev. William Hallock was pub- 
lished by the American Tract Society in 


He was married to L}dia Bigelow, of 
Andover. He died at Bath Alum Springs, 
Virginia. July 24, 1853. 

DAVIS, John, 

Congressman, Governor. 

John Davis, twelfth Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, was born at Northboro, Mas- 
sachusetts. January 13, 1787. He was 
graduated at Yale College in 1812, stud- 
ied law, was admitted to practice, and 
Avas for many years the leader of the 
Worcester bar. 

In 1824 he was chosen on the Whig 
ticket to represent his district in Con- 
gress, and, being four times reelected, 
served until January. 1834. As a repre- 
sentative he favored a high protective 
tariff, and strenuously opposed the Clay 
compromise tariff bill of 1833. He was 
frequently heard in debate, and took high 
rank as a legislator. In January, 1834, 
he became Governor of Massachusetts, 
and served one term. Soon after retiring 
from the governorship he was elected 
United States Senator, and sat in the 
Senate until January, 1841, when he re- 
signed to again become Governor of his 
State. In the Senate he confirmed and 
supplemented the reputation he had made 
while in the house, and as the recognized 
champion of protection was opposed to 
the policies of both Presidents Jackson 
and Van Buren, and distinguished him- 
self by able confutations of the free trade 
sentiments of southern statesmen. Many 
of his speeches were reprinted in pam- 
phlet form and widely circulated as cam- 
paign documents, especially his speech 



delivered in 1840, in opposition to the 
sub-treasury, of which a million copies 
were printed. After the expiration of his 
second term as Governor of Massachu- 
setts, he was again elected to the United 
States Senate, where he vigorously op- 
posed the war with Mexico, and the en- 
croachments of the slave power. He sup- 
ported the Wilmot Proviso, but was 
strenuously opposed to the Missouri 
Compromise of 1850. He declined a re- 
election. He was a man of great ability, 
aggressive in the support of his convic- 
tions, and of blameless private life. 

His wife, a sister of George Bancroft, 
survived him, eighteen years. His eldest 
son, John Chandler Bancroft Davis, after 
a notable career as diplomatic agent of 
the United States on various important 
commissions. Assistant Secretary of State 
under President Grant, and United States 
States Minister to Germany, became in 
1877 reporter of the United States Court 
of Claims, and in 1882 of the United 
States Supreme Court. He has written 
many valuable pamphlets on diplomatic 
subjects. His grandson, John Davis, was 
appointed judge of the United States 
Court of Claims in 1885. Governor Davis 
died at Worcester, April 19, 1854. 

MANN, Horace, 

Distingrnislied Educator. 

Horace Mann was born in Franklin, 
Massachusetts, May 4, 1796, son of 
Thomas and Rebecca (Stanley) Mann ; 
grandson of Nathan and Esther Mann ; 
and a descendant of William Mann, who 
immigrated to America from England 
and settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

He received but a limited education, as 
his father, who was a small farmer in 
Franklin, died while he was a lad, and he 
was obliged to help support the family. 
He studied English, Greek and Latin 
under Samuel Barrett, an itinerant school- 
master, and entered Brown University in 
MASS-6 81 

1816, and although absent from his class 
throughout one winter, he was graduated 
with honor in 1819. He studied law with 
J. J. Fiske, of Wrentham, Massachusetts, 
but in a few months was invited to Brown 
University as a tutor in Latin and Greek, 
and librarian. He resigned in 1821, and 
entered the law school at Litchfield, Con- 
necticut, under Judge Gould, and in 1822 
entered the law office of James Richard- 
son, of Dedham. He was admitted to the 
bar in December, 1823, and opened an 
office at Dedham, where he practiced in 
1823-33. He was a representative in the 
State Legislature, 1827-33, his first speech 
was made in defence of religious liberty. 
He was married, September 29, 1830, to 
Charlotte, daughter of President Asa 
Messer, of Brown University, and in 
1833 he removed to West Newton and 
was a partner with Edward G. Loring, 

He was State Senator from 1833 ^o 
1837, and presiding officer of the Senate 
during a portion of that period. During 
his legislative service he advocated laws 
for improving the common school sys- 
tem, and also was the means of procuring 
the enactment of the "fifteen-gallon law," 
in the interest of temperance, and the law 
for the suppression of the traffic in lot- 
tery tickets. He also proposed the es- 
tablishment of the State Lunatic Hos- 
pital at Worcester, Massachusetts, in 
1833, and was appointed chairman of the 
board of commissioners to contract for 
and superintend the erection of the hos- 
pital, and he was chairman of the board 
of trustees when the buildings were com- 
pleted in 1833. In 1835 he was a mem- 
ber of a legislative committee to codify 
the statute laws of Massachusetts, and 
after their adoption he was associated 
with Judge Metcalf in editing the work. 
He was elected the first secretary of the 
Massachusetts Board of Education. June 
19' ^^37' arid addressed lectures to con- 


ventions of teachers and friends of edu- 
cation, in which he explained to the pub- 
lic the leading motives of the legislature 
in creating the board. He also for twelve 
years published annual reports setting 
forth the advancement of education in the 
State, and superintended and contributed 
largely to the pages of the "Common 
School Journal," a monthly publication. 
During his term of office as secretary, he 
introduced a thorough reform in the 
school system, established normal schools, 
and visited at his own expense various 
educational establishments of Europe, 
especially in Germany, which investiga- 
tion he embodied in his seventh annual 
report. He retired from the secretary- 
ship in 1848, having served for twelve 
years with wonderful efficiency and large 
results. He was a representative in the 
Thirtieth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second 
Congresses, succeeding John Quincy 
Adams, deceased, and serving from 1847 
to 1853. ^^^ declined the nomination for 
Governor of Massachusetts, September 
15, 1852, and on the same day was chosen 
president of Antioch College, at Yellow 
Springs, Ohio, which offer he accepted. 
The college affairs were in a state of 
chaos, and, in spite of his labors the col- 
lege property was advertised for sale at 
public auction in the spring of 1859. As 
a result of his effort, reorganization was 
affected, and the college, freed from debt, 
was soon successfully established. The 
third class was graduated the same year, 
and he served as president until his death. 
He was a fellow of the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences, and received 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Harvard in 1849. In the selection 
of names for a place in the Hall of Fame 
for Great Americans, New York Univer- 
sity, in October, 1900, his was one of fif- 
teen in "Class C, Educators," submitted 
as eligible for a place, and the only one 
in the class to secure a place, receiving 

sixty-seven votes. He was the author of: 
"Reply to Thirty-One Boston School- 
masters" (1844) ; "Report of Educational 
Tour" (1846); "A Few Thoughts for a 
Young Man" (1850); "Slavery, Letters 
and Speeches" (1852) ; "Lectures on In- 
temperance" (1852) ; "Powers and Duties 
of Woman" (1853) ; "Sermons" (1861). 
His lectures on education (1845) were 
translated into French by Eugene De 
Guer in 1873. Besides his annual reports 
he published the "Common School Jour- 
nal." 1839-47; "Abstract of Massachu- 
setts School Returns" (1839-47) ; "Sup- 
plementary Report on School Houses" 
(1838) ; "Massachusetts System of Com- 
mon Schools" (1849) ; and a large num- 
ber of pamphlets which have been bound 
together and lettered Mann's Educational 
Controversies. See "Life of Horace 
Mann," by his widow (1865). He died 
at Yellow Springs, Ohio, August 2, 1859. 

GUSHING, William, 

Distinguished Jurist. 

William Gushing was born at Scituate, 
Massachusetts, March i, 1732, a descend- 
ant of Matthew Gushing, who came to 
Boston from Gravesend, England, in 1638. 
His grandfather and father, both named 
John, were judges of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts, the latter for a period 
of twenty-five years, during which he sat 
at the hearing of the great question of 
writs of assistance in 1760, and at the 
trial of Captain Preston and the British 
soldiers for the "Boston Massacre." 

At fifteen years of age W^illiam Gush- 
ing entered Harvard College, where he 
was graduated in 1751. After teaching a 
public school at Roxbury for one year, 
he studied law under Jeremiah Gridley, 
"the father of the bar in Boston," and 
soon after his admission to practice in 
1755 removed to Pownalborough, now 
Dresden, Maine, where he was made 
judge of probate for Lincoln county, 



upon its organization in 1760. This office 
he held until 1771, when he succeeded 
his father, who resigned from the Su- 
preme Court bench of the State. Until 
1775 he abstained so carefully from any 
expression of his opinions in the excited 
condition of the times, that his senti- 
ments were not known until he was 
forced to say whether he would receive 
his salary from the province or from the 
crown. He decided in favor of the prov- 
ince, being the only one of all the royal 
judges to take the side of his country- 
men, in the rapid progress of events. On 
the reorganization of the judiciary, he 
was made one of the judges of the Su- 
preme Court, and on the resignation of 
John Adams he became Chief Justice, an 
office he held for twelve yeari>. Among 
his important decisions was one to the 
effect that by the constitution of the 
State — the tirst article of the bill of 
rights, declaring all men born free and 
equal — slavery was abolished in Massa- 
chusetts. During the insurrectionary 
period which followed the conclusion of 
the war for independence, the opposition 
to courts and judges was extreme. Mr. 
Cushing, however, opened court on one 
occasion in the face of an armed mob 
through which he passed firmly to the 
court house, and by the respect and affec- 
tion in which he was held retained au- 
thority. In 1785 he declined the nomi- 
nation of both parties in his State for 
Governor, an office he refused a second 
time in 1794; but in 1788 he was a mem- 
ber of the convention which ratified the 
Federal constitution, presiding over the 
debates in the absence of John Hancock, 
the greater part of the session. He was 
one of the electors of Massachusetts for 
the first President and Vice-President, 
and on the organization of the Federal 
government was made third in order of 
the Associate Judges of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. During- the 

absence of Jay in England, he presided 
over that body, and on the rejection of 
Rutledge by the Senate, was appointed 
by Washington Chief Justice, and was 
unanimously confirmed, though he re- 
signed at the end of a week. He re- 
mained on the bench, however, until Sep- 
tember 13, 1810, when, in his seventy- 
eighth year, having prepared a letter of 
resignation, "he was called to resign life." 
In politics he was a Federalist, and en- 
joyed the confidence and friendship of 
Washington and John Adams. The dis- 
tinguished trait of his character was mod- 
eration. He could be at once open and 
decisive without arousing opposition. 

He was married, in 1774, to Hannah 
Phillips, of Middletown, Connecticut, but 
had no children. 


APPLETON, Daniel, 

Founder of Famous Publishing House. 

Daniel Appleton was born in Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, December 10, 1785, 
son of Daniel and Lydia (Ela) Appleton. 
He began his commercial career as clerk 
in a dry goods store and early established 
himself in a dry goods business of his 
own in Haverhill, and later in Boston. 
In 1825 he removed to Xew York City, 
locating in Exchange Place, where he 
opened an establishment for the sale of 
dry goods and books, in partnership with 
his brother-in-law, Jonathan Leavitt. In 
1830 Mr. Leavitt withdrew from the con- 
cern, and William Henry, ]\Ir. Appleton's 
eldest son, took his place as head of the 
book department. Later the dry goods 
business was abandoned, and Mr. Apple- 
ton removed to larger premises in Clin- 
ton Hall, corner of Beekman and Nassau 
streets, where he devoted his capital and 
energy to importing and selling books. 

In 1830 Mr. Appleton made his first 
venture as a publisher, issuing a volume 
three inches square and a half inch thick, 
of one hundred and ninety-two pages, en- 


titled "Crumbs from the Master's Table," 
consisting of Bible texts compiled by W. 
Mason. A copy of this book is preserved 
in the Appleton family. A still smaller 
volume, "Gospel Seeds," appeared in the 
following year, and was followed in 1832, 
the year of the cholera epidemic, by "A 
Refuge in Time of Plague and Pestilence." 
In 1838 Mr. Appleton visited Europe and 
established the London agency of the 
house at 16 Little Britain ; he also pur- 
chased in Paris a number of rare illumi- 
nated missals and manuscript specimens 
of the work of the early monks, which 
were eagerly bought in America and 
afforded the firm a large profit. In 1838 
William Henry Appleton was admitted 
to a partnership, and the firm became D. 
Appleton & Company, and removed to 
200 Broadway. In 1840 they issued Tract 
No. 90, by Rev. Dr. Pusey, which was 
followed by the writings of Drs. New- 
man, Manning, Palmer, Maurice, and 
others of the Oxford School of Theolog- 
ical Ideas. In 1848 Mr. Appleton retired, 
making the proviso that the ofBcial sig- 
nature of the firm should remain Daniel 
Appleton & Company. A printing house 
and bindery were established by the firm 
in Franklin street. New York, in 1853. 
In 1857 the "New American Cyclopaedia" 
was begun, the last volume being issued 
in 1863. The work proved a success, up- 
wards of thirty thousand sets being sold. 
In 1868, owing to the increase of busi- 
ness, the mechanical departments were 
transferred to Brooklyn, where an im- 
mense block of buildings had been erected 
to accommodate them. In 1861 the first 
copy of "The Annual Cyclopaedia" was 
issued, a volume appearing every year 
thereafter, uniform in style and size with 
the "American Cyclopaedia," of which 
during the years 1873-76 a revised edi- 
tion was prepared, with engravings and 
maps. "Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Amer- 
ican Biography," a valuable work of ref- 

erence in six volumes, was commenced 
in 1886, and "Johnson's Universal Cyclo- 
paedia, Revised," in 1893, in eight vol- 
umes. The wide range of books pub- 
lished by the Appletons comprises school 
text-books, medical and scientific works, 
Spanish books for the Central and South- 
ern American trade, literature concern- 
ing the Civil War, poems, novels, etc., 
covering, in fact, the whole range of lit- 
erature. The works of Darwin, Huxley, 
Spencer and Tyndall were first printed 
in America by this firm, under royalty 
agreement with the authors. Owing to 
the theological prejudices of the time, the 
publication of these books brought some 
odium upon the Appletons. They were 
also the first to produce in New York the 
works of Mme. Muhlbach, one of the 
most popular novels published by the 
house being her "Joseph II. and His 
Court," the sale of which was rivalled by 
Disraeli's "Lothair," of which eighty 
thousand copies were sold. Among the 
firm's illustrated publications are: "Pic- 
turesque America," "Picturesque Europe,* 
"Picturesque Palestine," and "The Art 
of the World." 

Daniel Appleton died in New York 
City, March 27, 1849. 


liate Colonial Governor. 

This distinguished man occupies a 
unique position in the history of Massa- 
chusetts and of the United States. He was 
a conspicuous actor in the scenes imme- 
diately preceding the Revolution. A man 
of good character, of unwearying industry 
and high intellectual attainments, he has 
been given, by common consent, a loftier 
place than any other of the colonial gov- 
ernors. It was his lot to live in a period 
when the loyalty to royal authority, 
which had been a main part of his edu- 
cation and his life thought, was suddenly 
brought into conflict with revolutionary 



ideas and aspirations. He held to his 
views with courage, ability and excellent 
temper; and, indirectly and unintention- 
ally, his conservatism really aided the 
Revolutionary cause in some degree. 

Governor Hutchinson was born in Eos- 
ton, September 9, 171 1, son of Thomas 
and Sarah (Foster) Hutchinson. He was 
a descendant of the celebrated religious 
teacher, Anne Hutchinson, being the 
great-grandson of her eldest son, Edward 
Hutchinson. His grandfather. Elisha 
Hutchinson, was the first Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas under the 
old charter, and also a councillor under 
the new ; and his father, a merchant of 
Boston, at one time very wealthy, was 
for more than a quarter of a century a 
member of the Council of Assistance, and 
colonel of the First Suffolk Regiment. 

When only five years old. Thomas 
Hutchinson began attending the old 
North Grammar School, and having com- 
pleted the course there in his twelfth 
year, was sent to Harvard College, 
where he was graduated in 1727. From 
early youth he showed a decided tend- 
ency towards mercantile pursuits, which 
led him to begin trading through his 
father's vessels while yet a college stu- 
dent. After graduation he entered his 
father's counting house, where during 
four years he proved himself to have a 
talent for business. In 1737, he was 
made a selectman for the town of Boston, 
and in the same year was elected repre- 
sentative to the General Court. He now 
devoted much time to study of English 
common law and the principles of the 
British constitution, having an idea that 
he w^ould follow a public career. At the 
time when he was in the General Court, 
Massachusetts was stirred to its depth 
over the depreciation of the paper cur- 
rency of the period, and a great many 
wild schemes for improving the financial 
situation were devised. Hutchinson 

proved to have a remarkably clear and 
just idea of financial questions in the 
abstract, and practically he fought the 
paper money theories of his contempo- 
raries with great zeal and determination. 
Notwithstanding the prevalence of these 
ideas, he was re-elected in 1738, but as 
a result of continued opposition to the 
notions which were now becoming gen- 
erally adopted, he was not elected again 
at the expiration of his second term. In 
1740 Parliament applied to the colonies 
a law with regard to joint-stock compan- 
ies, intended for Great Britain, after the 
explosion of a South Sea bubble, with the 
result that such companies in Massachu- 
setts were closed out and many of the 
persons connected w^ith them, including 
Samuel Adams Sr., were ruined. Hut- 
chinson, in this time of misfortune, show- 
ed himself both wise and patriotic, but 
advice which he gave to the Governor 
and which would have saved much dis- 
aster was not followed. In the same year 
he was sent to England as commissioner 
to adjust the boundary line between Mas- 
sachusetts and New Hampshire, and, de- 
spite his failure, was on his return in 
1741, again chosen a representative, con- 
tinuing thereafter until 1749 and from 
1746 to 1748, being speaker of the house. 
The infatuation for paper money con- 
tinued, and there was about £140.000 of 
it afloat in the colony in 1750. At this 
time Parliament voted the sum of £138,- 
649 to the colony of Massachusetts as 
compensation for the cost of the capture 
of Louisburg, that stronghold being now 
restored to France in exchange for Mad- 
ras, in Flindustan. Flutchinson made the 
suggestion that Parliament should send 
this money in Spanish silver dollars, and 
that these should be employed for the 
purpose of buying up and cancelling the 
depreciated paper currency, whose actual 
value, as stated above, was about one- 
eleventh of its face value, and that the 



redemption should be on this basis. He 
succeeded in getting a bill passed to this 
effect, but its passage incurred for him 
the enmity of the entire business com- 
munity of Boston, who had an idea that 
the result would be such a contraction 
of the circulating medium as would ruin 
them all. They were greatly surprised 
when the money arrived, to find that a 
metallic currency had so much greater 
purchasing power than the depreciated 
paper, and that on the latter being put 
out of circulation, the coin would remain 
in it. Trade improved steadily, and the 
result was that Hutchinson, who had lost 
his election in 1749, although he was at 
once chosen a member of the Council, 
now became one of the most popular men 
in the colony. The practical result of his 
financiering was that, in 1774, Massachu- 
setts was entirely out of debt, and was 
able to enter upon the Revolutionary 
War. while Rhode Island, which had held 
to the paper currency, was hopelessly 
poverty stricken. 

In 1749 Mr. Hutchinson was appointed 
head of a commission which effected a 
treaty of peace with the Indians of Casco 
Bay. He had now determined to retire 
from public life, and with that view had 
built himself a beautiful residence at Mil- 
ton, Massachusetts (which was still 
standing in 1887), but in 1753, the death 
of his wife, whom he dearly loved, chang- 
ed all his plans, and having succeeded 
his uncle as judge of probate, he began 
to devote himself again to public affairs. 
In 1754, with Benjamin Franklin, he was 
in the celebrated Albany Congress, 
which was appointed to draw up a plan 
of union for the thirteen colonies. In 
1756 he was appointed Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, in 1760 was made Chief Justice, 
ccud at one time held, besides this oftice, 
that of Lieutenant-Governor, and those 
of councillor and judge of probate. In 
1761 he presided at the trial of the cele- 

brated case of the Writs of Assistance, 
during which James Otis made his im- 
jjortant speech, which was the forerunner 
of the Revolution. In 1765, considerable 
feeling had been aroused against Hut- 
chinson, who was charged with having 
accused certain merchants of Boston 
with smuggling. Another point which 
was used against him was the fact that on 
Ihe passage of the Stamp Act, Andrew 
Oliver, his brother-in-law, was appointed 
distributor of stamps. The latter was 
hanged in effigy on the great tree at 
South Boston ; the building which he had 
erected, and which was supposed to be 
designed for a stamp office, was destroyed 
by a mob, and the furniture of his house 
was broken to pieces. Mr. Oliver im- 
mediately resigned his office, whereupon 
he was thanked by the mob, who built a 
large bonfire on Fort Hill, near his house, 
to express their commendation of his 
action. The next evening, however, the 
house of Air. Hutchinson was attacked, 
rumors against him having been increas- 
ed by a report that he had written letters 
in favor of the Stamp Act. On this 
occasion, however, no serious damage 
was done beyond the breaking of the 
windows, but a few evenings later, on 
August 26, the mob collected in King 
street, and havmg hrst plundered the 

cellars of the comptroller of the customs 
of the wine and spirits in his charge, 
they proceeded with intoxicated rage to 
the house of Mr. Hutchinson, on the 
North Side. This they sacked, splitting 
the doors to pieces with broad-axes, steal- 
ing the money, plate and wearing apparel, 
and destroying the handsome furniture, 
and, what was still worse, Hutchinson's 
library, with its contents of valuable 
manuscripts and documents, which it had 
taken him thirty years to collect. On the 
following day there was a meeting of 
citizens at Faneuil Hall, who voted their 
abhorrence of the riot, but no one was 



punished for the act. This outrage was 
committed in the face of the fact that 
Hutchinson had made every effort to in- 
duce the British minister to refrain from 
passing and enforcing the Stamp Act. He 
later received indemnification to the 
amount of ^3.194 17s. 6d. In 1768 the 
arrival of British troops at Boston again 
brought Hutchinson into trouble, as it 
fell to him, through his position of Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, to appoint a house for 
the accommodation of the troops. In the 
following year Governor Bernard went to 
England, when Hutchinson was left as 
Acting-Governor. On March 5, 1770, oc- 
curred the ''Boston Massacre," when by 
his promptitude in arresting Captain 
Preston and his men, Hutchinson doubt- 
less prevented the affair from being much 
more serious and sanguinary than it was. 
In 1771 Hutchinson was commissioned 
(Tovernor, and within two years he was 
again in conflict with the people, and in 
dispute with the assembly and council. 
The royal order that the salaries of the 
judges should be paid by the crown 
aroused the already excited people to 
violent anger, and Samuel Adams took 
the revolutionary step of organizing the 
Committee of Correspondence, which 
iifterward became so important factor in 
the affairs of the Revolution. In 1773 
Hutchinson sent a message to the As- 
sembly in which he asserted the supreme 
authority of Parliament, and provoked 
still more acrimonious discussion. In the 
meantime, certain confidential letters of 
Governor Hutchinson had been obtained 
in England by Benjamin Franklin and 
sent over to Massachusetts. In the spring 
of 1773, Hutchinson succeeded in adjust- 
ing with the Governor of New York the 
long disputed boundary line between that 
colony and ^Massachusetts, and, although 
this was a matter of great satisfaction to 
Massachusetts, on his return to Boston it 
was to meet the excitement caused by the 

publication of his confidential letters ob- 
tained by Franklin. The result of this 
publication was to create the impression 
that Hutchinson was responsible for the 
most severe measures of the British min- 
ister. The General Court petitioned that 
Hutchinson and the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, Oliver, should be removed. The 
petition was refused, but in June, 1774, 
Hutchinson was superseded by General 
Gage, and sailed for England, where he 
was graciously received by the king and 
offered a baronetcy, which he refused. 
In the meantime, his exit was amidst the 
execration of the people of Massachu- 
setts. His fine residence at Milton, with 
all his other property, was confiscated, 
and it is alleged that the best coach in his 
stable in the following year was taken 
over to Cambridge, where it was put to 
the use of General Washington. After 
his arrival in England, Hutchinson re- 
ceived a pension, and during the re- 
mainder of his life resided at Brompton, 
near London. The death of his young- 
est son, \\'illiam, in February of that year, 
greatly affected him. Of his two other 
sons, Thomas died in England, in 181 1, 
aged seventy-one, and Elisha, in 1824, 
aged eighty. 

Governor Hutchinson, with all his loy- 
alty, had a profound affection for New 
England, and until after the surrender of 
Hurgoyne at Saratoga, he hoped to re- 
turn and pass the remainder of his days 
there. Hutchinson's own story of his life 
was published in Boston in 1884-86, in 
two volumes, under the title, ''Diary and 
Letters of Thomas Hutchinson." He 
wrote "History of Massachusetts Bay," 
the first two volumes of which were pub- 
lished in 1764-67, but the third not until 
after his death, in 1828. This work 
covers the history of the colony of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay from its first settlement in 
1628 until the year 1750. He also pub- 
lished a collection of original papers rela- 



tive to the same subject, in 1769. The 
third volume of his history was published 
by his grandson, Rev. John Hutchinson, 
and comprises the period between 1749 
and 1774 and a continuation brought to 
1803 was subsequently prepared by Judge 
George R. Minot. 

Governor Hutchinson married. May 16, 
1734. Margaret Sanford, a very beautiful 
woman, a granddaughter of Governor 
Peleg Sanford, of Rhode Island; she died 
in 1753, and her husband, who never re- 
married, died in Brompton, England, 
June 3, 1780. 


Founder of Harvard University, 

The unmeasurable influence growing 
out of the work of this estimable man, 
would suggest that no work dealing with 
the history of the people of Massachu- 
setts could properly omit mention of him. 
The life oftort of the greater number of 
his compeers are lost sight of, and the 
objects for which they strove have been 
accomplished, but the influences grow- 
ing out of the work of John Harvard are 
continually expanding, and will undoubt- 
edly endure as long as does the nation. 

He was born in Southwalk, London, 
England, in November, 1607, son of Rob- 
ert and Katherine (Rogers) Harvard; his 
father was a well-to-do butcher. At the 
age of twenty he entered Emmanuel Col- 
lege, University of Cambridge, received 
the A. B. degree four years later, and 
subsequently that of A. M.. and was or- 
dained as a dissenting minister. In 1637 
he married a daughter of Rev. John Sad- 
ler, a minister of Sussex, and the same 
year emigrated to the colony of Massa- 
chusetts, and settled at Charlestown, 
where he was made a freeman, was 
awarded a grant of land, and performed 
the duties of minister to what was after- 
ward known as the First Parish Church, 
being its third pastor. In 1638 he was 

made one of a committee to ''consider 
of some things tending toward a body of 
laws." At his death he left a bequest of 
"the one moiety or halfe parte of my 
estate, the said moiety amounting to 
the sum of seven hundred seventy-nine 
pounds seventeene shillings and two 
pence," for the erection of a proposed 
school at Cambridge. He also left his 
library of two hundred and sixty volumes 
to the proposed institution. . His bequest 
was a large sum of money at that time, 
and his library was regarded as of great 
magnitude. x\t the General Court held 
at Boston, March 13, i()39, it was ordered 
'that the colledge agreed upon formerly 
to ])e built at Cambridg shall bee called 
Marvard Colledge," in honor of its first 

He died in Charlestown, September 24, 
1638. His widow married Rev. Thomas 
Allen, pastor of the Second Parish, 
Charlestown. A statue to the memory of 
John Harvard was erected in the burial 
ground at Charlestown. and was dedicated 
with an address by Edward Everett. Sep- 
tember 26, 1828, and an ideal statue of 
him by Daniel C. French, the gift of 
Samuel James Bridge, was unveiled on 
the delta of Harvard University, October 
15. 1884. 


First Female Poet of America. 

Anne Bradstreet. distinguished as the 
earliest poet of her sex in America, 
though a native of England, was a person 
who by reputation and residence con- 
ferred honor upon her Massachusetts 
home, and left a deep impress upon New 
England, not only in her own day but in 
several following decades. 

She was the daughter of Governor 
Thomas Dudley, and the wife of Gov- 
ernor Simon Bradstreet. She was born 
in 1612-13. probably at Northampton, 
England. Of her youth, but little is 


^'o/m Jtccynard 


l:nown, and from what is left in her own 
writing leads to the belief that she was 
religiously brought up according to the 
Puritan standards of that time. When 
she was about sixteen she had the small- 
pox. She was married at about that age, 
and came to this country. Her husband 
was the son of a minister of the non-con- 
formist order in the old country. In 1635 
she became a resident of Ipswich, Massa- 
chusetts, but there are no particulars of 
importance regarding her stay in tliat 
town, and the exact year when she re- 
moved to Andover is not known, but it 
is presumable that the latter removal was 
before the year 1644. The portion of the 
town where she settled was that now 
called by the name of North Andover. 
Her husband's house there was burned to 
the ground in July, 1666, and it is sup- 
posed to have been replaced with an- 
other, m which she died in September, 
1672. This house, which was the resi- 
dence of her son, Dudley Bradstreet, was 
standing a very few years ago, and is 
probably yet in existence. 

Her poems were first published in 
London, in 1650, under the title of "The 
Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in Amer- 
ica." She appears to have had from her 
birth a very delicate constitution, and 
was troubled at one time with lameness, 
and subject to frequent attacks of sick- 
ness, to fevers, and fits of fainting. She 
was the mother of eight children, four 
sons and four daughters, all but one of 
whom survived her. Of her opinions, she 
regarded health as the reward of virtue, 
and her various maladies as tokens of the 
divine displeasure. She says her relig- 
ious belief was at times shaken; but she 
believed that her doubts and fears were 
exaggerated by her tender conscience. 
Her children were constantly in her 
mind ; and for them she committed to 
writing many of her thoughts and experi- 
ences, especially religious. Her poetic 

similes refer much to domestic life and 
the bringing up of children, and among 
her own offspring she notes the most 
diverse traits of character; some of them 
were obedient and easily governed, while 
others were unruly and headstrong. She 
derived satisfaction from the virtues of 
some, and deplored the failings of others. 
Her married life was happy, but she con- 
tinuously dwelt in her thoughts on the 
great ills to which humanity is subject. 
By the burning of her house at Andover, 
in July, 1666, her papers, books and other 
things of great value were destroyed. 
Her son wrote that his father's loss by 
this fire was over eight hundred books. 
Thus, from what is derived from Mrs. 
Bradstreet's works, one may realize that 
the world of her day was not much difl^er- 
ent from the present in the experiences of 
domestic trials. The fact of her being 
able to compose anything of a literary 
order, was in her time a wonder com- 
pared with such things now. She was 
however, living in a new country, scarce- 
ly yet settled, and that she even was 
exposed to criticism by her neighbors for 
studying and writing so much, is evident 
from her lines : 

I am obnoxious to each carping tongue 
Who says my hand a needle better fits. 

She died of consumption, and a state- 
ment of her sad condition in the last 
•Stages of the disease, is preserved in the 
handwriting of her son. It is supposed, 
as her burial place is not known at An- 
dover that she may have been interred 
in her father's tomb in Roxbury. 

In 1678, after her death, a second edi- 
tion of her poems was brought out in 
Boston. Her descendants have been very 
numerous, and many of them have more 
than made up, by the excellence of their 
writings, for whatever beauty or spirit 
hers may have lacked. Among these were 



Dr. William E. Channing. Rev. Joseph 
Buckminster, of Portsmouth, and his son, 
Rev. Joseph S. Buckminster, and his 
daughter, Mrs. Eliza B. Lee; Richard H. 
Dana, the poet, and his son, Richard H. 
Dana Jr. ; Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes ; 
Wendell Phillips, and Mrs. Eliza G. 
Thornton, of Saco, Maine, whose poetry 
w^as once much esteemed. 

WILLARD, Samuel, 

Distinguished Educator. 

Sanmel Willard, seventh president of 
Harvard College (1701-07), was born at 
Concord, Massachusetts, January 31, 
1640, son of Major Simon Willard, 
founder of Concord. 

He was graduated at Harvard College 
in the class of 1659. He then studied 
theology, and in 1663 was ordained as 
minister at Groton, Massachusetts, where 
he succeeded Rev. John Miller. Here he 
was deeded a house and land, with the 
understanding that he should remain 
pastor for life, and faithfully served the 
society until the village was burned by 
the Indians during King Philip's war, 
early in 1676. He then removed to Bos- 
ton, where in 1678 he became colleague 
of the famous Thomas Thatcher, rector 
of old South Church, and upon the latter's 
death in the following October succeeded 
to the pastorate, holding it until his death. 
His ministrations were so acceptable that 
it was remarked that "his removal to Bos- 
ton was a compensation for the dis- 
asters of King Philip's war." Edward 
Randolph wrote of him in 1682 : "We 
have in Boston one Mr. W^illard, a min- 
ister, brother to Major Dudley ; he is a 
moderate man, and baptizeth those who 
are refused by the other churches, for 
which he is hated." His "moderation" 
was further shown by his conduct during 
the persecution of the alleged witciips. 
In company with the Rev. Joshua 
Moodey he visited Philip English and his 

wife, who were in prison awaiting trial 
at Salem, consoled them, and doubtless 
sympathized with Moodey's successful 
zeal in as.sisting them to "escape from the 
forms of justice, when justice was vio- 
lated in them." A story illustrating his 
humor relates that his son-in-law. Rev. 
Samuel Treat, of Eastham, having 
preached in his pulpit a sermon distaste- 
ful to the congregation, from its faulty 
delivery, he was requested not to permit 
any more from that source. Willard, 
however, borrowed the sermon, and some 
weeks later delivered it himself, and by 
his capital delivery so delighted his 
people that they requested its publication, 
remarking how superior was his treat- 
ment of the text to that of his son-in-law. 
When Governor Andros assumed control 
of the colony in 1686, he demanded that 
the Church of England services be held 
in South Church, and, being refused, com- 
manded the sexton to ring the bell, which 
he was frightened into doing. For three 
years, thereafter. Episcopal services were 
held in the building every Sunday morn- 
ing, Mr. Willard's congregation being 
obliged to wait until their completion. 
On the first Sunday, Andros promised to 
allow them possession of the building at 
I :30 p. m. but kept them waiting until 
long after two o'clock, while he and his 
staff prolonged their devotions. After- 
ward he was accustomed to suit his own 
convenience about the hour of service, 
much to the annoyance of the people of 
Mr. Willard's society. It is surprising 
that in this age of inflammable religious 
prejudice, no violence resulted from this 
high-handed measure, but Willard's wise 
counsels doubtless guided his people, and 
both parties came to evince a desire to 
accommodate one another. He was early 
made a fellow of Harvard College, and in 
1700 became vice-president. On the 
resignation of President Mather in 1701 
he succeeded to the control of the institu- 



lion, but continuing his residence in Bos- 
ton and the active pastorate of South 
Church, he was, according to the resolu- 
tion of the General Court, debarred from 
the title of president and was never in- 
augurated. After resuming the respon- 
sibilities in the college he associated with 
himself, as the assistant rector of South 
Church, the Rev. Ebenezer Pemberton. 

Early in the presidency of Mr. Willard, 
the printing establishment in Cambridge 
was discontinued by the death of Samuel 
Green, who had conducted it for fifty 
years. In most respects j\Ir. Willard's 
administration was able, and character- 
ized by his usual scholarship and moder- 
ation. He had the confidence of the auth- 
orities of the colony, and the support of 
its best representatives. He wrote and 
preached ably against the witchcraft de- 
lusion, and, besides numerous sermons, 
published an "Answer to the Anabap- 
tists" (1681); "Mourner's Cordial" 
(1691) ; "Peril of the Times," "Love's 
Pedigree," and the "Fountain Opened" 
(1700). His masterpiece was the ' Com- 
pleat Body of Divinity, and 250 Lectures 
on the Shorter Catechism," edited by his 
successors. J. Sewell and T. Prince, which 
appeared in a folio of 914 pages in 1726. 
Professor C. F. Richardson, of Dart- 
mouth, prefers his English to that of the 
Mathers, and credits him with "an even- 
ly-balanced mind, a logical plan, a clear 
style, and some imagination." Pember- 
ton speaks of him as "a sage patriot in 

He was twice married; (first) August 
8, 1664, to Abigail, daughter of John Sher- 
man, of Watertown. and (second) to 
Eunice, daughter of Edward Tyng, about 
1679. He had twenty children, eight by 
the first wife and twelve by the second. 
Of his descendants, none bear the name 
of Willard. save only the descendants of 
his grandson Samuel (H. l"^., 1723). who 

was father of Joseph Willard (H. U., 
1765), later president of the college. He 
died in Boston, Massachusetts, Septem- 
ber 12, 1707. 

WADSWORTH, Benjamin, 

Clergyman, College President. 

Benjamm Wadsworth, ninth president 
of Harvard College (1725-37), was born 
in Milton, Massachusetts, in 1669, sev- 
enth son of Captain Samuel Wadsworth, 
an early martyr to the cause of civiliza- 
tion, he having been killed by the In- 
dians in a battle fought at Sudbury, Mas- 
sachusetts. April 18, 1676, and his 
memory perpetuated by a monument 
erected on the spot by his son. 

After a thorough preparatory training, 
young Wadsworth was admitted to Har- 
vard in the class of 1690, and was gradu- 
ated with that class, the largest that had 
ever left the college. He then took a 
course in theology, was licensed to preach, 
made assistant teacher in the First Church, 
Boston, November, 1693. ^"^ became col- 
league pastor September 8, 1696. He was 
made a fellow of Harvard College, serv- 
ing until July 7, 1725, when he was in- 
augurated president to succeed John 
Leverett, and held the position until his 
death. During his administration dona- 
tions from home and abroad in money, 
books, silver-plates, apparatus, and the 
like were being constantly received. To 
these gifts the General Court added ii.700. 
and in 1725 voted the sum of f 1,000 to 
build a new house for the president, and 
also increased his salary ; but through 
depreciation in the value of currency, the 
salary paid rarely exceeded in value ii50 
English money. The benefactions of 
Thomas Hollis also continued unabated ; 
ni 1726 he founded the professorship of 
mathematics and natural and experimen- 
tal philosophy which bears his name, and 
Isaac Greenwood Avas chosen its first in- 



cumbent with his approval. In his death, alties, the dispensing of roast meats, pre- 
which occurred in 1731, Harvard lost one pared dishes, plum-cake or distilled 
of its most generous and devoted bene- liquors, or "unseemly dancing" by the 
factors. As a theologian, President Wads- students on commencement day ; espe- 
worth held some theological opinions not cially mentioning that any attempt to 
current in his day. He was an industrious evade the statute by "plain cake, would 
student of the Bible, and a celebrated cause the offender to forfeit the honors of 
textuary, able to adorn any point with the college." During President Wads- 
numerous quotations from Holy Writ, worth's administration the board of 
He always preached plain, practical ser- overseers was faced by a perplexing 
mons, avoiding points in debate, and was dilemma : The Rev. Timothy Cutler, for- 
seldom drawn into controversy. Presi- merly of Yale College, having become an 
dent Eliot, in an address delivered on the Episcopalian, was appointed rector of 
250th anniversary of the First Church, Christ Church, Boston, and at once made 
Boston, quotes President Wadsworth as strenuous efforts to obtain a place on the 
saying in a sermon preached in 171 1: board. His success would certainly have 
■"Tis of the mere undeserving mercy of ended the sectarian control in the col- 
God that we have not all of us been roar- lege, and great excitement prevailed 
ing in the unquenchable flames of hell among the authorities. He was finally 
long ago, for 'tis no more than our sins thwarted in his efforts, and a law was 
have justly deserved." Again he says, passed that none but Congregational 
that "nothing is more grating, cutting, ministers were entitled to become over- 
and enraging to the devil than to have the seers. Cutler had previously been ejected 
gospel faithfully preached to men." from his tutorship in Yale for preaching 
"But," says Eliot, "when Dr. Wadsworth a sermon denying the validity of Presby- 
in a sermon entitled 'The Saint's Prayer terian ordination. He was a person of 
to Escape Temptation,' told parents how overbearing pride and haughtiness. Al- 
to bring up their children, he gave advice though in failing health at the time of his 
good for all times, which the latest as appointment. President W^adsworth 
well as the earliest president of Harvard faithfully stood by his post, preferring, 
College might gladly adopt as his own." as Tutor Henry Flynt expressed it in his 
There is no doubt that President Wads- eloquent mortuary oration, to "wear out 
worth was mere of a preacher than an rather than rust out." He died at the 

president's house in Cambridge, March 
i6, 1737. 

educator, and made a better pastor of a 
church than a master of a school. In his 

administration of the affairs of the col- 

lege, however, was witnessed the gather- LOVELL, John, 

ing of the rich fruitage of the toils, Sacri- Prominent Educator. 
fices, and faithful devotion of the early John Lovell was born in Boston, Mas- 
presidents of Harvard College, and his sachusetts, June 16, 1710. He was gradu- 
term closed with the first century of the ated at Flarvard in 1728, and the follow- 
history of the college. The growing ing year became usher in the Public 
"worldliness" among the students prompt- Latin School of Boston, where he suc- 
ed the authorities to take measures for ceeded Jeremy Gridley as assistant head- 
its suppression, and a new code of laws master in 1734. In 1738, upon the death 
for the college was formulated, forbid- of Dr. Nathaniel Williams, he became 
ding, among other things, on pain of pen- headmaster of the school, and remained 



in this position until the outbreak of the 
Revolution. In 1742 he delivered the 
dedication address in Faneuil Hall, at the 
meeting called on the decease of its 
founder, Peter Faneuil. 

He was a genial and witty companion, 
an excellent teacher, and a good scholar, 
but a stern disciplinarian, and feared by 
his pupils, who were obliged to go to 
another school to learn to write and 
cipher, as he regarded it beneath his dig- 
nity to teach these branches. As a reward 
for good progress and behavior he allow- 
ed the boys to work for him in his garden. 
He was a stauncn loyalist, although many 
of his former pupils were leaders in the 
struggle for independence, and, accom- 
panied by his youngest son Benjamin, he 
went with the British troops to Halifax, 
March 14, 1776, having previously dis- 
missed his school with the words : 
"War's begun — school's done." Another 
son was in the ordnance department 
under General Howe during the British 
occupation of Boston. He published sev- 
eral pamphlets of a political and theo- 
logical nature, and contributed English 
and Latin essays to the "Pietas et Gratu- 
latio" (1761), also to the "Weekly Re- 
hearsal" of Boston. He was an elegant 
and pleasing writer. He died at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, in 1778. 

DALTON, Tristram, 

statesman of tlie Revolution. 

Tristram Dalton was born at Newbury. 
Massachusetts, May 28, 1738, son of 
Michael and Mary (Little) Dalton. His 
earliest American ancestor was Philemon 
Dalton, who came to New England in 
1635 and settled at Dedham, Massachu- 

Tristram Dalton's elementary educa- 
tion was received in Dummer Academy, 
Byfield, under Samuel Moody, after 

which he entered Harvard College and 
was graduated in 1755, in the class with 
John Adams. He then studied law in 
Salem, but on the completion of his stud- 
ies returned to Newbury and joined his 
father in business. He became actively 
interested in public affairs previous to the 
Revolution, his name frequently appear- 
ing on the records of the town. He 
served on various committees, and gave 
considerable time and attention to the 
revision of the public school system of 
Newbury. In 1774 he was one of the 
delegates to the Provincial Congress, and 
in 1776 he was elected representative to 
the General Court. During the Revolu- 
tionary War he ardently supported the 
Continental government. From 1782 to 
1785 he was an influential member of the 
State Legislature, and in 1783 was chosen 
speaker of the house. From 1786 to 1788 
Mr. Dalton was a member of the State 
Senate, and also a delegate from New- 
bury to the Constitutional Convention of 
1788. He zealously advocated the adop- 
tion of the Constitution of the United 
States, and after a long and protracted 
contest he and Caleb Strong were elected 
Senators to the first National Congress. 

He was distinguished for his scholarly 
accomplishments, and at his residence. 
Spring Hill, he entertained Washington, 
Adams, Talleyrand, and other famous 
persons. Following the advice of his 
friend. President Washington, he sold his 
property in Massachusetts to invest the 
proceeds in real estate in Washington, 
D. C. but through the mismanagement of 
his agent was reduced to poverty. In 
1815 he obtained the post of Surveyor of 
the Port of Boston, which he held until 
his death. He was married, October 4, 
1758, to Ruth, daughter of Robert 
Hooper, a rich merchant of Marblehead, 
and had five children. He died in Boston, 
Massachusetts, May 30, 1817. 



LOWELL, John, 

statesman, Jurist. 

John Lowell was born in Newburyport, 
Massachusetts, June 17, 1744, the son of 
John Lowell, minister of the first church 
in Newburyport (1726-67), who was dis- 
tinguished among his brethren as a 

He was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1760, and applied himself to the study 
of law, and soon rose to great eminence in 
his profession. He represented New- 
buryport in the Provincial Assembly in 
1776. In 1771 he removed from New- 
buryport to Boston, and was chosen rep- 
resentative for the town at the General 
Court, and one of their twelve delegates 
to the convention which formed the con- 
stitution. In that assembly he was very 
much distinguished by his eloquence and 
knowledge. He was one of the framers 
of the Massachusetts State Constitution 
in 1780, and procured the insertion in the 
bill of rights the declaration that "all men 
are born free and equal," for the purpose, 
as he said, of abolishing slavery in Mas- 
sachusetts, and offered his services to any 
slave who desired to establish his right 
to freedom under that clause. The Su- 
preme Court of the State upheld this en- 
actment as constitutional in 1783, since 
which time slavery has had no legal ex- 
istence in Massachusetts. In 1781 he was 
chosen a member of the Continental Con- 
gress, and in December of the following 
year was appointed by that body one of 
the three judges of the Court of Appeals. 
When the Federal government was estab- 
lished, he was appointed by President 
Washington judge of the District Court 
of Massachusetts, and remained in that 
office until the new organization of the 
Federal judiciary in 1801, when he was 
appointed by President Adams to be Chief 
Justice of the Circuit Court for the first 
circuit comprehending the district of 

Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
and Rhode Island. 

Judge Lowell took an active interest in 
the welfare of Harvard College, and, 
when there was a vacancy in the corpo- 
ration in 1784, he was elected a member 
of that board, on which he served for 
eighteen years. He was brilliant in con- 
versation, an able scholar, and an honest 
and patriotic leader, and was one of the 
founders of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences. He died May 6, 1802. 

WEBBER, Samuel, 

Educator, Litterateur. 

Samuel Webber, fourteenth president 
of Harvard College (1806-10), was born 
in Byfield, Massachusetts, in 1759. His 
early life was spent upon a farm, and by 
hard labor, many privations, and much 
earnest effort, he prepared himself for 
college, and was graduated at Harvard 
with the class of 1784, with special honors 
m mathematics. He then took a course 
in theology and was ordained a minister 
in the Congregational church. In 1787 
he was made a tutor at Harvard College, 
and two years after was promoted to the 
Hollis chair of mathematics and natural 
philosophy, which he held for fifteen 
years. Upon the death of President Wil- 
lard, September 25, 1804, Fisher Ames 
was elected to the presidency of Harvard, 
but declined in 1805, when the choice fell 
to Professor Webber, who was inaugu- 
rated in 1806. He was not gifted with 
the brilliant powers which fascinated the 
contemporaries of Fisher Ames, but he 
was learned, faithful, industrious, and 
devout. His early life on the farm had 
deprived him of a training calculated to 
give him the ease of manner and courtly 
dignity that characterized his predeces- 
sor, but he was urbane and gentle, and 
his administration was popular and suc- 
cessful. Through grants from the legis- 



lature and numerous private contributors, 
the treasury of the college during his ten- 
ure was an index of the high degree oi 
public favor the institution enjoyed. Dr. 
Webber served as one of the commis- 
sioners, appointed to settle the boundary 
line between the United States and the 
British provinces. He was vice-president 
of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences of Boston, and a member of the 
American Philosophical Society. In 1806 
Harvard conferred upon him the degree 
of S. T. D. He was author of a "System 
of Mathematics," intended for use in Har- 
vard, which was for a long time the only 
text-book on mathematics used in New 
England colleges. He also published a 
"Eulogy on President Willard" (1804). 
He died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
July 17, i8to. 

WINTHROP, Thomas Lindall, 


Thomas Lindall Winthrop was born at 
New London, Connecticut, March 6, 1760, 
son of John Still and Jane (Borland) 
Winthrop, and a descendant in the fifth 
generation of Governor John Winthrop. 

He prepared for college at Lebanon. 
Connecticut, and at the age of sixteen 
entered Yale College, but at the end of 
two years was honorably dismissed, and 
completed his education at Harvard Col- 
lege, where he was graduated in 1780. 
He then made a journey to the south for 
the improvement of his health, and after- 
ward spent some time traveling through 
England, France and Holland. Return- 
ing to America, he engaged in commercial 
pursuits at Charleston, South Carolina, 
where he resided for a few years and then 
settled in Boston. On July 25, 1786, he 
was married to Elizabeth Bowdoin 
Temple, a granddaughter of Governor 
Bowdoin, of Massachusetts, and a daugh- 
ter of Sir John Temple. Consul-General 
of Great Britain in the United States. 

In his early life Winthrop was an active 
Federalist, but after the beginning of the 
war of 1812 he joined the Republicans, 
and having retired from business became 
conspicuous in public life. He was a 
Presidential Elector, served in the State 
Senate, and in 1826 became Lieutenant- 
Governor of Massachusetts, to which 
ofiice he was annually re-elected until his 
retirement in 1832. He served for many 
years on the board of overseers of the 
University of Cambridge ; was senior 
member of the board of visitors of that 
institution ; acted as chairman of the com- 
mittee for establishing primary schools, 
and devoted special attention to the pro- 
motion of agriculture, acting for thirty- 
eix years as trustee of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural Society, and as its president 
for the last ten years of his life. He was 
a member of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences ; of the y\merican Phil- 
osophical Society ; president of the His- 
torical Society of Massachusetts from 
1835, and was connected with a large 
number of other American and foreign 
learned bodies. In 1813 he became a 
member of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, in 1821 was chosen to its council, 
in 1828 served as vice-president, and three 
years later became its second president, 
and held this position until his death. 
He had a daughter who became the wife 
of Rev. Benjamin Tappan, of Augusta, 
Maine, and five sons, one of whom, James, 
took the name of Bowdoin. Another son, 
Robert Charles, became a United States 
Senator. He died in Boston, February 
22, 1 841. His body was placed in the 
family tomb in Kings Chapel burying 

ASHMUN, Eli Porter, 

Distinguished Lawyer. 

Eli Porter Ashmun was born at Bland- 
ford, Massachusetts, in 1771. He studied 
law with Judge Sedgwick, of Stockbridge* 



Massachusetts, was admitted to the bar, 
and practiced in his native town until 
1807, when he settled in Northampton, 
becoming a distinguished lawyer. He 
served for several years as a member of 
the Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tives and Senate. In 1816 he was elected 
to the United States Senate from his 
native State, succeeding Christopher 
Gore, who had resigned. As senator he 
served in only two congresses, however, 
resigning in 1818. As a lawyer he was 
exceedingly conscientious, having been 
known to send away with scorching sar- 
casm a client who wished to take a dis- 
honest advantage of an opponent. The 
honorary degree of A. M. was conferred 
upon him by Middlebury College in 1807, 
and by Harvard in 1809. 

He was married to Lucy, youngest 
daughter of Rev. John and Sarah (Worth- 
ington) Hooker, and granddaughter of 
Colonel John Worthington, of Spring- 
field, Massachusetts. Two sons were 
born to him. John Hooker and George. 
The former, who was born at Blandford, 
July 3, 1800, studied for three years at 
Williams College, was graduated at Har- 
\ard in 1818, and became a lawyer. Upon 
the death of Judge Howe in 1828 he be- 
came the head of the Northampton Law 
School, and in 1828 received an appoint- 
ment as Professor of Law at Harvard 
University, being the first to occupy the 
chair founded by Isaac Royall. He died 
April I, 1833, having acquired a high rep- 
utation as a jurist. Eli P. Ashmun died 
at Northampton, Massachusetts, May 10, 

LAWRENCE, Abbott, 

Man of Affairs, Diplomat. 

Abbott Lawrence was born at Groton. 
Massachusetts, December 16, 1792, fifth 
son of Deacon Samuel Lawrence, a 
farmer, who was a major in the Revolu- 
tionary War. a descendant of John Law- 

lence, one of the first Puritan emigrants 
who settled at Watertown about 1635 and 
in 1660 removed to Groton. The family 
traces its descent to the twelfth genera- 
tion, their ancestor. Sir Robert Lawrence, 
liaving been knighted by Richard Coeur 
de Lion in 1191, for bravery in scaling 
rhe walls of Acre. 

Abbott Lawrence attended the district 
school during the winter, and worked on 
the farm in summer, and after attending 
ihe Groton Academy for a few months 
went to Boston, where he apprenticed 
himself to his brother Amos, who was 
well established in business. He devoted 
himself assiduously to his business, and 
spent his evenings in repairing the defi- 
ciencies of his education. Wlien he came 
of age in 1814, the two brothers formed 
a co-partnership which was only severed 
by death. The firm engaged in the im- 
portation and sale of foreign manufac- 
tures, and stood at the head of its depart- 
ment of trade. They engaged largely in 
the sale of cottons and woolens on com- 
mission, and in 1830 became actively in- 
terested in the cotton mills at Lowell. 
W'hen the Suft'olk, Tremont and Law- 
rence companies were established, they 
became large owners, and were afterward 
interested in other corporations, and from 
that time forward their business was con- 
ducted on a gigantic scale, and the in- 
come derived therefrom was proportion- 
ately large. Mr. Abbott Lawrence was 
for a number of years successfully en- 
gaged in the Chinese trade. 

He took an active interest in politics 
and all public matters, and in 1834 was 
elected to the Twenty-fourth Congress 
from the Sufifolk district, by the Whig 
party : he served on the committee of 
ways and means, and at the end of his 
term declined re-election, but was again 
elected to the Twenty-sixth Congress in 
1839-40, and resigned after filling the 
ofifice but a short term. In 1842 he was 



appointed a commissioner by the State of 
Massachusetts to settle the question of 
the northeastern boundary of the State. 
Mr. Lawrence settled this difficult ques- 
tion with Lord Ashburton, the represen- 
tative of Great Britain, on a basis that 
was satisfactory to both governments. 
In 1844 he was delegated to the Whig 
convention, and one of the electors-at- 
large for the State, and his name was 
prominently put forward for vice-presi- 
dent on the ticket with General Taylor, 
and he only lacked six votes of being 
nominated for the office. He declined a 
portfolio in President Taylor's cabinet, 
but accepted the position of Un'ted 
States Minister to Great Britain, and in 
1849 sailed for England. He resumed the 
negotiations regarding the Nicaragua 
canal that had been brought forward by 
his predecessor, Mr. Bancroft, and found 
documents in the archives that illegalized 
England's territorial claims in Central 
America. He was arranging this paper 
into a legal argument and historical docu- 
ment, when, much to his regret, he re- 
ceived word in 1850 from the Secretary 
of State, Mr. Clayton, that "these nego- 
tiations were entirely transferred to 
Washington, and that he was to cease 
altogether to press them in London." Mr. 
Lawrence personally held "that whenever 
the history ot the conduct of Great 
Britain shall be published to the world, 
it will not stand one hour before the bar 
of public opinion without universal con- 
demnation,'' Mr. Lawrence devoted con- 
siderable attention to another matter left 
unsettled by Mr. Bancroft, relative to the 
postal rates on the transit of letters 
across England. He also performed im- 
portant service in the adjustment of the 
fisheries question, which threatened to 
assume an attitude of importance. In 
1852 Mr. Lawrence requested to be re- 
leased and returned to America, and 
henceforth devoted himself to his private 
MASS— 7 

affairs. It is probable that with the ex- 
ception of Dr. Franklin, no minister from 
the United States ever attained the same 
diplomatic success that Mr. Lawrence 
did, which was due to his peculiar talents 
and adaptability of fathoming the foun- 
dation of facts, quick comprehension, 
combined with wisdom, a ready tact, and 
perfect truthfulness. He always took a 
warm interest in all matters pertaining to 
the progress of America, was a liberal 
subscriber to the various railroads, and 
munificent in his public charities. In 
1847 he gave $50,000 for the establish- 
ment of the Scientific School at Harvard 
which bears his name, and left an addi- 
tional donation to the institution at his 
death, and a further sum of $50,000 for 
the building of model lodging houses, the 
income derived therefrom to be devoted 
to certain public charities. He was 
awarded the degree of LL. D. by Har- 
vard in 1854. 

Mr. Lawrence was married early in 
life to Katherine Bigelow, daughter of 
Timothy Bigelow, the distinguished 
speaker of the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives. His eldest son married 
a daughter of William H. Prescott, the 
historian. Mr. Lawrence was stricken 
with his fatal illness in June, and lingered 
until August. It is not often that a man 
filling no public position is so universally 
lamented. A meeting was held in Fanueil 
Hall, to pass resolutions upon his death ; 
the government of Harvard and a number 
of societies held special meetings, and 
adopted resolutions to attend the funeral. 
He died at Boston, Massachusetts, Au- 
gust 18, 1855. 

GREENE, Benjamin Daniel, 


Benjamin Daniel Greene was born in 
Demerara, British Guiana, in 1793, while 
his parents were temporarily absent from 
Boston, their place of sojourn. He was 



graduated at Harvard College in 1812, 
imd after studying law was admitted to 
the bar of Suffolk county in September, 
1815. but finding natural history more 
congenial to his taste, he studied medi- 
cine in the schools of Paris and Scotland, 
and in 1821 obtained the degree of M. D. 
at Edinburgh. Not depending upon his 
profession for support, he gave most of 
his time to the study of the natural 
sciences, especially botany, and collected 
an extensive herbarium and a valuable 
botanical library. These he always placed 
at the disposal of investigators, and in 
1857 presented them to the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History. He was one 
of the founders of the latter body in April 
28, 1830, and Thomas Nuttall having de- 
clined the presidency, he became its first 
president and served until 1837. He died 
in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1862, be- 
queathing the sum of $9,000 to the so- 

LOWELL, John, 


John Lowell was born in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, May II, 1799, son of Francis 
Cabot and Hannah (Jackson) Lowell. 
His father was a distinguished cotton 
merchant, after whom the city of Lowell, 
Massachusetts, was named. His earliest 
American ancestor was Percival Lowell, 
who emigrated from Bristol, England, in 
1639, and settled in Newbury, Massachu- 
setts, and from this Percival the line of 
descent is traced through his son John 
and his wife Mary ; through their son 
John, and his wife, Naomi Sylvester; 
through their son Ebenezer, and his wife, 
Esther Shailer ; through their son John, 
and his wife, Sarah Champney ; and 
through their son John, and his wife, 
Susanna Cabot, who were the grandpar- 
ents of the philanthropist. 

In 1810, owing to the ill health of his 
father, the Lowell family visited England, 

and the son John was placed in the high 
school at Edinburgh, Scotland. Upon his 
return to America in 1813 he matricu- 
lated at Harvard College, but was obliged 
to forego the course on account of ill 
health. He possessed a desire for knowl- 
edge, was a great reader, especially along 
the line of foreign travel, and had a bet- 
ter knowledge of geography than most 
men. At the age of seventeen he made 
two voyages to India, and became a mer- 
chant, doing business principally with the 
East Indies. On April 6, 1825, he was 
married in Boston to Georgina Margaret, 
daughter of Jonathan and Lydia (Fel- 
lows) Amory. In 1830-31, in the midst 
of a happy and useful life, his wife and 
two daughters died, his home was broken 
up and he sought relief in travel. 

In the summer of 1832 he made a tour 
of the Western States, and in the follow- 
ing November he sailed for Europe. As 
his intention was to be absent for a long 
period, he made a will, bequeathing about 
$250,000, a half of his property, "to found 
and sustain free lectures for the promo- 
tion of the moral and intellectual and 
physical instruction or education of the 
citizens of Boston." He spent some 
months in England, Scotland and Ire- 
land, and the following winter in France 
and Italy, meantime preparing for his 
eastern journey. He continued his trav- 
els in Sicily, Turkey, Greece and Egypt, 
and in the latter country was taken seri- 
ously ill. Fearing he would not recover, 
he made another will, giving more de- 
tails about his noble gift to the people of 
Boston. "These few sentences," said Ed- 
ward Everett, "penned with a tired hand 
on the top of a palace of the Pharaohs, 
will do more for human improvement 
then, for aught that appears, was done 
by all of that gloomy dynasty that ever 
reigned." He journeyed up the Nile and 
then across the Red Sea, where he was 
nearly shipwrecked on the island of 



Dassa, and finally arrived in Bombay, 
India, much exhausted from exposure and 
his recent illness. This last trip proved 
too much for, him. and after three weeks 
of suffering he died. In fulfilment of his 
wishes, the Lowell Institute was estab- 
lished, one of the most unique educa- 
tional institutions of Boston. His will 
provided for courses in physics, chem- 
istry, botany, zoology, mineralogy, litera- 
ture, and historical and internal evidences 
of Christianity. The management of the 
fund was left to one trustee, who should 
be, "in preference to all others, some 
male descendant of my grandfather, John 
Lowell, provided there shall be one who 
is competent to hold the office of trustee, 
and of the name of Lowell." Mr. Everett 
said further: "The idea of a foundation 
of this kind, on which, unconnected with 
any place of education, provision is made, 
in the midst of a large commercial popu- 
lation, for annual courses of instruction 
by public lectures to be delivered gra- 
tuitously to all who choose to attend 
them, as far as it is practicable within our 
largest halls, is, I believe, original with 
Mr. Lowell. I am not aware that, among 
all the munificent establishments of 
Europe, there is an}'thing of this descrip- 
tion upon a large scale." The free lec- 
tures were begun December 31, 1839, 
with a memorial address on ]\Ir. Lowell 
by Edward Everett. The first course of 
lectures was on the subject of geology, 
delivered by Professor Benjamin Silli- 
man, and now over five hundred are 
annually given free to the public by some 
of the most eminent and learned men of 
both hemispheres. Mr. Lowell died in 
Bombay, India. Alarch 4, 1836. 

REED, William, 


William Reed was born at Marblehead. 
Massachusetts, June 6, 1776. He was an 
eminent merchant, was highly esteemed 

for his benevolent and religious character, 
and was a member of Congress from Mas- 
sachusetts in 1811-15. He was president 
of the Sabbath-school Union of Massa- 
chusetts and of the American Tract So- 
ciety, and vice-president of the American 
Education Society. He was also a mem- 
ber of the board of visitors of the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Andover, and of the 
board of trustees of Dartmouth College. 
Besides liberal bequests to heirs and rela- 
tives, he left $68,000 to benevolent ob- 
jects, of which $17,000 were to Dart- 
mouth College, to x\mherst Col- 
lege, $10,000 to the Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, $9,000 to 
the First Church and Society in Alarble- 
head, $7,000 to the Second Congrega- 
tional Church in Marblehead. and $5,000 
to the Library of the Theological Semi- 
nary at Andover. He married Hannah 
Hooper, a native of ]Marblehead. He died 
at Marblehead, Massachusetts, February 
22, 1837. 

SHATTUCK, George Cheyne, 

Friend of Education. 

George Cheyne Shattuck was born at 
Templeton, ^Massachusetts, July 17, 1783, 
son of Dr. Benjamin and Lucy (Barron) 
Shattuck, and a descendant of William 
Shattuck, who emigrated from England 
in 1642 and settled in Watertown, Mas- 
sachusetts. From him the line runs 
through his son William, who married 
Susanna Randall ; their son Benjamin, 
who married Martha Sherman, and their 
son Stephen, who married Elizabeth Rob- 
bins, and was Mr. Shattuck's grandfather. 

He was graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1803, and then studied medicine 
at the Dartmouth Medical College, where 
he was graduated in 1806. and received 
the degree of M. D. in 1812. He settled 
in practice in Boston, Massachusetts, 
which was his permanent abode. He was 
president of the American Statistical As- 



sociation during- 1846-52, president of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, an honor- 
ary member of the New Hampshire Medi- 
cal Society, and a member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences. He 
received the degree of LL. D. from Dart- 
mouth College in 1853. He was the 
founder of the Shattuck School at Fair- 
bault, Minnesota, and gave liberally to his 
chna v.iatcr, building its observatory, 
which he furnished with valuable instru- 
ments, and contributing largely to the 
library. He was married (first) October 
3 181 1, to Eliza C, daughter of Caleb 
Davis, of Boston; (second) to Amelia H., 
daughter of Abraham Bigelow, of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. He died in Bos- 
ton, March 18, 1854. 

PRESCOTT, William Hickling, 

Famous Historian. 

William Hickling Prescott was born at 
Salem, Massachusetts, May 4, 1796. He 
was the grandson of William Prescott, 
the distinguished soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, to whose memory a statue was 
erected on Bunker Hill. His father was 
a lawyer of means and culture, and gave 
careful attention to his son's education. 

Upon the removal of the family to Bos- 
ton in 1808, he was placed under the 
tuition of Dr. Gardner, a pupil of Dr. 
Parr. In his school days he had a pas- 
sion for mimic warfare and for the nar- 
ration of original stories, which might be 
indicative of his historical bias. He had 
a healthy aversion to persistent work, 
though he made good use of his permis- 
sion to read at the Boston Athenaeum, an 
exceptional advantage at a time when the 
best books were not easily accessible. In 
181 1 he entered Harvard College with a 
fairly thorough mental equipment, but 
almost at the outset of his career, met 
with an accident which affected his whole 
subsequent course of life. A hard piece 
of bread, thrown at random in the Com- 

mons Hall, struck his left eye with such 
force as to fell him to the floor, destroy- 
ing the sight of the eye. Notwithstand- 
ing this hardship, he resumed his college 
work with success in classics and litera- 
ture, but abandoned mathematics, in 
which he could not obtain even average 
proficiency. After graduating honorably 
in 1814 he entered his father's office as 
a student of law, but in January the in- 
jured eye showed dangerous symptoms, 
and it was determined that he should 
pass the winter at St. Michael's ana in 
the spring seek medical advice in Europe. 
During his visit to the Azores, which was 
constantly broken by confinement in a 
darkened room, he began the mental dis- 
cipline which enabled him to compose 
and retain in memory large passages for 
subsequent dictation ; and. apart from his 
gain in culture, his journey to England, 
France, and Italy during the following 
year was scarcely beneficial. The injured 
eye was found to be hopelessly paralyzed, 
and the sight of the other depended upon 
the maintenance of his general health. 
His further study of law seemed out of 
the question, and upon his return to Bos- 
ton he remained at home, listening to a 
great deal of reading. On May 4, 1820, 
he married Susan Amory, and resolved to 
devote his life to literature. 

Thus far he had not displayed any re- 
markable aptitude, but, having once de- 
termined his future occupation, he set 
himself strenuously to the task of self- 
preparation. With almost amusing thor- 
oughness he commenced the study of 
"Murray's Grammar," the prefatory mat- 
ter of "Blair's Rhetoric," and "John- 
son's Dictionary," reading at the same 
lime, for purpose of style, a series of 
standard English writers. A review of 
Byron's "Letters on Pope," in 1821, con- 
stitutes his first contribution to the 
"North American Review," to which he 
continued for many years to send the re- 



suits of his slighter researches. He next 
turned to French literature, mitigating its 
irksomeness by incursions into the early- 
English drama and ballad literature. Of 
the quality and direction of this thought 
he has left indications in his papers on 
"Essay Writing," and "French and Eng- 
lish Tragedy." In 1823 he began the 
study of Italian literature, passing over 
German as demanding more labor than 
he could afford, and so strongly did he 
feel the fascination of the language that 
for some time he thought of selecting it 
as the chief sphere of his work. In the 
following year, however, he made his first 
acquaintance with the literature of Spain, 
under the influence of his friend and bi- 
ographer, Ticknor, who was then lectur- 
ing upon it, and while its attractiveness 
proved greater than he had anticipated, 
the comparative novelty as a field of re- 
search served as an additional stimulus. 
History had always been a favorite study 
with him, and Mably's "Observations sur 
I'Histoire" appears to have had consider- 
able influence in determining him in the 
choice of some special period for historic 
research. The selection was not made, 
however, without prolonged hesitation. 
The project of a history of Italian litera- 
ture held a prominent place in his 
thought, and found some tentative ex- 
pression in his article on "Italian Narra- 
tive Poetry," published in 1824, and in 
reply to Da Ponte's criticism ; but he had 
also in contemplation a history of the 
revolution which converted republican 
Rome into a monarchy, a series of bio- 
graphical and critical sketches of eminent 
men, and a Spanish history from the in- 
vasion of the Arabs to the consolidation 
of the monarchy under Charles V. It was 
not until 1826 that he recorded in his pri- 
vate memorandum, begun in 1820, his 
decision "to embrace the gift of the Span- 
ish subject." It was a bold choice, for he 
not onlv had an absolute dislike of investi- 

gation of latent and barren antiquities, 
Init his eyesight was fast failing, which, 
by others than Milton, has been deemed 
indispensable to an historian. He could 
only use the eye which remained to him 
for brief and intermittent periods, and, as 
traveling aggravated his affliction, he 
could not expect to make personal re- 
search amongst unpublished records. He 
was. however, in possession of ample 
means and admirable friends to supply 
necessary materials, and began his great 
work, "The History of the Reign of 
Ferdinand and Isabella." Mr. English, 
one of his secretaries, has furnished a pic- 
ture of him at this period, seated in his 
study lined on two sides with books, and 
darkened by green screens and curtains 
of blue muslin, which required readjust- 
ment with almost every passing cloud. In 
a letter to the Rev. George E. Ellis, he 
describes the difficulties under which he 
worked : 

I obtained the services of a reader who knew 
no language but his own. I taught him to pro- 
nounce the Castilian in a manner suited, I sus- 
pect, much more to my ear than to that of a 
Spaniard, and we began our wearisome journey 
through Mariani's noble history. I cannot even 
now call to mind, without a smile, the tedious 
hours in which, seated under some old trees at 
my country residence, we pursued our slow and 
melancholy way over pages which afforded no 
glimmering light to him, and from which the 
light came dimly struggling to me through a half 
intelligible vocabulary. Though in this way I 
could examine various authorities, it was not 
easy to arrange in my mind the results of my 
reading, drawn from different and often contra- 
dictory accounts. To do this I dictated copious 
notes as I went along, and when I had read 
enough for a chapter (from thirty to forty and 
sometimes fifty pages) I had a mass of memo- 
randa in my own language which would easily 
bring before me at one view the fruit of my 
researches. These notes were carefully read to 
me, and while my recent studies were fresh in 
my recollection, I ran over the whole of my 
intended chapter in my mind. This process I 
repeated at least half a dozen times, so that 



when I finally put my pen to paper it ran off 
pretty glibly, for it was an effort of memory 
rather than of composition. Writing presented 
to me a difficulty even greater than reading. 
Thierry, the famous blind historian of the Nor- 
man conquest, advised me to cultivate dictation; 
but I have usually preferred to substitute that I 
found in a writing case made for the blind, which 
I procured in London forty years ago. It is a 
simple apparatus, often described by me for the 
benefit of persons whose sight is imperfect. It 
consists of a frame of the size of a sheet of 
paper, traversed by brass wires as many as lines 
are wanted on the page, and with a sheet of 
carbonized paper, such as is used in getting 
suplicates, pasted on the reverse side. With an 
ivory or agate stylus the writer traces his char- 
acters between the wires on the carbonated 
sheet, making indelible marks which he cannot 
see on the white page below. This treadmill 
operation has its defects; and I have repeatedly 
supposed I had completed a good page and was 
proceeding in all the glory of composition to go 
ahead, when I found I had forgotten to insert 
my sheet of writing paper below, that my labor 
had all been thrown away, and that the leaf 
looked as black as myself. Notwithstanding 
these and other whimsical distresses of the kind, 
I have found my writing-case my best friend in 
my lonely hours, and with it have written nearly 
all that I have sent into the world the last forty 

His progress was necessarily slow. He 
still continued his yearly experimental 
contributions to the "North American 
Review," elaborating them with a view 
as much to ultimate historical proficiency 
as to immediate literary effect. The es- 
says on "Scottish Song," "Novel Writ- 
ing." "Moliere," and Irving's "Granada" 
belo!ig to this preparatory period. The 
death of his daughter in 1828 led him 
aside to the study of Christian evidences, 
Avith the result that he convinced himself 
of the fundamental truth of Christianity, 
though he did not accept all the tenets 
of orthodoxy. On October 6, 1829, he 
began his actual work of composition, 
which was continued until June 25, 1836. 
During this period he interrupted his 
work to write the essays on "Asylums 

for the Blind." "Poetry and Romance of 
the Italians," and "English Literature of 
the Nineteenth Century." Another year, 
during which time his essay on "Cer- 
vantes" appeared, was spent in the final 
revision for the press, in which labor he 
was assisted by Gardiner, the son of his 
old schoolmaster, who criticised the style, 
and P'olsom, who verified the facts. Upon 
its publication in Boston its success was 
immediate and marked, and it was speed- 
ily reptiblished in England, where its 
success was equally great. From the posi- 
tion of an obscure reviewer, Prescott 
found himself elevated to the first rank 
of contemporary historians. Daniel Web- 
ster spoke of him as a comet which had 
suddenly blazed out upon the world in 
full splendor, and American, British and 
Continental reviews were no less lauda- 
tory. Its reception determined the na- 
ture of his future work. Hitherto he 
had inclined to the history of literature 
rather than to polity and action, on the 
ground that it was more in consonance 
with his previous studies and more 
stiitable for his special powers. A close 
examination of his work in the de- 
partment of literary criticism does not 
bear out this estimate of his own genius, 
and the popular voice in approving his 
narrative factilty, gave the required im- 
pettis in the right direction. After co- 
quetting awhile with the project of a life 
of Moliere he decided upon a "History of 
the Conquest of Mexico." Washington 
Irving, who had already made prepara- 
tion to occupy the same field, withdrew 
in his favor, and in May, 1838, Prescott 
began reading upon the subject, and 
completed the work in 1843. During these 
five years he reviewed Lockhart's "Life 
of Scott." "Kenyon's Poems," "Chateau- 
briand," "Bancroft's United States," 
"Mariotti's Italy," and Madame Calder- 
on's "Life in IMexico." He also made 
an abridgfement of "Ferdinand and Isa- 



bella" in anticipation of its threatened 
abridgement by another hand. In 1843 
his "Conquest of Mexico" was published, 
the whole edition was sold in four 
months, the London and Paris edition 
having a similar reception. The careful 
methods of work which he had adopted 
from the outset had borne admirable 
fruit. While the study of authorities had 
been no less thorough, his style had be- 
come more free and less self-conscious, 
and the epic qualities of the theme were 
such as to call forth in the highest degree 
his picturesque narration. It was only a 
step to the "Conquest of Peru," and 
scarcely three months elapsed before he 
began to break ground on the latter sub- 
ject, though actual composition was not 
commenced until the autumn of 1844. 
While the work was in progress and be- 
fore the close of the year, his father died, 
a heavy blow to him, inasmuch as the 
elder and younger members of the family 
had continued to share the same home 
upon almost patriarchal terms, and the 
breach was therefore in an association 
extending over forty-eight years. In 1848 
he was elected a corresponding member 
of the French Institute in place of the 
Spanish historian, Xa\arette, and also to 
the Royal Society of Berlin. The next 
winter he arranged his articles and re- 
views for publication, and issued them 
almost contemporaneously in London 
and New York. After his removal from 
Bedford street to Beacon street, visits to 
friends, and a renewed failure of sight, 
he completed the "Conquest of Peru" in 
November, 1846, and it was issued in the 
following March, and soon translated Into 
French, Spanish, German and Dutch, in 
addition to the English issue, in New 
York, London, and Paris. He was now 
over fifty, and his sight showed serious 
symptoms of enfeeblement. Although it 
had been of very intermittent service to 
him, it had by his careful regimen so far 

improved that he could read with some 
regularity during the writing of the "Con- 
quest of ]\Iexico," though in a less degree 
during the years devoted to the "Con- 
quest of Peru." Now, however, the use 
of his remaining eye had been reduced to 
an hour a day, and he was forced to con- 
clude that future plans must be formed 
upon the expectation of blindness. He 
had for many years been collecting mater- 
ial for a history of Philip II., but he hesi- 
tated for some time to attempt a work of 
such magnitude, occupying himself mean- 
while with a memoir of John Pickering 
for the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and the revision of Ticknor's "History of 
Spanish Literature." But in March, 1848, 
he set himself with characteristic cour- 
age to the accomplishment of the larger 
project, though with the intention of 
v/riting memoirs rather than a history, 
as admitting of less elaborate research. 
He was fortunate in obtaining the aid of 
Don Pascual de Gayangos, then Profes- 
sor of Arabic Literature in Madrid, who 
enabled him to obtain material not only 
from the public archives of Spain, but 
from the muniment rooms of the great 
Spanish families. With this extended 
range of information he began his history 
in 1849. but finding himself still unsettled 
in his work, he decided in the spring of 
the following year to carry out his long 
projected visit to England. His recep- 
tion was most cordial and gratifying, and, 
returning reinvigorated for his work, he 
dismissed his idea of memoirs in favor of 
the more elaborate form, and in Novem- 
ber, 1855, issued the first two volumes of 
his uncompleted "History of Philip II." 
Its success eclipsed that of any of his 
former works, and his fame was greatly 
increased and extended. This was his 
last great undertaking, but as the light 
of new sources of information made Rob- 
ertson's "Charles V." inadequate to take 
its place as a link in the series, he repub- 



lished it in an extended and improved 
form in 1856. A slight attack of apoplexy 
on I'^ebruary 4. 1858, foretold the end. 
though he persevered with the prepara- 
tion of the third volume ot "Philip II." 
tor the press. He never entirely recov- 
ered from this attack, and in January, 
1859, as he stepped into an adjoining 
loom, he was seized with another stroke, 
and expired at two o'clock on the same 

In personal character, Prescott pos- 
sessed admirable and amiable qualities. 
As an historian he stands in the direct 
Ime of descent from Robertson, whose in- 
fluence is clearly discernible, both in style 
and method. His power lies in the clear 
grasp of fact in selection and synthesis, 
and in the vivid narration of incident. 
For critical analysis he had small liking 
and faculty ; his critical insight is limited 
in range, and he confines himself to the 
concrete elements of history. Few his- 
torians have had in a higher degree that 
artistic feeling in the broad arrangement 
of materials which insures interest. The 
romance of history has seldom had an 
abler exponent. Humboldt said of "Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella," that it was an endur- 
ing history and could never be surpassed. 
The portion of history selected by Pres- 
cott had not been covered by previous 
writers, and had only been touched upon 
by Italian writers and not until the treas- 
ures concealed in the tragic "Annals of 
Llorente" and the political disquisitions 
of Mariana. Sempere, and Capmany were 
unlocked, could any faithful narrative of 
this particular era be given to the world. 
Prescott had unusual facilities for re- 
search in the many and rare works pur- 
chased in Spain by his friend, George 
Ticknor, in connection with his own work 
in Spanish literature, lie also collected 
an enormous number of unpublished 
documents through the agency of A. H. 
Everett, Arthur Middlcton and Obadiah 

Rich. Prescott spent his fortune liberally 
in the collection of every item which 
could throw light upon his subject, and 
gained access to secret depositories which 
never before had been opened to the eye 
of the exploring historian. Prosper Meri- 
mee says of Prescott : "Of a just and up- 
right spirit, he had a horror of parade. 
He never allowed himself to be drawn 
away by it, and often condemned himself 
to long investigation to refute even the 
most audacious assertions. His criticism, 
full at once of good sense and acuteness, 
was never deceived in the choice of docu- 
ments, and his discernment was as re- 
markable as his good faith. If he may be 
reproached with often hesitating, even 
after i long investigation, to pronounce 
a definite judgment, we must at least ac- 
knowledge that he omitted nothing to 
prepare the way for it, and that the 
Duthor, perhaps too timid to decide al- 
ways, leaves his reader sufficiently in- 
structed to need no other guide." Pro- 
fessor C. C. Felton wrote: "It is a say- 
ing that the style is the man ; and of no 
great author in the literature of the world 
is that saying more true than of him 
whose loss we mourn. For in the trans- 
parent simplicity and undimmed beauty 
and candor of his style were read the en- 
dearing qualities of his soul, so that his 
personal friends are found wherever lit- 
erature is found, and love of him is co- 
extensive with the world of letters, not 
limited to those who speak the Anglo- 
Saxon mother language to the literature 
of which he has contributed such splen- 
did works, but co-extensive with the 
civilized lansfuasfe of the human race." 

HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel, 

Famous Author. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in 
Salem, Massachusetts, July 4, 1804, only 
son of Captain Nathaniel and Elizabeth 
Clark (Manning) Hathorne ; grandson of 



6c- 1^ 


The Wayside. Hawthorne's Home, Concord 


Captain Daniel and Rachel (Phelps) Ila- 
thorne, Captain Hathorne being com- 
mander of the privateer "The Fair Amer- 
ican ;" great-grandson of Joseph Ha- 
thorne, a farmer; great-grandson of John 
Hathorne, Chief Justice in the witch 
trials at Salem ; and great-grandson of 
William Hawthorne (born 1607, died 
1681). who came from Wiltshire, Eng- 
land, with John Winthrop, in the "Ara- 
bella" in 1630, settled in Dorchester, Mas 
sachusetts, and in 1636 removed to Salem 
in consideration of a gift of large tracts 
of land, the settlers at Salem holding such 
a citizen to be "'a public benefit.'" 

Nathaniel Hawthorne was a pupil in 
the school of Dr. Joseph E. Worcester, 
the lexicographer, from 181 1 to 1818. His 
mother removed to Raymond, Maine, and 
after living there in the woods one year, 
Nathaniel returned to Salem and pre- 
pared for college. He matriculated at 
Bowdoin College in 1821, at which time 
he restored the original English spelling 
of the family name. He was graduated 
at Bowdoin, Bachelor of Arts, 1825, and 
Master of Arts, 1828. Among his class- 
mates were John S. C. Abbott, James 
Ware Bradbury, Horatio Bridge, George 
Barrell Cheever, Jonathan Cilley, Henry 
Wads worth Longfellow, Hezekiah Pack- 
ard, David Shepley, William Stone, and 
other men of mark. President Franklin 
Pierce and Professor Calvin Ellis Stone 
were of the class of 1824. For twelve 
years after he left college Hawthorne 
lived a recluse, reading and writing by 
night or day, as suited his fancy. He 
published his first novel, "Fanshawe," at 
his own expense, in 1826, and sold a few 
hundred copies. He then completed 
"Seven Tales of ]\Iy Native Land," stories 
of witchcraft, piracy and the sea, but 
finally decided to destroy the manuscript. 
In 1830 he wandered as far as the Con- 
necticut valley in company with an uncle, 
and in 183 1 he went through New Hamp- 

shire, Vermont and New York State to 
Ticonderoga and as far west as Niagara 
Falls. He contributed short storie.'^, 
sketches and essays to the "Salem Ga- 
zette" and the "New England Maga- 
zine," and in May, 1831, Samuel G. Good- 
rich published four of his tales in the 
"Token" and "Atlantic Souvenir," but 
they received little notice except from the 
Peabody sisters, who learned that the 
anonymous author was the son of their 
neighbor, Widow Hawthorne, and this 
led to the acquaintance that made Sophia 
Peabody his wife. 

In 1836 Hawthorne was made editor of 
the "American Magazine of Useful and 
Entertaining Knowledge" at a salary of 
$500 per annum, by Mr. Goodrich. He 
also compiled a "Universal History," for 
which he received Sioo, and which gave 
rise to the "Peter Parley" works of Mr. 
Goodrich. When his tales in "The 
Token" reached London, "The Athe- 
naeum" gave favorable notices, and this 
encouraged him to follow the advice of 
his classmate, Horatio Bridge, and pub- 
lish them in a volume. Bridge agreeing 
to take the pecuniary risk. In this way 
"Twice Told Tales" was printed by the 
American Statesmen Company in Bos- 
ton. Longfellow's review of the book 
in the "North American Review" started 
the sale, which reached about seven hun- 
dred copies. In 1837 he visited Horatio 
Bridge, at his home in Augusta, Maine. 
In 1838 he became a contributor to the 
"Democratic Review." In 1839 George 
Bancroft, then collector of the port of 
Boston, appointed him weigher and 
ganger, his salary being $1,200 per 
annum, and he held the office until the 
advent of the Whig administration of 
1841. He then published in Boston and 
New York the first part of "Grand- 
father's Chair." He joined the Brook 
Farm Community the same year, invest- 
ed $1,000, his savings from his custom 



house position, in the enterprise, and was 
one of the most diligent and painstaking 
of the laborers. He was married in June, 
1842, to Sophia Peabody, but instead of 
going back to Brook Farm he took up 
his abode in the Old Manse in Concord, 
where he wrote tales for the "Democratic 
Review," which were preserved in 
"Mosses from an Old Manse." He again 
became a recluse, and except when on a 
daily walk, an occasional boat ride on the 
river by moonlight, or an infrequent chat 
with Channing. Emerson, Henry Thoreau, 
or Margaret Fuller, he lived by himself. 
His contril:)Utions to the "Democratic 
Review" kept the wolf from the door, but 
gave no feasts. In 1845 the "Twice Told 
'I'ales," second series, appeared in book 
form. In 1846 he was appointed b}' 
President Polk, United States surveyor 
in the custom house, Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and held the office until the incom- 
ing of a Whig administration in 1849. 
While occupying the position he made 
the first draft of "The Scarlet Letter," 
which was })ublished by James T. Field 
in 1850, and within two weeks the edition 
of five thousand copies was exhausted 
and the book was reset and stereotyped 
and rei)ublished in England. In 1850 
Hawthorne removed to Lenox. Massa- 
chusetts, where in an old red farm house 
he wrote "The House of the Seven 
Gables," published in 1851, which proved 
almost as great a success as the "Scarlet 
Letter." In the autumn of 185 1 he re- 
moved to West Newton, where he wrote 
"The Blithedale Romance," using the life 
at Brook Farm as side scenes. In 1852 
he published "The Wonder Book." In 
the same year he purchased Bronson Al- 
cott's house and twenty acres of land ar 
Concord, Massachusetts, and called it 
"The Wayside." In 1852 he prepared 
and published a campaign life of his 
friend, Franklin Pierce and in the winter 

of 1852-53 he wrote "Tanglewood Tales." 
In March, 1853, President Pierce appoint- 
ed him United States Consul at Liver- 
pool, England, where he lived with his 
family four years, and his experiences 
there suggested "English Note Books" 
and "Our Old Home." He visited 
France, Switzerland and Italy in 1857- 
59, and gained the material for his 
"French and Italian Note Books," and 
while in Italy he began "The Marble 
Faun," which was published in i860, the 
English edition bearing the title, "Trans- 
formation." He returned to the United 
States in i860. "Our Old Home," which 
he dedicated to Franklin Pierce, against 
the protest of his publishers, was issued 
in 1863, '^^^ sultered but little from its 

In the spring of 1864 his health began 
to fail rapidly, while he was publishing 
"The Dolliver Romance" in "The Atlan- 
tic Monthly." He went to Philadelphia 
in April, 1864, with his publisher, W. D. 
Ticknor, and while in that city Mr. Tick- 
nor died. This incident was a great shock 
to Hawthorne in his weak condition. The 
next month he went with ex-President 
Pierce to the White Mountains, and 
when they reached Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, May 18, Hawthorne died in 
his sleep. He was buried in Sleepy Hol- 
low cemetery. Concord, Massachusetts, 
May 24, 1864, and Emerson and Thoreau, 
his lifelong friends, rest nearby. His 
widow, Sophia Peabody Hawthorne, who 
edited his "Note Books" and published 
"Notes in England and Italy" (1868). 
died in London. England. February 26, 
1871. Their eldest daughter. Una. died 
in England in 1887, unmarried. Their 
daughter Rose was married to George 
Parsons Lathrop, and after her husband's 
death in 1898 devoted herself to charit- 
able work under the directions of the 
Roman Catholic church, whose faith she 



and her husband embraced in 1892. Haw 
thorne's only son Julian became a well- 
known author and journalist. Nathaniel 
Hawthorne died at Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, May 18, 1864. 

STOUGHTON, William, 

Clergyman, Jurist. 

William Stoughton, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and Acting Gov- 
ernor (1699), was born in England, May 
30, 1632. He was the son of Colonel 
Israel Stoughton, who commanded the 
Massachusetts troops in the Pequod War. 
He settled in Dorchester, and in 1633 was 
admitted as a freeman, and was a mem- 
ber of the first General Court, which con- 
vened in May, 1634. Having opposed 
the Governor in regard to certain of his 
alleged powers, he was for three years 
debarred from holding ofiice, but jn 1635 
his privileges were restored to him. He 
was a commissioner to administer the 
government of New Hampshire in 1641, 
and from 1637 to 1642 was assistant to 
the Governor of Massachusetts. He was 
a large landowner in Dorchester, and 
gave three hundred acres to Harvard Col- 
lege. He died in Lincoln. England, in 


William Stoughton attended Harvard 
College, where he was graduated in 1650. 
He studied theology, and, returning to 
England, became a fellow of New Col- 
lege, Oxford, but at the time of the resto- 
ration was ejected from that position. In 
1662 he settled as a preacher in New 
England, gaining such high reputation 
that he was chosen to deliver the elec- 
tion sermon in 1668, which has been 
ranked among the best delivered on an 
occasion of that character. Although fre- 
quently invited to establish himself in 
charge of a church, he always declined, 
but preached as assistant or otherwise, as 
occasion ofifered, between 1671 and 1676. 
In 1677 he went to England, where he 

acted as agent for the colony, remaining 
there for two years. He had been chosen 
a magistrate in 1671, and was afterward 
a member of the Council and Chief Jus- 
tice of the Superior Court, and occupied 
the latter position from July to Decem- 
ber, 1686. He was made a member of 
the Council of Governor Edmund Andros, 
in which place he remained until 1689. 
when the Council of Safety was ap- 
pointed, of which he was a member, and 
which ousted the Governor. In May, 1692, 
Stoughton was appointed Lieutenant- 
Governor, and he held that position as 
long as he lived, while after the death of 
Sir William Phips he was Acting Gov- 
ernor. He was Chief Justice of the Su- 
perior Court during the witchcraft trials, 
and persisted ever after that he had acted 
in those cases up to his best judgment, 
although others admitted that they had 
been victims of a delusion. 

Lieutenant-Governor Stoughton is de- 
scribed as a man of great learning, integ- 
rity, prudence and piety. He was a gen- 
erous benefactor of Harvard College, to 
which institution he gave about ii,ooo, 
besides bequeathing to it a considerable 
tract of land for the support of students, 
natives of Dorchester. He died in Dorches- 
ter, Massachusetts, July 7, 1701. 

HOLYOKE, Edward Augustus, 

Distinguislied Surgeon. 

Edward Augustus Holyoke was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, August i, 1728, 
son of Rev. Edward Holyoke, who for 
many years was president of Harvard 
College, and Margaret Appleton. 

He was graduated at Harvard at the 
age of eighteen, and three years later 
received the degree of ]\Iaster of Arts. 
He studied medicine with Dr. Berry, of 
Ipswich, and in 1749 settled in Salem, 
Massachusetts, where he resided until his 
death, practicing his profession for eighty 
years. He won great distinction as a 



surgeon, and at the age of ninety-two 
successfully performed a difficult opera- 
tion. He also took deep interest in class- 
ical and scientific studies, and made some 
researches in astronomy. He was a 
founder and the first president of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, to which 
he subsequently bequeathed his volumi- 
nous diaries and books, and was a mem- 
ber, and in 1814-20 president of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
His one hundredth birthday was cele- 
brated in Boston by a public dinner given 
him by fifty physicians, on which occa- 
sion he smoked his pipe and gave an 
appropriate toast. Soon afterward he be- 
gan a work entitled "Some Changes in 
the Manners, Dress, Dwellings and Em- 
ployments of the Inhabitants of Salem." 
He was twice married, and by his second 
wife had twelve children. His son Sam- 
uel was a musician and composer. Dr. 
Holyoke died at Salem, Massachusetts, 
March 21, 1829. 

PORTER, Ebenezer, 

Clergyman, Educator. 

Ebenezer Porter, first president of An- 
dover Theological Seminary (1827-34), 
was born at Cornwall, Litchfield county, 
Connecticut, October 5, 1772, son of 
Thomas Porter, a Revolutionary soldier, 
and Abigail Howe ; and a descendant of 
Thomas Porter, one of the founders of 
Hartford and Farmington. His father, 
who had been a member of the Connecti- 
cut Legislature for many years, removed 
to Tinmouth, Vermont, served in the As- 
sembly of that State, and in 1782-85 was a 
councillor, and was judge of the Supreme 
Court in 1783-86. 

Ebenezer Porter was graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1792. He studied 
theology under Dr. Smalley, of New 
Britain, Connecticut, and was ordained 
pastor of the Congregational Church at 
Washington (Judea Society), Connecti- 

cut, September 6, 1796. In 181 1 he was 
invited to become Professor of Sacred 
Rhetoric at Andover Seminary, and on 
April I, 1812, was inducted into office. In 
1827 he accepted the principalship of the 
seminary, having previously declined sev- 
eral proffers to become Professor of 
Divinity at Yale, and president of the 
University of Vermont ; Middlebury Col- 
lege, Vermont; Hamilton College, New 
York, South Carolina College, and Dart- 
mouth College. A few years after he be- 
gan his duties as professor, he suggested 
the formation of a society for the educa- 
tion of young men for the ministry, mod- 
eled after one in operation in Vermont, 
but national in its character, and the 
Education (now the Congregational Edu- 
cation) Society was the result. He was 
active in promoting temperance reform, 
Sabbath observance, and the improve- 
ment of prison discipline, and at meetings 
held in his study Monday evenings origi- 
nated, it is believed, the "monthly concert 
of prayer for missions," and the American 
Tract Society. "He was necessary to the 
institution, not only as an instructor, but 
in winning friends, holding them bound 
to it, and in supplying through long years 
those pecuniary means needed to its suc- 
cess." To his pupils he was a "judicious, 
prompt, yet considerate and gentle critic 
* * * His pulpit discourses, if not pro- 
found in thought, nor boasting the at- 
tributes of striking originality, were 
sound in doctrine, perspicuous alike in 
method and expression, pure in idiom, 
simple, finished and classical in style, 
and sometimes wrought up in the per- 
oration with tender pathos." Said the 
writer just quoted, a graduate of the 
seminary : "He was a man to whom you 
would go in difficulty for counsel, and in 
seasons of despondency, to be animated 
by his cheerful piety, and inspired with 
courage and hope by his tranquil and 
steady resolve. He did not dazzle us 



with the splendor of his genius ; he did 
not overwhelm us by the resistless power 
of his argument; he did not sway us by 
the strong current of his unrestrained 
emotions ; he did not amaze us by the 
vastness and multifariousness of his 
learning; but he satisfied our judgment, 
and when he came to know us well, he 
won our hearts and held them ever in 
filial reverence." 

Yale College gave him the degree of 
A. M. in 1795, and Dartmouth that of D. 
D. in 1814. In addition to occasional ser- 
mons and abridgements of Owen on 
"Spiritual Mindedness," and on the "130th 
Psalm" (1833), hs wrote "Young Preach- 
er's Manual" (1819) ; "Lecture on the 
Analysis of Vocal Inflections" (1824) ; 
"Analysis of the Principles of Rhetorical 
Delivery" (1827) ; "Syllabus of Lectures" 
(1829); "Rhetorical Reader" (1831) : 
"Lectures on Revivals of Religion" 
(1832) ; "Lectures on the Cultivation of 
Spiritual Habits and Progress in Study" 
(1834) ; "Lectures on Homiletics, Preach- 
ing and Public Prayer" (1834) ; second 
edition London (1835) ; "Lectures on 
Eloquence and Style" (1836). Dr. Por- 
ter was married at Washington, Connec- 
ticut, in May, 1797, to Lucy Pierce, 
daughter of Rev. Noah Merwin, his pre- 
decessor. He died at Andover, Massa- 
chusetts, April 8. 1834. 

LLOYD, James, 

Xational Legislator. 

James Lloyd was born in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1769, son of Dr. James 
Lloyd. His great-grandfather, James 
Lloyd, emigrated to America from Som- 
ersetshire. England, about 1670. His 
father (1728-1810) was a talented physi- 
cian, having studied medicine in London, 
England, two years. During the Revolu- 
tion he was a loyalist, but refused to de- 
clare himself a British subject, even in 

order to secure compensation for his 

James Lloyd was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1787, and subsequently 
for some time was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. About 1792 he visited Europe, 
and for a year made his home in St. Pe- 
tersburg, Russia. Returning to Boston, 
he was elected to the Massachusetts Leg- 
islature in 1800, and after re-election to 
the lower house became a member of the 
State Senate. Later he was elected to 
supersede John Quincy Adams in the 
United States Senate, serving from June 
9. 1808, until his resignation in 1813, and 
in 1822 he was again elected as a Feder- 
alist, filling the place of Harrison Gray 
Otis from June 5, 1822, until May 23, 
1826, when he resigned and retired to 
private life in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
During his second term in the Senate he 
was chairman of the committees on com- 
merce and naval affairs. Senator Lloyd 
was a member of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, and received the de- 
gree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1826. He 
died in New York City, April 5. 1831. 

FENWICK, Benedict Joseph, 

Roman Catholic Divine. 

Benedict Joseph Fenwick was born at 
Leonardtown, St. Mary's county, Mary- 
land, September 3. 1782. He was descended 
from the Fenwicks of Fenwick Tower, 
Northumberland, England. His first an- 
cestor in America, Cuthbert Fenwick, 
was a prominent jurist in Maryland. His 
cousin, Edward Dominic Fenwick (1768- 
1832), was a pioneer Dominican mission- 

Benedict Joseph Fenwick was educated 
at Georgetown College, 1793-1805, and at 
the College of St. Sulpice, 1805-08. He 
was ordained to the priesthood at George- 
town, District of Columbia, March 12, 
1808, and was stationed at St. Peter's 



Church, New York City, 1808-17. He 
visited Thomas Paine during his last ill- 
ness at the urgent request of the dying 
man. He founded the New York Liter- 
ary Institute, and made the plans and 
designs for St. Patrick's Cathedral, of 
which he began the erection in Mulberry 
street. In 1816 he was made vicar-gen- 
eral, and in 1817 was president of George- 
town College and rector of Trinity 
Church, Georgetown. District of Colum- 
bia. He was sent to Charleston. South 
Carolina, in 1818, to reconcile dififerences 
between the French and English Catho- 
lics in the diocese, and on his return to 
Georgetown in 1822 he was appointed 
procurator-general of the Society of 
Jesus in the United States. On November 
I, 1825, he was consecrated at Baltimore, 
Maryland, by Archbishop Marechal, 
bishop of the diocese of Boston, which at 
that time embraced the whole of the ter- 
ritory of New England, but had only four 
churches. He opened parochial schools 
in Boston, built the convent and acad- 
emy of St. Benedict in Charlestown, and 
made a visitation of his diocese in 1827, 
organizing congregations and marking 
out sites for churches. He provided mis- 
sionaries and churches for the Indians 
and witnessed rapid progress in their civi- 
lization. By 1831 he had erected seven- 
teen new churches, but under consider- 
able opposition and persecution. In 1834 
the convent at Charlestown was burned 
by a mob during the night, but the nuns 
escaped without injury. He founded the 
College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, 
Massachusetts, in 1843, and at his death 
his diocese contained fifty prosperous 
churches, an orphan asylum and numer- 
ous parochial schools, academies and col- 
leges. In 1835-36 he was administrator 
scde vacant c of the diocese of New York. 
His brother Enoch was also a Roman 
Catholic priest. He died in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, August II, 1846. 

WEBSTER, Daniel, 

statesman and Orator. 

Daniel Webster was born in Salisbury, 
New Hampshire, January 18, 1782, son 
of Captain Ebenezer and Abigail (East- 
man) Webster. The Websters were of 
Scotch extraction, immigrants to America 
about 1638. His father, the owner of a 
heavily mortgaged mountain farm which 
he had rescued from the wilderness and 
on which he had erected a mill, was a 
man of influence, had served in the 
French and Indian wars, and, when the 
Revolution was ushered in by the battle 
of Lexington, raised a company of his 
neighbors and commanded them through- 
out the war for independence. After 1791 
he served as associate judge of the Hills- 
borough County Court of Common Pleas. 
He was a firm Federalist, and opposed 
the French revolution and the Democracy 
of Jefferson. Daniel Webster's mother, 
Abigail (Eastman) Webster, was a 
strong woman mentally and physically, of 
Welch extraction. 

Daniel Webster, with his brother 
Ezekiel. two years his senior, attended 
the district school, and worked upon the 
farm and at the saw-mill. In 1794 he 
entered Exeter Academy, having at the 
time already read "Hudibras," the "Spec- 
tator" and Pope's "Homer," and com- 
mitted the "Essay on Man" and much of 
the Bible to memory. He was prepared 
for college by the Rev. Samuel Wood and 
nine months at Phillips Andover Acad- 
emy, and in August. 1797. matriculated 
at Dartmouth. While in college he de- 
livered two or three occasional addresses 
which were published, and on the Fourth 
of July, 1800, he delivered before the citi- 
zens of Hanover his first public oration, in 
which occurred the passages: "Colum- 
bia stoops not to tyrants. Her spirit will 
never cringe to France. Neither a super- 
cilious five-headed directory nor a gascon- 
ading pilgrim of Egypt will ever dictate 


^c^^,^<iS^ /^^^k^^i^t^^^ 


terms of sovereignty to America." Be- 
fore leaving" Dartmouth he induced his 
father to send Ezekiel to college, and 
trust to the advantages gained there for 
future financial help from his two boys. 
Daniel Webster was graduated from 
Dartmouth College in August, 1801, and 
that winter engaged in teaching school 
at Fryeburg, Maine, and with the money 
thus earned paid his brother's tuition at 
Dartmouth, enabling him to graduate in 
1804. The same year Daniel received the 
master's degree in course, and an honor- 
ary A. M. degree from Harvard. He be- 
came a law student in the office of Chris- 
topher Gore, of Boston, and while so en- 
gaged was offered the clerkship of the 
Hillsborough county court, in which his 
father was an associate judge, with a 
salary which would place his father's 
family beyond the financial straits then 
experienced. With filial duty foremost 
in his mind, Daniel went to his law pre- 
ceptor for advice. Mr. Gore told him not 
to accept it. as "he was not made to be 
a clerk," and after conveying to his father 
the disappointing news of his determina- 
tion to continue his law studies, he re- 
turned to Boston. He was admitted to 
the bar in March, 1805, and began prac- 
tice at Boscawen, near Salisbury, New 
Hampshire. In April, 1806, occurred the 
death of his father, whose debts Daniel 
announced his determination to assume. 
In 1807 he left his law practice at Bos- 
cawen to his brother and "hung out his 
shingle" in Portsmouth, the principal 
town of the State and the center of its 
law practice. In 1812 he delivered a 
Fourth of July oration before the Wash- 
ington Benevolent Society, in which he 
advocated a larger navy. 

In August he was sent as a delegate to 
the Rockingham county assembly, and he 
was the author of the "Rockingham 
Memorial" opposing the war. The favor 
with which the memorial was received in 

New Hampshire secured his election as 
representative in the Thirteenth Con- 
gress, in 1812, where he took his seat May 
24, 1813, and was given a place in the 
committee on foreign affairs, of which 
John C. Calhoun was chairman. He was 
re-elected to the Fourteenth Congress in 
1814, and was admitted to the bar of the 
United States Supreme Court. He op- 
posed the war with Great Britain, but ad- 
vocated the strengthening of the defences ; 
opposed a tariff for protection, on the 
ground that he did not wish to see the 
young men of the country shut out from 
external nature, and confined in factories 
with the whirl of spools and spindles, and 
the grating of rasps and saws constantly 
sounding in their ears. He favored specie 
payment, and opposed the enlistment bill. 
When challenged by John Randolph to 
the "field of honor," he refused to meet 
him, but declared himself "prepared at all 
times to repel in a suitable manner the 
aggression of any man who may presume 
upon such a refusal." 

His growing law practice induced him 
to remove to Boston in June, 1816, and 
after the close of his second term he re- 
tired from public life to take up the prac- 
tice of law for the purpose of accumulat- 
ing money then much needed to pay his 
debts and support his family. In Sep- 
tember, 1817, he made his first great argu- 
ment, in the celebrated Dartmouth Col- 
lege case, and on March 10, 1818, made 
his final argument in that case before the 
United States Supreme Court in Wash- 
ington. He spoke in Doric Hall, State 
House, Boston, December 3, 1819, on the 
danger of the extension of slavery, and 
he was made chairman of a committee 
to present a memorial to Congress. He 
was made a member of the State Con- 
stitutional Convention of Massachusetts 
in 1820, and the same year he pronounced 
his great oration at Plymouth, to com- 
memorate the landing of the Pilgrims, 


December 22. He was a representativt 
from Boston, by an almost unanimous 
election in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth 
Congresses, 1823-27, taking his seat De- 
cember I, 1823, and was made chairman 
of the judiciary committee by Speaker 
Clay. On January 19, 1824, he delivered 
his speech in the house in favor of ap- 
pointing a commissioner to Greece, and 
in March he spoke against the tariff of 
1824. On June 17, 1825, he delivered his 
first Bunker Hill oration, and the next 
year, August 2, he delivered his eulogy 
on Adams and Jefferson, in Faneuil Hall. 
He wore small clothes and an orator's 
gown, and was in the perfection of his 
manly beauty and strength, his unused 
manuscript lying on a table by his side. 
He was elected United States Senator 
from Massachusetts in June, 1827, took 
his seat December 3, and was reelected 
in 1833. He delivered an address in April, 
1828, for the benefit of the surviving offi- 
cers of the American Revolution, and in 
May made his famous speech in the Sen- 
ate in favor of the tariff of 1828, and fol- 
lowed it by voting for "the tariff of 
abominations," making the grounds for 
his change of policy that his constituents 
in Massachusetts had invested their 
money in manufacturing on the faith that 
the government would protect those in- 
dustries. On January 20, 1830, he made 
his first answer to Senator Hayne, of 
South Carolina, and on January 26, 1830, 
made his great reply and argument 
against nullification, which became his- 
torical. He supported the bill introduced 
to enforce the act of 1828, in a great 
speech on February 8, 1833, ^^^ ^^^ bill 
called the "force bill" or '"bloody bill," 
was passed and became a law March 2. 
On February 16 he replied to Calhoun's 
nullification arguments, his reply being 
that the constitution was not a compact 
between sovereign States. He made a 
tour of the western States in the summer 

of 1833, looking to his candidacy for the 
presidency in 1836. The Massachusetts 
Legislature nominated him for the presi- 
dency in 1836, there being no national 
convention that year, the Democratic 
National Convention at Baltimore, May 
20, 1835, having named the Van Buren 
and Johnson ticket. The other candidates 
indicated by State choice were William 
Henry Harrison and John McLean, of 
Ohio ; Hugh L. White, of Tennessee ; 
Willis P. Mangum, of South Carolina, 
which nominations, with that of Mr. 
\\'ebster, gave to the country five Whig 
candidates in 1836. McLean withdrew 
before the election, and the Whig elec- 
toral votes were divided, seventy-three 
going to Harrison, twenty-six to White, 
fourteen to Webster, and eleven to Man- 

Mr. Webster delivered a powerful or- 
ation at Niblo's Garden. New York City, 
March 15, 1837, on the general question 
of slavery, and in it he warned the South 
against seeking to extend the institution, 
or to endeavor to arrest the strong feeling 
that existed and had taken hold of the 
consciences of men, saying that "should 
it be attempted, he knew of nothing, even 
in the constitution or in the Union itself, 
which would not be endangered by the 
explosion that might follow." He was 
reelected to the Senate in January, 1839, 
and spent that summer in Europe. His 
political friends, when they saw the over- 
whelming popularity enjoyed by General 
liarrison, and that he was sure of the 
presidential nomination, advised Webster 
to allow the use of his name for vice- 
presidential candidate, but he preemp- 
torily declined. Harrison was made the 
Whig candidate by the national conven- 
tion that assembled at Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania, December 4, 1839, and Senator 
Webster, although personally disappoint- 
ed, made a vigorous campaign for Har- 
rison and Tyler. He resigned his seat 


in the Senate, February 22, 1841, and 
when Harrison was inaugurated he ac- 
cepted the cabinet position of Secretary 
of State, and as such concluded a treaty 
with Portugal ; negotiated the Ashburton 
treaty, which settled the northwestern 
boundary question between Great Britain 
and the United States ; provided for the 
mutual extradition of criminals ; and 
arranged for the suppression of the slave 
trade. He defended the Ashburton treaty 
against his own party, standing by Presi- 
dent Tyler when deserted by the other 
members of his cabinet. He resigned, 
however, in May, 1843, ^^^ returned to 
the practice of law in Boston, and the 
enjoyment of his farm at Alarshfield, 

On June 17, 1843, he made his second 
Bunker Hill oration. He was not a can- 
didate before the Whig National Con- 
vention at Baltimore, May i, 1844, but 
supported Henry Clay. Rufus Choate, 
who had been elected his successor in the 
United States Senate, closed his term on 
March 3, 1845, ^"d Mr. Webster was 
elected his successor, taking his seat four 
days after the passage of the resolution 
annexing Texas, and on April 6-7, 1S46, 
he made his speech on the justice of the 
expenditures made in negotiating the 
"Ashburton Treaty." He helped to the 
peaceable settlement of the Oregon 
boundary, and in 1847 voted for the Wil- 
mot Proviso, and opposed territorial 
agrandizement in view of its disturbing 
the peace of the country on the slavery 
issue. He visited the Southern States in 
1847, and his views on the rights of slave • 
holders appear to have modified, for, 
while presenting the resolutions of the 
Legislature of Massachusetts against its 
extension, he cautioned against the in- 
terference with the constitutional rights 
of the owners of slaves. 

Senator Webster was again a candidate 
for the presidential nomination in 1848, 

MASS— 8 I 

but when the Whig National Convention 
met at Philadelphia, June 7, and nomi- 
nated General Zachary Taylor, he refused 
the second place on the ticket, against the 
advice of his political friends, and Fill- 
more was named ; and in a speech at 
Marshfield, September i, he expressed his 
disappointment emphatically by saying 
that the nomination of Taylor was "not 
lit to be made, but was dictated by the 
sagacious, wise and far-seeing doctrine 
of availability." On March 7, 1850, he 
made the most famous of his later 
speeches on the Public Square in front of 
the Revere House, Boston, Faneuil Hall 
having been refused his use. In this 
speech he favored the compromise offered 
by Henry Clay ; dwelt upon the constitu- 
tional rights of the people of the slave 
States ; and made a legal defence of the 
fugitive slave law as proposed in the com- 
promise. Senator Hoar (in 1899) attri- 
buted Webster's course at this time "not 
to a weaker moral sense," but "to a larger 
and profounder prophetic vision," and in 
his resistance to the requisition of Cali- 
fornia, Senator Hoar says : "He saw 
what no other man saw, the certainty of 
civil war." In 1850, when President 
Taylor died and Millard Fillmore suc- 
ceeded to the presidency, Webster was 
made Fillmore's Secretary of State, 
which portfolio he accepted, July 23, 
1850, resigning his seat in the Senate on 
July 22, Robert C. Winthrop filling it by 
appointment from July 30, 1850, to Feb- 
ruary 7, 1851, and Robert Rantoul Jr., 
who was elected his successor, taking 
the seat, February 22, 185 1, and complet- 
ing the term, March 3, 1851. On De- 
cember 21, 1850, Webster wrote the 
Hulseman letter, in which he gave notice 
to European powers that the United 
States was a great nation, and as such 
had a right to express sympathy with any 
struggle for Republican government. 
When the Whig National Convention 



met at Baltimore, June i6, 1852, he was 
a candidate for the presidential nomina- 
tion, and on the first ballot he received 
twenty-nine votes, but on the fifty-second 
ballot General Winfield Scott was nomi- 
nated. Webster refused to support the 
Whig candidate, and requested his 
friends to vote for Franklin Pierce, the 
Democratic nominee. In May, 1852, he 
was thrown from his carriage and ser- 
iously hurt. He was able to travel to 
Boston in July, and to W^ashington for 
the last time in August, but on September 
8 he returned to Marshfield and died 
there, October 24, 1852. 

He received the honorary degree of LL. 
D. from the College of New Jersey in 
1818, Dartmouth in 1823, Harvard in 
1824, Columbia in 1824, and Allegheny 
College in 1840. Dartmouth College 
celebrated the centennial of his gradu- 
ation, September 24-25, 1901, when the 
cornerstone of a new building known as 
Webster Hall was laid. His name in 
Class M, Rulers and Statesmen, received 
ninety-six votes and a place in the Hall 
of Fame for Great Americans, October, 
1900, standing second only to that of 
George Washington, and equal to that of 
Abraham Lincoln. Twenty biographical 
sketches of Daniel Webster appeared in 
book form between 183 1 and 1900, of 
more or less value to the student of his- 
tory, but no really great "Life of Web- 
ster" had appeared. His works under the 
title "Daniel Webster's Works," appear- 
ed in six octavo volumes in 185 1, and 
his correspondence as "Daniel Webster: 
Private Correspondence," edited by 
Fletcher Webster, appeared in 1857. A 
statue by Powell was placed in front of 
the Massachusetts State House ; one by 
Ball in Central Park, New York ; and a 
simple stone stands in the burial ground 
at Marshfield. 

He married, in 1808, Grace Fletcher 

of Salisbury, who died January 21, 1828. 
He married (second) December 12, 1829, 
Caroline LeRoy, of New York City, who 
brought him a considerable fortune. In 
1848 he suffered a double bereavement in 
the death of a daughter, Mrs. Appleton, 
in Boston, and of a son, Major Edward 
Webster, who fell in battle in Mexico, 
and whose body reached Boston for burial 
on May 23rd. 

BUSSEY, Benjamin, 


Benjamin Bussey was born at Canton, 
Massachusetts, March i, 1757. At the 
age of eighteen he enlisted in the army 
of the Revolution, participated in several 
important engagements, and was present 
at the capture of Burgoyne. When 
twenty-two years of age he was married, 
and with only ten dollars in money began 
business as a silversmith at Dedham, 
Massachusetts, whence he removed in 
1782 to Boston, where he engaged in for- 
eign trade. His industry and integrity 
soon gave him the means and credit 
wherewith he acquired a fortune, and in 
1806 he retired from business and devoted 
his life to agricultural pursuits on his 
estate at Jamaica Plain, near Boston. By 
his will he provided that upon the death 
of his last survivor, his estate should 
go to Harvard College, one-half to en- 
dow a farm school, which should provide 
the means of acquiring instruction in 
agriculture ; while he made other bequests 
for promoting a knowledge of scientific 
agriculture. He endowed the law and 
divinity school of the university with the 
remainder of his fortune. At the time of 
his death it was estimated that his be- 
quests amounted to $350,000. In 1870 
the university established the Bussey 
Institution at Jamaica Plain. He died at 
Roxbury, Massachusetts, January 13, 



BOND, William Cranch, 

Accomplislied Astronomer. 

William Cranch Bond was born in 
Portland, Maine, September 9, 1789, 
youngest son of William and Hannah 
(Cranch) Bond. His family traced its 
ancestry back to the time of the Con- 
quest. Both of his parents were natives 
of England. His father, who was born 
in Plymouth, Devonshire, was a clock- 
maker and silversmith by trade, but on 
emigrating to the United States he en- 
gaged in cutting ship timber for exporta- 
tion to England, but removed to Boston 
in 1793 and resumed his old trade. 

William C. Bond became an apprentice 
to his father when very young, and from 
the outset showed unusual mechanical 
ability. Before he was fifteen years of 
age he constructed a ship chronometer 
after a description of an instrument used 
by La Perouse, the navigator. When he 
came of age he was taken into partner- 
ship by his father, and the making and 
repairing of chronometers became an im- 
portant branch of their business, and the 
first sea-going chronometer constructed 
in America was the work of the son. In 
1806 a total eclipse of the sun occurred, 
and young Bond took the liveliest inter- 
est in watching the phenomenon, begin- 
ning at that time his career as an astro- 
nomer, although his interest in the 
science had been awakened at a still 
earlier date. He now pursued his stud- 
ies systematically, using some rude in- 
struments of his own devising, and was 
greatly encouraged by the Hon. Josiah 
Quincy, who had seen the boy in his 
father's shop and was struck with his in- 
telligence and scientific bent. In 1810 the 
family removed to Dorchester, where he 
had better opportunities to carry on his 
obser-vatlons, in which he was aided by an 
elder brother. In April, 181 1, he sighted 
a comet, and watched its progress most 
carefully, anticipating the professors at 

Harvard, one of whom, John Farrar, not 
observing it until four months later. In 
a paper contributed to the memoirs of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
giving an account of his own observa- 
tions. Professor Farrar included the notes 
made by Mr. Bond, and this brought the 
rising ast.onomer to the knowledge of a 
larger circle of scientists, some of whom, 
especially Dr. Nathaniel Bowditch, be- 
came personal friends, anl did all in their 
power to facilitate his course as an in- 
vestigator. About 1818 Mr. Bond made a 
trip to England, and while there, at the 
request of the authorities of Harvard, 
studied the construction and mechanical 
equipment of the observatory at Green- 
wich, and made drawings which were to 
be utilized in the erection of an observa- 
tory at Cambridge ; but the resources of 
the college were so limited that neither 
building nor satisfactory apparatus could 
be secured. 

Mr. Bond continued to carry on his 
regular business in Boston, devoting his 
spare time to astronomy, and building at 
Dorchester a small observatory, and im- 
porting from Europe the most improved 
appliances. In 1839 the Wilkes expedi- 
tion to the South Pacific was undertaken, 
and the United States navy appointed Mr. 
Bond as an assistant. All the magnetic 
instruments used were tested by him ; 
he made investigations for the purpose of 
fixing a zero of longitude, whence final 
reference to Greenwich might be had ; 
and made a continuous record of mag- 
netic observations for comparison with 
like records obtained at distant points by 
the scientists of the expedition. His old 
friend, Josiah Quincy, who for some 
years had been president of Harvard, 
now urged Mr. Bond to remove to Cam- 
bridge and to give his services to the col- 
lege, and to this he finally consented, 
although no return could be made except- 
ing the use of a house as a residence. His 



connection with the college began in the 
winter of 1839, and what was known as 
the Dana house was fitted up for his use 
as an observatory. In 1844 a new obser- 
vatcr) was completed, and the instru- 
ments were removed to it from his resi- 
dence. The dome, constructed after a 
model made by Mr. Bond soon after his 
return from Europe was supported at 
equidistant points by smoothly turned 
spheres of iron, after his own original 
idea. For six years he served as direc- 
tor without compensation, besides paying 
many items of expense out of his own 
private funds. In 1845 ^''^ declined the 
charge of the observatory at Washington, 
D. C. In 1847 the university observa- 
tory was provided with a fifteen-inch 
equatorial telescope, and the scope of Pro- 
fessor Bond's investigations was greatly 
enlarged. On September 19, 1848, he 
discovered the eighth satellite of Saturn 
with this instrument. In co-operation 
with the United States Coast Survey and 
scientific bodies, he conducted a large 
number of chronometer expeditions, mak- 
ing more than seven hundred independent 
records. As early as 1848 he made at- 
tempts to picture the sun by means of 
the daguerreotype and talbotype pro- 
cesses, and in 1850, aided by G. J. A. 
Whipple, a daguerreotyper, he obtained 
several impressions of the star Vega. 
Among the many mechanical appliances 
constructed by him was a chair for use 
in connection with the great telescope of 
the observatory, and which is still in use. 
In 1848, in collaboration with the Coast 
Survey, he made experiments for deter- 
mining the diiTerences of longitude by 
aid of the telegraph, and devised an auto- 
matic circuit interrupter to form a con- 
necting line between the astronomical 
clock and the electric wire, and a clock 
to be used for this especial line of work. 
Finding difficulty in obtaining an accur- 
ate registry of the beats of the clock after 

being transmitted by the galvanic circuit, 
he began experiments with his son, 
George Phillips Bond, which resulted in 
1850 in the perfecting of an apparatus 
which performed the registry without 
fault. This instrument, originally called 
the spring governor and later the chrono- 
graph, was adopted by the coast survey, 
and soon after throughout Europe. About 
1848 the observatory began using the 
chronograph to transmit the true local 
time from Cambridge to Boston and other 
parts of New England, but it was not 
until 1872 that the regular time-service 
department was organized. Among ex- 
periments made by Professor Bond and 
his assistants were some undertaken in 
1852, in co-operation with Captain 
Charles Wilkes, to determine the velocity 
of the sound caused by the discharge of a 
cannon under different atmospheric con- 

Professor Bond was a member of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
the American Philosophical Society, and 
the Ro3^al Astronomical Society of Eng- 
land. The degree of A. M. was conferred 
upon him by Harvard in 1842. He mar- 
ried, at Kingsbridge, Devonshire, Eng- 
land, July 18, 1819, his cousin, Selina 
Cranch. His two sons were of great as- 
sistance to him in his researches. One 
died in 1842 ; the other, George Phillips 
Bond, succeeded his father as director of 
the observatory. Professor Bond died in 
Cambridge, January 29, 1859. 

PARKER, Theodore, 

Clergyman, Author. 

Theodore Parker was born in Lexing- 
ton, Massachusetts, August 24, 1810, son 
of John and Hannah (Stearns) Parker, 
grandson of Captain John Parker, an 
officer at the battle of Lexington, and a 
descendant of Thomas Parker, the immi- 
grant, Lynn, 1635. 

Theodore Parker worked on his 



father's farm and in his shop, and was a 
student at the public school, afterward at- 
tending a day school in Lexington one 
term in 1826, where he took up algebra, 
Latin and Greek. From his seventeenth 
year he was self-instructed, making rapid 
progress, and in 1830 was examined and 
admitted to Harvard College, where he 
passed his successive examinations in 
each class, but under the rules of the col- 
lege was not allowed to receive a degree. 
He taught in a private school in Boston 
in 183 1, in a private school in Watertown, 
Massachusetts, 1832-42, and prosecuted 
his post-graduate studies, including the- 
ology, in 1834. The honorary degree of 
A. M. was conferred upon him by Har- 
vard College in 1840. He was ordained 
pastor of the Unitarian Society at West 
Roxbury, Massachusetts. June 21, 1837, 
remaining minister of that society until 
February, 1845, when he was excommuni- 
cated by the Unitarian Association on 
account of alleged heretical teachings, 
and resigned his pastorate. He formed 
and was installed as pastor of a new so- 
ciety, January 4. 1846, and preached in 
Boston at the Melodeon. 1846-52, and at 
Music Hall, 1852-59. The new society 
grew rapidly, aided by the reform move- 
ment in Massachusetts, which had 
reached its height. Mr. Parker was a 
leader in effecting the escape of runaway 
slaves in Boston, and defended and help- 
ed the revolutionary movement of John 
Brown in the west. He accepted the 
editorship of the "Massachusetts Quar- 
terly" and conducted it, 1847-50. During 
the winter of 1857, while on a lecturing 
tour in central New York, he contracted 
a severe cold which settled on his lungs, 
and in January, 1859. he made a voyage 
to Santa Cruz for the benefit of his health- 
In May, 1859, he went to Southampton 
and thence to Switzerland and Rome, 
where he suffered a relapse during the 
wet season, and was taken to Florence, 

where he died. May 10, i860, and was 
buried in the cemetery outside the walls, 
the Rev. Mr. Cunningham, an old friend, 
conducting the funeral service. Busts 
were made by William W. Story and 
Robert Hart, and in January, 1902, a 
bronze statue by Robert Kraus was 
erected on the lawn of the First Parish 
(Unitarian) Church at West Roxbury by 
the society. Mr. Parker was the author 
of: "A Discourse of Matters Pertaining 
to Religion" (1849) • "Occasional Ser- 
mons and Speeches" (two volumes, 
1852) ; "Ten Sermons on Religion" 
(1853) ; "Sermons on Theism, Atheism 
and the Popular Theology" (1853) 5 "Ad- 
ditional Speeches and Addresses" (two 
volumes, 1855) ; "Trial of Theodore 
Parker for the Misdemeanor of a Speech 
in Faneuil Hall Against Kidnapping" 
(1855) ; "Two Christmas Celebrations 
and Experience as a Minister" (1859) ; 
"A Volume of Prayers" (1862), and "His- 
toric Americans" (1870). His complete 
works were edited by Frances P. Cobbe 
(fourteen volumes, 1863-71), and also 
"Lessons from the World of Matter and 
the World of Man," selections from his 
unpublished sermons by Rufus Leighton 
(1865). His biography was written by 
John Weiss (1864), and O. B. Frothing- 
ham (1874). In October. 1900, his name 
received twenty-one votes for a place in 
the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, 
New York University, being fifth in 
"Class G, Preachers and Theologians," 
numbering twenty-six names, of which 
but three, Beecher, Channing and Ed- 
wards, received a place. 

WHITE, Daniel Appleton, 

Ijavryer, Jurist, Author. 

Daniel Appleton White was born in 
Methuen (now Lawrence). Massachu- 
setts, June 7, 1776, son of John and Eliza- 
beth (Haynes) White; grandson of Wil- 
liam and Sarah (Phillips) \\'hite, and of 



Joseph and Elizabeth (Clement) Haynes, 
and a descendant of William White, who 
came from Norfolk county, England, in 
1635, settling first in Ipswich, afterward 
in Newbury, and finally in Haverill, 
Massachusetts. John White removed 
from Haverill to Methuen about 1772. 

Daniel A. White attended Atkinson 
Academy in 1792-93, then entering Har- 
vard College, from which he graduated 
A. B. 1797, A. AI. 1800. He taught school 
in Aledford, Massachusetts, 1797-99, and 
was tutor at Harvard College, 1799-1803. 
He studied law in Salem, Massachusetts. 
1S03-04, was admitted to the bar June 26, 
of the latter year, and began practice in 
Newburyport, Massachusetts. Mr. White 
served as State Senator, 1810-15, and was 
elected an Essex North representative to 
the Fourteenth Congress in 1814, out re- 
signed before taking his seat to become 
Judge of Probate for Essex county, Mas- 
sachusetts, retaining that office until 1853. 
He removed to Salem, Massachusetts, in 
1S17. The honorary degree of A. M. was 
conferred upon him by Yale, 1804, and 
that of LL. D. by Harvard, 1837, of which 
latter organization he was overseer, 
1842-53. He was a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, a fellow of 
the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences; trustee of Dummer Academy; 
chairman of the committee appointed by 
the New Hampshire Legislature in 1815 
to investigate the difficulties existing be- 
tween President Wheelock and the trus- 
tees of Dartmouth College ; a director of 
the Society for the Promotion of Theo- 
logical Education in Harvard College ; 
and first president of the Salem Lyceum 
and of the Essex Institute. Fie was the 
author of: "A View of the Jurisdiction 
and Proceedings of the Court of Probate 
in Massachusetts" (1822) ; "New Eng- 
land Congregationalism" (1861) ; also 
eulogies on George Washington (1800), 

Nathaniel Bowditch (1838), and John 
Pickering (1847), and addresses. 

Fie was married in Concord, Massachu- 
setts, May 24, 1807, to Mary, daughter of 
Dr. Josiah and Mary (Flagg) W^ilder, 
of Lancaster, Massachusetts, and widow 
of Antoine Van Schalwyck ; she died. 
June 29, 181 1. He married (second) Au- 
gust I, 1819, Eliza, daughter of William 
and Abigail (Ropes) Orne and widow of 
William Wetmore ; she died March 2"], 
1821. Judge W^hite was married (third) 
January 22, 1824, to Ruth, daughter of 
Joseph and Hannah (Kettell) Flurd, of 
Charlestown, Massachusetts, and widow 
of Abner Rogers. He died in Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, March 30, 1861. 

THOREAU, Flenry David, 

Favorite Author. 

Henry David Thoreau was born in 
Concord, Massachusetts, July 12, 1817, 
son of John and Cynthia (Dunbar) 
Thoreau, grandson of John and Jane 
(Burns) Thoreau, and of Asa and Mary 
(Jones) Dunbar, and great-grandson of 
Philip and Marie (le Calais) Thoreau. 
John Thoreau, the grandfather of Henry 
David Thoreau, emigrated from Jersey to 
Boston, and removed thence to Concord, 
settling in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, in 
1818, returning in 1821 to Boston, and in 
1823 to Concord, where he died in 1859. 
He was a pencil maker, and taught his 
trade to all his children, both sons and 

Henry David Thoreau first attended 
school in Boston, concluding his prepara- 
tion for college in Concord, and matricu- 
lating at Harvard in 1833. During his 
college course he won no distinction, 
puzzling and vexing the faculty by his 
utter indifference to the prizes and other 
artificial incentives to study. At thif 
time began his friendship with Emerson, 
the attention of the latter having been 



attracted to him by the discovery of a 
common friend that a note in Thoreau's 
diary contained the same kernel of 
thought as one of Emerson's early lec- 
tures. Thoreau was graduated from 
Harvard College, A. B., in 1837, but de- 
clined a diploma to save the five dollar 
fee that was exacted. In 1838, bearing- 
recommendations from Ezra Ripley, 
Emerson, and President Josiah Ouincy, 
of Harvard, he went to Maine with the 
intention of teaching school, but was un- 
successful in his quest for a position. For 
a short time he taught in Concord, but 
later engaged in pencil making, survey- 
ing, and other occupations. He became 
deeply interested in transcendentalism, in 
the movement for the abolition of slavery, 
and in other social and political reforms. 
Later his home became a station on the 
"Underground Railway," and his un- 
compromising attitude toward slavery 
was further evidenced by his memorable 
address to the citizens of Concord on be- 
half of John Brown, at the time of the 
latter's arrest in 1859. Thoreau succeeded 
in earning a fair living by making pencils, 
but when he had attained such skill in 
this work that financial success seemed 
assured, he announced that he should 
never make another pencil, for he could 
never make a better, and the only times 
he did resort to this means of making 
money was when some dependent relative 
stood in need of aid. He was a true 
student of nature, being ever more at 
hom.e in the open than under cover. His 
woodcraft was marvelous, enabling him 
to follow a trail by the tread, after dark. 
He was strong, long-limbed, and of a 
nervous, untiring nature ; apt at all kinds 
of manual labor, often surveying for his 
neighbors, farming for himself, and build- 
ing for any one wishing a new house. 
He said, "I found that the occupation of 
a day laborer was the most independent 
of any, especially as it requires only 

thirty or forty days in a year to support 
one." Love of liberty and love of truth 
were Thoreau's most conspicuous traits 
of character. In 1836 his theories led him 
to renounce the church and decline to 
pay its tax; and in 1846 he renounced the 
State and refused to pay his taxes, pre- 
ferring to go to jail rather than con- 
tribute to the support of what seemed to 
him an evil. When Emerson visited him 
in his cell and asked him why he was 
there, Thoreau replied, "And why are 
you not here?" In March, 1845, ^^^ built 
with his own hands a little cabin, in 
which he lived and wrote for two years. 
The cabin was situated on a piece of land 
owned by Bronson Alcott, on the shore 
of Lake Walden. Thoreau did not live 
there as a hermit, as is sometimes sup- 
posed ; on the contrary, he mingled with 
his fellow-men as usual, and frequently 
spent a day or a night at their home. 

While at Walden, he edited his "Week 
on the Concord and Alerrimac Rivers," 
chapters of which had begun to appear in 
the "Dial" in 1840. In 1846 he sent bis 
essay on Carlyle to Horace Greeley, who 
had it published in "Graham's Magazine." 
In the same year he visited a relative in 
Bangor, Maine, and traveled with hira to 
the headwaters of the Penobscot river 
and to the summit of Mount Katahdin, 
a region at that time unexplored. He re- 
turned to Concord in 1847, having sold 
his hut on the lake. In the same year 
he sent to Agassiz specimens which he 
had gathered in the woods, some of which 
Avere entirely new to the scientist, who 
unsuccessfully endeavored to cultivate 
the acquaintance of the careful observer. 
Greeley purchased his "Katahdin and 
Maine Woods" in 1848, and in 1849 the 
"Week on the Concord and Merrimack 
Rivers" was published and favorably re- 
ceived by such critics as George Ripley 
and James Russell Lowell, but the sale 
did not pay the expense of printing, and 


to free himself from debt Thoreau took 
up surveying once more. Greeley was al- 
most insistent in his requests that Tho- 
reau should write frequent short articles, 
such as essays on Emerson and other 
Concord contemporaries, but Thoreau 
knew no way but his own. "A Yankee 
in Canada," a journal of his journey with 
Ellery Channing- in French Canada in 
1850, was accepted by "Putnam's Alaga- 
zine" in 1852, but was not published 
there because of a disagreement between 
Putnam and Thoreau. "Walden, or Life 
in the Woods" (1854), and the "Week," 
were the only volumes published during 
the life of the author. Thoreau was 
stricken with pulmonary consumption, an 
inherited disease, and died after a long 
illness. Unlike his friend Emerson, he 
did not grasp the Divine as a personality, 
but, like the Indians he so closely re- 
sembled, he saw Him in the clouds and 
beheld Him in the winds. When, on his 
deathbed, he was questioned by Parker 
Pillsbury regarding his belief in the 
future, he replied, "One world at a time." 
A cairn marks the spot on the shores of 
Walden where his hut stood. 

His writing frequently appeared in 
such periodicals as the "Dial," "Atlantic," 
"Putnam's" and "Graham's." His poems 
are of uneven merit, some of them reach- 
ing a high plane. Following is a list of 
his published books: "A Week on the 
Concord and Merrimack Rivers'' (1849) : 
"Walden, or. Life in the Woods" (1854) ; 
"Excursions" (1863 and 1866); "The 
Maine Woods" (1864); "Cape Cod" 
(1864) ; "Early Spring in Massachusetts" 
(1881); "Summer" (1884); "Winter" 
(1887); and "Autumn" (1892), all from 
the journal of Henry David Thoreau, 
edited by H. G. O. Blake. For biog- 
raphies of Thoreau, see life by F. B. San- 
born, in "American Men of Letters" 
series (1882) ; sketch by R. W. Emerson 
in the Riverside edition of Thoreau's 

works (1893) ; life, by W. E. Channing, 
under the title "The Poet-Naturalist" 
(1873) ; life by li. A. Page (1877) ; and 
sketch by R. L. Stevenson in "Familiar 
Studies of Men and Books." His name 
in Class A, Authors and Editors, received 
three votes for a place in the Hall of 
Fame for Great x'Vmericans, New York 
University, in October, 1900. Mr. Tho- 
reau died in Concord. Massachusetts, 
May 6, 1862. 

FELTON. Cornelius Conway, 

Xotaltle Scholar and Educator. 

Cornelius Conway Felton, twentieth 
president of Harvard College (1860-62), 
was born in West Newbury, Massachu- 
setts. November 6, 1807. He was de- 
scended in direct line from ancestors who 
originally settled in Danvers in 1636. 

He was prepared for college at the 
Franklin Academy, Andover, and entered 
Harvard when only sixteen years of age. 
To meet his college expenses he was 
obliged to teach winter schools in his 
sophomore and junior years, at one time 
teaching at Round Hill School, North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, under George 
Bancroft. He early gave himself to liter- 
ary composition, and was one of the con- 
ductors of the "Harvard Register" during 
his senior year. He was graduated from 
College in 1827. and during the next two 
years taught the high school at Genesee, 
New York, then being appointed Latin 
tutor in Harvard, and the next year Greek 
tutor. Two years later he was given the 
Greek professorship, and in 1834 he re- 
ceived the appointment of Eliot Profes- 
sor of Greek Literature, succeeding Mr. 
Everett and Mr. Popkin. In April, 1853, 
he made a year's tour in Europe, visit- 
ing the art centres and making a stud> 
of their antiquities. He went to Greece, 
where he spent five months, visiting the 
most celebrated places for the purpose 



of illustrating ancient Greek history and 
poetry and in studying at Athens the re- 
mains of ancient art, the present language 
and literature of Greece, the constitution 
and laws of the Hellenic kingdom, and in 
attending courses of lectures at the uni- 
versity. He was an ardent admirer of 
the modern Greeks, by whom he was 
known as the "American Professor." 

Dr. Felton's scholarship was of the 
broadest, embracing the principal lan- 
guages and literature of Europe, ancient 
as well as modern, besides quite a knowl- 
edge of Oriental literature. Few men 
have attained so high a position in one 
department, with so generous a culture 
in all. Besides numerous contributions to 
periodical literature, he published a large 
number of works upon general literary 
topics. He edited the "Iliad," with Flax- 
man's illustrations, and translated Men- 
zel's "German Literature." In 1840 he 
published a Greek reader, and during the 
next few years a number of classical 
textbooks, besides various poetical trans- 
lations for Longfellow's "Poets and 
Poetry of Europe." In 1849 ^^ trans- 
lated Professor Arnold Guyot's "Earth 
and Man," which went through numerous 
editions in this country, and was reprint- 
ed in four distinct editions in England. 
He also published a revised edition of 
Smith's "History of Greece." with a con- 
tinuation from the Roman conquest to 
the present time. One of his latest labors 
was the preparation of an edition of Car- 
lisle's "Diary in Turkish and Greek 
Waters." He also published selections 
from modern Greek authors in prose and 
poetry. Besides teaching classes, he de- 
livered many courses of lectures on com- 
parative biology, and the history of the 
Greek language and literature through 
the classical periods, the middle ages, and 
to his own time. Outside of the univer- 
sity, besides numerous lectures delivered 
before lyceums, teachers' institutes, etc.. 

Dr. Felton delivered three courses before 
the Lowell Institute, which were after- 
ward published in 1867 under the title 
"Greece, Ancient and Modern." Of these 
the "Nation" said, "it cannot fail to give 
many a new sense of the value of the 
classics." In 1865 he published "Familiar 
Letters, from Europe," which gave a de- 
lightful view of classical places and 
topics. He revisited Europe in 1858, and 
greatly extended his researches into 
Greek antiquities. In i860, by the con- 
current voices of all friends of the univer- 
sity, he was chosen its president, to suc- 
ceed President Walker. He not only 
maintained the institution in the high 
standard it had attained, but in every- 
thing that was good and noble he added 
to the reputation it had already won. 
President Felton's supervision of the 
university was of but short duration, but 
he brought to his work a scholar's en- 
thusiasm. He did not confine himself to 
professional technicalities, but illustrated 
its learned topics in a liberal as well as an 
acute literal manner. At the same time 
he found time to write critical expositions 
upon the current scientific and popular 
literature of the day. As an orator he 
was skillful and eloquent. In 1856 he was 
elected regent of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, and was also a member of the 
Massachusetts Board of Education. He 
v/as a fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences of Boston, a member 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and corresponding member of the x\rchae- 
ological Society of Athens. The degree 
of LL. D. was conferred upon him by 
Amherst College in 1848, and by Yale 
College in i860. On his way to Washing- 
ton to attend a meeting of the regents of 
the Smithsonian Institution, in the early 
part of 1862, he was stricken with heart 
disease, and died at the house of his 
brother, Samuel Morse Felton, at Ches- 
ter, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1862. 



SPARKS, Jared, 

Educator and Historian. 

Jared Sparks was born in Willington, 
Tolland county, Connecticut, May lo, 
1789, son of Joseph and Eleanor (Orcutt) 
Sparks. He worked on a farm and in a 
carpenter's shop, and attended the district 
schools. He was then a teacher until 
1809, when he took up private studies 
under the Rev. Hubbell Loomis. He at- 
tended Phillips Exeter Academy, 1809-11, 
then entering Harvard College, from 
which he was graduated A. B. 1815, A. 
M. 1818. He taught school in Bolton, 
Massachusetts, in 1811-12-13, and at 
Havre-de-Grace, Maryland, to help defray 
his college expenses. While teaching at 
the last named place in 1813, he joined the 
Maryland militia and served against the 
British at Havre-de-Grace. He attended 
the Harvard Divinity School, 1817-19; 
was tutor of mathematics and natural 
philosophy at Harvard, and acting editor 
of the "North American Review" 1817-19. 
He was ordained to the Unitarian min- 
istry May 5, 1819, the Rev. Channing 
jjreaching the ordination sermon. Pie 
was pastor of a church at Baltimore, 
Maryland, 1819-23; and chaplain of the 
House of Representatives, Washington, 
D. C, 1821-23. He edited the "Unitarian 
Miscellany and Christian Monitor," a 
monthly periodical, 1821-23, ^nd on his 
removal to Boston he edited the "North 
American Review," 1824-31. In 1825, he 
collected and edited the writmgs ot 
George Washington, and was the origi- 
nator and first editor of the "American 
Almanac and Repository of Useful 
Knowledge," 1830-61. He was McLean 
Professor of Ancient and Modern History 
at Harvard, 1838-49; succeeded Edward 
Everett as president of the college, Feb- 
ruary I, 1849, and resigned on account of 
failing health, February 10. 1853. 

Pie was a member of the American 

Philosophical Society ; the Maryland His- 
torical Society ; the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society, and the Vermont Histori- 
cal Society ; a fellow of the American 
Academy; vice-president of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society; correspond- 
ing secretary of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society ; and a corresponding mem- 
ber of many foreign societies. The hon- 
orary degree of LL. D. was conferred on 
him by Dartmouth College in 1841, and 
by Harvard in 1843. ^^'s published works 
include: "Letters on the Ministry, Ritual 
and Doctrines of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church" (1829) ; "Collection of Es- 
says and Tracts in Theology from Var- 
ious Authors" (six volumes, 1823-26) ; 
"Life of John Ledyard" (1828); "The 
Diplomatic Correspondence of the Amer- 
ican Revolution" (twelve volumes, 1829- 
30) ; "Life of Gouverneur Morris" (three 
volumes 1832) ; "The Writings of George 
Washington" (twelve volumes, 1834-38) ; 
and "Life of George Washington" (1839). 
The writings of George Washington were 
collected from the archives of the capi- 
tols of the thirteen original States and 
from the papers of General Washington, 
preserved at Mt. Vernon. The books were 
reissued in French and German. He 
edited "The Librar}^ of American Bi- 
ography" (ten volumes, 1834-38; second 
series, fifteen volumes, 1844-47) 5 "Works 
of Benjamin Franklin" (ten volumes, 
1836-40) ; "Remarks on American His- 
tory" (1837); "Additions to William 
Smyth's Lectures on Modern History" 
(1841), and "Correspondence of the 
American Revolution, being Letters of 
Eminent men to George Washington" 
(four volumes, 1853). His collection of 
original manuscripts was presented to 
Plarvard College. His name in Class A, 
Authors and Editors, received three 
votes for a place in the Hall of Fame for 
Great Americans, in 1900. He married 
(first) October 16, 1832, Frances Anne, 


S[Sa(£a(BXKo [L£R[E)r£^ 


daug-hter of William Allen, of Hyde 
Park, New York, and (second) May 21, 
1839, Mary Crowninshield, daughter of 
Nathaniel Silsbee. He died in Cambridge. 
Massachusetts, March 14, 1866. 

LANDER, Frederick West, 

Soldier, Civil Engineer. 

General Frederick West Lander, sol- 
dier, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, 
December 17, 1821, son of Edward and 
Eliza (West) Lander He was educated 
as a civil engineer at Drummer Acad- 
emy, Byfield, Massachusetts, and enter- 
ed the service of the United States gov- 
ernment as surveyor, making two trips 
across the continent to determine a rail- 
road route to the Pacific. The second 
expedition was undertaken at his own 
expense, and he was the only member of 
the party who survived the hardships. 
His knowledge of the country enabled 
him to survey and construct the great 
overland wagon route in 1858, and for 
five fruitful expeditions across the con- 
tinent, he received official recognition 
from the Secretary of the Interior. 

In i85i he was employed by the United 
States government to visit secretly the 
Southern States in order to determine the 
strength of the insurgents, and v.^hen 
General McClellan assumed command of 
the army in Western Virginia, he became 
volunteer aide on his staff. He was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers 
May 17, 1861, participated in the capture 
of Philippi, June 3, and the battle of Rich 
Mountain, July 11, 1861. He was given 
command of one of the three brigades 
making- up General Charles P. Stone's 
division on the Upper Potomac in July, 
i86i, and upon the defeat of the Federal 
forces at Ball's Blufif, October 21, 1861, 
he hastened to Edward's Ferry, which 
place he held with a single company of 
sharpshooters. In this engagement he 
was severely wounded. He reorganized 

his brigade into a division, and on Janu- 
ary 5, 1862, at Hancock, Maryland, he 
defended the town against a greatly su- 
perior Confederate force. On February 
14, 1862, although still suffering from his 
wound, he led a brilliant charge at Bloom- 
ing Gap into a pass held by the Confed- 
erates, thereby securing a victory, for 
which he received a special letter of 
thanks from the Secretary of War. On 
March i, 1862, he received orders to move 
his division into the Shenandoah Valley 
to co-operate with General Banks. While 
preparing the plan of attack on the Con- 
federates, he died of a congestive chill 
caused by exposure and hardships, and 
his command was assumed by General 
Shields. His death was announced in a 
special order issued by General McClel- 
lan, March 3, 1862. He was the author 
of numerous patriotic poems inspired by 
incidents of the campaign. He died in 
camp on the Cacapon river, Morgan 
county, Virginia, March 2, 1862. 


Laxryer, Jurist, Governor. 

Levi Lincoln (second), eleventh Gov- 
ernor of Alassachusetts, was born in 
Worcester, Massachusetts, October 25, 
1782. He was a son of Levi Lincoln, 
sixth Governor of Massachusetts, and 
brother to Enoch Lincoln, fourth Gov- 
ernor of Maine. His mother was a daugh- 
ter of Daniel W'aldo, a lawyer of W^or- 

Entering Harvard College at the age 
of sixteen, he was duly graduated in 1802, 
and then commenced the study of law in 
his father's office. In 1805 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and immediately en- 
tered upon a successful practice in Wor- 
cester, where he speedily attained front 
rank as a forcible pleader and jur\^ law- 
yer. He was elected to the State Legis- 
lature in 1812, and served continuously 
until 1822, except for three years when 



he refused nomination ; he was speaker of 
the house during 1820-22. Like his 
father, he was a zealous adherent of the 
Republican (Jefifersonian Democratic) 
party, which although at the time of his 
election in a decided minority, was gradu- 
ally gaining in strength and importance. 
In office, however, he was noted for his 
dignified impartiality to all, friends and 
opponents alike. During the legislative 
session of 1814, party feeling ran particu- 
larly high, and there was much criticism 
by the Federalists of the war policy of the 
national government. As a result, the 
famous resolution was passed favoring a 
joint meeting of all the State Legislatures 
of New England to consider the question 
of revising the United States Constitution, 
particularly on points touching equal 
State representation. Lincoln was im- 
movably opposed to this measure from 
the outset, and drew up the minority 
protest, which was signed by seventy- 
five members besides himself. In 1820. 
upon the separation of Maine, a conven- 
tion was called to revise the constitution 
of Massachusetts so as to provide for the 
new conditions. Lincoln was elected a 
delegate, and served on the committee 
on division of public lands. In 1823 he 
was presidential elector, casting his vote 
for John Ouincy Adams, and during the 
same year served as Lieutenant-Governor 
under Governor William Eustis. In Feb- 
ruary, 1824, he was appointed to the bench 
of the Supreme Judicial Court as suc- 
cessor to Judge George Thacher. re- 
signed. Although he held office little over 
one year, he achieved honorable distinc- 
tion for strong judicial qualities and for 
decisions and opinions evincing the 
broadest legal acumen. 

His election to the governorship in 
1825 was under peculiar although most 
gratifying conditions. The popular elec- 
tion had resulted in the choice of William 
Eustis, but his death in February, 1825, 

necessitated another vote. Samuel 
Lathrop, the Federalist candidate, having 
refused to stand again, both parties 
agreed upon Judge Lincoln, who was 
elected by 35,000 out of a total of 37,000 
votes, and assumed office in May. His 
occupancy of oftice is notable not only 
for length (1825-34), but also for the 
rrany and valuable advances in all direc- 
tions. In his inaugural address he advo- 
cated the construction of a canal from 
lioston to the Connecticut river, as well 
as others throughout the .State ; but, 
when popular sentiment turned to favor 
lailroads, he willingly acceded to the de- 
mand for their trial. In 1828 the State 
Board of Internal Improvements was 
appointed, with the Governor as ex officio 
head, and under their advice a system 
of railroads was inaugurated, the Boston 
?nd Lowell being the first constructed 
(1829). By his recommendation, notable 
reforms were achieved in prison manage- 
ment ; in the care of the insane ; and in 
the inauguration of the splendid normal 
school system of the State. As a result, 
ihe act establishing the State Lunatic 
Asylum was passed in 1829, and the one 
establishing normal schools in each 
county in 1828. But his policy was also 
to curb what he considered unjust and 
harmful measures ; he was the first Mas- 
sachusetts Governor to use the veto 
power granted by the constitution. 
He was specially applauded for vetoing 
the bill to construct a second bridge over 
the Charles river, to be run in opposition 
to the corporation that had already con- 
trolled the highway for many years. This, 
he claimed, would be a violation of the 
State's guarantee to the company. In 
1836 he declined further nomination for 
Governor, but allowed himself to be 
elected Congressman from the Worcester 
district, to succeed John Davis. In this 
new capacity he fully maintained his for- 
mer honorable record — faithfulness to 


Governor Levi Lincoln. 


principles without faction ; and progress- 
iveness, wisely tempered with conserva- 
tism. Thoroughly characteristic was his 
protest against the bitter charges of ex- 
travagance urged by certain congressmen 
against President Van Buren, when with 
his usual energy of oratory he declared 
himself utterly "unwilling that even a 
good cause should borrow aid from so 
questionable a means of attack." After 
three terms in Congress, he declined re- 
election, and in 1841 was appointed Col- 
lector of the Port of Boston by President 
W. H. Harrison. After occupying this 
position with acceptance until 1843, he 
removed to Worcester, intending to re- 
tire from public life. This, however, a 
grateful public would not allow, and al- 
most by compulsion he was honored with 
elections to the State Senate (1844-45), 
being president in the latter year; as 
first mayor of Lowell (1848), and as 
presidential elector in 1848, when he pre- 
sided over the electoral college ; and in 
1864, when he cast the State vote for 
Abraham Lincoln. In 1847 he was ap- 
pointed on a committee to revise the State 
militia laws, and his able report proved 
the basis of the excellent system still in 
use. Again, in 1854, he was commissioner 
appointed to inquire and report on the 
number and condition of insane persons 
in Massachusetts. Governor Lincoln was 
an earnest Christian and a lifelong advo- 
cate of temperance. He served for many 
years as president of the Worcester 
County Bible Society, and presided over 
the first temperance convention (Wor- 
cester, 1833). In his later years he de- 
voted his attention principally to agricul- 
ture. He owned an extensive stock farm 
near Worcester, in which he took great 
pleasure, and was president of the county 
agricultural society (1824-52). He was 
also a member of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, and an overseer of Har- 
vard College. 

His wife, a daughter of William Sever, 
of Kingston, survived him, with three 
sons and one daughter. He died in Wor- 
cester, May 29, It 

PEABODY, George, 


George Peabody was born in Danvers, 
■Massachusetts, February 18, 1795, a de- 
scendant of Lieutenant Francis Peabody, 
the immigrant (1614-97). 

He served as apprentice to a country 
grocer in Danvers, 1806-10. He resided 
in Thetford, Vermont, in 1810-11, and 
engaged in the dry goods business in 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, with his 
elder brother, David, in 181 1, removing 
after the destruction of the store by fire 
to Georgetown, D. C, to become finan- 
cial assistant to his uncle, John Peabody. 
Upon the outbreak of the war of 1812, he 
joined a company of volunteer infantry, 
and was stationed at Fort Warburton, 
commanding the river approach to Wash- 
ington. In 1814 he formed a partnership 
in the wholesale dry goods business with 
Elisha Riggs, and in 1815 the house re- 
moved to Baltimore. He traveled on 
horseback through western New York, 
Pennsylvania, Marj-land and Virginia, 
and in 1 82 1 had so increased the business 
that branch offices were opened at Phil- 
adelphia and in New York City. In 1829 
Mr. Riggs retired from business, and in 
1837 Mr. Peabody established the firm of 
George Peabody & Company, merchants 
and money brokers, Wamford Court, 
London, England. The business grew 
to be among the foremost in London, 
and the firm negotiated large government 
loans, including the sale of $8,000,000 
Maryland State bonds in 1835. The 
$200,000 commission thereon Mr. Pea- 
body remitted to the State, for which he 
received a special vote of thanks from 
the Legislature. In 185 1 he advanced 
$15,000 to enable the products of Ameri- 



can industry to be properly displayed at 
the exhibition of that year, and in 1852 
he donated $10,000 to be used for equip- 
ping the "Advance," which had been pre- 
sented by Henry Grinnell, of New York 
City, for a second Arctic expedition to 
search for Sir John Franklin. The 
searchers named part of the newly-dis- 
covered territory "Peabody Land." In 
June, 1852, he donated the means for the 
establishment of the Peabody Institute in 
his native town; in 1866 established the 
Peabody Library at Thetford, Vermont, 
and founded the Peabody Institute at 
Baltimore, Maryland, in 1866. In 1859 
he began a plan for promoting the com- 
fort and happiness of the poor of London, 
advancing $750,000 for the foundation of 
a tenement-house fund. The work of 
erection was at once begun, and in 1864 
a block was opened to its tenants, the 
fund being increased by Mr. Peabody in 
1873 to $2,500,000. He also gave $3,- 
000,000 for the education of the poor 
children of the south, part of which fund 
was in Mississippi State bonds, which 
remained inactive, but the interest from 
the earning part of the gift was used to 
assist normal schools for teachers in the 
southern States. In 1866 he declined 
the choice of a baronetcy or the grand 
cross of the Order of the Bath. On July 
23. 1869, the Prince of Wales unveiled 
in a public square in London a bronze 
statue of Mr. Peabody, the donation of 
the people of the city. Among his other 
notable gifts were the following: $150,- 
000 to Harvard University; $150,000 to 
Yale; $140,000 to the Peabody Academy 
of Science, Salem, Massachusetts ; $25,- 
000 to Kenyon College, Ohio ; $25,000 to 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachu- 
setts ; $20,000 for the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, and $100,000 for the 
building of a church in memory of his 
mother at Georgetown, Massachusetts. 
He visited America for the last time 

in 1869, and on his return to England 
was in such poor health that he decided 
to remove to France. He died, however, 
in London, and the funeral services were 
held at Westminster Abbey, and nis re- 
mains were brought to the United States 
in H. M. S. "Monarch," convoyed by an 
American and a French vessel. When 
the body reached Portland, Maine, it was 
received by an American naval squadron 
and transferred to Peabody, Massachu- 
setts, where, after appropriate services 
were held, it was placed in the family 
vault at Harmony Grove Cemetery, 
Salem, Massachusetts. His name was 
given 11 place in the Llall of Fame for 
Great Americans, New York University, 
October, 1900, in "Class F, Philanthro- 
pists" receiving seventy-two votes, the 
highest in the class. He died November 
4, 1869. 

TICKNOR, George, 

Man of IdCtters. 

George Ticknor was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, August i, 1791, son of 
Elisha and Elizabeth (Billings) Ticknor, 
grandson of Colonel Elisha Ticknor, and 
his first wife, Ruth (Knowles) Ticknor, 
and a descendant of William Ticknor, 
who came from Kent, England, to Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, about 1640, was ser- 
geant in King Philip's war, and was 
married to Llannah Stockbridge. His 
father was a public-spirited man, to 
whose efforts was largely due the estab- 
lishment jf the public primary schools in 
Boston. He was also one of the found- 
ers of the first savings bank. 

George Ticknor was a natural student, 
and at the age of nine had an entrance 
certificate to Dartmouth College. He en- 
tered as a junior in 1805 ; was graduated 
A. B. in 1807; studied Greek and Latin. 
1807-10, and received the Master of Arts 
degree in the latter year. He read law 
in 1810-13, and after practicing the pro- 



fession for one year, decided to give his 
attention to letters. He traveled in this 
country during 1814-15, and visited Eng- 
land and Holland in 1815, studying at 
Gottingen University. In 181 7, while 
still abroad, he accepted the chair of 
French and Spanish Languages and Lit- 
erature and Belles Lettres at Harv^ard 
College, and shortly after visited France, 
Italy, Spain and Portugal. He went to 
Paris in 1818 and thence to London and 
Edinburgh, returning to Boston in 1819 
to accept the chair at Harvard, which he 
held until 1835. He was appointed an 
examiner at the United States Military 
Academy in 1826. He visited England, 
Ireland and Germany in 1835-36; Austria, 
Bavaria, Switzerland and Italy, 1836-37, 
and then the Tyrol, Paris, London and 
Scotland, returning to Boston in 1838, 
where he spent his time in literary work. 
Realizing the need of a public library 
in Boston, he began to interest the citi- 
zens in the matter, and in 185 1 Edward 
Everett donated one thousand volumes 
as the nucleus of a library. In 1852 Mr. 
Ticknor was appointed a member of the 
board of trustees to form the library, and 
in its interest and at his own expense he 
went to London, where he procured a 
gift of $50,000 from Joshua Bates. In 
1856 he made a second visit to Europe 
in the interest of the library. Mr. Tick- 
nor maintained that a public library 
should not be for scholars exclusively, 
but should contain books suited to the 
average reader, and he also arranged to 
have it used by the pupils of the public 
schools. He was a fellow of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a 
member of the American Philosophical 
and the Massachusetts Historical socie- 
ties. He received from Harvard the 
honorary degrees of A. M., in 1814, and 
LL. D. in 1850; from Brown and Dart- 
mouth, that of LL. D. in 1850 and 1858. 
respectively, and from the University of 

the State of New York, that of L. H. D. 
in 1864. His name was presented for con- 
sideration for a place in the Hall of Fame 
for Great Americans, New York Univer- 
sity, in October, 1900, with twenty-two 
others comprising Class A, Authors and 
Editors. He is the author of : "Outlines 
of the Principal Events in Life of La- 
fayette" (1825) ; "The History of Span- 
ish Literature" (1849-63. and an enlarged 
edition, 1871) ; and "Life of William 
Hickling Prescott" (1864). He was mar- 
ried, September 18, 1821, to Anna, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Eliot, of Boston. Lie died 
in Boston, Massachusetts, January 26, 

D ALT ON, Edward Barry, 

Surgeon, Civil 'War Veteran. 

Edward Barry Dalton was born at 
Lowell, Massachusetts, September 21, 
1834, brother of Dr. John C. Dalton. 

Prepared for college by private tutors, 
he entered Harvard College, and was 
graduated in 1855. A few months later 
he went to New York City and entered 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
where he was graduated in regular 
course in 1858. He is said to have been 
particularly interesting to his preceptors 
on account not only of his aptitude, but 
for the rapidity with which he grasped 
the essential points of a surgical opera- 
tion, even of the most difficult nature. 
Beginning with the avowed intention of 
being a medical practitioner, this natural 
skill carried him almost involuntarily 
into surgery, in which he made his name 
famous. Immediately after graduation 
he served as interne at Bellevue Hospital 
for eighteen months, and resident phy- 
sician of St. Luke's Hospital for the same 
period. The Civil War breaking out at 
this time, he at once volunteered, and 
was appointed assistant surgeon in the 
United States Navy. Five months later 
he was commissioned surgeon to the 


Thirty-sixth Regiment, United States 
V^olunteers, and in 1863 he was made 
surgeon of volunteers, United States 
army, and promoted to be medical in- 
spector of the Sixth Army Corps, assign- 
ed to the stafif of Major-General Sedg- 
wick. Shortly after, he was made surgeon 
in charge of the general hospital at Ports- 
mouth, Virginia, and in succession be- 
came medical director of the Ninth Army 
Corps ; medical inspector of the Army of 
the Potomac ; lieutenant-colonel ; chief 
medical director of depot field hospitals, 
Army of the Potomac, and for general 
brilliant efficiency was brevetted colonel. 
The depot of field hospitals of the Army 
of the Potomac, as finally established at 
City Point, Virginia, was capable of ac- 
commodating ten thousand patients, and 
nearly that number was often under 
treatment at the same time. It covered 
an area of two hundred acres, with twelve 
hundred hospital fly-tents arranged in 
rows, with streets sixty feet wide, abut- 
ting on a main avenue one hundred and 
eighty feet wide, with an underground 
water pipe system having frequent hy- 
drants, supplied from a pumping station 
at the river, furnishing an abundance of 
water for laundry, bathing and other 
coarse purposes, while for drinking and 
cooking wells were sunk in the vicinity 
at numerous springs. The streets were 
sprinkled by watering carts, and bowers 
were planted continuously for moderating 
the heat. Surface drainage was secured 
by an eight-inch trench around each 
group of two tents, leading to wide 
ditches on each side of the streets, which 
connected with larger ones leading to 
the adjacent ravines. From May 16, to 
October 31, 1864, 68,540 men and officers 
were under treatment in the depots, for 
at least forty-eight hours, of which 10,- 
706 returned to duty. A large number 
received treatment for less than forty- 

eight hours, and were sent north on trans- 
ports. This vast field hospital system 
was unique in military experience, in 
its extent, in its thorough sanitary equip- 
ment, and splendid curative results. It 
attracted the attention of many foreign 
governments, who detailed officers to in- 
spect and report upon it. On March 25, 
1865, Dr. Dalton was relieved from duty 
at the hospital and assigned as medical 
director of the Ninth Army Corps ; was 
with it in the main assault of April 2d, 
and in entering Petersburg on the 3rd. 
For the successful management of his de- 
partment at the field hospitals, at the 
assault, and subsequently, he received 
special commendation in the reports of 
both the medical director and medical 
inspector of the army. On the return of 
the army to Washington, after Lee's sur- 
render, he was assigned as chief medical 
officer at the depot hospital at Alex- 
andria. Virginia. These duties injured 
his constitution and in May, 1865, he re- 
signed his commission and returned to 
New York City to begin the practice of 

In spite of his distaste for public life, 
it seemed impossible for him to avoid it, 
and in 1868 he was appointed sanitary 
superintendent of the Board of Health 
of New York. His remarkable executive 
ability greatly improved the service, but 
he resigned his post in January, 1869, 
and thereafter devoted himself to his pri- 
vate practice. In 1869 he originated the 
present system of ambulance service for 
the transportation of the sick and in- 
jured. His health failing, he sought re- 
lief in a journey abroad, but without 
avail, and after trying various health re- 
sorts he went to California, where he 
died in the prime of manhood. The Bos- 
ton "Advertiser" wrote of him : "He was 
one of those rare characters of whom it 
is difficult to say enough. * * *His mod- 


<y^^^^/^/<^x/V'./ 9'/'/^r,^^\f^^ 


esty was only exceeded by his innate 
self-respect, remarkable decision of char- 
acter, gentleness and courage." He died 
at Santa Barbara, California, 


EASTBURN, Manton, 

Clergyman, Author. 

Manton Eastburn, third Protestant 
Episcopal bishop of Massachusetts, was 
born in Leeds, England, February 9, 
1801. His parents removed to the United 
States when he was a child. His brother 
was James Wallis Eastburn, who wrote 
the hymn, "O, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord." 

In his youth, Manton Eastburn was of 
a religious turn of mind, and even then 
had a decided taste for theological stud- 
ies. In 1817 he was graduated at Co- 
lumbia College, and afterward entered 
the General Episcopal Theological Semi- 
nary in New York. He was ordained in 
1822. and officiated as assistant minister 
in Christ Church, New York City, for 
several years thereafter. In 1827 he be- 
came rector of the Church of the Ascen- 
sion, and on December 29, 1842, was made 
assistant bishop of the diocese of Massa- 
chusetts. Upon the death of Bishop 
Grisw'old, of the Eastern Diocese, he be- 
came bishop of Massachusetts. He took 
a deep interest in missionary work, and 
upon his death bequeathed his property 
to the domestic missions in Massachu- 
setts, to the endowment of a Protestant 
Episcopal theological school at Cam- 
bridge, and to the American Bible So- 
ciety. Among his publications were, 
"Four Lectures on Hebrew, Latin and 
English Poetry," delivered before the 
New York Athenaeum (1825) ; and a por- 
tion of a volume of "Essays and Disserta- 
tions on Biblical Literature" (1829) ; also 
"Lectures on the Epistles to the Phil- 
lipians" (1833"). ^^ delivered the oration 
at the centennial anniversarv of Colum- 

bia College in 1837. He edited Thorn- 
ton's "Family Prayer" (1836). He died 
in Boston, Massachusetts, September 11, 

MORSE, Samuel Finley Breese, 
Distinguished Scientist. 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse was born 
in Charlestown, Massachusetts, April 27, 
1791, son of the Rev. Jedediah and Eliza- 
beth Ann (Breese) Morse; grandson of 
Deacon Jedediah and Sarah (Child) 
Morse, of Woodstock, Connecticut, and 
of Samuel and Rebecca (Finley) Breese; 
great-grandson of John and Sarah 
Morse, of Benjamin and Patience 
(Thayer) Child, and of the Rev. Samuel 
and Sarah (Hill) Finley; great-grandson 
of Benjamin and Grace (Morris) Child, 
and a descendant of John Morse, who 
came from Marlborough, England, in 
1635. ^nd settled in Newbury, Massachu- 

He attended the public schools of 
Charlestown, and was graduated from 
Yale, A. B. 1810, A. M. 1816. While in 
college he attended Professor Silliman's 
lectures on electricity, and became espe- 
cially interested in natural philosophy, 
chemistry and galvanism. He decided to 
become an artist, and in 181 1 accompan- 
ied Washington Allston to London, 
where he studied painting under Allston, 
West and Copely. In 1813 he exhibited 
a colossal painting of the "Dying Her- 
cules" at the Royal Academy, w^here it 
received honorable mention, and the same 
year presented a model in clay of the 
same subject to the Society of Arts in 
competition, and received the prize medal 
for the best original cast of a single 
figure. In July, 1814, he completed a 
painting of "The Judgment of Jupiter in 
the Case of Apollo, Marpesa and Idas," 
and sent it to the Royal Academy for 
exhibition. He returned to America in 

MASS— 9 



1815, and his picture was rejected on ac- 
count of his absence. He then engaged 
in portrait painting in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, and in Charleston, South CaroHna. 
In 1819 he painted a portrait of James 
Monroe at Washington, D. C, which was 
placed in the City Hall at Charleston. 
He then removed to New York City, 
and established a studio on Broadway, 
opposite Trinity Church, where he 
painted portraits of Chancellor Kent, 
Fitz Greene Halleck, and a full length 
portrait of General Lafayette, for the 
city of New York. He founded the New 
York Drawing Association and was 
elected its first president; was the first 
president of the newly established Na- 
tional Academy of Design, 1826-42; pres- 
ident of the Sketch Club ; and delivered 
a course of lectures on "The Fine Arts" 
before the New York Athenaeum. In 
1829 he traveled and studied in London, 
Paris and Italy. While in Paris he pro- 
duced a canvas on which he depicted in 
miniature fifty of the finest pictures in 
the Louvre. 

He returned to the United States in 
1832, on the packet-ship "Sully," and on 
the voyage the subject of electro-magnet- 
ism and the affinity of magnetism to elec- 
tricity became a frequent topic of dis- 
cussion, several of the passengers being 
well versed in science. Mr. Morse be- 
came impressed with the idea that signs 
representing figures and letters might be 
transmitted to any distance by means of 
an electric spark over an insulated wire, 
and on his arrival in New York City, 
making use of the electro-magnet invent- 
ed by Professor Joseph Henry, of Prince- 
ton, New Jersey, he began to develop the 
use of his proposed alphabet. He devised 
a system of dots and spaces to represent 
letters and words, to be interpreted by 
a telegraphic dictionary. He was pro- 
fessor of the literature of the arts of de- 
sign in the University of the City of New 

York, 1832-72, and it was in the univer- 
sity building on Washington square that 
he completed his experiments, with the 
help and advice of Professor Henry, with 
whom he was in correspondence. The 
models were made of a picture frame 
fastened to a table; the wheels of a wood- 
en clock, moved by a weight, carried the 
paper forward ; three wooden drums 
guided and held the paper in place ; a 
wooden pendulum containing a pencil at 
its power end was suspended from the top 
of the frame and vibrated across the 
paper as it passed over the center wooden 
drum. An electro-magnet was fastened 
to a shelf across the frame, opposite an 
armature made fast to the pendulum ; a 
type rule and type for breaking the cir- 
cuit rested on an endless bank which 
passed over two wooden rollers moved 
by a crank, this rule being carried for- 
ward by teeth projecting from its lower 
edge into the band ; a lever with a small 
weight attached and a tooth projecting 
downward at one end, was operated on 
by the type, and a metallic form pro- 
jected downward over two mercury cups. 
A short circuit of wire embraced the 
helices of the electro-magnet and con- 
nected with the poles of the battery, and 
terminated in the mercury cups. By 
turning the wooden crank, the type in 
the rule raised one end of the lever and 
by bringing the fork into the mercury it 
closed the circuit, causing the pendulum 
to move and the pencil to leave its mark 
upon the paper. The circuit was broken 
when the tooth in the lever fell into the 
first two cogs of the types, and the pen- 
dulum swinging back made another 
mark. As the spaces between the types 
caused the pencil to make horizontal 
lines long or short, Mr. Morse was able, 
with the aid of his telegraphic dictionary, 
to spell out words and to produce sounds 
that could be read. The perfected idea 
was heartily endorsed by those to whom 



he had exhibited it, and after many im- 
provements in the details he published 
the results of his experiments in the "New 
York Observer," April 15, 1837. 

In the summer of 1837, Alfred Vail 
became interested in Mr. Morse's instru- 
ment, and advanced the means to enable 
him to make a more perfectly construct- 
ed apparatus. In September, 1837, Morse 
filed an application for a patent, and en- 
deavored to obtain from Congress the 
right to experiment between Washington 
and Baltimore, but without avail. He 
then went to Europe to obtain aid but 
did not meet with success. He returned 
to the United States in May, 1839, and it 
was not until March 3, 1843, just before 
the close of the session, that he obtained 
from the Forty-seventh Congress an ap- 
propriation of $30,000 for experimental 
purposes, the first vote standing ninety 
ayes to eighty-two nays. He at once 
began work on his line from Washington 
to Baltimore, which was partially com- 
pleted ]\Iay I, 1844, and the first message 
transmitted a part of the way by wire 
was the announcement of the nomination 
of Henry Clay for president by the Whig 
Convention at Baltimore. IMaryland. By 
May 24th the line was practically com- 
pleted, and the first public exhibition was 
given in the chamber of the United States 
Supreme Court in the capitol at Wash- 
ington, his associate, Mr. Vail, being at 
Mount Claire depot, Baltimore, Mary- 
land. Anna G. Ellsworth, daughter of 
the United States Commissioner of 
Patents, selected the words, "What hath 
God wTought." and the message was 
transmitted to Mr. Vail and returned 
over the same wire. The news of the 
nomination of James K. Polk for presi- 
dent was sent to Washington wholly by 
wire, and the news was discredited in 
Washington until the nomination of Silas 
Wright for vice-president was received 
and communicated by Mr. Morse to Sen- 

ator Wright, who directed Mr. Morse to 
wire his positive declination of the nomi- 
nation, the receipt of which so surprised 
the convention that it adjourned to await 
a messenger from Washington. A com- 
pany was formed soon after, and the tele- 
graph grew with great rapidity. In 1846 
the patent was extended, and was adopt- 
ed in France, Germany, Denmark, Rus- 
sia, Sweden and Australia. The defense 
of his patent-rights involved Professor 
Morse in a series of costly suits, and his 
profits were consumed by prosecuting 
lival companies, but his rights were final- 
ly affirmed by the United States Supreme 

Morse now turned his attention to sub- 
marine telegraphy, and in 1842 laid a 
cable between Castle Garden and Gov- 
ernor's Island. New York Harbor. He 
gave valuable assistance to Peter Cooper 
and Cyrus W. Field in their efforts to 
lay a cable across the Atlantic ocean, 
being electrician to the New York. New- 
foundland & London Telegraph Com- 
pany. He was an intimate friend of Jac- 
ques Haude Daguerre, the inventor of 
the daguerreotype, whom he had met in 
Paris in 1839, and on his return to the 
United States constructed an apparatus 
and succeeded, in connection with Dr. 
John W. Draper, in producing the first 
sun pictures ever made in the United 
States. Morse also patented a marble- 
cutting machine in 1823, which he claim- 
ed would produce perfect copies of any 
model. Professor Morse made his home 
at "Locust Grove," on the Hudson river, 
below Poughkeepsie, New York, retain- 
ing his winter residence on Twenty-sec- 
ond street. New York City, and on the 
street front of this house a marble tablet 
has been inserted, inscribed: "In this 
house S. F. B. Morse lived for many 
years, and died." The honorary degree 
of LL D. was conferred on him by Yale 
College in 1846, and he received a great 



silver medal from the Academic In- 
dustrie, Paris, in 1839, and decorations 
from Turkey, France, Denmark, Prussia, 
Wurtemberg, Spain, Portugal, Austria, 
Sweden, Italy and Switzerland. He was 
elected a member of the Royal Academy 
of Fine Arts of Belgium in 1837; corre- 
sponding member of the National Insti- 
tute for the Promotion of Science in 1841 ; 
a member of the Archaeological Associ- 
ation of Belgium in 1845, ^^d the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences in 
1849. I^ ^^5^ ^ banquet was given him 
by the telegraph companies of Great 
Britain, and in 1858 representatives of 
France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, Sar- 
dinia, Turkey, Holland, Italy, Tuscany, 
and the Netherlands met at Paris and 
voted an appropriation of 400,000 francs 
to be used for a collective testimonial to 
Mr. Morse. A banquet was held in his 
honor in New York City on December 
30, 1868, Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase 
presiding. A bronze statue of heroic size, 
representing him holding the first mes- 
sage sent over the wires, was modelled 
by E3'ron M. Pickett and was erected in 
Central Park, New York City, by volun- 
tary subscriptions June 10, 1871. The 
evening of the same day a reception was 
held at the Academy of Music, a tele- 
graph instrument was connected with all 
the wires in the United States, and the 
following message was sent: "Greeting 
and thanks of the telegraph fraternity 
throughout the land. Glory to God in 
the highest, and on earth peace, good 
will to men." To this message Morse 
transmitted his name, with his own hand 
on the instrument. On January 17, 1872, 
Professor Morse unveiled the statue of 
Benjamin I'Vanklin in Printing House 
Square, New York City. 

In the selection of names for places in 
the FTall of Fame for Great Americans, 
New York University, in October, 1900, 
his was one of the sixteen names sub- 

mitted in "Class D, Inventors," and was 
one of three in the class to secure a place, 
receiving eighty votes, while eighty-five 
votes were given to Robert Fulton, ana 
sixty-seven to Eli Whitney. Mr. Morse 
published several poems and various 
scientific and economic articles in the 
"North American Review" ; edited the 
"Remains of Lucretia Maria Davidson," 
(1829), and is the author of: "Foreign 
Conspiracy against the Liberties of the 
United States" (1835), "Imminent Dan- 
gers to the Free Institutions of the 
United States through Foreign Immigra- 
tion and the Present State of the Natural- 
ization Laws, by an American" (1835), 
"Confessions of a French Catholic Priest" 
(1837), and "Our Liberties Defended, the 
Question Discussed ; Is the Protestant or 
Papal System most favorable to Civil 
and Religious Liberty?" (1841). 

He was married, October 6, 1818, to 
Lucretia, daughter of Charles Walker, of 
Concord, New Hampshire, by whom he 
had children, Charles Walker, Susan, 
and James Edward Finley. He was mar- 
ried (second) August 10, 1848, to Sarah 
Elizabeth, daughter of Captain Arthur 
Griswold, United States Army, and by 
her had children : Samuel Arthur Breese, 
Cornelia Livingston, William Goodrich 
and Edward Lind. Mrs. Morse died at 
the home of her daughter in Berlin, Ger- 
many, November 14, 1901. His death 
was observed by Congress, and in several 
State legislatures memorial sessions were 
held in his honor. He died in New York 
City, April 2, 1872. 

MASON, Lowell, 

Distingnislied Musician and Composer. 

Lowell Mason was born at Medfield, 
Massachusetts, January 8, 1792. He was 
a descendant of Robert Mason, probably 
one of John Winthrop's company which 
settled the town of Roxbury, Massachu- 
setts, in the year 1630. 



His advantages were slight, and in his 
earlier years he was not regarded as hav- 
ing any useful talent, though he showed 
an ardent love for music, and a wonderful 
facility in mastering every musical in- 
strument that came to hand. By Dr. 
Mason's own account of his early life he 
was. in the opinion of the community, "a 
wayward, unpromising boy, although in- 
dulging in no vices." He gave little 
promise save for music, and his great 
passion for musical instruments led him 
to save carefully his small means that he 
might buy them. He spent twenty years 
of his life doing nothing but playing upon 
all manner of musical instruments that 
came within his reach. But, as the sequel 
showed, these twenty years of "doing 
nothing" were a valuable preparation for 
the useful life that follow^ed. W^hile still 
a boy he took charge of the choir of the 
church in his native village, and until he 
was twenty conducted singing classes in 
neighborhood communities. In 1812 he 
went to Savannah. Georgia, where he 
divided his attention between the banking 
business and his musical studies. In 
order to understand the lifework upon 
which Lowell Mason now entered, it is 
necessary to have a clear knowledge of 
the state of things which he had to face. 
The Puritan fathers, in the zeal of their 
asceticism, not only broke ofif from the 
abuses but from many of the advan- 
tages, aesthetic and social, which they 
had known in Europe. The plastic arts 
seemed to them insidious devices of the 
devil, and of music they only preserved 
the simple and embryonic variety which 
they had been accustomed to hear in the 
dissenting churches of the mother-coun- 
try. The tunes soon became almost un- 
recognizable, and were sung by the con- 
gregation with no attempt at musical 
training or culture. At this juncture i 
style of music was introduced from 
England which made a great stir, the so- 

called "fugue tunes." They were lively 
melodies in the imitative form, the parts 
responding to each other like a "catch" 
or madrigal, and in contrast with the 
former heavy, lifeless style, proved very 
attractive. Persons with no knowledge 
of harmony and little musical genius, 
took up the new fashion and flooded the 
country with their elastic compositions, 
and the last state of the churches was 
little better than the first. It was in this 
discouraging condition that Lowell Ma- 
son found music in the Protestant 
churches, and it was as a pioneer in the 
work of replacing it by tunes at once 
simple and noble, tunes founded on the 
fundamental principles of musical art, 
symmetrical in form and infused with 
essential dignity, that he became entitled 
to gratitude and respect. Not only did 
he interest himself in the ecclesiastical 
side of art, but also saw clearly that in 
order to bring about a real revolution in 
musical conceptions and ideals he must 
go further back — he must begin at the 
beginning. This was the motive that led 
him to introduce the teaching of vocal 
music as a regular branch of common 
school education, and the children of our 
country are indebted to him that they are 
taught to sing as they are taught to read. 
He was not a great composer. His tunes 
lay no claim to originality, many of them 
being frankly adaptations and versions of 
the classical melodies of Handel. Haydn, 
Mozart, and Beethoven, of the magnifi- 
cent old Gregorian tones, or plain chants 
of the ancient Roman church, and even of 
popular street melodies, but his strength 
lay in the clearness of vision by which 
he saw the lack of nobility in the tunes 
current in the churches of his youth, and 
in the freedom from narrow sectarian 
prejudice in which he gratefully accepted 
the gifts of a parent civilization and their 
appropriateness as the musical media of 
religious expression, and the zeal which 



enabled him to bring about the great re- 
form he undoubtedly accomplished. At 
Savannah he was so fortunate as to find 
a truly cultivated musician by the name 
of F. L. Abell, with whom he studied 
harmony and musical composition. In 

182 1 he returned to Boston with a bundle 
of manuscript for w^hich he found a pub- 
lisher, and which was brought out in 

1822 in a book entitled "Boston Handel- 
Haydn Society's Collection of Church 
Music." Its success was immediate and 
unprecedented, and led to his removal to 
Boston in 1827, where his work was di- 
vided between the choirs of three 
churches that had arranged with him to 
take charge of the music of each church 
for six months alternately, but becoming 
dissatisfied with this plan, he made a per- 
manent arrangement with the Bowdoin 
Street Church, of which Dr. Lyman 
Beecher was pastor, and the choir was 
not long in gaining a national reputation. 
Pilgrimages were made from all parts of 
the land to hear the wonderful singing, 
and the descriptions they gave of the 
beautiful vocal music they had heard 
stimulated their choir leaders to more 
faithful efforts in their own church work. 
Clergymen, attending ministerial gather- 
ings in Boston, carried home oftentimes 
quite as much musical as spiritual in- 

Dr. Mason was led to his first efforts 
in the systematic instruction of children 
ni music, l)y the necessities of his choir. 
AVishing to strengthen the alto part, and 
recognizing the peculiar fitness of certain 
boys' voices for that part, he selected six 
boys and trained them regularly at his 
home. This was a great marvel at that 
day, and the skepticism of the public 
mind to the training of children in music 
cannot well be realized at the present 
time. Through Dr. William C. Wood- 
bridge, who had spent several years in 
studying the educational systems of the 

Old World, he was led to test the induc- 
tive method of Pestalozzi, and accepted 
it so fully and pressed it so vigorously 
that he may be truly said to have done 
more than any other person to make that 
name a household word in America. In 
1832 he founded the Boston Academy of 
Music, and in 1837 went abroad to ex- 
amine the latest methods of musical in- 
struction on the continent of Europe and 
m England. Dr. Mason was the creator 
of the musical convention which has be- 
come an American institution. Pie put 
forth a series of tune books extending 
over a period of half a century, number- 
ing more than fifty volumes, and having 
an aggregate circulation of 2,000,000 
copies. He was associated with Profes- 
sors Park and Phelps, of Andover, as 
musical editor of the important "Sabbath 
Hymn Book" (1858). In 1830 he pro- 
duced "The juvenile Lyrics," said to be 
the earliest collection of songs for secu- 
lar schools, and several others of later 
date, besides "Musical Letters from 
Abroad" (1853). Among his most famil- 
iar and renowned tunes are the follow- 
ing: "Corinth" (I love to steal awhile 
away") ; "Cowper" (There is a fountain 
filled with blood) ; "Bethany" (Nearer, 
my God, to Thee) ; "Missionary Hymn" 
(From Greenland's Icy Mountains) ; and 
"Mount Vernon" (Sister, thou wast mild 
and lovely). 

The degree of Music Doctor, conferred 
on him by the University of the City of 
New York, was the first ever given in 
America. In 1817 Dr. Mason married 
Abigail Gregory, by whom he had four 
sons, of whom the third son, Dr. William 
Alason, is recognized as one of the most 
distinguished musicians America has yet 
produced. In the last years of his life he 
lived at his home in Orange, New Jer- 
sey. He was a man of strong and im- 
pressive individuality, a virile nature in 
which an iron will was coupled with a 

= 34 


gentle and tender heart. He was chival- 
rously honorable and held an uncompro- 
mising regard for truth, which, while 
sometimes seeming to be too obstinately 
literal, was yet in essence a noble care for 
uprightness and integrity. He died at 
Orange, New Jersey, August ii, 1872. 
His large musical library was given to 
Yale College. 

AGASSIZ, Jean Louis Rudolphe, 

Distinguished Naturalist. 

Jean Louis Rudolphe Agassiz was born 
in the village of Motier-en-Vuly, in the 
Canton Fribourg, Switzerland, May 2S. 
1807, son of Louis Rudolphe and Rose 
(Mayor) Agassiz. His father was a 
Protestant clergyman, as had been his 
progenitors for six generations. His 
mother, the daughter of a physician, a 
woman of intellect and refinement, assist- 
ed her husband in the education of her 

Louis Agassiz early developed a pas- 
sionate fondness for birds and animals of 
all sorts, and he observed their habits and 
characteristics with great accuracy and 
intelligence. In the parsonage garden 
stood a large stone basin full of spring 
water, and in this the embryo ichthyolo- 
gist had quite a collection of fishes before 
he was five years of age. In 1817 he was 
sent to a gymnasium at Bienne, where 
he became proficient in ancient and mod- 
ern languages. In 1822 he entered the 
college at Lausanne, where he had access 
to a fine biological collection owned by 
Professor Chavannes, the director of the 
cantonal museum. It had been intended 
by his parents that Louis should follow 
commercial pursuits, but his singular 
aptitude for scientific study led them to 
change their plans and allow him to fit 
himself for the study of medicine; he, 
therefore, in 1824 began his medical stud- 
ies at Zurich, where he benefited greatly 
by the kindness of Professor Schinz, who 

held the chair of natural history and phy- 
siology, and who allowed the youthful 
scientist free access to his private library 
and to his valuable collection of birds. In 

1826 he passed to the University of Heid- 
elberg, where he made the acquaintance 
of Alexander Braun, like himself an en- 
thusiastic naturalist. Their friendship 
was of mutual benefit. An interesting 
item in connection with his studies at 
Heidelberg is the fact that the magnifi- 
cent collection of fossils owned by Pro- 
fessor Bronn, the paleontologist, and 
used by him in giving Agassiz his first 
paleontological instruction, was bought 
in 1859 by the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
and was there used by Agassiz in instruct- 
ing his American pupils. Agassiz in 

1827 entered the University of Munich, 
and the lodging rooms of himself and 
Braun, who was again his fellow student, 
were the headquarters for the "Little 
Academy," an organization started by 
Agassiz, and over which he presided. 
There the most earnest and energetic 
young spirits of the university met to dis- 
cuss scientific problems and to disclose 
to each other the results of their investi- 
gations in the various fields in which they 
were interested. Many of the professors 
attended these student lectures, and some 
of Professor Bollinger's most important 
physiological discoveries were there made 
known for the first time. In the summer 
of 1S28, Von Martins proposed to Agassi."^ 
that he should write a description of a 
collection of some one hundred and six- 
teen specimens of fishes brought from 
Brazil by his lately deceased friend and 
colleague, J. B. De Spix. To this highly 
flattering proposition Agassiz assented 
with reluctance, fearing the work might 
too greatly interrupt his studies. He ar- 
ranged and classified the collection in a 
most original manner, and the work, 
written in Latin and illustrated by 



twenty-nine handsome plates, made its 
appearance in 1829. Agassiz was bareiy 
twenty-two years of age, and had just 
received the degree of Ph. D. from the 
University of Eriangen, when this his 
first published work brought him into 
prominence and won for him the recogni- 
tion and commendation of the chief nat- 
uraHsts of the world. He received his 
degree of M. D. from the University of 
Munich, April, 1830, the dean in confer- 
ring it remarking: "The faculty have 
been very much pleased with your an- 
swers ; they congratulate themselves on 
being able to give the diploma to a young 
man who has already acquired so honor- 
able a reputation." The subject of his 
graduation thesis was, "The Superiority 
of Woman over Man." He had already 
begun his "Fresh Water Fishes," and in 
December, 1829. he commenced collecting 
material for a work on fossil fishes, for 
which purpose he visited the collections 
in the Imperial Museum in Vienna, reach- 
ing his father's house at Concise on the 
thirtieth of December, 1830. Here he 
passed nearly a year, with his artist, M. 
Dinkel, preparing plates and letterpress 
for "Fossil Fishes." At the close of the 
year 1831, he was enabled through the 
generosity of friends and relatives to go 
to Paris. Here he met Cuvier, to whom 
he dedicated his "Brazilian Fishes." The 
great naturalist, after questioning him as 
to the scope of his projected work on fossil 
fishes, and seeing the collection of accurate 
and artistic drawings which Agassiz had 
prepared, not only permitted him to see 
his private laboratory, but relinquished 
his own intention of publishing a volume 
on the same subject, and placed at Agas- 
siz's disposal his collected material, notes 
and drawings. Agassiz held this as the 
happiest moment of his life, and he set to 
work with renewed vigor to show the 
master, who had thus honored him, that 
his confidence had not been misplaced. 

Two or three weeks later, Cuvier's sud- 
den death added to the sacredness of this 
trust which had been committed to the 
youthful scientist. In March, 1832, his 
funds being exhausted, he was urged by 
his parents to leave Paris, and all his 
bright prospects might have suffered a 
total eclipse; had not Von Humboldt, 
hearing accidentally of his predicament, 
insisted in the most delicate manner on 
loaning him a thousand francs to tide 
him over the crisis. 

In November, 1832, Agassiz accepted 
an appointment as Professor of Natural 
History in the college at Neuchatel, at a 
salar}^ of about $400, declining brilliant 
offers in Paris because of the leisure for 
private study that this position afforded 
him. His reputation attracted to the col- 
lege a large number of students, and 
Neuchatel became the cynosure of all 
scientific eyes. The presence of Agassiz 
was at once stimulating to the intellectual 
life of the little town. With the two 
Louis de Coulon, father and son, he 
founded the Societe des Sciences Natur- 
clles, of which he was the first secretary, 
2nd in conjunction with the Coulons also 
arranged a provisional museum of natural 
history in the Orphans' Home. He was 
hardly established in his chair at Neuch- 
atel, when he was offered that of zoology 
at Heidelberg, as successor to Leuckart; 
this appointment, although the emolu- 
ments were more than double the amount 
accruing from the Neuchatel position, he 
declined. A serious calamity at this time 
threatened Agassiz ; his eyesight became 
seriously impaired, and he was obliged 
to live in a darkened room, and to desist 
from writing for several months, which 
precautions effected a cure. In 1833 he 
married Cecile Braun, sister of his friend 
Alexander Braun. and established his 
household at Neuchatel. Trained to 
scientific drawing by her brothers, his 
wife was of the greatest assistance to 

1 36 


Agassiz, some of the most beautiful 
plates in "Fossil and Fresh Water Fishes" 
being drawn by her. In 1833 appeared 
the first number of his "Recherches sur 
les Poissons Fossiles." a work comprising 
five quarto volumes, which took ten 
years for its completion. The first num- 
ber was received with enthusiasm by the 
scientists, whose regard had long been 
attracted to Agassiz. He received Feb- 
ruary 4, 1834, at the hands of Mr. Charles 
Lyell. the Wollaston prize of the Geo- 
logical Society of London, a sum of £31 
los., which was awarded as a recognition 
of the value of his lately issued volume. 
Buckland, ]\Iurchison, Lyell, and other 
English scientists were pressing in their 
invitations to Agassiz to visit England, 
which he did in August, 1834, was re- 
ceived with cordial enthusiasm, and made 
some fruitful paleontological investiga- 
tions during his short stay. He was 
awarded the sum of one hundred guineas, 
voted by the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for the "facilitat- 
ing of the researches upon the fossil fishes 
of England," a gift, which at the instance 
of Lockhart, Sedgwick and Muchison, 
was repeated the following year, when he 
attended the meeting of the association 
in Dublin. Guided by Professor Buck- 
land, he visited every public and private 
collection in the country, being treated 
with the greatest generosity by the Eng- 
lish naturalists, who loaned him two 
thousand specimens of fossil fishes se- 
lected from sixty collections, which he 
was allowed to take to London and class- 
ify and arrange in a room at Somerset 
House placed at his disposal by the Geo- 
logical Society. Two friends he made at 
this time, whose valuable assistance and 
cooperation were at his command during 
the rest of his life — Sir Philip Egerton 
and the Earl of Enniskillen, who placed 
at his disposal the most precious speci- 
mens of their noted collection of fossil 

fishes (now owned by the British Mu- 
seum). He made a second visit to Eng- 
land in 1835, and in 1836 was awarded the 
Wollaston medal of the Geological So- 

The vacation of 1836 was spent by 
Agassiz and his wife in the little village 
of Bex, where he met De Charpentier 
and Venetz, whose recently announced 
glacial theories had startled the scientific 
world, and Agassiz returned to Neu- 
chatel an enthusiastic convert. His con- 
clusion that the earth had passed through 
an ice age he announced at a meeting of 
the Helvetic Society of Natural Sciences 
in 1837, and despite the incredulity and 
derision with which it was at first re- 
ceived, the address was afterwards pub- 
lished, and led to profitable investigation 
on the part of geologists. In 1836 were 
published his "Prodromus of the Class 
of Echinodermata," a paper on the Echini 
of the Nescomien group of the Neuchatel 
Jura ; a description of fossil echini pecu- 
liar to Switzerland ; and the first number 
of "Monographied Echinodermes." His 
work on fossil fishes steadily progressed, 
and he was greatly helped at this time by 
the sale of his original drawings, which 
were purchased by Lord Francis Eger- 
ton, and presented by him to the British 
Museum. In 1837 he was offered a pro- 
fessorship at Geneva, and a few months 
later one at Lausanne, both of which he 
declined, preferring to remain at Neu- 
chatel. The Neuchatelois presented him 
with the sum of six thousand francs and 
a letter of thanks on his decision being 
made known. In 1838 he opened a litho- 
graphic establishment at Neuchatel, 
where his delicate plates were printed 
under his own supervision. It has been 
said of this period of the life of Agassiz 
that "he displayed during these years 
an incredible energy, of which the his- 
tory of science ofifers. perhaps, no other 
example." In addition to his duties as 



professor, he was issuing his "Fossil 
Fishes" and "Fresh Water Fishes" and 
pursuing his investigations on fossil echi- 
noderms and mollusks, the latter study 
leading to important results embodied in 
his volume, "Etude Critique sur les Mol- 
luscs Fossiles," which contained one 
hundred plates. In 1838 he made excur- 
sions to the valley of Hassli and to the 
glaciers of Mont Blanc, and later attend- 
ed a session of the Geological Society of 
France at Porrentruy, where he reported 
his discoveries and conclusions, as he did 
later at the meeting of the Association of 
German Naturalists at Freiburg-im-Breis- 
gau, in the Grand Duchy of Baden. In 
this year Agassiz was elected "Bour- 
geois de Neuchatel," a position which was 
remunerative as well as honorable. March 
17, 1838, the King of Prussia gave 10,000 
louis for the founding of an academy at 
Neuchatel, and Agassiz was confirmed as 
Professor of Natural History. In 1839 
he visited the Matterhorn and the chain 
of Monte Rosa, on both occasions being 
accompanied by artists and fellow scien- 
tists. During the winter of 1840 he re- 
corded the results of his explorations in 
"Etudes sur les Glaciers." In this work 
he says: "The surface of Europe, adorn- 
ed by a tropical vegetation and inhabited 
by troops of large elephants, enormous 
hippopotami, and gigantic carnivora, was 
suddenly buried under a vast mantle of 
ice, covering alike plains, lakes, seas and 
plateaus. Upon the life and movement 
of a powerful creation fell the silence of 
death. Springs paused, rivers ceased to 
flow, the rays of the sun, rising upon this 
frozen shore (if indeed it was reached by 
them), were met only by the breath of 
the winter from the north, and the thund- 
ers of the crevasses as they opened across 
the surface of this icy sea." In the sum- 
mer of 1840, he established a station on 
the Aar Glacier, 8,000 feet above the sea, 
which became noted as the "Hotel du 

Neuchatelois." Here the summer was 
spent in confirming previous observa- 
tions and in studying the phenomena of 
glaciers. Immediately on his return from 
the Alps, Agassiz visited England, and 
with Buckland, the only English natur- 
alist who shared his ideas, made a tour 
of the British Isles in search of glacial 
phenomena, and became satisfied that his 
theory of the ice age was correct. He 
gave a summary of his discoveries before 
the British Association in 1840. In 1843 
the "Recherches sur les Poissons Fos- 
siles" was completed, and in 1844 the 
"Devonian system of Great Britain and 
Russia" appeared. In 1845 he received 
the Monthyon Prize of Physiology from 
the Academy at Paris for his "Poissons 
Fossiles." During the years 1841-45 
Agassiz made constantly recurring visits 
of observation to the Alps, and in 1846 
published "Systeme Glaciaire." 

In 1846 he received a commission from 
the King of Prussia to visit the United 
States to continue his explorations. His 
fame had preceded him, and before he left 
Switzerland he was invited to deliver a 
course of lectures at the Lowell Insti- 
tute, Boston. His subject was "The Plan 
of the Creation, especially in the Animal 
Kingdom," and his lectures met with en- 
thusiastic applause, notwithstanding his 
broken English. He delivered in French, 
by special request, a second course on 
"Les Glaciers et I'Epoque Glaciaire." The 
Lowell course was repeated in Albany, 
New York, Charleston, South Carolina, 
and New York City, and other lectures 
were delivered in different parts of the 
country, where he journeyed seeking 
m^aterial for his Prussian report. In 1847, 
through the courtesy of Superintendent 
A. D. Bache. of the United States Coast 
Survey, the steamer "Bibb" was placed 
at his disposal, and greatly facilitated his 
researches. This generosity was one of 
the incidents which determined Agassiz 



to remain in x\merica. In 1848 the Law- 
rence Scientific School was established 
at Cambridge by Mr. Abbott Lawrence, 
and Agassiz, having honorably cancelled 
his engagement with the King of Prussia, 
accepted the chair of natural history prof- 
fered him by the founder. Agassiz burst 
like a full-orbed sun upon the little co- 
terie of American scientists, who at the 
time needed a leader, not only dazzling 
Them, but holding their attention and 
winning their hearts. His example of 
originating and putting into execution 
new projects, soon revolutionized not 
only the college with which he was con- 
nected, but other institutions of learning 
in America, and his vivifying influence 
awakened a universal interest in science. 
Harvard College was without either lab- 
oratory or collection to assist him in his 
classroom work, and an old bath house 
was the very humble beginning whence 
sprang the Cambridge Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, an enduring monument 
to the memory of him who was the mov- 
ing spirit in its establishment. During 
1848 he prepared, in conjunction with 
Dr. A. A. Gould. '"Principles of Zoology." 
for the use of schools and colleges ; in 
1850 he published "Lake Superior; its 
Physical Characteristics"; from 185 1 to 
1854 he held the chair of comparative 
anatomy and zoology in the Medical Col- 
lege at Charleston, South Carolina; and 
in 1851, at the request of Superintendent 
Bache, made a survey of the Florida reefs 
and keys. In the spring of 1852 the Prix 
Cuvier was awarded to him for "Poissons 
Fossiles." The year 1854 saw the com- 
pletion of a work begun in conjunction 
with H. E. Strickland, the "Bibliographia 
Zoologiae et Geologiae." In 1857 the first 
volume of "Contributions to the Natural 
History of the United States" was pub- 
lished. The fifth and last volume being 
left by him incomplete, was edited by 
his son. 

In August, 1857, Agassiz was offered 
the chair of paleontology in the Museum 
of Natural History in Paris, which he re- 
fused. Later he was decorated with the 
cross of the Legion of Honor. In 1859 
the ^Museum of Comparative Zoology at 
Cambridge was founded, and he was 
given the post of permanent curator. He 
urged the foundation of a National Acad- 
emy of Science, and was actively instru- 
mental in 1863 in its organization and in- 
corporation. His sympathies during the 
Civil War were with his adopted country, 
which he attested by being naturalized 
when the disruption of the Union seemed 
imminent. In 1861 he was awarded the 
Copley medal, the highest honor at the 
disposal of the Royal Society. In 1863 
he made his most extensive lecturing 
tour, fearing that the growth of the mu- 
seum might be stunted by lack of funds. 
In 1865 he visited Brazil, primarily for 
the benefit of his health, but the gener- 
osity of Nathaniel Thayer made it pos- 
sible for him to take a staff of assistants 
to pursue his scientific researches. His 
return enriched the museum with large 
collections, and literature with "A Jour- 
ney in Brazil." In 1868 he was appointed 
non-resident Professor of Natural His- 
tory at Cornell University. In 1871 he 
participated in a trip of observation in 
the coast survey ship ''Hassler" around 
Cape Horn, and then along the Pacific 
coast, and returned with valuable col- 
lections of mollusks, reptiles and fishes, 
and new evidence of the truth of the 
glacial theory. In 1873 he spoke elo- 
quently to the Legislature, on its annual 
visit to the Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology, of the needs of a summer school, 
and within a week John Anderson, of 
New York, who had read the speech in 
a newspaper, presented to him, as the site 
for a school, the Island of Penikese, in 
Buzzard's Bay, with the buildings there- 
on, and an endowment of $50,000 for the 



equipment of the school, which was 
iiamed by Ag^assiz "The Anderson School 
of Natural History." Professor Agassiz, 
who was growing enfeebled, remained 
che whole of the last summer of his life 
at Penikese. He had been elected a mem- 
ber of nearly all the scientific societies 
of the world, was given the degree of 
LL. D. by Edinburgh and Dublin Univer- 
sities, before he had attained his thirtieth 
year, and in 1836 was made a fellow of 
the Royal Society of London, and a mem- 
ber of the French Academy of Science. 
Though he himself materially aided Dar- 
win in arriving at evolutionism, he obsti- 
nately refused to accept the admirably 
marshalled facts on which the "Origin of 
Species" was based. To Agassiz the or- 
ganic world presented stages of domi- 
nant types created according to a definite, 
preconceived plan, and so distinct from 
each other that, however close the grada- 
tions of forms constituting the types 
might be. no evolutionary progress from 
one to the other could ever be possible. 
Of this series of types he regarded man, 
by reason of his cosmopolitanism, as the 
final term. Among his publications are: 
"Natural History of the Fresh Water 
Fishes of Europe" (1839-40) ; "Etudes sur 
les Glaciers" (1840) ; "Fossil Fishes of the 
Devonian System" (1844) ; "Fishes of the 
London Clay" (1845) 5 "Nomenclator Zo- 
ologicus" (1842-46) ; "Principals of Zo- 
ology-" (with Dr. A. A. Gould, 1848) ; 
"Lake Superior; Its Physical Character- 
istics" (1850) ; "Bibliographia Zoologicae 
et Geologiae" (with H. E. Strickland, 
four volumes. 1848-54) ; "Contributions to 
the Natural History of the United States" 
(five volumes) ; "The Structure of Ani- 
mal Life" (1852) ; "Methods of Study in 
Natural History" (1863) ; and "Geological 
Studies" (second series, 1866-76). 

His second wife, Elizabeth Cary Agas- 
siz, daughter of Thomas G. Cary. of Bos- 
ton, caught the infection that made all 

who knew Agassiz desire to share his 
studies, and aided her distinguished hus- 
band in preparing his "A Journey in 
Brazil," and in coimection with his son, 
Alexander Agassiz, wrote "Seaside Stud- 
ies in Natural History," and "Marine Ani- 
mals of Massachusetts." She also edited 
"Louis Agassiz; Flis Life and Corre- 
spondence" (1886). He was buried in 
Mount Auburn, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, where Swiss pines shade his grave, 
and a boulder from the glacier of Aar 
marks its locality. He died December 
14. 1873. 

SAVAGE, James, 

Legislator, Antiqnarian. 

James Savage was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, July 13, 1784. son of Habi- 
jah and Elizabeth (Tudor) Savage, 
grandson of Thomas and Deborah 
( Briggs) Savage, and of John and Jane 
(Varney) Tudor, and a descendant of 
Major Thomas Savage, who came from 
St. Albans, England, to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1635. 

He was graduated at Harvard College, 
A. B. 1803, A. M. 1806. He studied law 
under Isaac Parker in Portland, and un- 
der Samuel Dexter and William Sullivan 
in Boston, was admitted to the bar in 
1807, and practiced in Boston. He was 
a representative in the State Legisla- 
ture in 1812, 1813, and 1821 ; a member of 
the State Constitutional Convention, 
1820; State Senator, 1826; and a member 
of the Executive Council, of the Boston 
Common Council, and of the Board of 
Aldermen. He founded the Provident 
Institution for Savings in Boston in 1817, 
and served successively as its secretary, 
treasurer, vice-president and president, 
through a period of forty-five years. He 
was an overseer of Harvard College, 
1838-53 ; librarian of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, 1814-18, its treasurer, 
1820-39. and its president. 1841-55 ; a fel- 



low of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences ; and a member of the Bos- 
ton Anthology Society. He received the 
degree LL. D. from Harvard in 1841. He 
devoted many years to antiquarian re- 
search and was for five years an asso- 
ciate editor of the "Monthly Anthology," 
which led to the "North American Re- 
view." He revised the volume of char- 
ters and general laws of the Massachu- 
setts Colony and the Province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, and edited William Pay- 
ley's works (five volumes, 1823, nevv' edi- 
tion, 1830). He also published John 
Winthrop's "History of New England, 
i!,30-46" (two volumes. 1825-26; second 
i-dition revised. 1853). His most notab.e 
work was his "Genealogical Dictionary 
cf the First Settlers of New England, 
showing Three Generations of those who 
came before May, 1692" (four volumes, 
1860-64), the result of twenty years of 
painstaking research. 

He was married, April 25, 1823, to Eliz- 
abeth Otis, daughter of George Stillman, 
of Machias, Maine, and widow of James 
Otis Lincoln, of Hingham, JMassachu- 
setts. He died in Boston, Massachusetts, 
March 8, 1873. 

MEREDITH, William Morris, 

TiaxirjeT, Statesman. 

William Morris Meredith was born in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 8, 1799. 
His father was W'illiam Meredith, a dis- 
tinguished lawyer of Philadelphia, who 
married Gertrude Gouverneur Ogden, a 
niece of Lewis Morris, one of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence, and 
of Gouverneur Morris. This lady was a 
woman of great accomplishments and of 
remarkable intellectual powers, and both 
she and her husband were contributors to 
the "Portfolio," a notable periodical of 
the time. Mr. William Meredith was 
president of the Schuylkill Bank, and for 
some time filled the ofiice of city solicitor. 

He brought up his son carefully, while 
the latter was remarkable for his preco- 
ciousness, as he is said to have been only 
thirteen years of age when he was gradu- 
ated B. A. from the University of Penn- 
sylvania, receiving the second honor in 
his class which made him valedictorian. 

Following the example of his father, 
the young man chose the vocation of law, 
and at once gave himself up to study with 
such success that four years later he was 
admitted to practice. His youth was 
against him, however, and for several 
years it appears that he never had a case. 
When he was twenty-five years old he 
was elected a member of the State Legis- 
lature, and continued there until 1828, 
and was practically the leader of the 
Whigs in the lower house. Mr. ^Meredith 
was not successful at the bar until he had 
been a member of that fraternity for thir- 
teen years ; he then chanced to be thrown 
into connection with the celebrated Gir- 
ard will case, which brought him into 
public notice, and business began to come 
to him soon after. Indeed, it is stated 
that in all the important cases in Phila- 
delphia between 1840 and 1873, ^^^- -^lere- 
dith was concerned. In 1843 ^e became 
president of the Select Council of Phil- 
adelphia, and continued to hold that posi- 
tion until 1839. In 1837 he was one of 
the members of the State Constitutional 
Convention, and he was a prominent can- 
didate for the United States Senate in 
1845. ^^ 1849, when General Zachary 
Taylor became president, he appointed 
Mr. Meredith to be Secretary of the 
Treasury, and he continued in the office 
until the death of General Taylor, when 
he returned to Philadelphia and resumed 
the practice of law. In 1861 Mr. Mere- 
dith was appointed by Governor Curtin 
a member of the celebrated Peace Con- 
gress, which disbanded after much earn- 
est effort, but without accomplishing 
an3-thing. In the same year Mr. Mere- 



dith was appointed Attorney-General of 
the State of Pennsylvania, and continued 
to hold that position until 1867, when he 
resigned. His service in this important 
office is credited with having been mark- 
ed by the exhibition of rare ability. In 
1870 he was appointed by President Grant 
senior counsel, on the part of the United 
States, of the Geneva Arbitration Tribu- 
nal, and he assisted in preparing the 
American case, but resigned soon after. 
In 1872 he was again a delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention, of 
which he was made presiding officer. 

As a lawyer. Mr. Meredith was highly 
esteemed, and in his cases before the 
United States Supreme Court, was list- 
ened to earnestly and with respect. He 
died in Philadelphia, August 17, 1873. 

TODD, John, 

Clergyman, Anthor. 

The Rev. John Todd was born at Rut- 
land, Rutland county, Vermont, October 
9. 1800. a direct descendant of Christo- 
pher Todd, a native of Pontefract, York- 
shire, England, who with his wife and 
child settled in New Haven, Connecticut, 
between 1641 and 1647. The family is a 
large one. and is distinguished for the 
number of clergymen, doctors and sol- 
diers it has produced, but probably none 
has exerted a wider influence than John 
Todd, whose words, to use the language 
of the Psalmist, have gone "unto the end 
of the world," and none has gained a 
greater victory over oppressing circum- 

Six years after John Todd was born, 
his father, who had been crippled for 
some time, died ; his mother was an in- 
curable invalid, and the children, who 
were many, were scattered among vari- 
ous relatives, John going to live with an 
aunt at North Killingworth, Connecticut. 
At the age of ten he was placed with an- 
other relative at New Haven, Connecti- 

cut, and there attended school for a time 
and formed the determination to go to 
college. In 1818 he presented himself for 
admission to Yale, having walked to New 
Haven on foot from Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, and was allowed to enter, al- 
though he was insufficiently prepared. 
This want of adequate preparatory train- 
ing and the necessity of supporting him- 
self by teaching, made his progress 
through college difficult, and twice his 
health broke down under the strain. His 
will power carried him through, however, 
and he was graduated with his class. He 
then entered Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, where he paid his expenses largely 
by his pen, and became so favorably 
known as a preacher and orator that he 
was offered a pastorate before he had 
finished his studies. He was graduated 
at the seminary in 1825, and in 1826 be- 
came pastor of a new Congregational 
church at Groton, Massachusetts, formed 
by seceding "Orthodox" members of the 
old First Church, and here he remained, 
prospering in his work, until 1833, de- 
clining calls to Portland, Maine, and 
Salem, Massachusetts, and an invitation 
to become the editor of the "New York 
Observer." From 1833 until 1836 he 
served as pastor of a new Congregational 
church at Northampton. Massachusetts, 
and from 1836 until 1842 of the First 
Congregational Church of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. In 1842 he was called to 
the First Congregational Church of Pitts- 
field, Massachusetts, and he remained its 
pastor until failure of health forced him 
to resign in 1872. His parish was a large 
one. and in addition to the regular duties 
of preaching, visiting, marrying and 
burying, he performed those of chairman 
of the school committee and president of 
the board of trustees of a girls' school. 

By this time his works were well 
known in England, as well as at home, 
and his pen was kept busy in producing 


new books, or in writing for religious 
newspapers. He produced about thirty 
volumes in all, some of which sold to the 
extent of several hundred thousand 
copies, several of them being translated 
into various European and Asiatic lan- 
guages. Those for children and youth 
were especially popular. His "Student's 
Manual" and "Index Rerum" (1835), 
have passed through a number of edi- 
tions. His "Lectures to Children" (1834) 
was used as a text-book at Sierre Leone 
mission, and was printed in raised letters 
for the blind. "Simple Sketches" (1843) 
embodied several essays written during 
his college course. "Woman's Rights" 
(1867) was wittily answered by Gail 
Hamilton in "Woman's Wrongs" (1888). 
His last book, "Old Fashioned Lives," 
was published in 1870. Dr. Todd visited 
the Adirondacks every summer for more 
than twenty years, and subsequently 
"roughed it" in the woods of Maine and 
Canada. He was an expert fisherman 
and a good shot, though he never took 
the life of any creature for mere sport. 
His reputed prowess in that direction 
and his staunch Calvinism are supposed 
to have suggested to Longfellow the 
character of the parson in his "Birds of 
Killingworth" (1863): 

The wrath of God he preached from year to 

And read with fervor Edwards "On the Will." 
His favorite pastime was to slay the deer, 
In summer, on some Adirondack hill. 

Recreation at home was found in keep- 
ing bees and in forming and carving 
articles of wood and ivory in a well 
equipped workshop adjoining his study. 
Dr. Todd greatly encouraged and helped 
Mary Lyon in her efforts to found Mt. 
Holyoke Seminary, and his labors in be- 
half of education in general were almost 
as important as those performed as a 
religious teacher. The degree of Doctor 

of Divinity was conferred upon him by 
Williams College in 1845. He was mar- 
ried, in 1830, to Mary Skinner, daughter 
of Rev. Joab Brace, for fifty years pastor 
of the Congregational church at New- 
ington, Connecticut. He died at Pitts- 
field, August 24, 1873. See "John Todd, 
the Story of his Life," edited by his son, 
Rev. John E. Todd (1876). 

WYMAN, Jeffries, 

Scientist, Author. 

Jeffries Wyman was born in Chelms- 
ford, Massachusetts, August 11, 1814, 
son of Dr. Rufus Wyman, the first phy- 
sician of the McLean Insane Asylum. 

He was graduated from Harvard, 
Bachelor of Arts, 1833, Master of Arts 
and Doctor of Medicine, 1837, and began 
practice in Boston, Massachusetts. He 
was Demonstrator in Anatomy at Har- 
vard College, 1836-37. In 1839 he be- 
came curator of the Lowell Institute, 
giving a course of lectures there on com- 
parative anatomy and physiology, 1840- 
41, and a second course in 1849. He con- 
tinued his medical studies in Paris and 
London in 1841-43. He was Professor 
of Anatomy and Physiology in Hanip- 
den-Sidney College, Virginia, 1843-47, 
and Plersey Professor of Anatomy at 
Harvard College, 1847-74. He was also 
a member of the faculty of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, which he had 
himself founded, and an instructor in 
comparative anatomy in the Lawrence 
Scientific School. Harvard. He was a 
member of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, its recording secretary, 1839-41, 
curator of various departments, and 
president of the society, 1856-70, leaving 
to this organization his rare collection in 
comparative anatomy ; a fellow, council- 
lor, and president (1856) of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences ; was 
named by Congress a corporate member 
of the National Academy of Sciences in 



1863 ; was chosen one of the original 
seven trustees of the Peabody Museum, 
and also its curator, contributing to the 
reports of the trustees (seven volumes, 
1867-74) ; was a member of the Linnasan 
Society of London, of the Anthropolog- 
ical Institute of Great Britain, and of 
various other scientific organizations. 
His researches resulted in important dis- 
coveries in comparative anatomy, physi- 
ology, palaeontology, ethnology and ar- 

His bibliography, embracing one hun- 
dred and seventy-five titles, includes : 
"On the External Characters, Habits and 
Osteolog)' of the Gorilla" (1847); "O" 
the Nervous System of the Bull-Frog" 
(1853) ; "Observations on the Develop- 
ment of the Skate" (1865); "Observa- 
tions and Experiments on Living Organ- 
isms in Heated Water" (1867), ^"<^ 
"Fresh-water Shellmounds of the St. 
John's River, Florida" (posthumously, 
1875). See "Biographical Memoirs of 
the National Academy of Sciences" (vol- 
umes ii, 1886) ; also biographical sketches 
by Asa Gray, O. W. Holmes, S. Weir 
Mitchell, F. W. Putnam, B. G. Wilder, 
and a memorial sonnet by Lowell. He 
died in Bethlehem, New Hampshire, Sep- 
tember 4. 1874. 

WINLOCK, Joseph, 

Famous Astronomer. 

Joseph Winlock was born in Shelby 
county, Kentucky, February 6, 1826, son 
of Fielding and Nancy (Peyton) Win- 
lock. His grandfather, Joseph Winlock. 
enlisted in the Continental army as a 
private, rose to the rank of captain, was 
in the battles of Germantown and Mon- 
mouth, and endured the privations of 
Valley Forge. In 1787 he was married 
to a ^liss Stephenson, of Virginia, and 
settled in Kentucky, on lands granted 
him for military service. ?Ie aided in 
framing the State Constitution, and was 

for some years in the State Senate. In 
the war of 1812 he held the rank of 
brigadier-general, and went with three 
regiments to Vincennes. Fielding Win- 
lock, a lawyer by profession, was clerk 
of the State Senate committee on mili- 
tary affairs during the preparations for 
the war of 181 2, and performed many of 
the duties of adjutant-general. He served 
in the army as aide to his father, and 
later on General Shelby's staff, and after 
the war held various honorable positions. 
Joseph Winlock Avas graduated at 
Shelby College, Kentucky, in 1845, and 
was appointed Professor of Mathematics 
and Astronomy in that institution. An 
excellent Merz equatorial telescope was 
the property of the college, and he made 
himself familiar with its construction and 
manipulation. In 1851 he attended the 
fifth meeting of the x\merican Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science in 
Cincinnati, and the result was an invita- 
tion in 1852 to become a computer in the 
office of the "American Ephemeris and 
Nautical Almanac" at Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts. In 1857 he became Professor 
of Mathematics in the United States 
Naval Observatory at Washington, but 
soon returned to Cambridge as superin- 
tendent of the "American Ephemeris and 
Nautical Almanac." In 1859 he removed 
to Annapolis, Maryland, to take charge 
of the mathematical department in the 
United States Naval Academy, but on 
the removal of the academy to Newport, 
Rhode Island, in consequence of the out- 
break of the Civil War. he returned to 
his old position at Cambridge. In 1866 
he became Phillips Professor of Astron- 
omy at Harvard College and director of 
the observatory, and later was given the 
additional position of Professor of Geod- 
esy in the Lawrence Scientific School of 
the university. He at once began to pro- 
vide for the redaction and publication of 
the unfinished work of his predecessors. 



the Bonds, father and son, issuing a vol- photograph of the corona during any 

ume on sun-spots, and also projecting a solar eclipse, and was the first to adapt 

catalogue of zone-stars. A catalogue of to photographic purposes a telescope of 

polar and clock-stars appeared after his ^^ng focus, fixed horizontally, and used 

death. He added to the appliances of the without an eye-piece or a heliostat. He 

obser^-atory in every direction, among the o^-ganized and directed a party under the 

, • J u • r *. auspices of the Coast Survey, which went 

instruments acquired being a seven-toot ^ . -^ ' 

^ • , , r-1 1 T-. J .L J J to Spain to observe the total eclipse of 

equatorial by Clark, a Bond standard- , r t^ , r. tx , 

,,.,,,.. , , the sun of December 22, 1870. He greatly 

clock with break-circuit attachment for . , , „ . i- , , 

. . . . T- 1 1 increased the eiticiency of the observa- 

transmittmg time-signals, a rrodsham ^ . . ... ^jj^- ^ r, 

^ ° torv in turnishmg standard time to Bos- 

break-circuit disereal chronometer (the ^^^;^ ^^^ .^ ^g^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ 

original device of Mr. Wmlock), a transit ^p^^j^j ^^-^^ between Cambridge and that 

made in the workshop of the Pulkowa ^-^^.^ ...j^ich should not be diverted to any 

observatory, and a Zollner astrophotom- other business. In 1874 he was appointed 

eter. Through his influence $12,000 were chairman of a commission appointed by 

contributed for the purchase of a new Act of Congress to make inquiries into 

meridian circle, and in 1867 he went to the causes of steam-boiler explosions, 

Europe to visit the principal observa- and devised some ingenious experiments 

tories and to acquaint himself with im- calculated either to confirm or refute in 

provements in astronomical instruments. detail the various theories which had 

The circle ordered for the Cambridge been suggested to explain this class of 

Observatory embodied some improve- accidents. 

ments of his own suggestion, and these Professor Winlock received the honor- 
were endorsed by the most skilled astron- ary degree of Master of Arts from Har- 
omers. The new instrument was first vard in 1868. He was one of the cor- 
put to use in 1870 and was turned upon porate members of the National Academy 
the zone of stars between 50° and 55° of of Sciences, and was a member of the 
north declination, that being the field of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
observation assigned to the observatory not to mention other scientific associa- 
at Cambridge by the Astronomische tions. In 1872 Professor Winlock began 
Gesellschaft. By 1877 ^s many as 30,000 preparing a series of astronomical en- 
observations had been made with this in- gjavings, and at the time of his death 
strument. He greatly lengthened a cata- thirty-five large plates, beautifully exe- 
logue of time stars, begun in 1867, added cuted, were ready for publication. He 
a catalogue of new double stars, and pro- was one of the most modest and un- 
duced a work upon stellar photometry, assuming of men and his thought found 
posthumously published. expression in actions rather than words. 
In 1869 Professor Winlock headed a To discover, was to impart unselfishly 
party that cooperated with officers of the for the benefit of others, and he took no 
coast survey in observing in Kentucky security frr his own inventions and dis- 
the total eclipse of the sun. August 7. coveries. Of him James Russell Lowell 
and took eighty photographs, seven dur- wrote : 
ing totality. Subsequently he superin- 
tended the construction of a micrometer S^>' s'^"' ^"^ stalwart, man of patient will 

-.^^^4.^^ t-^ 4-u ■ ^ r J- Through years one hair's breadth on our Dark 

adapted to the nice measurement of dis- ^ . 

to gam, 

tances and positions on the photographic ^ho, from the stars he studied not in vain, 

plates. He was the first to obtain a Had learned their secret to be strong and still. 
MASS— 10 145 


Professor Winlock was married at 
Shelbyville, Kentucky, December lo, 
1856, to Isabella, daughter of George 
Washington and Frances (Adams) Lane. 
She survived him with two sons and four 
daughters. Professor Winlock died at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 11. 1875. 

GUSH MAN, Charlotte Saunders, 

Famous Actress. 

Charlotte Saunders Cushman was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, July 23. 1816, 
daughter of Elkanah and Mary Eliza 
(Babbit) Cushman, and eighth in descent 
from Robert Cushman, the pilgrim. In 
1829 her father's death made it necessary 
for her to leave school to eke out the 
family income by singing in church and 
on public occasions. Her mother at great 
self-sacrifice procured lessons for her, 
and later a friend of the family furnished 
her with means for obtaining the best 
instruction Boston afforded. By chance 
she was brought to the notice of Mrs. 
Joseph Wood, an English singer, who 
arranged with James G. Maeder to fit her 
for an opera singer. 

She made her debut at the Tremont 
Theatre. Boston, April 8, 1835, as the 
Countess in the "Marriage of Figaro," 
and during this engagement also sang in 
"Guy Mannering." Later she appeared 
in New Orleans, Louisiana, where her 
voice was impaired from overstraining, 
and by advice of James Caldwell, man- 
ager of the Camp Street Theatre, New 
Orleans, she decided to try the dramatic 
stage. After careful study she played 
Lady Macbeth to the Macbeth of Wil- 
liam Barton. This led to a three years' 
engagement to play leading roles at the 
Bowery Theatre in New York City, 
where she opened September 12, 1836. 
Shortly afterward, this theatre was de- 
stroyed by fire, and her contract was 
cancelled. She then secured an engage- 
ment at Albany, New York, where she 

was retained for five months. At the 
close of the Albany season in 1837 she 
returned to New York City, and for two 
years played utility parts at the Park 
Theatre. In 1839 she appeared in sup- 
port of Macready, the English actor, and 
later toured the northern States in his 
company. During the season of 1842-43 
she successfully managed the Walnut 
Street Theatre, Philadelphia, and won 
special notice as Romeo to the Juliet of 
her sister Susan. 

In 1844, accompanied by her sister, she 
sailed for London, England, where she 
appeared, February 14, 1845, as Bianca 
in "Fazio." She subsequently appeared 
in Liverpool, Manchester, Dublin, and 
other cities of the British Isles, and re- 
turned to the United States in 1849. 
Tours of the United States alternated 
with tours of England from that time till 
1858, when she retired and took up her 
residence in Rome, Italy, making but 
occasional tours in America and Europe. 
In 1870 she returned to the stage, and 
remained before the public as an actress 
and reader for about four years. Her 
last tour came to an end on November 7, 

1874, at Booth's Theatre, New York City, 
with a testimonial performance of "Mac- 
beth," at the close of which she was pre- 
sented with a laurel wreath by the Ar- 
cadian Club. William Cullen Bryant de- 
livered the presentation address, and 
Charles Roberts read an ode, "Salve Re- 
gina," composed for the occasion by 
Richard Henry Stoddard. She was ten- 
dered a similar ovation in her native city 
on May 15, 1875, when she played "Lady 
Macbeth," at the Globe Theatre. Her 
final appearance on any stage was as a 
reader at Easton, Pennsylvania, June 2, 

1875. ^"fl t^^ remainder of her life was 
spent in Newport, Rhode Island, Ash- 
land, and Boston, Massachusetts. Her 
greatest characters were Lady Macbeth, 
Queen Katherine, Nancy Sykes, and 



Meg Merrilies in "Guy Mannering," 
which last she created. She frequently 
assumed male characters such as Hamlet, 
Romeo, Claude Melnotte, and Cardinal 
Wolsey, in which she was eminently suc- 
cessful. See "Charlotte Cushman : Her 
Letters and Memoirs of Her Life" (1878), 
by Emma Stebbins, the sculptor, a friend 
of Miss Cushman during her residence in 

She died in Boston, Massachusetts, 
February 18, 1876. 

BIGELOW, Jacob, 

Physician, Scientist. 

Jacob Bigelow was born at Sudbury, 
Massachusetts, February 27, 1787, son of 
Jacob Bigelow. His father, a graduate 
of Harvard University in 1776, was the 
minister of the town of Sudbury for many 

Jacob Bigelow Jr. was graduated at 
Harvard University in 1806, and received 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1810. 
From 1815 and for fifty years thereafter 
he was Professor of Alateria Medica in 
the Medical Department of Harvard LTni- 
versity, and during 1816-27 was Rumford 
Professor of the Application of Science 
to the Useful Arts in the Academic De- 
partment of the same institution. He 
was a member of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences for sixty-seven 
years, and president from 1846 to 1863, 
when he declined a reelection. He was 
a member of the American Philosophical 
Society, the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, the Medico-Chirurgical Society of 
Edinburgh, the Linnean Society of Lon- 
don, and other scientific associations. He 
was recognized as a wise and judicious 
teacher and as the promoter of beneficent 
public institutions and improvements. He 
conceived the plan of an extensive forest 
garden cemetery, and Mount Auburn was 
laid out in 1831 according to his plans. 
He originated his own experiments, and 

solved his own problems. He was a 
born artificer, mechanician and inventor, 
familiar with the work and methods of 
every sort of handicraft. He constructed 
the models and drawings for his lectures, 
and when illustrations were needed for 
his great work on botany he brought into 
use an original method of printing in 
color directly from copper plates, long 
before the time of photography and chro- 

Dr. Bigelow published: "Florula Bos- 
toniensis" (181 4), which was for nearly 
two centuries the manual for New Eng- 
land amateur botanists ; an American edi- 
tion of "Sir James Edward Smith's In- 
troduction to Botany" (1814) ; "Ameri- 
can Medical Botany," with color plates 
(1817-21) ; "Nature in Disease," a volume 
of essays (1854) ; "A Brief Exposition of 
Rational Medicine" (1858) ; "History of 
Mount Auburn" (i860), and "Modern In- 
quiries" (1867). His botanical knowl- 
edge, with that of the materia medica and 
his classical scholarship, placed him at 
the head of the committee which in 1820 
formed the "American Pharmacopoeia." 
Several genera of plants were named 
Biglovia in his honor, notably some 
golden flowered composite of the South- 
ern and Western United States, of Mexico 
and the Andes of South America. In 
1816 he published the substance of his 
Harvard lectures in a volume entitled 
"Elements of Technology." Of his medi- 
cal writings, his discourse on "Self-Lim- 
ited Diseases" is the most famous, and 
an address delivered before the IMassa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology on "The 
Limits of Education" is scarcely less so. 
He received the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Harvard University in 1857. 

He married Mary Scollay, of Boston, 
by whom he had several children, the 
eldest of whom was the distinguished 
surgeon and educator. Dr. Henry Jacob 
Bigelow. Dr. Bigelow died in Boston, 
January 10, 1879. 



GUSHING, Caleb, 


Caleb Cushing was born in Salisbury, 
Massachusetts, January 17, 1800, son of 
John Newmarch Cushing; grandson of 
Benjamin and Hannah (Hazeltine) Cush- 
ing; great-grandson of Caleb and Alary 
(Newmarch) Cushing; great-great-grand- 
son of the Rev. Caleb and Elizabeth (Cot- 
ton) Cushing; great-great-great-grandson 
of John and Sarah (Hawke) Cushing; and 
great-great-great-great-grandson of Mat- 
thew and Nazareth (Pitcher) Cushing, 
who emigrated from England in 1638 and 
settled in Hingham, Massachusetts. 

He was graduated at Harvard in 1817, 
pursued a post-graduate course in mathe- 
matics, moral philosophy and law, 1817- 
19, and was tutor in mathematics and 
natural philosophy, 1820-21. He then 
engaged as law clerk in the office of 
Ebenezer Mosley, of Newburyport, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1822. In 1825, 
1833, 1834, 1846 and 1850 he was a repre- 
sentative in the State Legislature from 
Newburyport, and in 1826 a State Sena- 
tor from Essex county. He was a Whig 
representative in the Twenty-fourth, 
Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth and Twenty- 
seventh Congresses, 1835-43. In the dis- 
ruption of the party incident to the acces- 
sion of President Tyler, Mr. Cushing 
supported the administration, and came 
to be classed as a Democrat. President 
Tyler sent his name to the Senate as Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, but he was re- 
fused confirmation on political grounds. 
The President in 1843 appointed him 
commissioner to China to negotiate a 
treaty with the empire, enlarging his 
powers to envoy extraordinary and min- 
ister plenipotentiary, and in 1844 author- 
izing him to treat also with Japan. He 
was successful in negotiating a treaty 
and establishing regular diplomatic rela- 
tions with the celestial empire, and in 
1844 he returned to America by way of 

Mexico, thus completing the circumnavi- 
gation of the globe. In 1846 he was 
elected by both parties a State Repre- 
sentative from Newburyport. He ap- 
pealed to the Massachusetts Legislature 
to appropriate $20,000 to equip a regi- 
ment of volunteers for the Mexican war, 
and, failing to obtain the appropriation, 
he, with the aid of friends, contributed 
the sum needed, and he went to Mexico 
as colonel of the regiment, being pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general 
soon after his arrival at the seat of war. 
While in Mexico he was nominated by 
the Democrats of Massachusetts for Gov- 
ernor of the State, and was again nomi- 
nated in 1848, but in both elections was 
defeated by George N. Briggs, the Whig 
candidate. In 1850 he was again a mem- 
ber of the State Legislature, and was 
mayor of Newburyport, 1851-52. He was 
appointed an additional justice of the 
Supreme Court of the State in 1852, and 
en March 4, 1S53, '^^^ was appointed by 
President Pierce Attorney-General in his 
cabinet. At the close of the Pierce ad- 
ministration he was a representative in 
the Legislature from Newburyport three 
successive terms. At the meeting of 
the Democratic National Convention in 
Charleston, South Carolina, in April, 
i860, Mr. Cushing was made permanent 
chairman, and left the convention with 
the other Northern Democrats who sub- 
sequently met in Baltimore, Maryland, 
and nominated Stephen A. Douglas as 
their candidate for the Presidency. In 
December, i860. President Buchanan ap- 
pointed him a confidential commissioner 
to South Carolina to determine the dis- 
position of the people toward reconcilia- 
tion. He supported the administration 
of Mr. Lincoln, offering his services to 
Governor Andrew "in any capacity, how- 
ever humble, in which it may be possible 
for me to contribute to the public weal in 
the present critical emergency," and was 



entrusted with various confidential mis- 
sions both by the President and by the 
cabinet officials at Washington. In 1866 
he was a member of the commission ap- 
pointed to revise and codify the laws of 
Congress. He was sent to Bogota, South 
America, in 1868, by Secretary Seward, 
to negotiate with the United States of 
Colombia, and successfully accomplished 
the mission. With Morrison Waite and 
William M. Evarts, he was counsel for 
the United States at Geneva in 1871 in 
settling the Alabama claims. In 1873, 
upon the death of Chief Justice Chase, 
President Grant appointed Mr. Gushing 
Chief Justice of the United States, but 
his name was not favorably received by 
the Senate, and before a vote was taken, 
Mr. Gushing declined the appointment. 
He was United States Minister to Spain. 

He received from Harvard the degree 
of Alaster of Arts in 1820, and that of 
Doctor of Laws in 1852. He was an 
overseer of Harvard, 1852-56, and was a 
member of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, and a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among 
his works are: "History of the Town of 
Newburyport" (1826) ; "The Practical 
Principles of Political Economy" (1826) ; 
"Historical and Political Review of the 
Late Revolution in France"' Ttwo vol- 
umes, 1833) ; "Reminiscences of Spain" 
(two volumes. 1833) ; "Growth and Terri- 
torial Progress of the United States" 
(1839); "Life of William H. Harrison" 
(1840) ; "The Treaty of Washington" 
(1873) ; ^^cl frequent contributions to 
magazines and reviews. He died in New- 
buryport, Massachusetts. January 2, 1879. 

He was married, in 1823. to Caroline, 
daughter of Judge Wilde, of the ^Slassa- 
chusetts Supreme Court. 

CLIFFORD, John Henry, 

La'wyer, Governor. 

John Henry Clififord, governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, was born in Providence, 
Rhode Island, January 16, 1809. son of 
Benjamin and Achsah (W^ade) Clifford. 

He was graduated at Brown Univer- 
sity in 1827, admitted to the bar in 1830, 
and practised law in New Bedford, Mas- 
sachusetts. He was elected a State 
Representative in 1S35, was an aide-de- 
camp to Governor Everett, 1836-40, and 
in 1845 ^^'^s elected to the State Senate. 
He was District Attorney. 1839-49. At- 
torney-General, 1849-53, ^"tl prosecuted 
Professor John W. Webster, of Harvard, 
for the murder of Dr. Parkman in 1850. 

In 1853 he was elected Governor of the 
State by the Legislature, having failed 
to secure a plurality in the regular elec- 
tion, although he had 25,000 more votes 
than either of his opponents. He was 
again Attorney-General, 1854-58. In 
1862 he was again elected to the State 
Senate and served as president of that 
body. In 1867 he was elected president 
of the Boston & Providence railroad. He 
was overseer of Harvard College, 1854- 
59 and 1865-68. and president of the 
board of overseers, 1868-74; trustee of 
the Peabody Education Fund from its 
foundation, and a member of the United 
States Commission on the Fisheries, 
under the arbitration treaty with Great 
Britain. He was a member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences and 
of the ^ilassachusetts Historical Society. 
He officiated at Harvard College on the 
occasion of the induction of President 
Walker. May 24, 1853, and of President 
Eliot. October 19. 1869. on each occasion 
delivering an impressive address. In 
1877 he declined appointments as L'nited 
States Minister to Turkey and to Russia, 
severally tendered him by President 
Grant. Brown University conferred upon 



him the degree of Master of Arts in 1S30, 
and that of Doctor of Laws in 1849, ^^^ 
Harvard and Amherst gave him the de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws in 1853. He died 
in New Bedford, Massachusetts, January 
2, 1876. 

He was married, in 1832, to Sarah 
Parker, daughter of WilHam Howland 
Allen, granddaughter of the Hon. John 
Avery Parker, of New Bedford, and a 
lineal descendant of Captain Myles Stand- 
ish, the Puritan. 

GARRISON, William Lloyd, 

Leader in Abolition of Slavery. 

William Lloyd Garrison was born in 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, December 
10, 1805, son of Abijah and Frances Maria 
(Lloyd) Garrison, who emigrated from 
Nova Scotia to Newburyport in 1805. 
The father, a seafaring man, left his home 
in his son's infancy and never returned. 

William Lloyd Garrison was an ap- 
prentice, compositor and foreman in the 
printing office of the "Newburyport 
Herald" from 1818 to 1825. In 1826 he 
became editor of the "Newburyport Free 
Press," to which John G. Whittier sent 
anonymous contributions, and, on his 
identity being discovered by Garrison, 
became his firm friend. This enterprise 
not succeeding, he next went to Boston, 
where he edited the "National Philan- 
thropist," a temperance journal. In 1828 
he removed to Bennington, Vermont, and 
became editor of the "Journal of the 
Times," an organ established to support 
the candidacy of John Quincy Adams for 
the Presidency for the second term. In 
September, 1829, he joined Benjamin 
Lundy at Baltimore in the publication of 
an anti-slavery paper called the "Genius 
of Universal Emancipation," with the 
understanding that he might advocate 
the doctrine of immediate emancipation. 
His denunciation of a citizen of New- 
buryport for employing his ships in the 

domestic slave trade caused his prose- 
cution and imprisonment for libel. Arthur 
Tappan, of New York, shortly afterward 
paid the fine, and he was released and 
went North to procure support for a 
journal of his own at Boston. Christian 
churches refused him the use of their 
audience rooms, and Julian Hall, the 
headquarters of an infidel society, was 
used by him for the delivery of three 
lectures. On January i, 1831, he founded 
in Boston "The Liberator," which he con- 
tinued to edit until slavery was abolished 
and the war ended in 1865. In "The Lib- 
erator" he announced a purely moral and 
pacific warfare against slavery, but he 
was charged with inciting slave insurrec- 
tions, and the State of Georgia offered a 
reward of $5,000 for his apprehension. 
In January, 1832, with eleven others, he 
organized the New England Anti-Slavery 
Society, and in December, 1833, the Amer- 
ican Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 
Philadelphia, and Mr. Garrison drew up 
its "Declaration of Sentiments." He op- 
posed the scheme of African colonization, 
and recommended the formation of anti- 
slavery societies in every Free State. On 
October 21, 1835, ^^ was mobbed in Bos- 
ton after an effort made by the mob to 
find George Thompson, the English aboli- 
tionist, who was advertised to speak be- 
fore the Boston Female Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety. After being hustled through the 
streets with a rope around his body, he 
was finally saved by being put into jail. 
He opposed the formation of an anti- 
slavery political party, and advocated 
the admission of women to participation 
in the anti-slavery societies as speakers, 
voters and officers. As a non-resistant 
he refused to vote, but he also refrained 
because of the pro-slavery compromises 
of the Constitution of the United States, 
which in this aspect he pronounced (in 
Scriptural language) "a covenant with 
death and an agreement with hell." In 



1844 he succeeded in bringing all the 
anti-slavery societies to this position. He 
parted company with the anti-slavery 
party on its formation, and continued his 
moral agitation, supported by a power- 
ful band of followers. He advised the 
placing of the war on an anti-slavery 
basis, and the establishing of a new union 
with a constitution forever prohibiting 

At the close of the war the sum of 
$30,000 was raised by public subscription 
and presented to Mr. Garrison as a token 
of grateful appreciation of his life serv- 
ices, and citizens of Boston erected on 
the city's most beautiful thoroughfare a 
bronze statue to his memory. He was a 
guest of the government at the raising 
of the national flag over Fort Sumter, 
April 14, 1865, on the fourth anniversary 
of the surrender of the fort and of the 
inauguration of the war. 

He was married, in Brooklyn, Connec- 
ticut, September 4, 1834, to Helen Eliza, 
daughter of George and Sally (Thurber) 
Benson. They were the parents of seven 
children, of whom four sons and one 
daughter survived infancy. His last rest- 
ing place is on Smilax path, in Forest 
Hills Cemetery, Boston, near the Sol- 
diers' monument and French's bronze 
tablet for the sculptor Millmore. The 
Public Library and the State House in 
Boston also perpetuate his name on their 
walls. He died in New York City, May 
24, 1879. 

CLARKE, Edward H., 

Physician, Author. 

Edward H. Clarke was born at Nor- 
ton, Bristol county, Massachusetts, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1820. son of Rev. Pitt and Mary 
Y. (Stimpson) Clarke. His mother was 
a native of Hopkinton, Massachusetts. 

Fie was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1841, at the head of his class, and in- 
tended to take up the study of medicine, 

but owing to ill health he could not carry 
out his wishes for several years, and did 
not receive the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine until 1846. On account of the mild 
climate of Philadelphia, he made that 
city his home while he was studying. On 
returning to Boston to practice he met 
with unexpected opposition on account 
of the fact that he had received his 
diploma outside the State of Massachu- 
setts. He joined with Dr. Henry I. Bow- 
ditch in establishing his Society for Med- 
ical Observ^ation, and in or about 1850, 
with some other practitioners, he at- 
tempted to found the Boylston Medical 
School in opposition to the Harvard in- 
terest, but the effort failed, the legisla- 
ture refusing them the right of confer- 
ring degrees. Dr. Clarke's ability, how- 
ever, could no longer be suppressed, and 
in 1855 he was appointed Professor of 
Materia Medica at Harvard, a position he 
retained until 1872. He was renowned 
for his skillful use of drugs, and after the 
death of his friend. Dr. Pury, he had the 
largest general practice of any physician 
in the city. In addition to this he made 
a specialty of diseases of the eyes and 
nerves, and cured some of the most dif- 
ficult cases of nervous diseases on record. 
His principle was not to strengthen nerv- 
ous patients by stimulants further than 
was necessary to produce a healthful cir- 
culation. It was his custom to exact a 
small fee from a patient who made a 
short story of his condition, but when 
people worried him by their loquacity, to 
charge them accordingly. He believed 
that the woman's rights movement was 
responsible for many nervous troubles, 
and in 1874 he published a work entitled 
"Sex in Education" to prove that women, 
by the nature of their constitution, were 
unable to bear the same mental and phy- 
sical strain as men. This excited a lively 
controversy in America and Europe. In 
a book on "Visions," written during his 



last illness and edited by Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, he advanced some rare 
instances of mental illusion, and ex- 
plained them by scientific analysis, with 
illustrations of the visions represented in 
Shakespeare's plays. Other publications 
were: "Observations on the Treatment 
of Polypus of the Ear" (1869) ; "The 
Building of a Brain" (1874) ; and, with 
R. Amory. "Physiological and Thera- 
peutical Action of Bromide of Potassium 
and Bromide of Ammonium" (1871). He 
delivered an address on "Education of 
Girls" before the National Educational 
Association at Detroit, August 5, 1874. 

Dr. Clarke was married, October 14, 
1852, to Sarah Loring Loud, of Plym- 
outh, Massachusetts. He died in Boston, 
November 30. 1877. 

BOYDEN, Uriah Atherton, 

Engineer and Inventor. 

L^riah Atherton lioyden was born at 
Foxboro, Norfolk county, Massachusetts, 
February 17. 1804, son of Seth and Susan 
(Atherton) Boyden. After receiving his 
early education in the country schools 
he assisted his father in farming and 
blacksmithing until he joined his eldest 
brother .Seth at Newark, New Jersey, in 
1825. Returning to Massachusetts he 
was engaged under James Hayward on 
the first survey for the Boston &' Provi- 
dence railroad, which was his first work 
in an engineering capacit}-. Later he 
was employed at the dry dock in the 
Charlestown navy yard, under Colonel L. 
Baldwin, and subsequently at Lowell, in 
the construction of the Sufi'olk, Tremont 
and Lawrence mills and the Boston & 
Lowell railroad. In 1833 he opened an 
office in Boston, where he continued in 
the engineering profession and in scien- 
tific investigations until his death. Dur- 
ing 1836-38 the Nashua i^- Lowell railroad 
was built under his direction. 

His attention was directed toward the 

study of hydraulics, which he thoroughly 
mastered, and as the engineer of the 
Amoskeag Company he established ex- 
tensive hydraulic works at Manchester. 
New Hampshire, an undertaking which 
occupied several years. In 1844 he de- 
signed an improved Fourneyron turbin 
water wheel for the mills of the Apple- 
ton Company at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
which utilized ninety-fi\e per cent, of the 
power expended, and gained fully twenty 
per cent, over the style then existing. 
The original turljine was invented by 
Fourneyron, of France, in 1833 ; but the 
impro\ed form, known as the Boyden tur- 
l)ine. is much used in the United States. 
Many years previous to his death. Mr. 
Boyden had retired from the active prac- 
tice of his profession, and devoted him- 
self entirely to scientific investigations 
and experiments in light, electricity, mag- 
netism, meteorology, chemistry and met- 
allurgy. With apparatus of his own de- 
sign, giving very exact results, he made 
3n elaborate series of tests to determine 
the velocity of sounds traveling through 
the conduit pipes of the Charlestown and 
Chelsea water works. He was a man of 
hard, common sense, discriminating judg- 
ment, sagacity and foresight, possessing 
the peculiar practical wisdom that molds 
the means into results. Mr. Boyden gave 
considerable sums of money for the en- 
couragement of study in the direction of 
mathematics and physics. In 1874 he de- 
])Osited $1,000 with the Franklin Insti- 
tute, to be awarded to any resident of 
North America who should determine by 
experiment whether light and other phys- 
ical rays are transmitted with the same 
velocity. He established the Soldiers' 
Memorial Building at Foxboro, and to 
the Boyden Library of that town (which 
was so named in his honor) he donated 
$1,000 as a productive fund for the annual 
])urchase of books. He died in Boston, 
Massachusetts, October 16, 1879. 



WILSON, Henry, 

Statesman, Vice-President. 

Henry Wilson was born in Farming- 
ton, New Hampshire, February 12, 1812, 
son of Winthrop and Abigail (W'itham) 
Colbath. His father was a farm laborer, 
and was not only a poor man himself but 
was the descendant of poor men, with all 
his ideas of life associated with condi- 
tions of extreme poverty. Henry Wil- 
son's father, grandfather and great- 
grandfather had been men without edu- 
cation and without experience more than 
that which was obtained by mere living 
in a new country. Even so late as 1812, 
Farmington was still a new country, hav- 
ing been incorporated into a town only 
fourteen years before the birth of Henry 
Wilson It was composed of only about 
a dozen houses, and the nearest approach 
to a town in the vicinity was Rochester, 
eight miles distant, while the nearest 
market was Dover, eighteen miles away, 
to which point everything raised in the 
way of products and for sale had to be 
hauled over rough roads. On his father's 
side, Wilson's ancestors were Scotch- 
Irish who came to America from the 
North of Ireland early in the eighteenth 
century, and settled in Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire. His great-grandfather, 
James Colbath, was the grandson of the 
first settler of that name, and died at an 
advanced age in the year 1800, leaving 
eight children. On the mother's side, 
there was the same show of constant poA'- 
erty ; but with both families there was 
never any taint of crime or wrong-doing, 
while his mother seems to have been a 
woman of great sense and discretion, and 
with more ambition than was exhibited 
by any other member of the family. 

Henry Wilson was christened Jere- 
miah Jones Colbath, a name which was 
afterward changed by act of legislature 
to that by which he obtained fame, Henry 
W^ilson. Fie was the eldest of a family 

of eight boys, and during his earliest boy- 
hood succeeded in obtaining a knowledge 
of reading, but little else. It is related 
of him that when he was only seven or 
eight years old a sister of Governor Levi 
Woodbury of New Hampshire (after- 
ward Secretary of the Treasury) gave 
him permission to make use of her 
library, or rather that of her husband, 
who was a lawyer of the neighborhood. 
At the age of ten the boy was bound out 
to service with a farmer, and from that 
time forward he was self-supporting. His 
apprenticeship lasted eleven years, dur- 
ing which period he received no school- 
ing, or, at least, only that which his 
farmer-employer was bound to allow him, 
one month in each year, amounting to 
eleven months in the entire apprentice- 
ship. However, his devotion to books 
and to work was so determined that he is 
remarkable in biography for the amount 
of information he acquired under these 
discouraging conditions. In the mean- 
time he was active, industrious, and full 
of energy and determination. As he grew 
to young manhood he read newspapers, 
and even "Niles's Register." He also 
found in the library to which he had 
access, Plutarch's ""Lives" and a memoir 
of Napoleon, and, at last, the biography 
of one Henry Wilson. This latter volume 
seems to have made a deep impression 
upon his youthful mind, for he resolved 
to be called by the same name, and car- 
ried out this resolution legally on obtain- 
ing his majority. At the age of fifteen 
he heard of Marshall's '"Life of W^ash- 
ington," and became so much interested 
in what he learned of the book that 
discovering the existence of a copy at 
Rochester, seven miles from the farm 
where he worked, he traveled that dis- 
tance until he had borrowed the book, 
which after a thorough reading he re- 
turned. At the age of twenty he could 
name the location of every battle in the 



Revolution and the War of 1812, with 
date, numbers engaged, and the killed, 
wounded and prisoners on both sides. 
After completing his apprenticeship he 
engaged work on another farm and earned 
nine dollars per month, while receiving 
for his eleven years' service a yoke of 
oxen, six sheep, and the knowledge of 
farming which he had gained by experi- 
ence. But during this period he had read 
nearly a thousand books, and, gifted with 
a remarkable memory, had in mind a 
great store of useful information which 
he felt assured would be of great use 
some day. In 1833 young Wilson heard 
that the trade of shoemaking could be 
learned at Natick, Massachusetts, with 
the prospect of self-establishment in that 
business after learning it. He traveled 
to that town on foot, and made a con- 
tract to serve a shoemaker for five months, 
or until he had learned the trade. He 
did learn it most thoroughly, and then 
worked for himself, earning his board 
and twenty dollars per month ; and, when 
he had saved up sufficient means, he went 
to Stratford Academy, New Hampshire, 
and studied there and at Wolfsborough 
and Concord academies for several terms, 
teaching district schools during the win- 
ter. Unfortunately he loaned his earn- 
ings to a friend who failed to reimburse 
him, and he was obliged not only to 
abandon his intention of continuing his 
studies, but was compelled to return to 
Natick and to work again at the shoe 
business, for the following five years 
continuing to make shoes on his own 

Meantime he began to interest himself 
in politics, and by 1840 began to be known 
as a public speaker and debater; as a 
matter of fact, through his eflforts, many 
in his neighborhood were induced to 
abandon Democracy and vote for General 
Harrison for President, and, in the same 
election, in November, 1840, Henry Wil- 

son was elected a member of the House 
of Representatives of Massachusetts from 
the town of Natick. While discharging 
his public duties with energy and ability, 
his shoe manufacturing prospered, his 
output in 1840 amounting to from one 
thousand to twenty-five hundred pairs 
per week. Curiously enough his goods 
were chiefly adapted to the Southern 
trade, and this although A-Ir. Wilson was 
an avowed Abolitionist; in fact, one of 
Mr. Wilson's Southern customers, who 
failed, ofi^ered to compromise his debt by 
the payment of money which would be 
the result of the sale of some of his 
slaves, whereupon Wilson gave him full 
discharge of the debt, declaring that he 
would receive no money obtained by 
traffic in human beings. 

In the Massachusetts Legislature, dur- 
ing the first session of which he was a 
member, Mr. Wilson devoted himself to 
making entire acquaintance with routine 
business, and made little mark, but he 
was reelected for the session of 1842, and 
then took a firm stand as a protectionist, 
the tarifif question then being prominent. 
In 1843 '^"cl 1844 he was elected to the 
Massachusetts Senate, and declined re- 
election in 1845. It was in 1845 that Mr. 
Wilson first began to appear publicly in 
opposition to the slave trade and slavery, 
especially on the question of the admis- 
sion of Texas to the Union. In 1848 he 
bought a newspaper in Boston, the "Re- 
publican," which he edited for two years, 
making it the leading paper of the Free 
Soil party. In 1850 Mr. Wilson was 
again elected to the State Senate, and 
made president of that body. In 1852 he 
was chairman of the Free Soil National 
Convention, held at Pittsburgh, and after- 
ward of the national committee of that 
party. He was also nominated for Con- 
gress in that year, but was defeated, and 
in the following year was the unsuccess- 
ful Free Soil candidate for Governor. 



Finally, in 1855, the Free Soil party com- 
bined with the American party in Massa- 
chusetts, and was successful in having 
him chosen to succeed Edward Everett 
in the United States Senate, and he took 
his seat in that body in February, 1855. 
It should be said of Mr. Wilson that if 
he had chosen to desert his principles 
and at the same time take part against a 
friend whom he respected he could have 
been elected United States Senator at the 
time when Charles Sumner was chosen 
on the twenty-sixth ballot in the Legis- 
lature, and by a change of a single vote. 
Wilson elected Sumner, and the latter 
acknowledged it by writing him a letter 
of thanks. 

Mr. Wilson's first important speech in 
the United States Senate was made on 
February 23, 1855, ^^^ "^^^s in response to 
an attack by Senator Stephen A. Doug- 
las, no mean antagonist, referring sharply 
to the way in which the North had been 
misrepresented in Congress by its own 
representatives. During the celebrated 
Kansas-Nebraska times, Mr. Wilson was 
consistent in the tenacity with which he 
held to his position as a Free Soil Repub- 
lican. When Charles Sumner was brutally 
assaulted in the Senate chamber by Pres- 
ton S. Brooks, of South Carolina. Mr. 
Wilson assisted in gonveying his col- 
league to his lodgings, and on the follow- 
ing day brought the matter before the 
Senate, denouncing the act as "a brutal, 
murderous and cowardly assault." Brooks 
sent a challenge to Wilson, which he de- 
clined, in his answer repeating his senti- 
ments concerning Brooks' attack, and 
expressing his firm belief in the right of 
self-defence. Later, in the Senate cham- 
ber, in reply to Mason, of Virginia, Wil- 
son said: "This is not a place for assumed 
social superiority, as though certain sena- 
tors held the keys of cultivated society. 
Sir, they do not hold the keys, and they 

shall not hold over me the plantation 

Not only with reference to the slavery 
question and its allied issues, but in con- 
nection with every important matter be- 
fore the Senate, Mr. Wilson was fre- 
quently heard, and always listened to 
with respect, both for his opinions and 
for his acknowledged acquaintance with 
facts. On the outbreak of the war of 
the rebellion, Senator Wilson was made 
chairman of the committee on military 
affairs, and remained at the head of that 
committee during the entire war. In 
1861 he recruited a regiment in Massa- 
chusetts and accompanied it to the front 
as its colonel, and for a time served on 
the staff of General George B. McClellan. 
Mr. W^ilson's oratory was powerful and 
effective, if not polished, and he was one 
of the most industrious and useful mem- 
bers of the Senate. After the war he was 
very active in legislation on the recon- 
struction of the State governments in the 
South, being liberal to the Southern 
whites, while demanding for the blacks 
the full rights to which they were en- 
titled. At the close of the term ending 
in March, 1871, he was reelected to the 
Senate for another six-year term, but in 
June, 1872, was nominated for Vice- 
President of the United States on the 
ticket with General Grant, and was elected 
in the following November, receiving two 
hundred and eighty-six out of three hun- 
dred and fifty-four electoral votes. He 
resigned his seat in the Senate on March 
3. 1873. and took his place as Vice-Presi- 
dent, but during that year his health 
failed, and he suffered from a stroke of 
paralysis from which he never recovered. 
Many of Mr. Wilson's speeches and pub- 
lic addresses were published, and he had 
nearly completed his "History of the Rise 
and Fall of the Slave Power in America," 



which was published in Boston in three 
volumes (1872-75). 

Mr. Wilson married, in 1840, Harriet 
M. Howe, of Natick, who died in 1870. 
Their only child. Lieutenant Hamilton 
Wilson, died in 1876, in Texas. Mr. Wil- 
son died November 22, 1875. 

SUMNER, Hon. Charles, 

Distinguished Statesman. 

Hon. Charles Sumner, one of America's 
most distinguished statesmen, was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, January 6, 
181 1, son of Charles Pinckney and Relief 
(Jacob) Sumner, and grandson of Job 
Sumner, an officer in the Revolutionary 
army, who served at Bunker Hill, in the 
siege of Boston, and was second in com- 
mand of the forces in New York at the 
time of its evacuation by the British. 

Charles Sumner attended the Boston 
public schools, and, failing to obtain an 
appointment to the United States Mili- 
tary Academy at West Point, in his fif- 
teenth year entered Harvard College, 
from which he was graduated in 1830; as 
a student he excelled in history, litera- 
ture and the classics, and won a second 
Bowdoin prize for an essay on "The 
Present Character of the Inhabitants of 
New England." He taught school, mean- 
time studying at the Harvard Law School, 
from which he was graduated in 1834. 
Lie attracted the attention of Judge Story 
and Simon Greenleaf, and in 1834 entered 
the law office of Benjamin Rand, of Bos- 
ton. While serving as editor of "The 
Jurist," he visited Washington, Philadel- 
phia and New York, and met many of 
the distinguished men of the day. Re- 
turning to Boston, he engaged in prac- 
tice, in partnership with George S. Hil- 
liard. In 1835-36-37, during the absence 
of Judge Story, he served as an instructor 
in the Law School. He was selected to 
report "Story's Decisions," which he pub- 
lished in three volumes, also assisting 

Greenleaf in his "Maine Digest," and pre- 
paring the index to Story's "Equity Juris- 
prudence." In December, 1837, he visited 
Europe, and was cordially received by 
leading barristers, literary celebrities and 
political and social leaders in London, 
Paris, Vienna and Berlin. 

Returning home, in 1840 he resumed 
his law practice, and was retained by the 
British consul in actions brought against 
British officers who had searched Amer- 
ican ships suspected of being slavers. On 
July 4, 1845, in an oration at Boston, he 
made an argument against war, his effort 
marked by courage and sparkling elo- 
quence. In 1845, ^^ ^ member of the 
Whig State Committee appointed to or- 
ganize the opposition to the admission of 
Texas as a Slave State, he formulated the 
resolutions presented at a meeting in 
Faneuil Hall, November 4 that year, de- 
claring that "The government and inde- 
pendence of the United States are founded 
on the adamantine truths of equal rights 
and the brotherhood of all men." From 
this time Mr. Sumner was a recognized 
leader of the anti-slavery movement. On 
February 4, 1846, in Faneuil Hall, he 
urged the withdrawal of the United States 
troops from Mexico, and in the same 
month delivered a lecture on "White 
Slavery in the Barbary States." In 1848 
he opposed the presidential nomination 
of Taylor, in the Whig Convention in 
Worcester, and later supported Martin 
Van Buren in the Free Soil National 
Convention at Buffalo. 

He was now fairly launched upon a 
political career. He was the Free Soil 
nominee for Congress, against Robert 
C. Winthrop, and. although defeated, 
gained a national reputation by his con- 
duct in the campaign. He was defeated 
for a seat in the Thirty-first Congress. 
He was a member of the Massachusetts 
Free Soil Convention in 1850. In the fol- 
lowing year he was nominated for United 



States Senator, receiving the unanimous 
vote of the Free Soil members of the 
Legislature, and two-thirds of the vote 
of the Democratic members, and, being 
elected, took his seat December i, 1851. 
His first important speech in the Senate, 
August 26, 1852, on "Freedom national. 
Slavery sectional," created a profound 
impression throughout the country, and 
attracted much attention abroad. In 
February, 1854, he opposed the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill in a masterly efifort in 
which he epitomized the history of slav- 
ery, and foretold the breaking of the 
slave power. A debate followed between 
himself and Senator Butler, of South 
Carolina, which intensified the pro-slavery 
feeling against Mr. Sumner, and a pro- 
posal to expel him was seriously con- 
sidered. On May 29-30, 1856, he deliv- 
ered his speech on "The Crime against 
Kansas," and which was pronounced by 
Longfellow to be "the greatest voice, on 
the greatest subject, that has been uttered 
since we became a nation." On May 22, 
in the Senate chamber, the body not 
being in session, Senator Sumner was 
violently assaulted over the head with a 
cane by Preston S. Brooks, sustaining 
injuries from which he never entirely re- 
covered. Mr. Sumner was unable to re- 
sume his seat in the Senate in the ensu- 
ing session, and for a time meditated 
resignation. He was reelected in 1857. 
and attended the Senate for a single day, 
in order to cast his vote on the tariff bill, 
soon afterward sailing for Paris for medi- 
cal treatment. He returned in Novem- 
ber, and in December resumed his seat 
in the Senate, but was soon obliged to 
return to Paris on account of his ill 
health. He did not return to the Senate 
until December, 1859, and took no part 
in debate until June 4, i860, when he de- 
livered a strong speech on "The Bar- 
barism of Slavery." When South Caro- 
lina seceded, he opposed any form of 

compromise between North and South. 
As chairman of the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs, he urged the surrender of Mason 
and Slidell, the Confederate envoys who 
had been taken from the British steamer 
"Trent" by Captain Wilkes, of the United 
States ship "San Jacinto." On Septem- 
ber 10, 1863, in New York City, he de- 
livered a speech on "Our Foreign Rela- 
tions," which did much toward keeping 
the good will of England and France. 
He was reelected to the Senate for a third 
term in 1863. He was a firm supporter 
of President Lincoln ; he urged slave 
emancipation, introduced a bill to repeal 
all fugitive slave laws, and was the lead- 
ing advocate of the Freedmen's Bureau 
bill. In 1864 he introduced the first bill 
to reform the civil service and advocated 
numerous salutary educational and other 
measures. In the Presidential campaign 
of that year he spoke in several large 
cities in support of Lincoln. In the Su- 
preme Court he moved the admission of 
a colored man to the bar, and which was 
granted by Chief Justice Chase. In Bos- 
ton, on July I, 1865, he delivered a mas- 
terly eulogy upon Lincoln. He urged 
negro suffrage as essential to hastening 
reconstruction ; opposed President John- 
son, and voted for his impeachment. In 
February, 1867, he bore a leading part in 
effecting the legislation providing for 
negro suffrage. He opposed the proposed 
acquisition of Santo Domingo, which led 
to a personal rupture between President 
Grant and Secretary Fish, and the re- 
moval of Mr. Sumner from the chairman- 
ship of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. 
In March, 1871, he delivered a speech 
censuring President Grant for his course 
on the Santo Domingo affair, and that 
project was consequently abandoned. As 
an anti-administration Republican he op- 
posed the reelection of Grant, and sup- 
ported Greeley, declaring that "principles 
must be preferred to party." His health 



breaking down, in 1872 he sailed for Eng- 
land, where he learned of his nomination 
by the Democrats for the Governorship 
of Massachusetts, and at once cabled his 
declination. On his return to the Senate 
in November, he was so ill that he asked 
to be relieved from service on commit- 
tees, but on the opening day of the ses- 
sion he introduced a bill providing that 
"the names of battles with fellow citizens 
be not contained in the Army Register 
or placed on the regimental colors of the 
United States." He delivered his last 
public address in December, 1873, at the 
New England Society dinner in New 
York City; and on January 27, 1874, 
made his last appeal in the Senate for 
civil rights for colored citizens. He died 
in Washington City, March 11, 1874, 
being the senior Senator in consecutive 
service, having been elected four times ; 
he was buried in Mount Auburn Ceme- 
tery, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Sumner received the honorary de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws from Yale, Har- 
vard and Amherst colleges ; he was a 
fellow of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, and a member of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society and the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society. A bust of 
Sumner by Crawford is in the Boston 
Art Museum, and another by Milmore is 
in the State House, Boston ; a bronze 
statue by Ball is in the Public Gardens, 
Boston ; and one by Anne Whitney stands 
opposite the Harvard Law School in 
Cambridge. In selecting names for the 
place in the Hall of Fame in New York, 
he was classed among "Rulers and States- 

Mr. Sumner married, in Boston, in Oc- 
tober, t866, Alice Mason Hooper. 

BARTLETT, William Francis, 

Soldier of the Civil War. 

William Francis Bartlett was born in 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, January 6, 1840. 

A junior student at Harvard in 1861, 
when President Lincoln issued his first 
call for troops, he left college and joined 
the Fourth Battalion of Massachusetts 
Volunteers. Showing great aptitude for 
military duties and drill, he was appointed 
captain in the Twentieth Massachusetts 
Volunteers. On October 21, 1861, he was 
for the first time under fire at Ball's Bluff. 
He was severely wounded at Yorktown 
in the spring of 1862, and obliged to have 
his leg amputated. Returning to college 
for a brief period, he was enabled to 
graduate with his class and receive a de- 
gree. In September of the same year he 
organized the Forty-ninth Massachusetts 
Volunteer Regiment at Pittsfield, and 
was chosen colonel. Shortly afterward 
the regiment accompanied General Banks' 
expedition to Louisiana. Notwithstand- 
ing his physical disability. Colonel Bart- 
lett led his men on all occasions with the 
most reckless daring, so that even the 
Confederate officers, struck with admira- 
tion at his bravery, on one occasion 
ordered their soldiers to desist from firing 
at him. He was twice wounded at Port 
Hudson, May 27, 1863. Returning North, 
he organized the Fifty-seventh Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, in time to participate 
in the Wilderness campaign the next 
spring. He was again severely wounded, 
and was promoted to brigadier-general 
for gallant and meritorious conduct. Re- 
suming active service in the field when he 
was scarcely able to maintain his seat in 
the saddle, and reckless of danger as ever, 
he was taken prisoner before Petersburg, 
July 30, 1864. After a sufficient taste of 
the horrors of Libby Prison, he was ex- 
changed in September, and assumed com- 
mand of the First Division of the Ninth 
Corps, and in 1865 was brevetted briga- 

Peace being declared, General Bartlett 

engaged in business for a time at the 

Tredegar iron works, Richmond, Vir- 




ginia, but eventually returned to New- 
England, and married a lady of Pitts- 
field, Massachusetts, where he made his 
residence and established himself in busi- 
ness. General Bartlett's military career 
is one of the most brilliant on record, and 
yet he suffered much from severe wounds 
and trying imprisonment, and his consti- 
tution never recovered from these terri- 
ble war experiences. Financial troubles 
harassed his latter years until he finally 
succumbed and died in Pittsfield. Decem- 
ber 17, 1S76, at the untimely age of thirty- 
six. See "Memoir of William Francis 
Bartlett." F. W. Palfrey (Boston. 1878). 

HOOKER, Joseph, 

Soldier of Two Wars. 

Joseph Hooker was born in Hadley, 
Massachusetts, November 13. 1814. He 
received a thorough preliminary educa- 
tion, and when fourteen years of age en- 
tered the West Point Military Academy, 
from which he was graduated in 1837, at 
the age of twenty-three, in the same class 
with Generals Jubal Early and Braxton 
Bragg, both of whom came to distinction 
as Confederate leaders. At the begin- 
ning of the Mexican War he was ap- 
pointed to the staff of Brigadier-General 
Hamar, being a second lieutenant in the 
First Artillery. He was present at the 
battle of Monterey, and so distinguished 
himself that he was brevetted captain, 
and in March, 1847, obtained the full 
rank of captain and assistant adjutant- 
general. He was with Scott at Vera 
Cruz, and was made major and lieutenant- 
colonel for gallant conduct at the Na- 
tional Bridge and Chapultepec. He re- 
mained in the army until 1853, but the 
conditions of a time of peace were ob- 
jectionable to him, and in that year he 
resigned his commission and went to 
California, settled in Sonora county, and 
for several years worked his own farm. 
In 1858 he was appointed superintendent 

of military roads in Oregon, and obtained 
some other military surveying, and for 
three years was colonel of California 

At the outbreak of the Civil War he 
offered his services to the government, 
and in May, 1861, was commissioned 
brigadier-general and assigned to duty 
with the Army of the Potomac. The 
actual time of issuing General Hooker's 
commission was in August, but it was 
dated back to May 17. General Hooker 
was present at the battle of Bull Run, 
but took no part in it. From July to the 
following February he was stationed on 
the north bank of the Potomac, in South- 
ern Maryland, to watch the enemy and 
to defeat any effort on their part to cross 
the river for the purpose of moving on 
Washington from that direction. He 
commanded the Second Division in the 
Third Corps of the Army of the Potomac, 
under General Heintzelman. This divi- 
sion afterward formed part of McClel- 
lan's army in the peninsular campaign, 
and at the siege of Yorktown, lasting 
from April 5 to May 4, 1862, Hooker so 
distinguished himself that on the day 
after the evacuation he was appointed a 
major-general of volunteers. As soon as 
it was learned that the enemy had evacu- 
ated Yorktown, Stoneman was sent for- 
ward to harass the Confederate rear with 
his cavalry, while Hooker wdth his divi- 
sion Avas ordered to support him. This 
movement brought about the battle of 
Williamsburg, in which Hooker's divi- 
sion held the entire Confederate army in 
check, though he had to contend with 
overwhelming numbers. Seeing that the 
retreating army had halted and that rein- 
forcements were being sent back. Hooker 
sent to Heintzelman for assistance. He 
stubbornly held the road, which was the 
centre of his operations, while waiting 
for the requested aid, and three times the 
hostile columns pushed up to this key to 



his position, and were driven back. He 
fought all the forenoon, and soon after 
midday Longstreet came up with a fresh 
division in support of the Confederates, 
and attacked so sharply that, though 
Hooker repulsed him, it was with the 
loss of four of his guns. At this junc- 
ture Kearny came up with his division, 
and relieved him. Hooker's loss in this 
engagement was 2.228 men killed and 

General Hooker further distinguished 
himself on the Peninsula at the battles 
of Fair Oaks, Frazier's Farm, Glendale 
and Alalvern Hill, during McClellan's 
change of base. On account of the part 
which he took in these battles, his divi- 
sion became known as "Fighting Joe 
Hooker's Division," thus giving him the 
sobriquet by which he was afterward 
always known. When the Army of the 
Potomac was called from the Peninsula 
to assist Pope in front of Washington, 
Heintzelman's corps with Hooker's divi- 
sion was one of the first to reach him at 
Warren Junction, where, on August 27, 
he was attacked by General Ewell, whom 
he repulsed and attacked in turn, driving 
him along the railroad, and compelling 
him to leave his dea'd, many of his 
wounded, and much of his baggage in 
Federal hands, this defeat of Ewell sav- 
ing the army from a very critical situa- 
tion. When the army was reorganized 
in September, preparatory to the Mary- 
land campaign, he was assigned to the 
command of the First Army Corps. On 
the 14th of September occurred the battle 
of South Mountain, when Hooker, as a 
corps commander, added still more to his 
laurels. The attack was made by Gen- 
eral Reno early in the morning, and was 
kept up for seven hours under a heavy 
fire, when Hooker came up with his 
corps, and at three o'clock in the after- 
noon formed his line of battle at the base 
of the mountain. The passes through 

South Mountain had been carried, and 
Hooker attacked the mountain side on 
the right of the gap, while General Reno 
attacked on the left ; the enemy retreat- 
ing precipitately before this terrible on- 
slaught. Three days later occurred the 
battle of Antietam, in which Flooker bore 
a most important part. Lee's army lay 
behind the heights which line the west- 
ern bank of Antietam creek, extending 
from near its mouth, where it enters the 
Potomac, for several miles up. McClel- 
lan's plan was to send across Hooker's 
corps above, supported by Mansfield, 
Sumner and Franklin, and to have them 
come down on the Confederate left. When 
he had turned it, Burnside was to cross 
a stone bridge on the Federal left and 
force back Lee's right, pushing on to 
Sharpsburg, thus reaching the enemy's 
rear and preventing his passage across 
the Potomac. Hooker made his first 
movement on September 16, and there 
was some artillery firing that night. Early 
in the morning the battle of Antietam 
began. A fierce attack was made by the 
enemy, and the right wing of the Federal 
army, under General Sumner, was badly 
shattered. General Hancock, who com- 
manded a brigade in Smith's division, 
pushed forward in support of the Fed- 
erals, driving back the force which had 
attacked Sumner. After this engage- 
ment the Federal army was so firmly 
established that the enemy did not again 
assail it with infantry, although it suf- 
fered considerably from artillery fire at 
short range. In this battle General Hooker 
was wounded in the foot, but remained 
on the field until the close of the engage- 
ment. The battle of Antietam was im- 
portant, since it arrested General Lee's 
march of invasion, and obliged his re- 
treat across the Potomac into "Virginia. 
Hooker was unable to take the field again 
until November, when he superseded 
General Fitz John Porter in the com- 



mand of the Fifth Corps ; on Burnside's 
assuming the chief command, Hooker 
was assigned to the centre grand division 
of the Army of the Potomac, comprising 
the Third and Fifth Corps. When Burn- 
side commenced his movement on Fred- 
ericksburg, Hooker brought up the rear 
of the grand army. He had no faith in 
the promise of Burnside's anticipated sur- 
prise of Lee, and he took no part in the 
great battle of Fredericksburg, which 
proved a frightful mistake, in which the 
loss of the Federal army was over 12,000 
killed, wounded and missing. 

Early in January, 1863, the divisions 
of Franklin and Hooker were put in mo- 
tion in parallel columns, with the pur- 
pose of moving across the Rappahannock 
and along its banks six miles above Fred- 
ericksburg. A heavy rainstorm came up 
in the night, lasting two days, and con- 
verting the country roads into almost 
fathomless mud, through which the col- 
umns struggled on in what is known in 
army history as the "mud march."' Find- 
ing that Lee was fully informed of his 
movement, General Burnside recalled the 
army to its quarters. 

On January 26 General Burnside was 
relieved of his command, at his own re- 
quest, and General Joseph Hooker suc- 
ceeded him under appointment by the 
President. The result of this change of 
commanders was to revive in the army 
that zeal and confidence which had cer- 
tainly been considerably weakened by 
the recent disaster. After his appoint- 
ment to the command, General Hooker 
determined not to attempt any large 
operations on the impassable roads dur- 
ing the winter season, and he spent three 
months in efiforts to bring the army into 
a condition of greater efficiency. He 
effected a number of improvements, such 
as abolishing the "grand divisions ;" per- 
fecting the several departments ; consoli- 
dating the cavalry under able leaders, 
MASS— 11 161 

and improving its efficiency; and intro- 
ducing corps badges, for the double pur- 
pose of distinguishing to what corps a 
soldier belonged and forming I'esprit du 

Before the spring campaign opened. 
Hooker found himself at the head of 
120,000 infantry, and 12,000 well ap- 
pointed cavalry. The Confederate army 
numbered scarcely half that force, two 
divisions under Longstreet having been 
detached, and which did not rejoin it 
until after the battle of Chancellorsville. 
General Hooker now formed the bold 
plan of marching up the Rappahannock, 
crossing it and its tributary, the Rapidan, 
turning Lee's flank near Chancellorsville, 
and attacking him 01 reirrsc. His turn- 
ing column was put in motion April 27, 
1863, including the Second, Fifth, Elev- 
enth and Twelfth Corps. The movement 
resulted in the battle of Chancellorsville, 
which was attended by great loss of men, 
and resulted disastrously. Hooker was 
badly defeated, a fact which enabled Lee 
to concentrate a heavy force against him, 
and he was compelled to recross the 
river, narrowly escaping total destruc- 
tion. It was a terrible disaster, and what 
made it worse was that on April 30 
Hooker had issued an address in which 
he said, "It is with heartfelt satisfaction 
that the general commanding announces 
to the army, that the operations of the 
last three days have determined that our 
enemy must ingloriously fly, or come out 
from behind their defences, and give us 
battle on our own ground, where certain 
destruction awaits them." The result 
that actually occurred angered the whole 
country. Hooker had declared that the 
Army of the Potomac had failed to take 
Richmond on account of the incompe- 
tency of its leaders, and there was little 
sympathy felt for him in his defeat. Lee 
was so elated with his success in defeat- 
ing the Armv of the Potomac that he 


formed a bold plan to invade Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, moved his army nearly 
one hundred and fifty miles around by 
the Shenandoah valley to the Potomac, 
and crossed the latter near Plagerstown. 
The failure of Hooker to arrest this 
invasion caused great dissatisfaction, and 
at Fredericksburg he resigned his com- 
mand. General Meade being appointed in 
his place. Plooker's failure had been 
complete, but it did not blind the admin- 
istration to his great merit as a soldier. 
He was placed in command of the com- 
bined Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, and 
was sent to reinforce Rosecrans at Chat- 
tanooga. It was understood that as a 
division or corps leader Hooker had no 
superior. Soon after Grant assumed com- 
mand at Chattanooga, his line being com- 
plete from the northern end of Lookout 
Mountain to the northern end of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Hooker made his splendid 
attack on the former position, which has 
passed into history as the "Battle above 
the Clouds," on November 24, 1863. All 
up the mountain side the battle raged 
furiously, the scene being hidden from 
Grant and Thomas down below in Chat- 
tanooga by the low-hanging clouds, which 
wrapped the contending armies from 
sight. Suddenly the fog lifted, and all 
in Chattanooga were witnesses of this 
strange conflict among the clouds, and 
saw the enemy driven from his works 
upon the summit, and that the mountain 
stronghold was Hooker's. Later Plooker 
joined in the pursuit of Bragg from Mis- 
sionary Ridge, and pushed on until the 
Confederates took refuge in Dalton. When 
General Sherman organized his famous 
"March to the Sea" by the invasion of 
Georgia, Hooker remained in command 
of the Twentieth Corps, which was the 
consolidation of the Eleventh and Twelfth 
Corps, and added to the laurels gained at 
Lookout Mountain by his splendid fight- 

ing at Resaca, Dallas, and in the opera- 
tions in front of Atlanta. After the death 
of General McPherson, commanding the 
Army of the Tennessee, Hooker expected 
to succeed him, but was disappointed. 
Sherman did not altogether like Hooker, 
and advised the President to appoint 
General Oliver O. Howard to the vacant 
post. This was done, and Hooker asked 
to be relieved July 30, and was placed 
upon waiting orders until September 28. 
He was remembered, however, and his 
services respected, and he was brevetted 
a major-general in the regular army 
under date of March 13, 1865. After the 
close of the war he was placed in com- 
mand of the Department of the East, 
with headquarters in New York City. In 
August, 1866, he was sent to Detroit, and 
put in command of the Department of 
the Lakes. September i, 1866, he was 
mustered out of the volunteer service, 
and for some time was a member of a 
board for the retirement of officers. He 
was stricken with paralysis, however, and 
being incapacitated for further active 
service, he was retired at his own re- 
quest, on October 15, 1868, retaining the 
full rank of major-general. 

For the remainder of his life General 
Hooker resided in New York, and at last 
in Garden City (Long Island), New 
York, where his remains lie buried. He 
was a gallant and able soldier and gen- 
eral. As has been already said, in com- 
mand of a division or corps he had no 
superior, but, precisely, as Ney and 
Murat, could not be turned into Napo- 
leons by placing them in chief command 
of an army, so Hooker was out of place 
and unsuccessful when given the supreme 
charge, in the conduct of which so many 
other experienced officers had failed. He 
died in Garden City, Long Island, New 
York, October 31, 1879. 



PEARSON, Eliphalet, 

Clergyman, Educator. 

The Rev. Eliphalet Pearson was born 
at Byfield, Massachusetts, June ii, 1725, 
son of David and Sarah (Danforth) Pear- 
son, and a descendant of John Pearson, 
who emigrated from Yorkshire, England, 
in 1643, ^"d settled at Rowley, Massachu- 
setts, where he built the first clothing mill 
in New England. 

Eliphalet Pearson first attended Dum- 
mer Academy, Byfield, Massachusetts, 
then entering Harvard College, from 
which he was graduated A. B., 1773, and 
received the A. M. degree in 1776. He 
taught school at Andover, Massachusetts, 
for a time. He was engaged with Samuel 
Phillips in the manufacture of gunpowder 
for the American army in 1775. Upon the 
opening of the Phillips school in April, 
1778, he became its first preceptor, which 
office he held until 1786. He was Han- 
cock Professor of Hebrew at Harvard 
College, 1 786- 1 806, a period of twenty 
years. Upon the death of Lieutenant- 
Governor Phillips in 1802, Mr. Pearson 
succeeded him as president of the board 
of trustees of Phillips Academy, and con- 
tinued in that office until 1820. He was 
acting president of Harvard College, 1804- 
06. He was connected with Colonel 
John Phillips in the establishment of the 
Andover Theological Seminary, and suc- 
ceeded in combining the Hopkinson and 
Andover seminaries in 1808. He was or- 
dained to the ministry, September 22, 
1808, and served as Associate Professor 
of Sacred Literature at the Andover The- 
ological Seminary, 1808-09. He was sec- 
retary of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences ; a member of the Society 
for Promoting the Gospel among the In- 
dians and Others in North America ; a 
founder of the American Education So- 
ciety ; president of the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge ; a member 

of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences. The honorary degree 
of LL. D. was conferred on him by Yale 
College and by the College of New Jer- 
sey in 1802. He edited Bishop Wilson's 
"Sacra Privata," and was the author of 
a Hebrew grammar, and lectures. He 
died at Greenland, New Hampshire, Sep- 
tember 12, 1826. 

He was married (first) to Priscilla, 
daughter of President Edward Holyoke, 
of Harvard College, and (second) in 1785, 
to Sarah, daughter of Henry Bromfield, 
of Harvard, Massachusetts. 

RUSSELL, Benjamin, 

Early Printer and Publisher. 

Benjamin Russell was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, September 13, 1761, son 
of John Russell. In August, 1775, he was 
apprenticed to Isaiah Thomas, of Worces- 
ter, publisher of the "Massachusetts Spy," 
and in 1780 substituted in the Continental 
army for his employer, who had been 
drafted. He joined the army at West 
Point, and was one of the guard at the 
execution of Major Andre. At the ex- 
piration of his military service he return- 
ed to Worcester, was released from his 
indenture, and on March 24, 1784, with 
William Warden, began publishing the 
"Massachusetts Centinel." In 1785 he be- 
came sole owner and editor, changed the 
name of the paper to the "Columbian 
Centinel," and continued to edit and pub- 
lish it for forty-four years. During the 
crisis that followed the treaty of Ver- 
sailles, and through the trying times of 
Shay's Rebellion, when other papers were 
fomenting up sedition, Mr. Russell stood 
for nationalism, and gave the administra- 
tion of Washington his unwavering sup- 
port. In the conduct of his paper he 
made a specialty of local news, which he 
gathered on street corners and in public 



meetings. He also procured foreign news, 
personally boarding every vessel that 
came into Boston harbor. During the 
stay of the French exiles, Louis Philippe 
and other noblemen, in this country, Mr. 
Russell made lifelong friendships with 
them. He received from Louis Philippe 
an atlas which proved a great aid when 
he was editing the war news from Eu- 
rope. In 1795 he began the publication 
of the "Boston Gazette." He retired 
from the "Centinel" in 1828 and from the 
"Gazette" in 1830. The "Centinel" has 
always been considered the best type of 
the early political newspaper of the 
United States ; the most eminent Feder- 
alist statesmen and writers contributed 
to its columns, and it wielded no little 
influence in the early history of New Eng- 
land. It was united with the "New Eng- 
land Paladium" in 1830, and with the Bos- 
ton "Gazette" in 1836. In 1840 it became 
merged in the "Daily Advertiser." 

Mr. Russell was a member of the State 
Senate, of the Governor's Council, and of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1820. 
He published all the laws and official 
documents of the First Congress, 1789- 
91, intending that the work should be 
gratuitous, but a few years later, when 
the treasury could afford to pay, he was 
presented with $7,000. He died in Boston, 
Massachusetts. January 4, 1845. 

PERKINS, Thomas Handasyd, 

Man of Affairs, Philanthropist. 

Thomas Handasyd Perkins was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, December 15, 

1764, son of and Elizabeth (Peck) 

Perkins, and grandson of Edmund and 
Edna (Frothingham) Perkins, and of 
Thomas Peck, whose wife was a Hand- 
asyd. His father was a merchant, and 
his mother a founder of the Boston Fe- 
male Asylum. 

He was prepared for Harvard College 

by the Rev. Mr. Shute, of Hingham, but 
did not matriculate, having determined 
upon engaging in commercial pursuits. 
He was trained in a Boston counting 
room in 1785, visited and engaged in busi- 
ness with his brother James in Santo 
Domingo, and returned soon after as the 
Boston agent of his brother's house. He 
formed a partnership with his brother 
James in Boston in 1792, and which con- 
tinued until the latter's death in 1822, and 
in the meantime established a house in 
Canton, China, under the firm name of 
Perkins & Company. He traveled in Eu- 
rope in 1794-95. He was made president 
of the Boston Branch of the Bank of the 
United States in 1796, but resigned the 
next year and was succeeded by George 
Cabot. He was elected to the Massachu- 
setts Senate in 1805, and for nearly twen- 
ty years thereafter served either in that 
or the other house of the Legislature. 
He was a projector of the Quincy rail- 
road, the first in the United States, in 
1827, and retired from business with a 
large fortune in 1838. He was prominent 
in establishing the Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital, with an asylum for the in- 
sane, and about 1812 donated his mansion 
house on Pearl street, Boston, worth 
$50,000, for a blind asylum, which was 
the foundation of the Perkins Institution 
for the Blind in 1853. The condition of 
the gift was that $50,000 should be raised 
as a fund for its support. With other 
members of his family he gave more than 
$60,000 to the Boston Athenaeum, and 
was the largest contributor to the Mer- 
cantile Library Association. He also 
contributed liberally to the erection of the 
Bunker Hill Monument and toward the 
completion of the Washington Monu- 
ment. In 1827 he pul)lished a small book 
intended to teach the art of reading to the 
blind, in 1834 the "Gospel of St. John, for 
the Blind," and afterward several other 
books for the blind. liis diaries of 


travel and autobiographical sketches were 
partly preserved in Thomas G. Gary's 
"Memoir of Thomas H. Perkins" (1856). 
He married, in 1788, Sarah, daughter 
of Simon Elliott. He died in Brookline, 
Massachusetts, January 11, 1854. 

JACKSON, James, 

Physician, Litterateur. 

James Jackson was born at Xewbury- 
port, Massachusetts, October 3, 1777, son 
of the Hon. Jonathan and Hannah 
(Tracy) Jackson, and grandson of Ed- 
ward and Dorothy (Quincy) Jackson, and 
of Captain Patrick Tracy. 

He was graduated at Harvard College, 

A. B., 1796, and received the A. M. degree 
in 1799. He taught a year at Leicester 
Academy, and next became for a short 
time clerk for his father, who was a gov- 
ernment official. He then studied medi- 
cine in Salem for two years and after- 
ward in London, England, being at the 
time a "dresser" at St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital. He returned to Boston in 1800, and 
entered the Harvard Medical School, 
from which he received the degree of M. 

B. in 1802, and that of M. D. in 1809. He 
practiced medicine in Boston for a period 
of sixty-six years, beginning in the year 
1800. He became a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society in 1803, and 
was for a number of years its president. 
With Dr. John C. Watson he founded the 
Asylum for the Insane at Somerville in 
1810, and proposed the establishment of 
what was afterward the Massachusetts 
General Hospital, of which latter he was 
the first physician from 1812 to 1835. He 
was also one of the founders of the Bos- 
ton Athenaeum and of the "Boston Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal." He was Her- 
sey Professor of the Theory and Practice 
of Physics in Harvard Medical School 
from 1812 to 1836, and Professor Emer- 
itus, 1836-67. He was an overseer of Har- 

vard College, 1844-46; was president of 
the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, a member of the American Phil- 
osophical Society, and honorary member 
of the Royal Chirurgical Society of Lon- 
don, England. Pie was the author of: 
"On the Brunonian System" (1809) ; "Re- 
marks on the Medical Effects of Denti- 
tion" (1812) ; "Eulogy on Dr. John War- 
ren" (1815) ; "Syllabus of Lectures" 
(1816); "Text-Book of Lectures" (1825- 
27) ; "Memoir of James Jackson" (1834) ; 
"Letters to a Young Physician" (1855), 
and numerous papers in the "Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal" and in the 
"Transactions of the State Medical So- 
ciety." He died in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, August 27, 1867. 


Philologist, Author. 

John Pickering was born in Salem. 
Massachusetts, February 7, 1777, Sun of 
Timothy and Rebecca (White) Picker- 

He was graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege, A. B., 1796, and rec<iived the A. M. 
degree in 1799. Pie studied law in Phil- 
adelphia, meantime serving as secretary 
to William Smith, United States Minis- 
ter to Portugal, 1797-99, and to Rufus 
King, United States Minister to Great 
Britain, 1799-1801. He practiced law in 
Salem, Massachusetts, from 1801 to 1827; 
removed in the latter year to Boston, 
where he was city solicitor until his resig- 
nation in 1846. He was a representative 
in the State Legislature, State Senator, 
and member of the Senate committee that 
revised and arranged the statutes of Mas- 
sachusetts. He spoke fluently the Eng- 
lish. French, Portugese, Italian, Spanish, 
German, Romaic, and Greek and Latin 
languages, and studied the Eastern lan- 
guages and the Indian languages of 
America. Fle declined the professorship 



of English and Oriental Languages, also 
that of Greek Literature, at Plarvard, and 
the office of provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania. He was a member of the 
board of overseers of Harvard College, 
1818-24, and received the honorary degree 
of LL. D. from Bowdoin College in 1822, 
and from Plarvard College in 1835. He 
was president of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, and of the American 
Oriental Society ; a member of the Lin- 
naean Society of New England, the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, the American 
Antiquarian Society, the Society of the 
Cincinnati, the Boston Society for the 
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, the Royal 
Society of Northern Antiquarians, the 
French Society of Universal Statistics, 
the Berlin Academy of Sciences, and the 
Oriental Society of Paris ; an honorary 
member of the Philadelphia Society for 
the Promotion of Legal Knowledge ; and 
a member of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, the Archaeological Society 
of Greece, the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, the Society for the Diffusion of 
Useful Knowledge in China, the Michi- 
gan Historical Society, and the Egyptian 
Literary Association. 

Mr. Pickering was the author of "A 
Vocabulary or Collection of Words and 
Phrases which have been supposed to be 
peculiar to the United States of America" 
(1814) ; "Memoir on the Adoption of a 
Uniform Orthography for the Indian 
Languages of North America" (1820) ; 
"Review of the International McLeod 
Question" (1825) ; "Comprehensive Dic- 
tionary of the Greek Language" (1826) ; 
"Lecture on the Alleged Uncertainty of 
Law" (1830) ; "The Agrarian Laws" 
(1833) ; "Memoir on the Inhabitants of 
Lord North's Island" (1835) ; "Remarks 
on the Indian Languages of North Amer- 
ica" (1836). He died in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, May 5, 1846. 

THAYER, Sylvanus, 

Army 0£B.cer, Pliilantliropist. 

General Sylvanus Thayer was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, June 9, 1785. 
He was graduated from Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1807, then entering the United 
States Military Academy, from which he 
graduated in 1808. He served on survey- 
ing and engineering duty, 1808-09 ^^'^ 
1811-12, and was instructor in mathe- 
matics at the Military Academy, 1809-11. 
He was promoted to first lieutenant, July 
I, 1812. and served in the War of 1812 as 
chief engineer of the Northern Army 
under General Henry Dearborn, and of 
the right division under General Wade 
Hampton. He was promoted to captain 
in the corps of engineers, October 13, 
1813; was chief engineer of the forces 
under General Moses Porter in the de- 
fences of Norfolk, Virginia, 1814-15, and 
was brevetted major February 20, 1815, 
for distinguished and meritorious ser- 
vices. He was sent to Europe on profes- 
sional duty, and examined fortifications, 
schools and military establishments, and 
studied the operations of the allied armies 
before Paris, on the fall of Napoleon, 
1815-17. He served as superintendent of 
the United States Military Academy, 
1817-33, ^"d raised the echool from its 
elementary condition to one of the finest 
military schools in the world. He was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel, March 3, 
1823 ; promoted to major. May 24, 1828, 
and brevetted colonel March 3, 1833, for 
faithful service ten years in one grade. 
He was superintending engineer of the 
construction of Forts Warren and Inde- 
pendence, Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, 
1833-46; general superintendent of harbor 
improvements and coast defences in 
Maine and Massachusetts, 1836-43 ; was 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel, July 7, 
1838; was superintending engineer in 
Massachusetts, 1846-57, and president of 



the board of engineers for coast defences, 
1837-57. He was promoted to colonel, 
March 3, 1863 ; brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral, United States army, May 31, 1863, 
and retired June i, 1863. 

General Thayer was elected a member 
of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences in 1834, of the American Philo- 
sophical Society in 1838, and of various 
other scientific societies. The honorary 
degree of A. M. was conferred on him by 
Harvard College in 1825 ; that of LL. D. 
by St. John's College, Alaryland, in 1830; 
by Kenyon College, Ohio, in 1846; by 
Dartmouth College in 1846; and by Har- 
vard University in 1857. He gave $30,- 
000 for the endowment of an academy at 
Braintree, ^Massachusetts, and $32,000 for 
a free library there ; and $40,000 for a 
school of architecture and civil engineer- 
ing at Dartmouth. He was the author of : 
"Papers on Practical Engineering" 
(1844). His statue at West Point, in- 
scribed "Father of the Military Acad- 
emy," was unveiled June 11, 1883. He 
died in South Braintree, Massachusetts, 
September 7, 1872. 

PEIRCE, Benjamin, 

liitteratenr, Legislator. 

Benjamin Peirce was born in Salem, 
Massachusetts, September 30, 1778, son 
of Jerahmael (or Jerathmiel) and Sarah 
(Ropes) Peirce, grandson of Jerahmael, 
of Charlestown, and Rebecca (Hurd) 
Peirce, great-grandson of Benjamin, of 
Charlestown, and Hannah (Bowers) 
Peirce, great-great-grandson of Robert, 
of Woburn, and Mary (Knight) Peirce, 
and great-great-great-grandson of John 
Pers, weaver, and Elizabeth Pers, who 
emigrated with four children in 1637 from 
Norwich, England, to Watertown, Massa- 

Benjamin Peirce was graduated from 
Harvard College with the highest honors 

of his class, A. B., 1801, A. M., 1804. He 
entered business with his father in Salem, 
as a member of the firm of Peirce & 
Waite, having trade with China. He was 
a representative from Salem in the Gen- 
eral Court for several years, and State 
Senator in 181 1. He was librarian of 
Harvard College, 1826-31, and prepared 
a "Catalogue of the Library of Harvard 
University" (four volumes, 1830-31), and 
"A History of Harvard University from 
its foundation in the year 1636 to the 
period of the American Revolution" 


He was married, December 11, 1803, 
to Lydia Ropes, daughter of Ichabod 
and Lydia (Ropes) Nichols, of Salem. 
He died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
July 26, 183 1. 

BROWN, John, 

Soldier of tlie Revolution, Explorer. 

Colonel John Brown was born in San- 
disfield. Massachusetts, October 19, 1744, 
his parents having removed from Con- 
necticut. After preparing for college, he 
entered Yale College, where he graduated 
in 1771, and then studied law, subse- 
quently practicing his profession at Provi- 
dence. Rhode Island, and Johnstown, 
New York. In 1773 he removed to Pitts- 
field, Massachusetts. He took an early 
stand against the oppressive acts of the 
British government, and expressed his 
sentiments without reserve. He ,was a 
m^an of original views and determined 
character, and these traits, taken together 
with his commanding presence, gave him 
great prominence. In 1774 he was chosen 
by the State Committee of Massachusetts 
to go to Canada and endeavor to incite a 
revolt there. Lender the pretense of being 
a buyer of horse, he made two journeys 
to Canada, and after several times escap- 
ing capture, returned home. In 1775 he 
was made a delecrate to the Provincial 



Congress. The battle of Lexington hav- 
ing brought matters to a crisis, an attempt 
was made to surprise and capture Fort 
Ticonderoga, which was effected May 
loth, under the leadership of Benedict 
z^rnold, and John Brown was a member 
of this expedition. Later he was a mem- 
ber of the General Congress at Philadel- 
phia. Later he went with Ethan Allen 
and Montgomery on the Canada expedi- 
tion. Brown, who had been commission- 
ed major, joined Arnold in front of Que- 
bec. On August 6, 1776, he was promot- 
ed to lieutenant-colonel, by act of Con- 
gress, and in December he commanded 
a regiment of militia to Fort Independ- 
ence. After the defeat of the Americans 
at Bennington, Vermont, in the follow- 
ing year, he was sent against one of the 
outposts of Fort Ticonderoga, which he 
captured, releasing one hundred Ameri- 
can prisoners, capturing two hundred and 
ninety-three British soldiers, and also 
seizing the landing at Mount Hope, with 
its blockhouse, several bateaux, an armed 
sloop, some cannon and a quantity of 
stores. Not long afterward, he resigned, 
largely on account of his strong feeling 
against Benedict Arnold, whom he ac- 
cused of making forced exactions from 
the Canadians for his own personal bene- 
fit, and asserting that he would yet prove 
a traitor. In 1778 Colonel Brown was a 
member of the General Court. Two years 
later he conducted an expedition up the 
Mohawk river, for the relief of General 
Schuyler, but fell into an ambuscade, and 
was killed, with forty-five of his men, on 
his birthday, October 19, 1780. 

GARDNER, John Lane, 

Distinguislied Soldier. 

General John Lane Gardner was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts. August i, 
1793. He served in Canada under Gen- 

eral James Wilkinson in the War of 1812, 
as lieutenant in an infantry regiment, and 
was wounded at La Cole's Mill, March 
30, 1814. He served as assistant quarter- 
master-general with the rank of captain 
from 1820 to 1830, and was brevetted ma- 
jor of the Fourth Artillery in 1833, for 
faithful services. In the campaign against 
the Seminoles he was commended for 
"activity, skill and intrepidity" at the 
battle of Wahoo Swamp, November 21, 
1832. He was promoted to major in 
1845. ^^ the Mexican War he commanded 
his regiment, and was brevetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel for gallantry in action at 
Cerro Gordo, April 18, 1847, ^^''^ colo- 
nel for like service at Contreras, Au- 
gust 20. He was in command of the Dis- 
trict of Florida, 1849-50 ; was promoted 
to lieutenant-colonel in 1859; and in i860 
was in command of the forts in Charles- 
ton harbor. South Carolina. 

When the State of South Carolina was 
making preparations for seceding from 
the Union, he was quartered in Fort 
Moultrie, with less than fifty men. He 
obtained provisions for six months with- 
out the knowledge of the War Depart- 
ment, and announced to the authorities 
of the State of South Carolina who de- 
manded the possession of the fort, that 
he would defend it to the last extremity. 
Secretary of War Floyd then ordered him 
to report to General David E. Twiggs in 
Texas, and the command of the fort de- 
volved on Major Robert Anderson, who 
was in command until the reduction of 
Fort Sumter. Lieutenant-Colonel Gard- 
ner was promoted to colonel of the Sec- 
ond Artillery. July 23, 1861, and in 1862 
was retired at his own request, having 
been disabled for active service. He then 
served on recruiting service, and in 1865 
was brevetted brigadier-general in the 
United States army for "long and faith- 
ful services." 



Guil.Pyno'honiAimg Effigies 
Dolin. Anno Dom 1657 


tr^77?, -^yncO? 


n C/7C7 


He was married, October 6, 1825, to 
Caroline, daughter of Charles Washing- 
ton and Catharine (Roberts) Goldsbor- 
ough. He died at Wilmington, Delaware, 
February 19, 1869. 

PYNCHON, Vs^illiam, 

Lieader Among Colonists. 

William Pinchon, or Pynchon. as the 
name is generally indexed and according 
to his autograph, bvit spelled "Pinchon'' in 
all the colonial records of Massachusetts, 
was born at Springfield, Essex. England, 
about 1590, son of John and (Or- 
chard) Pynchon. the father, a native of 
Wales, and sherifif of London, 1532. 

He was a man of wealth, had been edu- 
cated at Cambridge, and became inter- 
ested in the American colonies, being one 
of the original patentees of the colony of 
Massachusetts Bay in New England. In 
1629 a charter was granted to the pat- 
entees and their associates in England, 
establishing a corporation and making 
the associates a body politic, with power 
to establish a government over a pro- 
posed colony to be formed in the new 
world, the laws so created to be "not 
repugnant to the laws of England," and 
giving the colonists the privilege to "re- 
pulse and exclude" all persons whom they 
should believe to be undesirable as set- 
tlers. The patentees met and elected 
Matthew Craddock governor, having 
previously planned a form of government, 
and in 1628 they sent John Endicott, one 
of the patentees, to Salem, with a party 
of Puritans, with power to govern the 
colony in subordination to the governor 
and company in London. Craddock de- 
clining to serve on October 30. 1629, they 
elected John W^inthrop governor, and 
from this time W^illiam Pynchon was a 
regular attendant and adviser at the 
meetings in London, and was one of the 
eighteen assistants to the governor. He 

is named in the charter of the colony both 
as a patentee and assistant, the charter 
having been granted to the council estab- 
lished at Plymouth, in the county of 
Devon, on November 3rd, in the eight- 
eenth year of the reign of James, and the 
instrument was signed by Walseley, 
March 4, 1628-29, and he is recorded as 
being present at the meeting held May 
II. 1629. and also at the meeting of assist- 
ants held at Southampton, March 18, 
1629-30, but, his name not appearing at 
the meeting on the "Arabella," he evi- 
dently came to New England by another 
ship. He was chosen assistant at the 
first General Court held at Charles 
Towne, August 25, 1630, and he was 
treasurer, 1632-34; assisted in founding 
Roxborough; and was prominent in or- 
ganizing the First Church in that town. 
He was fined for non-attendance at the 
meeting of the General Court, Septem- 
ber, 1630. He engaged in the fur trade 
with the Indians, and had a great control 
over the savages, who during his stay in 
Roxborough treated him with great re- 
spect. He was a large owner of the stock 
of the colony, and was granted valuable 
patents for extensive tracts of land in the 
Connecticut Valley by Charles I. The 
General Court, at a meeting held March 
3, 1635-36, granted a commission to Wil- 
liam Pynchon "to govern the people of 
Connecticut for the space of one year, in 
view of the great removal of our long 
friends, neighbors, freemen and members 
of the town of Newtowne, Dorchester. 
Watertown and other places, who are re- 
solved to transplant themselves and their 
estates unto the River of Connecticut, 
there to reside and inhabit." The com- 
missioners appointed by the General 
Court, besides William Pynchon, gov- 
ernor, were Robert Ludlowe, Esq., John 
Steele, William Swaine. Henry Smith, 
William Phelps, William Andrew War- 
ner, and three commissioners, or the 



"greater part of them," were given defi- 
nite powers. His last appearance at the 
General Court as a citizen of Roxborough 
was September 8, 1636. He led his small 
company, through the wilderness to Aga- 
wam river, opposite where it unites with 
the Connecticut, and there founded the 
town of Agawam, and proceeded to make 
the colonists comfortable and happy in 
their new surroundings. His first care 
was for the church. He understood in 
1638 that his settlement was under the 
jurisdiction and within the territory of 
Connecticut Colony, and he was a dele- 
gate to the legislature of that colony, but 
his views did not agree with the major- 
ity of the governing body, and he rebelled 
and withdrew from that government and 
asked the General Court of Massachu- 
setts Bay to reassume jurisdiction. To 
this end the General Court of June 2, 
1641, gave him the following commis- 

Its now hereby ordered that WilH. Pinchon 
Gent, for this yeare shall hereby have full power 
& authority to govern the inhabitants at Spring- 
field & to heare & determine all causes and 
ofTences both civil & criminall that reach not to 
life, limb and banishment, according to the laws 
established, provided that in matters of weight 
or difficulty, it shall bee lawfull for any party to 
appeal to the Court of Assistants at Boston, so 
as they psecute the same according to the order 
of the court; provided also that these tryalls bee 
by the oathes of 6 men untill they shall have a 
greater number of inhabitants for that service. 

The same court appointed him, with 
his son-in-law, Mr. Smith, to set out five 
hundred acres of land, granted to Sir 
Rich. Saltonstall, Knight, below Spring- 
field, if it fell within his patent. He was 
the principal owner of the patent, and his 
estates embraced thousands of acres, and 
he erected saw and grist mills and en- 
couraged agriculture and the building of 
houses and barns and clearing the rich 
lands. He was elected assistant by the 

General Court, and took the oath of office 
May 14, 1644, and again in 1646-47-48-49, 
and in May, 1649, ^^^ excused from fur- 
ther attendance at the General Court in 
Boston for that session, in order to carry 
out duties devolving on him in Spring- 
field. Pie was again chosen assistant May 
22, 1650, when Thomas Dudley, Esq., was 
elected governor, and John Endicott, 
Esq., deputy governor, and he is recorded 
as William Pinchon, Esq., Gent., the first 
assistant named. The same year he vis- 
ited England, and while there passed 
through the press his much discussed 
book, "The Meritorious Price of Man's 
Redemption," in which he controverted 
the Calvinistic view of the atonement. 
He brought copies of this book to Bos- 
ton and it was regularly published in Lon- 
don. The ministers in Boston and Salem, 
on reading the book, were shocked at its 
contents, and loudly condemned it and 
laid its contents, as interpreted by them, 
before the General Court, and it was pro- 
nounced heretical and dangerous, and the 
author was summoned to appear forth- 
with and either own or disclaim the 
authorship. The most intelligent and im- 
partial account of the proceedings of the 
General Court in the matter will be gained 
through a transcript of the proceedings 
which will immediately follow, the writer 
of this article inserting here the fact that 
the orders of the court were fully carried 
out, and a copy of the book was publicly 
burned in the Market Place, Boston, and 
that the book has disappeared from cir- 
culation in its original form, only three 
copies being known to exist, one being in 
the British Museum, one copy was owned 
by Mr. H. S. Sheldon (deceased), of Suf- 
field, Connecticut, and one by a private 
book collector in New York City ; the 
identity of this owner we have been un- 
able to discover. At a meeting of the 
General Court of May 26, 1652, following 
this incident, was passed an act making 



the denial of the Holy Scriptures, as 
being the word of God, a crime punish- 
able by death or banishment : 

General Court of the Colonj' of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England, October 15, 1650. 

The Court having had the sight of a book 
lately printed under the name of William Pin- 
chon of New England, Gentlemen, do judge meet 
first that a protest be drawn fully and duly, to 
satisfy all men that this court is so far from 
approving the same as that they do utterly dis- 
like it and detest it as eronius and dangerous; 
secondly that it be sufficiently answered by one 
of the reverend elders; thirdly that the said 
William Pinchon, gent., be summoned to appear 
before the next general court to answer for the 
same; fourthly, that the said book now brought 
over, be burned by the executioner, or such 
other as the magistrate shall appoint (the forty 
being willing to do it) in the Market Place in 
Boston, on the morrow, immediately after the 

October 16, 1650. The General Court now 
sitting at Boston in New England this i6th of 
October, 1650: There was brought to our hands 
a book written (as was herein subscribed) by 
W'illiam Pinchon, in New England, Gent, enti- 
tled "The Meritorious Price of Man's Redemp- 
tion, Justification, Etc." Clearing it from some 
common errors, etc., which book was brought 
over either by a ship a few days ago since, and 
containing many errors and herecies, generally 
condemned by all orthodox writers that we have 
met v.'ith. We have judged it meet and neces- 
sary (for vindication of the truth so far as in us 
lyeth) as also to keep and preserve these people 
here committed to our trust and care, in the true 
knowledge and faith of our Lord, Jesus Christ, 
and of our redemtion by him, as likewise for the 
clearing of ourselves to our Christian brethren, 
and others in England where this book was 
printed and is dispersed, hereby to protest our 
innocency, as being neither parties nor privy to 
the writing, composing, printing or divulging 
thereof, but that on the contrary, we detest and 
abhor many of the opinions and assertions 
therein as false, erroneous and heretical, yea, 
and whatsoever is contained in the said book 
which are contrary to the Scripture of the Old 
and New Testament, and the general received 
doctrines of the Orthodox churches, extant since 
the time of the last and best reformation, and for 
proof of our sincere and plain meaning therein, 
we do hereby condemn the said book to be 

burned in Market Place in Boston by the Mar- 
shall, which was done accordingly, and do pro- 
pose with all convenient speed to convent the 
same Mr. William Pinchon, before authority to 
find out whether the said William Pinchon will 
own the said book as his or not, which, if he 
doeth. we propose, God assisting, to proceed 
with him according to his demerits, unless he 
retract the same and give full satisfaction, both 
here and by some second v^riting to be printed 
and dispersed in England. All which we thought 
needful for the reasons above alleged, to make 
known by this short protestation and declara- 
tion. Also we further propose, with what con- 
venient speed we may, to appoint some fit person 
to make particular answer to all material and 
controversal passages in the same book, and to 
publish the same in prints, that so the errors and 
falsities therein may be fully discovered, the 
truths cleared, and the minds of those who live 
and seek after the truth confirmed therein. 

It is ordered that the declaration published 
yesterda}', concerning the book subscribed by 
the name of William Pinchon of New England, 
Gent, shall be agreed by the secretary and sent 
to England, to be printed there. 

It is ordered that Mr. John Newton of Ips- 
wich be entrusted to answer Mr. Pinchon's book. 

It is ordered that Mr. William Pinchon shall 
be summoned to appear before the next General 
Court of Elections, on the first day of their sit- 
ting, to give his answer to the book printed and 
published under the name of William Pinchon 
in New England, Gent, entitled, "The Merito- 
rious Price of Redemption, Justification, etc., 
and not to depart w'ithout leave from the Court." 
The contradictory members of the General 
Court who voted against the declaration made 
October 15, 1650, were: William Hawthorne, 
Speaker of the Deputies; Jos. Hills, Henry Bar- 
tholomew, Richard Walker, Edward Holyoke, 
Stephen Kingsley, and in the session of the 
Court, October 16, 1650, after passing the decla- 
ration and protest of the General Court of the 
Massachusetts Bay in New England, resolved 
by the unanimous vote by the Court that the 
reasons mentioned by the contradiscenting 
brethren of the Deputies should not be recorded 
or kept in filem, thus disrespecting the law as it 
stood in regard to records of this Court. 

On May 8, 1651: Mr. William Pinchon, being 
summoned to appear before the General Court 
according to their order, the last session, made 
his appearance before the Court, and being 
demanded whether that book which goes under 
his name, and there presented to him, was his 



or not; he answered for the sul)stance of the 
book, he owned it to be his. 

Wherefore the Court, out of their tender 
respect for him offered him Hberty to confer with 
all the reverend elders now present, or such of 
them as he should desire and choose. At last he 
took it into consideration, an.d returned his mind 
at the present in writing under his hand, viz.: 
According to the Court's advice, I have con- 
ferred with the Reverend Mr. Cotton, Mr. Nor- 
rice and Mr. Norton, about some prints of the 
greatest consequence in my book, and I hoped 
have so explained my meaning to them as to 
take ofif the worst construction, and it hath 
pleased God to let me see that I have not spoken 
in my book so fully of the prize and merit of 
Christ's sufferings as I should have done; for in 
my book, I call them but trials of his obedience, 
yet intended thereby to amplify and exalt the 
mediatorial obedience of Christ as the only meri- 
torious price of man's redemption. But now at 
present I am much inclined to think that his 
sufferings were appointed by God for a further 
end, namely, as the due punishment of our sins 
by way of satisfaction to divine justice for man's 

Subscribed your servant in all dutiful respects, 
Boston, May 9. 1651. William Pinchon. 

The Court finding by Mr. Pinchon's writings 
given to the Court that through the blessing of 
God on the pains of the reverend elders to con- 
vince him of the errors in his book that he is in 
a hopeful way to give satisfaction, and therefore 
at his request, judge it meet to give him liberty, 
respecting the present troubles of his family, to 
return home some day, the next week, if he 
pleases, and that he shall have Mr. Norton's 
answer to his book with him, to consider thereof, 
that so at the next session of the court, being 
the 14th of October next, he may give all due 
satisfaction as it is hoped for and desired, to 
which session he is hereby enjoyned to make his 
personal appearance for that end. 

For as much as there is a present necessity 
that some care be taken respecting the care of 
Springfield, they being at present destitute of 
any magistrates or others to put issue to such 
causes and differences as shall or may arise 
among them, upon their request it is ordered by 
this Court and the authority thereof, Mr. 
nenry Smith of Springfield aforesaid for this 
year ensuing, or till the Court shall take furtlicr 
order, shall hereby have full power and author- 
ity to govern the inhabitants of Springfield, and 
to hear and determine all cases and offences, 
both civil and criminal, that read not life, liml) 

or banishment, according to the laws here 
established; provided that in all matters of 
weight and difficulty it shall be lawful for any 
party to appeal to the Court of Assistants at 
Boston, so that they prosecute the same accord- 
ing to the order of the Court; provided also that 
their trials by the oaths of six men if twelve 
cannot be had for that service; and the said Mr. 
Smith hath power to give oaths, and send con- 
stables as shall be legally chosen, and to examine 
witnesses, as any magistrate may do. This was 
delivered to him, and he took his oath accord- 

Mr. Henry Smith, of Springfield, being 
a member of this cotirt, upon his request, 
"having urgent occasion to return home is 
dismissed froin further attendance or the 
service of this court for this session. 

On October 24, 1651, the judgment of 
the court in Mr. Pinchon's case was sus- 
pended to May next, and it was also 
ordered that the answer to Mr. Pinchon's 
book, written by Mr. John Newton, 
should be sent to England to be printed. 

The church in Springfield was greatly 
disturbed by the action of the General 
Court and the ministers of Boston, and 
Colonel Pinchon, feeling himself unjustly 
prosecuted, and evidently disgusted by 
the action of his longtime colleagues in 
the boards of assistants, he decided not to 
appear before the body again, after hav- 
ing been unsuccessfully called in Octo- 
ber, 1 65 1, and again in May, 1652, and 
with his wife, his minister, the Rev. John 
Moxon, his son-in-law, Henry Smith, and 
jjrobably his daughter Anne, he arranged 
his affairs in Springfield, turning the man- 
agement of his large estate over to his 
son John, and, bidding farewell to his 
people, who truly loved him for his kind 
consideration for him in the past, and 
especially for preserving the peace with 
the Indians that they had thus far en- 
joyed, he departed from Springfield and 
the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, in 
v^epteiTiber, 1652, and took ship for Eng- 



On October 19, 1652, his son, John 
Pinchon, together with Elizur Holyoke 
and John Parker, were sworn in as a 
board of commissioners to administer the 
government of the town of Springfield, 
and these commissioners were empower- 
ed by the General Court on May 18, 1653, 
to administer the freeman's oath, and at 
the same time they confirmed John Pin- 
chon as lieutenant and Elizur Holyoke as 
ensign in the local militia, and deferred 
the confirmation of Henry Smith as cap- 
tain until his return from Europe. 

On reaching London, Colonel Pinchon 
made his home in Wraisbury, near Wind- 
sor, where he passed his closing years in 
the employment of a handsome income 
from his American estate. He devoted 
his time after his return to England to 
theological writing, and he lived in en- 
tire conformity with the Church of Eng- 
land. His second book, "The Jewish 
Synagogue," was published in England 
in 1652, followed by "How the Eirst Sab- 
bath was Ordained," 1654; "The Meri- 
torious Price of Man's Redemption, or 
Christ's Satisfaction Discussed and Ex- 
plained" (1655), which was a rejoinder to 
the book of the Rev. John Norton on the 
same subject, published in London by 
order of the General Court of the Colony 
of Massachusets Bay, and a copy of w4iich 
rejoinder is preserved in Harvard Univer- 
sity library. His last book, "The Cove- 
nant of Nature Made with Adam," was 
published in London in 1662. 

William Pynchon married Anna, daugh- 
ter of William Andrews, of Twiwell, 
Northamptonshire. She died in Rox- 
borough in 1630. Other members of his 
family were : John, born in Springfield, 
England, in 1621 ; Anne, who became the 
wife of Henry Smith, who became a 
prominent figure in the enterprises car- 
ried on in the Connecticut river valley ; 
Margaret, who after her arrival married 
William Davis, a druggist in the town of 

Boston ; Mary, who married Captain 
Elizur Holyoke. Before leaving Rox- 
borough he married, as his second wife, 
Frances Sanford, of that town. She died 
on his English estate at Wraisbury, Eng- 
land, October 10, 1657, and he survived 
her five years, the date of his death being 
October 29, 1662. 

SHERMAN, Roger, 

Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

Roger Sherman was born in Newton. 
Massachusetts, April 19, 1721, son of 
William and Mehetabel (Wellington) 
Sherman, grandson of Joseph and Eliza- 
beth (Winship) Sherman and of Benja- 
min and Elizabeth Wellington, and great- 
grandson of Captain John and Martha 
(Palmer) Sherman (or Shearman), who 
emigrated from Dedham, Essex county, 
England, and settled in Watertown, Mas- 
sachusetts, about 1634. 

The parents of Roger Sherman re- 
moved to Stoughton (now Canton), Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1723, and he worked on the 
farm and learned the shoemaker's trade 
under his father. He gained a fair knowl- 
edge in various branches of science by 
studying while at work, doubtless being 
assisted by the Rev. Samuel Dunbar, pas- 
tor of the church at Stoug-hton. His 
father died in 1741, leaving him the sole 
support of his mother and the younger 
children, and in 1743 they removed to 
New ]\Iilford, Connecticut, where he fol- 
lowed his trade and conducted a store 
with his brothers. The General Assem- 
bly appointed him surveyor of lands for 
the county of New Haven in 1745, and 
of Litchfield county in 1752, and was also 
employed in surveying land for private 
individuals in New Milford. In 1752, 
when the New England colonies were 
flooded with irredeemable currency, he 
wrote and issued a pamphlet in which he 
pointed out the dangers attending this 



issue of paper money, and subsequently, 
when a member of the Constitutional 
Convention, he introduced and moved the 
adoption of the clause that "no State can 
make anything but gold and silver a legal 
tender." He became one of the largest 
investors in real estate in his town, tilled 
various town offices, and was admitted 
to the Litchfield county bar in February, 
1754. He represented New Milford in 
the General Assembly in 1755 and 1758- 
61, was justice of the peace, 1755-59, and 
a justice of the quorum and of the Court 
of Common Pleas, 1759-61. 

Roger Sherman removed to New 
Haven, Connecticut, in June, 1761, from 
whence he was a representative in the 
Legislature, 1764-66, a member of the 
Senate, 1766-85, justice of the peace and 
of the quorum, and judge of the Superior 
Court, 1766-89. His activity as a patriot 
began with the efforts of the crown to 
enforce the Stamp Act. He was a mem- 
ber of the committee to consider the 
claims of the settlers near the Susque- 
hanna river in 1774. He was a delegate 
from Connecticut to the Continental Con- 
gress, 1774-81, and 1783-84, serving on 
the most important committees, including 
that of June 11, 1776, to draft the Declara- 
tion of Independence, of which he was a 
signer; that of June 12, 1776, to prepare 
the Articles of Confederation ; that of the 
Connecticut Council of Safety, 1777-79 
and T782, and that of the convention of 
17S7 that reported the Connecticut Com- 
promise. In the controversy that arose 
in the Continental Congress regarding 
the rights of States to vote irrespective 
of population, Mr. Sherman proposed that 
the vote should be taken once in propor- 
tion to population, and once by States, 
and that every measure should have a ma- 
jority. This principle, eleven years after- 
ward. Mr. Sherman, then a member of 
the Constitutional Convention, presented 
to that body, and it was framed into the 

Federal Constitution, and was known as 
the Connecticut Compromise. It was not 
until he had made several speeches in its 
favor that he gained any attention, when 
a long and bitter debate followed, and it 
was finally referred to a committee of 
which he was made a member. After the 
adoption of the compromise, he moved 
the provision that no amendment be made 
that would deprive any State of its equal 
vote without its consent. It is agreed by 
all historians that this compromise, for 
which Mr. Sherman is solely responsible, 
saved the Constitutional Convention from 
breaking up without accomplishing any- 
thing, and made possible a union of the 
States and a national government. Roger 
Sherman was the only delegate in the 
Continental Congress who signed all four 
of the great State papers which were 
signed by all the delegates of all the colo- 
nies, namely : the Declaration of 1774, the 
Articles of Confederation, the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the Federal 
Constitution. He revised the statute laws 
of Connecticut with Judge Richard Law 
in 1783. He was chosen the first mayor 
of New Haven in 1784, to prevent a Tory 
from being chosen, and the Legislature 
then provided that the mayor should hold 
his office during the pleasure of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and under this act Mr. 
Sherman remained mayor until his death. 
He was a delegate from Connecticut to 
the Constitutional Convention at Phila- 
delphia in May, 1787. He was also active 
in the State Convention in procuring the 
ratification of the constitution, and wrote 
a series of papers on that subject which 
materially influenced the public mind in 
its favor, signed "A Citizen of New 
Haven." Fie was a representative in the 
First Congress, 1789-91, where he favored 
an address introduced by the Quakers 
against the slave trade. Fie was elected 
to the United States Senate to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Wil- 


wm'SHMiJi. Ig-:^i^s^lJ'ISlIao 

Ttom the original piclare "b'g Snutiert. in po-i session 
of tfic MA';=iflct'in''ieU'i TrTiTnnral fiotietij 


Ham S. Johnson and served from October 
24, 1791, until his death. He was treas- 
urer of Yale College, 1765-76, and re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Master of 
Arts from that college in 1768. He fur- 
nished the astronomical calculations for 
a series of almanacs, published in New 
York and New England, which bore his 

He was married, November 17, 1749, 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Deacon Joseph 
Hartwell, of Stoughton, and (second) 
May 12, 1763, at Danvers, to Rebecca, 
daughter of Benjamin Prescott, of Salem, 
Massachusetts. He died in New Haven, 
Connecticut, July 23, 1793. 

BASS, Edward, 

Divine of Revolutionary Period. 

Edward Bass, first bishop of Massa- 
chusetts, and seventh in succession in the 
American episcopate, was born at Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, November 23, 
1726. Pie was graduated from Harvard 
College in 1744, and for several years 
occupied himself as a teacher. He was 
licensed as a Congregationalist preacher, 
but in 1752 he accepted the tenets of the 
Established Church, and in May of that 
year was ordained deacon at the chapel 
of Fulham Palace, by the bishop of Lon- 
don, and received his ordination as a 
priest at the hands of the same prelate, 
May 24, 1752. 

He was sent as a missionary to New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, by the Vener- 
able Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, and became in- 
cumbent of St. Paul's Church. At the 
opening of the Revolutionary War, in 
deference to the public sentiment, he 
omitted the prayer for the King, but when 
the Continental Congress requested that 
clergymen no longer use the royal col- 
lects, he closed his church for twelve 
months, and did not open it even then 

until he was disturbed by the sight of his 
congregation gradually going over to the 
dissenters. He refused to read the Dec- 
laration of Independence in church, called 
himself a Tory, and declared himself to 
be inimical to the liberties of America, 
but notwithstanding his efforts to make 
his action clear with the society, his past 
due stipend was refused and his name 
dropped from the roll. Finding him 
driven from the support of the society, 
his friends in America nominated him for 
bishop. The first election was not recog- 
nized, but after another attempt he was 
consecrated on May 7, 1797, first bishop 
of Massachusetts, by Bishops White, 
Provoost and Claggett. His jurisdiction 
was later extended to New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island and Vermont. Fie was 
awarded the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
by the Pennsylvania University in 1789. 
He published several sermons and ad- 
dresses, and a pamphlet on his connec- 
tion with the Venerable Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts. He died at Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, September 10. 1803. 

FANEUIL, Peter, 

Founder of Faneuil Hall, Boston. 

Faneuil Hall, probably the best known 
building in the United States, is known 
as the "Cradle of American Liberty." Its 
historic walls have frequently resounded 
with the eloquent utterances of patriots 
and statesmen whose lives have obtained 
for them deathless fame. Its name has 
come to be synonymous with freedom 
and the advancement of humanity, and it 
has proved itself peculiarly worthy of its 
dedication "to the interests of truth, of 
justice, of honor, and of liberty." 

Peter Faneuil, founder of Faneuil Hall, 
was born at New Rochelle, New York, in 
1700, and died in Boston, March 3, 1743. 
He was of Huguenot descent. On the 



revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1690, 
his father and uncle, Benjamin and An- 
drew Faneuil, came to New York, and 
founded the settlement of New Rochelle, 
thus perpetuating the name of their na- 
tive place in France. A year after their 
coming-, they removed to Boston, where 
they established a mercantile business 
which proved to be lucrative. Peter 
Faneuil also became a merchant, and one 
of the most influential citizens of Boston. 
As early as 171 7 the people of Boston 
mooted the establishment of a market, 
with regular sale days and established 
prices. This plan was defeated year after 
year by the country people, who pre- 
ferred the old method of selling their 
products from door to door, and to the 
highest bidder. As a consequence, in 
stormy weather the people of the town 
frequently suffered for want of food, 
while the poorer folk were utterly desti- 
tute. Finally, in 1734, the town meeting 
made an appropriation of £700, and a 
market was opened, but within four 
years, owing to the hostility of the 
country people the buildings were either 
torn down or diverted to other uses, and 
the town meeting could never be per- 
suaded to make another appropriation for 
a new building. In order to end the dis- 
sension and provide a market, in 1740 
Peter Faneuil offered to build a market 
house and give it to the town, but so 
strong was the country opposition that 
his off'er was accepted by a majority of 
only seven votes, and with the provision 
that hucksters should continue their old 
house to house marketing should they so 

Mr. Faneuil spent two years in build- 
ing what was considered the most 
spacious and elegant edifice in P)Oston. 
The first floor was given to market stalls, 
while the upper floor was used for a town 
hall and public offices. The hall was 
opened to the public in 1742; the next 

year its donor died, and the first use to 
which it was put was for the delivery of 
a funeral oration in honor of Mr. Faneuil, 
by the famous schoolmaster, John Lovell, 
who pronounced the building "incompar- 
ably the greatest benefaction ever yet 
known to our western shores." As a 
market, the building was a failure, the 
hucksters persisting in their old methods. 
Late in 1760, two months after the event, 
word came of the death of King George 
II., and on December 30th the accession 
of his grandson was celebrated by the 
blare of trumpets from the balcony of 
Faneuil Flail, and in the evening a state 
dinner in the town hall in the building, 
this being the last time that there was in 
the colony a public recognition of the ac- 
cession of a king of England. In 1761 the 
building was burned, only the walls being 
left standing. It was at once rebuilt, and 
was the scene of many famous meetings 
before and during the Revolutionary War. 
In 1768 the citizens held a meeting there 
to consider means of protecting them- 
selves against the British troops then re- 
cently landed. While they were in ses- 
sion, the governor declared their meeting 
a "very high offense," and ordered them 
to disperse, but met with a refusal. Later, 
a British regiment was quartered in the 
building several weeks, the people having 
refused to have the soldiers billetted upon 
them. From that time forward the hall 
was used for patriotic meetings, and with 
peculiar advantages in the time of the 
Civil War. 


Soldier of the devolution. 

Israel Hutchinson was born in Dan- 
\ers. Massachusetts, in November, 1727, 
son of Elisha and Ginger (Porter) Hutch- 
inson, and a descendant in the fifth gen- 
eration from Richard Hutchinson, who 
came to Salem, Massachusetts, in 1634. 




His father was a member of the first 
board of the Governor's Council of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay. 

Israel Hutchinson saw military service 
as sergeant in a company of rangers in 
1757 in the colonial wars against the 
allied forces of the French and Indians, 
and was one of the non-commissioned 
officers who led the Massachusetts militia 
to the defence of Ticonderoga and Lake 
George in 1758. For his gallantry in 
these sanguinary engagements he was 
promoted to the captaincy of his com- 
pany, and with it joined the forces of 
General Wolfe in the assault on the 
Heights of Abraham, at Quebec, Septem- 
ber 13, 1759, which saved to England the 
colonies of America. 

When the British soldiers fired upon 
the people of Lexington, April 19. 1775. 
the news reached Danvers at nine o'clock 
in the morning, and by eleven o'clock 
Captain Hutchinson had sixty minute- 
men gathered ready to intercept the Brit- 
ish troops on their return to Boston. 
This they did at West Cambridge, where 
from behind breastworks improvised from 
bundles of shingles, Captain Hutchin- 
son's company were attacked by a flank- 
ing party of the main British column, and 
eight of their number fell, martyrs to the 
cause of American liberty, and on the 
morning of April 20, 1775, the bodies of 
the slain were taken back to Danvers. 
For his conduct at West Cambridge he 
was on May 3, 1775, made lieutenant- 
colonel of the Nineteenth Massachusetts 
Regiment, Colonel John Mansfield, and 
with the regiment joined the American 
militia assembled at Cambridge. At sun- 
set, June 16, 1775, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hutchinson marched from Cambridge 
Green with one thousand men, under 
Colonel Prescott. and fought in the battle 
of Bunker Hill. He was engaged in the 
siege of Boston under Washington, as 
colonel of the Twenty-seventh Regiment, 

MASS— 12 I 

and accompanied the commander-in-chief 
to Long Island, where his men manned 
the boats in the retreat across the East 
river to New York, and the regiment was 
a part of the retreating army through 
New Jersey and across the Delaware. He 
returned to Danvers in 1777, where he 
was a miller up to the time of his death. 
He represented his town in the General 
Court of the commonwealth for nineteen 
years, and was a member of the Gov- 
ernor's Council two years, besides serv- 
ing in other public capacities. 

He was married, in 1747, to Anna Cue, 
by whom he had four children ; he was 
married (second) in 1759, to Mehitable 
Putnam. He died at Danversport, Mas- 
sachusetts, March 16, 181 1. A granite 
monument was erected to his memory, 
on the site of his home at Danversport, 
in 1896, and inscribed with a record of his 
militarv and civil life. 

NIXON, John, 

Revolutionary Soldier. 

John Nixon was born in Framingham, 
Massachusetts, March i, 1727, son of 
Christopher and Mary (Sever) Nixon, 
and grandson of Joseph Sever. Chris- 
topher Nixon came to Framingham early 
in 1724. 

John Nixon joined the troops under 
Sir William Pepperell in 1745 in the ex- 
pedition against Cape Breton and in the 
capture of Louisburg. He served in the 
colonial army, 1745-75, except 1752-55, 
when he was at his home in Framingham. 
He was a lieutenant in Captain E. New- 
ell's company in the expedition to Crown 
Point, 1755-56. Commissioned captain in 
1756, he took part in the defence of Fort 
William Henry, Lake George, 1756; com- 
m.anded a company in Colonel T. Rug- 
gles' regiment, at Half Moon, 1758, and 
was captain in command of one hundred 
and eight men, 1761-62. He led a com- 



pany of minute-men at the battle of Lex- 
ington, and commanded a regiment at the 
battle of Bunker Hill, where he was seri- 
ously wounded. He was promoted to 
brigadier-general in the Continental army, 
August 9, 1776, and commanded the 
forces stationed at Governor's Island in 
New York Harbor. In the battle of Still- 
water he commanded the First Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, in the army of Gen- 
eral Horatio Gates. He resigned his com- 
mission in the Continental army, Septem- 
ber 12, 1780, owing to ill health occa- 
sioned by his wounds. 

He was married (first) February 7, 
1754, to Thankful, daughter of Joseph 
Berry, and (second) February 5, 1778, to 
Hannah (Drury) Gleason, widow of Cap- 
tain Micajah Gleason and daughter of 
Josiah Drury. She died September 26, 
1831. General Nixon died in Middlebury, 
Vermont, March 24, 181 5. 

HEATH, William, 

Revolutionary Soldier and Statesman. 

William Heath was born in Roxbury, 
Massachusetts, March 7, 1737. He lived 
on the farm originally settled upon by his 
first ancestor in America in 1636. He 
was early in life a student of military 
science, and joined the militia, in which 
he rose to the rank of captain, and then 
colonel of the Suffolk regiment. In 1770 
he commanded the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company of Boston, and 
prided himself as being "fully acquainted 
with the theory of war in all its branches 
and duties, from the private soldier to the 

He was a member of the General As- 
sembly in 1 76 1, and again in 1771-74; was 
a member of the Committee of Corre- 
spondence and Safety, and a member of 
the Provincial Congress of Massachu- 
setts, 1774-75. On December 8, 1774, he 
was commissioned provincial brigadier- 

general, and was the only general ofiicer 
on the field at the battle of Lexington, 
April 19, 1775, and as such directed the 
pursuit of Percy from Concord. He then 
engaged in drilling and disciplining the 
provincial army at Cambridge, and on 
June 20, 1775, was promoted to major- 
general of the provincial troops. On the 
organization of the Continental army he 
was on June 22, 1775, commissioned brig- 
adier-general, and on August 9, 1776, was 
made major-general. Pie was ordered to 
New York and opposed the evacuation of 
that city, and aftel" the disaster at White 
Plains commanded the defences of the 
Highlands. In 1777 he succeeded Gen- 
eral Ward in command of the eastern de- 
partment, with headquarters in the house 
of Thomas Russell, on Summer street, 
Boston. He had charge of Burgoyne and 
his army at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where they were held as prisoners of war 
from November 6, 1777, to October 15, 
1778, when they were removed to the 
center of the State, and in November 
were marched to Virginia. On Novem- 
ber 6, 1778, General Gates succeeded to 
the command in Boston, and General 
Heath, with four regiments commanded 
the posts of the Hudson river at West 
Point in 1779, after Arnold's treason, and 
several times was in temporary command 
of the entire American army. 

He returned to his farm after the war, 
and was a member of the convention of 
Massachusetts that ratified the Federal 
Constitution; was a State Senator, 1791- 
92; probate judge of Norfolk county, 
1793 ; and declined to serve as Lieutenant- 
Governor of the commonwealth in 1806. 
He outlived all the other major-generals 
of the war. He was the author of: 
"Memoirs of Major-General William 
Heath, containing Anecdotes, Details of 
Skirmishes, Battles, etc., during the 
American War" (1798). He died in Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts, January 24, 1814. 



BIGELOW, Timothy, 

Officer in tb.e Revolution. 

Timothy Bigelow was born at Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts, August 2, 1739. He 
learned the trade of a blacksmith, and 
afterwards carried on the business. Being 
a strong champion of the rights of the 
colonists, he became associated with the 
leading patriots of the day, in March, 
1773, was a member of the local Commit- 
tee of Correspondence, and in December 
of the same year organized the "Political 
Society." It is said that in these bodies 
measures were secretly made which broke 
the control of the Tories in Worcester. 
He was a prominent member of the Sons 
of Liberty and of the Whig Club in Bos- 
ton, becoming intimately associated with 
Warren, Otis, and other leading patriots. 
During the first two sessions of the Pro- 
vincial Congress he served as a delegate, 
and when the minute-men of Worcester 
were organized he was elected their 

On April 19, 1775, Captain Timothy 
Bigelow marched his company to Cam- 
bridge. Soon afterwards he was com- 
missioned major. So well did he drill his 
men that General Washington is reported 
to have remarked, on reviewing the com- 
pany at Cambridge, "This is discipline, 
indeed." In September he volunteered in 
the expedition to Quebec under Benedict 
Arnold, and during which he was ordered 
to ascend a mountain to make observa- 
tions, and the mountain has since borne 
the name of Mount Bigelow. On Decem- 
ber 31, while attacking Quebec, he was 
captured, with others, and after eight 
months' imprisonment was exchanged. 
He was afterwards promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel, and on February 8, 
1777, became colonel of the Fifteenth 
Massachusetts Regiment. He was with 
General Gates at the surrender of Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga, in the Rhode Island 

Expedition, at Verplanck's Point, Peeks- 
kill, Valley Forge, and West Point. He 
was on duty for some time at West Point 
after the close of the war, and then com- 
manded the United States Arsenal at 
Springfield. On returning to his home 
he found his property gone, and his fam- 
ily involved in debt. lie obtained a grant 
of land in Vermont, where the town of 
Montpelier was afterwards built, but his 
creditors became impatient, demanding 
the money, which necessity had forced 
him to owe them, and which his patriotic 
services to them and to their country 
made it impossible for him to pay, and he 
was thrown into jail, where he died March 
31, 1790. 

ADAMS, Abigail, 

Wife of President John Adams. 

This notable woman was born in Wey- 
mouth, Massachusetts, November 22, 
1744, daughter of William and Elizabeth 
Ouincy Smith. Her father was for nearly 
half a century pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church of Weymouth, and her 
mother was a direct descendant of 
Thomas Shepard, the eminent Puritan 
divine of Cambridge, and a great-grand- 
niece of the Puritan preacher, John Nor- 
ton, of the Hingham meeting house, Bos- 

She had few educational advantages in 
the Vv'ay of access to books, as they were 
kept from her owing to her delicate con- 
stitution. To compensate in a measure for 
this, she was instructed in the duties of 
the household and took great interest in 
home afifairs, becoming an adept in domes- 
tic economy, at the same time acquiring 
the rudiments of penmanship and arith- 
metic. As she reached womanhood her 
strength increased, and she took up 
French. Latin and a well directed course 
of reading, although this was only cur- 
sorv before she became a wife. 



She was married to John Adams, Oc- 
tober 25, 1764, and passed the next ten 
years as the frugal wife of a rising Brain- 
tree lawyer. To them were born during 
this time, one daughter and three sons. 
The political events of the period marked 
the next decade of her married life as one 
of great anxiety. Her husband was ab- 
sent the greater part of the time, first as 
a delegate to Congress and afterwards on 
a diplomatic mission across the seas. The 
patriots, led by her husband, were urging 
the termination of the unhappy relations 
existing between the colonies and the 
mother country, by a declaration of inde- 
jjcndence, his earnest advocacy of heroic 
measures gaining for him the sobriquet 
of "The Colossus of Independence." John 
Adams had no more positive and unyield- 
ing advocate of the measures sustained 
by him than his patriotic wife; and, 
while she had in full view the dire con- 
sequence of failure, yet her courage never 
faltered, and her voice never uttered an 
uncertain sound. Alone with her chil- 
dren, she passed the period of war, doing 
what she could for the patriot cause. In 
17P4 she undertook the long and danger- 
ous voyage to Europe to join her husband 
in France, and then accompanied him to 
London, as the wife of the first American 
minister at the court of St. James, and 
where as such she was not accorded de- 
cent courtesy. This rudeness greatly 
wounded her, and increased her devotion 
to the new republic. 

Upon the accession of Mr. Adams to 
the Presidency, his wife became the first 
mistress of the White Plouse, and there 
the charm of housekeeping was not dis- 
pelled by the pride of position ; in the 
domestic arrangement of the establish- 
ment she was the head, and her own 
hands even skimmed the milk and worked 
the butter that supplied the table. It is 
also recorded that on the occasion of the 
inauguration of Washington, Mrs. Adams 

made the ice cream for the inaugural din- 
ner, the first time that foreign luxury was 
used in this country. After leaving Wash- 
ington she lived at Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, but continued to follow the course 
of public affairs during her entire life. 
She was the only woman in our history 
who has been the wife of one President 
and the mother of another. Her grand- 
son, Charles Francis Adams, has written 
her memoir, which he has published, to- 
gether with her correspondence with her 
husband. The language used in her let- 
ters is admirable, and the book gives an 
interesting insight into the inner life of 
the people during the revolution. She 
died at Ouincy. Massachusetts, October 
2S, 1818. 

PARKER, Samuel, 

Distinguislied Divine. 

Samuel Parker, second bishop of Mas- 
sachusetts and tenth in succession in the 
American episcopate, was born in Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, August 17, 1744, 
son of Judge William and Elizabeth 
(Grafton) Parker, and grandson of Wil- 
liam and Zerviah (Stanley) Parker, of 
England, who fled to America and settled 
in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1703. 
Zerviah Stanley, a daughter of the Earl 
of Derby, married without her father's 
consent, and abandoned her claims to 

Samuel Parker was graduated at Har- 
vard College, Bachelor of Arts, 1764; 
Master of Arts, 1767. He prepared for 
holy orders while teaching school, and 
was elected assistant at Trinity Church in 
Boston, Massachusetts, in October, 1773. 
He was ordained deacon in the chapel of 
Fulham Palace, London, England, Feb- 
ruary 2|, 1774, and ordained priest three 
days later by Dr. Terrich, Lord Bishop of 
London. He assumed the duties of as- 
sistant in November, 1774, and during the 



Revolution was the only Anglican clergy- 
man to remain at his post and support the 
cause of the colonists. He was elected 
rector of Trinity Church, Boston, June 
27, 1779, and after the war went about 
endeavoring to reorganize and establish 
the scattered churches and to reinstate 
the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel. He was elected bishop of the 
eastern diocese to succeed Bishop Bass, 
deceased, in 1803, and was consecrated 
at Trinity Church, New York City, Sep- 
tember 14, 1804, by Bishop White, as- 
sisted by Bishops Claggett, Jarvis and 
Moore, but never discharged the duties 
of the office, being prostrated with gout 
on his return from New York, and from 
which he did not recover. He received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1789. He 
published an "Annual Election Sermon 
before the Legislature of Massachusetts" 
(1793) ; "A Sermon for the Benefit of the 
Boston Female Asylum" (1803), and sev- 
eral occasional discourses. He was mar- 
ried, in November, 1766, to Annie, daugh- 
ter of John Cutler, of Boston, Massachu- 
setts. He died in Boston, Massachusetts. 
December 6, 1804. 

SHAYS, Daniel, 

licader of First American Rebellion. 

Daniel Shays was born in Hopkinton, 
Massachusetts, in 1747, the son of poor 
parents of Irish descent. His early life 
was spent on a farm in Framingham, 
Massachusetts, and he subsequently re- 
moved to Great Barrington and to Pel- 
ham, Massachusetts. He was appointed 
ensign in the Massachusetts militia in 
1775, and served in the battle of Bunker 
Hill. In 1776 he was appointed lieuten- 
ant in Colonel Varnum's regiment, served 
as a recruiting officer, and marched a 
company to West Point, where he ob- 
tained a captaincy in the Continental 

army in 1779, and participated in the 
storming of Stony Point and the capture 
of Burgoyne. In 1780 General Lafayette 
presented him with a sword, at the same 
time conferring a like honor on other 
ofticers. Shays was suspected of having 
sold his sword, and was discharged from 
the army at Newark, New Jersey, in Oc- 
tober, 1780, while serving in Colonel Put- 
nam's regiment, and retired to Pelham. 

About 1782 he became a leader in the 
movement of the inhabitants of the Pel- 
ham (Massachusetts) section against 
what they designated as oppressive fees 
and taxation inaugurated by the new 
State government. Shays adopting the 
same methods which had been success- 
ful in overthrowing like grievances when 
the colonists opposed British rule. He 
led a band of one thousand insurgents 
which met at Springfield, and, in spite of 
the presence of the State militia, pre- 
vented a session of the Supreme Court in 
September, 1786, and also of the courts 
at Worcester in November and Decem- 
ber following. He retired with his men 
to Rutland, Vermont. December 9, 1786, 
and oflfered to desert them if he was 
granted a pardon for himself, but failing 
in this, in January, 1787, with Luke Day 
in command of a body of insurgents, he 
planned the capture of the Springfield 
Arsenal. Shays attacked it alone with 
his command of eleven hundred men on 
January 25. 1787, the instructions he had 
sent to Day having been intercepted by 
General Shepard, commander of the State 
militia. The insurgents were driven back 
to Ludlow, ten miles distant, where Shays 
joined forces with Day and Eli Parsons, 
the Berkshire leader, and the entire in- 
surgent army retreated through South 
Hadley and Amherst to Pelham, where 
they entrenched. On January 30, 1787. 
General Benjamin Lincoln with a force 
of over four thousand State troops sum- 



moned Shays to surrender. He asked for 
time to petition the General Court, which 
Lincoln refused, and Shays marched his 
army to Petersham, where on February 
3, 1787, one hundred and fifty insurgents 
were captured, and Shays escaped into 
New Hampshire with three hundred men. 
This ended the rebellion. He was granted 
a pardon and in 1820 a pension for his 
services in the Revolutionary War. He 
made his home at Sparta. New York, 
where he died, September 29, 1825 

PARSONS, Theophilus, 

Distinguislied Jurist. 

Theophilus Parsons, was born in By- 
field, Massachusetts, February 24, 1750. 
son of the Rev. Moses and Susan (Davis) 
Parsons, grandson of Ebenezer and Lydia 
(Haskell) Parsons, and of Abraham and 
Ann (Robinson) Davis, and a great- 
grandson of Jeffrey and Sarah (Vinson) 
Parsons. Jeffrey Parsons immigrated to 
the West Indies from England about the 
year 1645, and settled at Gloucester, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1654. 

Theophilus Parsons was prepared for 
college at Dummer Academy, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard College, from which in- 
stitution he received the degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts in 1769, and that of Master of 
Arts in 1772. He studied law under the 
supervision of Theophilus Bradbury, at 
Falmouth, was admitted to the bar in 

1774, and practiced his profession there 
until the British destroyed Falmouth in 

1775. He then placed himself under the 
preceptorship of Judge Edmund Trow- 
bridge, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, an 
eminent lawyer, with whom he pursued 
the study of law from 1775 to 1777. He 
opened a law office in Newburyport, Mas- 
sachusetts, and in due course of time 
gained an extensive clientele. In 1778 he 
was a delegate to the convention at Ips- 
wich, Massachusetts, that opposed the 

adoption of the State Constitution, and 
was the author of the pamphlet known as 
the "Essex Result," which contributed so 
largely to the rejection of that instru- 
ment. He was a delegate in 1779 to the 
convention that framed the State Con- 
stitution, which was finally adopted ; was 
a delegate in 1788 to the convention to 
ratify the Federal Constitution, and was 
the author of the proposition offered by 
John Hancock, ratifying the instrument, 
and recommending certain amendments 
known as the "Conciliatory Resolutions." 
He devoted himself to his law practice in 
Newburyport from 1788 to 1800, a period 
of twelve years. He served as a repre- 
sentative in the State Legislature several 
times. He removed to Boston, Massachu- 
setts, in 1800; was appointed Attorney- 
General in the cabinet of President Adams 
as successor to Charles Lee in 1801, but 
declined to serve, and was Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, 
1806-13, succeeding Francis Dana. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Harvard College in 1804, from Dart- 
mouth in 1807, and from Brown College 
in 1809; was a fellow of Harvard, 1806- 
12, and a member of the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences. A collection 
of his opinions were published under the 
title of "Commentaries on the Laws of 
the United States" (1836). 

He was married, January 13, 1780, to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Judge Benjamin 
Greenleaf, of Newbury, Massachusetts. 
He died in Boston, Massachusetts, Octo- 
ber 30, 1813. 

AMES, Fisher, 

statesman of Great Ability. 

Fisher Ames was born at Dedham, 
Massachusetts, April 9, 1758, son of Na- 
thaniel and Mary (Fisher) Ames. He 
belonged to one of the oldest families in 
Massachusetts, and in the line of his 



foreign ancestry was the Rev. William 
Ames, a famous English divine who, in 
search of greater religious liberty, emi- 
grated to the Netherlands in the early 
part of the seventeenth century. Both 
the father and grandfather of Fisher 
Ames were physicians, and the father 
supplemented his moderate practice by 
keeping a tavern and publishing an alma- 

When Fisher Ames was six years of age 
his father died, leaving him and an older 
brother to the care of their mother. 
Fisher early manifested intellectual su- 
periority, and the mother, despite her 
straitened circumstances, determined that 
he should have a good education, and 
soon after the completion of his twelfth 
year he was entered at Harvard College, 
and from which he was graduated in 1774. 
For some years young Ames taught 
school. Later he read law for a time in 
the office of William Tudor, an eminent 
lawyer of Boston, was admitted to the 
bar in 1781, and at once commenced prac- 
tice at Dedham. He soon became promi- 
nently knov>/n by writing a series of bril- 
liant political papers, which under the 
nojHs dcs plume of "Lucius Junius Bru- 
tus" and "Camillus" appeared in Boston 
journals. In 1781 he was sent as one of 
the Dedham delegates to the convention 
which met to devise measures for the re- 
lief of the widespread discontent which a 
depreciated paper currency had created. 
Young Ames made so able and convinc- 
ing a speech that the sentiments of the 
assembly were changed ; his words elec- 
trified the convention, and it adjourned 
without committing itself to the disas- 
trous policy which had been contem- 
plated. This speech made the reputation 
of the young advocate, and when it be- 
came known that he was the author of the 
pseudonymous articles in the Boston 
journals, he was immediately sought out 
by the eminent Federalists of the day, 

and became prominently identified with 
them and the principles they represented. 
In the spring of 1788 he was elected a 
member of the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts, and by his valuable services cre- 
ated such universal confidence in his abil- 
ity and integrity that he was chosen a 
member of the Massachusetts Conven- 
tion for ratifying the Federal Constitu- 
tion. When the Federal government was 
established, he was sent to Congress as 
the first representative of the Boston dis- 
trict, being elected over Samuel Adams, 
the most popular man in New England, 
and the one who, more than any other 
individual, was instrumental in bringing 
about the Declaration of Independence. 
No better evidence could be given of the 
high regard which the contemporaries of 
Fisher Ames had for his transcendent 
abilities. He remained in Congress dur- 
ing the eight years of W^ashington's ad- 
ministration, and took active and promi- 
nent part in the discussion of all the 
momentous questions which came before 
that body. His eloquence and statesman- 
ship were unequaled, and his power of 
moving men was remarkable. In the de- 
bates regarding the appropriation for the 
Jay Treaty in 1796, the Republicans who 
opposed the appropriation were counting 
on a clear majority of six. Ames was 
confined to his lodgings by a severe ill- 
ness, but when the time approached for 
the vote to be taken on this question, 
which, in his opinion, involved the valid- 
ity of the constitution and the future wel- 
fare of the United States, he was driven 
to the house and, seeing the almost in- 
evitable probability of defeat, he arose 
and, by the force and eloquence of his 
speech, so electrified and entranced the 
assembly that when he had finished the 
Republicans at once moved an adjourn- 
ment, fearing to put the question to a 
decision, lest the strong feelings aroused 



should render the members incapable of 
exercising- their calm judgment. 

The state of Fisher Ames's health 
obliged him to retire to private life at 
the close of his fourth term in Congress. 
For a time he practiced law, and then 
devoted his time to the management of 
his farm and fruitery, also continuing to 
contribute to the press essays and articles 
on various topics which were then agi- 
tating the public mind. The relation of 
French politics to those of America was 
one of the questions which called forth 
some of his most brilliant productions. 
When Governor Sumner was in office, 
Mr. Ames accepted a seat in the council 
of the commonwealth, and delivered a 
eulogy on Washington before the Massa- 
chusetts legislature. He was chosen 
president of Harvard College in 1804, but 
this honor he was obliged to decline on 
account of his ill health. His writing 
was epigramatic and witty, his style 
graceful and refined ; he was a brilliant 
conversationalist and a delightful corie- 
pondent. His writings were collected 
and published, with a memoir by the Rev. 
J. T. Kirkland, in 1809; and in 1854, his 
son, Seth Ames, issued a more complete 
edition in two volumes, and several of his 
congressional speeches were published by 
a grandson in 1891. He died in Dedham, 
Massachusetts, July 4, i! 

ALLSTON, Washington, 

Accomplished Artist. 

Washington Allston was born at Brook 
Green Domain, in the district of Wacca- 
maw, South Carolina, November 5, 1779. 
When seven years of age he was sent to 
Newport, Rhode Island, to prepare for 
college, and was graduated from Harvard 
in 1800. His talent manifested itself at 
an early age, and his chief pleasure was 
in drawing and sketching. His first essay 
at painting was a portrait of the eldest 

son of Dr. Waterhouse, Professor of Med- 
icine at Harvard College, and this was 
followed by portraits of four members of 
the Channing family. He had no regular 
instructor in drawing or painting until 
after he went abroad in May, 1801. He 
studied in England at the Royal Acad- 
emy and afterwards visited Paris, and 
then Rome, where he remained for sev- 
eral years. During this period he gained 
for himself a high reputation as a colorist, 
and was called the "American Titian," 
because of the wonderful wealth and har- 
mony of his magical color combinations. 
In 1S09 he returned to America, and after 
spending- two years here, he sailed for 
England and established himself in Lon- 
don, where he entered upon a career of 
uninterrupted prosperity. Many of his 
pupils became artists of note ; and he 
painted a numl^er of sul)jects of great 
merit, among them: "'Uriel in the Sun," 
"Jacob's Feast," and "The Dead Man Re- 
vived by Touching the Bones of Elijah," 
a picture which took a prize of two hun- 
dred guineas from the British Institute, 
and was afterwards bought by the Phila- 
delphia Academy. His work at this 
period shows "high imaginative power, 
and a rare mastery of color, light and 
shade." He was most influenced and in- 
spired by the Italian masters, though his 
principal teachers were West and Rey- 

In 1818 he returned to America and 
established a studio in Boston, moving 
some years later to Cambridgeport. where 
he spent the remainder of his life. In 
1 8 19 he was made associate of the Royal 
Academy. The choicest of his works 
during- this period are in Boston, some 
belonging to the Museum of Fine Arts, 
and some to the private collections of the 
older families of the city. His "Spanish 
Girl." "Spalatro's Vision of the Bloody 
Hand." "The Death of King John." "Jere- 
miah," "The Witch of Endor," "Miriam 



and Rosalie," are best known in Amer- 
ica. His Belshazzar's Feast," a most 
ambitious undertaking, was left unfinish- 
ed at his death, and became the property 
of the Boston Athenjeum. Allston's writ- 
ings display much talent, and his works 
in both prose and poetry have been highly 
praised by critics. His "America to Great 
Britain" was declared by Charles Sum- 
ner to be "one of the choicest lyrics in 
the language," and it was incorporated in 
"Sybilline Leaves." Some of his other 
works are: "The Sylphs of the Seasons," 
a poem read before the Phi Beta Kappa 
at Cambridge, and published in 1813; 
"The Paint King" and the "Two Paint- 
ers," "Monaldi," a romance of Italian life 
(1841) ; "Lectures on x^rt and Poems" 
(1850). See "Ware's Lectures on the 
Works and Genius of Washington AU- 
ston" (Boston. 1852) ; and "Artist Biog- 
raphies, Allston," by ^I. F. Sweetzer 
(Boston, 1879). 

Mr. Allston married (first) Ann Chan- 
ning, a sister of William Ellery Channing. 
He married (second) in 1830. a sister of 
Richard H. Dana. He died in Cambridge. 
Massachusetts, July 9, 1843. 

SWIFT, Joseph Gardner, 

Engineer Officer. 

General Joseph Gardner Swuft was born 
in Nantucket, Massachusetts, December 
31, 1783, son of Dr. Foster Swift, sur- 
geon, United States army, grandson of 
Samuel Swift and of Thomas Delano, and 
a descendant of Thomas Swift, Dorches- 
ter, Massachusetts. 1630. 

He attended the Bristol Academy. Taun- 
ton, Massachusetts, and was one of the 
first two graduates from the United States 
Military- Academy, receiving a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant. Corps of Engi- 
neers, October 12, 1802. He superintend- 
ed the construction of Fort Johnston, 
1804-06. He was promoted to first lieu- 

tenant, June II, 1805, and to captain, Oc- 
tober 30, 1806. He superintended the 
erection of the Governor's Island bat- 
teries, in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, 
and the Northeastern coast defences, 
1808-10. He was promoted to major, 
February 2t„ 1808, and was engaged on 
the fortifications of the Carolina and 
Georgia harbors, 1810-12. He served as 
aide-de-camp to Major-General William 
Pinckney in 1812, being promoted to lieu- 
tenant-colonel, July 6, and to colonel and 
chief engineer. United States army. July 
13, 1812. He served as cx-officio superin- 
tendent of the Military Academy from 
July 31, 1S12, to July 28, 1817. He was 
chief engineer in the St. Lawrence River 
campaign of 181 3. receiving the brevet of 
brigadier-general on February 19, 1814. 
for meritorious services. On April 21 
1817, he was appointed a member of the 
board of engineers for the Atlantic coast ; 
chief of the engineer bureau at Washing- 
ton, D. C. April 3, 1817. and inspector of 
the Military Academy. April 7. 1818. He 
was surveyor of the United States reve- 
nue service for the port of New York. 
1818-27; member of the board of visitors 
to the Military Academy, 1822-24; chief 
engineer of the L'nited States harbor im- 
provements on the Great Lakes, 1829- 
35. and of the New Orleans and Lake 
Pontchartrain railroad. 1830-31. In 1839 
he was active in suppressing the Canada 
border disturbances, and in 1841 was ap- 
pointed by President Harrison as LTnited 
States Commissioner to the British prov- 
inces to negotiate a treaty with Great 

General v^wift received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Kenyon College, 
Gambier, Ohio, in 1843 • ^^'^^ elected a 
member of La Societe Francaise de Sta- 
tique Universelle de Paris in 1839, and 
was a member of several scientific and 
historical societies. He was the author 
of a diary, and of contributions to scien- 



tific publications. He was married, in 
1805, to Louisa, daughter of Captain 
James Walker, of Wilmington, North 
Carolina. Of his children, two sons died 
in the service; Jonathan Williams, an 
officer in the United States navy, was 
crippled for life on board the frigate 
"Brandywine ;" and McRea Swift became 
a civil engineer. General Swift died in 
Geneva, New York, July 23, 1865. 


Educator, Author. 

Simon Greenleaf was born in New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, December 5, 
1783, son of Moses and Lydia (Parsons) 
Greenleaf, grandson of the Hon. Jona- 
than and Mary (Presbury) Greenleaf, 
great-grandson of Daniel and Sarah 
(Mood}^) Greenleaf, great-great-grandson 
of John and Elizabeth (Hills) Greenleaf, 
great-great-great-grandson of Stephen 
and Elizabeth (Coffin) Greenleaf, and 
great-great-great-great-grandson of Ed- 
mund Greenleaf, who came to America 
and settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, 
about 1635. 

He attended the Latin school in New- 
buryport. and at the age of eighteen be- 
gan the study of law with Ezekiel Whit- 
man, of New Gloucester, Maine. He was 
admitted to the bar in Cumberland coun- 
ty, Maine, in 1805, and opened an office 
first in Standish, then in Gray, and in 
18 1 7 removed to Portland, Maine. In 
1820 and 1821 he represented Portland 
in the Maine Legislature, and in August, 
1820, became reporter of the Supreme 
Court under the act of the new State, 
passed June 24, 1820. His service in that 
position ended in July, 1832. He was 
Royal Professor of Law at Harvard Col- 
lege, 1833-46; Dane Professor of the same 
branch, succeeeding Judge Story, 1846- 
48; and Professor Emeritus, 1848-53. He 
was at one time president of the Massa- 

chusetts Bible Society, and was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety. He received the honorary degree 
of Master of Arts from Bowdoin in 1817, 
and that of Doctor of Laws from Har- 
vard in 1834, from Amherst in 1845, ^rid 
from the University of Alabama in 1852. 
He was the author of: "Origin and 
Principles of Freemasonry" (1820) ; "Full 
Collection of Cases, Overruled, Denied, 
Doubted or Limited in their Application" 
(1821); "Reports of Cases in the Su- 
preme Court of Maine, 1820-31" (nine 
volumes, 1822-35) ; "'Remarks on the Ex- 
clusion of Atheists as Witnesses" (1839) ; 
"Treatise on the Law of Evidence" (three 
volumes, 1842-53) ; "Examination of the 
Testimony of the Four Evangelists, by 
the Rules of Evidence Administered in 
Courts of Justice, with an account of the 
Trial of Jesus" (1846) ; and a discourse 
on the life and character of Joseph Story 
(1845). He also prepared and adapted 
to LTnited States practice an enlarged edi- 
tion of "Digest of the Laws or England 
respecting Real Property," by William 
Cruise (three volumes, 1849-50). He was 
married, September 18, 1806, to Hannah, 
daughter of Ezra and Susanna (Whit- 
man) Kingman, of Bridgewater, Massa- 
chusetts. He died in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, October 6, 1853. 

GREENLEAF, Jonathan, 

Clergyman, Author. 

The Rev. Jonathan Greenleaf was born 
in Newburyport, Massachusetts, Sep- 
tember 4, 1785, son of Moses and Lydia 
(Parsons) Greenleaf, and brother of the 
Lion. Simon Greenleaf (1783-1853), and 
of Moses Greenleaf, who was born in 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, October 17, 
1777, married, February 11, 1805, Persis, 
daughter of Deacon Ebenezer Poor, of 
East Andover, Maine, published "Statis- 
tical View of the District of Maine" 



(1816) and a '^Survey of the State of 
Maine" with a map (1829), and died in 
Williamsburg, Maine, Alarch 20, 1834. 

Jonathan Greenleaf was reared on a 
farm at New Gloucester, Maine, and at- 
tended the common schools. He studied 
theology with the Rev. Francis Brown, 
D. D., of North Yarmouth, Maine, and 
was licensed to preach by the Cumber- 
land Association at Saco, Maine, in Sep- 
tember, 18 14. He was ordained at Wells, 
Maine, March 18, 1815, by the York 
County Association, as pastor of the First 
Congregational Church. In 1828 he was 
dismissed and removed to Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, as pastor of the Mariners' 
Church. Fie was corresponding secre- 
tary of the Seamen's Friend Society, New 
York City, 1833-41, and after supplying 
for a few months the vacant Congrega- 
tional church at Lyndon, Vermont, he 
established in 1843 the Wallabout Pres- 
byterian Church in Brooklyn, New York. 
and remained its pastor until his death. 
The honorary degree of Master of Arts 
was conferred upon him by Bowdoin Col- 
lege in 1824. and that of S. T. D. by the 
College of New Jersey in 1863. He was 
the author of "Sketches of the Ecclesias- 
tical History of the State of Maine" 
(1821) ; "History of the Churches of New 
York" (1846) ; "Thoughts on Prayer" 
(1847) ; "A Sketch of Lyndon, Vermont" 
(1852) ; "Genealogy of the Greenleaf 
Family" (1854) ; and a "Sketch of Wells" 
in Maine Historical Collections (1831). 
He was married, November 2, 1814, to 
Sarah Johnson, of New Gloucester, 
Maine. He died in Brooklyn, New York, 
April 24, 1865. 


Merdiant, Philantliropist. 

Amos Lawrence was born at Groton, 
Massachusetts, April 22, 1786, son of Sam- 
uel and Susanna (Parker) Lawrence. 

grandson of Captain Amos and Abigail 
(Abbott) Lawrence and of William and 
Sarah Parker, of Groton ; great-grandson 
of John and Anna (Tarbell) Lawrence 
and of Deacon Nehemiah Abbott, of Lex- 
ington ; great-great-grandson of Nathan- 
iel and Sarah (Morse) Lawrence; great- 
great-great-grandson of John and Eliza- 
beth Lawrence, the emigrants, and of 
John and Hannah Morse, of Dedham, and 
a lineal descendant of Sir Robert Law- 
rence, of Ashton Hall, Lancashire, Eng- 

Amos Lawrence attended Groton Acad- 
emy, and in 1799 obtained employment in 
a country store at Dunstable, Alassachu- 
setts, and later in Groton. In 1807 he 
removed to Boston, where he was em- 
ployed as a clerk in a dry goods house, 
and upon the failure of his employers he 
was appointed by the creditors to settle 
the affairs of the concern. On December 
17, 1807, he opened a dry goods store on 
Cornhill, Boston, with his brother Ab- 
bott as an apprentice. In 1814 the 
brothers became partners under the firm 
name of A. & A. Lawrence, and during 
the war of 1812 they erected mills for the 
manufacture of cotton and woolen goods 
in New England. They established the 
first cotton factory in Lowell, Massachu- 
setts, and later engaged in the sale of 
foreign cotton and woollen goods on com- 

Amos Lawrence retired from active 
participation in business affairs in 1831-, 
and devoted himself to philanthropic 
works. His gifts included about $40,000 
to ^\'ill^ams College. He founded a 
library at Groton Academy, donated a 
valuable telescope, and at the time of his 
death he was engaged in raising the sum 
of $50,000 for the academy. On account 
of his gifts the name of Groton Academy 
was changed to Lawrence Academy in 
1846. He also gave liberally to Kenyon 
College, to Wabash College, and to the 



Bangor Theological Seminary. He estab- 
lished the Children's Infirmary at Bos- 
ton ; donated a building for the Boston 
Society of Natural History; and contri- 
buted $10,000 toward the completion of 
the Bunker Hill monument. He present- 
ed many books to libraries and to in- 
dividuals, and his private benefactions 
were large. His name was one of the six 
in "Class B, Business Men," submitted 
for a place in the Hall of Fame for Great 
Americans. New York University, in Oc- 
tober, 1900, and received twenty votes, 
Cornelius Vanderbilt, with twenty-nine 
votes, only exceeding, and none in the 
class gaining a place. 

He was twice married, first on June 6, 
181 1, to Sarah, daughter of Giles and 
Sarah (Adams) Richards, of Dedham ; 
and (second) on April 11, 1821, to Nancy 
(Means) Ellis, a daughter of Robert 
Aleans, of Amherst, New Hampshire, and 
widow of Judge Ellis, of Claremont. New 
Hampshire. He died in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, December 31. 1852. 


Prolific Inventor. 

Thomas Blanchard was born at Sut- 
ton, Massachusetts, June 24, 1788, fifth 
son of Samuel Blanchard, a farmer. He 
early developed remarkable mechanical 
gifts, and when only thirteen years of 
age invented a machine for paring apples. 
He was soon after this employed by his 
brother in the making of tacks, and in- 
vented a machine to save himself the 
trouble of counting them. In his intervals 
of leisure he learned the use of black- 
smith's tools, and also acquired skill in 
turning and carving wood, which proved 
useful in preparing the models of his in- 
ventions. In 1812, at the end of six years 
of experiments, he produced a machine 
which turned out five hundred tacks a 
minute, more perfectly than they could 

be made by hand. He sold the patent 
rights of this machine for five thousand 
dollars, which enabled him to fit out a 

He next invented a machine for turn- 
ing and finishing gun barrels at one oper- 
ation, the finishing having hitherto been 
accomplished by hand, with much labor. 
He overcame the difficulty of turning the 
breech, which had two flat and two oval 
sides, by means of a wheel placed in the 
arbor of the lathe and operated by a lever. 
The government immediately ordered one 
of these machines for the United States 
Armory at Springfield, giving him a 
royalty of nine cents on every g^n bar- 
rel turned by his lathe. He was em- 
ployed at the armory for five years, and 
made many improvements in the stock- 
ing of arms, inventing for this purpose as 
many as thirteen different machines. His 
next invention was an eccentric lathe for 
turning irregular forms, one of the most 
valuable mechanical devices that has ever 
been given to the world, one of its appli- 
cations being the pantagraph, an instru- 
ment for reproducing statuary. He set 
up a pantagraph in Washington and ob- 
taining plaster casts of the heads of Web- 
ster, Clay, Calhoun and others, repro- 
duced them in marble, and exhibited the 
busts in the rotunda of the capitol. When 
it was learned that these busts, which 
were as much like the original as any 
skilled hand could have shaped them, had 
been made by machinery, the members 
of Congress were astonished, and when 
he asked for a renewal of his patent, 
which had expired, and explained that he 
had derived no profit beyond that ex- 
pended in litigation in defending it, a 
resolution was introduced into the Senate 
by Webster, and the patent was renewed 
for a number of years. Rufus Choate, 
who had been retained as opposing coun- 
sel, wittily remarked, "Blanchard had 
turned the heads of Congress and gained 


his point." In 1825 Mr. Blanchard built 
a steam carriage to travel on common 
roads, which was easily controlled, could 
turn corners and climb hills. In 1826 he 
invented a steamboat which would ascend 
the rapids on the Connecticut river be- 
tween Springfield and Hartford, an im- 
provement which rendered possible the 
navigation of many of the western rivers. 
In 1830 he built a steamboat to voyage 
between Pittsburgh and Olean Point, 
where the fall was six hundred feet, and 
the river in many places extremely rapid. 
He next contrived a process for bending 
timber without weakening the fibres of 
the wood on the outer circle, which 
proved of more financial value to the in- 
ventor than the lathe. He also invented 
a machine whereby envelopes could be 
cut and folded at the same time. He took 
out in all more than twenty-five patents, 
realizing large amounts from some of 
them. He died in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, April 16, 1864. 

BATES, Joshua, 

Public Benefactor. 

Joshua Bates was born at Weymouth, 
Massachusetts, in 1788, only son of 
Joshua Bates, who was a colonel in the 
Revolutionary army. The family was 
among the first to immigrate to New 
England, the name appearing as early as 
1633, among the settlers of Plymouth 

There being no suitable school in Wey- 
mouth, Joshua Bates received his educa- 
tion from the town clergyman, studying 
with him until he was fifteen years old. 
He then entered the employ of William 
Gray, of Boston, and won the respect of 
his employer by his remarkable business 
ability, his integrity, and straightforward 
manner of conducting affairs, the famous 
merchant frequently asking his advice on 
matters usually considered too intricate 

for the comprehension of a boy. When 
only twenty-one years of age he was sent 
to London as agent of the firm, and here 
he still further won the admiration of his 
employer by his keenness and sagacity. 
He afterward established a banking house 
in partnership with a son of Sir Thomas 
Baring, the business later being merged 
in the famous house of Baring Brothers 
& Company. In the points at issue be- 
tween the government of Great Britain 
and that of the United States, growing 
out of the War of 1812, he was chosen as 
umpire by the joint commission, and his 
decisions were unquestioningly accepted 
by both parties. He was a lover of books, 
and a public benefactor in his discriminat- 
ing charities. In 1852, when he learned 
of the establishment of the Free Public 
Library in Boston, he donated $50,000 for 
the purchase of books of acknowledged 
standard, to be at all times accessible to 
the public, and kept in a room where at 
least one hundred readers could be com- 
fortably seated, thus contributing to the 
enjoyment of a large number of people. 
This benefaction resulted in "Bates Hall," 
in Boston Public Library, named in his 
honor, which was a most fitting memo^ 
rial. Mr. Bates afterwards added to his 
gift his own private library, consisting of 
over thirty thousand volumes, making 
his aggregate donations to the library 
amount to over $100,000, which pro- 
claimed him a public benefactor of great 
merit and worth. He died in London, 
England, September 24, 1864. — 

GREENLEAF, Benjamin, 

Educator, Author. 

Benjamin Greenleaf was born in Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, September 25, 1786, 
son of Caleb and Susanna (Emerson) 
Greenleaf, grandson of Timothy and Sus- 
anna (Greenleaf) Greenleaf, great-grand- 
son of John and Abigail Greenleaf. 



great-great-grandson of Samuel and 
Sarah (Kent) Greenleaf, great-great-great- 
grandson of Stephen and Elizabeth (Cof- 
fin) Greenleaf, and great-great-great- 
great-grandson of Edmund Greenleaf, 
who settled in Newbury. Massachusetts, 
about 1635. 

He was graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1813, and was preceptor of 
Bradford Academy from December 12, 
1814, to April 6, 1836. He represented 
Bradford in the State Legislature in 1837- 
39. In 1839 he founded the Bradford 
Teachers' Seminary, which he conducted 
until its discontinuance in 1848. He was 
a pioneer educator in the natural sciences 
by illustrated public lectures, and in lead- 
ing teachers to dispense with text-books 
in the recitation room. As an author he 
v/as widely known. He published a tract 
of eight pages entitled "Rules of Syntax" 
about 1825. He worked out the mathe- 
matical calculations for a number of alma- 
nacs, notably for the Cherokee Mission. 
He published text-books on arithmetic, 
mental and written, algebra, geometry 
and trigonometry, and at the time of his 
death left in manuscript a "System of 
Practical Surveying." His text-books be- 
gan to issue from the press in 1835, and 
continued in new works and new edi- 
tions almost to the time of his death, 
some being translated into modern Greek 
and into Burmese. 

He was married, November 20, 1821, to 
I.ucretia, youngest daughter of Colonel 
James Kimball, of Bradford, Massachu- 
setts. He died in Bradford, Massachu- 
setts, October 29, 1864. 

PARKMAN, Francis, 

Clergyman, liitterateur. 

The Rev. Francis Parkman was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, June 4, 1788, 
son of Samuel and Sarah (Rogers) Park- 
man, grandson of the Rev. Ebenezer 

Parkman, and a descendant of Thomas 
Parkman, of Sidmouth, Devonshire, Eng- 
land, and of Elias Parkman, who settled 
in Dorchester, Massachusetts, 1633. Rev. 
Ebenezer Parkman was the first minister 
at Westborough, Massachusetts, 1724-82, 
and the author of "Reformers and Inter- 
cessors" (1752); "Convention Sermon" 
(1761), and a short sketch of Westbor- 
ough. Samuel Parkman was a wealthy 
Boston merchant, active, public-spirited 
and enterprising, and a liberal benefactor 
of Harvard College, the cause of educa- 
tion always receiving from him most 
earnest support. 

Francis Parkman was graduated from 
Harvard College with the degree of A. B. 
in 1807, and that of A. M., 1810. He sub- 
sequently studied theology under the su- 
pervision of the Rev. William E. Chan- 
ning in Boston, and was a student at 
Edinburgh University. He was ordain- 
ed to the Unitarian ministry in December, 
1813, and that same year was called to 
the pastorate of the New North Church, 
Boston, Massachusetts, and served faith- 
fully and acceptably until 1849, ^ period 
of thirty-six years, exerting a powerful 
influence for good in the community, and 
promoting the spiritual welfare of those 
under his direct supervision. He founded 
the professorship of Pulpit Eloquence and 
Pastoral Care at Harvard in 1829. He 
was vice-president of the Society for the 
Relief of Aged and Indigent Unitarian 
Clergymen, 1849-52, and was president of 
the convention of Unitarian ministers 
held at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1852. 
The honorary degree of A. B. was con- 
ferred on Francis Parkman by Yale Col- 
lege in 1807, and that of D. D. by Har- 
vard College in 1834. He was the author 
of "The Ofifering of Sympathy" (1829), 
and contributed many articles of worth 
and merit to the "North American Re- 
view" and the "Christian Examiner." 

He was married to Caroline, daughter 



of Nathaniel Hall, of ]\Iedford, Massachu- 
setts. He died in Boston, Massachusetts, 
November 12, 1852. Dr. George Park- 
man, a Harvard professor, brother of 
Francis Parkman, was murdered by Pro- 
fessor John G. Webster. 

LYMAN, Theodore, 


Theodore Lyman was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 20, 1792, son of 
Theodore and Lydia (Williams) Lyman ; 
grandson of the Rev. Isaac and Sarah 
(Plummer) Lyman; great-grandson of 
Captain Moses and Mindwell (Sheldon) 
Lyman, and a descendant of Richard and 
Sarah (Osborne) Lyman. Richard Ly- 
man was a native of High Ougar, Essex 
county, England, and came to America 
in the ship "Lion" in 1631, settling first 
at Charlestown, Massachusetts, and in 
1635 at Hartford, Connecticut. Theodore 
Lyman Sr. was an eminent merchant, en- 
gaged in the northwest fur trade and in 
the coast and China trade. 

Theodore Lyman, his son, was prepar- 
ed for college at Phillips Exeter Academy 
and was graduated from Harvard College 
A. B. 1810, A. M. 1815. He studied liter- 
ature in the University of Edinburgh, 
1812-14, and in the latter year travelled 
on the continent for a short time, being 
in France during the first restoration. 
He returned to the United States in the 
autumn of 1814, and revisited Europe in 
June, 1817, travelling in Germany with 
Edward Everett, and visiting Greece, 
Egypt, and Palestine. He returned to 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1819. He 
commanded the Boston brigade. State 
militia, 1823-27; was a representative in 
the Massachusetts^ Legislature, 1821-24, 
State Senator, 1824, State Representative, 
1825, and mayor of Boston, 1834-35. On 
October 21, 1835, he rescued William 
Lloyd Garrison from the mob that at- 

tacked the meeting of the Female Anti- 
Slavery Society while he was in attend- 
ance. After his wife's death in 1835, he 
devoted himself to assisting the poor and 
criminal classes. He removed to Brook- 
line in 1844. He was president of the 
Boston Farm School, 1840-46; and in the 
latter year, and subsequently during his 
lifetime gave $22,500 to the State Reform 
School at Westboro, Massachusetts, to 
which he also left in his will the sum of 
$50,000. $10,000 to the Farm School of 
Boston, and $10,000 to the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, of which he was a 
life member. He was the author of: 
"Three Weeks in Paris" (1814) ; "The 
Political State of Italy" (1820) ; "The 
Hartford Convention" (1823) ; "The 
Diplomacy of the United States" (two 
volumes, 1828). 

He was married. May 15, 1821, to Mary 
Elizabeth Henderson, of Nev/ York, and 
resided at Waltham, Massachusetts, 
1821-44. He died in Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts, July 18, 1849. 

GRAY, Francis Galley, 

Antiquarian, Philantliropist. 

Francis Calley Gray was born in 
Salem, Massachusetts, September 19, 
1790, son of William and Elizabeth (Chip- 
man) Gray. He was graduated from 
Harvard College in 1809, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar, but did not 
follow the profession. He served as 
private secretary to John Quincy Adams 
from 1809 to 1814, and as such accom- 
panied him on his mission to Russia. He 
was a Representative in the Massachu- 
setts Legislature, 1822-24, and in 1836, 
and was State Senator from Sufifolk 
county in 1825. 1826, 1828, 1829, 1831, and 


He was also vice-president of the Pris- 
on-discipline Society, and was for several 
years chairman of the board of directors 



of the Massachusetts State Prison. His 
spare time he devoted to antiquarian and 
historical research. On January 29, 1818, 
he was elected a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, and there- 
after edited several volumes of its pub- 
lished "Collections." He was a member 
of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, and its corresponding secretary ; 
was president of the Boston Athenaeum ; 
and a fellow of Harvard College, 1826- 
36. In 1841 Harvard conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of LL. D. In his 
will he left to Harvard College a collec- 
tion of rare engravings and $16,000 for 
the care of the collection, and $50,000 to 
establish a Museum of Comparative Zo- 
ology, the money bequests to be given at 
the option of his nephew William, who 
presented them to Harvard in 1858. Dr. 
Gray was a constant contributor to the 
'"North American Review" and other 
periodicals, was a frequent speaker at 
public gatherings, and published a not- 
able pamphlet, "Prison Discipline in 
America" (1848). He died in Boston, 
Massachusetts, December 29, 1856. 

LEAVITT, Joshua, 

Clergyman, Editor, Reformer. 

Joshua Leavitt was born in Heath, 
Massachusetts, September 8, 1794, son of 
Roger and Chloe (Maxwell) Leavitt, and 
grandson of the Rev. Jonathan Leavitt 
of Charlemont, Massachusetts, a graduate 
of Yale, 1758, died 1802. 

Joshua Leavitt was graduated at Yale 
College, A. B. 1814, and A. M. 1817. He 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 
Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1819, 
and practiced his profession at Putney, 
Vermont, from 1819 to 1823. He entered 
Yale Divinity School, from which he grad- 
uated in 1825, and was ordained to the 
Congregational ministry on February 23, 
1825. In the latter year he became pastor 

at Stratford, Connecticut, serving as 
such until 1826, and also as agent of the 
American Temperance Society for four 
months. He removed to New York City 
in 1828 to become secretary of the Amer- 
ican Seamen's Friend Society, and also 
edited the "Sailor's Magazine," 1828-31. 
In 183 1 he purchased "The Evangelist," 
in New York City, making it a liberal 
temperance and anti-slavery organ, 
which he edited until 1837. He then was 
editor of "The Emancipator" in New 
York and Boston, 1837-47; and "The 
Chronicle," the first daily anti-slavery 
paper, in 1848; was ofifice editor of "The 
Independent," in New York City, 1848- 
64, and a member of its staff until his 
death. He formed societies and estab- 
lished chapels in various foreign and do- 
mestic ports in connection with the Sea- 
men's Friend Society, and was the first 
secretary of the American Temperance 
Society. He was a delegate to the con- 
vention at Albany, New York, that gave 
birth to the Liberal party in 1840, and m 
that year established "The Ballot Box," 
in which he supported James G. Birney 
for President of the United States. He 
founded the Cheap Postage Society in 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1847, ^"d re- 
sided in Washington, D. C, until 1849, 
during this period laboring industriously 
for the adoption of the two-cent postage 
rate. Through his correspondence with 
Richard Cobden, it is claimed that he had 
an influence in securing the repeal of the 
English corn laws, and in 1869 he receiv- 
ed a gold medal from the Cobden Club 
of England for his article advocating free 
trade. He was a member of the Coloniza- 
tion Society ; founded the New York 
Anti-Slavery Society in 1833, was a mem- 
ber of its executive committee in 1835, 
and continued a member of the National 
Anti-Slavery Society, into which the 
former was merged. 

He was married to Sarah, daughter of 



the Rev. Solomon Williams, of North- 
ampton, Massachusetts. He received 
the degree of D. D. from Wabash Col- 
lege in 1854. He^is the author of: "Easy 
Lessons in Reading" (1823) ; "The Chris- 
tian Lyre" (1831). and a series of read- 
ers (1847). He died in Brooklyn. New 
York, January 16, 1873. 

CHOATE, Rufus, 

statesman, Liitterateur. 

Rufus Choate was born in Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, October i, 1799. son of 
David and Miriam (Foster) Choate, and 
descended from John Choate, who immi- 
grated to Massachusetts in 1643. He 
was remarkably endowed with the traits 
of his parents. His father's sterling in- 
tegrity and unusual intellectual endow- 
ments marked him as a superior man, and 
he also inherited his mother's keen per- 
ceptions, ready wit and native dignity of 
bearing which were remarkable. He was 
early noted for his insatiable thirst for 
knowledge, for his tenacious memory and 
his extraordinary precocity. He could 
recite whole pages of "Pilgrim's Progress" 
when he was but six years old, and he 
had exhausted the greater part of the 
village library before he was ten. 

After attending the academy at New 
Hampton, New Hampshire, for a term, 
he entered Dartmouth College, from 
which he was graduated with the valedic- 
tory in 1819. The famous Dartmouth 
College case was on trial during his un- 
dergraduate days, and it was Webster's 
great speech in connection therewith that 
so inspired Choate as to lead to his final 
choice of the law as his profession. After 
serving as a tutor at Dartmouth for a 
year, he spent three years in Washington, 
D. C, studying law under William W'irt. 
Attorney General of the United States in 
1823. was admitted to the bar, and for 
five years practiced at Danvers, Massa- 

MASS— 13 I 

chusetts. In 1825 he was sent to the 
State Legislature as a Representative, 
and in 1827 as a Senator. He was chosen 
as a Representative in Congress in 1830, 
and distinguished himself by a brilliant 
speech on the tariff in the Twenty-second 
Congress. He was re-elected in 1832 to 
the Twenty-third Congress, but resigned 
his seat at the close of the first session 
and removed to Boston, where he devoted 
himself to his profession, and acquired a 
reputation as an eloquent, powerful and 
successful advocate. In 1841. when 
Daniel Webster became Secretary of 
State in President Harrison's cabinet, Mr. 
Choate was elected to fill the seat he had 
vacated in the Senate, and he made sev- 
eral brilliant speeches, notably those on 
the tariff, the Oregon boundary, the fiscal 
bank-bill, the Smithsonian Institution, 
and the annexation of Texas. At the 
close of the term, Mr. Webster was re- 
turned to the Senate, and Mr. Choate 
once more resumed the practice of his 
profession. He went to Europe m 1850, 
and during his brief tour in England and 
on the continent a most forcible impres- 
sion was made upon his mind by his ob- 
servations of the characteristics of the 
older civilizations of the world, and, in 
his comparison of these with those of the 
newer, he saw the perils chat were likely 
to follow a disruption of the union exist- 
ing between the States. In his earnest 
desire to avoid such disruption will be 
found the key to his whole later life, and 
his last public utterance was an oration 
in behalf of an undivided nation. In 1852 
he was a delegate to the Whig National 
Convention at Baltimore, and there urged 
the nomination of Daniel Webster for the 
presidency. He was a delegate to the 
State Convention of 1853, and took an 
important part in revising the constitu- 
tion of Massachusetts. In 1856 he sup- 
ported the Democratic national ticket, 



and made some speeches in the interest 
of Buchanan and Breckinridge. 

Busy as was his life, he yet devoted 
a portion of each day to the study of 
literature, history, and philosophy ; and 
it was this habit, together with his tena- 
cious memory, which made him one of 
the most scholarly of public men. He 
was especially fond of Greek literature, 
and was only restrained from writing a 
history of Greece by seeing the early 
volume of Grote's great work. He con- 
templated a visit to Europe in 1859, and 
had proceeded as far as Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, when his health failed so utterly 
that his son, who accompanied him, de- 
cided to return home, and while resting 
at the lodgings he had temporarily taken 
he died suddenly, July 13, 1859. Among 
his most famous speeches will always be 
named : The eulogy on President Har- 
rison (1841) ; an address upon the anni- 
versary of the landing of the Pilgrims 
(1843) ; ^ eulogy on Daniel Webster 

(1853) ; an address at the dedication of 
the Peabody Institution in Danvers 

(1854) ; an oration before the Young 
Men's Democratic Club of Boston (1858) ; 
two addresses before the Law School at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, and two lec- 
tures before the Mercantile Library As- 
sociation of Boston ; but no adequate 
idea of his wonderful oratory can be ob- 
tained from, reading his speeches. His 
works, with a memoir, published in two 
volumes, was prepared by Samuel Gil- 
man Brown (1862). 

COOPER, Samuel, 

Clergyman, Patriot of tlie Revolution. 

Samuel Cooper was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, March 28, 1725, son of 
William and Judith (Sewall) Cooper, and 
grandson of Thomas and Mehitable 
(Minot) Cooper, and of Chief Justice 

Samuel and Hannah (Hull) Sewall. His 
father, the Rev. William Cooper, gradu- 
ated from Harvard College in 1712; was 
minister of the Brattle Street Church, 
Boston ; and in 1737 was offered the 
presidency of Harvard College, which he 

Samuel Cooper was prepared for col- 
lege at the Boston Latin School, then 
entering Harvard College, from which 
he graduated in 1743, at the age of nine- 
teen. He then took up theological stud- 
ies, and in 1744 became a colleague with 
the Rev. Benjamin Colman, being made 
assistant pastor of the Brattle Street 
Church, Boston, May 21, 1746. He was 
a member of the Harvard corporation, 
1767-83, and, like his father before him, 
was elected to the presidency of the col- 
lege, but declined. He was an ardent 
patriot of the Revolution, and a vigorous 
contributor to the public press in behalf 
of the patriot cause, and the most posi- 
tive articles in the "Boston Press," on the 
stamp act and subsequent political usur- 
pations on the part of Great Britain, were 
from his pen. His views and his unfalter- 
ing expression of them made him a par- 
ticular object of denunciation by the Brit- 
ish in Boston, and he was publicly lam- 
pooned in an oration in one of the streets 
of the city. He was finally obliged to 
leave, and during 1775 and 1776 his 
church was used as barracks for the Brit- 
ish soldiers. 

He was a fellow and first vice-presi- 
dent of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences. He received the degree of 
S. T. D. from the University of Edin- 
burgh, in 1767, and that of A. M. from 
Yale College in 1750. He was married, 
September 12, 1746, to Judith, daughter 
of Dr. Thomas and Judith (Colman) Bull- 
finch, of Boston. He died in that city, 
December 29, 1783. 



SMITH, Sophia, 


Sophia Smith was born in Hatfield, 
Massachusetts, August 27, 1796, daugh- 
ter of Joseph and Lois (White) Smith ; 
granddaughter of Lieutenant Samuel 
and Mary (Morton) Smith, and of Lieu- 
tenant Elihu White ; niece of Oliver 
Smith, philanthropist, and first cousin 
once removed of Benjamin Smith Lyman, 

Her early education was extremely 
meagre. She attended school in Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, in 1810, for three 
months, and in 1814 was for a short time 
a pupil in the Hopkins Academy, Hadley, 
Massachusetts. She was, however, an 
extensive reader, and acquired an ample 
fund of knowledge. In 1861 she inher- 
ited a large fortune (about $450,000) 
from her brother, Austin Smith. In later 
years she conceived the idea of building 
a college for women, defined the object 
and general plan of the institution, ap- 
pointed the trustees, and selected North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, as its site. The 
college, which bears her name and which 
was the first institution for the higher 
education of women in New England, 
was opened in September, 1875, with L. 
Clark Seelye as president. Miss Smith 
bequeathed for the founding of the col- 
lege $365,000, and also $75,000 for the 
endowment of Smith Academy at Hat- 
field, Massachusetts, where she died, June 
12, 1870. 

Father of Grinnell Exploring Expedition. 

Henry Grinnell was born at New Bed- 
ford, Massachusetts, 1799, son of Captain 
Cornelius and Sylvia (Howland) Grin- 
nell. Lie was educated at the New Bed- 
ford Academy, and in 1818 became a 
clerk in the house of Fish & Grinnell, in 
New York City, of which his brother 

Joseph was a junior partner, and on the 
retirement of Preserved Fish in 1825, 
Henry and his brother Moses H. were 
admitted partners, and the firm became 
Fish, Grinnell & Company. In 1828 when 
Joseph withdrew, Robert B. Minturn, a 
brother-in-law, was admitted and the 
firm of Grinnell, Minturn & Company 
was established, Henry continuing a 
partner until his retirement from business 
in 1849. 

Being largely interested in whale fish- 
ery, Mr. Grinnell took especial interest 
in the geography of the Arctic regions, 
and was a devoted friend of seamen. In 
1850 he fitted out the "Advance" and the 
"Rescue," and organized an expedition to 
search for Sir John Franklin. The ex- 
pedition, in command of Lieutenant 
Edwin J. de Haven, Linited States navy, 
with Dr. Elisha Kent Kane as surgeon 
and historian, sailed from New York in 
May, 1850. They discovered land at sev- 
enty-five degrees, twenty-four minutes 
and twenty-one seconds north, ninety- 
five degrees west, and named it Grinnell 
Land. Being caught in the ice, the ves- 
sels drifted from September, 1850, until 
June, 1 85 1, when they reached Baffin's 
Bay, then returned home. In 1853, with 
George Peabody, Mr. Grinnell fitted out 
a second expedition, his portion of the 
expense being $50,000. It sailed from 
New York on May 30. 1853, under Dr. 
Kane, and reached seventy-eight degrees, 
forty-three seconds north, the highest 
latitude ever reached by a sailing vessel. 
The expedition returned in the fall of 
1S55, having been forced to abandon the 
"Advance." Mr. Grinnell then contribu- 
ted liberally to the Hayes expedition in 
i860, and to the "Polaris" expedition in 
1871. He was a charter member and the 
first president of the American Geograph- 
ical Society, organized in 1S52, and its 
vice-president from 1854 to 1872. This 
society owns a crayon portrait of him, 


framed in wooa taken from the "Reso- 
lute," and presented in 1886 by his daugh- 
ter Sylvia, widow of Admiral Ruxton, of 
the British navy. Mr. Grinnell died in 
New York City. June 30, 1874. 

TUPPER, Benjamin, 

Revolutionary Soldier, Pioneer. 

Benjamin Tupper was born in Stough- 
ton. Massachusetts, March 11, 1738, son 
of Thomas Tupper, grandson of Thomas 
and Mary Tupper ; a descendant or 
Thomas Tupper (born in Sandwich, Eng- 
land, June 28, 1578), who came to Amer- 
ica as early as 1635, possibly in 1624, re- 
sided in Saugus (Lynn). Massachusetts, 
previous to 1637, where with nine others 
he settled Sandwich on Cape Cod, where 
he died March 28, 1676; and maternal de- 
scendant of Ezra Perry, of Sandwich, 

His father having died when he was 
quite young, he served an apprenticeship 
to a tanner in Dorchester, Massachusetts, 
and about 1754 went to live with Joshua 
Howard, a farmer at Easton. He served 
as a private in the company of his ma- 
ternal uncle. Captain Nathaniel Perry, 
during the French and Indian war; was 
clerk of a company in the eastern army. 
in the winter of 1756-57; was promoted 
corporal in 1757, and sergeant in 1759. 
He taught a district school in Easton in 
1761. He removed to Chesterfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, where as lieutenant of militia 
he dispersed the Supreme Court of the 
crown at Springfield, Massachusetts. He 
was commissioned major of Colonel Fel- 
lows' regiment at Roxbury, took part in 
the battle of ]^>unker Hill, and in July, 
1775, led an expedition to Castle Island, 
Boston llarl)or. burning the light-house, 
and carrying off much property. When 
the British attempted to rebuild the light- 
house. Major Tupper attacked the guard, 
killed the officers and four privates, and 


captured the rest of the troops, the total 
killed and captured being fifty-three, and 
demolished the works, which act of gal- 
lantry won him the thanks of Washing- 
ton in general orders, and catised Jeffer- 
son to characterize the affair as an in- 
stance of "the adventurous genius and 
intrepidity of New Englanders." The 
British admiral said that no one act in the 
siege caused so much chagrin in London 
as the destruction of the light-house. 
Major Tupper was sent to Martha's Vine- 
yard to capture two vessels in August, 
1775; made an expedition to Governor's 
Island, P)Oston Harbor, in September; 
and commanded a number of gunboats on 
the Hudson river in August, 1776, partici- 
pating in an engagement near Fort Wash- 
ington, tie served as lieutenant-colonel 
of Colonel Bailey's regiment in the north- 
ern army under Gates in 1777, becoming 
colonel of the Eleventh Regiment of Con- 
tinental troops in July, 1777; was at Val- 
ley Forge, 1777-78; engaged in the battle 
of Monmouth, June 28, 1778, where his 
horse was killed under him ; was appoint- 
ed inspector in General Robert Patter- 
son's brigade in September, 1778; served 
as aide to Washington ; superintended 
the stretching of a chain across the Hud- 
son river at West Point in 1780, and 
toward the close of the war was brevetted 

He was subsequently a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature, and a justice 
of the peace ; was one of the signers of 
the petition of Continental officers for the 
laying out of a new State "westward of 
the Ohio," June 16, 1783, and in 1785, 
owing to General Rufus Putnam's resig- 
nation as surveyor of the northwestern 
lands, accepted the vacancy, and in con- 
nection with General Putnam called a 
convention at Boston, Massachusetts, 
March i, 1786, which organized the Ohio 
Company of Associates. General Tupper 
made a second survey in 1786. and on his 


return took charge of the military organ- 
izations at Springfield, Massachusetts, 
during Shay's rebellion, repelling the in- 
surgents' attack on the armory, and being 
immediately afterward discharged from 
active service. He removed to Ohio in 
the summer of 1787, arriving on August 
9, 1788, at Marietta, where he was actively 
engaged in promoting the plans of the 
Ohio Company. At the assembling of the 
first civil court of the Northwestern 
Territory, September 9, 1788, with Rufus 
Putnam, he served as justice of the 
quorum, and thereafter, with the excep- 
tion of one or two sessions, presided until 
his death. General Tupper was a mem- 
ber of the Society of the Cincinnati, and 
the inventor of the screw propeller. 

He was married, November 18, 1762. 
to Huldah White, of Bridgewater. wlio 
died in Putnam, Ohio, 1812. Of his chil- 
dren : Major Anselm Tupper, who was a 
"fine classical scholar, a good mathe- 
mr.tician. and something of a poet." died 
in Marietta, Ohio, December 25, 1838; 
Colonel Benjamin Tupper, Jr., died at 
Putnam, Ohio, 1815; General Edward 
W. Tupper, who served under General 
Harrison in the War of 1812, died in 
Gallipolis, Ohio, 1823 ; daughter Rosoma 
married Governor Winthrop Sargent, and 
died in Marietta, 1790. Benjamin Tup- 
per, father of these children, died in Mari- 
etta, Ohio, June, 1792. 

NOYES, George Rapall, 

Theologian, Author. 

George R. Noyes was born at- New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, March 6. 1798, 
son of Nathaniel and IMary (Rapall) 
Noyes, and a descendant of William 
Noyes, who was instituted rector of Chol- 
derton, Wiltshire, England, in 1602, and 
of his son Nicholas, who with his brother, 
the Rev. James Noyes, came to Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, in the "Mary and John" in 

Fie was fitted for college in the New- 

buryport Academy, and was graduated 
at Harvard College, A. B. 1818, A. M. 
1821. During his college course he 
taught school three winters, and after 
leaving college took charge of the acad- 
emy at Framinghain for one year. He 
studied at the Cambridge Divinity School, 
1819-22, and was licensed to preach in the 
latter year, but remained in Cambridge 
as a teacher until 1825, then serving as 
tutor in the college until 1827, devoting 
his spare time to the study of the Hebrew 
and Greek scriptures and literature. He 
was pastor of the First Congregational 
Church at Brookfield, 1827-34; pastor of 
the First Unitarian Society at Petersham, 
Massachusetts, 1834-40 ; and Hancock 
Professor of Hebrew and other oriental 
languages, and Dexter Lecturer on Bib- 
lical Literature at Harvara College, 1840- 
68. He received the honorary degree of 
S. T. D. from Harvard College in 1839 ; 
and was chosen a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1844. 
He was generally recognized as an emi- 
nent Greek and Hebrew scholar. His 
published works include : '"An Amended 
Version of the Book of Job, with Intro- 
duction and Notes"' (1827) ; "A New 
Translation of the Book of Psalms" 
(1831) ; "A New Translation of the He- 
brew Prophets Arranged in Chronologi- 
cal Order" (three volumes, 1833-37) .• "^ 
New Translation of the Proverbs. Eccles- 
iastes and the Canticles" (1846) : "Theo- 
logical Essays from Various Authors" 
(1856) ; and "The New Testament Trans- 
lated from the Greek Text of Tischen- 
dorf" (1869). He also published 
ous tracts, sermons and periodical ar- 
ticles. A revised edition in four volumes 
of his Old Testament translations was 
published in 1867-68. 

He was married, ]May 8, 1828, to Eliza 
Wheeler Buttrick, of Framingham, Mas- 
sachusetts. He died in Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts, June 3, 1868. 



MORGAN, Abner, 

Revolutionary Soldier, Legislator. 

Abner Morgan was born in Brimfield, 
Massachusetts, January 9, 1746, son of 
Jonathan and Ruth (Miller) Morgan ; 
grandson of David and Deborah (Cotton) 
Morgan ; great-grandson of Joseph and 
Tryphenia (Smith) Morgan, and a de- 
scendant of Captain Mills and Prudence 
(Gilbert) Morgan. 

He was graduated at Harvard College 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 
1773 ; studied law and practiced his pro- 
fession at Brimfield, being the first law- 
yer there, and he also practiced in the 
city of Worcester. He represented Brim- 
field in the General Court that met at 
Watertown, Massachusetts, from July 19, 
1775, to January 21, 1776, and voted to 
raise a regiment from Berkshire and 
Hampshire counties to serve in the ex- 
pedition to Canada. He became major 
of the First Regiment of Continental 
troops raised in Massachusetts, and 
under Colonel Elisha Porter marched 
with General Arnold to Quebec to join 
General Montgomery. After the death 
of General Montgomery, General Arnold 
being disabled. Major Morgan led the 
final attack on Quebec, January i, 1776, 
when they were driven off by overpower- 
ing numbers, and retreated to Crown 
Point, New York, where on July 8, 1776, 
Major Morgan drew up an address of the 
field officers to General John Sullivan on 
the latter's withdrawing from the com- 
mand of the army of Canada. He served 
in the army until August 29, 1778, when 
he was appointed brigade major for 
Hampden county, Massachusetts. He 
was commissioned justice of the peace of 
Massachusetts by Governor Hancock in 
1781 ; was chairman of the committee for 
taking up persons dangerous to the com- 
monwealth in 1782; served as selectman 
of Brimfield for twenty-two years, and 

was the assessor for Hampden district to 
collect direct the United States tax levied 
on the State by Congress in 1798. He 
represented Brimfield in the Massachu- 
setts Legislature, 1798-1801. He received 
from the government a pension, and a 
bounty grant of twenty thousand acres 
in Livingston county. New York, on the 
banks of the Genesee river. 

He was married, March 31, 1796, to 
Persis, daughter of David and Tabitha 
(Collins) Morgan, and in 1826 removed 
to Lima, New York, and from there to 
Avon, New York, where he died, Novem- 
ber 7, 1837. 

BRYANT, Gridley, 

Builder of Bunker Hill Monument. 

Gridley Bryant was born at Scituate, 
Massachusetts, in 1798. He attended the 
common schools of the neighborhood, 
and at the age of fifteen years he was ap- 
prenticed to a builder of Boston, with 
whom he remained for a number of 
years. When nineteen years of age he 
had sole charge of his employer's works, 
this fact testifying to his efificiency and 

At the age of twenty-one years he com- 
menced business on his own account. He 
invented a portable derrick in 1823, first 
used in the construction of the United 
States Bank at Boston. In April, 1826, 
he was the projector and engineer of the 
first railroad in America used to convey 
the stone quarried at Quincy, Massachu- 
setts, to Charlestown, for the Bunker Hill 
monument, of which he was master 
builder and contractor. He was the in- 
ventor of the eight-wheel car, a turn- 
table, a switch, a turnout, and many other 
valuable railway equipments, and with a 
generosity that was prodigal he gave his 
inventions for the benefit of mankind, 
never applying for a patent, this fact 
proving conclusively tbit he possessed 



public spirit of no mean order. His eight- 
wheel car principle was adopted by Ross 
Winans, who in 1834 took out a patent 
for an eight-wheel car, with appliances 
and improvements, adapting it to general 
passenger travel. This patent was pur- 
chased by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
Company, and as Bryant's eight-wheel 
car was in use on several roads, litiga- 
tion followed, and Mr. Bryant was sum- 
moned as a witness, but the corporations in 
whose behalf he testified made no com- 
pensation for his disinterested services, 
and their failure to keep their promises 
hastened his death, which occurred at 
Scituate, Massachusetts, June 13. 1867. 

COPLEY, John Singleton, 

Famous Painter. 

John Singleton Copley was born in 
Boston, Massachusetts, July 3, 1737, son 
of Richard and Mary (Singleton) Cop- 
ley, and grandson of John and Jane 
(Bruflfe) Singleton. His parents emi- 
grated from County Limerick, Ireland, 
and settled in Boston, Massachusetts, in 
1736, and his father died in the West In- 
dies in 1737. His mother was married, 
May 22, 1747, to Peter Pelham. of Boston, 
and one son, Henry, was born of this 
union. The half-brothers were both de- 
voted to art, Henry Pelham being both a 
portrait painter and an engraver in Bos- 
ton in 1774. He prepared a map of Bos- 
ton and one of County Clare, Ireland, 
and contributed to the Royal Academy 
miniature portraits and sketches. 

John Singleton Copley was without 
teacher or models, and was obliged to 
manufacture his own colors. He made 
the statement that he never saw a good 
picture until after he left America. His 
persevering industry alone made him a 
great painter, his genius first showing it- 
self on the walls of his room and on the 
white margins of his school books. His 

stepfather died in 1751, and the two sons 
devoted themselves to the care of their 
aged mother, residing in Lindel Row, 
near the upper end of King street, Bos- 
ton. In 1755 he painted from life a minia- 
ture of Colonel George Washington, and 
in 1760 he sent "The Boy and the Tame 
Squirrel," anonymously to Benjamin 
West, then in England, with the request 
that it be placed in the exhibition rooms. 
Upon receiving the picture, West ex- 
claimed, "It is worthy of Titian himself !" 
Through West's influence it was exhibit- 
ed at Somerset House. The American 
pine, of which the stretcher was made, 
disclosed its origin, and the identity of 
the artist was soon discovered. Upon 
the nomination of West he was elected 
a fellow of the Society of Artists of Great 
Britain, and he was invited to make Eng- 
land his home. Mr. Copley and his wife 
lived on Beacon Hill, Boston, in a solitary 
house, picturesquely located in the midst 
of eleven acres of land, and in his studio 
in this house his best portraits were 

Mr. Copley visited New York in 1771, 
and in June, 1774, embarked for England, 
further to pursue his art. He reached 
London on July 11, 1774, was shown the 
art treasures of that city by Benjamin 
West, and received a visit from Sir Joshua 
Reynolds and from Mr. Strange, the en- 
graver. He painted the portraits of Lord 
and Lady North, visited Italy, and on his 
return painted portraits of the king and 
queen. On May 27, 1775, Mrs. Copley 
with her family embarked at Marblehead 
for England, where she arrived several 
weeks before the return of her husband 
from Italy, she reaching Dover, June 24, 
1775. London henceforth became their 
home and Mr. Copley was made a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy. He had his 
painting. "The Death of the Earl of 
Chatham," engraved, and he sent copies 
to President Washington, to John Adams 


and to Harvard College. In acknowl- 
edgement, Washington wrote, "The work 
is rendered more estimable in my eye 
when I remember that America gave 
birth to the celebrated artist who pro- 
duced it;" John Adams wrote, "I shall 
preserve (it) with great care, both as a 
token of your friendship, and as a finish- 
ed monument of 'The Fine Arts' from one 
of the greatest masters, and as an indubi- 
table proof of American genius ;" and from 
Harvard he received a vote of thanks. 

Harvard University possesses Copley's 
portraits of John Adams, Thomas Hub- 
bard. Madam and Xicholas \V. Hoylston, 
President Holyoke and Thomas Hollis ; 
the engraving from "Chatham." and a 
series of eleven prints from Copley's 
works, the gift of Gardiner Greene. His 
"Siege of Gibraltar" was painted about 
1789-90 for the council chamber of ( kiild- 
hall, London, and the figures are all por- 
traits. "The Red Cross Knight." painted 
about 1788-90, gives excellent full-length 
portraits of Mr. Copley's son and two 
daughters, and became the property of 
S. G. Dexter, of Boston, who married a 
great-granddaughter of the artist. "The 
Family Picture" became the property of 
Charles Amory, of Boston, and "Mrs. 
Derby as St. Cecilia" of W. Appleton of 
the same city. "The Daughter of George 
HI." is in Buckingham Palace, and his 
other historical English subjects include 
"Offer of the Crown to Lady Jane Grey" ; 
"Charles Demanding in the House of 
Commons the Five Impeached Mem- 
bers" ; "King Charles Signing Straft'ord's 
Death Warrant"; "Assassination of 
Buckingham"; "Battle of the Boyne"; 
"The Five Impeached Members Brought 
Back in Triumph," and "The King's Es- 
cape from Hampton Court." 

Mr. Copley was married, November 16, 
1769, to Susannah Farnum. daughter of 
Richard and l-'dizabcth (Winslow") 

Clarke. Her father was agent in Boston 
for the East India Company, to whom 
the tea thrown overboard in Boston har- 
bor by the patriots before the Revolution, 
was consigned. Her mother was a lineal 
descendant of Mary Chilton of the "May- 
flower," 1620, who married John Win- 
slow, brother of the first governor of the 
colony. Her familiar lineaments were 
copied in Copley's works, notably in "The 
Nativity" ; "The Family Picture" ; "Venus 
and Cupid," and the "Death of Major 
Pierson." Mr. Copley died in London, 
England, September 9, 1815. His eldest 
child, Elizabeth Clarke, born in Boston in 
1770, was educated in England, became 
her father's reader and companion, and 
in 1800 was married to Gardiner Greene, 
of Boston, and died in that city in 1866 
at the age of ninety-six. The third child, 
Susannah, died in 1785 when nine years 
old. of scarlet fever, and the fourth, Jona- 
than, died the same year, an infant, while 
Alay. the youngest child, lived unmar- 
ried, attaining the age of ninety-five 
years, dying at Hampton Court Palace, 
April 22), 1868. 

John Singleton Copley Jr., the second 
child of John Singleton Copley, R. A., 
was born on Beacon Hill, Boston, May 
21. 1772. He was educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, England, and visit- 
ed P>oston in 1796, where he failed to 
obtain a settlement of his father's affairs, 
resulting from a sale by the agent of his 
estate on Beacon Hill, after his father's 
departure for Italy. He visited Mount 
Vernon, was a guest of General Wash- 
ington, and became enamored of Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Bishop W'hite, of Phila- 
delphia, whom he wished to marry, but 
the bishop would not allow his daughter 
to make her home in England. He trav- 
eled on horseback through the wilderness 
of the Middle States and expressed a 
wi^-'h to settle in his native land. He re- 



turned to England, however, in 1798, 
where he became a lawyer in 1804 and 
entered political life as a Tory member 
of parliament in 1818. He became Lord 
Chancellor in 1827 and was raised to the 
peerage as Baron Lyndhurst, of Lynd- 
hurst, April 27, 1827. He was twice 
married, but left no male issue and the 
title lapsed with his death, which occurred 
at Tunbridge Wells, England, October 
12, 1863, he having reached the age of 
ninety-one years and nearly six months. 

DERBY, Elias Hasket, 

Ship Owner and Foreign Trader. 

Elias Hasket Derby was born in Sa- 
lem, Massachusetts, August 16. 1737, son 
of Captain Richard Derby ( 1712-83); 
and great-grandson of Roger Derby, who 
acquired wealth through trading in all 
parts of the world and whose business 
descended to his sons and grandsons. 

Elias H. Derby greatly increased the 
foreign trade of the Derby firm, and at 
the outbreak of the Revolutionary War 
owned seven large vessels and had ac- 
cumulated a fortune of $50,000, a very 
large sum for that day. He rendered effi- 
cient service in equipping the first colo- 
nial navy of one hundred and thirty-eight 
armed vessels against British commerce 
on the high seas, and gradually converted 
the majority of his vessels into letters-of- 
marque. He also established shipyards, 
and built for the colonies their largest 
ships, fully able to cope with the ordinary 
British sloop-of-war. After the war he 
greatly extended the trade of his house — 
to Russia in 1784, to China in 1788, also 
carrying on a large East Indian trade 
from 1788 to 1799, sending thirty-seven 
different vessels on one hundred and 
twenty-five voyages, and increasing his 
property five-fold. His vessels were the 
first to float the Stars and Stripes in the 
harbor of Calcutta, and were the first 

American vessels seen at the Cape of Good 
Hope and the Isle of France, and to carry 
cargoes of cotton from Bombay to China. 
He subscribed for $10,000 of the $74,700 
of six per cent, stock issued at his sug- 
gestion to build for the United States ser- 
vice vessels for the new navy organized 
in 1798, and he built at his yard the fam- 
ous frigate "Essex," which upon being 
comjnissioned was placed in command of 
his nephew, Richard Derby. He built a 
palatial residence in Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and is said to have acquired the 
largest fortune accumulated in America 
during the eighteenth century, and to 
have advanced the interests of American 
shipping and the extension of commerce 
to a greater degree than any other man of 
his time. He died in Salem, Massachu- 
setts, September 8, 1799. 

COBB, David, 

Revolutionary Soldier, Liegislator, Jurist. 

David Cobb was born in Attleboro, 
Massachusetts, September 14, 1748, son 
of Thomas and Lydia (Leonard) Cobb; 
grandson of ^Morgan and Esther (Hodges) 
Cobb ; and great-grandson of Austen 
Cobb, of Taunton, Massachusetts, who 
received a deed of his farm there in 1679. 

David Cobb was graduated from Har- 
vard College in 1766, studied medicine, 
and practiced his profession at Taunton, 
Massachusetts. He was secretary of the 
Bristol County Convention of 1774. and 
delegate to the Provincial Congress at 
Concord, 1775. He entered the Conti- 
nental army as lieutenant-colonel of 
Jackson's regiment, and served in New 
Jersey and Rhode Island, 1777-78. He 
was on the staff of General Washington 
as aide-de-camp with the rank of colo- 
nel, entertained the French officers, nego- 
tiated with the British commander for the 
evacuation of New York, and received 
the brevet of brigadier-general in 1783. 



On returning home in 1786 he was made 
major-general of State militia, and ren- 
dered conspicuous service during Shay's 
rebellion. He was judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas of Bristol county, Massa- 
chusetts, 1784-96; speaker of the lower 
house of the Massachusetts Legislature, 
1789-93, and a representative in the Third 
United States Congress, 1793-95. In 1796 
he removed to Gouldsboro, Maine, repre- 
sented the east district of Maine in the 
Massachusetts Senate, and was president 
of that body in 1801-05. ^^ '^^'^s a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Council, 1808- 
10 and 1812-18; Lieutenant-Governor, 
1809; member of the military defence, 
1812; and Chief Justice of the Hancock 
county (Maine) Court of Common Pleas, 
1803-09. In 1817 he returned to Taun- 
ton, Massachusetts. 

He was a fellow of the American Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences, and received 
the degree of Master of Arts from Llar- 
vard College in 1769, from the College of 
New Jersey in 1783, and from Brown 
University in 1790. He died in Taunton, 
Massachusets, April 17, 1830. 

TALBOT, Silas, 

Naval Officer. 

Silas Talbot was born in Dighton, 
Bristol county, Massachusetts, in 1751, 
son of Benjamin Talbot, a prosperous 
farmer of Bristol county, and his wife, 
Zififorah Allen, who died in 1763. 

Silas Talbot went to sea as a boy, on 
coasting vessels, and in young manhood 
became a merchant in Providence, Rhode 
Island. He joined the Continental army 
as a lieutenant, was commissioned cap- 
tain, June 28, 1775, and took part in the 
siege of Boston, and accompanied the 
troops to New York. He proposed an 
attack on the British fleet in the North 
river, by means of a fire ship, and ascend- 
ing the Hudson river in a ship filled with 

combustibles, made a night attack, suc- 
ceeding in partly destroying the British 
ship "Asia," after which, although se- 
verely burned, he escaped to the Jersey 
shore. On October 10, 1777, Congress 
tendered him a vote of thanks and pro- 
moted him to the rank of major. He took 
part in the defence of Mud Island, in the 
Delaware river, and was badly wounded, 
and on his return to duty joined the army 
under Sullivan, participating in the battle 
of Rhode Island, in August, 1778. 

His naval career began October 29, 
1778, when, in command of a small sloop 
with two guns and sixty men, he planned 
and executed the capture of the British 
ship "Pigot," of two hundred tons, 
anchored off Newport, for which Con- 
gress awarded him a vote of thanks and 
promoted him to lieutenant-colonel. In 
command of the "Pigot" and "Argo" he 
was detailed to guard the coast from 
Long Island to Nantucket. He captured 
the British schooner "Lively;" two let- 
ters-of-marque brigs from the West In- 
dies ; the privateer "King George ;" the 
sloop "Adventure," and the brig "Elliot," 
and later captured the "Dragon," a large 
armed vessel, after a severe battle of four 
hours. He was commissioned captain and 
assigned to the command of the privateer 
"George Washington," and, falling in 
with a British fleet, was captured, and 
confined in the prison ship "Jersey," and 
and in the "Old Sugar House," New 
York City. In November, 1780, he was 
taken to England on the "Yarmouth," 
being kept in close confinement and suf- 
fering great cruelties. He was finally ex- 
changed in 1781, and was sent to Cher- 
bourg, France, where he sailed for Amer- 
ica in a French brig. This brig was cap- 
tured by the British privateer "Jupiter," 
but Captain Talbot was transferred to an 
English brig and taken to New York. 
He removed to Philadelphia and later to 
New York, and was a representative 



from that State in the Third Cong-ress, 
1793-95. Upon the reorganization of the 
United States navy, he was commis- 
sioned captain, May 11, 1789, and com- 
manded a squadron in the West Indies 
during the war with France. He planned 
the expedition under Lieutenant Isaac 
Hull, to cut out the French privateer 
"Sandwich," at Port Platte, Santo Do- 
mingo. He resigned his commission Sep- 
tember 21, 1801. 

He was twice married; (first) in 1772, 
to Anna, daughter of Colonel Barzillai 
Richmond ; and (second) to Rebecca, 
daughter of Morris Morris, and grand- 
daughter of Governor Mifflin. He died in 
New York City, June 30, 1813, and was 
buried in Trinity churchyard, New York 

CLAPP, Asa, 

Distinguislied Merchant, Legislator. 

Asa Clapp was born in Mansfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, March 15, 1762, son of Abiel 
Clapp ; grandson of Samuel and Bethiah 
(Dean) Clapp; great-grandson of Thomas 
and Mary (Fisher) Clapp, and great- 
great-grandson of Thomas and Abigail 

When very young he volunteered to 
serve as substitute for one who had been 
drafted for the expedition for expulsion 
of the British troops from Rhode Island, 
was appointed a non-commissioned offi- 
cer, and remained in the service until hon- 
orably discharged. He then proceeded 
to Boston, shipped on a vessel, and soon 
obtained command. He passed several 
years at sea, and in 1793 was captured 
and held in England for six months, when 
he was released and indemnified for his 
loss. In 1798 he became a merchant in 
Portland, Maine, where he accumulated a 
large fortune in foreign and domestic 

In 1807, when Congress laid an em- 

bargo on the shipping in the United 
States, Mr. Clapp firmly supported the 
government, although it was greatly to 
his financial disadvantage. He was chosen 
a member of the Massachusetts Council 
in 181 1. In 1812, when an embargo was 
again laid, and a few months later war 
was declared, Mr. Clapp again gave the 
government his support, and voluntarily 
subscribed nearly one-half of the whole 
amount of his property to the loan to sus- 
tain the national credit. In 1816 he was 
appointed by President Madison one of 
the commissioners to obtain subscriptions 
to the capital stock of the Bank of the 
United States, to which corporation he 
was the largest subscriber in Maine. He 
was elected a delegate to the convention 
held in 1819 for the purpose of forming 
the Maine constitution, and he was re- 
peatedly chosen a representative in the 
State Legislature. 

He was married to Eliza Wendall, 
daughter of Dr. Jacob Quincy, of Boston, 
Massachusetts. His death occurred in 
Portland, Maine, April 17, 1848. 

CROSBY, Enoch, 

Hero of Cooper's "The Spy." 

Enoch Crosby was born in Hardwich, 
Massachusetts, January 4, 1753, son of 
Thomas and Elizabeth Crosby. In 1753 
his parents removed to Carmel, New 
York, and in 1771, after serving an ap- 
prenticeship, Enoch Crosby went to Dan- 
bury, where he worked at his trade as 

He joined the Continental army in 
1775, serving in the Lake Champlain 
campaign for several months. He was 
sent home ill. and on his recovery in Sep- 
tember, 1776, he started on foot to return 
to the American camp at White Plains, 
New York. On his way he met a stranger 
who mistook him for a fellow Tory, and, 
by keeping up the deception, Crosby dis- 



covered a plot among a band of Tories 
against the Patriots. Proceeding to White 
Plains, he divulged his information to 
John Jay, then a member of the commit- 
tee of safety. A body of cavalry was at 
once despatched under Crosby's leader- 
ship, and the whole company of loyalists 
was seized and imprisoned. Jay then sug- 
gested that Crosby could best aid the 
cause by becoming a spy, to which he 
consented. He took his kit of tools and 
went from house to house repairing shoes 
and gaining much useful information. 
He afterward joined the British army, in 
which he rendered invaluable assistance 
to the Americans, risking his life many 
times to accomplish his purpose. After 
the Revolution he purchased a farm in 
Carmel, New York, and resided there 
until his death. In 1794, at the request of 
John Jay, an appropriation was granted 
for his services, but he declined it, say- 
ing that "it was not for gold" that he had 
served his country. He was for many 
years a justice of the peace, and was at 
one time an associate judge in the Court 
of Common Pleas. In 1812-13 he was 
supervisor for the township of Southeast. 
In 1827 he visited New York as a witness 
in a law suit, and was recognized by an 
old man who presented him to the court 
as the original of "Harvey Birch" in 
Cooper's romance, "The Spy." At that 
time the dramatization was being per- 
formed at the Lafayette Theatre, and Mr. 
Crosby was invited by the proprietor to 
occupy a box. He was introduced to the 
audience as "the real spy," receiving tre- 
mendous applause. See "The Spy Un- 
masked" (1828) by Captain H. L. Bar- 
num, and an article by H. E. Miller in the 
"New England Magazine" for May, 1898, 
entitled "The Spy of the Neutral Ground." 
He (lied in Brewsters, New York. lune 26, 

RANTOUL, Robert, 

Xiegislator, Reformer. 

Robert Rantoul was born in Salem, 
Massachusetts, November 23, 1778, son 
of Robert and Mary (Preston) Rantoul. 
His father, at the age of sixteen in 1769 
emigrated from Kinrosshire, Scotland, 
where the family had been domiciled 
since 1360, and settled in Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, out of which port he command- 
ed privateers and merchantment for Wil- 
liam Gray and others, and, sailing at the 
age of thirty on a Mediterranean voyage, 
was lost at sea, with all on board, when 
in command of the ship "Iris." 

The son engaged in business on his 
own account as a druggist at Beverly, 
Massachusetts, in 1796. He was a repre- 
sentative in the State Legislature, 1809- 
20; and 1823-33; and State Senator, 1821- 
23. He was a member of the State Con- 
stitutional Conventions of 1820 and 1853, 
and during the W'ar of 1812 he served in 
the militia and coast guard, 1812-15, after 
which he became a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Peace Society. He was an early 
opponent of the habitual use of strong 
drink, and became a life member of the 
Massachusetts Temperance Society in 
1812. Lie also opposed the retention of 
capital punishment. He was an enthusi- 
astic student and writer of local history. 
He was one of the founders of a charity 
school at Beverl}'. which was the first 
Sunday school in America. For fifty con- 
secutive years he filled a number of pa- 
rochial and town offices, writing the yearly 
reports to the town of the poor depart- 
ment, for half a century. 

He was married. June 4, 1801, to Jo- 
annah, daughter of John and Elizabeth 
(Herrick) Lovett, of Beverly, Massachu- 
setts. He died in Beverly, Massachu- 
setts, October 24, 1858. 



CUTLER, Jervis, 

Pioneer of tlie Ohio Company. 

Jervis Cutler was born in Eclgartown, 
Massachusetts. September 19, 1768, sec- 
ond son of Manasseh and Mary (Balch) 
Cutler. He was educated in the village 
school, and entered commercial life under 
Captain David Pearce, of Gloucester, who 
sent him to Europe. 

When nineteen years old he was one 
of the first band of settlers who left Ips- 
wich, Massachusetts, December 3, 1787, 
under the patronage of the Ohio Com- 
pany, to settle the lands on the Muskin- 
gum river, in the Ohio territory. In the 
midst of the pestilence, famine and debt 
which overtook the settlers, he returned 
to New England, reaching home in 1790. 
He returned to Ohio in 1802, and engaged 
in the fur trade on the Miami river, sell- 
ing his furs in Boston. He was elected 
captain of a rifle company in May, 1806. 
and soon after was made major of Colo- 
nel McArthur's regiment of Ohio militia. 
On May 3, 1808, President Jefferson ap- 
pointed him captain in the Seventh 
United States Infantry, with orders to 
open a recruiting office in Cincinnati. 
Ohio. On February 23, 1809, he was or- 
dered to New Orleans, where he was at- 
tached to the command of Major Zebulon 
M. Pike. He was prostrated with yellow 
fever and returned to Massachusetts, 
where he took up engraving on copper. 
In 1812 he published "A Topographical 
Description of the State of Ohio, Indiana 
Territory and Louisiana, with a concise 
account of the Indian tribes west of the 
Mississippi, to which is added the journal 
of Mr. Charles Le Raye while a captive 
with the Sioux nation on the waters of 
the Missouri river." He illustrated the 
book with copper plate engravings, and 
printed about one thous'and copies. His 
work on this book gained for him orders 
for engraving from Boston and Salem 

publishers. In 1814 he made the journey 
to and from Ohio on horseback, and in 
1817 moved his family there in wagons. 
Later he removed to Nashville, Tennes- 
see, where he engraved plates for bank- 
notes, and illustrated "Tannehill's Ma- 
sonic Manual." In 1841 he removed to 
Evansville, Indiana, and died there, June 
25, 1844. 

He was married (first) in 1794, to Phil- 
adelphia, daughter of Captain Benjamin 
Corgill. She died October 6, 1820. He 
married (second) in 1824, Mrs. Elizabeth 
S. Chandler, of Evansville, Indiana. 

JARVIS, William, 


William Jarvis was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 4, 1770, the only 
son of Dr. Charles Jarvis, and grandson 
of Colonel Leonard and Sarah (Church) 

He was educated in Latin schools in 
Boston, at Bordentown (New Jersey) 
Academy, 1784-85, and was instructed in 
mathematics b}^ William Waring, of 
Philadelphia. 1785-86. In 1786 he engag- 
ed in a mercantile business in Norfolk, 
Virginia, and in 1791 in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. This venture failing in 1796, 
he went to Corunna as supercargo, and 
after two voyages he had mastered the 
science of navigation and was able to buy 
a third interest in the brig, "Mary." Al- 
though of limited nautical experience, he 
was given full charge of the vessel by the 
other owners, and after navigating the 
brig for four years, and also trading on 
his own account, he retired from the sea 
in 1802 with a considerable fortune, 
which enabled him to liquidate his obliga- 
tions made by endorsing commercial 
paper that caused his failure in i^g6. On 
February 4. 1802, he was appointed by 
President Jefferson as Charge d'Affaires 
and Consul General at Lisbon, the court 



of Portug-al, and established a reputation 
as diplomatist by his dexterous manage- 
ment of the difficult negotiations with the 
Portugese government ; with the com- 
mander of the French forces at Lisbon, 
1807-08, and with the British govern- 
ment. The revolution released large 
flocks of merino sheep formerly held by 
the grandees, and in 1809 Mr. Jarvis took 
advantage of the opportunity afforded 
him to purchase two hundred of the royal 
Escurial flock and ship them to the 
United States, where he distributed them 
among the public men of the various 
States. These sheep, with the exception 
of one hundred sent by the former United 
States Minister, Colonel David Humph- 
reys, to the United States on his leaving 
Lisbon in 1802, were the first of the breed 
introduced into the United States. He 
subsequently increased his exportation of 
merinos by purchasing seventeen hundred 
of the Aguirres flock and fourteen hun- 
dred Paulars. Consul Jarvis returned to 
the United States in 1810 with his fam- 
ily, reaching Boston in November. He 
then reported at Washington, where he 
dined with President Madison, and, when 
asked to receive compensation for his 
eight years' service, refused, on the 
ground that his country needed its funds 
to prosecute a war with Great Britain. In 
1812 he purchased a tract of land in 
Weathersfield, Vermont, where he made 
his home and engaged in agriculture. He 
was in Lisbon fourteen months on busi- 
ness, 1813-14, during the war of 1812, re- 
turning home in January, 181 5. He sup- 
ported Henry Clay for the Presidency in 
1824. 1832 and 1844; William Henry Har- 
rison in 1836 and 1840; and General Za- 
chary Taylor in 1848. He was married 
in 1808 to Mary Pepperell, daughter of 
Nathaniel and Elizabeth (Bartlett) 
S])arkill, of Boston, Massachusetts, the 
ceremony having been performed in Por- 
tugal, first by the United States Consul 

at St. Lucor, secondly, by a Roman Cath- 
olic priest, and thirdly by a Protestant 
clergyman in Lisbon. Mrs. Jarvis died 
at Haverhill, Massachusetts, April 7, 
181 1. His second marriage occurred in 
May, 181 7, to Ann Bailey, daughter of the 
Hon. Bailey and Peggy Leonard (White) 
Bartlett, of Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
Consul Jarvis died at Weathersfield, Ver- 
mont, October 21, 1859. 

TUDOR, William, 

Legislator, Diplomatist. 

William Tudor was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 28, 1779, son of 
Colonel William and Delia (Jarvis) Tu- 
dor, grandson of John and Jane (Varney) 
Tudor, and of Elias and Deliverance (At- 
kins) Jarvis, and great-grandson of Wil- 
liam Tudor, whose wife (probably Mary) 
brought their son John from England to 
Boston, 1714-15. Colonel William Tudor 
( 1 750-1819), graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege, A. B., 1769, and received the Mas- 
ter's degree in 1772. He was appointed 
Judge Advocate General, with the rank 
of colonel, serving on Washington's staff, 
1775-78. After the return of peace, he sat 
in both houses of the Massachusetts Leg- 
islature, was Secretary of State, 1809-10, 
and clerk of the Supreme Court, 1811-19. 
He was the author of various addresses, 
including "The Boston Massacre" ; and 
his memoir was published by the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, of which he 
was one of the founders. His wife, Delia 
Jarvis, was a Tory, and wrote the me- 
morial verses on the battle of Bunker Hill, 
published in "The National Intelligen- 
cer," June 24, 1843, on the occasion of the 
completion of the monument at Charles- 
town, Massachusetts. 

Their son, William Tudor, attended 
Phillips Andover Academy, then enter- 
ing Harvard College, from which he grad- 
uated A. B. in 1796, and receiving the 



Master's degree three years later. He 
was soon after sent by John Codman on 
a business commission to Paris, France, 
and after his return to Boston, soon again 
revisited Europe for study and recre- 
ation. He was one of the founders of the 
Anthology Club in 1805, and of its suc- 
cessor, the Boston Athenaeum, in 1807. 
In the fall of 1805 he went to the West 
Indies with James Savage, in connection 
with his brother Frederic's ice-trade busi- 
ness, and in 1807 went to France for the 
same purpose. In December, 1814, he 
originated the "North American Review," 
its initial number appearing in May, 1815, 
and was the first editor of that periodical. 
He was subsequently a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature ; United States 
Consul at Lima, Peru, 1823-27; and 
Charge d'Afifaires at Rio Janeiro, 1827- 
30. He was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, and one of the 
founders of the Bunker Hill Monument. 
He was author of "Letters on the Eastern 
States" (1820) ; "Miscellanies," selected 
from his contributions to the "North 
American Review" and the "Monthly 
Anthology" (1821) ; "Life of James Otis, 
of Massachusetts" (1823) ; "Gebel Teir," 
a political allegory (1829) ; and several 
addresses, including his Fourth of July 
oration in Boston in 1809. He died of 
yellow fever, in Rio Janeiro, March 9, 
1830, while occupying his official station 

MILLER, William, 

Fatter of tlie Millerite Sect. 

This remarkable man, founder of a 
remarkable religious sect, was born at 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts, February 15, 
1782, son of Captain William and Paulina 
(Phelps) Miller; grandson of William 
and Hannah (Leonard) Miller and of the 
Rev. Elnathan Phelps, a Baptist minister. 
His grandfather removed from West 

Springfield, Massachusetts, and settled on 
a farm in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, about 
1747, and his father served in the Revo- 
lution and removed to Low Hampton, 
New York. 

William Miller was employed on the 
farm in New York, and his education was 
acquired chiefly through reading books 
which he procured with money earned 
by chopping wood. He engaged in farm- 
ing in Poultney, Vermont. He served as 
sheriff in 1809-10, and commanded a com- 
pany of volunteers sent in 1812 to Burl- 
ington, where he was transferred to the 
United States army. He fought in the 
battle of Plattsburgh, September ii, 
1814, was promoted to captain, and re- 
signed from the army June 25, 181 5. Dur- 
ing his residence in Poultney he became 
interested in the writings of Voltaire, 
Hume, Paine, Ethan Alien and others, 
and professed to be a deist, but was con- 
verted and joined the Baptist church at 
Low Hampton, to which place he remov- 
ed in 1816. In 1818, at the close of two 
years' study of the Bible, he announced 
his conviction that in twenty-five years 
(1843 by Jewish time, or 1844, Roman) 
Jesus Christ would appear in person to 
judge the world, and in 1831 he entered 
upon his self-imposed mission as a 
preacher on the topic of the second advent 
of Christ. He had been licensed to preach 
by the Baptist church at Low Hampton, 
but was never ordained. He spoke in 
Vermont and New York in the pulpits of 
nearly all denominations, the Episcopal 
and Roman Catholic alone excluding him. 
People flocked to hear him, and many 
were converted to his views. In 1839 he 
delivered his first course of lectures in 
Massachusetts. On March 14, 1844, he 
announced the second coming of Christ 
to be at hand. In October, 1844, after 
seven months' waiting, work was sus- 
pended by the Millerites, and all repaired 
to their tabernacles, where they waited 



until the end of November, when they 
dispersed and affiliated with various 
sects. "Father" Miller continued to hold 
together fifty thousand disciples, and in 
April, 1845. a declaration of faith was 
agreed upon, and the name "Adven- 
tist" adopted, which sect under various 
names increased steadily. In 1840 he 
aided in establishing "The Signs of the 
Times and Exposition of Prophecy," pub- 
lished in Boston, which afterward be- 
came the "Advent Herald." He publish- 
ed many sermons and lectures, and his 
"Dream of the Last Day" was widely cir- 
culated. See biographies by Sylvester 
Bliss, James White and Joshua V. Himes. 
He was married, June 29, 1803, to Lucy 
Smith, of Poultney, Vermont. He died 
at Low Hampton, New York, December 
20. 1849. 

COGSWELL, Joseph Green, 

Educationist, Librarian. 

Joseph Green Cogswell was born in 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, September 27, 
1786, son of Francis and Anstice (Man- 
ning) Cogswell, and a descendant of John 
Cogswell, who immigrated to America 
from England in 1635. 

He was fitted for college at Phillips 
Academy. Exeter, and was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1806 receiving his A. 
B. degree in 1807 and an honorary A. B. 
from Yale the same year. He made a 
voyage to India as supercargo, and then 
practiced law in Belfast, Maine. He was 
a tutor at Harvard College, 1814-15. He 
studied at the University of Gottingen, 
1816-17. and investigated educational 
methods and bibliography in the Euro- 
pean capitals, 1818-19. He was Professor 
of Mineralogy and Geology and college 
librarian at Harvard College. 1821-23, ^"^1 
during his professorship greatly enrich- 
ed the college with gifts of rare mineral 
and botanical specimens. In 1823, with 

George Bancroft, he established the 
Round Hill School, at Northampton, Mas- 
sachusetts, with which he continued until 
1836, when he took charge of a like in- 
stitution in Raleigh, North Carolina. 
However, he soon left the south to as- 
sume the editorship of the "New York 
Review," which he conducted until 1842, 
when its publication ceased. 

In New York he made the acquaintance 
of John Jacob Astor, and, with Washing- 
ton Irving and Fitz Green Halleck. ar- 
ranged the plan of the Astor Library, 
being appointed a trustee of the library 
fund. Washington Irving secured for 
him the appointment of Secretary of Le- 
gation to Madrid, Spain, in 1842, but Mr. 
Astor prevented his acceptance by ap- 
pointing him superintendent of the pro- 
posed library, and he went abroad after 
Mr. Astor's death in 1848 and selected a 
large number of the books for its shelves. 
He prepared an alphabetical and analyt- 
ical catalogue of the books in the library 
which was published in eight large 
volumes, and he gave to the library his 
own valuable series of bibliographical 
works. He retired from the superintend- 
ency in 1861. on account of his advanced 
age, and in 1864 took up his residence 
in Cambridge. Massachusetts, resigning 
his office as trustee of the library. He 
left, of his moderate fortune, $4,000 to a 
school in Ipswich, and was buried there, 
his Round Hill pupils erecting over his 
grave a handsome monument. He receiv- 
ed the degree of A. M. from Harvard in 
1814; that of Ph. D. from Gottingen in 
1819. and that of LL. D. from Trinity 
College (Connecticut) in 1842. and from 
Harvard College in 1863. He was a fel- 
low of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences of Boston. See "Life of Jo- 
seph Green Cogswell, as Sketched in His 
Letters." a memorial volume, by Anna E. 
Ticknor (1874). He died in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, November 26, 1871. 



COGSWELL, Jonathan, 

Clergyman, Author, Philanthropist. 

Jonathan Cogswell was born in Rowley, 
Massachusetts, September 3, 1782, son of 
Dr. Nathaniel Cogswell and a direct de- 
scendant of John Cogswell, of Bristol, 
England, who settled in Ipswich, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1635. 

Jonathan Cogswell was graduated at 
Harvard College, A. B., in 1806, and re- 
ceived the A. M. degree in 1809. He pur- 
sued theological studies with a tutor at 
Bowdoin College in 1807-09, and com- 
pleted his course at Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1810. He was settled over 
the Congregational Church at Saco, 
Maine, in 1810, and served until 1828, 
when he resigned, having saved about one 
thousand dollars which he intended to 
use in securing a home, his health pre- 
venting his further pastoral work. An 
eloquent appeal made in his church for 
aid for foreign missions, determined him 
to contribute his savings to that cause, 
and the next year he took charge of the 
New Britain Church at Berlin, Connecti- 
cut, where he ministered for five years. 
The death of his brother Nathan in 1832 
gave to his family a large estate, and he 
was made trustee for the heirs. In 1834 
he was made Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History in the Theological Institute at 
East Windsor, Connecticut, and to this 
institution he gave his services for ten 
years, together with large sums of money 
and the greater part of his large library. 
In 1844 he removed to New Brunswick, 
New Jersey, where he joined Dr. Jane- 
way and Mr. Ford in building the Sec- 
ond Presbyterian Church and parsonage, 
personally bearing a large portion of the 
expense. He was an early member of the 
New York Historical Society, a life direc- 
tor of the American Bible Society, a life 
member of the American Tract Society, 
and a liberal contributor to these and 

other charitable organizations. He found- 
ed scholarships in the College of New 
Jersey and in Rutgers College. 

He received the degree of A. M. from 
Bowdoin College in 1815, and that of D. 
D. from the University of the City of 
New York in 1836. He published ser- 
mons ; a treatise on the necessity of capi- 
tal punishment; "Hebrew Theocracy" 
(1848); "Calvary and Sinai" (1852); 
"Godliness a Great Mystery" (1857) ; and 
"The Appropriate Work of the Holy 
Spirit" (1859). See "The Cogswells in 
America" (1884) by E. O. Jameson. He 
died in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Au- 
gust I, 1864. 

TAPPAN, Arthur, 

Educationist, Reformer. 

Arthur Tappan was born in North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, May 22., 1786, 
son of Benjamin (1747-1831) and Sarah 
(Homes) (1748-1826) Tappan; grandson 
of the Rev. Benjamin (1720-1790) and 
Elizabeth (Marsh) Toppan, and of the 
Rev. William Homes, of Martha's Vine- 
yard, Massachusetts, whose father, Rob- 
ert, married Mary, sister of Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin ; great-grandson of Samuel and 
Abigail (Wigglesworth) Tappan, and 
great-great-grandson of Abraham and 
Susanna (Taylor) Toppan, who emigrat- 
ed to America from Yarmouth, England, 
May ID, 1637, and settled in Essex county, 
Massachusetts. His father was a gold 
and silversmith in Northampton for 
twenty years, when he relinquished it to 
engage in the drygoods business. 

Arthur Tappan attended the common 
schools of Northampton, and later was 
apprenticed to a wholesale importing 
merchant in Boston in 1801. In 1806 his 
employers set him up in the drygoods 
importing business in Portland, Maine, 
his partner being Henry D. Sewall, son of 
Chief-Justice Sewall. In 1808 they re- 

MASS— 14 



moved the business to Montreal, Canada. 
He was married in September, 1810, to 
Frances, daughter of Colonel Edward 
Antill of the Continental army, and em- 
barked for England to purchase goods. 
On the outbreak of the war of 181 2, Tap- 
pan and Sewall refused to take the oath 
of allegiance, and were obliged to leave 
the province at a great financial sacrifice. 
In 1815 Arthur Tappan engaged in the 
importing business in New York City, the 
firm being Arthur Tappan & Company, 
]jut in 1816 the country was so flooded 
with importations that he began a job- 
bing business, Avhich he conducted with 
great success. 

Mr. Tappan was elected chairman of 
the American Education Society of New 
York in 1807 and was its president, 1831- 
33. He was associated with his brother 
Lewis in the founding of the "Journal of 
Commerce," September i, 1827, and was 
one of the founders of the American 
Tract Society in 1828. Pie opposed slav- 
ery, and in 1830 paid the fine and costs 
necessary to liberate William Lloyd Gar- 
rison, who was confined in jail at Balti- 
more. He supported the publication of 
"The Liberator," and aided in the estab- 
lishment of "The Emancipator" in New 
York City, in March, 1833. He was one 
of the founders of the New England Anti- 
Slavery Society at Boston, and was chos- 
en first president of the New York City 
Anti-Slavery Society, October 3, 1833. 
He was president of the American Anti- 
Slavery Society, and donated $1,000 a 
month for its maintenance, but in 1840 
he resigned on account of the offensive 
attitude of several of its members toward 
the church and the Union. He subscrib- 
ed $15,000 to Lane Theological Semi- 
nary, and was instrumental in securing 
Dr. Lyman Beecher as first president of 
the institution in 1832, but he failed be- 
fore his payment became due, and his 

brother John and other relations paid the 
amount. When he heard of the act of 
the trustees prohibiting anti-slavery dis- 
cussion in the institution, he presented 
the dissenting students with $1,000 which 
enabled them in 1835 to repair to Oberlin 
Seminary, Ohio, where more liberal ideas 
prevailed. He gave to Oberlin College a 
professorship and "Tappan Hall," on con- 
dition that it should be conducted on anti- 
slavery principles. On December 16, 
1835, his store was destroyed by fire, and 
was immediately rebuilt, but in May, 
1837, owing to the financial panic, the 
firm was obliged to suspend operations. 
In 1849 h^ purchased a moiety of the es- 
tablishment known as the Mercantile 
zA.gency, with which he was connected 
until 1854, and resided at Belleville, New 
Jersey, but in 1854 removed to New 
Plaven, Connecticut, where he died, July 
23, 1865. 


liav/yer. Journalist, Cabinet Officer. 

Amos Kendall was born in Dunstable, 
Massachusetts, August 16, 1787' son of 
Zebedee Kendall, grandson of John Ken- 
dall, great-grandson of Jacob Kendall, 
great-great-grandson of Jacob Kendall, 
and great-great-great-grandson of Fran- 
cis Kendall, the progenitor of the family 
in America, who emigrated from Eng- 
land about 1640, and settled in Woburn, 

Amos Kendall spent his boyhood on his 
father's farm, and attended the academy 
at New Ipswich in 1805-06. He served 
as a teacher in the public schools at 
Reading and Dunstable, Massachusetts. 
He prepared for college at Groton Acad- 
emy, Massachusetts, under Caleb Butler- 
and was graduated with honors from 
Dartmouth College in 181 1. He studied 
law in the office of William M. Richard- 



son, in Groton, Massachusetts, from 1811 
to 1814, when he removed to Washing- 
ton, D. C. Soon afterward he went to 
Kentucky, where he was a tutor in the 
family of Henry Clay for three years. 
He was admitted to the bar at Frankfort, 
Kentucky, October 17, 1814, and removed 
the following year to Georgetown, Ken- 
tucky, where he was appointed postmas- 
ter, and also became editor of the George- 
town "Patriot," which he conducted for 
two years. He was part owner and co- 
editor of the "Argus of Western Amer- 
ica," at Frankfort, Kentucky, from 1816 
to 1829. He supported the Democratic 
party, and secured the passage by the 
legislature of an act to appropriate fines 
and forfeitures to the purpose of promot- 
ing education. He was appointed Fourth 
Auditor of the United States Treasury 
by President Jackson in March, 1829, and 
removed to W^ashington, D. C. He aided 
in forming the anti-bank policy ; was ap- 
pointed special treasury agent to nego- 
tiate the State Bank, and was instrumen- 
tal in having the "Globe" newspaper 
supersede the "Telegraph" as the official 
organ of the administration. He was ap- 
pointed Postmaster-General by President 
Jackson in June, 1835, was retained in 
that position by President Van Buren. 
and resigned May 9, 1840. on account of 
ill health. During his term of office he 
introduced many reforms in the Post- 
office Department, freed it from debt, and 
urged the enactment of a law forbidding 
the passage through the mail of any mat- 
ter touching upon the subject of slavery. 
In carrying out his plans of postoffice 
reform he incurred the enmity of certain 
powerful naval contractors, and for sev- 
eral years was embarrassed by a suit that 
was brought against him for alleged hold- 
ing back of moneys belonging to them. 
This suit he defended at his own expense, 
and it was finally decided in his favor. 

He established "Kendall's Expositor" in 
1841, and the "Union Democrat" in 1842, 
both of v/hich were soon discontinued. 
He was offered a foreign mission by 
President Polk, but declined the appoint- 
ment. He was associated with Samuel F. 
B. Morse in the ownership and manage- 
ment of the Morse telegraph patents, 
1845-60, the success of which brought 
him a fortune. The remainder of his life 
he spent in Washington, D. C, and at his 
country home, "Kendall Green," near that 

Mr. Kendall gave $100,000 toward the 
erection of Calvary Baptist Church at 
Washington, D. C, in 1864, and after its 
destruction by fire in 1867 contributed 
largely toward rebuilding it. He was the 
founder and first president of the Colum- 
bian Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 
and contributed $20,000 toward its sup- 
port. He also gave $25,000 to two mis- 
sion schools in Washington, D. C. He 
published in the Washington "Evening 
Star" a series of protests against the se- 
cession of the Southern States in i860, 
and on April 17th, 1861, placed his two 
houses and grounds at Washington at 
the disposal of the government for the 
quartering of troops in case they should 
be needed, retiring to Trenton, New Jer- 
sey, in order that the premises could be 
so occupied. He traveled in Europe in the 
years 1866-67. Fie was a trustee of the 
corporation of the Columbian Univer- 
sity, Washington, D. C, 1865-69, and 
president of the board of trustees, 1867- 
69. He was the author of an incomplete 
"Life of Andrew Jackson" (1843) and a 
pamphlet entitled "Full Exposure of Dr. 
Charles T. Jackson's Pretensions to the 
Invention of the Electro-Magnetic Tele- 
graph" (1867). See his autobiography, 
edited by his son-in-law. William Stick- 
ney (1872). 

He was married (first) in October, 



1818, to Mary B. Woolfolk, of Jefferson 
county, Kentucky, who died October 13, 
1823 ; married (second) January 5, 1826, 
to Jane Kyle, of Georgetown, Kentucky. 
He died in Washington, D. C, November 
12, 1869. 

JUDSON, Adoniram, 

Noted Missionary. 

Adoniram Judson was born in Maiden, 
Massachusetts, August 9, 1788, son of 
the Rev. Adoniram and Abigail (Brown) 
Judson. His father was a Congregational 

He entered the sophomore class of 
Brown University in 1804 and was grad- 
uated as the valedictorian in 1807. He 
was at this time sceptical in matters per- 
taining to religion, and, intending to enter 
upon dramatic authorship as his profes- 
sion, in order to familiarize himself with 
the regulations of the stage, he joined a 
theatrical company. The sudden death of 
a classmate under peculiar circumstances 
changed the whole course of his life, and 
caused him to regard religion seriously. 
He taught a private school in Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, 1808-09, and entered the 
Andover Theological Seminary, from 
which he graduated September 24, 1810. 

He consecrated himself to the work of 
foreign missions in February, 1810. and 
found in the seminary kindred spirits 
as earnest and zealous as himself in urg- 
ing upon the Christian churches the 
needs of the heathen. He was licensed 
by the Orange Association of Congrega- 
tional Ministers in Vermont, May 17, 
1810. The American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions was formed 
June 28, 1810, and sent him to England to 
confer with the London Missionary So- 
ciety, to which he offered himself as a 
missionary to Tartary or India, and was 
accepted. He set sail in the ship "Packet," 

January i, 181 1, but was captured by the 
French privateer 'TInvincible Napoleon," 
and imprisoned in Bayonne, France, from 
which place he was soon released, return- 
ing to England and thence to the United 
States. In the meantime the American 
Board had decided to work independently 
of any other organization, and Mr. Jud- 
son was ordained Congregational mis- 
sionary, February 6, 1812. He set sail for 
Calcutta under their patronage from 
Salem, Massachusetts, February 19, 1812, 
with his wife, Ann (Hasseltine) Judson, 
whom he had married, February 5, 1812. 
Reaching Calcutta, India, June 17, 1812, 
he identified himself with the Baptist de- 
nomination, and by this act severed his 
connection with the American Board. 
Burmah had been his destination, but he 
was not well received there, owing to 
England's trouble with that government, 
and he proceeded to the Isle of France, 
where he labored for some months. He 
then ventured into Burmah, and settled 
in Rangoon, July 14, 1813, and proceeded 
at once to master the Burmese language, 
a formidable task. The Baptists of Amer- 
ica formed a missionary union. May 18, 
1 8 14, and took him under its care. After 
a five years' residence in Rangoon, a rayat 
was built and opened with appropriate re- 
ligious services, and as soon as his knowl- 
edge of the language permitted. Dr. Jud- 
son commenced to preach. He baptized 
Mong Nau, the first convert to Chris- 
tianity, June 27, 1819. In 1824, when the 
war between England and Burmah broke 
out, he removed to Ava. The mission- 
aries suffered much during this war, and 
he was cast into prison, where he spent 
two years hourly expecting death. He 
was rescued and returned to Rangoon, 
and then to Amherst, where his first wife 
(lied. October 24, 1826. In 1831 he re- 
moved to Maulmain, and on April 10, 
1834. married (second) Mrs. Sarah Hall 



Boardman, who died in St. Helena, Sep- 
tember I, 1845. He married (thirdj Emily 
Chubbuck, June 2, 1846. 

Mr. Judson went on missionary tours 
all through India, and in his forty years' 
labor converted thousands to the Chris- 
tian faith. Stricken with the fever of the 
country, and a sea voyage being recom- 
mended to him. he sailed for the United 
States on April 8, 1850, and died and was 
buried at sea four days afterward, April 
12. His name was one of the twenty-one 
in "Class E, Missionaries and Explorers," 
submitted as eligible for a place in the 
Hall of Fame. New York University, in 
October. 1900, and received thirty-six 
votes, the largest number given in the 
class, but fifteen less than necessary to 
secure a place. Brown University gave 
him the degree of D. D. in 1823. He pub- 
lished: "Elements of English Grammar" 
(1809) ; "A Dictionary of the Burman 
Language" (translated, 1826) ; "The Holy 
Bible" (translated, 1835, second edition, 
1840) ; "Grammatical Notices of the Bur- 
man Language" (1842) ; "An English and 
Burmese Dictionary, including a Gram- 
mar" (1850). 

EMERSON, V/illiam, 

A Founder of the Boston Athenaeum. 

The Rev. William Emerson was born 
in Concord, Massachusetts. May 6. 1769, 
son of the Rev. William and Phoebe 
(Bliss) Emerson, and descended from 
Thomas Emerson, of Ipswich, England, 
who immigrated to America about 1635. 
His great-great-grandmother, Elizabeth 
Bulkeley Emerson, was a daughter of the 
Rev. Edward Bulkeley, who succeeded his 
father, the Rev. Peter Bulkeley, as pastor 
of the church at Concord, Massachusetts. 
The Rev. William Emerson, father of 
William Emerson, the subject of this re- 
view, was born in 1743, graduated from 


Harvard College in 1761, and became 
pastor of the Concord church, succeeding 
his father-in-law, the Rev. Daniel Bliss, 
whose predecessors, John Whiting and 
Joseph Estabrook. carried the succession 
of pastors back to Rev. Edward Bulkeley. 

William Emerson, our subject, after 
graduating from Harvard College in 1789. 
taught school in Roxbury for about two 
years. He studied theology, and on May 
23, 1792, was ordained to the ministry at 
Harvard, Massachusetts, in 1799 he de- 
livered the Artillery Election sermon in 
Boston, and in October of the same year 
was installed pastor of the First Church 
in that city. He was editor of the "Month- 
ly Anthology" from May, 1804, to Octo- 
ber, 1805. On October 3rd of the latter 
year the Anthology Club was formed, and 
he was chosen as vice-president, and it 
was on his motion that the club estab- 
lished a library of periodical literature, 
and from which grew the Boston Athen- 
aeum. He died in Boston, May 12, 181 1, 
leaving a nearly completed "History of 
the First Church," and which was pub- 
lished after his death, with a number of 
his sermons. 

He was married, October 25, 1796, to 
Ruth Haskins, of Boston. Three of their 
five sons were gifted men. William, the 
eldest, was graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1818, taught school for a time, 
and went to Germany to study theology ; 
becoming skeptical on various essential 
points, he forsook the ministry for the 
law. Edward Bliss Emerson graduated 
from Harvard College in 1824, began the 
study of law with Daniel Webster, but 
died in 1834, in the West Indies, whither 
he had gone on account of ill health. 
Charles Chauncy Emerson graduated 
from Harvard College in 1824, studied 
law with Samuel Hoar, of Concord, prac- 
ticed with success, and died of consump- 
tion, May 9. 1836. 



WAYLAND, Francis, 

Distinguisliecl Etiucator and Author. 

Francis Wayland was born in New 
York City, March ii, 1796, son of Francis 
and Sarah (Moore) Wayland. His pa- 
rents immigrated to America from Eng- 
land in 1792, and in 1805 his father was 
ordained a Baptist minister. 

He attended Dutchess County Acad- 
emy, Poughkeepsie- New York ; was 
graduated from Union College, A. B., 
1813, A. M., 1816; studied medicine in 
Troy, New York, 1814-15, and attended 
the Andover Theological Seminary, 1816- 
17. He was a tutor at Union College, 
181 7-21 ; was pastor of the First Baptist 
Church. Boston, Massachusetts, 1821-26; 
and Professor of Mathematics and Nat- 
ural Philosophy at Union College, 1826- 
27. During his pastorate in Boston he 
had attracted widespread attention by 
two able sermons : "The Moral Dignity 
of the Missionary Enterprise," and "The 
Duties of an American Citizen," delivered 
in 1823 and 1825, respectively. In Feb- 
ruary. 1827. he accepted the presidency 
of Brown University, succeeding Presi- 
dent Asa Messer. who died October 11, 
1826. President Wayland continued in 
office until 1855. when he resigned and 
was succeeded by Barnas Sears. In addi- 
tion to his other duties he lilled the chair 
of Moral Philcjsophy, 1834-55. During 
his administration. Manning Hall and 
Rhode Island Hall were built, and a fund 
of $25,000 was created for the library. 
He was a pioneer among college presi- 
dents in welcoming the modern branches 
of learning, and in adopting a partially 
elective system.. 

President Wayland received from 
Brown University the honorary degree of 
A. M. in 1822 ; from Union College that of 
D. D. in 1827, and from Harvard D. D. 
in 1829 and LL. D. in 1852. He was first 
president of the American Institute of 

Instruction, and a member of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society. He delivered 
the Dudleian lecture at Harvard in 1831, 
and the address at the opening of the 
Providence Athenaeum in 1838, and is 
the author of seventy-two publications, 
among which are : "Occasional Dis- 
courses" (1833) ; "Elements of Modern 
Science" (1835) ; "Elements of Polit- 
ical Economy" (1S37) ; "Moral Law of 
Accumulation" (1837); "The Limitations 
of Human Responsibility" (1838) ; 
"Thoughts on the Present Collegiate Sys- 
tem in the United States" (1842) ; "Do- 
mestic Slavery considered as a Scriptural 
Institution" (1845) ! "Sermons Delivered 
in the Chapel of Brown University" 

(1849) ; "Memoir of Harriet Ware" 

(1850) ; "Memoir of Adoniram Judson" 
(two volumes, 1853) ; "Elements of In- 
tellectual Philosophy" (1854) ; "Notes on 
the Principles and Practices of Baptist 
Churches" (1857); "Memoir of Thomas 
Chalmers, D. D." (1864). A memoir of 
his "Life and Labors" was written bv his 
sons, Francis and Pieman Lincoln (two 
volumes, 1867). He married (first) No- 
vember 2, 1835, Lucy Lane, daughter of 
Heman and Elizabeth Lincoln, of Boston, 
Massachusetts. The children by this 
marriage were : Francis and Heman Lin- 
coln. He married (second) August i, 
1838, Mrs. H. S. Sage, of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, who died October 22, 1872. 
President Wayland died in Providence, 
Rhode Island, September 30, 1865. 

TAPPAN, Lewis, 

Anti-Slavery Leader. 

Lewis Tappan was born in Northamp- 
ton, Massachusetts, May 23, 1788, son of 
Benjamin and Sarah (Homes) Tappan- 
and brother of Arthur Tappan. He en- 
gaged in business as a clerk in a Boston 
drygoods store, becam,e a member of the 
firm of Tappan and Searle, importers, and 



in 1810 visited England to purchase 
goods, joining his brother Arthur, who 
was abroad for a similar purpose. In 
1815 he furnished his brother Arthur with 
the capital necessary to establish ap im- 
porting business in New York City, and in 
1817, the project having failed, he dis- 
solved partnership. In 1828 he removed 
to New York City, and became a mem- 
ber of the firm of Arthur Tappan & Com- 
pany, the partnership continuing until 
1841. They established the "Journal of 
Commerce" as a high-class commercial 
paper in 1827, and in 1831 Arthur Tap- 
pan withdrew and Lewis continued it. 
The proprietors holding that a daily paper 
could not be carried on without desecrat- 
ing the Lord's day, all work on the paper 
was suspended on Sundays. 

Mr. Tappan joined the anti-slavery 
movement, and on July 10, 1834, his house 
was attacked by a mob, who broke open 
the doors and windows, threw the furni- 
ture into the street, and lighted a fire 
which they fed with the beds and bed- 
ding. After the financial crisis of 1837 
he withdrew from the business firm and 
established the first mercantile agency in 
the country. He founded and was presi- 
dent of the American Missionary Asso- 
ciation. He was the author of: "Life 
of Arthur Tappan" (1870). He died in 
Brooklyn, New York, June 21, 1873. 

EGLESTON, Azariah, 

Soldier of tlie Revolution. 

Azariah Egleston was born in Sheffield, 
Massachusetts, February 23, 1757. son of 
Seth and Rachel (Church) Egleston. His 
ancestors came from Exeter, England, in 
1630, and settled in Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, whence they removed to Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, and then back to Mas- 
sachusetts, finally locating at Sheffield. 

With his three brothers, Azariah Egles- 
ton enlisted in the company recruited by 
Captain Noble, and known as "The Flow- 

er of Berkshire-" and served for eight 
months in Colonel John Paterson's regi- 
ment. He re-enlisted for a year, and 
served in Canada, Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey. He served in Colonel Stark's 
command at Trenton, December 25, 
1776, at the capture of the Hessians, and 
was at Princeton, at the capture of three 
regiments of British troops. He re- 
enlisted for the war, at Mount Independ- 
ence, opposite Ticonderoga, and was 
made sergeant, and took part in the battle 
of Bemis' Heights, September 19, 1777, 
and at the surrender of Burgoyne at Sara- 
toga, October 17th following. He was 
promoted to ensign, January i, 1777, and 
served under Washington at Valley 
Forge and in the battle of Monmouth, and 
at the siege of Newport, Rhode Island. 
In 1783 he was promoted to lieutenant, 
and in December, 1783, was sent to West 
Point, New York, as paymaster of the 
First Massachusetts Regiment, where he 
settled his accounts. In 1784 he retired 
to Lenox, Massachusetts. On May 29, 
1787, Governor Hancock commissioned 
him deputy quartermaster-general of 
militia, with the rank of major. He was 
one of the founders of the .Society of the 
Cincinnati, and his name was the twenty- 
second signed to the articles of associa- 
tion. He founded and for years support- 
ed the school which dev<;ioped into the 
Lenox Academy. He was ffie organizer 
of Trinity Episcopal Church at Lenox. 
His home in that town was the rendez- 
vous of army officers and of the leaders 
of the State in art, literature and science. 
He represented his district in the General 
Court of the State from 1796 to 1799; 
was State Senator, 1807-09; and asso- 
ciate justice of the Court of Sessions, 

He married, August 11, 1785, Hannah, 
daughter of General John Paterson. He 
died at Lenox, Massachusetts, January 

12, 1822. 



MANLY, John, 

Naval Officer of the ReTolution. 

John Manly was born in Torquay, Eng- 
land, about 1733. Bred a sailor from his 
boyhood and having emigrated to Amer- 
ica and settled at Marblehead, Massachu- 
setts, he there became master of a mer- 
chant vessel. 

On October 24, 1775, he received a 
naval commission from General Wash- 
ington, and was given command of the 
schooner "Lee," and ordered to cruise in 
Massachusetts Bay, in order to cut off 
supplies for the British army. He kept 
guard over this hazardous station during 
the most tempestuous season, and the 
captures which he made were of the great- 
est importance. The ordnance brig 
"Nancy" fell into his hands, and supplied 
the Continental army with several heavy 
pieces of artillery, of which it was very 
destitute, and this good fortune eventu- 
ally led to the evacuation of Boston, and 
the services of Captain Manly were the 
theme of general eulogy. In December, 
1775, he succeeded in capturing three 
other transports loaded with guns and 
stores, and brought them into port. Dur- 
ing the winter the "Falcon" chased him 
into Gloucester harbor, but without his 
suffering any harm. On April 17, 1776, 
Manly was appointed a captain in the 
Continental navy, and in the following 
August was placed in command of the 
new thirty-two gun frigate "Hancock," 
becoming the second captain in the navy 
in rank. Plis capture of the British war 
vessel "Fox," a twenty-eight gun ship, 
brought him a great deal of credit, but 
she was afterward recaptured by the 
"Flora." On July 8. 1777, the "Hancock" 
and the "Boston" were sailing in com- 
pany when they were attacked by the 
British forty-four gun ship "Rainbow" 
and the brig "Victor." The "Boston" 
escaped, but the "Hancock" was cap- 

tured, and Manly was taken prisoner and 
confined on board the "Rainbow," and at 
Halifax in Mill prison until near the end 
of the war, when he was exchanged. He 
was afterward put in command of the 
privateer "Pomona," when he was again 
captured and taken to Barbadoes, where 
he was for a time imprisoned. He subse- 
quently succeeded in escaping, however, 
and while in command of the privateer 
"Jason" captured two British privateers 
in July, 1779. In September, 1782, he was 
entrusted with the command of the frigate 
"Hague," and sailed for the West Indies. 
A few days after leaving Martinique he 
was attacked by a British seventy-four 
gun ship, and. to escape her, ran his ves- 
sel aground. Three ships-of-the-line 
joined in the fight, and kept up a heavy 
fire on the "Hague," but eventually she 
got away, firing thirteen guns in farewell 
defiance as she escaped. This exploit 
took place after the terms of peace had 
been signed, and thus Captain Manly 
fired the first and last guns of the naval 
operations of the American patriots. On 
his return to Boston a few months after- 
wards. Captain Manly was received with 
great honor, but was subsequently called 
to answer a number of charges made 
against him by his subordinate officers, 
and investigation resulted in his with- 
drawal from the naval service. He died 
in Boston, September 12, 1793. 

PORTER. Rufus, 

Inventor, Editor. 

Rufus Porter was born in West Box- 
ford, Massachusetts, May i, 1792, son of 
Tyler and Abigail (Johnson) Porter, 
grandson of Benjamin and Ruth (Foster) 
Porter, and a descendant of John Porter, 
who emigrated from England, and settled 
in Hingham. Massachusetts, in 1644. 

Rufus Porter made his living as a shoe- 



maker, fifeplayer and house painter from 
1807 until about 181 5. He taught school 
for some time, and in 1820 invented a 
camera-obscura which enabled him to 
produce a portrait in a short time. This 
invention encouraged his nomadic inclin- 
ations, and he supported himself by trav- 
elling throughout the country, making 
portraits, until landscape painting at- 
tracted his attention. This last occupa- 
tion he abandoned in 1840 for journalism, 
and became editor of the "New York 
Mechanic," later published in Boston as 
the "American Mechanic." He began the 
publication of "The Scientific American" 
in New York in 1845, editing it until 1846, 
when he became interested in electrotyp- 
ing. After a few months he devoted him- 
self exclusively to his inventions, which 
include a revolving almanac, a revolving 
rifle, a horse-power flatboat, a cord-mak- 
ing machine, a clock, cornsheller, churn, 
washing machine, signal telegraph, fire 
alarm, flying ship, triphammer, fog 
whistle, engine lathe, balanced valve, 
rotary plough, reaction wind-wheel, port- 
able house, thermo engine and rotary en- 
gine. He died in New Haven Connec- 
ticut, August 13, 1884. 

HOOPER, William, 

Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

William Hooper was born at Boston, 
Massachusetts, June 17, 1742, the son of 
William Hooper, clergyman, who was 
born in Scotland in 1702, and died in 
Boston, April 14, 1767. 

The son early displayed remarkable 
literary ability, and at the age of fifteen 
entered Harvard College, from which he 
was graduated when eighteen. He then 
studied law under James Otis, and upon 
his admission to the bar removed to 
North Carolina, where in 1767 he settled 
at Wilmington, and became at twenty- 
six one of the leading lawyers of the prov- 

ince. In 1770 he took active part with 
the government in the suppression of the 
"Regulators," and insurgent mob. By 
his advice decisive measures were resort- 
ed to, and a battle fought, in which the 
rioters, three thousand in number, were 
defeated by the militia. In 1773 he was 
elected to the General Assembly, and 
took the lead against new laws initiated 
by the British party for the regiilation of 
courts of justice, publishing a series of 
essays under the name of "Hampden," 
which aroused the people to the impor- 
tance of the issues involved, while his 
own private fortune sufifered from the re- 
sult, a suspension of all courts for more 
than a year. In 1774, 1775 and 1776 he 
was a delegate to Congress, in which he 
was chairman of the committee which 
prepared an address to the inhabitants of 
Jamaica ; brought in the resolution that 
the 20th of July, 1775. be observed as a 
day of fasting and humiliation for the 
whole country, and on July 4th, 1776. 
signed the Declaration of Independence. 
In 1777 he resigned his seat in Congress 
to take part in the fortunes of his State 
at home, and with his family was driven 
from his residence near Wilmington. A 
house belonging to him was fired upon 
from a British sloop in Cape Fear river, 
and he was exposed to considerable peril, 
but in all the public measures demanded 
by the exigencies of the times, he bore a 
leading and undaunted part. In 1786 he 
was one of the Federal judges who de- 
cided the controversy between New York 
and Massachusetts, relative to territorial 
rights, and until his death continued to 
hold a distinguished place at the bar and 
in the councils of his State. 

In 1767 he married Anne Clark, of Wil- 
mington, a sister of General Thomas 
Clark, of the United States army, by 
whom he had two sons and one daugh- 
ter. He died in October, 1790. 



MARETT, Philip, 


Philip Marett was born in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, September 25, 1792, son of 
Captain Philip Marett, of the Revolution- 
ary army, and a descendant of French 
Huguenots from Normandy. 

He was educated in the Boston public 
schools, where he was awarded the 
Franklin medal in this twelfth year. He 
was engaged in the foreign shipping trade 
during the greater part of his life. He 
was Vice Consul to Portugal in 1818; 
president of the Boston common council, 
1835; and president of the New England 
Bank, 1837-45. He made an extended 
tour of the Old World in 1845, ^"^1 in 
1852 settled in New Haven, Connecticut. 
In 1867 he drew his own will, leaving his 
entire estate of $650,000 to his wife and 
daughter, and at their death to be dis- 
tributed in benevolent and charitable 
legacies, chiefly in the city of New Haven. 
A clause in the will provided that one- 
tenth part of said estate should be given 
to the city of New Haven in trust, the 
income to be used "for the purchase of 
books for the Young Men's Institute, or 
any public library which may from time 
to time exist in said city." Mr. Marett 
died in 1869, and his widow in 1878, and 
his daughter, Mrs. Ellen M. GifTord, who 
left over $800,000 to charity, in 1889. The 
Young Men's Institute and the New 
Haven Free Pul^lic Library, established 
in expectation of the legacy, now contest- 
ed their respective claims to the income, 
and, the Supreme Court deciding in favor 
of the latter, it became the bene'nciary 
to the income from one-tenth of the es- 
tate, and the library owes its existence to 
this benefaction. The bequests were : 
One-fifth to the New Haven Hospital; 
one-fifth to the New Haven Aged and 
Infirm (not paupers) ; one-fifth to Yale 
University ; one-tenth to Protestant and 

one-tenth to Roman Catholic Orphan asy- 
lums of New Haven ; one-tenth to the 
free library, and one-tenth to the state 
for the relief of imbeciles. The last be- 
quest was declined by the state in 1897, 
and was divided proportionately between 
the other objects named. Air. Marett 
died in New Haven, Connecticut, March 
22, 1869. 

HEWES, George R. T., 

Actor in "Boston Tea Party." 

George Robert Twelves Hewes was 
born at Boston, Massachusetts, August 
25, 1742, son of George and Abigail 
(Sever) Plewes. His father, a native of 
Wrentham, early settled in Boston, where 
he engaged in business as a glue maker, 
tanner, soap boiler and tallow chandler. 

His father having died while he was 
still very young, the son was placed in 
the care of an uncle, who was a farmer at 
Wrentham. His schooling was desultory 
and meagre, and he seems to have shown 
no ability or desire to profit by his oppor- 
tunities. At the age of twelve he was 
apprenticed to a shoemaker; later he 
made several fishing voyages to the 
Banks with one of his brothers, and then 
settled down again at his old trade of 
shoemaking. tie witnessed the riots on 
the passage of the Stamp Act, and the 
disembarkation of the English troops at 
Long Wharf on November i, 1768, and 
either participated in or witnessed the 
other stirring events of those days. In 
the memoirs published of him, he gives 
particular and interesting accounts of the 
massacre on March 5, 1770. Caldwell, 
one of the victims, stood by Hewes' side 
and fell into his arms when he was shot. 
Later on, he himself was assaulted by a 
Tory custom house officer named Mal- 
colm, who was tarred, feathered and 
flogged for this and other like conduct. 
Three years later Mr. Hewes participated 



in the celebrated "Boston Tea Party." 
The causes which led to this act are re- 
corded in history, and of his share in it 
he thus speaks : 

It v/as now evening, and I immediately dressed 
myself in the costume of an Indian, equipped 
with a small hatchet, which I and my associates 
denominated the tomahawk, with which and a 
club, after having painted my hands and my 
face with coal dust in the shop of a black- 
smith, I repaired to Griffin's wharf, where the 
ships lay that contained the tea. When I first 
appeared in the street after being thus disguised, 
I fell in with many who were dressed, equipped 
and painted as I was, and who fell in with me, 
and marched in order to the place of our desti- 
nation. When we arrived at the wharf, there 
were three of our number who assumed an 
authority to direct our operations, to which we 
readily submitted. They divided us into three 
parties, for the purpose of boarding the three 
ships which contained the tea at the same time. 
The name of him who commanded the division 
to which I was assigned was Lendall Pitt. . . . 
As soon as we were on board, he appointed me 
boatswain, and ordered me to go to the captain 
and demand of him the keys to the hatches and a 
dozen candles. I made the demand accordingly, 
and the captain promptly complied and delivered 
the articles; but requested me at the same time 
to do no damage to the ship or rigging. We 
were then ordered by our commander to open 
the hatches, and take out all the chests of tea 
and throw them overboard, and we immediately 
proceeded to execute his orders; first, cutting 
and splitting the chests with our tomahawks, so 
as thoroughly to expose them to the eftects of 
the water. In about three hours from the time 
we went on board, we had thus broken and 
thrown overboard every tea chest to be found 
in the ship; while those in the other ships were 
disposing of the tea in the same way, at the 
same time. We were surrounded by British 
armed ships, but no attempt was made to resist 
us. We then quietly retired to our several 
places of residence, without having any conver- 
sation with each other, or taking any measures 
to discover who were our associates. 

When the British troops invested Bos- 
ton, Hewes was imprisoned, but escaped 
to Lynn. Later he shipped on board the 
privateer "Diamond," Captain Thomas 

Stacy, which, during- a three months' 
cruise, captured three British ships. He 
then shipped under Captain Samuel 
Smedley, of New London, in the "De- 
fence," which captured four British ships, 
and took them to Boston. Hewes re- 
ceived neither wages nor prize money for 
his part in these exploits. From time to 
time he served with the militia until the 
close of the war, mainly on coast guard 
duty between Boston and New York, also 
in Rhode Island, under Captain Thomas 
George, participating in an engagement 
at a place called Cobble hill, in which the 
British were beaten. Also he was sta- 
tioned for a time with militia at West 
Point, under General ^McDougall. 

He married Sally, daughter of Benja- 
min Sumner, of Boston. He died at Rich- 
field Springs, New York, November 5, 

PARMENTER, William, 

National liegislator. 

William Parmenter was born in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts. ]\Iarch 30, 1789, son 
of Ezra and Mary (Ellison) Parmenter; 
grandson of Samuel Parmenter. of Sud- 
bury. Massachusetts, and a descendant of 
John Parmenter, the immigrant, who 
came from England about 1638 ; was orig- 
inal proprietor of Sudburv^ and afterward 
removed to Roxbury, IMassachusetts. 

William Parmenter was graduated 
from the Boston Latin School, where he 
received a Franklin medal. He served 
as clerk in the mercantile house of Pratt 
& Andrews, Boston, and was chief clerk 
to Amos Binney, navy agent, during the 
War of 1812. and for several years there- 
after. He resided at East Cambridge. 
Massachusetts, from 1824 to 1866. and 
was manager of a glass manufactory from 
1824 to 1836. He was a member of the 
State Senate in 1836, and was a Demo- 
cratic and Anti-Mason representative 



from the Fourth Massachusetts District 
in the Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth, Twen- 
ty-seventh and Twenty-eighth Con- 
gresses, 1837-45, being chairman of the 
committee on naval affairs during part of 
his term. He was president of the Mid- 
dlesex Bank, 1832-36; naval officer of the 
port of Boston, by appointment from 
President Polk, 1845-49, and from that 
year until his death lived in retirement, 
occasionally superintending some of the 
county institutions. 

He was married, in 1815, to Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Parker, of Boston, 
Massachusetts. Their son, William Elli- 
son (Harvard, 1836), was associate jus- 
tice of the Municipal Court of Boston, 
1871-83, and Chief Justice, 1883-1902; and 
William Ellison's son, James Parker 
(Harvard, 1881), was appointed associate 
justice of the same court in 1902. Ezra, 
another son of William, was mayor of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1867. Wil- 
liam Parmenter died in East Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, February 25, 1866. 

EDWARDS, Jonathan, 

Theologian, Author. 

Jonathan Edwards was born in North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, May 26, 1745, 
second son of the Rev. Jonathan and 
Sarah (Pierrepont) Edwards, and grand- 
son of the Rev. Timothy Edwards and of 
the Rev. James Pierrepont. 

His youth was spent at Stockbridge, 
Massachusetts, at that time an Indian 
settlement, and there he acquired a mas- 
tery of the dialect of the Housatonnuck 
Indians. His father desired that he 
should become a missionary among the 
aboriginal tribes, and he began to study 
the dialect of the Oneidas with the Rev. 
Gideon Ilawley. stationed on the Susque- 
hanna river, but the French and Indian 
war put an end to his project after six 

months' sojourn with the tribe. The re- 
moval of his father's family to Prince- 
ton, New Jersey, and the sudden death of 
his father, mother and sister, caused him 
to change his plans. Friends assisted 
him to prepare for college, and he was 
graduated at the College of New Jersey 
in 1765. He then studied theology under 
the Rev. Dr. Bellamy at Bethlehem, Con- 
necticut, and was licensed to preach by 
the Association of Litchfield County in 
1766. He returned, however, to Prince- 
ton, where he was tutor in the college, 
1767-68, and in January, 1769, he became 
pastor at White Haven, Connecticut. 
Here he met the opposition of the advo- 
cates of the "half-way covenant," and 
also the reaction incident to the extrava- 
gant religious fervor brought about by 
the revival of 1740—42. The churches 
were at the same time also greatly divid- 
ed and impoverished by reason of the war 
with the mother country, and his own 
congregation took advantage of all these 
causes to rid themselves of their minister. 
He was dismissed from his charge, May 
19, 1795, and found a church at Cole- 
brook, a retired country parish in Litch- 
field county, where he ministered to a 
small and not exacting congregation, 
1796-99, meanwhile pursuing his theo- 
logical and metaphysical researches. He 
was called from his retirement in 1799 to 
assume the presidency of Union College, 
Schenectady, New York, rendered vacant 
by the resignation of the first president, 
the Rev. Dr. John Blair Smith. He was 
eminently successful in his administra- 
tion and won the friendship of his faculty, 
the students and the citizens of Schenec- 

He received the degree of A. M. from 
the College of New Jersey and from Yale 
in 1769, and in 1785 that of S. T. D. from 
the College of New Jersey. By an odd 
coincidence, on the first Sunday of the 


Stockbridge Monument. 


year of his death, i8oi, he preached from 
the text, "This year thou shalt die," as 
his father had done. He prepared of the 
works of his father left unpublished : 
"History of the Work of Redemption," 
two volumes of sermons and "Miscel- 
laneous Observations on Important Theo- 
logical Subjects" in two volumes. He 
published of his own writings, "A Dis- 
sertation Concerning Liberty and Neces- 
sity," sermons on "The Necessity of the 
Atonement and Its Consistency with 
Free Grace in Forgiveness" (1785), and 
observations on the "Language of the 
Muhhekenew Indians." The Rev. Tryon 
Edwards, his grandson, edited with a 
memoir most of his published writings 
(two volum,es, 1842). He died in Schenec- 
tady. New York. August i, 1801. 

ALLEN, Solomon, 

Xoted Revolutionary Soldier. 

Solomon Allen, the hero of one of the 
most remarkable events of the Revolu- 
tionary War, was born at Northampton, 
Massachusetts, February 23, 1751, and 
was one of the four brothers who saw 
service during that period, those beside 
himself being Major Jonathan Allen, and 
Captains Moses and Thomas Allen. 

At the time of the capture of Major 
Andre, the unfortunate British officer, 
Lieutenant Solomon Allen was on duty 
as adjutant in the vicinity of New York. 
When Andre was brought to his post, 
September 23, 1780, the commander. Colo- 
nel Jameson, placed him under charge of 
Allen, with a guard of nine men, to be de- 
livered to General Benedict Arnold, at 
West Point. Allen, in narrating the 
event, described Andre as wearing an old 
torn crimson coat, nankeen vest and 
small-clothes, and flapped hat. His hands 
were bound behind him, a soldier holding 
the strap, and soldiers surrounded him, 
being ordered to kill him on the spot 

should he attempt to escape. Allen ar- 
rived with his prisoner at the Robinson 
house, opposite West Point, where Ar- 
nold had his headquarters. Allen says 
that, when he had reached West Point, 
he found Arnold at his meal. On being 
told of the errand, Arnold showed great 
confusion, and asked Allen to go upstairs 
and sit with Mrs. Arnold, doubtless with 
the intention of preventing his convers- 
ing with other officers, and then Arnold 
precipitately fled. Washington soon ar- 
rived, and in the afternoon Arnold's 
treachery was discovered through the 
medium of letters which had been 
brought in. Allen was invited to dine 
with the American officers, and heard 
General Knox remark, "What a very for- 
tunate discovery this was. Without it, 
we should have all been cut up," to which 
Washington responded, "I do not call this 
fortunate, but a remarkable Providence." 
After the war, Allen, who had been pro- 
moted to major, was conspicuous in the 
expedition that quelled the Shays re- 

Jn the meantime. Allen had become 
deeply religious, and at the age of forty 
was made deacon in the Northampton 
church. He had become desirous of 
preaching, but had no education, and the 
obstacles in his way seemed insuperable. 
However, he devoted himself to studying 
the works of Howe and Baxter, in addi- 
tion to the Scriptures, and wrote out a 
few sermons. He soon began to preach 
through western Massachusetts and west- 
ern New York, receiving little compensa- 
tion, but food and clothing, living out of 
doors much of the time, and seeming to 
rejoice in the fatigues and privations 
which he suffered for the cause of re- 
ligion ; whenever he received a small sum 
of money, he expended it for books and 
clothing for the destitute people he en- 
countered. In 1820, after having been a 
preacher for nearly twenty years, and 



having converted several hundred people 
and established several churches, he vis- 
ited his children and friends in Massa- 
chusetts, New York and Philadelphia. 
Early in 1821 he arrived in New York, 
and died there January 20th of that year, 
aged seventy years. At his funeral, 
eight clergymen acted as pallbearers. It 
is said of him that the attachment of chil- 
dren for him was peculiar and pathetic ; 
they would throng after him, wherever he 
appeared, to listen to his words of instruc- 
tion, and the interesting stories he would 

ADAMS, Hannah, 

First of American Female Authors. 

Hannah Adams, first of American 
women to make literature a profession, 
was born at IMedheld, Massachusetts, in 
1755. Her father was a man of literary 
tastes, and was for a time prosperous in 
his business, which was mainly the sale of 
English goods and books. Reverses 
came, and the daughter, who inherited his 
tendencies and had for \ears given her 
principal attention to the reading of fic- 
tion, was forced into a literary career. Her 
education was defective, but circum- 
stances led her to the acquisition of 
knowledge by the most strenuous appli- 
cation. Books came to her through her 
father's agency, and were eagerly devour- 
ed. Before her first publication, however, 
she had largely supported herself and 
aided in providing for her father's fam- 
ily by weaving bobbin lace. She acquir- 
ed the rudiments of Latin, Greek, geog- 
raphy and logic from some of the board- 
ers at her father's house, and in turn 
taught them to young men resident in the 

Her first book, "A View of Religions," 
was put to press in 1784, and published 
by subscription, for which she received 
fifty copies of the book, and was obliged 

to find a sale for them. The volume con- 
tained an alphabetical compendium of 
Christian denominations, a brief survey 
of Paganism, Judaism and Deism, and an 
account of the different religions of the 
world. It went through several editions, 
the second being issued in 1791, and was 
reprinted in Great Britain. The sale of 
the second edition placed her for a season 
in a comfortable pecuniary position. 
When the fourth edition appeared it was 
under the name of "Dictionary of Relig- 
ions." Her next venture was a "Summary 
History of New England," subsequently, 
without her assent, abridged for the use 
of schools, by a clergyman of whom she 
speaks in her autobiography with exceed- 
ing charity, and then by herself. Her 
labors upon it were arduous, and for a 
time impaired her eyesight. Partially re- 
covering, she wrote a concise "View of 
the Christian Religion" (1801), and sub- 
sequently the "History of the Jews" 
(181 2). In the preparation of this work 
she corresponded with persons of dis- 
tinction at home and abroad, and among 
them the celebrated .-Xbbe Gregoire of 
France. Her other published writings 
were : "A Controversy with Dr. Morse" 
(1S14), and "Letters on the Gospels" 
(1826). Her writings, as a whole, did not 
bring to her much pecuniary profit, but 
their value and the associations formed 
in their preparation, together with the 
rare modesty, simplicity and genuine 
wort'n of their author, were the means of 
securing for her an annuity provided by 
Llie generous subscriptions of friends at 
Boston, Massachusetts, which enabled her 
to pass the closing years of her life in 
quietude and comfort. Her autobiography 
was edited and published at Boston in 
1832. with "Notices" in addition by Mrs. 
H. F. Lee, and is an admnable work. 

She died at Brookline, Massachusetts, 
November 15, 1832, and hers was the first 
interment in Mount Auburn Cemeterv- 


MINOT, George Richards, 

Jnrist, Historian. 

George Richards Minot was born in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, December 22, 1758. 
He was the son of Stephen Minor, a 
prominent merchant of Boston, whose 
means having been impaired by unsuc- 
cessful business speculations, left the son 
in great difficulty in securing a liberal 

He was prepared for college by the 
celebrated master, John Lovell, in the 
South Latin School, and was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1778. During his 
course, Eliot tells us. he was "distinguish- 
ed for decorum, of behavior, a most ami- 
able disposition, and close attention to his 
studies. He excelled in history and belles 
lettres, and was upon several occasions 
the public orator of his class." It is also 
said that "his classmates were eager to 
confer upon him every honor which it 
was in their power to bestow." He was 
chosen to deliver the funeral oration of 
Tutor John Wadsworth. in 1778, and gave 
a Latin valedictory upon receiving his 
master's degree in 1781. After gradu- 
ation, he read law in the office of William 
Tudor, judge-advocate on the staff of Gen- 
eral Washington, where he had for a fel- 
low student Fisher Ames. After his ad- 
mission to the bar in 1781, he was. under 
the revised State constitution, appointed 
clerk of the House of Representatives of 
Massachusetts. He w^as also secretary of 
the convention which adopted the Federal 
constitution in 1787, and in 1792 was ap- 
pointed judge of probate for Suffolk 
county. In this responsible position he 
was an eminent success ; his pleasant and 
affable manner being a potent element in 
the settlement of many vexed questions, 
while his duties were discharged with the 
strictest integrity. While acting in this 
capacity he w'as also on the bench of the 

Court of Common Pleas, of which he was 
appointed Chief Justice in 1799, and was 
chosen judge of the Municipal Court of 
Boston upon its establishment in 1800. 

Judge ]\Iinot was one of the original 
members of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, with Jeremy Belknap ; long presi- 
dent of the Charitable Fire Society of 
Boston ; and a fellow of the American 
Acadeiny of Arts and Sciences. Eliot 
says: "He was never fond of the hurry 
and bustle of the world, and therefore 
did not make the figure at the bar which 
some of his friends expected from his 
talents and elocution." He, however, 
earned a reputation second to none as a 
historian and orator. His most notable 
works, besides numerous newspaper and 
magazine articles on current issues, were : 
"A History of the Insurrection in Massa- 
chusetts in 1786" (1786), and two volumes 
in continuation of Hutchinson's "History 
of Massachusetts Bay." with introduc- 
tory sketch of events from its original 
settlement (1798 and 1803). Blake says 
of this work : "The narrative is perspicu- 
ous and the style simple and pure, as well 
as a model of historical eloquence." 
Among his public orations are one on 
the anniversary of the Boston massacre 
(March 5. 1782) and a eulogy on Wash- 
ington (1800). He was long a ruling 
elder in the First Church, Boston. In 
1783 Judge ]\Iinot was married to Mary 
Speakman, of Marlboro, and of his de- 
scendants his grandson. Francis Minot, 
physician, and his great-grandson. Charles 
Sedgv.Mck Minot, biologist, attained dis- 
tinction. He died in Boston. Massachu- 
setts. January 2. 1802. 

EARLE, Ral:h, 

Painter of Revolutionary Battle Scenes. 

This gifted man, believed to be the 
first American painter of historical 
scenes, was born in Leicester. Massachu- 



setts, May ii, 175 1, son of Ralph and 
Phebe (Whittemore) Earle, grandson of 
William and Anna (Howard) Earle, 
great-grandson of Ralph and Mary 
(Hicks) Earle, and descended from Ralph 
and Joan Earle, who came from England 
about 1634. His father served as a cap- 
tain in the American army during the 
greater part of the Revolutionary War. 

He was educated as an artist, and was 
known to have painted portraits in Con- 
necticut as early as 1771. In 1777 he 
painted two full-length portraits of Timo- 
thy Dwight, who became president of 
Yale College. He executed, from sketches 
which he took upon the spot, four his- 
torical paintings which are believed to be 
the first historical paintings by an Amer- 
ican artist, the subjects being: "The 
Battle of Lexington," "A View of Con- 
cord, with the Royal Troops destroying 
the Stores," "The Battle of the North 
Bridge, Concord," and "A View of the 
South Part of Lexington, where the First 
Detachment was joined by Lord Percy." 
In 1776 he went to England and studied 
under Sir Benjamin West. He was elec- 
ted a member of the Royal Academy in 
London, and painted in that city until 
1786- when he returned to America, and 
lived at various times in Massachusetts, 
Connecticut and New York. He mar- 
ried, about 1773, Sarah Gates, and he 
died in Bolton, Connecticut, August 16, 

One of his sons, named for himself, be- 
came an artist, studied in London, was 
married to a niece of General Andrew 
Jackson, and during a considerable por- 
tion of the latter's presidential term was 
a member of his household at Washing- 
ton City. He painted a full-length por- 
trait of General Jackson which was 
highly commended. 

DWIGHT, Timothy, 

Educator, Anthor. 

Timothy Dwight was born in North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, May 14, 1752, son 
of Major Timothy and Mary (Edwards) 
Dwight ; grandson of Colonel Timothy 
and Experience (King) Dwight, and of 
Jonathan and Sarah (Pierpont) Edwards; 
great-grandson of Nathaniel and Mehit- 
able (Partridge) Dwight; great-great- 
grandson of Captain Timothy and Anna 
(Flint) Dwight, and great-great-great- 
grandson of John and Hannah Dwight, of 
Dedham, the immigrants, 1634-35. 

He was graduated at Yale College in 
1769, sharing the honors of the class with 
the noted Nathan Strong. He was pnn- 
cipal of the Hopkins Grammar School, 
1769-71, and tutor at Yale, 1771-77, during 
which time he studied law. He was licens- 
ed to preach in 1777, and served as chap- 
lain in Parson's brigade of the Connecti- 
cut line, 1777-78. The death of his father 
called him home and he took charge of 
the farm, occasionally preaching in the 
neighborhood churches from 1778 to 
1783. At the same time he conducted a 
day school, and while New Haven was 
in the hands of the British, he had under 
his care several of the refugee Yale stu- 
dents. He was a representative in the 
Massachusetts Legislature in 1782, and 
refused a nomination as representative in 
Congress. He was pastor of the church 
at Greenfield Hill. Fairfield, Connecticut, 
from 1783 to 1795, and established there 
his celebrated academy, and became the 
pioneer of higher education of women, 
placing both sexes on an equal footing in 
his school. During this period he secured 
the union of the Congregational and Pres- 
byterian churches in New England. He 
was president of Yale College from Sep- 
tember 8, 1795, to January 11, 1817, and 
Livingston Professor of Divinity pro tem- 



pore, 1795-1805, and by election, 1805-17. 
He found the college with a narrow and 
pedantic curriculum, with the bitterest of 
feeling existing between the freshmen and 
the upper-class men, and between the stu- 
dents and the faculty, and with the burden 
of a primary system. These he reformed, 
and at his death the one hundred and odd 
students had increased to upwards of 
three hundred, and the college had taken 
rank as one of the model university 
schools in America. 

Dr. Dwight received from the College 
of New Jersey the degree of S. T. D. in 
1787, and from Harvard College that of 
LL. D. in 1810. His master dissertation 
was : "History, Eloquence and Poetry 
of the Bible," and his most ambitious 
work was his epic "The Conquest of Can- 
aan" and his most popular pastoral poem 
was "Greenfield Hill" (1794). While a 
chaplain in the army, he wrote the patri- 
otic song "Columbia." He revised Watt's 
Psalms, with additions of his own. and 
made a selection of hymns, introduced in 
the worship of the Presbyterian churches 
by the General Assembly. His published 
books include : "Travels in New Eng- 
land and New York" (four volumes, 
1821) ; "Theology Explained and Defend- 
ed in a Course of 173 Sermons" (five vol- 
umes, 1818) ; "The Genuineness and Au- 
thenticity of the New Testament" (1793) ; 
"Discourse on the Character of Washing- 
ton" (1800) ; "Observations on Language" 
(1816): "Essay on Light" (1816). See 
Memoir by the Rev. Sereno Edwards 
Dwight (1846). 

He was married, in March, 1777, to 
Mary, daughter of Benjamin Woolsey, of 
Long Island, and they had eight sons, the 
eldest of whom, Timothy (1778-1884) was 
a merchant in New Haven, and gave 
$5,000 to endow the Dwight Professor- 
ship of Didactic Theology at Yale. Timo- 
thy Dwight died in New Haven, Connec- 
ticut, January 11, 1817. 

WILLIAMS, Jonathan, 

First Snperintendent at 'West Point. 

Jonathan Williams, first superintendent 
of the United States Military Academy 
at West Point, was born in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, May 26, 1750, His father, 
Jonathan Williams, being a well-to-do 
merchant, the boy received a good Eng- 
lish education in the best schools of the 
time and place, but at an early age was 
placed in his father's counting-house. He 
was ambitious to learn, however, and de- 
voted his leisure to study, gaining there- 
by considerable proficiency in the clas- 
sics, and a writing and speaking acquaint- 
ance with the French language. His posi- 
tion in a mercantile counting-house giv- 
ing him opportunities for travel, he made 
a number of voyages to Europe and the 
We.^t India islands ; and it is said that 
his business letters displayed careful 
observation and unusual maturity of 
judgment. In 1770, when twenty years 
of age, he made a voyage to England in 
company with a brother and an uncle, 
John Williams, who had been a local com- 
missioner under the British government. 

Jonathan Williams was a grandnephew 
of Benjamin Franklin, who at this time 
was in England, and who took the young 
man into his own home during his stay 
in that country. Three years later he 
again made the voyage to England hav- 
ing the charge of letters to Franklin, 
bearing on the political relations exist- 
ing between England and America, and 
on his return voyage Franklin entrusted 
to him his replies. These confidences 
brought the young man into acquaintance 
with the most prominent personages of 
the time, by whom, in spite of his youth, 
he was considered a fit companion in 
mental cultivation and resources. In a 
letter to his father, dated September, 
1774, he said : 

MASS— 15 



With regard to politics, nothing has occurred, 
nor do I think anything will happen till the Par- 
liament sits, when, I dare say, there will be warm 
work, and I have great hope that American 
affairs will wear a better aspect, for the minis- 
try, I have reason to think, will find a greater 
opposition than they expect. Unanimity and 
firmness must gain the point. I can't help re- 
peating it, though I have written it twenty times 
before. The newspapers, which used to be the 
vehicles of all kinds of abuse on the poor Bos- 
tonians, are now full of pieces in our favor. 
Only here and there an impertinent scribbler, 
like an expiring candle flashing from the socket, 
shows by his garrulity the weakness of his cause, 
and the corruptness of his heart. ''~^^^'*'^'' 
- :1 =•"•; , ■■■■ '■'■' 

In, 1775 Mr. Williams made a short 
visit to France. In letters written at that 
time he refers to the interest felt through- 
out France in the disputes between Great 
Britain and her colonies as follows: 
"They suppose England to have arrived 
at its pinnacle of glory, and that the em- 
pire of America will arise on the ruins of 
this kingdom., and I really believe. that 
■ivhen we shall be involved in civil war 
they will gladly embrace the first oppor- 
tunity of renewing their attacks on an 
old enemy, whom they imagine will be 
so weakened by its intestine broils as to 
become an easy conquest." In 1777 Mr. 
Williams was appointed commercial 
agent of the United States, and took up 
his residence at Nantes. In 1783 he re- 
ceived a commission from the farmers- 
general of France to supply them with to- 
bacco, which was a government monopoly. 
He then settled at Saint Germain, where 
he continued to reside until 1785, when he 
returned with Dr. Franklin to the United 
States. In 1790 he settled with his fam- 
ily near Philadelphia, purchasing a coun- 
try seat on the banks of the Schuylkill, 
where he devoted himself to the study of 
mathematics, botany, medicine, and the 
law, and becoming a sufifiiciently proficient 
lawyer to be made a judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas in Philadelphia, which 
position he held for several years. 

While in France he had devoted much 
time and thought to the subject of for- 
tification, and, after having aided in quell- 
ing the whiskey insurrection in western 
Pennsylvania, he was appointed major in 
the Second Regiment of Artillery and Enf 
gineers in the regular army. During the 
winter of 1802 he was made inspector of 
fortifications, and appointed to the com" 
mand of the post at West Point, where 
his duties included instruction in the sub-: 
jects with which he was familiar. The 
Military Academy at West Point was 
finally organized in 1802, and Major Wil- 
liams was appointed its first superintend- 
ent. In connection with this institution, 
Major Williams rendered most valuable 
service to his country. Under his direc- 
tion it steadily advanced in character, 
until all who were acquainted with its 
regulations and discipline acknowledged 
its advantages. It was not, however, un- 
til the heroic deeds of McRae, Gibson, 
Wood and Macomb had so largely con- 
tributed to an honorable peace in the War 
of 1812, that the military school became 
a source of interest and pride to the na- 
tion — these accomplished and intrepid 
officers were first taught to be thorough 
soldiers by Major Williams. In April, 
1805. Williams returned to the array at 
President JefTerson's request, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel and the posi- 
tion of chief engineer, but without giving 
up his superintendence of the academy.- 
His ability as an engineer, and the knowl- 
edge which he had gained in France and 
England regarding fortifications, werq 
now put to important use. He planned 
and built most of the inner forts of New 
York harbor, including Fort Columbia^ 
Fort Clinton (now Castle Garden), and 
Castle Williams, on Governor's Island, 
which was named for him. It had been 
promised to Colonel Williams that in case 
of attack the fortifications he had con- 
structed in the harbor , of ^ ,Ne;yy , Yprjfi 




should be placed under his command. At 
the beginning- of the War of 1812, seeing 
that there was a near prospect that the 
enemy would invade the city, he claimed 
the fulfilment of that promise in vain, and, 
after a protracted correspondence with 
the War Department upon the subject, 
he resigned his commission in the army of 
the United States. Immediately after his 
resignation, however, her was appointed 
by the Governor of New York brigadier- 
general of the State militia. In the au- 
tumn of 1814 General Williams was elect- 
ed a Member of Congress from the city 
of Philadelphia, but he never took his 
seat. 'Ubt'c. irrjn: j 'uij ni ].)-■ 

He was 'for many years vice-president 
and corresponding secretary of the 
American Philosophical Society, to whose 
transactions he was a frequent contribu- 
tor. He wrote also "The Use of the Ther- 
mometer in Navigation" (Philadelphia, 
1799) ; and translated "Elements of For- 
tification" (1801), and Kosciusko's "Ma- 
noeuvres for Horse Artillery" (1808). In 
September, 1779, he was married, in the 
house of the Dutch ambassador at Paris, 
to Marianne, daughter of William Alex- 
ander, of Edinburgh. He died in Phil- 
adelphia, May 16. 1815. 

1 5 "■■ 


• 1 ^rfi-.'//nbffi! 


Father of Massachusetts Peace Society, 

This earnest and industrious exponent 
of the doctrines of peace was born at 
Hollis/' New Hampshire, November 25. 
1758. He was descended from the Rev. 
William W^orcester, who was the first 
minister of Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 
1638; his grandfather, the Rev. Francis 
Worcester, was pastor at Sandisfield, 
Massachusetts, and afterwards at Hollis ; 
his father was a member of the conven- 
tion which framed the New Hampshire 
constitution. ^xkxoo Uj ]s:ioi ;i 'u- ;uo 

Noah Worcester's Educational oppor- 

tunities were meagre. At the age of sev- 
enteen he was a fifer in the battle of 
Bunker Hill, and two years later a fife- 
major at Bennington. Before he was of 
age he taught school for a time. At 
twenty, he purchased his freedom from 
his father, and went to Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, where he taught school for 
nine winters, doing farm work the re- 
mainder of each year. In 1782 he mar-i 
ried, and settled down at Thornton, a 
village not far from Plymouth ; and where 
he became town clerk, justice of the peace, 
and a member of the legislature. His 
career as a theologian and writer began 
in 1785, with a letter in answer to a ser-r 
mon by Rev. John Murray, the Univer- 
salist, on "The Origin of Evil." Later he 
was licensed to preach, and became minis- 
ter at Thornton, also laboring on his farm 
and at shoemaking. In 1792 he publish- 
ed "A Dialogue between Cephas and 
Bereas." In 1802 the New Hampshire 
Missionary Society was organized and he 
became its first evangelist, laboring in the 
wilder parts of the state for eight years, 
with the exception of a part of the year 
1806, when he was disabled. In 1809 he 
producied a tract against "The Baptist 
Theory and Practice." In 1810 he went 
to Salisbury, New Hampshire, to preach 
for his brother Thomas, and during this 
time published "The Bible News." The 
doctrines advocated in the latter were con- 
demned by the Hopkinton Association, in 
which was his temporary charge, but he 
would make no concessions, and replied 
in "An Impartial Review" and other 
tracts. One of these, an "Address to the 
Trinitarian Clergy," won the attention of 
Dr. Channing and other leaders of the 
new school in Boston, who called W^or^ 
cester to that place to edit the newly es- 
tablished "Christian Disciple." afterward 
known as the "Christian Examiner." In 
1813, in his fifty-fifth year, he took up 
his residence in Brighton, Massachusetts, 



now a part of Cambridge, and where he 
had more congenial surroundings. His 
"Solemn Review of the Custom of War," 
published in 1815, led to the founding of 
the Massachusetts Peace Society, of 
which he was secretary until 1828, and 
during this period establishing the 
"Friend of Peace," a quarterly, most of 
whose contents he supplied. In 1818 
Harvard College gave him the degree of 
D. D. He died at Brighton, October 31, 
1837. Channing pronounced a fervent 
eulogy upon him, and his memoirs were 
written by Henry Ware, the younger. 

DEXTER, Samuel, 

Statesman, Cabinet Official. 

Samuel Dexter was born in Boston, 
May 14, 1761. His father, Samuel Dexter, 
a prosperous merchant of Boston, noted 
for his scholarship and philanthropy, was 
prominent in the struggles preceding the 
Revolution, and labored zealously to in- 
form the people of the dangerous policy 
pursued by the British ministry ; he de- 
voted considerable attention to theolog- 
ical questions, and bequeathed $5,000 to 
Harvard University for a chair of Biblical 
Criticism. In his will he devoted $40 to 
his pastor, on condition that he preach a 
funeral sermon, without mentioning his 
name, from the text, "The things which 
are seen are temporal, but the things 
which are not seen are eternal." 'T wish 
the preacher," he said, "to expostulate 
with his audience on the absurdity of be- 
ing extremely assiduous to lay up treas- 
ures on earth while they are indolent in 
respect of their well-being hereafter." 

The Dexters form one of the best 
known families of New England, and dcr 
rive descent from Richard Dexter, of 
Boston and Maiden, who came to Amer- 
ica in the early days of the Massachusetts 
colony. From this ancestor the line runs 
through his son, John Dexter, of Maiden, 

deacon of the local church and captain 
of militia, and through his son, Samuel 
Dexter (1701-55), a graduate of Harvard 
(1720), minister of Dedham, and grand- 
father of the secretary. 

Samuel Dexter (3d) was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1781 ; studied law 
under Levi Lincoln at Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts. He was admitted to the bar in 
1784, with promise of eminence in his 
profession, but his commanding ability 
soon came to be recognized and led him 
into public service. He represented Mas- 
sachusetts in the lower house in 1788-90, 
served in the lower house of Congress in 
1793-95, and in the United States Senate 
from December 2, 1799, until June, 1800, 
when he resigned to accept appointment 
as Secretary of War under President 
Adams. He retained this office until De- 
cember 31, 1800, when he was appointed 
Secretary of the Treasury, and remained 
in the cabinet until the close of Adams' 
administration. For a time also he had 
charge of the Department of State. On 
his return to the practice of his profes- 
sion, he was retained in important cases 
before the United States Supreme Court 
at Washington, in which his logical reas- 
oning and the strength of his arguments 
were the basis of his success. In 1812, 
withdrawing from his Federalist associa- 
tions, he afifiliated with the Republicans 
in support of President Madison's war 
measures ; but he repudiated entirely the 
policy of that party when nominated for 
Governor of Massachusetts in 1816, on 
the strength of his opposition to the Hart- 
ford convention — an action which caused 
it to be said that he had broken forth 
from the legions of rebellion. In his letter 
of acceptance, he declared : "Every com- 
bination for general opposition is an of- 
fense against the community." He failet^ 
of election, however, by only 2,000 votes, 
out of a total of 96,000. A mission to 
Spain was offered him by President Madi- 



son in 1815, but declined. He was an 
ardent supporter of the temperance move- 
ment, and was the first president of the 
first society formed in Massachusetts for 
the promotion of that cause. 

The degree of LL. D. was conferred 
upon him by Harvard College in 1813. 
Besides political pamphlets, he published 
a poem entitled "Progress of Science," in 
1780; a "Letter on Freemasonry"; 
"Speeches and Political Papers" ; and was 
the author of the reply of the Senate to 
President Adams' address on the death 
of Washington. His wife was a sister of 
William Gordon, legislator, Congressman, 
and Attorney-General. He died in Athens, 
New York, May 3, 1816. 

SLATER, Samuel, 

Manufacturer, Philantliropist. 

Samuel Slater was born in Belper, Der- 
byshire, England, June 9, 1768, son of a 
yeoman in good circumstances, who was 
able to give his son a thorough practical 
education. After serving an apprentice- 
ship of six years at cotton spinning with 
Jedediah Strutt, Samuel Slater resolved 
to come to America and here introduce 
the industry. 

Previous unsuccessful attempts had 
been made to build an operative spinning- 
jenny, with the machines working raw 
cotton, both in Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island, and like efforts had been made in 
Pennsylvania and New York, but it re- 
mained for Mr. Slater to successfully es- 
tablish mills on the Arkwright system. 
The work was attended with more labor 
and discouragement than the average 
young man of twenty-one years would 
willingly face, but Mr. Slater was above 
the average — a hard, courageous worker, 
and had a firm belief in his ultimate suc- 
cess. The manufacture of cotton was at 
this time an established industry in Eng- 
land, and all who were interested in the 

business were reaping such rich rewards 
that every eflfort was made to keep the 
knowledge of the inventions of Har- 
greaves, Arkwright and Samuel Cromp- 
ton confined to Great Britain — an Act of 
Parliament was passed prohibiting the ex- 
portation of such machinery, and the ut- 
most caution was taken to intercept the 
departure of any person who possessed 
knowledge of the manufacture ; admis- 
sion to the factories where the new busi- 
ness was pursued was cautiously restrict- 
ed, and the manufacturers themselves 
were fearful of each other and jealously 
guarded their own interests. Sir Rich- 
ard Arkwright was a partner of Jedediah 
Strutt, to whom young Slater was appren- 
ticed. The terms of the indenture were 
quaint and peculiar, and provided that the 
young apprentice "should be taught all 
the mysteries of the cotton manufacture 
as it was then known." The factory where 
he was taught was probably the best in 
England at that time. About 1789, when 
Mr. Slater completed his apprenticeship, 
the United States Congress passed its 
first act for the promotion of manufactur- 
ing interests, and the legislature of Penn- 
sylvania offered a premium for the intro- 
duction of the Arkwright patent into the 
State. Mr. Slater, becoming acquainted 
with these circumstances, resolved to es- 
tablish this industry in America. His de- 
parture from England was attended with 
difficulties, and kept a secret from his 
own family. The first intimation given 
of his intentions was in a letter to his 
mother, written after he had boarded the 
vessel that was to carry him to America. 
He brought with him no patterns, meas- 
urements or designs of the complicated 
machinery he had been studying during 
his whole apprenticeship, as legal restric- 
tions made it dangerous to leave England 
with such property. 

He first obtained employment with the 
New York Cotton Manufacturing Com- 



pany at New York City, but hearing of 
the efforts that were being made to estab- 
lish the manufacture of cotton in Rhode 
Island by Morris Brown, a Quaker of 
Providence, young Slater applied to him 
for the position of manager, saying it was 
a business in which he prided himself 
that he could give the greatest satisfac- 
tion in making machinery that would 
"manufacture as good yarn, either for 
stockings or twist,' as any that is made in 
England." He received a favorable re- 
sponse, and early in January, 1790, Mr. 
Slater- reached Providence, from which 
place he was taken to Pawtucket, where 
Mr. BrOwn had invested some money in 
machinery which the young manufacturer 
pronounced worthless, saying that he 
could "make machines that will do the 
Work and make money at the same time." 
An agreement was finally made whereby 
he was to build a set of machines accord- 
ing to the Arkwright system, and receive 
therefor all the profits over the interest of 
the capital invested; Mr, Slater to give 
his time and experience in the erection of 
the machines, which, when built, he was 
to operate, and receive as compensation 
one-half of the profits. Nearly a year 
elapsed before the first frame of twenty- 
fcmr spindles was built, as everything, in- 
cluding the tools to work with, had to be 
made. The greatest trouble came in mak- 
ing the cards. "After his frames were 
ready for operation, he prepared the cot- 
ton and started the cards, but the cotton 
rolled up on the top cards, instead of pass- 
ing through the small cylinder. This was 
a great perplexity to him, and he was for 
several days in great agitation." He was 
iit the time boarding in the house of Ozial 
Wilkenson, one of whose daughters he 
.mbsequently married. He did not con- 
fide his anxiety to any one, but, noting 
his distress, Mrs. Wilkenson said to him, 
"Art thou sick, Samuel?" He then dis- 
closed the cause of his trouble, saying. 

"If I am frustrated in my carding ma- 
chine, they will think me an imposter." 
He feared that proper cards could not be 
obtained outside of England, from which 
country they were not allowed to be ex- 
ported. He finally consulted with the 
man who made the cards, and found the 
teeth were not sufficiently crooked, that 
the leather was inferior, and* the: holes, 
which were pricked by hand, were too 
largCy and permitted the teeth to fall back 
from their proper, fplace. These difficul- 
ties were remedied, and the machinery 
successfully placed in operation December 
21, 1790. The first ydrn made on.- this 
machinery equalled in quality that of the 
best English manufacture. The second 
cotton mill operated in Rhode Island was 
established about 1800, and in 1806 his 
brother John arrived from England, and 
together they l)uilt a cotton mill at the 
site of the present town of Slatersville, 
Rhode Island. All of the cotton mills 
put in operation up to this; time were 
started under the direction of men who 
had been in some way connected with the 
original factory. In 1810 there were near- 
ly one hundred factories in operation with 
over eighty thousand spindles, and Eng- 
land recognized that she had a powerful 
competitor in the business of cotton man- 
ufacture, which has since made such 
rapid strides and developments in Amer- 

In 1812 Mr. Slater began the erection 
of mills in Oxford (now Webster), Mas- 
sachusetts, adding thereto in 1815-16 ma- 
chinery aiid facilities for the manufacture 
of woolen cloth. He also became a large 
owner in several iron foundries, and ex- 
tended his financial interests in many 
directions, acquiring great wealth and a 
reputation for business integrity, wise 
and noble generosity, and sound religious 
principles. In 1890 the town of Paw- 
tucket, Rhode Island, held an elaborate 
centennial celebration that lasted a week, 



the . main features of which centered 
around the name of Samuel Slater, To 
him is also given the honor of having 
started the first Sunday-school in Amer- 
ica. His son, John W. Slater, donated 
$1,500,000 for the endowment of schools 
among the freedmen of the South, the 
people who worked to produce the cotton 
that his father instructed Americans to 
spin. Samuel Slater died at Webster, 
Massachusetts, April 21, 1835. 

ALGER, Cyrus, 

Mannfactnrer of First Iron Rifled Cannon. 

Cyrus Alger, the first to engage in the 
manufacture of modern ordnance, was 
born at Bridgewater' Massachusetts, No- 
vember II, 1782, son of Abiezer and Hep- 
sibah (Keith) Alger. He was descended 
in the sixth generation from Thomas Al- 
ger, who came to America about 1665 and 
settled at Jamestown, afterwards remov- 
ing to Bridgewater, where he died. Abi- 
ezer Alger was largely engaged in the 
business of iron founding, and had a fur- 
nace at West Bridgewater, another at 
Easton, and a third at Titicut, a village 
of Middleboro. 

■TiAfter attending Taunton Academy, 
Cyrus Alger entered his father's foundry 
and in due course of time became master 
•of the trade. He was for some years in 
charge of the foundry at Easton, and then 
in 1809, when twenty-seven years of age, 
engaged in business with General Wins- 
low, of Boston. This partnership con- 
tinued four years, and then Mr. Alger 
engaged in business on his own account. 
For some years the well known merchant, 
Thomas H. Perkins, was his special part- 
ner. He soon began to devise valuable 
inventions applicable to his business, a 
patent being issued to him March 30, 
1811, for an improved method of making 
cast iron chilled rolls, by which the part 
subject to wear was given increased hard- 

ness. During the War of 1812 he cast 
large quantities of cannon balls for the 
government. Mr. Alger introduced into 
Boston the use of anthracite coal for melt- 
ing iron, and adapted furnaces to its use. 
In 1822 he invented the cylinder stove 
for domestic use. He also reversed the 
hearths of the reverberatory furnace for 
melting iron, which used to incline Out- 
ward, so as to cause the molten metal to 
flow towards the flame. In 1827 his busi- 
ness became incorporated as the South 
Boston Iron Com,pany, of which he was 
elected president (and remained as such 
until his death), and Caleb Reed treas^ 
urer. The business had so steadily in- 
creased and had gained such a reputation 
that for many years after the incorpora- 
tion into a company the shops were called 
Alger's Foundries, and ultimately became 
one of the most perfect and extensive iron 
establishments in the United States. The 
company began the manufacture of iron 
ordnance in 1828. Mr. Alger had in- 
vented a method of purifying cast iron 
which gave it a strength nearly three 
times that of ordinary iron castings, this 
giving the company a great advantage in 
making iron guns, especially those of 
large caliber. The iron, when subjected 
to this process, was technically known as 
"gun iron," and it came into very exten- 
sive use for various castings where great 
strength was required.. ■.,.. - I'l.DT^Oll 
In 1834 the first rifled cast iron gun 
ever made in the United States was cast 
and finished in these works. In 1835 he 
began the manufacture of malleable iron 
guns, a patent being granted to him May 
30, 1837. He also received a patent for 
the use of malleable iron in the manufac- 
ture of plows, August 3, 1838. In 1836 
the company commenced to manufacture 
bronze cannon, many of which were made 
for the United States ordnance depart- 
ment and for the State of Massachusetts, 
and, owing to their perfection, a gold 

23 J 


medal was awarded to Mr. Alger by the 
Mechanics' Association. The largest gun 
which had at that time been cast in this 
country, the mortar "Columbiad," was 
made in 1842. He next directed his atten- 
tion to the subject of shells and fuses, and 
was one of the first to make improve- 
ments in them. In 1843 some of them 
were furnished for the frigate "Cumber- 
land," and in our Civil War his time fuses 
for shells and grenades were extensively 
used. Mr. Alger was very public-spirited, 
and did much for South Boston through 
his enterprise and investments. He was 
the first to introduce the ten-hour system 
of labor in South Boston, and his kind- 
ness to the men in his employ was pro- 
verbial. He was a member of the Com- 
mon Council the first year of the organ- 
ization of the city government of Boston, 
and in 1824 and 1827 an alderman. Ad- 
miral Dahlgren said of him: "He pos- 
sessed that rare quality, sagacity, which 
constitutes, in truth, the highest attribute 
of the intellectual man. and enabled him 
to arrive at results which others sought 
by disciplined study laboriously and often 
in vain." 

Mr. Alger died February 4, 1856, and 
was succeeded in the management of the 
South Boston Iron Company by his only 
surviving son. Francis Alger. 

NORTON, Andrews, 

Theologian, Litterateur. 

Andrews Norton was born at Hing- 
ham, Massachusetts, December 31, 1786. 
son of Samuel and Jane (Andrews) Nor- 
ton. He was fifth in descent from Wil- 
liam Norton, of Ipswich, brother of Rev. 
John Norton, successor of John Cotton 
in the pastorate of the First Church, Bos- 
ton. William Norton was the father of 
Rev. John Norton, of Hingham, who in 
turn was the father of Captain John Nor- 

ton, whose son John married a daughter 
of Jeremiah Belknap, father of the his- 
torian, and had a son, Samuel, whose 
third son was the subject of our sketch. 
Brought up in the studious atmosphere 
of New England's most intelligent ele- 
ment, and early acquiring a love of books, 
Andrews Norton, at the age of fourteen 
years, was matriculated at Harvard Col- 
lege. After his graduation in 1804, he 
pursued a post-graduate course and stud- 
ied theology, and in 1809 accepted a 
tutorship in Bowdoin College. At the 
end of a year he returned to Cambridge, 
where during 181 1 he was tutor in mathe- 
matics in Harvard College, and in 1812 
assumed editorial control of the "General 
Repository," a monthly publication of the 
'liberal" school of theology. From this 
position in 1813 he was chosen Dexter 
Lecturer in Biblical Criticism, and in 
1819 being promoted to the professorship 
which it grew into — the Dexter professor- 
ship of Sacred Literature, and he con- 
tinued the incumbent until ill health com- 
pelled his resignation in 1830. As an in- 
structor, Professor Norton was distin- 
guished by ability to present the pro- 
foundest facts in lucid and attractive 
terms, and through his complete scholar- 
ship became a father among scholars and 
a moulder of the thought of many besides 
his immediate pupils. He has had no 
superiors in this country in the domain of 
Scriptural interpretation, and few equals 
in theological acumen. As a leader in 
the true Unitarian or Arian protest 
against Calvinistic dogmatism, he was 
implacably opposed alike to the natural- 
ism of Theodore Parker and the trans- 
cendentalism of Emerson and his asso- 
ciates. The latter tendency of thought 
he arraigned in 1839 with a masterly 
treatise, "The Latest Form of Infidelity," 
which, being answered by a prominent 
transcendentalist, evoked a strong re- 



joinder. Among his other theological and 
Biblical treatises were : "Statement of 
Reasons for not Believing the Doctrines 
of Trinitarians Concerning the Nature of 
God and the Person of Christ" (1833) ; 
"The Evidences of the Genuineness of the 
Gospels" (3 vols., 1837-44) ; "Tracts Con- 
cerning Christianity" (1852) ; "A Trans- 
lation of the Gospels" (2 vols.. 1855) ; and 
"The Internal Evidences of the Genuine- 
ness of the Gospels" (1855). 

Professor Norton was also a wide 
reader and intelligent critic of general 
literature and belles lettres ; and, as is 
usual with philosophic thinkers, a great 
admirer of true poetry. During i?33-34, 
in association with Charles Folsom, the 
noted critic and editor of Worcester's 
Dictionary, he engaged in the preparation 
of a quarterly periodical, "The Select 
Journal of Foreign Periodical Literature," 
in which he published numerous contri- 
butions of his own, among them papers 
on "Goethe" and Hamilton's "Men and 
Manners in America." He edited, with 
memoirs, the collected writings of his 
friends. Charles Eliot, in 1817. and Levi 
Frisbie, in 1823 ; and published an edition 
of the "Poems of Mrs. Hemans" (1826), 
and several tracts on the affairs of Har- 
vard College (1824-25). Professor Nor- 
ton was a constant contributor to period- 
icals, such as the "'Literary Miscellany,'' 
"Monthly Anthology," "Christian Exam- 
iner," and "North American Review." 
For the last named he wrote on "Frank- 
lin," "Byron," "Ware's Letters from Pal- 
myra," and a "Memoir of Mrs. Grant of 
Laggan." He also wrote a few short 
poems of considerable merit and delicacy. 
He died in Newport. Rhode Island, which 
had been his summer home in his declin- 
ing years, on September 18, 1852. 

SARGENT, Henry, 

Famoni Painter. 

Henry Sargent was born at Gloucester, 
Massachusetts, November 25, 1770. He 
was educated at the Dummer Academy, 
near Newburyport, and in the Boston 
schools, his father having moved to the 
New England metropolis after the close 
of the Revolutionary War. 

The young man entered his father's 
mercantile establishment after leaving 
school, but found more pleasure in paint- 
ing the figure-head of one of his father's 
ships than in bookkeeping and writing 
business letters. Shortly he began to try 
his hand at painting portraits and making 
copies of pictures, and when by chance 
the celebrated painter and soldier, Colo- 
nel John Trumbull, saw in 1790 his copy 
of Copley's "Watson and the Shark," he 
commended the work so warmly that it 
was decided that Henry should be per- 
mitted to study art seriously ; consequent- 
ly, in 1793, the young man sailed for Lon- 
don, provided with letters from Colonel 
Trumbull to Benjamin West and Copley. 
After four years of profitable study in 
England, he returned to Boston to begin 
the practice of his profession ; but in two 
years he appears to have become tired of 
it, for in 1799 he entered the army, and in 
the War of 1812 he served as aide-de- 
camp to the governor of Massachusetts, 
with the rank of colonel, and was after- 
ward made assistant adjutant-general. 
He twice represented the town of Boston 
in the Legislature, and late in life he again 
turned his attention to art. 

Sargent was an intimate friend of Gil- 
bert Stuart, a member of the Boston 
Artists' Association. The pictures which 
he painted include : "The Landing of the 
Pilgrims," in the Pilgrim Hall at Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts ; "Christ Entering 



into Jerusalem," for which the 'artist re- 
ceived $3,009; '.'The Christ Crucified," 
"The Starved Apothecary," "The Tailor's 
News," "The Dinner Party," "The Tea 
Party," and the full length portrait of 
Peter Faneuil in Faneuil Hall, Boston. 
The ■ Massachusetts Historical Society 
Owns a replica of the portrait of Faneuil, 
and it is believed by some of the mem- 
bers of that society that their portrait is 
an original by Smybert, and that the 
Faneuil Hall portrait is a copy? of, it by 
Sargent. The first painting by Sargent 
of "The Landing of ,the :'PtlgTim^''; was 
ruined by being, ralip.^i ,,041 ap unseasoned 
pine pole, but it appears that he went to 
y/gi^k. ^ndpainted; a .second picture of the 
.^a,^€?iSul?!)eG^,fv/He;Tdied ipi B9st;on, Feb- 
ruary 21; 1845. ■■• ■s:>tni.L; b-i/nOii-Ju ^^U 

JUDSON, Ann Hasseltine, 

Noted Missionary. 

i Ann Hasseltine Judson was born in 
Bradford, Massachusetts, December 22, 
,1789. She received a thorough education, 
and early in life became deeply interested 
in religious matters. She met Rev. Adoni- 
ram Judson in 1810, when he was at An- 
dover Theological wSeminary, preparing 
himself for missionary work, and in 1812 
they were married and she went with 
him to India, being the first woman to 
go as a missionary to foreign lands. They 
were permitted to remain at Serampore 
only a short time, as the East India Com- 
pany was bitterly opposed to the intro- 
duction of the Christian religion into the 
province; then the}- went to Rangoon, 
where she bravely endured the privations 
?ind inconveniences of living under very 
fcryjng conditions. She was of the great- 
est assistance in the missionary work, but 
the severity of her labors and the exhaust- 
ing effect of the climate obliged her to 
come home for a long rest. 

During this period she was not idle. 

however, but lectured extensively in the 
cause of missions, and also wrote a his- 
tory of the Burman mission whick-ild- 
ceived high praise not only in this coun- 
try but abroad. She returned; to Burmah 
in 1823 to find misaiQnary.aflfair^ .prosper- 
ing ; but the next year war broke out be- 
tween the English at ,B,engal and the 
Burman. government, and the lives qi the 
missionaries \yere in danger, as they were 
looked on as spies. Her husband was 
seized in his own house and hurried away 
to what was known as the "death prison." 
Mrs. Judson was strictly guarded in the 
mission house, which had been stripped 
of furniture, her clothingbeing also taken, 
and she was subjected to the brutality of 
her rough guardians. At last she suc- 
ceeded in getting a petition to the gov- 
ernor of the city, and by this means and 
-by bribes to inferior officers she succeed- 
ed in mitigating in some degree the hor- 
rors of her husband's confinement. Later 
he was removed tc? another town, and ar- 
rangements made, for his sacrifice, in 
honor of a general who was to take com- 
mand of a fresh army. . The general was 
suspected of treason and executed, and 
Air. Judson's life was saved. For a year 
and a half Mrs. Judson, with her baby in 
her arms, followed her husband from 
prison to prison, supplying him with 
food, for it was not provided by the gov- 
ernment, and working in every way to 
secure his release. She exercised such 
influence over the mind of the governor 
that though her husband was several 
times condemned to death, with others, 
he was preserved though the rest were 
executed. Of her destitution and suffer- 
ings during this period she has recorded 
the harrowing history, and her heroic en- 
durance shows the strength and great- 
ness of her character. So great was her 
absorption in the trials and anxieties at 
the time that she "seldom reflected on a 
single occurrence of her former life, or 



recollected that she had a friend in exis- engaged in the mercantile business at 

tence out of Ava." \Vhen, at last, peace Matamoras, Mexico. He accumulated a 

wis declared between the two powers, handsome j fortune, and was transferring 

htr husband was released, and together some $200,000 in silver across the coun- 

thfey established a mission, at Amherst, try on the backs of mules, when he was 

where she sought a restoration to health robbed of all by guerillas. Undeterred 

of body, and peace to a mind long dis- by this great misfortune, he again enr 

^racted by agonizing anxieties. Pier con- gaged in business, this time in New 

-stitution was, however, so weakened by Orleans, Louisiana, where he was again 

disease and sufifering, that she died two successful, and where he remamed until 

months after. October 24, 1826. "Thus 1832, when he came north, settling in 

ended the life of one whope 'name will be Alton, Illinois, where he engaged in busi- 

remembered in the churches of Burmah ness with W. S. Oilman. It was in the 

when the pagodas of Gautama shall have warehouse of Godfrey & Oilman that 

falleti.'* - 'Btesides her history of the Bur- Elijah P. Lovejoy lost his life while de- 

inan mission, Mrs. Judson translated the fending his anti-slavery newspaper office 

Burman catechism and the Gospel of against a pro-slavery mob. 

■Matthew into Siamese, aided by a native In 1833 ^^^- Godfrey united with the 

teacher ; assisted in the preparation of a Alton Presbyterian Church, in which he 

Burmese grammar; and made some trans- subsequently beca^me an, eilder, later 

i^tions for the use of the Burmese. Her transferring his connection, to the church 

life was written by Mrs. Emily C. Jud- at AIonticelTo. ^Extensive travel and ob- 

son, and published in New York in: I'Sco. servation had revealed to him the power 

-nt .ui-;.i'fu •>i-!;-; — l_ ■ . -id d^8i <'\ o?f -'female influence over society, and. to 

GODFREY Beniamin"-^ li^ril s^g-jt use his ovvn words, "being desirous to 

^ , ^ „ . ,, ,,„.'■•'. -^.4 ""■.'''^■' act the part of a faithful steward of what 

Fpnnder of Monticello (Illinois) Seminary. , , . . -r 

'' God had placed m mv possession, 1 re- 
Benjamin Godfrey was born at Chat- solved to devote so much of it as would 
ham, Massachusetts. December 4. 1794. erect a building to be dev'oted to the 
Ke came of an old New Er^larid family, moral, intellectual and domestic improve- 
At the early age of nine years he ran ment of females." This was the germ 
away from home and Went to sea. his of Monticello Seminary, Upon the origi- 
first voyage being to Ireland, where he nal building, erected four miles north of 
spent nine years. The War of 181J Alton. Illinois, he expended $53,000. After 
brought him home, and he spent part of it became a chartered institution he acted 
thfe time during that conflict in the United as one of its trustees until his death. 
States naval service. After returning from The institution opened its doors for the 
Ireland he lived for a time with his uncle. reception of pupils on April 11, 1838. and 
Benjamin Godfrey, with whom he studied from that time has been a phenomenal 
and obtained a fair education, including success. Its original building was de- 
a knowledge of navigation. stroyed about 1895, and was replaced by 
He subsequently became master of a one costing $250,000^ and unsurpassed in 
merchantman, and made voyages to architectural beauty, modern improve- 
Italy, Spain, the West Indies, and other ments. and appointments, and complete 
countries. On his last voyage he was equipment, by any educational institution 
shipwrecked near Brasos. Santiago, and in the country. :>-':hf'.>ti ->.': 
lost nearly all his fortune. In 1824 he Captain Godfrey led' an active business 



life, and engaged in vast enterprises, in- 
cluding the building of the Alton &; 
Springfield railroad. In this enterprise he 
lost heavily, but notwithstanding this 
misfortune and his large benefactions, he 
died a wealthy man. He was twice mar- 
ried ; first to Harriet Cooper, of P)alti- 
more, Maryland. November 27, 1817, by 
whom he had twelve children. He was 
married again, August 15. 1839, to R. E. 
Petit, of Hempstead, Long Island, by 
whom he had three children. Captain 
Godfrey died at his suburban residence 
in Godfrey, Illinois, August 13, 1862. His 
widow survived him some twelve years, 
when the homestead descended to the 
children of his youngest son, Benjamin 
Godfrey Jr., also now deceased. 


Friend of Hdncation, Pliilantliropiat. 

Samuel Williston was born at East- 
hampton, Massachusetts, June 17. 1795, 
son of the Rev. Payson Williston (son of 
the Rev. Noah Williston, of West Haven, 
Connecticut), and Sarah Birdseye Willis- 
ton, daughter of the Rev. Nathan Birds- 
eye, of .Stratford, Connecticut. The 
father's salary never exceeded $350 per 
annum besides his settlement; but a 
good share of this was spent in charity, 
a few dollars being subscribed toward the 
struggling young college of Amherst, to 
which the son afterward gave $150,000. 

At ten years of age the son began work 
on a farm, continuing in this occupation 
until he was sixteen, his wages amount- 
ing at no time to more than seven dol- 
lars a month. The greater part of two 
winters he spent in mastering the cloth- 
ier's trade. Until he was ten years old 
he attended the district school in his na- 
tive place, winter and summer, then in 
winter only until he was sixteen, at which 
age his schooling ceased altogether. 
Thenceforth he labored all the year 

round — in the summer on the farm, in 
the winter in the shop. During the winter 
of 1813-14 he was enabled to spend a 
single term at the academy in Westfield, 
and later began the study of Latin, first 
with his father, and then with the Rev. 
Mr. Gould, of Southampton. Wishing 
to avail himself of the privileges offered 
indigent students at Phillips Academy, 
Andover, he went there in 1841, walking 
most of the way, and carrying all he took 
with him tied up in a bundle. For further 
economy he boarded a mile and a half 
from the academy, but barely had he be- 
come recognized as a deserving and prom- 
ising scholar when his eyesight failed 
him, and he was obliged to leave. A se- 
vere and prolonged struggle ensued. 
After several attempts at clerking in 
West Springfield and New York City, 
rendered unsuccessful by the condition 
of his eyes and his general ill health, he 
returned to farm life. 

In 1826 his wife, that she might in- 
crease their then very limited income, 
commenced the business of covering but- 
tons, which, beginning as her own handi- 
work and gradually extending to her 
neighbors, soon employed thousands of 
busy and skillful fingers throughout all 
the section, and, after ten or a dozen 
years, enlisted the aid of machinery, and 
thus laid the foundation of a substantial 

Mr. Williston's career was distinguish- 
ed by many acts of benevolence. In 1837 
he bore a prominent part in the erection 
of the First Church of Easthampton. In 
1841 he established Williston Seminary. 
Early in 1845 ^^ founded the Williston 
Professorship of Rhetoric and Oratory in 
Amherst College, and in the winter of 
1846-47 he founded the Graves (now the 
Williston) Professorship of Greek, and 
one-half of the Hitchcock Professorship 
of Natural Theology and Geology at 
Amherst, these gifts amounting to a sum 



of $50,000 given by him for permanent 
foundations to that institution, besides 
other special donations. Through his 
liberality and public spirit Easthampton 
became one of the largest and most pros- 
perous towns in Hampshire county. He 
built churches, school-houses and town- 
halls, enlarged the grounds and multiplied 
the edifices of Williston Seminary, erect- 
ed Williston Hall, and helped to erect 
other buildings at Amherst College, and 
increased the funds of both these institu- 
tions until his donations to the two 
amounted to nearly half a million. In 
1841 ]\lr. Williston was a member of the 
lower house of the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature, and in 1842-43 a member of the 
Senate. While a member of the Legis- 
lature in 1841 he was chosen by that body 
a trustee of Amherst College. He was 
one of the first trustees of the State Re- 
form School, one of the early trustees of 
Mount Holyoke Seminary, and for many 
years a corporate member of the Ameri- 
can Board. For many years he was a 
member of the corporation of Amherst 
College, during the larger part of which 
time he served upon the presidential com- 
mittee, and upon special committees of 
importance. To him, more than to any 
other one man, Amherst owes its preser- 
vation — its very life. 

On May 2^, 1822, he was married to 
Emily Graves, daughter of Elnathan 
Graves, of Williamsburg, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Williston died at Easthampton, 
Massachusetts, July 18. 1874. 

SEDGWICK, Catharine Maria, 

Brilliant Novelist and Essayist. 

This gifted woman, whose works gave 
her the same rank among female writers 
that Cooper held among male writers, was 
born December 28. 1789. at Stockbridge, 
Massachusetts, daughter of Thomas Sedg- 

wick, speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, Senator, and a Supreme Court 
Judge of Massachusetts. 

Her first book, "New England Life," 
published in 1822, was begun as a re- 
ligious tract, but in the writing it ex- 
panded and took on the form in which it 
is known. It was highly praised for its 
vigor and clearness of style, as well as 
diction, and was also strongly censured 
because of its unfavorable picturing of 
New England puritanism. She followed 
this with "Redwood," in 1827, which met 
with great success, and was republished 
in England and translated into French 
and Italian. Her next work, "Hope Les- 
lie, or Early Times in America," was even 
more successful, and has remained as her 
most popular story. She then produced 
in quick succession "Clarence, a Tale of 
Our Own Times," "Le Bossu: One of the 
Tales of Glauber Spa," and "The Lin- 
woods, or Sixty Years Since in America." 
In 1835 she collected in a volume her 
shorter tales which had appeared in the 
magazines, and in the following year be- 
gan her stories of common life, "The 
Poor Rich Man, and the Rich Poor Man." 
In 1839 she gave her impressions of a 
European journey in "Letters from 
Abroad to Kindred at Home." She wrote 
the "Life of Lucretia M. Davidson" for 
Sparks's "'American Biography," and was 
a frequent contributor to periodicals and 
annuals. She possessed a vigorous in- 
tellect, her style was strong and clear, 
and her diction particularly pure. She 
was thoroughly American in thought, and 
her writings contained faithful transcripts 
of local customs and manners, making 
them faithful depictions of the time in 
which she lived and of which she wrote. 
In 1S71 her friend, Mary E. Dewey, pub- 
lished "Life and Letters of Catharine M. 
Sedgwick." She died July 31, 1867. 



HENSHAW, David, ii u> t:.Mi.:.M 
Man of Affairs, Conerimiiiiiiti:'. 

David Henshaw was born at Leicester, 
Massachusetts, April 2, 1791. His ances- 
tors were among the original proprietors 
of the town, his grandfather, Daniel Hen- 
shaw, removing there from Boston in 
i;?48, while his father, David Henshaw, 
was a Revolutionary patriot, and for 
many years during the prime of his life 
was a highly respectfed magistrate. An 
early American ancestor was Joshua 
Henshaw, who lived in Dorchester in 
1668 ; and his uncle, William Henshaw, 
was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. 

David Henshaw spent his boyhood on 
his father's farm, and attended the free 
schools of his native town, and afterward 
Leicester Academy. At the age of six- 
teen he becarne an apprentice to a drug 
house in Boston, and soon after he be- 
came of age he established himself in a 
store of his own, in connection with his 
brothers and David Rice, which was very 
successful, and continued in that business 
until 1829. He devoted all his leisure 
time to reading and study, and, taking 
an interest in politics, became noted as 
one of the best political writers of his 
time. His natural talents in connection 
with his mental culture enabled him to 
hold a prominent and leading position in 
the Democratic party, not only in his 
own State, but in New England, and, in- 
deed, in the Union. Besides his political 
essays,, he contributed to the periodical 
and daily press. After retiring from busi- 
ness, in 1826 and 1S30 Henshaw repre- 
sented the district in both houses of the 
legislature of the commonwealth. In 
1830 he was appointed collector in the 
custom house at Boston ; in 1839 he was 
sent to the House of Representatives 
from Boston, and served through one 
term. At the same time he interested 
himself in a number of railroad projects, 

and even before the charter was obtained, 
he expressed a willingness to invest his, 
whole fortune in the Boston & Worcester 
railroad. Through his agency in devis- 
ing and pushing forward this roa4, a.s: 
well as those between Boston and Provi-, 
dence and Boston and Albany, the busi-; 
ness of Boston was placed ten years it); 
advance of what it would otherwise have 
been. On July 24, 1843, he was appoint- 
ed Secretary of the Navy by President 
Tyler, but he held the office only a few 
months, as the appointment was not con- 
firmed by the Senate, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Walker Gilmer. He 
spent the last years of his life at his an- 
cestral home in Leicester, and died tli^re 
November 11, 1862. .-i ,. ■.]'r/i ^'cn^^^. 

HITCHCOCK, Samuel Austin, 

Mannfactarer, PMlantliropiBt. 

Samuel Austin Hitchcock was born at 
Brimfield, Massachusetts, January 9, 
1794. His grandfather was a clergyman 
in Connecticut. His father was a hatter 
in Brimfield. His mother, a woman, of 
energy and determination, did what she 
could to educate her son, although cir- 
cumstances were suph that his , only 
schooling w^as received at the district 
school of his native town. One of the 
teachers there. Colonel Issachar ,Bro\vn, 
taught young Hitchcock the principal part 
of what he learned from books. The bo^ 
subsequently taught school himself for a 
term, and was solicited to continue, but 
he preferred to go into business. He 
longed, however, for more and better edu- 
cation, and would haVe thought it an in- 
estimable prrvM*lege if he' could have had 
a single term at Monson Academy, like 
the other boys of the town. This is 
doubtless,, -^he secret of his munificent do- 
nations to educational, institutiorisj, an,c!| 
especially those scholarships in aid of in- 
digent and meritorious students. 



Young" Hitchcock learned the cotton 
manufacturers' trade in ^Vebster, Massa- 
chusetts, from the Slaters, and for six 
years had charge of a factory in South- 
bridge. He afterward resided in Boston, 
doing business there as a merchant. Hav- 
ing thus laid the foundation of his for- 
tune, he retired from active service and 
returned to his native town, where, chief- 
ly by wise investments in manufacturing, 
railroad, state and national stocks, he ac- 
cumulated a large property. Mr. Hitch- 
cock was selectman and overseer of the 
poor in Brimfield, and represented the 
town in the Legislature of Massachusetts. 
For many years he was treasurer of the 
parish of Brimfield, and president of the 
bank in Southbridge. To the church of 
Brimfield, of which he was a member, he 
gave a fund of $5,000 toward the support 
of the minister. He established the 
Hitchcock Free School in Brimfield, en- 
dowing it with buildings and funds at an 
expense of $80,000. His donations to 
Amherst College began in 1848, and form- 
ed an aggregate of at least $175,000. They 
were mostly given as permanent funds, 
and were chiefly for scholarships, a pro- 
fessorship, and kindred purposes. He 
died in Brimfield, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber 24, 1873. ..../.:•: 

LYON, Mary, =\ ,^. 

Fonnder of Mt. Holyoke Seminary. 

Mary Lyon was born at Buckland, Mas- 
sachusetts, February 28, 1797, daughter of 
Aaron and Jemima (Shepard) Lyon. 

Her father died when she was very 
young, the family was placed in straight- 
ened circumstances, and with an eager 
desire to obtain an education, she could 
secure no better advantages than those 
afforded by the village schools. She im- 
proved so well her limited opportunities 
that at the age of eighteen she obtained 
a position as school teacher at Shelburne 

Falls, on a salary of seventy-five cents a 
week. She saved money enough to pay 
for schooling at Sanderson Academy at 
Ashfield, where she studied sometimes 
twenty hours a day, and excelled all her 
classmates ; then entered the school of 
Rev. Joseph Emerson, at Byfield, near 
Newburyport. Mr. Emerson believed in 
giving women the same educational ad- 
vantages as men, and his opinions, which 
at that period were considered very ad- 
vanced, without doubt influenced his am- 
bitious pupil. In 1824 she went to Am- 
herst, Massachusetts, to study chemistry 
under Professor Eaton, and in that same 
years became the assistant of Miss Zil- 
pah Grant, who also had been a pupil of 
Mr. Emerson, and who had become the 
principal of the Adams Female Academy 
at Derry, New Hampshire. This semi- 
nary, it is claimed, was the first institu- 
tion for women in this country to have 
a systematic course of study with ex- 
aminations for admission to the different 
grades, and the first to grant what are 
now called diplomas. Miss Lyon remain- 
ed here, spending the winter months, 
when the academy was closed, in teaching 
at Ashfield and Buckland, until 182S, 
when Miss Grant removed to Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, and opened a school in 
which \yere, developed the principles de- 
rived from Mr. Emerson originally, and 
put into practice at Derry, although Miss 
Grant failed to realize her cherished de- 
sire of founding an endowed institution 
with buildings and equipment like those 
possessed by men's colleges. Miss Lyon 
remained at Ipswich as one of Miss 
Grant's assistants until late in the year 
1834, when she gave up teaching in order 
to raise a fund for establishing a school 
of high order which young women in 
moderate circumstances might enter. By 
personal solicitation, and in the face of a 
prejudice against higher education for 
women, she raised a small fund ; Deer- 

.c>iio: .0 "T'}<!f)'r'):.n* 


' H ■- 

.nObU\)~! JO VJIMl'JiV -3t")> i!i 


field, Sunderland, and South Hadley each 
made attempts to secure the projected in- 
stitution, the last named succeeding. 

On October 3, 1836, the corner-stone of 
the first building of Mt. Holyoke Semi- 
nary (now college) was laid, and in the 
autumn of 1837 the institution was open- 
ed. It was Miss Lyon's hope that Miss 
Grant might be associate principal, but 
this proved impossible. One feature of 
the system established, though not origi- 
nal with Miss Lyon, was that all the 
domestic labor was performed by the 
scholars and teachers. As at Ipswich, 
a strong religious influence was brought 
to bear upon the pupils, and the mis- 
sionary spirit in particular was cultivated. 
During the twelve years in which Miss 
Lyon was principal at Mt. Holyoke Semi- 
nary, several thousand yovmg women 
came imder her instruction and personal 

She published, among other works, 
"Tendencies of the Principles Embraced 
and the System Adopted in the Mount 
Holyoke vSeminary" (1840). Miss Lyon 
died at South Hadley, March 5. 1849. Her 
biography was written by President 
Hitchcock of Amherst College. 


Manufacturer, Philantliropist. 

John Bromfield was born at Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, April 11, 1779. His 
father, John Bromfield, was a direct de- 
scendant of Edward Bromfield, the first 
of this family to settle in America in 1675. 
He settled at Boston, Massachusetts, and 
his mansion-house, surrounded by spa- 
cious grounds, was situated on the street 
that now l:)ears his name. The family of 
Bromfield was distinguished in the annals 
of English history, and William Brom- 
field, one of the ancestors, was appointed 
lieutenant of ordnance in the Tower by 
Queen Elizabeth, and owned large estates 
in the vicinity of London. 

John Bromfield received his primary 
education from his brother, and in 1792 
entered an academy in Byfield. At the 
age of fourteen he obtained employment 
in the counting-house of Larkin & Hurd, 
of Charlestown. In 1809 he went to 
China as agent for Theodore Lyman Sr., 
and was joint supercargo of the "Ata- 
hualpa" with William Sturgis, and re- 
mained in China as Mr. Lyman's agent 
after the departure of the ship. He ac- 
quired quite a fortune during his resi- 
dence abroad, which was augmented, as 
he said, "beyond his hopes or desires." 
Unlike the majority who accumulate 
wealth, he felt disposed to devote the 
greater portion of his fortune to philan- 
thropic works. He cared little for wealth 
or display, and desired that his gifts 
should be bestowed without the author 
being known. He left $10,000 to the city 
of his birth for planting and preserving 
trees in the streets and keeping the side- 
walks in order, gave $25,000 to the Bos- 
ton Athenaeum, and at his death willed 
over $100,000 to various charitable institu- 
tions. Mr. Bromfield never married, as 
he lived much within himself, and found 
his chief companionship among his books. 
He was a profound thinker, an able finan- 
cier, and a prudent business man. He 
systematically avoided society, lived with 
economy, and gave liberally of his in- 
come to his relations. His charitable con- 
tributions were incessant, and always 
given in secret. The practical kindliness 
of his nature is well shown in the follow- 
ing story of one of his generous deeds. 
On one of his winter passages to Europe 
he found the sailors suffering extremely 
from handling frozen ropes with their 
naked hands. Having been brought up to 
do things as well as read about them, he 
took one of his thick overcoats and made 
with his own hands a pair of mittens for 
every sailor. He died at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. December 8, 1849. 




Condnotor on "Undergronnd Railroad." 

Abner Loveland was born at South- 
field, Massachusetts, November 5. 1796, 
the eighth generation from Robert Love- 
land. The name Loveland is derived 
irom the Manor of Loveland, Norwich, 
Norfolk county, England. The maternal 
side was of Scotch- Welsh, the paternal 
Saxon, and settled in England prior to A. 
D. 1066, the date of the Norman conquest. 
Sir John Loveland, mayor of London, 
built the church of St. Michael's, Cook's 
Lane, in which his monument stands. Sir 
John's brother, Robert Loveland, was 
father of the founders of the family in 
this country. He was supercargo of the 
ship in which he and his family sailed; 
he died on the voyage, but his widow 
and sons Robert, John and Samuel land- 
ed at Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1635. 
Robert remained at Boston ; John and 
Samuel, with the widow, removed to 
V\'^ethersfield, Connecticut, and bought a 
tract of land from the Indian chief. Se- 
quin. Thus they were among the found- 
ers of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethers- 
field, being of the sixty bold spirits who 
penetrated the wilderness from Boston 
and settled these three towns in Con- 
necticut in October. 1635. They arrived 
in time to send their gifts of corn and 
wampum to found old Harvard College, 
to reap the first fruits of the first New 
England printing press in 1639, and to 
read the first book printed from that press 
in 1640. 

Robert Loveland was born in 1602, and 
became a trader between Europe and the 
American colonies. The New London 
public records show that he was a mari- 
ner between New London and Boston in 
1658. In 1660 he was supercargo of the 
ship "Hope," on the voyage from Malaga, 
Spain. The colonial records show that 
Robert Loveland, of Boston, was at New 

London in 1662, and was taxed there in 
1666. He left the sea about this time, 
entering largely into the commercial en- 
terprises of New London. He died there 
in 1668, quite a wealthy man. His 
brother John died at Hartford in 1670, 
and Samuel was drowned at an earlier 
date. Robert's son, Thomas, born in 
1649, was in 1670 the only man in Amer- 
ica bearing the name Loveland, and as 
shown by the records of the court of 
Hartford was that year made a freeman 
at Wethersfield, this privilege being 
granted to those of twenty-one years of 
age, who owned real estate and were 
members of some Congregational church. 
Thomas's son, Thomas, of Glastonbury, 
had a .son, Elisha, born in 1709, whose son 
Elisha was born May 4, 1738. From rec- 
ords of Glastonbury is found Elisha Love- 
land's family record. Elisha Loveland 
served in the Revolutionary War, in the 
Connecticut line, from 1775 to December 
20. 1780. Elisha's son, Abner, born April 
18. 1764, at sixteen years of age also 
enlisted in the United States army for 
three months. Afterward he engaged in 
the privateer service, was taken prisoner, 
and confined at Quebec and Montreal, 
escaped, was recaptured and imprisoned 
at Quebec until the close of the war, and 
then returned to Glastonbury and mar- 
ried Lois Hodge, January 11, 1787. 

Abner Loveland, son of Abner and Lois 
(Hodge) Loveland. migrated in 1819, to 
Ohio and arrived on November 13th at 
Wellington, Lorain county. The follow- 
ing year he removed to a section which 
subsequently became Brighton, and built 
the first human habitation in that town- 
ship. In 1821 his father's family from 
Massachusetts joined him. In 1833 he 
removed to Wellington again. An honest, 
practical, sagacious man. possessed of the 
Qualities needed in a hardy pioneer, Abner 
Loveland was finally owner of a consider- 
able estate, and became much interested 

MASS— 16 



in raising blooded stock. He was of reti- 
cent and retiring disposition, never seek- 
ing notoriety, yet a man of strong con- 
victions and ready to defend them at any 
cost. He was a great reader, and in his 
house might always be found the best 
secular and religious books and news- 
papers of the times. He was a constant 
subscriber to the New York "Observer," 
New York "Tribune," and later to the 
"Independent," and was a great admirer 
of the writings of Horace Greeley, Henry 
Ward Beecher and other Abolitionists. 
Originally a Whig, he became an active 
Abolitionist, his house being a well known 
station on the "Underground Railroad." 
His efforts to aid runaway slaves extend- 
ed from the Kentucky border to Lake 
Erie, at a point opposite a friendly sta- 
tion in Canada. He was one of the re- 
sponsible parties arrested in 1858 in the 
Oberlin-Wellington rescue case in which 
one John Price, an escaped slave from 
Kentucky, was kidnapped at Oberlin, 
Ohio, and while on the way south with 
his alleged owner was rescued at Well- 
ington by Abolitionists who ignored the 
fugitive slave law. This famous case was 
one of the events of the period from 1856 
to i860 that widely awakened public opin- 
ion at the north, and resulted in the con- 
solidation of the Republican party and the 
election of Mr. Lincoln. In church con- 
nections Mr. Loveland was a Congrega- 
tionalist. He was a strong advocate of 
temperance, and himself a teetotaler. 

In 1826 he married Pamelia De Wolf, a 
woman of education and refinement, from 
Otis, Massachusetts, who brought sun- 
shine and happiness into every house- 
hold she entered. She bore him four 
children : Celestia. Correlia, Edwin and 
Frank Clarence. She died at Welling- 
ton, June 5, 1862. Mr. Loveland died at 
Wellington, Ohio, March 2, 1879. 

DIXON, Joseph, 

Prominent Inventor. 

Joseph Dixon was born in Marblehead, 
Massachusetts, January 18, 1799. He was 
self-educated, and early displayed re- 
markable mechanical ingenuity. His first 
invention, a machine for cutting files, 
was made in 1820. He learned the trade 
of printer, lithographer and wood en- 
graver, and later studied medicine and 
became an expert chemist. He also stud- 
ied photography, and in 1839 followed 
up the experiments of Daguerre and 
succeeded in taking portraits by the 
camera, applying a reflector to the camera 
to prevent the reversed position before 
obtained, which Professor S. E. B. Morse 
undertook to have patented for him in 
England. He built the first double-crank 
engine, and applied it to the locomotion 
of the engine itself. He first used the pro- 
cess of transferring on stone, used in li- 
thography. He also invented plato-lithog- 
raphy, long before it was believed to be 
of any particular value, and when he 
found that by it banknotes could readily 
be counterfeited, he invented and patent- 
ed the use of colored inks in printing 
banknotes so as to prevent counterfeit- 
ing. His process was used by all the 
banks, but without compensation to him- 
self. He perfected the process of making 
collodion for use in photography, and 
claimed to have first discovered the anti- 
friction metal afterward known as "Bab- 
bitt metal." He first demonstrated the 
practicability of melting steel. He in- 
vented the plumbago or graphite crucible, 
and established a factory for its manufac- 
ture at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1827, re- 
moving it to Jersey City, New Jersey, in 
1847, "^vhere it grew to be the largest of 
the kind in the world. He also used 
graphite in the making of lead pencils. 
He died in Jersey City, New Jersey, June 
17, 1869. 



MAY, Samuel Joseph, 

Anti-Slavery Advocate. 

Samuel Joseph May was born in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, September 12, 1797. 
He was a graduate of Harvard College 
in the class of 181 7, and after studying 
theology at Cambridge became a Uni- 
tarian clergyman, and in 1822 accepted a 
call to a church in Brooklyn, New York. 

He was early interested in the anti- 
slavery cause, and preached as well as 
wrote in favor of it, advocating immedi- 
ate emancipation, and for which he was 
mobbed and burnt in effigy at Syracuse, 
New York, in 1830. He was a member 
of the first New England Anti-Slavery 
Society, formed in Boston in 1832, and 
eagerly championed Prudence Crandall 
when she was persecuted and arrested 
for receiving colored girls into her school 
at Canterbury, Connecticut. Mr. May 
was also a member of the Philadelphia 
convention of 1833 which formed the 
American Anti-Slavery Society, and was 
one of the signers of the "Declaration of 
Sentiments," the author of which was 
William Lloyd Garrison. For eighteen 
years he was the general agent of the 
Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, and 
as such lectured and traveled extensively. 
He had charge of the Unitarian church at 
South Scituate, Massachusetts, from 1836 
to 1842, becoming in the latter year, at 
the request of Horace Mann, the principal 
of the Girls' Normal School at Lexington. 
Massachusetts. In 1845 ^^ became pastor 
of the Unitarian Society at Syracuse. 
New York, which position he retained 
until three years before his death. Mr. 
May was always more or less active in 
many educational and charitable enter- 
prises, and did a great deal toward im- 
proving the public school system of Syra- 
cuse. He was called the St. John Apostle 
of the Gospel of Freedom, on account of 
his gentle voice and manner. He was 

both gentle and firm, courageous, unwear- 
ied and unselfish in the anti-slavery 
cause. He published: "Education of the 
Faculties" (Boston, 1846) ; "Revival of 
Education" (Syracuse, New York. 1855), 
and "Recollections of the Anti-Slavery 
Conflict" (Boston, 1868). Mr. May died 
in Syracuse, July i. 1871. 

DOWSE, Thomas, 

Ardent Bibliophile. 

Thomas Dowse was born in Charles- 
town. Massachusetts, December 28. 1772, 
son of Eleazer Dowse, a leather dresser. 
When he was three years old his father's 
house was burned by the British soldiers, 
and he was taken to Sherburne, Massa- 
chusetts. He served an apprenticeship to 
his father, and in 1793 removed to Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts, where he obtained 
employment with a leather dresser. He 
was an ardent bibliophile, and every 
spare dollar was laid aside for the pur- 
chase of some rare or beautiful book. He 
entered into the leather-dressing busi- 
ness for himself in Cambridgeport in 
1803, met with financial success, and, con- 
tinuing to invest a large proportion of his 
income in books, he accumulated a library 
of five thousand volumes, which was esti- 
mated to have cost about $40,000. In 
1820 he drew as a prize in a lottery a valu- 
able set of engravings and water-color 
paintings, which he gave to the Boston 
Athenaeum. By his will he bequeathed 
property to the value of $100,000 to Har- 
v^rd University, but the will was changed 
because of a prank of some Harvard stu- 
dents who destroyed a sign of a golden 
lamb in front of Mr. Dowse's shop, and 
the property was diverted to the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. A permanent 
fund of $10,000 was set aside for the pres- 
ervation and care of his library. He died 
in Cambridgeport. Massachusetts, No- 
vember 4, 1856. 




Astronomer, Pioneer Seismologist. 

John Winthrop was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, December 19, 1714. His 
father was Adam Winthrop, a magistrate 
of the colony ; his grandfather and great- 
grandfather were also named Adam, the 
latter being the eldest son of the first 
Governor John Winthrop. 

In 1732 John Winthrop was graduated 
A. B. at Harvard College, and six years 
later was appointed Hollis Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy to 
succeed Isaac Greenwood. During the 
forty years he held this chair, he was rated 
the foremost scientist in America, and 
exerted great influence upon the opinions 
of Franklin and Count Rumford, as well 
as upon the thought of the day. He was 
a pioneer in modern scientific methods, 
and contributed much by his observations 
and experiments to developing physics to 
its present perfection. In 1761 and agam 
in 1769 he observed the transit of Venus, 
on the former occasion leading an expe- 
dition to Newfoundland at the expense of 
the General Court, probably the first 
scientific commission fitted out in the 
colonies. This incident furnished the 
topics for two poems from his pen, pub- 
lished in "Pietas et Gratulatio" (1761) ; 
and his lectures on the second observa- 
tion, made in Cambridge, were publish- 
ed at the request of the faculty and stu- 
dents of the college. His report of the 
transit of Mercury in 1740 was contribu- 
ted to the forty-second volume of the 
"Transactions" of the Royal Society, and 
led to his election as a fellow. He made 
further additions to astronomical science 
by his observations on comets and me- 
teors, writing two lectures on comets in 
1759; an "Account of Several Fiery Me- 
teors" (1765) ; and his famous "Cogitata 

de Cometis," communicated to the Royal 
Society by Dr. Franklin in 1766. 

It is, however, as the real founder of 
the science of seismology that he deserves 
the most conspicuous notice. In the 
earthquake of November 18, 1755, he no- 
ticed for the first time in the history of 
science that the disturbance of the earth's 
crust were in the form of waves, iand 
transmitted a pendulum-like motion to 
buildings and objects on the surface. 
Strikingly in advance of the science of 
the day in his methods of systematic ex- 
perimentation and deduction, he was the 
first to apply computations to the phe- 
nomena, thereby discovering the analogy 
lietween seismic motions and musical 
vibrations, and also the principle that the 
quicker the motion the shorter the wave 
lengths of the disturbance. Moreover, 
he attributed the original cause to the 
action of heat. These views, set forth 
in his "Lecture on Earthquakes" (1755) 
could not but excite the opposition of the 
clergy, and were accordingly attacked by 
Rev. Thomas Prince, of Boston, who 
feared that orthodox theology would suf- 
ler in consequence of their promulgation. 
Professor Winthrop replied in his master- 
ful "Answer to Dr. Prince's Letter on 
Earthquakes" (1756), stating the princi- 
ple since repeatedly reiterated, that the 
acknowledgment of the agency of second 
causes in no sense overturns theism. In 
his personal beliefs he was thoroughly 
orthodox, believing, as Eliot tells us, the 
"truths of Christianity from study and 
conviction." and "had the consolation of 
our divine religion during his latter 
years." In his "Lecture on Comets" he 
naively observes : "It is not to be doubt- 
ed that the All-wise Author of nature de- 
signed so remarkable a sort of bodies for 
important purposes, both natural and 
moral, in his creation. The moral pur- 
poses seem not very difficult to be found. 


Hon. John Winthrop, of Cambridge, Professor of Mathematics, Harvard. 
1738-1779, Judge of Probate, 1775-1779 



Such grand and unusual appearances tend 
to arouse mankind, who are apt to fall 
asleep while all things continue as they 
were; to awaken their attention and to 
direct it to the Supreme Governor of the 
universe, who they would be in danger of 
totally forgetting were nature always to 
glide along with an uniform tenor." 

In addition to his professional duties he 
was for many years and until his death 
judge of probate for Middlesex county. 
Upon the accession of Governor Thomas 
Hutchinson in 1769, he was chosen one 
of the council, but on account of his 
staunch advocacy of the charter-rights of 
the colony, attempted to be abrogated by 
act of parliament, he was in 1774 removed 
by royal mandate, along with James Bow- 
doin and Samuel Dexter. Upon the 
achievement of independence, however, 
he was rechosen to the position. In addi- 
tion to the works already mentioned he 
published "Two Lectures on the Paral- 
lax" (1769). The degree of LL. D. was 
conferred on him by the University of 
Edinburgh in 1771. and by Harvard Col- 
lege in 1773. He was also a fellow of the 
college from 1765 until his death, and a 
member of the American Philosophical 
Society. Although his brilliant writings 
are of but little value to physics in its 
present advanced stage of development. 
he laid the foundations of Harvard's pre- 
eminence in scientific inquiry, and rightly 
holds first place among scientists of 
America. His son. James Winthrop. a 
patriot soldier and for many years judge 
of the court of common pleas, was also 
distinguished for his historical and scien- 
tific investigations and wrote "An At- 
tempt to Translate Part of the Apoca- 
lypse of St. John into Familiar Language" 
(1794) : he was librarian of liarvard Col- 
lege (1772-87). Professor \\'inthrop 
died in Cambridge, Alassachusetts. May 
3' 1779- 

DEXTER, Timothy, 

Eccentric Character. 

Timothy Dexter was born in Maiden, 
Massachusetts, January 22, 1743. He 
early became an apprentice to the leather- 
dressing trade, in which he proved so pro- 
ficient that in 1764 he began bu.^iness on 
his own account in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts. His subsequent great wealth 
was entirely the product of his own in- 
dustry and shrewdness. The latter qual- 
ity was especially displayed in the pur- 
chase of the depreciated Continental 
money, which, after Hamilton's funding 
system went into operation, became sud- 
denly increased in value. 

With the accession of wealth, Dexter's 
eccentricity of character asserted itself, 
and he made efforts both desperate and 
ridiculous to attain social prominence. 
He assumed the title of "Lord," and most 
earnestly endeavored to attract the notice 
of the good folk of first Boston and then 
Salem. Failing in this, he removed to 
Xewburyport, where he purchased two 
large houses, one of which he afterwards 
sold at a profit, while the other he fitted 
up most extravagantly. The grotesque 
traditions concerning him, still current in 
the east, are almost incredible. His 
library was completely equipped with ele- 
gant books, his taste for literature, how- 
ever, going no further than the beauty 
of their bindings. His art gallery was 
supplied in a like manner, he having com- 
missioned a young connoisseur to pur- 
chase a number of paintings in Europe. 
Dexter unhesitatingly rejected all the 
masterpieces, and would only accept those 
that were worthless. He kept a poet 
laureate whose rhymes, when unaccept- 
able to his master, were rewarded with 
cuffs, blows, and sometimes pistol shots. 
Dexter's mansion was magnificent with 
minarets and other architectural d^^vices 



alien to the quiet New England atmos- 
phere. In his garden was a group of forty 
enormous columns, surrounded with 
mammoth statues of the world's great 
men, himself being included among the 
number, with the modest inscription, "I 
am the greatest man in the East." The 
cost of this freakish embellishment was 
about $15,000. His coach-and-four were 
of the most conspicuous style, and a 
crowd of wondering and jeering people 
generally followed him on his drives. 
Although so seemingly imbecile, he was 
nevertheless singularly successful in all 
business ventures, and attempts to trick 
him in such enterprises were sure, by 
either chance or cunning, to result in his 
eventual good fortune. A troublesome 
neighbor, his absurd conduct often 
brought horse-whipping and like atten- 
tions upon him. Happening to be in Bos- 
ton when the news of the death of Louis 
XVI. was received. Dexter hastened to 
Newburyport and had the passing-bell 
tolled before the tidings of the monarch's 
death were circulated. He appeared as 
an author in the volume "A Pickle for the 
Knowing Ones." Upon one occasion he 
had a fine cofifin made, a tomb prepared, 
and even went so far as to carry on a 
mock funeral. So strange a character, 
was, moreover, not content with mere 
eccentricity for its expression. Dexter 
was dissipated to an extraordinary degree 
of abandonment, and, although toward 
the end of his life he appeared to have 
shown some repentance for his many 
follies, yet nothing but absolute insanity 
can excuse him altogether. He died at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, October 
22, 1806. CSee his life by S. L. Knapp). 

BARTLET, William, 

Liberal Friend of Education. 

William Rartlet was born at Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts. January 31. 1748, a 
descendant of John Bartlet, of Newbury, 

1635. His parents were esteemed for 
their moral worth and respected for their 

A biographer has said of him: "By 
nature he was liberally gifted. There 
was a singular analogy between his men- 
tal and corporal structure. His firm, 
athletic, commanding frame had a coun- 
terpart in a mind of unusual comprehen- 
siveness and energy. He possessed a 
quick perception, an accurate discrimina- 
tion, a solid and correct judgment, united 
with great ardor, decision and persever- 
ance. His advantages for education were 
simply those of a common school, but the 
ardor and activity of his mind supplied a 
multitude of defects." Engaging in busi- 
ness, he rose from comparative poverty 
lo affluence, and in the most liberal but 
modest manner distributed his wealth. 
Temperance, the Education Society, home 
and foreign missions, appealed to him 
strongly ; but Andover Theological Semi- 
nary was the chief object of his care and 
beneficence. In 1806 Professor Eliphalet 
Pearson, former principal of Phillips 
Academy, returned to Andover to live, 
and with the trustees and patrons began 
to plan a divinity school in the interest 
of the old or moderate Calvinism, in op- 
position to the Unitarianism which had 
become dominant at Harvard. About the 
same time, Mr. Bartlet and another lay- 
man of Newburyport, Moses Brown, in- 
fluenced by their pastor, Dr. Samuel 
Spring, were discussing the founding of 
a divinity school in the interest of the 
new or Hopkinsian Calvinism, their in- 
tention being to locate it at Newbury. 
A third layman, John Norris, of Salem, 
who had conceived a similar project, was 
induced to join them. The two sets of 
founders, previously unknown to each 
other, on becoming acquainted with 
each other's designs, were desirous of 
uniting their funds in one great institu- 
tion ; and, for the sake of such a union 



were willing on each side to do all they 
could, consistently with a good con- 
science, to meet the views of those on 
the other side. The union, brought about 
mainly in consequence of Mr. Bartlet's 
firmness, was consummated May lo, 1808, 
eight months after the founding of the 
seminary, Messrs. Bartlet, Brown and 
Norris receiving the title of associate 
founders, each giving $10,000. and Mr. 
Bartlet an additional amount of $10,000 
constituting a fund for the support of two 
professors and for the aid of students. 
Subsequently Mr. Bartlet gave $15,000 to 
make the endowment of one of the profes- 
sorships wholly his own work. He erect- 
ed also the chapel, Bartlet Hall, and three 
houses for professors, besides purchas- 
ing the lands connected with them at an 
aggregate cost of $75,000. In addition he 
bequeathed $50,000, making his total 
gifts $160,000. 

The second associate founder, and the 
only one who was a church member, 
Moses Brown, had, like William Bartlet, 
risen to prosperity by his own efforts, be- 
ginning as a chaise-maker and finally en- 
gaging in the shipping business. In addi- 
tion to his contribution to the associate 
foundation, he gave in 1819 $25,000 to en- 
dow the professorship of ecclesiastical 
history. His granddaughter gave a house 
for the use of the occupant of this chair. 
John Xorris, of Salem, the third associate 
founder, was a merchant and a member 
of the Massachusetts Senate. He was 
deeply interested in missions and at first 
was inclined to give $5,000 only toward 
the endowment fund, but being persuad- 
ed by his wife that "the missionary work 
and the seminary are the same," he in- 
creased his subscription. She was his sole 
heir, and by her will the endowment was 
increased by $30,000. 

Mr. Bartlet's wife approved his gifts to 
the seminary, and was a benefactress of 
many a needy student. Mr. Bartlet died 
at Newburyport, February 8, 1841. 

MELVILL, Thomas, 

Snbjeot of Holmes's "Last Leaf" Poem. 

Thomas Melvill was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, June 16, 175 1, son of 
Allan and Jean (Cargillj Melvill, and 
grandson of Thomas Melvill, minister of 
Scoonie parish, Fifeshire, Scotland. 

Left an orphan when ten years of age, 
the lad was educated by his maternal 
grandmother, Mrs. Mary Cargill, who is 
said to have been a relative of the cele- 
brated and eccentric Dr. Abernethy. He 
was graduated at the College of New Jer- 
sey (Princeton) in 1769, later receiving 
the degree of A. M. from his olnia mater 
and from Harvard. He visited Scotland 
in 1771, and on his return to Boston in 
1773 entered with spirit into the patriotic 
movements of the time. He was a mem- 
ber of the Long Room Club ; was in sym- 
pathy with the Sons of Liberty ; and was 
one of the "Indians" who actively par- 
ticipated in the "Boston Tea Party" on 
the night of December 16, 1773; some of 
the lea taken from his shoes that night 
is still preserved by the family. In 1774 
he was married to Priscilla, daughter of 
John Scollay, a prominent Boston mer- 
chant, and among his descendants was 
Herman Melvill, the author. 

Thomas Melvill was appointed an aide 
to General Warren before the battle of 
Bunker Hill, and later was a captain in 
Colonel Craft's regiment of artillery. He 
commanded a detachment of artillery 
sent to Nantasket to watch the move- 
ments of the British fleet, and he served 
in the Rhode Island campaigns of 1777 
and 1779. having been promoted to ma- 
jor. Early in the latter year Melvill re- 
turned to his commercial avocation in 
Boston, for there is a record of his at- 
tendance at a meeting of merchants held 
in Faneuil Hall. June 16, 1779, to take 
measures for reducing and regulating the 
price of merchandise and of enhancing the 
value of the Continental or paper money. 



In the same year he was elected fire- 
ward, and when he resigned in 1825 the 
fire board passed a vote of thanks to 
"Thos. Melvill, Esq., for the zeal, intre- 
pidity and judgment with which he has 
on all occasions discharged his duty as a 
fireward for forty-six years in succession, 
and for twenty-five as chairman of the 
board." When the custom house was es- 
tablished in Boston, in 17S6, he was ap- 
pointed surveyor; in 1789 he was made 
inspector, and upon the death of James 
Lovell, in 1814, he was appointed naval 
officer of the port. The last named posi- 
tion he held until 1829. He was in the 
State Legislature in 1832. Melvill was 
the last man in Boston to wear the cocked 
hat and small clothes of the P^evolution- 
ary period, and his quaint and picturesque 
figure inspired Oliver Wendell Holmes to 
write his poem, "The Last Leaf," in 
which the following stanza occurs : 

I know it is a sin 

For me to sit and grin 

At him here; 
But the old three-cornered liat. 
And the breeches and all that 

Are so queer! 

'Tlis aspect among the crowds of a 
later generation." wrote Dr. Holmes, "re- 
mind me of a withered leaf which has 
held to its stem through the storms of 
autumn and winter, and finds itself still 
clinging to its bough while the new 
growths of spring are bursting their buds 
and spreading their foliage around it." 
Major Melvill died in Boston, September 
16, 1832. 

PHILLIPS, Samuel, 

Distinguished Educator. 

Samuel Phillips, founder of Phillips 
Academy. Andover, Massachusetts, was 
born at North Andover, Massachusetts, 
February 7, 1752, fourth son of Hon. 
Samuel and Elizabeth (Barnard) Phil- 

lips. His father, a graduate of Harvard 
College in 1734, was master of the gram- 
mar school in the south parish of An- 
dover for some time, then removing to 
the north parish, where he carried on the 
business of a merchant. He was a deacon 
of the church for fifty years; represented 
Andover in the General Court; was a 
member of the Governor's Council pre- 
vious to the Revolution, and for many 
years was a civil magistrate. 

His son, Samuel Phillips, fifth of the 
name, was fitted for college at Dummer 
Academy, Byfield, Massachusetts, and 
was graduated at Harvard College in 
177T. standing seventh in a class of sixty- 
three. He was a founder or a leader of 
three associations formed for scientific 
or patriotic purposes, and was highly es- 
teemed by his fellows. Returning to An- 
dover, he succeeded his father as town 
clerk in 1773 (though the records were 
kept by his wife), and treasurer; in 1774 
he was on committees to frame non-im- 
portation resolutions, and in 1776 he 
erected a powder-mill to supply the Con- 
tinental troops. From 1775 until 1780 he 
was a member of the Provincial Congress, 
and served on important committees, 
thrice conferring with Washington on 
matters connected with the war. As a 
member of the Massachusetts Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1779-80 he aided in 
drawing i:p "a frame of a constitution and 
declaration of rights," and a declaration 
or test oath to be taken by magistrates. 
He was a member of the State Senate 
from 1780 to iSoi, excepting 1787-88, 
when Shays' rebellion was in progress, 
and he formed one of a commission to 
treat with the disafifected. By virtue of 
his office as Senator he was an overseer 
of Harvard College, and in 1793 received 
the degree of LL. D. from that institu- 
tion. For fifteen years he was president 
of the Senate, and for one year was Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, chosen by the Feder- 



alists. In 1781 he was appointed a jus- 
tice of the Court of Common Pleas for 
Essex county, and remained on the bench 
until April, 1798. In addition he super- 
intended stores at Andover and Alethuen, 
also a saw-mill, a grist-mill, a paper-mill, 
and the powder-mill already mentioned, 
"giving to each a sufficient and approxi- 
mate share of his oversight. With a spirit 
subdued by the predominancy of the re- 
ligious sentiment, he was as earnest, ac- 
tive and indefatigable in this multitude of 
engagements as though this world was 
everything." His name is most widely 
known as the projector of Phillips Acad- 
emy. As soon as he left Harvard College 
he conceived the idea of founding a clas- 
sical academy at Andover, and drew up a 
constitution for it, his desire being to 
establish it in the north parish, and to 
have it a private institution under his per- 
sonal supervision. To this end he pre- 
vailed upon his father to divert estates 
of which he was to be the heir, and per- 
suaded his uncle, John Phillips, later the 
founder of Phillips Exeter Academy, to 
co-operate. The plan having been slight- 
ly modified and a decision reached to lo- 
cate in the south parish, a purchase of 
land was made in January, 1777, this and 
subsequent purchases being in his father's 
name and at his expense. The Academy 
was formally founded April 21, 1778; the 
board of trustees was organized April 
28th, with Hon. Samuel Phillips, the 
judge's father, as president, and the Phil- 
lips school was opened April 30th in an 
old carpenter's shop, with twenty pupils. 
On October 4th the institution was incor- 
porated as Phillips Academy, being the 
first incorporated academy in the State. 
The property originally transferred to the 
trustees by Samuel Phillips and John 
Phillips consisted of 141 acres of land in 
Andover, with buildings upon it. and 200 
acres in JafTrey. New Hampshire, and 
about $8,000 in money. In 1785 a new 

academy building was erected by Samuel 
and John Phillips and their brother. Sen- 
ator William Phillips, a resident of Bos- 
ton. Though Judge Phillips made no di- 
rect bequest to the academy, "the efforts 
and sacrifices by which he contributed to 
its endowment, superintendence and pros- 
perity, justly rank him among the great- 
est benefactors of mankind." He was a 
trustee of Dartmouth College and a found- 
er of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences in Boston. General Washing- 
ton, while on his presidential tour in 1789, 
paid him the honor of a visit, and was 
much impressed with the character and 
aims of the academy. 

Judge Phillips was married, at Cam- 
bridge, IMassachusetts July 6, 1773, to 
Phoebe, youngest daughter of Hon. 
Francis and ^Nlehetabel (Coney) Fox- 
croft, a woman of deep piety, enthusi- 
asm in patriotic and philanthropic work, 
great culture and fascinating social quali- 
fies. She bore him two sons. John and 
Samuel. The former was an assistant 
teacher in the academy, and the latter a 
State Senator, who with his mother gave 
Phillips Hall and a steward's house to 
Andover Theological Seminary, their ex- 
penditures for this purpose amounting to 
about ?20,ooo. His daughter. Mary Ann, 
was the mother of Rev. Phillips Brooks. 

Senator William Phillips, uncle of the 
judge, has been mentioned as a benefac- 
tor of Phillips Academy. He was a 
wealthy merchant, and gave to the acad- 
emy property equal to that given by his 
brother Samuel. $6,000. His son William 
(1750- 1 827). was deeply attached to 
Judge Phillips, and, becoming interested 
in the academy through that cousin, early 
became a trustee, and for fifteen years 
gave $500 annually to assist needy stu- 
dents. Prior to this he had given lands 
and books exceeding $1,000 in value. 
When in 1818 the academy was burned, 
he gave $5,000 toward a new building, 



and in his will he left the institution $15,- 
000. He bequeathed $10,000 to the Theo- 
logical Seminary. For many years he 
represented Boston in the Legislature, in 
1812-23 was Lieutenant-Governor, and 
rivalled his relatives in patriotism and 
devotion to duty. The gifts of the Phil- 
lips family to the academy alone aggre- 
gated $71,000. Judge Phillips died at 
Andover, Massachusetts, February 10, 

CHURCH, Benjamin, 

Revolntionary War Surgeon. 

Benjamin Church, surgeon-general in 
the War of the Revolution, left behind 
him the reputation of being a traitor to 
his country. There is no record of the 
date of his birth or any account of his 
early lite. 

Fie entered Harvard College, where he 
was graduated in 1754, and having stud- 
ied with Dr. Charles Pynchon, an eminent 
physician of the time, became noted for 
his skill, particularly as a surgeon. In 
addition, as he was talented and had a 
poetic fancy, he obtained a certain repu- 
tation as a writer. About the year 1768 
he built for himself an elegant house at 
Raynham, Massachusetts, which involved 
him in debt, and probably led to the mis- 
fortunes and disgrace of his after life. 
P'rior to the War of the Revolution, Dr. 
Church was a zealous Whig, and asso- 
ciated with the principal men of that 
party in Boston and was a writer for 
"The Times," a newspaper which was de- 
voted to the W^higs, and which Governor 
Bernard denounced as a seditious sheet. 
It appears from a letter of Governor 
Hutchinson, dated January 29, 1772, that 
even at that time he was traitorously 
in the service of the government — traitor- 
ously, because, not being suspected by 
the patriots, he was looked upon as one 
of them, and in 1773 was chosen to de- 

liver the annual oration in the Old South 
MeetHig House. He was also one of the 
leaders in the "Boston Tea Party." In 
J 774 he was a member of the Provincial 
Congress, and was appointed Surgeon- 
General and Director of Hospitals, but at 
this time it began to be suspected that 
he was in the pay of the British govern- 
ment. One of his students who kept his 
bocks and knew of his pecuniary condi- 
tir n. could not otherwise account for his 
sudden acquisition of some hundreds of 
new British guineas. It appears that he 
had frequent intercourse with Captain 
Price, a half-pay British officer, and with 
Robinson, one of the commissioners sent 
over from England to try to arrange 
peace. A few days after the battle of 
Lexington, in April, 1775, being at Cam- 
bridge, with the Committee of Safety, he 
brought himself under specific suspicion 
by suddenly returning to Boston and 
visiting the house of General Gage. His 
treachery was detected through a letter 
written in cipher to his brother in Boston, 
which he had entrusted to a young wo- 
man upon whom it was found. The 
cipher being translated by Elbridge 
Gerry, it was discovered that Church had 
been for some time in treasonable corre- 
spondence with the enemy. He was 
brought to trial before a court martial, 
and was convicted, October 3d (Wash- 
ington being president of the court), "of 
holding a criminal correspondence with 
the enemy." On General Washington 
charging him with his baseness. Church 
did not even attempt to vindicate him- 
self, but, on being called to the bar of 
the House of Representatives, October 
27, he offered a defense which was con- 
sidered ingenious and able. He said that 
the letter for his brother not having been 
sent, he had communicated no intelli- 
gence ; that there was nothing in the letter 
but notorious facts ; that his exagger- 
ation of the strensTth of the American 



force was only designed to favor the 
cause of his country, and that his object 
was purely patriotic. He concluded by 
saying: "The warmest bosom here does 
not flame with a brighter zeal for the se- 
curity, happiness and liberties of Amer- 
ica, than mine." He gained nothing by 
his eloquence, being expelled from the 
house, and ordered to be imprisoned for 
life, and debarred the use of pens, ink 
and paper. He fell sick in prison, how- 
ever, and in 1776 was released and per- 
mitted to sail for the West Indies, but the 
ship in which he sailed was never heard 
from again. Dr. Church published "An 
Elegy on the Times" (1765) ; "Elegy on 
Dr. Mayhew" (1766) ; "Elegy on the 
Death of Dr. Whitefield" (1770); "Ora- 
tion on the Fifth of March" (1773). 

FITCH, Ebenezer, 

Clergyman, Edncator. 

Ebenezer Fitch, first president of Wil- 
liams College, was born at Norwich, Con- 
necticut, September 26, 1756, son of Dr. 
Jabez Fitch, a physician of considerable 
eminence, and Lydia (Huntingdon) 

He passed his childhood at Canterbury, 
Connecticut, which gave rise to the er- 
roneous idea that he was also born there, 
a statement that was even inscribed upon 
his tombstone. He was fitted for college 
by the Rev. Dr. James Cogswell, for some 
years a minister in Canterbury. From his 
earliest boyhood he contemplated enter- 
ing the ministry, and his excellence in 
study and in conduct were marked both 
at school and at home. He was gradu- 
ated with honor at Yale College in the fall 
of 1777, a commencement which, owing; 
to the distracted state of the country in 
consequence of the Revolutionary War, 
was attended by but few people. The 
next two years he spent in New Haven 
as a resident graduate, and a part of a 

year at Hanover, New Jersey, teaching 
an academy. In 1780 he received the de- 
gree of A. M., with the appointment of 
tutor in Yale College. This office he re- 
signed in 1783 to form a mercantile con- 
nection with Henry Daggett, of New 
Haven, and in June of the same year he 
went to London to purchase goods, 
which, owing to his ignorance in business 
matters, were wholly unsuited to the 
simple wants of the Connecticut people, 
and hence involved him in serious pecu- 
niary embarrassment from which he was 
unable to extricate himself for a number 
of years. In 1786 he was a second time 
elected to the office of instructor in Yale 
College, and until 1791 officiated as senior 
tutor and librarian. During his tutor- 
ship he connected himself with the col- 
lege church, and was licensed to preach 
in May, 1790. 

He was elected preceptor of the Acad- 
emy of Williamstown, Massachusetts, in 
1790, and on October 26, 1791, commenc- 
ed teaching a school there, which subse- 
quently attained great prosperity. In 
June, 1793, the institution at Williams- 
town, known as the Williamstown Free 
School, received from the General Court 
of Massachusetts a charter as a college, 
and in August of the same year Mr. Fitch 
was elected president. The first com- 
mencement of Williams College was held 
on the first Wednesday in September, 
1795, President Fitch having been or- 
dained a minister of the gospel on June 
17th previous. In 1800 he received the 
honorary degree of D. D. from Harvard 
LJniversity. He presided over Williams 
College with a marked degree of ability 
and success for twenty-two years. 
Through his wise and prudent direction 
of its earlier affairs was the institution's 
later prosperity made possible. His most 
distinguishing characteristics were pur- 
ity and benevolence, and through his per- 
sonal aid many students without means 



of their own were enabled to obtain a col- 
lege education. Upon his resignation 
from the presidency in 1815, he became 
pastor of the Congregational church at 
West Bloomfield, New York, and remain- 
ed there twelve years, and after resign- 
ing continued to preach occasionally un- 
til the time of his death, March 21, 1833. 

CRANCH, William, 

One of Fonnders of Washington City. 

William Cranch was born in Wey- 
mouth, Massachusetts, July 17, 1769, son 
of Richard and Mary (Smith) Cranch. 
His mother's sister, Abigail Smith, be- 
came the wife of John Adams, second 
President of the United States. 

William Cranch entered Harvard Col- 
lege before he was fifteen years old, and 
was graduated with honors in 17S7, John 
Ouincy Adams, his cousin, being a class- 
mate. He began the study of law with 
Judge Thomas Dawes, of Boston, and 
was admitted to the bar at the age of 
twenty-one. He began practice in Brain- 
tree, but removed to Haverhill, ana at- 
tended the circuits at Exeter, Portsmouth 
and other places in New Hampshire. In 
1794 he received an olTer from James 
Greenleaf to remove to Washington City 
and take charge of his large land inter- 
ests there, at a salary of $1,000 per annum 
and a dwelling house. Washington had 
then but recently been chosen as the per- 
manent seat of government, and many 
preparations had been made for the needs 
of the new city when the removal there 
should take place in 1800. Under con- 
tract made by President Washington 
with the owners of the land on which 
the city was laid out, the government was 
to have half of the lots and the owners 
of the land the other half. The govern- 
ment being in great need of funds for the 
buildings required at once, sold to James 
Greenleaf one-half of all its lots (about 

6,000) for about $66 apiece, on six years' 
time without interest. Mr. Greenleaf as- 
sociated with himself in this enterprise 
Robert Morris, the financier of the Revo- 
lution, and James Nicholson, employing 
Mr. Cranch with full power of attorney 
to represent them. Nearly all the lots 
were north and west of the White House, 
in what is now the best part of Wash- 
ington, and the speculation seemed likely 
to prove a good one. It did not prove so, 
however, and, Robert Morris having fail- 
ed, spent most of the latter years of 
his life in a debtors' prison. Nicholson 
also failed ; James Greenleaf got out with 
a loss of practically all he had, and Mr. 
Cranch found himself so embarrassed by 
endorsements in connection with the en- 
terprise that in 1800 he was obliged to 
seek the protection of the insolvency 

In i8co he was appointed one of the 
Commissioners of Public Buildings by 
President Adams, and in 1801 assistant 
judge of the newly constituted circuit 
court for the District of Columbia. In 
1802 he succeeded Alexander J. Dallas 
as reporter of the Supreme Court, and 
published his first volume of reports in 
1804. In 1805, much to his surprise, he 
being a staunch Federalist, President 
JefTerson appointed him Chief Judge of 
the United States Circuit Court for the 
District of Columbia, and this office he 
held during his life. In the winter of 
1806-07 the case of Bollman and Swartout 
for treason, and as accomplices of Aaron 
Burr in his alleged conspiracy, was tried 
by him. President JeiTerson had ordered 
their arrest and transportation to the dis- 
trict on his own authority ; but Judge 
Cranch's decison was that executive com- 
munications, not on oath or affirmation, 
could not under the constitution be suffi- 
cient evidence to charge treason, still les.s 
to commit for trial. The whole influence 
of the President was brought to bear up- 



on Judge Cranch, and the popular clamor 
was loud ; but they had no effect on him, 
and later the Supreme Court sustained his 
conclusions. In iSii he removed to 
Alexandria, where he had purchased a 
farm, and from there he saw the burning 
of Washington by the British forces in 
1814. In 1829 he was made LL. D, by 
Harvard College. In 1852 he published, 
in six volumes, his "Reports, Civil and 
Criminal, of the Circuit Court of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia," covering forty years 
from 1801 to 1841. Nature seems to have 
intended him for a judge. In him untir- 
ing industry and perseverance were com- 
bined with great talent for clearness and 
order; a logical mind that enabled him 
to see the pivotal point in the cases that 
came before him, and an unswerving in- 
tegrity and high principle to decide them 
without fear or bias. During his more 
than fifty years on the bench, not one of 
of his decisions was reversed by the 
Supreme Court. Judge Cranch was an 
early riser and an incessant worker. 
When not employed upon his professional 
and official duties, he was at work upon 
the small chores about his house — market- 
ing, gardening and repairing. His heart 
was as tender as a woman's ; his domes- 
tic affections deep and strong; and his 
hospitality generous, even when his cir- 
cumstances obliged the greatest economy. 
He was deeply religious, and by convic- 
tion a Unitarian Christian of progressive 
type. On April 6, 1795, he was married 
to Nancy, sister of James Greenleaf. They 
had thirteen children, several of whom 
died in infancy. Judge Cranch died in 
Washington, September i, 1855. 


Pnblic Benefactor. 

John Chapman, popularly known as 
Johnny Applesced, was born in or near 
Springffeld, Massachusetts, in 1775. 

About the year 1803 he removed to the 
vicinity of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and 
there began his life work primarily that 
of raising apple trees for the benefit of 
others, and incidentally of disseminating 
the doctrines of Emanuel Swedenborg. 

Keeping in advance of civilization, he 
crossed over mto Ohio about 1806, and 
worked westward until the central and 
northern parts of that state were dotted 
^ith his nurseries. He was accustomed 
to clear a place in the forest, plant his 
seeds, fence in the patch, and when the 
locality was settled, to dispose of the 
trees for "fippenny bit"' apiece, or for 
food or old clothes, though he as frequent- 
ly gave them away. From time to time 
he made long journeys, usually on foot, 
to trim the trees in his widely scattered 
plantations, or to procure a fresh sup- 
ply of seeds from the cider mills in west- 
ern Pennsylvania. Though he went un- 
armed, he was never molested by In- 
dians or wild beasts, the former regarding 
him as a "great medicine man," prob- 
ably because he scattered through the 
woods seeds of medicinal plants, such as 
catnip and pennyroyal. Johnny's chief 
article of clothing was an old coffee sack, 
with holes for his head and arms, and a 
tin pan, which formed a part of his slen- 
der outfit, and which sometimes servea 
for a hat. Every house was freely open 
to Appleseed John (as he was at first 
called), his goodness, unselfishness and 
childlike simplicitv endearing him to all : 
but he usually preferred the shelter of the 
woods to that of a roof, even in winter 
time. He had a strong affection for chil- 
dren, and an equally strong one for ani- 
mals ; he was even heard to regret that he 
had killed a rattlesnake that had bitten 
him. During the War of 1812 he often 
warned the settlers of approaching dan- 
ger, and when Mansfield, Ohio, was be- 
lieved to be threatened bv the Indians, 



voluntarily went through an unbroken 
wilderness to Mt. Vernon, thirty miles 
away, for troops, making the round trip 
between sunset and sunrise over a new 
cut road. 

Johnny Appleseed lived in Ashland 
county, Ohio, until 1838, and then re- 
moved to the vicinity of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, to continue his beneficent work. 
In March, 1847, he heard that one of his 
nurseries, twenty miles away, had been 
broken into by cattle, and started to re- 
pair the damage, but fell ill at a friend's 
house, a few miles from Fort Wayne, and 
died on the following day, the eleventh of 
the month. His name is engraved on a 
monument erected in Mifflin township, 
Ashland county, Ohio, to the memory of 
some of the pioneers ; and the story of his 
life has been charmingly told in a volume 
by the Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis. 

RUGGLES, Timothy, 

Self-expatriated Loyalist. 

Timothy Ruggles was born in Roches- 
ter, Massachusetts, October 20, 171 1, son 
of the Rev. Timothy and Mary (White) 
Ruggles ; grandson of Captain Samuel 
Ruggles, of Roxbury, and Martha (Wood- 
bridge) Ruggles, who was a granddaugh- 
ter of Governor Thomas Dudley. 

He was graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1732; studied law, and establish- 
ed himself in practice in Rochester. In 
1740 he removed to Sandwich, Massa- 
chusetts, and there remained, with in- 
creasing reputation and a constantly in- 
creasing list of clients, until 1753, when 
he removed to Hardwick. He was an im- 
pressive pleader, his eloquence enhanced 
by his majestic presence. His services 
were in constant demand in adjoining 
counties, where his principal antagonist 
was Colonel James Otis, then at the 
height of his fame. At the time of his 
settlement in Hardwick he had accumu- 

lated a liberal fortune, and entered upon 
a style of living commensurate with his 
standing and affluence. He was appoint- 
ed judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
in 1756, and from 1762 to the Revolution 
he was Chief Justice, and served as a 
special justice of the Provincial Superior 
Court, 1762-75. He was repeatedly elect- 
ed a representative in the General Court 
of Massachusetts, and while the armies 
were in winter quarters was speaker of 
the house, 1762-63. He was commission- 
ed colonel in the provincial forces under 
Sir William Johnson, and was second in 
command at the battle of Lake George 
in 1755, where he distinguished himself 
for courage, coolness and ability. In 
1758 he commanded the third division of 
the provincial troops, under Abercrombie, 
in the attack on Ticonderoga. He serv- 
ed as brigadier-general under Amherst 
in the campaign of 1759-60. In 1763 he 
was appointed by the Crown, "surveyor- 
general of the king's forests," as a reward 
in a measure for his military services in 
the French and Indian war. He was a 
delegate to the first Colonial (or Stamp 
Act) Congress of 1765, which met in New 
York, October 7, and was elected its 
president, but refused to sanction the ad- 
dresses sent by that body to Great 
Britain, for which he was publicly cen- 
sured by the General Court of Massachu- 
setts. He was led by a sense of duty "in 
the halls of legislature and on the plat- 
form to declare against rebellion and 
bloodshed." He was appointed Manda- 
mus Councillor, August 16, 1774, and in 
1775 left Boston for Nova Scotia with the 
British troops, and accompanied Lord 
Howe to Staten Island. His estates were 
confiscated, and in 1779 he received a 
grant of ten thousand acres of land in 
Wilmot, Nova Scotia, where he engaged 
in agriculture. 

In 1735 he married Mrs. Bathsheba 
Newcomb. widow of William Newcomb, 



and the daughter of the Hon. Alelatiah 
Bourne, of Sandwich. His daughter 
Mary married Dr. John Green, of Green 
Hill, Worcester, Massachusetts. Judge 
Ruggles died in W'ilmot, Nova Scotia, 
August 4, 1795. 


Founder of Phillips £aceter Academy. 

John Phillips was born at Andover, 
Massachusetts, December 27 (o. s.), 1719, 
second son of Rev. Samuel and Hannah 
(White) Phillips, and great-great-grand- 
son of Rev. George Phillips, first minis- 
ter of Watertown (Cambridge), I\Iassa- 

He is said to have been precocious and 
fond of learning, and, aided by his father's 
tuition, was ready to enter Harvard Col- 
lege before he was twelve years of age 
and graduating in 1735 at the age of six- 
teen. For some time he had charge of 
schools in Andover and adjoining towns, 
meanwhile studying theology under his 
father, and also taking the courses in 
medicine. In 1741 he removed to Exeter, 
New Hampshire, and for a year or two 
conducted a private classical school while 
continuing his theological studies. For 
an equal period he had charge of the pub- 
lic school. On August 4, 1743, he was 
married to Sarah, daughter of Rev. Sam- 
uel Emery, of Wells, Maine, and widow 
of Nathaniel Gilman, of Exeter, who was 
seventeen years his senior. In that year 
his name appeared on the list of rate- 
payers for the first time. "He was then 
assessed the modest sum of 4s 2d ; he 
lived to become the wealthiest citizen of 
the town." 

Having been ordained to the ministry, 
Mr. Phillips supplied pulpits in Exeter 
and other towns, and "was esteemed a 
zealous, pathetic and animated preacher." 
In 1747 the Second Church of Exeter, of 
which he was a ruling elder, urged him 

to become its pastor, and he received calls 
to churches elsewhere ; but he refused all 
invitations, partly because of an affection 
of the lungs, and partly because, having 
heard Whitefield preach, he felt it impos- 
sible to reach the standard of excellence 
set by that divine. Turning to secular 
pursuits, he kept a small store, engaged 
in the lumber trade, and invested in land, 
and, having inherited habits of economy 
and industry, grew rich by his own 
eft'orts ; while he also fell heir to a part 
of his first wife's estate, which for those 
times was very large. He was a member 
of Governor Wentworth's Council in 
1767-75 ; represented Exeter in the Pro- 
vincial Assembly in 1771-73; was a judge 
of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas 
in 1772-75, and toward the end of Gov- 
ernor Wentworth's administration re- 
ceived the appointment of Mandamus 
Councillor, but probably never acted in 
that capacity. In 1770, at the Governor's 
suggestion, he organized a militar\- com- 
pany of citizens, called the Exeter Cadets, 
and was commissioned its commander, 
with the title of colonel of foot. This 
became the best drilled body of militia 
in the province. In 1774 Colonel Phillips 
was chosen by his townsmen a member of 
the Committee of Correspondence, but, 
unlike his relatives in Andover, he took 
no active part in the Revolution, preserv- 
ing a neutral attitude throughout. He 
had by that time retired from trading, 
and, besides attending to his large estate, 
was loaning money on interest and was 
carrying out various plans for the ad- 
vancement of education, having no chil- 
dren to inherit his property. In 1770 the 
trustees of Dr. Wheelock's Indian Char- 
ity School at Lebanon, Connecticut, de- 
cided to move it to Hanover, New Hamp- 
shire, and to erect it into a college. To 
insure this, ]\Ir. Phillips deeded to the 
institution a large tract of land in Sand- 
wich, New Hampshire, in 1772-73, and in 



1775 g-ave i30O, part to be used for the 
purchase of philosophical apparatus ; in 
1 78 1 he conveyed upwards of 4,000 acres 
of land in northern New Hampshire and 
in Vermont for the use of the college, 
without restrictions, and in 1789 gave iyj 
toward the foundation of a professorship 
of divinity, which was established and 
still bears his name. He was a trustee 
of Dartmouth in 1773-93, and received 
from it the degree of Doctor of Laws in 

In T777 his nephew, Hon. Samuel Phil- 
lips. Jr., of Andover, Massachusetts, car- 
ried out a long cherished scheme of found- 
ing a classical school in that town by in- 
ducing his father and uncle to endow it. 
The gifts of Dr. John Phillips in land and 
money aggregated $31,000, making him 
the chief benefactor of Phillips Academy, 
of which he was a trustee during his life, 
and after the death of his eldest brother 
served as president of the board of trus- 
tees. In 1781 Dr. Phillips founded a 
similar academy at Exeter, this being ex- 
clusively his ov^n project. "This was a 
bold step, for the Revolution was not 
over, and it was uncertain when peace 
would be declared." Phillips Exeter 
Academy was incorporated April 3, 1781, 
being the oldest educational institution 
established by the State Legislature. The 
first meeting of the board of trustees was 
held December 18, 1781, and, after delays 
experienced in obtaining land, the school 
was opened February 20, 1783, and the 
formal dedication of its building and the 
installation of William Woodbridge, its 
first preceptor, took place May ist. Dr. 
Phillips gave to this institution the bulk 
of his fortune, amounting to about $134.- 
000, and gave it his personal supervision 
as president of its board of trustees dur- 
ing the remainder of his life. He be- 
queathed a sum to Phillips Academy, An- 
dover, for the assistance of students, espe- 
cially those engaged in the study of divin- 

ity, and from this foundation was evolved 
the famous Theological Seminarj\ He 
was also a benefactor of Harvard and of 

Colonel Phillips was reserved and for- 
mal by nature, and somewhat austere in 
his faith, but was a man of broad sym- 
pathies, and was animated by the most 
unselfish motives. His first wife died 
October 9, 1765, and on November 3, 
1767, he was married to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hale, widow of Dr. Eliphalet Hale, of 
Exeter, and daughter of Hon. Ephraim 
Dennett, of Portsmouth. She survived 
her husband about two years. Dr. Phil- 
lips died at Exeter, April 21, 1795. As 
was said by a biographer, "without nat- 
ural issue, he made posterity his heir." 

SARGENT, Winthrop, 

W^estern Pioneer. 

Winthrop Sargent was born in Glou- 
cester, Massachusetts, May i, 1753, son 
of Winthrop and Judith (Saunders) Sar- 
gent ; grandson of Colonel Epes and Es- 
ther (Maccarty) Sargent and of Thomas 
and Judith (Robinson) Saunders, and a 
descendant of William and Mary (Epes) 
Sargent, who settled at Cape Ann. 

He was graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege. A. B., 1771, A. M., 1774. He was 
captain of a merchant ship belonging to 
his father, and in 1775 entered the patriot 
army. He was naval agent at Gloucester 
from January i to March 16, 1776; and 
afterward captain in General Henry 
Knox's regiment of artillery, serving un- 
til the close of the war, and attaining the 
rank of major. In 1786 he became con- 
nected with the Ohio Company, and was 
appointed by Congress surveyor of the 
territory northwest of the Ohio river. He 
was commissioned secretary of the North- 
western Territory, September i, 1789, re- 
commissioned. December 10, 1794, and 
was commissioned governor of the Miss- 



issippi Territory, May 7, 1798, serving 
from 1798 to 1801. He served in the In- 
dian wars of 1791 and 1794-95, taking part 
in the expedition under General Arthur 
St. Clair, where he was wounded. He 
was a fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences ; corresponding 
member of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society; a member of the American Phil- 
osophical Society, and an original mem- 
ber of the Society of Cincinnati. In col- 
laboration with Benjamin B. Smith he 
published "Papers Relative to Certam 
American Antiquities" (1796) and "Bos- 
ton," a poem (1803). 

He was married, October 24, 1798, to 
Mary, daughter of William and Eunice 
(Hawley) Macintosh, of Inverness. Scot- 
land, and afterwards of Natchez. Missis- 
sippi. He died in New Orleans. Louis- 
iana, June 3, 1820. 


Pioneer in Public Vaccination. 

Dr. Amos Holbrook, one of the fore- 
most physicians of his day, was born 
January 23, 1754, in Bellingham, Massa- 
chusetts. After obtaining a liberal liter- 
ary education he studied medicine, first 
under the instruction of Dr. Metcalf, of 
Franklin, Massachusetts, and later at 
Providence. He joined the American 
army at Cambridge, in August, 1775, and 
was appointed assistant surgeon in the 
regiment commanded by Colonel John 
Creaton, in March of the following year 
was made full surgeon in the same regi- 
ment, and served with it in New Jersey. 
Later he was transferred to Colonel 
Vose's command, but his health had been 
broken by the vicissitudes of the cam- 
paign, and he resigned, in March, 1777. 

Establishing himself in practice in Mil- 
ton. Massachusetts, he recovered his 
health, in measurable degree, but. seek- 
ing further improvement, late in 1777 he 

MASS— 17 

accepted appointment as surgeon on 
board a privateer commanded by Captain 
Truxtan, and made a voyage to Europe. 
While there, he spent some months in 
France, schooling himself in the more 
recent developments of medical science, 
and, returning to his home in Milton, re- 
engaged in practice, and in which he 
continued with conspicuous success for 
more than half a century. In March, 
1778, he began the particular work in 
which he was to attain distinction, by 
petitioning the town authorities of Milton 
to provide a hospital building where he 
might practice innoculation for smallpox, 
which was then exceedingly prevalent 
throughout the State, and thenceforth he 
kept abreast of the foremost European 
practitioners in reference to the preven- 
tion and treatment of smallpox. He in- 
augurated the practice of public vaccina- 
tion in the town of Milton, and at his 
first clinic, in 1808, he vaccinated one- 
fourth of the entire population — t^t^j per- 
sons, of varying ages, from three months 
to seventy years. Three months later, on 
October 8, 1808, he innoculated with 
smallpox virus twelve persons who had 
some months previously been treated 
with vaccine ; they were quarantined in 
hospital for fifteen days, and none of them 
suffered the least inconvenience. This 
was recognized as a very important ex- 
periment, and added largely to his repu- 
tation, which now extended to the old 
world. In 181 1 he was elected a member 
of the Medical Society of London, Eng- 
land, also of the Literary and Philosoph- 
ical Society of Preston, England. He 
was a member of the Massachusetts So- 
ciety from 1800 to 1832, and was a coun- 
sellor and vice-president of that body for 
some years. In 1813 the honorary degree 
of M. D. was conferred upon him by Har- 
vard College. 

According to the custom of that time. 
Dr. Holbrook educated for the profes- 



sion numerous young men, and his name 
is connected with almost every enter- 
prise associated with the prosperity of 
his community. He built in i8oi a hand- 
some mansion in a commanding position 
on Milton Hill, overlooking the harbor 
and the shipping. It was a fine specimen 
of tasteful architecture, and long retained 
the colors of the beautiful fresco work 
on which an Italian artist was employed 
for a whole year. Dr. Holbrook was presi- 
dent of the board of trustees of Milton 
Academy, 1830-42. 

He was three times married; in 1773, 
to Melatiale Howard, of Medway, who 
died in 1782, leaving three children; in 
1783, to Patience, daughter of Daniel 
Vose, of Milton, who died in 1789, leav- 
ing a daughter, Clarissa, who was mar- 
ried to Dr. Henry Gardner, of Dorches- 
ter, and became the mother of Governor 
Henry J. Gardner ; and (third) to Jerusha 
Robinson, of Dorchester, who left two 
daughters — Sarah Perkins, who was mar- 
ried to William Ellery Vincent, and 
Catharine, who was married to Dr. Thad- 
deus M. Harris, a practicing physician in 
Milton, librarian of Harvard College and 
a distinguished entomologist. Dr. Hol- 
brook died at Milton, Massachusetts. June 
17, 1842. 

SAMPSON, Deborah, 

Revolutionary AVar Heroine. 

Deborah Sampson (or Samson) was 
born December 17, 1760, at Plympton, 
Massachusetts, and was a descendant of 
Henry Samson, one of the "Mayflower" 
emigrants of 1620, and also of Governor 
Bradford. Her parents were of such 
habits that their children were taken from 
them and Deborah was bound out to a 
farmer, who treated her kindly, but made 
no provision for her schooling, and she 
was unable to obtain any education until 
after the expiration of her time, in her 

eighteenth year. The stirring events of 
the Revolutionary War appealed to her 
most strongly, and she determined to have 
a part in the struggle. By teaching a dis- 
trict school one term she was enabled to 
buy sufficient cloth for a suit of man's 
clothes, which she made herself. Giv- 
ing out that she was going far away in 
search of employment, she left the place 
where she had been living, in her woman's 
garb, which she exchanged for the man's 
suit in the shelter of a wood, and then 
sought the camp of the Fourth Massachu- 
setts Regiment, commanded by Colonel 
Richardson, and under the name of Rob- 
ert Shurtlefif she enlisted in the company 
of Captain Thayer, of Medway. She was 
tall and large framed, and having been 
accustomed to outdoor work from her 
childhood, she possessed great powers of 
endurance, and a masculinity of manner 
that served her well. She served as a 
soldier for three years, and was held in 
high regard by her officers for her fidelity 
and her courageous conduct in various 
hazardous enterprises. In a skirmish 
near Tarrytown, New York, she received 
a sabre stroke in the head, and four 
months later was shot through the shoul- 
der. During the Yorktown campaign sne 
was prostrated with brain fever, and was 
taken to a hospital, where her sex vvas 
discovered by Dr. Binney, of Philadel- 
phia, who made no revelation of her se- 
cret. After her recovery, however, he 
sent her to General Washington, with a 
sealed letter advising him of the fact 
which he had discovered. Washington, 
without addressing any words to her, 
handed to her a discharge from service, 
with a note of advice and a sum of money. 
She then retired to her former home, 
where she was received with honor. She 
was married to Benjamin Gannett, a 
farmer of Sharon, Massachusetts, in the 
winter of 1784. During the presidency 
of Washington she was invited to the 



national capital, where she received from 
Congress a pension and a land grant, and 
received many favors from the people. 
In 1820 she renewed her claims for ser- 
vices rendered as a soldier ; she was then 
in robust health, and was the mother of 
three grown children. In 1797 she pub- 
lished a narrative of her army life, under 
the title "The Female Review." She died 
at Sharon, Massachusetts, April 27, 1827. 
She had suffered more or less all her later 
years from the effects of the gunshot 
wound received at Tarrytown, the bullet 
having never been extracted. 

ABBOT, Benjamin, 

Prominent Educator. 

Benjamin Abbot, first principal of Phil- 
lips Academy (1788-1838), was born at 
Andover, Massachusetts, September 17, 
1762, son of John Abbot and descendant 
of George Abbot, who emigrated from 
Yorkshire, England, to Massachusetts 
and settled in Andover in 1640. 

At the age of twenty-one he entered 
Phillips Academy, where among his class- 
mates were John T. Kirkland and Josiah 
Quincy, each of whom became president 
of Harvard. In 1788 he was graduated at 
Harvard College with the salutatory ora- 
tion, and was at once engaged as an in- 
tructor in Phillips Exeter Academy, and 
from the first discharged the duties of 
preceptor or principal, but would not for- 
mally signify his acceptance of the office 
until October 15, 1790. At that time his 
salary was raised to $500 per annum, and 
he was given an assistant, John C. Ripley, 
A. B. By 1793 the number of pupils had 
so increased that a new building was a 
necessity, and in 1794 one was erected, 
just in front of the present structure. In 
1797 the trustees voted that any student 
who had attended the academy for six 
months and had made "valuable improve- 
ment" in eight studies named, or in any 

two of them, and had sustained good 
moral character, should be entitled to a 
certificate thereof. In 1799 the preceptor's 
salary was fixed at $700, in addition to 
the free use of a dwelling house; in 1803 
$200 was appropriated for the use of 
divinity students, and it was voted to em- 
ploy a mathematical instructor. "In 1808 
the qualifications for admission with a 
view to an English education were de- 
fined and apparently considerably raised ; 
the head master was vested with the title 
of principal ; a professorship of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy was estab- 
lished, the first incumbent being Ebenezer 
Adams, A. M. ; and it was voted expedient 
to reduce the number of classes and to 
establish a uniform system of classifica- 
tion." In 1812 the first tuition fee was 
raised, the sum of $12 per year becom- 
ing payable by all but "foundationers." 
In 1814, by request of Nicholas Gilman, 
$100 was received, the income of which 
was to pay for instruction in "solemn 
musick." In 1818 the department of lan- 
guages was made to comprise three 
classes, or years, and an advanced class 
to prosecute the studies of the first col- 
legiate year ; the course of English study 
was also to occupy three years, and more 
stringent regulations in respect to the ad- 
mission of pupils were adopted. In 1832 
Dr. Abbot, who had received the degree 
of Doctor of Laws from Dartmouth in 
181 1, tendered his resignation. The trus- 
tees refused to accept it, but they light- 
ened his labors by reducing the number 
of pupils to sixty. In 1838 Dr. Abbot 
resigned the principalship. postponing the 
formal act until August 28, when nearly 
four hundred of his pupils gathered to do 
him honor. After eloquent speeches, he 
was presented with a beautiful silver vase, 
and announcement was made that an Ab- 
bot scholarship had been founded at Har- 
vard. John Gibson Hoyt. LL. D.. who 
knew Dr. Abbot intimately, wrote of him 



as follows: "lie was foremost among 
scholars as he was a primate among 
teachers. He knew that among regal 
minds progress is the supreme law ; and 
he was not content to sit by the roadside, 
a wondering spectator, while the grand 
procession moved on. New books and 
new educational systems did not come 
and go without his knowledge. He made 
the academy the centre of his efforts and 
his thoughts. Invitations to the Boston 
Latin School and to other positions, 
though oft'ering large rewards for less 
labor, he resolutely declined. Prevented 
by his continuous duties from seeing 
much of the great world, he was neverthe- 
less a live man. His mind was a foun- 
tain, not a reservoir. He breathed his 
own spirit into the worn text-books of 
the recitation-room and the mystic page 
glowed with his enthusiasm. * * * 
Few men were so deeply versed as he in 
that most abstruse of all studies, the 
human nature of boys. * * * He 
knew how to put himself into communi- 
cation with youthful minds." Bell in his 
historical sketch of the academy said: 
"His manners were such as would be- 
come a nobleman. Courteous as he was 
dignified, he doffed his hat in response to 
the greeting of the lowliest person he met. 
As he walked down the aisle of the 
schoolroom, bowing graciously to the 
right and left, his appearance so' im- 
pressed every pupil, that the memory of 
it will never fade away. It made genera- 
tions more mannerly." 

Dr. Abbot was twice married; (first) 
in 1791, to Hannah Tracy Emery, of Exe- 
ter; she bore him one child, John Emery, 
who became minister of the North Church 
in Salem, Massachusetts; (second) in 
May, 1798. to Mary, daughter of James 
and Elizabeth (Peck) Perkins, of Boston, 
who survived him, dying in her ninety- 
fourth year. She bore him a son, Charles 

Benjamin, and a daughter, Elizabeth, who 
became the wife of Dr. D. W. Gorham. 
Dr. Abbot died at Exeter, October 25, 

CHENEY, Moses, 

Clergyman, Reformer. 

The Rev. Moses Cheney was born in 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, December 15, 
1776, the second son of Nathaniel and 
Elizabeth Ela Cheney. His father, who 
fought at Bunker Hill, was a great-grand- 
son of the heroine, Hannah Dustin, who, 
aided by a fellow-captive, scalped nine 
Indians on Dustin Island, near Concord, 
New Hampshire, and made her escape in 
March, 1697. 

Moses Cheney, a feeble child, unable to 
work out of doors until thirteen years of 
age, learned to read from his mother. The 
family library consisted of the Bible, 
Watts' "Psalms and Hymns," and an 
English primer, and when he arrived at 
manhood he had read and studied so thor- 
oughly that he could repeat the Bible 
from beginning to end. At the age of 
eighteen the feeble boy was greatly 
changed, being then a powerful man of 
six feet and an inch, and having the 
strength of a giant. His home was at 
Sanbornton, New Hampshire, whither his 
parents removed in 1780. Here, after a 
little primitive schooling, at twenty, he 
learned the joiner's trade, at which he 
worked in summer, and at sleighmaking 
in winter. Being ambitious to succeed, he 
overworked, and in three or four years 
his health broken, turned from manual 
lal)or to books. He paid his way at 
Gilmanton Academy by teaching singing. 
also studying medicine at home, and at- 
taining sufficient knowledge to enter upon 
practice as Dr. Cheney. After the loss of 
his health, his mind ran continually on re- 
ligious channels. For a year following his 



conversion, he was haunted day and nig^ht 
by the text: "Behold, I bring you good 
tidings of great joy, which shall be to all 
people." At thirty he began to preach, 
and never gave up preaching to the end 
of his life. It was said that no man in 
New England preached, prayed, and sang 
more hours for a rovmd half century than 
"Old Elder Cheney" as he was called after 
he was forty-five, on account of his 
hoary head, which, like Jefferson's, was 
originally red. He preached throughout 
New Hampshire and much of Massachu- 
setts — a good deal in Chelmsford, Lowell, 
Beverly, and towns about, in Salem and 
in Groton ; and a whole year in Littleton. 
He lived and preached a year in r>rent- 
v\'ood. New Hampshire; preached in 
Portsmouth and Exeter, in Hampton and 
in Rye. Wherever he went, reformation 
followed him. In 1824 he removed from 
Brentwood to Derby. Vermont, where he 
lived for many years. 

EHder Cheney was one of nature's 
preachers, magnetic and irresistible. Tall, 
broad-chested, with a great head covered 
by snowy hair, and with blue eyes, and 
a clear ringing tenor voice, once seen and 
heard, he was never forgotten. He was 
a devoted lover and supporter of music 
of all sorts, and knew all the psalms and 
hymns by heart ; and. in whatever com- 
pany he sang, whether the music was 
sacred or secular, his high, pure tenor 
voice led all the rest. In politics he was 
a JefTersonian Democrat. In religious 
faith he was originally a Baptist, but for 
the last twenty years of his life he was 
practically free from all sectarianism. A 
man of singular uprightness of character, 
of rare gifts, and of most varied and 
thrilling experiences for one whose lot 
was so humble, his life was one of ex- 
ceptional and perpetual influence for 
good. He married Abigail Leavitt, who 
was born at Exeter. New Hampshire. 
March i. 1781. daughter of iMoses and 

Ruth Leavitt. In 1784 she accompanied 
her parents to Sanbornton, New Hamp- 
shire. Five of their nine children — four 
brothers and a sister — ^constituted "The 
Cheney Family." so favorably known in 
concert circles in 1845, ^^^^ ^^r several 
years following. Mr. Cheney died at 
Sheffield, Vermont, August 9, 1856. 

CHAPLIN, Jeremiah, 

Famous Educator, Clergyman. 

Jeremiah Chaplin, first president of 
Walerville College, now Colby Univer- 
sity (1820-33). ^'^''^s born in Rowley 
(Georgetown). Massachusetts, January 2, 
1776. In his boyhood he was inured to 
hard labor on his father's farm, but with 
the characteristic energy of the sons of 
New England, devoted himself also to ac- 
quiring a thorough classical training. En- 
tering Brown University at the age of 
nineteen, he was graduated at the head 
of his class in 1799, and immediately re- 
ceived an appointment as tutor to his 
olina niafcr. At the end of a year he 
began theological studies under Rev. 
Thomas Baldwin. D. D.. the famous pas- 
tor of the Second Baptist Church of Bos- 
ton, and in the summer of 1802 accepted 
a charge in Danvers. Massachusetts. 
Here he continued for sixteen years, en- 
gaged in pastoral labors and the instruc- 
tion of young men preparing for the min- 
istry, and in the meanwhile his reputation 
as a profound scholar and theologian con- 
stantly increased. In 1818. upon the in- 
auguration of the theological department 
of the Maine Literary and Theological 
Institution, chartered h\ the iMassachu- 
setts Legislature in February. 1813. he 
accepted an invitation to become its prin- 
cipal and Professor of Theology. He re- 
moved at once to Waterville. bringing 
with him several young men formerly 
under his private instruction, and at once 
began successful work. In October. 1819. 



Rev. Avery Briggs assumed the duties of 
Professor of Languages, thus inaugurat- 
ing the first beginnings of the college. 
The power "to confer such degrees as are 
usually conferred by universities" was 
granted by the first legislature of the 
State of Maine in June, 1820, and in the 
tollowing February the name of the in- 
stitution was changed to Waterville Col- 
lege. The presidency was offered to Rev. 
Daniel 11. Barnes, of New York, a well- 
known and successful teacher of theol- 
ogy, and upon his refusal Dr. Chaplin 
was elected to the post, and the faculty 
was increased by the accession of Rev. 
Stephen Chaplin, of North Yarmouth, 
Maine, as Professor of Theology. The 
college graduated as its first class in 
1822, two studentS; one of them Rev. 
George D. Boardman, Sr., the cele- 
brated missionary. An academy was 
soon opened, still known as the Water- 
ville Classical Institute, and also a me- 
chanics' shop, which, however, was dis- 
continued at the end of a few years. In 
spite of its many struggles, privations 
and sacrifices, like all infant institutions 
of learning, the college grew steadily 
during Mr. Chaplin's wide and efficient 
administration. He labored earnestly in 
its behalf, and was finally rewarded by 
seeing the funds largely increased, and 
the much-needed buildings erected one 
by one. At the end of thirteen years he 
resigned the presidency, and, freed from 
the weighty cares and responsibilities 
which had pressed so heavily and been 
borne so cheerfully, he returned to pas- 
toral work. He held successive charges 
in Rowley, Massachusetts, and Wilming- 
ton, Connecticut, and then removed to 
Hamilton, New York. 

Dr. Chaplin was noted for the clearness 
and precision of his thought. As was 
said by James Brooks, a graduate of the 
college: 'Tlis discourses were as clear, 
as cogent, as irresistibly convincing as 

the problems of Euclid." His character 
was simple and lovable, evoking respect 
and reverence. He held firmly to the pro- 
found principles of Calvinism, but was 
original and forcible in the method of set- 
ting forth his beliefs, lending them a 
logic which was more than "formal." He 
published one book, "The Evening of 
Life," which has gone through several 
editions. He died in Hamilton, New 
York, May 7, 1841. 

CRANE, Zenas, 

Founder of Important Paper Industry. 

The Crane family of Massachusetts, 
conspicuous in the history of the com- 
monwealth from early colonial days, was 
founded by Henry Crane, born in Eng- 
land, in 1621, and who settled in Dorches- 
ter, Massachusetts, and was a selectman 
at Milton, and a trustee of the first meet- 
ing house built there. 

Zenas Crane was born May 9, 1777, 
and died in Dalton, Massachusetts, June 
20, 1845. -He was a son of Stephen and 
Susannah (Babcock) Crane. He learned 
the rudiments of paper making under his 
brother Stephen, who had established a 
small paper mill at Newton Lower Falls, 
and then in General Burbank's mill at 
Worcester. In 1799, being then twenty- 
two years of age, he went westward on 
horseback in search of a location for a 
mill of his own. At Springfield he found 
a small mill established before 1788, prob- 
ably by Eleazer Wright, and, going still 
further west, reached the upper Housa- 
tonic, and passed his first night in Berk- 
shire county at an inn near the border 
line between Dalton and Pittsfield, not 
far from where his sons. Zenas M. and 
James B. Crane, afterward built fine man- 
sions, and where the world famous Crane 
mills are now located. Zenas Crane asso- 
ciated with himself two others, and they 
selected the site for their mill in 1799, but 



the mill was not built until iSoi, as ap- 
pears by the following advertisement in 
the "Pittsfield Sun" of February 8 of that 
year : 

Americans! Encourage your own Manufac- 
tories, and they will improve. Ladies, save your 

As the subscribers have it in contemplation to 
erect a PAPER MILL in Dalton, the ensuing 
spring; and the business being very beneficial 
to the community at large, they flatter them- 
selves that they shall meet with due encourage- 
ment. And that every woman, who has the 
good of her country, and the interest of her 
own family at heart will patronize them, by 
saving their rags, and sending them to their 
Manufactory, or to the nearest storekeeper — 
for which the subscribers will give a generous 
price. Henry Wiswall, 

Zenas Crane, 
John Willard. 

Worcester, Feb. 8, iSoi. 

Martin Chamberlain, an early settler of 
the town, was skeptical, and would give 
only oral permission for the erection of a 
building, but finally (December 25, 1801), 
executed a deed to Wiswell, Crane and 
Daniel Gilbert (who had taken the place 
of Willard), for fourteen acres of land, 
with a paper mill and appendages thereon 
standing, for $194. The building con- 
tained one vat, and was of two stories, 
the upper one being used as a dry^ing 
loft. The capacity was twenty posts, a 
post being one hundred and twenty sheets 
of paper. When the mill started, there 
were two weekly newspaper in the coun- 
ty, and one of them purchased much of 
its supply from this mill. The nearest 
postofifice to Dalton was at Pittsfield, 
where Mr. Crane received his mail until 
1812, when the Dalton office was estab- 

Mr. Crane conducted the mill, since 
known as the "Old Berkshire," until 1807, 
when he sold his undivided third to Wis- 
well, and engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness in the east part of town, and in which 

he continued until 1810. In that year he 
bought David Carson's interest in what 
was later known as the "Old Red Mill," 
which was operated by Crane, Wiswell, 
Chamberlin & Cole until 1822, when Mr. 
Crane, who had from the date of his pur- 
chase been superintendent and chief man- 
ager, became sole owner. In 1842 he 
transferred his interest in the Old Red 
Mill to his sons, Zenas Marshall and 
James Brewer Crane, who were already 
his partners. That year the Boston & 
Albany railroad was opened. In the fall 
of 1870 the mill burned down, but was re- 
built. In 1879 the firm was awarded the 
contract for supplying the United States 
government with paper for bank bills, 
bonds, etc. To fill this contract the firm 
bought the brick mill which had been 
built a few years before by Thomas Colt, 
near the Dalton line, not far from the site 
of the inn where Zenas Crane passed his 
first night in Berkshire county. It is now 
known as the Government Mill. Several 
of its employees are detailed from the 
United States Treasury Department, and 
such was the perfection of the system 
employed that not the slightest irregular- 
ity has ever come to light. The introduc- 
tion of silk threads into the fibre of the 
paper was the discovery of Zenas Mar- 
shall Crane, son of Zenas Crane, in 1846, 
but he did not apply for a patent at the 
time, although his idea was adopted by 
several State banks. Twenty years later, 
when the United States government 
adopted the plan, an Englishman en- 
deavored to establish a claim as the 
patentee, but the fact that certain State 
banks could show issues made by them at 
an earlier date, saved the government 
much more in royalties than any profit 
the Cranes may have received. In 1850 
the firm of Crane & Wilson leased a stone 
factory which had been built in 1836 as a 
woolen factory, between the Old Red 
Mill and the Government Mill. Seymour 



Crane, young-est son of Zenas Crane, be- 
ing then a member of the firm. In 1865 
the property was rented by Zenas Crane 
Jr., the eldest son of Zenas M. Crane. 
The mill was burned May 15, 1877, and 
rebuilt on a larger scale, and was then 
operated by Z. and W. M. Crane. 

Zenas Crane was several times a mem- 
ber of the Legislature after 181 1, and in 
1836-37 was a member of the Executive 
Council under Governor Everitt. He 
married Lucinda Brewer, daughter of 
Gains and Lucretia (Babcock) Brewer, 
of Wilbraham, Massachusetts. 

FLINT, Timothy, 

Clergyman, Author. 

Timothy Flint was born in Reading. 
Alassachusetts, July 11. 1780. His early 
education was received in the schools of 
his native town, and he then entered Har- 
vard College, from which mstitution he 
was graduated in the year 1800. He de- 
voted two years to theological study, and 
was then ordained pastor of the Congre- 
gational church of Lunenburg, Massa- 
chusetts. He was fond of scientific study 
and experiments, and, on account of his 
chemical work, was charged by ignorant 
persons with counterfeiting coin. Feel- 
ing ran high and culminated in his bring- 
ing suits for slander to estalDlish his inno- 
cence. This, with political differences, 
engendered ill feeling among his parish- 
ioners, and he relinquished his charge in 
1814, and after preaching in various local- 
ities in New England, went as a mission- 
ary to the Mississippi Valley, where he 
spent some seven or eight years, and was 
the first Protestant minister to adminis- 
ter the communion in St. Louis, Missouri. 
In 1822 he visited New Orleans, and after 
traveling from place to place, in pursuit 
of his missionary duty, was forced by ill 
health to return to the north, where he 
devoted himself to literature. 

In 1826 he published an account of his. 
wanderings, under the name of '"Recol- 
lections of the Last Ten Years Passed in 
the X'alley of the Mississippi," which met 
with immediate success, and he followed 
it the same year with "Francis Berrian, 
or the Mexican Patriot." His third work 
was "The Geography and History of the 
Mississippi Valley," which appeared in 
two volumes in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1827. 
The next year he published "Arthur Clen- 
ning," and several other stories of Indian 
life. His next work was "Lectures upon 
Natural History, Geology, Chemistry. 
Application of Steam, and Interesting 
Discoveries in the Arts'" (Boston, 1832). 
Mr. i'lint then went to New York, and 
upon the retirement of C. F. Hoffman 
from the editorship of the "Knicker- 
bocker ^Magazine," succeeded him for a 
few months. About time he trans- 
lated Droz's "The Art of Being Happy," 
with additions of his own, and also a 
novel, entitled, "Celibacy \"anquished, or 
the Old Bachelor Reclaimed." He re- 
moved to Cincinnati in 1834, where he be- 
came the editor of the "Western Monthly 
]\Iagazine" for three vears, besides con- 
tributing to it a number of essays and 
stories. The next year he contributed to 
the "London Athenaeum" a series of 
"Sketches of the Liberation of the United 
States." He afterwards removed to Red 
River in Louisiana, but ill health obliged 
him to return to New England in 1840. 
While passing through Natchez he was 
buried for some hours in the ruins of a 
house blown down by a violent tornado, 
which increased his illness, and on his 
arrival at Reading became rapidly worse, 
and died there August 18, 1840. 

EVERETT, Alexander Hill, 

Statesman, Diplomat, Author. 

This versatile man was a native of 
Massachusetts, born in Boston, March 19, 
1790, son of the Rev. Oliver Everett, of 



Boston, and an elder brother of Hon. 
Edward Everett. 

He was a student at the Dorchester 
Free School, and at Harvard University, 
from which he graduated at the age of 
sixteen, at the head of his class. He 
taught for a year in Phillips Academy, 
Exeter, New Hampshire, and then began 
reading law under John Quincy Adams, 
and divided his time between his law 
books and the writing of articles for the 
"Monthly Anthology." In 1809 he went 
to Russia with Mr. Adams, who had been 
appointed United States Minister to St. 
Petersburg, and there remained two years 
as a legation attache. On his return 
home he visited Sweden, England and 
Paris, and on arriving in Boston took up 
the practice of his profession. Literary 
work had now a strong hold upon him, 
and the war with Great Britain made the 
occasion for his writing for the '" Boston 
Patriot," a Democratic journal, a series 
of letters urging a relentless prosecution 
of the war, and which were afterwards 
reprinted in a volume entitled "Remarks 
on the Governor's Speech," and followed 
this with another series of articles de- 
nouncing the Hartford Convention. In 
1815-16 he was an attache of the legation 
to the Netherlands, and in 1818-24 was 
charge d'affaires, in the latter capacity 
rendering important service in the con- 
duct of the claims brought by the United 
States for spoliations suffered during the 
PVench ascendancy. Meantime he was 
industriously occupied with his pen, writ- 
ing for the "North American Review" 
and other periodicals, and also writing a 
volume entitled "Europe; or a General 
Survey of the Political Situation of the 
Principal Powers, with Conjectures on 
Their Future Prospects, by a Citizen of 
the United States," and which was pub- 
lished in Boston and London, and was 
considered of such value that it was trans- 
lated into French and Spanish, and also 

into German, with an introduction and 
commentary by Professor Jacobi, of 

In 1824 Mr. Everett returned to Amer- 
ica, and the next year was appointed Min- 
ister to Spain. While there he invited 
Washington Irving to become an attache 
of the legation, and at the same time aid- 
ed William H. Prescott in collecting ma- 
terials for his monumental histories. Re- 
turning home in 1829, he became editor of 
the "North American Review," which he 
conducted with signal ability for hve 
years. He became a member of the State 
Senate in 1830. He was the author of 
the address issued by the convention of 
1831, by which Henry Clay was nomi- 
nated for the presidency; and in 1833, as 
chairman of a committee of the tariff 
convention, he drew up a memorial in 
reply to one prepared by Mr. Gallatin, for 
the free-trade convention of 1832. In 
1840 he spent two months in Cuba as 
confidential commissioner, investigating 
charges brought against the United States 
consul, and on his return accepted the 
presidency of Jefferson College, Louis- 
iana, a position which he was soon after- 
wards obliged to resign on account of 
ill-health. Besides the literary works 
already referred to. >.Ir. Everett publish- 
ed a great number of fugitive articles, 
and also the following volumes: "New 
Ideas on Population, with Remarks on 
the Theories of Godwin and Malthus" 
(1822); "Critical and Miscellaneous Es- 
says" (1845 ^"d 1847). ^^^ "Poems" 
(1845). He wrote the lives of Joseph 
Warren and Patrick Henry for Sparks' 
"American Biography." and was one of 
the many distinguished contributors to 
the columns of the younger Nathan 
Hale's "Boston Miscellany of Literature 
and Fashion" during the brief existence 
of that publication. An accomplished 
orator, he delivered numerous public ad- 
dresses on important occasions. In 1845 



he was appointed commissioner to China, 
and set out for his post, but on account 
of ill-health did not arrive there until the 
following year. He died at Canton, 
China, June 28, 1847. 

SPRAGUE, Charles, 

Financier, Poet. 

Charles Sprague was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, October 22, 1791. His 
father, Samuel Sprague, a native of Hing- 
ham, where the family had lived for five 
generations, was one of the party that 
threw overboard the tea in Boston har- 
bor. His mother, Joanna Branton, was 
a woman of remarkably original powers 
of mind, and wielded great influence in 
the development of her son's talent. 

He was educated at the Franklin 
School, Boston, having for one of his 
teachers Lemuel Shaw, who afterward be- 
came Chief Justice of Massachusetts. 
When ten years old he met with an acci- 
dent by which he lost the use of his right 
eye. He left school when only thirteen 
and entered a mercantile house, and 
when twenty-five was admitted to a part- 
nership which was continued until 1820, 
when he became teller in the State Bank. 
When the Globe Bank was established in 
1825, he was chosen cashier, which posi- 
tion he retained until his retirement from 
business life in 1864. Mr. Sprague's poet- 
ical writings consist largely of theatrical 
prize prologues. He was first brought 
into prominence by his poetical address 
at the opening of the Park Theatre in 
New York, which was received with great 
enthusiasm, and he increased his reputa- 
tion by similar successes in Portsmouth, 
Salem, and Philadelphia. Pie composed 
a "Shakespearian Ode" which he read at 
the Boston Theatre in 1820, at a celebra- 
tion in honor of the great dramatist. His 
chief poem, "Curiosity," was delivered be- 
fore the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Har- 

vard in 1829, and the following year he 
recited a "Centennial Ode" on the cele- 
bration of the settlement of Boston. He 
also wrote a number of shorter poems 
which have great poetical merit. His 
dramatic odes are elegant polished com- 
positions possessing a refined eloquence 
which is characteristic of all his produc- 
tions. Edwin P. Whipple says: "His 
prologues are the best which have been 
written since the time of Pope. His 
'Shakesperian Ode' has hardly been ex- 
celled by anything in the same manner 
since 'Gray's Progress of Poesy.' But 
the true power and originality of the man 
are manifested in his domestic pieces. 
"The Brothers,' 'I See Thee Still,' and 
'The Family Meeting' are the finest con- 
secrations of natural affection in our liter- 
ature." The "London Anthenseum" says: 
"Sprague has been called the 'American 
Pope.' for his terseness, his finished ele- 
gance, his regularity of metre, and his 
nervous points." Loring says: "Amidst 
a host of competitors, he received the 
prize six times for producing the best 
poem for the American stage, an instance 
unprecedented in our literary annals." 
His "Prose and Poetical Writings" ap- 
peared in 1850. He died in Boston, Jan- 
uary 22, 1875. 

EVERETT, Edward, 

Distinguislied Statesman and Orator. 

Edward Everett was born in Dorches- 
ter, Massachusetts, April 11, 1794. He 
was the son of Rev. Oliver Everett, from 
1782 until 1792 pastor of the New South 
Church in Boston, and brother of Alex- 
ander H. Everett, an eminent writer and 

Edward Everett received his early 
education in the public schools of Boston, 
and entered Harvard College, from which 
he was graduated in 181 1. While in col- 
lege he displayed his natural literary 


Oc/tiarf/ Gierett 


talent by editing the college publication 
known as the "Harvard Lyceum." After 
graduating he was for a while tutor in the 
college, pursuing at the same time stud- 
ies in divinity. In 1812 he delivered the 
Phi Beta Kappa poem at Harvard, his 
subject being "American Poets." This 
poem, written at eighteen, gave great 
promise that Everett's name might stana 
high on the list of American poets, but 
this promise was never fulfilled. He wrote 
but little poetry afterward, though one 
poem, "Alaric, the Visigoth," sustains his 
claim to rank among the poets in the 
English tongue. In 1813 he was made 
pastor of the Brattle Street (Unitarian) 
Church in Boston, where he speedily at- 
tained a high reputation for eloquence 
and spirit in his discourses. He also 
preached in Cambridge, and young as he 
was gained a v/ide reputation as being 
one of the most eloquent and especially 
one of the most pathetic preachers in the 
United States. In 1815, having been 
chosen Eliot Professor of Greek in Har- 
vard, he went to Europe to fit himself for 
the duties of this position, remaining 
abroad during the next four years. He 
pursued a wide course of study, and form- 
ed a distinguished circle of acquaintances, 
including such eminent people as Scott. 
Byron, Jeffrey, Sir Humphrey Davy, 
and Romilly. M. Cousin, the French phil- 
osopher and translator of Plato pro- 
nounced him "one of the best Grecians I 
ever knew." In 1819 Mr. Everett re- 
turned, and entered upon his duties at 
Harvard. From 1820 he edited the 
"North American Review," to which he 
contributed largely at that time, and also 
subsequently, when the editorship passed 
into the hands of his brother, Alexander 
H. Everett. 

In 1825 Mr. Everett began his political 
career as a Member of Congress from the 
Boston district, and sat in the house for 
ten successive years, but declined re- 

election in 1834. While in Congress he 
voted with the Whigs. In 1835 he was 
elected Governor of Massachusetts, which 
office he held by successive re-elections 
for four years, and losing a further re- 
election in 1839 by only one vote out of 
over one hundred thousand. In 1840 he 
went to Europe, and while there was ap- 
pointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the 
Court of St. James, being further honored 
by receiving from Oxford University the 
degree of D. C. L., and from Dublin and 
Cambridge universities that of LL. D. 
In 1845, owing to a change of adminis- 
tration, he was recalled from London, and 
during the next four years he was presi- 
dent of Harvard College. In 1852 occur- 
red the death of Daniel Webster, Secre- 
tary of State, and Mr. Everett was ap- 
pointed by Mr. Fillmore to fill out the 
few months remaining of the latter's 
term in that office. In 1853 ^^- Everett 
was elected United States Senator, but 
he only held the seat one year, being 
obliged to resign on account of impaired 
health. In 1853, when the plan to pur- 
chase Mount Vernon by private subscrip- 
tion was organized, Mr. Everett was in- 
vited to deliver an oration on Washing- 
ton in behalf of the undertaking. His ac- 
complishment of this task was one of the 
most memorable events in the history of 
literature and forensic eloquence in the 
United States. The oration he delivered 
on that occasion has been pronounced one 
of the most powerful, comprehensive and 
elegant ever written in any languag'e, 
comparing favorably with those of Cicero, 
Demosthenes and Edmund Burke. Dur- 
ing the spring of 1856 and the summer 
of 1857, Mr. Everett delivered this oration 
in the principal cities and towns of the 
country more than one hundred times, 
with the result of turning into the treas- 
ury of the Mount Vernon Association 
nearly $60,000. In addition to this, dur- 
ing 1858 and 1859, he contributed to the 



"New York Ledger," owned and pub- 
lished by Robert Bonner, a weekly article 
for which the latter paid in advance $io,- 
GOO to the ladies of the Mount Vernon 
Association. The receipts for other ad- 
dresses and lectures delivered for chari- 
table purposes were nearly $100,000. Pie 
took an active part in the discussion of 
the political cjuestions of his time, but he 
was more noted as an orator on literary 
and other public occasions. Collections 
of his speeches and addresses have been 
made at several periods. One of these, 
made in 1850, in two volumes, contained 
more than eighty addresses ; a third vol- 
ume appeared in 1858, and a fourth in 
1868. The best of these are the Phi Beta 
Kappa oration, and the one he delivered 
at Harvard, July 4, 1826, on the fiftieth 
anniversary of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and a day on which, within a 
few hours of each other, Thomas Jeiifer- 
son and John Ouincy Adams both passed 
away, even as their names lingered on the 
eloquent tongue of the great orator. 

In i860, when Civil War was threaten- 
ing and political conditions had broken 
the people into various discordant fac- 
tions, Mr. Everett was candidate for 
Vice-President with John Bell, of Tennes- 
see, for President, on what was known 
as the Bell-Everett, or Union ticket. The 
election gave them the electoral votes of 
Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, thir- 
ty-nine in all; the ticket received 590,631 
votes out of a total of 4,662,170. Through- 
out the war, Mr. Everett was a consistent 
Union man, always retaining, however, 
a considerate feeling for the Southern 
people, whom he regarded as misguided 
and misled. His oration at the dedication 
of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, November 15, 1863, was a 
magnificent production, in full accord with 
the gravity of the occasion, and couched 
in eminentlv fitting langfuacfe. This ad- 

dress is worthy of being ranked among 
the greatest intellectual triumphs of its 

Mr. Everett's last appearance was at a 
meeting held in Faneuil Hall, Boston, 
January 9, 1865, for the purpose of assist- 
ing the people of Savannah, Georgia. He 
was taken seriously ill after this fatiguing 
day, and never recovered, dying in less 
than a week thereafter. Perhaps the best 
summing up of Mr. Everett's intellectual 
gifts is to be found in an article by George 
S. Ilillard, which was published in the 
"North American Review," in 1837, for 
even at that time Mr. Everett had reach- 
ed a high eminence in the regards of his 
fellow-citizens. "The great charm in Mr. 
Everett's orations." says Mr. Hillard, 
"consists not so much in any single and 
strongly developed trait, as in that sym- 
metry and finish which on every page 
gives token of the richly endowed and 
thorough scholar. The natural move- 
ments of his inind are full of grace, and 
the most indififerent sentence which falls 
from his pen has that simple elegance 
which is as difficult to define as it is easy 
to perceive. His level passages are never 
tame, and his fine ones are never super- 
fine. His style, with matchless flexibil- 
ity, rises and falls with his subjects, and 
is alternately easy, vivid, elevated, orna- 
mented, or picturesque, adapting itself to 
the dominant mood of the mind, as an in- 
strument responds to the touch of a mas- 
ter's hand. His knowledge is so exten- 
sive, and the field of his allusions so wide, 
that the most familiar views, in passing 
through his hands, gather such a halo 
of luminous illustrations that their like- 
ness seems transformed, and we enter- 
tain doubts of their identity." 

In 1822 Mr. Everett married the daugh- 
ter of Peter C. Brooks, one of the wealth- 
iest men of Boston. Mr. Everett died in 
Boston, January 15. 1865. 



BORDEN, Richard, 

Enterprising Manufacturer. 

Richard Borden was born at Fall River, 
Massachusetts, April 12, 1795, son of 
Thomas and Mary (Flathaway) Borden. 
He was in the seventh generation in de- 
scent from Richard Borden, born in Eng- 
land in 1601, who came to America in 
1635, with his wife, Joan, and two sons, 
Thomas and Francis, who were then quite 
young. His third son, Matthew, was born 
in Portsmouth, near the north end of the 
island of Rhode Island, in May, 1638, 
being the first child born of English par- 
ents after the arrival of the first company 
of settlers upon the island. His fourth 
son, John, born September, 1640, from 
whom the subject of this sketch descend- 
ed, became quite famous among the 
Friends throughout the country as John 
Borden, of Quaker Hill, on Rhode Island. 
This John Borden became a very exten- 
sive land owner, and settled his two sons, 
Richard and Joseph, near the Fall River 
stream. For many years the Borden fam- 
ily owned a large portion of the land and 
water power in Fall River,