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Full text of "Encyclopedia of Virginia biography, under the editorial supervision of Lyon Gardiner Tyler"

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GENEALOGY COLLECTIO 



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1833 02390 3914 



ENCYCLOPEDIA 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



UNDER THE EDITORIAL SUPERVISION OF 

LYON GARDINER TYLER , LL. D. 

President of William and Mary College, Williamsburg ; Author of "Parties and Patronage 

in the United States," "The Cradle of the Republic," "Williamsburg, the Old 

Colonial Capital," "England in America," 'The Letters and Times of 

the Tylers," etc.; Vice-President of the Virginia Historical 

Society, Member of the Maryland Historical 

Society, and various other societies. 



VOLUME I 



NEW YORK 

LEWIS HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1915 



Copyright, 1915 
Lewis Historical Publishing Company 



12542^2 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



PREFACE 

The successful planting of an English Colony at Jamestown in 1607 had the meaning 
that England had become the world power in the place of Spain. 

One hundred years previous, Spain became the head of the dominant religious influence and 
military power of Europe. She had the monopoly of America, and her treasury was filled 
with the gold and silver of Mexico and Peru. Her title to the whole of the new continent 
was based upon the great discovery of Columbus in 1492. The conscious rivalry of England 
with this colossal power did not begin till Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1558. Then it 
was the rising of a nation instinct with enthusiasm, daring, and activity. For the negation 
of the exclusive right of Spain to the American continent, the almost forgotten voyage to 
North America of John Cabot in 1497, under the auspices of Henry VII., an English King, 
was revived by Richard Hakluyt. The next fifty years were replete with deeds of splendor 
and glory. First, Sir John Hawkins threw down the barriers which for so long had with- 
held English ships from the Western continent by sailing to the West Indies and selling 
negroes to the Spanish planters. Then Drake and Cavendish hurled themselves upon the 
Spanish settlements on the west coast of South America and plundered them of their gold 
and circumnavigated the globe. Next, in their eager desire to outdo even Columbus in search 
for the East Indies, Frobisher and Davis performed their glorious voyages to the North- 
west and wrote their names upon the icy waters of Labrador and British America. The 
grand Armada was overthrown in 1588, and the maritime power of Spain was utterly 
crushed by another great naval victory won by the English eight years later in the harbor 
of Cadiz. 

Among the schemes to cut into the power of Spain was one contemplating the establish- 
ment of an English colony in North America. This noble design was conceived by Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert and promoted by his half brother Sir Walter Raleigh, and they are 
the glorious twin spirits that stand on the threshold of American history. Newfoundland 
and Roanoke are dedicated to their memories. Though the times were not yet ripe for suc- 
cess, their faith soared above all reverses. "We are as near Heaven by sea as by land," said 
the one as he yielded up his life in the stormy waters. "I shall yet live to see Virginia an 
English nation," said the other, as he went to confinement in the Tower of London, and 
eventually also to his death. In 1605, Spain, humbled and shorn of power, made peace with 
England ; and now in the place of private enterprise like Gilbert's and Raleigh's, organized 
capital, under influences of noble spirits, like Sir Thomas Smythe, Richard Hakluyt, Sir 



4 VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 

Edwin Sandys, Nichols Ferrar and the Earl of Southampton — worthy successors of Gilbert 
and Raleigh — undertook the solution of the problem. Raleigh, confined in the Tower, could 
not take an active part at this time, but his friends and relations were the chief actors and 
workers in the new colonization schemes. 

Two large associations were formed — one composed of lords, knights and merchants of 
the city of London, and the other of residents in the cities of Bristol, Exeter and Plymouth, 
—and they obtained from King James I., April lo, 1606, a joint charter which defined Vir- 
ginia as the portion of North America lying between the 34th and 45th parallel of north 
latitude, practically the present United States. In this vast extent of territory the first 
Company, called the Virginia Company of London, was permitted to establish a settlement 
anywhere between 34 and 41 degrees ; and the second, called the Plymouth Company, any- 
where between 38 and 45 degrees. The actual jurisdiction of each Company was represented 
by a rectangle extending fifty miles north of the settlement and fifty miles south, and east 
and west 100 miles from the coast seaward, and 100 miles from the coast inland. The Ply- 
mouth Company was singularly unfortunate in its attempts, but the efforts of the Virginia 
Company were crowned with success: and by two new charters, 1609 and 1612, its juris- 
diction was extended over the entire limit of its original sphere of possible settlement, and 
from sea to sea. 

The subsequent history of Virginia aft'airs under the Company for nearly twenty years 
is one of stupendous selfsacrifice both in England and America. The men in England who 
had the supreme control gave freely of their money and time, and received no return except 
the satisfaction of having founded in America a fifth kingdom under the Crown. The 
men in Virginia incurred hardships without parallel in the world's history, and most of them 
went to the martyrdom of cruel death by climatic disease, starvation and Indian attack. It 
was but natural that, in those unprecedented conditions, those in England should try to 
shield themselves from the blame and throw upon the settlers the responsibility. But discrim- 
inating history has seen the light at last, and while the motives of the directors of the 
enterprise were always high and honorable, it is now recognized that in the government of 
the colony they made many and serious blunders. For fear of making the enterprise unpop- 
ular they refused to tell the English public the real truth as to the dangerous climate and 
the other natural conditions making for evil. Virginia, as a country, had to be "boomed." 
at all events. Thus the poor settlers, who, for the most part, consisted of the best materials 
in England — old sailors under Hawkins and Drake, or old soldiers of the Netherlands — were 
abused and shamelessly villified. The appalling mortality which overwhelmed them for a 
great number of years is itself a pathetic and passionate vindication. Never did any martyr 
suffer so patiently, so patriotically, as these devoted settlers did — a prey to Indian attack. 



PREFACE 5 

martial law, and climatic diseases — influences which, as the records show, left but one set- 
tler alive at the end of a single year of residence, out of every five that came over. 

Indeed, how can the body of the settlers be made responsible for the calamities that 
ensued when they lived under a form of government made for them by others, productive 
from the first of discord and faction; when they were not permitted to work for them- 
selves, but for a present return of profit to the Company, had to give their time and labor 
to loading ships with sassafras, cedar, and other salable commodities ; when they had no 
choice of the place of settlement, and which was selected in accordance with orders of the 
council in England; when they had no chance to till the fields, but were required to hunt 
for gold and silver mines and make tedious discoveries by land and water? Deprived of the 
opportunity to make their own living, they had to depend upon food sent from England, 
which, when it reached America, was often unfit for hogs to eat. and introduced all manner 
of disease. Above all, they had to deal with a climate which was singidarly fatal to new- 
comers, and to fight ofif numerous bands of fierce and ferocious Indians who surrounded them 
on all sides. 

Thus, the conditions were in every respect the reverse of those of the Plymouth settle- 
ment in 1620 on Cape Cod Bay; for there the Pilgrim Fathers had the control of their own 
government, the advantage of a dry and healthful situation, a sparkling stream of fresh 
water at their doors, open fields deserted by the Indians, whose nearest town was forty miles 
distant, a bay teeming with fish and a country abounding in animals whose skins brought a 
large profit in England. And yet, favored as they were, had they not been succored by Vir- 
ginia ships, the settlers there might have all perished of famine. 

Nevertheless, the settlers in Virginia held grimly to their duty, and, the dying being con- 
stantly succeeded by fresh bands doomed also to early death, but as determined as them- 
selves, prosperity at last succeeded to misfortune, and plenty and happiness to poverty and 
despair. When the civil wars in England broke out in 1642, the tone of society in Virginia 
was raised by the great influx of cavaliers and other persons of means who sought safety in 
Virginia. The clearing away of the woods improved the health conditions, and men came 
no longer over to make tobacco, but to make homes for themselves and their families. Vir- 
ginia continued to grow and improve until, at the beginning of the American Revolution, 
she was the leading and most powerful of all the colonies. 

The priorities of Virginia may be briefly stated. As the first permanent British Colony, 
she may claim as her product not only the present Virginia and Southland, but all the other 
Enghsh colonies in America, and indeed all the colonies of the present widespreading British 
Empire. She was the eldest of all, and the inspiration of all. Because her governors kept 
the New England coast clear of the French, and two ships sailing from Jamestown succored 



6 VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 

the settlers at New Plymouth, when, in 1622, they were at the point of starvation, she can 
claim especially to be the mother of New England. She had the first English institutions- 
trial by jury, law courts, representative lawmaking body, and free school. She was the first 
to announce the principle of the indissolubility of taxation and representation. She led in all 
the events resulting in the American Revolution — that is to say — struck the first blow in the 
French and Indian war, out of which war sprung the idea of taxing America ; rallied the 
other colonies against the Stamp Act ; and under the Revenue x\ct solved the four different 
crises which arose — proposing as a remedy for the first the policy of non-importation ; for 
the second a system of intercolonial committees ; for the third a general congress ; and for 
the fourth Independence ! 

The life of a State is seen best in the lives of the citizens. The aim of this book will 
be to give the biographies of all those who had any important connection with the founding 
of the colony down to the American Revolution. Thus the book will be divided into four 
parts, under the following headings: 

I. The Founders; II. The Presidents and Governors; III. The Council of State; 
IV. The Burgesses and Other Prominent Citizens. 

The Author. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



I— THE FOUNDERS 



Henry VII., King of England, was the son 
of Edward Tudor, Earl of Richmond, by his 
marriage with Margaret Beaufort, only daugh- 
ter of John Duke of Beaufort. The deaths 
of Henry VI. and of his son Prince Edward 
made Henry the head of the House of Lan- 
caster. He remained in Brittainy during the 
whole of the reign of Edward IV. But Ed- 
ward's death in 1483, and the murder of his 
two sons by the usurper Richard, removed 
almost every rival belonging to the house of 
York that could dispute his pretensions. He 
made war against Richard and defeated him 
at Bosworth in Leicestershire, and became 
King in his place. In his administration of 
the government he was politic and prudent. 
He encouraged men of letters and was a great 
patron of commerce. He came very nearly 
anticipating Ferdinand and Isabella in sending 
out Columbus ; and under his encouragement 
the Cabots discovered North America in 1497. 
Henry VII. was the father of Henry VIII., 
and grandfather of Queen Elizabeth. He died 
at Richmond, April 2, 1509. 

Cabot, John, a Venetian navigator, and first 
discoverer of North America. He visited 
• Vrabia, and in 1491 was employed by some 
merchants in Bristol, England, in hunting for 
the mythical island of the seven cities and 
Brazil. In 1495, '" 0"^ of these private voy^ 
ages, he saw land. Encouraged accordingly, 
he petitioned Henry VII., King of England, 
to grant unto him and his three sons Lewis, 
Sebastian and Sanctius, a charter to discover 



and possess new lands. The letters patent 
passed the seals on March 5, 1496, and on 
May 2, 1497, John Cabot sailed from Bristol 
with a small ship and 18 persons. Having 
reached the continent of North America, some- 
where about Cape Breton Island, he coasted 
down 300 miles. He was three months on 
the voyage, and on his return received much 
hont)r, and the people, we are told, "ran after 
him like mad," for enlistment in his voyages. 
To show where he landed he made a chart 
and globe with the place designated. The 
King gave him presents and a pension out of 
the customs of the port of Bristol. Aided 
by Henry, Cabot sailed on a second voyage 
in the beginning of summer, 1498, with five 
ships, but it is probable that he died on the 
voyage, as the expedition seems to have re- 
turned under the charge of his son, Sebastian 
Cabot. Columbus never saw any part of the 
territory of the United States, and as a nation 
we trace back to the discoveries of John Cabot. 

Cabot, Sebastian, second son of John Cabot, 
was probably born in Bristol, about 1577, and 
probabh- sailed with his father in many of 
his voyages. His name appears in the peti- 
tion to Henry MI. and in the charter granted 
by the King, March 5, 1496. He probably 
went with his father in his voyage to Amer- 
ica, j\Iay 2, 1497, and the voyage of 1498 
which sailed under the father was probably, 
on account of the latter's death, under the 
son's charge on its return. Later under the 
auspices of Thomas Pert, vice-admiral of Eng- 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



land, he paid a visit to South America and 
the West India Islands. Not finding much 
encouragement in England, which was not yet 
a maritime nation, he entered the service of 
the King of Spain and was appointed "pilot 
major." In 1526 he sailed to Brazil and spent 
four years in exploring the country, but was 
imprisoned a year on his return, on the charge 
of mismanagement. He was, however, soon 
reinstated in his former position, and remained 
for many years examiner of pilots at Seville, 
during which time he made his famous "mappe 
monde," which was first engraved in 1544. 
He returned to England on the death of Henry 
VIII., and Edward VI. gave him a pension 
and made him grand pilot of England. Under 
his leadership a Company of Discoverers, of 
which he was made governor for life, was 
formed. They sent out in 1553 an expedi- 
tion under Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard 
Chancellor, which reached the White Sea and 
discovered Russia. This ancient company, 
which still exists, has a direct connection 
with the settlement of \'irginia. Sir Thomas 
Smythe, treasurer of the Virginia Company 
of London, was a successor of Cabot as gov- 
ernor of this company in 1607, and its ships 
were employed in taking emigrants to Vir- 
ginia. Sebastian Cabot died about 1557. 

Hawkins, William, son of John Hawkins, 
Esq., of Tavistock, Devonshire, and Joan, 
daughter of William Amidas, Esq., of Lancas- 
ter, Cornwall. He made several voyages to 
the coast of Africa and carried slaves from 
thence to Brazil in 1530, and after. He mar- 
ried Joan, daughter of William Trelawney, 
Esq., of Cornwall. He was the father of Sir 
John Hawkins. 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, daughter of 
Henry Mil. by Anne Roleyn, was born at 



Greenwich, September 7, 1533. She was edu- 
cated by Grindall and Ascham, who made her 
a great scholar and an expert linguist. She 
succeeded to the throne on the death of her 
sister Mary, November 17, 1558. Her reign 
lasted 45 years, and it is sufficient to say that 
she held with honor and glory the central 
figure of a period that has hardly a parallel 
in history for the outburst of activity along 
all lines — literary, pohtical, maritime and mili- 
tary. She encouraged especially Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh in their plans 
of colonizing Virginia, and when Sir Richard 
Grenville returned with his accounts of the 
new found land she gave it the name of "Vir- 
ginia" in memory of herself as the Virgin 
Queen. She died March 24, 1603. 

Cecil, William, Lord Burleigh, the great 
minister of State to Queen Elizabeth. He 
was born at Bourne, Lincolnshire, September 
13, 1520. His biography would be almost a 
history of the times in which he lived. He 
patronized Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir 
\\'alter Raleigh, and all the other English 
voyagers for discovery. He was a man of 
immense capacity for business, and held the 
full confidence of the Queen. He died May 
4. 1598. 

Walsingham, Sir Francis, third and young- 
est son of \\'illiam Walsingham, of Scadbury, 
parish of Chislehurst ; principal Secretary of 
State of Queen Elizabeth in 1573, and "one 
of the pillars of her throne." He was a pro- 
moter of all the great expeditions during his 
time, and staunch friend of Gilbert's and 
Raleigh's plans to colonize America. He was 
born in 1536, died April 6, 1590, and was 
buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 

Hawkins, Sir John, a great navigator, son 
of William Hawkins, was born at Plymouth, 




'--.■:.-^'^:^-:..::».:^-^g^^^^^^^^ 1 



THE FOUNDERS 



England, about 1532, entered the naval service 
in 1 55 1, and went on various voyages into 
Spain, Portugal and the Canaries ; he invented 
the chain pump for ships, 1558-59, following 
in the track of his father he visited Guinea 
ii; 1562, and sailed to the West Indies with 
a cargo of 300 negroes, whom he sold to the 
Spaniards residing there. He returned to Eng- 
land with a rich cargo of ginger, hides and 
1 earls. In 1564 Hawkins repeated the experi- 
ment with greater success, and on his way 
home stopped in Florida and relieved the 
struggling colony of Huguenots planted there 
by Admiral Coligny and barbarously destroyed 
by the Spaniards soon after Hawkins' de- 
parture. The Queen rewarded him with a 
CI est, consisting of "a demi moor in his proper 
colors, his hands behind him bound with a 
cord." In 1567 Hawkins went on a third ex- 
pedition from Africa to the West Indies, but 
was attacked by the Spanish fleet in the harbor 
of San Juan de Ulloa, and most of his ships 
and men were destroyed ; two ships escaped, 
commanded respectively by Hawkins and 
Drake. Pretending to be a traitor, he was 
made a grandee of Spain and he received large 
sums of money from Philip II., and in 1572 
■ equipped a fleet and sailed to the Azores to 
lie in wait for Philip's Mexican fleet ; appointed 
treasurer of the navy in 1573; as rear-admiral 
he had a great part in ])reparing England to 
resist the Spaniards, and commanded the left 
wing of the English fleet in the great battle 
with the Armada in 1588. For his gallantry 
and efficiency at this time he was knighted by 
the Queen. In 1590 he had the command of 
a squadron, which, in conjunction with another 
under Sir Martin Frobisher, was sent to infest 
the coast of Spain. In 1595 he joined with 
Drake in an expedition against the Spanish 
West Indies, but the two commanders disagreed 
and he was unsuccessful in an attack on the 



Canaries : and at Porto Rico he fell sick and 
died and was buried in the sea. He sat twice 
in Parliament for Plymouth, and founded and 
endowed St. John's Hospital there for decayed 
mariners and shipwrights of the royal navy. 
He married Katherine, daughter of Benjamin 
Golson, and his son. Sir Richard Hawkins, 
ar able and distinguished seaman, was mem- 
ber of the council for \"irginia in 1607. 

Frobisher, Sir Martin, son of Bernard Fro- 
bisher by his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Richard Yorke, a great seaman and discoverer, 
was born at Altofts, Normanton, Yorkshire, 
about 1535; made a voyage to Guinea and 
other places ; served with Gilbert in Ireland ; 
stimulated by reading Gilbert's "Discourse to 
Prove a Passage by the Northwest to Cathaia 
and the East Indies," he began his glorious 
voyages to the northwest coast of North 
America. Before Frobisher's departure on 
his first voyage Queen Elizabeth sent for 
him, commended him for his enterprise, and 
when he sailed July I, 1576, she waved her 
hand to him from her palace window. He 
explored Frobisher's strait and took posses- 
sion of the land called Meta Incognita in the 
Queen's name. The vain hope of a gold mine 
inspired two other voyages to the same region 
(1577-78). On his third voyage he discov- 
ered Hudson strait ; vice-admiral in the Drake- 
Sidney voyage, 1585-86; served against the 
.\rmada and was knighted in 1588; com- 
manded vessels against the Spanish commerce 
1589-92; in 1594 he commanded the stjuadron 
sent to aid Henr\- I\'. of France; wounded at 
the attack on Brest, November 7 ; died at Ply- 
mouth, and was interred in St. Giles Church, 
Cripple Gate. February. 1595. 

Davis, John, a great navigatcir. born at 
.^andridgc. England, near Dartiunuth. not far 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



from tlie Gilberts and the Raleighs, about 
1555. He was early inured to a seafaring 
life and distinguished himself by three voy- 
ages which he undertook for the discovery of 
a northwest passage between 1585-87. He 
discovered the great strait which bears his 
name, and sailed along the coast of Green- 
land. In 1571 he went as second in command 
with Cavendish in his unfortunate journey to 
the South Sea. He afterwards made five voy- 
ages to the East Indies, and was killed in the 
last by some Japanese pirates in the straits 
of Malacca, December 27, 1605. He pub- 
lished various books on maritime subjects, and 
invented a quadrant which was invariably used 
for taking the sun's altitude at sea until it was 
superceded by Hadley's sextant. 

Drake, Sir Francis, circumnavigator of the 
globe, and the most famous seaman of his 
age. His parentage is not certain, but he was 
probably a son of Robert Drake of Otterton, 
by his wife Agnes Kelloway. The date and 
place of his birth are equally uncertain, but 
he was probably born at Crowndale, near 
Tavistock, Devonshire, in 1539, and was 
named for his godfather, Francis Russell, 
afterwards second earl of Bedford. His 
father suffered persecution and was forced to 
fly from his home at Tavistock, and inhabit in 
the hull of a ship, where most of his younger 
sons were born ; he had twelve in all. Francis 
w^as at an early age apprenticed to the master 
of a small coasting vessel, who dying without 
heirs, left the bark to him. He seems to have 
followed this petty trade for a short time, but 
in 1565 he was engaged in one or two voyages 
to Guinea, the Spanish Main, and South Amer- 
ica. Influenced by the accounts he heard of 
the exploits of Hawkins, who was his kins- 
man, he commanded the Judith in the fleet fit- 



ted out by that great commander, which sailed 
from Plymouth, October 2, 1667, and which, 
with the exception of the Minion and the 
Judith conveying Hawkins and Drake, were 
destroyed in the harbor of San Juan d'Ulloa 
by a treacherous attack of the Spaniards. In 
1570 he went on his own account to the West 
Indies and in 1571 went again, the chief fruit 
of which voyages was the intelligence he gained 
of men and places which were useful for his 
future movements. In 1572 he sailed with 
two small ships, having on board the parts of 
three "dainty pinnaces," and being reinforced 
on the way by another English ship arrived at 
the Isle of Pines in Cuba, where they cap- 
tured two Spanish vessels. This adventure 
was followed by numberless others which in- 
volved the surrender of Nombre de Dios, tht 
burning of Porto Bello, the sacking of Vera 
Cruz, the destruction of many Spanish ships, 
and the capture of a caravan of mules loaded 
with thirty tons of silver. On this voyage, in 
one of his journeys into the country of 
Panama, Drake, from a tree on tlie ridge, had 
a view of both oceans, and, transported at the 
sight, prayed fervently that he might live to 
sail the one he now first saw but had never 
visited. At length returning homeward, he 
arrived in Plymouth, Sunday, .\ugust 9, 1587, 
when, at the news, leaving the preacher in the 
midst of his sermon, everybo<ly ran out of 
church to see the famous seaman. 

This was the most famous voyage ever made 
by an Englishman, but Drake contemplated 
greater things. After some service in Ireland, 
Drake got together a squadron of five vessels 
and sailed again to America. He determined 
to visit that great wide spreading sea of the 
west, which he had seen from the ridge of 
Panama. He left Falmouth, December i^. 



THE FOUNDERS 



1577, ami sailed to Brazil, and thence coasting 
southward passed through the straits of Ma- 
gellan. All of his ships hut the Pelican, in 
which he sailed, were either abandoned, de- 
stroyed in the storm or returned to England. 
But Drake was undismayed. Changing the 
name of his vessel to Golden Hind, he swept 
up the western coast of South America, plun- 
dering towns and shipping as he went. He 
then coasted California and North America, as 
far as 48° north latitude. Returning again 
southward, he anchored in a little harbor near 
the Bay of San Francisco and took possession 
of the country in the name of Queen Eliza- 
beth, calling it New Albion. Having over- 
hauled and reprovisioned his ship, he struck 
boldly across the Pacific and after an absence 
of nearly three years at last reached Plymouth, 
England, on Sunday, September 26, 1580 — 
being the first Englishman and the next person 
after Magellan to circumnavigate the globe. 
He arrived very richly freighted with gold, 
silver, silk, pearls and precious stones, amount- 
ing in value to one million and a half sterling, 
represented perhaps in modern values about 
$40,000,000. Queen Elizabeth visited Drake's 
ship at Deptford, and knighted him and be- 
stowed upon him a coat of arms and a crest. 
And the King of Spain issued a proclamation 
offering 20,000 ducats for Drake's head. Soon 
after these events he served as mayor of Ply- 
mouth and as member of Parliament. 

Queen Elizabeth having come to an open 
breach with the King of Spain, Drake was 
sent in 1585 with a fleet of twenty-six sail to 
attack the Spanish settlements in the West 
Indies. He took St. Jago in Cuba, St. Do- 
mingo, Carthegena and St. Augustine, and 
carried away booty to the amount of £60,000 
sterling. Sailing northward he visited Lane's 
colony at Roanoke, and finding them disheart- 



ened took them all on board and carried them 
back to Portsmouth, England, which he 
reached July 28, 1586. 

Drake was not long left idle. In 1581 he 
was sent with a strong fleet against the Span- 
ish coast and created much havoc in sinking 
and burning 100 Spanish vessels, and destroy- 
ing four castles on the shore; and off the 
Azores captured a Portugese East-Indiaman 
loaded with wealth estimated at £10,000. This 
was what Drake called "singing the King's 
beard." He liberally employed some of the 
wealth he had acquired in bringing water from 
a distant spring to the town of Plymouth. 
Drake was active in preparing England against 
the attack of the Spanish Armada. It was his 
urgent advice to the Queen not to wait the 
attack, but to carry the war to the Spanish 
coast and thereby break up the proposed move- 
ment. In the battle with the Armada he was 
vice-admiral under Lord Charles Howard, and 
his squadron had the principal share in the dis- 
comfiture of the Spanish fleet as it fled before 
the storms and foe. 

The next year Drake was sent with a body 
of land forces under Sir John Norris for the 
purpose of restoring Don Antonio to the 
throne of Portugal, but the expedition was 
attended with a large loss of life and was not 
successful in its primary objects, though Drake 
had the good fortime to capture a large fleet 
laden with naval stores, thus putting an end 
to all ]5roposals of an invasion from Spain. 
For the next few years Drake was actively 
Imt peacefully employed on shore, and in 1593 
sat in parliament for Plymouth. In 1594 he 
was admiral of a fleet to make another attack 
on the West Indies, and Sir John Hawkins 
was vice-admiral. The expedition seems to 
have been unfortunate from the beginning. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



The enemy were forewarned, and everywhere 
they met with determined opposition. Various 
towns, including Nombre de Dios, were burned 
and sacked, but they obtained no booty. Haw- 
kins died when off Porto Rico, and Drake fell 
sick of dysentery. His disease was aggra- 
vated by his disappointment and exertions, and 
it finally took a bad turn. On the return he 
also died off Porto Rico, the date being Janu- 
ary 28, 1595-96. His body, encased in a 
leaden coffin, was committed to the deep next 
day. He was twice married; first to Mary 
Newman, and secondly to Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir George Sydenham, who survived him 
and afterwards married Sir William Courte- 
nay, of Powderham, in Devonshire. He left 
no children nor did any of his eleven brothers, 
except one Captain Thomas Drake, who left 
a daughter Elizabeth, wife of John Bamfield, 
Esq. ; and a son Francis, who was created 
baronet .August 2, 1622. 

Hakluyt, Rev. Richard, a celebrated naval 

historian, born about 1555, brought up at 
Westminster School, and graduated A. B. at 
Lnrist Church College, Oxford, February 19, 
1573; M. A. June 27, 1577. His interest in 
navigation was early excited by the example 
and teaching of his cousin Richard Hakluyt, 
Sr., and he devoted himself to the study of 
geography and collecting and publishing the 
accounts of travels and discoveries. In 1582 
appeared his "Divers Voyages;" in 1584 he 
wrote his "Discourse on ^^'estern Planting" 
for Raleigh, in which he pictured the advan- 
tage of an English settlement in America ; in 
1586 he caused the journals of Ribault and 
others to be published ; in 1587 he published an 
improved edition of Peter Martyr's work, "De 
Orbe Novo," afterwards translated in English 
and published under tlic title of "The Historie 



of the West Indies;" in 1588 he applied him- 
self to his greatest work, "Principal Naviga- 
tions," which he published in 1589; and 
shortly after he issued a second edition. In 
1601 he published a translation of Antonio 
Galvano's "History of Discoveries," and in 
1609 a translation of Ferdinand De Soto's 
"Description of Florida." During this time 
he filled many offices. He was appointed at a 
very early age to read public lectures at Ox- 
ford upon cosmography; in 1582-83 he was 
chaplain of the English embassy at Paris, 
where he remained five years ; during his 
absence he was made a prebendary of Bristol ; 
in 1605 he was appointed rector of Wethering- 
set in Suffolk. He took great interest in the 
colonization of Virginia, and was one of the 
four incorporators mentioned by name in the 
patent granted to the Virginia Company of 
London in 1606. On the recommendation of 
Dr. Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, the post of minister at Jamestown was 
offered to him, but he declined in favor of 
Robert Hunt. Hackluyt died at Eton in Hert- 
fordshire in November, 1606, and was buried 
among the illustrious dead in \\^estminster 
Abbey. No man did more for the English 
occupation of America, since by his numerous 
works he fired the imagination of the nation 
and inspired the navigators with the zeal of 
crusaders to whom no sea or enterprise, how- 
ever hazardous, had any terrors. 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, son of Otho Gil- 
bert and his wife Katherine Champernoun, 
was born in Devonshire, at his father's house 
called Greenway, upon Dart river, about 1639; 
educated at Eton and Oxford; devoted himself 
to the study of navigation and the art of war; 
was wounded at Havre in fighting against the 
French, and afterwards saw much military 



THE FOUNDERS 



13 



experience in Ireland, wliere after defeating 
the celebrated McCarthy More he was made 
governor of Munster in October, 1569; 
knighted at Drogheda by the lord lieutenant 
of Ireland, Sir Henry Sidney, January i, 1570, 
and the same year returned to England and 
married Joan, only daughter and heiress of 
John Aucher, of Otterden, by his wife Ann, 
daughter of Sir William Kellaway ; M. P. 
from Plymouth in 1571 ; commanded the 
squadron sent to reinforce Flushing in the 
autumn of 1572; returned to England in the 
fall of 1573, and was living at Limehouse in 
I575"78- He became greatly mterested in 
making discoveries, and in 1566 petitioned the 
Queen for the privilege of making northeast 
discoveries, and in 1567 of making northwest 
discoveries. He wrote a "Discourse of a Dis- 
covery for a new passage to Cataia," and con- 
ceived the design of planting an English set- 
tlement in the New World to countervail the 
power of Spain. Accordingly, he obtained a 
patent from Queen Elizabeth for this purpose, 
dated June 11, 1578; sailed in the fall of that 
year with seven ships and 387 men, but was 
soon forced to return; in 1579 he sent Simon 
Ferdinando and in 1580 John Walker to make 
preliminary explorations, and on June 11, 1583, 
sailed himself a second time with five ships 
bearing 260 men; August 3,- 1583, he reached 
Newfoundland, of which he took possession 
in the name of Queen Elizabeth. From here 
•he sailed southward, but the desertion and loss 
of several of his vessels forced him to abandon 
the expedition and to attempt to return home 
with the two that remained. On the way a 
terrible storm on September 10, 1583, swal- 
lowed up one of them bearing Gilbert himself. 
Throughout the whole expedition he showed 
an invincible spirit, and his last words will be 
kept in precious remembrance: "We are as 



near Heaven by sea as by land." He is justly 
considered the founder of American coloniza- 
tion. He was the father of a number of chil- 
dren, among whom were John, Bartholomew 
and Raleigh Gilbert, all of whom were inter- 
ested in the settlement of America. 

Gilbert, Adrian, of Sandridge, son of Otho 
liilbert, of Compton, and brother of Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert, made a voyage to the northwest 
prior to 1583; interested in the voyages of his 
brother Sir Humphrey, in the voyages of John 
Davis 1586-87, and in the voyage of Caven- 
dish, 1591; was constable of Sherborne Cas- 
tle. 1596-1603; member of parliament for 
l-Jridgeport, 1597-98. 

Gilbert, Sir John, of Greenway, eldest son 
of Otho Gilbert and Katherine Champernoun, 
his wife, and brother of Sir Humphrey Gil- 
bert : knighted by Queen Elizabeth at West- 
minster, 1571 ; vice-admiral of Devon, 1585; 
mayor of Plymouth, 1589; married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Richard Chudleigh, and was 
buried in St. Peter's Cathedral, Exeter, where 
an elegant monument remains to his memory. 
Interested in the expeditions of his brother Sir 
Humphrey. 

Gilbert, Sir John, eldest son of Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert, went with Raleigh to Guiana in 
1595 ; showed gallantry at the battle of Cadiz 
in 1596 and was knighted by Essex; governor 
of the fort at Plymouth, 1597; member of the 
council for Virginia, 1607 ; was a brave officer ; 
married a daughter of Sir Richard Molyneux, 
of Sefton, but died without issue, July 5, 1608, 
of smallpox, and was buried at Marldon 
Church. His brother Raleigh Gilbert was his 
heir. 

Ferdinando, Simon, a Portugese pilot, sailed 
with Drake on his celebrated voyage to the 



i6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Cavendish, Sir Thomas, an adventurous 
seaman, the second Englishman to circumnavi- 
gate the globe, was born at Grimston Hall, 
Trimley, St. Martin Parish, Suffolk county, 
England, 1564; he equipped a ship at his ovi^n 
expense and sailed with Sir Richard Gren- 
ville on the voyage to Roanoke Island in 1585 ; 
afterwards mortgaged his estates and fitted out 
a fleet to prey on Spanish commerce, and em- 
barking from Plymouth, July 21, 1586, crossed 
the Atlantic, ran down the coast of South 
America, cleared the straits of Magellan and 
heading northward ravaged the seaboard of 
Chili, Peru and New Spain. He captured a 
galleon laden with valuable merchandise and 
122,000 Spanish dollars. He went as far as 
Cape Lucas, on the coast of Cahfornia, and 
then sailed for England by the way of the 
Cape of Good Hope, reaching Plymouth, Sep- 
tember 9, 1588, after an absence of two years, 
one month and nineteen days. On his return 
home Queen Elizabeth knighted him. His 
share of the spoils was "rich enough to pur- 
chase a fair earldom." In three years he plan- 
ned another voyage of the same scope, but his 
good genius deserted him. His plans were 
rendered abortive by tempestuous weather, 
sickness, hunger and desertion, and being com- 
pelled to turn homeward died at sea in the 
summer of 1592, heartbroken from want, 
anguish and fatigue. 

Lane, Captain Ralph, second son of Sir 
Ralph Lane, of Orlinbury, and his wife ]\Iaud, 
daughter of William Lord Parr, uncle of 
Queen Katherine Parr, was born in North- 
amptonshire, about 1630; entered the Queen's 
service in 1563; distinguished himself in the 
rebellion of 1569, and was made governor of 
Kerry and Clan. Morris; he is described by 
Stow as "a great projector in these times," 



and proposed to the crown many schemes of 
all kinds ; was selected by Raleigh as governor 
of the colony to be sent to Roanoke Island in 
1585; finding that there were no gold mines 
in North Carolina he returned home with the 
settlers in 1586; afterwards was a member of 
the commission to provide for the defence of 
England against the Spanish Armada; and in 
1589 was a colonel in the expedition of Drake 
and Norris to Portugal ; he was made muster- 
master-general in Ireland, where he was dan- 
gerously wounded ; was knighted by Lord 
Fitzwilliam, deputy lord lieutenant of Ireland, 
in 1593, and died in 1604 or 1605. 

Hariot, Thomas, an eminent English math- 
ematician, born at Oxford, in 1560, studied at 
St. Mary's Hall, Oxford University, where he 
took the degree of Bachelor of Arts, February 
12, 1580. Soon after he was entertained by 
Sir ^^'alter Raleigh as his instructor in mathe- 
matics, and granted by him an annual pension. 
He was sent with Ralph Lane and his colony 
to Roanoke in 1585, and upon his return he 
published the results of his labors in "A Brief 
and True Report of the newfoundland of Vir- 
ginia, etc., London, 1588." He was the con- 
stant companion of Sir Walter Raleigh when 
he was confined in the Tower of London. He 
made a sun dial for the Earl of Northumber- 
land, which is still to be seen in the south 
face of St. Martin's tower. In 1607 he drew 
up observations on the comet known as "Hal- 
ley's Comet." He was the first to detect the 
spots on the sun, and is said to have observed 
the satellites of Jupiter a few days after Gali- 
leo first discovered them. He arrived at a 
complete theory of the genesis of equations in 
algebra, which Cardan and Vieta had but par- 
tially conceived. He preserved a keen inter- 
est in the colonization of Virginia till his death, 
at London, July 2, 1621. 



THE FOUNDERS 



17 



White, Captain John, was one of the set- 
tlers who went with Captain Ralph Lane and 
his colonists to Roanoke in 1586. He was an 
artist, and made maps of the country and 
drawings of the Indian life. Many of his 
paintings are now in the Sloane collection and 
in the Grenville Library in the British Mu- 
seum. He was one of those to whom Raleigh 
assigned his patent in January, 1587, and went 
in charge of a second colony to Roanoke in 
May that year. In November he went to Eng- 
land for supplies, but his return to Roanoke 
was delayed on account of the invasion of 
England by the Spanish Armada. At length 
after tliree years he returned to Roanoke, but 
found no trace of the colony which he had left 
behind. Some of his maps and drawings were 
engraved in 1590 by De Bry in Hariot's report 
of the New found land of Virginia. He was 
living in 1594, when he wrote a letter to 
Raleigh. One of the lost colonists was his own 
daughter, wife of Annanias Dare, to whom 
was born a daughter, Virginia, August 18, 
1578, the first child of English parents to be 
born in America. 

Mace, Samuel, a mariner in the employ- 
ment of Sir Walter Raleigh, was sent by him 
three times to Virginia to search for the "Lost 
Colony of Roanoke ;" the third voyage was in 
1602; he departed from Waymoutb in March, 
and reaching the American coast forty leagues 
south of Cape Hatteras, spent a month search^ 
ing the coast and trading with the Indians ; he 
returned with a cargo of sassafras and roots of 
different kinds, but brought no news of the 
"Lost Colony." 

James I. of England and VI. of Scotland, 
only child of Mary Queen of Scots, daughter 
of James V., by her cousin Henry Stuart, Lord 
Darnley, was born in the Castle of Edinburgh, 



June 19, 1566. He married .A.nne of Denmark, 
November 24, 1589, and was proclaimed King 
of England on the death of Queen Elizabeth, 
March 24, 1603. His reign lasted till March 
27, 1625, when he died. In estimating his 
career, while we must condemn his subservi- 
ency to favorites like Somerset and Bucking- 
ham, and his exhorbitant ideas of his preroga- 
tive, we must praise his actions in other re- 
spects. He loved peace, and was fond of 
books and literary men. He had patriotic 
views on extending the trade and power of the 
nation by favoring merchants, discoveries and 
colonization. He enlarged the privileges of 
the East India, the R^uscovy, the Turkey and 
the Merchant Adventurers Companies, and 
granted three charters to the Virginia Com- 
pany, successively increasing its powers. While 
he has been condemned for having the com- 
pany dissolved, it cannot be said that he acted 
without some good reasons. The company had 
fallen into factions, and the terrible mortality 
in Virginia gave the appearance of careless 
administration. Of course Sandys and South- 
ampton were not responsible for this, but sub- 
sequent events justified King James' action. 
As a matter of fact the colony had outgrown 
the care of a distant corporation. Jamestown, 
James river and James City county in Virginia 
still remind us of his name and reign. 

Cecil, Sir Robert, Earl of Salisbury, born 
June I, 1560, son of William Cecil, Lord Bur- 
leigh, whom he succeeded as secretary of state 
on his death in 1598. In that office he was 
in fact prime minister during the next five 
years of his life. He was sole secretary of 
state to James I. from 1603 to his death in 
1 61 2. He was one of the earliest and con- 
stant friends of the Virginia enterprise, and 
subscribed £333 6s. 8d. to its stock. 



1 6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Cavendish, Sir Thomas, an adventurous 
seaman, the second EngHshman to circumnavi- 
gate the globe, was born at Grimston Hall, 
Trimley, St. Martin Parish, Suffolk county, 
England, 1564; he equipped a ship at his own 
expense and sailed with Sir Richard Gren- 
ville on the voyage to Roanoke Island in 1585 ; 
afterwards mortgaged his estates and fitted out 
a fleet to prey on Spanish commerce, and em- 
barking from Plymouth, July 21, 1586, crossed 
the Atlantic, ran down the coast of South 
America, cleared the straits of Magellan and 
heading northward ravaged the seaboard of 
Chili, Peru and New Spain. He captured a 
galleon laden with valuable merchandise and 
122,000 Spanish dollars. He went as far as 
Cape Lucas, on the coast of California, and 
then sailed for England by the way of the 
Cape of Good Hope, reaching Plymouth, Sep- 
tember 9, 1588, after an absence of two years, 
one month and nineteen days. On his return 
home Queen Elizabeth knighted him. His 
share of the spoils was '"rich enough to pur- 
chase a fair earldom." In three years he plan- 
ned another voyage of the same scope, but his 
good genius deserted him. His plans were 
rendered abortive by tempestuous weather, 
sickness, hunger and desertion, and being com- 
pelled to turn homeward] died at sea in the 
summer of 1592, heartbroken from want, 
anguish and fatigue. 

Lane, Captain Ralph, second son of Sir 
Ralph Lane, of Orlinbury, and his wife Maud, 
daughter of William Lord Parr, uncle of 
Queen Katherine Parr, was born in North- 
amptonshire, about 1630; entered the Queen's 
service in 1563; distinguished himself in the 
rebellion of 1569, and was made governor of 
Kerry and Clan. Morris; he is described by 
Stow as "a great projector in these times." 



and proposed to the crown many schemes of 
all kinds ; was selected by Raleigh as governor 
of the colony to be sent to Roanoke Island in 
1585; finding that there were no gold mines 
in North Carolina he returned home with the 
settlers in 1586; afterwards was a member of 
the commission to provide for the defence of 
England against the Spanish Armada ; and in 
1589 was a colonel in the expedition of Drake 
and Norris to Portugal ; he was made muster- 
master-general in Ireland, where he was dan- 
gerously wounded ; was knighted by Lord 
Fitzwilliam, deputy lord lieutenant of Ireland, 
in 1593, and died in 1604 or 1605. 

Hariot, Thomas, an eminent English math- 
ematician, born at Oxford, in 1560, studied at 
St. Mary's Hall, Oxford University, where he 
took the degree of Bachelor of Arts, February 
12. 1580. Soon after he was entertained by 
Sir \\'alter Raleigh as his instructor in mathe- 
matics, and granted by him an annual pension, 
He was sent with Ralph Lane and his colon; 
to Roanoke in 1585. and upon his return hi 
published the results of his labors in "A Brie: 
and True Report of the newfoundland of Vir- 
ginia, etc., London, 1588." He was the con 
slant companion of Sir Walter Raleigh when 
he was confined in the Tower of London. He 
made a sun dial for the Earl of Northumber- 
land, which is still to be seen in the south 
face of St. Martin's tower. In 1607 he drew 
up observations on the comet known as "Hal- 
ley's Comet." He was the first to detect the 
spots on the sun. and is said to have observed 
the satellites of Jupiter a few days after Gali- 
leo first discovered them. He arrived at a 
complete theory of the genesis of equations in 
algebra, which Cardan and Vieta had but par- 
tially conceived. He preserved a keen inter- 
est in the colonization of Virginia till his death, 
at London, Tulv 2. 1621. 



1. 

I 



THE FOUNDERS 



White, Captain John, was one of the set- 
tlers who went with Captain Ralph Lane and 
his colonists to Roanoke in 1586. He was an 
artist, and made maps of the country and 
drawings of the Indian life. Many of his 
paintings are now in the Sloane collection and 
in the Grenville Library in the British Mu- 
seum. He was one of those to whom Raleigh 
assigned his patent in January, 1587, and went 
in charge of a second colony to Roanoke in 
May that year. In November he went to Eng- 
land for supplies, but his return to Roanoke 
was delayed on account of the invasion of 
England by the Spanish Armada. At length 
after three years he returned to Roanoke, but 
found no trace of the colony which he had left 
behind. Some of his maps and drawings were 
engraved in 1590 by De Bry in Hariot's report 
of the New found land of Virginia. He was 
living in 1594, when he wrote a letter to 
Raleigh. One of the lost colonists was his own 
daughter, wife of Annanias Dare, to whom 
was born a daughter, Virginia, August 18, 
1578, the first child of English parents to be 
born in America. 

Mace, Samuel, a mariner in the employ- 
ment of Sir Walter Raleigh, was sent by him 
three times to Virginia to search for the "Lost 
Colony of Roanoke ;" the third voyage was in 
1602; he departed from Waymouth in March, 
and reaching the American coast forty leagues 
south of Cape Hatteras, spent a month searchi- 
ing the coast and trading with the Indians ; he 
returned with a cargo of sassafras and roots of 
different kinds, but brought no news of the 
"Lost Colony." 

James I. of England and VI. of Scotland, 

only child of Mary Queen of Scots, daughter 

of James V., by her cousin Henry Stuart, Lord 

Darnley, was born in the Castle of Edinburgh, 

viR— 2 



June 19, 1566. He married Anne of Denmark, 
November 24, 1589, and was proclaimed King 
of England on the death of Queen Elizabeth, 
March 24, 1603. His reign lasted till March 
27, 1625, when he died. In estimating his 
career, while we must condemn his subservi- 
ency to favorites like Somerset and Bucking- 
ham, and his exborbitant ideas of his preroga- 
tive, we must praise his actions in other re- 
spects. He loved peace, and was fond of 
books and literary men. He had patriotic 
views on extending the trade and power of the 
nation by favoring merchants, discoveries and 
colonization. He enlarged the privileges of 
the East India, the Muscovy, the Turkey and 
the Merchant Adventurers Companies, and 
granted three charters to the Virginia Com- 
pany, successively increasing its powers. While 
he has been condemned for having the com- 
pany dissolved, it cannot be said that he acted 
without some good reasons. The company had 
fallen into factions, and the terrible mortality 
in Virginia gave the appearance of careless 
administration. Of course Sandys and South- 
ampton were not responsible for this, but sub- 
sequent events justified King James' action. 
As a matter of fact the colony had outgrown 
the care of a distant corporation. Jamestown, 
James river and James City county in Virginia 
still remind us of his name and reign. 

Cecil, Sir Robert, Earl of Salisbury, born 
June I, 1560, son of William Cecil, Lord Bur- 
leigh, whom he succeeded as secretary of state 
on his death in 1598. In that office he was 
in fact prime minister during the next five 
years of his life. He was sole secretary of 
state to James I. from 1603 to his death in 
1612. He was one of the earliest and con- 
stant friends of the Virginia enterprise, and 
subscribed £333 6s. 8d. to its stock. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Gosnold, Bartholomew, (q. v.)- 

Gilbert, Bartholomew, son of Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert, sailed with Bartholomew Gos- 
nold in the ship Concord, sent out by the Earl 
of Southampton to the New England coast, 
March 26, 1602; May 10, 1603, in a small 
bark of fifty tons, he sailed to Chesapeake 
Bay; when landing on the eastern shore he 
was attacked by Indians and killed in July of 
that year. The ship returned to England 
about the end of September. 

Pring, Martin, sea captain, son of John 
Pring of Awliscomb, Devonshire, was in 1603 
sent out by Richard Hakluyt and others of 
Bristol under license from Sir Walter Raleigh 
with two ships the Speedwell and Discovery 
to perform a voyage to the coast of New Eng- 
land. They arrived at Bristol on October 2, 
where they reported the land they had visited 
"full of God's blessings." He then went on a 
voyage to Guiana, and, afterwards in Octo- 
ber, 1606, went out to New England in an 
expedition fitted out by Sir John Popham, and 
"brought back with him," wrote Sir Ferdinand 
Gorges, "the most exact discovery of that land 
that ever came to my hand since." Pring 
afterwards saw much service in the employ- 
ment of the East India Company's ships. On 
his passage home in 1621, in the Royal James, 
the officers and inen made a subscription 
towards building a free school in Virginia, 
amounting to iyo 8s 6d., of which Pring con- 
tributed £6 13s. 4d. On July 3 he was made a 
freeman of the Virginia Company of London 
and was granted two shares of land in Vir- 
ginia. The East India Company, however, 
censured him for engaging in private trade, 
and for being too complacent to the Dutch. 
He died in 1626, and was buried at St. Ste- 
phen's Church, Bristol, where there is a mon- 



ument to his memory. His daughter Alice 
married Andrews, son of William Burwell, a 
commissioner of the navy. 

Weymouth, George, voyager, was employ- 
ed by the East India Company in 1601, to make 
a voyage for the discovery of a northwest pas- 
sage to India. He penetrated some distance 
into Hudson Strait, and thus "lit the light" 
which guided Hudson to the great waters in 
British America which bear his name. In 
1605 Weymouth was put in command of the 
Archangel, a vessel fitted out by the Earl of 
Southampton and his brother-in-law. Lord 
Thomas Arundell, of Wardour. He sailed 
from RatcIifTe in the beginning of March and 
visited Nantucket, Monhegan Island, and dis- 
covered a large river which has never been 
definitely identified. He traded with the In- 
dians and returned to England with a very 
valuable cargo of furs. He arrived at Dart- 
mouth, July 18, 1605. The last mention of 
him is on October 27, 1607, when he was 
granted a pension of 3s. 4d. per diem. 

Gilbert, Raleigh, a son of Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert, brother of Sir John Gilbert, and ne- 
phew o"^ Sir Walter Raleigh; very active in the 
settlement of Am^erica ; an incorporator in the 
first \'irginia charter April 10, 1606; May 31, 
1607, sailed from Plymouth, England, in the 
expedition sent out by the Plymouth Company 
to the Kennebec river in Maine ; was member 
of the local council, and after the death of 
George Popham was president; after a winter 
of much suflfering he returned with the set- 
tlers to England; married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John Kelley, Esq,, of Devon ; member of 
the council for New England in 1620; he died 
in 1626, leaving seven children, many of whose 
descendants are living in Cornwall, England 



I 

I 



THE FOUNDERS 



Smith or Smythe, Sir Thomas, a great 
merchant and first treasurer of the Virginia 
Company of London, born about 1558, son of 
Sir Thomas Smythe, of Ostenhanger in Kent, 
a merchant of large wealth, who at the coming 
of the Armada lent Queen Elizabeth fiooo, 
and who, as collector of the customs, was gen- 
erally known as "Mr. Customer Smith." The 
son was probably the most important merchant 
of his day, being at one time head of all the 
leading merchant companies of London. He 
was educated at Oxford, and went early into 
business. He was an incorporator of the Tur- 
key Company in 1581, a principal member of 
the Russia Company in 1587, and the first on 
the list of those persons to whom Raleigh 
assigned (March 7, 1589) his interest in \^ir- 
ginia. He formed a friendship with the Earl 
of Essex and accompanied him to Cadiz in 
1596, where he was knighted by him for gal- 
lantry. In 1599 he was sheriflf of London, and 
in 1600 was first governor of the East India 
Company. In 1601 he was captain of the 
trained bands of London, and was arrested 
about this time for suspected complicity in 
the insurrection of Essex. He was confined 
a short time and was released from the Tower 
of London in September, 1602. King James 
regarded Essex's friends as his friends, and 
on May 13 knighted him at the Tower. In 
1604 he was appointed, on account of his con- 
cern in the Muscovy Company, special ambas- 
sador to Russia. He visited the Czar at Jaro- 
slav and obtained from him new privileges 
for the Muscovy Company. In 1603 he was 
reelected governor of the East India Company 
and held the office till 1621 ; M. P. for Dun- 
wichi, 1604-11, and for Saltash, 1621-22. 

In 1606 he was active in forming the \^ir- 
ginia Company and was appointed member of 
the Virginia Council in England, and treasurer 



of the company. He continued treasurer for 
twelve years. In 1618 he was appointed one 
of the commissioners of the navy and held 
that office till his death in 1625. In 1618 the 
Virginia Company divided into three parties — 
one composed of the lords and many gentlemen 
under the lead of Robert Rich, Earl of War- 
wick, and the Earl of Southampton ; another 
consisting principally of merchants under the 
lead of Sir Thomas Smythe ; and a third, "the 
faction of the auditors," under Sir Edwin 
Sandys. Smythe had been alienated from 
Rich on account of the marriage of his son 
John, a mere youth of 18, to a sister of the 
Earl, without the privity of the father. So 
the first and third factions united, and 
elected Sir Edwin Sandys as treasurer in 1619. 
Smythe, doubtless knowing his defeat to be 
certain, declined to stand. He continued, how- 
ever, governor of the East India Company 
and the Bermuda Islands Company. The fac- 
tional disturbances in the Virginia Company 
continued to grow, and the Smythe faction, 
now reinforced by the Earl of W^arwick, 
assailed the government of the \'irginia Col- 
ony as conducted by their adversaries, with 
such violence that King James finally had the 
charter abrogated in the courts in June, 1624. 
After this abrogation Smith was a member of 
the royal commission for Virginia afifairs till 
his death, September 4, 1625. He was buried 
at Hone Church, Kent, where is to be seen a 
superb monument to his memory. 

In estimating the services of Smythe to \'ir- 
ginia, while there is no doubt that he had its 
interest clearly to heart and gave largely of 
his time and money to the enterprise, his policy 
of ruling the settlers like a military camp and 
establishing martial law cannot be approved. 
On the general subject of explorations he had 
noble and enlarged views. Besides performing 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



the main part in establishing an English colony 
in Virginia, he aided and promoted many voy- 
ages to find a northwest passage to India — 
Henry Hudson's in 1610, Jonas Poole's in 
1611, Captain Button's in 1612, Robert Foth- 
erbie's in 1615, Robert Bileth and William 
Baffin's in 161 6, when "Smith's Sound" was 
discovered and named for him. Indeed, his 
name was engrafted everywhere upon land and 
water beyond perhaps that of any other Eng- 
lishman. He was besides the patron of many 
men of science, and his gifts and bequests 
were very numerous. He married three times, 
his third wife being Sarah, daughter of \\'il- 
liam Blount, Esq., by whom he had two sons 
— Thomas and John Smythe. The line of the 
former ended with the accomplished geogra- 
pher the Eighth Viscount Strangford, who 
died in 1869, and the line of the latter expired 
with Sir Sidney Stafford Smythe, chief baron 
of the exchequer in 1772. The family always 
wrote the name Smythe, though it is generally 
rendered Smith. A portrait belonging to the 
Skinner's Company has been identified with 
Sir Thomas Smythe. 

Newport, Capt. Christopher. A Founder. 

(q. v.). 

Wingfield, Edward Maria. A Founder. 

(q. v.). 

Ratcliffe, John. A Founder, (q. v.). 
Smith, Captain John. A Founder, (q. v.). 
Percey, George. A Founder, (q. v.). 
Gates, Sir Thomas. A Founder, (q. v.). 
Somers, Sir George. A Founder, (q. v.). 
Dale, Sir Thomas. .\ Founder, (q. v.). 

West, Sir Thomas, Lord Delaware. A 

Founder, (q. v.). 



Argall, Sir Samuel. A Founder, (q. v.). 

Yardley, Sir George. A Founder, (q. v.). 

Symonds, Rev. William, born in Oxford- 
shire about 1557, educated at Magdalene Col- 
lege, Oxford, and in 1579 a fellow thereof. 
About this time he received a curacy, the gift 
of Captain John Smith's friend, Lord Wil- 
loughby, at Hatton Holgate, in the Diocese of 
Lincoln. He preached the first sermon before 
the Mrginia Company of London, April 25, 
1609. He revised Smith's "Map of Virginia 
and Annexed Relation," which was published 
at Oxford in 1612. 

Crashaw, Rev. William, a member of the 
Mrginia Company, an eloquent preacher 
sometimes classed as a Puritan divine and 
poet; was baptized at Handsworth, October 
26, 1572, educated at Cambridge; prebend of 
the church of Ripon, 1604; preacher at the 
Inner Temple, London; at church of St. Mary 
Matfellon, of White Chapel, London, No- 
vember 13, 1618; died in 1626. He was father 
of the poet, Richard Crashaw, a Roman Cath- 
olic. In February, 1610, he preached before 
Lord Delaware and the London Company an 
eloquent sermon defending the character of 
the settlers against malicious imputations, and 
praising the objects of the Virginia enterprise. 

Sandys, Sir Edwin, second treasurer of the 
Mrginia Company, second son of Dr. Edwin 
Sandys, Archbishop of York, by Ciceley, sis- 
ter of Sir Thomas Wilford, was born De- 
cember 9, 1 561 ; educated at Corpus Christi 
College; B. A. October 16, 1579, and M. A. 
June 5, 1583. He was collated to the prebend 
of Wetwang in the Cathedral of York, and in 
1589 was admitted a student of the Middle 
Temple. 

On October 13, 1586, Sandys entered parlia- 



I 



THE FOUNDERS 



ment as a member for Andover. From the 
first he took an active part in its proceedings 
and repeatedly served on committees. In the 
parhament for 1588-89 he sat for Plymton, 
Devonshire, for which he was reelected in 
1592-93. Soon after the dissolution of parlia- 
ment in 1593 he traveled abroad and was at 
Paris in 1599, when he prepared an account 
of the state of religion in Europe which he 
entitled "Europae Speculum," which is remark- 
ably tolerant for the times. Sandys returned 
to England the same year, and in 1602 re- 
signed his prebend at Wetwang. He was 
knighted by King James at the Charter House, 
May II, 1603, and was returned I\Iarch 12, 
1604, to James I.'s first parliament as member 
for Stockbridge, Hampshire. Sandys had im- 
bibed from Richard Hooker, who had been his 
tutor and afterwards his intimate friend, the 
ideas of a liberal government, and in parlia- 
ment he assumed a leading part in opposing all 
exactions and monopolies. He attempted to 
have abolished all the royal tenures and to 
throw trade open, instead of confining it to 
the great trading companies. In the parliament 
of 1607 he urged that all prisoners should be 
allowed the benefit of counsel, and in the 
same session he carried a resolution for the 
regular keeping of the journals of the House 
of Commons, which had not been done before. 
With a view to placating him, Sandys was 
granted by the King a moiety of the manor of 
Northbourne, Kent, but when parliament met 
on April 5, 1614, Sandys maintained his old 
attitude. He opposed Winwood's demand for 
a supply and was the moving spirit on a com- 
mittee appointed to consider taxes. In a re- 
markable speech on May 21 he declared that 
the King's authority rested on the consent of 
the people, and that any King who ruled by 
any other title ought to be dethroned. All this 



exasperated James against him, and on the 
adjournment of parliament he was summoned 
before the council and punished by being 
ordered not to leave London without permis- 
sion, and to give bonds for his appearance 
whenever he was called upon. 

No parliament was summoned for more than 
six years after this, and meanwhile Sandys 
turned his attention to colonial affairs. He 
was a member of the Somers Island Company 
and of the East India Company, and in both 
he took an active part. But his energies were 
especially devoted to the Virginia Company, 
of which he had been ajipointed a member of 
the superior council in 1607, and he had the 
greater part in drafting the charters of 1609 
and 1612, which vested the power of govern- 
ment in the company instead of the King as 
hitherto. Then in 1617 he was chosen by the 
company to assist Sir Thomas Smythe in his 
management of \'irginia affairs. In this capac- 
ity he warmly supported the request of the 
Leyden exiles to be allowed to settle in the 
company's domains, and it was largely owing 
to him that a patent was granted them. On 
April 28, 1619, a combination of parties in the 
company resulted in the almost unanimous 
election of Sandys as the successor of Sir 
Thomas Smythe in the office of treasurer. 
He made a complete departure from the old 
method of government, and each colonist was 
given a dividend of land and invited to share 
in the government. Acting on the company's 
instructions, Yardley was sent over as gov- 
ernor and summoned an assembly of burgesses 
to meet in the church at Jamestown, July 30, 
1619. It was the first representative body 
assembled in xA-merica. On June 6, 1619, 
Sandys obtained the company's sanction to a 
college at Henrico, and during the same year 
procured the transshipment of a number of 



\IRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



women to the colony to serve as wives to the 
tenants on the public lands. He also secured 
the exclusion from England of foreign tobacco 
in the interest of the \'irgina trade. When 
his year as treasurer expired, Sandys was not 
reelected, because of the violent interference 
of the King, who sent word to the company 
"to choose the devil if you will, but not Sir 
Edwin Sandys." The company would not, 
however, take any of the nominees of the 
King, but elected Henry Wriothesley, Earl of 
Southampton, and -John Ferrar was elected 
his deputy. Both were staunch adherents of 
the Sandys party, and during the frequent 
absences of Southampton, Sandys still took the 
leading part in the company's business. He 
opposed the movement to dissolve the charter 
with all his might, and had the question 
brought up in parliament, where he charged 
the commissioners appointed by the King to 
investigate Virginia affairs with extreme par- 
tiality, and ascribed the intrigues against the 
company to the influence of the Spanish am- 
bassador, Gondomar. Despite his eft'orts, 
judgment was rendered against the charter 
June 24, 1624, and the company was dissolved. 
Sandys did not very long survive this action, 
but continued as the leader of the popular 
party in parliament till his death in October, 
1629. He w-as interred in the church of Xorth- 
bourne, in Kent. He was married four times, 
and by the last wife, Catherine, daughter of 
Sir Richard Bulkley, he had with other issue, 
five sons, all of whom, save one, adhered in 
the civil war to the popular side. Sir Edwin 
Sandys had an elder brother, Sir Samuel 
Sandys, who served in parliament, was 
knighted, etc., and had two daughters by his 
wife Mercy, daughter of Martin Culpeper, 
Esq., one who married Sir Francis W'vatt, 
governor of \'irginia, and another who mar- 



ried Sir Fernando \\'eyman, who died in \'ir- 
ginia. Another brother was George Sandys, 
the poet, who resided in Virginia, where he 
acted as treasurer of the colony and was a 
member of the local council there. 

Wriothesley, Heiuy, third Earl of South- 
ampton and third treasurer of the Mrginia 
Company, was the second and only surviving 
son of Henry Wriothesley, the second earl, by 
his wife Mary Browne, daughter of the last 
\'iscount Montague. He was born October 6, 
1573, and succeeded to the earldom at the 
death of his father in 1581. He attended St. 
John's College, Cambridge, and in 1589 at the 
age of 16 graduated as Mastei- of Arts. In 
the autumn of 1592 he was accounted the most 
handsome and accomplished of all the young 
lords who accompanied Elizabeth to Oxford 
that year. On November 17, 1595, he distin- 
guished himself in the lists set up in the 
Queen's presence in honor of the thirty-sev- 
enth anniversary of her accession, and was 
likened by George Poe in his account of the 
same to Bevis of Southampton, the ancient 
type of chivalry. His martial ardor was en- 
couraged by his association with Essex, whom 
he accompanied in 1596 in the military and 
naval expedition to Cadiz. Next year he again 
accompanied Essex in the expedition to the 
.■\zores, but he alienated the Queen by marry- 
ing without her consent one of the Queen's 
waiting women, Elizabeth \'ernon, a cousin 
of Essex. He was thrown into the Tower, 
but soon released. He went w'ith Essex on 
the military expedition to Ireland, and on his 
return was drawn into the conspiracy, whereby 
Essex and his friends desired to regain by vio- 
lence their influence at court. The rising failed 
completely, and Essex and Southampton were 
tried for treason and condemned to death. 



THE FOUNDERS 



^l 



While Essex was executed, the sentence of 
Southampton, owing to his youth, was com- 
muted by the influence of Sir Robert Cecil to 
imprisonment for life. On the death of Queen 
Elizabeth in 1603, the first act of King James 
was to set Southampton free. He was given 
high honors ; made knight of the garter, ap- 
pointed captain of the Isle of Wight and 
Carisbrook Castle, as well as steward, receiver 
and bailiff of the royal manors on the Island. 
In 1604 he was fully restored in blood by an 
act of parliament, and recreated Earl of South- 
aniinon. He became Keeper of the King's 
g?me in the divisions of Andover, Sawley and 
Kingsclerc, Hampshire, and lord lieutenant 
of Hampshire, jointly with the Earl of Devon- 
shire. He was sworn of the King's council, 
April 19, 161 9. 

In three aspects especially he shone with 
surpassing lustre. Literature was from his 
early manhood a chief interest of Southamp- 
ton's life. He was the Maecenas of his age, 
ar.<'. loved to surround himself with poets and 
men of letters, whom he encouraged with word 
and money. Among these were Gervas Mark- 
hauT, Barnabe Barnes, Thomas Nash, Florio 
and Shakespeare, who celebrated his name in 
prose and verse. Then his impetuous spirit 
begat a love of freedom which showed itself 
in his opposition at court and in the house of 
lords to the arbitrary orders of King James 
and his favorite Buckingham, whom he thor- 
oughly disliked. He was a strong friend of 
the Protestant interest, and opposed the Span- 
ish match proposed for Prince Charles, and on 
account of his too great familiarity with the 
popular party he was arrested and temporarily 
confined. 

But especially was he the friend of coloniza- 
tion, acting the part of another Sir Walter 
Raleigh, and his dream was to extend the 



power of England throughout the world. To 
this object he devoted his leisure and ample 
wealth without stint. He sent Gosnold and 
Gilbert to V^irginia in 1602 and Weymouth in 
1605, had a great share in forming the Virginia 
Company of London in 1606 and was a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Company's council in Eng- 
land in 1609. The same year he was admitted 
a member of the East India Company's coun- 
cil. In 1610 he helped to dispatch Henry Hud- 
son to North America, and was a member of 
the Northwest Passage Company 1612, and of 
the Somers Island Company in 1615. He was 
chosen treasurer of the Virginia Company, 
1620, and devoted much energy to championing 
its interests, to which Gondomar, the Spanish 
ambassador, was resolutely hostile, but was 
unable to prevent the withdrawal of the com- 
pany's charter in June, 1624. He had a copy 
of the record of the company made of the 
period of his administration, and when the 
King's commissioners demanded its delivery, 
the Earl made the brave answer that he would 
as soon part with the title deeds of his land 
as part with these manuscripts, since he re- 
garded them as the evidence of his honor in the 
Virginia service. The maps of New England, 
Virginia and Bermuda commemorate South- 
ampton's labors as a colonial pioneer. In his 
honor Southampton Hundred, Hampton river 
and Hampton roads in Virginia were named. 

When in 1624 a defensive treaty of alliance 
was made between England and Holland 
against the Emperor of Germany, Southamp- 
ton, accompanied by. his son, James, left Eng- 
land and took command of a troop of English 
volunteers. But not long after reaching Hol- 
lanfl both were attacked with fever and soon 
died. Southampton's death occurred Novem- 
ber 10, 1624. 

Ferrar, Nicholas, Sr., skinner, a member 



24 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



of the \'irginia Company, ranked high among 
the merchants of London, and traded very 
extensively with the East and West Indies. 
He was interested in the adventures of Haw- 
kins, Drake and Raleigh. He died in April, 
1620, and was buried in the church of St. 
Bennet, Sherhog, London. He gave by will 
£300 to the college in Virginia, to be paid when 
there shall be ten of the Indian children placed 
in it, and in the meantime £24 by the year for 
the instruction of three Indian children in the 
Christian religion. His son Xicholas finally 
transferred his bequest to the Bermuda 
Islands. He married Mary, daughter of Law- 
rence Wodenoth, Esq., a woman of fervent 
piety and a model mother, and had issue : ( i ) 
Susan, married John Collett, of Bourne Bridge, 
Cambridgeshire; (2) John; (3) Erasmus, a 
barrister-of-law ; (4) Xicholas; (5) William, 
who was a member of the council in \'irginia ; 
(6) Richard. 

Ferrar, John, a member of the Virginia 
Company, which he joined in 1612. He was 
afterwards added to his Majesty's council for 
Virginia, and was deputy treasurer from April 
28, 1619, to May 22, 1622. He was a member 
of parliament for Tamworth in 1621-22. Like 
his brother Nicholas, he was devoted to the 
interest of the Virginia Company, and contrib- 
uted all his power to the success of the col- 
ony. When his brother retired to Little Gid- 
dings in Huntingdonshire, he soon joined him 
with his family, and shared in the religious 
life established there. After the death of his 
brother Nicholas, he continued to live accord- 
ing to the same rule. In 1629 Charles I., who 
was always friendly to the Ferrars, visited the 
settlement and was greatly pleased with what 
he saw. In 1647 the home and church of Little 
Giddings were spoiled by some adherents of 



the parliament, and the little community was 
broken up. He wrote the life of his brother 
Nicholas, which was published by Rev. Peter . 
Peckard, Master of Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1790, and of his own son Nicholas, 
who died in 1640. John Ferrar married twice : 
First Anne, daughter of William Shepherd, 
Esq., of Oxfordshire, who died without issue; 
and secondly, Bathsheba, daughter of Israel 
Owen, of London, and had issue by her : Nich- 
olas, John and Virginia. The last who never 
married inherited the family interest in Vir- 
ginia and kept up a great correspondence with 
her cousins there and other planters, and was 
especially interested in the silk culture. 

Ferrar, Nicholas, Jr., one of the greatest 
friends of the Virginia Colony, was third son 
of Nicholas Ferrar, of London, merchant, by 
his wife Mary, daughter of Laurence Wode- 
noth. of Savington Hall, Cheshire. Lender the 
excellent care of his father and mother he soon 
developed a character which united a great 
aptitude for management with a singularly 
pious and gentle disposition. From his earliest 
years he was regarded by his family as a 
prodigy. In 16 10 he took the degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts at Clare Hall, Cambridge Univer- 
sity, and in 1613 was Master of Arts. He 
travelled extensively on the continent and vis- 
ited Holland, Germany, Italy and Spain. He 
returned in 1618, and joined the Mrginia Com- 
pany, buying two shares from Sir \\'illiam 
Smith. He became greatly interested in its 
aftairs, and devoted himself heart and soul to 
its work, being made member of the company's 
council in 1619. In 1622 he succeeded his 
brother John as deputy treasurer, and for the 
next two years was the chief adviser of the 
Earl of Southampton and Sir Edwin Sandys 
in withstanding the assaults of the King and 



y 



THE FOUNDERS 



the privy council upon the charter. During 
this time he caused to be made the copies of 
the Virginia records which are now preserved 
in the Library of Congress and were recently 
published. Despite all his efforts the company 
was deprived of its patent in 1624. 

Ferrar was a well known man in political 
circles. In 1624 he was elected to parliament 
for Lymington, and took part in the impeach- 
ment of the lord treasurer, the Earl of Middle- 
sex, who had been foremost in the dissolution 
of the Virginia Company. But this was the 
last act of Ferrar's political life. Disgusted 
with the world of business and politics, he 
wound up his business concerns and retired 
to Little Giddings, in Huntingdonshire, and 
established there a settlement of a religious 
nature. He was joined by the families of his 
brother John, and his brother-in-law, John 
Collet. The entire household comprised 30 
persons. He himself acted as chaplain of the 
community. There was a definite occupation 
for every hour of the day, and vigils were kept 
(luring the night. Little Giddings was the 
school, the infirmary and the dispensary of the 
region round about. Thus engaged and re- 
moved from the turmoil of the world, Nich- 
olas Ferrar yielded up his pure soul Decem- 
ber 4, 1637. He never married. 

Rich, Sir Robert, eldest son of Robert 
Rich, third Lord Rich, born in May or June. 
1587; made a knight of the Bath at the coro- 
nation of James L, July 25, 1603. and suc- 
ceeded his father as second Earl of Warwick 
in April, 1619. He played an important 
though not always enviable part in the affairs 
of Virginia and New England. In 1616, when 
the Duke of Savoy was at war with Spain, 
he sent out several ships under the commission 
of the Duke to prey upon Spanish commerce. 
One of these ships, the Treasurer, under Cap- 



tain Daniel Elfrith, roved about in the West 
Indies, where she took certain negroes from 
the Spaniards, and in consort with a man-of- 
war of Flushing brought them to Virginia in 
1619. These were the first negroes imported. 
Rich was added to the council for Virginia in 
1619. Having quarrelled with Sir Thomas 
Smythe, the treasurer of the company, because 
of bad feeling created by the marriage of his 
sister Isabel to Smythe's son, Sir John Smythe, 
he united with the popular party in the Vir- 
ginia Company and elected Sir Edwin Sandys 
as treasurer. He soon repented of this act, 
and was afterwards a bitter opponent of 
Southampton and Sandys, and contributed to 
the abrogation of the charter in 1624. After 
the dissolution he was a member of the coun- 
cil for Virginia appointed by tbe King. War- 
wick River county, founded in 1634, was 
named for him, which in 1643 received its 
present name, Warwick county. 

He was active in the affairs of New Eng- 
land, was member of the New England coun- 
cil in 1620, signed the first Plymouth patent, 
June I, 1621, and was president of the New 
England council, 1630-32. He was also inter- 
ested in the Bermudas, the Bahamas and in 
Guiana. He espoused the Puritan side in the 
civil wars, and parliament in 1643 made him 
admiral of the islands and coasts of America, 
but he was deprived of this office in 1645. I" 
May, 1648, he was made lord high admiral by 
parliament, but his commission was revoked 
the following year. When Cromwell succeeded 
to power. Lord Rich made friends with him, 
and on his death April 18, 1658, left his estate 
more improved and repaired than any man 
who figured in the rebellion. 

Rich, Sir Nathaniel, eldest son of Richard, 
illegitimate son of Robert, second Lord Rich : 
member of parliament at different times ; inter- 



26 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ested in the Bemiudas in 1616; knighted at 
Hutton House, November 8, 1617. He was a 
leading member of the Warwick party in the 
factions of the Virginia Company, 1622, and 
wrote many of the papers and documents ema- 
nating from his side. After the dissolution of 
the company in 1624, he was one of the com- 
missioners for Virginia appointed by the 
King. He was also member of the council 
for New England in 1620, and deputy gov- 
ernor of the Bahamas Company in 1635. He 
died in 1636. 

Danvers, Sir John, regicide, born about 
1588, third and youngest son of Sir John 
Danvers, of Dauntsey, Wiltshire, by Eliza- 
beth, fourth daughter and coheiress of John 
Neville, last Lord Latimer. He was a very 
handsome man, and it is said people would run 
to see him on the streets. In 1608 he married 
Magdalene Herbert, widow of Richard Her- 
bert and mother of ten children, including 
George Herbert, the poet, and Edward, Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury. He was knighted by 
King James, and under Charles I. became a 
gentleman of the privy chamber. He was a 
member of the Virginia council, 1612-20, and 
was one of the Sandys faction in the Virginia 
Company, 1620-25. He acquired an intense 
jealousy of the crown and sided with the par- 
liament against the King. He was a member 
of the commission nominated to try the King 
in January, 1649, and signed the death war- 
rant. In February of the same year he was 
given a seat in the council of state, which he 
retained till the council's dissolution in 1653. 
He died at his home in Chelsea in April, 1655, 
and was buried at Dauntsey. His name was 
in the act of attainder passed at the restoration. 
He had two brothers — Sir Charles Danvers, 
who was beheaded for participation in Essex's 



Rebellion of 1601 ; and Sir Henry Danvers, 
Earl of Danby, and afterwards a friend of 
Charles I., who died in 1644. 

Wroth, Sir Thomas, prominent member of 
the ^^irginia Company, was brother-in-law of 
Sir Nathaniel Rich, and sided with him against 
Southampton and Sandys. He was a sub- 
scriber to the Virginia Company in 1609, and 
after the dissolution of the charter was one of 
the commissioners appointed to take charge of 
the colony July 15, 1624. On November 3, 
1620, he became a member of the council in 
New England, and June 25, 1653, he was made 
a commissioner for the government of the 
Bermudas. In domestic politics Wroth joined 
the opposition to the King and was a member 
of the Long Parliament. He adopted the 
views of the independents, and on June 3, 
1647-48. moved the famous resolution that 
Charles I. be impeached and the kingdom set- 
tled without him. He was appointed one of 
the judges to try the King, but attended only 
one session. After the restoration he peti- 
tioned for pardon, which was apparently 
granted, and Wroth lived in retirement until 
his death, aged 88, at Petherton Park, July 
II, 1672. 

Wolstenholme, Sir John, merchant, was 
second son of Sir John Wolstenholme, of Lon- 
don, of an ancient Derbyshire family. He was 
a leading man in the East India Company and 
the \'irginia Company. On April 28, 1619, he 
was one of the candidates for treasurer of the 
\'irginia Company, and in May, 1622, was 
recommended by the King as a person most 
suited to the office, but he was not elected. He 
was a member of the commission appointed 
July 15, 1624, to take charge of the company's 
affairs after its dissolution in May, and in 
1631 held place on the commission requested 



THE FOUNDERS 



to suggest to the King a form of government 
for Mrginia. He aided Capt. William Clay- 
borne in settling Kent Island, and in 1634 he 
was one of the tobacco commissioners. He 
had a strong faith in the Northwest Passage, 
and contributed liberally to all the different 
expeditions sent out while he was living — 
Henry Hudson's, Button's, etc. He died aged 
•jj, November 25, 1639, and was buried in 
Magna Church, where there is a handsome 
monument to his memory. 

Smith, or Smyth, John, a great antiquary, 
son of Thomas Smyth, of Hoby, Leicester- 
shire, and grandson of William Smyth, of 
Humberton, in Leicestershire ; was born in 
1567, and educated at Magdalene College, Ox- 
ford. He is generally known as John Smyth 
of Nibley. After completing his studies he re- 
turned to the Berkeley family as household 
steward, a post which he exchanged in 1597 
for the more lucrative and dignified office of 
steward of the hundred and liberty of Berke- 
ley. As keeper of the archives at Berkeley 
Castle, he had rich material for his "Lives" 
of the first twenty-one Lords Berkeley from 
the Conquest down, which after remaining 
in manuscript for a long time has been pub- 
lished. He left also in MSS. a "History of the 
Borough and Manor of Tetbury," "Tenure by 
Knights Service Under the Berkeleys," and 
several other works. He was an active mem- 
ber of the Virginia Company and regularly 
attended its meetings, and in 1618 determined 
to make a plantation of his own in that coun- 
try. For this purpose he formed a partnership 
with Sir William Throckmorton, Sir George 
Yeardley, Richard Berkeley and George 
Thorpe, and obtained a special charter from 
the parent company. They established a set- 
tlement at James river, which was called 



"Berkeley Hundred," and which was after- 
wards the birthplace of President William 
Henry Harrison. He was a member of par- 
liament in 1621, but took little part in the poli- 
tics of the stormy times in which he lived. 
He died at Nibley in the autumn of 1640. 

Martin, Richard, a noted lawyer, born at 
Otterton in Devonshire ; student at Oxford, 
and afterwards at the Middle Temple. His 
learning, politeness and wit were the delight 
and admiration of all his acquaintances. He 
was frequently a member of parliament, and 
in 1601 spoke most eloquently against the 
monopolists. In 1612 he was a member of the 
council for the Virginia Company, and in 1614 
he made a vigorous speech in behalf of the 
colony in parliament. In 1617 he was head 
of a private company which obtained from the 
Virginia Company a grant of 80,000 acres of 
land about seven miles below Jamestown. The 
estate called "Carter's Grove" is situated in 
this region in James City county. In 1618 he 
was made recorder of the city of London, but 
died a month later of the smallpox, and was 
buried in Temple Church. London. His grant 
of land in \''irginia was known as "Martin's 
Hundred." 

Cranfield, Lionel, Earl of Middlesex, was 
the younger son of Thomas Cranfield. Mercer 
of London, by Martha, daughter of Vincent 
Randolph, was baptized March 13, 1575; was 
an active and successful man of affairs, and 
rose rapidly to all the honors of the kingdom ; 
was knighted July 4, 161 3. and a few days 
later made surveyor-general of the customs; 
was master of the court of requests ; master 
of the wardrobe; master of the wards; and 
commissioner of the navy; privy councillor; 
lord treasurer; Baron Cranfield, and Earl of 
Middlesex. He was a member of the council 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



for the \'irginia Company; and the Sandys- 
Ferrar faction attributed to him more than any 
other man the abrogation of the charter — by 
entangling the company into dissensions over 
the tobacco contract. Having incurred the 
enmity of Buckingham, King James' favorite, 
he was impeached and fined £50,000, but a 
year later Charles I. released him from the 
fine, and August 20, 1626, he was granted 
special pardon. He retired to his splendid 
seat, Copt Hall in Essex, where he died 
August 6, 1645. H-e was buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. 

Digges, Sir Dudley, eldest son of Thomas 
Digges by his wife Anne St. Leger, was born in 
1583, and educated at University College, Ox- 
ford. He studied law, and after being knighted 
at Whitehall, April 29, 1607, travelled to im- 
prove himself on the continent. He was sent 
in 1618 as ambassador to Russia by James I. ; 
two years after, he went to Holland as com- 
missioner, with Sir Maurice Abbott, to settle 
diiTerences between the English and Dutch 
East India Company. He served in parlia- 
ment during the reigns of James I. and Charles 
I., and his conduct was very independent and 
often hostile to the measures of the court. He 
was one of the commissioners to conduct the 
impeachment of the King's favorite, the Duke 
of Buckingham, and the King arrested him and 
sent him a prisoner to the Tower of London, 
but he was released in a few days on complaint 
of parliament. After this, measures were 
taken to win him over to the King's side, and 
he was granted the reversion of master of the 
rolls, November 17, 1630. He died March 18, 
1639, and was buried at Chilham Manor near 
Canterbury. 

He was greatly interested in explorations 
and colonization. In iTuo he aided in sending 



Henry Hudson to the northwest, and wrote a 
little tract on the Northwest Passage. For 
the same end he aided in 1612 in sending out 
Capt. Thomas Button and Master Francis Nel- 
son, and was one of the directors of the North- 
west Passage Company. He was member of 
the Bermuda Islands Company, and of the 
East India Company. In addition he was con- 
stantly interested in the Virginia Company, of 
which he was also a member. He was member 
of the royal council for Virginia in 1609, and 
in 1619 was one of the committee of the Vir- 
ginia Company to codify the rules. He was 
also one of the committee regarding the estab- 
lishment of the college at Henrico. In 1631 
he was appointed one of the commissioners to 
advise concerning Virginia. He married Mary, 
youngest daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas 
Kemp, of Olantigh. Edward, one of his sons, 
settled in Virginia, and was governor of the 
colony in 1656. 

Copeland, Rev. Patrick, was a Puritan min- 
ister, who was first employed in the service 
of the East India Company. In 1614 he was 
chaplain on one of the company's ships. In 
1616 he returned to England accompanied by 
a native whom he had taught chiefly by signs 
to speak, read and write the English language 
correctly in less than a year. At his suggestion 
this lad was publicly baptized on December 22, 
in St. Dennis Church, London, "as the first 
fruits of India." Not long after, in 1617, 
Copeland, with his pupil, sailed for the Indian 
ocean in the Royal James, one of the fleet 
which Sir Thomas Dale, late governor of Vir- 
ginia, assumed the command of on September 
19, 1 61 8. In the presence of Dale, in view of 
an impending naval conflict with the Dutch on 
December 2, Copeland preached on the Royal 
James. On .August 9, 1619, Dale died, and his 



THE FOUNDERS 



29 



old associate, Sir Thomas Gates, died in the 
same service the next year. Copeland on the 
Royal James went to Java. Leaving Java in 
February, 1621, the ship slowly returned to 
England, and Copeland having become inter- 
ested in Virginia by conversing with Dale and 
Gates, collected on the homeward voyage from 
his fellow passengers the sum of £70, to be 
employed for the use of a church or school in 
Virginia. This sum, when he arrived in Lon- 
don, he delivered to the authorities of the Vir- 
ginia Company, who made him a free member. 
They decided that there was more need of a 
school than a church, and designed the money, 
increased to £100 by a gift of £30 from another 
source, for the establishment of a free school 
at Charles City, now City Point, which should 
hold a due dependence on the proposed univer- 
sity at Henrico and be called the "East India 
School," after its East India benefactors. In 
recognition of his zeal for the colony and his 
experience as a missionary, the company on 
July 3, 1622, appointed Mr. Copeland rector 
of the intended college for the Indians, a part 
of the university, as well as a member of the 
council for Virginia. 

On Wednesday, April 17, 1622, Copeland, 
at the invitation of the London Company, 
preached a thanksgiving sermon in London 
for the happy success of affairs in Virginia 
the previous year. But about the middle of 
July it was learned from Capt. Daniel Gookin, 
who came from Newport News, that on Good 
Friday, March 22, the Indians, whose children 
were so largely in the proposed scheme of 
instruction, had risen and barbarously de- 
stroyed George Thorpe, the noble superintend- 
ent in charge of the college lands, and 346 
more of the unsuspecting settlers. The uni- 
versity, college and free school were all three 
abandoned, and Copeland did not go to Vir- 



ginia. He afterwards went lo the Bermuda 
Islands, where he was living in 1638 and later. 
About 1645 he left the Bermudas and went to 
a small island in the Bahama group, to form 
a Puritan church which should have no connec- 
tion with the state. The isle, which was called 
"Eluthera," proved a dreary place, and friends 
of the religion in Boston were obliged to send 
the settlers supplies, and in 165 1 many of them 
returned to Bermuda, where Copeland, then 
more than four score years of age. must soon 
have died. 

Sackvill, Sir Edward, Earl of Dorset, born 
in 1590, educated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
1605-09; made a knight of the Bath, Novem- 
ber 3, 1618; commanded troops sent to the 
Elector Palatine, and fought at Prague in 
1620; member of parliament; sent on an em- 
bassy to France ; member of the privy coun- 
cil. He was an active member of the Virginia 
Company, and took sides with Southampton 
and Sandys in the factions from 1620 to 1625. 
After his brother Richard's death in March, 
1624, he succeeded him as fourth Earl of Dor- 
set. He was on the commission of 1631 for 
the management of Virginia affairs, and con- 
stantly tried to influence Charles to reestablish 
the Virginia Company of London. He was 
a distinguished cavalier in the civil war, and 
died at Withiam, Sussex, July 27, 1625. 

Purchas, Rev. Samuel, a divine known as 
an early collector of voyages and travels, born 
in 1574, at Thaxted in Essex, and educated at 
St. John's College, Cambridge; he was curate 
of Purleigh, in Essex, the parish of which 
Rev. Lawrence Washington was rector, 1633- 
43. He was afterwards vicar of Eastwood in 
Essex, 1604-13. In 1614 he was collated to the 
rectory of St. Martin's Ludgate, London, 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



(where he continued till his death) and ap- 
pointed chaplain to George Abbott, archbishop 
of Canterbury. His "Pilgrimage" was pub- 
lished soon after November 5, 161 2. The 
second edition appeared in 1614. After Hak- 
luyt's death he had access to his papers, and 
published a third edition of his work much 
enlarged in 1617. "Purchas his Pilgrim — 



Microcosmos, or the Historic of Man," was 
published in 1619. In December, 1621, "Pur- 
chas his Pilgrims" was entered at Stationers 
Hall for publication. May 22, 1622, he was 
admitted into the Virginia Company of Lon- 
don. His last work appears to have been 
"The King's Tower and Triumphant Arch of 
London." He died in 1626, aged 51 years. 



^^^^ 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND 
GOVERNORS 



II-COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



Wingfield, Edward Maria, first president 
of the council of Virginia, of "Stoneley 
Priorye" in Huntingdonshire, was born about 
1560, of a very distinguished family and was 
a soldier in Ireland and the Netherlands. He 
was active in procuring the charter of 1606, 
and his name is one of the first of the incorpo- 
rators, which appear in that paper. He was 
appointed by the Council in England one of 
the local Council in Virginia and on May 14, 
1607, he- was elected at Jamestown by this 
body their first president. His experience was 
unfortunate. The colony was at once assailed 
by the Indians, and the president was among 
the foremost in repelling the attacks, "having 
an arrow shot clean through his beard." Then 
followed a pestilential sickness which pros- 
trated everybody in the fort. Added to this 
the constitution of the Council under the char- 
ter offered a premium to wranglings and dis- 
sensions, for a mere majority controlled every- 
thing and could remove the president or any 
of the members. Wingfield was blamed by 
the others for what could not be prevented, 
by any president, and the most trivial objec- 
tions were made against him to justify his 
deposition from the presidency. It was 
charged that he was a Catholic, because he 
did not bring a Bible with him, that he 
monopolized the liquors and other provisions, 
etc., all of which Wingfield vigorously 
denies in his statement, and shows that 
he made many sacrifices out of his own private 
stores for the good of the colony. He was, 
nevertheless, removed both from the Council 
and his office as president, September 10, 1607. 

VIR— 3 



He was kept a prisoner on shipboard till New- 
port's arrival in January, 1608, and April 10, 
1608, he returned with Newport to England. 
He afterwards wrote an account of his stay in 
Virginia, which was discovered and published 
not many years ago, and it gives us a very 
different idea of the man from that so long 
current on the authority of John Smith, who 
was his bitter personal enemy. He never re- 
turned to Virginia. 

RatclifTe, John, alias Sicklemore, second 
president of the local council at Jamestown, 
had seen service as a seaman before coming 
to Virginia. He was also, it is believed, a 
soldier in the Low Countries, and is supposed 
to have been the Captain Ratcliffe who was 
taken prisoner with Sir Henry Cary and Cap- 
tain Pigott at Mulheim in October, 1605. He 
commanded the Discovery, the smallest of the 
three ships that brought the emigrants to 
Jamestown. When the names of the coun- 
cillors were read, April 26, 1607, Ratcliffe's 
name was one of them. On the deposition 
of Wingfield, Ratcliffe became president, but 
the summer of 1608 proving as unhealthy as 
that of 1607, Ratcliffe suffered an experience 
similar to Wingfield's, was removed from the 
government in July, 1608, and succeeded by 
Mathew Scrivener. One subject of complaint 
against him was that he enlisted the men in 
building a governor's house. When Captain 
Newport sailed from Virginia, December, 
1608, Captain Ratcliffe accompanied him. 
Owing to his complaints and Wingfield's, a 
new charter was obtained by the London 
Company, and Ratcliffe commanded the 



34 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Diamond, one of the ships in tlie great fleet 
of Sir Thomas Gates, who hore the commis- 
sion of governor. During the temporary 
administration of George Percy, he was sent 
in October, 1609, to build a fort at Old Point 
Comfort, which was named "Algernourne 
Fort" in honor of President Percy's ancestor. 
The following December, going to trade with 
the Indians, he was led into an ambush and 
killed with fourteen others under his com- 
mand, at Werowocomoco on York river. Smith 
calls him "a poor counterfeit imposter," be- 
cause he used an alias, but there was no impo- 
sition. Ratcliffe made no secret of his double 
name, signing himself ""John RatcliiTe com- 
monly called." \'ery frequently in his time 
men wrote their names with an alias on 
account of a second marriage of their mother. 
Ratclifi'e's mother probably first married 
Sicklemore and afterwards Ratclifife, and 
RatclifTe's real name was probably John 
Sicklemore. 

Scrivener, Mathew, third president of the 
\'irginia council under the first charter. Ik- 
subscribed largely to the stock of the company. 
He arrived in Virginia with Newport in the 
"First Supply," which came in January, 1608, 
a member of the council in Virginia ; partici- 
pated in the expedition up York river in Feb- 
ruary, 1608: on the authority of Smith acting 
president of the council from July to Septem- 
ber ID. iTioS, and in January, 1609. at which 
time he was drowned in James river. Rev. 
Richard Hakluyt mentions in his will "Rev. 
John Scrivener, late of liarbican in the subnrl)s 
of the Cittic of London:" and as Scrivener is 
not a very common name, the aforesaid Mat- 
thew and John were probably members of the 
same family and doubtless relatives of Richard 
Hakluvt. 



Smith, John, fourth president of the \'ir- 
ginia council, was the eldest son of George 
and Alice Smith, tenants of Peregrine Bertie, 
Lord Willoughby : was baptized at Willough-> 
by, January 9, 1580; travelled extensively 
abroad, where he encountered many perils by 
sea and land ; distinguished himself by killing 
three Turks one after another, for which 
astonishing prowess he received from Prince 
Sigismund of Transylvania, a coat-of-arms 
charged with three Turks heads. That he was 
a man of distinction in England is proved by 
the fact of his selection by the king as a mem- 
ber of the first Virginia council. He sailed 
to America with the first colonists, but was 
charged by Wingfield and others as an instiga- 
tor of Galthorpe's mutiny in the West Indies, 
and was kept under arrest till June 10, 1607, 
some three weeks after the landing at James- 
town. After the deposition of Wingfield from 
the presidency and the election of Ratcliffe, 
Smith acted as cape merchant, and was quite 
successful in procuring corn from the Indians. 
In one of these expeditions up the Chickahom- 
iny river he was taken prisoner b\- the Indians. 
He remained a prisoner about three weeks, 
during which time he was taken from town to 
town and finally conducted to Werowocomoco 
on York river to be put to death. From this 
peril he was rescued by Pocahontas, one of 
the daughters of Powhatan, head chief of the 
Powhatan confederacy, and soon after was 
suft'ered to return unharmed to Jamestown. 
Here he ran into a new danger, when the 
CDuncil. under lead of Gabriel .\rcher, con- 
demned him to be hanged as responsible for 
the death of Emry and Robinson, who accom- 
panied him to the Chickahominy ; but Captain 
Xewi^ort arriving the same night (January 
2. 1608) with the "First Supply." and inter- 




JOHN SMITH 



1 



1254222 

COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



35 



fermg in his belialf, Smith was released. 
Smith continued his explorations and in the 
summer of i6o8 made a full discovery of 
Chesapeake Bay, and its tributary rivers. On 
September lo, i6o8, he assumed the presi- 
dency, and among the first things he did was 
to enlarge the area of the fort by the addition 
of about three acres, changing the plan from 
a triangle to a pentagon. After the "Second 
Supply" of men and provisions arrived, in 
October, i6o8, there occurred two months later 
the first marriage of English people in 
America, that of John Laydon and Ann Bur- 
ras. Smith started an extensive system of 
improvements at Jamestown, in which he kept 
the men engaged for several months, but a 
remarkable disclosure of carelessness on his 
part rendered the work of little value. It was 
suddenly discovered that the corn in the store- 
house on which the colonists depended was 
nearly all consumed by rats and the remainder 
was unfit to eat. To save the colonists from 
starvation he had to break them up in small 
parties, and station them at dififerent points, 
sending some to live with the Indians and 
others to the oyster banks down the river. 
While the colony was in this desperate con- 
dition, the "Third Supply" arrived, bringing 
news of a new charter and the appointment of 
Sir Thomas Gates as governor. As Sir 
Thomas' ship, the Sea Venture, had been 
wrecked and given up for lost, the crowd of 
settlers who landed had no recognized leader 
and Smith declined to surrender his authority.- 
Violent quarrels took place. Smith was 
arrested, and in October, 1609, he returned to 
England. Smith, in contrasting the results of 
his administration with the "starving time," 
which followed, claim.s credit rather unjustly 
for what the new arrivals accomplished. In 
reviewing his connection with \''irginia, the 



evidence is reached that while he was a strong 
and masterful spirit, he was contentious, boast- 
ful and illiberal in his treatment of others. So 
long as he stayed, the colony was rent by 
factions of which he was certainly an active 
promoter. 

Smith was in England from 1609 to 1614, 
when he was taken into the employment of the 
North Virginia Company, created admiral of 
New England, and sent on several voyages 
thither. He remained in this service two years, 
after which till his death, June 21, 1631, he 
lived in England devoting himself to writing. 
During his stay in Virginia he had sent home 
in 1608 a report which was soon after pub- 
lished as "A Trewe Relation." In 1612 he 
published his "Map of Virginia," in 1616 his 
"Description of New England," in 1620 "New 
England's Trials," and in 1624 the "General 
Historie of Virginia, New England and the 
Summer Islands," and in 1630 "The True 
Travels." These works have all the same 
general style, suggestive of the character of 
Smith, being involved, hasty, inaccurate and 
illiberal, but sincere, open and fearless. While 
his narratives must not be taken without quali- 
fications, and not much weight is to be attached 
to his opinions of others, there is no real reason 
to reject his authority on the main issues. 

Percy, George, fifth president of the coun- 
cil, was the eighth son of Henry, eighth Earl 
of Northumberland, by his wife Catherine, 
eldest daughter and co-heir of John Neville, 
Lord Latimer, was born September 4, 1580, 
served for a time in the Low countries, and 
sailed for Virginia in the first expedition, 
December, 1606. Here he was very useful in 
obtaining corn from the Indians and assisting 
in the explorations. When the settlers, who 
came over under the second charter, appeared 



36 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



at Jamestown without their governor or their 
charter, Percy was persuaded to accept the 
presidency on the expiration of Smith's term 
of office. Probably no ability as a leader could 
have accomplished anything, and Percy was 
soon incapacitated by illness. The period of 
his administration is known as the starving 
time. The new settlers had landed sick and 
without adequate supplies, and they soon con- 
sumed the provisions that the old settlers had 
at Jamestown. The consequence was that they 
nearly all died, and there were only sixty 
settlers remaining, when the governor under 
the new commission, Sir Thomas Gates 
arrived from Bermuda where he had been 
wrecked and compelled to remain for forty 
weeks. When Lord Delaware left Virginia 
in March, 1611, Percy was appointed deputy 
governor, which shows the confidence enter- 
tained in him, despite his unfortunate experi- 
en«es. He was a brave soldier, and in punish- 
ment for treachery attacked and destroyed the 
towns of the Paspaheghs and of the Appomat- 
tox people. He left Virginia, April 22, 1612, 
and reached England in the following summer. 
He never returned to Virginia, but about 1625, 
when war was declared against Spain, he went 
again to the Netherlands where as captain of 
a company he distinguished himself, losing a 
finger in battle. He died unmarried in 1632. 
He kept a journal of the original Virginia 
voyage, an abridgement of which was pub- 
lished for the first time in 1625 by Samuel 
Purchas. Mutilated as it was, it presents the 
fullest account we have of the voyage and of 
the first events of the settlement to Newport's 
departure June 12, 1607. After the appear- 
ance of Smith's "General Historic" with his 
very prejudiced account of the affairs during 
the time of Percy's government. Captain Percy 
wrote "A Trewe Relacyon" of the occurrences 



in \'irginia from the time of the shipwreck 
of Sir Thomas Gates in 1609 until his own 
departure from the country in 161 2. In a 
letter to his brother Henry, Earl of Northum- 
berland, he declared that his account was in- 
duced by the many untruths formerly pub- 
lished. This interesting narrative still remains 
in manuscript owing to the narrow conceptions 
of its present possessor, although he has suf- 
fered some few extracts to be published by 
Dr. E. D. Xeill and Mr. G. C. Eggleston. 

Gates, Sir Thomas, appointed the first and 
absolute governor of Virginia under the second 
charter to the Virginia Company of London, 
is said to have been born at Colyford, in Coly- 
ton parish, Devonshire ; was a lieutenant of 
Captain Christopher Carleill's own company 
in the celebrated Drake-Sidney voyage to 
America 1585-86; published the Brigges Crof- 
tes account of this voyage in 1589, which he 
dedicated to the Earl of Essex; served gal- 
lantly at the capture of Cadiz and was knighted 
by Essex in June, 1596. He also served in the 
island voyage August-October, 1597; entered 
Gray's Inn March 14, 1598. About 1603 he 
enlisted in the service of the Netherlands, but 
when King James granted the first charter to 
the Virginia Company of London, he "had the 
honor to all posterity" of being first named in 
that celebrated document. He was in the gar- 
rison at Oudw-ater in South Holland with Dale 
in November, 1606; and in 1608 he received 
leave of absence to go to Virginia. The Vir- 
ginia Company selected him as first governor 
under the new charter (1609), and in June he 
took passage with about 500 settlers. This 
expedition is known as the "Third Supply," 
and the emigration was the largest that ever 
left England up to that time. But the voyage 
over was very unfortunate, for an epidemic 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



Z7 



broke out among tlie passengers and there 
followed a great storm which scattered the 
fleet and wrecked upon the Bermuda Islands 
the Sea Venture which bore the governor and 
one hundred and fifty passengers ; and though 
the rest of the fleet reached Jamestown in 
safety, their arrival only added to the trouble 
already existing there. The new settlers 
brought with them the yellow fever and the 
London plague, and, as their provisions were 
all ruined by sea water, the next nine months 
were a season of disease and starvation. 

In the meantime, Gates and his fellow pas- 
sengers on the Sea Venture were comfortably 
housed on the Bermuda Islands, and out of 
the cedar that grew there the) constructed two 
vessels in which they at length got away. On 
May 23. 1610, they arrived at Jamestown to 
find all but si.xty of the settlers dead. Gates 
relieved the immediate distress by the prompt 
distribution of provisions, and then asserted 
order by the publication of a code of martial 
law drawn up in England. Deeming the con- 
ditions desperate. Gates, with the advice of hii 
council, determined to abandon Jamestown, 
and on June 7, 1610, embarked with all the 
surviving settlers. On the way down the river 
he learned of the arrival of Lord Delaware at 
Point Comfort as governor for life, and in 
obedience to instructions took his fleet back 
to Jamestown. Under Delaware's commission 
Gates became lieutenant-governor and com- 
manded! an expedition against the Indians, 
whom he drove from Kecoughtan. In July, 
however, of the same year, he was sent to 
England for supplies. He returned to James- 
town August I, 161 1, when finding that Lord 
Delaware had departed he again assumed 
direction of aflfairs. He remained in Virginia 
nearly three years, and returned to England 
in April, 1614. Soon after, he resumed his 



service in Holland and was paid by the states 
all past dues. He appears to have retained 
his interest in Virginia, and in 1620 we find 
him as one of "the Ancient Adventurers" 
petitioning to have some man of quality sent 
over as governor. During his administration 
new settlements were established at Henrico, 
Bermuda Hundred, City Point and other 
places ; the French were driven from New 
England; and Pocahontas, daughter to the 
Emperor Powhatan, was captured and soon 
after married to John Rolfe. He left a son 
of the same name, who distinguished himself 
in 1626 in the expedition against Cadiz and in 
1627 at the Isle of Re and Rochelle, when he 
was killed by a cannon shot. 

Dale, Sir Thomas, high marshal of Vir- 
ginia, and deputy governor from May 21, to 
August I, 161 1, and from March, 1614, till 
May, 1616. He entered the service of the Low 
Countries with the Earl of Essex in 1588. In 
1595 he was sent by the Provinces into Scot- 
land, where he became one of the retinue of 
the infant Prince Henry, who had a great 
affection for him. He remained in Scotland 
some years, but returned to the Netherlands 
probably in 1603. In 1604 Lord Cecil wrote 
to the English ambassador at the Hague to 
inform him of the king's gracious interest in 
the military advancement of Dale. On June 
19, 1606. while on a visit to England, he was 
knighted at Richmond by King James as "Sir 
Thomas Dale of Surrey." He remained in 
the service of the Low Countries till February 
161 1, when he came to England and entered 
into the service of the Virginia Company of 
London. Dale was selected to head the expedi- 
tion then preparing, and on March 27, 161 T, 
he left Land's End with three ships carrying 
300 people and also horses, cows, goats, 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



fowl, etc. He reached Point Comfort or 
Algernourne Fort on May 22, 161 1, and 
succeeded Captain George Percy in command 
of the colony. He found forts Charles and 
Henr>', at the mouth of Hampton river, 
deserted, and his first labor was to restore 
them. Constituting James Davis as captain 
of all three forts, he sailed up the river and 
arrived at Jamestown May 29, 161 1, where he 
landed and heard a sermon from Rev. Mr. 
Poole. After consulting his council. Dale sec 
about many extensive improvements at James- 
town and determined to build a new town at 
Henrico, near the Indian town of Arrohatec. 
Fears of the intervention of the Spaniards had 
long disturbed the colonists and there was f. 
great excitement in the colony when some 
Spaniards from ships sent to find out about the 
English settlement, landing at Point Comfort, 
were captured and sent to Jamestown, where 
they were detained in captivity for a long 
time. He began the work of building the 
settlement at Henrico under the severest code 
of martial law, introduced by Gates, and which 
he ruthlessly enforced. Gates, who arrived 
August I and became Dale's superior officer, 
endorsed his policy. After Gates' departure 
for England in 161 4, Dale was again chief 
magistrate in X'irginia. While he has received 
praise for his administration of affairs it 
appears -to have been in large measure unde- 
served. The men were given food not fit for 
hogs, and mutinies repeatedly occurred, which 
were suppressed by the most atrocious cruel- 
ties. When Dale left Virginia in 1616, there 
were only 300 settlers living in the colony, and 
the frail habitations at Henrico, which he had 
built in blood, were decayed and ready to fall. 
He took with him to England Pocahontas and 
several other Indians, who attracted much 
attention and lent a glamour to his return. 



the East . 
it. His I 
23, 1618, 1 



The states general of the Low Countries paid 
him £1,000 for the period when he was in 
\'irginia, though during that time he rendered 
no service. A voyage was intended for the East 
Indies, and Dale was selected to head 
fleet arrived near Java on December 23, 
and in conjunction with Captain Martin Pring 
he made an attack on the Dutch fleet. It was 
"a cruel bloody fight" and both sides claimed 
the victory. He arrived with his fleet at 
Masulipitan July 19 and he died there August 
9. 1619, after twenty days of languishing sick- 
ness. Sir Thomas Dale married, in January, 
161 1, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Throckmorton and his wife Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir Richard Berkeley- 
West, Thomas, Lord Delaware, second 
governor of Virginia, was the son of Sir 
Thomas West, second Lord Delaware, and 
Annie his wife, daughter of Sir Francis 
Knollys and Katherine Gary, his wife. He 
was one of thirteen children, and was bom 
July 9. 1577: educated at Oxford, and was a 
Master of Arts at that university. He early 
saw military service and was a great friend of 
the Earl of Essex, who knighted him at Dub- 
lin, July 12, 1599. He was implicated in the 
Essex rebellion and was imprisoned. Essex, 
however, asked pardon of his father, the 
second Lord Delaware, for bringing his son 
into danger. After the father's death, March 
24, 1602. he succeeded as third Lord Dela- 
ware, and was a member of the privy council 
of Queen Ehzabeth, and on her death became 
a privy councillor to King James. He took a 
most active interest in the American enterprise, 
and in 1609 was a member of the superior 
council of \'irginia in England. The experi- 
ence with the first charter left the impression 
with the public, that only a supreme and abso- 




LORD DE LA WARE 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GO\ERXORS 



39 



lute governor could obviate the dissensions and 
faction tliat characterized tlie history of the 
colony. A help to order lay. it was believed, 
in the selection of a man whose rank would 
inspire respect, and when the second charter 
was obtained the \'irginia Company turned to 
Lord Delaware. As he was, however, unable 
to go at once, they conferred the office of 
governor temporarily upon Sir Thomas Gates. 
On February 28, 1610, Delaware was commis- 
sioned governor of the \''irginia colony for 
life, and was sent with 150 emigrants, chiefly 
workmen, to the assistance of Jamestown. He 
arrived at Point Comfort, June 7, 1610, just 
in time to save the colony from abandonment 
by Gates. Delaware sent the pinnace I'ir- 
(jiiiia up the river to meet the departing set- 
tlers, and under the orders of the new gov- 
ernor they were all taken back again to James- 
town. Sunda)-, June 10, Lord Delaware him- 
self arrived, lie had the town cleaned and 
rehabilitated the frail houses. Th€ settlement 
of four acres was defended by new palisades 
and everything was made safe and comfort- 
able for the time being. He next proceeded to 
settle matters with the Indians, and after driv- 
ing Pochins and his tribe from Kecoughtan he 
erected two forts at the mouth of Ham]3ton 
river, called Charles and llenrw about three 
miles from Point Comfort. In the interim he 
sent out an expedition to search for mines 
above the falls, but the Indians were very 
troublesome and no mines were found. It was 
the fashion of the times to boost the country 
at the expense of the poor colonists, who were 
traduced and villified. Delaware, in a letter 
to the London Company, pursued the example, 
but retribution followed fast. The great trou- 
ble was the unhealthiness of the country and 
the rotten supplies sent over, which introduced 
sickness and death, and Delaware was literallv 



bombarded out of the country by a combined 
attack of ague, flux, cramp and gout. To save 
his life he went first to the West Indies, 
whence he sailed to England, where he arrived 
rather crestfallen about a )'ear after his depar- 
ture. He remained in the latter country till 
1618, and in his absence the government of 
N'irginia was administered by Deputy Gov- 
ernors Gates, Dale, Yardley and .-\rgall. In 
the latter year he was sent again to Vir- 
ginia to rescue the government from the hands 
of Samuel .Krgall, who had incurred the 
strong resentment of the \'irginia Company 
of London, but on the way over he died June 
7, 1618, aged forty-one. He married Cecily, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Sherley. His son 
and successor was Henry, fourth Lord Dela- 
ware, who married Isabella, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Edmunds. Governor Delaware had 
three brothers — Francis West, John Wes'. and 
.Xatlianiel A\'est. who all lived in Virginia, and 
the first two of whom were deputy governors 
at difTerent times ; William West, a nephew, 
was killed by Indians at the Falls of James 
river, \''irginia, in 161 1. Through Captain John 
West, the noMe family of the Delawares is 
widely rejircsented in \'irginia and the so'i^'li 
and uest. 

Yardley, George, deput\- governor of Vir- 
ginia, from 'Slay. 1616, to May, 1617 and 
governor and captain-general of Virginia frjm 
\pril, 1610 to November 18, 1621. and from 
May 17, 1626 to November 13, 1627, was son 
of Ralph Yardley. citizen and merchant tailor 
of P)ionshaw Lane, London, who married (i) 

.Agnes .\bbot and (2) Rhoda . He was 

one of four brothers : Ralph ; George, the sub- 
ject of the present sketch; John and Thomas; 
and a sister Anne, who married Edwaid Irby. 
He served like many other of the early settlers 



4° 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



as a soldier in the Low Countries, that "uni- 
versity of war." He sailed to Virginia in 1609, 
with Sir Thomas Gates, as captain of his com- 
pany; was wrecked with his superior officer 
on the Bermuda Islands, but finally arrived in 
Virginia in May, 1610. When Gates em- 
barked the colonists to return to England, the 
company, commanded by Captain Yardley, 
was the last to get aboard, thereby preventing 
the town from being burned. When Lord 
Delaware turned the departing settlers back 
and resumed the "work of colonization, Yardley 
was mad€ commandant of Forts Charles and 
Henry, at the mouth of Hampton river. Sub- 
sequently under orders he abandoned these 
forts in order to lead an expedition to dis- 
cover a gold mine beyond the Falls of James 
river. The Queen of Appomattox invited some 
of his companions to a feast, and while they 
were eating, treacherously massacred fourteen 
of them, including "all the chief men skillful 
in finding out mines." The colonists retorted 
by burning her town and killing some of her 
people. The expedition got no farther than 
the falls of the river, where they built a fort 
and remained six months. When Sir Thomas 
Dale began to build at Bermuda City, Yardley 
was commandant of the town. When Dale 
left Virginia in 1616, Yardley, who acted as 
deputy-governor resided at Bermuda City for 
the most part. He encouraged the planting 
of tobacco, with the result that emigration, 
which had almost entirely ceased, set in again 
with strong force. Private stock companies 
were formed, which sent colonies on their own 
account to Virginia. Yardley also taught the 
Indians a punitive lesson. The Chickahominy 
tribe declined to pay the corn tax, which they 
had promised Sir Thomas Dale, and about 
Christmas, 1616, Yardley with 84 men prompt- 
ly attacked them and in a very short time 



brought them to terms. In May, 1617, Cap- 
tain Argall came in, with a commission as 
deputy governor, and with orders to portion 
out lands, as the joint stock period of the 
charter had expired. This he did not do, and 
he is charged not only with continuing the 
common slavery, but plundering the "common 
garden" belonging to the company. Then the 
company tried to send back the Lord Governor 
Delaware, but he died on the way, and in Jan- 
uary, 1619, Captain Yardley was commissioned 
as governor and captain-general under an 
order abolishing martial law and establishing 
a free government. Yardley arrived at James- 
town April ID, and immediately called the first 
legislative assembly that ever convened in 
America. Other events render the year mem- 
orable such as the introduction in August of 
the first negro slaves, and the arrival from 
England of a ship with twenty young maidens 
"pure and undefiled" to furnish wives to the 
tenants of the public lands. Despite the ter- 
rible mortality of the climate the colony 
increased in population and property. Dale in 
1616 left 351 persons in the colony, but there 
were about 1200 at the close of Yardley's 
administration in 1621, all of them "seasoned" 
settlers. Sir Francis Wyatt came in as gover- 
nor in November of that year, and Yardley 
was then a member of the council until May, 
1626. He was very efficient in punishing the 
Indians after the massacre of 1622. When 
Wyatt wished to leave Virginia for a time on 
business, the king commissioned Yardley to be 
governor of Virginia a second time. He 
entered into that office in May, 1626, but did 
not serve much more than a year. He died 
November 13, 1627, and was interred in the 
church at Jamestown. He married, about 1618, 
Temperance West, and had issue two sons. 
.\rgall and Francis, the first of whom has 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



41 



numerous descendants in the United States. 
Yardley made a great deal of money out of 
tobacco, and was as popular with the Indians 
as with the whites. The Indian King of Wey- 
anoke gave him a fertile tract of land in 
Charles City county between Mapsico creek 
and Queen's creek, known as Weyanoke. This 
good man was one of the greasest benefactors 
of Virginia, and with Sir Edwyn Sandys 
deserves a monument at the hands of the 
people of the United States. If Sandys insti- 
tuted the move whicli freed the people of Vir- 
ginia from martial law and gave them repre- 
sentative government, Yardley executed the 
orders and proved himself always the sym- 
pathetic friend of liberty. 

Argall, Samuel, deputy governor and admi- 
ral of Virginia from May, 1617. to April 10, 
1619, was born about 1580. Little is known 
of his early life, but as he was selected to dis- 
cover a shorter way to Virginia in 1609, he 
must have been very early regarded as a mar- 
iner of tact and ability. He brought to Smith 
and the colony of Jamestown the first news of 
the second charter and the appointment of Sir 
Thomas Gates as governor. Finding the colony 
in great need, he furnished them with some 
provisions, and after making a successful trial 
of sturgeon fishing he returned to England. 
When Lord Delaware sailed on March, 1610, 
as governor. Captain Argall conducted him by 
way of the Canary and Azores Islands — the 
shorter route discovered by him. June 18, 
1610, he was made a member of the governor's 
council and next day sailed with Somers to the 
Bermuda Islands, but missed them and sailed 
to Cape Cod, where he engaged in successful 
fishing. On his voyage homewards he explored 
the coast and discovered Delaware Bay. Sep- 
tember I he reached Algernourne Fort on 



Point Comfort. During the autumn and win- 
ter he explored the waters of Chesapeake Bay, 
and sailed from Virginia with Lord Delaware 
March 28, reaching England in June, 161 1. 
On July 23, 1612, he made another trip to 
Virginia, and for a year remained in the ser- 
vice of the colony, voyaging about the bay and 
the rivers exploring and securing corn from 
the Indians, in which business he was remark- 
ably successful. In one of these voyages he 
captured Pocahontas, daughter of King Pow- 
hatan, and brought her to Jamestown. Soon 
after June 28, 1613, he sailed from Virginia 
under orders from Sir Thomas Gates, and 
drove away the French from New England, 
thus keeping that country open to the Pilgrim 
Fathers, who came seven years later. He is 
said to have visited on this voyage the Dutch 
settlement on the Hudson, and compelled the 
governor, Hendrick Christiansen, to submit to 
the king of England. After that he was var- 
iously employed in Virginia from December, 
1613, to June 18, 1614, when he sailed for 
England. In February, 1615, he again sailed 
to Virginia and returned to England with Dale 
in May, 1616. Early in 1617 he was appointed 
deputy governor and admiral of Virginia. He 
continued in this office two years, and he is 
generally represented as an unscrupulous chief 
magistrate, but party feeling was very high at 
this time, and the evidence cannot be relied on. 
He appears to have been a partner with the 
Earl of \'\'arwick in bringing the first negroes 
to Jamestown in 1619. After Lord Delaware's 
death he quarrelled with Captain Edward 
Brewster, who had care of Delaware's estate, 
and wanted to put him to death for mutiny. 
The company became incensed with him and 
sent orders by Captain Yardley, appointed to 
succeed him, to arrest him and to examine into 
his acts. But the Earl of Warwick took means 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



to rescue his friend and dispatched a small 
vessel to fetch him and his goods away before 
Vardley could arrive. This vessel arrived in 
X'irginia, April 6, and Argall sailed away on 
her about the loth, leaving Captain Nathaniel 
Powell as deputy-governor. On his arrival 
from Virginia he answered the different 
charges brought again him, satisfactorily to 
some, but not to others. His activity as a 
seaman still continued. In 1620-21 he com- 
manded a ship in the fleet of Sir Robert Man- 
sell in the Mediterranean Sea. About 1621 
he urged that an English settlement be made 
in New Netherlands, afterwards New York. 
In 1624 his friends wished to make him gov- 
ernor again of Virginia, but Sir Francis Wyatt 
was preferred. He was admiral in Septem- 
ber, 1625. of 28 ships, and during his cruise 
cai)tured from the Spaniards seven vessels 
valued at £100,000. In the attack on Cadiz in 
If 125 he commanded the flagship. He was still 
alive in 1633, but was dead before 1641. as in 
that year his daughter Ann, widow of Alex- 
ander Boiling, and her second husband, Samuel 
Percivall, complained to the House of Com- 
inons that they had been deprived by John 
Woodhall of property in Virginia left to the 
petitioner Anne by her late father. Sir Samuel 
.\rgall, sometime governor of Virginia. From 
this account it is seen that Argall was one of 
the most active and remarkable men of his age. 

Powell, Nathaniel, deputy governor of \'ir- 
ginia, in 1619, was one of the first planters; 
left England in December, 1606, and arrived in 
Virginia in April, ifio;. He went with Cap- 
tain Newport in the winter of 1608 to explore 
the York river, and in the summer of 1608 
he went with John Smith to explore Chesa- 
jK-ake Bay. In 1617 Governor Argall gave him 
a commission to be sergeant-major general to 



Francis West, master of the ordinance during 
life. When Governor .\rgall suddenly left 
X'lrginia about April 10, 1619, he turned over 
the government to Captain Powell, which was 
held Ijy him for a week, until Sir George Yardi- 
Icy arrived with a full commission as governor. 
The only matter of public interest that Hap- 
pened during Powell's brief administration 
was the coming of Captain John Ward, with 
fifty emigrants, including Rev. Thomas Bar- 
grave, nephew of Dr. Bargrave, dean of Can- 
terbury. They made a settlement above Mar- 
tin's I'randon, on what is still known as Ward's 
creek. Captain Powell's plantation of 600 
acres was known as "Powell Brook," after- 
wards "Merchant's Hope." There March 12. 
1622, he and his wife, who was a daughter of 
William Tracy, one of the partners in the 
settlement of Berkeley Hundred, were mur- 
dered by the Indians. He left no descendants, 
and his plantation was sold by his brother and 
heir, Thomas Powell, of Howellton, county 
Suffolk, England. Near Powell's plantation 
in Virginia is still standing a very old brick 
church known as Merchant's Hope Church. 
The creek bounding his place still bears Cap- 
tain Powell's name. 

Wyatt, Sir Francis, governt)r and captain 
general of Virginia from 1621 to 1626 and 
from 1639 to 1642, was the son of George 
\\'yatt, Esq., and Jane his wife, a daughter of 
Sir Thomas Finch. Francis married, in 1618, 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Samuel Sandys, of 
Outersbury, Worcester, brother of Sir Edwin 
Sandys, lie arrived in \^irginia in October, 
1621, with an appointment to relieve Governor 
Yardley (whose term expired November 18). 
Sir Francis was accompanied by his brother, 
Rev. Hawte Wyatt ; Dr. John Pott, physician 
general, afterwards deputy governor; William 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



43 



Claiburnc. surveyor-general: and (ieorge 
Sand\s, uncle of his wife, who acted as treas- 
urer of the colon}-. He brought with him also 
an ordinance of the London Company, con- 
firming the government and freedom granted 
under Yardley in 1619. Wyatt had not long 
arrived before a great calamity befell the col- 
ony. Powhatan had died in 1618, and the real 
head of the Indians in Virginia was his 
brother, the ferocious Opechancanough. He 
arranged a massacre of the whites, and the 
blow fell March 22, 1622. One-fourth of the 
settlers were destroyed, and the numljer would 
have been much larger had not (iovernor 
Wyatt received news through a Christian In- 
dian named Chanco of the impending massacre 
in time to save Jamestown and put the neigh- 
boring settlements on their guard. After the 
massacre the colonists concentrated for some 
time the surviving population in five or six 
well fortified places, Jamestown Peninsula was 
one of these, and as the old quarters were over- 
crowded, Claiborne, the survv^yor, laid out in 
1623 a new section for habitation on the river 
side, eastward of the old stockade. The ad<li- 
tions were called "New Town," where already 
stood, it is believed, the governor's house, built 
by Gates in 1614, enlarged by Argall in 1617, 
and granted by the London Company in 1618 
to the use of Governor Yardley and his 
successors forever. "New Town" never became 
a town of much size, for the settlers soon drove 
the Indians into the forests, and it was not long 
before the abandoned plantations were rees- 
tablished. 

The Indian massacre was speedily followed 
by the revocation of the charter of the London 
Company, which Wyatt and other leaders in 
Virginia regarded as a dire calamity, though 
time proved the contrary. In January, 1624, 



they signed a protest called the "Tragical! 
Relation," denouncing the administration of 
the London Company by Sir Thomas Smythe 
and extolling that of Sandys and Southamp- 
ton and asking for the old charter. The father 
of Governor Wyatt died in September, 1625, 
and he asked permission of the king to return 
to England, which was granted, and Sir George 
Yardley became governor in May, 1626. Wyatt 
remained in England till 1^139. when he 
returned once more as governor. His appoint- 
ment seems to have been due to the eliforts of 
the leaders of the old London Company, who 
had never ceased their work for restoration 
of the charter. His administration was a 
reaction against that of Sir John Harvey. He 
reversed the edit of banishment against Rev. 
Anthony Panton, and Harvey himself was 
broken with suits in the courts. George 
Sandys, his wife's uncle, was sent to England 
to voice the wishes of the governor and assem- 
bly for the restoration of the old London 
Company charter. He could get no direct 
promise from the king, and so he had recourse 
to parliament, which did in fact reissue the 
old charter of 1609, though it never went into 
efifect in \'irginia. i.efore that time Wyatt 
was recalled, and Sir \\'illiam I'.erkeley arrived 
as governor in 1642. 

The Wyatt family to which Sir I<"rancis be- 
longed was one of great antic|uity and of much 
renown. His great-great-grandfather. Sir 
Henry \\'yatt, had taken a leading part in 
favor of Henry VII. against Richard HI., and 
his grandfather. Sir Thomas, had been exe- 
cuted for raising a rebellion against Queen 
Mary. Sir Francis died in 1644, at Boxley, 
the home of the Wyatts, in county Kent, Eng- 
land. His brother. Rev. Hawte Wyatt. has 
luany descendants in Virginia. 



44 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



West, Francis, deputy governor of Vir- 
ginia from November 14, 1627, on the death 
of Governor Yardley. to March 5, 1629, when 
Dr. John Pott was elected by the council to 
take his place, West having been selected to 
go to England to represent the interest of the 
colony, which was still in an unsettled condi- 
tion by the revocation of the charter in 1624. 
He was born October 28, 1586, and was a 
brother of Thomas Lord Delaware. When 
Captain Newport came over with the "Second 
Supply" in October, 1608, he was accompanied 
by Francis West, who was elected a member 
of the council there in August, 1609, after the 
arrival of the "Third Supply" sent out under 
the new charter. During the "starving time" 
which soon followed, West attempted to get 
provisions from the Indians, but being unsuc- 
cessful he left the colony to its fate and sailed 
away to England. After a few months he 
returned again to Virginia, and after Percy 
left in 1612 he succeeded him as commandant 
at Jamestown in which office he continued till 
1617, when he was succeeded by Captain Wil- 
liam Powell. He was a member of the coun- 
cil again from April, 1619, to February, 1633. 
In connection with his brothers. Lord Dela- 
ware, and John and Nathaniel West, he owned 
lands at Westover and Shirley. In November, 
1622, he was appointed admiral of New Eng- 
land, and went there to suppress illicit fishing, 
but he found the New Englanders difficult 
persons to deal with. In 1624 Captain West 
was living on his estate at Westover in Vir- 
ginia, and soon after succeeded Sir George 
Yardley as deputy governor. His administra- 
tion is distinguished for the assembling at 
Jamestown on March 26, 1628, after an inter- 
val of four years, of the regular law making 
body — an event second only in importance to 
the original meeting in 1619; for its restor- 



ation was proof that despite the revocation 
of her charter Virginia was to continue in the 
enjoyment of political liberty. After Pott took 
charge in 1629, West went to England, but he 
was in Virginia again prior to December, 
1 63 1, when he attended a meeting of the coun- 
cil, again in February and September, 1632, 
and in February, 1633. x\fter the last date he 
drops out of Virginia records, and there is 
a tradition in Earl Delaware's family that he 
was drowned. 

Pott, John, governor of Virginia from 
March 5, 1629, to March 24, 1630, came to 
Virginia with Governor Wyatt in 162 1 to fill 
the position of physician general, vacant by 
the death of Lawrence Bohun, slain in a naval 
battle between the Spanish and the English 
in the West Indies. He was a Master of Arts, 
and was recommended to the London Com- 
pany by Theodore Gulstone, founder of the 
Gulstonian lectureship in the London College 
of Physicians. He was made a member of the 
council in 1621, and on the departure of Fran- 
cis W^est to England in 1629, Dr. John Pott 
was chosen by the council temporary governor. 
He figured as such little more than a year, and 
the leading event of this time was the arrival 
at Jamestown of the first Lord Baltimore — the 
proprietor of Avalon in Newfoundland. Pott 
tendered to him the oath of allegiance and 
supremacy, which Baltimore as a Catholic 
refused to take. Sir John Harvey, who was 
a friend of Baltimore, on his arrival arrested 
Dr. Pott, and a jury convicted him of felony, 
for stealing cattle, but politics was doubtless at 
the bottom, and the king pardoned him. Some- 
time later, however. Pott had his revenge by 
taking part with the other councillors in Har- 
vey's arrest and deposition from the govern- 
ment. Dr. Pott was the first to locate land at 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



45 



the present site of Williamsburg, and he called 
his place Harrop, after the place of his family 
in Cheshire. He had a brother, Francis Pott, 
who was a prominent member of the assembly. 
His nephew, John Pott, moved to Patuxent in 
Maryland., where he was one of the justices 
in 1657. 

Harvey, Sir John, governor from March 
24, 1630, to April 28, 1635, was a native of 
Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire; had been a captain 
of a ship. in the East Indies. In 1624 he was 
one of the commissioners appointed to report 
to the king upon the conditions of the colony. 
He was appointed a member of the council in 
August, 1624, and in the commission to Sir 
George Yardley, March 4, 1625-26, Harvey 
was named his successor. He left Virginia, 
and commanded a ship in the expedition 
against Cadiz in 1625. He did not return till 
March 24, 1630. During his administration 
the first settlements were made on the York 
river and on Kent Island. In the dispute with 
Lord Baltimore he took sides against 
Claiborne, deposed him in 1634 from his posi- 
tion as secretary of state, and on April 28, 
1635, was himself deposed from the govern- 
ment by the council, which action was con- 
firmed by the assembly. Sent prisoner to Eng- 
land in the custody of two of the assembly, 
Francis Pott and Thomas Harwood, he had his 
guards arrested on their arrival, and brought 
the matter of his deposition up before the privy 
council. The king declared the transaction "an 
act of regal authority," and fearing the 
example, kept the two daring burgesses in 
prison, and sent orders for the arrest of the 
councillors who took part in Harvey's deposi- 
tion. Meanwhile, to rebuke the dangerous pre- 
cedent set in Virginia, he restored Harvey to 
his government. This second administration 



began with Harvey's arrival in the colony Jan- 
uary 18, 1637, and was marked by measures 
taken by Harvey to build up Jamestown. 
Some twelve brick houses were erected, and 
steps taken to build a brick church and brick 
state house. But Harvey resumed his arbitrary 
behavior, and raised so many quarrels that the 
king in August, 1639, commissioned Sir 
Francis Wyatt, who had already figured once 
before as governor, to be his successor. On 
Wyatt's arrival, Harvey's property at York 
and Jamestown was seized to repay his numer- 
ous creditors, and the ex-governor died a bank- 
rupt not long after. 

West, Captain John, deputy governor from 
April 28, 1635, to January 18, 1637, was the 
brother of Lord Delaware, and was born De- 
cember 14, 1590. He came to Virginia about 
1620, and after the massacre in 1622 com- 
manded a company of men against the Indians. 
He was a member of the council, and when in 
1630 the council resolved to plant a settlement 
on the York, Captain West was one of the two 
first settlers to patent lands on King's creek. 
There at his residence afterwards known as 
Bellfield was born, in 1632, the first child of 
English parents born on York river. When 
Sir John Harvey was deposed April 28, 1635, 
Captain West was prevailed upon by the coun- 
cil to accept the office of governor, which he 
held for eighteen months ; and though he and 
the other leading men were arrested for their 
presumption, nothing was done to him. So far 
from that, Wyatt was sent over governor in 
1639, John West's name appeared in the new 
commission as "Marshall and Muster Master 
General," in King Charles' own handwriting. 
He remained a member of the council for 
many years later. In 1650 he sold his plan- 
tation on York river to Edward Digges, Esq., 



46 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



and removed to ^^'est Point, which was named 
for him. In March, 1660, a resohition of good 
will was passed by the general assembly, when 
in recognition of the many important favors 
and services rendered Virginia by "the noble 
family of the Wests," Captam West, now in 
his old age, and his family, were exempted 
from taxation during his life. Captain West 
left an only son Lieutenant Col. John West, 
who resided at West Point and took an im- 
portant part in the affairs of the colony dur- 
ing his lifetime. 

Berkeley, Sir William, governor and cap- 
tain general of \'irginia from 1642 to 1652 and 
from 1660 to 1677. was son of Sir Maurice 
Berkeley, and brother of Lord John Berkeley 
of Stratton. He was born at Bruton, in Som- 
ersetshire, England, about 1610; graduated 
Master of Arts at Oxford in 1629. and trav- 
elled extensively in Europe. He was com- 
missioned by King Charles governor of Vir- 
ginia. August 9, 1641, and arrived in the 
colony in February, 1642, bearing with him 
the assurance of the king that the charter 
would not be restored. On April 18, 1644, a 
second Indian massacre occurred, but this did 
not prevent his visiting England in June, 1644, 
where he remained at the king's camp till June, 
1645. I" li's absence his place was filled by 
Richard Kemp, a member of the council, who 
had been its secretary. Another event of Berk- 
eley's first administration was the expulsion 
of the Puritans from Norfolk and Xanse- 
mond counties. During the civil war in Eng- 
land many cavalier officers and other friends 
of the king emigrated to Virginia. The result 
was to give a strong royalist sympathy to the 
colony, so that the death of Charles I. was 
denounced by the assembly as murder, and to 
question the right of Charles IT. was declared 



treason. At last, in 165 1, parliament sent a 
fleet to subdue the country, but force was not 
used, and an accommodation was agreed to by 
both sides. April 30, 1652, Berkeley was super- 
ceded in the government by Richard Ben- 
nett ; whereupon he retired to his country resi- 
dence, "Greenspring," distant about five miles 
from Jamestown. 

In January, 1660. Governor Samuel Mat- 
thews died and the general assembly, who had 
became disgusted with the chaotic state of 
affairs in England, recalled Governor Berkeley 
to the government in the March following. He 
was commissioned by Charles II. July 31, 

1660, and Charles II. himself was proclaimed 
in Virginia, September 20, 1660. In April, 

1661, Berkeley was sent by the colony to Eng- 
land to protest against the navigation act, Col. 
Francis Morryson acting as governor till Berk- 
eley's return in the fall of 1662. The reaction 
of the restoration occasioning much extrava- 
gance among the government officials finally 
brought about a great feeling of unrest in Vir- 
ginia. This discontent, increased by the lavish 
grants of land by King Charles to certain 
court favorites, was brought to a head, in 
1676, by an Indian attack. The measures , 
taken by Berkeley were deemed ineffective, I 
and the authority of defending the people was 
assumed by Nathaniel Bacon. Jr., a recent 
arrival. Sir William Berkeley declared him 

a rebel, and the colony was torn with opposing 
factions of armed men for nearly a year. 
Bacon perished of camp fever, and Berkeley 
showed much severity in punishing the sur- 
viving leaders. He was finally recalled by the 
king and died at Twickenham, July 9, 1677. 
He wrote tw'o plays, and is the author of a 
"Description of ^'irginia," folio, 1663. He 
was survived by his wife. Lady Frances 
r.crkeley, who was a Culpeper, and married 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



47 



three times: i. Samuel Stephens; 2. Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley; 3. Colonel Philip Ludwell. Her 
brother, Alexander Culpeper, was surveyor- 
general of the colony from 1672 to 1692. 

Kemp, Richard, deputy governor from 1644 
to 1645, was a son, it is believed, of Sir Robert 
Kemp, of Gissing, in Suffolk county, Eng- 
land. He succeeded William Claiborne as 
secretary of state in 1634. When in 1639 
Harvey was supplanted as governor by Sir 
Francis Wyatt, Kemp, by the influence of 
Lord Baltimore and Secretary of State Winde- 
bank, retained his place as secretary. Incur- 
ring the enmity of Rev. Anthony Panton, 
whom Harvey anfl himself had treated with 
great severity, he returned to England in 1640 
to defend his conduct, leaving his friend 
George Reade as deputy secretary. Richard 
Kemp staid in England about two years, and 
returned in 1642 to his oldi post, with Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley. He was deputy governor dur- 
ing the absence of the latter in England from 
June, 1644 to June, 1645. He made his will 
in 1649, and his widow Elizabeth (whose 
maiden name is not known) married (sec- 
ondly) Sir Thomas Lunsford, and after his 
death (thirdly) Major-General Robert Smith. 
He left no children, but there is a numerous 
Virginia family of his name descended from 
his nephew, Edmund Kemp. 

Bennett, Richard, governor of Virginia 
from April 30, 1652, until March 2, 1655, was 
of the same family as Henry Bennett Lord 
Arlington. His uncle Edward Bennett, an 
eminent London merchant, was a member of 
the London Company, and with other persons 
of means planted in 1621 a settlement in War- 
iscnyack, or Isle of \N'ight county, Virginia, 
which was known as Edward Bennett's plan- 
tation. At the time of the Indian uprising in 



March, 1622, more than fifty persons were 
killed at this settlement. In 1624 Robert Ben- 
nett, merchant, and Rev. William Bennett, 
minister, were living at Edward Bennett's 
plantation. They were probably his kinsmen. 
In 1629 Richard Bennett was a burgess from 
the W'ariscoyack district, and in 1632 was one 
of the county court. In 1639 he was a coun- 
cillor. He was a Puritan in sympathy, and 
joined in a petition, which was taken by his 
brother Philip to Boston, asking for three able 
ministers to occupy parishes in his neighbor- 
hood. When Sir William Berkeley in 1649 
drove the Puritans out of Nansemond and 
Elizabeth City counties, Bennett went with 
them to Maryland, but only stayed a short 
time. In 165 1 he was living on Bennett's creek 
in Nansemond county, and that year he was 
named by parliament as one of the commis- 
sioners for the reduction of Virginia. When 
\'irginia submitted, he was elected by the gen- 
eral assembly governor of the colony. He held 
office from April 30, 1652, to March 30, 1655. 
when he was sent to England as agent. On 
November 30, 1657, he signed the agreement 
with Lord Baltimore by which the latter's 
claim to Maryland was finally recognized. 
After the restoration of Charles II., Bennett 
held the offices of councillor and major-gen- 
eral of the militia. In 1667 he went as a com- 
missioner to Maryland to negotiate for a ces- 
sation in the cultivation of tobacco, the price 
having fallen very low. He was a member of 
the council as late as 1675, ^""^1 hi-'' will was 
proved April 12, 1675. His daughter Anne 
married Theodorick Bland, of Virginia, and 
his son and grandson of the same name were 
members of the council of Maryland. 

Digges, Edward, governor of Virginia from 
March 30, 1655, to March 13, 1658, son of 



48 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Sir Dudley Digges, of Chilham, county Kent, 
England, who was knight and baronet, and 
master of the rolls in the reign of Charles I., 
was born about 1620 and came to Virginia 
before 1650, when he purchased an estate on 
York river from Captain. John West, subse- 
quently known as Bellfield. On November 
22, 1654, he was made a member of the coun- 
cil, and was elected March 30, 1655, to succeed 
N^ Governor Bennett. He was therefore the 
second governor under the "Commonwealth 
of England." He served as governor till 
March 13, 1658, when he was sent to Eng- 
land to cooperate with Bennett and Mathews 
against the rival claims of Lord Baltimore. 
The articles of surrender in 1652 guaranteed 
to Virginia her ancient boundaries, and the 
effort of the assembly was to get the Mary- 
land charter annulled, in which, however, they 
were not successful. After the restoration of 
Charles II., Digges served as a member of 
the council, and was greatly interested in the 
culture of silk and tobacco at his plantation 
on York river. In the silk culture he employed 
three Armenians, and the tobacco which he 
grew on his plantation became known as the 
E. D. Tobacco. More than a century after 
his death the tobacco grown at Bellfield had 
such a reputation that it brought one shilling 
per pound in the London market, when other 
tobaccos brought only three pence. Digges 
was auditor general from 1670 to 1675, and 
receiver general from 1672 to 1675. He died 
March 15, 1675, and his tombstone is still 
standing at Bellfield, his old home place on 
York river. His eldest son, Col. William 
Digges, settled in Maryland and was founder 
of a well known family in that state. His 
younger son, Colonel Dudley Digges, was a 
member of the council of Virginia. Cole 
Digges, a grand.son, was also a councillor ; and 



Dudley Digges, a great-grandson, was a mem- 
ber of the Virginia committee of safety, which 
in 1776 had really the executive power in its 
hands. 

Mathews, Samuel, governor of Virginia 
from March 13, 1658, to his death in January, 
1660, was born in England about 1600, and 
came to Virginia in 1622. In 1623 he led a 
force against the Tanx Powhatan Indians. In 
1624 he was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the King to enquire into the condi- 
tion of the colony. In 1630 he built a fort at 
Point Comfort. In 1635 he took a leading 
part in the deposition of Sir John Harvey. He 
was appointed to the council in 1623, and in 
1652 was sent as one of the agents to England 
to obtain a confirmation of the agreement with 
the parliamentary commissioners, securing to 
Virginia her anicent bounds, and he remained 
there till 1657. He was unsuccessful in his 
mission to recover Maryland to Virginia, and 
at length signed articles of accommodation 
with Lord Baltimore. He became governor of 
the colony March 13, 1658, and soon became 
involved in a controversy with the house of 
burgesses regarding the power of the council 
to dissolve the assembly. The house would 
not admit the contention, and claimed that the 
supreme power lay in the house as the repre- 
sentatives of the people. Mathews and his 
council were by the burgesses deposed from 
authority, but on their submitting to the will 
of the house were reelected and took the oath 
recognizing its authority. He died before the 
expiration of his term, in January, 1660. He 
was a very active citizen during his lifetime. 
His residence was at "Denbigh," on Deep 
creek, Warwick county, where he had a fine 
house and employed many servants. He mar- 
ried, about 1629, Frances, daughter of Sir 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



49 



Thomas Hinton, and widow successively of 
Captain Nathaniel West and of Abraham 
Piersey, the last of whom "left the best estate 
that ever was known in Virginia." He had 
issue, Samuel Mathews, who was a member 
of the council in 1655, and Francis, who was 
a justice of York county and captain of the 
militia, and died February 16, 1675. 

Moryson, Francis, governor of Virginia 
from April 30, 1661, to the fall of 1662, was 
a son of Sir Richard Moryson, who was sec- 
retary of state to King James I. He served 
in King Charles' army with the rank of major 
and he embarked) from London with his fellow 
loyalists, Colonel Henry Norwood, Major 
Richard Fox and Major Francis Cary, for 
Virginia, September 23, 1649, ^"d arrived in 
Virginia the November following. Driven 
by a storm, their ship found itself on June 12, 
1650, among the islands of Assateague Bay, 
on the Atlantic coast of Virginia. Upon one 
of these Colonel Moryson landed with several 
of his companions, and after various exper- 
iences in Accomac crossed over to the main 
shore and was kindly received by Sir William 
Berkeley, who gave him the command of the 
fort at Point Comfort. In 1655 he was speaker 
of the house of burgesses, and when Governor 
Berkeley visited England in 1662, Moryson 
acted as governor till sometime in the fall of 
the following year. The memory of his ser- 
vice as chief executive is marked by his gift 
of a splendid service of church plate to the 
church at Jamestown, which is preserved by 
the church in Williamsburg. After the return 
of Berkeley, Moryson was sent as agent to 
England at an annual salary of £200 to pro- 
test against a grant of the Northern Neck to 
several court favorites. He remained as agent 
in England till 1677, when he returned to Vir- 



ginia as one of a commission to enquire into 
the disturbances known as Bacon's rebellion. 
The commissioners held court at Swann's 
Point, over against Jamestown, which had 
been destroyed. Their report was a very full 
account of this interesting episode in Virginia 
history, and the finding was very much against 
Governor Berkeley. Moryson soon after re- 
turned to England, and died there not long 
after. He left a widow Cecilia, sister of Giles 
Rawlins, and a son Henry, who in 1699 was 
colonel of the Colstream Foot Guards. Col- 
onel Moryson was preceded to Virginia by 
his two brothers — Richard and Robert Mory- 
son, who also commanded at Point Comfort, 
and after Major Moryson his nephew Charles, 
son of Richard Moryson, held commission 
about 1664. His sister, Letitia Moryson, was 
wife of the noble cavalier, Lucius Cary, Lor4 
Falkland. 

Jeffreys, Herbert, commissioned lieutenant- 
governor November 11, 1675, was an officer 
in the English army and commanded the regi- 
ment sent over to Virginia in 1676 to put down 
the rebellion of Bacon. He was also head 
of the commission to enquire into the causes 
of the troubles in Virginia, Major Francis 
Moryson, and Sir John Berry, admiral of the 
fleet, being the other members. He arrived 
in Virginia, February 2, 1677, and encamped 
his troops among the ruins of the brick build- 
ings at Jamestown, which had been burned by 
Nathaniel Bacon. The commissioners made 
the residence of Colonel Thv>mas Swann, at 
Swann's Point, on the other side of the river, 
their headquarters, whence they issued a call 
to the different counties for a statement of 
their grievances. From the first their relations 
with Berkeley were far from sympathetic. 
Upon the departure of Berkeley from the 



so 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



colony, Jeffreys by virtue of his commission 
assumed the government, and marching his 
troops to Middle Plantation (now Williams- 
burg) concluded a treaty of friendship with 
the neighboring Indian tribes. His sym- 
pathies being with the popular side, by his 
influence the assembly in October, 1677, passed 
an act of amnesty, and threatened a heavy fine 
against anybody who would call another "a 
rebel or traitor." Those, therefore, who had 
been friend's of Sir William Berkeley, received 
very little favor, at his hands, and were 
denounced by him as the "Greenspring fac- 
tion," whose tyranny had been one of the 
chief causes of the civil war. He incurred the 
special enmity of Philip Ludwell, who married 
Berkeley's widow, because he would not let 
him sue Walklett for damages done during that 
time. In this Jeffreys seemed to be right, as 
Berkeley had promised Walklett, a leader of 
the rebels after Bacon's death, indemnity on his 
surrendering West Point. In another matter in 
which Robert Beverley, the other leader of the 
Greenspring faction, was involved, Jeffreys' 
position was not as defensible. In order to 
make a full report he and the other commis- 
sioners demanded of Beverley, who was clerk 
of the assembly, the journals and papers of the 
house of burgesses, and when the latter 
declined to give them up they seized them out 
of his possession. As this appeared to the 
house an attack upon their privileges, they 
passed strong resolutions when they met pro- 
testing against the action of the commissioners. 
The growing importance of Middle Planta- 
tion was shown by a petition from some in- 
habitants of York county that the place he 
recommended to the king for the seat of gov- 
ernment. But the commissioners, including 
Jeffreys, were not willing to abandon James- 



town, and on April 25, 1678, the general 
assembly resumed its sittings at the country's 
ancient capital, and steps were taken to rebuild 
the state house and church. Jeffreys, however, 
did not long survive this meeting of the assem- 
bly. He died in Virginia, December 30, 1678. 
The surviving commissioners made a volu- 
minous report to the English government, in 
which, under the thin guise of a censure of 
Bacon, the entire blame of the civil war was 
really thrown upon Sir William Berkeley and 
his friends. 

Chicheley, Sir Henry, lieutenant-governor 
of Virginia from December 30, 1678, to May 
10, 1680, son of Sir Thomas Chicheley of 
Wimpole, in Cambridgeshire, was born in 
1615, matriculated at University College, Ox- 
ford, April 2-j, 1632, and was Bachellor of 
Arts February 5, 1634-35. He served as an 
officer in the army of Charles I., and for a 
short time was imprisoned in the Tower of 
London. In 1649, after the execution of the 
king, he emigrated to Virginia with many 
other cavaliers. Here he married in 1652 the 
widow of Colonel Ralph Wormeley, and 
resided at Rosegill, in Middlesex county. On 
December i, 1656, he took his seat in the 
house of burgesses, having been elected to fill 
a vacancy. In 1660 he was for a time in 
England, where he was probably a witness of 
King Charles II. 's restoration. On November 
20, 1673, he was commissioned lieutenant- 
general of the Virginia militia, and on Feb- 
ruary 28, 1673-74, the king gave him a com- 
mission as deputy governor of the colony. In 
the beginning of 1676, when the Indians were 
ranging the frontier, Chicheley had command 
of the forces raised to subdue them, but his 
troops were disbanded by Governor Berkeley 




LORD CULPEPER 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



before they could attack the invaders. This 
action occasioned much discontent and was the 
direct cause of Bacon's rebellion. 

During this troublous time Chicheley ad- 
hered to the governor and suffered very much 
in consequence. His estate was greatly dam- 
aged and he endured a severe imprisonment. 
When the -civil war subsided, he was ap- 
pointed to the council November i6, 1676, 
and became its president, and on the death of 
Governor Jeffreys he produced his commis- 
sion as deputy governor. He remained the 
colony executive till Lord Culpeper was sworn 
into office May 10, 1680, becoming, however, 
the chief executive again when Lord Cul- 
peper left Virginia in August, three months 
later. He served till Culpeper's return in De- 
cember, 1682, during which interval there was 
unusual distress on account of the low price 
of tobacco. On the petition of the suffering 
people, Chicheley called an assembly which 
met in April, 1682, but in obedience to orders 
from England to await Lord Culpeper's arrival 
he adjourned it before it could adopt a law 
for a cessation of planting, whereupon many 
planters in Gloucester, New Kent and Middle- 
sex assembled together and going from place 
to place riotously cut up the tobacco plants. 
Chicheley called out the militia and promptly 
suppressed the disturbances, but issued a gen- 
eral pardon to all who would behave peace- 
ably. Major Robert Beverley was deemed, 
however, the real sinner, as he was prominent 
in urging the cessation of planting. Therefore, 
Chicheley had him arrested, and confined him 
on shipboard and kept him a prisoner for 
seven months, finally releasing him under 
heavy bond to appear when summoned. Cul- 
peper returned in December, 1682, and though 
he bore instructions to proceed rigorously 
against the plant cutters, whose action had 



entailed a heavy loss of English revenue, he 
imitated Chicheley's clemency by issuing a 
similar proclamation of amnesty. To placate 
his masters in England, however, he executed 
two of the most violent of the ringleaders and 
threw the blame of his not executing more 
upon Sir Henry Chicheley, who had fore- 
stalled him. Sir Henry had become at this 
time very old and feeble, and his death occur- 
red not long after Culpeper's arrival. He died 
at Rosegill, on the Rappahannock, February 
5, 1682, and was interred at old Christ Church, 
Middlesex county. He left no issue. 

Culpeper, Thomas, Lord, governor of Vir- 
ignia from May 10, 1680, to August 10, 1680, 
and from December 17, 16S2, to May 28, 
1683, was the eldest son of John Lord Cul- 
peper, whom he succeeded as Baron of Thor- 
seway on the death of the latter in 1660. Lord 
John Culpeper was one of the most eminent 
friends of Charles I. in the civil war in Eng- 
land, and one of the first acts of Charles II., 
after the execution of his father, was to grant 
to him and Henry Bennett, Earl of Arlington, 
and several other great favorites the Northern 
Neck of Virginia, lying between the Poto- 
mac and Rappahannock rivers. This grant, 
after lying dormant during the commonwealth, 
was revived on the restoration of the king and 
ultimately became vested by purchase in Sir 
Thomas Culpeper, who in 1674 received in 
company with Lord Arlington the benefit of 
another grant of all Virginia for thirty-one 
years. Though neither of these grants were 
intended to interfere with the political govern- 
ment of the colony as it then existed, their 
provisions, especially those of the latter grant, 
were so extensive that had they been com- 
pletely executed little but the shadow of power 
would have been left to the central authority. 



52 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Eventually, by purchase Lord Thomas Cul- 
peper possessed himself of both patents and 
all the privileges and benefits of each. Natu- 
rally these grants were very distasteful to the 
Virginians, and for a long time they paid no 
attention to the demands of the patentees and 
of Culpeper, and sent various agents to Eng- 
land to protest against them. In 1675 Cul- 
peper obtained from the king a commission, 
to succeed Sir William Berkeley, on his 
demise, as governor of Virginia, and in May, 
1680, he came to Virginia, hoping doubtless to 
put some life into the privileges of his pro- 
prietorship. He brought instructions intended 
to put the government of Virginia on a more 
royal basis, but he succeeded in carrying out 
only a part of his policy. The clerk of the 
assembly, who had hitherto been elected by 
that body, became now the appointee of the 
governor, a permanent revenue was established 
rendering the salaries of the governor and 
council independent of the people; and instead 
of annual meetings of the assembly, the cus- 
tom of calling it for special occasions and pro- 
roguing it from time to time, was begun. In 
August, not long after the adjournment of the 
assembly, Culpeper set out for England by 
way of New England, whereupon. Sir Henry 
Chicheley reassumed the government. Cul- 
peper was absent for more than two years 
from Virginia, during which time, on account 
of the low price of tobacco, the Plant Cutters 
rebellion occurred. Culpeper was ordered by 
the king to return to his charge, and he arrived 
in Virginia December 17, 1682, but found the 
rebellion already suppressed by Sir Henry 
Chicheley. To serve as an example, he, how- 
ever, executed two of the ring leaders, and 
continued under bond for his appearance 
Major Robert Beverley, clerk of the assembly, 
who had been arrested by Sir Henry Chiche- 



ley as the chief instigator. Before leaving 
England he had received fresh instructions 
aimed at the rights and liberties of the assem- 
bly, but Culpeper declined to oppose himself 
to the popular will on most of the questions. 
The assembly, however, lost its power as the 
court of appeals, and the council, by order of 
the crown, was made the court of last resort, 
except in cases of ^300 value, when an appeal 
might be made to the privy council in Eng- 
land. Culpeper soon gave the king and his 
advisers an opportunity of punishing him and 
replacing him with a more efhcient instrument 
of tyranny. Directly in face of an order of 
the council forbidding him to receive any pres- 
ents, he accepted large sums of money from 
the assembly, and contrary to another express 
order forbidding any colonial governor from 
absenting himself from his government with- 
out special leave, he returned a second time to 
"England after a stay in the colony of only 
about five months. He was at once deprived 
of his office, and Lord Howard of Effingham 
dispatched to succeed him. A year later he 
sold the larger share of his Virginia rights 
to the crown for an annuity of i6oo for twenty 
years, retaining only the portion of the terri- 
tory called the Northern Neck, which was now 
confirmed to him by a patent from the crown 
dated September 27, 1688. While governor, 
however, he made a little headway in bringing 
the residents of the Northern Neck to submit 
to him as proprietor, and for many years after 
his death, which occurred in 1690, the inhabi- 
tants continued indifferent. It was not till 
1703, when Robert Carter became the manag- 
ing agent, that the people began to patent lands 
in his office. The proprietor then was Thomas 
Lord Fairfax, who before 1692 married Kath- 
erine. Lord Culpeper's only daughter, and 
heiress by his wife. Lady Marguerite Hesse. 




LORD HOWARD OF EFFINGHAM 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



53 



Spencer, Nicholas, president of the coun- 
cil and acting governor after Lord Culpeper's 
departure from Virginia, May 28, 1683, to the 
incoming of Francis Lord Howard of Effing- 
ham in February, 1684. He was the son of 
Nicholas Spencer, Esq., of Cople, in Bedford- 
shire, England, by his wife Mary, daughter 
of Sir Edward Gostwick. He first engaged 
in merchandizing in London, and like many 
merchants became interested in Virginia, to 
which he emigrated in 1659. He settled in 
Westmoreland county, where the parish of 
Cople was named in honor of the home of his 
family ; was a member of the house of bur- 
gesses from 1666 to 1676; and was secretary of 
state from 1679 till his death in 1689. Placed 
by Lord Culpeper, who was his cousin, at the 
head of the council, he succeeded him as acting 
governor, on his departure from Virginia, in 
September, 1683, according to an order issued 
shortly before by the privy council establish- 
ing the rule which was always afterwards fol- 
lowed that the president of the council should 
succeed to the executive duties in case of the 
absence or death of the incumbent. Spencer's 
administration was quiet, except for some in- 
roads of the Seneca Indians, who were driven 
off with the aid of the tributary tribes. In 
February, 1684. Lord Howard arrived, and 
Spencer acted as one of his councillors til! 
his death, September 23, 1689. He married 
Frances, daughter of Colonel John Mottrom. 
of Northumberland county, and left several 
children who have descendants in Virginia. 

Howard, Francis, Baron of Effingham, gov- 
ernor of Virginia from February, 1684 to 
October 20, 1688, was a distant kinsman of 
Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, who 
commanded the English fleet in 1688 in its 
famous battle with the Spanish Armada. He 



was son of Sir William Howard of Lingfield, 
in Surrey county, England, by his wife 
Frances, daughter of Sir George Courthope, 
of Whiligh, county of Sussex, knight, and suc- 
ceeded in 1681 to the title of Lord Howard 
of Effingham on the death of Lord Charles 
Howard, grandson of the hero of the battle of 
the Armada. He was commissioned governor 
of Virginia, September 28, 1683, and arrived 
in Virginia in February, 1684. Among his 
first proceedings was one to summon Robert 
Beverley before the council on the old charge 
of instigating the plant cutters. Found guilty, 
Beverley was released on his making an 
humble and abject apology, which doubtless, 
like Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., on a similar occa- 
sion, he regarded as a mere formality. It 
was far from making him submissive to the 
governor's will, and when the governor set to 
work to exalt his prerogatives at the expense 
of the liberties of the assembly, Beverley as 
clerk, and his friend! Philip Ludwell, firmly 
resisted him. Hitherto the governors of Vir- 
ginia had seldom, if ever, used their negative 
on the laws of the assembly. Lord Howard 
asserted this right, and was successful in 
making it a part of the constitution ever after- 
wards. He attempted to get the house to 
authorize himself and the council to lay taxes 
on urgent occasions, but failed. He exacted 
a fee for attaching the seal of the colony to 
land grants and, erecting a new court of chan- 
cery, made himself a petty lord chancellor. 
All who opposed him in any way were made 
to feel the effects of resentment. Robert 
Beverley was removed from his office as clerk 
and Ludwell was suspended from the coun- 
cil. In one measure, at least, Howard deserved 
the gratitude of the people. In the summer of 
1684 he went to Albany, and there with the 
governor of New York made a treaty with the 



54 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Five Nations, which put an end to the raids 
of the Senecas on the frontiers. At length 
Howard departed for England, October 20, 
1688, leaving Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., in charge 
of the government. The assembly sent Lud- 
well as their agent to urge complaints against 
him. He did not return, but he was allowed 
to retain his office of governor as an absentee 
with half his salary, while his duties were dis- 
charged by a lieutenant. He died March 30, 
1694. While he- lived in Virginia, he spent 
much of his time at Rosegill, the house of the 
Wormeleys, on the Rappahannock. On August 
31, 1685, his wife Lady Philadelphia Howard 
(daughter of Sir Thomas Pelham), died in 
\^irginia, aged thirt>'-one, and her remains 
were carried to England and interred at Ling- 
field. On the way over, his daughter Margaret 
Frances, who accompanied her mother's body, 
also died. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, Sr., president of the 
council and acting governor of Virginia, was 
baptized at St. Mary, Bury St. Edmund's, 
August 29, 1620, and died in York county, 
Virginia, March 16, 1692. His father, Rev. 
James Bacon, was rector of Kurgate, Suffolk, 
and died August 25, 1670, and his grandfather, 
Sir James Bacon, of Friston Hall, Suffolk, 
was first cousin of Francis Bacon, Lord Veru- 
1am. Nathaniel Bacon, the subject of this 
sketch, was first cousin once removed of Na- 
thaniel Bacon, Jr., "the Rebel." He travelled 
in France in 1647, ^^d was probably a gradu- 
ate of Cambridge ; came about 1650 to Vir- 
ginia, where he settled first in Isle of Wight 
county, and then at "King's Creek," York 
county, on one of the first tracts of land 
patented on York river. He was chosen mem- 
ber of the council in 1657, but held the office 
for only a year ; was burgess for York county 



in 1658-59, and was reappointed to the coun- 
cil in 1660; appointed auditor general March 
12, 1675, resigning in December, 1687, was 
president of the council, and as such acting 
governor during the absence of Lord Howard 
in New York in the summer of 1684, during 
his absence on a visit to the southern part of 
the colony in December, 1687, and in the inter- 
val between his departure for England, Octo- 
ber 28, 1688, and the arrival of Governor 
Francis Nicholson, May 16, 1690. He did not 
approve the course of his young kinsman 
Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., and it was at his house 
on King's creek that Sir William Berkeley 
first put foot to land after his return from the 
eastern shore in 1676. 

Lord Howard had left the colony just before 
the abdication of James II., and the uncer- 
tainty attending affairs in England created 
something like a panic in Virginia. Rumors 
of terrible plots of Catholics and Indians were 
circulated, which President Bacon and his 
council allayed as far as possible. But the 
difficulties of maintaining order might have 
became insuperable, had not the news of the 
accession of the Prince and Princess of 
Orange arrived. Colonel Bacon's health was 
ver\' feeble at this time, and he died March 
16, 1692. As he had no children he bequeathed 
his estate to his niece Abigail Smith, who mar- 
ried Major Lewis Burwell, of Gloucester 
county, and has many descendants in Virginia 
and the south. 

Nicholson, Sir Francis, lieutenant-governor 
from May 16. 1690, to January, 1694, and 
from 1698 to April, 1705, was born in 1660; 
obtained a commission in the English army as 
ensign January 9, 1678, and as lieutenant May 
6, 1684. He was a strong Tory and church- 
man. When in 1686 the whole bodv of col- 



COLONIAL I'RESIDENTS AND GO\ERNORS 



55 



onies imrth of Chesapeake llay were formed 
into a single province under Sir Edmund An- 
dros, Nicholson, was appointed lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, and remained at New York to repre- 
sent his superior officer. W'hen Andros was 
deposed by the men of Boston in 1689, Nichol- 
son's hot temper betrayed him into violent 
language and conduct, which induced a rebel- 
lion headed by Jacob Leisler. Nicholson left 
the colony for England, which temporarily in- 
creased the anarchic conditions in New York, 
though they ended in the execution of Jacob 
Leisler and several of his rebel associates. In 
spite of his failure, Nicholson was appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Virginia in 1690, and 
for four years discharged the duties of his 
new office with ability and entire credit to 
himself. He instituted athletic games and 
ofifered prizes to those who should excel in 
riding, running, shooting, wrestling and fen- 
cing. He did all he could to promote the 
founding of William and Mar)' College, and 
contributed largely from his own private means 
for that purpose. In 1694 Lord Howard of 
Effingham, the titular governor of Virginia, 
under whom Nicholson served as deputy, died, 
and that post was conferred upon Sir Edmund 
Andros, while Nicholson was appointed in 
January, 1694. governor of Maryland. Here 
he proved himself, as in Virginia, the patron 
of learning, and laid out Annapolis and estab- 
lished King William's school, now St. John's 
College. His arrogant disposition precipitated 
him into quarrels with the commissary Thomas 
Bray and other leading men, and in i6g8 he 
returned to Virginia as governor. His second 
term of office opened auspiciously. He caused 
a general census of the colony to be made in 
respect to schools, churches, andi population, 
and as the state house had' been accidentally 
burned at Jamestown, persuaded the English 



government to transfer the seat of govern- 
ment to ;\Iiddle Plantation, which he named 
Williamsburg in honor of the reigning king, 
William, formerly Prince of Orange. But his 
peppery temper soon involved him into diffi- 
culties with his council and with James Blair, 
president of the college. He also displeased 
the assembly by trying to get them to con- 
tribute towards a fort on the northwest fron- 
tier of New York. Displeased in turn at their 
unwillingness, he advi.scd the crown that all 
the American colonies should be placed under 
one governor and a standing army be main- 
tained among them at their own expense, be- 
lieving it to be the only means of preserving 
an effective unity against Canada and the 
h>ench. But this recommendation was not 
approved by Queen Ann and her ministers, 
and in ,\pril, 1705, he was recalled. During 
the next fifteen years such public services as 
he discharged were of a military character, 
and he headed two expeditions against Canada, 
but for want of a fleet the expeditions proved 
failures. In 1713 Nicholson was appointed 
governor of Acadia, but here again he met 
difficulties owing to his imperious temper. 
When in 1719 the privy council decided that 
the proprietors of South Carolina had for- 
feited their charter, Nicholson was appointed 
governor, and speedily restored order to that 
distracted province. Here Nicholson showed 
the best side of his character, promoted the 
building of schools and churches, and suc- 
ceeded in conciliating the Cherokees. In June, 
1725. Nicholson returned to England on leave, 
and does not seem again to have visited 
America. He had been knighted in 1720 and 
was promoted to lieutenant-general. He 
retained the colonial governorship of South 
Carolina until his death, which took place in 
London, March 5, 1728. He never married 



S6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



and by his will left all his lands and property 
in New England, Maryland and Virginia to 
the Society for the Propagation of Christianity 
in Foreign Parts, and to educate in England 
young New England ministers to be sent back 
to their native country. 

Andres, Sir Edmund, governor of Virginia 
from 1692 to 1698, was the second son of a 
Guernsey gentleman belonging to Charles I.'s 
household. He was born in London, Decem- 
ber 6, 1637, appointed gentleman in ordi- 
nary to the Queen of Bohemia in 1660, served 
in the regiment of foot sent to America in 
1666, was major in Rupert's dragoons in 1672, 
and succeeded his father as bailiff of Guern- 
sey in 1674. The same year he was appointed 
by James, Duke of York, to be governor of 
the province of New York, which had been 
granted to the duke by Charles II. In 1678 
he wa% knighted while governor from New 
York. He engaged in some disputes with the 
authorities of the neighboring colonies and in 
1681 was recalled to England. The authorities 
in England had borne with great patience the 
oppressive governments of the New England 
oligarchies, and their conduct brought punish- 
ment not altogether undeserved. Their char- 
ters were confiscated, and Andros was 
appointed in 1686 governor of the various 
colonies consolidated to form the dominion of 
New England. In this position .\ndros marie 
himself very unpopular by his "nergy in carry- 
ing out the instructions of James II. Acting 
under the king's directions he put restrictions 
on the freedom of the press, and appointed 
a general council by whose advice he laid taxes 
and carried on all government and legislation. 
This was a reversion to the Spanish type of 
colonial government, which could not be jus- 
tified, but he performed a good part in pru- 



claiming liberty of conscience, in subduing the 
Indians, and in repressing the pirates, who 
were the scourge of the New England coast. 
His unpopularity continued to increase, how- 1 
ever, and when the news of the abdication of 
King James arrived, the people of lioston, on 
April 18, 1689, suddenly seized the governor 
and some of his subordinates and imprisoned ' 
them. Sir Edmund was sent over to England, 
where, to the disappointment of his enemies, \ 
he was released without a fonnal trial. King 
William seemed to think that he had only done 
his duty in carrying out the instructions sent 
him, and so returned him to America as gov- 
ernor of Virginia. Here he showed both his 
good and evil side. He promoted manufac- i 
tures and agriculture, put in order the govern- I 
ment records which were in a chaotic state, f 
and by his affability made himself generally [ 
popular with the people, but he quarrelled 
with Commissary James Blair, and after help- 
ing him to establish the new college at Wil- 
liamsburg, permitted his angry feelings against 
Dr. Blair to make him an enemy of the insti- 
tution. The result was that, through the in- 
fluence of the commissary and his relations and 
friends on the council. Andros was recalled in 
1698. In 1704 Andros was appointed gov- 
ernor of Jersey, which office he held until 
1706. The remainder of his life seems to have 
been passed in London, where he died Feb- 
ruary 22. 1713-14. 

Hamilton, George, Earl of Orkney, gov- 
ernor-in-chief of Virginia from 1697 to his 
death in 1737, never residing in the colony, 
but enjoying his office as a pensionary sine- 
cure for forty years ; was fifth son of William. 
Earl of Selkirk, who became Duke of Ham- 
ilton. He was born at Hamilton Palace. Lan- 
ark, and was baptized there February 0. 1666. 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



57 



He had a long and distinguished career in the 
British army, and was present at the battles 
of the Boyne, Anghrim, Steinkirk, Blenheim 
and Oudenard, and at the sieges of Limerick, 
Athlone, Namur, Stevensvaert, Menin and 
Tournay. He was made colonel of the Royal 
Foot, August 3. 1692, major-general March 9, 
1702, and lieutenant-general June i, 1704. On 
January 10, 1696, Hamilton was created Earl 
of Orkney, and in 1697 became titular gov- 
ernor of Virginia, drawing a salary, but not 
performing any duties. On February 12, 1707, 
he was elected one of the sixteen representa- 
tive peers of Scotland to sit in the first parlia- 
ment of Great Britain. In 1710 he was sworn 
of the privy council, and the same year was 
appointed general of the Foot in Flanders. He 
was likewise appointed afterwards constable, 
governor and captain of Edinburgh Castle, 
lord lieutenant of the county of Clydesdale, 
and on June 12, 1736, field marshal of "all 
of his majesty's forces." On November 25, 
1G95, he married his cousin, Elizabeth Villiers, 
the well known mistress of William III., and 
from this marriage the present Earl of Orkney 
is descended. Orkney was no military strate- 
gist, and was not very successful when first in 
command, but he was an admirable subordinate. 
He died at his residence in Albemarle street, 
London on January 29, 1737, and was buried 
at Taplow. and September 6 of that year was 
succeeded as governor-in-chief of \^irginia by 
the Earl of Albemarle. 

Nott, Edward, lieutenant-governor of Vir- 
ginia under the Earl of Orkney, from August 
18, 1705, to August 27,. 1706, was born in Eng- 
land in 1657. He served very gallantly in the 
West Indies as major and colonel of a regi- 
ment. On August 15, 1705, he succeeded Col- 
onel Francis Nicholson as governor of Vir- 



ginia. Wiser than Nicholson, he took care not 
to offend the council, and was very popular 
with all classes, but he died only about a year 
after his arrival. Several important events, 
however, in the colonial annals are identified 
with his brief administration : The completion 
of the capitol building begim by Nicholson ; 
the burning of the college, October, 1705 ; the 
founding by Mrs. Mary Whaley of Mattey's 
Free School near Williamsburg, and the adop- 
tion by the assembly of a revised code of laws 
— the fourth since the first settlement. In this 
code provision was madie for building a gov- 
ernor's house, for completing the founding of 
Williamsburg, and for encouraging the French 
Protestant refugees whose settlement was 
above the falls of the river at "King William's 
parish in the county of Henrico." Some years 
after the sudden demise of Nott, August 23, 
1706, a handsome box monument of marble 
was erected by the general assembly over his 
remains in Bruton parish churchyard. It is 
still standing. He was succeeded at the head 
of the government by the president of the 
council, Edmund Jennings. 

Edmund, Jenings, president of the coun- 
cil and acting governor from June, 1706, to 
August, 1 7 10. was son of Sir Edmund Jen- 
ings, of Ripon. Yorkshire, England, and his 
wife Margaret, daughter of Sir Edward Bark- 
ham, lord mayor of London, 1621-22. He was 
Ijorn in 1659, and died June 2, 1727. He 
came to \'irginia at an early age, and settled 
in York county. He was appointed attorney- 
general in 1680. and retained the office till 
after 1692. He was appointed to the council 
in 1 70 1, and remained a member till his death. 
In 1704 he was appointed secretary of state, 
and from June, 1706, till August 23, 1710, he 
was acting governor. Later, after the death 



58 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



of Hugh Drysdale, he would have again be- 
come acting governor, but was set aside on 
account of his feeble health. He married, 
Frances, daughter of Henry Corbin, of lUick- 
ingham House, and had issue (i) Frances, 
married Charles Grymes, of Moratico, Rich- 
mond county, and was ancestress of General 
R. E. Lee ; (2) Elizabeth, married Robert 
Porteus, of New Bottle, Gloucester county, 
who afterwards removed to England, where 
she became the mother of Beilby Porteus, 
?)ishop of London; (3) Edmund, secretary of 
JVIarylandi, married in 1728, Anna, widow of 
James Frisby and Thomas Bordley, and 
daughter of Matthias Vandierheyden, by which 
marriage he was father of Ariana (who mar- 
ried John Randolph of Virginia, father of 
Edmund Randolph, first attorney-general of 
Virginia and of the United States), and a son 
Edmund, who died unmarried in 1819. 

Hunter, Col. Robert, an officer in the Eng- 
lish army, was appointed governor of Vir- 
ginia in 1706 to succeed Sir Francis Nichol- 
son, but in his voyage was captured by a 
French privateer and remained prisoner until 
the end of 1709. In June. 1710. he became 
governor of New York, and held that ofifice 
till 1 7 19. In July, 1727, was appointed gov- 
ernor of Jamaica and died there March 11, 
1734- 

Spotswood, Alexander, lieutenant-governor 
vuider the Earl of Orkney (1710-1722) was a 
great-grandson of John Spotswood or Spotis- 
wood, Scotland, who in 1635 became arch- 
bishop of Glasgow and one of the privy coun- 
cil. His grandfather, Sir Robert Spotswood, 
was an eminent lawyer, who was elected presi- 
dent of the court of sessions in Scotland. In 
the civil war. Sir Robert was a staunch sup- 
porter of Charles I. and was temporary sec- 



retary of state in 1643. Taken prisoner at the 
battle of Philiphaugh, he was tried by the 
Scotch parliament, sentenced to death, and 
executed Alexander Spotswood's father was 
Dr. Robert Spotswood, who was a physician 
to the governor and garrison at Tangier. His 
mother was Catherine Elliott, a widow who 
had by her first husband a son. General Roger 
Elliott, whose portrait is now in the state 
library at Richmond, Virginia. Alexander 
was born at Tangier in 1676, educated for a 
military life, fought under Marlborough, was 
quartermaster-general with the rank of colonel, 
and was dangerously wounded in the breast at 
the battle of Blenheim. In 1710 he was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Virginia, and 
showed himself a conspicuously energetic 
administrator. He bestowed much attention 
upon \\'illiamsburg, leveled the streets, assisted 
in rebuilding the church, providing some of the 
brick, built a brick magazine for the safe- 
keeping of the public arms, and aided in 
rebuilding the college, which had been burned 
in 1705; and in 1722, on the petition of the 
people of Williamsburg and the assembly, he 
granted a charter of incorporation to the city 
of Williamsburg. Against the enemies of the 
colony he took firm and decided steps. The 
coast of Virginia was harassed' by piratical 
vessels. Spotswood sent an expedition against 
them under Captain Maynard. killed the pirate, 
Teach or Blackbeard, and hanged others. 
As to the Indians he blended humanity with 
policy. He established a school for the Sap- 
onies at Fort Christanna in Brunswick county, 
and paid the master, Mr. Grifiin, out of his 
own pocket, and arranged a treaty by which 
the chiefs of the tributary tribes promised to 
send their sons to college. He sent soldiers 
against the Tuscaroras, who had attacked 
North Carolina, but laid force aside when he 




ALEXANDER SPOTSWOOD 



COLONIAL PRESIDEiNTS AND GO\"ERNORS 



59 



fuiind them ready to negotiate a treaty of 
peace. Against tlie French and Indians he 
established! two forts on the frontiers to guard 
the northern and southern passes. At the first 
of these he planted the German settlement and 
at the other he gathered the Sapony Indians. 
His idea was to extend the hne of Virginia 
settlements so as to check the further exten- 
sion of French influence on this continent. 
\\'ith this in view he explored the back coun- 
try, and in 1716 crossed the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains and visited the Shenandoah river and the 
beautiful valley through which it runs. He 
urged upon the mother country the policy of 
establishing a chain of posts back of the 
mountains, from the great lakes to the Miss- 
issippi river. P.ut Spotswood had his weak 
points like Nicholson, another capable man 
before him. He was overbearing and had 
great ideas of the royal prerogative. And so, 
though he encouraged the rights of the sub- 
ject by bringing over with him a confirmation 
of the writ of habeas corpus, he did not like 
Nott attempt to conciliate the people. The 
result was that he got at cross purposes 
with the assembly, with the council, and with 
Dr. James Hlair, the president of the college, 
which resulted in his removal September 27, 
1722. He continued to reside in Virginia and 
led an active life. During his governorship 
he iiad established a postal system in Vir- 
ginia, and in 1730- 1739 was deputy postmaster- 
general for the American colonies, in which 
capacity he arranged the transfer of mails with 
great energy. It was he who made Benjamin 
Franklin postmaster for Pennsylvania. He 
had also called the legislature's attention to the 
iron ores of Virginia, though without effect ; 
and now in a private capacity he established 
a furnace in Spotsylvania county, where he 
had patented 40,000 acres of land. In 1740 



Spotswood was made general of an expedition 
against Carthagena. He visited Williamsburg, 
and then repaired to Annapolis with the in- 
tention of embarking with the troops, but he 
died June 7, just before the embarkation, and 
Colonel William Gooch was appointed chief in 
his place. He left his books and mathematical 
instruments to the college. Colonel Spotswood 
married, in 1724, Ann Butler Brain, daughter 
of Mr. Richard Brain, of London, and they 
had two sons, John and Robert Spotswood, 
and two daughters, Ann Catherine, who mar- 
ried Bernard Moore, and Dorothea, who mar- 
ried Captain Nathaniel West Dandridge. 
Robert, his younger son, was slain by the In- 
dians in the French and Indian war. John, 
the elder son. married, in 1745, Mary, daughter 
of AA'illiam Dandridge, and had issue two sons, 
( Jeneral Alexander Spotswood and Captain 
John Spotswood, both of the army of the revo- 
lution, and two daughters, Mary and Ann. The 
descendants of Governor Spotswood are now 
represented in numerous families of distinc- 
tion. 

Drysdale, Hugh, lieutenant-governor of 
\'irginia (1722-1726), succeeded Governor 
-Spotswood in the administration of the colony, 
September 2j, 1722, and remained in office till 
his death, July 22, 1726. Very little is known 
of his antecedents, but during his administra- 
tion in Virginia he was very popular. There 
were two sessions of the assembly during this 
period, one beginning May 9, 1723, and the 
other beginning May 12, 1726. W. the first, 
on the recommendation of Governor Drysdale, 
laws were passed to regulate the militia and for 
the more efifectual prevention of negro insur- 
rections. It appears that not long before a 
conspiracy had been planned by negroes. This 
conspiracy furnished additional reasons for 



6o 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



the duty laid the same session on liquors and 
slaves. 

At the next session a commission was issued 
by the governor constituting Phihp Finch to be 
the first sergeant-at-arms and mace-bearer of 
the house of burgesses. Previous to this time 
an officer called the messenger had discharged 
these duties. Governor Drysdale announced 
to the house that "the interfering interest of 
the African Company" had obtained from the 
board of trade the repeal of the law of the 
previous session .imposing a duty on liquors 
and slaves. He stated his belief that if a new 
duty be laid on liquors for the support of the 
college, then "in a languishing condition," the 
English government would not object, and this 
was done. Drysdale was a sick man during 
this session, and not long after its adjourn- 
ment he died at Williamsburg, July 22. 1726. 

Carter, Robert, president of the council 
and acting governor from the death of Drys- 
dale, July 22, 1726, till the arrival of WilHam 
Gooch about October, 1727, was born in Vir- 
ginia in 1663, son of Colonel John and Sarah 
( Ludlow) Carter. His father had been promi- 
nent in the colony as lieutenant-colonel, bur- 
gess and councillor. His mother was a daugh- 
ter of Gabriel Ludlow, a nephew of General 
Edmund Ludlow, one of Cromwell's generals. 
Robert Carter was for many years the agent of 
Lord Fairfax, the proprietor of the Northern 
Neck grant. He was treasurer of the colony, 
speaker of the house of burgesses 1694-99, and 
member of the council for twenty-seven years 
(1699-1726). He became president of the 
council, and as such succeeded as acting gov- 
ernor. His great possessions earned him the 
name of "King" Carter. His residence was in 
Lancaster county, at Corotoman. on the Rap- 
pahannock river, and there is still standing 



nearby a church that he built shortly before his 
death, which occurred August 4, 1732. His 
splendid tomb in a rather shattered condition 
is still to be seen in the yard of the church. 
He was twice married, first to Judith, eldest 
daughter of John .\rmistead, Esq., a member 
of the council, and (second) to Elizabeth Wil- 
lis, daughter of Thomas Landon, of an ancient 
family in Hereford county, England. By these 
wives he had numerous children, who have 
many influential descendants in Virginia and 
the south. 

Gooch, William, lieutenant-governor of 
\'irginia (1727-1749), was born October 12, 
1681, in Yarmouth, county Suffolk, England, 
and was descended from an ancient family. 
His grandfather was William Gooch, of Suf- 
folk, and his father was Thomas Gooch, alder- 
man of Yarmouth, who married Frances, 
daughter of Thomas Love, of Norfolk county. 
His uncle, William Gooch, had emigrated to 
Virginia at a very early date and become a 
major in the York county militia and a mem- 
ber of the Virginia council, dying in 1655. 
The subject of this sketch entered the English 
army at an early age and took part in all of 
Queen .'Anne's wars, being present at the battle 
of Blenheim. In October, 1727, he super- 
seded Robert Carter as lieutenant-governor of 
Virginia, and for more than twenty years con- 
ducted the affairs of the colony in a manner 
which occasioned complaint neither in Eng- 
land nor in America. Indeed, it is said that 
in this respect he stands alone among colonial 
governors. Still his administration was a 
period of much activity in \'irginia. In 1730 
tobacco notes, a new form of currency, were 
devised which proved salutary. The frontier 
line was pushed to the Alleghanies, and the 
valley of \'irginia was settled with hardy and 




ROBERT (KING) CARTER 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



enterprising German and Scotch-Irish settlers. 
Norfolk was chartered a town, and Freder- 
icksburg, AVinchester, Richmond and Peters- 
burg were founded. The first newspaper in 
the colony, the \^irginia Gazette, was published 
in Williamsburg in 1736. The boundary line 
between \^irginia and North Carolina was 
run. In 1740, on account of the unexpected 
death of Major-General Alexander Spots- 
wood, Governor Gooch assumed command of 
the four colonial battalions transported to join 
the British troops under Admiral Vernon in 
an attack on Carthagena in New Granada. He 
was absent one year, during which time Rev. 
Dr. James ISIair, president of the college, 
acted as governor. The campaign proved un- 
successful, Gooch was severely wounded, and 
contracted the fever from which many of the 
English troops died. Upon his return to Vir- 
ginia in July, 1 74 1, he resumed the govern- 
ment of the colony, and among other events 
which followed, the capitol accidentally caught 
on fire and was burned in 1746. On June 20, 
1749. he embarked for England, to the great 
sorrow of all the people of his colony to whom 
he had endeared himself by his noble and dis- 
interested conduct. He died in London, De- 
cember 17, 1 75 1. Governor Gooch was created 
a baronet November 4, 1746. His wife was 
Rebecca, daughter of William Stanton, Esq., 
of Hampshire, England. He had an only son, 
William Gooch, who died in Virginia. His 
wife survived him till 1775, and in her will 
left a beautiful silver gilt communion service 
to the college chapel. This memorial of this 
excellent woman, who was once the first lady 
of Virginia, is still preserved in Bruton Church 
in Williamsburg. 

The family of the Gooch name in Virginia 
are descended from Lieutenant-Colonel Henry 
Gooch, who was living in York county in 



1656, and was an adherent of Nathaniel Bacon, 
Jr., in 1676. He was probably a member of 
Governor Gooch's family. 

Keppel, William Anne, second Earl of 
Albemarle and titular governor of Virginia 
from the death of George Hamilton. Earl of 
Orkney, 1737, to his own death in 1754, son 
of Arnold Joost Van Keppel, first earl, and 
his wife Geertruid Johanna Ouirina vander 
Duyn, was born at Whitehall, June 5, 1702 ; 
was baptized at the Chapel Royal, Queen Anne 
being his godmother, ( hence his name Anne) ; 
was educated in Holland and on his return to 
England (as Viscount Bury) was appointed 
August 25, 1717, captain and lieutenant of 
the grenadier company of the Coldstream 
Guards. In 1718 he succeeded to his father's 
title and estates, and in 1722, at his family seat 
in Guelderland, entertained the Bishop of 
Munster. In 1725 he was made Knight of the 
Bath; in 1727 aide-de-camp to the king; and 
November 22, 1731, was appointed to the col- 
onecy of the 29th Foot, then at Gibraltar, 
which he held until May 7, 1733, when he 
was appointed colonel of the third troop of 
Horse Guards. He was made governor of 
Virginia in 1737, a brigadier-general July, 
1739, major-general February, 1742, and was 
transferred to the colonelcy of the Coldstream 
Guards in October, 1744. He went to Flanders 
with Lord Stair in 1742, and was a general on 
the stafif at Dettingen, where he had a horse 
shot under him, and at Fontenoy, where he 
was wounded. He commanded the first, line 
of Cumberland's army at Culloden, and was 
again on the staf? in Flanders and present at 
the battle of Val. At the peace of 1748 he was 
sent as ambassador extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary at Paris, and was appointed 
commander-in-chief in North Britain, and in 



62 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



1749 was made Knight of the Garter. The 
year after he was made groom of the stole and 
a privy councillor, and in 1752 was one of the 
lords justices during the king's absence in 
Hanover. In 1754 he was sent back to Paris 
to demand the liberation of some British sub- 
jects detained by the French in America, and 
died in Paris suddenly December 22, 1754. 
His remains were, brought over and buried in 
the chapel in South Audley street, London. 
Albemarle married, in 1723, Lady Anne Len- 
nox, daughter of Charles, first duke of Rich- 
mond, and by her had eight sons and seven 
daughters. 

Albemarle Sound in North Carolina, Albe- 
marle parish in Susse.x county, Virginia, and 
Albemarle county in the same state, were 
named in his honor. 

Blair, James, D. D., president of the coun- 
cil, and acting governor during the absence 
of Governor Gooch on the expedition against 
Carthagena (June, 1740 — July, 1741) and first 
president of William and Mary College (1693 
— 1743), was born in Scotland in 1655. He 
attended the University of Edinburgh and 
became Master of Arts in 1673. After his 
graduation he was ordained as a minister of 
the Church of England, and having served as 
such for some time in his native country 
removed to London, where he was clerk in 
the office of the m. -ter of rolls. Dr. Compton. 
Bishop of London, being much impressed with 
his talents and piety, suggested to him to go 
as missionary to Virginia. This he did in 
1685. It happened that in Virginia he was 
given the parish of Varina, in Henrico county, 
where the attempt to establish a college was 
made in 1618. Having been made commissary 
of the Bishop of London in 1689, and inspired 
by his surroundings at Varina, he persuaded 



the clergy at their meeting at Jamestown in 
1690 to revive the project of the college. They 
did so, and their recommendations received the 
approval of both the council and the general 
assembly; and in June, 1691, Dr. Blair was 
sent to England by the legislature with full 
instructions to obtain a charter from the king 
and queen. He remained there more than a 
year, and at length returned in 1693 with the 
much coveted document. It contemplated six 
professors, 100 students more or less, and three 
grades of instruction — the grammar school, 
the philosophy school, and the divinity school. 
The college was erected at Williamsburg 
according to a design of Sir Christopher Wren. 
Till 1712 only the grammar school was in oper- 
ation, but in that year the first professor of 
mathematics was elected. In 1729 all the 
schools had been established, and in that year 
a transfer of the management took place from 
the trustees to the faculty, the former retain- 
ing visitorial powers only. In 1694 Dr. Blair 
removed from Henrico to Jamestown and 
accepted the parish there so as to be nearer 
his intended college, and in 1710 he accepted 
the rectorship at Bruton parish at Williams- 
burg. He became a member of the council in 
1689 and continued a member till his death 
in 1643. He assisted Henry Hartwell and 
Edward Chilton in compiling in 1697 "The 
State of his Majesty's Colony in Virginia," 
and 117 sermons and discourses, expository of 
the sermon on the mount, were published in 
four volumes 8vo. at London in 1742. Dr. 
Blair was an active factor in the politics of 
the country. When Governor Andros assumed 
superior authority in ecclesiastical matters, 
Dr. Blair opposed him, and so successfully 
that Andros was recalled. He was largely 
instrumental in the downfall of Nicholson 
and Spotswood. The two succeeding governors 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



63 



took warning, and Dr. Blair had the hearty 
cooperation of Drysdale and Gooch in all 
measures for the advancement of the college. 
When Gooch went on the expedition against 
Carthagena, Blair, as the oldest member and 
president of the council, succeeded him. The 
end of a useful life of 89 yeais occurred April 
18, 1743. He married Sarah Harrison, daugh- 
ter of benjamin Harrison, in 1687, but they 
left no issue. His nephew, John Blair, son 
of his brother Dr. Archibald Blair, succeeded 
him as heir to his property and honors. 

Robinson, John, president of the council, 
became acting governor on the departure of 
Sir William Gooch for England, June 20, 
1749. His grandfather was John Robinson, 
of Cleasby, Yorkshire. England, who married 
Elizabeth Potter, daughter of Christopher 
Potter of Cleasby. His uncle was Dr. John 
Robinson, Bishop of Bristol and London, who 
served as British envoy to Sweden, writing 
while there a history of Sweden, and was also 
British plenipotentiary at the treaty of Utrecht. 
His father was Christopher Robinson, a mem- 
ber of the Virginia council in 1691-93, and 
secretary of state in 1692-93, who married 
Judith, daughter of Colonel Christopher Wor- 
meley. John Robinson was born in 1683 in 
Middlesex county, Virginia, at "Hewick," his 
father's residence on the Rappahannock river. 
He occupied many important positions in the 
colony, was member of the house of burgesses 
in 171 1 and other years, member of the coun- 
cil in 1720, and when Governor Gooch left for 
England, June 20, 1749, became as president 
of the council, acting governor. In this capac- 
ity he served but a few months only, dying 
September 3, 1749. He married Katherine, 
daughter of Robert Beverley, author of a his- 
tory of \'irginia, and their son John was 



speaker of the house of burgesses and treas- 
urer of the colony. 

Lee, Thomas, president of the council, and 
acting governor from the death of John Rob- 
inson, September 3, 1749, to his own death, 
November 14, 1750, was born in Westmore- 
land county, 1693. He was son of Colonel 
Richard Lee, who was one of the council of 
Virginia, and grandson of Colonel Richard 
Lee, who came to Virginia about 1642 and was 
secretary of state. Thomas Lee received a 
common education, "yet having strong natural 
parts, long after he was a man he learned the 
languages without any assistance but his own 
genius, and became tolerably adept in the 
Greek and Latin." He was long a member of 
the house of burgesses and the council, and 
when John Robinson died became by seniority 
president of the council and as such acting 
governor. In 1744 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Gooch to serve as commissioner with 
William Beverley to treat with the Six 
Nations. At Lancaster, Pennsylvania, they 
made a treaty by which the Indians released 
their title to lands west of the Alleghanies. 
Thus having cleared the way, Lee became the 
leading factor in 1749 in the organization of 
the Ohio Company, which had as one of its 
objects the severing of the French settlements 
in Canada and Louisiana. The company 
obtained from the king a grant of 500,000 acres 
of land west of the Alleghanies, between the 
Kanawha and Ohio rivers. It established trad- 
ing posts, which, being seized by the French, 
were the direct cause of the French andi In- 
dian war. It is said that the king appointed 
Lee lieutenant-governor in 1750. but he died 
before the commission reached him. He was 
married in 1721 to Hannah, daughter of Col- 
onel Philip Ludwell, and had by her six sons. 



^>4 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



five of them eminently distinguished for their 
services during the American revohition — 
Thomas Ludwell Lee, Richard Henry Lee, 
Francis Lightfoot Lee, William Lee, and Dr. 
Arthur Lee — and two daughters. His death 
occurred at Stratford House, in Westmore- 
land county, \'irginia. Xovember 14, 1750; 
and in the absence of a commissioned gov- 
ernor he was succeeded by Lewis Burwell, 
member of the council next in seniority. 

Burwell, Lewis, president of the council, 
succeeded on Thomas Lee's death, November 
14, 1750, as acting governor of Virginia, and 
remained such till the arrival of Governor Din- 
widdie, November 20, 175 1. He was born in 
1710, and was son of Major Nathaniel Bur- 
well, of Carter's Creek, Gloucester county, 
and Elizabeth Carter his wife, daughter of 
Colonel Robert Carter, acting governor in 
1726. Nathaniel Burwell was the son of Major 
Lewis Burwell, member of the council in 1702, 
and of Abigail Smith, niece and heiress of 
Nathaniel Bacon, Esq., president of the coun- 
cil. Then Major Lewis Burwell was son of 
Lewis Burwell, sergeant-major of the colony 
in 1652, and Lucy Higginson his wife, daugh- 
ter of Captain Robert Higginson, who com- 
manded at Middle Plantation (now Williams- 
burg) in 1646. This last Major Burwell was 
the emigrant ancestor, who came to Virginia 
about 1642, and was son of Edward Burwell 
of Bedfordshire, England, and Dorothy, his 
wife, daughter of William Bedell, of Cats- 
worth. President Burwell was educated at 
the University of Cambridge, England, and 
was distinguished for his remarkable learning 
and scholarship. On his return to Virginia 
from England he was called to fill many im- 
portant offices : was a burgess from Glouces- 
ter county in 1742; a member of the council 



in 1743, and, as president of that body, suc- 
ceeded Thomas Lee in the administration of 
affairs. During his magistracy a contract wa- 
made for the repair of the governor's housi 
or palace, and for the incoming governor ,1 
building near by was purchased of Dr. Ken- 
neth McKenzie. The capitol, which had been 
burned in 1746, was also nearly completed 
Among other incidents of his admirMstration 
was the visit of Gov. Ogle of Maryland to Wil- 
liamsburg, and the coming of a company of 
tragedians wdio had been playing in New York 
and Philadelphia. On November 20, 1751, Col- 
onel Robert Dinwiddle arrived at Yorktown 
with his lady and two daughters, and the next 
day was sworn into the office of governor. 
President Burwell appears to have been in 
feeble health during his administration, for 
there is a record of his visit which he paid in 
the spring of 1750 to the Warm Sulphur 
Springs, in Berkeley county. He survived, 
however, till May, 1756, when he died at his 
seat in Gloucester county, Virginia. He mar- 
ried, in October. 1736, Mary, daughter of 
Colonel Francis and Ann Willis. 

Dinwiddie, Robert, governor of Virginia 
(November 20, 1751 to January, 1758), was 
born in 1693, ^t Germiston, near Glasgow. 
He came of an ancient Scottish family, and 
his immediate ancestors were denizens of Glas- 
gow. His father was a reputable merchant of 
that city and bore the same name. His mother 
was Sarah Gumming, daughter of Matthew 
Gumming, who was bailie of Glasgow in 1691- 
96-99 and the owner of the lands of Carde- 
rock in the contiguous parish of Gadder. Rob- 
ert Dinwiddie, their son was brought up in his 
father's countinghouse and was probably for 
a time merchant in Glasgow. He was appointed 
December i, 1727, a collector of customs in 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



65 



the island of Bermuda, which position he held 
till 1738, when in recognition of his exposing 
a long practiced system of fraud in the col- 
lecting of the customs of the West India 
Islands, he received the appointment of "sur- 
veyor-general of customs in the southern parts 
of the continent of America." He was named 
as his predecessors had been a member of all 
the councils of the American colonies. Though 
his claim to sit in the Virginia council was 
resisted by the councillors, the board of trade 
in May, 1742, ordered that tlie royal purpose 
should be enforced. On August 17, 1746, he 
was specially commissioned inspector general 
to examine into the duties of the collector of 
customs of the Island of Barbadoes. In the 
discharge of his duties he exposed a great 
defalcation in the revenues there. In 1749 
he appears to have resided in London as a 
merchant engaged in trade with the colonies. 
He was appointed lieutenant-governor of Vir- 
ginia. July 29, 175 1 and with his wife Rebecca 
nee Affleck and two daughters, Elizabeth and 
Rebecca, arrived in the colony November 20, 
1 75 1. His administration began rather inaus- 
picuously, as he almost immediately fell into 
altercation with the house of burgesses over 
the fee of a pistole which he required for 
issuing patents. A similar fee had been exacted 
by Lord Culpeper many years before, and the 
remonstrance of the assembly had caused the 
king to forbid its collection. The Virginians 
regarded the present fee as a tax, and they sent 
John Randolph to England to represent their 
cause. The board of trade, after hearing the 
argument on both sides, recommended a com- 
promise, and the fee was only permitted to 
be charged for large grants of land, and for 
none whatever beyond the mountains, where 
nearly all the ungranted land lay at this time. 

VIR-5 



This altercation had an important influence 
upon the endeavors of Dinwiddie in another 
direction. Dinwiddie had become a member of 
the Ohio Company and he had a direct in- 
terest in the destinies of the western coun- 
try. When, therefore, the French began to 
plant settlements on the Ohio and occupied 
Venango, an Indian trading post at the junc- 
tion of the Alleghany river and French creek, 
Dinwiddie sent George Washington to pro- 
test to the French commandant at Fort Le 
Boeuf. When no satisfactory answer was 
brought back, he sent orders to Captain Wil- 
liam Trent to build a log fort at the junction 
of the Alleghany and Monongahela, where 
Pittsburgh now stands. This position was 
considered on all hands as the key to the 
situation in the West. The French were not 
long in driving the Virginians out and occupy- 
ing the post themselves. While this was 
occurring, Washington with some 300 troops 
was marching to the assistance of Trent, when 
meeting with a scouting party of the French 
he attacked and killed some twenty of them, 
with a loss of only one man. This was the 
beginning of a war which was to spread prac- 
tically over the whole civilized world. Din- 
widdie more than any one else realized the sit-. 
uation, and he displayed prodigious energy in 
his efforts to arouse the British government 
and the colonists to the importance of the 
crisis. The home government was slow to 
move and the other colonies generally were 
indifferent, as was the Virginia assembly itself, 
who distrusting the purposes of Dinwiddie 
and deeming him too precipitate would not 
grant the money asked for, except on condi- 
tions calculated to humble the pride of the 
governor. So during the time that Dinwiddie 
held the government of Virginia, the war with 



66 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



the French and Indians proved very disas- 
trous. In the attempt to take Fort Duquesne, 
as the French called the captured post at the 
forks of the Monongahela and Alleghany, 
Braddock's army was destroyed, and in the 
north the French captured Oswego and I'^ort 
William Henry. For four years the evil days 
followed one another, but amid the most dis- 
heartening conditions, Robert Dinwiddle re- 
mained undismayed. The ardent task of rais- 
ing unwilling troops and directing the defense 
of 350 miles of frontier fell to him, and while 
he did not escape the charge of improper inter- 
ference at times, on the whole, he discharged 
his duties ably and nobly. 

To the excitement in the colony produced by 
the French war more was added by the pas- 
sage in 1755 of the first of the Two Penny 
Act by the assembly, making the tax for sal- 
aries of the ministers payable either in tobacco 
or in money at two pence per pound, at the 
option of the tax payer. The ministers tried 
to get Governor Dinwiddie to veto the bill, but 
he was beginning to learn the lesson of non- 
interference with the legislature, and he de- 
clined. Worn out at length with the harassing 
duties of his office, he solicited from the 
authorities in England permission to return, 
and so in January, 1758, he departed from the 
colony, bearing with him the commendations 
of the assembly and the people of Virginia in 
general. He marked his interest in the colony 
by contributing many books to the College 
Library. He survived his return to England 
by twelve years, and finally died at Clifton, 
Bristol, whither he had gone for the benefit of 
the baths, July 27, 1770, in the 78th year of 
his age. His brother John was a merchant on 
the Rappahannock river in \'irginia. He mar- 
ried Rosa Enfield Mason, of Stafford county, 
and is luimerously represented in the Soiilh. 



Blair, John, president of the council, and 
as such acting governor of Virginia from 
the departure for England of Governor Din- 
widdie, January, 1758, till the arrival of Gov- 
ernor Francis Fauquier, June 7, 1758, and 
from the time of Governor Fauquier's death. 
March 3, 1768, till the arrival of Lord Bote- 
tourt, October, 1768. He was son of Dr. 
Archibald Blair, brother of Dr. James Blair, 
president of the College of William and Mary, 
and was born in Virginia in 1687. He wa? 
educated at \\'illiam and Mary College, and 
was a burgess from \\'illiamsburg in 173O- 
1740, and in 1743 became a member of the 
council, an office which he held till his death. 
During his first administration, which hap- 
pened during the French and Indian war, the 
assembly augmented the forces in the pay of 
the colony to 2,000 men and issued £32,000 
in treasury notes to defray the expenses of the 
increased defences of the colony. In the trou- 
bles which led to the American Revolution. 
Blair was always on the popular side. As a 
judge of the general court in April, 1764, he 
upheld the Two Penny Act, and as president 
of the committee of correspondence he voted 
to condemn the Stamp Act in June, 1764. 
When he became acting governor the second 
time he promptly called the general assembly 
together to consider the new revenue measures 
passed by parliament. When the assembly 
convened, March 31, 1768, he concurred with 
the council and house of burgesses in the bold 
resolutions unanimously adopted that only the 
general assembly could make any laws regard- 
ing "the internal policy or taxation of the 
colony." Blair was the source through which 
they were transmitted to England, and Lord 
Hillsborough, the secretary of colonial affairs, 
expressed himself amazed especially at the 
action of the council and its president, who 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



67 



were appointed by the Crown. When Nor- 
borne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, died, 
October 15, 1770, the government devolved 
for a third time upon President Blajr, but he 
immediately resigned on account of old age 
and infirmities and was succeeded by William 
Nelson. He died in Williamsburg, November 
5, 1771, leaving by his wife Mary Monro, 
daughter of Rev. John Monro, a son John, 
member of the Federal convention of 1787 and 
one of the first judges of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. 

Campbell, John, fourth Earl of Loudoun, 
and titular governor of Virginia (1756-1763), 
the only son of Hugh, third Earl of Loudoun, 
and Lady Margaret Dalrymple, only daughter 
of the first Earl of Stair, was born on 5 May, 
1705. He succeeded his father as earl in 1731, 
and from 1734 till his death was a represen- 
tative peer of Scotland. He entered the army 
in 1727, was appointed governor of Stirling 
Castle in April, 1741, and became aide-de- 
camp to the King in July, 1743. He performed 
an important part in suppressing the rebellion 
of 1745, and had nearly the whole of his regi- 
ment killed at the battle of Preston. On Feb- 
ruary 17, 1756, Loudoun was appointed cap- 
tain-general and governor-in-chief of the prov- 
ince of Virginia, and on March 30, com- 
mander-in-chief of the British forces in Amer- 
ica in the French and Indian war. He arrived 
at New York on July 23, 1756. Owing to his 
own tardiness and the incompetency of those at 
the head of the government he accomplished 
nothing, and was therefore recalled to Eng- 
land. General Amherst being named his suc- 
cessor. On the declaration of war with Spain 
in 1762 he was appointed second in command, 
under Lord Tyrawley, of the troops sent to 
Portugal. He died at Loudoun Castle, April 



2j, 1762. He was unmarried, and on his 
death his title passed to his cousin, James 
Mure Campbell. He did much to improve the 
grounds around Loudbun Castle, in Ayrshire, 

Scotland. 

Fauquier, Francis, colonial governor of 
Virginia (1758-1768), was eldest son of Dr. 
John Francis Fauquier (one of the directors 
of the Bank of England, who died Septem- 
ber 22, 1726), and Elizabeth Chamberlayne, 
his wife. He was born in 1704, and though 
little appears to be known of his early life, he 
was distinguished for his learning, especially 
in the natural sciences, and in 1753 was made 
a fellow of the Royal Society. Previous to 
this, in 1 75 1, he was a director of the South 
Sea Company. In January, 1758, he was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Virginia, and 
soon after his arrival on June 4, 1758, the 
clouds which had hitherto hung over the Brit- 
ish fortunes in the French and Indian war 
passed away, and a tide of uninterrupted Brit- 
ish success set in. The treaty of peace in 1763 
left the British power supreme in America and 
in the world. There are in the British museum 
nine letters written by Fauquier between 1759 
and 1764, chiefly respecting the military forces 
of Virginia during his administration. The 
local agitations which led to the American 
Revolution began in Fauquier's administra- 
tion. In these he was, as far as his situation 
permitted, entirely on the popular side, the 
natural result of his devotion to scientific mat- 
ters, which made him hostile to dogmas of all 
kinds. In the matter of the Two Penny Act 
he gave the parsons to understand, that, law 
or no law, he was unequivocally against them. 
In 1760 he expressed great apprehensions to 
William Pitt that the colonies would not sub- 
mit to any stamp act. Fauquier was still gov- 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ernor when the stamp act passed, and though 
he was loyal to his superiors in England;, he 
had no heart in the enforcement of this or of 
the Revenue act which followed. After the 
passage of the latter act he prorogued the leg- 
islature from time to time both on account of 
sickness and in order to avoid a quarrel. He 
was sick a long time, and March 3, 1768, he 
died, and was buried in the north aisle of the 
church in Williamsburg. According to his 
will, proved at Yorktown, he left a wife 
Catherine; a brother-in-law, Francis Wollas- 
ton; a brother, William Fauquier; and two 
sons, Francis and William Fauquier. 

Fauquier was a very affable and agreeable 
man, though somewhat excitable. He was an 
excellent talker, and delighted in the company 
of Dr. William Small, the professor ot natural 
philosophy at William and Mary College, and 
of George Wythe, the great Williamsburg 
lawyer; and at his table many rising young 
men of Virginia, like Jefferson and John Page, 
learned their lessons in the rights of man. As 
an indication of his interest in scientific mat- 
ters it may be mentioned that his brother Wil- 
liam read before the Royal Society in London 
an article prepared by him in Virginia on 
'Hailstones observed in Virginia, July 9, 
1758." His influence in another respect was 
not so fortunate. He diffused in the colony a 
passion for playing cards, which lasted till it 
was rebuked by the orders of the Revolution- 
ary county committees in 1775. 

Amherst, Jeffrey, titular governor of Vir- 
ginia (1763- 1 768), was the second son of Jef- 
frey Amherst, of Riverhead, Kent county, 
England. His family had no influence, and 
the remarkable fact of the rise of Amherst 
'rom page to field marshal is a tribute to his 
own merit. He was page to the Duke of 



Dorset, who procured for him an ensigncy in 
the Guards in 173 1. He next served on Gen- 
eral Ligonier's staff, and afterwards on that 
of the Duke of Cumberland. In 1756 he was 
made lieutenant-colonel of the Fifteenth regi- 
ment. When Pitt became chancellor, and was 
fitting out an expedition to North America, I 
he pickedi out Amherst as the man to lead. ! 
The expedition that sailed from Portsmouth in ■ 
May, 1758, was 14,000 strong, and was em- 
barked in fifteen ships under the command of 
Admiral Boscawen. On reaching the Island 
of Cape Breton he captured Louisburg, and in 
September, Amherst was as a reward ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the forces in 
the place of James Abercrombie. In Novem- 
ber, 1758, he captured Fort Duquesne from 
the French, He was even more successful in 
the different campaigns of the next year 
(1759)- Ticonderoga fell before him, and his 
generals Sir William Johnson and Wolfe took 
Fort Niagara and Quebec, which in 1760 
was followed by the surrender of Montreal, 
the capital of Canada. Amherst was at once 
appointed governor-general of North America, 
and in 1761 received the thanks of parliament 
and was made a knight of the Bath. The 
French sued for peace, but war still continued 
with the Indians. They were led by Pontiac, 
and Amherst proved unfit to deal with him. 
His failure no doubt was the chief cause of 
his return to England in 1763. There Pon- 
tiac's conspiracy was unknown, and Amherst 
was received as the conqueror of Canada and 
made governor of Virginia and colonel of the 
60th or American regiment. His fame became 
very great. In 1770 he was made governor 
of Guernsey, and in 1772, a privy council- 
lor and lieutenant-general of the ordinance. 
During the American war he served in the 
capacity of adviser to the government. His 



I 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



69 



steady support of the American war endeared 
him to the King, who made him in 1776 Lord 
Amherst, in 1778 a general, and in 1780 colonel 
of the 2ndi Horse Grenadiers. After various 
other honors he was raised in 1796 to the rank 
of field marshal. He did not long survive this 
last honor, and died at Montreal, his seat in 
Kent, August 3. 1797. 

Berkeley, Norborne, Baron de Botetourt, 
governor-in-chief of Virginia (1768-1770), 
was born in England, in 1718. He was the 
only son of John Symes Berkeley, Esq., of 
Stoke Giflford, county Gloucester, England, by 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of 
Walter Norborne of Caline, county Wilts. Of 
this branch of the distinguished and ennobled 
family of Berkeley an extended pedigree ap- 
pears in the Visitation of Gloucester of 1623. 
In 1764 Botetourt was raised to the peerage 
of England as Norborne, Baron de Botetourt. 
Previous to this he had been colonel of the 
North Gloucestershire militia and a member 
of parliament, and afterwards in 1767 became 
constable of the Tower of London. No gov- 
ernor-in-chief had resided in the colony of 
Virginia for three-quarters of a century, and, 
to appease the growing discontent there over 
the revenue law, the home authorities sent 
Botetourt over with the full title and dignity 
of "His Majesty's Lieutenant, Governor-Gen- 
eral and Commander-in-Chief." He was ap- 
pointed in July, 1768, and arrived in the colony 
October 28, 1769. His reception was enthu- 
siastic, and his affable deportment made him 
immediately very popular, which was increased 
by his concurring shortly after his arrival with 
his council in declaring writs of assistance 
illegal. The quarrel over the revenue act had 
come to a crisis at this time. Parliament had 
sent an order over for the arrest of the patriot 



leaders in New England, who were to be trans- 
ported to England for trial, and Virginia was 
the first colony to take action. When Bote- 
tourt convened the assembly, that body on 
May 26, 1769, passed stirring resolutions con- 
demning parliament. Botetourt dissolved the 
assembly, and the members, with the speaker, 
Peyton Randolph, at their head, met immedi- 
ately at the Raleigh tavern and adopted an ex- 
tensive system of non-importation. They ral- 
lied all the other colonies to do the same, and 
parliament, yielding to the pressure, abolished 
all the taxes complained of except a small tax 
on tea. Botetourt had cherished the hope that 
all the taxes would be repealed, and relying 
upon the assurances of the English secretary 
of state had called an assembly in November 
following the May session in 1769 to convey 
to them the joyous information of this purpose 
of the British ministry. He was, therefore, 
greatly disappointed when only a partial repeal 
was made. It is said that he contemplated a 
resignation of his office and was only prevented 
from sending it on by his sickness and death, 
which occurred October 15, 1770. There are 
various contemporary notices of his social 
acts, his dinner companies at the palace, the 
distinction of his manner, and the urbanity of 
his address. Through his munificence two 
gold medals were established in the College of 
William and Mary, to be given annually one 
for excellence in classical learning, and the 
other for excellence in philosophy. Eight of 
these prizes were bestowed, and they are said 
to be the earliest of their kind in the United 
States. Lord Botetourt was honored by the 
people with a splendid funeral, and he was 
buried in a vault underneath the floor of the 
chapel of William and Mary, and subsequently 
a statue was erected to his memory. Close by 
his vault lie the --emains of Peyton Randolph, 



70 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



who presided over the councils of the Virginia 
revolutionists, when Botetourt was living, and 
was afterwards first president of the Conti- 
nental Congress. Botetourt was a bachelor, 
and so left no children. 

Nelson, William, president of the council 
and acting governor (1770-1771), was born in 
Yorktown, Virginia, in 171 1, son of Thomas 
Nelson (1667- 1745), who came to America 
from Penrith in England, on the borders of 
Scotland, about 1690, and hence was called 
"Scotch Tom." This Thomas Nelson settled 
at Yorktown about 1705, where he became 
the leading merchant. He married Margaret 
Reade, daughter of Robert Reade, son of Colo- 
nel George Reade, who in 1660 owned the site 
of the place. Thomas Nelson, a son, became 
secretary of state. William Nelson, another 
son and subject of this sketch, inherited a 
great deal of wealth, which he managed 
largely to increase by his extensive' business as 
a merchant at Yorktown. He married Eliza- 
beth Burwell, daughter of Major Nathaniel 
Burwell. He represented the county of York 
in the house of burgesses in 1742-44, and in 
1745 was promoted to the council of state. 
He supported the cause of the colony against 
the stamp act and the revenue act, and as 
president of the council acted as governor of 
the colony from the death of Lord Botetourt, 
October 15, 1770, to the coming of the Earl 
of Dunmore in August, 1771. During this 
interval the opposition to the revenue taxes, 
which had been shorn down to a slight duty on 
tea, very sensibly declined, and the agitation 
in the colonies might have died out altogether 
had not the British ministry raised new issues. 
Nelson died at Yorktown, November 19, 1772. 
He was father of General Thomas Nelson, 
who distinguished himself in the war of the 
Revolution and was also governor of the State. 



Murray, John, fourth Earl of Dunmore, i 
last colonial governor of Virginia (1771-1775), I 
was born in 1732, eldest son of William Mur- 
ray, third Earl of Dunmore, and Catherine 
Kairne his wife. He was descended on his I 
mother's side from the royal house of Stuart, : 
succeeded to the peerage, and during 1761- ' 
69 sat in the house of lords. In January, 
1770, he was appointed governor of the colony \ 
of New York, and in July, 1771, governor of j 
Virginia. He arrived in Williamsburg in Oc- ! 
tober, 1771, where he was received with the 
usual courtesies and congratulations. The con- 
troversy with the mother country had lost its 
rancour after the repeal of all the taxes except 
that on tea, but the King, by instructions to 
his governors, managed to affront all the colo- 
nies on different issues. The public sentiment 
in Virginia particularly condemned the order 
which restrained the governors from approving 
any restriction of the slave trade, and when 
the assembly, pursuant to a summons from 
Dunmore met in February, 1772, a noble pro- 
test was adopted by that body. Dunmore pro- 
rogued the hous», and he did not again con- 
vene it till March, 1773. In the meantime, 
a government revenue cutter called the Gaspee. 
which had been rigorously enforcing the navi- 
gation laws in Narragansett Bay, was boarded 
at night by some disguised men and set on 
fire. The King was much exasperated, and he 
created a board of enquiry, who were directed 
to find out the guilty parties and send them to 
England for trial. The issue was once more 
met by Virginia. The assembly adopted reso- 
lutions at its meeting in March, 1773, denounc- 
ing this attempt to ignore the right of a trial 
by a jury of the vicinage, and recommending 
a system of intercolonial committees, which 
proved the first direct step towards a general 
and permanent union. Immediately after this 



COLONIAL PRESIDENTS AND GOVERNORS 



71 



act Lord Dunmore dissolved the assembly. 
The effect of the action of Virginia was to 
demoralize the court of enquiry, and in their 
report they conceded that the commander of 
the Gaspee. in detaining vessels indiscrimi- 
nately, had exceeded the bounds of his duty, 
and no arrests were made. This affair not 
turning out to the satisfaction of the British 
government, another attempt was made to 
enforce the tax on tea in America by remov- 
ing the tax in England. This occasioned the 
affair of the "tea party," which occurred in 
Boston on December 16, 1773, when a band 
of men disguised as Indians boarded the ships 
sent to Boston by the East India Company 
and threw the tea overboard. Parliament in 
resentment, passed an act to close the Port of 
Boston, on June i, 1774 — a measure which in- 
volved the innocent with the guilty. \"irginia 
again showed her leadership, and was first of 
all of the colonies to declare her sympathy 
with Massachusetts. Dunmore prorogued the 
assembly IVIay 27, 1774, and thereupon the bur- 
gesses, meeting in the Raleigh tavern, adopted 
resolutions calling for an annual congress and 
non-intercourse. Accordingly, on September 
5, 1774, the first general congress met in Phila- 
delphia and recommended a general continental 
plan of non-intercourse, and committees 
everywhere to see it enforced. About this time 
a war with the Shawnees on the Ohio broke 
out, and Andrew Lewis won the great battle 
of Point Pleasant. Dunmore gained applause 
from the Virginians for his willingness to head 
the troops, but he was afterwards charged, 
without much reason, with being the real 
author of the Indian war. The British gov- 
ernment now placed the trade with most of 
the colonies under a boycott, and orders were 
sent over to the governors to seize all the 



ammunition and arms accessible to the colo- 
nists. 

Governor Gage in ]\Iassachusetts sent troops 
to destroy the ammunition at Concord, and on 
the march thither they became engaged April 
'9- '775' \^'ith the Massachusetts militia at 
Lexington, where the first blood was shed. 
In \'irginia, by order of Governor Dunmore, 
the powder was removed from the magazine in 
\\'illiamsburg on April 20. This created great 
alarm, and an armed body of men under 
Patrick Henry marched down to Williams- 
burg. They were quieted by the governor giv- 
ing a bill of exchange for the value of the 
powder. Succeeding this, Dunmore called a 
meeting of the assembly to submit the overture 
known as Lord North's "Olive Branch." But 
before any answer could be returned from the 
assembly, Dunmore, fearing that he might be 
seized and detained as a hostage, fled from 
the palace to the protection of a British man- 
of-war in York river. Dunmore took up his 
headquarters near Norfolk, which was burned 
in the civil war that now began. Dunmore 
proclaimed freedom to all negroes and serv- 
ants who would join his standard, and carried 
on a predatory maritime warfare, but after 
suffering various reverses at Great Bridge, 
Hampton and Gwynn's Island, he dismissed 
his ships, joined the British naval force in 
New York, and towards the end of the year 
1776 sailed awa\- to England. His furniture 
and books in the palace were confiscated by 
the State and sold at public outcry. He had 
been elected in January, 1776, to the house 
of lords, and on his return to England took 
his seat and served till 1784. In 1787 he 
was appointed governor of Barbadoes. and 
served till 1796. He died at Ramsgate, 
England, in May. 1809. He was a man of 



72 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



culture, and possessed a large and valuable 
library; and while he has been represented 
in America as rude in his deportment and 
treacherous in his conduct, his friends praise 
him for the noble and admirable traits of 
character, which they attribute to him. The 
Tories who had to fly from Virginia during 
the war, abandoning everything except loyalty 
to their King, found in him a real haven of 
refuge in London. His home and money were 
at their service. He married February 21, 
1759, Lady Charlotte Stewart, sixth daughter 



of Alexander, sixth earl of Gallway. Late in 
April, 1774, he was joined at Williamsburg by 
his wife and her children, George Lord Fin- 
castle, the Honorables Alexander and John 
Murray, and Ladies Catherine, Augusta and 
Susan Murray. To these were added another 
daughter born in the colony, and named in 
its honor Virginia. The three young noble- 
men were put to school at the College. In 
1834 Charles Murray, a grandson of Lord 
Dunmore, visited Virginia, and afterwards 
published an account of his travels. 



I 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



I 



III— COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



Newport, Christopher. There can be no 
doubt that King James displayed great wis- 
dom in choosing so experienced and able a 
seaman as Christopher Newport to command 
the colonizing expedition of 1607 to Virginia, 
and in sealing the box which contained his 
list of councillors during the voyage, in order 
that there might be no conflict of authority 
with his. He had sailed the Spanish Main 
and taken an active part in the privateering 
exploits against the Spanish in the New World. 
In 1592 he sailed in command of four ships 
when he "took and Spoyled Yaguana and Ocoa 
and Hispaniola and Truxillo, besides other 
prizes." After the brilliant capture of the 
"Madre de Dios" by the ships of Sir Walter 
Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland, Capt. 
Newport, who played an important part in 
the fight, was given command of her and took 
her to Dartmouth. 

When the expedition of 1607 arrived at 
Jamestown, Newport's name was found on 
the list of councillors, though he was not ex- 
pected to become a planter but to serve as 
admiral in the voyages between England and 
the colony. In pursuance of his orders to 
remain two months in the New World explor- 
ing, he started May 21 on a voyage up the 
James river, which he followed as far as the 
"falls," the present site of the city of Rich- 
mond. Here, finding that he could go no fur- 
ther without great danger, he set up a cross 
with the inscription "Jacobus Rex, 1607," and 
his own name underneath. Upon inquiry by 
the Indians as to the meaning of this cross 
and ceremony, the wily captain told them that 



the two arms of the cross signified Powhatan 
and himself, and their juncture the league 
they had entered into. On June 212 of the 
same year he returned to England with a 
cargo of "sasafrax rootes" instead of the gold 
which the Virginia Company had so ardently 
hoped for. 

Newport's second arrival in Virginia (Jan. 
2, 1608) was a timely one. The death of Gos- 
i:old had left Wingfield open to attacks of his 
opponents — Archer, Smith, Ratcliffe and Mar- 
tin, who had. first deposed him from the 
presidency and finally imprisoned him, Capt. 
Smith, too, who had just returned from cap- 
tivity with the Indians, was in chains under 
sentence of hanging. Newport at once set 
these men at liberty and restored some measure 
of peace in the colony and council. A few 
days later, however, a fire broke out and 
destroyed the whole of the little settlement, 
thus exposing its occupants to the severity of 
the winter's weather. Newport again came 
tc; the rescue and employed his mariners in 
helping to rebuild the church, storehouse and 
other houses. Capt. Newport later made a 
third voyage to Virginia, and brought on this 
occasion (Oct., 1608) the first gentlewoman, 
Mrs. Forrest, and Anne Buras, her maid. As 
was to have been expected, there occurred, 
shortly after, the first marriage in the colony 
which was of this same Anne Buras and John 
Laydon, a carpenter; and to them was born 
a year later a girl, Virginia Laydon — the first 
child of English parentage born in the first 
permanent English colony. 

Newport's fourth voyage was in command 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



of the expedition sent out under the second 
charter, which left Falmouth June 8, 1609. 
There were nine ships carrying Sir Thomas 
Gates as governor, and about 500 persons, 
some of them women. Two of the vessels 
were wrecked and Newport himself was cast 
away on the Bermudas with Gov. Gates and 
150 other passengers and a large portion of 
the stores for the colony. He finally got away 
from the islands, and made his way to \ir- 
ginia just in time to save the colony from 
starvation. The casting away of Newport's 
ship, the "Sea X'enture," was the occasion of 
Shakespeare's great play, "The Tempest," in- 
terest in the subject having most probably 
been communicated to him by Southampton. 
After one more voyage to Virginia, Capt. 
Newport's connection with the colony ceased. 
He resigned his position with the Virginia 
Company and was appointed one of the six 
masters of the Royal Navy, and performed 
several voyages for the East India Company. 
On the third of these his death occurred about 
August 15. 1617, while his fleet lay at anchor in 
a Javan port. The stalwart captain died thus 
ar. he had lived, in command of his ship, in 
the midst of new lands and untried seas. 

Wingfield, Edward Maria, first president 
of the council (q. v.). 

Largely instrumental in bringing about the 
successful expedition of 1607, was 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, a seasoned mariner 
who had been associated with Raleigh in his 
attempts to colonize \'irginia, and not less was 
he the leaven of peace among the discordant 
elements in the first Jamestown council, of 
which he was a member. Respected by all 
the diverse factions as no one else was, he was 
able to effect something like a concert of pur- 
pose and action among his fellows, and stave 



off, in a measure, the dissensions which broke 
out so violently after his death. Upon the 
failure of Raleigh's expeditions, Gosnold had 
returned to England still hopeful, and in 1602 
he took command of a vessel fitted out by the 
Earl of Southampton, the friend and patron of 
Shakespeare. Gosnold's intended destination 
was Virginia, but, the ship being driven from 
her course by adverse winds, they touched 
upon the New England coast, where they were 
the first Englishmen to land and where they 
named Cape Cod and Martha's \^ineyard. 
Those who had proposed remaining as colo- 
nists lost heart, however, and returned to 
England, but Gosnold, undisheartened, con- 
tinued his efforts and finally beheld his hopes' 
fruition in Jamestown. His voice, indeed, 
was raised against the site chosen, on the 
ground of its obvious unhealth fulness, but, 
being overruled, he turned to with heart and 
soul to give success to the enterprise. He was 
spared the pain of beholding the pains and 
horrors the colony was doomed to undergo, 
his death occurring before the close of the 
first summer, Aug. 22, 1607, when fate seemed 
still auspicious. All record unite in praising 
his singleness of purpose and hardihood, and 
Pres. Wingfield made him his sole confidant 
in matters of importance such as that of the 
diminishing supplies. It is possible, there- 
fore, that, while it may have been a personal 
good fortune to have escaped the misfortunes 
of his fellows he might, had he lived, have done 
much to alleviate their sorrows by uniting 
them in a more harmonious effort. 

Smith, John, councillor and president of the 

council (q. v.). 

Ratcliffe, John, councillor and president of 
the council (q. v.). 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATJ-: 



77 



Kendall, George, one of the original coun- 
cil. The record which has come down to us 
in regard to this man is not at all flattering, 
but it must be remembered that he stands con- 
victed on the evidence of bitter enemies. In 
the days in which he lived tliere was no such 
thing as moderation of expression. He was 
a cousin of the Earl of Southampton, and the 
fact that he was appointed in England a mem- 
ber of the council in Virginia shows that he 
mu.st have been well known in London as a 
man of experience and courage. Doubtless in 
Virginia under the terrible stress of circum- 
stances during the first summer there was 
much to criticise, and the evidence, at least, 
shows that he was not a man afraid to speak 
out his mind. George Percy and Wingfield 
denounced him as a stirrer up of dissensions, 
and Capt. Smith also speaks of his being 
driven from the council, which he says was 
for "divers reasons" and occurred about June 
22, 1607. He was afterwards released, though 
without the privilege of carrying arms, but 
was again arrested on the statement of one 
James Read, a smith, who had been con- 
demned to death, and who accused Kendall of 
conspiring to cause a mutiny. Read was forth- 
with pardoned and Kendall condemned to be 
shot. The president at the time was John 
Ratcliffe, and Kendall, it is said, sought to 
prevent the execution by claiming that Sickle- 
more, and not Ratcliffe, was his true name, 
and that consequently he had no right to pro- 
nounce judgment. The practical gentlemen 
of the time refused, however, to delay justice 
on any such quibble, and, without attempting 
any controversy on the subject, merely caused 
John Martin, another councillor, to perform 
the president's office, which he promptly did, 
and Kendall quickly paid the penalty of his 



Martin, John, one of the councillors, was 
the son of Sir Richard Martin who "thrice 
filled the office of lord mayor, and was Master 
0-" the Mint in the reigns of Elizabeth and 
James I." The profession of the law had been 
chosen for him, but when he was about twenty- 
one years old he went to sea in obedience to 
a longing for the then most romantic life of 
the mariner. He commanded the "Benjamin" 
in Sir Francis Drake's fleet in that com- 
mander's marauding expedition among the 
West Indies in 1585. On Drake's homeward 
voyage Martin touched at Virginia, whither 
the fleet had repaired in aid of Raleigh's colo- 
nists on Roanoke Island. 

Martin was bitterly opposed to Pres. Wing^ 
field, and after the death of Gosnold, the re- 
turn to England of Capt. Newport and the 
deposing of Kendall fromi the council, he was 
one of the three remaining councillors who 
forced Wingfield from the presidency. Mar- 
tin's health was poor, and besides his other 
afflictions he was badly smitten with the "gold 
fever," which gave his enemies afterwards a 
cliance to ridicule him, amongst whom was 
Capt. John Smith, who gave him the name of 
"refining Captain Martin," and helped to make 
him unpopular. He returned to England in 
June, 1608, but the following year he came 
again to Virginia, where he was very coldly 
welcomed but admitted to the council. Upon 
Capt. Smith's absence from Jamestown in the 
summer of 1609, he appointed Martin in his 
place, but for this office, according to Smith, 
the latter gentleman had no relish and he re- 
signed after three hours. But that Martin 
vyfas no weakling is proved by the fact that he 
was the only person who protested against the 
abandonment of Jamestown in 1610, and un- 
like Smith he stuck to Virginia to the end. 
He made a second trip to England in 1616, 



78 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ai;d again returned to \'irginia the year fol- 
lowing. This trip was the cause of further 
friction between Martin and the colonists, as 
the Virginia Company in London had granted 
him a patent for ten shares of land in Virginia 
with unusual rights to its enjoyTnent, which 
the others did not approve. Despite the repre- 
sentations of the Virginia Company that JMar- 
tm had been a "long and faithful servant to 
the Colony of Virginia," the colonial council 
remained firm and his privileges were curtailed. 
The breach between Martin and the council 
was finally healed, and he located his patent 
at Brandon on James river. 

The date of Martin's death is unknown, 
though it must have taken place subsequently 
to March 8, 1626, as there is a letter of this 
date from him to his brother-in-law, Sir Julius 
Caesar. He is supposed to have died and been 
buried at Brandon. His daughter Dorcas 
married Capt. George Bargrave, son of Rob- 
ert Bargrave, of Bridge in Kent. George 
Bargrave came to Virginia, and was largely 
interested with his brother, John Bargrave, 
in the trade of the colony. His son, Robert 
Bargrave, sold Brandon to Richard Ouiney 
and John Sadler, from whom it came by de- 
scent to Robert Richardson, who sold it in 
1720 to Nathaniel Harrison, in whose family 
Brandon still remains. The original patent 
for Brandon, granted to Capt. John Martin 
from the Virginia Company of London, is 
still preserved at the place. It bears date 
1617, and is by long odds the most ancient 
official record relating to the American soil 
to be found in the United States. 

Archer, Gabriel, was a man of talent and 
courage. He is described as of Mountnessing, 
Essex county, England. He entered Gray's 
Inn as a student of law Mar. 15, 1593. In 



1602 he went with Bartholomew Gosnold to I 
New England and wrote an interesting ac- 
count of the discovery and naming of Cape 
Cod and Martha's Vineyard. On his return , 
he was active in arousing interest in an at- 
tempt to locate a colony in Mrginia, and came 
with the first settlers. He was among the 
first to put foot to land at Cape Henry, Apr. 
26, 1606, and was one of the two first settlers 
to Mrginia to be wounded by the savages. 
He was appointed recorder of the colony, and 
on May 21, he went with Newport from 
Jamestown on a voyage of discovery up James 
river, and afterwards "wrote a Relatyon of 
the \'oyage." The charter permitted a major- 
ity of the council to elect the president or turn 
him out, to turn out any member of the coun- 
cil and elect a substitute. It was, therefore, 
a veritable hothouse of faction. Archer seems 
to have furnished his full share to the quar- 
rels of Jamestown, though probably no more 
than his share. He joined with Smith, Mar- 
tin and RatclifTe in displacing Wingfield as 
president, and afterwards when Ratcliffe ad- 
mitted him to the council in Dec, 1607, caused 
Smith to be indicted "upon a chapter in Leviti- 
cus" for the death of two of his men on his 
trip up Chickahominy, and RatclifTe, the presi- 
dent, approved the sentence of execution. 
And Smith would have been hanged the next 
day, had not Capt. Newport arrived the even- 
ing before (Jan. 2, 1608) and interferred to 
save his life. 

\\'hen Newport set out April 10, 1608, to 
return to England, he carried with him both 
Wingfield and .\rcher, whose complaints on 
their arrival were directed with such good 
effect against the charter that a petition for a 
new one creating a more suitable form of 
government was soon presented to the King, 
and granted. LTnder this second charter 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



79 



dated (May 23, 1609) Sir Thomas Gates was 
made governor, and had the selection of his 
council, and Archer, flattering himself that 
he was rid of the dominance of John Smith, 
returned to the colony. Of the voyage he 
wrote an interesting account. But the un- 
expected happened, and Gates was wrecked 
on the Bermuda Islands. Then to the dis- 
appointment of all the gentlemen of the rest 
of the expedition which got to Jamestown, 
Smith would not give up his commission, in 
which he was only technically right. Fresh 
brawls ensued, and after a few months Smith 
returned to England, while Archer remained 
and died at Jamestown during the Starving 
Time of 1609-1610. 

Scrivener, Matthew, councillor and presi- 
dent of the council (q. v.). 

Wynne, Peter, was one of the gentlemen 
who came to Virginia with Capt. Newport on 
that officer's second voyage of relief to the 
colony. He arrived there in Sept., 1608, and 
was immediately admitted to the council. The 
advent of such men as Wynne and Scrivener, 
with their sincere wishes for the welfare of 
the enterprise and their sense of responsibility, 
must have acted like ballast in a storm-driven 
ship upon the faction-rent council, but it must 
have been a thankless task which devolved 
upon them for the next few months during 
the starving time. Wynne, himself, was one 
of those who succumbed to the conditions and 
he died in the spring of 1609, while Sir 
Thomas Gates, the representative of Lord De 
la Warr, or Delaware, and Christopher New- 
port were in the Bermudas, seeking some 
means of escape therefrom. He thus did not 
live to see the relief which these and Lord 
Delaware were soon to bring. He enjoys the 
unique distinction of having been appointed 



deputy governor of Virgmia after his death, 
for Gates, who reposed especial confidence in 
him, and had not heard of the event, selected 
him to act as governor while he was absent 
in the Bermudas, and sent him a particular 
commission. 

Another gentleman who came to Virginia 
with Capt. Newport on the second expedition 
of 1608, arriving in September, was 

Waldo, Richard, who, with Capt. Wynne, 
was at once admitted to the council. During 
his brief career in America, he seems to have 
been chiefly occupied in the trips of explora- 
tion undertaken by Newport and Smith. He 
Vvfas one of the commanders of the expedition 
which the former officer made into the Mona- 
can country and very probably witnessed the 
ceremony of Powhatan's coronation in the 
European style, which must altogether have 
been a most delightful comedy, the great In- 
dian "Emperor" understanding the significance 
of neither crown nor the act of kneeling to 
receive it. He also formed one of Smith's 
party which set out from Jamestown to visit 
that same dignitary. On this occasion, how- 
ever, he seems not to have gone the whole 
way, but to have returned to Jamestown be- 
fore Smith, for on Jan. 7, 1609, while cross- 
ing from that place to Hog Island in a boat 
with Councillor Scrivener and others, he was 
drowned. 

Percy, George, councillor and president 
(q. v.). 

West, Francis, councillor and governor 
(q. v.). 

Somers, Sir George, was born at Lyine 
Regis, Dorsetshire, in 1554, and is supposed 
to have been related to the Somers family of 
White Ladies, Worcestershire. Although his 



8o 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



name was second in the royal patent of Apr. lo, 
1606, he took no active part in colonial affairs 
until 1609, when he sailed with Sir Thomas 
Gates and Capt. Newport in the expedition 
of that year. He was fifty-odd years of age 
at the time of his sailing and had already dis- 
tinguished himself in the military and naval 
service, having commanded several expeditions 
and, in 1595, accompanied Capt. Amias Pres- 
ton to the West Indies. He was knighted at 
Whitehall, July 23, 1603, in reward for his 
services, and represented Lyme Regis in parlia- 
ment for a number of years. He was ap- 
pointed admiral for the colony, and was on 
the "Sea Adventure" on the way to take com- 
mand, when she was cast away. Sir George 
Somers was the first on the shipwrecked ves- 
sel to sight land, but strange to say, his dis- 
covery was not hailed with the joy that men in 
such straits are prone to feel. The reason for 
this is explained by the fact that the shores 
he had seen were those of a Bermudan island, 
supposed by mariners to be inhabited by 
fairies and devils. However, in a choice be- 
tween them and the deep sea, the party, with 
more prudence than religion, chose the former 
and were soon comfortably landed, where, to 
their further comfort, they found the fairies 
to be flocks of birds upon the shore and the 
devils, herds of wild swine running in the 
wood. After sojourning there until they had 
completed the construction of two vessels to 
be their transport, they set sail therein for 
Virginia. But Somers was not destined to 
more than reach the promised land, for, find- 
ing the colonists in the sorriest of plights, and 
well nigh starving to death, he volunteered to 
return at once to the fruitful Bermudas for 
supplies. He started at once, but adverse 
winds drove him as far North as New Eng- 
land before he finally reached his destination. 



His death occurred on the 9th of Nov., 1610, 
shortly after his arrival in Bermuda, and it is 
stated that it was occasioned by a too hearty 
repast on one of the Bermuda "devils," with 
which he had intended lading his ships for the 
colony. Feeling the approach of death, he ex- 
horted his followers to perform the task they 
had undertaken without him. This, however, 
they did not do. They buried his heart in the 
island and his cedar ship with his dead body 
ai last arrived at Whitechurch, in Dorsetshire, 
about Feb. 26, 161 1, where it was buried with 
military honors. 

Gates, Sir Thomas, governor, 1609 (q. v.). 

Weyman, Sir Ferdinando, had every reason 
to regard the Virginia colony as the appropriate 
scene for his endeavors. It might almost be 
called a family matter, related, as he was, on 
all sides to the prominent figures in the enter- 
prise. He was a cousin of Thomas Lord Dela- 
ware, governor of Virginia, and of Francis 
and John West who played distinguished parts 
there, the latter being also governor. His wife 
was a sister-in-law of Sir Francis Wyatt, gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and a niece of Sir George 
Sandys, the poet, and treasurer of the colony 
Another cousin, Penelope West, married Her- 
bert Pelham and of their sixteen children, one 
was the first treasurer of Harvard College, 
and another the wife of Gov. Bellingham of 
Massachusetts. Weyman was born in Cas- 
well, Oxfordshire, the son of Thomas Wey- 
man, Esq., of that place, and came to the 
colony in 1610. On June 12, of that year, he 
was appointed admiral and master of the 
horse. But Weyman was not destined to en- 
joy his honors long, for, as was the case with 
so many of his fellows, he died shortly after 
his arrival in the colony, leaving a young 
daughter. Of this young lady's life in that 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



8i 



inauspicious environment but little is known, 
but it can scarcely have been a very happy one 
under the circumstances. However, she must 
have had powerful friends who would allevi- 
ate, in so far as it lay in their power, the dis- 
comforts of her position. In 1620 it was re- 
ported to the Virginia Company that Sir Ferdi- 
nando Weyman, who "adventured one hun- 
dred pounds with Lord La Warr, besides the 
adventure of his person to Virginia," had died 
there, leaving an only child, a daughter, who 
had received a letter from Lady La Warr ex- 
pressing a willingness to have the aoove 
amount deducted from his Lordship's account 
and given to her. This the company "well 
allowed" and agreed besides to give the little 
orphan four shares of land in Virginia for the 
adventure of her father's person, he "being a 
man of worth." 

Strachey, William; there appears to be 
some confusion as to his identity, the qaes- 
tion being whether the person prominent in 
the \'irginia colonization was the elder or 
younger of the two men of that name, father 
and son, who flourished at the time. Brown, 
in his "Genesis of the United States," inclines 
to the opinion that it was the former, but Sir 
Edward Strachey, of Sutton Court, the pres- 
ent representative of the family, believes it to 
have been the younger man whose death did 
not occur until 1634. However this may be, 
the Strachey with whom history is concerned 
was something of an author and scholar, and 
in the dedication to Lord Bacon of his "His- 
toric of Travaile into Virginia Brittania," he 
claims membership in Gray's Inn, though his 
name does not appear in the index to Foster's 
"Gray's Inn Admissions." Before his adven- 
ture to Virginia, he seems to have done some 
travelling in the ^lediterranean, as he men- 
tions visits to the "Coast of Barbary and Al- 

VIR-5 



giers, in the Levant." He was a member of 
the notable expedition of 1609, of Sir Thomas 
Gates, and was one of those cast away in the 
Bermudas with the chiefs of the party. He 
has written an account of the experience en- 
titled "A True Repertory of the Wracke and 
Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates upon and 
from the Islands of Bermudas." This work 
was published in the fourth volume of Pur- 
chas' "Pilgrims." He also compiled for the 
colony of Virginia "Laws Devine, Morall, and 
IMarshall" (London, 1612). His most impor- 
tant work, the "Historic of Travaile into Vir- 
ginia Brittania," has already been mentioned. 
It was written about 1618 and published by 
the Hakluyt Society in 1849. Strachey ar- 
rived in Virginia in May, 1610, with the rest 
of the castaways, and was shortly after ap- 
pointed to the council, and on June 12, of the 
same year, recorder general of Virginia. He 
went to England after about a year's stay in 
the colony. He was either father or grand- 
father of William' Strachey, who came to Vir- 
ginia and died in 1686, leaving a daughter Ara- 
bella, who married Henry Cox, of Essex 
county. Another son or grandson, John 
Strachey, had a grandson, Di. John Strachey, 
who came to Virginia and has now descend- 
ants of the name of Mastin living in Alabama. 

Dale, Sir Thomas, councillor and deputy 
governor (q. v.). 

Argall, Sir Samuel, councillor and deputy 
governor. 

Hamor, Ralph, was a son of "Ralph 
Hamor the elder, of London, merchant tailor." 
Both father and son were members of the 
Virginia Company in 1609, the father paying 
£133.6.8. The elder Hamor was also an in- 
corporator, and for a time, a director, of the 
East India Company. He died in 1615, leav- 



82 



\'IRGIXIA BIOGRAPHY 



ing two sons, Ralph and Thomas, who both 
came to Mrginia. Ralph came over in 1609 
and remained until June 8, 1614, when he 
sailed for England. In the next year he pub- 
lished "A true discourse of the present estate 
of Virginia until the i8th of June 1614." 
Hamor stayed in England until 1617, in which 
year, upon the 8th of January, the company 
gave him eight shares in Virginia, and he soon 
afterwards sailed once more for the colony, 
arriving there in May. He seems to have re- 
turned to England again in a few years, for 
we find a grant to some one who is said to 
have, in 162 1, "paid her own costs to Vir- 
ginia," in the ship "Sea Flower," "with Captain 
Ralph Hamor." It was in the last named 
year that he was appointed a member of the 
council, an office which he retained until his 
death. In the massacre of 1622, Capt. 
Hamor was attacked by the Indians near a 
new house he was having built, but with the 
help of a few other persons, drove them oflf 
with bricks, spades, picks, etc. His brother, 
Thomas Hamor, who lived nearby, also 
escaped but was wounded. Soon after the 
massacre, Capt. Ralph wrote a letter to the 
Virginia Company, which was received in Eng- 
land October 22, 1622, giving an account of 
what had happened since that event, and say- 
ing that it was the governor's intention to 
attack the Indians with 500 men at the end of 
August. A letter from the governor and coun- 
cil, written Jan. 20, 1622-23, told how Capt. 
Hamor, "being sent to the Patomacs to trade 
for corn, slew divers of the Nechonicos who 
sought to circumvent him by treachery." On 
Apr. 2, 1623, George Sandys wrote to Eng- 
land in regard to the character and capacity 
of the various councillors. He said that 
Hamor's extreme poverty forced him "to 
shifts." Capt. Hamor married a widow, Mrs. 



Elizabeth Clements. In 1625 his "muster" in- 
cluded himself, Mrs. Elizabeth Hamor, and 
her children, Jeremy and Elizabeth Clements. 
In 1626 he owned 250 acres at Hog Island, and 
500 at Blunt Point, but lived at Jamestown. 
On ]\Iarch 4, 1626, and again on March 22, 
1627-28, he was commissioned a councillor. 
He probably died soon after the latter date. 
In addition to his seat in the council, he held 
for a time, the place of recorder of the colony 
from 161 1 to 1614. 

Rolfe, John, belonged to a family well 
known in the county of Norfolk, England, for 
centuries. The names of Rolfe's immediate 
ancestors, the^Rolfes of Heacham Hall, ap- 
pear on the register of Heacham Church as 
early as May 27, 1560. John Rolfe, himself, 
was baptized there ^lay 6, 1585. Rolfe was 
an energetic and enterprising man and one of 
the type most needed in the Virginia colony, 
a man ready for any adventure. The elder 
Hamor wrote that "during the time of his 
abode there no man hath labored more than 
he hath done." He had been educated in an 
English university and was married to an 
English girl, when, in 1619, he embarked for 
Virginia on board the "Sea Venture," which 
was cast away in the Bermudas with Sir 
Thomas Gates and other leaders of the expe- 
dition. During their ten months' stay in the 
islands, a little daughter was born to the 
Rolfes and named for her birthplace, Ber- 
muda. The child did not live, however, nor 
did ^Irs. Rolfe more than a short time after 
her arrival in Virginia. Rolfe speedily be- 
came prominent in the colony and to him be- 
longs the credit of introducing tobacco in 
1612, which afterwards became the source of 
such large revenue to Virginia and was long 
used as currencv. He was made a member of 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



83 



the council in 1614, and at this time succeeded 
Ralph Hamor, recorder of the colony, an office 
which he held till the office of secretary of 
state was created in 1619. But in spite of 
Rolfe's virtues, his fame rests largely upon his 
romantic marriage with Pocahontas, the In- 
dian maiden, whose story has justly gained so 
wide a fame. The account of Capt. John 
Smith's deliverance by this "Guardian Angel 
of Virginia" was for long accepted without 
question and has grown to be a part of the 
nation's treasured lore. Of recent years, how- 
ever, there has been an effort on the part of 
some eminent historians to discredit the tale 
and set it down as a mere invention of Smith. 
They point out that in a published letter of 
Smith to a friend in England, written shortly 
after his release by Powhatan, nothing was 
said of his fair rescuer, nor, indeed, is she 
mentioned in his first historical accounts. It 
is answered, however, by the no less eminent 
opponents of those idol breakers, that the 
publisher of the letter explicitly states that he 
has omitted a portion as being of a private 
nature, that his first history is admittedly in- 
complete, and that Smith told the tale unre- 
futed at the time of Pocahontas' visit to Lon- 
don, when there were many there besides her- 
self who were familiar with the facts and 
might have exposed the gallant captain had 
his account not tallied with them. However 
this may be, there is no doubt that, even ex- 
cluding this episode, the story of Pocahontas 
i.v a most romantic one or that she rendered 
the colony a great service by means of her 
friendship. At the age of fifteen she was ap- 
parently married to an Indian chief called 
Kocoum, with whose people she was found 
by Gov. Argall, who bribed an Indian to de- 
liver her a captive to him for the gift of a 
copper kettle. Argall's purpose in holding 



Pocahontas prisoner was that she might act as 
hostage for her father Powhatan's good be- 
havior. An entirely new turn was given the 
matter by an attachment which grew up be- 
tween her and John Rolfe. Rolfe hesitated 
for some time both on account of the effect on 
his fellow colonists and because he shrank 
from marrying a heathen princess unless he 
could make it the occasion of saving her soul. 
The latter scruple was soon removed by the 
conversion of Pocahontas, and the favor of 
Sir Thomas Dale being secured, the pic- 
turesque marriage was celebrated in the little 
church at Jamestown in Apr., 1614. The 
great Powhatan also smiled on the union and 
two of the bride's brothers were present. 
There can be little doubt that it served as Sir 
Thomas hoped it would to cement more closely 
the friendship of the English and Indians and 
postpone violence for a time. A year later 
Rolfe and Pocahontas sailed for England with 
Sir Thomas Dale, who took with him also, a 
number of young Indians, both men and 
maidens. Pocahontas was royally received 
and feted, entertained by the great, both secu- 
lar, who treated her as a princess, and the 
clergy, who regarded her as the first fruit of 
the church in the New World. While in Lon- 
don, she saw Ben Jonson's "Christmas his 
Mask" played at court, had her portrait 
painted and was altogether the center of atten- 
tion. But while Pocahontas thus found favor, 
poor Rolfe's experience was not so pleasant. 
It is said that King James was envious of his 
marriage to a foreign princess and feared that 
lie might attempt to establish himself King of 
America. The council of the company in Eng- 
land, when news of his marriage first reached 
them, actually considered, it is said, whether 
Rolfe might not be guilty of high treason in 
marrying a foreign king's daughter, and if 



84 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



other matter had not pressed for attention, he 
might even have been hanged. A good deal 
of this was doubtless gossip. Rolfe occupied 
himself during his stay in England in writing 
a "relation" of affairs in Virginia which he 
dedicated to the King. It was arranged that 
the couple should return to the colony with 
Capt. Argall in 1617, but the little Indian 
princess was never again to see her native 
woods. She died and was buried at Gravesend 
and her husband proceeded on his way, leaving 
their son, Thomas Rolfe, in charge of Sir 
William Stukeley at Plymouth. Rolfe mar- 
ried a third wife in 1620, Jane, a daughter of 
William Pierce, of Virginia, by whom he had 
a daughter Elizabeth. He retained his seat in 
the council until his death in 1622. 

Yeardley, Sir George, governor of Vir- 
ginia, 1619 (q. v.). 

Powell, Nathaniel, councillor and deputy 
governor (q. v.). 

Pory, John, was already a man of wide 
travel and experience and an author and geog- 
rapher of note, when he first became associ- 
ated with the Virginia colony. Born about 
1570, he possessed a naturally quick intelli- 
gence and entered Cambridge University at the 
age of seventeen. He later became a disciple 
of Hakluyt, the distinguished geographer and 
ardent advocate of American colonization, and 
it is possible that he gained his first knowledge 
of and interest in the subject from his master, 
with whom he studied "cosmographie and 
foreign histories." Pory won considerable dis- 
tinction in 1600 by the publication of "A Geo- 
graphical History of Africa written in Arabicke 
and Italian by John Leo, a More, born in 
Granada and brought up in Barbaric ; Trans- 
lated and Collected by John Pory, London." 



The work was later incorporated by old Pur- 
chas in his "Pilgrims." Its method seems to 
have been a "link between the narratives of 
the Arabian geographers and the discoveries 
of modern travellers and navigators." Be- 
sides the translation he added a considerable 
amount of original matter to the work. In 
recognition of the service he had rendered 
science, he was given the degree of Master of 
Arts of Cambridge. He represented Bridge- 
water in parliament from 1605 to 161 1. Pory's 
knowledge of geography was not to remain 
merely hearsay. In 161 1 he obtained a license 
to travel and went to Paris, where he remained 
a considerable period. On his way thither he 
was the bearer of important state documents 
tc Cardinal Perron. He was also able to pro- 
vide the French historian, De Thou, with ma- 
terial for his life of Mary, Queen of Scotts. 
After his sojourn in Paris, he travelled exten- 
sively and made a long stay in Constantinople. 
Pory enjoyed a wide acquaintance and knew 
many of the most distinguished men of his 
time. The first appearance of his name in 
connection with the Virginia colony was in 
1609, in the second royal charter, but it was 
not until January 19, 1619, that he actually set 
foot in the New World. He was the first 
secretary of state that "ever was chosen and 
appointed by commission from the counsell and 
company in England, imder their hand and 
common seal." Upon his arrival he was 
promptly made a member of the council, and 
on July 30, 1619, he had the honor of being 
the first speaker of the first free assembly in 
America. He was a valuable addition to the 
colony during the three years he remained in 
Virginia, embarking upon many trips of dis- 
covery and research and writing descriptive 
letters which are now very valuable to the his- 
torian and antiquary. On one of these trips, 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



85 



btgun with the intention of exploring the 
coast Hne, he was driven out of his course 
by storms and wrecked on the Azores, where 
he was seized, tried for piracy and in danger 
of being hung. He escaped in some unknown 
manner and return to England, but was chosen 
in 1623 to carry to Virginia and there pub- 
lish throughout the country three royal procla- 
mations. He was also appointed one of the 
commissioners to inquire into the condition 
of the colony. After his return to London 
from this second American voyage, he be- 
came a member of the home coimcil for Vir- 
ginia, but never again crossed the water. He 
lived in London until about 1631, writing news 
letters. In this year he withdrew from active 
life to the retirement of his home at Sutton 
Saint Edmunds, where he lived until his death 
in 1635-36. 

Tucker, Daniel, was a native of Milton, in 
Kent, and was the son of George Tucker, of 
that place. As was the case of so many young 
gentlemen of that age, he came under the in- 
fluence of the romantic west and the new dis- 
coveries, and took to a seafaring life in con- 
sequence. In 1606 he sailed with Challoner 
to North Virginia, and was prominent in the 
South Virginia Colony from 1608 to 1613. 
He became a member of the Virginia Com- 
pany under the charter of 1609, and the fol- 
lowing year was appointed by I-ord Delaware 
to be "clerk in the store" in Virginia. There 
ip an interesting record in the proceedings of 
the Virginia Company of the request made by 
Tucker that the company confer upon him 
twenty shares for his five years service, in con- 
sideration of the several eminent offices he had 
held in the colony. He then enumerates these 
to have been cape merchant, provost master, 
one of the council, truck master and vice-ad- 



miral. It seems to have been conceded that 
Tucker was a very capable as well as indus- 
trious and energetic member of the community, 
but he never attained a higher office in the 
Jamestown colony than that of councillor. It 
ia probable that it was well for Virginia that 
this was so, as the subsequent chapter in his 
life does not redound so much to his credit. 
Iii 161 5-16 Tucker was commissioned gov- 
ernor of Bermuda, the first man to hold the 
office. It may have been that his was a nature 
that could not resist the temptations of power, 
but certain it is that after a three years tenure 
of office, he was accused of severe oppression 
of the commonality and was obliged to return 
to England to defend himself, and leave one 
Miles Kendall as his deputy. Evidently the 
charges were well sustained as Tucker was 
never reinstated in spite of the fact that he 
was admitted to have exercised "great pains 
and industry" in his government. He returned 
to the islands, nevertheless, sometime prior to 
1623 and lived there until his death about a 
year later at Port Royal. He was buried Feb. 
ID, 1624-25. Governor Tucker has many de- 
scendants living in Bermuda, the United 
States, England and India. 

Newce, Thomas, came from a family seated 
at Much Hadham, Hertfordshire. The pedi- 
gree of this family in the "Visitation" of 1634, 
begins with Clement Newce of London, Mer- 
cer, whose great grandson, William Newce of 
Much Hadham, married Mary, daughter of 
Sir John Fanshawe, and had issue : i. Thomas, 
councillor of Virginia ; 2. William, councillor 
of Virginia; 3. Henry; 4. Clement. At a 
meeting of the Virginia Company, May 17, 
1620, Mr. Treasurer signified to the court the 
company's former resolve for the entertain- 
ment of two new officers by them, namely, 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



deputies to govern two parts of the public 
land in Virginia." Mr. George Thorpe had 
already been chosen for one of these places, 
and the treasurer now anounced that the other 
was to be filled by a gentleman of the same 
worth, now present, called Mr. Thomas 
Newce, touching whom it was agreed that he 
should take charge of the company's land and 
tenants in Virginia whatsoever, and that they 
for his entertainment have ordered that he and 
such as shall succeed him shall have 1200 acres 
belonging to that office, 600 at Kiquotan, now 
called Elizabeth City, 400 at Charles City, 100 
at Henrico, and loo at James City ; and, for 
the managing of this land, (they) have fur- 
ther agreed that he shall have forty tenants 
tc. be placed thereon, whereof twenty (are) 
tj be sent presently, and the other twenty in 
the spring ensuing, all which now being put 
to the question received a general approba- 
tion." On June 28, 1620, Newce was further 
honored by appointment to the Virginia coun- 
cil, and he arrived in the colony the following 
winter. On April 30, 162 1, the company 
adopted a resolution "concerning Capt. 
Thos. Newce, the company's deputy in Vir- 
ginia, as well in the discharge of a former 
promise made unto him, to the end that his 
reward might be no less than of others whose 
persons and deserts they doubted not but he 
cculd equal, they therefore agreed to add ten 
persons more when the company shall be able 
to make the former number 50." Newce's 
name appears signed to several letters from 
the governor and council in Virginia, but he 
did not live long in the land of his adoption. 
The governor and council, writing to the Earl 
of Southampton April 3, 1623, mention "Cap- 
tain" Newce as "lately dead," and George 
Sandys wrote of him on April 8, that he died 
"very poor" and that an allowance had been 
made for his wife and child. 



Thorpe, George, was a native of Glouces- 
tershire andi the son of Nicholas Thorpe of 
W'answell Court. He was related both in 
biood and by marriage with some of the dis- 
tinguished men of the Jamestown colony, and 
among others with Sir Thomas Dale. The 
Thorpe family was a prominent one and our 
subject became a gentleman pensioner, a 
gentleman of the privy chamber of the king 1 
and a member of parliament from Portsmouth. 
He was a man of strong religious feeling and j 
became greatly interested in the problem of | 
the conversion of the savages with which his : 
countrymen were newly coming into contact 
in the new world. He formed a partnership 
with Sir William Throckmorton, John Smith 
of Nibley, Richard Berkeley and others for 
the ownership and conduct of a private plan- 
tation in Virginia, and selling his English 
property, he set sail for Virginia, where he 
arrived March, 1620. He was appointed | 
deputy to govern the college land and to have I 
three hundred acres and ten tenants, and on i 
June 28, 1620, he was made a member of the ; 
council. The advent of this friend of the 
Indians in Virginia was coincident with the 
formation of the great Indian plot against the • 
English of 1621-22, and there are some who 
hold that his disinterested friendship for the | 
red man was an aid to them in their under- i 
taking. Thorpe certainly displayed the most 
complete faith in his dusky charges and vis- ; 
ited them in the forest, discussing religion 
with Opochankano, from which he derived 
great encouragement for the hope of their 
final conversion. Thorpe's interests were not 
confined to the Indians, however, as the fol- 
lowing letter received by him from the com- 
pany in 1621 will show: "And to you, Mr. 
Thorpe, we will freely confesse that both your 
letter and endeavors are most acceptable to 
us; the entering upon the staple comodoties of 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



87 



wine and silk we highly commend, and assure 
you it is the Companie's care to reward your 
merit. * * * In the meantime they desire you 
to proceed in these noble courses assuring you 
of all love and respect." In spite of this, how- 
ever, it would seem that his attention was 
chiefly given to the colony's relations with the 
savages, especially in regard to the conver- 
sion of the latter. His manner of winning 
their friendship was certainly worthy of his 
professions and even went to the length of 
building a handsome house in the English 
style for Opochankano and putting to death 
a number of English mastiiTs of which the 
Indians had expressed fear. It was certainly 
one of the blackest stains on the Indian char- 
acter to be found in all the white man's deal- 
ings with him that, when, on March 22, 1621- 
22, the colonists were surprised in the great 
massacre, George Thorpe was not spared, but 
was murdered with every circumstance of re- 
morseless cruelty. Thorpe was twice married, 
first to Margaret, a daughter of Sir Thomas 
Porter and after her death to Margaret, a 
daughter of David Harris, who survived him. 
Upon the next two names in the list of coun- 
cillors, the records have but little to say, they 
are those of 

Middleton, David, councillor, 1620, and 

Blewitt, Mr., councillor, 1620, whose Chris- 
tian name is not given. 

Tracy, William, was one of those who 
formed with Thorpe, Berkeley and others a 
company to conduct a private plantation in 
X'irginia. He is believed by Alexander Brown, 
author of "The Genesis of the United States," 
ro have been the son of Sir John Tracy. It is 
probable that he came to Virginia at the same 
time that Thorpe did, the latter arrived in 



March, 1620, as on June 28, of the same year 
he was, along with Thorpe, appointed a mem- 
ber of the colonial council. The following 
September he sailed in the ship "Supply," with 
emigrants for Berkeley Hundred, now Berke- 
ley, Charles City county. There is no direct 
record of his death, but it is evident that he 
did not even live to witness the terrible mas- 
sacre by the Indians which brought death, in 
1622, to his friend and partner, Thorpe, and 
to so many of the colonists, as the records 
of the company state, under date of July, 1621, 
that the news of his death had been received 
in England. But although Tracy himself 
escaped the horror, one of his daughters, who 
had married Capt. Nathaniel Powell, was not 
so fortunate, but was killed with her husband 
in that dreadful affair. 

Harwood, William, came to 'Virginia about 
1620, and on June 28, of that year, the "Vir- 
ginia Company appointed him, as "Mr. Har- 
wood the chief of Martm's Hundred," a mem- 
ber of the council, along with George Thorpe, 
William Tracy and others. In a letter dated 
Aug. 21, 162 1, the company again speaks of 
him as "governor of Martin's Hundred," and 
in another letter of Jan. 10, 1622, the authori- 
ties of Virginia are informed by the company 
that the adventurers of Jtlartin's Hundred de- 
sired that Mr. Harwood might be spared from 
the office of councillor, their business requir- 
ing his presence continually. He was prob- 
ably a relative of Sir Edward Harwood, a 
distinguished soldier, who was a member of 
the Virginia Company and in 1619 presented 
a petition to that body in behalf of the pro- 
prietors of Martin's Hundred. An exami- 
nation of Sir Edward's will, however, shows 
no reference to him. 

Pountis, John, was appointed councillor 



88 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



on June 28, 1620, and again, in the instructions 
to Governor Wyatt, July 24, 1621, bis name 
was included among those upon whom that 
honor was to be conferred. At a meeting of 
the Virginia Company on July 10, 1621, it was 
moved that some "place of command" should 
be bestowed upon Mr. John Pountis, "as well 
in respect of his own worth and sufficiency, as 
also in reward of his pains and endeavors in 
the company's service," and "for so much as 
there was a great use of a vice-admiral in 
Virginia to take care of the company's ships 
that came thither, and other matters thereunto 
appertaining," it w"as recommended that he be 
"therefore appointed Vice Admiral, which was 
done." Under date Nov. 14, 1621, the 
minutes of the \'irginia Company say, that 
"in regard to the worth and services of i\Ir. 
John Pountis, it had pleased the Company to 
confer upon him the place of Vice Admiral, 
provisionally, as by his Commission dated the 
2ist of July last might appear, the said ap- 
pointment is now confirmed, and a competant 
proportion of land for that office is to be allot- 
ted him." Upon Nov. 21, the length of his 
term of office was fixed at three years. In 
March, 1623-24, Pountis was present, as a 
councillor, at a meeting of the assembly. The 
Virginia assembly having prepared replies to 
certain defamatory petitions circulated by the 
commissioners whom the King had sent over, 
rind also a petition to his majesty, ar.d some 
ether papers all of which they wished to have 
ta^'ely transmitted to England, entrusted them 
to "Mr. John Pountis, Councillor of state, 
going to England (being willing by our intreatie 
to accept that employment) to solicite the gen- 
eral cause of the country to his Majesty and 
Counsell." It was ordered that, to defray 
the expenses of the worthy councillor's vo)'- 
age, he should be paid four pounds of tcbacco 



per capita for every male resident in \'irginia, 
above the age of sixteen years. Mr. Pountis 
died on board ship before reaching his jour- 
ney's end. His executor was his cousin. Sir 
Thomas Merry. 

Bohun, Laurence, "long time brought up 

amongst the most learned Surgeons and Physi- 
cians in the Netherlands," came to \'irginia 
with Lord Delaware in 1610. His lordship, 
writing from Jamestown on July 7, of that 
year, says "Dr. Boone whose care and Indus- 
trie for the preservation of our lives (assaulted 
with strange fluxes and agues) we have just 
cause to commend to your favors *=:==!:* 
since we have true experience how many mens 
lives these phisicks helpes have preserved 
since coming in, God so blessed the practice 
and diligence of the Doctor." On March 28, 
of the next year. Dr. Bohun left Virginia with 
Lord Delaware for the "Western Isles" and 
thence accompanied him home to England. 
Prior to Feb. 2, 1620, the doctor with James 
Swift and others, was granted a patent in 
consii'.eration of transporting 300 persons to 
\'irginia, and on Dec. 3, of the same year, he 
was appointed "Phisitian General for the Col- 
ony," and was allotted 500 acres and twenty 
tenants. It seems to have been at this time 
also that Bohun, who was then in Virginia, 
was appointed councillor. Towards the end 
of March, 1621, he sailed for England in the 
ship "Alargaret and John" and was mortally 
wounded by a Spanish man-of-war with which 
his vessel had a severe combat in the West 
Indies. Seeing him fall, Capt. Chester, com- 
mander of the "Margaret and John," embraced 
him and said, "O Dr. Bohun, what a disaster is 
this." The "Noble Doctor, no whit exani- 
mated replyed. 'fight it out brave men, the 
cause is good, and the Lord receive my soule.' " 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



This fight caused great excitement and reports 
of it were published in London and Amster- 
dam. LTpon July i6, 1621, the Virginia Com- 
pany had received news of the death of "Dr. 
Bohun of the Counsel in Virginia," and on 
Oct. 3, of that year, his widow, Mrs. Alice 
Bohun, petitioned the company that, "as her 
husband in his lifetime was at great charge, 
as she supposes for the providing and trans- 
porting of servants into Virginia," she might 
be allowed some annual contribution, and also 
that her son, Edward Barnes, who was bound 
to serve the company for seven years, might 
be released. Both applications were rejected, 
the company stating that it, and not Dr. Bohun 
was at the said costs and charges, and that 
Edward Barnes was the company's servant nnd 
could not be set free. 

Smith, Capt. Roger, who "served for 
twelve or thirteen years in the wars in the Low 
Countries," is first known to us as commanding 
a compan)" of infantry under Sir Francis Vere. 
in 1592. His earliest voyage to Virginia was 
in the year 1616. In November, 1619, when 
he had been in the colony "about some three 
3'ears" he sailed thence for England again, and 
while there made complaint to the Mrgin-a 
Company of Sir George Yeardley's treatment 
of him. At a meeting of the company Dec 
13, 1620, an entry was made that Capt. Roger 
Smith being desirous to go this present voyage 
to \'irginia, moved that he might have the 
charge of some of those people now sent to 
the company's tenants, and further, that the 
company would be pleased to bestow upon 
him some means to make him the better fit 
for the said voyage : for as much therefore as 
the said Captain Smith is recommended to be 
a gentleman very fitting for that employment, 
and in regard to his good experience already 



(Laving been heretofore in Virginia about 
three years) might thereby do the company 
great service, the court was pleased for his 
better encouragement to give him £30 treely, 
to furnish him with necessarys, and ordered 
that he should have the command of fifty per- 
sons now transported to Virginia to be tenants 
upon the Company's land." Captain Smith 
sailed for the colony in Feb., 1621, and on 
Julv 24, of the same year, he was appointed 
a member of the council there. On March 22, 
1623, the Indians killed five men near his plan- 
tation in Charles City county, and in April he 
was engaged in building a block house. Smith 
married Jane Pierce the widow of John Rolfe 
and, with his wife, was living in James Cil\^ 
in 1625. The last mention of him is on Nov. 
30, 1629, where he was still a member of the 
council. 

Sandys, George, was the youngest son of 
Dr. Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York, and 
was born in the archiepiscopal palace of Bish- 
opstborpe, near York. His godfathers were 
George, Earl of Cumberland and William, 
Lord Ewer, and his godmother, Catherine, 
Countess of Huntington. In England, Sandys 
wa= one of the most distinguished men of 
letters of his time, and he has the honor of 
having produced the first book ever written on 
American soil, a translation of parts of Ovid 
and Vergil. He was an unusually precocious 
student and entered Oxford LTniversity at the 
age of twelve. In 1610 he started on a two 
years' journey through the East, visiting Italy, 
Turke}-, Greece, Egypt and the Holy Land. 
Upon his return to England, he published an 
account of his travels which he dedicated to 
"The Prince" as he always called Charles I. 
who had then been reigning about a year. 
This work became ver/ popular and in 1673 



9C. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



reached a seventh edition. Sandys and mem- 
bers of his family were connected with the 
\^'rginia Company in the capacity of stock- 
holders during the whole of its existence. He 
was a friend of Southampton, v/ho, upon his 
resignation as treasurer of Virginia in 1621, 
recommended his election to fill the vacant 
office. He was forthwith elected and later, 
on April of the same year, his election was 
confirmed. He shortly after went to the col- 
ony where there was granted him 1500 acres 
v.-ith fifty tenants for the maintenance of his 
rffice. Shortly after his arrival, he received 
a rhymed letter "from his friend, Michael 
Drayton, the poet, urging him to continue his 
poetic and literary eflforts, but truly Virginia 
at the time seemed hardly a fit dwelling for 
the muse. It was unable to raise enough food 
for its own subsistence and had to depend 
upon a disappointed and unwilling mother 
country. Education was also in a most rudi- 
mentary state, but in the autumn of 1621, £100 
were subscribed by members of the ship's com- 
pany of the "Royal James," an East Indian- 
man, to be expended for a church or free 
school. The latter was erected accordingly 
V/ith a thousand acres for its maintenance and 
called the East India School after its donors. 
It was the first free school in the country. In 
the early part of the following year there was 
established, on account of the scattered popu- 
lation, which rendered it difficult for persons 
in the outlying districts to reach easily a court 
of law, a system of precinct courts, which 
afterwards took the form of county courts. It 
was in 1621 that the great dispute in England 
between King and commons began which threw 
the country into a ferment which led even- 
tually to civil war. It happened that many 
prominent members of the Virginia Company 
took sides in this dispute with the people so 



that the ill will of the King became directed 
against the whole company to a degree most 
prejudicial to the colony. In addition to this 
the relations with the Indians were daily be- 
coming more strained, and altogether the 
period was a stormy one for the colony. The 
Indian trouble culminated in the dreadful 
massacre of March 22, 162a, an account of 
which Sandys sent home to England. He also 
took an active part in the operations which the 
English set on foot against the red neighbors 
for the purpose of revenge and chastisement. 
The reputation of the treasurer seems to have 
been unassailed. In none of the old records 
is there to be found an adverse criticism of 
him and he unquestionably enjoyed the re- 
spect of all. He spent some time in the colony 
but eventually returned to England, though 
the precise date is unknown, and was made a 
"Gentleman of the King's Privy Chamber." 
In 1636 he published a "Paraphrase upon the 
Psalms of David and upon the Hymns disper- 
sed throughout the Old and New Testaments." 
Sandys was a fruitful author and after his 
return published a considerable volume of work 
which met with the hearty approval of the 
critics and literateurs of the day. Among others. 
Pope declared in his notes to the "Iliad" that 
"English poetry owed much of its present 
beauty" to Sandys' translations. He was very 
popular and enjoyed the friendship of the great 
authors of his time, and seems to have been 
noted as much for the sweetness of his char- 
acter as for his scholarship. He spent the last 
years of his life at Boxley Abbey in Kent, the 
home of Gov. \\'yatt, whose wife was Sandys' 
niece. Here he died in March, 1643. 

Paulett, Robert, came to \irginia in Janu- 
ary. 1621, as preacher, physician and surgeon 
to the "adventurers" at Berkelev Hundred. 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



91 



and on July 16, of the same year, the Vir- 
ginia Company elected him a member of the 
council. Governor Wyatt and the councillors, 
writing Jan., 1621-22, say that they have 
not sworn "Mr. Pawlett," and add "of whom 
we are doubtful, there being two of that 
name." Their hesitation was the occasion of 
r.o inconvenience, however, as Paulett, find- 
ing that the adventurers by whom he was em- 
ployed felt that their business required his 
constant presence, declined the honor of a 
seat in the council of state. He probably died 
before the month of April, 1623. He was 
doubtless a near kinsman of Capt. Thomas 
Paulett (q. v.) 

Newce, Sir William, a brother of Capt. 
Thomas Newce, of the council, is first men- 
tioned in the records of the Virginia Company 
or. April 12, 1621, under which date they de- 
clare that "out of a generous disposition" to- 
v/ards the "general plantation in Virginia," 
and "being induced thereto by reason of a 
good success he had in Ireland upon a like 
worthy action," Capt. William Newce "hath 
freely ofifered to the company to transport at 
his own cost amd charges 1,000 persons into 
Virginia, betwixt this and midsummer 1625 — 
to be planted and employed upon a certain 
plantation, and intendeth to go over himself 
in person, the better to direct and govern his 
own people, over whom he prays he may be 
appointed as General ; and to that end desireth 
a patent with the portion of land and with such 
large and complete privilege as are usually 
granted to others in the like kind, and also 
desires the company would grant him the place 
of marshall of Virginia, which office he 
effected the rather because he hath ever been 
exercised in military affairs and arms, as may 
appear by his many worthy services performed 



in Ireland well known to divers honorable per- 
sons in this Kingdom, who have testified the 
same upon their own knowledge to his exceed- 
ing great commendation." He also asked to 
be allowed fifty men as tenants upon the land 
attached to said office, and offered to trans- 
l^ort them to A'irginia and furnish them with 
clothing and necessary implements for £8 per 
man. His various requests were granted by 
the company, and he was elected to the office 
oi marshall on May 2, 1621. On June 11, of 
the same 3'ear, it was: reported to the Virginia 
Company that the king had conferred the 
honor of knighthood upon Xewce, whom his 
majesty was pleased to style his "Knight Mar- 
shall of Virginia, and hopeth to have a better 
account of his doings than he hath had of 
others hitherto." The knight had served in 
Ireland at the siege of Kinsale in May, 1605, 
and afterwards led a company of Irish to join 
the Spanish service. In May, 1609, he was 
accused of being in a scheme to deliver Sluys, 
Flushing and other towns, held by the Dutch, 
to the archduke. He seems to have been 
cleared of these charges, however, and was 
soon again in Ireland, where he became the 
first mayor of the town of Bandon, and laid 
cut Newce's Town, opposite Bandon. He was 
knighted at Theobalds, May 31, 1621, was 
;ippointed a member of the Virginia council 
en June 13, of the same year, and came over 
with Sir Francis Wyatt in October. George 
Sandys wrote that Sir William Newce brought 
with him "a very few weak and unserviceable 
people, ragged, and not above a fortnight's 
provisions, some bound for three years, and 
most upon wages." The "Knight Marshall" 
died within two months after his arrival in the 
colony. William Capps, in a grumbling letter 
written in March, 1623, calls him "Sir William 
Naughtworth." 



92 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Pott, John, councillor and deputy governor 
(q. V.) 

Percy or Piercy, Abraham, merchant came 
to Virginia in the ship "Susan" in 1616 and 
was lor a number of years certainly between 
1019 and 1623; cape-merchant and treasurer 
ol the colony. At the time of Argall's suspen- 
sion from the office of admiral of Virginia, he 
appointed Persey, "the Cape-merchant," his 
vice-admiral, but this the Virginia Company 
held he had no power to do and instructed the 
governor and council of Virginia to make the 
appointment. Persey was a member of the 
house of burgesses in 1622, and on October 24, 
1623, was appointed by the king one of the 
commissioners to examine the affairs in Vir- 
ginia. The following year he was appointed 
to the council and held his seat in that body 
until his death in 1628. Persey was un- 
doubtedly one of the richest men in the colony 
and his estate was for some time a bone of 
contention between his heirs. Its seizure by 
Governor Harvey was one of the numerous 
acts of that gentleman which aroused the ire 
of the colonists and finally led to his deposing. 
He married Frances, widow of Capt. Nathan- 
iel West, and she married thirdly Capt. 
Samuel Mathews. She was probably a daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Hinton. 

Lapworth, Michael. Nothing is known of 
Michael Lapworth further than that the Vir- 
ginia Company appointed him a member of 
the council in 1621 and that he appears to 
have come to Virginia. The company, writing 
under date of July 25, 1621 to the colonial 
authorities, say "and here againe we renew our 
commendation of Mr. Lapworth and that in a 
very efifective manner." 



Madison, Isaac, came to Virginia in 1608, 
nly a year after the founding of Jamestown, 



and was employed in exploring the country 
and probably in making maps, etc. He went 
to England in 1620 and while there, on July 
10, 1621, the Virginia Company, in recognition 
of his services in the colony, presented him 
with two shares in the company. He seems 
to have returned to Virginia shortly, for im- 
mediately after the massacre of 1622, we find 
liim actively employed against the Indians and 
becoming one of the best known soldiers of the 
colony. About the first of July, 1622, the 
governor sent Capt. Isaac Madison with thirty 
odd men to the Patomac, where it was thougnt 
corn couid be purchased from the friendly 
Indians and a possible alliance with them be 
formed against the hostile tribes. Madison 
conducted the affair very badly, and, notwith- 
standing orders to the contrary was soon at 
odds with the well disposed savages. He was 
led into this by tales of a conspiracy on the 
part of the Indians which, though quite un- 
founded, moved him into an indefensible 
treachery against them whereby he captured 
the chief and his son and killed many of their 
unfortunate tribesmen. The captives were 
finally ransomed for a quantity of corn. Such 
perfidy did not pass altogether unnoticed by 
the better men among the colonists, and a com- 
plaint was taken to court which bitterly de- 
nounced Aladison and his confederates. 
Proceedings were about to be instituted 
against them, but Madison left for England at 
about this time. But Madison's act was not 
as unpopular as it deserved to be. After the 
massacre of 1622, people felt that there was 
nothing too bad for the Indians and they 
lacked discrimination to except the tribes who 
were not responsible for the outrage. It thus 
happened that Madison became quite a hero 
with a large element of the populace. Madi- 
son's stay in England was a short one and he 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



9.^ 



soon returned to Virginia and once more took 
part in the colony's affairs, being even em- 
pioyed again against the Indians. He was 
commissioned a member of the council, Aug. 
26, 1624, but probably died before his com- 
mission reached him. 

Farrar or Ferrar, William, was probably 
William Ferrar, who was a younger son of 
Nicholas Ferrar, an eminent merchant of Lon- 
don and a distinguished member of the Vir- 
ginia Company, and a brother of John and 
Nicholas Ferrar, who were both deputy treas- 
urers of the company, the latter being also M. 
P. In certain verses of John Ferrar, Jr., 
grandson of the elder Nicholas, "William Fer- 
rar," of V'irginia, is referred to as "honored 
kinsman." The infant colony had no more use- 
ful friend than the Ferrar family, and William 
Ferrar, who is said to have been a barrister, 
had come himself to Virginia in or before 
162 1, as in that year he was living there. On 
March 14, 1625, he was appointed a councillor 
and his commission was renewed in March, 
1627-28. On April 29, 1635, he was one of 
the councillors who deposed Harvey. He died 
in or before 1637, leaving descendants. 

Tucker, William, was born in 1589 and 
came to Virginia in the "Mary and James" in 
16 10. He became a member of the Virginia 
Company in 1620 and was elected to the house 
ct burgesses in 1623-24. He became a coun- 
cillor on March 4, 1625-26 and was again in- 
cluded in the commission to the council under 
Yeardley, March 22, 1627-28. He was ap- 
pointed by the king one of the commissioners 
tfi supervise the government of Virginia in 
1623. He was for long the principal man in 
Elizabeth City county and had taken an active 
part in the defense of the colony against the 
Indians. In August, 1633, Tucker, then in 



England, presented a memorial to the privy 
council, in which he endeavored to show that 
Dutch trade with Virginia, if allowed, would 
result in great loss to the king and prejudice 
to the plantation. It is not surprising that 
Tucker, as an English trader, should take this 
view since the Dutch offered a much larger 
price to the planters for their tobacco than 
what he had been in the habit of paying, and 
thus would cut the profits of its sale in Europe. 
Tucker must have died some time before Feb. 
17, 1644, when his will was proved in Lon- 
don. He left three children : William, Thomas 
and Alary. 



Utie, John, first appears in Virginia in Feb., 
1623, when Ensign John Utie is returned 
in the ceusus as living at Hog Island with 
his wife and son John, then an infant. 
in the year following, he had a grant of 100 
acres on the south side of James river, and 
in 1629 was burgess for the plantations be- 
tween Archer's Hope and Martin's Hundred 
and for Hog Island in 1629-30. On May 29, 
1630, Governor Harvey writes that since his 
( Harvey's) arrival in Virginia, he had added 
Captain John Utie to the council, and on De- 
cember 20, 1631, Utie was one of the signers 
of the accord between the governor and coun- 
cil. On Oct. 8, 1630, a resolution of the coun- 
cil stated that Capt. John West and John 
L'tie had "seated" the first settlement on the 
York river, and ordered that they should each 
receive 600 acres there for so doing. Later 
Capt. Utie added largely to his estate in that 
region and named his whole property "Utie- 
maria." When Harvey's misgovernment be- 
came unbearable, Utie was one of the leaders 
of the opposition to him and took part in the 
final scene which ended in the governor's 
deposition. When the governor struck George 



94 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Menifie on the shoulder and told him he 
airested him in the king's name for high 
treason, Utie, according to Harvey's own 
statement, struck him (the governor) "a very 
great and violent stroke upon the shoulder and 
said with a loud voice, 'I arrest you for 
treason,' " whereupon the rest of the coun- 
cillors crowded about Harvey and laid hold 
of him. It seems likely that the cause of the 
councillors laying hold of Harvey was, as is 
stated in Mathews' account, because on Utie's 
rejoinder, the governor's rage became so 
violent that they were obliged to restrain him 
to prevent harm being wrought. An act so 
extreme on the part of the colonists did not, 
of course, pass unnoticed by the authorities in 
England and, on Dec. 22, 1635, the privy coun- 
cil recommended to the king that the persons 
who took the leading part in deposing Harvey, 
Mathews, Utie, etc., should be ordered sent to 
England "to answer their misdemeanors, they 
being the prime actors in the late mutiny in 
Virginia." Just what was done in the case does 
not appear, but apparently before their case 
came to actual trial, they were allowed to re- 
turn to Virginia and their prosecution dropped. 
On May 25, 1637, West, Mathews, Utie and 
Peirce petition the English privy council, 
stating that they had been lately sent pris- 
oners, and that they had heard by recent letters 
that divers of their goods, cattle and servants, 
had been seized by order of Governor Harvey 
and begged that a letter might be written com- 
manding that the property be restored. The 
petition was granted and the required letter 
written, but, m case of Mathews at least, a 
second order from the privy council was 
needed before Harvey would disgorge. Capt. 
Utie probably died soon after his return to 
Virginia, that is, if he did return, of which 
there is no positive evidence. 



Blaney, Edward, was in 1621, keeper of 
the "Colony ^Magazine," and in the same year 
was appointed factor and agent for the com- 
pany organized to carry on a glass house, and 
was authorized to trade with the Indians. 
Bianey was a member of the house of bur- 
gesses in 1623. and was appointed to the coun- 
cil on Alarch 4, 1626. He married the widow 
of William Powell, captain of Jamestown 
fort. 

Macock, Samuel, was a "Cambridge scholar 
and a gentleman of birth, virtue and industry." 
In March, 1617, Governor Argall requested 
the authorities in England that Mr. Macock 
might be obtained. In June, 1619, Governor 
Yeardley appointed him a member of the 
council. The colony was not long to enjoy 
the benefit of his services, however, for upon 
March 21, 1622, he and four others were 
killed by the Indians on the estate on James 
river in Prince George county, now called 
"Maycox," then described as "Master Macock's 
Dividend in the Territory of Great Wey- 
anoke." Councillor Macock probably left an 
only daughter, as in Jan., 1625, Sarah Macock, 
aged two years, and born in Virginia, was 
living in the family of Capt. Roger Smith. 
She married George Pace, of "Pace's Pains," 
whose father Richard Pace had saved James- 
town from the Indians at the massacre of 
1622. 

Ouldsworth, Mr., whose Christian name 
has not come down to us, enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of membership in the council for a 
very brief season. Upon April 12, 1621, it 
was moved that since Mr. Ouldsworth, then 
in Virginia, had, when he was in England, 
"lived in that reputation and credit as befitted 
a gentleman in his rank and ability as justice 
of the peace, and of the quorum," he might be 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



95 



admitted to the Virginia council. This motion 
was "conceived to be very reasonable," and it 
was "therefore ordered that it be moved in 
quarter court, and besides some place should 
be thought upon" for the new councillor, 
"suitable to his merit and worth." On May 2, 
upon Mr. Smith's recommendation of his 
"worth and sufficiency," and as "having been 
a justice of the peace here in England for so 
many years, and of the quorum," he was for- 
mally "chose and confirmed of the council of 
state in Virginia," by the Virginia Company. 
On July i6, 1621, the company had received 
information of his death. 

Leech, Mr., was appointed by a court of the 
Virginia Company a provisional member of 
the council of Virginia until he should receive 
confirmation by the next quarter court. This 
was on July 16, 1621. About August of that 
year, he went to Virginia in the ship "Marma- 
duke," but nothing more is known of him, 
except that the governor and council of Vir- 
ginia, in a letter dated January, 1621, stated 
that they had administered the oaths to sev- 
eral new councillors, but not to Mr. Leech, 
"Who came not to us." 

Wickham, William, a minister, though 
without Episcopal ordination, had charge of 
the church at Henrico. Rolfe, writing in 1610, 
speaks of "Mr. Wickham the minister there, 
who in his life and doctrines gives good in- 
struction to the people." On June 19, 1617, 
Gov. Argall requested Sir Dudley Digges to 
procure from the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
permission for Mr. Wickham to administer 
the sacrament, as there was no other person 
to do it, and in the following March he de- 
sired "ordination for Mr. Wickham and Mr. 
Macock, a Cambridge scholar, and a person 
to read to (for?) Mr. Wickham, his eyes 



being weak." In 1621 the Rev. William Wick- 
ham was appointed a member of the council. 
Nothing further is known of him. 

Davison, Christopher, son of William Davi- 
son, who was secretary of state to Queen Eliza- 
beth, was elected secretary of Virginia by the 
Virginia Company on June 11, 1621, to suc- 
ceed John Pory. He came to the colony and 
was a member of the council in Jan., 162 1, 
and Jan., 1623. He died soon after the last 
named date. 

Whitaker, Jabez, styled in the old records 
"Captain Whitaker," was probably a brother 
of the Rev. Alexander Whitaker, the early 
minister, as the father of that good divine had 
by his second wife, a posthumous son named 
Jabez. Capt. Whitaker was a member of the 
h.ouse of burgesses in Mar., 1623-24, and of 
the council in 1626. In the last named year 
he was living in Elizabeth City county. He 
married before 1619, a daughter of Sir John 
Bourchier, a member of the Virginia Com- 
pany and uncle of the regicide of that name. 
Our councillor's name appears several times 
in the proceedings of the Virginia Company. 
On Jan. 23, 1620, "Mr. Treasurer signified 
(that) having received notice of the good car- 
riage of some persons in Virginia (he) was 
especially to recommend unto them one Mr. 
Jabez Whitakers, Lieutenant of the Company's 
men, who had given good account of the trust 
reposed in him," and in July, 1621, it was 
reported that "Mr. Whitaker had obeyed the 
Company's orders in building a guest house 
(at Kicotan) and had also begun to plant 
vines, corn, etc. ; it was' therefore ordered as a 
reward, that two boys should be sent him, and 
that the reward of tobacco allowed by the 
Governor of Virginia should be confirmed." 



96 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Claiborne, William. The ancient family of 
Claiborne derives its name from the Manor 
of Claiborne or Cliborne, in Westmoreland 
county, England, near the river Eden, and 
which is named in the Domesday Book (A. D. 
1086). William Claibornie was born about 
1587 and came to Virginia with Gov. Wyatt 
in 162 1, in the employ of the Virginia Com- 
pany as surveyor-general of Virginia at a 
salary of thirty pounds a year, a house and, in 
all probability fees. He quickly became promi- 
nent in colonial affairs, and, in 1624, was com- 
missioned by the King as first royal secretary 
of state, a position which he held off and on 
for eighteen years. In 1626 he became a 
member of the council. On July 22, 1629, 
he received a commission from Gov. Pott 
appointing him captain and commander of all 
the forces to be levied for a war against the 
Indians, and as a reward for the successful 
conduct of the campaign, was granted, in 1640, 
a tract of land om the Pamunkey river. In the 
btter year he petitioned the King to create an 
office which should have the keeping of the 
Virginia seal. The King referred the matter 
back to the governor and council of Virginia, 
who decided that such an office was appro- 
priate and appointed Claiborne to fill it. In 
1634 through the influence of Harvey he lost 
his place as secretary of state, but on Apr. 6, 
1642, Charles I. appointed him treasurer of 
Virginia for life. He again commanded forces 
against the Indians in 1644, and again received 
a grant of land in reward. Claiborne was a 
great explorer and traded with the Indians as 
well as fought them. In 1627, the govern- 
ment of Virginia gave him permission to dis- 
cover the source of Chesapeake Bay and ex- 
plore any body of water between the thirty- 
fourth and forty-first parallels of latitude, and, 
on May 16, 1631, the King granted a license 



to "our trusty and well-beloved Wm. Clai- 
norne" to trade in the colonies of New Eng- 
land and New Scotland, and commanded Gov. 
Harvey and the council to allow him to do so. 
Claiborne soon afterwards established a trad- 
ing post on Kent Island near the present city 
of Annapolis, and this caused him to oppose 
with great persistence the efforts of the Balti- 
mores to establish the colony of Maryland. 
When in 1632 that part of Virginia lying north 
of the Potomac was granted to Cecilius Cal- 
vert, Lord Baltimore, the Virginians includ- 
ing Claiborne protested against it on the 
ground that it was a territorial spoiliation. 
They brought the matter before the King and 
urged that in revoking the charter and assem- 
bling control over Virginia both his father 
James and himself had given assurances that 1 
the intention was to alter the form of govern- 
ment, not to dispute property rights. The 
political existence of the colony remained as 
much a fact as before, and if the King could 
giant away Maryland, he could grant away 
Jamestown itself. The King and his commis- 
sioners of foreign plantations were neverthe- 
less adverse to this view, and the legality of 
Baltimore's charter was upheld. 

The Virginians hoped, however, to except 
Kent Island from its operation on the ground 
that the Island was actually occupied by Vir- 
ginia settlers. They argued that the assur- 
ances given at the revocation meant, at least, 
that actual occupation was to be respected. It 
made no difference whether Claiborne had any 
title to the soil or not, under his license to 
trade ; the colony of Virginia had extended its 
laws over it, and the occupation was a legal 
one. 

When, therefore, Leonard Calvert, Balti- 
more's governor, called upon Claiborne to 
recognize his authority in Kent Island, the 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



97 



council of Virginia, to whom Claiborne re- 
ferred the request considered the claim and 
declared that the colony had as much right to 
Kent Island "as any other part of the country 
given by his Majesty's patent in* 1609." This 
particular phase of the question came before 
the King like the more general phase and was 
referred by him as in the former case to the 
commissioners of foreign plantations. It 
pended before them for several years, and in 
the interim feeling grew warm. A miniature 
war developed and several persons were killed 
on both sides. Sir John Harvey interferred 
in behalf of Lord Baltimore, and this so in- 
censed Claiborne's friends in Virginia that he 
was seized and sent back to England. At 
length, however, the commissioners in 1638 
decided for Lord Baltimore and Kent Island, 
having been seized in Claiborne's absence in 
England by Capt. George Evelyn in behalf of 
Lord Baltimore, has remained ever since a 
part of Maryland. 

While Claiborne never admitted the justice 
of the decision, it does not appear that he ever 
tried again to set up Kent Island as independ- 
ent of Maryland. During the disturbances of 
Richard Ingle (1645-1647) he visited Kent 
Island, but appears to have come over to look 
after his property rights, which had been con- 
fiscated. Instead of posing as a friend of 
parliament, he showed a commission and letter 
from King Charles I., by whom he appears to 
have stood till the King's death in 1649. 

After that time Claiborne went to England 
and espoused the parliament side, and Gov. 
Berkeley in 1650 declared the ofifice of treas- 
urer vacant on account of Claiborne's "de- 
linquency." 

In Sept., 1651, Claiborne was appointed 
with Capt. Robert Dennis, Mr. Richard Ben- 
nett and Mr. Thomas Stegg on a commission 
viR— 7 



tu reduce Virginia to obedience to the parlia- 
ment of England, an office which they suc- 
ceeded in performing in Mar., 1652. They 
then repaiied to Maryland and reduced that 
province also. The ascendency of Claiborne 
in Maryland was complete, but beyond renew- 
ing this property claim to Kent Island he did 
not treat it politically different from the rest 
of Maryland. In Virginia the two surviving 
commissioners Bennett and Claiborne shared 
tlie chief offices between them. Bennett be- 
came governor and Claiborne secretary of 
state. Maryland was only temporarily paci- 
fied. Lord Baltimore encouraged his adher- 
ents to resist and a civil war ensued and much 
blood was shed. The design of the commis- 
sioners appears to have been to have brought 
about the union of Virginia and Maryland 
again, but Baltimore won such favor with 
Cromwell in England that the contest was 
given up and his authority finally recognized. 

When the restoration of Charles II. took 
place, Claiborne was deprived of his office as 
secretary and removed from Elizabeth City, 
where he had formerly lived, to Romancoke, 
near West Point, the scene of one of his for- 
mer victories over the Indians. Romancoke 
was then situated in the county of New Kent, 
which had been cut from York in 1654, when 
Claiborne was at the heighth of his power. 

The county was evidently named by him 
after his beloved Kent Island. Here he lived 
many years, siding with the government in 
the disturbances of Bacon's rebellion, and 
dying about 1677, when he was upwards of 
ninety years of age. To the last he remained 
urconquered in spirit, and as late as 1675, he 
sent to parliament a long recital of his in- 
juries suffered at the hands of the Baltimores, 
asking satisfaction and urging the union of 
Maryland with Virginia. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Berkeley, John. He was the son of Sir 
John Berkeley, of the castle and manor of 
Beverstone, in the county of Gloucester, Eng- 
land, an eminent branch of the noble family 
of the Berkeleys of Berkeley castle. He lived 
but eight months in \'irginia, but in that time 
was well known as the "master and overseer" 
of America's first effort to manufacture iron. 
Iron ore was one of the first commodities car- 
ried back to England by the ships of the \'ir- 
ginia Company, which as early as 1619 con- 
sidered the establishing of iron works in the 
colony. The following year 150 men were 
sent out to \irgiriia for this express purpose 
and, in 1621, Sir Edwin Sandis reports that a 
Mr. John Berkeley had been found to take up 
the work who was "very sufficient" in such 
service. The same year, Berkeley sailed to 
\ irginia to take up the new task. The site 
chosen for the new works was on Falling 
creek which empties into the James river about 
sixty-si.x miles above Jamestown and some 
stven miles below the present city of Rich- 
mond. Berkeley sent an encouraging report 
of the conduct of the work and declared that 
by the following Whitsuntide the company 
might count on "good quantities of iron." The 
terrible Indian massacre of Mar. 22, 1622. 
intervened, however, and Berkeley was among 
those slain. John Berkeley had issue by Mary, 
daughter of John Snell, Esq. — Maurice, John, 
Henry, \\'i!Iiam, Edward, Thomas, Mary, 
Frances, Elizabetli and Anne. His son, Mau- 
rice, came to \'irginia with his father and hap- 
pily escaped the massacre. He married Bar- 
bara, daughter of Sir Walter Long, and had 
issue, "Edward and others." There is a promi- 
nent Berkeley family in Mrginia which de- 
scend from Edmund Berkeley, living in 1(V4- 
who may have been a son of Edward last 
named. 



Capps, William, came to \'irginia before 
i(!i9, in which year he was burgess for Kico- 
tan, as Hampton was then called. During 
m.any years Capps took an active part in the 
altairs of the colony. On Jan. 26, 162 1, the 
company granted him a patent for land in 
consideration of his undertaking to transport 
100 persons to Virginia, and on Feb. 22, upon 
his humble request, the court (of the X'irginia 
Company j ordered a certificate to be drawn 
up by the secretary to testify to the good 
esteem in which he was held, "as well in the 
Colony of \'irginia, and may appear by the 
rewards of his good service under them, as 
also of what ability he is reported to be there 
in respect of the great supplys he had sent 
ti'ere." On Alay 2, it was ordered that he 
should receive as a reward "five men's passage 
free at the Company's charge, in consideration 
of his many years service of the Company in 
Virginia, with the hazard of his life among the 
Indians." "Upon October 7, 1622," ";\Ir. Wil- 
liam Capps, an ancient planter in X'irginia," 
made the following requests of the company : 
(I), that Sir William Xewce be required to 
deliver him the five men for whose transporta- 
tion he had paid that gentleman thirty pounds 
here in town (London) ; (2), that Sir George 
Yeardley restore him a chest of goods he de- 
tained from him; (3), that he might have sat- 
isfaction for that land in Mrginia taken from 
him by Yeardley. At a meeting of the com- 
jany. -Apr. 8, 1624, "]\Ir. \\'illiam Capps openly 
declared, on the faith of an honest man, that 
with three boys only, which he said were not 
a man and a half, he had made 3,000 weight 
of tobacco, and sold 50 barrels of corn heaped 
measure, and kept beside 60 barrels for his 
own store, and all this he had performed by 
the labor of three boys only, himself having 
never done, as he termed it, one stroke of 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



99 



work." Two letters written by Capps in 1623, 
one to John Ferrar, and the other to Dr. 
Wynston, are preserved among the Duke of 
Manchester's manuscripts. The first of these 
letters has been published in full in "Virginia 
Vetusta." The writer seems^ to have been 
zealous for the welfare of the colony, but 
was evidently of a grumbling and fault-finding 
disposition. One fact connected with him 
should not be omitted. After the revocation 
of the charter in 1624 there was no regular 
general assembly of representatives of the peo- 
ple. The \'irginia authorities sent over a 
memorial in 1627 on the subject, and by Wil- 
liam Capps, who was in England, King Charles 
sent instructions allowing a general assembly 
and urging the cultivation of staple commo- 
dities, as heretofore they had depended too 
much "upon smoke." To Capps was given 
the privilege of erecting salt works. He ar- 
rived in Virginia Feb. 22, 1628 and on the 
26th of the next month the colonial assembly 
met. He was a member of the council in 1627 
and was alive in 1630. 

Cowlinge, Christopher, is only known by 
the fact that Gov. Harvey wrote, on May 29, 
1630, that since his arrival in Virginia, Apr., 
1630, Christopher Cowlinge had been sworn 
a member of the council. No other mention 
of him occurs in the records. 

Finch, Henry. Gov. Harvey, writing May 
29, 1630, says that since his arrival in Virginia, 
.1 few weeks before, he has sworn as a mem- 
ber of the council, Henry Finch, "brother to 
Sir John Finch." Finch was present in coun- 
cil upon Dec. 20, 1631, Feb. 21, 1631-32, and 
Feb. I, 1632-33, but there is no other notice of 
him. He probably died or left Virginia soon 
after the last named date. He was the son of 
Sir Henry Finch, sergeant-at-law, and brother 



of Sir John Finch, lord chief justice, speaker 
of the house of commons and lord keeper, who 
was knighted in 1626, and afterwards created' 
Baron Finch of Ferdwick. The pedigrees 
given by Burke and Berry say that John Finch 
was the only son of Sir Henry, but this is cer- 
tainly an error, for the "Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography" gives a sketch of Edward 
Finch, a royalist devine, who was another son, 
stated, like our councillor, to have been "over- 
looked by the genealogists." Maj. Joseph Cro- 
shaw, of York county, \'irginia, married a 
Widow Finch, who had a daughter Betty. 

Stephens, Richard, came to Virginia in the 
year 1623, in the ship "George," and settled at 
Jamestown. In the same year he was granted 
sixty rods of land adjoining his dwelling house, 
ill the "corporation of. James Citty," in the 
hope that others might be "encouraged by his 
e.vample to enclose some ground for gardens." 
Ii' March of the year following he was a mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses. In the spring of 
1624 Stephens awakened to find himself notori- 
ous as one of the principals in the first duel 
ever fought in Virginia. His antagonist, George 
Harrison, died fourteen days afterwards, and 
it has been generally stated that his death was 
caused by his wounds, but George ]\Ienifie, 
writing on April 28, 1624, to John Harrison, 
told him that post-mortem e.xamination had 
shown that his brother George was in bad 
health, and that his death was not supposed 
to have been the result of being "hurt in the 
field," in the duel of fourteen days before, for 
that he had only received a slight wound in 
the leg between the garter and the knee. Early 
in 1630 Gov. Harvey added Stephens to the 
council, but some years later, probably in 1635, 
a quarrel arose between them and Harvey 
dashed out some of Stephens' teeth with a 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



cudgel. This disgraceful act was one of the 
charges made against Harvey when he was 
sent to England for trial, but he sought to 
excuse himself by saying that it did not occur 
in the council, and that Stephens had assailed 
him with "ill language." Stephens does not 
stem to have lived many years after this. 
From the land patents it appears that the wife 
of Councillor Richard Stephens was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Abraham Piersey, formerly of the 
council. She took for a second husband, in 
01 before 1642, Sir John Harvey, the same 
who had deprived. her first consort of his teeth. 
In September of that year Captain De Vries, 
the Dutch trader, brought suit against the 
estate of Richard Stephens for ^4.14, due "for 
goods sold Lady Harvey," who, it was ex- 
plained, was at that time the wife of Stephens. 
Richard and Elizabeth Stephens had at least 
one child, a son Samuel. On Jan. 20, 1644- 
45, Dame Elizabeth Harvey petitioned the 
court to substitute Richard Kemp and Capt. 
William Pierce as trustees in place of Capt. 
Samuel Mathews, George Ludlow and Capt. 
Thomas Bernard, "former trustees under a 
feoffment made by the same Dame Elizabeth 
to Samuel Stephens, Gent., her son by a for- 
mer marriage." The son, Samuel Stephens, 
of "Bolthorpe," Warwick county, was gov- 
ernor of Carolina, and died in 1670, leaving 
nc children. His will was dated April 21, 
1670. Gov. Samuel Stephens married Fran- 
ces Culpeper, sister of Alexander Culpeper, 
afterwards surveyor-general of Virginia. In 
the diary of Mrs. Thornton, published by the 
Surtees Society, are several notices of the mar- 
riage in Virginia, about 1650, of the heir of 
the Danby family in Yorkshire to a Miss Cul- 
peper. The editor states that she was a niece 
of Lord Culpeper, lord chancellor of England, 
and it seems highly probably that she was a 



sister of Frances Culpeper. Mrs. Frances 
Stephens married secondly, in June, 1670, Sir 
William Berkeley, governor of Virginia, whom 
she seems to have ruled with as high a hand 
as he showed the colony, and thirdly, some- 
time in 1680, Col. Philip Ludwell, of "Rich- 
neck." James City county, Virginia. She had 
nc children by either marriage. 

Basse, Nathaniel, with Sir Richard Worse-, 
ley, John Hobson, gentleman, and others, asso- 
ciates of Capt. Christopher Lawne, deceased, 
presented a petition on June, 28, 1620, to the 
\ irginia Company, and received a confirma- 
tion of an old patent and plantation, and that 
said plantation should be henceforth called the 
Isle of Wight's plantation. The tract was 
situated in the present Isle of Wight county, 
which took its name from the plantation, as 
did Lawne's creek from the first settler there. 
Sir Richard Worseley, and probably the other 
men interested in the enterprise also, lived in 
the Isle of Wight, England. On Jan. 30, 1621- 
22, Capt. Nathaniel Basse and his associates 
received a patent on condition that they would 
transport 100 persons to \'irginia. Basse was 
a member of the house of burgesses for Wor- 
lesqueiacke from 1623-24 to 1629, and was a 
councillor in Feb., 1631-32, at which time he 
was authorized to go to New England and 
offer the inhabitants a place of settlement on 
Delaware Bay. The name of his plantation 
was "Basse's Choice." 

Purefoy, Thomas, Purfry, Purfee or Pur- 
fury, as the name is variously spelt, was born 
about 1582 and came to Virginia in the ship 
"George" in 1621. In 1625, when he is styled 
Lieut. Thomas Purefoy, he was living in Eliz- 
abeth City, and in 1628, was chief commander 
and one of the commissioners of that place. 
On July 4, 1627, the governor and council 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



ordered him to make an attack upon the In- 
dians. As "Captain Thomas Purefoy," he 
was a member of the house of burgesses for 
"the lower parts of EHzabeth City," at the ses- 
sion of March, 1629-30, and on Dec. 20, 1621, 
appears as a councillor. He was probably 
appointed by Harvey, whom he always faith- 
fully supported during the long dispute be- 
tween the governor and the council and bur- 
gesses. When this contest reached a climax 
and an address from the house of burgesses 
to the English government was being circu- 
lated for signatures, the people of the lower 
country went in such numbers to sign it that 
"Captain Purfry took an alTright that caused 
him to write to the Governor of many inci- 
dent dangers, insomuch that he durst not keep 
a court until he heard from him or had a letter 
from the King." Samuel Mathews says that 
in this letter Capt. Purefoy accused the people 
cf being "in a near sense to rebellion, which 
since he denied, it being very usual with him 
to affirm and deny often the same things." 
This, of course, is the opinion of a member of 
the hostile party. The opinion of another 
contemporary is very diiTerent. "He is a sol- 
dier and a man of open heart, hating for aught 
I can see all kinds of dissimulation and base- 
ness." In spite of his adherence to Harvey, 
Purefoy continued a member of the council 
after the governor's deposition, and was one 
of those whom the King thought fit to allow 
to retain their seats. He named, according to 
a land patent, one of his estates, a 1,000 acre 
track, "Drayton," doubtless after a place of 
that name mentioned by Burke as a seat of 
the Purefoys in England. He left a son 
Thomas who had an only daughter Frances 
who had many descendants in Virginia — 
Tabbs, Bookers, Lowrys, etc. Capt. Purefoy 
was alive in 1640. 



Peirce, William, came from England in the 
"Sea Venture" in 1609 and was, for many 
years one of the foremost men of the colony. 
In May, 1623, Gov. Wyatt appointed him cap- 
tain of the guard and commander of James 
City. In the same year, the governor ordered 
"Captain Wm. Peirce, Captain of his guard 
and lieutenant governor of James City," to 
lead an expedition against the Chickahominies. 
This Peirce did, falling upon them on July 23, 
"with no small slaughter." He had already 
made a very favorable impression upon George 
Sandys, the treasurer of Virginia, who wrote 
to England in 1623 that William Peirce, the 
governor of Jamestown, was inferior to none 
in experience, ability and capacity and recom- 
mended him for appointment to the council. 
In 1627, he was again commissioned to attack 
the Chickahominies with Thomas Harwood as 
his second in command. In 1629, he was in 
England and while there, prepared "A Rela- 
tion of the Present State of the Colony of Vir- 
ginia, by Capt. William Perse, an ancient 
planter of twenty years standing there." He 
states that there were in Virginia between four 
and five thousand English, generally well 
housed, besides much other valuable informa- 
tion in regard to those times. In 163 1, Peirce 
was appointed a member of the council and, 
on December 20, signed the accord between 
that body and Governor Harvey. He was a 
strong opponent of Harvey's misgovernment 
and was one of the councillors' who, on April 
28, 1635, arrested and deposed him, himself 
leading thirty, or according to some accounts, 
fifty musketeers to beset Harvey's house. 
Early in the next month, when Qaiborne com- 
plained to the new governor, West, and the 
council of his treatment in Maryland, Capts. 
I'tie and Peirce were sent to that colony to 
protest, to the authorities there, against their 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



violence towards him. Peirce was one of those 
who was ordered by the King to be sent to 
England to answer Harvey's charges but who 
were never actually prosecuted. He was also 
one of those to whom the privy council directed 
the reinstated governor to restore the property 
he had taken from them. Peirce returned to 
Virginia on a sort of parole and though once 
more summoned to England, never went there, 
as the civil war intervened. He was present 
in council in 1639 and it seems probable that 
some other influence had been brought to bear 
upon the King as he was included in the last 
royal commisision of councillors before the 
war, dated Aug. 9. 1641. The last mention 
we have of the councillor is of his being pres- 
ent in council, Feb., 1644-45. His daughter 
ter Jane became the third wife of John Rolfe. 

West, John, deputy governor of \'irginia 
(q. v.). 

Harvey, Sir John, governor of Virginia. 

(q. v.). 

Bullock, Hugh, first appears as a councillor 
in Dec, 1631. He went to England in the fol- 
lowing spring, but was back in \'irginia and 
present in the council, in Feb., 1632-33, and in 
February and Alarch of the next year. In 
1637 he was one of the members of the coun- 
cil whom the King directed should be retained, 
but it is likely that he soon after removed 
finally to England, and never lived in \'ir- 
ginia again. On March 12, 1634, "Captain 
Hugh Bullocke" received a grant of 2,550 
acres on the Pocosin river, in what is now 
York county. By deed dated July 8, 1637, 
and recorded in York, "Hugh Bullock of Lon- 
don, gentleman," conveyed to his son, "Wil- 
liam Bullock of London, gentleman," his corn- 
mill, saw-mill and plantation in Virginia. His 



wife Mary joined in the deed. There can be 
no doubt that this William Bullock, son of the 
touncillor, was the author of the rare pam- 
phlet on \'irginia. In it he states that his 
father owned land in the colony. In the gen- 
eral court records, under date of April, 1672, is 
to be found an entry list of a suit by Robert 
Bollock, son and heir of William Bullock, ver- 
sus Col. Peter Jennings, guardian of John 
Mathews, orphan of Col. Mathews, deceased, 
in regard to a parcel of land in Warwick 
county, containing 5.500 acres. 

Brewer, John, "citizen and grocer of Lon- 
don" was a son of Thomas Brewer, probably 
of the same city, and came to Virginia prior 
to the 1629. He was a member of the house 
of burgesses from Warwick county in 1629- 
30, and as "John Brewer, gent.," was 
appointed one of the commissioners (justices) 
for holding monthly courts in that county in 
Feb., 1631-32. He was a member of the coun- 
cil of state from 1632 until his death in 1635. 
All that is known of Brewer's wife is that her 
name was Mary, and that in 1636 she consoled 
herself for his death by becoming the wife of 
the Rev. Thomas Butler, "Pastor of Denby." 
The children of John and Mary Brewer were: 
John, Roger and Margaret. Councillor Brewer 
owned a plantation called "Stawley (or Stan- 
ley) Hundred, otherwise Bruer's Borough," in 
Warwick county, and not long before his death 
had obtained rights of 1,000 acres, which his 
wife and her second husband located and ob- 
tained a grant for, at what is still called 
"Brewer's Neck," between Brewer's and 
Chuckatuck Creeks, in Isle of Wight county. 
His will, dated Sept. 4, 1631, and proved in, 
London, May 13, 1636, was published in 
"Waters' Gleanings." 

Perry, William, came to \'irginia in 161 1. 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



103 



In .1 list dated 1626, he is mentioned as owning 
100 acres of land on the south side of the 
river below the falls, which it is probable were 
granted to him in the year of his coming over 
and at the time of Sir Thomas Dale's attempt 
to settle the upper region of the James. After 
ike massacre of 1622, the settlements theri.- 
were abandoned, and we find Ferry living 
either at or near "Pace's Paines" on the south 
side of the river not far from Jamestown. He 
was in England in April, 1624, but was back in 
\'irginia and, as "Lieutenant William Perry," 
was representing "Pace's Paines" in the house 
<;f burgesses in Oct., 1629, and in March of the 
year following. At this last session he wa> 
appointed one of a committee to manage the 
building of a fort at Point Comfort. In Feb., 
1631-32, he was a burgess for the territory 
"From Capt. Perryes downwards to Hog 
Island." It was in the summer of 1632 that he 
was appointed to the council, and in Septem- 
i)er of the same year, that he appeared for the 
first time as a member. He was also present 
'in Feb., 1632-33, and in March of the next 
vear. Some years before his death he went 
)'o live in Charles City county, where he died 
in 1637, and was buried at the old "Westover" 
church. His tomb, which is doubtless the old- 
rst in Virginia, may still be seen near "W'est- 
fver" house, but the epitaph is entirely illeg- 
ible. It was once examined by Charles Camp- 
bell, the historian, who says that there was 
i.'ngraved upon it a shield with armorial bear- 
ings which could not even then be made out, 
;ind also the following epitaph : 

"Here lyeth the body of Captaine 

W'm. Perry who lived neere 

Westover in this Collony 

Who departed this life the 6th day of 

August, Anno Domini 1637." 



Capt. Perry married prior to 1628, Isa- 
bella, widow of Richard Pace of "Pace's 
I'aines." They had, as far as is known, only 
one child, Capt. Henry Perry, of whom a 
sketch will appear hereafter. In the general 
court records, under date of 1674, there is 
mention of a patent "long before" granted to 
Capt. Perry Sr., for 2,000 acres, and a later 
one to George Menifie of 1,50-3 acres, in be- 
half of Capt. Henry I'erry the orphan. Both 
of these grants were situated in Charles City 
county. 

Hinton, Thomas, first appears as a member 
cf the council on Feb. 8, 1633-34. He did not 
enjoy the honor long as Harvey soon removed 
him on the charge that he had given the ^ov- 
er. lor "ill words," which reason seems to have 
been accepted by the English privy council us h 
\a!id one, and there is no other mention of 
1 homas Hinton in our records. Xeill, in "\'ir- 
ginia Carolorum," says that the councillor was 
Sir Thomas Hinton, whose daughter married 
Samuel Mathews, but this seems unlikely, for 
an account of Virginia written in 1649 asserts 
that Mathews married a daughter of Sir 
Thomas Hinton, while the notices of the Vir- 
ginia councillors in 1634 and 1635 style him 
simply "Thomas Hinton, Esq." or "Mr. 
Thomas Hinton." He is "Mr. Thomas Plin- 
ton" in the account of the examination of Gov. 
Harvey before the English privy coun- 
cil on Dec. 11, 1635. Neill says that one Wil- 
liam Hinton, a brother of Mrs. Mathews, was 
a gentleman of the King's privy chamber, and 
it seems probable that Thomas Hinton, the 
councillor, w^as another brother. Foster, in 
his "Oxford Matriculations," states that a 
Thomas Hinton was knighted July I, 1619, 
,Tnd thinks he may have been the same as 
Thomas Hinton of Wiltshire, gent., who ma- 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



triculated at Queen's College, Oct. 15, 1591, 
aged 17. Sir Thomas Hinton was of Chilton- 
Poliet, Wiltshire. The register of the parish 
gives the births of Thomas, April 8, 1600, and 
William, July 25, 1605, sons of Thomas Hin- 
ton Esq. and Katherine his wife; also the 
burials of Mrs. Katherine, wife of Mr. 
Thomas Hinton, Oct. 11, 1609, of Elizabeth, 
wife of Thomas Hinton (doubtless the son) 
Sept. 20, 1658, and of Thomas Hinton, Sept. 
23, 1658. 

Stoner, John. On Sept. 29, 1634, the King 
wrote to the governor of Virginia stating that 
the bearer of his letter, John Stoner, had been 
appointed one of the councillors of that colony, 
and his majesty's agent to treat for a yearly 
contract for tobacco. On Jan. 21, of the fol- 
lowing year. Governor Harvey wrote that Mr. 
Stoner had died on his voyage to Virginia. 

Browne, Henry, came to Virginia about 
ib34 and was evidently a man of property and 
influence. He had grants for several large 
'tracts of land at various points in James City 
county, and was known as Col. Henry Browne 
of "Four Mile Tree,' his plantation locating 
in the ancient "Pace's Pains." He was also 
appointed to the council in the year of his 
arrival and is believed to have remained a 
member of that body until the surrender of 
the colony to the parliamentary forces in 1652. 
He was one of the strongest of Harvey's ad- 
herents and when the majority of the council 
proposed to depose the governor, Capt. 
Browne is said to have disliked the proceed- 
ings so greatly that he made an excuse of 
gickness and retired to hts home. Before this 
time, Capt. Thomas Young in a letter of July 
13. 1634, states that only two of the council 
were indififerent to Harvey's conduct as gov- 
ernor. Capt. Purefoy and another (Browne), 



who was "an honest and plain man, but of 
email capacity and less power." When Har- 
vey was returned to power, Browne was one 
of the few councillors who acted with him 
and was present at meetings held in Jan. and 
Feb., 1636-37 and Jan., 1639, and was one 
of the few members of the council whom the 
King ordered retained. Upon the accession of 
Gov. Wyatt, the adherents of Harvev 
v/ere in general disfavor in the colony ana 
Browne was turned out of office, Oct., 1640. 
It amounted to only a suspension, however, 
for in the following March he was reinstated. 
He was included in the royal commission of 
1641 under Berkeley, and after the temporary 
retirement of the royalist element at the time 
o^ the protectorate, was restored to the coun- 
cil when Berkeley was again made royal gov- 
ernor in 1660. In a deed of 1652, Browne is 
referred to as "Colonel Henry Browne." He 
died in 166 1 or 1662, leaving a daughter Mary 
who married Lieut. Col. William Browne, who 
lived at "Four Mile Tree," and left many de- 
scendants. 

Menifie, George, came to \'irginia in July, 
1623 and settled at Jamestown. He was for 
'ong one of the wealthiest and probably the 
leading merchant in the colony, and repre- 
sented Jamestown in the house of burgesses 
in 1629. He made frequent voyages to Eng- 
land, probably beginning as early as 1625. In 
1635, he was appointed a member of the coun- 
cil, and for a time was inclined to restrain the 
other councillors from their proposed arrest 
of Harvey, but after mature deliberation, be- 
came of a like mind with them. He it was 
Uiat answered Harvey, when that violent offi- 
cer asked the council what was the cause of 
the people's petition against him, and brought 
down the governor's wrath upon him. Har- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



105 



rery struck him violently upon the shoulder 
and said 'T arrest you of suspicion and Trea- 
son to his Majestie." Upon this the other 
councillors, headed by Utie, arrested the gov- 
ernor. He was, with the other leaders of the 
council, ordered to England by the King to 
answer the charges preferred against them by 
Harvey. He petitioned the King to be allowed 
to return to Virginia and was given permis- 
sion upon his furnishing a bond of ii,ooo to 
appear before the star chamber at any time 
appointed. Menifie returned to Virginia almost 
at once, but was back in England shortly. 
He and Councillors Peirce, Mathews and 
West were at length ordered to return to an- 
swer the charges, but there is nothing to show 
that any of them went. Menifie's name was 
included by the King in his commission of 
councillors in 1641, so it appears probable that 
his majesty's feelings had changed towards 
the worthy councillors. In any event, the 
breaking out of the civil war must have sus- 
pended all the proceedings. He died in 1644, 
leaving a daughter who married Captain Henry 
Perry. 

Hooke, Francis. Writing in 1635, Gov. 
Harvey informed Secretary W^indebank that 
he knows no man so fit to command the 
fort at Point Comfort as Capt. Francis Hooke, 
who was an old servant of King James, and 
requested the King's approval of his appoint- 
ment to that office. This was evidently re- 
ceived as the good captain was given the office 
and was also made a member of the council, 
Jan. 18, 1636-37. Little further is known of 
liim save that prior to his residence in Vir- 
ginia, he had been a naval officer and com- 
manded a ship off the coast of Ireland. 

Donne or Dunn, George, as his name was 
frequently spelt, was the second son of Dr. 



John Donne, the poet and Dean of St. Paul's. 
He was baptized, May 9, 1605, and led an 
eventful life. He was associated as sergeant 
major in the settlement of St. Christopher and, 
when the Spaniards captured the place, was 
carried as a hostage to Madrid, where he re- 
mained a long time a prisoner. He finally 
made his escape by bribing his jailors and got 
safely to England. He went to Virginia with 
Harvey and, in Jan., 1636-37, was a member 
of the council and marshall of Virginia. 
Early in 1640, he was in England in the in- 
terests of Harvey and presented the King with 
a treatise entitled "Virginia Reviewed" which 
is still extant and in the British Museum. He 
also petitioned the King to confirm his title to 
the various offices which he had held in the 
colony, and this was done. His death occurred 
in 1641. 

Brocas, William, settled at an early date in 
Charles River, now York, and early in 1637 
v;as called to the council on the order of the 
English government and was present at many 
meetings. He was again appointed in the royal 
commission of 1641, and once more by Charles 
II. in 1650. The house of burgesses failed to 
include him, however, in the council elected 
by them two years later. Capt. Brocas re- 
ceived numerous grants of land in York arid 
on the Rappahannock, and about the year 
1650, removed to what is now Middlesex 
ccamty. The good captain appears to have 
m.arried three times, but died without issue, 
as it is stated in the records that one John 
Jackson was his heir-at-law. 

Thoroughgood, Adam, was the seventh 
son of William Thoroughgood of Grimston in 
Norfolk and brother of Sir John Thorough- 
good, a pensioner of Charles I. He was born 
in 1602 and came to Virginia in 1621, settling 



io6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



in Kicotan, now Hampton. He acquired by 
patent large tracts of land in various localities, 
;he latest being "granted to him at the espe- 
ciall recommendation of him from their Lord- 
shipps and others, his Ala'ties most Hon'ble 
privie Councell to the Governor and Councell 
of State for Virginia." Capt. Adam Thorough- 
good was a commissioner and burgess for 
Elizabeth City in 1629 and 1630 and was ap- 
pointed to the council in 1637 and the same 
year was presiding justice of the county court 
tf Lower Xorfolk. He died in the spring of 
1&40. leaving descendants in Mrginia. 

Townsend, Richard, was born in 1606 or 
!6o7 and came to \'irginia in 1620 as an ap- 
prentice to Dr. John Pott, afterward governor, 
who was to teach him the art of an apothe- 
cary. The doctor did not carry out his part 
of the contract satisfactorily to Townsend, 
who in 1626, complained to the authorities that 
Pott had neglected to do his duty in the mat- 
ter. The student of drugs probably aban- 
doned his intended profession when he came 
of age, and in course of time rose to be one 
of the leading men of the colony. He was 
burgess for the plantations between "Archer's 
Hope" and "Martin's Hundred," in Oct., 1628 
and, removing in 1630, to what is now York- 
county, became a commissioner or justice there 
in 1633, and presiding justice in 1646. Some- 
time in 1636-37, the secretary in England 
wrote to the governor and council in Virginia 
that Capt. Richard Townsend, having been 
recommended as "an able man for the execu- 
tion of that service, in respect to his knowledge 
of the afifairs of the Country," had been ap- 
pointed a member of the council and that the 
King directed that he be forthwith sworn. He 
was probably turned out of ofifice as some of 
the councillors were at the accession of Wvatt 



10 the governorship, for he appears again a; 
a burgess in 1642. He was again sworn to 
the council in that year, however, and prob- 
ably retained his seat until his death, although 
his name does not appear in that connection 
later than Feb., 1645-46. Townsend was a 
prominent man in the colony and acquired 
considerable tracts of land there by grant. He 
seems to have made a number of trips to Eng- 
land. 

Wormeley, Christopher, a son of Christo- 
pher Wormeky of Yorkshire and a descend- 
ant of Sir John de Wormeley, was governor 
of the island of Tortuga from 1632 to 1635. 
during which last year it was taken by the Span- 
iards, a loss said to have been due to the care- 
lessness of the governor. He appears to have 
come directly to Mrginia as he was a justice 
of Charles River county in 1636. In 1639 and 
1640, he was commander-in-chief of Charles 
River and Elizabeth City counties. In 1636- 
37, he was appointed a member of the council, 
and, being a supporter of Harvey, received a 
share of the governor's unpopularity. When 
Secretary Kemp fled to England in 1640, \\'or- 
nieley seems to have accompanied iiim. He 
and Kemp were accused of cruelty and op- 
pression in the colony and had considerable 
difficulty in making their return to Virginia, 
being twice prevented from doing so by orders 
from the house of lords, the second order being 
served on them when they were already on 
shipboard and about to depart. These charges 
seem to have had a foundation in fact. Wor- 
meley actually confessed later to having tried 
a case against one Taylor unjustly, when a 
commissioner of Elizabeth City. Moral 
standards seem to have been somewhat lax in 
Virginia in 1640 for, although the council di- 
rected ^^'ormeley to make reparation to Tay- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



107 



lor. yet his sins do not seem to have debarred 
him from his office as councillor, and he was 
present at meetings of the council in 1642 and 
1643. It seems probable that he died shorily 
pfter the latter date. 

Evelyn, Robert, was a member of a family 
ithat had several representatives in Virginia 
and Maryland early in the seventeenth cen- 
itury. He was a relative of John Evelyn, the 
diarist and author of "Sylvia," and a brother 
of Capt. George Evelyn who emigrated from 
England to Maryland. Capt. Thomas Young, 
an uncle of Robert Evelyn, having obtained 
permission to trade in America and to explore 
there, sailed from England in 1634 with two 
ihips, taking his nephew, Lieut. Robert Eve- 
lyn, as his second in command. They arrived 
at Point Comfort, in Virginia, on July 3, and 
on the first of September, Evelyn, in a small 
shallop, which Young had built, departed for 
the Delaware, whither he was soon followed 
by his uncle. Here they built a fort where 
Evelyn says he remained four years trading 
with the Indians. He doubtless means that 
he and his uncle retained an interest in the 
place for that length of time, for in 1634 
Evelyn himself returned to England and was 
again there in 1637. In the latter year he 
made another trip to Virginia, carrying a 
recommendation from Secretary Windebanke 
to Gov. Harvey, who was "to let him passe 
without let or hinderance on this great and 
secret service of his Majesty's. What this 
great and secret service was does not appear, 
but it most probably relates to some rose col- 
ored accounts of profit in trade which Young 
and Evelyn had given. Immediately upon his 
arrival in Virginia, Gov. Harvey and Secre- 
tary Kemp chose Evelyn to be surveyor-gen- 
eral of the colony, in place of Gabriel Hawley, 



deceased. This appointment was ratified by 
the English government, which also appointed 
him a member of the council. In 1640, Eve- 
lyn again went to England and in the next 
year, published a pamphlet giving directions 
tc emigrants to America. Before this time he 
appears to become a resident of Maryland and 
was a member of the assembly of that colony. 
He continued to play a prominent part in the 
affairs of Maryland for a time, but after 1642 
he is not mentioned in the records. A nephew, 
Mountjoy Evelyn, son of Capt. George Eve- 
lyn resided in James City county, \'irginia. 

Hawley, Jerome. Burke's "Peerage and 
Baronetage" gives the pedigree of the present 
baronet of the name of Hawley, tracing to an 
ancestor in Somersetshire, from whose eldest 
son the extinct Lords Hawley were descended, 
and whose second son, Jeremy Hawley, of 
Boston, near Brentford, Middlesex, England, 
was the father of ( i ) James Hawley, Esq., 
of Brentford; (2) John, who married Amy, 
daughter of Thomas Studley, possibly the 
first "Cape Merchant" of Virginia; and (3) 
Capt. Henry Hawley. John and Amy ( Stud- 
ley) Hawley had issue: (i) Jerome, of Vir- 
ginia and Maryland; (2) Capt. Henry, gov- 
ernor of Barbadoes; (3) Dr. Richard, of Lon- 
don, ancestor of the present baronet; (4) 
James, who was also interested in the colonies 
and perhaps lived in Northumberland county, 
Virginia; (5) William, who came from Barba- 
does to Maryland after the death of his 
brother Jerome, and was a signer of the Prot- 
estant Declaration of 1650. There were two 
other sons, who were probably Gabriel, who 
died in Virginia while holding the office of 
surveyor-general, and John, who came to Vir- 
ginia in 1619. Jerome Hawley was a coun- 
cillor of Maryland in 1634, and returned to 



io8 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



England in the summer of 1635. On Jan. 5, 
1637, the King appointed him treasurer of 
Virginia and a member of the council there. 
At this time he was "one of the gentlemen 
servers to Queen Henrietta Maria. He came 
to Virginia in March, but soon returned to 
Maryland, where he had large interests. He 
died about Aug., 1638, deeply in debt, and on 
the 14th of that month the Maryland author- 
ities, who spoke of him as "late of St. Maries," 
appointed Thomas Cornwallis administrator of 
his estate. 

Sibsey or Sipsey, John, is first mentioned 
on .Sept. 2, 1624, when, as John Sipsey, of 
Kichoughtan, "yeoman," he was granted a 
tract of 250 acres on the "south side of the 
river over against Kiccoughtan," as Hampton 
was then called. He returned to England 
after this time, for in the winter of 1626-27, 
a ship going to Virginia carrying some plant- 
ers and servants, chiefly Irish, ran aground in 
Barnstable Bay, the principal persons on 
bciard being Fell (Felgate?) and Sipsie. In 
Sept., 1632, and Feb., 1633, John Sibsey was 
a burgess for the upper parish of Elizabeth 
City, and in 1636-37, probably in January, he 
was made a councillor. He must have been 
one of the council for a very short time, how- 
ever, for in 1639 he was burgess for Lower 
Norfolk, where he had acquired a consider- 
able estate. On June i, 1635, he had received 
two grants of 1 500 acres each, one on the 
western branch of the Elizabeth river, and 
the other nearby, probably adjoining. In 1640 
he was one of the residents of Lower Nor- 
folk who subscribed to pay the salary of 
Thomas Harrison, the well known Puritan 
minister, and in 1641 he was again a burgess 
for that county. During a long period Capt. 
Sibsey was one of the leading men in this sec- 



tion of Virginia, and held all of the more im- 
portant county offices. He was a justice from 
July, 1637, for many years succeeding, sheriff 
in 1642 and 1645, commander of Lower Nor- 
folk in 1645 and 1646, and deputy lieutenant 
of the county in 1646. From an entry in the 
Lower Norfolk records, in 1646, it may be 
seen that Sibsey then had a son Thomas, and 
fiom another, dated June 22, 1647, 'hat he 
v.as a co-partner in the ships "John and Bar- 
bary" and "America," and a freighter in the 
ships "Bellman" and "Blessing." 

Hobson, John. On June 2, 1620, and Jan. 
30, of the year following, Sir Richard Worse- 
ley, Bart., Capt. Nathaniel Basse, John Hobson, 
Gent., and Capt. Christopher Lawne agreed 
with the Virginia to transport 100 persons to 
Virginia and receive a "confirmation of their 
old patent." Their settlement was to be called 
"the Isle of Wight's plantation," and it is pos- 
sible that all the patentees were, as Worseley 
certainly was, residents of the Isle of Wight, 
in England. Hobson came to Virginia about 
this time, but exactly when he arrived there 
or how long he remained is not known. In 
1637, Capt. John Hobson, "who hath formerly 
been in Virginia and is now ready to return," 
was added to the council. He sailed from 
England soon after June 4, 1637, upon which 
day, at the request of "Captain John Hop- 
sonn, one of his Majesty's Council in Vir- 
ginia," the seamen of the ship in which he 
was about to take passage were exempted 
from empressment. He was present as a 
member of the council Feb. 20, 1637, and on 
the 4th of June following, and was included 
in the commission of councillors under Gov. 
Berkeley, Aug. 9, 1641. On March 16, 1635, 
"Captain John Hobson, Esq., one of the Coun- 
cil of State," received a grant of land extend- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



109 



iiig from Pagan Point Creek, "'hereafter to be 
called Hampstead Point," to VVarruschis- 
queake river, "hereafter to be called New 
Town Haven," due him for "a share of his 
adventure." The grant was dated May 2, 
1621, in the time of the Virginia Company, of 
which Hobson had been a member. When 
Capt. Hobson died is not known. 

Willoughby, Thomas, was a nephew of 
Sir Percival Willoughby, of Wollaton, who 
was from Kent, married his relative, the 
heiress of the Willoughbys of Wollaton, and 
had several brothers. At least so runs the 
family tradition. Thomas was born in 1601, 
came to \'irginia when he was nine years old, 
and lived first, in Elizabeth City county, and 
afterwards in Lower Norfolk. After reach- 
ing manhood, he was for many years one of 
the leading merchants of the colony. There 
is to be found in Sainsbury's "Calendar of 
Colonial State Papers" (vol. i.) a certificate, 
dated 1627, by Thomas Willoughby, of 
Rochester, aged twenty^seven years, in regard 
to a ship in which he was about to go to Vir- 
ginia. There can hardly be a doubt that this 
was the Virginian returning from a visit to 
his old home. As soon as he arrived in Vir- 
ginia, he was engaged in warfare with the 
Indians, for on July 4, 1627, Lieut. Pippet 
and Ensign Willoughby were ordered to attack 
the Chesapeakes. As "Lieutenant Thomas 
A\'illoughby," he was appointed a commis- 
sioner (justice) for Elizabeth City, on March 
26, 1628-29, and again in Feb., 1631-32, and 
Sept., 1632. On March 11, 1639, "Capt. 
Thos. Willoughby, Esq.," was presiding jus- 
tice of Lower Norfolk. He represented the 
"LTpper Part of Elizabeth City," in the house 
of burgesses at the session of March, 1629-30, 
and was again a member for "Waters Creek 



and the Upper Part of Elizabeth City," in 
Feb., 1631-32. In Sept., 1632, he was a bur- 
gess, but was absent, at least at the beginning 
of the session, being in England about this 
time. On Jan. 6, 1639, Willoughby was pres- 
ent as a member of the council, and on Aug. 
9, 1641, he was again commissioned as a coun- 
cillor under Gov. Berkeley, and was present 
at the meetings of Feb., 1644-45, I^Iarch, 1645- 
4b, and Oct., 1646. In the last named year he 
was "high lieutenant" of Norfolk county. He 
was included in the commission of the council 
issued by Charles II. at Breda in 1650, but 
was not among the councillors elected by the 
house of burgesses in April, 1652. In Nov., 
1654, the assembly made the following order; 
"It is ordered by the present Grand Assembly 
in the difiference between Capt. Thos. Wil- 
loughby and Bartholomew Hodgskins (Hos- 
kins) that Hodgskins the then sheriff is noway 
liable to make Willoughby any satisfaction, 
and the former proceedings against the said 
Willoughby were grounded upon very good 
reasons, because it appeareth that the said 
Willoughby was not sworn nor acted as a 
Councillor of this Country before the Levy 
was made which he refusing to pay, occa- 
sioned all the damage, which in this petition 
he doth pretend to." Thomas Willoughby 
patented large tracts of land in Lower Nor- 
folk county which his descendants owned for 
several generations. Part of this estate, Wil- 
loughby Point, near Norfolk, known as the 
"manor plantation" was until lately the prop- 
erty of descendants through female lines. 
The name of Capt. Willoughby's wife is not 
known, unless, as seems probable, it appears 
under a patent to him in 1654, when Alice, 
Thomas and Elizabeth Willoughby are men- 
tioned as head rights. In the old records of 
Lower Norfolk is the following; "At a Court 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



held i6th August, 1658. Upon Peticon of Mr. 
The. Willoughby a commission of Adm"con 
is granted unto him on his father's estate, 
Capt. Tho. Willoughby who deceased in Eng- 
land, hee putting in Security according to 
law." 

Wormeley, Ralph, was a son of Christo- 
pher Wormeley, Esq., and a descendant of 
Sir John de Wormeley, of Hadfield, county 
York, England (1312), and brother of Chris- 
topher Wormely, Esq., acting governor of the 
Tortuga Island, 1631-1635, who also settled 
in \'irginia. He was born about 1620 and 
came to \'irginia about 1635, and settled in 
York county. He was a justice of the county 
in 1648, with the rank of captain, and in 1650 
was made a member of the council. He died 
in 1 65 1. In 1646 he married Agatha Elton- 
head, widow of Luke Stubbins, gentleman, of 
Northampton county, Virginia. She was the 
daughter of Richard Eltonhead, of Eltonhead, 
county Lancaster, England, and on the death 
of Wormeley she married Sir Henry Chicheley, 
a royalist who fled to Virginia in 1649 ^^^ 
was afterwards lieutenant governor. He was 
father of Ralph Wormeley, who became secre- 
tary of state of \'irginia. He died in 165 1. 

Littleton, Nathaniel, was the sixth son of 
Sir Edward Littleton, of Henly, Shropshire, 
and brother of Sir Edward Littleton, lord 
keeper, served in the Low Countries, in the 
Earl of Southampton's company, in 1625, and 
emigrated in 1635 to Virginia, where he set- 
tled at Nadua Creek, Accomac county. In 
1640, he was chief magistrate of that county, 
and on March 18, 1644, was appointed com- 
mander of Accomac, an office which he held 
for a number of years. On .\pril 30, 1652, 
he was elected to the council, and was a mem- 
ber until his death about two years later. 



Prior to March i, 1652, Capt. Littleton, "Gov- 
ernor of Accomache," had married the widow 
of Charles Harmar. She was Ann, daughter 
of Henry Southey, Esq., of Rimpton, Somer- 
setshire, to whom the company had issued a 
patent in reward of his undertaking to trans- 
port 100 persons to \'irginia. Councillor 
Littleton's death occurred in or before 1654, 
and that of his wife in 1656. He has numer- 
ous descendants in Virginia. 

Harmer, Ambrose, came to \'irginia in 
about the year 1625. This much may be 
gathered from his petition to the King, asking 
to be given legal control over Benoni Buck, 
the first idiot who had ever lived in \'irginia. 
The petition was dated 1637, and in it Mr. 
Harmer stated that he had had the tuition of 
Benoni and his brother, children of the well 
known Virginia clergyman. Rev. Richard 
Buck, for thirteen years past. Just when 
Harmer was appointed to the council does not 
appear, but he was present at meetings on 
Jan. 6, 1639. and }klarch 5, 1640. He was left 
out of the commission of councillors of Aug. 
9. 1641, but whatever the cause may have 
been, it was not unpopularity with the people, 
for he represented James City county in the 
house of burgesses at the sessions of Feb., 
1644-45, ^'ov.. 1645, March, 1645-46, and 
Oct., 1646, when his name appears for the last 
time in the records, and he was speaker of 
that honorable house. The land grants show 
a deed, dated April 18, 1642, from "William 
Taylor of Chisciacke, gent., to Ambrose Har- 
mer, of Virginia, Esq., and Jane now his 
wife." reciting that on Nov. 9. 1638, a grant 
0^ 1200 acres was made to the said William 
Taylor, "the land lying on Chickahominy, in 
James City County, due him for the trans- 
portation of twenty-four persons, and said 



COLONIAL COUx\CILLORS OF STATE 



Taylor now conveys the land to Harmer and 
wife." Elizabeth,, wife of Taylor, also con- 
veys her right of dower in the land. The wife 
of William Taylor, or Tayloe, was Elizabeth 
daughter of Richard Kingsmill, and it is pos- 
sible that Mrs. Jane Harmer was her mother, 
as Richard Kingsmill's wife was named Jane. 

Yardley, Argall, was a son of Sir George 
Yardley, governor and councillor of ^'irginia. 
The younger Yardley's name is first recorded 
among those present on Jan. 6, 1639, and on 
July 6, 1640. On Feb. 26, 1644, proceedings 
were instituted against "Col. Argall Yardley 
of the Council," for contempt. He was re- 
elected a councillor in April, 1652, and ap- 
pointed justice for Northampton in 1653, and 
once more elected to the council March 31, 
1654-55. Colonel Yardley married Sarah, 
eldest daughter of John Michael, merchant. 
Their marriage contract bears the date of 
Jan. 23, 1640. On March 28, 1656, the gen- 
eral assembly had ordered the "denization" of 
"John Michael, stranger," then a resident of 
Northampton county. A deed is recorded 
under date of Dec. 28, 1648, from "Argall 
Yardley, elder son and heir of Sir George 
Yardley, deceased," to his son Edmund, also 
a deed from Argall Yardley to Henry and 
Edmund Yardley, and a deed of gift recorded 
Aug., 1674, from John ^lichael, Sr., to his 
daughter Sarah and her husband, Argall 
Yardley, and to their children, Argall Yard- 
ley, Jr., John, Elizabeth and Frances Yardley. 
According to an inventory of the personal 
estate of Colonel Argall Yardley, Esq., dated 
Nov. 13, 1655, he had 41,269 pounds of tobacco, 
and a tobacco house and two servants in Bar- 
badoes. He has numerous descendants in \'ir- 
ginia. 

Bennett, Richard, governor of Virginia 
(q. v.). 



Digges, Edward, governor of Virginia (q. 
v.). 

Mathews, Samuel, governor of Virginia 
(q. v.). 

Wingate, Roger, was a member of an old 
Bedfordshire family and the son of Roger 
\Mngate. of Barnend, Bedfordshire. In the 
year 1637, he was living in London and two 
years later was appointed by the King treas- 
urer of Mrginia and a member of the council. 
He came to the colony at once and was pres- 
ent in council Jan., 1639-40, and subsequently. 
\\'ingate probably died in the beginning of the 
year 1641, as in February of that year, Rich- 
ard Morrison was appointed to the council in 
his place. This may, however, have been in 
the following year as his name is included in 
the commission of Aug. 9, 1641. 

Pettus, Thomas, first appears in the Vir- 
ginia records as included in the commission 
to the councillors at the beginning of Berke- 
ley's administration, Aug. 9, 1641. He prob- 
ably came to the colony about that time. He 
was present at meetings as late as 1651, but in 
this year seems to have lost his seat on the 
arrival of the parliamentary commissioners. 
The house of burgesses, however, elected him 
a councillor in 1652 and reelected him a num- 
ber of times afterwards. LTpon Berkeley's re- 
appointment to the governorship at the time 
of the restoration, in 1660, the King again 
commissioned Pettus a councillor. Colonel 
Pettus made his home at "Littletown" on the 
James river, not far below Jamestown. The 
date of his death is not known. 

Morrison or Moryson, Richard, together 
with two of his brothers, settled in Virginia 
during the first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, where they all became men of promi- 
nence, Francis Morrison serving as governor 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



during Berkeley's absence in England, 1661 
and 1662. They were sons of Sir Richard 
Alorrison, J\I. P., of Tooley Park, Leicester- 
shire, who had served long in the English 
army and was made lieutenant-general of 
ordnance. They were also brothers-in-law of 
Lucius Gary, Lord Falkland. Our subject, 
Maj. Richard Morrison, was appointed com- 
mander of the fort at Point Comfort in 1638 
and in Feb., 1641, was appointed member of 
the council in the place of Roger Wingate, de- 
ceased. Maj. Morrison's death occurred in or 
prior to 1656, as in that year ]\Irs. Winifred 
Morrison is mentioned as his widow. 

Higginson, Humphrey, born in 1607, sail- 
ed from London for Virginia in the ship 
"George," in 1635. On Feb. 6, 1637-38, as 
"Humphrey Higginson, Gentleman," he re- 
ceived a grant of 700 acres of land called 
"Tuttey's Neck," adjoining Harop, now Wil- 
liamsburg, and lying on a branch of Archer's 
Hope Creek, "that partieth this land from 
Kingsmell's neck," said land being granted to 
Elizabeth, "his now wife," by order of the 
court dated October 4, 1637. Tuttey's Neck is 
still a well known place near Williamsburg, 
Virginia, and lies back of the "Kingsmill" 
estate. On Oct. 18, 1642, "Captain Humphrey 
Higginson, Esq.," received another grant of 
320 acres adjoining Tuttey's Neck. Higgin- 
son's first official position of which there is 
any record was that of tobacco inspector in the 
section of James City county lying between 
the east side of Archer's Hope and W'aram's 
ponds. On Alig. 9, 1641, he was appointed 
b}- the King a member of the council, and was 
present at the meetings held March, 1642-43, 
Oct., 1644, and Feb., 1644-45. On April 
30, 1652, the burgesses elected him a member 
of the council, and he was present March 31, 



1654-55, but he must have gone to England 
soon after, for in Dec, 1656, the house of 
burgesses made the following order : "Whereas 
Thos. Loving, high sheriff of James City 
County, by Petition Requested the Opinion of 
this house whether Coll. Higginson, having 
been so long absent out of the Country, should 
enjoy the Privilege of Counsellor by exempt- 
ing certain persons out of the Levies, it is 
Resolved that in Respect of his long absence, 
he being upon no public employment, shall not 
have any Persons Belonging to him exempted." 
Besides the grants of land given above, Col. 
Higginson had two others, a partnership with 
Abraham Aloone for 2,000 acres on the south 
side of the Potomac, Sept. 20, 1654, and one 
of "Colonel Humphrey Higginson, of the 
Council of State, and his son Thomas Hig- 
ginson," for 800 acres on the south side of 
Pianketank, in Gloucester county, Sept. 20, 
1654. The son probably died within a few 
years, for he is not mentioned in his father's 
will. Col. Higginson died at Ratclifife, in 
Stepney parish, London, in 1665-1660. He 
left a brother, Capt. Christopher Higginson, 
A'irginia, who has numerous descendants. See 
William and Mary Quarterly V, p. 186, 

Pawlett or Paulett, Thomas, was born 
about 1585. In Aug., 1618, he came in the 
irhip "Neptune" to \^irginia, where he settled 
in the present Charles City county, and was a 
member of the first house of burgesses, assem- 
bled July 30, 1619. In 1623 he was living at 
"West Shirley Hundred." He was appointed 
a commissioner (justice) for Charles City 
and Henrico counties in Feb., 1631-32, and 
was a member of the house of burgesses for 
Westover and Flower de Hundred in Febru- 
ary of the year following, and again for 
Charles City in Jan.. 1639. He was commis- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



"3 



sioned member of the council Aug. 9, 1641, 
and retained his seat as a member of that 
bod)' until his death in 1643. On Jan. 15, 
1637, "Captain Thomas Pawlett" received a 
giant of 2,000 acres of land in Charles City 
county, at Westover, which was bounded on 
the south side by the river, east by the land of 
Capt. Perry, and west by Berkeley Hundred. 
This land was declared to be due to Capt. 
Pawlett for the "personal adventure" into the 
colony of himself and his brother, Chidock 
Pawlett, and for his transportation of thirty- 
eight other persons. By his will, dated Jan. 
12, 1644, he left Westover to his brother, Sir 
John Lord Pawlett, then living in Manchester, 
county Southampton, England. 

Wyatt, Sir Francis, governor of Virginia 
(q. v.). 

Ludlow, George, was a descendant of the 
old and distinguished family of Ludlow of 
Wiltshire. He was baptized Sept. 15, 1596, 
and came to America about 1630. His first 
place of settlement was Massachusetts, where 
ht was made a freeman, but about 1634, he 
removed to Virginia and settled in the upper 
county of New Norfolk, receiving there a 
grant of 500 acres of land. He appears to 
have been sworn as a member of the council 
in 1642 and on Aug. i of that year signed the 
"Declaration against the Company." He was 
present at the sessions of the council until the 
overthrow of the royal government in 1652, 
when he was at once elected to the same office 
by the house of burgesses, and by them re- 
elected a number of times. He held his office 
until his death in 1656. Though he was in- 
cluded in the commission issued to the coun- 
cil by Charles II. at Breda, in 1650, his sym- 
pathies were probably with parliament, and 
according to one authority declared openly in 

VlK-8 



its favor at the time of the colony's surrender 
tn the commissioners. Col. George Lud- 
low was for many years one of the wealthiest 
and most active merchants in Virginia and 
took up many thousand acres of land by patent 
and purchase. Like many of the prominent 
planters, he was much interested in the intro- 
duction of silk culture. Col. Ludlow's resi- 
dence was at the place now known as "Temple 
Farm," a little below Yorktown and it is possi- 
ble that the ancient house, still standing in 
part, in which Cornwallis signed his sur- 
render, was built by Ludlow. 

Freeman, Bridges, was a burgess for "Pash- 
bahay in 1629-30, before which date nothing 
is known of him. His lands lay on the east 
side of the Chickahominy river, and in Sept., 
1632, he represented Chickahominy in the 
house of burgesses. In November, 1647, he 
was again a burgess, this time for James City. 
It was in the same month that the assembly 
appointed him collector of public levies at 
Chickahominy and Sandy Point. He was a 
member of the council, and present at the 
board, Sept. 30, 1650, and was reelected a 
member, April 30, 1652, and again, as "Colo- 
nel Bridges Freeman," on March 31, 1654-55. 
It is probable that for a time he was adjutant- 
general of the colony, as "Adjutant Freeman" 
was present as a councillor, Nov. 6, 165 1. 

Davenant, Sir William, the famous Eng- 
lish poet, and the successor to "Rare Ben 
Johnson" as poet laureate, was appointed to 
his Majesty's council in Virginia June 3, 1650. 
During the civil wars in England he had been 
[;rominent in the army of King Charles, who 
knighted him, but on the defeat of the Royal- 
ists, he took refuge in France and devoted 
himself to writing under the patronage of 
Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of the unfor- 



[14 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



tunate King. When Sir William had com- 
pleted two books of his heroic poem "Gondi- 
bert," upon which most of his reputation as a 
poet rests, the Queen ordered him to go to 
Virginia to convey to the colony some men 
skilled in various mechanical arts whom she 
thought would be useful there. Accompanied 
by the emigrants, and armed with a commis- 
sion as councillor, the poet set sail for James- 
town, but he was destined never to fulfill his 
charge, for before he was out of sight of the 
French coast, he was captured by a parliament 
ship and carried a prisoner to Cowes Castle, 
wher^ he was kept confined for two years. 
Here his life was spared partly through the 
influence of Milton, for whom, in true poetic 
justice, he was enabled to do a like service 
later in life. Sir William Davenant never 
made a second attempt to come to Virginia. 
After his release from prison he devoted him- 
self to his literary work until his death, Sept. 
7, 1658. 

Stegg or Stagg, Thomas, merchant of Lon- 
don, came to the colony in or before 1636, 
when Gov. Harvey called him one of the 
"ablest merchants in \'irginia." On Jan. 6. 
1639, he received a grant of i.ooo acres be- 
tween "01dman"s and Queen's Creeks," in 
Charles City county, which became his place 
of residence. In 1640 he aided Secretary 
Kemp to escape from the colony without the 
consent of the governor and council, and for 
this ofifence was fined fifty pounds and sen- 
tenced to be imprisoned during the governor's 
pleasure. It is probable that the imprison- 
ment was not of long duration, as he was a 
burgess from Charles City county in March, 
1642^43. At this session he was speaker of 
the house, and two years later was justice of 
the same county. He was included in the 



commission of 1650 to the councdlors, issued 
by Charles II. at Breda, but was at that time 
in England a partisan of parliament. He was 
appointed one of the parliamentary commis- 
sioners to subdue X'irginia, but the frigate 
"John," commanded by Capt. Dennis, himself 
? commissioner, was lost on its way to X'ir- 
ginia in 1652, and Stegg and Dennis perished. 

Chiles, Walter, merchant, came to \'irginia 
about 1638 and was granted 400 acres in 
Charles City county. As Lieut. -Col. Walter 
Cliiles, he represented that county in 1642-43 
iii the house of burgesses. He subsequently 
removed to Jamestown Island and was bur- 
gess fcr James City county in 1645, 1645- 
4O and 1649. He is recorded to have sailed 
from Rotterdam in his own ship, the "Fame 
of X'irginia," but, reaching X'irginia waters, 
was captured by the "Hopeful Adventure," 
Capt. Richard Husband, upon pretext that he 
had no license. The Northampton court 
ordered Husband to release the vessel, but that 
bold captain, disregarding the order, calmly 
sailed away with it to the great anger of the 
worthy men of Xorthampton. It happened 
that when the dispute arising from this inci- 
dent came up before the assembly for settle- 
nieiU, XX'alter L'hiles himself was a candidate 
for the speakership of that body. Gov. Bennet 
thereupon sent a note to the burgesses in 
v.hich, after stating that he did not wish to 
"intrench upon the right of Assemblies in the 
free choice of a speaker," pointed out that it 
would be highly inappropriate to appoint 
Chiles to any office in a body before which 
his own case nnist be tried. The assembly, 
however, with a sublime disregard of pro- 
priety and the interference of governors, 
promptly elected him to the post. Chiles him- 
self, however, verv much to his honor, de- 



COLONIAL COUX'CILLORS OF STATE 



"5 



cKned the honor. He is recorded as being 
present at a session of the council in 1651. 
His death occurred about 1652. Through his 
son Walter, who was a member of the house 
of burgesses, he is numerously represented in 
\'irginia. 

Epes or Eppes, Francis, first styled cap- 
tain and afterwards lieutenant-colonel, settled 
before 1625, in what soon became Charles 
City county. In the same year he was a mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses, and in Feb., 
1631-32. represented in that house "Both Shir- 
ley Hundreds, the Farrar's and Chaplayne's." 
He was appointed a commissioner (justice) 
for Charles City and Henrico counties in 1631, 
and in 1639 and 1645, was a burgess from 
Charles City. It was on April 30, 1652, that 
Epes was elected a member of the council, 
and lie probably died before 1655. On Aug. 
26. 1635, he patented 1700 acres of land in 
Charles City county, on the south side of 
James river, bounded on the east by Bayly's 
cieek, and on the west by Cosons (Cawson's) 
creek and the Appomattox river. Some of 
tl;is land is believed to be owned by his de- 
scendants. Col. Francis Epes probably mar- 
ried in England, and the arms borne by his 
descendants in Virginia are the same as those 
ascribed in English heraldic works to "Epes, 
or Epps, of Canterbury, Kent." 

Cheesman or Chisraan, John, was born in 
1595 and came to Virginia in the ship "Flying 
Hart" in 1621. At a later date, he lived in 
\ ork county, where he was a justice in 1633, 
a captain in 1637 and a member of the house 
of burgesses in March, 1642-43. On April 
30, 1652. as "Lieutenant-Colone! John Chees- 
man," he was elected councillor by the bur- 
gesses. Cheesman must have returned to Eng- 
land about 1661, as in that year he was men- 



tioned in a power of attorney to Lawrence 
Smith as of the "parish of St. Mary Magda- 
lene in Bermondsea, in the County of Surry, 
merchant." Under this power. Smith, in 1662, 
leased for twenty-one years, to Edmund 
Cheesman, or Chisman, of Poquoson parish, 
York county, Virginia, brother of said John 
Cheesman, the councillor, all of that gentle- 
man's property in York county. Col. John 
Clieesman died before 1678, as in that year 
his wi;!ow Margaret gave a power of attorney 
to her "cozen," Thomas Cheesman, in Vir- 
ginia. Councillor Cheesman's brother, Ed- 
mund Cheesman, was the father of the Ed- 
mund Cheesman, who took an active part in 
Bacon's rebellion and was sentenced to death 
by Gov. Berkeley, but died in prison. The 
family is numerously represented in Virginia. 

Lunsford, Sir Thomas, son of Thomas 
Lunsford, of Wilegh, Sussex, England, was 
born about 16 10. Though but little is known 
01 his life in Virginia, and his only memorial 
there is a stone, his name was once a familiar 
one in every hamlet in England, and was the 
object of the most intense hatred and fear to 
a large part of the English people. He was, 
according to Clarendon, of a very old family, 
but of small fortune and without much edu- 
cation. His youth was wild and he was im- 
prisoned and fined £9,000, for outrages of a 
violent kind. He made his escape into France, 
however, and a sentence of outlawry was pro- 
nounced against him in England. Upon his 
return to England, he was pardoned by the 
King and a large part of his fine remitted. In 
the following year, 1640, he was given a com- 
mand against the Scots and distinguished him- 
self at Newburn in spite of the English de- 
feat. The King, who seems to have regarded 
him with favor from the start, now rewarded 



i6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



him by appointing him lieutenant of the 
Tower, an act which at once caused the most 
intense excitement all over the country. It 
was at the time when the struggle between the 
King and commons was rapidly drawing to a 
crises, and every royal act was scrutinized 
v/ith hostile eyes. The placing of a man, 
whose youth had been anything but exemplary, 
was seized upon by the excited popular imagi- 
nation and exaggerated beyond the bounds of 
reason. He was accused of every crime of 
oppression, of plotting against the people's 
and was even believed to be a cannibal who 
ate children. That Lunsford's sympathies 
were entirely royalist, that he was a resolute 
and dangerous enemy of the parliament in the 
civil. wars, was later abundantly proven, and 
it seems quite possible that he was even vio- 
lent towards those who opposed him; but the 
popular belief was undoubtedly quite with- 
out foundation, and merely one of those ex- 
travagances which the heated feelings of such 
a time give rise to. Lunsford took an active 
part in the wars which shook England, and 
v;as unusually successful in the field. He was 
thrice captured and twice released, though on 
each occasion he resolutely declared his allegi- 
ance to the King. The manner of his regain- 
ing his freedom for the third time is not 
known, but he was at liberty before June 29, 
1648, for there is a letter of that date from 
him to the Prince of Wales. After the execu- 
tion of the King, Lunsford, like so many of 
his fellow cavaliers, sought refuge in Virginia, 
which held out for the royal cause, and on 
Aug. 7, 1649, he received a pass for himself 
and family to the new home across the water. 
In Col. Norwood's account of his own voyage 
to Virginia, he relates finding at Capt. Worm- 
ley's, several friends and brother officers who, 
a short time before, had come from England. 



They were Cols. Philip Honeywood, Alain- 
waring Hammond, Sir Henry Chicheley and 
Sir Thomas Lunsford. In Oct., 1650, he re- 
ceived a patent for 3423 acres of land on the 
Rappahannock river. When Virginia was 
threatened with an invasion by the parlia- 
mentary forces from England, Gov. Berkeley 
did not overlook so distinguished a soldier as 
Lunsford, who accordingly appears in a list 
of councillors present on Nov. 6, 165 1, as Sir 
Thomas Lunsford, lieutenant-general. He of 
course retired from the council on the 
colony's surrender to parliament. His death 
must have occurred about 1653, as there is, in 
that year, an order among the English records, 
appointing a guardian for his three daughters. 
By his third wife, whom he married in Vir- 
ginia, he had a daughter Catherine, who "mar- 
ried Hon. Ralph Wormeley, Esq., secretary of 
state, and from this marriage Sir Thomas has 
many descendants in Virginia. 

Lee, Richard, who was honored in being 
the progenitor of the distinguished Lee family 
of Virginia, was descended from the Coton 
branch of the Shropshire Lees, one of the old- 
est families in England, their ancestry being 
traceable for some 750 years. "Colonel Rich- 
ard Lee, Secretary of State in Virginia, anno 
1659," was described by a descendant as "of 
guod stature, comely visage, an enterprising 
genius, a sound head, vigorous spirit and gen- 
erous nature." His first home in Virginia 
was in York county, where on Aug. 10, 1642, 
he was granted 1,000 acres of land. There is 
a tradition to the efifect that Col. Lee was 
accompanied to Virginia by a brother Robert, 
who also settled in York, but whether or not 
this is true, or whether the other families of 
Lee in Virginia were in any way related to 
the councillor, cannot be proven. The first 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



117 



luention of Lee as holding a public place is in 
the official records under date of Feb., 1641, 
when he was appointed clerk of the council. 
On Oct. 12, 1643, he was made attorney-gen- 
eral, in 1646 he was a magistrate for York and 
the year following represented that county in 
the house of burgesses. He seems to have 
moved away from York in or before 1651, 
a> in that year he was paid for services as a 
burgess of Northumberland. On Sept. 9, of 
the same year, he was present in the council as 
a member. He owned three plantations, one 
in York county, on the York river, and two 
ill Northumberland on Dividing creeks, where 
necks of land afford such a good harbor that 
it is used to this day as a landing place for 
Baltimore steamers. In addition to these 
places grants of land in Lancaster, Westmore- 
land and Gloucester were made to him. He 
was a staunch Royalist and made many trips 
to England and on to Holland, the latter for 
the express purpose of seeing the exciled 
King, Charles II. According to John Gibbons, 
Lee intended to end his days in England, and 
with this in view, employed him. Gibbons, to 
oversee his estate in the colony. It happens, 
however, that his will arranges for the dis- 
posal of his English property and the settle- 
ment of his children in the colony, "all except 
Francis if he be pleased," so that it seems 
probable that Gibbons was in error. This will 
was executed in London on Feb. 6, 1663-64, 
while Col. Lee was in England. He must 
have returned to Virginia shortly after this 
and died almost upon arrival, as he is men- 
tioned under date of April 20, 1664, as "Colo- 
nel Richard Lee Esq., who is now deceased." 

Taylor or Tayloe, William, was an early 
settler in York county. In or before 1640, he 
purchased from John Utie the estate called 



"Utiemaria" in that county, but, it seems, did 
not long hold it. By a deed dated Dec. 25, 
1640, "William Taylor of Utiemaria in the 
County of Charles River, in Virginia, mer- 
chant," sold to William Blackley, 100 acres of 
land which he had bought from John Utie, and 
on Jan. 7, 1641, he sold to Henry Corbell 1250 
acres also purchased from Utie. Col. William 
Tayloe, as he ultimately became, was a bur- 
gess for York in March, 1642-43, and Nov., 
1647. As Maj. William Taylor, he was pres- 
ent as a member of the council, Nov. 6, 1651, 
but lost his seat on the surrender of Virginia 
to the parliament. He was, however, again 
elected a councillor, April 30, 1652, and once 
more on March 31, 1654-55. He had been a 
justice of York since 1647. Col. Tayloe mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Kings- 
mill, of Virginia, and died without issue. His 
widow married secondly Nathaniel Bacon. 
The tomb of Mrs. Elizabeth Bacon, now in 
St. Paul's Churchyard, Norfolk, bears the 
Kingsmill and Tayloe arms. Through his 
nephew, however. Col. William Tayloe, of 
Richmond county, he has numerous represent- 
atives in Virginia. 

Bernard, William, was born about 1598, 
and came to the colony in 1625, in the ship 
"America." He was the son of Francis Ber- 
nard, Esq., of Kingsthorpe, Northampton- 
shire, and brother of Sir Robert Bernard, 
Bart., of Brampton, Huntingdonshire. He 
settled first in Isle of Wight county and prob- 
ably continued to make his home there. He 
was certainly living there in 1639, when the 
assembly appointed him a tobacco inspector 
for the district extending from Laune's creek 
to Casstra ( ?) creek. The act styles him "Mr. 
William Barnett." Bernard first appears as a 
member of the council in March, 1642-43, and 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



retained his seat until 1652. The house of 
burgesses again made him a councillor by suc- 
cessive elections in April, 1652; March, 1654- 
55 ; March, 1657-58 and April, 1658. He was 
also present as a member on ]\Iarch 13, 1659- 
60. He doubtless remained a councillor until 
his death, which occurred in or not long be- 
fore 1662. Col. Bernard took part in the effort 
to make silk culture a success in Virginia, and 
in the "Reformed Virginia Silk Worm," pub- 
li^hed in 1652. John Ferrar Jr., who puts into 
rhyme the substance of letters lately received 
b^■ his sister, \'irginia Ferrar, says of him ; 

"Yea, worthy Bernard that stout Colonel 
Informs the lady the work most facile 
And of rich silken stuffs made shortly there 
He hopes that he and others shall soon wear." 

Only two grants of land to Bernard appear 
in the land books. The first, dated Aug. 10, 
1642, was to "William Bernard, Esq., 1200 
acres in Isle of Wight county, at the head of 
Laune's creek, and extending to the head of 
Pagan creek, due for his own adventure into 
the Colony four times, and for the transporta- 
tion of 20 persons ;" and the second to "Col. 
Bernard, Esq., 600 acres in Lancaster on Divid- 
ing Creek." Col. Bernard married in 1652 or 
the year following, Lucy, widow of Maj. 
Lewis Burwell, of "Carter's Creek," Glouces- 
tei county, and daughter of Capt. Robert Hig- 
ginson. Several deeds in York prove this 
marriage, the earliest of them being from Wil- 
liam Bernard, Esq., and his wife, Lucy, con- 
veying to George Reade a tract of land which 
had been purchased by Capt. Robert Higgin- 
son on Jan. 9, 1648. Bernard died in or be- 
fore 1662, in which year his widow had be- 
come the wife of Philip Ludwell. He left a 
daughter Elizabeth, who married Thomas 



Todd, of Toddsbury, Gloucester county, and 
has descendants. 

Morrison, Francis, governor of \ irginia 
(q. v.). 

Harwood, Thomas, was a member of the 
house of burgesses for Mulberry Island in the 
ytars 1629, 1630, 1633 and 1642; speaker of 
the house 1648 and 1649. and chosen member 
uf the council in 1652. He took a prominent 
part in the movement to depose Gov. Har- 
vey, and when he was at length sent to Eng- 
land, Harwood and Francis Pott went with 
him, as representatives of the house of bur- 
gesses and the council. On their arrival in 
Plymouth, Harvey had them arrested by the 
mayor, and the letters carried by Harwood 
were sealed up. They appear to have been 
soon released, for in Aug., 1635, Harvey wrote 
to the English authorities that Harwood was 
in London, and asked that he be "restrained 
of his liberty." The English state papers give 
a glimpse of him on his way from Plymouth 
to London. One Browne gave information 
that on the i8th of July preceding he was in 
the house of one Ebbottson at the sign of the 
Valiant Soldier in Exeter, and Ebbottson spied 
the post that carried the packet to London, 
and a stranger with him riding post also, 
whom Ebbottson went into the street to meet, 
and they went into the house and drank a pint 
of wine together and parted, and Ebbottson then 
told Browne that the stranger was one Harwood 
new come from Virginia, who informed him 
tlmt they have had great contentions, and have 
displaced Gov. Harvey, for he hath done great 
injuries to that country, anrl that Harwood 
was appointed by the country to carry letters 
to the King and that he would make great 
haste to be up before Sir John, that he might 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



119 



make friends and the case good against him. 
Sir John Harvey had so carried himself in 
\'irginia that if he returned he would be 
pistolled or shot. Harwood appears, from a 
land grant to his son Humphrey, to have died 
in 1652. Fie patented large tracts of land in 
Warwick county, some portion of which is 
still owned b}' his I'escendants in the male line. 

Mathews, Samuel Jr., was a son of Sam- 
uel Mathews, governor of \"irginia. The 
younger Mathews was, like his father, a sol- 
dier, and is mentioned in the old records as 
"Lieutenant Colonel Mathews." He was a 
burgess for Warwick Ri\er county in April, 
1652, and again in Nov.. 1654, and was a jus- 
tice for the same county in 1652. On March 
31, 1654-55, he was elected a councillor. His 
death occurred in or before 1670, and' was 
survived by a son John, then under age. 

Perry, Henry, son of Capt. William Perry, 
of Charles City county, was a burgess for 
Charles City in Nov., 1652, and in Nov., 1654. 
In Jan., 1655, he was granted a commission 
allowing him to go with any volunteers who 
might offer themselves to discover the moun- 
tains. On March 31, of the year before, he 
had been elected a member of the council, and 
on .\pril I, 1658. he was elected again, and 
was present at meetings held in March, 1659- 
fio, and on April 4, 1661. Perry married the 
daughter and heiress of George Menifie, Esq., 
o^^ "P.uckland," Charles City county, and ac- 
quired with her the estate which still bears that 
name that was late the property of Mr. Wilcox. 
He had two daughters and co-heiresses, Eliz- 
abeth, who married John Coggs, of RainslifT, 
Middlesex, England, and Mary, who married 
Thomas Mercer, citizen and stationer of Lon- 
don. 



Kill, Edward Sr., is supposed to have been 
tl;e son of "Master Edward Hill," of Eliza- 
beth City county, buried there in 1622, who 
t!:stinguished himself by a brave and success- 
ful defense of his house against the Indians. 
Our first acquaintance with Col. Edward Hill, 
the subject of this sketch, is in 1630, when 
we find him living at the famous old Virginia 
l-.ome, "Shirley," and representing Charles 
City county in the house of burgesses. Men- 
tion is again made of him as a burgess for 
Charles City in 1642, as burgess for Charles 
City and speaker of the house in Oct., 1644, 
and in the following year. In March, 1645- 
46, the assembly ordered Capt. Hill and Capt. 
Thomas W'illoughby to go Maryland and de- 
mand the return of certain Virginians who 
liad remained there without permission. 
WMle in Maryland, Hill was chosen governor 
by the insurrectionist party, and stayed there 
in that office for some months. He held a 
commission from the council of Maryland, 
dated July 30, 1646, under the name of Gov. 
Calvert, but it cannot be proved that Calvert 
really signed it. On Jan. 18, 1646, Edward 
Hill wrote from Chicacone, Northumber- 
land coimty, to Leonard Calvert, asking pay- 
ment of his "sallary in that unhappy service." 
Gov. Thomas Green answered, promising that 
his demands should be satisfied. Near the end 
of the year. Gov. Calvert, in command of a 
small body of troops, entered the Maryland 
capital and reinstated himself in the govern- 
ment, whereupon Hill surrendered and re- 
turned to Virgmia. In August of the follow- 
ing, Mr. Broadhurst was charged with saying 
that "there is now no governor in Maryland, 
for Captain Hill is governor, and him only he 
acknowledged." At a meeting of the Mary- 
land council held June 10, 1648, Capt. Hill 
demanded from the governor and council "the 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



arrears of what consideration was covenanted 
unto him by Leonard Calvert, Esq., for his 
services in the office of Governor of this pro- 
vince, being half of his Lordship's receipts for 
the year 1646, and half of the customs for the 
same year." It was ordered that he should be 
paid. On Aug. 26, 1649, Lord Baltimore is- 
sued a proclamation in which he declared that 
"Captain Edward Hill (the Governor in 
1646)" was only his "pretended lieutenant of 
said province," but never fully authorized by 
or from him. After his return to Virginia, 
Hill resumed his seat in the assembly, as a 
burgess from Charles City. From that time 
until 1654, when he is mentioned as having 
been unanimously chosen speaker of the house 
of burgesses, nothing is known of him except 
that, in 1650, he was summoned before the 
council because, without obtaining the license 
required, he had "collected fifty men to accom- 
pany him on an expedition to the lands west 
of the falls, with the avowed intention of find- 
ing gold and silver in these parts." After his 
election as speaker, one William Hatcher 
"maliciously reported" him to be an atheist and 
blasphemer, to the great indignation of the 
"Honorable Governor and Council," who 
"cleared the said Colonel Hill, and certified the 
same unto the House." On March 31, 1654- 
55, Col. Hill was a member of the council, and 
in March of the year following, the council 
ordered that he should be given command of 
"100 men at least," and sent to remove "by 
force if necessary," 600 or 700 western and 
inland Indians who had "set down near the 
falls of James river and were a great danger." 
Hill, who was at that time commander-in-chief 
of Henrico and Charles City counties, at the 
head of a force consisting of colonists and 
friendly Pamunkey Indians, met the hostile 
Savages on a small creek in Hanover county, 



as John Ledderer recites. His little army was 
put to confusion, and Tottopottomoy, the chief 
of the Pamunkeys was killed, whence since 
that day the creek has been known as Totto- 
pottomoy Creek. The failure of the under- 
taking brought down upon Col. Hill, the cen- 
sure of the assembly, which directed, in 1656, 
his suspension from all civil and military 
offices, that he should be "incapable of resti- 
tution but by an assembly," and charged to his 
account the expenses of procuring peace with 
the Indians. Col. Hill was successful, how- 
ever, in regaining the favor of the assembly, 
for in April, 1658, he was again a member of 
the council, and in March, 1659, he was a 
burgess for Charles City and speaker of the 
house. His dteath occurred about the year 
1663, and he was succeeded in his large landed 
estates by his son. Col. Edward Hill Jr., of 
Shirley, of whom a sketch will appear later. 

Dew, Thomas, of Nansemond county, was, 
in Jan., 1639, appointed by the assembly an 
inspector of tobacco in Upper Norfolk county. 
He was a member of the house of burgesses 
in April, 1642 and again as "Captain Thos. 
Dew," in Nov., 1652, as "Lt. Col. Thos. Dew" 
in 1653, and as "Colonel Thos. Dew," in Nov., 
1654. He was elected to the council on March 
31, 1654-55, on March 13, 1657-58 and was 
present as a member in March 1659-60. In 
Dec, 1656. the assembly passed a resolution 
on the petition of Col. Thomas Dew, permit- 
ting that gentleman to make discoveries of the 
navigable rivers between Capes Hatteras and 
Fear, with such other gentlemen and planters 
as would, voluntarily and at their own charge, 
accompany him. Whether or not Col. Dew 
remained in the council after 1660, is not 
known. The following are the grants of land 
he received: (i) Thomas Dew, four hundred 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



acres in the county of Norfolk on Nansemond 
river, Aug. i, 1638; (2) 150 acres adjoining 
llie preceding, Aug. i, 1638; (3) 300 acres 
in the county of Upper Norfolk, Oct. 10, 
1638; (4) 250 acres in the county of New 
Norfolk, adjoining a former patent of his, 
Nov. 7. 1640; (5) Thomas Dew, gentleman, 
750 acres in Upper Norfolk on the east side 
of the southern branch of the Nansemond 
river ; 300 acres of this a regrant, Jan. 8, 1643 ; 
(6) a regrant of No. 5, Oct. 10, 1670 ; (7) 
Col. Thomas Dew, 450 acres in the upper 
parish of Nansemond county, at the head of 
Craney creek, which was granted to Randall 
Crew in 1640, and had come by several sur- 
renders and descents to Col. Thomas Dew. 
Perhaps this Col. Dew was not the councillor. 

Gooch, William, probably came to Virginia 
about 1650, when he received a grant of land 
on the Potomac. He settled in York, where 
he was a justice in 1652, and represented the 
county in the house of burgesses in Nov., 1654. 
On March 31, 1654-55, the burgesses elected 
him a member of the council. William Gooch 
died Oct. 29, 1655, leaving an only daughter, 
Anne, who married Capt. Thomas Beale of 
"Chestnut Hill," in what is now called Rich- 
mond county, and later William Colston, also 
of Richmond county. Councillor Gooch's 
tomb bears his arms which are the same as 
those of the Gooch family of Norfolk, Eng- 
land. This tomb still remains at the site of the 
old York church on the "Temple Farm," and 
in addition to the arms bears the following 
epitaph : 

"Major William Gooch of this Parish 
Dyed Octob. 29, 1655. 
Within this tomb there doth interred lie 
No shape, but substance, true nobility. 
Itself, though young in years, just twenty-nine 



Yet graced with virtues moral and devine 
The Church from him did good participate 
In Council rare, fit to adorn a state." 

He was an uncle of Sir William Gooch, 
afterwards governor of \'irginia. 

Robins, Obedience, son of Thomas and 
(Bulkelay) Robins of Brackley, Northamp- 
tonshire, England, was born April 16, 1600, 
and at the age of twenty-one years, came with 
his brother, Edward Robins, to Virginia. He 
settled at first in Jamestown but, in 1628, re- 
moved to the eastern shore, where he bought 
lands in Accomac and made his home at 
Cherrystone. His house and lands were 
owned by the Robins family until the year 
1855. Obedience Robins was a member of 
the house of burgesses for Accomac in March 
1629-30 and was appointed commissioner, jus- 
tice, in Feb., 1631-32, and commander of the 
county in 1632. He was again a burgess for 
Accomac in Jan., 1639, and for Northampton 
county in 1644 and 1652. Northampton county 
was formed in 1642 and is said to have been 
named in honor of Robins' native shire. In 
the year 1652. he is mentioned first as major, 
and later as Lieut. Col. Robins, and in March, 
1654-55, he was first elected to the council. 
Three years later he was reelected, and is 
mentioned as being present at the meetings for 
a number of years. On March 12, 1656, the 
assembly appointed him to the office of colonel 
commanding the "Lower Precinct" of the 
eastern shore. Councillor Robins married in 
1634, Grace O'Neil, widow of Edward 
Waters. His death occurred in 1662, leaving 
descendants in \'irginia. 

Bacon, Nathaniel Sr. Presidenl of :he 
council and acting governor of \"irginia (q. 
v.). 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Wood, Abraham, was for many years one 
of the leading men of the colony. He came 
to Virginia as a little boy of ten years in 1620 
in the "Margaret and John," commanded by 
Capt. Chester. This was the vessel that 
fought the famous sea fight with two Spanish 
men-of-war. Little Abraham escaped un- 
harmed, and in 1625 was living at Jamestown 
i-i the employment of Capt. Samuel Mathews. 
He represented Henrico county in the house 
of burgesses from 1644 to 1646. He was 
placed in charge of Fort Henry at the falls 
of Appomatox, where, dwelling on the frontier 
wood, he became well acquainted with the In- 
dians and their country. On. Aug. 24, 1650, 
A\'ood, Edward Bland and a number of others 
set forth from Fort Henry, now the site of 
Petersburg, and made an exploration to the 
southwest, where they discovered a new river 
running west. Bland published an account of 
this journey in 1652. About the time of this 
trip, Wood changed his residence to the south 
side of the Appomatox river, in Charles City, 
and, as Major Abraham Wood, was burgess 
of that county from 1652 to 1656. In 1655, he 
was a justice of Charles City and the follow- 
ing year was made colonel of the regiment of 
Henrico and Charles City, in place of Col. 
Hill, suspended. In the same year, he was 
appointed on a committee to review the laws 
of Virginia. On March 13. 1657-58. he was 
elected to the council and remained a member 
of that body for many years, being present at 
the session of Sept.. 1671. He appears to have 
held the office of major general until after 
Bacon's Rebellion, when, perhaps on account 
of opposition to the policy of the government, 
he seems to have lost his position and been re- 
duced to the rank of colonel. In 1676, Gov. 
Berkeley wrote that Maj. Gen. Wood of the 
council kept to his house through infirmity, hut 



he seems to have rtcovered as, in March, 1678- 
79, he was carrying on negotiations with the 
Indians and arranging for the chief men of the 
hostile tribes to meet in Jamestown. He died 
sometime between 1681 and 1686. 

Carter, John Sr., was the first of the well 
known Virginia family of that name to come 
from England. He settled in Upper Norfolk 
which he represented in the house of burgesses 
in March, 1642-43. He was a burgess for 
Nansemond in Oct., 1649 and for Lancaster 
from 1654 to 1660. He was justice in Lan- 
caster in 1653 and. at the division of the 
county on Dec. 13, 1656, he was appointed pre- 
siding justice and colonel commandant of Lan- 
caster. In Nov., 1654. the assembly directed 
that an attack be made upon the Rappahanock 
Indians and that Maj. John Carter be ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief. He was elected 
to the council on March 13, 1657-58, but was 
not sworn until the assembly adjourned. On 
March 8, 1659, Gov. Matthews issued an order 
to the sheriiT of Lancaster to arrest Col. John 
Carter "for contempt of the late commission 
of Government sent out by his Highness 
(Cromwell) and the lords of the Council, to 
appear before the Governor and Council at 
Jamestown." He was one of the commission- 
ers appointed in 1663, by the governor of Vir- 
ginia to confer with the commissioners from 
Maryland as to a restriction of tobacco plant- 
ing. He was a vestryman of Christ Church 
Parish in Lancaster and the original church 
there was built under his direction. The pres- 
ent edifice, one of the finest specimens of colo- 
nial architecture standing, was built by the 
councillor's son. Robert Carter. He died on 
the 10 of June. 1669, as stated on his tomb in 
Christ Church. 

Horsmanden, Warham, was the son of the 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



123 



Rev. Daniel hLorsmanden D. D., who entered 
St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1596, and 
was rector of Ulcomb, Kent. Dr. Horsman- 
den, a learned and zealous churchman, was de- 
prived of his living in 1643, and in other ways 
suffered much for the King's cause during the 
civil wars. He died in 1654, leaving a son, 
Warham St. Leger Horsmanden, who sailed 
for Virginia after being, it is said, an officer 
in the royal army. Col. Horsmanden settled 
in Charles City county, where he was a justice 
in 1655, and which he represented in the house 
of burgesses in March, 1657-58. On March 
13, 1657-58, he was elected to the council, but 
it was ordered that he should not be sworn 
until the assembly adjourned. His service in 
the council was brief, for he was again a bur- 
gess for Charles City in March, 1658-59. He 
probably returned to England at the restor- 
ation, and in 1683, was living at Purleigh in 
Essex. His daughter Mary married Col. Wil- 
liam Byrd, of Henrico county, Virginia, and 
has many descendants. 

Reade, George, son of Robert Reade of 
Linkenholt, Southampton, England, came to 
Virginia in 1637, when a young man or youth. 
His brother Robert Reade, who was private 
secretary to Sir William Windebanke, secre- 
tary of state in England, seems to have secured 
for him the patronage of Gov. Harvey and 
Secretary Richard Kemp, in Virginia, and to 
have placed him under their care. On March 
-/. '637, Jerome Hawley wrote Robert Reade 
that "at Christmas last," George Reade "had 
command of some forces sent upon a new 
plantation, but the design took no effect 
through the severity of the weather." Upon 
Nov. 17 of the same year, Gov. Harvey wrote 
to Robert Reade that his brother was well and 
was with him, but that he needed supplies that 



were to be sent to him in charge of Mr. Haw- 
ley. The governor added that he hoped to 
find a very good opportunity to employ young 
Reade upon a great business he had on hand 
against a neighboring Indian tribe, strong in 
people, in which he himself would appear in 
person. In a letter dated Feb. 26, 1638, from 
George Reade himself to his brother Robert, 
he acknowledges many favors from Gov. Har- 
vey and Secretary Kemp, but complains of the 
conduct of Mr. Hawley towards him. Upon 
May 17, Jerome Hawley sent Robert Reade an 
account of "the whole business touching his 
brother," in which he said that since George 
Reade's arrival in the colony, he had lived in 
llie governor's house and wanted for nothing. 
In a letter written on April 4, 1639, Secretary 
Kemp told Robert Reade that George wished 
some servants to be sent over to him, but the 
writer advised that they should await the re- 
sult of the change of government in Virginia 
before young Reade should further engage 
himself in the affairs of the colony. In March 
of the next year, Kemp, wishing to go to Eng- 
land, requested Secretary \\'in<lebanke to get 
him permission to do so, and promised to make 
Windebanke's nephew, George Reade, his 
deputy while he was away, and accordingly, 
en Aug. 27, 1640, the King in council appoint- 
ed Reade secretary of state for \'irginia dur- 
ing the absence of Kemp. Grateful for the 
many favors he had received from them, 
Reade was an earnest adherent of Gov. Har- 
\ey and Secretary Kemp during the struggle 
with the people of Virginia which ended in the 
expulsion of Harvey, and was doubtless re- 
stored to grace when Harvey returned. In 1649, 
Reade represented James City county in the 
house of burgesses, and soon after removed to 
York county where he appears as a justice of 
the county court in 1652. He was a burgess 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



for York, in Dec, 1656. Upon April i, 1658, 
a^: "Colonel George Reade," the house of bur- 
gesses elected him a member of the council, 
and the same honor was conferred him in 
March, 1659-60. After the restoration, he 
was included' in the royal commission of coun- 
cillors and held office until his death. The last 
mention of his name as present at the council 
board was on Sept. 10, 1671. Col. George 
Reade married Elizabeth, daughter of Capt. 
Nicholas Martian of York county, and died 
between Sep. 10 and Nov. 20, 1671. Upon the 
last named day, his will was proved in the gen- 
eral court, by the oaths of Thomas Reade and 
Henry Richardson. He was an ancestor of 
Gen. George Washington and other eminent 
Virginians. Mary Martian, a sister of Col. 
George Reade's wife, married Capt. Wil- 
liam Fuller, sometime governor of Maryland. 

Warner, Augustine, came to Virginia about 
1628, and was a justice of York county. He 
was burgess for York in 1652, and for Glou- 
cester in 1655. After removing from York 
county he settled on the Pianketank in the ter- 
ritory of the Chiskiack Indians but afterwards 
removed to another part of Gloucester county, 
on the Severn river, where his estate became 
known as "Warner Hall." He served as mem- 
ber of the council from 1659 to 1667. He was 

born in 161 1, married Mary , and died 

Dec. 24. 1674, leaving issue (i) Sarah, who 
married Lawrence Townley ; (2) Augustine, 
speaker of the house of burgesses (q. v.). 

Elliott, Anthony, first appears in the rec- 
ords in March, 1654-55, when the assembly 
contracted with him and Mr. Cornelius Lloyd 
to furnish beef and pork for certain troops 
which were to be raised for an Indian cam- 
paign. Elliott's earliest home was in Eliza- 
beth City county, where on July 24, 1645, he 



received a grant of 300 acres near Point Com- 
fort creek, which he had bought, Sept. 2, 1643, 
from Richard Kemp. He represented Eliza- 
beth City in the house of burgesses in Nov., 
1647, and was a justice of that county in Feb., 
1649. He probably soon after removed to 
Gloucester, and was burgess from there in 
March, 1657-58. During that season, on 
March 13, he was elected a councillor, but it 
was ordered that he should not be sworn until 
after the adjournment of the house. Later he 
removed to that part of Lancaster county now 
called Middlesex, and was justice of the peace 
there in 1666. On March 20, 1650, "Mr. An- 
thony Ellyott" was granted 1,150 acres on 
North river in "Mojack Bay," Gloucester, and 
on Jan. 29, 1652, "Lieut. Col. Anthony 
Ellyott" was granted 200 more acres adjoin- 
ing the first tract. It is believed that Coun- 
cillor Anthony Elliott married Frances, sister 
of Col. John Armistead of Gloucester, and 
widow of the Rev. Justinian Aylmer. His 
will was proved in Jan., 1666, in Lancaster 
county and names sons William, Thomas and 
Robert. 

Walker, John, was a member of the house 
of burgesses from Warwick county at various 
times between 1644 and 1656. On March 13, 
1657-58. as Lieut. Col. John Walker, he was 
elected to the council, and again in March, 
1659-60. He appears to have moved from 
Warwick to Gloucester about 1657, and from 
Gloucester to Rappahannock about 1662. He 
owned a considerable tract of land through 
various grants made to him. He died some- 
time between 1655 and 1658, leaving several 
daughters, who have descendants in Virginia. 

Willis, Francis, was born in the city of Ox- 
ford, England, and was a near relative of 
several persons of his name, members and fel- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



125 



laws of the colleges in the university there. 
He emigrated to Virginia when a young man 
and was soon appointed clerk of Charles River 
county. He appears to have been a friend of 
Sir John Harvey, and when that governor was 
succeeded by Sir Francis W'yatt, Willis 
severely denounced the new governor, the 
council and the house of burgesses for their 
hostility to Harvey. For this he was con- 
demned in 1640 to lose his offices, to be dis- 
barred from practicing as an attorney, to be 
fined and imprisoned during the governor's 
pleasure. His period of misfortune was brief, 
however, for in two years Wyatt was suc- 
ceeded by Berkeley, and it is probable that 
Willis's disabilities were removed. Certain it 
is that in 1648 he was a justice of York county 
and in 1652 was one of the first representa- 
tives of Gloucester county. He was appointed 
to a committee for the review of the laws of 
\'irginia in March, 1658-59, and a year later, 
he also became a councillor and held that 
office for many years, and even after he had 
returned to England in 1676. He never re- 
turned to Virginia, but died in Kent some- 
time between 1689 and 1691. He left all his 
large estates in Virginia to his nephew Fran- 
cis Willis, son of Henry Willis, and from him 
descend our Virginia Willises. 

Carter, Edward. Lieut. Col. Edward Car- 
ter was a burgess for Upper Norfolk in March 
1657-58, and again in the following year. He 
was a councillor in 1659 and seems to have 
held his seat in the council until 1667, when 
his name appears as present at a session. He 
returned, however, to his home "Edmondton," 
Middlesex county, England, where he died in 
1682. 

Swann, Thomas, of Swann's Point, Surrey, 
county, son of William Swann of the same 



place, was a member of the house of burgesses 
from James City county, Nov., 1645, ^^'^ Oct., 
1649, '^"d, as Lieut. Col. Thomas Swann, for 
Surrey, March, 1657-58. He was appointed to 
the council in 1659 and held that office until 
his death. He held many civil and military 
posts in Surry county and seems to have been 
a very prominent man there. During Bacon's 
rebellion and the preceding troubles. Col. 
Swann acted with great moderation. He was 
opposed to Berkeley's measures and signed the 
proclamation of April 11, 1676, calling for the 
election of burgesses to meet in September, but 
he did not follow Bacon in open opposition to 
the government, and when Gov. Berkeley re- 
fused to entertain the three commissioners sent 
fiom England to suppress the rebellion, Swann 
received them at his house at "Swann's Point," 
opposite Jamestown and all their meetings 
were held there. In Dec, 1677, the committee 
of trade and plantations of the English privy 
council, directed that Col. Swann be recom- 
mended to Gov. Jefl^reys for some reward for 
his kindness and expense in receiving the com- 
missioners at his house after Berkeley had 
refused. His tomb, with crest and epitaph is 
at Swann's Point and thereon is recorded the 
day of his death as the sixteenth of September, 
"in ye year of our Lord God 1680." The good 
councillor seems to have had an unusual num- 
ber of wives even for that marrying day and 
generation, having been wed no less than five 
times. He had many descendants ; some of 
them very distinguished. 

Whitaker, William, of James City county, 
v.as a member of the house of burgesses at the 
session of Oct., 1649, April, 1652, Nov., 1652, 
July, 1653, Nov., 1654, Dec, 1656, and March. 
165S-59. Soon after the last named session 
he was appointed to the council, and as "Major 



[26 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



William Whitlaker," his name appears in a 
list of members present, Xov. 29, 1659. He 
died sometime between March 18, 1662, the 
date of the last grant of land to him, and Oct. 
2S, 1666, when "iMr. Richards Whittaker" was 
granted 135 acres in James City county, 100 
acres of which had been given him by "Major 
^VilHam Whittaker, his deceased father." He 
was probably a near relative of Rev. Alex- 
ander Whitaker. He left numerous descend- 
ants. 

Hammond, Mainwaring, who had been an 
officer in the royal army during the civil war, 
came to Virginia early in the year 1650. Col. 
Henry Norwood, also a cavalier officer, says 
in his "Voyage to \"irginia," that when he 
landed in York county, Feb. 13, 1650, he 
found that Capt. \\"ormeIey, of his majesty's 
council, had "guests at his house feasting and 
carousing that were lately come from Eng- 
land," and that most of them were of the 
writer's "intimate acquaintance." These 
guests were Sir Thomas Lunsford, Sir Henry 
Chicheley, Col. Philip Honeywood, afterward 
Sir Philip, and Col. Hammond. So far as the 
records show. Col. Hammond held no public 
office until Gov. Berkeley was restored to 
power in 1660. Soon after his arrival in Vir- 
ginia, however, he acquired by patent a large 
tract of land. On March 15, 1649 (probably 
1650) "Manwaring Hammond Esq.," was 
granted "3,760 acres on York River, on the 
south side called Fort Royall, 600 acres of 
which he purchased from Captain Marshall, 
and the remainder of which was due for the 
transportation of sixty persons to Virginia." 
On Nov. II, 1659, as "Col. Mainwaring Ham- 
mond," he was granted 600 acres adjoining 
the above. As soon as Sir \\'illiam Berkeley 
wa*s reelected governor. Hammond, who seems 



t" have been one of his favorites, was brought 
into the public service. At the session of 
March, 1659-60, the assembly ordered that 
"Collonell ^lannering Hammond, according to 
the desire of Sir William Berkeley, Kn't., Gov- 
ernor and Capt. Generall of Virginia, be con- 
stituted, authorized and made Major General 
of Virginia." In Oct., 1660, the governor and 
a.-sembly employed Maj. Gen. Hammond and 
Col. Guy Molesworth, another distinguish- 
ed cavalier officer, to go to England and pro- 
cure from the King pardon for the \'ir- 
ginians for submitting to the parliamentary 
authority. In their lack of knowledge as to 
what might be the policy of the restored royal 
government, this was no act of mere syco- 
phancy on the part of the colonists, but may 
have been necessary to secure them from fines 
or other legal penalties. It was ordered that 
the two agents should be paid 11,000 pounds 
of tobacco apiece out of the levies of that 
year and 11,000 more the next year. It was 
in 1660 also that Gen. Hammond was ap- 
pointed to the council, but few references to 
his services as a member of that body have 
ccme down to us. On Feb. 3, 1661, he and 
Col. Edward Hill sat with the court of 
Charles City county as itinerant judges, and, 
on Nov. 6, of the same year, he was present 
as a councillor. It is likely that he soon after 
sailed for England and never returned to Vir- 
ginia. He had a brother in Virginia named 
Francis Hammond. 

Ludwell, Thomas, was son of Thomas 
Ludwell, of Bruton, in Somersetshire, Eng- 
land, and Jane Cottington, his wife, daughter 
of James Cottington and niece of Philip, Lord 
Cottington. His father was church warden of 
Bruton and steward of the Sexey Hospital in 
that town. He was born January 2^, 1628- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



[27 



1629. and probably came as a boy to Virginia 
with Sir William Berkeley, his kinsman, in 
1642. He probably returned to England and 
served in the civil wars on the side of Charles 
I., as still lattr in a land grant he is styled 
"lieutenant." 

After the deaths of Richard Kemp and Sir 
Thomas Lunsford, who married Kemp's 
widow, he acquired his (Kemp's) residence, 
mar Williamsburg, called "Rich Neck," and 
on the restoration of Charles I., in 1660, was 
commissioned secretary of state and became a 
member of the colonial council. In this capac- 
ity he made frequent reports as to the condi- 
tion of affairs in Virginia to the secretary of 
state in England, which speak much for his 
ability. In 1662 he served as escheator under 
the treasurer Major Henry Norwood, and in 
1663 was one of the commissioners to arrange 
a cessation of tobacco planting with Maryland, 
which was, however, balked by Lord Balti- 
more. In 1673 he was appointed as the suc- 
cessor of Henry Randolph sole notary public 
for the colony and was authorized by the gen- 
eral assembly to appoint deputies in the dif- 
ferent counties. In 1675 he was appointed 
one of three commissioners (Colonel Francis 
Moryson and Major-General Robert Smith 
being the other two) to proceed to London and 
seek an abrogation of the patents granted by 
Charles II. to Henry Bennett Lord Arlington, 
Thomas Lord Culpeper and other court fav- 
orites of proprietary rights in Virginia. On 
their arrival they opened negotiations for a 
charter incorporating the people of Virginia 
with a view to a purchase of the patents, the 
prevention of any new grants of the kind, and 
the assurance of the Virginians of all their 
liberties, among which was especially empha- 
sized the sole right of taxing themselves. Lud- 
well probably drafted the papers which pre- 



sented the views of the commissioners, and in 
which colonial rights were very fully and ably 
discussed. The commissioners were at first 
very successful; a complete charter was 
granted and passed most of the formalities, 
but was stopped in the Hamper office by the 
news of Bacon s rebellion. A new charter was 
prepared which, though not as full as the first, 
confirmed the political existence of \'irgima as 
a colony and guaranteed the lands to the peo- 
ple residing in \'irginia and to all actual 
immigrants. The more extensive of the two 
objectionable grants was surrendered by Lord 
Arlington to the King for an annual pen- 
sion of f6oo. Ludwell was absent in England 
oii this mission, when Bacon's rebellion broke 
out in Virginia, but returned soon after its 
close. He did not live long after his return, 
but died October 1, 1678, and was buried on 
bis estate, "Rich Neck," near the graves of 
Richard Kemp and Sir Thomas Lunsford. 
As he never married, his property consisting 
of this estate and several houses at Jamestown 
went to his brother Philip, who survived him 
for many years. In 1674 the parishes of Mid- 
dletown and Marston were united and named 
Bruton after the birthplace of Ludwell, the 
most prominent of the parishioners of Middle- 
town. This parish included Williamsburg. 

Beale, Thomas, was, when we first hear of 
him, a justice of York county and was styled 
by the records, "Major Thomas Beale." This 
was in 1652, and in the same year he deeded 
land in Gloucester to Robert Todd. He was 
justice of York again in 1661. On Aug. 25, 
1662, Beale had become a member of the 
council and was present at its sessions in Sept., 
1667 and April, 1670, on the latter occasion 
with the title of "Colonel." By letter of Sept. 
30, 1668, his majesty recommended to the gov- 



[28 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ernor of Virginia, for the post of "Governor 
of tlie fort at Point Comfort," Thomas BeaTe, 
of whose, "abihty and prudence the King had 
had long experience." During Bacon's rebel- 
Hon, Col. Beale was one of the signers of the 
pioclamation, dated Aug. ii, 1676, calling the 
election of burgesses for an assembly to meet 
Sept. 4. York county records show a deed 
from "Lieut. Col. Thomas Beale" and "Alice 
his wife." He left a son Capt. Thomas Beale, 
from whom Gen. R. L. T. Beale, of the con- 
federate army, was descended. This Capt. 
Beale married Anne Gooch, daughter of 
Councillor Major William Gooch. 

Corbin, Henry, was a member of an an- 
cient family in the counties of Stafford and 
Warwick in England, and the son of Thomas 
Corbin of Hall End, Warwickshire, and his 
wife Winifred, daughter of Gawin Grosvenor 
of Sutton Colfield in the same county. Henry 
Corbin was born, according to a deposition, 
about 1629, and came to Virginia in 1654. 
There is an old family tradition which his resi- 
dence in England makes probable, that he as- 
sisted Charles II. in his escape after Wor- 
cester. Upon his arrival in A^irginia, Corbin 
seems to have at once settled in that part of 
Lancaster county that is now Middlesex, and 
to have made his home there through life. 
Upon June 5, 1657, the governor and council 
directed that Henry Corbin should be of the 
quorum in the court of Lancaster. He re- 
mained a justice of Lancaster until the forma- 
tion of Middlesex, and then became a member 
of the court of the new county. He was a 
burgess from Lancaster in 1659 and 1660, and 
at the same time was collector of customs for 
his district. He was a councillor in 1663, in 
which year he was appointed one of the com- 
missioners on the part of Virginia to treat 



with Maryland with regard to the cessation of 
tobacco culture. He was frequently present 
at the meetings of the council until his death, 
Jan. 8, 1676. Col. Henry Corbin acquired a 
great landed estate, his chief residence being 
"Buckingham House" in Middlesex county. 
He married Alice, daughter of Richard Elton- 
head, of Eltonhead, Lancashire, and widow of 
Rowland Burnham of Middlesex, Virginia. 
The date of this marriage has been given as 
July 5, 1645, but 1655 is evidently intended. 
He has many descendants in Virginia and the 
south. 

Smith, Robert. If one may judge by the 
high military rank attained by Robert Smith 
in the colony, it seems probable that he had 
been an officer in the English army before 
cc-ming to America. The first appearance of 
his name in the extant records, is as a member 
of the council in 1663, but it is quite possible 
that he may have been appointed to that body 
a* the restoration. He soon became a man of 
prominence and was appointed one of the 
three major generals in the militia. As "Ala- 
jor General Robert Smith," he was present in 
council in March, 1666, and on July 10, of the 
same year, when an attack from a Dutch fleet 
was expected. The governor and council 
ordered Maj. Gen. Robert Smith to demand 
and seize all ammunition in the hands of any 
one in the colony. On Jul> 12, he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners on the part 
of Virginia to treat with Maryland concern- 
ing the culture of tobacco. He is recorded as 
being present at meetings of the council as 
late as 1671, and not long after this, must have 
been sent to England as the colony's agent, as 
on July 2, 1673. he is referred to as the agent 
of Virginia and authorized by the assembly to 
purchase as many shares as possible in the 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATL 



129 



patent for the Northern Neck, which the King 
had granted. In 1674, he, together with Fran- 
cis ]\Ioryson and Thomas Ludwell, was ap- 
pointed an agent for Virginia to secure from 
the King a repeal of his grant of Virginia to 
Lords Arlington and Culpeper, and a new 
charter. The charter which they attempted 
to gain, and which embodied the ideas of the 
colonists as to their rights, was a splendid 
document and included among other provis- 
ions the prophetic stipulation that the Virgin- 
ians, in common with all Englishmen, should 
not be taxed without their own consent. Un- 
fortunately for the efforts of the agents, the 
news of Bacon's rebellion reached England 
just as the King seemed ready to sign the 
charter and served him as an excuse for with- 
holding it. He withdrew his grant of the 
colony to the two noblemen, however, so that 
the colony were much beholden to their agents' 
efforts. After his return to the colony, he 
played a prominent part in the suppression of 
the "plant cutting" insurrection and continued 
to be present at the meetings of the council 
until 1683, after which he seems to have visited 
England. His only daughter Elizabeth mar- 
ried Flarry Beverley. 

Stegg, Thomas, Jr., was a son of the first 
Thomas Stegg, councillor, a sketch of whose 
life appears above. The earliest fact men- 
tioned of the younger Stegg is that he was a 
justice of the peace of Charles City in 1661. 
On Nov. 24, 1664, a commission from the 
King confirming Thomas Stegg's appointment 
as auditor general was read in court. He was 
a member of the council in 1666 and died in 
1670. His sister, Grace Stegg. was mother of 
the first William Ryrd of Westover. 

Bland, Theodorick, the ninth son of John 
Eland, an eminent merchant of London and 

VIR-9 



member of the Virginia Company, was born 
on Jan. 16, 1629. He was a merchant at St. 
Lucar, Spain, in 1646, at the Canary Islands 
in 1647-48, and came to Virginia in 1654 as 
the representative of his father, who had large 
interests in the colony. He settled at Berke- 
ley Hundred, Charles City county, and in 
1659-60 he represented Henrico in the house 
of burgesses, of which he was the speaker. 
By instructions from England, dated Sept. 2, 
1662, the act passed by the assembly, imposing 
two shillings per hogshead on all tobacco from 
Virginia, was confirmed and "Theodorick 
Bland, Esq." was appointed collector of the 
same. A few years later Bland was appointed 
a member of the council, and was present June 
21, 1665, July 10, 1666, and March and April, 
1670. On April 17, 1665, Theodorick Bland 
bought "Westover," Charles City county, an 
estate of 1,200 acres, for £170 sterling. His 
grandson, Richard Bland of "Jordan's," who 
says that his grandfather was "both in fortune 
and understanding, inferior to no person of 
his time in the country," also says that he built 
and gave to the county and parish the church 
at Westover, "with ten acres of land, a court- 
house and prison." This may have been so, 
but it is more likely that he only gave the land. 
The worthy councillor died on April 23, 1671, 
and was buried in the chancel of Westover 
church. The church has long since disappeared 
but the tomb remains with his arms and the 
following epitaph : 

S. M. 

"Prudentis & Eruditi Theodorici 

Bland Armig. qui obijt Aprilis 

23d A. D. 1671 Aetatis 41 

Cujus Vidua Maestissima Anna 

Filia Richard Bennett Armig: 

hoc Marmor Posuit." 



[30 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Theodorick Bland married Anne, daughter 
of Gov. Richard Bennett. She married sec- 
ondly, Col. St. Ledger Codd, and died Nov., 
1687, at AMiarton's Creek, Maryland. He was 
ancestor of Richard Bland, the great Virginia 
patriot of 1776. 

Gary, Miles, son of John Gary, a merchant 
of Bristol, England, was born about 1620, and 
came to Virginia, it is believed, about 1645. 
He settled in Warwick county and lived at a 
place called "Magpie Swamp." His landed 
estate embraced about 2,coo acres, well stocked 
and having upon it numerous slaves, a store, 
mill etc. Cars' was a collector of customs in 
March, 1658-59 and in 1663. and as "Col. 
Miles Gary," he was a member of the house 
of burgesses from \\'arwick county in ]\Iarch 
1659-60. He was afterwards added to the 
council and was present at the meetings of 
that body June 21, 1665, and March 28 and 
July 10, 1666. He was doubtless still a coun- 
cillor at the time of his death, June 11, 1667. 
when he is said to have been killed while de- 
fending the fort at Old Point against the 
Dutch. Lieut.-Col. Miles Gary married Anne, 
daughter of Thomas Taylor, a burgess from 
Warwick county. Many persons in \'irginia 
and the south are descended from him. 

Bridget, Joseph, the subject of this sketch, 
was born in 1628, and in ]\Iarch, 1657-58, he 
represented Isle of Wight in the house of bur- 
gesses, as also in 1663. The following year, he 
was one of the commissioners to decide upon 
the boundar)' line between Virginia and Mary- 
land, and on July 12, 1666, he was one of the 
commissioners to treat with Maryland upon 
the subject of tobacco culture, and in the same 
year he is mentioned as a member of the gen- 
eral assembly with the title of adjutant general 
Bridger. In 1670, he was sworn a member of 



the council and was present at meetings in 
1674. There seems to have been some ques- 
tion of his eligibility for membership, how- 
ever, for in a list of the councillors made for 
the lord of trades and plantations, the name 
of Joseph Bridger is marked "query," and 
their lordships stated that they would inquire 
further into the ability and deserts of Col. 
Joseph Bridger to be of the council. The Kuig, 
however, on March 14, 1678-79, directed that 
Joseph Bridger be continued in the council, 
and he is mentioned as a councillor as late as 
1683. In 1675, Gol. Bridger took part in the 
Indian wars, and in the year following, was 
described by Xat. Bacon, as one of Berkeley's 
"wicked and pernicious councillors." During 
liacon's rebellion, Gov, Berkeley gave to Col. 
Bridger the command of "all the country south 
of James River." In 1680, he was command- 
er-in-chief of the militia forces raised "so as 
to be ready for the Indians" in Isle of Wight, 
Surry, Xanscuiond an 1 Lower Norfolk, In 
1683, Lord Culpeper appointed him his deputy 
in the office of vice-admiral. Gtn. Joseph 
liridger died on April 15, 1686. He had ac- 
c|uirtd a very large landed estate in Isle of 
Wight county besides grants in Surry and 
James City counties and in Maryland. He has 
numerous descendants. 

Ballard, Thomas, was born in 1630 and 
came to \'irginia in or before 1652, at which 
date he was clerk of York county. In 1666, 
he represented James City in the house of bur- 
gesses and on July 12 of the same year was 
appointed one of the commissioners to treat 
with Maryland regarding tobacco culture. He 
was sworn a member of the council in 1670 
and was present at sessions in 1670, 1672 and 
1675. He was included among Berkeley's 
"wicked and pernicious councillors" in the 



COLOiNIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



proclamation of Nat. Bacon in 1676, which 
seems rather hard upon Ballard, as he was 
denounced by the opposite party as "a fellow 
of turbulent and mutinous speech and Bacon's 
chief trumpet, parasite &c," and ultimately 
lost his seat in the council on account of his 
sympathy with and furtherance of the rebel- 
lion. In Aug., 1676, Col. Ballard issued war- 
rants for pressing men and provisions for 
Bacon's service and on Aug. 11, he signed the 
petition calling for the election of burgesses 
for an assembly to meet Sept. 4, of that year. 
On June 11, 1677, Gov. Jeffreys wrote Secre- 
tary Williamson that he had suspended Ballard 
fiom the council and a collectorship, and on 
Feb. 10, 1678-79, the board of trade and plan- 
tations directed that Col. Ballard be put out 
of the council. Ballard continued to be a 
prominent figure in the colony, however, and 
in 1680, was speaker of the house of burgesses. 
His case as a creditor of "Bacon the Rebel" 
was represented to the King by the council in 

1686. Ballard's wife, Anna" , was one 

of the ladies of the council placed by Bacon 
upon the breastworks before Jamestown, to 
delay Berkeley's attack until he could com- 
plete his defences. He has many descendants. 

Chicheley, Sir Henry. Governor of \'ir- 
ginia. (q. v.). 

Jenings, Peter, represented tiloucester in 
the house of burgesses in March, 1659-60, 
I)rior to which date, nothing is known of him. 
He was again a burgess from Gloucester in 
1663 and 1666, he was appointed one of the 
commissioners to treat with Maryland con- 
cerning the cessation of tobacco culture. He 
was sworn a member of the council on June 
20, 1670, and on September 15 of the same 
year was commissioned attorney general of 
Virginia by the King and reappointed to the 
council. He died in or before 1671. 



Spencer, Nicholas. President of the coun- 
cil and acting governor (q. v.). 

Pate, John, of Gloucester county, was the 
nephew and administrator of Richard Pate 
who patented 1,154 acres of land on the north 
side of York river, and who represented Glou- 
cester in the house of burgesses in 1653 and 
died in 1657. Col. John Pate was appointed 
a justice of Gloucester in the year of 1660 and 
took the oaths as a councillor, according to one 
account, in 1670, and according to another, 
on Sept. 2-j of the year following. It is re- 
corded that in 1672, "John Pate, Esq., dying 
possessed of a considerable estate in this coun- 
try, and his wife being out of the country, Mr. 
Thomas Pate, his brother's son," had been 
appointed administrator. The Pate family is 
a well known one in Virginia. 

Bray, James, of James City county, was 
living in \"irginia as early as 1666, and, on 
April 15, 1670, was sworn a member of the 
council. He retained his seat until 1676, when 
during Baron's rebellion, he seems to have 
been an active supporter of Gov. Berkeley. 
He signed the proclamation of Aug. 11, 1676, 
calling an assembly to meet in the following 
September. The commissioners sent to sup- 
pi ess the rebellion reported, on Dec. 6, 1677, 
th.at Mr. James Bray was a great loser in his 
estate by that uprising, but they were evidently 
not favorably disposed towards him, for the 
English board of trade and Plantations, on 
Dec. 6, 1677, pronounced him to be a "rash 
and fiery fellow," and, on Feb. 10, 1678-79, 
the same body directed that he be put out of 
the council. He was too friendly to Berkeley 
to suit the tastes of the royal commissioners. 
His wife. Mistress Angelica Bray, will always 
be remembered as one of the "guardian angels 
of the rebel camp," as the ladies whom Bacon 
st(»d in front of his men at Jamestown to 



132 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



protect them while they were throwing up 
fortifications, were called. Her maiden name 
is not known. Col. Bray was a wealthy mer- 
chant and ship owner in Virginia. He died 
Oct. 24, 1691. He had three sons who left 
issue and a grandson, Col. David Bray, who 
was also councillor for a few months. 

Parke, Daniel, Sr., was descended from the 
Parke family of Essex, England, some account 
of which, tracing it back to i486, is given in 
Morant's "History of Essex." The coun- 
cillor's epitaph states that he was of the county 
of Essex, and his son, in his will, mentions 
certain plate bearing the arms of his faniily, 
"which is that of the county of Essex." Dan- 
iel Parke Sr. was born about 1629 and settled 
in York county, Virginia, in or before 1651. 
He was justice of York in 1655, sheriff in 
1659, and a burgess from 1660 to 1670. On 
June 20, 1670, he was sworn as a member of 
the council and remained a member of that 
body until his death, nine years later. On 
Sept. 30, 1678, Gov. Jeffreys appointed him 
secretary of state and he held for a time the 
office of treasurer also. He married Rebecca, 
widow of "Bartholomew Knipe of Virginia, 
gentleman," as may be seen from a deed to 
his stepson, Christopher Knipe, dated 1658. 
This widow Knipe was a daughter of George 
Evelyn of Maryland and formerly of God- 
stone, Surrey, England. He left a son Daniel 
Parke Jr., who was also a member of the 
council. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, known as "the Rebel," 
came to Virginia in 1673 and was made a 
member of the council in 1673. He was a 
cousin of Lord Francis Bacon and a cousin 
once removed of Nathaniel Bacon Sr., presi- 
dent of the council and acting governor (q. v.). 
His father was Thomas Bacon, a merchant of 



London, and he was born in England, January 
2, 1647. In 1663 he went abroad with Sir 
Philip Skippon and others. He owned lands 
in England of the yearly value of £150 ster- 
ling, but on his marriage with Elizabeth Duke, 
daughter of Sir Edward Duke, of Benhill 
Lodge, near Saxmundham, he sold his lands 
to Sir Robert Jason for £1,200 and removeil 
to \'irginia. He purchased a plantation at 
"Curls," in Henrico county, called "Longfield," 
and had a quarter at the falls of the river 
where Richmond now stands. The colonv wa- 
in a state of unrest, owing to high taxes am! 
many corruptions in the public offices ; and a 
sudden irruption on the frontiers of the In- 
dians, which Governor Berkeley was slow in 
repressing, fanned the smouldering embers 
into flames. Urged by his neighbors. Bacon 
asked Berkeley for a commission to go out 
against the Indians, which he refused, and 
Bacon went out without one. Berkeley then 
proclaimed him a rebel, and out of this aroft 
a civil war in which Bacon supported by the 
great majority of the people possessed himself 
of the main authority and drove Berkeley to 
seek refuge at ".Arlington" on the eastern 
shore with Major-General John Custis. James- 
town was burned, and many estates were 
pillaged by both factions. 

.\t length Bacon, through his exposures, 
contracted a dysentery, and the rebellion vir- 
tually came to an end through his death in 
Gloucester county at Major Pate's place, on 
Poropotank Creek, October 26, 1676. He left 
two daughters, one of whom Elizabeth, born 
April 12, 1674, married Hugh Chamberlain, 
physician to the King. Bacon's widow, Eliza- 
beth Duke, married (second) Thomas Jarvis, 
a ship captain, who had 200 acres at Hampton, 
and after his death she married Edward Mole. 
In i6g8 William Randolph patented "Long- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



133 



field" and the slashes adjoining which had 
escheated to the King from Bacon because of 
his rebellion, and these lands descended to 
William Randolph's son, Richard Randolph, 
who was known as Richard Randolph, of 
"Curls." Bacon's rebellion is the most spec- 
tacular episode in all colonial history, and its 
leader will always be an interesting historical 
figure. He had good looks, a commanding 
manner, and remarkable eloquence, which 
made him the idol of his followers. 

Bowler, Thomas, of Rappahannock county, 
was a merchant and appears in the records of 
Rappahannock county in 1663, and on Sept. 
29, of the year following, "Mr. Thomas Bow- 
ler" was appointed a justice of Rappahannock 
county and took the usual oath. He was 
sworn a member of the council, Oct. 9, 1675 
and died in 1679. He left many descendants 
in \'irginia. 

Cole, William, of "Bolthorpe," Warwick 
county, Virginia, was born in 1638. His first 
appearance in public life, so far as the records 
show, was on March i, 1674-75, when he was 
appointed a member of the council, an ofiice 
he held until his death. He was one of the 
persons denounced by Bacon in 1676, as one 
of Berkeley's evil advisers, and, of course, the 
commissioners sent to suppress Bacon's re- 
bellion described him as "a very honest gentle- 
man" and a member of the council who was all 
along constant to the governor and with him 
in all his troubles. In Oct., 1689, the presi- 
dent and council of Virginia wrote to England 
that on the death of the secretary, Spencer, in 
September, they had had appointed Col. Wil- 
liE.m Cole to be secretary of the state of \'ir- 
ginia. and begged royal confirmation. This was 
given by commission, dated Jan. 17, 1690, and 
in it Cole is spoken of as a person of "known 



integrity and ability to execute the office." On 
Aug. I, 1690, he wrote to Lord Nottingham, 
thanking him for the appointment. He did 
not hold the office long, however, for on April 
15, 1692, he stated in a petition to Gov. Nich- 
olson, that he had been one of the council of 
Virginia for about seventeen years, and had 
been appointed secretary of state ; that lately 
he had become much "decayed" in body and 
strength, and by reason of a deep melancholy 
that had seized him, he found himself daily 
growing worse, and that he was "desirous to 
live a retired life and to serve God Almighty 
the small remainder of the time he had to 
live," and so prayed that a secretary might be 
appointed, and that he, the petitioner, might 
obtain his majesty's discharge. The request 
was granted. Councillor Cole died, March 4, 
1694. His tomb, with his arms and an epitaph 
remains at his former seat, Bolthorpe, War- 
wick county. He is represented by many de- 
scendants in \'irginia. 

Place, Rowland, was living in Virginia as 
early as 1 67 1, when he owned land in Charles 
City and near the falls of James river in Hen- 
rico county. It was on Oct. 9, 1675, that he 
was first sworn to the council and he continued 
to serve for several years. He was present 
as a member in March, 1678, but soon after- 
wards went to England, evidently with the 
intention of only making a visit there, though 
he afterwards seems to have changed his mind, 
for he never after returned to Virginia. Wil- 
liam Sherwood, writing to Secretary William- 
son, July I, 1678, says that his, letter will be 
carried by "Col. Rowland Place, a member of 
the council," who can give "an ample account 
of matters in Virginia," and, on July 10, 1678, 
Gov. Lord Culpeper wrote a letter which he 
stated he would confide to Col. Place, who had 



134 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



been an eye witness of many of the events of 
chief interest which had lately occurred in the 
colony. On Dec. 13, 1678, Francis Moryson 
wrote to William Blathwayt that he had "ad- 
vice" that Col. Place had lately arrived in 
England from \"irgiiiia, and that the colonel 
was "one of the Council and a very honest 
gentleman." On March 14, 1678-79, the King 
directed that Place should be continued in the 
council, but on May 20 Capt. Rudge, of the 
ship " 'Hopewell' just come from Virginia," 
appeared before the committee of trade and 
plantations, and stated, among other things, 
that the Indians had recently killed several 
people and totally ruined the plantation of 
Col. Place, who was in England. Perhaps it 
was this news that caused Place to linger 
abroad. He was included in the commission 
of councillors under Lord Culpeper, read on 
May 10, 1680, but still did not return to \ir- 
ginia, and on Dec. 12, 1681, Gov. Culpeper 
wrote that he had appointed a councillor "in 
the room of Col. Rowland Place," who was 
"living in England." He was the son of 
Francis Place, the celebrated painter of York, 
and Ann Williamson, his wife. He married 
Priscilla, daughter of Sir John Brookes, of 
Norton, county York, baronet. He was born 
1642 and died 1713 (see "Familire Alinorum 
Gentium," vol. iii, p. 921). 

Lee, Richard, Jr., was the second son of 
Richard Lee, the immigrant, and Anna, his 
wife, and the eldest son to leave male descend- 
ants in Virginia. He was born in 1647, proba- 
bly at "Paradise," in Gloucester county, but 
afterwards went to Westmoreland and made 
his home at "Mount Pleasant," on the Po- 
tomac river. He was sent to England to be 
educated and became a student at Oxford. 
One of his grandsons wrote of him that "he 
was so clever that some great men offered to 



promote him to the highest dignities in the 
Church if his father would let him stay in 
Ifngland ; but this offer was refused, as the 
old Gentleman was determined to fix all his 
cl ildren in \irginia. * * * Richard spent 
a'most his whole life in study, and usually 
wrote his notes in Greek, Hebrew or Latin 
^■' * * so that he neither diminished nor 
improved his paternal estate. * * * He 
was of the Council in \'irginia and also other 
offices of honor and profit, though they yielded 
little to him." In the proclamation made by 
"Nat Bacon," the rebel, concerning the griev- 
ances of "ye Commonality" against the royal- 
ist. Gov. Berkeley, Richard Lee is mentioned 
ar. one of the governor's "wicked and per- 
nicious councell" who were commanded to 
surrender or be seized as "Trayters to ye King 
and Country." The official report to the Eng- 
libh government regarding those who had suf- 
fered by Bacon's rebellion, made m March, 
1677-78, described "Major Richard Lee" as "a 
Loyall, Discreet Person worthy of the Place 
to which hee was lately advanced of being one 
of his Majesties Council in Virginia." The 
second Richard Lee was a burgess in 1677 and 
perhaps earlier. He was a councillor in 1676, 
1680-83. 1688, 1692-98 and possibly later. In 
i6gi, out of a scruple of conscience arising 
from his attachment to the Stuarts and refusal 
to acknowledge the claim of William and 
.Mary to the crown, Richard Lee, together with 
Isaac -Mlerton and John Armistead, refused 
tc take the oaths, and he was therefore dropped 
from the council. In the following year, how- 
ever, his name again appears on the records 
as a member of that body. According to a 
list of colonial officers, dated June 8, 1699, 
"Richard Lee. Esqr.," had been appointed by 
"Sir Edm. : Andros, Governor. &c.. to be naval 
Officer and Receiver of \'irginia Dutys for 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



[35 



the River Potomac, in which is included 
Westmoreland, Northumberland and Stafford 
C( unties." In itSo he was spoken of as 
"eoll. Richard Lee, of the horse in ve Coun- 
ties of Westmoreland, Northumberland and 
Staft'ord." It was probably sometime in the 
year 1674 that Col. Lee married Laetitia, eld- 
est (laughter of Henry and Alice ( Eltonhead ) 
Corbin. She was buried beside him in the 
family burying ground at "Alt. Pleasant," 
beneath a white marble tombstone bearing an 
elaborate Latin inscription. Col. Lee died on 
March 12, 1714. 

Warner, Augustine, Jr., of Warner Hall, 
( ilouccster county, sen of Col. .\ugustine \\ ar- 
ner, of the same place, and member of the 
council, was born, according to his epitaph, on 
July 3, 1642, but, according to the register of 
Merchant Taylor's School, London, on Oct. 
20, 1643. His name appears on the books of 
that school as "eldest son of Agustine \\'arner 
of Virginia, gentleman." Warner was the 
speaker of the house of burgesses at the ses- 
sions of March, 1675-76, and Feb., 1776-77, 
and soon after the latter date must have been 
appointed to the council, for his name appears 
in a list of members presented to the lords 
of trade and plantations late in 1677, and was 
endorsed by them with the word "stet." On 
March 14, 1678-79, the King directed that he 
b.' continued a member of the council, and in 
a new commission, read May 10, 1680, his 
name appears as "Col. Augustine Warner." 
In this year he commanded the militia of 
Gloucester county. Col. Warner suffered 
great loss during P.acon's rebellion. The com- 
missioners sent to suppress the uprising de- 
clared that "Col. Augustine Warner, Speaker 
of the House of Burgesses in the late Assem- 
bly, and now sworn as one of his Majesty's 
Council in ^'irgi^ia," was "an honest, worthy 



person, and most lo.yal sufferer by the late 
rebels," that he was "plundered as much as 
a}-.}-, and yet speaks as little of his losses, 
though they were very great." I'.ut the colonel 
did speak, and spoke with eft'ect in regard to 
his losses. On June 27, 1678, he presented a 
littition to Thomas Ludwell, the president of 
il.e council, pra}ing for a judgment against 
I'apt. William Byrd, against whom he had 
brought his action in the general court for 
ii.ooo sterling and costs of suit, for "forcibly 
entering his dwelling hoiise in Abbington 
Parish, Gloucester, and taking goods and mer- 
chandise to the value of 845.2." Col. Augus- 
tine Warner Jr. married, about 1665, Mildred, 
daughter of Col. George Reade, of Gloucester, 
himself a councillor, and formerly deputy sec- 
retary of state. He died June 19, 1681, and 
his tomb ma}- still be seen at "Warner Hall." 

Leigh, Francis, as "Major Francis Leigh," 
was included under the great seal for a court 
ot oyer and terminer in Virginia on Nov. 16, 
1676, and on March 14, 1678-79, the King 
directed that he be continued in the council. 
Upon May 10, 1680, he was included in the 
commission of councillors under Culpeper. 
Nothing further is known of him, but he was 
doubtless ancestor of the family of Leigh in 
King and Queen county. 

Custis, John, a son of John and Jeane 
Lustis, of Accumac, \'a., and formerly of 
Rotterdam, Holland, was born in 1630. He 
was sheriff of Accomac in 1664, and in 1676 
he was ai)pointed major-general of \'irginia 
militia, and played an active part in the sup- 
port of Gov. Berkeley during Bacon's rebellion. 
The commissioners, sent from England to sup- 
pi ess the rebellion, spoke in terms of the high- 
est commendation of him. He was a member 
of the house of burgesses in 1677. but appears 



136 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



10 have been immediately afterwards appointed 
to the council, as he was present at meetings 
of that body from 1677 to 1683. At this later 
date his health became very bad and he was 
unable to attend for sometime. His illness, 
indeed, was so serious and long continued that 
in England he was reported dead and his name 
left out of the commission to the councillors 
of 1685. He therefore prepared a petition 
setting forth his various services to the colony 
and praying to be restored to the council, 
which was forthwith done. He continued 
active up to 1690, but, his health again failing, 
he prepared, two years later, another petition 
asking to be relieved of all his public offices. 
This was also granted and the few remaining 
years of his hfe he spent in retirement at "Ar- 
lington," his house in the present Northamp- 
ton county. He died on the 9th of Jan., 1696, 
according to the inscription on his tomb at 
"Arlington." 

Meese, Henry, as "Colonel Henry Meese," 
received a grant of 2,000 acres of land in Staf- 
ford county on June 7, 1666, and, as "Lieut. 
Col. Henry i\Ieese," he was, in the year fol- 
lowing, a member of the Northern Neck com- 
mittee. On March 14, 1678-79. the King 
ordered that Meese be added to the council, 
and his commission was dated May 10, 1680, 
but on Dec. 12, 1681, Lord Culpeper wrote 
that he had appointed a councillor in the place 
of Col. Henry Meese, who was living in Eng- 
land. It appears from the letters of William 
Fitzhugh that his wife survived him and made 
England her home. There is some reason to 
believe that he left a daughter Grace, who mar- 
ried Charles Ashton, of Northumberland 
county, Virginia, ancestor of the well-known 
family of that name. 

Page, John, the progenitor of the Page 
family of X'irginia, was a member of the Eng- 



lish house of that name, a branch of "the 
Pages of Harrow on the Hill" of Middlesex, 
England. He was born in 1627 and came to 
\'irginia about 1650. Of the earlier years of 
his life in \'irginia, save that he acquired a 
considerable tract of land given in reward 
for services in transporting persons into the 
colony, very little is known, but 1657 he 
represented York county in the house of 
burgesses. The commissioners to suppress 
Bacon's rebellion reported that "Major John 
Page was a great loser in his estate by the 
rebellion." On Dec. 12, 1681, Lord Culpeper 
wrote to the authorities in England that he 
had appointed "Colonel John Page of the As- 
sembly to be councillor." He was present at 
meetings of the council as late as 1689. In 
1686 he was appointed, together with Nicholas 
Spencer and Philip Ludwell to revise and 
annotate the laws of the colony. On Oct. 15, 
169 1, the privy council in England ordered 
that Col. John Page, who had been thought to 
be dead, and for that reason omitted from the 
last nomination of members of the council, 
sl'.ould be "restored to his place and presi- 
dency in the said Council of Virginia." Col. 
Page was a man of pious life and took a great 
interest in the welfare of his parish. It was 
he who gave the land and twenty pounds in 
money towards, building the old Williamsburg 
church, which is still in a good state of preser- 
vation. A fine collection of portraits, repre- 
senting members of this family, including Col. 
John Page, is to be seen in the library of Wil- 
liam and Mary College. 

Beverley, Robert, was a descendant of an 
old English family of Yorkshire, which had 
bten staunch in its support of the King dur- 
ing the civil war, Robert Beverley himself 
growing up with strong royalist proclivities. 
He was probably a native of the town of Bev- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



137 



erley and, coming to Virginia about 1663, set- 
tled in Middlesex county, of which he was a 
justice in 1673. He rapidly attained great 
prominence in colonial ailairs and was one 
oi the most popular men of his period with 
the rank and file of the colonists. The situa- 
tion at the time was a peculiar one. In 1670 
Ijeverley had been elected clerk of the house 
o: burgesses and soon became the leader of 
the majority of that body, and it was they 
who, at the outbreak of Bacon's rebellion, 
were, with the Ludwells and Thomas Ballard 
ill the council, the strongest supporters of Gov. 
Berkeley in his eii'orts to suppress the up- 
rising. It seems surprising that the popular 
l-.ouse with their chosen leader should have 
been so strong in support of the governor and 
that the only effective aid which the rebels 
received should have come from members of 
the aristocratic council. Beverley himself 
was very active in the field against Bacon's 
followers, and, in 1676, Berkeley appointed 
him commander of all his forces, and finally 
a member of the council. I'pon the arrival of 
the commissioners, sent from England to sup- 
press the rebellion, there was introduced 
another element into the dispute. Gov. Berke- 
ley, resenting the intrusion of these strangers 
to the colony, was not disposed to yield any 
(if his authority or prerogatives to them or to 
aid them in their task, and in this he was 
again strongly supported by the house of 
burgesses under Beverley's leadership, who, 
with the governor, were disposed to regard 
the commissioners as interlopers. Beverley 
thus incurred the enmity of those who were 
later to possess the authority in the colony, 
and especially of Jeffreys, soon to be the gov- 
ernor. Beverley was accused to the commis- 
sioners of plundering during his activities 
against Bacon, but Berkeley was able to save 



him from punishment for the time. During 
the governorship of Chicheley, however, Bev- 
erley was accused of inciting the rioting 
tobacco planters and was imprisoned on ship- 
board. He escaped a number of times, but 
was recommitted, while other charges were 
trumped up against him by his powerful 
enemies and carried to England. Gov. Cul- 
ptper, being at that time in England, the King 
directed him, upon returning to Virginia, to 
put Beverley out of all his public offices. He 
was finally released from prison upon his 
humbly asking pardon for his past offences 
and giving security for his future good be- 
havior. His popularity had not waned in the 
meantime and the house of burgesses imme- 
diately elected him their clerk. But with Bev- 
erley's sturdy independence of spirit, position 
could only be the prelude of misfortune. The 
creatures of King James were now securely 
intrenched in their hold on the .colony, and the 
only power fUth the inclination to resist them 
was the house of burgesses. The opportunity 
soon came, for at the session next following 
Beverley's reelection the governor and council 
made the illegal request of the assembly to be 
empowered to levy a tax upon the colony. 
This the house at once and firmly refused, 
and, according to Gov. Effingham, even dis- 
puted the right of the King himself to use the 
veto. Beverley seems to have been a leader 
in this action and thus incurred the anger of 
the throne, which ordered him to be disabled 
from holding any public office and prosecuted 
to the full extent of the law as Effingham 
should deem advisable. It is illustrative of 
the fact that the political questions of that 
time were by no means simple, that the same 
man should have been at once a royalist and 
a champion of the people, and, furthermore, 
that the democratic Beverley should have so 



138 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



strongly opposed the popular uprising, and the 
loyal Beverley stood against the unjust usurpa- 
tion of the King. It is also a high tribute to 
his courage and uprightness of purpose. He 
did not long survive his final political down- 
fall, but died about March 16, 1687, leaving 
several sons of position and distinction, Rob- 
ert Beverley, who wrote the history of Vir- 
ginia, being one. 

Kemp, Matthew, was a son of Edmund 
Kemp, of Lancaster county, a fact set forth 
in a grant to him of iioo acres of land on 
Pianketank. He lived at first in Lancaster, 
then including Middlesex, and was justice and 
sl.erifif of that county in 1659. On Xov. 15, 
1660, a certificate was granted by Lancaster 
county court to Matthew Kemp for the im- 
portation of certain head-rights, among whom 
were himself twice mentioned and his wife 
Dorothy. Later in life Col. Matthew Kemp 
removed to Gloucester county, which he repre- 
sented in the house of burgesses. In 1676 
Bacon, in his proclamation, included him 
among (lOv. Berkeley's "wicked and pernicious 
councillors, aiders and assistants against the 
Commonality." The commissioners, sent to 
suppress the rebellion, however, regarding his 
character from their point of view, speak of 
him as a gentleman of an honest, loyal family, 
a very deserving person and a great suflferer 
at the hands of the rebels. In the years 1678 
and 1679 Kemp was speaker of the house of 
burgesses, and on Dec. 12, 1681, he had re- 
cently been appointed by the governor a mem- 
ber of the council while still a burgess. He 
was county lieutenant of Gloucester, and on 
May 8, 1682, Gov. Chicheley wrote to the 
King that he had dispatched Col. Kemp, with 
01 ders, to raise horse and foot and suppress 
riotous "|)lant cutters." This he soon suc- 
ceeded in doing, making a luuuber of arrests. 



He died in 1683. There is hardly any doubt 
that Edmund Kemp was a grandson of Robert 
Kemp, of Gissing county, Norfolk, England, 
and nephew of Sir Robert Kemp, baronet. 

Byrd, William, Sr., the founder of the dis- 
tmguished Byrd family of "W'estover, ' \'ir- 
ginia, was born about 1649, in London. He 
was the son of John Byrd, a London gold- 1 
smith and a descendant of an old Cheshire 
family. The date of his coming to Virginia 
ii not known, but it must have been as very i 
young man, as it is recorded that on Oct. 27, 
1673, he was granted 1200 acres of land lying 
on the James river and Shokoe creek. He 
quickly assumed a prominent place in colonial 
aiTairs and was implicated in the matter of 
Bacon's rebellion. He was a near neighbor 
and adherent of Bacon in the early stages of 
his opposition, but it seems that he took no 
part in the actual rebellion and in all proba- 
bility made his peace with Berkeley. He was 
accused by Col. Augustine Warner, after the 
rebellion, of having entered his house at the 
head of some of Bacon's men and plundered 
h.is estate to tlie value of £ 1,000 sterling, and 
Warner actually obtained judgment against 
him for the amount, but the end of the dispute 
i.i unknown and Byrd claimed that, at the time 
of the plundering, he was himself a prisoner 
in Bacon's hands. In a letter from his wife, 
written sometime before the rebellion to a 
friend in England, she speaks of the country 
as being well pleased) with all that Bacon had 
done and remarks that she believed the coun- 
cil was, too, "so far as they durst show it." 
In the year 1695 Col. Byrd was alluded to as 
having been a member of the council for fif- 
teen years, biU the earliest recurd of him in 
tliis position, appearing in the otificial records, 
1.=; in 1681, when he was a[)i)ointed by Lord 
Culpeper. On Dec. 4, i'i87, James 11. ordered 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



139 



that he be sworn to the office of auditor- 
general of Virginia, in place of Col. Nathaniel 
Bacon, the elder. There was a dispute be- 
tween him and one Robert Ayleway, who 
claimed to have been properly appointed to the 
place, but Col. Byrd is mentioned as holding 
tlie office as late as the year 1703. Col. Ryrd 
was one of the gentlemen appointed by the 
general assembly to form the first board of 
trustees of the newly chartered William and 
Mary College, and he was one of the four 
councillors sent to England by Gov. Andros 
against the charges of Commissary Blair. 
Upon his return from a trip to England he 
brought with him the copy made for the Earl 
of Southampton of the minutes of the Vir- 
ginia Company, which he placed in the famous 
Westover Library. This library, commenced 
by him, was added to by his son and grandson, 
until it became the largest in America at the 
time. The records of the Virginia Company 
furnished most of the material for William 
Smith's "History of \'irginia."' They are now 
m the Congressional Library at Washington. 
In April, 1679, the general assembly passed an 
act granting to Capt. William Byrd a tract of 
land extending five miles along the James 
river on both sides and three miles wide and 
which included nearly all the ground now 
occupied by the cities of Richmond and Man- 
chester. The act was later vetoed by the King, 
but P.yrd was still granted a large area, nearly 
42,000 acres in all. He carried on an exten- 
sive trade with the Indians and at one time 
petitioned the exclusive right to the Indian 
trade in Virginia. He was sent on a number 
of occasions to treat with the Indians and on 
one of these trips went as far north as New 
York and Albany. He died at Westover, his 
residence on James river, Dec. 4, 1701. 

Wormeley, Christopher, the second of that 
name to become councillor, was related to the 



Wormeleys of "Rosegill," Middlesex county, 
but the exact relationship is unknown. He is 
first mentioned in an order of court of Lancas- 
ter county, then including Middlesex, dated 
Nov. 9, 1666, which refers to Capt. Christo- 
pher \Vcrmeley and his wife, who was the 
widow of Col. Anthony Elliott. In the next 
year he was a justice of Lancaster, in 1674 a 
justice of ^Middlesex, the colonel of the county 
militia in 1680, and sheriff of the county in 
1681. It was in 1682 that he was appointed 
to the council, a member of which body he 
remained during the rest of his life. He held 
also the offices of collector and naval officer 
of the lower Potomac district, and deputy 
escheator. Col. ^^'ormeley had taken the part 
of Gov. Berkeley in Bacon's rebellion, and 
was accordingly denounced in the proclama- 
tion of the rebel leader and commended by the 
commissioners appointed to suppress the same. 
He died in 1701. 

Lear, John, probably came to \'irginia about 
1656, as in that year he had a grant of 100 
acres of land on the "Oquiah River, in West- 
ni.oreland County," He soon removed to 
Xansemcnd county, which he represented in 
the house of burgesses from 1666 to 1676. 
During Bacon's rebellion, he was a staunch 
supporter of Gov. Berkeley, and remained 
with him until the rebellion was suppressed. 
He was the first to meet the commissioners, 
sent to suppress the rebellion, and give them 
an account of the condition of affairs, and by 
them was reported to have suffered heavily 
during the trouble. In 1676 a petition was 
sent the commissioners from some of the 
l)Cop!e of Nansemond county, complaining of 
the number of offices held by Col. John Lear 
ai:d Mr. David Lear, probably his brother, the 
first of whom was county clerk, escheat mas- 
ter, notary public and surveyor, and the other 
"Sheriff superior." As relating to Col. Lear, 



I40 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



remonstrance seems to have had no effect, for 
in 1680 he was presiding justice and colonel 
of militia. On May 23, 1683, Gov. Culpeper 
appointed him a member of the council, and 
the nomination was confirmed by the King. 
He continued in this office until his death. He 
was also one of the first trustees of William 
and Mary College in 1693, and, at the time 
of his death, was collector of the lower dis- 
tricts of James river. His death occurred in 
Nov. or Dec, 1695. 

Allerton, Isaac, son of Isaac Allerton, one 
of the Puritan leaders of the "Mayflower" ex- 
pedition, and his wife Fear, daughter of Wil- 
lictm Brewster, was born in Plymouth, Mass., 
in 1630, and graduated at Harvard College in 
1650. He is said to have been, for a time, 
associated witli his father in the business of 
trading between Plymouth, New Haven and 
New Amsterdam, but it is possible that during 
most of the time between his graduation and 
his father's death, in 1659, he was his repre- 
stntative in Virginia. As early as Feb. 6, 
1650, there was recorded a dispute between 
tl;e Indians and a Mr. Allerton, regarding a 
plantation which the latter had cleared, which 
reached the governor and council It is be- 
lieved that this refers to the elder Isaac Aller- 
ton, but it may be that immediately after leav- 
ing college the son established a plantation in 
Virginia. He appears to have made his first 
permanent residence in Virginia about 1660, 
and soon became a man of prominence. In 
1663 he was sworn a justice of Northumber- 
land. In 1675, with the rank of major, he was 
second in command to Col. John Washington, 
of the Virginia troops sent against the Indians. 
In the campaign which followed they allied 
themselves with the Maryland forces at the 
latter's invitation in the siege of an Indian 
fort, but before the opening of hostilities a 



horrible murder was committed by the Mary- 
landers in the shooting of five Indian chiefs 
who had come to negotiate peace. This was 
done against the earnest opposition of Wash- 
ington and Allerton, but caused such indigna- 
tion on the part of the Virginia authorities 
that an investigation of their conduct was 
ordered, which, however, cleared them of all 
responsibility for the crime. Allerton was 
bi:rgess for Westmoreland in 1676-77, and for 
Northumberland for a number of years be- i 
tween 1668 and 1677. In 1680 and 1688 he 
was escheator of Westmoreland with the rank 
of colonel, and prior to Sept. 25, 1683, he was 
appointed to the council. His occupation of 
the position at this time seems to have been 
only temporary, as in 1686-87 Secretary Spen- 
cer, acting governor, wrote, that he had called 
Col. Isaac Allerton to the council in Col. Lud- 
w ell's place. A little later King James wrote 
th.at Col. Allerton was to be sworn as a mem- 
ber of the council in Col. Ludwell's place, the 
royal favor being accounted for on the state- 
ment that Allerton was either a Catholic or 
inclined to that faith. He was present at ses- 
sions of the council regularly until 1691, when 
he refused, as did Armistead and Lee, to take 
the oath of allegiance to the new sovereigns, 
AA'illiam and Mary. He was probably not 
formally dropped until 1693, when the gov- 
ernor wrote that Col. Allerton, of the council, 
v/as very old and had retired. His death 
occurred sometime in 1702. 

Armistead, John, a son of William Arm- 
istead, of Elizabeth City county, and grand- 
son of Anthony Armistead, of Kirk Deighton, 
in Yorkshire, England, settled in Gloucester 
county, of which he was sheriff in i%~6, and 
a justice and lieutenant-colonel of horse in 
1680. In 1685 he was a member of the house 
of burgesses, and on Feb. 14, 1687-88, Gov. 



COLONIAL COUNCJLLORS OF STATE 



141 



liffingham wrote to the English government 
tl'at a vacancy had occurred in the council and 
that he had nominated Col. John Armistead 
at- in every way qualified for the place. This 
nomination was confirmed on April 30, 1688, 
and Col. Armistead was sworn as member on 
Oct. 18 of the same year. He remained a 
cc'uncillor until 1691, when, feeling that he 
could not consistently with the allegiance he 
had sworn to James IL, take the same oath 
to William and Mary, he declined and was 
accordingly removed from the council. It is 
probable that he later realized the hopelessness 
of the Stuart cause, and relented in his deter- 
mination, for in 1693 Cov. Andros wrote that 
Col." John Armistead had retired from the 
council. He died soon after. He left tw-o 
sons and two daughters and through them was 
the ancestor of many distinguished Virginians. 

Hill, Edward, Jr., was the son of Edward 
Hill Sr., an account of whom appears above. 
He was probably born at "Shirley," Charles 
Cit}- county, on the banks of the James, in 
1637, and upon the death of his father, about 
1663, fell heir to that historic estate. Edward 
Hill Jr. held many oiifices in his time. He was 
commander-in-chief of Charles City and Surry 
counties, commissioned by Gov. Chicheley, 
Sept. 27, 1679; speaker of the house of 
burgesses, 1691 ; treasurer, elected 1691 ; col- 
lector of upper district of James river, 1692, 
and naval officer of Virginia duties. In 1697 
Gov. Andros appointed him judge of the Ad- 
miralty for Virginia and North Carolina. It 
seems that upon the first day of Bacon's up- 
rising there was an attempt made to pursuade 
Hill to join them, but he met the proposition 
v.'ith a scornful rebuff. He was an intimate 
friend of Gov. Berkeley and took an active 
part in quelling the rebellion. It naturally fol- 
lows that he was cordially hated by the people 



in his county where the rebellion began. He 
was disfranchised by Bacon's house of 
burgesses in 1676, and after Bacon's death, 
when the counties capitulated to the King's 
commissioners, he was made a principal sub- 
ject of their excuse for rebellion, and accused 
ot oppression, misappropriation of public funds 
and other wrong doing. Col. Hill answered 
his accusers very effectively in a long and 
elaborate paper, but in the hst of councillors 
made by the commissioners late in 1677 they 
recommended that he be left out, and on Feb. 
10, 1678-79, the committee of trades and 
plantations recommended that Col. Hill, of 
' e\il fame and behavior," be put out of all 
employment and declared unfit to serve his 
majesty, which recommendation the King saw 
fit to follow "until his Majesty's pleasure be 
further known." With the appointment of 
Lord Culpeper as governor there was, how- 
ever, a turn in the tide of \'irginia affairs, and 
Col. Hill's star was again in the ascendant. 
He was fully restored to both royal and popu- 
lar favor and many of the offices which he 
held were bestowed uppn him after this date. 
He died Nov. 30, 1700, at "Shirley," which is 
still owned by his descendants. 

Whiting, Henry, of Gloucester county, was 
probably a son of the James Whiting, who 
patented 250 acres of land on York river and 
Timberneck creek, Gloucester, on Aug. 10, 
1643. Henry Whiting was a physician and in 
1 68 1 was a justice of Gloucester. Lie seems 
to have been a sufferer at the hands of Bacon's 
rebels, but a few years later was treated as a 
rebel himself and accused before Gov. Cul- 
peper and the council of having said in the 
assembly that if something were not done to 
bring about a cessation of tobacco planting the 
Virginians would have to "all go a plunder- 
ing." Whiting was suspended from all offices, 



[42 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



cnil or militar)-, until the King's pleasure were 
known, and obliged to give bond for his future 
good behavior. His political sympathies are 
borne witness to by the fact that in 1682 he 
was one of Robert IJeverley's bondsmen. Dr. 
Whiting did not remain long in disfavor, how- 
ever, for sometime prior to Oct. 9, 1690, he 
was appointed to the council, and was present 
ar meetings in 1692 and 1693. On July 5 of 
the same year he was appointed treasurer of 
Virginia, but did not hold the office more than 
a few months. His descendants are numerous. 

Nicholson, Sir Francis, governor of \'ir- 
gmia ( q. v. ). 

Robinson, Christopher, son of John Robin- 
son, of Cleasby, Yorkshire, England, and 
brother of John Robinson, bishop of London, 
was born in 1645. He came to \'irginia about 
1666 and settled on an estate in Middlesex 
county, near Urbanna, which was afterwards 
called "Hewick," and where he built a house 
which is still standing. Robinson was clerk 
of Middlesex county from 1675 to 1688, when 
he resigned. In i69i*he was a burgess, and 
on June 10 of that year Gov. Nicholson wrote 
that there were vacancies in the council and 
recommended "Christopher Robinson, a mem- 
ber of the House of Burgesses," to fill one of 
them. On Oct. 15 the privy council ordered 
that he be confirmed as a member of the Vir- 
ginia council, and on Oct. 26 a letter to the 
same efTect from the King was written. On 
July 5, 1692, he was furthered by the appoint- 
ment of secretary of state for A'irginia, and on 
the next day w'rote to the lords of trades and 
plantations informing them that on the peti- 
tion of Col. William Cole to be discharged 
from the position of secretary the lieutenant- 
governor, with the unanimous consent of the 
council, had given him. Robinson, the jilace 



until their majesties' pleasure might be known, 1 
and he begged their lordships' favorable con- \ 
sideration. On Oct. 25 the King in council 
granted him the wished for secretaryship. Rob- 
inson was appointed one of the first trus- 
tees of William and Mary College in 1692. 
On March 3, 1692-93, Gov. Andros wrote that 
Secretary Robinson had died on the 13th of 
April preceding. 

Scarborough, Charles, eldest son of Col. 
Edmund Scarborough, of Accomac county, is 
first mentioned in Nov., 1642, when he stated 
in a deposition that he was twenty-four years 
old. Col. Charles Scarborough seems to have 
been a man of bold temperament, which sev- 
eral times in his life got him into trouble. He 
took part in Bacon's rebellion, but was par- 
doned on the payment of a fine and, notwith- 
standing the ofifence, was, in 1680, presiding 
justice of Accomac and major of the militia. 
In 1687 he was prosecuted and removed from 
the court for saying that "King James would 
wear out the Church of England," for he was 
"constantly putting in those of another pur- 
suasion." In the next year, that of the revolu- 
tion, such opinions became meritorious, and 
Maj. Scarborough was reappointed a justice 
and elected a member of the house of bur- 
gesses. On June 10, 1691, Gov. Nicholson 
wrote that there were vacancies in the council, 
and reconmiended as a fit person to fill one of 
them "Col. Charles Scarborough," a member 
of the house of burgesses, and Sir Charles 
Scarborough's nephew. On Oct. 15 of the 
same year the English privy council confirmed 
his appointment. He was at that time coun- 
cillor, commander-in-chief of ,\ccomac and 
president of the county court, and collector 
and naval officer of the eastern shore. Eor 
some reason, not now known, he was for a 
time left out of the council, but in 1697, was 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



t43 



again sworn as a member. He died in or not 
liTg before 1703. The Scarborough family 
was for many generations one of the leading 
families in \'irginia. 

Fitt, Robert, son of \Villiam Pitt, merchant, 
(and Pary Pitt, his wife,) of Bristol, England, 
who made his will May 13, 1622, which was 
pioved Feb. 4, 1624, in Bristol. Robert Pitt 
and his two brothers, Henry and Thomas, 
came to Mrginia about 1640. Robert was a 
])runiinent merchant, burgess for Isle of Wight 
in 1(149, 1652, 1654 (in which year he is men- 
tioned as lieutenant-colonel) and 1659, i6tio 
(in which year he is mentioned as colonel). 
He was a member of the council in 1673. He 
n^arried Martha Lear, sister of Col. John Lear, 
of the Virginia council. His will, dated June 
6, 1672, was proved in Isle of Wight county, 
June 9, 1674. 

Wormeley, Ralph, the second Ralph to be 
councillor, was a son of Ralph W'ormeley, Esq., 
burgess and councillor, and of Agatha Elton- 
head, who married (first) Luke Stubbins, of 
Northampton county, (second) Ralph Worme- 
ley, and (third) Sir Henry Chicheley. He was 
born in 1650; matriculated, July 4, 1665, at 
Oriel College, Oxford; was a member of the 
house of burgesses in 1674: appointed mem- 
ber of the council in 1677; secretary of state 
in 1693, and became in the same year president 
of the council. He lived in such state at his 
residence, "Rosegill," on the Rappahannock 
river, and had such influence in affairs, that he 
was called the greatest man in "A'irginia." He 
married (first) Catherine, widow of Colonel 
Peter Jenings and daughter of Sir Thomas 
Lunsford, by whom he had two daughters — 
Elizabeth, who married John Lomax, and 
Catherine, who married Gawin Corbin. He 
married (second) Elizabeth Armistead, daugh- 



ter of Colonel John Armistead, of Gloucester 
county, and had several sons and daughters, 
one of whom was John Wormeley, who was 
grandfather of Ralph Wormeley, the third 
councillor of the name (q. v.). "Rosegill," his 
beautiful home on the Rappahannock, was the 
residence at different times of two of the gov- 
ernors of Virginia — Sir Henry Chicheley, who 
married his mother, and Lord Howard, of 
Effingham, who preferred living here to resid- 
ing at Jamestown. Colonel Wormeley died 
December 5. 1703. 

Parke, Daniel, Jr., was the only son of 
Councillor Daniel P'arke I., and was born in 
1669. He was probably educated in England, 
but was back in Virginia soon after reaching 
manhood, and in 1692 was appointed a mem- 
ber of the council. He was a favorite of Gov. 
Andros, who gave him, besides the office of 
councillor, those of collector and naval officer 
of lower James river, escheator for the dis- 
trict between York and James and colonel of 
militia. Much of the record which has come 
to us of Col. Parke certainly presents him in 
a most unfavorable light, but it must be re- 
membered that it is the product of pens bit- 
terly opposed to him in the politics of the 
period. Commissary Blair has left us a pic- 
ture of him anything but attractive, in which, 
he is presented as a boaster and swaggerer 
who does not hesitate to take advantage over 
those who are defenceless, but who will not 
meet a formidable adversary face to face. 
Such was his behavior toward Gov. Nicholson, 
by Blair's account, and against his, the com- 
missary's wife, the former of whom he in- 
sulted but contrived to avoid the duel, and the 
latter he bullied in church. Notwithstanding 
al' this there can be no doubt that Parke was 
a man of courage and ability. He left \'ir- 
ginia in 1697, and in 1701 served a campaign 



144 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



in Flanders with Lord Arran, the Duke of 
Ormond's brother, and was in every action. 
I-"or his efficiency he was made a colonel and 
"promised the first old regiment that shall 
fall.'" The Duke of Marlborough made him 
one of his aides and he behaved with such dis- 
tinction at the battle of Blenheim that the 
Duke selected him to bear the news of the 
great victory to Queen Anne. It was at that 
time the custom in England to give the bearers 
of the first news of a victory a gratuity of 
£500, but Col. Parke begged that instead he 
might have the Queen's picture. His gallantry, 
fine appearance and handsome bearing pleased 
Queen Anne, and being patronized by the 
Duke he was in April 25, 1704, appointed gov- 
ernor of the Leeward Island. Here the gov- 
ernment had been very lax and the settlers 
were many of them lawless and desperate 
characters, for the West Indies had been the 
stronghold of the pirates. Parke attempted to 
introduce some reforms and incurred the re- 
sentment of the people. He would not yield 
and placed his dependence upon a small mili- 
tary force at his command. A violent insur- 
rection broke out at Antigua in 1710 and 
Parke made a gallant resistance, killing with 
his own hand Capt. John Piggott, one of the 
leaders of the insurrection. He was finally 
overpowered by numbers and the mob roused 
to fury dragged him through the streets till 
he was left expiring in the scorching sun. 
They broke open his storehouse and plundered 
his residence and other property to the amount 
of i5,ooo sterling. Col. Daniel Parke mar- 
ried Jane, daughter of Col. Philip Ludwell, 
and left two daughters — Frances, who married 
Col. John Custis, of Arlington, Northamp- 
ton county, and Lucy, who married Col. Wil- 
liam Byrd, of Westover. He was certainly 
lacking in morality, but this was too often the 



characteristic of the men of fashion of his da_\-. 
His portrait, showing Queen Anne's miniature 
hanging by a ribbon from his neck, is to be 
seen at Brandon, on James river. 

Hartwell, Henry, was clerk of the council 
in 1677 and other years. On June 10, 1691. 
Gov. Nicholson wrote to England that there 
were vacancies in the council and recom- 
mended for one place Henry Hartwell, a mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses. The governor 
seems to have given him a pro tempore ap- 
pointment at once, for he was present in coun- 
cil July 5, 1692. On March 2, 1693-94 the 
committee for trade and plantations agreed to 
move the King in council that Col. Henry 
Hartwell be added to the council in Virginia at 
the recommendation of the bishop of London, 
and on July 18, 1694, Gov. Andros wrote that 
Col. Hartwell had been accordingly sworn. 
He left Virginia for England in June, 1695. 
and never returned, but for some time hi- 
name was retained on the roll of the council 
In 1699 he, with the Rev. James Blair ami 
Edward Chilton, prepared an account of the 
colony which was published under the title of 
"The Present State of Virginia." Hartwell 
became a resident of London and died there 
in 1699. His brother, William Hartwell, was 
captain of Sir William Berkeley's body guard 
during Bacon's rebellion, and through him in 
female lines the family is still represented in 
Virginia. 

Lightfoot, John, was a son of John Light- 
foot, barrister-at-law, of Northampton county. 
England, and with his brother Philip, came to 
Virginia and settled in Gloucester county. Onj 
June 10, 1670, Lightfoot received the King's! 
grant as auditor-general of Virginia, in place ' 
of Thomas Stegge, then lately deceased. On 
Dec. 17, 167 1, his majesty, having learned that 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



145 



Gov. Berkeley had appointed Digges to the 
place prior to his own letters patent to Light- 
foot, and that Digges was "a person every 
way fit for said office," directed Berkeley to 
suspend Lightfoot and substitute Digges. 
Moryson in a letter to Lord Arlington said 
that Berkeley's commission to Digges "bore 
date long before Captain Lightfoot did so 
much as sue for his," and objects to Lightfoot 
on the grounds that at the time when he re- 
ceived his commission he was not a member of 
the council or a resident of \"irginia, "so that 
i/ he hath the place he must be forced to 
execute it by deputy, which is contrary to 
law," and that he was reported to have "many 
great debts upon him, one no less than a 
statute of i/OO." In 1681 reference is made 
to Lightfoot as having married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Goodrich, lieutenant-general in 
Bacon's rebellion, and in 1692 we are told that 
John Lightfoot, "lately come into the coun- 
try," was a councillor. It is probable that he 
had lately returned from a visit to England. 
On Sept. 5, 1695, the lords justices, on recom- 
mendation of the committee of trades and 
plantations, directed that John Lightfoot be 
added to the \'irginia council. In 1699 he was 
collector for the country between James and 
York rivers, and in 1701 voted with other 
ccuncillors for the recall of Nicholson. He is 
also mentioned as having been commander-in- 
chief of King and Queen county. He died 
May 28, 1707, leaving issue. 

Ludwell, Philip, was the son of Thomas 
Ludwell, of Bruton, in Somersetshire, Eng- 
land, who was church warden of the parish in 
1636, and steward of Sexey Hospital in Bru- 
ton. Thomas Ludwell died at Discoe, in the 
parish of Bruton, and was buried July 7, 1637. 
Philip Ludwell's mother was Jane Cottington, 
a relative of Sir William Berkeley, and only 

VIR-IO 



daughter of James Cottington, of Discoe, a 
brother of Philip, Lord Cottington. Philip 
Ludwell, who belonged to a royalist, family, 
was born about 1638, and probably came to 
\'irginia about 1660 to join his brother 
Thomas, who was then secretary of state. He 
was captain of the James City county militia 
in 1667, and on March 5, 1675, took the oath 
as a councillor of state. During the absence 
of his brother Thomas in London, at this time, 
he was acting secretary of state for two years 
(1675-1677). During Bacon's rebellion (1676) 
he was one of the most efficient supporters of 
Gov. Berkeley. He showed distinguished 
courage and discretion in capturing an expedi- 
tion under Giles Bland sent to Northampton 
county to siege the governor. After Berke- 
ley's death, in 1677, Ludwell married his 
widow and became the head of the "Green 
Spring Faction," as it was called, comprised of 
friends of the late governor. From being the 
supporters of government Ludwell and Bev- 
erley became the champions of the rights of 
the general assembly and the people. Gov. 
Jeffreys had Ludwell excluded from the coun- 
cil. Jeffreys died and Lord Thomas Culpeper 
came over to 'Virginia in 1681. He was a 
cousin of Ludwell's wife, Lady Berkeley, 
whose maiden name was Frances Culpeper, 
and at the request of the whole council he re- 
stored Ludwell to his seat in that body. 'When 
Lord Howard, of Effingham, came as gov- 
ernor to 'Virginia in 1686 he tried to increase 
the power of the executive and instituted a fee 
for the use of the state seal to land grants. 
He was opposed by Ludwell and the fee was 
ordered to be discontinued, but he again lost 
his place in council. The dismissal only served 
to increase Ludwell's popularity, and the 
assembly sent him to England as their agent to 
petition for relief. 'While he was in attend- 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ance at the privy council King William came 
to the throne and Ludwell was successful in 
obtaining a favorable decision on most of the 
questions involved. He was again restored 
to the council and on May 7, 1691, the house 
of burgesses voted him the public thanks and 
presented him with £250. Before this, on 
Dec. 5, 1689, the lords proprietors of Caro- 
lina appointed him governor of North Caro- 
lina, and in 1693 o^ both North and South 
Carolina. He held office till 1694, when, tired 
of the quarrels of that turbulent country, he 
resigned. He continued in the council in \'ir- 
ginia and in 1690-92 was agent for the Cul- 
pepers in the Northern Neck. In 1693 'i^ ^^'^^ 
one of the first board of visitors of William 
and Mary College. He heired from his 
brother Thomas, "Rich Neck," near Wilhams- 
burg, but his chief residence was at "Green 
Spring," which he obtained by his marriage 
with Lady Berkeley. About 1700, leaving his 
e.states in the hands of his son Philip, he went 
to England, where he was living as late as 
171 1. Col. Philip Ludwell married, in or be- 
fore 1667 (first ) Lucy, widow of Col. William 
Bernard, and before that of Maj. Lewis Bur- 
well, and daughter of Capt. Robert Higginson ; 
(second) Lady Frances (Culpeper) Berkeley. 
His son Philip (by his first marriage) and his 
grandson Philip were both members of the 



Johnson, Richard, lived in New Kent 
county in 1679, when he was styled "Captain 
Richard Johnson," and the following year was 
a justice and captain of horse there. On June 
10, 1691, Gov. Nicholson wrote to England 
that there were vacancies in the council and 
recommended for one of the places Lieut. -Col. 
Richard Johnson, a member of the house of 
burgesses. He was not appointed, however, 
until 1696, when Andros gave him a seat in 



that body and he is recorded as being present 
on April 20 of that year. His death probably 
occurred in 1698, his will having been made 
then, on April 8. Col. Johnson came from 
Bilsby, county Lincoln, England. By a wife 
in England he had a daughter Judith, who 
married Sir Hardofif Wastnays. By a wife in 
Virginia he had several sons, one of whom 
was ancestor of the distinguished \irginia 
lawyer. Chapman Johnson. 

Harrison, Benjamin, of "Wakefield," Surry 
Lounty, a sun of Benjamin Harrison, of the 
same place, was born Sept. 20, 1645. He was 
a minor at the time of his father's death, and 
in 1663, was under the guardianship of Capt. 
Ihomas Flood, of Surry. On June 15, 1677, 
his name appears for the first time as a jus- 
tice and he continued for man_\- years to be 
a member of the county court. On June 16. 
1679, he took the oath as sheriff'. He was a 
member of the house of burgesses in 1681, 
1692, 1696, 1697 and 1698, and in the 
latter year was promoted to the council, of 
which he was a regular attendant until his 
death. In the charter of William and Mary 
College, 1692, Benjamin Harrison was ap- 
pointed one of the first trustees. Gov. Nichol- 
son was not on friendly terms with Harrison 
and his friends and wrote to the lords of trades 
and plantations in 1703 that the family of 
Harrisons had endeavored to engross the 
major part of the land on the south side of 
Blackw^ater Swamp, but that, for his majesty's 
interest, he had put a stop to their proceed- 
ings. Col. Harrison died Jan. 30, 17 12-13. 

Jenings, Edmund, president of the council 
and acting governor (q. v.). 

Digges, Dudley, of York county, son of 
Edward Digges, governor of \'irginia, was 
born about 166:;. Sometime in 169S Gov. 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



[47 



Andros appointed him a member of the coun- 
cil, but for some reason he was not continued 
iv office by Gov. Nicholson, and on Jan. 4, 
1699-1700, the lords of trade and plantations 
wrote to Nicholson that they approved of his 
action in not admitting Col. Digges. \Miat- 
ever the objection may have been it was re- 
moved in a few years, for on Feb. 23, 1703- 
04, the Queen appointed Col. Dudley Digges 
to the council, as had been recommended by 
Gov. Nicholson. He was also included in a 
new commission dated Feb. 23, 1709-10. In 
1705 Digges was appointed auditor and sur- 
veyor-general of Virginia, offices which he 
held until his death, Jan. 18, 1710-11. 

Carter, Robert, president of the council and 
acting governor of \irginia (q. v.). 

Custis, John, son of JMaj-Gen. John Custis, 
o[ "Arlington," Northampton county, was 
born in 1653. He was a justice of Northamp- 
ton in 1680. a member of the house of bur- 
gesses from that county in 1685, 1692, 1696, 
and in 1699, when he is styled "Colonel John 
Custis," he was escheator, naval officer and 
receiver of Virginia for the eastern shore. 
He was appointed to the council Dec. 14, 1699, 
and later on Oct. 15, 1705. He was a constant 
attendant at the sessions during the remainder 
of his life, his name appearing for the last 
time on Oct. 15, 1712, just three months be- 
fore his death. He died January 26, 1713, and 
was buried at "W'ilsonia." Northampton 
county. 

Page, Matthew, of "Rosewell." Gloucester 
county, was a son of Col. John Page, and was 
born in 1659. He was a member of the house 
of burgesses and a charter trustee of William 
and Mary College in 1692, and escheator for 
the district between the York and Rappahan- 
nock- rivers from 1699 to 1702. He was ap- 



pointed to the council in 1700, probably to fill 
a vacancy, and the appointment confirmed in 
1702 by the Queen. He remained a member 
until his death in 1703. He married Mary 
Mann, of Gloucester county, Virginia. 

Burwell, Lewis, of "Carter's Creek," Glou- 
cester, and of "King's Creek," York, was a 
son of Alaj. Lewis Burwell and Lucy Higgin- 
son, his wife. He was a justice of Gloucester 
in 1680 and a trustee of William and Mary 
College in 1692. He was probably appointed 
t;; the council by the governor in 1700. Such 
appointments were always provisional and had 
to be ratified by the EngHsh authorities and 
on Dec. 4, 1700, the lords of trade wrote to 
Gov. Nicholson that he had been appointed 
to the council. On Oct. 13, 1701, Maj. Bur- 
well wrote to the lords of trade that he had 
received his majesty's command requiring his 
service as one of the council of the colony. It 
v.'as his very great misfortune that upon this 
occasion it was not in his power to pay the 
respect of duty and obedience which he had 
always been ambitious to do, and therefore he 
prayed their lordships' intercession with his 
majesty not to insist upon his commands. 
Sickness and lameness, with which he was 
very often afflicted, made it impossible for him 
to attend. Accordingly, on May 7, 1702, the 
lords of trade recommended to the Queen that 
Lewis Burwell be discharged from the council, 
which was done. It was with one of this 
Maj. Bur well's daughters that Gov. Nicholson 
became infatuated, as Dr. Blair reports. He 
died Dec. 19, 1710. He married (first) Abi- 
gail Smith, niece of Hon. Nathaniel Bacon, 
Esq., and (second) Martha, widow of Col. 
William Cole, formerly secretary of state, and 
daughter of Councillor Col. John Lear. 

Ludwell, Philip, Jr., of Greenspring," James 
City county, was a son of the Philip Ludwell. 



148 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



who was so long a prominent figure in the 
colony, and was born at "Carter's Creek," 
Gloucester county, Feb. 4, 1672. His father's 
influence and large estate brought the son into 
public life at an early age and he was chosen 
speaker of the house of burgesses in 1695, 
being probably the most youthful occupant of 
that chair. On May 14, 1702, on the recom- 
mendation of the governor, the Queen ap- 
pointed him a member of the council. Though 
recommended by Xicholson, Ludwell was one 
of the party who opposed him and finally suc- 
ceeded in having -him removed from office. 
Ludwell's official life appears to have con- 
tinued to run smoothly, he sat regularly at the 
meetings of the council, was appointed one of 
the trustees of the new college at Williams- 
burg in 1706, and 1709 w-as made a commis- 
sioner on the part of Virginia for establishing 
the boundary line with North Carolina. In 
171 1 he was appointed auditor of \'irginia by 
Gov. Spotswood, who seems at first to have 
been favorably impressed with him. The good 
will between them did not last, however. The 
Ludwells, always on the side of the people, 
did not hesitate to oppose the governor in 
what they considered usurpations of the popu- 
lar rights, and accordingly, when the clash be- 
tween the house of burgesses and Spotswood 
occurred, the colonel sided with the former. 
So highly was the governor incensed that he 
suspended Ludwell from the office of auditor 
and accused him of mismanagement of the 
finances. There was a considerable dispute 
over this order, but the English authorities 
finally upheld Spotswood and appointed an- 
other in Ludwell's place. This did not, how- 
ever, discourage that gentleman in his resist- 
ance to the governor, and in 1718 he sided 
with Commissary Blair in his dispute with 
Spotswood relative to the appointment of min- 



isters to the \"irginia churches. In this matter 
they were entirely successful in their opposi- 
tion to him, though this and other disputes 
continued for sometime. These difi^erences 
were finally composed in 1720, after which 
date there is scarcely any record of Ludwell's 
public life save the reports of his constant 
attendance at the council. He died Jan. 11, 
1726-27. 

Quarry, Robert, was appointed a member 
of the council in the commission of Oct. 16, 
1702, and on Dec. 17, wrote the lords of trade 
that he had arrived in the colony about the 
middle of October. He made a visit to Eng- 
land the following year, but was again in \'ir- 
ginia in Sept., 1703, and in October of the 
same year was appointed surveyor-general of 
the customs in America, in which office he 
played an active part in the attairs of the 
colony. Like his predecessors in this office, 
la was so frequently absent in England that 
he can hardly be said to have been a citizen of 
\'irginia at all. He sat as councillor in 1707 
and 1709-10, and, under a new commission, 
was present and took the oaths as councillor, 
July 21, 1712. The colonial records contain 
no further information concerning him. 

Duke, Henry, of James City county, was a 
justice of that county in 1680, sheriff in 1699 
and member of the house of burgesses in 1692, 
1696, 1699, 1700, and probably in the follow- 
ing year. In 1700 he was a member of the 
committee appointed to review the laws and, 
on May 14, 1702, was appointed by the Queen, 
a member of the council. He continued a 
member and a regular attendant at the sessions 
of that body until his death, the last record 
of his attendance being in 1713. It appears 
that he was also commander of the militia 
in James City county in 1710, for on Aug. 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



149 



24 of that year. Gov. Spotswood made a mem- 
orandum, in the receipt of a letter from Col. 
Duke, giviiig an account of some negroes 
going away with arms, directing him, in case 
c* a like happening, to raise the militia and 
go in pursuit. On Jan. 27, 17 13, Spotsw.ood 
wrote to the English authorities that there 
was a vacancy in tlie council on account of the 
death of Heniy Duke, which had occurred 
during the winter. 

Bassett, William, of "Eltham," New Kent 
county, was a son of Capt. William Bassett 
of the same county and was born in 1670. He 
uas a member of the house of burgesses from 
New Kent in 1692, 1696, 1702 and probably 
in the intervening years. On May 22, 1702, 
Edmund Jenings and John Lightfoot cer- 
tified that Col. William Bassett, who was 
elected burgess for New Kent, "was tendered 
the oaths for burgess and returned the fol- 
lowing answer, T have already in several 
qualifications testified my allegiance to King 
William's government by taking the oaths &c. : 
but I am now informed, and fully satisfied 
that he is dead, and therefore I think myself 
obliged both in prudence and concience to de- 
cline taking ye oaths to him at this time.' " 
On May 14, 1702, the Queen appointed him a 
member of the council of Virginia and he was 
present at sessions of that body until April 
15, 1708. Within a few years Bassett desired 
t(j retire from the council and wrote to Eng- 
land to that effect, stating that neither his 
health nor his private affairs would permit 
him to attend. This, after some delay, was 
granted, but Bassett seems to have made too 
high a record as an official to be allowed to 
remain long in retirement, and in 171 1, he was 
returned to the council, but declined to accept 
as he was not restored to his former position 
in that body. On March 11, 1714-15, he was 



again included in a commission to the coun- 
cillors and this time took his seat, attending 
regularly the sessions until his death in 1723. 

Smith, John, of Gloucester county, a son 
of Col. Lawrence Smith of the same place, 
was appointed to the council in the spring of 
1704 by Gov. Nicholson, but in the next com- 
mission to the council the names of Smith 
and John Lewis were omitted and they made 
application for restoration to the lords of 
trade. In Dec, 1705, the board ordered that 
Mr. Smith be reinstated, taking the place of 
\\'illiam Fiyrd deceased, and the following 
year he took the oaths of office. He was 
among those councillors who opposed Gov. 
Spotswood and whom the latter petitioned the 
English authorities to have removed in 1718, 
a petition not granted. Besides being in the 
council. Smith was appointed by Nicholson to 
be quartermaster general of Virginia in 1704- 
05, and in 1707, he was made commander-in- 
chief of the militia in King and Queen county 
in place of Col. John Lightfoot deceased. His 
death occurred sometime prior to March, 
1719-20. He married Arabella Cox, a de- 
scendant of William Strachey, secretary to 
Lord Delaware in 161 1. 

Lew^is, John, St., of "Warner Hall," Glou- 
cester county, was a son of John and Isabella 
Lewis of the same county and was born Nov. 
30, 1699. Towards the close of Gov. Nichol- 
son's administration, probably in the spring of 
1704, he was appointed to the council, but in 
some way his name was omitted from the 
commission to that body under Nicholson's 
successor. Lewis and John Smith, who was 
in the same case, wrote to the lords of trade 
expressing surprise that they should have been 
loft out as they were sensible of never having 
acted contrary to their duty to the Queen, her 



'50 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



lepresentatives or the welfare of the colony. 
The enemies of Nicholson strove to keep them 
excluded, but as nothing could be urged against 
them, they were successful in their efforts to 
be admitted and on June 26, 1707, they were 
finally sworn as members. Col. Lewis was a 
regular attendant at the sessions of the coun- 
cil until his death. On Sept. 2, 1707, he was 
appointed commander of King and Queen 
county. He died Nov. 14, 1725. He married 
Elizabeth Warner, daughter of Col. Augus- 
tme Warner and Mildred Reade, daughter of 
Col. George Reade, and left issue. 

Churchill, William, of "Bushy Park" and 
"Wilton," Middlesex county, was born in Ox- 
fordshire, England about 1650 and came to 
Virginia prior to 1687, when he was a justice 
of Middlesex. He became a man of large 
wealth and prominence in the colony and 
owned two estates in his county, entirely 
across which his lands were stated to extend. 
He was a member of the house of burgesses 
for Middlesex in 1704 and probably other 
years, and on April 20, 1705, was appointed 
by the English government a member of the 
council. He continued a regular attendant 
until his death in 1710. He married Elizabeth 
Armistead, daughter of Col. John Armistead, 
and widow of Ralph Wormeley, secretary of 
state, and left issue. 

Cocke, Dr. William, a native of Suffolk, 
England, was born in 167 1, matriculated in 
Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1688, and was 
elected fellow of the college in 1694. The 
exact date of his immigration to Virginia does 
not appear, but in the latter part of 171 1 or 
early in 1712, upon the resignation of Ed- 
mund Jenings, he was appointed secretary 
of state of Virginia. There seems to have 
been some arrangement between Jenings and 



Cocke in regard to the profits of the office 
and there was some little delay before the lat- 
ter came into full possession of the place. 
Gov. Spotswood wrote on Feb. 11, 1712-13 to 
the authorities in England that there was a 
vancanc}' in the council and recommended, as 
a fit person to fill it "the gentleman who was 
last year by her majesty's favor promoted to 
the office of Secretary, Mr. William Cocke." 
On July 23, 1713, the board of trade and plan- 
tations made a representation to the Queer, 
recommending Secretary Cocke for the coun- 
cil, and on Aug. 18 the appointment was made. 
Dr. Cocke was present at the various sessions 
of the council until the spring of 1716, when 
he made a visit to England. He was a bearer 
on that occasion of a letter from Gov. Spots- 
wood, in which he gives the highest praise to 
Cocke and recommends him to the Queen's 
favor. Dr. Cocke returned to Mrginia prior 
to Alarch 11, 1718, on which date he was pres- 
ent in council. He died Oct. 20, 1720. He 
married Elizabeth, sister of the celebrated 
naturalist Mark Catesby, and left descend- 
ants. 

Berkeley, Edmund, of ^liddlesex county, j" 
was a son of Edmund and Mary Berkeley and 
was born sometime prior to 1674. On July 
22, 171 3, the board of trade and plantations 
made a representation to the Queen, recom- 
mending him for appointment to the council, 
and on Aug. 8 the appointment was made. 
There seems to have been a vigorous dispute 
between him and Gov. Spotswood regarding 
precedence in the council, Berkeley claiming 
that he should take precedence over the coun- 
cillors appointed by the governor after the 
date of his letter from the Queen, but sworn 
before him. The dispute lasted for some 
time, Berkeley in the meantime refusing to 
take his seat, but at length a new commission 




COL. WM. BYRD 
Founder of Richmond 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



;u rived in March. 1714-15, in which his name 
V. as again included and he seems after this 
l(. ha\e hsen a regular attendant until his 
death in 1718, at his residence "Ijarn Elms" 
in Aliddksex county. He married Lucy, 
daughter of Maj. Lewis Burwell and his wife 
Abigail Smith descended from the illustrious 
house of the Bacons in England. 

Byrd, William, of W'estover, a son of Coun- 
cillor William Byrd, of the same place, was 
born March 28, 1674. He may truly be said 
to have been born under a lucky star, for his 
f;.ther had already made the name of B\rd 
distinguished in \'irginia. and becjueathed to 
tlie son, besiiles v.orldly wealth and position, 
many admirable gifts of character and mind. 
He vva> sent to England as a mere lad for hi>- 
education and placed under the direction of 
Sir Robert Southwell. Later he read law in 
the Middle Temple, and. in recognition of his 
gifts and scholarship, was made a fellow of 
tlie Royal Society of Great Britain. A trip 
ti' the continent and a visit to the court of 
France served as finishing touches to this edu- 
cation before his return to \lrginia. Soon 
after reaching the colony, he was made a bur- 
gess and. in Oct., i6g6. was sent as the official 
agent of <!i&t body to England, where he re- 
mained at least as late as 1702, though the 
date of Ins visit's termination is not dehnitely 
known. I'pon his return, he entered eagerly 
into the afi'airs of the colony and soon came 
t" be looked upon as the leading man of his 
fme. In Sejit., 1705. Gov. Nott, upon the 
advice of the council, appointed him receiver 
general of \'irginia to fill the vacancy occa- 
.sioned by the death of his father, and in De- 
cember, of the same year, he succeeded to his 
father's place in the council. In the conflict 
that arose between the assembly and Gov. 
Snots wood, Ciil. Byrd took part with the for- 



mer, and the governor's displeasure was fur- 
ther increased by a long visit Byrd made in 
England. He consequently wrote to England 
advising the authorities there to remove Byrd 
and a number of his other enemies from the 
council. In the case of Byrd there was a long 
dispute with varying success, but in the end he 
retained his seat. This quarrel was finally 
ended and Byrd and Spotswood became cor- 
dial frienels after the latter's retirement from 
]Hiblic life. In 1727, Byrd was appointed by 
Gov. (iooch, one of the commission to confer 
with North Carolina upon the boundary line 
between the two colonies. The \'irginia com- 
mission consisted of Col. Byrd, Richard Fitz- 
william and William Dandridge. These gen- 
tlemen not only succeeded in fixing the posi- 
tion of the line but accompanied the engineers 
th.at drew it on their difficult and painful sur- 
vey through the wilderness. Col. Byrd kept 
a diary of the expedition which has been 
preserved for us. and which, along with other 
similar writings by him. aiTord a vivid picture 
of colonial life in that period. Col. Byrd 
built the famous brick mansion which stands 
to this day at Westover, and collected the 
largest library of the day in America. This 
library boasted 3,625 volumes, among which 
was the "Records of the London Company," 
wh.ich the Earl of Southampton caused to be 
made, and which Byrd's father had purchased 
in London. Col. I'yrd's death occurred Aug. 
26, 1744. and he was buried in the garden at 
\\'estover. 

It was fit that a man of his eminent char- 
acter should have been founder of the city 
of Riclimond. the present capital of \'irginia. 

Porteus, Robert, of "New Bottle," Glou- 
cester county, was born in 1679. His father 
was Edward Porteus of the same county, who, 
in 1^93. was recommended by the governor as 



152 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



one of the "gentlemen of estate and standing" 
suitable for appointment to the council. He 
was, however, never given the office. Robert 
Porteus was appointed sherifif of Gloucester 
h; 1709, but declined the office. On March i, 
17 1 3, he was sworn as member of the council 
and remained a member until 1719, when he 
went to England, dying at Ripen, Yorkshire, 
August 8, 1758. He was the father of Beilby 
Porteus, Bishop of London. 

Harrison, Nathaniel, of "Wakefield," Sur- 
ry county, was a son of Councillor Benjamin 
Harrison and was born in Surry county, Aug. 
8. 1677. He was, for a number of years a 
very prominent and influential figure in the 
colony. Beginning his public life as a justice 
of Surry in 1698, he was later a member of 
the house of burgesses for that county from 
1700 to 1706 inclusive. In 1702, he was naval 
officer for the upper district of James river ; 
in 1704, he was appointed by the commission- 
ers of the pi-ize office in England, the agent 
for prizes in A'irginia ; in 1710, appointed by 
Spotswnod, na\al officer and receiver of Vir- 
ginia duties ; and on April 10 of the same year 
was made one of the commissioners on the 
part of X'irginia to settle, with Xorth Carolina, 
the question of their boundary. On Jan. 9, 
1713-14, he became a councillor on Spots- 
wood's appointment, this being confirmed by 
the English authorities the following year. On 
Dec. 8, 1715, he was appointed county lieuten- 
ant of Surry and Prince George, and appears 
at this time to have been receiver general of 
Virginia, the deputy in Virginia for the audi- 
tor and receiver general of all the colonies, 
who lived in England. He was a regular at- 
tendant at sessions of the council until his 
death. Nov. 30, 1727. He married ]\Iary Cary, 
daughter of John Cary, merchant of London, 



by his wife Jane, daughter of Col. John Flood, 
of Surry county, Virginia, and had issue. 

Page, Mann, of "Rosewell," Gloucester 
county, was a son of Matthew Page of the 
same place and was born in 1691. His grand- 
son. Gov. Page, stated that he was educated 
at Eaton, and Foster's "Oxford Matricula- 
tions" shows that he was entered at St. John's 
College at that university in July, i/Oy. Early 
in 1714, a vacancy occurring in the council. 
Gov. Spots>vood appointed him a member of 
that body, and on March 11, 17 14-15, the Eng- 
lish government confirmed his appointment. 
Page was a regular attendant at the sessions 
of the council until his death. Mann Page 
was the builder of the present house at "Rose- 
well," which was begun in 1725 and barely 
completed at the time of his death, Jan. 24, 
1730. He married Judith, daughter of Sec- 
retary Ralph Wormeley, and had issue. 

Digges, Cole, of "Bellfield," York county, 
was a son of Councillor Dudley Digges of the 
same place and was born in 1692. He was a 
member of the house of burgesses for York 
in 1 7 18 and probably other years, and was 
first mentioned in 1718 as a candidate for the 
council, being recommended for that body by 
Gov. Spotswood in his letter of Sept. 17 of 
that year. There was some delay in the mat- 
ter of his appointment due to politics but, in 
Sept., 1720, he finally received his commission 
and was sworn to office. He remained a mem- 
ber, and was a frequent attendant for many 
years, the last record of his appearance being 
on Sept. 4, 1744, in which year his death 
occurred. He married Elizabeth Power, 
(laughter of Dr. Henry Power, son of John 
Power, "a Spanish merchant," and left issue. 

Beverley, Peter, of Gloucester county, eld- 
est son of Maj. Robert Beverley of Middle- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



153 



sex county, the councillor and patriot, was 
born probably about the year 1668. In 1691, 
soon after his coming of age, he was appointed 
clerk of the house of burgesses and held that 
office until the year 17CXJ, when he was elected 
a member of the house from Gloucester 
county. He evidently soon attained promi- 
nence, for from 1702 to 1714, he was speaker 
of the assembly, and in the former year, the 
house, as a token of their esteem and gratitude 
voted him an annuity of 10,000 pounds of 
ti.bacco. From 1710 to 1723, he was treas- 
urer of Virginia, elected by the house of bur- 
gesses. On May 2;^, 1716, Gov. Spotswood 
recommended for the position of auditor gen- 
eial, John Robinson or Peter Beverley, the 
latter of whom had been for several years 
si)eaker, and was then the country's treasurer. 
\Vriting again on July 3, Spotswood said that 
he intended to appoint as auditor pro tem Col. 
Peter Beverley. On April 9, 17 19, the lords 
of trade recommended to the King that "Peter 
Beverley, a gentleman of good estate and abili- 
ties, of fair character and well affected to his 
majesty's person and government," should be 
appointed a member of the Virginia council. 
On June 20, 1720, the appointment was made. 
Col. Beverley remained a member until "nis 
death, his last appearance, as noted in the 
jtiurnal, being June 13, 1728, in which year 
he died. Besides the offices already mentioned 
a.-i held by him, were those of visitor of Wil- 
liam and Alary College and surveyor general 
of Virginia. He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Maj. Robert Peyton, who was grandson of 
Sir Edward Peyton, of Isleham, county Kent, 
England, and left issue. 

Robinson, John, president of the council 
and acting governor (f|. v.). 

Carter, John, was the eldest son of Robert 
Carter of "Corotoman," Lancaster countv. He 



was a student at the Middle Temple and, in 1722, 
was a barrister at law at the Inns of Court. 
On June 23, 1722, Spotswood wrote to the 
lords of trade recommending "Mr. John Car- 
ter, eldest son of one of the council, and bar- 
rister at law m the Middle Temple, and a 
native of ^Virginia" for the position of solici- 
tor of Virginia affairs in England. This posi- 
tion was obtained by Mr. Carter and held by 
him until the next year, when, being appointed 
to the office of secretary of state of Virginia, 
he returned there. On Xov. i, 1723, Gov. 
Drysdale recommends the then secretary to fill 
a vacancy in the council. His father was al- 
I eady a councillor and if the affinity of father 
and son was too close to be allowed, he then 
recommended John Grymes, the King's re- 
ceiver general, though his own inclinations 
were for Mr. Carter. On Jan. 17, 1723-24, 
Lord Orkney, governor of Virginia, recom- 
mended to the lords of trade that John Carter 
Esq. be appointed to the council to succeed 
\\m. Bassett, deceased. On Jan. 23, the King 
made the appointment and on April 25, 1724, 
Carter took his seat. Not long after this Car- 
tel obtained the position of secretary, for 
which, as was frequently done, he is said to 
lu'.ve paid a large price. The great power 
attaching to this office came under discussion 
during Carter's incumbency and Gov. Drys- 
dale laid before the lords of trade the fact 
that the secretary had the appointment of the 
several county clerks and, in virtue of their 
membership in the house of burgesses, the 
virtual appointment of one half of that body 
which would be thus largely devoted to his 
interests. He expressly stipulated that he was 
rot reflecting upon the actions of the present 
secretary, but merely desired to lay before 
then this great change from the ancient con- 
stitution. In a letter dated Jan. 22, 1726-27, 



154 



\'IRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



to the Duke of Xewcastle, Carter defends his 
own actions in the matter. Carter seems to 
have been a regular attendant at the meetings 
of the council until 174 1. His death occurred 
April 30, 1743. 

Fitzwilliams, Richard, first appears in the 
^"irginia records on Aug. 13, 1717, when he 
petitioned the council for the grant of a lot 
of land in Hampton. This was doubtless his 
residence, as m April of the next \ear he was 
described as collector of the lower district of 
the James river. Some years later, probably 
1725, he was appointed surveyor general of 
the colonies in America, and on July 22 of that 
yiar, the lords justices, the King being then 
out of England, referred to the board of plan- 
tations and trade, a petition from Fitzwilliams 
in which he asks that he may be added to the 
councils of A'irginia and South Carolina. On 
Dec. 15, i/2^, took his seat in the \'irginia 
ci'imcil. an I on Dec. 14. 1727. was appointed 
by the governor one of the commissioners to 
settle the dispute regarding the boundary with 
North Carolina. He appears to have been 
often absent from Virginia as his duties called 
him to the other colonies and to England, but 
the records show him to have been occasion- 
ally present in council and for the last time in 
1730. He probably died in 1732 in England, 
when his successor was appointed, but noth- 
ing further appears regarding him in the rec- 
ords. 

Grymes, John, of "Brandon," Middlesex 
county, was a son of John Grymes of "Grym- 
esby," in the same county and was born in 
1692. He was educated at William and ]\Iary 
College and his first public office was that of 
justice of the peace for Middlesex, to which 
office he was appointed at an early age. On 
Nov. 22. T716. the governor informed the 



council that Mr. John Grymes had presented 
him with a deputation from W'm. Blathwayt, 
auditor general of the American colonies, ap- 
pointing him deputy auditor for \'irginia, in 
the place of Philip I^udwcll. This commis- 
sion did not apjH-ar to the governor to be 
cliawn in sufficiently legal form to entitle Mr. 
Grymes to act, but he stated that he would 
supply the defects as far as possible, and 
Grymes took the oath of ofiice. He still held 
the position in 1719 and in 1721. In 1720. 
lie was a member of the house of burgesses and 
in 1723, was receiver general. On Nov. i, 
1723, Gov. Drysdale recommended John 
Grymes, the King's receiver general, for ap- 
pointment to the council, and two years later 
repeated it. Upon the latter occasion, the ap- 
pointment was made and, on ]\Iay 3. 1726. 
Grymes took his seat. He was a regular at- 
tendant until 1747. He died November 2, 
1748. He married Lucy, daughter of Hon. 
I'hilip Ludwell, of "Greenspring," James City 
county, and left issue. 

Blair, James, D. D., president of the coun- 
cil and acting governor ( q. v.). 

Dandridge, William, of "Elsing Green," 
King William county, and his brother. Col. 
John Dandridge, of New Kent, were the pro- 
genitors of the Dandridge family in \'irginia. 
The first notice on record of Col. W'illiam 
Dandridge is under date of July 21, 1712, 
when he chartered his vessel to the governor 
of North Carolina to carry twenty soldiers to 
Charleston. At this time he seems to have 
been a merchant and ship owner at Hamp- 
ton, Elizabeth City county, as on Jan. 23, 1713, 
he was allowed to build a wharf opposite to 
his lots in that town, and in 1717, he is said to 
have built a house and wharf there. On May 
31, 1727, the King appointed William Dand- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



[55 



ridge a member of the council, in the place of 
Philip Ludwell, deceased, and on Dec. 4 of 
the same year, the governor appointed him 
one of the commissioners to settle the boun- 
dary line between Virginia and North Caro- 
lina. In 1738, Dandridge was given command 
of his majesty's sloop "\\'olf," and in 1741, 
was transferred to the "South Sea," forty 
guns, in which he served in Oglethorpe's at- 
tack on St. Augustine, and Admiral \'ernon's 
en Carthagena. In the last mentioned ser- 
v!ce he especially distinguished himself. Later 
he commanded the "Ludlow Castle," man-of- 
v.ar. Dandridge died in 1743 in Hanover 
cjunty. His brother. Col. John Dandridge, 
Vi as the fatlier of Airs. Martha Washington. 

Custis, John, the third of that name to bold 
the position ol councillor, was the son of Col. 
John Custis of "Wilsonia," and the grandson 
of Alaj. Gen. John Cusiis, both in their days 
councillors. He was born m 1678 and, his 
grandfather having bequeathed iioo per anum 
for his education, he went to England for that 
purj)ose. Upon returning to Virginia, he ap- 
1 ears to have resided principally near Wil- 
liamsburg, where he owned an estate. He 
v,as a member of the house of burgesses for 
the college in 1718 and probably other years. 
He was recommended for the council in 1727, 
by the Earl of Orkney, and appointed the same 
year. He married Frances, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Col. Daniel Parke Jr., but being ex- 
ceedingly eccentric, and his lady of a proud and 
haughty disposition, the union was a most un- 
lisppy one. His son, Daniel Parke Custis, 
later married Miss Martha Dandridge, who 
finally became the wife of \\^ashington. He 
died November 2, 1749. 

Randolph, William, of "Turkey Island," 
Henrico, was a son of Col. William Randolph 



of the same place, and was born in Nov., 1681. 
His first public office seems to have been as- 
sistant to his father as clerk of the house of 
burgesses, a position to which he finally suc- 
ceeded, holding it until 1712. In 1720, and 
l-Tobably other years, he was a member of 
the house of burgesses for Henrico county, 
and in 1727. he was appointed to the council. 
In 1737, he made a voyage to England for his 
health, but returned the following year from 
which time he was a constant attendant at the 
sessions of the council until his death which 
occurred Oct. 19, 1742. He married Eliza- 
beth Beverley, daughter of Hon. Peter Bever- 
ley, of Gloucester county, \Trginia, and had 
i-sue. 

Harrison, Henry, son of Benjamin Har- 
rison of "Wakefield," Surry county, was born 
in 1692. He was a justice of Surry in 1710 
and a burgess from that county in 1715, 1718 
and perhaps other years. On Nov. 9, 1730, 
having been recommended as a "man in all 
respects equal and worthy to fill the vacant 
place," he was appointed by the King a mem- 
1-er of the council and took his seat the fol- 
lowing year. He did not live long to enjoy 
his honors, however, for his death occurred in 
1732. He married, but had no issue. 

Bray, David, of James City county, a son 
of Col. David Bray of the same place, and 
grandson of Councillor Bray, was born in 
1699. He was a man of large estate and, in 
1631, on the recommendation of Gov. Gooch, 
appointed a member of the council. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of John Page, of 
Williamsburg, but died Oct. 5, 1731, without 
i,-sue. 

Phenny, George, was sworn a member of 
ilie council on Jime 4, 1734, pursuant 1.0 a 
warrant dated July 31, 1732, from the "Queen 



156 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



as Guardian of the Kingdom," directing that 
George Phenny Esq., surveyor general of the 
customs for the southern district of America, 
should become a member of the council. He 
seem? never to have resided in X'irginia. 

Tayloe, John, of "Mt. Airy," Richmond 
county, a son of Col. William Tayloe, was 
born Feb. 15, 16S7. From early manhood, he 
held a prominent place in the affairs of the 
county and the colony, becoming a justice of 
Richmond county in 17 10, sheriff in 1712 and 
1713, colonel of militia in 1713, and repre- 
senting the county in 1728, 1730 and probably 
other years. In 1732, he was appointed by 
the King a member of the council. Col. Tay- 
loe was a man of influence and large estate 
and took an active part in promoting the wel- 
fare of the colony. He was largely in iron 
mining and manufacture in Virginia and 
Maryland. He died in 1747. He married 
Elizabeth Fauntleroy, and had John Tayloe, 
second of that name. 

Lee, Thomas, president of the council and 
acting governor fq. v.). 

Lightfoot, Philip, of Yorktown and of 
■'Sandy Point," Charles City county, was a 
son of Philip Lightfoot of the latter place, 
and was born in 1689. In 1707, he was ap- 
pointed clerk of York county and held this 
office until 1733. During this period and later, 
he was extensively engaged in business as a 
merchant at Yorktown and acquired great 
wealth. On Jan. 10, 1732-33, the governor 
appointed him a councillor in the place of 
Robert Carter, deceased, and this appointment 
was confirmed by the King April 9, 1733. He 
appears to have been in constant attendance 
at the meetings until his death. Lightfoot 
was one of the wealthiest men of his day and 
owned a handsome town house in addition to 



his country seat. He died May 30, 1748. He~ 
married Mary, daughter of William Armis- 
tead, and widow of James Burwell, and had 
issue 

Dinvk^iddie, Robert. Governor of Virginia 
(q- v.). 

Dawson, Rev. William, son of William 
Dawson of Aspatria, Cumberland county, 
England, was born in 1704. When fifteen 
}ears of age, he entered Queen's College, Ox- 
ford, where he took the degree of bachelor 
of arts in his twenty-first year, and four years 
later, that of master of arts. Still later he was 
made a doctor of divinity. He was ordained 
to the ministry in 1728 and probably came to 
Mrginia immediately, as in 1729 he was pro- 
fessor of moral philosophy at William and 
Mary College. During Blair's lifetime, he 
had Mr. Dawson read prayers for him, and 
when he was not well, to preach. Upon Blair's 
tieath in 1743, the visitors of the college, "by 
unanimous consent," chose Mr. Dawson pres- 
ident. At the same time he became a mem- 
ber of the council and was appointed com- 
missary on the recommendation of Gov. 
Gooch. He died July 24, 1752, and was buried 
at Williamsburg. 

Fairfax, William, was the second son of 
Henry Fairfax of Yorkshire, England and 
was baptized m that county in 1691. He 
served for a time in the navy under his kins- 
man, Capt. Fairfax, and afterwards in the 
army in Spain. His next public service was 
t;s chief justice of the Bahamas, but as the 
Climate did not agree with him, he was given, 
in 1725, the appointment of collector of cus- 
toms at Salem, Massachusetts. About 1734, 
he came to Virginia as agent for his cousin. 
Lord Fairfax, in the management of hi« sreat 
landed estate, the Northern Neck. He lived 



I 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STAI !■; 



157 



for a time in Westmoreland county, but upon 
receiving tlie appointment as collector of cus- 
toms for South Potomac, removed to Fairfax 
county, where he built a mansion house. In 
1742 he was a member of the house of bur- 
gesses, and in Nov., 1743, was appointed to 
the council. Col. Fairfax was a man of abil- 
ity, and played a prominent part in the French 
and Indian war. He was an early friend of 
Washington, <-ind by his introduction of him 
to Lord Fairfax, procured him his first posi- 
tion as surveyor. Died August 30, 1757. 

Blair, John, president of the council and 
acting governor (q. v.). 

Burwell, Lewis, president of the council 
and acting governor (q. v.). 

Nelson, William, president of the coun- 
cil and acting governor (q. v.). 

Lewis, John, Jr., of "Warner Hall," Glou- 
cester county, son of the Hon. John Lewis of 
the same place, was born in 1694. He appears 
from the journals of the council, to have been 
a member of that body from Oct. 27, 1648, 
to Nov. I, 1753, and perhaps later, as the rec- 
ords are incomplete. The date of his death is 
unknown. 

Nelson, Thomas, of Yorktown, son of 
Thomas Nelson, Sr., of the same place, was 
born in 1716, and died in 1782. He was ap- 
1 ointed secretary of state of Virginia in 1742, 
and was a member of the house of burgesses 
for York county in 1748 and 1749, and in all 
probability in preceding years. In 1749 he 
was appointed a member of the council, and 
the journals show him to have been a regular 
attendant at the board until the revolution. 
In 1775 he was president of the council, hav- 
ing perhaps acceded to that position on the 
death of his brother William in 1772. He 



V, as a firm adherent of the colonial side in the 
revolution, though he exerted himself to pre- 
vent any violence on the part of the people to- 
wards LordDunmore. Tlie "\"irginia Gazette" 
of J\Iay 6. 1775, has the following: 

"The town of York being somewhat alarmed 
by a letter from Capt. Alontague, commander 
of his majesty's ship, the "Fowey," addressed 
iv the Hon. Thomas Nelson Esq., president of 
iiis majesty's honorable council in Virginia, 
threatening to fire upon the town of York in 
case a party sent from his ship to the support 
of Gov. Dimmore, was attacked, the York 
county committee, taking into consideration 
the time the letter was sent, which was too 
late to permit the president to use his influence 
had the peo])le been disposed to molest or 
attack the detachment, and further consider- 
ing that Col. Nelson, who, had the threat been 
carried into execution, would have been a prin- 
cipal sufiferer, was at that very moment exert- 
ing his utmost endeavors in behalf of govern- 
ment and safety of his excellency's person, 
unanimously passed resolutions" denouncing 
Capt. Alontague. 

Though Thomas Nelson, from his long tenure 
of the office of secretary, was commonly styled 
Secretary Nelson, he was also the last presi- 
dent of the colonial council. Some idea of 
his great popularity may be gathered from the 
fact that when the convention, on June 29, 
1776, ballotted for the first governor of the 
new state, he was nominated as a candidate 
for that office (probably by the conservative 
party) and received forty-five votes to the 
sixty for Patrick Henry. On the same day 
he was chosen one of the first privy council 
of the commonwealth, but declined the ap- 
pointment "on account of his age and infir- 
mities." He retired from pubhc life at this 
time and lived quietly at his home in York- 



158 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



town, a retirement which was not interrupted 
until the occupation of that place by the Brit- 
ish forces. 

Campbell ("History of Virginia") .-ays, 
"Upon the breaking out of the revolution the 
secretary had retired from public affairs. He 
lived at Yorktown, where he had erected a 
handsome house. Cornwallis made his head- 
quarters in this house, which stood near the 
defensive works. It soon attracted the atten- 
tion of the French artillery, and was almost 
entirely demolished. Secretary Nelson was in 
it when the first shot killed one of his negroes 
at a little distance from him. What inci cased 
his solicitude was that he had two sons m the 
American army; so that every shot, whether 
tired from the town or from the trenches, 
might prove equally fatal to him. When a 
flag was sent in to request that he might be 
conveyed within the American lines, one of 
his sons was observed gazing wistfully at the 
gate of the town by which his father, then dis- 
abled by the gout, was to come out. Corn- 
wallis permitted his withdrawal, and he was 
taken to \Vashington"s headquarters. Upon 
alighting, with a serene countenance, he re- 
later to the officers who stood around him what 
had been the etifect of their batteries, and how 
much his mansion had suffered from the first 
shot." 

Thomas Nelson was married to Lucy Armi- 
stead. 

Corbin, Richard, of "Buckingham House," 
and "Corbin Hall," Middlesex county, and 
"Laneville," King and Queen county, was 
the son of Col. Gawin Corbin of the same 
place, and was for many years one of the most 
eminent and influential men of the colony of 
Virginia. He was educated in William and 
Mary College and probably also in England, 
and early in life was appointed a justice in 



Middlesex county. He represented this county 
in the house of burgesses in 1751 (and doubt- 
less for several years before) and was, during 
tbat session of the assembly, appointed to the 
council, in which body he sat until the revo- 
lution. Col. Corbin was appointed receiver 
general of \'irginia about 1754, an office 
which he also held until the close of the colo- 
nial regime. Through his influence George 
Washington received his first military com- 
mission. In 1754, young Washington wrote 
10 Col. Corbin asking a commission in the 
military service of the colony. A major's 
commission was obtained and sent him with 
the following letter: 

Dear George: 

I enclose \"our commission. God prosper you 
with it. 

Your Friend, RICHARD CORBIN. 

Col. Corbin rendered efficient service in 
council during the French and Indian war, 
and received, along with Washington, William 
Fairfax, Gov. Dinwiddle and some others, a 
medal, as a sign of royal approbation. In 
April, 1775, Gov. Dinwiddle secretly removed 
the powder from the magazine in Williams- 
burg, and by so doing gave a great impetus to 
the revolutionary spirit in Mrginia. Through- 
out the colony meetings were held, and armed 
volunteers offered their services to redress the 
indignity done to Mrginia by the governor. 
The Hanover county committee of safety re- 
solved to take immediate steps to recover the 
powder or to make reprisal for it. "Ensign 
Parke Goodall with sixteen men, was detached 
into King and Queen county to Laneville, on 
the Mattapony. the seat of Richard Corbin, 
the King's deputy receiver general, to demand 
of him the estimated value, and in case of 
refusal to make him a prisoner. The detach- 
ment reached Laneville about midnight and 



COLONIAL COUINCILLORS OF STATE 



[59 



a guard was stationed around the house. At 
daybreak, Airs. Corbin assurred Goodall that 
the King's money was never left there, but at 
Williamsburg and that Col. Corbin was then 
fn that town. Henry, meanwhile, with 150 
men, had marched on Williamsburg and halted 
at Doncastle's Ordinary to wait for Goodall. 
There was intense excitement at the capital, 
Dunmore made preparation for defence, and 
e\ en the patriots there were alarmed at the 
approaching storm. Carter Braxton, Col. Cor- 
bin's son-in-law, interfered and obtained from 
the latter a bill of exchange for £330, the 
estimated value of the powder, which Henry 
promised to hold subject to the order for a 
general convention. In this way the disturb- 
ance in the country was temporarily allayed. 
It was subsequently ascertained that the pow- 
der was worth only about £112, and the resi- 
due of the money was returned to the receiver 
general. Though it was well known that Col. 
Corbin's sympathies and belief were with Eng- 
land in the contest, yet when he retired at the 
outbreak of the war, and lived quietly in the 
country, he received no molestation from the 
new government. Doubtless his high charac- 
ter and past services had much to do with this, 
but it may also have been due to his feeble 
health." There is an interesting reference to 
Col. Corbin in a letter written by his son, 
Francis P. Corbin, in 1813. In it is stated 
that the King actually sent a commission to 
Col. Corbin, appointing him governor of Vir- 
t;inia after the abdication of Lord Dunmore, 
but that it came too late and that Corbin pru- 
dently hid it in a secret drawer of his escre- 
tcire. Xo record lias been found of the death 
of Richard Corbin, but it must have been in, 
or subsequent to, 1787. 

Beverley, William, of "Blandfield," Essex 
county was the son of the historian, Robert 



I'.everley of "Beverley Park," King and Queen 
county and was born about 1698. He was 
clerk of Esse.x county from 1716 to 1745, 
burgess from Orange county in 1736 and from 
Essex in 1741, 1744, 1748, 1751 and doubtless 
in intervening years. Having large landed 
interests in the western part of the colony, he 
v/as appointed county lieutenant of Orange 
and Augusta counties and, in 1751, was made 
a member of the council. Col. Beverley was 
one of the commissioners from Virginia to 
r.K'tt those from other colonies and treat with 
tl.e six nations at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 
1744. Beverley was also appointed by Lord 
I'airfax, one of the commissioners to settle 
in his behalf, the boundary of Northern Neck. 
He inherited large estates, including "Bever- 
ley Park," containing 7,600 acres, with "The 
Plains," of 1,200 acres adjoining, and "Bland- 
field" on the Rappahannock, in Essex, where 
he built the brick mansion which is one of the 
finest remaining examples of colonial archi- 
tecture. He also became the possessor of im- 
mense tracts of land by patent. Besides sev- 
eial smaller grants of some thousand acres 
each, he obtained, Sept. 6, 1736, a grant of 
118,420 acres lying around the present Staun- 
ton in Augusta county. This land, which he 
named "Beverley Manor," now the name of 
a magisterial district in Augusta, he patented 
i-.; jiartnership with several persons, but on 
the day after the grant was made, they con- 
veyed their interests to him. This estate he 
sold to settlers in smaller tracts. His death 
occurred about March i, 1756. 

Grymes, Philip, of "Brandon," Middlesex 
county, and son of Hon. John Grymes of the 
same place, was appointed justice of Middle- 
sex in 1743, was a member of the house of 
burgesses in 1748, and, in 1749, was appointed 
receiver general of Virginia. In 1751, he was 



ifiO 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



made a member of the council and was present 
at its sessions from that year until the close 
of 1761. His long will, disposing of a very 
large estate and dated 1756, is on record in 
Middlesex. He was the father of Philip 
Ludwell Grymes of "Brandon," burgess for 
Middlesex county 1769, member of the house 
of delegates 1778, and appointed to the state 
council in 1803; who died May 18, 1805. 

Carter, Robert Jr., son of Robert Carter of 
"Xomini Hall," Westmoreland county, Vir- 
ginia, and grandson of Col. Robert Carter, of 
"Corotoman," Lancaster county, Virginia, was 
born in 1728, and inherited large possessions 
of lands and houses in Virginia and jMaryland. 
He removed in 1761 from Westmoreland to 
\\'illiamsburg, where he had a fine residence. 
In 1764 he was made a member of the coun- 
cil, and in 1772 returned to his country seat 
at "Nomini Hall." Like a few of the other 
wealthy men of Virginia, he did not approve 
of separating from England, but when inde- 
pendence was declared he threw in his future 
with his native land. After the revolution, 
he freed many of his slaves, and changed his 
religion several times. On this account he 
has been referred to as the "Eccentric Robert 
Carter, of "Nomini Hall." But he was a man 
of great culture, possessed one of the finest 
libraries in America, and was the author of 
many noble deeds of kindness. He married 
Frances Anne Tasker, youngest daughter of 
Hon. Benjamin Tasker, of Maryland, and left 
issue. 

Ludwell, Philip, the third of that name, of 
"Green Spring," James City county and son of 
Hon. Philip Ludwell of the same place, was 
born about the twenty-ninth of Dec, 1716. He 
was a member of the house of burgesses for 
Jamestown in 1748 and at that session was 



appointed one of the committee to make a 
general revision of the laws. He was a mem- 
ber of the house again in 1749 and probably' 
in other years. The exact date of his appoint- 
ment to the council does not appear, but the 
earliest mention of him as present was on 
March 26, 1752. From this time until 1761, 
he seems to have been a regular attendant. 
Soon after he probably went to England and 
spent the remaining years of his life there, 
though still retaining his position as councillor 
for the "Gazette" in speaking of his death calls 
him "one of his majesty's council in Virginia." 
He died on March 25, 1767, and was buried at 
Bow Church near London. With him became 
extinct, in the male line, the family of Lud- 
well, which for more than a hundred years 
had been possessed of large estate and great 
political influence in the colony, and whose 
members had so frequently defended the 
rights of the people and the legislature against 
the encroachments of the governors. For | 
their own services and as ancestors of so many | 
Virginians of fame, the Ludwells, though ex- i 
tinct, are held in honored memory. | 

Randolph, Peter, of Chatsworth, Henrico ; 
county, and son of Hon. William Randolph ■ 
of "Turkey Island," was born about 1713. ! 
His first public office seems to have been clerk j 
of Albemarle county, which he held only dur- j 
ing the year 1749, and then only by deputy. In ! 
1 75 1, he was a member of the house of bur- : 
gesses for Henrico, and in the next year, was 
appointed to the council, of which he re- ; 
mained a member until his death. Some years 
after he became a councillor, he was appointed 
by the King, surveyor general of the customs 
for the middle district of America. Col. 
Randolph strongly opposed the measures 
taken by the more advanced friends of Amer- ; 
ican liberty, and Jefferson relates how, on the 



I 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



i6i 



morning . after Henry's famous resolutions 
were adopted by the house of burgesses, he 
came to the capitol before the session of the 
house began, and saw Col. Peter Randolph, 
of the council, sitting at the clerk's desk and 
jxammmg tne journals to tind a precedent 
for expunging a vote of the house. He died, 
July 8, 1767, too early to see the result of the 
revolutionary spirit, which he opposed. 

Dawson, Rev. Thomas, was a younger 
brother of the learned and good Commissary 
\Villiam Dawson, of whom a sketch is given 
above. He came to Virginia at an early age 
and was educated at William and Mary Col- 
lege. In 1738 he was master of the Indian 
school there and at the same time was study- 
ing divinity under the guidance of his brother, 
then a professor at the college. In May, 1740, 
he went to England to. be ordained, carrying 
with him a letter of introduction to the bishop 
of London, written by Commissary Blair and 
describing him as "a young man of sober, 
regular life" and with "a very good character." 
Three years later Mr. Dawson was elected to 
succeed Dr. Blair as rector of Bruton parish. 
In 1752 he was appointed commissary and 
member of the council to succeed his brother. 
He enjoyed a high place in Gov. Dinwiddle's 
favor. The new commissary at first declined 
the seat in the council, forseeing trouble in 
regard to his brother's estate, but his objec- 
tions were overruled and the records show him 
to have been a frequent attendant at the ses- 
sions as long as he held the office of commis- 
sary. Thomas Dawson presided and preached 
afc the convention of the clergy of Virginia in 
1754, and the following year succeeded Stith 
as president of William and Mary College. 
His administration fell upon years of religious 
and political strife, when the professors of the 
college and the board of visitors were divided 



into factions. Dawson became very unpopu- 
lar with the faculty, but retained the friend- 
ship of Gov. Dinwiddle and his successor, 
Francis Fauquier. At the last he fell into 
habits of intemperance and confessed the fact 
before the whole board of the college man- 
agers, at which time he had the honor of hav- 
ing an excuse made for him by his friend, 
Gov. Fauquier, who said that it was no won- 
der that he had resorted to drink since he had 
bten teased to desperation by persons of his 
own cloth. He did not long survive, dying 
Dec. 5, 1761, leaving issue. 

Byrd, 'William, the third of that name, of 
Westover, Charles City county, was the son of 
Col. William Byrd, of the same place. His 
collegiate education is believed to have begun 
al William and Mary College, and to have 
been completed in England. When he reached 
manhood he inherited what was probably the 
greatest estate in Virginia, and the prestige 
attached to one of the most distinguished 
names. He at once entered public Hfe, becom- 
ing a member of the house of burgesses in 
1753 and 1754, and in the latter year a mem- 
ber of the council, an office he held until the 
end of the colonial government. In 1758 the 
exigencies of the French and Indian war re- 
quired that another regiment be raised in Vir- 
ginia, and William Byrd was appointed its 
colonel, going at once into service. Some 
thought that he showed even greater talents as 
a military man than Col. Washington. Al- 
though, so far as the records show. Col. Byrd 
filled his various public offices in a satisfactory 
manner, he was sadly imprudent in his private 
concerns and dissipated to a large extent the 
splendid estate he had inherited. He died 
Jan. I, 1777. He married twice : (First) Eliz- 
abeth Hill, only daughter of John Carter, of 
"Shirley," and (second) Mary, daughter of 



1 62 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Charles Willing, of Philadelphia, first cousin leaving issue several children by his wife Alice, 
of Peggy Shippen, the famous Philadelphia daughter of Benjamin Needier, of King and 
beauty, who married Benedict Arnold. Oueen county, \'irginia. 



Thornton, Presley, son of Col. Anthony 
Thornton, who was descended from the Thorn- 
tons of Yorkshire, England, inherited almost 
all the large estates of the Presley family of 
Northumberland county, Virginia, through his 
mother, Winifred, daughter of Col. Peter 
Presley, of "Northumberland House." He 
was born in 1721, and at an early age he was 
elected to the house of burgesses for North- 
umberland and served continuously from 
1748 to 1760, when he was appointed to the 
council. He married twice: (First) Eliza- 
beth , (second) Charlotte Belson, an 

English lady, and left issue. He died Dec. 
8. 1769. Washington spoke of him as "a man 
of great worth." 

Robinson, Rev. William, son of Col. Chris- 
topher Robinson, of Middlesex county, Vir- 
gmia, was born March 5, 1716, was sent to 
school in England at ten years of age and ma- 
triculated at Oriel College, Oxford, April 2. 
1737. He took his B. A. degree in 1740. After 
enjoying for three years one of the "London 
exhibitions" established by his great-uncle. Dr. , 
John Robinson, bishop of London, he was or- 
dained priest by Dr. Gibson, the then bishop. In 
Oct., 1744, he returned to his native country 
and was made rector of Stratton Major Parish, 
King and Queen county, where he continued 
rector till his death. He was one of the lead- 
ing clergymen in opposing the Two Penny 
Act, and incurred the enmity of Gov. Fau- 
quier, who was in favor of it. Despite the 
latter's opposition he was appointed, in 1761, 
commissary of the bishop of London, and be- 
came, as usual in such cases, member of the 
colonial council. He died in 1767 or 1768, 



Fitzhugh, William, son of Col. William 
Fitzhugh, of Stafford county, N'irginia, and 
giandson of Hei.ry Fitzhugh, of Bedfordshire, 
England, inherueu, under his father's will 
iH,7'2j acres lu Stafford and Westmoreland 
counties, and was residuary legatee of all lands 
not bequeathed in Maryland, Virginia and 
England. He was appointed clerk of Stafford 
county July 18, 1701, and was a member of 
the house of burgesses for that county in 1700, 
1701, 1702. He was appointed to the council 
on Dec. 19, 1712, and Fitzhugh took the oaths 
in X'irginia Oct. 15, 1712. His tenure of office 
was short, for his last appearance in council 
was on Nov. 8, 1713, and on Jan. 27, 1714, 
tliere is an entry on the council journal that he 
was dead. He married Anne, daughter of 
Richard Lee, of Westmoreland county, and 
left issue: I. Henry (q. v. ). 2. Lettice. mar- 
ried George Turberville, of "Hickory Grove," 
Westmoreland county. 3. Sarah, married Ed- 
ward Barradall, attorney-general of \'irginia. 
His residence in Staft'ord county (now King 
George county) is known as "Eagle's Xest." 

Lee, Philip Ludwell, was the eldest son of 
President Thomas Lee that survived him. He 
was born Feb. 24, 1726-27, and like many other 
young gentlemen of the day was sent to Eng- 
land to be educated, studying law in London 
at the Inner Temple. When Thomas Lee and 
William Beverley went to Pennsylvania to 
treat with the Iroquois in 1744, Philip Lud- 
well Lee, then a youth of eighteen, was one of 
the gallant party of gentlemen that accom- 
panied them. He represented Westmoreland 
in the house of burgesses in 1736 and was 
present in council in T758 ami the year follow- 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



163 



ing. Upon the death of his father in 1750 
Philip Ludwell fell heir to the larger part of 
his estate, and was also entrusted with the 
guardianship and education of his younger 
brothers. Perhaps it was these responsibilities 
that kept him a bachelor until he was about 
thirty-five years o^ age, when Elizabeth Step- 
toe, daughter of James Steptoe, of Westmore- 
land, became his wife. He seems to have been 
secretary of the council in 1770, as on the 
eighteenth of June of that year he made out a 
"list of Books necessary for the Council Cham- 
ber." Such books as reports of parliament, 
histories, philosophical transactions, the ora- 
tions of Demosthenes, etc., were named in the 
list. Philip Ludwell Lee died Feb. 22,. 1775, 
and was buried the ne.xt day, his forty-ninth 
birthday. 

Horrocks, Rev. James, is chiefly known 
tlirough his connection with William and Alary 
College. In 1764 Commissary Robinson wrote 
"Mr. Horrocks, a young clergyman, after hav- 
ing been master of the Grammar School two 
on three years, has found means of carrying the 
Presidentship of the college against Mr. Gra- 
ham a clergyman of unexceptionable character 
and generally esteemed, who has been Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in the college near 
twenty years." In the same letter Robinson 
charged that Horrocks had gained this promo- 
tion through time-serving. Besides being 
president of the college Horrocks, upon the 
death of Robinson a little later in the same 
year, was made commissary and was rector of 
Bruton Parish Church. His name is on record 
as present in the council in 1758 and 1759, and 
he remained a member until his death. He 
took an active part in the controversies which 
agitated \'irginia while the revolution was 
brewing, especially in the disputes regarding 
the salaries of the clergy, the establishment of 
a bishopric in .America and the stamp act. He 



expressed belief in the iniquity of the act of 
the house of burgesses providing that the 
ciergy should be paid in paper money instead 
of tobacco, but opposed John Camm's plan of 
repeated appeal to England, believing it to be 
useless. His health failing in 1771 he sailed 
for England, accompanied by his wife, leaving 
Camm in his chair as president of William 
and Mary, the Rev. Mr. Willie as commissary 
and the Rev. Mr. Henley to fill the pulpit at 
Bruton. He died March 20, 1772. In spite 
of the stormy times Horrock's administration 
was a palmy time for William and Mary Col- 
lege. Harvard at the time was still under the 
charge of a president and tutors, with but two 
professors, while the younger sister in \'ir- 
gmia had for years enjoyed the advantages of 
a corps of professors, alumni of the great uni- 
versities of Englandi and Scotland. 

Fairfax, George William, of "Belvoir," 
Fairfax county, Virginia, and of "Toulston," 
Yorkshire, England, was the son of Col. Wil- 
liam Fairfax, of "Belvoir," and was born in 
the Bahamas in 1724. His education was ob- 
tained in England and, on his return to Vir- 
ginia, in early manhood, he at once began to 
play an active part in the affairs of the colony. 
In his twenty-first year, he was appointed a 
justice in Fairfax county, and from 1748 to 
1758 was a member of the house of burgesses. 
The companion of Washington on his first 
surveying expedition, he remained through 
life one of his most attached and valued 
friends. During the French and Indian war, 
as a colonel of militia, he actively assisted 
A\'ashington in the defence of the frontier. 
He became a member of the council in April, 
1768, and remained an active participant in its 
proceedings until 1773, when he went to Eng- 
land to take possession of Toulston, in York- 
shire, an estate which had descended to him 
through the death of his father's elder brother. 



1 64 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Henry Fairfax. He was also actuated in his 
return to England by the fact that Virginia 
had ceased to be an attractive place of resi- 
dence for one so loyal as he. It is said that 
on his arrival, while sailing up the Thames, he 
actually passed the fateful tea, which was to 
prove the occasion of hostilities between the 
colonies and the mother country. Fairfax died 
at Bath, England, April 3, 1787, and appointed 
Washington one of his executors. 

Burwell, Robert Carter, of Isle of Wight 
county, a son of Nathaniel Burwell, of Car- 
ter's Creek, Gloucester, was educated at Wil- 
liam and Mary College. He settled in Isle of 
Wight county, on Burwell's Bay, and repre- 
sented the county in the house of burgesses 
in 1752, and the same year was one of the 
first trustees of Smithfield. In 1764 he was 
elevated to the council, which he held till the 
revolution. His will, dated Jan. 10, 1777, was 
proved Oct. 13, 1777. He had a son Nathaniel, 
who was clerk of Isle of Wight court from 
1772 to 1787, and a daughter Frances, who 
v:as first wife of Gov. John Page. 

Tayloe, John, Jr., of "Mt. Airy," Richmond 
county, a son of Hon. John Tayloe, was born 
;\Iay 28, 1721. He is stated to have been edu- 
cated in England at the University of Cam- 
bridge and to have inherited a very large 
estate from his father, who died when he was 
sixteen years of age. As soon as he reached 
his majority he was appointed a justice for 
Richmond county, and in a short time became 
one of the most influential, as he was probably 
the wealthiest man in the region. The exact 
date upon which he was commissioned a coun- 
cillor does not appear from the extant records, 
but he sat as a member April 21, 1757, and 
held his office until the outbreak of the revo- 
lution. Though a supporter of American lib- 
erty and a friend of Gen. Washington, it 



stems probable that he was not in favor of an 
entire separation from Great Britain, for, 
though he was elected by the convention of 
1776, a member of the first republican council 
of state, he declined to accept the office. In 
1758 Col. Tayloe completed the fine house at 
"Mt. Airy," on the Rappahannock river, which, 
with its gardens and parks, remains such an 
interesting example of the home of the wealthy 
colonial planter. He had also a town house 
at \\'illiamsburg for his winter residence, and 
"here and at Mt. Airy he was renowned for 
his hospitality." Col. Tayloe died April 18, 
1779. He married Rebecca Plater, eldest 
daughter of George Plater, Esq., of St. Mary's 
county, Maryland, and had a son John and 
eight daughters who each married a man of 
distinction. "INIt. Airy" still remains in the 
Tayloe family. 

Page, John, of "North End," on North 
river, Gloucester (now ]\Iatthews} county, 
was the son of Hon. ]\Iann Page, of "Rose- 
well," Gloucester, and was born about 1720. 
According to the short autobiography of his 
nephew, Gov. Page, John Page, of "North 
End," was educated as a lawyer. The cata- 
logue of William and Mary College shows 
tl'.at he was a student there. He was a man- 
ber of the house of burgesses, representing 
Gloucester from 1754 to 1764, and was ap- 
pointed to the council in 1768. The "Virginia 
Gazette" of June 16 in that year announces the 
appointment, and a later edition states that he 
was sworn and took his seat on June 30. He 
was also -one of the visitors of William and 
Mary College. His tenure of office did not 
last long, for the "Gazette" of Oct. 6, 1774. 
records his death. 

■Wormeley, Ralph, the third of that name, 
of "Rosegill," Middlesex county, was the son 
of Ralph Wormeley, of the same place, and 



COLONIAL COUNCILLORS OF STATE 



[6S 



was born in 1744. He was educated at Eaton 
and the University of Cambridge, and became 
a finished scholar with tastes which ran rather 
to hterature than to pubhc Hfe. From the 
great weahh and political influence of his 
family, however, it was almost a matter of 
course that he be called to a high office in the 
government of the colony, and accordingly we 
find him shortly before the revolution occupy- 
ing a seat in the council to which he was ap- 
pointed in June, 1771. Though apparently op- 
posed to the measures of the English govern- 
ment in taxing Americans, he was yet stead- 
fastly loyal, and throughout the revolutionary 
period sufifered the consequences of his devo- 
tion to the crown. He wrote, unfortunately 
for himself a letter expressing disapproval of 
the steps which the patriots were taking and 
was obliged to give bond not to leave his 
father's estate until permitted. After the war, 
notwithstanding the strong feeling against 
British sympathizers existing in Virginia, the 
high character and large estate of Ralph 
^^'ormeley soon restored his influence. He was 
a member of the convention of 1788, was 
sheriff in 1794 and 1795 and a member of the 
house of delegates in 1787. 1789, 1790 and 
1793. His death occurred Jan. 19, 1806. 

Camm, John, the last colonial president of 
^\'illiam and Mary College, was the son of 
Thomas Camm, of Hornsea, England, and was 
born there in 1718. When a boy he went to 
school in Beverley, Yorkshire, England, and 
at twenty years of age, matriculated at Trin- 
ity College, Cambridge. Eleven years later we 
find him in Virginia, professor of divinity in 
^^'illiam and Mary College, upon which office 
he entered August 24, 1749. On Oct. 30, 1754, 
a convention of the clergy of Virginia met at 
William and Mary College and Camm took a 
leading part in it. He was appointed one of 



a committee to prepare "an humble address" 
from the convention to the bishop of London, 
and on several other committees. He took part 
in the controversy between the clergy and gov- 
ernment of Virginia over the Two Penny Act, 
regarding the payment of salaries, and made 
a violent enemy of Gov. Fauquier. It was 
against the sentiment of the time for any 
member of the faculty of a college, except the 
president, to marry and Camm broke this con- 
vention at the age of fifty-seven and lost his 
professorship in consequence, but later, upon 
the death of Horrocks, in 1771, he was chosen 
president of the college and head of the church 
in Virginia as well. He became a member of 
the council in 1775, but in 1777 he was re- 
moved from the presidency of the college be- 
cause, ardent tory that he was, he would not 
acknowledge the United States government. 
Two years later death ended the checkered 
career of "Old Parson," as he was familiarly 
called. He married Betsey Hansford, and has 
many descendants in Virginia. 

Corbin, Gawin, Jr., of "Buckingham House," 
Middlesex county, eldest son of Hon. Richard 
Corbin, of "Laneville," was educated abroad 
and returned to \'irginia about 1761. In Nov., 
1758, ex-Gov. Dinwiddie, in a letter from Lon- 
don to Col. Richard Corbin, says: "Your son 
dined with me before he went to Cambridge. 
He is truly a sober well-bred young gentle- 
man." After his return to Virginia, Corbin 
was a member of the house of burgesses for 
IMiddlesex and was appointed to the council in 
1775, remaining a member until the end of the 
royal government. The "Virginia Gazette," 
March 6, 1775, says: "We are informed that 
Gawin Corbin, Esq., of Middlesex, is ap- 
pointed one of his Majesty's honorable Coun- 
cil of this colony, in the room of the late John 
Page deceased." 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT 
PERSONS 



IV— BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



Abrahall, Robert, came to Virginia about 
1650 and settled in New Kent county, which 
he represented in the house of burgesses in 
1654 and 1660. In the first year he was cap- 
tain in the New Kent miHtia, and in the last 
ht was lieutenant-colonel. He used a seal hav- 
ing the arms of Abrahall of Herefordshire. 

Abbott, Jeflfrey, came to X'irginia in the 
"Food Supply" in 1608; he had served as a 
soldier in Ireland and the Netherlands, and 
according to Smith was an excellent colonist. 
But rebelling against the tyranny of Sir 
Thomas Dale, he was executed in 161 1. 

Acrill, William, was a member of the house 
ol burgesses from Charles City county in 1736, 
and died in November, 1738. He married Anne 
Cocke, of Surry, sister of Richard Cocke and 
Benjamin Cocke. He left a son, William 
Acrill, Jr. 

Acrill, William, Jr., was a member of the 
house of burgesses for Charles City county 
from 1766 to 1775. and of the conventions of 
1774. 1775 and 1776. 

Ackiss, John, burgess for Princess Anne 
ccunty in the assembly of May, 1769. and 
1 769- 1 77 1. 

Adams, Richard, son of Ebenezer Adams, 
of New Kent county, \'irginia, and grandson 
of Richard Adams, of Abridge, county Essex, 
England, citizen and merchant tailor of Lon- 
don, was born in New Kent county. May 17, 
1726; member of the house of burgesses from 
New Kent and Henrico from 1752 to 1775 ; 
Henrico county committee, 1774-75; Virginia 



convention in 1775; house of delegates, 1776- 
1778; Virginia senate, 1779-1782. Died in 
Richmond, Aug. 2, 1800. He married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Leroy and IMary Anne Grif- 
fin. 

Adams (Addams), Robert, was a member 
oi the house of burgesses, 1623-24. 

Aitchison, William, was burgess from Nor- 
folk borough in the assembly of 1758-1761. 
He was a prominent merchant of Norfolk, 
and died Nov. 15, 1776. His tombstone, with 
a coat-of-arms upon it, is still standing. He 
left a son William. 

Alexander, Gerard (Gerrard), was burgess 
from Fairfax county, session of 1752-1755. 
He was a great-grandson of John Alexander, 
the immigrant, and son of Robert ^Alexander, 
of Stafford county, and his wife, Anne Fowke, 
daughter of Col. Gerard Fowke, of Alexan- 
dria. At one time he resided at Holm's Island, 
Prince William county. In 1753 he docked 
the entail of a tract of 6,000 acres left him by 
his father, and settled other lands in Frederic 
and Fairfa.x counties to the same uses. His 
V ill was proved in Fairfax, Sept. 16, 1761. It 
names wife, Mary (Dent?), and six children, 
and disposes of houses and lots in Alexandria, 
chairs and horses, and land in Loudoun c<iunty. 

Alexander, John, son of Capt. Philip Alex- 
ander, of King George county, was born Nov. 
15, 1730, was burgess for Stafford county in 
the assembhes of Oct., 1765, 1766-1768, May, 
1769, 1769-1772, 1772-1774. He married Lucy 
Thornton, daughter of \\'iniam Thornton, and 
died about I77S. 



MRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Allen, Maj. Arthur, was the son and heir 
of Arthur Allen, of Surry county, and of his 
wife, Alice Tucker. Alaj. Allen's father, in 
1649, patented 200 acres between Lawne's 
creek and Lower Chippoakes creek. Maj. 
Allen was burgess from Surry county in 1682, 
in 1685-86 and in 1688. In the last-named 
session he was speaker of the assembly. He 
married Katherine, daughter and heiress of 
Capt. Laurence Baker, of Surry. On Jul)- 3, 
1677. Mr. .\rthur Allen sued Mr. Robert Bur- 
gess for that "during the late most Horrid 
Rebellion ( Bacon's rebellion) he with others 
did seize and keep garrison in the pits' house 
neare fower months." This ancient brick man- 
sion is still standing, one of the oldest houses 
in X'irginia, and is known as "Bacon's Castle" 
(1914). Maj. Allen's will was prove:] in 
Surry court, Se]3t. 5, 17 10. 

Allen, Edmund, was burgess from .\cco- 
mac in the session of Feb. 5, 1752. He re- 
signed to accept the place of sheriff, and for 
the remainder of that assembly his place was 
supplied by Ralph Justice. He also repre- 
sented Accomac in the assemblies of 1756- 
1758 and 1758-1761. 

Allen, Edward, was burgess from Accomac 
in the session of May 22, 1740, in the place of 
Henry Scarburgh, deceased. He also repre- 
sented .Accomac in the assembly of 1748-174Q. 

Allen, William, came in 1622 ; burgess for 
Henry Throckmorton's Plantation in 1629. 

Allen, 'William, son of Joseph Allen and 
grandson of Maj. .\rthur Allen, who was bur- 
gess and speaker, was educated at William 
and Mary College, was burgess for Surry 
county in the assemblies of 1758-1761, colonel 
of the militia, etc. He married (first) Clara 
Walker, and (second) Mary Liglitfoot, daugh- 



ter of William Lightfoot. of "Sandy Point. 
Lharles City county, and by the last had Col. 
William Allen, of "Claremont. " James river 
( 1 768-1831 I. 

Allerton, Willoughby, son of Col. Isaac 
.'Mlerton. of the council, anrl Elizabeth Wil- 
li ughby, daughter of Capt. Thomas Wil- 
loughby, was a burgess for Westmoreland 
cc unty in 1699, 1710, 1712 and 1712-1714; 
collector of customs for Potomac river in 
171 1. He married Hannah, daughter of Wil- 
liam Keene, of Xorthtunberland county, and 
widow of John Bushrod. He died in 1723- 
24. leaving issue — Elizabeth and Isaac. 

Allington, Lieut. Giles, of Kecoughtan, 
gentleman: member of the London Company 
in 1620 and was probably of the family of 
.VUington of Horschester. Cambridgeshire ; he 
was an "ancient planter," but the year in which 
he came to \irginia is not known. 

Ambler, Edward, son of Richard .Ambler, 
was born in 1733: was, like his brother John, 
schooled at Wakefield and Cambridge, and 
finished his education by making "the grand 
tour" of Europe. On his return to X'irginia 
he was made collector of the port of York- 
town, and in 1766 succeeded his brotJier John 
as the representative for Jamestown in the 
assembly. He died Oct. 30, 1768. He mar- 
ried ^lary, daughter of Col. XX'ilson Miles 
Cary. 

Ambler, John, eldest son of Richard .\m- 
b'er, merchant of Jamestown and Yorktown, 
was born at Yorktown, Dec. 31. 1765; edu- 
cated at Leeds Academy, near Wakefield, in 
Yorktown, and at the University of Cam- 
bridge and the Middle Temple, from which 
last he graduated as barrister at law. 1 Ic 
represented Jamestown in the house of bur- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



gesses in 1760, and was elected to that of 1766, 
but died before be took his seat, Alay 2"], 1766. 

Ambler, Richard, son of John Ambler, 
sheriff of Yorkshire, England, in 1721, and 
Elizabeth Bickadike, his wife. The son came 
to X'irginia in the early part of the eighteenth 
century and settled at Yorktown. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Jaquelin, and 
succeeded to the Jaquelin estates at James- 
town. He was also largely engaged as' a mer- 
chant at Yorktown, at which place he died in 
1766, leaving three sons — John, Edward and 
Jaquelin. 

Anderson, Rev. Charles, was minister for 
twenty-four years of W'estover parish, Charles 
City county. His tombstone at W'estover 
states that he died .\pril 7, 1718. He left a 
son Charles, and daughters — F"rances, who 
married Thomas Pinkard ; Elizabeth, who 
married John Stith ; Charlotte, who married 
Henry Taylor, and Jane, who married Ellyson 
Armistead. 

Anderson, Charles, was burgess from 
Prince Edward in the sessions of Feb. 14, 
1754. Aug. 22. 1734, Oct. 17, 1754, May i, 
1735, Oct. 2-. 1753, and in the assemblies of 
1 756- 1 758 and 1 738- 1 76 1. 

Anderson, David, a native of Scotland, was 
burn in 1760, came to Petersburg, \'a.. was 
long a member of the Common Hall of the 
town, and chamberlain of the same. He 
founded the Anderson Seminary for the cor- 
poration of Petersburg. He died June 18, 
1812. 

Anderson, George, burgess for Stafford 
county in 1 71 3. 

Anderson, Matthew, succeeded, on the 
death of John Syme. as a burgess from Han- 



over county in 1732, and continued till the end 
of the assembly ( 1734). 

Anderson, Richard, burgess for Louisa 
county in 1765, 1766-1768, 1769. 1769-1772 
and 1772-1774. He was colonel of the county 
militia, and in 1780 married Catherine Fox. 

Anderson, Robert, burgess for Louisa 
county in 1752-1755, in the place of Thomas 
Walker, who accepted the office of coroner. 
He was son of Robert Anderson, of "Gold 
Mine,'" and Alary Overton, his wife, was 
born Jan. i, 1712. and died 1792. He was 
grandfather of Robert Anderson, who com- 
manded at Fort Sumter in 1861. 

Anderson, William, was a merchant of 
Accomac county, and served as burgess at the 
assembly of 1695-1696. His eldest daughter, 
Naomi, married Francis Makemie, the founder 
o* the Presbyterian church in America. His 
will was proved Oct. 4, 1698. He was proba- 
bly from the county of Sussex, England, as 
he left money due him there to his sister. Com- 
fort Scott. 

Andrews, Rev. Robert, was the son of 

Moses Andrews, of Pennsylvania, and great- 
grandson of John Andrews, who emigrated. in 
1634 from Leicestershire. England, to Mary- 
l?nd. He was educated at the College of Phil- 
adelphia, and was tutor for several years in 
the family of Mann Page, of "Rosewell," \"a., 
and in 1772 went to England for ordination: 
professor of moral philosophy in William and 
Alary College, 1779; transferred to the mathe- 
matical chair in 1784; in 1781 was private 
secretary of Gen. Nelson: in 1788 represented 
Williamsburg in the state convention of 1788, 
and in 1798 was a "member of the legislature 
and voted against the celebrated resolutions 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



of Mr. Madison. He served with President 
James Madison, of William and Mary College, 
on a commission to define the Virginia and 
Pennsylvania line. He married (first) Eliza- 
beth Ballard, ( second ) Mary Blair. 

Andrews, William, an ancient planter, 
came before 1616, was living on the eastern 
shore in 1624; lieutenant-colonel of the militia 
of Northampton county; died in 1654 or 1655, 
leaving issue — \\'illiam, John, Robert, Andrew 
and daughter Susanna, and grandchildren, 
Elisheba and Elizabeth Andrews. 

Andrews, William, Jr., son of Lieut. -Col. 
William Andrews, was sherifif of Northamp- 
ton county in 1655, and burgess in 1663. He 
married Dorothea, the widow of Mountjoy 
Evelyn and daughter of Col. Obedience Robins, 
of "Cherrystone." He was a justice, major of 
militia, etc. 

Anne, Queen of the Pamunkey Indians in 
1676, and widow of Tobopotomoi. She was a 
relative of Opechaucanough. Bacon attacked 
her tribe and she was forced to flee for her 
life. Sir Herbert Jefferyes completed a treaty 
of peace with her on May 29, 1677, at which 
time he gave her a coronet, or frontal, adorned 
with false jewels. By an English colonel she 
had a son Capt. John West, who was about 
twenty in 1676. Her coronet is preserved by 
the \'irginia Historical Society. 

Appleton, John, was born in 1640, and was 
probably from New England, where the name 
is prominent. He was burgess from West- 
moreland in the sesision of March 7, 1675-76, 
and was a captain. He married Frances Ger- 
rard (widow of Thomas Speke and Valentine 
Peyton). His widow married (fourthly) Col. 
John Washington, ancestor of George Wash- 
ington. He had a "brother. Mr. Richard Col- 



bourn, neare Spittlefields Gate, in London," in 
1674. Capt. Appleton died in 1676. 

Applewhaite, Capt. Henry, was a burgess 
for Isle of Wight county at the assembly of 
1 700- 1 702. He came from Barbadoes, and 
died in 1704, leaving issue — sons, Henry (q. 
v.), Thomas and \\'illiam, and daughter Anne. 

Applewhaite, Henry, son of Henry Apple- 
whaite, was burgess for Isle of Wight county 
in 1723-1726. 

Archer, Capt. James, ensign in the regi- 
ment of Col. Herbert Jefferyes, sent over in 
1676 to subdue Bacon's rebellion; settled in 
Virginia and was justice of the peace for 
York county. His daughter Anne married 
Maj. William Barber (q. v.). 

Armistead, Anthony, was son of the emi- 
grant, William Armistead, who was son of 
Anthony Armistead and Frances Thompson, 
his wife, of Kirkdeighton, in Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, and resided in Elizabeth City county. 
He was one of Sir William Berkeley's court- 
martial in 1676 to try the Bacon insurgents; 
justice of the peace and captain of horse in 
1680; burgess from Elizabeth City county in 
1693, 1696, 1697, 1699; and one of the com- 
mittee in 1700 to report a revision of the laws 
which was approved by the general assembly 
in 1705. He married Hannah, daughter of 
Dr. Robert Ellyson, of James City county. 

Armistead, Anthony, son of Anthony Arm- 
istead, son of William, the emigrant, was bur- 
gess from Elizabeth City county, in the assem- 
bly of 1720-1722. He was lieutenant-colonel 
of militia in 1724. He was justice and high 
sheriff of Elizabeth City county. He was 
called Anthony Armistead, Senior, to distin- 
guish him from his nephew, Anthony Armi- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



stead, of Warwick county. He married, it is 
believed, twice: (First) Anne, who united 
with Anthony Armistead in a deed in 1717, 
(secondly) Elizabeth Westwood, sister of 
William Westwood. His will was probated 
Dec. 18, 1728. 

Armistead, Gill, was the son and heir of 
Capt. John Armistead, of New Kent, and his 
wife, Elizabeth (Gill?). He lived in Bliss- 
land parish, New Kent. He was sherifT in 
1751, and colonel in 1758. He married Betty 
Allen, of James City. He was burgess from 
New Kent in the sessions of Nov. 3, 1761, 
Jan. 14, 1762, March 30, 1762. In the sessions 
of Nov. 2, 1762, Burwell Bassett represented 
New Kent in place of Gill Armistead, de- 
ceased. 

Armistead, Col. Henry, was son of Col. 
John Armistead, of the council, and lived first 
at "Hesse," at the mouth of Pianketank river, 
in Gloucester (now Mathews county). In 
1733 he was sworn county lieutenant of Caro- 
line, and must have lived, during the latter 
portion of his life, in Caroline county. He 
married Martha (baptized Nov. 16, 1685), 
daughter of Maj. Lewis Burwell. He had 
issue: i. William, of Hesse. 2. Lucy, mar- 
ried Thomas Nelson, of Yorktown, secretary 
of state. 3. Martha, married Dudley Digges. 
4. Robert. 

Armistead, Robert, son of Anthony Armi- 
stead, and Hannah Ellyson, his wife, and 
grandson of the emigrant, William, was a bur- 
gess for Elizabeth City county in 1714, suc- 
ceeding Nicholas Curie, who died; in 1715, 
agent for Row's warehouse on Poquosin river ; 
justice and sheriff of York county; married 
(first) Miss Booth, (second) Katherine Nut- 
tmg, and his will was proved in Elizabeth City 



C(Amty, May 9, 1742. He left issue— Ellyson 
Armistead and others. 

Armistead, Robert, was burgess from Eliz- 
abeth City county in the session of May 12, 
1726. He was son of Maj. William Armi- 
stead ; married Ann, daughter of Rev. James 
W allace, who came from Erroll, in Perthshire, 
Scotland. In 1737 the trustees for Eaton's 
I'Vee School land rented him a portion of the 
land, for the natural lives of his sons, Robert, 
William and James, conditioned on his build- 
ing two tobacco houses, planting and caring 
for an orchard of 200 winter apple trees and 
paying to the trustees the annual rent of six 
pounds current money. Robert Armistead 
was for many years church warden of his 
parish, and colonel of the militia. His will is 
dated July 28, 1771, and was proved Nov. 24, 
1774- 

Armistead, William, was son of Anthony 
.\rmistead (q. v.) and his wife, Hannah Elly- 
son. He resided in Elizabeth City county, and 
was major in the militia, high sheriff of Eliz- 
abeth City county (1695) and a justice. He 
was burgess from Elizabeth City county in the 
assembly of 1696- 1697, and in the sessions of 
May 13 and June 18, 1702, Oct. 25, 1710, and 
Nov. 16, 1714. He married several times. 
His first wife was Hannah, born July i, 1673, 
d?ughter of Thomas Hinde (or Hine) by his 
wife Hannah. Maj. Armistead's last wife 
was Rebecca, daughter of Edward Moss, J. P., 
of York county. Maj. Armistead's will is 
dated Jan. 5 (year blank), and probated Feb. 
17, 1715-16. 

Arundell or Erondelle, John, son of Peter 
Arundell, of Buckroe, was born in 1602. Ap- 
j5ointed a commissioner of Elizabeth City in 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Feb., 1632 : member of tbe house of burgesses, 
Feb., 1633. 

Arundell or Erondelle, Peter, geiiitleman, 
a native of Xormandy ; member of the London 
Company and a French teacher in London ; 
published several bookS': came to \'irginia in 
1620; in 1624 he was living at Buckroe, in the 
corporation of Elizabeth City, with his chil- 
dren — John (q. v.), Elizabeth and Margaret. 

Ashton, Charles, son of John Asliton, of 
Xorthumberland county, and Grace, his wife, 
was burgess for Westmoreland county in 
1703-1705. He married (first) Miss Burclett, 
(second) in 1706, Margaret Hart, daughter of 
Edward Hart, and had issue — Burdett and 
Charles. 

Ashton, Henry, was son of Capt. John Ash- 
ton and Grace (Aleese?), his wife. He was 
born July 30, 167 1. He was burgess from 
Westmoreland in the assemblies of 1702, 1703, 
1705 and 1715. He was a colonel and a jus- 
tice. He married (first) Elizabeth Hardidge 
(Hardwich), born 1678, died Feb., 1722, 
daughter and heiress of William Hardidge. 
Col. Ashton married ( secondly ) Mary Watts, 
daughter of Richard Watts. Col. Ashton was 
sheriff of Westmoreland county in 1717-18. 
He (lied Xov. 3, 173T. 

Ashton, James, brother of Col. Peter Ash- 
ton was of Kirby Underwood, county Lin- 
coln, England, came to Virginia after 1671 : 
v/as a justice of Stafiford county in 1680: died 
Aug., 1686. 

Ashton, Peter, was descended from the 
Ashtons of Chatterton, in Lancashire, Eng- 
land. He came to \'irginia about 1650, and 
was a member of the house of burgesses for 
Charles City county in 1636 and for Xorth- 
umberland county, 1659, 1660; sherifi" of 



Xorthumberland. 1658, and had the title of 
colonel. He gave his property in Virgmia to 
his brothers, John Ashton, of Lowth, Lin- 
colnshire, and James Ashton, of Kirby Under- 
wood, in Lincolnshire, both of whom came 
to Mrginia and died issueless. 

Aston, Walter, son of Walter Aston, of 
Longden, Stafford county, England, gentle- 
man, and great grandson of Sir Walter Aston, 
knighted in 1560, came to Virginia about 1628. 
In 1630 he represented Shirley Hundred as 
burgess. He patented in 1634, in Shirley 
Hundred 1,046 acres, endowing 200 acres 
known as "Cawsey's Cave." He was justice 
of the peace for Charles City county and lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the militia. He was born in 
1607, and died April 6, 1656, leaving a son of 
the same name, who was also lieutenant-colo- 
nel. 

Atkins, John, was burgess from \\'arro- 
squeake, in the assembly of 1629-30. 

Atkinson, Roger, son of Roger and Jane 
Benson Atkinson, of Whitehaven, Cumber- 
kmd county, England, was born June 25, 
1725: came to Mrginia about 1750, settled 
near Petersburg, and became a prosperous 
merchant. From 1760 to 1784 he was a mem- 
ber of the vestry of Bristol parish, dying short- 
ly after 1784. He called his home "Mans- 
field," and used the arms of Atkinson of Xew- 
castle. He married Ajjril 21, 1753, Ann, 
daughter of John Pleasants. 

Aubrey, Henry, was burgess from Rappa- 
hannock in the assembly of 1688. 

Aylett (Aylet), William, of "Fair Field." 
King William county, gentleman, son of Philip 
Aylett of "Fair Field," was burgess from 
King William county in the assemblv of 1723- 
2t.. He bcire arms which were to be seen 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



175 



pasted in a cop}' of Donne's "Poems," some 
time ago. He was a grandson of Capt. John 
Aylett or Ayloffe, a royalist officer who came 
to \'irginia in 1656, son of Sir Benjamin Ay- 
loffe, of county Essex, England. Issue, \\'il- 
liam and Philip. 

Aylett (Aylet), William, son of Col. Wil- 
liam Aylett, of "Fairfield" was burgess from 
Westmoreland in the assembly of 1736- 1 740. 
Ca]5t. William Aylett, Jr., of Westmoreland, 
married (first) Anne Ashton, of Westmore- 
land, and (secondly) Elizabeth Eskridge, 
daughter of Maj. George Eskridge. of "Sandy 
Point." One of Capt. William Aylett's daugh- 
ters married Richard Henry I.ee, and another 
Augustine Washington. 

Aylett, William, son of Philip Aylett, of 
"Fairfield," and grandson of Col. William 
Aylett, of "^'airfield" ( q. v.), was born 1743; 
was burgess for King William county at the 
a.ssemblies of 1772-1774 and of 1775-1776; 
member of the conventions of 1774, 1775 and 
1776; resigned from the convention May 2, 
1776. to accept commission as deputy com- 
missary general in \"irginia. He died at York- 
town, 1780. Me married Elizabeth Macon, 
daughter of Col. James iMacon and Elizabeth 
Moore, daughter of Augustine Moore, of 
"Chelsea." 

Aylmer, Justinian, was born in 1635, ma- 
triculated at Trinity College, Oxford, 1656. 
and became A. M. in 1657. He was grandson 
of Theophilus Aylmer, archdeacon of London. 
In 1 66 1 he was minister of Hampton parish, 
York county, \'irginia, and a little later was 
minister of Jamestown. He died before 
167 1. 

Bacon, Edmund, ancestor of the Bacon 
family in the >outh, patented land in Xew 



Kent county in 1687. He was captain of the 
militia. He probably married Anne Lyddall, 
daughter of Capt. George Lyddall. Edmund 
Bacon was, it is believed, a near kinsman of 
Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., the rebel. 

Bacon, John, was son of Capt. Edmund 
Bacon, of Xew Kent, who patented land in 
1687. John Bacon was vestryman of St. Pet- 
er's Church, sherifif in the county and burgesc 
in 1737-1734. He married (first) Sarah Lang- 
ston and ( second ) Susanna Parke. 

Bagnall, James, burgess for Isle of Wight 
county in 1646 and for Lancaster county in 
it.54. 

Bagnall, Roger, was a burgess for Isle of 
Wight county in 1641. His will dated Octo- 
ber 19, 1647, 's recorded in that county. He 
left a son James Bagnall. 

Bagnell, Henry, was a member of the house 
of burgesses from Accomack, March, 1629- 
30, and Sept., 1632. His descendants have 
lived on the eastern shore to the present 
time. John Bagnell who was living in Acco- 
mac in 1679 was probably his son ; Charles 
Bagnell was a vestryman of Accomack parish 
in 1772: Charles Bagnell was lieutenant-colo- 
nel of militia during the war of 1812; and 
Edmund R. Bagnell was brigadier-general of 
militia in 1870. 

Bagwell, Thomas, an old settler, was bur- 
gess for Pasbehay. in James City corporation 
in 1629. 

Bailey, Thomas, succeeded Henry lirowne, 
deceased, as burgess for Surry county in Nov., 
1762. and was burgess from that time till 
1771. 

Baker, Benjamin, of Nanseniond, was a 
member of the convention of 1774. 



1/6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Baker, Henry, of Xansemond, was son and 
heir of Lieut. -Col. Henry Baker, of Isle of 
Wight county. He was member of the house 
of burgesses for Nansemond in 1723-1726. He 
left a son Lawrence Baker. 

Baker, Henry, of Isle of Wight county, 
was a merchant and planter living there as 
early as i6"6. He was a justice of the peace 
and lieutenant-colonel of the militia; burgess 
for the county in 1692-93. His will dated June 
10, 1707 was proved July 28, 1712. He was 
father of Henry Baker, of Nansemond, and 
of James, Lawrence and William Baker, of 
Isle of Wight county. 

Baker, Capt. Lawrence, of Surry county, 
was a justice of Surry from 1652 to his death 
1681. He was also a member of the house of 
burgesses from 1666 to 1676. His will was 
dated March 18, 1681 and was proved Sept. 
6, 1681, and by it he left his whole estate 
to his wife Elizabeth, and to his daughter 
Catherine, wife of Arthur Allen of Surry 
county. He was a kinsman of Lieut. -Col. 
Henry Baker, of Isle of Wight county. 

Baker, Richard, son of Lawrence Baker, of 
Isle of AMght county, and grandson of Lieut.- 
Col. Henry Baker, was vestryman of the upper 
parish. Isle of Wight county, in 1747, burgess 
in 1768 and 1769, and clerk of the county. He 
died in 177 1, leaving a son Judge Richard H. 
Baker. 

Baker, Thomas, burgess for a county not 
named, in 1702. 

Baldry, Robert, was burgess from York 
county, in the session of 16591-1660. He was 
born in 1617, came to Virginia in 1635, was 
appointed justice of the peace for York county 
ill 1661, was captain of the militia, and died 



in 1675 ; left his estate to the children of Capt. 
Thomas Ballard, of the council. 

Baldridge, Thomas, represented Northum- 
berland county in the house of burgesses in 
165 1. The Baldridges are a prominent Mary- 
land family. The Westmoreland county 
(Virginia) records contain a "Deed of James 
Baldridge, administrator of my late brother, 
Major Thomas Baldridge, 1656." Grace Bald- 
ridge, widow of Maj. Thomas Baldridge, mar- 
ried John Tew, of Westmoreland. 

Ball, George, son of Capt. George Ball, was 
burgess for Northumberland in the assembly 
of ]May, 1769. He was justice, vestryman, cap- 
tain, married in 1736. Anne Taylor and died 
in 1770. 

Ball, George, son of Capt. William Ball 
Jr., (born in England June 2, 1641 ; died in 
Lancaster county, Virginia, Sept. 30, 1694) 
was born about 1683; captain of militia; re- 
sided in Wicomico, Northumberland county, 
which he represented in the assembly of 1723- 
1726, 1727-1734, 1734-1740. He died in 1746, 
and names in his will sons George, John, 
David, Richard, Joseph, and daughter Harris 
Downman. 

Ball, Henry, burgess for Elizabeth City in 
1646. Richard Ball in 1627 leased six acres 
in Elizabeth City. 

Ball, Col. James, Jr., commonly called "The 
Young Colonel" of "Bewdley," Lancaster 
county, was the son of Maj. James Ball and 
his second wife, Mary Conwa)' Daingerfield. 
He was born Dec. 31, 1718. He married (first! 

(this marriage is recorded in the 

charts, but the name is not given) ; (second) 

Mildred , whose family name is not 

known; (third) in 1753, Lettice Lee, daugh- 
ter of Richard Lee and his wife Miss Silk. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



177 



Col. LSall was burgess from Lancaster county, 
1755, resigning that year to accept the office 
ot sheriff. Col. Ball was a vestryman of St. 
Stephen's parish, Northumberland county, 
1 744- 1 789. In 1745 he was elected church 
warden when James Ball, Sr., was in the ves- 
try. He was frequently church warden, and 
July 22, 1785, elected treasurer. He was with 
Col. Thomas Gaskins executor of Alaj. Peter 
Conway's estate. For many years he was a 
delegate, and in 1788 a member of the \'ir- 
ginia convention. 

Ball, Maj. James, of "Bewdley," Lancaster 
county, was son of Capt. William Ball and his 
second wife. Miss Harris, of Northumber- 
land. He was born 1678. He was burgess 
from Lancaster county in the assemblies of 
1715, 1718, 1720-22, in the session of May 
18, 1732, and in the assembly of 1736-1740. 
He married (first) July 15, 1699, Eliza How- 
son, died' Jan. 22, 1704-05, probably daughter 
o^ Leonard Howson. He married (secondly) 
April 16, 17 — , Mary Conway Daingerfield, 
daughter of Col. Edwin Conway, and widow of 
John Daingerfield. She died Sept. 15,1730. He 
married (thirdly) April 25, 1742, Mary Ann 
(Bertrand) Ballendine, daughter of Rev. John 
Bertrand, of Rappahannock county, and widow 
of Capt. William Ballendine. Maj. Ball was a 
vestryman of Christ Church, Lancaster county, 
and church warden 1743. In 1740 he and Mr. 
Joseph Ball were allowed to build a gallery in 
\\'hite Chapel Church for their families, pro- 
vided that it be completed at the same time 
with the church and furnished in the same 
style as the west gallery. He died Oct. 13, 
1754. His will was dated July 15, 1754, pro- 
bated Lancaster county, Nov. 15, 1754. 

Ball, Col. Joseph, of "Epping Forest," Lan- 
caster, was son of Col. William Ball, of Lan- 

VIR— 12 



caster, and his wife, Hannah Atherold. He 
was born in England, May 24, 1649, ^"^ came 
to Virginia in his infancy. He was burgess 
from Lancaster county in the assemblies of 
1695 and 1698, and in the sessions of Aug. 6, 
1701, and May 13 and June 18, 1702. He was 
lieutenant-colonel and a vestryman. He mar- 
ried (first), it is said, in England, Elizabeth 
Rogers, or Elizabeth Romniey, daughter of 
William Romney, of London. He married 
(secondly) 1707-08, Alary Johnson, of Lan- 
caster county, widow, born in England. Col. 
Ball's youngest daughter, Mary, married Au- 
gustine Washington, and was the mother of 
President George Washington. Col. Ball died 
at "Epping Forest," June, 171 1. His will was 
dated June 25, probated Lancaster county 
July II, 1711. 

Ball, Col. Spencer, of Northumberland 
county, was born cir. 1700-05. He married Ju- 
dith Jones. He was burgess from Northum- 
berland county in 1748-1749, 1752-1755, 1756- 
1758, 1758-1761, 1761-1765 and 1766-1768. 
He was captain, justice and member North- 
umberland county court, 1735; inspector of 
tobacco, 1737; vestryman of St. Stephen's 
Parish, Northumberland county, 1738; quali- 
fied as lieutenant-colonel, 1753; was executor 
of Tunstall Hack, Nov., 1757; member of 
\^'estmoreland Association, Feb. 27, 1766, and 
signed the resolutions passed that day express- 
ing in unmistakable language the purpose to 
resist the stamp act. He also signed the asso- 
ciation of 1770. He died Feb. 11, 1767; his 
will was dated Jan. 21, 1767, probated North- 
umberland county, March 9, 1767. A daugh- 
ter married William Roane of Essex, and was 
mother of Judge Spencer Roane, of the su- 
preme court of A'irginia. 

Ball, Spencer Mottrom, son of Col. Spen- 



178 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



cer Ball, lived at "Coan," Xorthumberland 
county; was burgess in 1769-1771 and 1772- 
1774; resigned in 1773 to accept the office of 
sheriff. He was one of the signers of the 
Westmoreland Association against the stamp 
act. He married Elizabeth Waring, daughter 
of Col. Francis Waring, of "Goldsberry," 
Essex county. He died in Nov. or Dec, 1786. 

Ball, Capt. William, Jr., was son of Cul. 
William Ball, of Lancaster and his wife, Han- 
nah Atherold. He was born in England, June 

2, 1641. lie was burgess from Lancaster 
county in the sessions of Sept. 17, 1668, Oct. 

3, 1670, Sept. 21, 1674, in the assemblies of 
1677, 1682, 1685-86 and 1688, and in. the ses- 
sions of April I, 1692. In 1687 Capt. William 
Ball, of Lancaster, was appointed to lay off 
the boundary between Lancaster and Xorth- 
umberland counties. He was justice in 1680. 
He married (first) Mary Williamson, daugh- 
ter of Dr. James Williamson, of Rappahan- 
nock, to whom John Hammond, dedicated his 
tract "Leah and Rachel;" (secondly) Miss 
Harris, of "Bay View," Northumberland 
county; (thirdly) in 1675, Margaret Down- 
man, daughter of Rawleigh Downman. Capt. 
Bali died in Lancaster county, Sept. 30, 1694. 
His will was dated Sept. 28. 1694, and pro- 
bated Nov. 4, 1694. 

Ball, Col. William, of Lancaster county, 
was the son of Capt. William Ball Jr. and his 
second wife. Miss Harris, of Northumber- 
land county. He was a burgess from Lancas- 
ter county in the assembly of 1702-03-05, in 
the sessions of April 24, 1706, and Nov. 7, 
171 1, and in the assemblies of 1712-14, 1715 
and 1723-26. He was the surveyor of North- 
umberland county in 1724. He was a vestry- 
man of Christ Church, Lancaster county, in 
1740-47. He married Hannah Heale. He 



died .March, 1744-45. His will was dated .\ug. 
14. 1744, and probated March 8, 1744-45. 

Ball, William, of "Millenbeck," St. Mary's 
White Chapel Parish. Lancaster county, was 
son of Capt. William Ball and Alargaret liall, 
his wife. He was burgess for Lancaster, 
1757-58, and delegate, 1780. He married 

(first) , (second) in 1740 (?) Lettice 

Lee, who died in Lancaster county, Oct., 1788, 
daughter of Col. Henry Lee, of "Lee Hall," 
au'd his wife Mary. William Ball signed the 
Westmoreland address, 1766. 

Ballard, Francis, son of Col. Thomas Bal- 
lard, of York county, moved to Elizabeth City 
county, where he was burgess in 1710-12. He 
niarried Mary Servant, daughter of Bertram 
Servant, and had sons, Francis and Servant 
Ballard, and daughters, Frances, Mary, Lucy 
and .\nne ISallard. 

Baliard, Robert, was son of Capt. John 
Ballard, of York county, who died in 1745, 
and a great-grandson of Thomas Ballard, of 
the governor's council; was clerk of Princess 
Anne from 1761 to 1765, and burgess in 1766- 
1768. He married .\nne, daughter of Na- 
thaniel .Wwton and Elizabeth, his wife, daugh- 
ter of Charles Sayer (clerk of Princess Anne, 
1716-1740). 

Ballard, Thomas, son of Col. Thomas Bal- 
lard, of the council of state, was one of the 
justices of York county and colonel of the 
militia. He was burgess for the county in 
1693, 1697, 1698,, 1699, 1700-1702, 1703-1705 
and 1710-1712. He married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of John Hubard. His will was proved in 
"i'ork county, June 18, 171 1. He left issue, 
arid among them was Capt. John Ballard, of 
\"ork county, who died in 1745. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



Banister, John, was a minister of the Church 
of England, and lived in Charles. City county 
as early as 1678. He had grants of land in 
Bristol parish in 1690. He was accidentally 
killed in Henrico county in 1692. He had 
travelled in the West Indies and was a natural- 
ist and entomologist. He compiled a cata- 
logue of Virginia plants, which is published 
in Ray's "Historia Plantarum." He published 
various papers in the "Philosophical Transac- 
tions." Among them were "Observations on 
the Natural Productions of Jamaica," "Insects 
of \'irginia," "Curiosities in Virginia," "On 
Several Sorts of Snails," "Descriptions of the 
Snake Root," etc. 

Banister, John, son of Rev. John Banister, 
lived at Petersburg and was collector for 
Upper James river in 1724, and vestryman of 
Bristol parish in 1735. He married Wilmette 
, and had issue: i. Martha, who mar- 
ried Robert Boiling, of "Bollingbrook," Peters- 
burg. 2. Col. John, of Battersea, Dinwiddle 
county. 

Bankhead, James, was an early physician 
of \Vestmoreland county, and married Ellinor 
Monroe, aunt of President James Monroe, on 
Aug. 20, 1738. His son was James Bankhead, 
a lieutenant in the naval service of the Amer- 
ican revolution. This lad was father of Gen. 
James Bankhead. of the United States army, 
and an attache of Mr. Monroe when United 
States envoy in France and England. 

Banks, Thomas, son of Thomas Banks and 
Dorothy, his wife, was born at Woodstock. 
^^'iltsllire, England, in 1642, and after serving 
an apprenticeship of seven years in Southamp- 
ton came to Virginia and settled in Northum- 
berland county. He married Elizabeth, relict 
of \Mlliam Kecne, and daughter of Maj. John 



Rogers. He was a prominent merchant. He 
died Sept. 20, 1697. 

Barber, Charles, was burgess from Rich- 
mond in the assemblies of 1720-22 and of 
1723-26. He qualified in 1713 as a lieutenant- 
colonel in the militia of Richmond county. 
he died on Nov. 24, 1726. He was son of 
William Barber, of Richmond county, and 
was born June ig, 1676. 

Barber, Thomas, son of William Barber 
(q. v.), was born in 1653, lived in Hampton 
parish, York county; was burgess in 1680, 
1693, 1696, 1700-1702, 1703-1705 and 1705- 
1706; justice of the peace from 1678, and in 
1717 excused from further attendance on the 
court because of infirmities. He was captain 
of the militia and died in 1718, leaving issue 
by Elizabeth Petters — William Jr. (q. v.) and 
Thomas Barber. 

Barber, William, Jr., son of Capt. Thoma.s 
Barber ( q. v.), was born about 1675; was 
churchwarden of Hampton parish, York 
county; justice of the peace from 1705; major 
of the militia, and burgess from 1710 to 1718 
inclusive. He married (first) Judith Cary, 
daughter of Henry Cary; (second) Anne 
Archer, ('aughter of Capt. James Archer, who 
came as ensign to Virginia in the regiment 
sent over to put down Bacon's rebellion ; 
( third ) Anna Maria Jones, widow of Capt. 
^^'illiam Timson and daughter of Rev. Row- 
land Jones. 

Barber, William, was born about 1642, 
came to \'irginia before 1638, and carried on 
tlie trade of a cooper in York county ; justice 
of the peace as early as 1652; burgess in 1663 
and 1666, and lieutenant-colonel in 1655. He 
died in 1669, leaving issue — Thomas (q. v.), 



and i\Iar_v, who married 
cierk of York county. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 
John Baskerville, 



Barbour, James, third of the name in Vir- 
ginia in descent, was burgess from Culpeper 
county, assembly of 1761-1765. He was an 
ensign in the Culpeper militia, 1756, under 
Col. Thomas Slaughter, and "marched on an 
expedition against the Indians above Winches- 
ter." In 1775 he was county lieutenant of the 
Culpeper militia, and was afterwards an officer 
in the American revolution. 

Barbour, Thomas, son of James Barbour, 
was born in 1735; was justice of the peace of 
Orange county in 1768, and was continuously 
in the commission until his death; burgess for 
Orange county from 1769 to 1775, and mem- 
ber of the conventions of 1774 and 1775, and 
county lieutenant in the latter years of the 
revolutionary war. He was father of James 
Barbour, governor of Virginia, and of Philip 
P. Barbour, judge of the supreme court of the 
United States. 

Barham, Anthony, was burgess from Mul- 
berry Island in the session of iG2g-2p. In 
1626 he patented 100 acres in what is now 
Isle of Wight county. He died in England in 
1641, leaving a daughter Elizabeth. He mar- 
ried the sister of Maj.-Gen. Richard Bennett, 
of Nansemond county, \'irginia. 

Bargrave, George, brother of Rev. Thomas 
Bargrave (q. v.), was born about 1584. He 
was a sea captain employed in the trade be- 
tween England. Bermuda and Virginia. He 
married Dorcas, daughter of Capt. John Mar- 
tin. His son, Robert Bargrave, sold "Bran- 
don," on James river, to certain merchants of 
London, William Barker, John Sadler and 
Richard Quiney. In t6i6 he brought the first 
negro slave to the Bermuda Islands. 



Bargrave, Capt. John, brother of Capt. 
George Bargrave (q. v.), was born about 1578. 
He became interested in Virginia, established 
the first private plantation on James river, 
and sent thither many servants. He had a 
long dispute with Sir Thomas Smythe regard- 
ing his interests in the colony, and all of his 
claims were denied. 

Bargrave, Rev. Thomas, son of Robert 
Bargrave, of Bridge, in Kent, England, and 
his wife Joanna, daughter of John Gilbert, of 
Sandwich, England, came to Virginia about 
1619, and died there in 1621, leaving his 
library, valued at 100 marks, to the proposed 
college at Henrico. He was brother of George 
Bargrave (q. v.). 

Barker, William, was burgess from Charles 
City county in the assembly of 1645. He was 
a sea captain and patented large tracts of land 
on the south side of James river, in company 
with Richard Quiney and John Sadler, mer- 
chants of London. He left descendants in 
\'irginia. 

Barnes, Lancelot, resided in Elizabeth 
City, and was burgess for the lower parish in 
1629-30. In 1632 he leased from Gov. Harvey 
I DO acres of the public lands, commonly known 
as the "Indian Thicket," believed to have been 
near the present Hampton Normal School. 

Barradall, Edward, succeeded John Clay- 
ton as attorney -general in 1737, and was also 
judge of the admiralty court. He was born in 
1704 and died in 1743. He married Sarah 
Fitzhugh, youngest daughter of William Fitz- 
hugh, Esq. He compiled a report of the de- 
cisions of the general court which has been re- 
cently published. 

Barret, Charles, was a burgess from Louisa, 
May, 1742 to 1748. He was son of Charles 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



Barret and Mary Chiswell, of Hanover county. 
His will, dated Sept. lo, 1770, was proved 
in Louisa county, June 10, 1771. He was 
brother of Rev. Robert Barret (q. v.). 

Barret, Rev. Robert, son of Charles Bar- 
ret and jMary, his wife, of Louisa county, 
was a student at William and Mary College ; 
u^her of the grammar school; qualified June 
28, 1737, master of the Indian school; was 
ordained minister in England soon after, and 
on Dec. 25, 1737, received the royal funds 
to defray his return passage; was minister 
for many years of St. Martin's Parish, Han- 
ovtr county. He married (first) Elizabeth, 
daughter of Col. Robert Lewis, and (second) 

Anne . He had a son. Rev. Lewis 

Barret, who married Elizabeth Anderson 
(I753-I773)- by whom he had Anderson Bar- 
ret, of Richmond. 

Barret, Thomas, was one of the two first 
settlers, who when freed from service to the 
colony in 1614, went to work on his own 
account. Ensign William Spencer was the 
other. 

Barrett, William, was a burgess from 
James City, Feb., 1644-45, Oct., 1646, Oct., 
1646, Oct., 1649. He died before 1677, leav- 
ing a son James. In 1789 William E. Bar- 
rett was living on the "Ferry Plantation" in 
James City county. He was a descendant of 
William Barret, first named (see "William 
and Mary College Quarterly," vii, 202). 

Barrington, Robert, was clerk of the coun- 
cil in 1632, and member of the house of bur- 
gesses for James City, 1629-30. 

Barron, Samuel, commander of Fort George 
at Point Comfort in 1737. After the destruc- 
tion of the fort by the hurricane of 1749 he 
removed with his family to the upper part 



of Mill creek. He was father of the naval 
officers, Samuel and James Barron, of the 
L'nited States navy. 

Baskervyle, John, son of John and Magda- 
lene (Hope) Baskervyle, of Ould Withing- 
ton, Cheshire, England, was born 1635, bap- 
tized at Gorsetry, settled in York county, Vir- 
ginia, about 1662, and was clerk of York 
county from 1664 to 1679. He died in 1679. 
He married Mary, daughter of Lieut.-Col. 
\\'illiam Barber, and left a daughter Mary 
and a son George. 

Bassett, Burw^ell, son of William Bassett, 
of "Eltham," New Kent, was born in 1734; 
was member of the house of burgesses, 1762, 
1763, 1764, 1765, 1766-68, 1769-1771, 1772, 
^T/2,- ^774- 1775. and of the conventions of 
1774 and 1775. He married Anna Maria 
Dandridge, daughter of Col. John Dandridge, 
of New Kent, and died Jan. 4, 1793. 

Bassett, William, son of William Bassett, 
"yeoman," of Newport, in Isle of Wight, Eng- 
land, had seen military service; came to Vir- 
ginia prior to 1665, when he was made com- 
mander of the workmen employed in build- 
ing a fort at Jamestown ; was paid 10,000 
pounds of tobacco for his services ; acquired 
a large estate, and died in 1672, leaving a 
son, William Bassett, of "Eltham," New Kent 
county, member of the council, by Bridget 
Cary, daughter of Capt. Miles Cary. 

Bassett, William, of "Eltham," New Kent 
county, Virginia, was son of Col. William 
Bassett and. Joanna Burwell, his wife; was 
member of the assembly of 1742-1747, but 
died in 1744, before the termination thereof. 
Lie married Elizabeth Churchill, daughter of 
Col. \\'illiam Churchill, and was father of 
Burwell Bassett (q. v.). 



i8j 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Baughan, Capt. James, was a burgess for 
Essex county in 1698, 1702-03, 1704. He 
was also justice and sheriif for the county. 
He married Mary, daughter of Richard Tyler. 

Bates, John, was a burgess from Halifax 
tounty, Nov., 1753 to 1758. He was son of 
John Hates and Susannah Fleming, of York 
county, Quakers, and descended from John 
Bates (born 1600 — died 1666), an early im- 
migrant to Virginia. He died in Halifax 
county about 1777, leaving issue David, 
Elizabeth, John, James, Fleming and Sus- 
anna and a wife surviving named Chloe. 

Bathurst, Lancelot, was son of Sir Ed- 
ward Bathurst, of Sussex county, England, 
whose estates were sequestered on account 
of his loyalty to Charles I. Lancelot Ba- 
thurst lived in Essex county, and was a law- 
yer. He had four children: Mary, married 
Francis Meriwether; Lawrence, who died 
about 1705 without issue; Elizabeth, mar- 
ried (first) William Tomlin, and (second) 
in 1709, William Daingerfield ; Susanna mar- 
ried Drury Stith. 

Battaile, Capt. John, of Rappahannock, 
afterwards Essex county, was a captain of 
a company of rangers in service against the 
Indians in 1692, member of the house of 
burgesses from Essex the same year. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Col. Law- 
rence Smith, and his will dated Jan. 24, 
1707-170S was recorded Feb.. 1707-1708. 

Batte, Capt. Henry, son of Capt. John 
Batte, a royalist officer, was a resident of 
the Appomattox river, and it is said by 
Robert Beverley that sometime before Ba- 
con's rebellion he led a company to explore 
the country to the west and passed the 
mountains. Ir. 1685 he represented Charles 



City county in the house of burgesses. He 
kft two sons, Henry and \\ illiam. 

Batte, John, was a royalist officer in the 
civil war in England. He was fined £364, 
and is said to have been a captain at the 
battle of Adwalton. He was of Okewell. 
county York, England. His wife was Mar- 
tha Alallory, sister of Rev. Philip Mallory. 
He came with his sons John, William, 
Thomas and Henry to Virginia and brought 
over many others. He patented over 5.000 
acres on Appomattox river. He died about 
1668. 

Batte, Thomas, son of Capt. John Batte, 
a royalist officer, settled with his brother 
Henry on Appomattox river. In 1671 he 
was with Robert Falland, Thomas Wood 
and several others sent out by Gen. Abra- 
ham Wood to explore the western country. 
He appears to have proceeded as far as the 
New river in Southwest Virginia. 

Batte, William, patented in 1643 ~-° acres 
on Mobjack Bay and in 1649, 182 acres on 
Chipokes Creek in James City county. Soon 
after Surry county was formed from James 
City county, he represented it in 1654 in 
the house of burgesses. In 1658 he repre- 
sented Elizabeth City county. He was a 
son of Robert Batte and Elizabeth Parry, 
his wife, of Okewell, county York, Eng- 
land, and a brother of Capt. John Batte. 
His father was fellow and vicar master of 
University College, Oxford. 

Baugh, John, was a burgess from Hen- 
rico in the assembly that convened Jan. 12, 
1641 : and again from the same county in 
the assembly that convened Feb. 17, 1644- 
45. He was probably brother of Mr. Wil- 
liam Baugh, of the same county, who was 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINEXT PERSONS 



t83 



born in 1612 and died in 1687, leaxing two 
si'ns John and James from, whom the j)res- 
ent family in \"irginia is descended. 

Bayley, Arthur, was a burgess from Hen- 
rico county, 1(^42-43. He was a merchant of 
London and patented a lot in Jamestown 
Island, 1642. He appears to have returned to 
England and prol)ably died there. In 1654 
a warrant was issued to him and others, 
requiring the commissioners of customs to 
jermit him and others, part owners of cer- 
tain ships, "all bound on a voyage to Vir- 
ginia" to transport thither in each ship 120 
tlozen of shoes, six barrels of gunpowder 
and one ton of shot, paying custom and 
other duties thereon. On Aug. 3, 1658, he 
signed with others, a "petition of the mer- 
chants and traders to \'irginia and the rest 
of the English Plantations in America to 
His Highness' Privy council," praying for 
the enforcement of the laws "for suppress- 
ing the ])lanting of English tobacco." 

Bayley, Richard, was a burgess from Ac- 
comac in 1696-97. In a list of field ofScers 
oi the \"irginia militia in 1699, Charles Scar- 
borough is named as colonel and comman- 
der-in-chief of Accomac, and Richard Bay- 
lev as major. He was descended from 
Richard l'.ayle_\-, of Craddock. in England. 

Bayley, William, was l)nrn in 1583 and 
came to X'irginia in Kny. In 1624 he lived 
at ^^'est Shirley Hundred, lie had a son 
Thomas. wh<i patented 130 acres in Prince 
( .eorge county, on Bayley's Creek. In 1626 
'1 emperance Bailey had 200 acres on this 
rreek and she was probably the mother of 
Thomas Bailey. 

Baylis, John, was a burgess from Prince 
\\'illiam count}-. Nov., 1761, and contin- 



uously thenceforward to Sept., 1765. His 
service in the general assembly was cut 
short by his death Sept. 4, 1765, in a duel 
with Cuthbert Bullitt. He was colonel in 
the coun.ty militia. His will was dated Oct. 
22. 1764, was proved Oct. 9, 1765, and re- 
corded in Prince William county. 

Baylor, John, son of John Ba3lor, was 
born in 1650 at Tiverton, De\onshire, Eng- 
land, came to Gloucestef county, X'irginia, 
ill the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
and acquired a large estate by extensive 
trade as merchant. He was burgess for 
Gloucester in 1692, and King and Queen 
1718. lie married Lucy Todd O'Brien, of 
New Kent, in 1698, and at his death left a 
large estate appraised at £6,500. 

Baylor, John, son of John Ba}lor and 
Lucy, his wife, was born in Gloucester 
county. \'irginia, Alay 12, 1705. He moved 
m 1726 to "New Market," King and Oueen 
C(;unty, and when Caroline county was 
formed in 1727, from King and Queen, 
"New Market" fell into that county. He 
was county lieutenant for Caroline in 1752, 
and represented it as burgess from 1742 to 
1765. He married Erances W'alker, daugh- 
ter of Jacob AN'alker, of Elizabeth City 
ccjunt}". a id was father of Col. George Bay- 
lor, of the rexolution. 

Baynham, Alexander, was a burgess from 
Westmoreland county in 1654. and in 1655 
was one of the justices and captain of the 
county militia lie died in if>fu. lea\'ing a 
(i;iughter .\nne. 

Baytop, Thomas, merchant, emigrated 
from Staplehurst. Kent. England, in 1679, 
and by his ^^■ife Hanna had a son Thomas, 
who married a daughter of Dr. Da\id \lex- 



r84 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ander, of York county- He has many de- 
scendants. (See "Descendants of John 
Stubbs," by W. C. Stubbs, Ph. D.). 

Beazley, Robert, was a burgess from Isle 
of Wight in the assembly of 1655-1656. 

Beckwith, Sir Marmaduke, son of Sir 
Roger Beckwith, knight baronet, in Aid- 
borough, Yorkshire, England, came to Vir- 
ginia about 1709, settled in Richmond 
county, and was clerk of the county till 
1748. He married Elizabeth Brocken- 
brough, and was-living in 1770 at a very 
advanced age. He left issue, Sir Jennings 
Beckwith and others. 

Bell, Henry, was a burgess for Bucking- 
ham county from Feb. 10, 1772, to the end 
of the session May 5, 1774. 

Bell, Rev. John, succeeded Andrew Jack- 
son as minister of Lancaster county in 1710, 
and held office till 1743. He was a man of 
means, owning land in Lancaster and Prince 
William and forty-three slaves. 

Bell, John, burgess for Prince William 
ccunty in the assembl}' of 1756-1758. 

Benn, Capt. James, was burgess for Isle 
of Wight county in 1696-1697, and died the 
latter year. His wife was Jane, daughter 
of Col. Arthur Smith. He left issue Arthur, 
James, George, Mary, Jane and Anne. 

Bennett, Philip, was kinsman of Gov. 
Richard Bennett, member of the house of 
burgesses for Upper Norfolk (Nansemond) 
in 1644-45 '• lie was a Puritan and was sent 
to New England in 1642 to procure minis- 
ters for the Puritan congregation in Nanse- 
mond and Lower Norfolk counties. 

Bennett, Thomas, was a burgess for Mul- 



bcrr_\- Island in the assembly that convened 
Sept. 4. 1632. 

Benskin, Henry, a royalist, son of Francis 
Benskin, Esq., of St. Martin"s-in-the-Field, 
Middlesex, England, came to Virginia with 
Sir Thomas Lunsford, in 1649. i^^ settled 
in New Kent and died about 1692, leaving 
is.'^ue, two daughters, Mary, who married 
William Harman, and Frances, who married 
William Marston, of James City county. 

Bentley, Matthew, was a shoemaker, who 
was one of Bacon's leading officers in the 
Rappahannock Neck. He was a man of 
means and appears as defendant in many 
suits for damages after the rebellion. He 
married Mary Willis, a widow of Thomas 
Willis. 

Bentley, William, came in 1624, "a new 
planter," member of the house of burgesses 
in Oct., 1629. 

Berkeley, Edmund, of "Barn Eims," son 
oi Col. Edmund Berkeley and Mary, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Nelson, was burgess for 
Middlesex county at the third session of 
the assemblv of 1769-1771. He was burge-'s 
again in 1772-1774, 1775-1776, and member 
cl the convention of 1774, 1775, 1776. His 
will was i)ro\ed and recorded in Middlesex 
July 2('). 1S02. 

Berkeley, Capt. William, was a burgess 
from New Kent county in the assembly that 
tonvened Oct. 23, 1666. 

Bernard, Richard, came from England to 
\ irginia about 1647. He was born in Pets- 
worth, Buckinghamshire in 1618, and mar- 
ried in 1634 Anne Corderoy (born 16201. 
He located afterward at "Purton" in Glou- 
cester countv. which has been identified 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



185 



with Powhatan's "Werowocomoco," where 
Pocahontas saved. John Smith. He wa^s 
ancestor of the Bernard family of Virginia. 

Bernard, (Barnett) Capt. Thomas, was an 

early settler in the present Warwick county. 
He was burgess for Stanley Hundred in 
1632 and for Warwick river in 1641, 1642, 
1O44 and 1645. His daughter, Behethland, 
married Maj. Francis Dade. 

Bernard, William, was a son of Richard 
Uernard, of St. Paul's parish, Stafford 
county, and grandson of the immigrant, 
Richard Bernard, of Buckinghamshire, Eng- 
land ; was born Sept. 6, 1730, and practiced 
I.-iw in Westmoreland county. He was an 
attorney-at-law and President Monroe stud- 
ied law in his office. He married Winifred 
1 hornton, daughter of Anthony Thornton 
and \\'inifred, his wife, daughter of Col. 
i'eter Presley. William Bernard's will was 
proved in King George county 'May i, 1783. 

Berry, Sir John, second son of a clergy- 
man of Kunaton in Devonshire, England, 
\\'ho lost his life in the civil war in England 
between parliament and the King. Sir John 
entered the navy and served against the 
[lirates and the French. He was promoted to 
the rank of captain and in 1672 took part in 
the battle of Solebay, where he rescued the 
Duke of York, whose ship was hard pressed. 
For this aid he was knighted by the King. 
In 1676 he was sent as admiral of the 
fleet, which brought a regiment over to Vir- 
ginia to suppress Bacon's rebellion. He was 
joined in commission with Col. Flerbert Jef- 
fryes and Maj. Francis Moryson to en- 
quire into and report upon the Virginia dis- 
turbances. On his return he served in the 
Mediterranean till 1680. In 1682 he com- 
manded the "Gloucester," in which the 



Duke of York took passage to Scotland. 
The ship was wrecked and Berry was the 
last to leave the deck. In 1683 he was vice- 
admiral of the squadron under Lord Dart- 
mouth sent to dismantle Tangier, and on 
his return he was appointed one of the com- 
missioners of the navy. He died shortly 
before Alarch 22, 1689-90. '"Virginia Maga- 
zine" iii. p. 47. 

Beverley, Capt. Harry, was son of Maj. 
Robert Beverley, was a justice of Middle- 
sex in 1700 and surveyor of King and Queen 
and King William counties 1702-1714. In 
1 71 3 he helped the \'irginia commissioners 
to survey the line between North Carolina 
and Virgmia. In 1716 Spotswood sent him 
in command of a vessel to search for pirates, 
Spanish wrecks, etc. He was taken by a 
Sjoanish man-of-war and kept seven months 
in imprisonment without a trial. He es- 
caped trom Vera Cruz and reached Virginia 
before Aug., 1717. He removed to Spotsyl- 
\ania county, about 1720 and was for a 
iiumlier of years presiding justice of that 
county. He died in 1730, having married 
about 1700 Elizabeth, daugliter and heiress 
of Gen. Robert Smith, of Brandon, Middle- 
sex county. 

Beverley, Robert, of "Beverley Park," 
King and Queen county, the eldest son of 
.Maj. Robert Beverley, was clerk of the 
council in 1697 and clerk of King and Queen 
county (1699-1702), member of the house 
of burgesses in 1699, 1700, 1702, 1706 for 
Jamestown, where he had a lot near the 
state house ; was one of the knights of the 
horseshoe, who went with .spotswood 
across the Blue Ridge in 1718; presiding 
justice of King and Queen, 1718. His "His- 
tory of Virginia" was published in London 



[86 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



in 1705 and a second edition in 1722. He 
married Ursula, daughter of Col. William 
llyrd. of \\'estover. 

Beverly, William, son of Robert Bever- 
ley, the historian, was born about 1698, 
lived at "Blandfield," Essex county, which 
he built and which still remains in the pos- 
session of the family. He was clerk of 
Essex county from 171 6 to 1745. burgess 
for Orange county 1734- 1740 and for Essex 
1742-1747 and 1748-1749. With Sir John 
Randolph, Richard Randolph and John Rob- 
inson, he obtained on Sept. 6, 1636, a grant 
of 118,490 acres called "Beverley Manor," 
in Augusta county, though he had the chief 
interest. He married Elizabeth Bland, 
(born ]\Iay 29, 1706) daughter of Richard 
Bland of "Jordan's." Prince George county. 
and died on or before 1766. 

Bertrand, Rev. John, succeeded Rev. Ben- 
jamin Doggett as minister in Lancaster 
count}- and died in 1701. 

Bibb, William, was a burgess for Prince 
Edward county, and a member of the con- 
ventions of July and Dec. 1775. 

Bird, Abraham, came from Pennsylvania 
and settled in the valley of \'irginia, was 
burgess for the county of Dunmore (later 
Shenandoah) at the last session under the 
regal government, and member of the con- 
vention of May 6, 1776. He was frequently 
a member of the state legislature and was 
a colonel of militia. 

Bickley, Sir William, son of Joseph Bick- 
Icy, of King and Queen county, Virginia, 
who came to \^irginia about 1700. He re- 
sided in Hanover county, and in 1752 on 
the death in England of his uncle Sir Hum- 
phrey Bickley. baronet, succeeded to the 



l)ai'onetcy as sixth baronet. Sir William 
Bickley died in Hanover county, Sept. 3, 
1 77 1, leaving issue. 

Bigge, Richard, was a burgess in the gen- 
eral assembly of 1623-24. which assembled 
March 5, 1623-24. 

Bill, John, was a l)urgess from Prince 
William courily in the assembly of 1756- 
58: and again was a burgess from i^auquier 
county in the assembly of 1760-1761. 

Bird, William, was a burgess from King 
and Uueen count}-, elected to succeed Wil- 
liam Leigh, deceasetl, fur the session of the 
general assembly lieginning April 20, 1704. 
He was again a member of the session of 
Xov. 16, 171-I. 

Bishop, Henry, of Henfield, county Sus- 
sex, England, came to \'irginia in 1040. 
when he patented 1.200 acres on Lower 
C hippekes creek, in what is now Surry 
county. He returned to England and was 
a colonel in the army of Charles I. He was 
in Virginia again before March 17. 1646. 
when the house of burgesses sent a letter 
by him to England. He was in the colony 
once more a few }ears later, but in 1660 
he again went back, and was made by 
Charles II. postmaster general of England. 
He was charged, however, with consorting 
too freely with the Puritans during the days 
of the commonwealth, and in 1663 Daniel 
Xeale was appointed his successor as post- 
master general. 

Bishop, John, was a burgess for Charles 
City county in 1644. 1652 and 1653. He was 
captain of the militia. 

Blackheard, a celebratetl i)irate, whose 
real name was Edward Teach. He ke])t the 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



coast in terror, till Alexander Spotswood 
stnt an armed sloop against him under Capt. 
Henry Alaynard, who surprised him in Pam- 
lico Sound and killed him Nov. 21, 1718, in 
a hand to hand fight. The survivors of the 
pirate's crew were hanged at Williamsburg. 
A few years later Maynard himself suffered 
a sudden death at the hand of two negro 
sia\es in Prince (leorge county. 

Blackburn, Richard, born in 1706 at Rip- 
on in Yorkshire. England, settled in Prince 
William county, which he represented in 
the general assembly 1745, 1746 and 1747 
He acquired a very large estate as planter 
and contractor. He married Mary Watts, 
and was father of Alice Blackburn, who 
married Col. Thomas Elzey of Loudoun 
count}', and of Thomas Blackburn, lieuten- 
ant colonel of the Second Virginia Regiment 
ill the war of the revolution. He died July 
5. 1757, in the fifty-second year of his age, 
and was buried at his estate "Ripon Lodge," 
near Dumfries, Prince AA'illiam county. 

Blackburn, Thomas, son of Col. Richard 
Blackburn, of "Ri]x)n Lodge," Prince Wil- 
liam county, was born in 1740, was burgess 
for Prince William in the place of Foushee 
Tebbs at the third session of the assembly 
of 1772-1774 and in the assembly of 1775- 
1776. and was a member of the March and 
July conventions. He was afterwards lieu- 
tenant colonel of the Second Virginia Regi- 
ment and aide to Gen. W^ashington. He 
married Christian Scott, daughter of Rev. 
James Scott, and died about 1804. 

Blackburn, Capt. William, was born at 
New Castle on Tyne in Great Britain, Sept. 

17. 1653, resided in Abingdon parish, Glou- 
cester county, Virginia, and died there Oct. 

18, 1714 (tombstone"). He was probably 



father of Capt. William Blackburn of the 
adjoining county of Middlesex, who was 
burgess in 1715. lie died in 1738. 

Blacke, William, was a burgess from New 
Kent county in the general assembly of 
March i. 1658-59, being the sole represen- 
tc^ti^•e of the county in that session. 

Blackwell, Joseph, son of Samuel I]lack- 
well of Northumberland county, was born 
July y, 1715. He moved to Prince William 
count}-, which he represented in the house 
o; burgesses from 1749 to 1755. He married 
Lucy Steptoe, daughter of Capt. John Step- 
toe, and left issue named in his will proved 
in Fauquier county. 1787. He was a grand- 
son of Joseph Blackwell, a matriculate of 
Trinity College, Oxford, in 1658, who emi- 
giated to Virginia. 

Blackwell, Samuel, son of Samuel Black- 
well, was born in Northumberland couuty 
Jan. 19. 1710. and was a member of the 
house of burgesses in 1742- 1747. He was 
brother of Joseph I'.lackwell (q. v.). 

Blacky, William, was a burgess from New 
Kent county in the general assembly of 
1657-58, that convened March 13th. He is 
evidently the William Blacke, burgess from 
New Kent in the succeeding sessions of 
1058-50. 

Blagrave, Henry, was apparently a de- 
scendant of Dr. Henry Blagrave who ap- 
])ears in the York county, Virginia, records 
about 1660. The subject of this sketch was 
a Inirgess of Lunenberg county from 1761 
to 1772. 

Blair, Dr. Archibald, brother of Dr. James 
Blair, jjresident of William and Mary Col- 
lege, was born in Scotland : at the Univer- 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



sity of Edinburgh in 1685 ; came to Virginia 
about 1690; was a burgess for Jamestown 
in 1718 and 1732-1734; and for James City- 
county in 1720-1722, 1723-1726; major of 
the York county militia in 1728 and one of 
the justices ; died about 1734. He married 
three times, and by a first wife was father 
of John Blair (1687-1771), president of the 



ircniia counci 



Blake, Capt. John, appears as Capt. Blake 
on the list of the burgesses in the assembly 
of 1655-56 from Nansemond county. He 
was a burgess from that county in the ses- 
sion of Oct., 1666. 

Blakiston, Nathaniel, grandson of John 
Blakiston, one of the regicide judges and 
belonding to a family, several of whom emi- 
grated to Maryland, was governor of that 
colony 1698-1701. On his return to Eng- 
land he became agent for Maryland and in 
1706 was appointed by the Virginia coun- 
cil agent for Virginia. See "Maryland His- 
torical Magazine" ii. 54, 172, for a gene- 
alogy of the Blakiston family. 

Bland, Edward, son of John Bland, an 
eminent merchant of London, emigrated to 
\'irginia where he was agent for his brother 
John Bland, who had large estates in Vir- 
ginia. In 1649 he took part in an explor- 
ing expedition to the westward. He mar- 
ried Jane, daughter of his uncle Gregory 
Bland, and died about 1653. His widow 
married (secondly) John Holmwood, of 
Charles City county. Edward Bland left 
issue a son Edward of "Kymages," in 
Charles City county, Virginia. 

Bland, Giles, son of John Bland, an emi- 
nent merchant of London, went to \'irginia 
to manage his father's plantations there in 



1674; quarreled with the secretary of state, 
Thomas Ludwell, and was fined by the gen- 
eral assembly ; appointed collector of the 
customs, took part with Nathaniel Bacon 
Jr., in 1676, was captured by Philip Lud- 
well in Accomac, and hanged. 

Bland, Peregrine, was a burgess for 
Charles river (York) county in 1639. 

Bland, Richard, son of Theodorick Bland 
o!; the council and Anna Bennett, his wife, 
was born at Berkeley, James river, Aug. 
II, 1665. He resided at Jordan's Point and 
represented Charles City county, then in- 
cluding the present Prince George, in 1700- 
1702 and 1703-1705 and Prince George in 
1706. He died at Jordan's April 6, 1729. He 
niarried (first) Mary, daughter of Col. 
Thomas Swan of the council, and (second) 
Elizabeth, daughter of Col. William Ran- 
dolph, of Turkey Island. By the last wife 
he was father of the distinguished revolu- 
tionary patriot of the same name. 

Bland, Theodorick, Sr., of Cawson's, 
Prince George county, was born Dec. 2, 
1708. was colonel of the Prince George 
militia, and long clerk of the county. He 
married (first) in 1739, Frances, daughter 
and heiress of Drury Boiling of Prince 
George count}-; and (secondly) Elizabeth, 
widow of Rev. William Yates and daughter 
of Edward Randolph. By his first marriage 
he- had Col. Theodorick Bland of the revolu- 



Blayton, Thomas, was a very active pro- 
moter of tlie disturbances in Virginia known 
£;s "Bacon's Rebellion." He took a promi- 
nent part in the assembly called under 
Bacon's authority in June, 1676. and was 
also a member of Ingram's assembly called 




ROBERT ROLLING 
Husband of Jane Rolf 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



after Bacon's death in Oct., 1676. He is 
said to have written the stirring "Declar- 
ation," put forth by Bacon and was active 
in administering Bacon's oaths to the 
people. He was pardoned by Sir William 
Berkeley. He lived in Charles Cit}' county. 

Blow, Michael, was burgess for Sussex 
county in the last assembly, 1775-1776. He 
was son of Richard Blow, whose will was 
pioved Feb. iS, 1762. 

Boiling, Alexander, was a burgess from 
Prince George county in the general assem- 
bly of 1756-58; and in those of 1758-61; 
1765 ; 1766-68. Peter Poythress was a mem- 
ber of the session of March 31, 1768, from 
Prince George county, "in place of Alexan- 
der Boiling deceased." He was son of Stith 
Boiling, and grandson of Col. Robert Boi- 
ling, the immigrant. 

Boiling, John, son of Col. Robert Boiling, 
^q. V.) and Jane Rolfe, his wife, was born 
Jan. 26. 1676, in Charles City county. He 
lived at "Cobbs" in Chesterfield county, lor- 
inerly a part of Henrico. He was an active 
merchant and planter and took a large part 
in politics. He was a justice of Henrico in 
1699 and other years. In 1707 he is styled 
captain and later was major. He was mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses for Henrico 
in the assemblies of 1710-1712, 1712-1714, 
1718 and 1723-26. He died April 20, 1.729, 
leaving issue by Marv Kennon, liis wife, 
John Boiling Jr., (q. v.). 

Boiling, John, son of Maj. John Boiling, 
01" "Cobbs," was born Jan. 20, 1700, was 
burgess for Henrico county in the assem- 
blies of 1727-1734, 1742-1748, 1748-1749 and 
for Chesterfield in the assemblies of 1752- 
1755 and 1756-1758, though he died Sept. 6, 



1757- He was colonel commanding the 
Chesterfield militia, and justice of the peace, 
lie added greatly to the estates inherited 
by him. Pie married (firstj Elizabeth 
Lewis ; (second) Elizabeth Blair. 

Boiling, John, son of Col. John Boiling, 
o! "Cobbs" (q. v.), lived first in Gloucester 
county from which he was a delegate in 
the house of burgesses in 1766-1769. After- 
v/ards, in 1778. he was a member of the 
house of delegates from Chesterfield county. 
He married ]\Iary, sister of Thomas Jeft'er- 
son. He was born June 24, 1737, and died 
in 179 — . 

Boiling, Robert, a descendant of the Boi- 
lings of Bradford in Yorkshire, was son of 
John Boiling, of the parish of All-Hallows 
Barking, Tower street, London. He was 
born Dec. 26, 1646, and came to Virginia 
in 1660. He engaged in trade as a merchant 
and acquired large tracts of land. His resi- 
dence was in Charles City county on the 
south side of James river in what is now 
Prince George county. The name of his 
residence was "Kippax." He was sheriff 
and lieutenant-colonel of the militia and in 
1688, 1692 and 1699 he represented Charles 
City county in the house of burgesses, and 
in 1704, 1705-06 he represented Prince 
George county. He died July 17, 1709. His 
first wife was Jane Rolfe, daughter of Capt. 
Thomas Rolfe, son of Pocahontas, and his 
second was Anne Stith, daughter of Capt. 
John Stith, of Charles City county. 

Boiling, Robert, son of Col. Robert Boi- 
ling (q. v.), was born Jan. 25, 1686, and 
was burgess for Prince George county in 
1710-1712; 1712-1714, 1723-1726 and 1727- 
1734. He married Anne Meriwether and had 



I go 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



issue: i. 2\Iary, married William Stark. 2. 
Elizabeth, married James Munford. 3. Anne, 
married John Hall. 4. L.ucy, married Peter 
Randolph. 5. Jane, married Hugh JMiller. 
6. Martha, married Richard Eppes. 7. Sus- 
i.nna, married Alexander Boiling. 8. Robert, 
married Mary Tabb. He died 174Q. 

Boiling, Robert, son of Robert Boiling 
(q. v.), and grandson of Col. Robert Boiling, 
was born June 12, 1730, was burgess for 
Dinwiddle county from 1758 to 1774. He 
settled at Petersburg, where his residence 
was known as ."BoUingbrook." He was 
colonel of the militia and had large estates. 
He married (first) Martha Bannister; and 
(second) Mary Marshall Tabb. He died 
Feb. _'4. 1775. . 

Boiling, Robert, Jr., was son of Col. John 
Boiling, of "Cobbs," and lived at "Chellowe" 
ir. Buckingham county. He was born at 
Varina, Henrico county, Aug. 17, 1738, and 
was educated at Wakefield, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land. Pie was a man of learning, and wrote 
"The Boiling ^Memoir," besides two vol- 
umes of verse. He was a member of the 
house of burgesses for Cumberland from 
1761 to 1765, and of the convention of July, 
1775. He married (first) ]\Iary "Burton; 
(second) Susannah \\'atson. Died in 1775. 

Bonall, James, vine dresser, was doubtless 
a near relative of John Bonall, or Bonnell, 
silkworm raised to the King at Oakland, 
England, who selected the vine dressers 
sent to Buckroe, Elizabeth City, \'irginia, 
in 1620. James Bonall was one of these. 
In 1627 he leased fifty acres from the gov- 
ernment at Buckroe, where the public lands 
lay, Bonnell may have been later anglicised 
into "Bonny," the name of a well known 
family of Princess .*\nne. 



Bond, Maj. John, was burgess for Isle of 
Wight county in 1654, 1656, 1658, 1659 and 
1660. He was a Puritan, and after the 
restoration in 1660 he was removed by the 
general assembly from his office as justice 
"because of factious and schismatical lu 
havior." His will dated May 2, 1669, wa^ 
jjroved June 9, 1669, and by it he left two 
sens \\'il!iam and John. 

Booker, Edmund, sou of Col. Edmund 
Hooker and grandson of Capt. Richard 
Booker, of Gloucester county, was a bur- 
gess for Amelia county, 1758-1761. He mar- 
ried Edith Marot, daughter of Samuel Cobbs 
of Amelia, and his will, dated Sept. 26, 1792, 
was proved in Amelia Sept. 24, 1793. 

Booker, Edward, son of Capt. Richard 
Booker and Rebecca, his wife, was baptized 
June 2, 1680. He removed from Gloucester 
to the part of Prince George county which 
is now Amelia county, and was appointed 
jtistice of Prince George in 1733, and was 
one of the first justices of Amelia county in 
[736. The same year he represented Amelia 
in the house of burgesses, and continued a 
member till 1747. He was lieutenant colo- 
nel of the militia of Amelia. He died in 
1750. His residence was called "^^'inter- 
ham." 

Booker, Richard, son of Col. Edward 
Booker, of "Winterham," Amelia county, 
was colonel in the militia, and represented 
his county in the house of burgesses from 
1756 to 1760. He married Rachel Marot, 
daughter of Jean Marot, of Williamsburg. 
He had sons Edward, Richard, Parham, 
John, and William }vlarshall Booker. 



Booth, 

om abii 



Robert, was clerk of York county 
At i'>-|o till his death T637 ; burgess 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



for York county in 1653 ^"^ 1654, married 
Frances , and was father of (i) Rob- 
ert, captain and justice of the peace for 
York county, who married Anne, daughter 
of James Ilray, Esq., and Angelica, his wife; 
(2) Elizal)eth, wdio married Dr. Patrick Na- 
pier; and (3) probably William, J. P. of 
York county. 

Booth, Thomas, merchant, born in Lan- 
cashire, England, in 1663, came to Ware 
parish, Gloucester county, Virginia, about 
1(190, and died there Oct. 11, 1736. He was 
son of St. John Booth, of the same family 
as George Booth, first Lord Delamere. He 
married Mary Cooke, and left numerous 
issue. 

Borden, (Burden) Benjamin, was a mer- 
chant of New Jersey, who came to Virginia 
and became an agent for Lord Fairfax. He 
procured a grant for 500,000 acres of land 
on the upper waters of the Shenandoah 
and James rivers, comprising the southern 
part of Augusta and the whole of the pres- 
ent Rockbridge county. His surveyor was 
Capt. John ]\IcDowell. He died in 1742 and 
loft issue a son Benjamin, who died in 1753, 
leaving issue. 

Boucher, Daniel, was a burgess for Isle 
<i: \\'ight county in 1653, and a justice in 
1667. He died in 1667- 1668, leaving a 
daughter Elizabeth and a kinsman Robert 
lioucher in \'irginia. There is some reason 
to believe that he was connected with Henry 
Boucher, a ro\alist. who tried to secure the 
city of Bristol for Prince Rupert in 1643. 

Bouldin, Thomas, yeoman, an ancient 
planter came in 1610, living in Elizabeth 

City in 1625, with his wife Mary, and Wil- 
liam Bouldin. 



Bourne (Borne), Capt. Robert, was a bur- 
gess for York county in 1658. 

Boush, Maximillian, was a son of Alaxi- 
millian Boush by his wife Mary, relict of 
Ke\-. Jonathan Saunders. He was Queen's 
counsel for the counties of Princess Anne, 
Norfolk and Nansemond and lieutenant 
colonel of the militia in the reign of Queen 
Anne, and King's council for Princess Anne 
and Norfolk counties in the reign of King 
George the First. From 1710 to 1727, he rep- 
resented Princess Anne county in the house 
of burgesses. He died in 1728 leaving two 
sons Samuel and Maximillian. 

Boush, Samuel, son of Maximillian Boush, 

v.as first mayor of Norfolk, and burgess for 
Norfolk county in 1734-1740. 

Boush. Samuel Jr., son of Samuel Boush 
(q. \.). was burgess for Norfolk county in 
1752-1755. He discharged the office of clerk 
of the county from 1742 to 1774. 

Bowden, William, was attorney general 
cf Virginia from 1743 to 1748. But little 
is known of him. 

Bowdoin, Peter, was burgess for North- 
ampton county in the assembly of 1727- 
1734. but vacated his office in 1732, by ac- 
cepting the position of tobacco inspector. 
He was burgess again in 1736- 1740. 

Bowyer, John, was captain of the Augusta 
militia 1763. member of the first county 
court of Botetourt, 1771, and burgess for 
that county in the assemblies of 1769-1771, 
1/72- 1 774, 1775-1776, and member of the 
convention of 1774, 1775. 1776, signer of the 
Williamsburg association 1772. 

Boyse, Cheney, born i5Sri, came to Y\r- 
ginia in 1617, and was member of the house 



192 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



of burgesses from Hog Island Oct., 1629, 
March, 1629-30, and Sept., 1632. His wife 
Sarah was carried off by the Indians, dur- 
ing the massacre of 1622, but was returned 
later apparreled as an Indian queen. Cheney 
Loyse was doubtless a brother of John 
Boyse (q. v.) and a son of Rev. John Boyse, 
deacon of Canterbury. 

Boyse, John, was a member of the hrst 
house of burgesses in 1619 from Martin's 
Hundred. He returned to England died on 

his way back in 1649. 

1 
Boyse, Luke, born 1580, came to A'irginia 
in 1619, was a member of the house of bur- 
gesses 1623-24 and died before 1635. He 
married Alice, who subsequently married 
Matthew Edloe and had one daughter, Han- 
nah. 

Bowker, Rev. James, was brother of R.ev. 
Ralph Bowker, minister of St. Stephen's 
parish, in King and Queen county. He was 
elected by the vestry of St. Peter's Church, 
New Kent county, rector of the parish July 
10, 1698, and continued minister till his 
death March 10, 1703. 

Bowker, Rev. Ralph, came to \'irginia 
before 1700, and was minister of St. Ste- 
phen's parish, King and Queen county. He 
was a member of the conventions of the 
clergy which assembled at Williamsburg in 
1705 and 1719. His daughter Anne married 
John Smith, son of Rev. Guy Smith. 

Bradley, Thomas, (born 1633) a merchant 
in Virginia in 1665, eldest son of Thomas 
Bradley D. D., chaplain to Charles I., pre- 
bend of York, and rector of Ackworth. a 
great royalist, and his wife Frances, daugh- 
ter of John Lord ."^aville of Pontefract. 



Bradley, William, burgess for Norfolk 
county, succeeding George \'eale in 1759. 

Branch, Christopher, emigrated to Vir- 
ginia in 1620, and in 1625 he and his wife 
Mary Branch and son Thomas Branch, nine 
months old, were residents at the "College 
Land." In 1634 he patented 100 acres at 
"Arrowhattocks" in Henrico county, but 
the permanent home of Christopher Branch 
was a plantation almost immediately oppo- 
site "Arrowhattocks" on the south side of 
James river. He was descended from an 
ancient family of Abington, Berkshire, Eng- 
l.'ind. He was son of Lionel Branch, of 
that place, and grandson of \\'illiam Branch, 
gent, (died 1602). He was a burgess for 
Henrico in 1639, and a justice of the peace 
111 1656. He died at a very advanced age 
about 1682, leaving issue. 

Branch, John, owned land in Elizabeth 
City county as early as 1636. In 1639 he 
was a receiver of tobacco and in 1641 a bur- 
gess for the county. 

Brasseur, John, son of Robert Brasseur, 
was a burgess for Nansemond county at 
the assemblies of 1685, 1695-1696, 1696-1697. 
He married Mary, daughter of Col. Robert 
Pitt, of the council and Martha Lear, his 
\\'ife, sister of Col. John Lear. 

Braxton, George, was born in 1677, and 
appears as a merchant in Virginia in 1703. 
Later he is styled Col. George Braxton. He 
was a member of the house of burgesses 
for King and Queen in 1718, 1720, 1723- 
1726, 1727-1728, 1742, 1744, 1745, 1746, 1747, 
1748. He died July i, 1748. He left issue 
one son George Braxton Jr., and two daugh- 
ters. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



193 



Braxton, George, Jr., son of Col. (Jeorge 
i'>raxton, wa.s a member of the house of 
burgesses for King and Queen county in 
1758-1761, in which latter year he died. He 
married Mary, daughter of Col. Robert 
Carter, and \\as the father of George Brax- 
tr,n and Carter Braxton, the last a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. 

Bray, James, son of James Bray, Esq., 
of the council, was justice of the peace from 
Jjmes City county, and member of the 
house of burgesses in 1688 and 1702. He 
married about 1697 Mourning, widow of 
Thomas Pettus, of "Little Town," James 
City county. He died Nov. 25, 1725. leav- 
ing issue Thomas, James and Elizabeth. 

Bray, Robert, justice of the peace for 
Lower Norfolk county, and lieutenant colo- 
nel of the militia. He was son of Edward 
Bray of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire. He 
died in 1681. He had a brother Plomer 
Bray, also resident of Lower Norfolk 
count}-. 

Breman, Thomas, was a burgess of Glou- 
cester county in 1654. 

Brent, George, a royalist, son of George 
Pirent, of Gloucestershire, England, and 
Marianna Peyton, daughter of Sir John Pey- 
ton of Dodington, Cambridgeshire, came to 
Virginia about the year 1650, settled in Staf- 
ford county, and secured large grants of 
land, including the estates of Woodstock 
and Brenton. He was a Roman Catholic, 
and James II. granted him and his asso- 
ciates the free exercise of their religion. He 
was captain of the militia in 1675, agent for 
Lord Fairfax, a member of the house of 
burgesses for Stafford county in 1688, and 
a partner in the practice of the law with 

VIR-13 



William Fitzhugh. On 2\iay 2, 1683, he was 
appointed receiver general north of the 
Rappahannock. In 1688-89, when there was 
a wild rumor of Catholics inciting Indian 
uprisings, Capt. Brent, incurred many dan- 
gers on account of his religion, but was pro- 
tected by William Fitzhugh. He died about 
1094. He married (first) a daughter of Wil- 
ham Greene and niece of Sir William Lay- 
ton, and (second) a daughter of Col. Henry 
Sewell, of Maryland, whose widow married 
Lord Baltimore. 

Brent, Giles, son of Richard Brent, Esq., 
of Gloucestershire, England, emigrated to 
Maryland in 1637 and was followed by his 
brother Fulke and sisters Margaret and 
Mary. In Maryland he filled the highest 
offices, was a burgess in 1639, commander of 
Kent Island in 1640, member of the council 
in 1642, and in 1643 ^'^^ was appointed by 
Cjov. Calvert as governor, lieutenant general 
and admiral, in his absence to England. He 
was a strong royalist. In 1645 he removed 
.to Virginia where he patented large tracts 
of land in Stafford county, including the 
estates of "Peace" and "Richland." He 

married (first) Mary ; and (second) 

PVances Whitgreaves, widow of Dr. Jere- 
miah Harrison, and daughter of Thomas 
Whitgreaves who saved the life of Charles 
II. at the battle of Worcester, (jiles Brent 
died in 167 1. 

Brent, Giles, son of Col. Giles Brent, of 
Maryland and Virginia, and his wife Mary, 
was born in Virginia about 1652. Under a 
commission from Nathaniel Bacon Jr., 
created general by the assembly in 1676, he 
r.tised a body of troops to march against the 
Indians, but on learning that Bacon had 
been denounced as a rebel by Gov. Bcrke- 



194 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ley marched, instead, against his general. 
His troops, however, would not follow him 
and disbanded. He married a daughter of 
George Brent and Alarianna Peyton, died 
in Middlesex county, Sept. 2, 1679. 

Brent, Margaret, daughter of Richard 
Brent, Esq., of Gloucestershire, England, 
came to Maryland in 1638. (iov. Leonard 
Calvert relied greatly upon her, and made 
I'.tr his attorney and at his death in 1648 
his administratrix; keenly alive to her rights, 
she claimed the right to vote in the assem- 
bly '"for herself and also as his Lordship's 
attorney." Some years later she went with 
her sister Mary to "Peace," her brother Col. 
Giles Brent's estate in Westmoreland 
county ( now StalYord ) \"irginia. She made 
her will in 1663. 

Brent, William, of ■'Richland" Stafford 
county, was son of Giles Brent of Stafford 
and grandson of Col. Giles Brent, first of 
Maryland and then of Virginia. In 1708 he 
went to England to recover an inheritance, 
and married May 12, 1709, Sarah Gibbons 
of Box parish, Middlesex county, England, 
daughter of William Gibbons and sister of 
Sir John Gibbons, M. P., for Middlesex. 
William Brent died in England Dec. 2 ), 
1709. His widow married (secondly) in 
Virginia, Rev. Alexander Scott of Over- 
wharton parish, Stafford county. William 
and Sarah Brent had one child, William 
Brent of "Richland." 

Brereton, Thomas, Avas clerk of the coun- 
cil in 1661, one of the justices of Xorthuni- 
borland county and lieutenant-colonel : he 
married Jane Claiborne, daughter of Colo- 
r.el \\'illiam Claiborne, and died about 1688, 
lea\'ing issue. The records refer to his 



rmg, with his coat-of-arms uj)on it; and he 
apjjeais to have come from the county of 
Chester, as m 1736 Thomas ISrereton, of 
Shot wick Park, Chester, who seems to 
have been a descendant, made a deed for 
lanfl in Northumberland count} , \"irginia. 

Brewer, John, son of John Brewer, Esq., 
of the council of state, was a member of 
tlie house of burgesses for Isle of Wight 
county in 1657-58. The name has continued 
in Xansemond to the present day. 

Brewster, Edward, son of William Brew- 
ster, who is supposed to have been the same 
as the Pilgrim Father, was a member of the 
\'irginia Company of London in 1609, and 
came to \'irginia with Lord Delaware in 
1610, when the latter arrived at Point Com- 
fort, he dispatched Brewster in command of 
the pinnace J'irgiuia to Jamestown, June 
8. 1610; he met the settlers at ^Nlulberry 
Island on their way to England and turned 
ihem back. He performed a useful part 
against the Indians, and in 1618 had charge 
ot Lord Delaware's estate in \'irginia. Hav- 
ing complained of Gov. Samuel Argall's 
unlawful use of Lord Delaware's servants : 
he was arrested and sentenced to death. On 
petition, however, of the ministers of the 
colony his life was spared and he was ban- 
i^■hed. The company in London set the 
c.rder aside. He remained in London and 
in ifi33 he and Henry Seile were booksellers 
near the nortli door of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Brewster, Richard, was living in \'irginia 
before 1624, and in 1629 was a burgess for 
Xeck of Land in James City corporation. 

Brewster (Brewer), Thomas, "alias Sack- 
fcrd, of Sackferd Hall in the county of Suf- 
folk, gent.." was married to Elizabeth Wat- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



f95 



kins, widow of John Watkins, of Surry 
count}-, \irginia, in 1655. He has descen- 
dants in Virginia. 

Bridger, James, son of Col. William Brid- 
ger, of "White Marsh," was burgess for Isle 
of Wight in 1758-1761, 1761-1765, 1766-1768; 
coroner of the county in 1768; then burgess 
in 1769, 1770, 1772, 1773, 1774. 

Bridger, Col. Joseph, of "White Marsh," 
son of William Bridger, son of Col. William 
Bridger, of "White Marsh," Isle of Wight 
county, was burgess for the county in 1756, 
1758-1761, 1762, 1763, sheriff in 1764. He 
married Mary Pierce, a sister of Thomas 
Pierce, member of the convention of 1788. He 
died in 1769 when his widow married Col. 
Josiah Parker of "jNIacclesfield." Col. Brid- 
ger left a daughter Judith, who married 
Richard Baker, clerk of Isle of AVight 
county 1754 to 1770. 

Bridger. Samuel, son of Col. Joseph Brid- 
ger of the council, was justice and lieuten- 
ant colonel of the militia of Isle of Wight 
county and burgess in 1705- 1706. 

Bridger, Colonel William, of "White 
Marsh," son of Colonel Joseph Bridger. of 
the council, was born in Isle of Wight 
county, in 1678, married Elizabeth Allen, 
daughter of Major Arthur Allen, of Surry, 
was a burgess for Isle of Wight county, 
1714. 1718 and 1720-22. His will was proved 
in Isle of Wight county November 23, 1730. 
He left a son AMlliam. whose son Joseph, 
was a burgess, and a son James, who was 
also a burgess (q. v.). 

Bridges, Charles, was an artist who came 
to Virginia before 1735, and painted por- 
traits. In many families some of these por- 



01 women, may be known by a lock of hair 
resting on the front of the shoulder. He 
painted for the Byrds and Pages, and an 

order in Caroline county shows that he 
painted the King's arms to hang in the 
county court. 

Briggs, Gray, was a son of Howell Briggs, 
of Surry county, and a descendant of Henry 
Briggs, who came to Virginia before 1668. 
Cray Briggs represented Sussex county in 
the house of burgesses in 1756-1758. John 
Howell Briggs, who represented Surry in 
the convention of 1788, was his son and 
Elizabeth Briggs, who married Colonel Wil- 
liam Heth, of the Revolution, was his 
daughter. 

Bristow, Robert, son of Robert Bristow, 
Esq.. of Ayot, St. Lawrence, Hertfordshire, 
England, was born in 1643 and settled in 
\'irginia about 1660. In 1663 and the fol- 
lowing years he purchased various estates 
in the counties of Lancaster, Gloucester and 
Prince William. He resided in Gloucester 
and as major of the militia took sides with 
Governor Berkeley in Bacon's rebellion. 
He incurred great losses from the rebels, 
and returning to England in 1677 became a 
merchant in London, and acquired a large 
fortune. He died in the parish of Fen- 
church. London, between 1700 and 1707. 
By his wife Avarilla, daughter of Major 
Thomas Curtis, of Gloucester county, Vir- 
ginia, he left an only son Robert Bristow, 
who was associated with him in business 
and was M. P. for Winchelsea in the parlia- 
ment of 1608 and 1700. Robert Bristow, of 
Braxmore Park, the great-grandson of Rob- 
ert, first named, heired all the Virginia 
estates, but thev were confiscated in 1776 



traits are extant, and almost always, in case b\ an act of the Virginia legislature. 



19''^ 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Broadwater, Charles, was a Scotchman, 
who located in Fairfax county, and named 
his estate "Cameron," after the clan to 
which he belonged, lie was a burgess in 
the assembly in 1775 and member of the 
conventions of March 20, 1775, July 17, 
1775, and of December 1, 1775. 

Brockenbrough, Colonel Austin, born 
November 3, 1738, son of William Brocken- 
brough, of Richmond county, was a lieu- 
tenant in Washington's First Virginia Regi- 
ment during the French and Indian war. At 
the beginning of the revolution he was a 
Tory, and went to England, where he re- 
mained till the end of the war. He was a 
man of large means. He married in 1761, 
I.uc}-, daughter of Colonel John Champe, 
of Lamlj's Creek, King George county. He 
was a brother of Dr. John Brockenbrough 
(jf Tappahannc'ck. 

Brockenbrough, Dr. John, an eminent 
l)hysician, son of William Brockenbrough, 
of Richmond county. He resided at Tappa- 
hannock, Virginia, was justice of Essex 
county, surgeon in the Virginia navy in the 
revolution, married Sarah, daughter of Wil- 
liam Roane, of Essex, and was father of 
Dr. John Brockenbrough, president of the 
bank of Virginia. 

Brodhurst, Walter, was the son of Wil- 
liam Brodhurst, of Lilleshall in county 
Shallop. England. He settled in Northum- 
berland county and was a burgess for the 
county in 1653. He died in 1659, leaving 
cliildren Gerrard, Walter and Elizabeth, 
and widow Anne, who became the wife suc- 
cessively of Henry Brett, of Plymouth, 
England, and of John Washington, of West- 
moreland county. \Mrginia. 



Brodnax, Edward, son of \\ illiam Brod- 
nax, of Jamestown, was one of the justices 
of Charles City county in 1745. In 1748 
he was elected a burgess, but died before 
taking his seat, and Benjamin Harrison 
succeeded him. He was grandfather of 
General William Henry Brodnax (1786- 
18341- 

Brodnax, Major John, of Godmersham, in 
Kent county, England, was a cavalier officer 
who came to \'irginia and died in 1657. He 
was great-uncle of W illiam Brodnax (q. 

v.). 

Brodnax, William, son of Robert Brod- 
nax, a goldsmith of London and a descend- 
ant of the Brodnaxes of Godmersham in 
Kent county, England, was born February 
28, 1675, and married, soon after his ar- 
rival in Virginia, Rebecca, widow of Ed- 
ward Travis, of Jamestown. He represented 
Jamestown in the house of burgesses from 
1722 to 1726, when he died leaving issue. 

Bronaugh, William, son of Colonel Jere- 
miah Bronaugh and Simpha Rosa Enheld 
Mason, widow of John Dinwiddle (brother 
of Governor Dinwiddie) and sister of the 
statesman, George Mason. He lived in Lou- 
doun county, signed the Westmoreland 
county protest against the Stamp Act in 
1765, and died in Loudoun county, where 
his will dated March 24, 1796 was recorded 
April 14, 1800. He left issue. 

Brooke, George, of "Pampatike," King and 
Uueen county, was a son of Humphrey 
Brooke and Elizabeth Braxton, daughter of 
George Braxton, Sr. He was lieutenant- 
colonel of the King and Queen county mili- 
tia, and burgess from 1765 to 1775 and 
member of the state conventions of 1774, 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



197 



1775 and 1776. His will dated in 1781 was 
proved May 13, 1782. He married Hannah, 
daughter of Colonel Richard Tunstall. 

Brown, Charles, doctor of physic, resided 
in Williamsburg, where he died in 1738. He- 
had the finest library of books in physic 
and natural philosophy ever offered to sale 



Brown, Dr. John, of Coldstream, North 
i'.ritain, came to Williamsburg, Virginia, 
in the early part of the eighteenth century. 
He first married Margaret, who died in 
1720; second Mildred Washington, who 
married (secondly) Colonel Henry \\ illis. 
ot Fredericksburg. He died Septemljer 24, 

Browne, Devereaux, was one of the first 
justices of Accomac county as created anew 
ill 1663. and was burgess in September. 



Browne. Henry, who was son of Henrv 
I'.rowne. and grandson of Captain William 
Prowne of "Four Mile Tree." Surry county. 
Married Hannah Edwards, daughter of 
( olonel P)enjamin Edwards. He was a bur- 
gess from Snrry county in 1 76 1 and 1762. 
and died the latter year. 

Browne, John, was a burgess for Shirley 
Hundred in \(iZV). 

Browne, William, married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Henry Browne, of "Four Mile 
Tree.'" Surr_\- county: justice of Surry 
count}-. 1668-1705 : major of militia. 1672. 
aiid lieutenant-colonel, 1679, 1687; presiding 
justice. 1687; sheriff' 1674 and 1687; and 
member of the house of burgesses, 1676- 
1677. 1679. 1681 and 1682. He married 



(second) Elizabeth Meriwether, widow of 
Nicliolas Meriwether. 

Browne, Captain William, was son of 

Lieutenant-Colonel William Brown, of 
"Four Mile Tree," Surry county, and was 
horn in 1671. He married Jane Meriwether, 
daughter of Nicholas Meriwether; justice in 
1693 ^"d ^oi" many years later, Ijecoming in 
1710 presiding justice of Surry county. His 
will dated July 3. 1746. was ])roved in Surry. 
J;inuary 19, 1747. 

Browne, William, of "Four Mile Tree." 
Surry county, son of Captain \\'illiam 
P.rowne, was born March 5, 1739; member 
of the county committee of safety, Febru- 
ary, 1776: member of the house of delegates, 
1777. 1780. His will was dated June 19, 
178(1 and proved June 27, 1786. 

Browne, William Burnett, was son of 
William Browne of Salem. Massachusetts, 
liy Mary Burnett, his wife, only daughter of 
^\■illiam Burnett, governor of Massachu- 
setts, son of the celebrated bishop. Gilbert 
Burnett. He married Judith, daughter of 
Charles Carter, of "Cleve." in King George 
county. \'irginia. He died at "Elsing 
Green," King W'illiam county, ^lay 6, 1784, 
leaving three daughters : Elizabeth Carter, 
who married John Bassett : Judith Carter, 
who married Robert Lewis; IMary, who 
married Herbert Claiborne of "Sweet Hall," 
King ^^'illiam county. 

Browning, John, was a Inirgess for Eliza- 
beth City in 1629, and 1629-30. 

Bruce, George, immigrant, was born in 
1640. and settled in Rappahannock county, 
A'irginia. before 1668. His will was proved 
in 1715. and names cliildren George, Charles, 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



William, Jcilin, Ilensficld and Jane. The son 
o; Charles Bruce was Charles Bruce of 
"Soldiers" Rest." For Bruce Genealogy see 
"Virginia Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy," xi., 197, 328, 441 : xii., 446. 

Bryan, Dr. Richard, was son of Richard 
Bryan, of King George county; in 1753 he 
rt-ceived £250 for discovering a cure for the 
"dry gripes," dysentery. His wife was 
Frances Batteley, daughter of Moseley Bat- 
teley, of Spottsylvania, a descendant of 
Governor Samuel Mathews, of Virginia. 

Buck, Rev. Sichard, came to Virginia 
with Sir Thomas Gates in lOio. He is said 
to have been a graduate of Oxford. He was 
minister of Jamestown from 1610 to his 
death between 1621 and 1624. He acted as 
chaplain of the general assembly which con- 
\ ened in the church at Jamestown July 30, 
1619. the first law making body to meet 
on the American continent. His widow 
Bridget married (secondly) John iJurrows, 
0+ "Burrows Hill" and (thirdly) John Brom- 
(ield. He had four, probably five, children : 
Sarah, Benoni, Gershom, Peleg and Eliza- 
beth, wife of Sergeant Thomas Crump. 

Buckner, John, of St. Sepulchre's, citizen 
and Salter of London, was born in 1630, 
married Deborah Ferrers, of West Wick- 
ham, Bucks in 1661, came to \'irginia with 
his brother Philip, and settled in Gloucester 
county. He was the first man to use a print- 
ing press in Virginia and employed one 
John Nuthead to print the laws of the gen- 
eial assembly of 1680. He was forbidden to 
print further without license. He left issue 
William (q. v.) ; Thomas (q. v.) ; John ( q. 
v.), and Richard (q. v.). 

Buckner, John, son of John Buckner, of 



Gloucester county, was burgess for Glou- 
cester in 1715. He removed to Essex county 
and died before 1727, leaving sons John and 
William. 

Buckner, John, son of Major William 
Buckner, of ^'orktown, was captain of the 
militia, and Inirgess for York county, in 
1734-1740. He died without issue, leaving 
his lands to his nephew. Griffin Stith. 

Buckner, Richard, son of John liuckner, 
of Ciloucester county, was clerk of Essex 
county in 1703, and clerk of the house of 
burgesses in 171 3. 

Buckner, Richard, was a burgess for Car- 
din county, in the assembly of 1727-1734. 
He died at the opening of the session in 
1734. He was probably a son of Richard 
Buckner, clerk of Essex county in 1703 
(q. v.). 

Buckner, Samuel, son of Thomas Buck- 
ner, resided in Gloucester county, which he 
represented in the house of burgesses in 
1744-1747. He was lieutenant-colonel of 
the militia and made his will November 
5. 1763. He left three children: i. Dorothy, 
who married Baldwin Mathews Buckner.- 
2. Mary, who married Charles Mynn Thrus- 
ton. 3. Elizabeth, who married Colonel 
William Finnic. 

Buckner, Thomas, son of John Buckner, 
ol Gloucester county, was burgess for Glou- 
cester county in 1698, 1715, 1718. He mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Captain Francis 
Morgan, and left issue. 

Buckner, William, son of John Buckner, 
appointed justice of York county 1694; 
sherifif 1695, 1696, and member of the house 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PRUAIINEXT PERSONS 



ot burgesses 1698, 1691J, 1714; by appoint- 
ment of William and Mary College sur\e_\or 
general of the colony 170S-1716. He was 
major of the militia and a prominent mer- 
chant with extensive business in \'irginia 
and England. He died in 1716 and was 
father of John i'.iickner. of York and Staf- 
ford counties, 

Bugg, Samuel, immigrant ancestor of a 
widely scattered family in the south, died 
in New Kent county, \ irginia, Sejitember 
13, 1716. 

Bulloch, William, author of a well known 
tract on A'irginia, was a resident of Lon- 
don, but his father Captain Hugh Bullock. 
of London, [jatented 2.550 acres of land 
here, on which he had a corn-mill anil saw- 
mill. Robert lUillock, son and heir of WW- 
liam I'.ullock. came to A'irginia and Ijrought 
suit in the general court about a tract of 
5.500 acres situated in Warwick county. 
This last probably left descendants in Vir- 
ginia. 

Burgess, Thomas, was a burgess for War- 
rosqueake in 1629-30, for Martin's Hundred 
in 1632 and 1633. 

Burnham, John, son of Rowland Burn- 
ham, was justice and lieutenant-colonel of 
Middlesex count)-, A'irginia, militia in idSo. 
and died unmarried before Jul}-, 1681 ; bur- 
gess in 1675-76. 

Burnham, Ro-wland, was a justice of York 
c( unty. and a liurgess in 1644. 1645 and 
1649. He moved to Lancaster \vhere his 
will, dated 1655, is recorded. 

Burnley, Zachariah, son of John Burnley, 
r>f Albemarle countv, was a burgess for 



Bedford county in 1758-1761 and for 
Orange county in 171)5 'i"d 1766-1768. 

Burrows, Benoni, son of Christopher 
Bun-ows, was burgess for Norfolk county 
in 1697. He was grandson of John Bur- 
rows, who married the widow of Rev. Rich- 
ard Buck. 

Burrows (Burroughs), Christopher, pat- 
ented land in 1(135 in what is now Princess 
,\nne count}-, and was a burgess for Lower 
Norfolk count}- 1645, '646, 1652, and was 
a justice in 1652. He was born in 1612 and 
died before 1671, leaving two sons William 
and Benoni. He was probably a son of 
John Burrows, of "Burrows' Hill" in Surry 
count}-. 

Burrows, John, jjatenled about i()24 150 
acres on the south side of the James river 
above Jamestown and called his place "Bur- 
rows Hill." He married Bridget, the widow 
Gl Rev. Richard Buck, and was probably the 
father of Christopher Burrows by an earlier 
marriage. 

Burton, John, burgess for Northampton 
county in the assemblies of 1769-1771. 1772- 
1774 and the convention of 1775. 

Burwell, Armistead, son of Colonel Lewis 
Bur\\-ell, of "Kingsniill," was burgess for 
Williamsburg in the assembly of 1752-1755, 
but died in 1754 and was succeeded by 
George ^^■ytl1e. He married Christian Blair, 
daughter of President John Blair, of the 
council. 

Burwell, James, was a son of Major Lewis 
Burwell, of "Carter's Creek," Gloucester 
county, and .\bigail Smith his wife. He 
was liorn Februar}- 4. i68(), and died in 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



1718. He resided at "King's Creek" plan- 
tation in York county, where his tomli still 
stands. He was one of the justices for the 
county and a burgess for 1715 and 1718. 

Burwell, Lewis, son of Major Lewis Uur- 
well, of "Carter's Creek." Gloucester county, 
and Martha Lear, his second wife, was a 
student at William and Mary College in 
1718. He resided at "Kingsmill" in James 
City count}-, and was a colonel of the mili- 
tia and l)urgess in 1 742- 1 747. 

He laid out great sums of money in build- 
ing a mansion house and gardens on James 
river. He died about 1744. leaving issue 
Lewis (q. v.) and Armistead (q, v.). 

Burwell, Lewis, immigrant, was son of 
Edward I'.urwell, of Bedfordshire. England, 
and Dorothy Bedell, his wife. He was born 
March 5, 1621. and died November 4. 1653. 
He settled in Virginia about if)4o. and re- 
sided at Carter's Creek in Gloucester county, 
where his tomb long remained. He married 
Lucy, daughter of Captain Rol^ert Higgin- 
son. and was "sergeant major" of the militia. 

Burwell, Lewis, son of President Lewis 
I'urwell, studied law at the Inner Temple, 
sheriff of Gloucester count}- in 1767; bur- 
gess I7r)()-i774; member of the conventions 
i>f 1775, and I77'>, died in 1779. lie mar- 
ried Judith Page, daughter nf Mann Page. 
and had Alice Grymes. who married William 
C. \\'illiams; Judith, who married George 
Miles: Nathaniel, sheriff of Gloucester in 
1808 and Lewis, who married Judith Ken- 
non. 

Burwell, Lewis, of "Kingsmill," was son 
of Lewis I'.urwell, \\-ho was son of Maj(^r 
Lewis I'.urwell of Carter's Creek, who rlied 



ill 1710. lie married Frances Thacker, 
w-idow of James Bray in 1745. He was 
member of the house of burgesses for James 
City count}- from 1758 to 1775. and died in 
1784. 

Burwell, Nathaniel, of "Carter's Creek," 
Gloucester count}-. l)aptized October 14, 
ifiSo. was the eldest son of Major Lewis 
Burwell and Abigail Smith, his wife, niece 
of Hon. Nathaniel iiacon. He was a mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses for Glouces- 
ter county in 1710, and major of the county 
militia. He married Elizabeth Carter, 
daughter of Colonel Robert Carter, and died 
in 1721. His widow married (secondly) 
Dr. George Nicholas. 

Bush, John, gentleman, came at his own 
charge in 1618; and his wife Elizabeth, and 
two children, Elizabeth and Mary came in 
iTiig; settled at Kecoughtan. where he ])at- 
ented land in 1624; died in 1625. 

Bushrod, John, son of John Bushrod, and 
grandson of Richard Bushrod, the immi- 
grant to N'irginia. He resided at "Bush- 
field." in Westmoreland county, and was 
justice, colonel of the militia and burgess 
for that count}- from 174(^-1 to 1756. His 
d^'Ughter Hannah married John .\ugustine 
Washington, brother of General George 
Washington and father of Judge Ikishrod 
Washington of the L'nited States Supren-ie 
Court. 

Bushrod, Thomas, liorn 1004. was one of 
the justices of York county and a burgess 
in 1658 and I'i59. He was a Ouaker and 
in his will dated December t8, 1676, he for- 
bids "common ]irayers to be read at his 
ora\c." He was a brother of Richard I'.ush- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PRO^IIXEXT FERSOXS 



rtid. ancestor of Judge Bushrod Washing- 
ton. 

Butler, Captain Nathaniel, eldest son of 
John Butler Esq., of Tofte in Sharnbrooke, 
liedfordshire. was a member of the council 
in England for Mrginia, governor of the 
hermuda Islands from 1619 to 1622, was in 
\ irginia during the winter of 1622-23, when 
he conducted an expedition against the In- 
dians. He went to England in the spring 
and published his "Unmasking of Virginia." 
He was on the \'irginia commission of 1624, 
was at Cadiz in 1625, the Isle of Rhe in 
i(>27; a captain in the Royal na\'y ; governor 
(if the I'.ahamas 1638-1641 ; committed to 
Xewgate by the council of state of the com- 
n.ionwealth for dispersing" treasonable books 
m June, 1649. 

Butler, Rev. Thomas, was pastor of the 
].arish of Denbigh. He married Mary 
llrewer, widow of John lirewer Escp, of the 
council of state, and in 1635 he was given 
a ]mtent for 1,000 acres in Isle of Wight 
count}' on account of the persons imported 
b\ Mr. Brewer. The land is still known as 
r.rewer's Xeck and lies between Brewer's 
.md Chuckatuck creeks, 

Butler, William, was a burgess for James 
C'it_\- county in 1^)41 and 1(142, and fur Surry 
ciaint\- in 1(153 and if^S'*^- He was major of 
the militia of Surry. He was probaljly a 
sen (if I\e\-. Thomas I'.utlei ((|. v. I. 

Butt, Thomas, was S(in (if Roliert I'.utt, 
(it the "SdUthern I '.ranch df tlie I'.lizabcth 
i\i\er." X(irf(ilk cdunty, wIki made his will 
in 1(175 wliich was prcned in 1(17(1. lie was 
liurgess fur Lower Xorfolk c(iunt\- in 1700- 
1702. 



Cabell, John, son of Dr. \\illiam Cabell, 
the immigrant, resided at "(Jreen Hill," 
I'lUckingham count}-. He was chairman of 
the county committee (if safet}- in [775 ; was 
a member of the convention of Ma}-, 1776; 
was county lieutenant of Buckingham ; 
member of the house of delegates from 1777 
to 1788. He married (first) Paulina, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Samuel Jordan, (second) Eliz- 
abeth I'.rereton Jones. His will, dated April 
22. was pro\-ed June 12. 18 1 5. 

Cabell, Joseph, son of Dr. William Cabell, 
the immigrant, lived at "Sion Hill," Buck- 
ingham county, \'irginia. He was born 
September 19, 1732; was justice of Albe- 
marle in 1760; major in 1762; burgess for 
liuckingham county from 1761 to 1771, and 
for Amherst county from 1772 to 1775, and 
member of all revolutionary conventions ex- 
ce])t that of May 6, 1776, when he was pay- 
master of the troops on the frontier. He 
was afterwards a member of the house of 
delegates, 1776 to 1779; county lieutenant of 
.Amherst. 1778 and (ither }-ears ; stale sena- 
tor, 1781-1785 ; member of the house of dele- 
gates, 1788-1790. He married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Arthur H(j]ikins, and died March 
1. 1798. lea\ing issue. 

Cabell, Dr. William, was the son of Xich- 
(ilas Cabell, of Warminster, England, and 
was born March 9. 1(191;: emigrated to \'ir- 
ginia about 1724, and died April 12, 1774. 
lie held a great variety of offices; w-as 
count} surveyor. sherifY, justice of the peace 
and count}- lieutenant. His life is identified 
with the counties of Henrico. Cioochland. 
.Vlbemarlc. Amherst and Xelscin. In 175(1- 
1758 he was burgess for .\lbemarle. He 
married (first! Elizalicth Burks, (second) 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



-Mrs. ^largaret ^ilercdith, widow of Samuel 
-Meredith Sr., of Hanover. 

Cabell, William, Jr., son of Dr. William 
Cabell, the immigrant, was born JMarch 13, 
1730; received a good education and held 
many otifices ; he was sub-sheriff of Albe- 
marle county in 1751 ; captain of a company 
ill the P'rench and Indian war, and in 1760 
was colonel of the militia of Albemarle. He 
was also a burgess for Albemarle county in 
1758-1761. When Amherst county was 
formed, in 1761, he held all the leading 
offices. He was president of the county 
court, coroner, surveyor, vestryman, county 
lieutenant, and from 1761 to 1775 was a 
burgess. He also represented Amherst in 
the conventions of 1775 and 1776. He was, 
moreover, a member of the public commit- 
tee of safety. During the revolution he was 
state senator; after it was over, a member of 
the constitutional convention of 1788. His 
residence was known as "Union Hill." He 
died ;\Iarch 2^, 1798. 

Callaway, James, son of Colonel William 
Callaway, was colonel and afterwards 
county lieutenant of Bedford county during 
the revolution : ser\ ed in the French and 
Indian war; operated iron works and lead 
mines ; burgess for Bedford at the assembly 
of 1766-1768. He died near New London, 
Campbell ccjunty. November i, 1809. 

Callaway, William, founder of New Lon- 
don, in Campbell county; county lieutenant 
of Bedford county during the French and 
Indian war, and burgess from Bedford 
county from 1754 to 1765. He married Eliz- 
abeth Tilley, and was father of James Calla- 
way ( q. \-. I. 

Callicut, William, a silversmith, wIki in 



1608 accompanied Christopher Newport in 
his expedition to the ^lonacan country and 
was the first to discover the veins of gold 
ar.d silver that traverse l'"lu\anna county. 

Calthorpe, Colonel Christopher, came to 
\irginia in 1(322, and was the second son of 
Christopher Calthorpe, Esq., of Blakeney, 
Norfolk county, England, and Maud, his 
wife, daughter and co-heir of John Thurs- 
ton, Esq., of Brome, county Norfolk, and 
grandson of Sir James Calthorpe, of Stirs- 
ton, in Suft'olk, and Barbara Bacon, his wife. 
He settled in York county, of which in 1O58 
he was colonel commanding the militia and 
justice of the peace. He was burgess for 
York county in 1644, 1645, 1653 ^"<i i*^''0- 
;\Iay 23, 1661, a commission of administra- 
tion of his estate was granted to his relict 
Anne. He has many descendants in \'ir- 
ginia and the south (see "William and .Mary 
Quarterly," ii, io(3-ii2; ito-ioS for Cal- 
thorpe family). 

Calvert, Cornelius, came from Lancaster 
county, England. He was justice of Nor- 
folk county, July 18, 1729, to January 17, 
1730; for many years member of the com- 
mon council of Norfolk borough. He mar- 
ried Alary Saunders, July 29, 1718, in Prin- 
cess Anne county, and died in 1748, leaving 
among other children Cornelius Calvert jr. 

Calvert, Cornelius, was son of Cornelius 
Cahert and Mary Saunders ; was a promi- 
nent merchant of Norfolk. He was born 
March 13, 1723; married, June 19, 1749, Eliz- 
abeth Thoroughgood, daughter of John 
Thoroughgood. In 1776 he was member of 
the association called "The Sons of Libert} ." 
Fie had issue — Saunders T. Calvert : Ann. 
wife r)f James Tucker, and Mary, wife oi 
William Walke. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



203 



Campbell, Andrew, a resident of Fred- 
erick county, is believed to have been the 
"Mr. Campbell" who was a burgess from 
Erederick count}" in 1745-1747. He was one 
of the first justices of Erederick county. 



Campbell, Archibald, came to \'irginia in 
1745. He was son of Archibald Campbell, 
of Kernair, Argyleshire, Scotland, and his 
wife, Anna Stewart, of Ascog. He was 
minister of Washington parish from 1754 to 
1774. He had a brother, Alexander Camp- 
bell, who was a merchant at Falmouth, Vir- 
ginia, but returned to Scotland. This brother 
was father of Thomas Campbell, the poet. 

Campbell, Colin, was major and adjutant 
for the eastern district of \'irginia in 1775. 
Pie died in Surry county in 1780, leaving 
sons, Archibald, AI. D., and Colin. 

Campbell, Hugh, a native of Scotland, 
was an attorney-at-law, Norfolk county. By 
his deed in 1691 he gave 200 acres of land 
in each of the counties of Norfolk, Isle of 
\\'ight and Nansemond for free schools. 

Cant, Major David, was a resident of 
Gloucester county, which he represented ni 
the house of burgesses in 1659-60. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Colonel Augustine War- 
ner, and had sons — Augustine, David, Wal- 
ter, and probabh' John (q. v.). 

Cant, John, probably a son of Major David 
Cant : member of the house of burgesses 
from Middlesex in 1692. 

Cargill, John, son of Rev. John Cargill, 
who went from England to the Leeward 
Island in 1708 and thence to Virginia. John 
Cargill Jr. married, in Virginia, Elizabeth 
Harri.<;on, daughter of Nathaniel Harrison, 



ot 'AX'akefield." Surry county. He was 
burgess for Surry county in the assembly of 
1742-1747, but died in 1744 before the assem- 
bly ended, leaving a son John, who married 
(first) Sarah A^•ery, (second) Anne Jones. 

Carlyle, John, was a scion of an ancient 
and influential family of Dumfriesshire, 
Scotland. He was a son of William Carlyle, 
a surgeon of Carlisle, England, and Rachel 
Murra}-, his wife. He was born February 
6. 1723, came to \'irginia about 1740, and 
settled first at Dumfries, Prince William 
county, but as early as' 1744 he was a mer- 
chant at Belhaven, afterwards Alexandria. 
He was one of the incorporators and a mem- 
ber of the first board of trustees of Alex- 
andria, where he built in 1752 the historic 
"Carhle House." which was the headquar- 
ters of General Edward Braddock in 1755. 
In 1754 he was appointed major and com- 
missary of the Virginia forces; in 1758 he 
was collector of the customs of South Po- 
tomac, and in 1775 member of the county 
committee of safety. With Mr. John Dal- 
ton he was engaged for twenty-five years 
in a mercantile and shipping business. He 
married (first) in 1748, Sarah Fairfax, sec- 
ond daughter of Hon. William Fairfax, (sec- 
ond) Sybil West, daughter of Hugh and 
S}bil (Harrison) West. He died in Octo- 
ber, 1780. 

Carpenter, Nathaniel, a Devonshire gentle- 
man. Ijrother of Coryndon Carpenter, Esq., 
of Launceston, Cornwall, England ; was a 
physician and a collector of the customs ; 
resident in King and Queen county, Vir- 
ginia, in 1768. He married Nancy Fauntle- 
roy, daughter of Bushrod Fauntleroy, of 
Northumberland countv, and left issue. 



204 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Carr, Thomas, was the son of Thomas 
Carr, "gentleman," who patented lands in 
King William county in 1701 ; justice of the 
peace for King William from 1714; sherifT 
in 1722-1723; major of militia and burgess 
for King William in 1727-1734. He patented 
large tracts of land, and died in Caroline 
county, Ma}- 29. 1737. He married Mary 
Dabney. 

Carrington, George, son of Paul Carring- 
t<jn, merchant, was born in St. Philip's par- 
ish, liarbadoes, in 171 1, and came to \^ir- 
ginia in 1723, He married, before 1732, 
Anne, daughter of Major William ]\Iayo. 
He lived at "I'.oston Hill," Cumberland 
county. He was justice of peace for Gooch- 
land in 1740; major in 1743, and afterwards 
lieutenant-colonel and colonel of Goochland 
county. He was first county lieutenant and 
presiding justice of Cumberland. He was 
burgess (in place of William Randolph, de- 
ceased) from Goochland in the sessions of 
February 20, 1745, and March 30. 1747, and 
in the assembly of 1748-1749: and from 
Cumberland in the assemblies of 1752-1755, 
1756-1758. 1758-1761, and in the sessions of 
November 3. 1761, January 14, 1762, March 
30, 1762, November 2, 1762, May 19, 1763, 
January 14, 17^4. In the session of October 
30. 1764, Thomas I'rosser represented Cum- 
berland in place of George Carrington, who 
had accepted the office of sheriff. He was 
the chairman of the Cumberland counts- 
committee of 1774-1776. He died on I'ebru- 
ary 7, 1785. 

Carrington, Paul, settled in Barljadoes 
about 1700 and afterwards came to Virginia. 
He was a large shipping merchant. His 
son George was ancestor of the famous Vh- 
ginia family of that name. 



Carter, Colonel Charles, of "Cle\ e," King 
George county, was born in 1707. He was 
the son of Robert Carter, of "Corotoman," 
and his wife Judith, daughter of John Armi- 
stead, of "Hesse." He was burgess from 
King George county in the assemblies of 
1736-1740, 1 742- 1 747, 1 748- 1 749, 1 752- 1 75 5. 
1756-1758, 1758-17(11 . and in the sessions of 
No\-ember 3, 1761, January 17, 1762, March 
30, 1762, November 2, 1762, May 19, 1763, 
and January 12, 1764. In the session of 
October 30, 1764, William Champe was bur- 
gess from King tleorge in place of Charles 
Carter, deceased. Colonel Carter married 
(first) Alary \\'alker, (second) Anne, daugh- 
ter of William Byrd, of Westover, (third) 
Lucy Taliaferro. 

Carter, Charles, of "Corotoman" and 
"Shirley." born 1732. the son of John and 
Elizabeth Hill Carter; was burgess from 
Lancaster county in 1758-1761, 1761-1765, 
October, 1765, 1766-1768, May, 1769, 1769- 
^77^' 1 77-- 1774' 1775" 1776; member of the 
conventions of 1775. and of the first state 
council, 1776. He married (first) Mary W., 
daughter of Colonel Charles Carter, of 
"Cleve," (second) Ann liutler. daughter of 
r.ernard Moore, of "Chelsea." King William 
c( unity. He died in 1806. 

Carter, Charles, of "Ludlow," son of Colo- 
nel Charles Carter, of "CIe\-e," and his first 
wife, Mary Walker, daughter of Joseph 
Walker. Esq., of York county, married Eliz- 
abeth, daughter of Colonel John Chiswell. 
He was burgess from King George county 
ill the assemblies of I75(')-I738, 1758-1761, 
1761-1765. October. 1765. 1766-1768 and 
' 76' I- 1771- 

Carter, Edward, of "Blenheim," Albe- 
marle county, son (~if John Carter, of "Core- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMIXEXT PERSONS 



205 



toman" and "Shirle}-," was l)orn about 1726, 
and was a burgess from 1765 to 1769. He 
married Sarah Champe, daughter of John 
and Anne (Carter) Champe, of King George 
county. 

Carter, Robert Wormeley, son of Colonel 
Landon Cartel', of "Sabine Hall," was bur- 
gess for Richmond county in the last assem- 
'jly. 1775-1776, and member of the conven- 
tions of 1774 and 1775. He married ^\"ini- 
fred Travers Beale. daughter of Captain 
William Beale, of Richmond county. 

Carter, Thomas, ancestor of a numerous 
family of the name in \'irginia and the 
south. He settled first in Nansemond 
count}-, and afterwards removed to Lancas- 
ter. He was a justice, captain of the militia, 
etc., and married Katherine Dale, eldest 
daughter of Major Edward Dale and Diana 
Skipwith, his wife. He died October 22, 
1700, aged about seventy years. He was 
probably a near kinsman of Colonel John 
Carter, of Corotoman. 

Carver, Captain William, was a promi- 
nent merchant of Lower Norfolk county ; 
was a justice in 1663 and other years : sheriff 
in 1670; member of the house of burgesses 
in 1665 and June 15, 1669, and April 16, 
1672; while temporarily insane he killed a 
man in 1672. When the civil war broke out 
in 1676, Carver sided with Bacon and was 
dispatched by him to Accomac to seize 
Berkeley, but his ship was surprised by 
Colonel I'hilii) Ludwell, and Carver was 
captured and hanged. 

Cary, Major Francis, a cavalier officer who 
came to \'irginia in 1649: returned to Eng- 
land. 

Cary, Henry, son of Miles Cary, the immi- 
grant, lived at "The Forest," Warwick 



county. Born about 1O50 and died in 1720. 
He was a builder and contractor, and had 
charge of the erection of the capitol and 
go\-ernor's house at Williamsburg, when 
the government was removed from James- 
town. He later also suiierintended the 
building of tlie church in Williamsburg and 
the restoration of the college after the fire 
of 1705. He married Judith Lockey, and 
had issue, among others Henry Cary Jr. 
(q. v.). 

Cary, Henry, Jr., was a son of Henry Cary 
and Judith Lockey, his wife. Born about 
1680. He was like his father, a builder and 
contractor. He removed to Williamsburg, 
and in 1721 was vestryman of Bruton 
church. Among the buildings erected by 
him were the president's house at the col- 
lege, the chapel constituting the south wing 
of the college, the church at Hampton, and 
probably the Brafferton building at the col- 
lege. About 1733 he removed to "Amp- 
thill," Chesterfield county. He married 
Anne Edwards, and died in 1749. He was 
father of Colonel Archibald Cary, of the 
revolution. 

Cary, John, was a merchant of London, 
who came to \'irginia; married Jane Flood, 
daughter of Colonel John Flood (q. v.). He 
presented a piece of plate to Brandon church, 
v/hich is still preserved. In 1670 he was 
living in London, where he had the care and 
tuition of his wife's brother \\'alter Flood 
(born in 1656). 

Cary, Miles, son of Colonel Miles Cary, 
the immigrant, was born about 1655 ; edu- 
cated in England ; clerk of the general court, 
1691 ; burgess for Warwick county in 1688, 
for James City \6g2-g2, and for Warwick 
county from 1698 to 1706; register of the 



2o6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



vice-admiralty court, 1697; naval officer of 
York river; trustee of William and Mary 
College, 1693, and afterwards rector; sur- 
veyor-general, 1692 to 1708. He married 
(first) Mary Milner; no issue. He married 
(second) Mary, daughter of Colonel Wil- 
liam Wilson, and left issue. He died Feb- 
ruary 27. 1709. 

Gary, Oswald, was son of James Cary, 
merchant of London, who was engaged in 
the Virginia trade. He was sheriff of Mid- 
dlesex county, A'irginia, in 1690, and captain 
of the militia. He died in 1690 and his 
widow Ann married (second) Randolph 
Seager, and (third) Rev. Samuel Gray. His 
daughter Anne married James Smith ("Wil- 
liam and ]Mary Quarterly," ix, 45, 46). 

Cary, Captain William, born about 1657, 
was a son of Colonel Miles Cary, of the 
council. He resided in Warwick county, 
which he represented in the house of bur- 
gesses in 1693, 1702 and 1710. He married 
Martha, daughter of Colonel John Scars- 
brook, of York county, and died in 1713, 
leaving issue. 

Cary, Colonel Wilson, son of Colonel 
Miles Cary (q. v.j and ]\Iary Wilson, his 
wife, was born in 1702; studied in the gram- 
mar school of William and Alary College, 
and on June 30, 1721, was admitted a stu- 
dent at Trinity College, Cambridge Univer- 
sity ; appointed collector and naval officer of 
Lower James river; presiding magistrate 
and county lieutenant of Elizabeth county. 
He lived at "Ceeleys," in Elizabeth City 
county. He died in 1772. 

Cary, Wilson Miles, only son of Colonel 
Wilson Cary, of "Ceeleys" (son of Miles 
Cary and Mary Wilson), was born in 1723; 



educated at William and Mary College; 
burgess for Elizabeth City county from 1760 
to 1772; member of the convention of 1776, 
and afterwards of the house of delegates; 
married Sarah, daughter of John Blair, of 
Williamsburg, president of the council ; died 
at "Carysbrook," Fluvanna county, about 
December i, 1817, leaving issue. 

Catchmaie, George, was a burgess from 
Lipper Norfolk in the assembly of 1659-60. 

Catlett, Colonel John, was born in the 
parish of Sittingbourne, county Kent, Eng- 
land, and was long one of the leading men 
in Rappahannock county, Virginia, where 
the parish of Sittingbourne was named for 
his original residence in England ; presiding 
justice in 1665, and died about 1670. killed, 
it is said, while defending a frontier fort 
against the Indians. He left a son of the 
same name (q. v.). 

Catlett, John, Jr., was the son of John Cat- 
lett (q. v.). John Catlett Jr. married Eliza- 
beth Gaines ; was a member of the house of 
burgesses from Essex in 1693, 1696, 1700- 
1702; justice of the county court, 1680, and 
colonel of the Essex militia. He died in 
1724, leaving issue surviving. 

Cave, Benjamin, was a burgess from 
Orange county in the assemblies of 1752- 
i/SS' 1756-1758, 1758-1761. His will, dated 
June 26, 1762, was proved in Orange county, 
November 25, 1762. 

Caufield, Robert, was a burgess from 
Surry county in the assembly of 1676. He 
was a son of Major William Caufield (q. v.) 
and died in 1691. 

Caufield (Cofield, Cowfield), William, was 
a burgess from Surry county in 1657-58, 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



207 



1658-59, 1659-60. He was probably a son 
of Gresham Caufield. who patented land in 
Isle of Wight county in 1640. He was cap- 
tain and major of the Surry militia. He was 
father of Captain Robert Caufield (q. v.). 

Cawsey, Nathaniel, was an old soldier 
that arrived in the First Suf'ply, January, 
160S, and in 1625 he and his wife Thomasine, 
who came in 1609, were living with five 
servants at Charles City (City Point). In 
1620 he patented 200 acres on Kimages 
creek, in the present Charles City county, 
which he named "Cawsey's Care." He was 
a burgess in 1624. He died before 1634, 
when John Cawsey, supposed to be his son, 
sold this land to Lieutenant-Colonel Walter 
Aston. 

Ceely, Thomas, came to Virginia at an 
early date, and was burgess for Warwick 
river in 1629 and 1(^^,9- He owned land at 
the mouth of Salford's creek, which after- 
wards, under the name of "Ceeleys," was 
made the residence of Colonel Wilson Miles 
Cary. 

Chamberlayn, Thomas, was burgess for 
Charles City in i695-i69f). 

Chamberlayne, William, "descended from 
an ancient and worthy family in the county 
of Hereford" (tombstone) ; settled in New 
Kent county, where he was a successful 
merchant. His son Thomas married Wil- 
helmina, daughter of William Byrd, of 
Westover. William Chamberlayn died Au- 
gust 2. 1736. 



town, whereby that settlement and the ones 
adjoining were saved. 

Chandler, John, was member of the house 
of burgesses from Elizabeth City in No- 
vember, 1645, and 1647, and a justice of that 
county in 1652. In 1636 he obtained a grant 
for 1,000 acres in Elizabeth City county for 
imj)orting his wife and nineteen other per- 
sons. About 1639 he purchased Newport 
News from the Gookins. In 1639 there is a 
joint bond from him and Samuel Chandler, 
merchant of London. Subsequently he sold 
Newport News to Captain Benedict Staf- 
ford, from whom it came to William Digges. 

Chaplin, Isaac, came to \*irginia with Sir 
Thomas Gates in 1610, and Mary, his wife, 
arrived in 1622. He patented "Chaplin's 
Choice," on James river, near Jordan's Point, 
in 1619. The patent called for 200 acres. 
In 1629 he represented Chaplin's in the gen- 
eral assembly. Later "Chaplin's Choice" 
was owned by Captain Anthony Wyatt. 

Charleton, Stephen, burgess for North- 
ampton county in the assemblies of 1645 
and 1652. When Colonel Henry Norwood 
and his friends in 1649 were stranded on the 
eastern shore of Virginia, Charleton received 
them at his house most hospitably. He 
married (first) Bridget Pott, sister of Gov- 
ernor John Pott, (second) Anne West, 
widow of Anthony West. By his first wife 
he had two daughters, but both died issue- 
less. His estate, consisting of 1,500 acres, 
went to the parish, according to the provi- 
sions of his will. 



Chance, a converted Indian who informed Chesley, Philip, emigrated from \\'ellford, 

his master, Richard Pace, of "Pace's Paines," in Gloucestershire, about 1650, and was cap- 

of the im]iending massacre of 1622, and en- tain of militia for the county of York, and 

abled him to notif}- the authorities at James- church warden in 1674 of ISruton parish. 



208 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



He married Margaret, sister of Daniel Wild. 
His will, proved in York county, May lo, 
1673, names many nephews and cousins, 
who made their home with him in \'irginia. 

Chester, Captain Anthony, was com- 
mander of the ship Margaret and John. 
which traded to \'irginia. In March, 1621, 
on his way with passengers to Virginia, he 
was attacked by two large Spanish armed 
ships in the West Indies, and after a heroic 
fight beat them oiT. This was exploited 
gieatly in England. 

Chew, John, said to have been from Som- 
ersetshire, England, came to Virginia in 
1620, and was one of the leading merchants. 
In 1625 he had a lot in Jamestown. He was 
burgess for Hog Island in 1623, 1624 and 
1629. Afterwards he removed to York 
county, and was burgess for that county in 
1642, 1643 ^"cl 1644. About 1649 removed 
to Maryland and settled in Anne Arundell 
county. Ancestor of Chief Justice Benja- 
min Chew, of Germantown, Pennsylvania. 

Chew, Larkin, son of Joseph Chew, of 
Maryland, and grandson of John Chew, the 
immigrant to Virginia, settled in Spottsyl- 
vania county, Virginia, and was a justice of 
that county in 1722; sheriff in 1727, and bur- 
gess for Spottsylvania from 1723 to 1726. 
He married Hannah Roy, and left issue. 

Chichester, Richard, immigrant ancestor ; 
of an ancient and distinguished family, was 
second son of John Chichester, of Wid- 
worthy, and Margaret Ware, his wife. He 
came to Virginia in 1702, bringing with him 
his son John. He lived in Lancaster county, 
where his will, dated April 14, 1734, is duly 
recorded. His son John married Elizabeth 
Symes, of Dorset, England, and had Rich- 



ard Chichester, who lived at "Fairwethers." 
Lancaster county, \'irginia, but is buried at 
Powerstock, Dorset, England. 

Chiles, John, was a son of Walter ChiU- 
Jr., and resided in King William count\ . 
He was messenger of the council in 1O93; 
justice of King William in 17 14, and in 17J3 
\\'as a meml)er of the house of burgesses 
from that county. He died the latter year. 

He married (first) ^lary , ( second 1 

Eleanor Webber, daughter of Henry Web- 
ber, of King William, and had a daughter 
Susannah, who married Joseph Martin, of 
Albemarle, father of General Joseph Mar- 
tin, a distinguished pioneer of Southwestern 
\^irginia. 

Chiles, Walter, Jr., son of Colonel \\alter 
Chiles, of the council, came to \'irginia with 
his father before 1638, lived at Jamestown, 
and was burgess for James City county in 
1658-59 and 1660. He married Mary Page, 
daughter of Colonel John Page, the council- 
lor, and had by her one son John and a 
daughter Elizabeth, who married Henry 
Tyler, of Middle Plantation, ancestor of 
President John Tyler. 

Chilton, Edward, was a barrister of the 
Middle Temple, who came to Virginia some 
tune before 1682, when he was clerk of the 
council and of the general court. In 1697 
he had a part in the compilation of a pam- 
phlet called "The Present State of Virginia." 
his co-laborers being Henry Hartwell, Esq., 
and Dr. James Blair. He was attorney- 
general of Virginia from 1692 to 1698. In 
1699 he became attorney-general of Barba- 
does. He married Hannah, daughter of 
Colonel Edward Hill, of Shirley, but she 
died issueless. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



209 



Chinn, Joseph, son of Rawleigh Chinn, of 
Lancaster county, and Esther Ball, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Joseph Ball, of "Epping For- 
est;" was burgess for Lancaster in 1748- 
1749 and 1752-1755- 

Chisman, Edmund, son of Edmund Chis- 
man (brother of Colonel John Chisman, of 
the council), qualified as justice of York 
county, Virginia, July 25, 1670, and in 1676 
was one of Bacon's majors. After Bacon's 
death he was captured by Robert Beverley 
and sentenced to be hanged, but died in 
prison before execution. He married Lydia. 
ni^ce of Captain George Farlow, who was 
also a friend of Bacon and is described as a 
"great mathematician." 

Chisman, Lydia, daughter of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Bushrod, wife of Thomas Bushrod, by 
a former husband, and niece of Captain 
George Farlow. She was one of the early 
heroines of Virginia. When her husband, 
Major Edmund Chisman, was captured dur- 
ing Bacon's rebellion she threw herself at 
Sir William Berkeley's feet and begged to 
be executed in his stead. Her husband died 
ill prison and she married Thomas Harwood. 
Later she was killed by lightning, March 16, 
16^4. 

Chisman, Thomas, brother of Major Ed- 
mund Chisman, was born in 1652, qualified 
as justice of York county, August 24, 1680, 
and was a member of the house of burgesses 
in 1685. His will was proved July 18, 1715. 
He married Elizabeth Reade, daughter of 
Colonel George Reade, of the council, and 
left issue. 

Chiswell, Charles, was clerk of the general 
court in 1706. He lived in Hanover county 
and died April, 1737, aged sixty, leaving a 



son John, who was a member of the house 
of burgesses, colonel, etc. (q. v.). 

Chiswell, Colonel John, son of Charles 
Chiswell, was for a number of years one of 
the most prominent men in the colony. He 
was burgess from Hanover county from 
1744 to 1755, when he removed to Williams- 
burg and represented the city in 1756, 1757 
and 1758. He engaged actively in lead and 
iron mining, and in 1752 operated a furnace 
for the manufacture of iron five miles south 
of Fredericksburg. In 1757 he discovered 
the New river lead and zinc mines, about 
which time Fort Chiswell, a few miles dis- 
tant, was erected and named for him. In 
1766 he got into a quarrel at a tavern in 
New Kent with a Scotch gentleman named 
Robert Routledge, in the course of which 
Routledge was killed. He was arrested and 
sent by the examining justices to Williams- 
burg to await trial. But on his way thither 
he was released on bail, out of term time, 
by three of the judges of the general cou'rt. 
His prosecutor was chosen in the prevailing 
custom by lot, and it fell to John Blair Jr., 
an intimate friend, to conduct, the case 
against him, but the suicide of Colonel Chis- 
well at his home on Francis street, in the 
city of Williamsburg, prevented any trial. 
His residence in the city is still standing. 
He married Elizabeth Randolph, daughter 
of William Randolph, of Turkey Island. 

Christian, Israel, was a merchant who 
lived first at Staunton and afterward in that 
part of Augusta now Botetourt county ; bur- 
gess for Augusta county in the assemblies 
of 1758-1761 and 1761-1765. He was the 
founder of the towns of Fincastle and Chris- 
tiansburg. He was father of Colonel Wil- 
liam Christian (q. v.). 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Christian, Thomas, ancestor of the well 
known Christian family of East Virginia, 
is believed to have come from the Isle of 
Man to Virginia. He patented land in 
Charles City county in 1687. 

Christian, William, son of Israel Chris- 
tian, was born in Augusta county in 1743. 
He was a burgess for Fincastle county at 
its creation in 1773, and until 1775-1776, 
which saw the end of the house of bur- 
gesses ; member for Fincastle in the conven- 
tion of 1775; lieutenant-colonel of the First 
Virginia Regiment, raised by the state; 
commanded in 1776 and 1780 expeditions 
against the Cherokees; in 1785 removed to 
Kentucky and was killed, April 9, 1786, by 
Indians. He married a sister of Patrick 
Henry. 

Christmas, Doctoris, of Elizabeth City, 
planter, leased from the governor fifty acres 
of the company's land in 1627. His will, 
dated December 20, 1754, is recorded in 
York county. He leaves all his estate to 
his wife and his friend, Peter Starkey. 

Church, Richard, was a burgess from 
Lower Norfolk in the assembly of 1676 and 
from Norfolk in the sessions of May 13 and 
June 18, 1702. 

Clack, Rev. James, son of William and 
Mary Clack, of Marsden, in Wiltshire, came 
to Virginia in 1678, and was minister of 
Ware parish from 1679 to December 20, 
1723, when he died. James Clack, believed 
tc be his son, resided in Brunswick county. 

Clack, John, was a burgess from Bruns- 
wick county in the place of Edmund Good- 
rich, who had accepted the ofifice of sherifif, 
in the sessions of November i, 1759, and of 
1760 and 1761. Married Mary Kennon, and 



left issue. He was brother of Sterling Clack 
(q. v.). 

Clack, Sterling, was a burgess from 
Brunswick county in the assembly of 1748- 
1749. ] le was son of James Clack, of Bruns- 
wick county, who was son of Rev. James 
Clack (q. v.j, of Ware parish, Gloucester 
ctunty. He was clerk of Brunswick county 
from 1740 to 1 75 1. He married Anne Eld- 
ridge, (laughter of Thomas Eldridge, and 
died in 1757. 

Claiborne, Colonel Augustine, of "Wind- 
sor," son of Captain Thomas Claiborne, of 
"Sweet Hall," was born in 1721 ; removed 
from King William county to Surry and was 
burgess for that county in 1748- 1749 and 
1752-1757, but resigned in 1754 to become 
clerk of Sussex. In 1780 he was a state sena- 
tor. He married Mary Herbert, daughter of 
Duller Herbert, and died May 3, 1789. He 
was an eminent lawyer. 

Claiborne, Major BuUer, born October 27, 
1755, second lieutenant of Second Virginia 
Regiment, October 2, 1775; captain from 
March 8, 1776, to July 27, 1777; brigade 
major and aide-de-camp to General Lincoln, 
1779-1780; commanded a squadron of cavalry 
at the battle of the Cowpens ; appointed jus- 
tice of Dinwiddle in 1789; sheriff in 1802-04. 
He married Patsy, daughter of Edward Puf- 
fin, of Sussex county. 

Claiborne, Herbert, of "Chestnut Grove," 
New Kent county, son of Colonel Augustine 
Claiborne, born August 7, 1746; married 
(first) Mary Rufifin, daughter of Robert Puf- 
fin, (second) Mary, daughter of William 
Burnett Browne, of Elsing Green, King W^il- 
liam county, great-grandson of Gilbert Bur- 
nett, bishop of Salisbury, England. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSON.' 



Claiborne, Leonard, son of Captain 
Thomas Claiborne, of "Sweet Hall," King 
William county ; was sheriff for the county 
in 1732 and burgess in 1734-1740. He mar- 
ried Martha, daughter of Major Erancis Bur- 
nell, and had issue — Leonard Claiborne Jr., 
of Dinwiddie county (q. v.). 

Claiborne, Leonard, Jr., of Dinwiddie 
county, son of Leonard Claiborne, of King 
William county, was burgess for Dinwiddie 
ir, 1758, 1759, 1761, 1762, 1763, 1764 and 
1765. He is said to have removed to Georgia. 

Claiborne, Colonel Nathaniel, son of Caj)- 
tain Thomas Claiborne, of "Sweet Hall," 
King William county, married Jane Cole, 
daughter of Colonel William Cole, of War- 
wick county. He was l:)orn about 1719, and 
died in his fortieth year. His widow mar- 
ried (second) Stephen Bingham and (third) 
Francis West, and was living in 1787. 

Claiborne, Philip Whitehead, son of \\i\- 
liam Claiborne, of "Romancoke," King Wil- 
liam county, lived at "Liberty Hall," King 
^^'illiam county. In 1771 he was a member 
of the house of burgesses for King William 
and died in 1772. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Dandridge, of King 
William county, and his wife Unity, daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel West (a great-nephew of 
Lord Delaware, governor of Virginia). 

Claiborne, Richard, of Lunenburg county, 
son of Colonel Nathaniel Claiborne, of King 
William county, was member of the house 
of burgesses for Lunenburg in 1772 and 
1774, and member of the conventions of 
1774 and 1775. He died in 1776, leaving 
issue — sons, John, Richard Henry, Leonard, 
nnd daughter, Molly, married William War- 
wick, of North Carolina. 



Claiborne, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas, 

son of Colonel William Claiborne, secretary 
of state, was born August 17, 1647; served 
against the Indians, and is said to have been 
killed by an arrow October 7, 1683. He was 
buried at Romancoke, in King William 
county, where his tomb remains. He mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Samuel and Dorothy 
Fenn. of Middle Plantation. His widow 
Sarah married (second) Thomas Bray. By 
her will Sarah established a scholarship at 
\\'illiam and ;\Iary College. 

Claiborne, Captain Thomas, of "Sweet 
Hall," King William county, son of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Thomas Claiborne, was born 
December 16, 1680, and died August 10, 
1732. He is said to have married three 
times and to have had twenty-seven chil- 
dren, which is ijrobably an exaggeration. 
His last wife was Anne, daughter of Henry 
Fox, of King William county, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Colonel John \\'est 
(nephew of Lord Delaware). 

Claiborne, Thomas, son of Captain Thomas 
Claiborne, of "Sweet Hall," King William 
county, was born January 9, 1704, and died 
December i, 1735 ; clerk of Stafford county ; 
buried at "Sweet Hall," where his tomb still 
stands. 

Claiborne, Thomas, son of Colonel Na- 
thaniel Claiborne, of "Sweet Hall," King 
William county, succeeded, on the death of 
Major Harry Gaines, as burgess for the 
county in 1768 and 1769. 

Claiborne, William, of "Romancoke," son 
of Lieutenant-Colonel William Claiborne. 
He died in 1705, leaving a son William, who 
was sheriff' of King William county in 1728 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



and 1729 and married a daughter of Philip 
Whitehead, of the same county. 

Clapham, Josias, burgess for Loudoun 
county to succeed James Hamilton in 1774 
at the last session of the assembly of 1772- 
1774; burgess in the assembly of 1775-1776, 
and in the conventions of 1774, 1775 and 
1776. 

Clarke, John, son of Sir John Clarke, of 
Wrotham, in Kent county, England, lived 
for a time at Middle Plantation, and died 
about 1644. 

Clause (Close), Phettiplace, came to Vir- 
ginia in 1608; in 1624 was living at Pace's 
Paines ; in 1619 and in 1626 patented land on 
Warwicksqueak river (Pagan creek) ; was 
burgess for Mulberry Island, October, 1629, 
and for "From Denbigh to Waters' Creek" 
in 1632. 

Clay, John, an ancient planter, came to 
Virginia in 1613 and his wife Ann in 1623. 
He patented lands in 1635 on Ward's creek, 
in what is now Prince George county. 

Clayton, Rev. John, was minister at James- 
tf.wn from 1684 to 1686. He returned to 
England, and in May, 1688, was minister of 
Crofton, at Wakefield, in Yorkshire. He 
was a member of the Royal Society, and 
contributed some valuable papers on Vir- 
ginia, which were published in the "Trans- 
actions." 

Clayton, John, son of John Clayton, the 
attorney-general of Virginia, was bom at 
Fulham, England, in 1685, and died in Glou- 
cester county, Virginia, December 15, 1773. 
He came to Virginia with his father in 1705 ; 
was an eminent botanist; member of some 
of the most learned societies of Europe: 



president of the Virginia Society for Pro- 
moting Useful Knowledge, 1773, and author 
of "Flora Virginica." He was for fifty 
years clerk of Gloucester county, and had a 
botanical garden at his estate, "Windsor," 
in that county. He married, January 2, 
1723, Elizabeth Whiting, of Gloucester. He 
had several sons — Captain Jasper Clayton, 
of Gloucester county ; Arthur Clayton, clerk 
of one of the "upper counties," and it is be- 
lieved Colonel William Clayton, of Xew 
Kent county. 

Clayton, John, was son of Sir John Clay- 
ton, of London and Parson's Green, Fulham, 
Middlesex county, England, and of the Inner 
Temple, who was knighted 1664, and his 
wife Alice, daughter of Sir W'illiam Bowyer, 
of Denham, Bucks, baronet. He was 
brother of Lieutenant-General Jasper Clay- 
ton, of the British army, who was killed at 
Dettingen in 1743. His grandfather was Sir 
Jasper Clayton, of St. Edmunds, Lombard 
Manor, who was knighted at Guildhall, July 
5, 1660. He was born in 1665 ! studied at 
one of the universities of England; was ad- 
mitted to the Inner Temple, June 6, 1682 ; 
was called to the bar, and coming to Vir- 
ginia in 1705, was appointed attorney-gen- 
eral of the colony in 1714. In 1724 he was 
also appointed judge of the admiralty court. 
He represented James City county in the 
house of burgesses in 1720-22, 1723-26, 1727- 
28; recorder of Williamsburg from 1723. 
He died November 18, 1737. He was father 
01 John Clayton, the botanist. 

Clayton, Jasper, son of John Clayton, the 
botanist, resided at "Windsor," on the 
Panketank river, and was clerk of the 
county committee of safety of Gloucester 
county in 1725. He married Courtney, 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



daughter of Colonel John .Baylor, of New- 
Market. Caroline count}'. 

Clayton, Thomas, M. D., son of John 
Clayton, the attorney-general of \'irginia; 
educated at Pembroke College. Cambridge, 
and afterwards com])leted his medical 
studies in London: married Isabella Lewis, 
of Warner Hall, (Gloucester county, Vir- 
ginia, and died Octiiber 17, 1730. aged thirty- 
eight. He had an only child, wh<i died in 
infancy. His armeirial tomb is at "Warner 
Hall," Gloucester county. 

Clayton, Thomas, was a lawyer ; resided 
at Jamestown, which he represented in the 
house of burgesses in ii'i83. 

Clayton, Colonel William, of New Kent 
county, was ])robably a son of John Clay- 
tun, the botanist. He was Jasper Clayton's 
executor in 1779. From 1766 to 1772 he 
was member of the house of burgesses for 
New Kent county, and was a member of the 
state conventions of 1776 and 1788. In 1774 
he was member of the county committee of 
safety and subsequently served as clerk of 
New Kent. He died 1797. 

Clements, Francis, son of I^'rancis dem- 
erits, lived in Surry county, which he repre- 
sented as a burgess in 1692-93. He was a 
justice, captain of militia, etc. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas Meri- 
wether, and left issue. 

Clinch, William, was a burgess from Surry 
county in March, 1756, and September, 1756. 
In the session of April 30, 1757, Benjamin 
Cocke represented Surry in place of Wil- 
liam Clinch, expelled April 26. He was 
member of the county committee of safety 
in T776. 



Clopton, William, ancestor of the Virginia 
family of that name, was descended from 
the Cloptons of Warwick and Suffolk, Eng- 
land. He was born in 1655, emigrated to 
\'irginia at an early age, settled in York 
county and married, about 1680, Ann Booth, 
widow of Thomas Dennett, and daughter of 
Robert Booth, clerk of York county. Wil- 
liam Clopton moved after 1683 to New Kent 
county, where the Clopton family was resi- 
dent for man}- years later. He died before 

Cobbs, Samuel, was descended from Am- 
brose Cobbs, who on July 25, 1639, patented 
350 acres upon the Appomattox ri\er. He 
rfmo\ed from York county to Amelia, which 
he represented in the house of burgesses 
during the general assemblies of 1742-1747 
and 1748-1749. In 1717 he married Edith 
Marot, daughter of Jean Marot, a French 
Huguenot innkeeper of Williamsburg. He 
died in 1757, lea\ing issue. 

Cocke, Colonel Allen, son of Benjamin 
Cocke, represented Surry county in the 
house of burgesses, 1772-1774, and in all the 

constitutional conventions of 1774, 1775 and 
1776: member of the Surry county commit- 
tee of safety in 1775. He married Nancy 
Kennon. daughter of Colonel Richard Ken- 
non, of Charles City county. His will, 
recorded in Surry, is dated November 20, 
1780. 

Cocke, Benjamin, son of Richard Cocke, 
and great-grandson of Richard Cocke, of 
"I'.remo," was born about 1710, He moved 
to Goochland county, which he represented 
ii. the house of burgesses in the assembly 
of 1742-1747. He married Catherine Allen, 
daughter of .Arthur .Allen, of "Bacon's 
Castle," in Surry count}', and represented 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Surry county in the house of burgesses in 
1756 and 1758. He was father of Colonel 
Allen Cocke. 

Cocke, Bowler, sun of Richard Cocke, of 
■■liremo,"' and Ann Bowler, daughter of 
Colonel Thomas Bowler, of Rappahannock. 
He was brother of Benjamin and Richard 
Cocke, of Surry. He was member of the 
house of burgesses for Henrico from 1752 

to 1763. He married (first) Sarah , 

(second) Elizabeth Hill, daughter of John 
Carter. After the last marriage he lived at 
"Shirley," in Charles Cit\- county. He died 
in 1771. 

Cocke, Bowler, Jr., son tif Bowler Cocke, 
was member of the house of burgesses for 
Henrico county from 1763 to 1769. He was 
born in 1726 and died in 1772, a few months 
after his father. He married Elizabeth, 
widow of Harry Turner, of King George 
county, and daughter of Colonel Nicholas 
Smith. 

Cocke, Hartwell, was son of Richard 
Cocke and Elizabeth Hartwell, daughter of 
John Hartwell, of Surry. He lived at 
"Mount Pleasant," on James river, and rep- 
resented Surry county in the house of bur- 
gesses from 1758 to 1773. He married Anne 
Rufifin, daughter of John Rufifin. His will, 
dated May 29, 1772, was proved in Surry, 
August 25, 1772. He was father of John 
Hartwell Cocke, of Surry, who was member 
of the state convention of 178S. 

Cocke, James, son of Thomas Cocke, was 
born about 1666; married Elizabeth Pleas- 
ants, daughter of John and Jane Pleasants, 
by which marriage he acquired the estate 
of "Curls,"' on James river, in Henrico 
county ; member of the house of burgesses 



in 1696 and ifxjg: clerk of Henrico county 
from 1692 to 1707. He died about 1721. 

Cocke, Richard, son of Richard Cocke, 
and great-grandson of Richard Cocke, of 
"Bremo." in Henrico county, settled in 
Surry county, where he married (^first) Eliz- 
abeth Hartwell, daughter of John Hartwell. 
(second) Elizabeth Ruffin. He represented 
the county in the house of burgesses in 
1744, 1745. 174') and 1747. His will, dated 
September 13, 1771, was proved in Surry, 
April 21. 1772. 

Cocke, Richard, the emigrant settler, was 
born about 1600. He married twice. Name 
of first wife not known, but his second was 
Mary Aston, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Walter Aston. He obtained large grants of 
land, and settled at "Bremo," on James river, 
in Henrico county. He was lieutenant- 
colonel of his county, and was a member of 
the house of burgesses in 1632 from 
W'eyanke, and in 1644 and 1654 from Hen- 
rico county. He died in 1665, leaving issue 
— five sons and one daughter — Thomas, 
Richard, John, William, Richard, "the 
\ounger," and Elizabeth. 

Cocke, Captain Thomas, sun of Thomas 
Cocke, and brother of James Cocke, was 
1 orn about 1662. He married (first") Mary 
Rrasier, (second) Frances . He rep- 
resented Henrico in the house of burgesses 
in 1696, in 1698, 1699, 1700-1702; sheriff in 
1699. Ns l^^t six children: Thomas, James 
Powell, Henry, Brasier, Mary, Elizabeth. 
He died in 1707. 

Cocke, Thomas, of "^Malvern Hill,"' Hen- 
rico county, was son of Richard Cocke, of 
"Bremo." He was a justice of Henrico in 
1678, 1680. He was also sheriff and coroner. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



215 



and represented Henrico in the house of 
burgesses in 1677. 

Cocke, William, was a burgess from Hen- 
rico in the assembly of 1646. He was son 
of Richard Cocke, the immigrant. 

Cockeram, Captain William, was a bur- 
gess from Surry county in the session of 
September 10, 1663. Justice of the peace in 
1660. He died in 1669, leaving issue — two 
sons — William and Thomas. 

Codd, Colonel St. Leger, son of William 
Codd, of Pelicans, Kent, England, esquire, 
who married, in 1632, Mary, daughter of Sir 
Warham St. Leger, of Ulcombe, Kent. In 
1 67 1 he was one of the commissioners to 
superintend the building of a fort on Poto- 
mac river; presiding justice of Northumber- 
land county, Virginia, in 1680; member of 
the house of burgesses, 1680, 1682. About 
1688 he removed to Maryland and was a 
member of the legislature from Cecil county 
in. 1694 and 1702. He was married twice. 
By his first marriage he had James and 
Pierkeley Codd, and by his second, with 
Anna, widow of Theodorick Bland and 
daughter of Governor Richard Bennett, Cap- 
tain St. Leger Codd, of Maryland. 

Coke, John, goldsmith of Williamsburg, 
son of Richard Coke, of "Trusley," in Derby- 
shire. England, a descendant of Sir Francis 
Coke, was born April 6, 1704; emigrated to 
^''irginia in 1724 and settled in ^^■iIliams- 
burg. Ancestor of Richard Coke, United 
States Senator from Texas. He died in 1767. 

Cole, Rev. Samuel, in 1657 served as min- 
ister of Lancaster county. He died before 
September 28. 1659. 

Cole, William, was a burgess for Nutmeg 



Quarters (now in Warwick county) in 1629. 
He may have been father of Colonel Wil- 
liam Cole, of the council. 

Cole, William, was son of Colonel William 
Cole, of the council of state, and Martha 
Lear, his wife. He was born about 1692, 
and was a member of the house of burgesses 
for Warwick county in 1715, 1718, 1720, 
1723, 1726. In 1721 he was deputy receiver- 
general and colonel of the militia. He mar- 
ried Mary Roscow, and made his will in 
1729. In the latter part of his life he ap- 
pears to have lived in Charles City county. 

Coleman, Francis, burgess for Caroline 
county in May, 1769. His daughter Anne 
married Colonel William Green. 

Coleman, Henry, came to Virginia, and in 
1635 patented lands in Elizabeth City 
county, near Thomas Eaton. On October 
7, 1634 he was excommunicated for forty 
days for "using scornful speeches and put- 
ting on his hat in church." 

Collclough, George, was a burgess from 
Northumberland county in the assembly of 
1658-59. He was brother of Thomas Coll- 
clough, a prominent merchant of London. 
He married (first) Ursula Bysshe. (second) 
Elizabeth Thorowgood. He died in 1662. 

Colville, John, son of John Colvillc, of 
New Castle, England, baker and brewer, 
and first cousin of Camilla Colville, who 
married Henry Bennett, earl of Tankerville ; 
was a burgess for Prince William county in 
1744, 1745, 1746, 1747. He was colonel of 
the militia, and died in Fairfax county in 
1756, leaving bequests to the earl's son and 
to his l)rother, Thomas Colville, of Fairfax 
county. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Coles, John, a native of Enniscorthy, Ire- 
hind, was a merchant of Henrico, Vir- 
ginia, where he accumulated a large estate. 
His will was proved in Henrico, ]\Iarch, 
1748, and his legatees were his wife Mary, 
sons Walter, Isaac and John, and brother 
William. Among his descendants were Ed- 
ward Coles, governor of Illinois, and Isaac 
and Walter Coles, members of congress 
from Virginia. 

Coles, Walter, son of John Coles, a mer- 
chant of Richmond, who emigrated from 
"Enniscorthy," Ireland, by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Isaac Winston, of Hanover 
county. \'irginia, was born November 14, 
1739, in Hanover county ; was colonel of the 
militia and burgess for Halifax county in 
1765, 1766-1769 and 1769-1771. He married, 
February 28, 1767, Mildred Lightfoot, 
daughter of William Lightfoot and his wife, 
Mildred Howell. He died in Halifax county, 
November 7, 1780. 

Collier, Isaac, came to Virginia about 
1660 and settled in York county. He mar- 
ried a sister of Edward and John Lockey, 
l;wo London merchants, the former of whom 
settled in York county and died without 
issue. Isaac Collier died in 1671. 

Collier, Samuel, was a boy who came in 
the First Supply in January, 1608. He was 
shortly after left by John Smith with the 
Warascoyack Indians to learn their lan- 
guage. He became useful as an interpreter. 
In 1622 he was living at Elizabeth, where 
he was killed accidentally by a sentinel. 

Collier, William, citizen and weaver of 
London, came to York county in 1670, and 
finally settled in New Kent county, where 
iri 1(175 he was lieutenant-colonel of the 



militia. From hnn descended a numerous 
offspring in King William, New Kent and 
Charles City counties. 

Colston, William, son of a great merchant 
and warm royalist, William Colston, sheriff 
of Bristol ; came to \'irginia about the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century. He had a 
son William who married Anne Gooch, 
widow of Captain Thomas Beale, and was a 
burgess in 1692 and 1699. The family is 
numeroush- represented. 

Comrie, Dr. William, resided in Henrico 
county in 1739. His wife was Margaret 
Baintone, daughter of Josias Baintone, one 
of the six clerks in chancery in England, 
and niece of Thomas Pratt, one of the 
masters in chancery. 

Coney, Henry, gentleman, lived at "Coney 
borough," and was a burgess for Archer's 
Hope and the Glebe Land in 1629-30, 1632 
and 1632-33. 

Conway, Edwin, son of Edwin Conway 
and Sarah Walker, daughter of Lieutenant- 
Colonel John A\'alker, was born in 1682, was 
lieutenant-colonel of the militia of Lancas- 
ter county and a burgess from 1710 to 1758; 
vestryman of Christ Church and St. Mary's 
White Chapel. He died October 3, 1763, 
leaving issue. Peter and other children. 

Conway, Major Peter, was the son of 
Colonel Edwin Conway and his wife, Anne 
Ball. He married (first) Elizabeth Spann, 
of Northumberland; (second) Elizabeth 
Lee, of the same county. He was a justice 
of Lancaster county in 1742; burgess from 
I ancaster in the assembly of 1748-1749. He 
died in 1753. 

Cooke, Giles, son of Mordecai Cooke, the 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



immigrant to Virginia, was tobacco agent 
m 1714, and was burgess for Gloucester 
county in the asseml)ly of 1 723- 1726. 

Cooke, John, came from Youghall in the 
county of Cork, Ireland, and settled in 
Overwharton parish, Stafford county, Vir- 
ginia, early in the eighteenth century. He 
married Elizabeth Travers, daughter of 
Raleigh Travers and his wife, Hannah Ball, 
half sister of jMary Ball, mother of Wash- 
ington. He had issue, a son, Tra\■er^e, and 
three daughters Ann, Hannah and }kIillion. 

Cooke, Moidecai, ancestor of a well- 
known family in \'irginia, patented October 
2. 1(150, 1,174 acres in Mobjack Bay, which 
he called "Mordecai's Alount." He had issue 
-Mordecai, Thomas, Giles, John, Alary mar- 
ried Thomas Booth ; Frances married Gab- 
riel Throckmorton, and Susannah married 
Henry Fitzhugh. He used the same arms 
as the Cookes of Whitefield, county Suffolk, 
England. (See Descendants of Mordecai 
Cooke of Mordecai's Mount," Gloucester 
county, \'irginia, by Dr. William Carter 
Slubbs). 

Cooke, Mordecai, Jr., son of Mordecai 
Cooke, patented land in 1703, was sheriff of 
(iloucester county in 1703 and burgess in 
i6gC-i. 1699, 1700-1702 and 1712-1714. 

Cooper, Sampson, of Ripon, Yorkshire, 
England, alderman, had extensive dealings 
with X'irginia and Maryland, died in North- 
umberland county in 1659, and was buried 
ai Colonel John Trussell's. He directed that 
his son Samuel should be sent back to Eng- 
hind and bound out to Samuel Coke, silk- 
man in London. To son Jonathan, meadow 
land at Maidstone in Kent; wife Bridget. 



Copeland, John, a Quaker, who suffered 
much at the hands of the New England 
I'uritans. When Thomas Story, the Quaker, 
visited him in Isle of Wight county in 1699, 
he showed him his right ear mutilated by 
the Puritans. 

Cooper, George, a justice of Northumber- 
land county, colonel of the militia, and bur- 
gess in 1692, 1699 and 1700-1702. His will 
dated November 13, 1708, was proved July 
18, 171 1. Made liberal gifts of land to the 
churches of his county and for the support 
of the aged and needful of St. Stephen's 
parish. 

Corbin, Gawin, of Middlesex county, son 
of Henry Corbin, of the colonial council, 
was naval officer of the Rappahannock in 
1705. He was burgess for Middlesex 
county in 1698, 1699, 1700-1702, 1703-1705, 
171 8- 1720 and for King and Queen county 
in 1715. He was county lieutenant. He 
married three times : (first) Catherine Wor- 
meley ; (second) Jane Lane, widow of Wil- 
lis A\'ilson of Elizabeth City county, and 
daughter of John Lane of King and Queen, 
and (third) Martha Bassett. He died Jan- 
uary I, 1745, and was father of: i. Richard 
Corbin, of "Laneville." 2. John Corbin, of 
"Portobago," Essex county. 3. Gawin Cor- 
bin, of "Pecatone."' 

Corbin, Gawin, son of Gawin Corbin and 
Jane Lane, his wife, lived at "Pekatone," 
Westmoreland county, and at "Laneville," 
King and Queen county. He was burgess 
for King and Queen county in 1736-1740 and 
for Middlesex county in 1742-1747. He mar- 
ried Hannah Lee, daughter of Thomas Lee, 
of "Stratford," Westmoreland county, Vir- 
ginia, and his will was proved in Westmore- 
land county January 29, 1760. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Corbin, John Tayloe, sou of Colonel Rich- 
ard Corbin, of "Lane\ille." King and Queen 
county, member of the council, was a bur- 
gess for King and Queen county 1769-1772, 
1772-1774, 1775; did not approve of sepa- 
ration from Great Britain ; he married Maria 
Waller, daughter of Judge Benjamin Wal- 
ler, of Williamsburg; grandfather of Gen- 
eral Richard Corbin, of the confederate 
army. 

Corker, John, was burgess for Passbehay 
in the assembly of September 4, 1632, and 
for Passbehay, James City and Chickahom- 
iny in that of February, 1633. He was clerk 
Of the house of burgesses in 1645 and was 
still clerk in 1653. He married Dorcas, born 
in 1601, and was father of William Corker 
(q. v.). 

Corker, William, son of John Corker ( q. 
\.) and Dorcas, his wife, was burgess for 
James City in 1655-1656, and captain of the 
militia. He married Lucy, daughter of 
Captain John White. He left three daugh- 
ters, Susanna, who married George Branch, 

Judith who married Clay, and I.ucy 

who married Jordan. His will was 

proved in Surry county September 4, 1677. 

Corprew, Joshua, was a burgess from 
Norfolk in the assembly of 1756- 1758. 

Cotton, Anne, wife of John Cotton of 
Queen's Creek, York county, Virginia. She 
wrote an account of Bacon's rebellion en- 
titled "Our Late Troubles in Virginia, 
written in 1676 by Mrs. An. Cotton of 
Q. Creeke" (Force's Tracts I. No. ix). In- 
ternal evidence shows that she was also the 
author of "A Narrative of the Indian and 
Civil Wars in Virginia in the years 1673 
and 1676" (Force's Tracts I. No. xi). 



Cotton, Rev. William, was minister of 
Accomac, and brother-in-law of William 
Stone, first Protestant governor of Mary- 
land. His mother Joane Cotton in 1640 was 
living at Bunbury in Cheshire, England. 
He died in 1640. 

Covington, Richard, was a burgess for 
Essex county in the assembly of 1703- 1705, 
and was justice of the peace and lieutenant- 
colonel of the militia. 

Cowles, Thomas, was burgess for James 
City county in 1698; sheriff in 1700. He 
was ancestor of a well-known family in 
James City county. 

Coxe, Richard, was a burgess from Wey- 
apoke in the assembly of if>32. 

Crabb, John, settled in Westmoreland 
county, \'irginia, was a successful merchant 
and married about 1673 Temperance, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Thomas Gerrard, and widow of 
Daniel Hutt, of the same county. He left 
sons Osman and Thomas Crabb. His 
brother, Osman Crabb, of Brislington, alias 
Busselton, Somerset, England, died about 
1695, leaving the bulk of his estate to his 
brother John, of \'irginia. 

Craddock, Lieutenant William, had 

charge in 1614 of the first salt works in 
Virginia on Smith's Island, near Cape 
Charles. In 1618 he was provost marshal 
of Bermuda City and of all the hundreds 
thereto belonging. He died before 1625. 

Crashaw, Raleigh (Rawley), member of 
the Virginia Company of London, came to 
Virginia in 1608. was prominent in the early 
adventures, went on a trading expedition 
up the Potomac at the time of the massacre 
in 1622, and so escaped death; member of 



IlLKGl'lSSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



219 



the licnise of Inirgcsses in 1623; was prob- 
ably a near relative of Rev. William and 
liis son. the poet. Crashaw. 

Crawford (Craford, Crafford), William, 

was a burgess from Lower Norfolk in the 
assembly of 1688, and from Norfolk in the 
assembly of 1696, and in' the session of 
November 16, 17 14, and in the assemblies 
of 1716, 1718, 1720-22. 1723-26, 1736-I/40, 
and 1 742- 1 747 

Crawley, Thomas, son of Robert and 
Margaret Crawley, was baptized in the par- 
ish of St. ^largaret's, Bristol. August 27, 
1637. He resided in Rappahannock county, 
Virginia, and left issue. 

Crew, Randall, was a burgess from Upper 
Norfolk in the assemblies of 1639, and 1642- 
43. and from Warwick in the assemblies of 
1645, and 164^1. 

Crews, Captain James, of Turkey Island, 
Henrico county, was one of Nathaniel 
liacon's most active friends. He was cap- 
tured by Sir William Berkeley, and hanged. 
As he never married, his property went to 
his nephew and niece in England, Matthew 
Crews, son of Francis Crews, deceased, and 
Sarah Whittingham. daughter of Edward 
Crews, deceased. 

Cripps, Zachariah, came to \'irginia in 
1 62 1, burgess for Warwick River, October, 
1629, commissioned justice of Warwick 
River 163 1 ; burgess for Stanley Hundred, 
1632-33, and 1639; patented in 1628 100 
acres at the end of Mulberry Island, adjoin- 
ing the land of Gilbert Peppet, deceased. 

Croshaw, Joseph, was justice of the peace 
of York county in 1655 ; and in subsequent 
years major of the militia ; and burgess for 



York county in 1656, 1659, and 1660. His 
estate in York county was called "Poplar 
Neck." In 1687 Colonel John West and 
Unity his wife, daughter of Major Joseph 
Croshaw, sold "Poplar Neck" to Edmund 
Jennings, Esq., who called it "Ripon Hall," 
after Ripon in Yorkshire, whence he came. 

Crump, Sergeant Thomas, was burges;. 
for James City, February, 1631-32, for Neck 
of Land. September, 1632. It is probable 
that he married Elizabeth, a daughter of 
Rev. Richard Bvick. 

Culpeper, Captain Alexander, whose 
father lost "life, liberty and estate in the 
King's service" was ajjpointed surveyor 
general of \'irginia in 1672, and again in 
the first year of James II. He appears to 
h;.\e had an interest with Lord Culpeper in 
the lands in the Northern Neck. He was 
bi other of Lady Frances Berkeley, wife of 
Sir William I^ierkeley. 

Curie, Nicholas, was son of Pasco Curie, 
of Elizabeth City county, and nephew of 
'J'homas Curie, which last was born in St. 
Michael's parish, Lewes, county Sussex, 
England, November 24, 1640 and died in 
Elizabeth City county May 30, 1700. Nich- 
olas Curie was member of the house of bur- 
gesses in 1710-1712 and died August 15. 
1714. He was grandfather of ^\'illiam Ros- 
cow ^\'ilson Curie. 

Currie, David, a native of Scotland, came 
t(. Virginia about 1743 and was minister of 
Lancaster county till his death in 1792. He 
came of a good family, and had doubtless 
received a university education. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Captain Ellyson 
Armistead, of York county, and Jane An- 
derson, his wife, and had issue, with other 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



children, Ellyson Ciirrie, a distinguished 
lawyer of Lancaster county, who died in 
1829. 

Curtis, John, was a burgess from Lancas- 
ter county in the assembly of 1659-1660. Me 
was son of Ah.jor Thomas Curtis and Aver- 
ilia, his wife. 

Curtis, Rice, son of Rice Curtis, of ]\Iid- 
dlesex county, was a magistrate of Spott- 
sylvania county, major in the militia, and 
burgess in the assemblies of 173(1-1740, 1748- 
1749. 1752-1755. 1756-1758- He resigned in 
1756 to accept the" office of sheriff. His will 
dated August 8, 1763. names son Rice, and 
daughters Mary Vass. Martha Pendleton. 
Elizabeth ^^'aller. Frances Carter and Jane 
Curtis. 

Custis, Hancock, a burgess for Acciimac 
county in 1710-1712. 

Dade, Francis, son of William Dade, Esq., 
of Tannington, county Suffolk, England, 
came to Virginia about 1650. He was 
doubtless in\olved in some royalist plot, for 
lic was for many years, known as John 
Smith. He married Behethland Bernard, 
daughter of Captain Thomas Bernard, bur- 
gess for Warwick county. He died at sea 
in 1662. He was a major in the militia of 
Westmoreland county. His widow married 
Major Andrew Cilson. 

Daingerfield, William, son of John Dain- 
gerfield and Anne Walker, his wife, daugh- 
ter of Colonel John Walker, of the council, 
he was burgess for Essex county in 1718, 
1723-1726, and 1727-1734. He married 
Elizabeth Bathurst, daughter of Lancelot 
F.athurst, attorney-at-law (q. v.). His will 
was proved in Essex county, November 18. 
1735- 



Daingerfield, William, Jr., son of William 
L'^aingerfield and Elizabeth Bathurst, his 
wife, was burgess for Essex county in 1754, 
175s and 1756-1758. He married Apphia 
r'auntleroy, daughter of Colonel Griffin 
Fauntleroy, of Northumberland county. He 
died in Essex, April 29, 1769, "at an ad- 
\anced age," and left issue. 

Dalby, Thomas, was Ijurgess from North- 
ampton count}' in the assemblv of 1761- 
^765. 

Dale, Edward, a royalist, came to Vir- 
ginia about 1650. His wife was Diana Skip- 
with. daughter of Sir Henry Skipwith, of 
Prestwould, in Lancashire, England. Dale 
was justice of the peace for Lancaster 
county. Mrginia, from 1669 to 1684; sheriff 
in 1670, if)ji. 1679 and 1680; burgess in 1677 
and 1682; major of militia in 1680; and 
clerk of the county from 1635 to 1674. He 
died February 2, 1695. His daughter Kath- 
erine married Captain Thomas Carter, of 
Lancaster county. 

Dandridge, Bartholomew, son of Colonel 
John Dandridge, of New Kent county, was 
born December 25, 1737, and died April 18, 
1785. He represented New Kent county in 
the house of burgesses in 1772- 1774 and 1775 
-1776, and in the conventions of 1775 and 
of 1776. He was a meml^er of the house 
of delegates and in 1778 was made judge of 
the general court. Brother of Mrs. Wash- 
ington. 

Dandridge, Colonel John, brother of Colo- 
nel \\'illiam Dandridee. of the council, was 
born in 1700, and came to Virginia about 
1722, when he had a grant of a water-front 
lot in Hampton, Elizabeth City county : 
clerk of New Kent county in 1747; married 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



f ranees Jones, daughter of Orlando Jones, 
on July 22, 1730; was father of Martha 
Pandridge, who married (first) Daniel 
Parke Custis ; (second) George Washing- 
ton. He died August 31, 1756, and was 
buried at Fredericksburg. 

Dandridge, Martha, daughter of Colonel 
John Dandridge of New Kent and Frances 
Jones, daughter of Orlando Jones, of King 
William county, was born June 2, 1731. She 
married (first) Daniel Parke Custis in 1749 
and had issue, one son surviving, John 
Parke Custis, who died in 1781, of camp- 
fever contracted at the siege of Yorktown, 
while serving on the staff of General Wash- 
ington. She married (second) General 
George Washington. Died May 22, 1802. 

Dandridge, Nathaniel West, was son of 

Colonel William Dandridge of the council, 
and Unity, his wife, only child of Colonel 
Nathaniel West, of West Point. He was a 
burgess from Hanover county from 1758 to 
1764, when he was defeated for reelection by 
Colonel James Littlepage. He contested 
the election and his attorney, Patrick Henry, 
made a great speech, but he was not suc- 
cessful. He married Dorothea, daughter of 
Governor Alexander Spotswood, and died 
January 16, 1786, leaving issue. 

Davenport, Joseph, first town clerk of 
Williamsburg. He died in 1761. His son 
Joseph studied at William and Mary, and 
i" I75S> went to England to be ordained. 
On his return, the same year, he became 
minister of Charles parish, York county, 
and remained such till his death in 1788. 
His son, Matthew, was writing master in 
the college. 

Davies, Samuel, an eminent Presbyterian 



divine, born in New Castle, Delaware, No- 
vember 3, 1723, of Welsh extraction, edu- 
cated under Rev. Samuel Blair at Fogg's 
Manor, came to Hanover county, Virginia, 
in 1746, and during his residence greatly 
increased the Presbyterian influence in Vir- 
ginia; in 1753 Mr. Davies went to England 
to solicit funds for the establishment of a 
college in New Jersey and in 1758, was 
chosen to succeed Jonathan Edwards as 
president. He died at Princeton, New Jer- 
sey, r^bruary 4, 1761. 

Davis, James, gentleman, came to Vir- 
ginia before 1616, as did his wife Rachel; 
settled in Henrico county. Thomas Davis, 
his son and heir, patented land in Isle of 
Wight county in 1633. 

Davis, Thomas, was burgess from Martin- 
Brandon (Captain John Martin's planta- 
tion) in the assembly of 1619. He was ex- 
cluded from the assembly, because Captain 
Martin claimed an exclusive authority under 
his patent. 

Davis, Thomas, was burgess for Warwick 
county in the assemblies of 1655-1656 and 
1657-1658. in 1662 he was granted 500 
acres, and is called "'major." 

Davis, William, was burgess from James 
City in the assemblies of 1642-43, and of 
1647. 

Dawkes, Henry, an ancient planter, came 
to Virginia in 1608, and in 1632 his "son and 
heir apparent," William Dawkes of Varina. 
patented lands due him for the personal 
adventure of his father, and for a subscrip- 
tion to the stock of the London Company, 
paid by his father. 

Dawson, Rev. Musgrave, son of William 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Dawson, of Aspatria, Cumberland county, 
England; born 1724, matriculated at Queen's 
College, Oxford, March 7, 1744; B. A., 1747; 
came to \'irginia and was minister of 
Raleigh parish, Amelia county, in 1754, of 
St. Mary's, Caroline, 1758 etc. He married 
in 1757 Mary Waugh, daughter of Alexan- 
der \\'augh. He was father of Hon. John 
Dawson, M. C. and brother of William 
Dawson, president of William and Mary 
College. 

Day, John, member of the house of bur- 
gesses for Isle of Wight county in 1775. He 
was a descendant of James Day, who mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of Thomas Bland and 
Mary Bennett, daughter of Edward Ben- 
nett, a London merchant, who in cooper- 
ation with his brother, Robert Bennett, his 
nephew, Richard Bennett, and others estab- 
lished the plantation called "Warrascoyack" 
in Isle of Wight county. 

Death, Richard, was burgess from Isle of 
Wight county in the assemblies of 1642-43 
and 1644. His will was dated March 3, 
1647. 

Debedeavon, otherwise "Laughing King," 
head chief of the Accomac Indians, who was 
a friend of the English at the time of the 
massacres of 1622, 1644, and would take no 
part in the murder. 

DeButts, Lawrence, came from England 
in 1 72 1, and was rector of Washington par- 
ish, Westmoreland county. He also served 
in St. Stephen's parish in Northumberland, 
Farnham in Richmond, and Cople parish 
in W^estmoreland county. In 1735 he re- 
moved to Maryland where he was minister 
of St. Mary's parish, in St. Mary's county 



^^f died in 1752, leaving a brother Robert 
DeButts. 

Delany, Henry, was a burgess for Meck- 
lenburg county in the assemblies of 1765, 
1766-68. He married Rebecca Brodnax, 
widow of Alexander \\'alker, and died in 
1785, leaving issue Edward, Mary Persons, 
Lucy wife of Rol:iert Brooking (son of Viv- 
iiin r.rooking), ^^'illianl, Lucy, Fanny. 

Delke, Captain Clement, born in 1598, 
ijrobably son of Sir Thomas Delke, of Max- 
toke Castle, Warwickshire, and his wife, 
Ann, daughter of Sir Clement Fisher, of 
Packington ; he and others contracted in 
1623 with the London Company to bring 
over 100 emigrants; afterwards in 1627 he 
patented land on the eastern shore ; in 1624 
a member of the house of burgesses. 

Delke (or Dilke), Roger, came to Vir- 
ginia before 1625, when he was one of the 
servants of Mr. John Chew at Hog Island. 
He was burgess for Stanley Hundred in 
1631-32. He died about 1635, leaving a 
widow .Alice and son Roger. 

Denson, 'William, was burgess from Up- 
per Norfolk, in the assembly of 1659-60. 

DeRichebourg, Claude Phillipe, came to 
\irginia in 1700 with the French Hugue- 
nots. He was minister of Alanakintown, 
but, owing to disputes in the parish which 
were referred to the council of Virginia, he 
left Virginia in 1707, and with numerous 
followers, settled in the Carolinas. 

Dewey, Stephen, a lawyer of distinction, 
was King's attorney for Charles City 
county in 1740, and burgess for Prince 
George county in 1752-1755. He married 
Elizabeth Walker, daughter of George 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



Walker, of Elizabeth City county, and 
Anne Keith, his wife, daughter of George 
Keith, the eminent preacher, of Pennsyl- 
vania. George Wythe, nephew to his wife, 
studied in his office. 

Dick, Charles, one of the trustees of Alex- 
andria, appointed major and commissary 
during the French and Indian W'ar. Dur- 
ing the American revolution he was ap- 
pointed one of a board to carry on a powder 
factory at Fredericksburg. He had one son 
and two daughters : Alexander Dick, a 
major in the revolution, and Eleanor, who 
married Judge James Mercer, and Mary 
Dick, who married (first) Sir John Peyton, 
and (second) James Taliaferro. He died in 
1779, at Fredericksburg. 

Digges, Dudley, son of Dudley Digges 
Esq., and Susannah Cole, his wife, was jus- 
tice of Goochland in 1735. burgess for the 
county in 1732, and in 1741 qualified as an 
attorney-at-law. He married Mary Hubard. 
daughter of James Hubard, of York county, 
and left several children, who died without 
issue. One of them Maria Digges. was 
stewardess of William and Alary College. 

Digges, Edward, was eldest son of Colo- 
nel Cole Digges and Elizabeth Power, his 
wife, was sworn justice of the peace for 
Yorktown in 1734, commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel of horse and foot for York county. 
November 18, 1734, sworn county lieuten- 
ant, September 19. 1748. Member of the 
house of burgesses from 1736 to 1752. He 
died March 22, 1769. He lived at "Bellfield" 
York county, and his wife was Anne Har- 
rison, daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Har- 
rison, of the council. 

Digges, William, eldest son of Governor 



Edward Digges, was justice of the peace 
for York county in 1671 ; captain of horse in 
1674; cut off one of Thomas Hansford's 
fingers in a hand-to-hand fight during 
Bacon's rebellion ; sheriff of York county in 
1679; removed to Alaryland soon after, and 
died in 1698. He was member of the Mary- 
land council and lieutenant-colonel. He 
married Elizabeth Sewell. daughter of Henry 
Sewell, of Patuxent, Maryland, step-daugh- 
ter of the third Lord Baltimore. 

Digges, William, son of Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Cole Digges, of the council, by Elizabeth 
J'ower, his wife, lived at "Denbigh," War- 
wick county. He was lieutenant-colonel of 
the Warwick militia, justice of the peace 
and from 1752 to 1772 was member of the 
house of burgesses. He married Frances 
Robinson, daughter of Major Anthony Rob- 
inson, of York count}-. Me left issue. 

Dipnall (Dipdall), Thomas, was a burgess 
from James City county in the assembly of 
1654. He was son of Rev. John Dipdall, 
who patented lands on Powell's Creek, 
south side of James river in 1653. 

Dixon, Adam, yeoman, came to Virginia 
in 161 2 as master cawker of ships for three 
\ears at thirty-six shillings per month. l)ut 
he was forcibly detained in service seven 
more years. He returned to England in 
1622. when he made complaint of not being 
ptiid for his services and of being by Sir 
George Yardley turned out of his land ; re- 
turning the same year with his wife and 
daughter, he received in 1672 200 acres on 
the south side of James river. 

Dixon, Rev. John, son of John Dixon, of 
Bristol, Esquire, and Lucy, daughter of 
Thomas Reade, of Gloucester countv, Vir- 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ginia, was educated at William and Mary 
College ; entered the ministry of the Church 
of England ; appointed usher of William 
and Mary College, March 28, 1747; ap- 
pointed rector of Kingston parish, Glou- 
cester county, now Mathews county, 1754; 
professor of divinity of William and Mary, 
1770; sympathized with England during 
the revolution ; prominent Mason ; buried 
in the new church of Kingston parish, May 
4. 1777- 

Dixon, John, was a printer, who married 
Susanna Hunter, daughter of William 
Hunter, second editor of the "Virginia 
Gazette." He formed a partnership with 
Alexander Purdie to carry on the paper 
after Hunter's death, which continued until 
1774 when he took ip. William Hunter Jr., 
as his partner. In 1778 Hunter left Vir- 
ginia, and Thomas Nicholson was substi- 
tuted. This partnership continued in Rich- 
mond, when the editors moved their of^ce 
in 1780. Dixon died in Richmond in 1791. 

Dixon, John, a merchant of Bristol, Eng- 
land, came to Virginia in the early part of 
the eighteenth century and acquired large 
tracts of land in Hanover, Louisa, Albe- 
marle and Culpeper counties. He was a 
vestryman of St. Paul's parish, Hanover 
county, 1 744- 1 748. He removed to England 
with his second wife, Anne Lyde, and died 
ii; 1758 at Bristol. By his first wife, Lucy 
Reade, he was father of Rev. John Dixon, 
Roger Dixon and Thomas Dixon. 

Dixon, Roger, son of John Dixon, Esq., 
of Bristol, and brother of Rev. John Dixon ; 
went from King and Queen county to 
Spottsylvania county ; admitted to practice 
as an attorney in Spottsylvania court, Feb- 



ruary 7, 1748. He lived in Fredericksburg, 
where he purchased a large tract of land at 
the lower end of the town, which he later 
divided into smaller tracts and sold. He 
owned large tracts of land in various coun- 
ties. He engaged largely in merchandizing. 
He was vestryman of St. George's parish; 
justice of the peace for Spottsylvania county 
1760- 1770; first clerk for Culpeper county, 
1749-1772 ; trustee of the town of Falmouth ; 
member of the house of burgesses for Spott- 
sylvania county, 1769-1771. He married 
Lucy, daughter of Major Philip Rootes. of 
Rosewall, King and Queen county, Vir- 
ginia, and Mildred, his wife, daughter of 
Thomas Reade, of Gloucester county, his 
first cousin. 

Doak, Robert, Ijurgess for Fincastle 
county, in 1772-1774, but unseated May 9, 
1774. because at the time of his election he 
held the office of deputy surveyor. 

Doe, Thomas, was burgess from Archer's 
Hope, in the assembly of 1629. 

Doggett, Rev. Benjamin, appears to have 
come from Ipswich, England, to Virginia. 
He was minister in Lancaster county for 
quite a number of years. He died in 1682 
leaving descendants. 

Donelson, John, was a burgess from Pitt- 
sylvania county in the assemblies of i\Tay, 
1769, 1 769- 1 77 1, 1 772- 1 774. 

Doran, was a burgess for New Kent 
county in the assembly of 1734-1740. 

Dormer, Sir Fleetwood, formerly of Arle- 
Court, Gloucestershire, son of Sir Fleetwood 
Dormer, of Lee Grange and Purton, Bucks, 
was in Virginia in 1649, probably a royalist 
refugee. In 1684, John Dormer, of James 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



2^5 



City county, Virginia, was a vestryman of 
Bruton parish church, at Middle Planta- 
tion (now Williamsburg). 

Douglas, Edward, was an early resident 
of Northampton county, where he was a 
justice, captain of the militia and at the 
time of his death in 1657 lieutenant-colonel. 
He was burgess for the county in 1644 and 
1646. He left descendants. 

Douglas, George, a native of Accomac 
county, and burgess in 1742-1747, and 1752- 
1755. He was a descendant of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Edward Douglas (q. v.). 

Douglas, William, was the son of Hugh 
Douglas, of Gavalland in the parish of Old 
Cumnock, Scotland. In 1770 he was one of 
the justices of Loudoun county, Virginia, 
and in 1780 high sheriff. His will dated 
June 3, 1780, was proved at March term of 
the Loudoun county court. 

Doughty, Francis, was the son of a Bris- 
tol alderman and had been vicar of Sodbury, 
Gloucester. He first settled in New Eng- 
land, then moved to Manhattan and getting 
in trouble in both places, he went in 1656 
to Northampton county, Virginia, where he 
lived with his brother-in-law, William 
Stone, afterwards governor of Maryland. 
He became minister of Hungar's parish, and 
in 1657 married Ann Eaton, widow of Na- 
thaniel Eaton. He did not remain long but 
moved to Essex county, where he was min- 
ister of Sittingbourn parish. In 1659 he is 
next found in Maryland living with his 
dsughter. He is generally regarded as of 
Puritan sympathies. 

Downing, Mr. John, was a burgess from 
Northumberland county in the assembly of 

VIA-15 



1692-93. Richard Rogers and Richard Flint 
were first elected representatives from Nor- 
thumberland in that assembly; their seats 
were, however, contested, and the sheriff of 
Northumberland was required to amend his 
return in favor of Mr. John Downing and 
Captain William Jones. 

Downman, John, was born in 1592, came 
tc \'irginia in 1614; one of the commission- 
ers of the peace for Elizabeth City, March, 
1629, and burgess for the same October, 
1629; Elizabeth Downman, doubtless his 
wife was born in 1599, came in the IVarzvick, 
1621. 

Downes, George, member of the house of 
burgesses for "the lower parish of Elizabeth 
City," Februarv, 1631-1632, and September, 
1632. 

Downs, Henry, was a burgess from 
Orange county in the session of May 6, 
1742. He was expelled during that session 
for "stealing a white sheep," in Maryland, 
before he settled in Virginia. He was at 
one time a King's justice. In 1751 he is 
mentioned in an Orange county court order 
as "a runaway." 

Dowse, Thomas, was a burgess from the 
cit}- of Henricus in the assembly of 1619. 
He came to Virginia in 1608, and was one 
of the few early settlers that survived. 

Doyley, Cope, son of Charles Doyley, .of 
Southrop, county Gloucester, England, ma- 
triculated at Wadham College, Oxford, 
March 10, 1675-1676, aged 16; B. A. from 
Merton College, 1680. Came to Virginia 
about 1697 ^"d was minister of Bruton par- 
ish till his death in 1704. He had two sons, 
Charles and Cope, and a brother Rev. Rob- 



226 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



ert Doyley, B. A. and M. A. of Wadham 
College, and rector of several parishes in 
England. 

Drew, Dolphin, was a 1)urgess for Isle of 
Wight county in the assembly of 1766- 
1768. and justice of the peace in 1772. 

Drummond, Richard, son of John Drum- 
mond, of Accomac county, born 1636, who 
married the daughter of Richard Hill, was 
burgess for Accomac in the sessions of 
1712-14 and 1715. 

Drummond, Sarah, wife of Colonel Wil- 
liam Drummond, one of the heroines of 
Bacon's rebellion. When others doubted 
she picked up from the ground a small stick 
and broke it, and said : "I fear the power of 
England no more than a broken straw." 
She was probably a daughter of Edward 
Prescott, who in his will left her a lot at 
Jamestown. After the execution of her hus- 
band, she complained to the British gov- 
ernment of the cruelty of Sir William 
Berkeley to her husband and five children 

Drummond, William, a native, of Scot- 
land, came to Virginia about 1660, and in 
1665-1667 served under Berkeley as first 
governor of North Carolina, afterwards re- 
sided at Jamestown ; was sheriff of James 
City county in 1660; was burgess in 1676; 
took sides with Bacon in Bacon's rebellion, 
and was executed January 20, 1676, at Mid- 
dle plantation. The English authorities 
condemned his execution and his property 
was restored to his widow, Sarah. He left 
a son William, and a daughter married 
Samuel Swann, of North Carolina. 

Dudley, Ambrose, was a burgess from 
Gloucester county in the assembly of 1710- 
1712. Son of Richard Dudley, of Middle- 



sex county, and brother of ^lajor Robert 
Dudley (q. v.). 

Dudley, Robert, son of Richard Dudley, 
was major of the militia in Aliddlesex 
county and one of the justices. From 1685 
to 1697 he was one of the burgesses for the 
county. He had property both in England 
and \'irginia. His will dated October 14, 
1701, was proved November 3, 1701. He 
left a brother Ambrose Dudley, two sons, 
Robert and George, and two daughters, 
Avarilla and Elizabeth. 

Dunn, Nicholas, chief clerk to the kitchen 
of Charles I., came to \"irginia about 1649. 
He died there. 

Dunston, John, was burgess for James 
City in 1649. 

Dunlap, Rev. William, came to \'irginia 
fiom Peimsylvania, and in 1774 was min- 
ister of Stratton Major parish, King and 
Queen county. He had a library of "sev- 
eral thousand volumes in most arts and 
sciences." He was afterwards rector of St. 
Paul's parish, Hanover county. He died in 
September, 1779. His daughter, Deborah, 
married John Robinson, of "Green Branch," 
Middlesex county, Virginia. 

Dunlop, William, merchant of Dumfries, 
Prince William county, was born in 1707 
and died December 21, 1739. He was son 
or Alexander Dunlop, Greek professor in 
the University of Glasgow, and grandson 
of William Dunlop, president of that Uni- 
versity, who died in Glasgow in March, 
1700. Both his father and grandfather had 
lived in South Carolina. 

Durand, William, was an elder in ihe 

Puritan congregations, in Nansemond and 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



Elizabeth City counties. Because he would 
not conform to the established church of the 
colon), he was banished in 1648, and went 
to Maryland with many other banished Vir- 
ginia Puritans. He became secretary of the 
province in 1654, and was one of Governor 
William Fuller's councillors in 1655. His 
(vill was proved in 1672. 

Duvall, Samuel, a merchant of Henrico 
county, was burgess for the county from 
about March 10, 1772 to 1776, and member 
of the convention of August, 1774, and 
March 20. 1775 ; member of the county com- 
mittee of Henrico; i-n 1780 one of the com- 
mittee to locate the capitol square in Rich- 
mond ; his will was proved in Henrico, 
March i, 1784. His daughter, Lucy married 
Major Andrew Dunscomb, of New York, 
who settled in Richmond and was mayor of 
the city in 1780. 

Dykes, James, was son of John Dykes, of 
Waterford, Scotland. He was born Novem- 
ber 3, 1769, and married Sarah, daughter of 
William Roane, of Essex county, brother 
of Judge Spencer Roane. 

Each, Captain Samuel, of Limehouse, in 
Middlesex county, England, mariner, con- 
tracted in 1622 with the Virginia Company 
of London to build a blockhouse on the 
Oyster banks at Blunt Point, James river. 
He was to be given 60,000 pounds of tobacco 
for the work, but in his voyage over in his 
ship the Abigail, a distemper broke out of 
which he and most of his men died. Captain 
Each owned land in Martin's Brandon. His 
will was proved April 21, 1623. 

Earle, Samuel, was a burgess from Fred- 
erick county, in the assembly of 1742-1747. 

Eaton, John, son of John Eaton, of York 



count}-, who died in 1717, was burgess for 
James City county in the assemblies of 
■7-7-'734 and of 1734-1740. He was captahi 
of militia. Died in 1739 and William Mar- 
able took his place in the house of bur- 
gesses. 

Eaton, Nathaniel, was the first piincifjal 
of Harvard College, and brother of the gov- 
ernor of New Haven. For his unchristian 
methods he was debarred from teaching in 
AJassachusetts, and in 1639 came to Acco- 
mac. His wife and children were drowned 
at sea, but after his arrival he married Anne 
Graves, daughter of Thomas Graves, a mem- 
ber of the Dorchester church, who immi- 
grated to Virginia. Eaton became one of 
the assistants of Rev. John Rozier. In 1646 
he left the colony for England, where he 
lived privately till the revolution of Charles 
II. He conformed and preached at Biddi- 
ford, where, it is said, he persecuted the 
Puritans. He fell into debt in some way, 
was cast in prison, and died while a pris- 
oner. 

Eaton, Thomas, founder of the second 
free school, patented lands at the head of 
Rack river in Elizabeth City county in 1634. 
In 1638, he patented in the same quarters 
650 acres, and in 1659 "being at present weak 
but whole and perfect in memory," deeded 
500 acres of this land and all the housing, 
together with two negroes, twelve cows and 
two bulls, twenty hogs, young and old, one 
bedstead, a table, a cheese press, twelve 
milk trays, a twelve gallon iron kettle, pot- 
racks and pot hooks, milk pails, water tubs 
and powdering tubs for the support of an 
able schoolmaster to teach the children born 
in Elizabeth City county." In 1805 "Eat- 
on's School" was incorporated with Syms* 



228 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



school as Hampton Academy. It is now 
known as the Syms-Eaton Academy. The 
joint fund amounts at present to $10,000. 

Edlow (Edloe), Matthew, came to Vir- 
ginia in 1618, and in 1629 was a member of 
the house of burgesses for "the plantation 
at the College." He married Alice, the 
widow of Luke Boys. He was dead in 
1637, leaving a son Matthew (q. v.). 

Edlow (Edloe), Matthew, son of Mat- 
thew Edlow (q. v.), had a grant of 1,200 
acres in James City county, over against 
Chippokes Creek in 1637. As captain, he 
was burgess for James City in 1659. He 
was later lieutenant-colonel of the militia. 
He married Tabitha (probably Minge) and 
died in 1668, leaving a son John. 

Edmunds, John, probably son of Thomas 
Edmunds, of Surry, was burgess for Sus- 
sex county in the assemblies of 1752-1755, 
1756-1758, 1758-1761. 1761-1765, October, 
1765, 1766, 1768, May, 1769 and 1769-1771. 
He died before the last assembly was out. 
His will dated February 13, 1770, was 
proved April 10, 1770. 

Edmunds, Thomas, was burgess for Surry 
county in the assembly of 1736-1740. He 
died in 1738, before his term was out. 

Edmundson, James, son of Thomas Ed- 
mundson, and Dorothy, daughter of Colo- 
nel William Todd, was burgess for Essex 
county in the assemblies of 1769-1771, 1772- 
1774, 1 775- 1 776 and the conventions of 1774, 
1775 and 1776. He married Miss Throck- 
morton, and died about 1791, leaving his 
property to his Throckmorton nephews and 
nieces. 

Edmondson, Thomas, was a burgess from 



Essex county in the assemblies of 1693, and 
1696-97; and in the sessions of Decembei 
5, 1700, and May 13, and June 18, 1702. He 
died in 1715 leaving eight sons: James, 
Joseph, William, Bryant, Thomas, Samuel, 
Benjamin, and John, and two daughters, 
Sarah liaughan and .\nne Haynie. 

Edwards, Nathaniel, son of John Ed- 
wards, settled in Brunswick county, where 
he was one of the first members of the 
county court. He was a justice of the peace 
and major of the militia. He married Jane 
Eaton, widow of Anthony Haynes, and died 
ill 1771, leaving issue, several children, one 
of whom was Nathaniel, Jr., who repre- 
sented Brunswick in the house of burgesses 
from 1769 to 1 77 1. 

Edwards, William, merchant, was prob- 
ably son of William Edwards, mentioned 
among the dead in 1624; patented lands on 
the south side of James river opposite to 
Jamestown about 1648, was a burgess for 
Surry in 1652 and 1653, and clerk from 1653 
till his death in 1673. He was born in 1615 
and had by his wife Dorothy, three sons, 
William (q. v.), John and Thomas. 

Edwards, William, son of William Ed- 
wards, and Dorothy, his wife, was clerk of 
the general court in 1688, from 1673 t'l^ 
1698 was clerk of Surry county court, and 
in 1694 was clerk of the council for the 
colony. He married Ann Manfield, daugh- 
ter of George Manfield, and died in 1698. 
He resided, for the most part, in Jamestown, 
where he had a lot near the church tower, 
and another near Orchard Run. He left 
issue a son William (q. v.). 

Edwards, William, son of William Ed- 
wards, and Ann Manfield, his wife, had lots 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



229 



at Jamestown and plantations in Surry. 
He represented Surry county in tlie house 
of burgesses, 1703-1705. 1706, and his will 
dated January 9, 1722, was proved in Surry 
county, February 25, 1722. He married 
(first) Elizabeth, daughter of Colonel Ben- 
jamin Harrison; (second) a daughter of 
Micajah Lowe, merchant, of Charles Cit_\-. 
and nephew of Micajah Perry, of Lon- 
don. 

Eggleston, Joseph, was a burgess for 
James City county in the assembly of 1727- 
1734. but he died in 1732. He was ancestor 
0; the Egglestons of Amelia county. 

Eldridge, Thomas, son of Thomas I'.ld- 
ridge. an attorney-at-law, and Judith Ken- 
iion. his wife. He married (first) Martha 
riolling, a descendant of Pocahontas; (sec- 
ond) Elizabeth Jones, daughter of James 
and Sarah (Howell) Jones, of Surry county. 
P.y his first marriage he had Rolfe Eldridge. 
clerk of Buckingham county from 1770 to 
1806. 

Elligood, Jacob, probably descended from 
Elias La Guard, one of the French \'ig- 
neron planters at Ruck Roe. Elizabeth City 
county, in 1620: jiistice of Princess Anne 
county in 1730 and other years; burgess in 
the assemblies of 1736-1740, 1742-1747, 1748- 
1749 probably father of Colonel Jacob Elli- 
good. who sided with Dunmore in 1775. and 
j left the colon}-. 

Ellyson (Ellison), Robert, came to Mary- 
land as "Barber Chirurgeon'" before i''i43. 

' .-nd after holding the office of high sherilif 
"f St. Mary's county, emigrated to James- 
tiiwn. where he was high sheriff of James 
City county, and sergeant-at-arms of the 

[ house of burgesses in 1657-1^158. and a 



leading burgess in 1656, 1660. 1661, 1663, 
with the rank of captain. He left a daugh- 
ter Hannah, who married Anthony Armis- 
ttad, and a son Gerard Robert Ellyson 

Embry, Henry, was in 1727 captain of the 
Surry county militia. In 1732 he was a 
justice of the first court of Brunswick. He 
represented that county in the assembly in 
the sessions of 1736- 1740 and in 1748- 1749. 
In 1746 he was commander of the Lunen- 
burg militia. Died about 1758, and his 
widow Priscilla married William Hill. 

Embry, William, son of Henry Embry, 
was a burgess from Lunenburg county in 
the assemblies of 1754, 1755 and 1756-1758. 
He was an early vestryman of Cumberland 
parish, Lunenburg county. His will, dated 
in 1760, names sons William and Henry. 

Emerson, William, was a burgess from 
A\'eyanoke in the assembly of 1632-33. 

Emerson, Rev, Arthur, was a son of John 
Emerson, of New Castle-on-Tyne; B. A. of 
Oxford University, 1733; went to Antigua 
ii: 1736. and in 1755 was member of Acco- 
mac. He left a son. Arthur, who was also 
a minister (q. v.). 

Emerson, Rev. Arthur, son of Rev. 
Arthur Emerson, educated at William and 
Mary College, where he was assistant usher 
and usher to the grammar school (1762- 
1765) ; was ordained a minister in England 
f.nd returned in 1768; rector of Meherrin 
parish, Greensville county, 1773-1776; after- 
wards rector in Nansemond county, where 
in 1785 he had a classical school ; rector of 
Portsmouth parish, Norfolk county, from 
1785 to 1801, when he died. 

Emperor, Francis, probaldyson of Francis 



22,0 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Emperor, of Norwich, England, who was 
born in 1584. He appears to have come to 
Virginia about 1650. and settled in Lyn- 
haven parish, Norfolk county. He was a 
ccmmissioner, high sheriff and surveyor 
and collector of the customs. He had his 
t)wn ships and traded with New Amster- 
dam, New England and the West Indies. 
He was a Puritan in sympathy. He married 
Mary Tully and died in 1676, leaving sons 
Francis, William and Tully Emperor, and 
daughter Elizabeth Philips. The original 
iiame appears to have been De Ke}ser, and 
its first members in England were Dutch- 
men. 

English, Captain John, of Isle of Wight 
count}-, burgess in 1658-59; will proved Oc- 
tober 9, 1678. 

English, William, justice for York county 
in 1633, member of the house of burgesses 
for Elizabeth City county in 1629, 1632, and 
1633. As sheriff of Charles river, or York 
county, in 1635, he was present at the meet- 
ing at William Warren's house near the 
jjresent Yorktown, which was held to pro- 
test against the tyranny of Sir John Har- 
vey. He was arrested by Harvey, but re- 
leased by the assembly. He died in 1646, 
leaving issue by his wife Susannah, Eliza- 
beth, William and Dennis English. 

Ennalls, Bartholomew, emigrated to \'ir- 
ginia about i66o, and in 1661 married Mary, 
niece of Francis He^ward, deceased. He 
afterwards removed to Maryland where in 
1674 he patented "Bartholomew's Range." 
He died in 1688. leaving issue. 

Eppes, Francis, son of Captain Francis 
Eppes, of the council, was born about 1628 
and died in 1678. He was a justice of Hen- 



rico county, lieutenant-colonel of militia, 
married, and left issue, Francis, William, 
1 ittlebury, Mary, married John Hardiman, 
and Anne. 

Eppes, Colonel Francis, of Henrico, born 
1659, died about January, 1718-1719, was 
the son of Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Ep- 
I'CS, and grandson of Captain Francis Eppes. 
of the council. He was justice of Henrico 
county in 1683 and for many other years : 
sheriff; burgess, 1691, 1693, ^"d 1703-1705. 
1 705-1706. He married Ann, daughter of 
Henry and Katherine Isham, of Bermuda 
Hundred, and his will was proved in June, 
1720. 

Eppes, Colonel Francis, son of Colonel 
Francis Eppes, and Anne Isham, his wife, 
was made a justice of Henrico county in 
1 710: and in March, 1 719- 1720, was ap- 
pointed a trustee of Bermuda Hundred, in 
the place of his deceased father. He was a 
member of the house of burgesses in 1712- 
7714, and died in 1734. 

Eppes, Francis, was a burgess for Prince 
George county in 1736, 1738, 1740, 1742, 
1744, 1745. 1746, 1747, 1748, 1749. 

Eppes, John, was a burgess for Prince 
George county in 1755. 

Eppes, Richard, son of Colonel Francis 
Eppes. of Henrico, who died in 1734. resided 
in Chesterfield county, and was burgess for 
that county in the assemblies of 1752-1755. 
1756-1758. 1759-1761. 1761-1765. He died in 
1764. Married Martha, daughter of Robert 
Boiling. His will is recorded in Chester- 
field county, and disposes of a large estate. 

Epps, Captain William, came to Virginia 
in 1619, and resided on the eastern shore of 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



^''irgmia in 1624 with Mrs. Epps, and Peter 
and William Epps. Not long after his ar- 
rival, he had a duel with Captain Edward 
Stalling, whom he killed. In 1633, he ap- 
pears to have been resident in the Island 
of St. Christopher's. 

Eppes, Littlebury, was a son of Colonel 
Francis Eppes, of Henrico, and grandson 
of Captain Francis Eppes, of the council. 
He resided in Charles City county, was jus- 
tice of the peace in 1699 and many other 
years, burgess for Charles City in 1710-1712 
and 1712-1714, and county clerk in 1714. 

Eskridge, Colonel George, came to Vir- 
ginia about 1090, was a lawyer, attorney for 
the King in \\'estmoreland county, member 
of the house of burgesses in 1705-1706, 1710- 
1712, 1712-1714, 1718, 1720-1722, 1723-1726 
and 1727-1734. From 1702 to 1729, he was 
granted several thousand acres of land in 
the eastern part of Virginia. He died about 
1730. He married Hannah Ashton and left 
issue ; portraits of himself and his wife are 
still preserved. 

Eskridge, Samuel, son of Colonel George 
Flskridge, was a burgess for Northumber- 
land county in the assemblies of 1769-1771 
and 1772-1774, but died before the last ses- 
sion, and Peter Presley Thornton took his 
place. He married Jane Steptoe. 

Everard, Thomas, was clerk of Elizabeth 
City county from 1743 to 1745, then clerk 
of York county from 1743 to 1784. He 
served also as clerk of the committee of 
courts of the house of burgesses, and as 
commissioner of accounts. His daughter, 
Martha, married Dr. Isaac Hall, of Peters- 
burg. He was probably a near relative 



of Sir Richard Everard, governor of North 
Carolina. 

Ewell, Solomon, was a burgess from Ac- 
comac county in the assemblies of 1718 and 
1720-1722. He was probably a brother of 
Charles Ewell, of Northumlierland county. 

Eyre, Littleton, was burgess from North- 
ampton county from 1742 to 1761. De- 
scended from Thomas Eyre, who died in 
1657- 

Eyre, Severn, probably a son of Littleton 
Eyre (q. v.), was burgess in the assemblies 
of 1766-1768, 1769, 1769-1771 and 1772-1774, 
but he died in 1773. He visited New Eng- 
land for his health and John Adams com- 
mented upon his ability and general intelli- 
gence. 

Eyres (Eyre) Robert, was a burgess from 
Lower Norfolk county in the assemblies of 
1646 and 1648. Thomas Eyre, a Quaker, 
lived about the same time in Accomac 
county and died in 1657. His widow, Sus- 
anna ( Haker) Eyres, married (second) Cap- 
tain Francis Pott, and (third) Lieutenant- 
Colonel William Kendall. Robert Eyres, or 
I'.yre, died Ijefore 1647, when John Custis 
married his widow, Elizabeth. Robert arid 
Thomas Eyre may have been sons of 
Thomas Ayres or Eyres, who was one of 
the company to settle near Warascoyack in 
Isle of ^^'ight county in 1622. 

Fairfax, Bryan, eldest son of Flon. Wil- 
liam P'airfax (q. v.), of the council of state. 
and Deborah Clarke, his second wife. He 
served in the French and Indian war, went 
tC' England in 1765, and while there the 
troubles began in Virginia relative to the 
Stamp .\ct. He condemned the Stamp 



I 



232 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Act and although he disapproved of 
the later revenue act, he disapproved of 
forcible resistance. In the year 1789 he be- 
came a minister of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and on the death of Rev. David 
Griffith, he became minister of Fairfax par- 
ish. He served from 1789 to 1792, when he 
resigned. In 1800 the house of lords ad- 
mitted his title as Lord Fairfax of Cameron, 
and hi.s right to a seat in their body. He 
died in 1802 at Mount Eagle, near Alex- 
andria, \^irginia. 

Fairfax, Ferdinando, was a \'irginia mer- 
chant of London, and resided in X'irginia 
in 1659 and other years. He was son of 
Colonel Charles Fairfax, of Menston, York- 
shire, and grandson of Thomas, first Lord 
Fairfax. He was born in 1636, and died 
it! 1664. 

Fairfax, Lord Thomas, of Leeds Castle. 
Kent, England, sixth baron of Cameron in 
Scotland, was the son of Lord Thomas 
Fairfax, fifth baron, matriculated at Oriel 
College, Oxford, January 24, 1709-1710. Was 
heir through his mother Catherine, only 
daughter and heiress of Lord Thomas Cul- 
peper, to the northern neck of Virginia, 
came to Virginia in 1739 and again in 1745, 
when he remained until his death, Decem- 
ber 9, 1 781, aged ninety years. He lived at 
"Greenway Court," near Winchester, and 
was a friend of George Washington. He 
never married, and he was succeeded as 
seventh baron by his brother Rol^ert in 
Scotland, and he in turn by his cousin. Rev. 
P.ryan Fairfax as eighth baron. 

Farley, Thomas, of Worcestershire, gent- 
leman, came in the Ann in 1623, and the 
same year was living at Archer's Hope with 



his wife. Jane and daughter Ann. He was 
a burgess for the plantations between Har- 
rop and Archer's Hope and Martin's Hun- 
dred at the session of March, 1629-30, and 
for Archer's Hope, February, 1631-32. 

Farlow, George, was one of Cromwell's 
soldiers, and an expert mathematician. He 
came to Virginia probably about 1660 and 
took part with Bacon in 1676. He was cap- 
tured and hanged. His niece Lydia mar- 
ried Major Edmund Chisman, another of 
Bacon's officers. 

Farmer, Lodowick, was a burgess for 
Lunenburg count}- in the assembly of 1769- 
1771. He died in 1780, and left issue. 

Farmer, Thomas, was burgess from The 
Plantations of the college and neck of land, 
in the assembly of 1629-30. 

Farnefold, John, son of Sir Thomas Far- 
iiefold, of Gatwickes in Staynning, Sussex 
county, England, came to Virginia before 
1672, and was minister of Fairfield parish 
Northumberland county. In 1680 he was 
n.inister of St. Stephen's parish, and re- 
mained so till his death in 1702. By his 
will he provided for a free school in North- 
umberland county. He married Elizabeth, 
widow of Captain William Nutt, but left no 
issue. 

Farrar, Lieutenant-Colonel John, was sc)n 
of Captain William Farrar of the Virginia 
council, who was a kinsman of Nicholas 
Farrar (Ferrer), deputy treasurer of the 
Mrginia Company of London. He was jus- 
tice of Henrico county. 1677-1684, sheriff. 
1683: burgess. 1680, 16S2. 1684. and died un- 
married about March, 1685. 

Farrar, Colonel William, was son of Cap- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



233 



tain William Farrar, of the council, a kins- 
man of Nicholas Farrar (or Ferrer), deputy 
tieasurer of the London Company. He lived 
at Farrar's Neck in Henrico county, and 
was burgess, 1662, 1663, 1666. He married 
Mary , and died about January, 1678. 

Farrar, Major William, son of Colonel 
\ViIliam I'^arrar and Mary, his wife, was 
born 1657, died 1715; justice of Henrico 
county, 1685-1715 ; sheriff, 1690 and other 
years; burgess in 1700-1702. He married 
(first) Priscilla, daughter of William Baugh 
Jr.. and (second) Mary, widow of William 
Ligon. Me proba]:)ly died in 1721, as in 
^Jay of that year, his widow Mary pre- 
.scntefl an inventory of his estate in Hen- 
rico county curt. 

Farrell, Major Hubert, was one of Berke- 
Ic} 's officers during Bacon's rebellion, was 
wounded in defence of Jamestown, and 
killed in a fight at Colonel Nathaniel 
I bacon's house at King's Creek in August, 
1676. He married Dorothy, daughter of 
Colonel Thomas Drew, of Charles City 
county. Her tomb which was removed a 
few years ago from Weyanoke, Charles 
City county, to St. Paul's Church, Norfolk, 
states that she died January 18. 1673. 

Faulcon, Nicholas, was a burgess for 
Surry county in the assembly of 1772-1774, 
in the place of Hartwell Cocke, who died 
about August, 1772. 

Fawdoin (Fawdown), George, resided in 
Isle of Wight county where he was major 
of the militia in 1653, and burgess in 1646 
and 1652. He married Ann Smith, who was 
daughter of the first wife of Colonel Nathan- 
iel Bacon, Ann Bassett. 

Fauntleroy, Moore, was a member of an 



ancient English family and was son of John 
Fauntleroy, gentleman, and Phoebe Wilkin- 
son, his wife, of Crondall, Hampshire. He 
stttled, first at Nansemond, and afterwards 
removed to the northern neck of V^irginia. 
He was major and colonel of the militia, 
and burgess for Upper Norfolk, Nansemond 
county, in 1645 ^^'^ 1647; for Lancaster 
county, in 165 1, 1653 and 1656; and for Rap- 
pahannock county in 1659 and 1660. He 
was a man of great influence in the colony. 
He married (first) in England. Dorothy, 
dpughter of Thomas Colle ; (second) in 
Virginia, Mary Hill. He died before 1665, 
leaving issue. 

Fauntleroy, William, grandson of Colo- 
nel Moore Fauntleroy (q. v.), and son of 
^^'illiam Fauntleroy, of Rappahannock 
county, by Katherine Griffin, his wife, was 
born in 1684 ; was lieutenant-colonel of the 
Richmond county militia and burgesi for 
that county in 1736- 1740, 1742, 1747 and 
1749. He married Apphia, daughter of John 
Bushrod, of Westmoreland county, and died 
in 1757, leaving issue. 

Fawcett (Fossett), Thomas, was a bur- 
gess from Martin's Hundred in the assem- 
blies of 1629 and 1629-1630. 

Feild, John, son of Abraham h'eild. of 
Culpeper county, served as captain in the 
French and Indian war, was burgess for 
Culpeper in the assemblies of 1761-1763, 
1 766- 1 768, and was killed while colonel of 
a regiment at the battle of Point Pleasant, 
October 10, 1774. 

Feild, Henry, Jr., son of Henry Feild. 
succeeded his father as vestryman of St. 
Mark's parish, Culpeper county, and was 
hurgess for the county in the assemblies of 



^34 



VIRGINIA inOGRAPHY 



1769, 1 769- 1 77 1, 1 772- 1 774 and 1775. and in 
the con\'entions of August, 1774, March. 
i/zS' July- i/zS' December, 1775, and May, 
1776. He died in 1785, leaving six sons. 

Feild, Peter, born about 1647, was major 
of the militia of Henrico and burgess in 
1688 and iC)93. He died in New Kent 
county. July 24, 1707. He married twice, 
(first) Judith Soane, daughter of Henry 
Soane, speaker of the house of burgesses, 
by whom he had Mary, who married 
Thomas Jefiferson, grandfather of President 

Thomas Jefferson ; (second) Alice , 

who survived him. 

Felgate, Captain Robert, was in Virginia 
before 1626, was a justice of the peace, and 
a burgess for the "Plantations on the other 
side of the Water," in 1629 and 1630, pat- 
ented land on Fellgate's Creek, York county, 
and died there about 1655. He married 

twice (first) Margaret ; (second) 

Sibella Atkins, widow of Atkins. His 

brother Tobias was a well known ship cap- 
tain and another brother, William, was a 
skinner in London, who settled in Virginia 
and died 1660. 

Felgate, Captain Tobias, mariner, pat- 
ented in 1632, lands adjoining his brother 
Captain Robert Felgate's. As early as 1632 
he had made five voyages to Virginia as 
mate and master. Felgate's Creek in York 
county gets its name from him. 

Fielding, Ambrose, was a son of Rev. 
Roger Fielding, an Episcopal clergyman of 
Horton, Gloucestershire, England, and set- 
tled in Northumberland county, Virginia, in 
1G67. He was a justice of the county court 
from 1669 to his death in 1675. His inven- 
tory mentions plate with the Fielding arms. 



He left issue Richard, Edward and .\nne. 
His brother. Dr. Robert Fielding, was 
ejected in 1648 from his fellowship in Ba- 
liol College, Oxford, by the parliamentary 
party. His brother Richard lived for a time 
in Virginia and had a large estate in both 
England and Virginia. His brother Edward 
was one of the aldermen of the city of Bris- 
tol, and had a plantation in Northumber- 
land county, Virginia. 

Filmer, Henry, was a burgess from James 
City county in the assembly of 1642-1643. 
lie resided in James City and Warwick 
counties : he was son of Sir Edward Filmer, 
of East Sutton, Kent, and his wife, iiliza- 
l^eth, daughter of Richard Argall and sister 
of Samuel Argall, governor of Virginia. 
Henry Filmer's brother. Sir Rol:)ert, was a 
strong cavalier and suffered much for his 
loyalty to the King. Henry Filmer left de- 
scendants and his name appears in several 
of the present \\'arwick county families. 

Fishback, John, son of Philip Fishback 
and Elizabeth Heimbach, his wife, of 
Truppbach, near Siegen, Nassau, Germany, 
was born July 12, 1691, and came to Vir- 
ginia as a member of the colony of miners 
settled by Spotswood at Germanna, Vir- 
ginia, in 1 714. He moved with the other 
f^rerman settlers to Germantown in T-'au- 
quier county about 1721. He married Agnes 
Haeger, daughter of the pastor, Henry 
Haeger. His will was probated in Prince 
William county, March 19, 1734. 

Fitzhugh, George, son of \\'illiam Fitz- 
hugh, of "Bedford," was a member of the 
house of burgesses for Stafford county in 
1718. He married Mary, daughter of Colo- 
nel George Mason, of Stafford, and died in- 



BL'RGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



235 



testate about 1722, leaving issue George and 
William. 

Fitzhugh, Henry, sun of William Fitz- 
hugh, of "Bedford," King George county, 
was born January 15, 1686-87, and died De- 
cember 12, 1758. He was high sherif? of 
Stafford county in 1715, and burgess in 
1712-1714. He married February 24, 1718, 
Susanna, daughter of Mordecai Cooke, of 
Gloucester county. He was a man of large 
estate in lands and slaves. His portrait by 
John Heselius is still preserved. 

Fitzhugh, Henry, of "Bedford," son of 
Henry Fitzhugh, was born September 10, 
1723, and died in February, 1783. He mar- 
ried, October 2^, 1746, Sarah Battaile, of 
Caroline county. He was colonel of the 
Stafford county militia. He had issue Henry, 
John Battaile, William, George, Thomas, 
Nicholas, Richard, Mordecai Cooke, Bat- 
taile, Giles. Sarah, Susan, Mary. 

Fitzhugh, Henry, only son of \\illiam 
Fitzhugh, Esq., of "Eagle's Nest," Stafford 
county, (now King George), was born in 
1706 and died December 6, 1742. He ma- 
triculated at Christ Church, Oxford, Octo- 
ber 20, 1722, and on his return to Virginia 
settled on his paternal estate in Stafford 
ceiunty (now King George). He was mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses in 1736- 174c 
and 1 742- 1 747, and was once an unsuccess- 
ful candidate for speakership. He was also 
lieutenant-colonel of the Stafford militia. 
He married Lucy, daughter of Hon. Robert 
Carter, of "Corotoman." He left a large 
and valuable estate. 

Fitzhugh, Major John, son of William 
l-'itzhugh, of "Bedford," was a member of 
the house of burgesses for Stafford county 



from 1727 to his death, January 21, 1733. 
He married on or before 1719, Anna Bar- 
bara, daughter of Daniel McCarthy, speaker 
of the house of burgesses. He left issue 
William, Daniel, Sarah, Barbara, John. 

Fitzhugh, Colonel William, of "Marmion" 
Stafford county, (now King George j, son 
of Major John Fitzhugh, was born April 
13, 1725, and died in 1791 ; major of the Staf- 
ford militia in 1752, and burgess from 1761 
to 17O5. He married twice, (first) Ursula, 
daughter of Colonel William Beverley, of 
lUandfield, Essex county, and (second) 
Hannah . 

Fitzhugh, William, son of Henry Fitz- 
hugh, of the town of Bedford, England, was 
Ijaptized at St. Paul's Church, Bedford, Jan- 
uary ID, 1651. He acquired a good education 
and came to Virginia about 1670 and settled 
at Bedford in Staff'ord county (but now 
King George). William Fitzhugh practiced 
law and was also a large planter and dealer 
in tobacco. He was burgess for Stafford 
from 1676 to 1686, and lieutenant-colonel 
commanding the Stafford militia. At his 
death in 1700, he left an estate of 54,000 
acres of land. He married Mary, daughter 
of John Tucker, of Westmoreland county. 
Fie had issue, four sons, William, Henry, 
Thomas, George and John. 

Fitzhugh, William, son of George Fitz- 
hugh, born 1721, died February 11, 1798, 
resided first in Staff'ord county, X'irginia. 
In 1740 he was captain in \'ernon's Cartha- 
ginian expedition, under Sir William Gooch. 
He was member of the house of burgesses 
for Stafford from 1748 to 1758. In 1759 he 
removed to Maryland and was soon ap- 
i)ointed a member of the colonial council 



^36 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



there. An active friend of the revolution, 
he was a member of the Maryland conven- 
tion of August, 1776, and was afterwards 
of the council of state. During the revolu- 
tion his house, "Rousby Hall," was burnt 
by the British. He married (first) March 
28, 1744, Martha, daughter of Richard Lee, 
widow of George Turberville. He married 
(second) Anne, daughter of Peregrin Fris- 
by, of Cecil county, Maryland. 

Fleming, John, Jr., son of Colonel John 
Fleming, was a lawyer, and represented 
Cumberland county in the house of bur- 
gesses in the assemblies of 1755, 1756-1758. 
1759-1761, 1761-1765 and 1765-1768. The 
"Virginia Gazette" recorded the death of 
this "eminent practitioner of the law," Jan- 
uary 21. 1767. He left a son John. 

Fleming, John, was son of Charles l~lem- 
ing and Susannah Tarleton, his wife. He 
was colonel commanding the militia of 
Goochland, and burgess for Goochland in 
1732. He married Mary Boiling, and his 
will recorded in Cumberland, December 27, 
1756, names sons John, Charles, Thomas. 
Richard and William, and daughters Mary, 
married William Bernard, and Caroline. 
His sons Charles and Thomas were promi- 
nent officers in the American revolution and 
his son William was judge of the superior 
court of Virginia. 

Fleming, Robert, was a burgess from 
Caroline county in the session of August 5, 
1736. In the session of November i, 1738, 
John Martin represented Caroline county in 
place of Robert Fleming, deceased. 

Fletcher, George, brother of James Flet- 
cher, gentleman, of Eltham, Kent, England. 
In 1647, George Fletcher is called of Lon- 



don, merchant. He was burgess in 1652 
for Northumberland county, Virginia, and 
lieutenant-colonel of the militia. 

Fleet, Henry, was son of William Fleet, 
gentleman, of Chartham in Kent, England. 
by his wife Deborah Scott, daughter 1 >t 
Charles Scott, of Egerton, Kent, and Jane 
Vv'yatt, his wife. He had three brothers 
Edward, Reynold and John, who were mem- 
bers of the Maryland legislature. Henry 
Fleet, born probably 1595-1600 came to Vir- 
ginia about 1623, and was one of the expedi- 
tion of twenty-six men, who under Henry 
Spelman went to trade with the Anacostan 
Indians and other Indian bands between 
Potomac Creek and the falls of the Poto- 
mac. Spelman was killed ; Fleet was taken 
prisoner, and remained with the Indians 
about four years, during wliich time he 
acquired a familiar knowledge of the Indian 
language. He was ransomed in 1627, and 
went to England and became a partner and 
agent for several London merchants in the 
Indian trade. He was an interpreter, trader 
and legislator in iMaryland. He acted as 
guide to Leonard Calvert and his settlers 
to St. Mary"s in 1634. After the civil war 
l)egan in England, Fleet identified himself 
with the \'irginia colony, and settled at 
Fleet's Bay, Northumberland county. He 
traded with the Indians, and in 1646 was 
authorized to build a fort on the Rappahan- 
nock river. In December, 1652, he was bur- 
gess for Lancaster count3\ About this time 
he and William Claiborne were authorized 
to hunt out new places for Indian trade. In 
if')54 he was made interpreter of the expedi- 
tion then planned against the Indians. He 
was a justice of Lancaster county in 1656 
and lieutenant-colonel of the militia. He 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



died about 1661, leaving a widow Sarah, 
who had previously married Colonel John 
Walker. 

Flint, Richard, burgess for Northumber- 
land county, 1693, but his seat was con- 
tested, and he was unseated. 

Flint, Lieutenant Thomas, came to Vir- 
ginia in 1618, burgess for Warwick River, 
1629, 1629-1630; for Keith's Creek, 1631 ; for 
Stanley Hundred, 1632 ; for Denbigh, 1632- 
1633 ; for Warwick county, 1642-1643, 1647 ; 
commissioner for Warwick River, 1631. He 

married Mary . In 1628 he received 

1,000 acres on Warwick river for importing 
twenty persons into the colony. 

Flinton, Pharoah, gentleman, came to 
Virginia in 1612, settled in Elizabeth City, 
where he patented land between Newport 
News and Blunt Point in 1624. 

Flood, John, came to Virginia in 1610, 
his wife Margaret in 1620; in 1616 was one 
of Rev. Alexander Whitaker's men at 
Charles City, living at Jordan's Journey in 
1625 ; burgess for Flower Dewe Hundred 
in 1630 and for Westover, Flower Dewe 
Hundred and Weyanoke in 1632; settled 
about 1638 on the south side of James river 
in Surry county, near "Four Mile Tree"; 
burgess for James City county in 1642, 1645. 
Indian interpreter, 1646; burgess for James 
City county, 1652, 1656. Captain in 1642, 
lieutenant-colonel, 1652. He died in Surry 
county, 1661. His son Captain Thomas 
Flood succeeded him as interpreter. He 
married Fortune Jordan, sister of Colonel 
George Jordan. 

Flournoy, Jacob, son of Jaques Flournoy, 
or Geneva, Switzerland, was born January 
5, 1663. He was a Huguenot, who came to 



237 

Virginia inM7oo, and settled with other per- 
sc'us of same religious views at Manakin- 
town, above Richmond. He had a nephew 
John James Flournoy, who also settled in 
Virginia. 

Flournoy, John James, born November 
17, 1686, was son of Jaques Flournoy, of 
Geneva, and Julia Eyraud. his wife, came 
to Virginia about 1717, and settled at Wil- 
liamsburg, where he married Elizabeth, 
daughter of James Williams, and widow of 
Orlando Jones. He was nephew of Jacob 
Flournoy, immigrant. 

Floyd, Charles, was a burgess from Nor- 
thampton in the session of November 16, 
1714, and in the assembly of 1718. 

Folliott, Rev. Edward, son of Sir John 
Folliott and Elizabeth Aylmer, daughter of 
John Aylmer, Bishop of London, was born 
in 1610. matriculated at Hart Hall, Oxford, 
April 13, 1632, and was rector of Alderton, 
Northamptonshire, in 1634 and until it was 
sequestered by parliament. He came to 
Virginia before 1652. In 1660 he was min- 
ister of Marston parish in York county, and 
afterwards of York parish. He left two 
daughters : i. Elizabeth Folliott who married 
(first) Josias Moody, and (secondly) Cap- 
tain Charles Hansford. 2. Mary, who mar- 
ried (first) Dr. Henry Power, and (sec- 
ondly) John Seal. 

Follis, "Mr. Thomas," was a burgess from 
James City in the assembly of 1641. 

Fontaine, Francis, a French Huguenot, 
son of Rev. James Fontaine, who was born 
at Jenouelle, France, and grandson of James 
Fontaine, pastor of Vaux and Royan. He 
was born September 16, 1697, was minister 
of the French settlement at Manakintown, 



^38 



\JKG1X1A BIOGRAPHY 



Virginia, from 1720-1722, professor of 
Oriental languages in William and Alary 
College in 1729, rector of Yorkhampton 
parish, 1722- 1749. Died the latter 3-ear. He 
married (first) Mary Glaneson ; (second) 
Susanna Brush. He left issue. 

Fontaine, James Maury, son of Rev. 
I'rancis Fontaine, by Susanna Brush, his 
wife, was born in 1738, educated at William 
and Alary College, where he was described 
as "knowing more than any other boy in the 
country of his age" ; was ordained in Eng- 
land in 1763 ; on his return was rector of 
Petsworth and \\'are parishes in Gloucester 
county. 

Fontaine, John, brother of Rev. Francis 
Fontaine (q. v.), was born in 1693, ensign 
in the British army and served in Spain, 
visited Virginia in 1714 and went with Gov- 
ernor Spotswood on the "Ultra Montane 
Expedition" of which he kept a diary. He 
returned to England. 

Fontaine, Peter, brother of Francis Fon- 
taine (q. v.), was born in 1691 ; ordained a 
minister by the Bishop of London, came to 
Virginia in 1716, rector of Manakintown 
and Westover parishes, chaplain to the Vir- 
ginia commission which ran the boundary 
line between Virginia and North Carolina 
in 1728-1729. He died July, 1757. He mar- 
ried (first) Elizabeth Fourreau ; (second) 
Elizabeth Wade. 

Foote, Richard, was the emigrant ances- 
tor of the Foote family in Virginia and the 
south. He was son of John Foote, gentle- 
man, and was born at Cardenham, county 
Cornwall, England, August 10, 1632. The 
F'ootes were an old family in Cornwall. He 
married Hester, daughter of Nicholas Hay- 



ward, of London, merchant, who dealt ex- 
tensively with Virginia. He came to Vir- 
ginia about 1655, and was carrying on the 
business of a merchant in London in 1689. 
He left a son Richard Foote, born June 31, 
1666, who came to Virginia about the end 
of the seventeenth century, settled in Staf- 
ford county, where he died March 21, 1719. 
He was ancestor of Hon. H. S. Foote, of 
Mississippi. 

Ford, Richard, was a burgess from James 
City in the assembly of 1659-1660. 

Fossaker, Captain Richard, was a burgess 
for Stafford county in 1702, 1704. 1705. He 
married the daughter and executrix of Cap- 
tain John Withers, and had a grandson, 
John Fossaker, living in Stafford in 1756. 

Foster, Joseph, nephew of Captain Wil- 
liam liassett, first of that name in Virginia, 
came from Newport, Southampton county, 
England, and was a justice of New Kent 
county, and burgess in 1688, 1696, and 1700- 
1702; vestryman of St. Peter's parish, New 
Kent, and lieutenant-colonel of the militia. 
He died about 1715, leaving issue. 

Foster, Captain Richard, a burgess from 
Lower Norfolk county in i65r). 

Fouace, Stephen, came to \'irginia in 
1688. was minister of Hampton parish, York 
county, one of the original trustees of Wil- 
liam and Alary College, 1693. He returned 
to England in 1702, when he resided in 
Chelsea, Middlesex county. In 1729 he 
joined with Dr. James Blair, as the only 
other surviving trustee under the college 
charter, in executing a deed of transfer to 
the faculty. 

Fowke (Foulke), Gerard, a royalist, son 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROM JX EXT PERSONS 



239 



ot Koger Fowke, of Gunston Hall, Stafford- 
shire, England, came to Virginia about 1650 
and in 1655 was a justice of Westmoreland 
county; lieutenant-colonel in i66i, and a 
burgess in 1663. In 1664 he removed to 
Maryland, where he was a burgess for 
Charles City county in 1665, and became 
justice for the same October 22, 1667. He 
died in 1669. He married Ann, widow of 
Colonel Job Chandler, of Port Tobago, 
Maryland. His daughter Mary was grand- 
mother of Colonel George Mason, author of 
the "Virginia Declaration of Rights. ' 

Fowke (Foulke), Thomas, brother of 
Colonel Gerard Fowke (q. v.), was born in 
England and came to Virginia about 1650; 
captain of militia and burgess for James 
City county in 1659, and afterwards on his 
removal to Westmoreland county was bur- 
gess in 1660. He died in 1663 without issue. 

Fowler, Bartholomew, was commissioned 
attorney general of Virginia, June 22, 1699. 
He resided in Henrico county, and died 
about 1703, when his widow Sarah (Archer) 
married Dr. Archibald Blair. 

Fowler, Francis, born 1601, was a burgess 
in 1641 and 1642, for James City county. 
In 163s he patented 900 acres of land in 
James City county, opposite Jouring Point. 

Fox, David, son of Captain David Fox, 
a prominent merchant and officer of Lan- 
caster county, who died in 1669, was born 
March 12, 1650. He married Hannah Ball, 
daughter of Colonel William Ball. He was 
one of the justices with the rank of captain, 
and served as burgess for Lancaster in the 
assemblies of 1677, 1680, 1685-86, 1692-93. 
He died in 1702. and was father of William 
Fox (q. v.). 



Fox, Henry, was son of John Fox, a ship 
captain, who traded extensively with Vir- 
ginia from 1655 to his death in 1683. Henry 
I-'ox was a vestryman of St. John's parish. 
King and Queen county in 1695, ^"d jus- 
tice of the court in 1699. When King Wil- 
liam county was formed from King and 
yueen county, Henry Fox's estate was in 
that county. He was a member of the house 
of burgesses in 1710, 1712, 1714, and died in 
1714. By his wife, Anne, daughter of Colo- 
nel John West, he had several sons, Jofin, 
Thomas and Henry Fox. 

Fox, Henry, son of Henry Fox, of King 
William county, was sheriff' of King Wil- 
liam in 1724 and 1725, and about 1730 he 
removed to Brunswick county, of which he 
was one of the first justices and one of the 
two first representatives in the house of 
burgesses in 1732. 

Fox, Rev. John, was usher in the gram- 
mar school of William and Mary College 
in 1729. master of the Indian school 1730- 
1737, and afterwards served as rector of 
Ware parish, Gloucester county. He mar- 
ried Isabella, daughter of Thomas Booth, 
o! (iloucester county. 

Fox, Major Richard, a royalist officer, 
came to \'irginia in 1649. He afterwards 
returned, was at once arrested by order of 
the council of state, but released on promis- 
ing "to leave town in four dajs and be of 
good behavior." 

Fox, William, son of Captain David Fox 
(q. v.), was a justice of the peace and bur- 
gess for Lancaster county in 1700-1702. He 
was also a captain of militia. He married 
.\nn Chinn, but died without issue in 1718. 



240 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



His widow married (secondly) Richard 
Chichester, Esq. 

Francis, Thomas, w-^s a burgess from Uj.- 
per Norfolk in the assembly of 1657-1658. 

Franklin, "Mr. Ferdinand," was a burgess 
from James City in the assembly of 1641, 
and a burgess (county unknown) in the 
assembly of 1642. 

Fry, John, son of Colonel Joshua Fry and 
his wife, Mary Micou, was born November 
7, 1737. He was vestryman of St. Anne's 
parish, Albemarle county, and burgess for 
the county from 1761 to 1764, when his seat 
was vacated by his accepting the office of 
coroner. He was colonel of the Albemarle 
militia. He married Sarah, daughter of 
Ebenezer Adams, of New Kent, by whom 
he left issue. 

Fry, Joshua, son of Joseph Fry, of Crew- 
kerne, Somersetshire, England, yeoman, 
was born in 1700; matriculated at Wadham 
College, Oxford, March 31, 1718. He came 
to Virginia about 1720, was vestryman and 
magistrate in Essex county. In 1729 he 
was appointed master of the grammar 
school at William and Mary College and 
in 1732 was made professor of natural phil- 
osophy and mathematics and continued as 
such till 1737. when he was succeeded by 
John Graeme. He removed to Albemarle 
county, which he represented in the house 
of burgesses from 1744 to 1754. In 1732 
Joshua Fry, Robert Brooke, and William 
Mayo petitioned the house of burgesses for 
aid in making a map of the colony of Vir- 
ginia, but the petition was rejected. He was 
a justice and surveyor for Albemarle county 
and in 1745 was appointed county lieuten 
ant. The same year he acted as commis- 



sioner to mark the western line of the north- 
ern neck, granted to Lord Culpeper. In 
1749 Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson com- 
pleted their map of Virginia, and the same 
year he was one of the commissioners to | 
continue the line between ' Virginia and j 
North Carolina, which in 1728 had been ' 
run from the Atlantic ocean to Peter's 
Creek by William Byrd and others. This 
line was completed to the Tennessee river 
by Thomas Walker and David Smith, on 
the part of Virginia as commissioners. In 
1752 he was one of the commissioners to 
negotiate the treaty of Logstown in the 
Ohio, by which the "Six Nations" surrend- 
ered their claim to the territory south of 
the Ohio river, ^^■hen the French and In- 
dian war began. Fry was made colonel of 
the regiment to defend the Ohio river, and 
Washington was lieutenant-colonel. Soon 
after, while on the march, he died at Wills" 
Creek, May 31, 1754. He married Mary 
Micon, widow of Colonel Hill, and daughter 
of Paul Micou, who was an exile from 
France to Essex county. | 

French, Daniel, lived in Culpeper county 
where he was one of the justices. He was 
son of Hugh French, of St. Mary's parish. 
Richmond county, who died about 1701, and 
father of Margaret French, who married 
James Strother. 

Fulford, "Mr. Francis," was burgess from 
Henrico in the assembly of 1641. 

Gaines, Harry, was burgess for King 
William county in 1766 and 1767, and major 
of the militia. He died in July, 1767. 

Gaddes (Gadis), John, burgess for James 
City county in 1705-1706. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



241 



Gale, Thomas, was a burgess from Isle 
of Wight in the assembly of 1752-1755. 

Gait, Dr. John M., was son of Samuel 
Gait, a covenanter, of Londonderry, Ireland, 
who came to Virginia about 1735, and mar- 
ried Lucy Servant. He was born in 1744, 
was educated at William and Alary College 
and studied medicine at Edinburgh and 
Paris, 1765-66-67. He was for a time a sur- 
geon with the Hudson Bay Company, set- 
tled in Williamsburg, Virginia, and was 
vestryman of Bruten parish church. In 1774 
he was one of the committee of safety for 
Williamsburg. During the American war 
he had charge of the sick soldiers in 
the hospitals in and around Williamsburg. 
He married Judith Craig, daughter of Alex- 
ander Craig and Mary Manpin, his wife. 
He died in 1808. 

Galthorpe, Stephen, sailed with the first 
fctttlers to Virginia in 1606. In the West 
Indies he attempted to raise a mutiny 
among the passengers. He died during the 
summer at Jamestown, August 15, 1607. 

Gany, William, came to Virginia in 1616, 
and his wife Ann came in 1620. In 1624, 
aged thirty-three, he was living at Elizabeth 
City. In 1635 he obtained a patent for land 
in Accomac, due him on account of the per- 
sonal adventure of his wife Ann, son Wil- 
liam, daughter Ann, brother Henry Gany, 
and the importation of twenty-one ser- 
vants. 

Gardner, Captain Thomas, had command 
in 1673 of his majesty's hired ship The Bar- 
naby. In 1676 he was in command of The 
Adam and Eve stationed in James river 
and captured Bacon when he came to take 
part in the assembly after his first march 



against the Indians. This caused his ar- 
rest during Bacon's assembly and his being 
imprisoned and fined. 

Garnett, James, son of John Garnett, of 
Essex county, was a burgess from Essex 
county in 1741 and in the assembly of 1742- 
1747. He married Elizabeth Muscoe, 
daughter of Salvator Muscoe, a lawyer and 
burgess, and his will was proved in Essex 
ccunty, July 15, 1765. He was father of 
Muscoe Garnett, who married Grace Fen- 
ton Mercer, daughter of John Mercer, the 
celebrated lawyer. 

Gaskins, Thomas, son of Thomas Gas- 
kms and Mary Conway, daughter of Colo- 
nel Edwin Conway, was burgess for North- 
umberland county in 1766-1768; lieutenant- 
colonel, justice, etc. He married Sarah Eus- 
tace, and was father of Thomas Gaskins, 
lieutenant-colonel of the Fourth Virginia 
Regiment in the revolution. His will was 
proved April 12, 1785. 

Glasscock, Thomas, member of an in- 
fluential family of Richmond county, was 
burgess for that county in the assembly of 
May, 1769. 

George, John, patented, in 1635, 900 acres 
on Bayley's Creek in Prince George county, 
due for the importation of his wife Jane and 
seventeen other persons. He was after- 
wards a prominent citizen of Isle of Wight 
count}', for which he was burgess in 1647 
and 1652; lieutenant-colonel of militia, etc 
He died in 1678. 

Gerrard, Dr. Thomas, an early emigrant 
to Maryland, where he was for a long time 
member of the council. His first wife was 
Susanna, daughter of Justinian Snow. 



242 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Lord Baltimore's factor in the tobacco 
trade. Gerrard was banished from Mary- 
land for taking part in the rebellion of 
Josias Fendall. He settled at Machodick, 
Westmoreland county, and his will dated 
February i, 1672, was proved November 
19, 1673. 

Gibbes, Lieutenant, was a burgess from 
Captain Ward's plantation in the assembly 
of 1619. 

Gibson, Jonathan, was burgess from 
Caroline county in the assembly of 1736- 
1740. 

Giles (Gyles), John, was burgess from 
Isle of Wight county in the assembly of 
1696-97, 1698, 1699. 

Giles (Gyles) Thomas, was a burgess from 
Isle of Wight county in the sessions of May 
13, and June 18, 1702. In 1694 he was one 
of the justices of Isle of Wight county. 

Gill, Captain Stephen, a chirurgeon, pat- 
ented in 1636 100 acres in Charles River 
county (York) on account of the personal 
adventure of his now wife, Ann Gill, and her 
late husband, Henry Toppin. He was a 
justice of York in 1652 and burgess in 1653. 
His will was proved August 2, 1653. 

Glassell, Andrew, son of Robert Glassell, 
of Rucan, in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, who 
lived "near Torthorwald, the castle of the 
Douglass," was born in Galloway, Scotland, 
October 8, 1738, emigrated to Madison 
county, Virginia, in 1756. He built a splen- 
did mansion upon the Upper Robinson river 
and called it "Torthorwald." He married 
Elizabeth Taylor, daughter of Erasmus 
Taylor, great-uncle of President Zachary 
Taylor. He died in Virginia, July 24. 1827, 



leaving issue. His brother, John Glassell, 
was a merchant in Fredericksburg, who 
acquired a large fortune. On the breaking 
out of the American revolution he returned 
to Scotland and resided on his estate. Long 
Nidry, sixteen miles from Edinburgh. His 
only daughter and heiress, Joanna, married 
April 17, 1820, John, seventh Duke of Argyle 

Godfrey, Matthew, was a burgess from 
Norfolk in the sessions of December 5, 1700, 
May 13, and June 18, 1702. He was son of 
John Godfrey, whose will was proved in 
Norfolk county. May 15, 1710. 

Godwin, Joseph, burgess for Isle of Wight 
county in 1710-1712, 1712-1714, 1723-1726, 
1727-1734. He was son of Colonel Thomas 
Godwin and Martha Bridger, his wife. 

Godwin, Rev. Morgan, entered Oxford in 
1661 and March 16, 1665, received the Bach- 
elor of Arts degree. He came to Virginia 
soon after and took charge of Marston par- 
ish, York county. He resided for a short 
time at Jamestown, and after visiting the 
West Indies returned to England. In 1680 
he published a pamphlet against slavery 
called "The Negroes' and Indians' Advo- 
cate" and five years later preached a sermon 
in Westminster Abbey against the evils of 
the slave trade, thus preceding Wilberforce 
and Clarkson by more than a century. His 
fcither, Rev. Morgan Godwin, was arch- 
deacon of Shropshire, his grandfather bishop 
of Hereford, and his great-grandfather. 
Thomas Godwin, was bishop of Bath and 
Wells. 

Godwin, Thomas, first of the family in 
Virginia, was burgess for Nansemond 
county in 1654 and 1655. In 1674 "Capt. 
Thomas Godwin is referred to as an 'antient' 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



243 



inhabitant of Nanzemond Countie Court." 
In March, 1676, he is referred to as "colo- 
nel," and as "Col. Thomas Godwin" he was 
speaker of the house of burgesses in June, 

1676, which passed "Bacon's Laws." His 
will was dated March 24, 1677, and names 
sons, Thomas (q. v.) and Edmund, and 
daughter Elizabeth. 

Godwin, Thomas, son of Colonel Thomas 
Godwin, was member of the Nansemond 
county court in 1680, with title of captain. 
He was later colonel, commanding the 
militia of Nansemond, and presiding justice 
or the county. He married Martha Bridger, 
daughter of Colonel Joseph Bridger, of the 
council. His will, dated May 3, 1712, was 
proved in Nansemond, May 27, 1714. He 
had issue — ^Thomas, Joseph, Edmund, Sam- 
uel, William, Martha. Mary and James. 

Godwin, Thomas, Jr., son of Colonel 
Thomas Godwm and Martha Bridger, his 
v/ife, was returned by the sheriff as elected 
to a seat in the assembly of 1699,, but the 
assembly set aside the return in favor of 
Thomas Milner. He was a member in 1710- 
1712, 1712-1714 and 1723-1726. and sheriff. 
^73^- ^73^ ^"^ 1734- He married Mar)- 
Pitt, and left issue. 

Gooch (Gouge, Gough), Henry, was prob- 
ably a brother of Major William Gooch, of 
the council, who died in York count}-, Octo- 
ber 29, 1655. He was a justice and lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the York county militia. 
He took sides with Bacon in 1676, and after 
the surrender of West Point, January 16, 

1677, Lawrence and the other rebels held 
tlieir last meeting at Colonel Gooch's home 
in what is now King William county, on the 
Pamunkey river. While Lawrence, Whaley 
and Forth took to the wilderness, Gooch 



surrendered to Sir William Berkeley. He 
was sentenced to pay a fine of 6,000 pounds 
of tobacco and to beg mercy on his bended 
knees in court. He married Jane Jones, 
d.iughter of Rev. Rowland Jones, of Bruton 
parish, York county (see "William and 
Mary College Quarterly," vol. v, 110-112). 

Goodrich, Charles, was a burgess from 
Charles City county in the assembly of 
1696-97. He was son of John Goodrich, 
who made his will in Isle of Wight county 
in 1698. 

Goodrich, Edward, son of Edward Good- 
rich, of Prince George county (q. v.), was a 
burgess from Brunswick county in 1755- 
1758. 1758-1761. He was sheriff of Brun.s- 
wick in 1759. 

Goodrich, Edward, was a burgess from 
Prince George county in 171 1, 1712-1714, 
1715. 1718. 1720. He died the latter year, 
and in his will names children — Mary. Eliz- 
abeth, Benjamin and Edward. 

Goodrich, John, was burgess for Isle of 
Wight county in 1695-1696, but died before 
the opening of the second session. He was 
born in 1652 and left issue — George and 
Jfhn. and four daughters. 

Goode, Bennett, was son of John Goode, 
of Fall's Plantation, Chesterfield county, and 
giandson of John Goode, the immigrant. 
He married Martha Jefferson, daughter of 
Thomas Jefferson, grandfather of Presi- 
dent Jefferson. He died in Goochland 
county in 1771. and his will named his son 
Bennett, who was a member of the revolu- 
tionary conventions of 1775 and 1776 from 
Mecklenburg county, and of the state con- 
vention of 1788. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Goode, John, immigrant, resided in Hen- 
rico county, Virginia, before 1676. He took 
sides with Nathaniel Bacon until the latter 

avowed his intentions of resisting the King's 
soldiers. He settled at "Whitby," on the 
Jpmes river. He died in 1709, leaving issue. 
His brother. Rev. Marmaduke Goode, was 
of Ufton, Berkshire, England. 

Goodwin, James, was the youngest son of 
Peter Goodwin, Salter, of Tower street 
ward, London, and Sarah, daughter of 
John Hilliard, or Highlord. His pedigree is 
published in the- "Visitation of London," 
1633. James, who was probably a royalist 
refugee, was justice of York county from 
1657 to 1662, and in 1658 he represented 
York county in the house of burgesses. He 
had the rank of major in the militia and 
died in 1679, leaving issue. 

Gookin, Daniel, was of an ancient family 
of Kent, in England, son of Sir Vincent 
Gookin. He removed to Cariggaline, a few 
miles south of Cork, in Ireland, on the 
shores of Cork harbor. He came to Vir- 
ginia in 1622 from Newce's Town, in Cork 
county, founded by Sir William Newce. He 
received from the London Company 2,500 
acres, which was located at Newport News. 
Shortly after his arrival the first Indian 
massacre occurred, but Daniel Gookin, with 
his servants and company, at Newport News 
successfully repelled the attack. A few weeks 
loter he sailed to England in the ship which 
first brought the news of the massacre of 
niore than 300 English. It is probable that 
he never returned to Virginia, but carried 
on his plantation at Newport News through 
his son, Daniel Gookin Jr. 

Gookin, Daniel, Jr., son of Daniel Gookin 
and Mary Bird, his wife, was born about 



If 11 2. He was agent for his father at New- 
port News and was residing there in March, 
1^33. when Captain Peter de Vries anchored 
his ship before the place. He was burgess 
for Upper Norfolk county in 1641 and com- 
n.ander of that county. In 1642. he joined 
in a petition to the general court of Massa- 
chusetts for three able ministers to occupy 
the parishes in his neighborhood. In answer 
John Knowles, William Thompson and 
Thomas James were sent. But Governor 
Berkeley and his assembly came down so 
hard upon them that the Puritan ministers 
soon returned to Massachusetts and Daniel 
Gookin went with them. He became one 
of the leading men in Massachusetts, a 
major-general, etc. He died March 19, 1587. 
and was buried at Cambridge, where his 
tombstone may still be seen. 

Gookin, John, was probably a son of Dan- 
iel Gookin, Sr., as he joined in a deed with 
Daniel Gookin, Jr., to convey Newport News 
to John Chandler. He was a burgess for 
Upper Norfolk county (Nansemondj in 
1639 and 1641. He was also presiding mag- 
istrate for Lower Norfolk county. He mar- 
ried Sarah Offley, widow of Captain Adam 
Thoroughgood, and had a daughter Mary, 
who married (first) William Moseley. (sec- 
ond) Lieutenant-Colonel Anthony Lawson. 
He died November 2, 1643. His widow 
married (third) Colonel Francis Yardley 
and deceased August, 1657. 

Gordon, James, born 1714, came with his 
brother John to Virginia in 1738 from 
Newry, county Down, Ireland. He was a 
son of James Gordon, of Sheepsbridge and 
Lisdaflf, in that county, a Presbyterian, 
whose ancestor came from Scotland to Ire- 
land probably at the time of the Ulster 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



245 



riaiuation. He settled in Lancaster county, 
was a justice of the peace, colonel of the 
militia and a prominent planter and mer- 
chant. He was one of the pioneers of Pres- 
b\ terianism in Eastern Virginia, and was 
iitimate with Samuel Da\ies and James 
W'addell, "the Blind Preacher." who mar- 
ried his daughter Mary. He married (first) 
Milicent Conway, (second) Alary, daughter 
01 Colonel Nathaniel Harrison, of Surry 
county, and dying June 2. 176S. left issue. 
James tiordon kept an interesting diary 
which has been published in the "William 
and Mar}- Quarterly Magazine." 

Gordon, Rev. John, son of Patrick Cior- 
<lun, regent of King's College, Aberdeen, 
was minister of Wilmington parish, James 
City county, \'irginia, and died circa 1703. 
He was brother of Alexander Gordon, pro- 
fessor of humanity in King's College, Aber- 
deen, and of George Gordon, professor of 
()riental languages in said college. 

Gordon, Samuel, son of David Gordon, of 
Craig, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
.'^cotland ; an eminent merchant of Peters- 
burg. He was born in 1727 and died April 
14. 1771. His tombstone, with coat-of- 
arms, lies in I'.landford churchyard. 

Gorsuch, Rev. John, a royalist minister, 
rector of Walkhorn, Herefordshire, 1633, 
came to Virginia and died in Lancaster 
county in 1657. He married Anne Love- 
lace, sister of Colonel Francis Lovelace and 
Richard Lovelace, the poet. They had sev- 
eral sons, and three daughters — Katherine, 

who married Whitty ; Ruth, who 

married William Whitby, of Warwick 
county, and Anne, who married Thomas 
Todd, of Mobjack Bay. 



Gosnold, Anthony, brother of Captain 
Bartholomew Gi)snold (q. v.), came to Vir- 
ginia among the first settlers in 1607. He 
was a brave soldier, and very serviceable, 
but lost his life with Matthew Scrivener and 
Nathaniel Waldoe in a storm when attempt- 
ing by Ixiat to reach Hog Island in 1609. 

Gosnold, Anthony, son of Anthony Gos- 
nold (q. v.), came to Virginia in 1607 with 
his father and uncle. In 1621 the Virginia 
Company granted him three shares of land 
ill \irginia for his subscriptions. 

Gough, Matthew, was a burgess for Hen- 
rico in 1642-43. 

Gough, Nathaniel, was a burgess (county 
unassigned) in the assembly of 1642. 

Gouldman, Francis, was burgess from 
Essex county in the sessions of April 24, 
1706, October 22, 1712, and November 16, 
7714. 

Gough, William, son of Mr. John Gough, 
p;-.tcnted in 1694, 1,225 acres on Pepettico 
swamp, formerly the land granted his father. 
He was burgess for King and Queen at the 
assembly of 1700-1702, but died before the 
o]iening of the third session in 1702. 

Gourgainy (Gurgany, Gourgaing), Ed- 
ward, was granted in 161 7 by the Virginia 
Company of London 400 acres afterwards 
known as "Longfield" and still later as 
"Curies." In 1619 he represented Argall's 
(lift in the first general assembly at James- 
town. He died the same year, leaving a 
widow Anne, who bequeathed "Longfield" 
to Captain Thomas Harris. It was after- 
wards the residence of Nathaniel I'.acon Jr. 

Gower, Abell, was a justice of Henrico 
county. \'irginia, from ^(■>Jq till liis death 



246 



\'IRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



in 1689; sheriff in 1681, and member of the 
house of burg-esses in 1679. ^^ married 
Jane, daughter of Edward Hatcher, of Hen- 
rico. He appears to have left one daugh- 
ter Tabitha. He appears to have been a son 
of Abell Gower, of Boulton, county Glouces- 
ter, England, esquire. 

Graffenreidt, Christopher de, son of Baron 
Christopher de Graffenreidt, of Berne, in 
Switzerland, founder of Newberne, North 
Carolina. He married in Charleston, South 
Carolina, February_22, 1714, Barbara Temp- 
est Needham, born in Hertfordshire. Eng- 
land. He moved to Williamsburg, Virginia, 
where they kept an ordinary. In 1734 he 
patented land in Brunswick county. Airs. 
Barbara de Graft'enreidt survived her hus- 
band, and in 1739 the "X'irginia Gazette" 
has notices of "dancing assemblies" given 
by her. He left issue. 

Graham, John, son of John Graham, of 
Vv'akenston, Perthshire, Scotland, was born 
April 30. 1718; was a merchant in Dumfries, 
Prince William county. He married Eliza- 
beth Catesby Cocke, daughter of William 
Cocke, secretary of state, and died in .Au- 
gust, 1787. leaving issue. 

Graham, Richard, son of Richard Graham, 
of Brampton, Cumberland ; matriculated at 
Queen's College, Oxford, March 14, 1737. 
aged seventeen ; Bachelor of Arts, 1742, and 
Master of Arts, February 18, 1746; qualified 
as professor of natural philosophy and 
mathematics in William and Mary College, 
1749; removed by the board in 1758; ap- 
pointed to the chair of moral philosophy, 
June 26, 1 761, and reinstated by the privy 
council to his former position in January, 
1764. In 1764 he was defeated for the presi- 



dency by James Horrocks. and in 1766 re- 
turned to Oxford L'niversity, of which he 
was a fellow. 

Grantham, Captain Thomas, was in 1671 
ctmimander of an English ship which 
rived in \'irginia during Bacon's rebellion 
He rendered material assistance in suppress- 
ing the disturbances and left an account oi 
the transactions he was engaged in. IK 
was afterward knighted. 

Graves, Captain Thomas, an ancient 
planter, subscribed twenty-five pounds to 
the X'irginia Company of London, went to 
\"irginia in 1608, was captured by the sav- 
ages and rescued by Thomas Savage; a 
member of the first house of burgesses in 
1619 for Smythe"s Hundred; living on the 
eastern shore in 1620; a burgess for Acco- 
mac in 1629-32; a commissioner in 1621- 
1632. In 1628 he received a grant for 200 
acres on account of his subscription to the 
stock of the London county. 

Gray, Colonel Edwin, son of Colonel Jo- 
seph Gray, of Southampton county, was 
burgess for that county from 1769 to 1776 
and member of the conventions of 1774. 
1775 ^"'i ^77^- «i"d of the house of delegates 
and state senate, and member of congress 
fn^m 1799 to 1813. 

Gray, Francis, son of Thomas Gray, the 
immigrant, was burgess for Surry county in 
ir.63. He died about 1679. 

Gray, Francis, went at an early day from 
England to Maryland. In 1637 he was liv- 
ing in St. George's Hundred, Maryland, 
which he represented that year in the gen- 
eral assembly. By trade a carpenter. He 
was a Protestant and was compelled on 
account of his opposition to Lord Baltimore 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



247 



to emigrate in 1647 across the Potomac to 
Machodoc, in Westmoreland county. He 
died in 1677. He was ancestor of the Grays 
ot Caroline and Culpeper counties. 

Gray, Colonel Joseph, was born in Surry 
county, and was the son of either Gilbert or 
Vvilliam Gray Jr., his brother. He was bur- 
gess for Isle of Wight from 1736 to 1749, 
and for Southampton county from 1754 to 
1758, 1762 to 1769. He is believed to have 
been the father of Colonel Edwin Grey, of 
Southampton county (q. v.). 

Gray, Rev. Samuel, came to Virginia be- 
fore 1693; o"s of the first trustees of Wil- 
liam and Mary College ; minister of Christ 
Church, Middlesex county, till 1699. when 
he was removed because of his whipping a 
negro slave to death, for which he was tried 
for his life and barely escaped condemna- 
tion. He was afterwards minister of St. 
Peter's Church from 1707 to 1709, and died 
on the 25th of December, the latter year. 

Gray, Thomas, immigrant, patented land 
in Surry in 1635, 1639 and 1642. He was 
born in 1593 and died after 1653. He left 
four sons — William. Thomas, John and 
Francis (q. v.). Gray's creek, opposite to 
Jamestown Island, formerly Rolfe's creek, 
gets its name from him. 

Gray, William, probably a son of William 
Gray, son of Thomas, the immigrant, was 
justice for Sussex county in 1710; sheriff in 
1718, 1719, and burgess for Surry, 1710, 
1712, 1713, 1714 and 1715. His will, dated 
June 3, was proved November 18, 1719. He 
left a son, William Gray Jr. (q. v.). 

Gray, William, Jr., son of William Gray. 
was burgess for Surry county, 1723- 1726. 
In 1736 he married Elizabeth, widow of Wil- 



liam Chamberlayne, of New Kent, and re- 
fioved to that county, of which he was ap- 
pointed justice in 1742. In 1739 he patented 
5,800 acres in Goochland county, in which 
neighborhood still resides a prominent fam- 
ily of the name. 

Green, John son of Colonel William Green, 
was burgess for Culpeper in 1769-1771 ; 
colonel in the revolution, distinguished at 
Brandywine. He married Susanna Black- 
well, and they were parents of William 
Green, and grandparents of John William 
Green, judge of the supreme court of appeals 
o; \'irginia, who was father of William 
Green, LL. D. 

Green, Robert, son of William Green, of 
England, who served in the body guard of 
William, Prince of Orange, came to Vir- 
ginia in 1712 with his uncle, William Duff, 
a Quaker. He inherited much property 
from Duff. He was vestryman of St. Mark's 
Parish, Orange county, and in 1736 and in 
1738 represented the county in the house of 
burgesses. He married Eleanor Dunn, and 
his will, dated February 22, 1747-48, was 
proved in Orange county, July 28, 1748. He 
had six sons — William, Robert, John, Nich- 
olas, James and Moses — from whom are de- 
scended many men of distinction. 

Green, Roger, was minister in Nanse- 
mond county in 1653, ^""^ '" 1656 was min- 
ister at Jamestown. In 1661 he published 
in England a pamphlet called "Virginia's 
Cure." He was alive in 167 1. 

Green, William, son of Robert Green, of 
Orange county, was vestryman of St. Mark's 
Parish and burgess for Culpeper county 
fr</m 1752 to 1760. He married Miss Cole- 
man, of Caroline county, and died in 1770. 



248 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Greenhill, David, son of Paschal Green- 
hill, was burgess for Amelia county in 1761- 
1765. He married Catherine Claiborne, sis- 
ter of William Claiborne, of "Romancoke," 
who died in 1746. He died in Amelia in 
1772, leaving among other children Paschal 
Greenhill (q. v.). His Uncle Joseph left 
him lands in Great P)ritain. 

Greenhill, Paschal, was a son of Uavid 
Greenhill, and was burgess from Prince Ed- 
ward county in the assemblies of 1769-1771 
and 1772-1774. He died in Amelia county in 
1812. 

Gregory, Richard, was burgess for King 
arid Queen county in 1698. His will was 
proved in Essex county, February 17, 170 1, 
and names sons, Richard and John, and 
daughters, Sarah and Elizabeth. 

Gregson, Thomas, was a burgess for 
Essex county in 1698. His will, dated De- 
cember 20, 1704, was proved January 10, 
1705-06. He names his brother, William 
Gregson, of London ; his sister Rachel, wife 
of George Arthur, of Bristol, and nephews, 
Henry and Samuel Lloyd, sons of Henry 
Lloyd, late of Bristol; wife Ann. 

Grendon (Grindon, Grindall), Edward, 

came to Virginia before 1616, and in 1620 
patented 150 acres on the south side of 
James river, over against Jamestown. This 
land, called "Grindall's Hill," was the same 
as the "Old Fort" land which Captain John 
Smith fortified for a retreat. It was a mile 
U]) Gray's creek, and went to Thomas Gren- 
don, his heir, and he in 1649 sold it to 
Mountjoy Evelyn. In 1625 Edward Gren- 
don was burgess. 

Grendon, Sarah, wife of Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Thomas Grendon, was a sympathizer 



with Nathaniel Bacon. In 1677 she was ex- 
cepted from the general pardon. She after- 
ward married Mr. Brain, a merchant of Lon- 
don. Evidently a woman of strong mind 
?nd purjjose. 

Grendon, Thomas, son of Thomas Gren- 
don, was a London merchant, who resided 
frecjuently in \'irginia. He represented 
"Smith's Mount, The Other Side of the 
^\'ater, and Hogg Island" (now in Surry 
county) in the assembly in 1633. In 1649 
he sold Grindall's Hill, patented by Edward 
Grindon, to Mountjoy Evelyn. He married 
Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Stegge Sr., 
n;erchant of X'irginia and London, who died 
at sea in 1651. He was succeeded by his 
son. Thomas Grendon Jr. 

Grendon, Thomas, Jr., son of Thomas 
Grendon, merchant, settled in the parish of 
\^'esto^■er, Charles City county, and had 
large estates in Virginia and England. He 
was lieutenant-colonel of the Charles City 
militia in 1680, commanding the cavalry. 
He married Sarah, widow of Thomas Stegge 
Jr., and died in 1684, when his will disposes 
of a great estate in Virginia, Staffordshire, 
England, etc. 

GrifHn, Lady Christina, wife of Judge 
Cyrus Griffin, and daughter of John Stuart, 
sixth Earl of Traquair, in Scotland. She 
died in Williamsburg, 1807. 

Griffin, Corbin, of Vorktown, \'irginia, 
son of Leroy Griffin and Mary Anne Ber- 
trand, his wife, graduated Doctor of Medi- 
cine; member York county committee of 
safety, 1775-76; surgeon in the state line 
during the revolution; state senator, 1780; 
died 1813. Married Mary Berkeley, daugh- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



249 



ter of Colonel Edmund Berkeley, of "Barn 
Elms," Middlesex county, \'irg-inia. 

Griffin, Samuel, of Northumberland coun- 
ty ; justice of the peace in 1702 ; died in 1703. 
Katherine,his only daughter, married (first) 
William Fauntleroy, of Richmond county, 
(second) David Gwyn, of Richmond county. 

Griffin, Thomas, son of Colonel Leroy 
Ciriffin, of Richmond county; burgess, 1718- 
1723; married Elizabeth Lee, and his will 
was proved in Richmond county in 1733. 
Leroy Griffin, high sheriff of Richmond 
county, who married Mary Anne Bertrand, 
only daughter and heiress of Rev. John ]]er- 
trand, was his son. One of his daughters, 
Winifred, married Captain Samuel Peachy. 

Griffin, William, of King and Oueen coun- 
ty ; sheriff of that county, and colonel com- 
manding the militia, 1781 ; married, 1771, 
Susanna, daughter of Colonel John Chisvvell, 
and widow of Speaker John Robinson. He 
was son of Leroy Griffin and Mary Anne 
Bertrand, his wife. 

Griffith, Edward, was major of the militia 
and burgess for Warwick county in 1660 
and 1663. 

Grymes, Benjamin, was a son of Hon. 
John Grymes, of "Brandon," Middlesex 
county. He was a burgess from Spottsyl- 
vania county in the assemblies of 1761-1765 
and 1766-1768, 1769-1771. He married (first) 
Elizabeth L. Fitzhugh, (second) Miss 
Rootes. He left issue. 

Grymes, Charles, of "Aloratico." Rich- 
mond county, was a grandson of Rev. 
Charles Grymes, who came from England 
to Virginia and was minister of Hampton 
parish, York county, in 1645. He was son 



ol John Grymes and Alice Townley, his 
wife, and brother of Hon. John Grymes, of 
"Brandon." He was justice from 1721 ; 
sheriff', 1724, 1725, and member of the house 
of burgesses. He was educated at W'illiam 
and Mary College, married Frances, daugh- 
ter of Hon. Edmund Jenings, and died in 
1743- 

Grymes, Fhilip Ludwell, eldest son of 
Philip Grymes, of "Brandon" on the Rappa- 
hannock river, was burgess for Middlesex 
county in the assemblies of May, 1769, 1769- 
1771; member of the house of delegates, 
1778, and of the state council, 1803. He died 
Alay 18, 1805. 

Grymes, William, son of Sir Thomas 
Grymes, of Peckham, England, was living 
in Virginia in 1694. 

Gwyn, David, was burgess from Rich- 
mond in the session of March 19, 1702-03. 
He died in 1704. He had a sister, Elizabeth, 
wife of Mr. Benjamin Gwyn, of Bristol, and 
a brother, Edward Gwyn, clerk, in Wales. 
Left to his sister Mary all of his real estate 
in Wales lying in and about Harford West. 

Gwyn, Hugh, was an early settler in 
Charles River county, subsequently York 
county. He was a justice from 1641, and 
a burgess for York in 1639 and 1646. He 
patented lands at the mouth of the Pyanke- 
tank river in 1642 and removed to that 
region, and in 1652 was one of the two first 
burgesses for the new county of Gloucester. 
He died about 1654, and Gwyn's Island per- 
petuates his name. He left issue. 

Gwyn, Rev. John, was a cavalier minister, 
who came to Virginia during Cromwell's 
time. In 1672 he was rector of Ware parish, 
Gloucester countv, and of .Abington in i'')74 



250 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



and 1680. His son, Edmund G\v}n, of 
Gloucester county, who an old record says 
was "a regular Doctor of Physics," married 
Lucy Bernard, daughter of Colonel William 
Bernard, of the council ("Virginia Maga- 
zine," iv, 204; "William and ]\Iary Quar- 
terly," xviii, 60-62). 

Hack, Peter, son of Dr. George Hack, of 
Cologne, Germany, and Anne Herman, sis- 
ter of Augustine Herman, of Amsterdam, 
and afterwards of Delaware, resided in 
Northumberland county, was ranger general 
of the Northern Neck, 1690; justice of the 
county court; colonel of the Northumber- 
land militia ; burgess in 1705-1706, 1720-1722. 
He was living in 1727. 

Hacker, Henry, a wealthy merchant, came 
from Devonshire, England to Williamsburg, 
Virginia, about 1720. Born 1689, died in 
Williamsburg, August 5, 1742. His widow 
Alary married (second) Thomas Hornsby. 
also a prominent merchant. 

Hackett, Captain Thomas, was burgess 
from Lancaster county in the assembly of 

Haeger, John Henry, born at Antzhausen, 
in Xassau-Siegen, Germany, September 25, 
1644. Held various positions as teacher and 
rector at Siegen. In 1714 emigrated to 
America and settled at Germanna, Virginia, 
where he organized the first German Re- 
formed congregation in America, organized 
at St. George's Parish. Removed with his 
parishioners to Germantown, in Fauquier 
county, in 1721. Lived there till his death 
in 1733. After his death the schoolmaster, 
Holtzclaw, conducted the religious exer- 
cises. 

Hairston, Samuel, was a burg^ess from 



I.edford county in the assembly of 1758- 
1761. Ancestor of the Hairston family of 
Henry county. 

Hall, Robert, was a burgess from Prince 
George county in the assembly of 1718. 

Hall, Thomas, clerk of Xew Kent county. 
in 1676. He took sides with Nathaniel 
P.acon, and was executed by Sir William 
Berkeley, who said that his pen was worth 
to Bacon "forty armed men." 

Ham, Jeremy (Jerom), was a burgess 
from York county in the assembly of 1657- 
58. He died in 1660. when his widow Sibella 
married Matthew Huberd. 

Hamerton, Edward, was a burgess for 
Middlesex county in 1715. 

Hamilton, James, burgess fur Loudoun 
ounty in 1758-1761, 1761-1765, 1766-1768. 
1 769- 1 77 1, liut he resigned in 1770 to accept 
the ofhce of coroner. 

Hamlin, John, was a burgess from Prince 
(.'leorge county in the session of November 
I'l. 1714, and in the assembly of 1720-22. 
lie was probably a grandson of Stephen 
Hamlin, the immigrant (q. v.). He was 
captain of the militia and lived at "May- 
cocks," on James river, conveyed to him by 
r\*oger Drayton in 1696. 

Hamlin, Stephen, patented land at Middle 
Plantation, York county, in 1637. He after- 
%\ard patented lands in that part of Charles 
City county now known as Prince George. 
He was burgess for Charles City county in 
T654. He was dead before 1666, leaving a 
son Stephen. 

Hamilton, Andrew, an eminent lawyer, 
was doubtless a native of Scotland and set- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERS(J\S 



251 



tied in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century in Northampton county, Virginia. 
In 1706 he married Anne, widow of Joseph 
I'reeson, and daughter of Thomas Browne, 
ol Northampton county. In 1713, having 
remo\-ed to Philadelphia, he sold his estate 
on Hungar's creek. After that his public 
life belongs entirely to Penns}lvania. He 
died August 4, 1741. 

Hamilton, James, represented Loudoun 
ounty in the house of burgesses from 1758 
to 1770. He accepted the office of coroner 
and vacated his seat in the assembly. 

Hammond, John, came to Virginia in 
1635, and settled in Isle of Wight county. 
After \'irginia succumbed to the rule of 
parliament in 1652, he was expelled from 
the house of burgesses because of his strong 
ro3'alist symjiathies. In 1654 he left Vir- 
ginia to reside under the government of 
Lord Baltimore, in Maryland. He took 
sides against Bennett and Claiborne, and 
after the battle of the Severn in 1635, he fled 
to England. While there he wrote his ex- 
cellent treatise on the two colonies, \'ir- 
ginia and Maryland, which he entitled "Leah 
and Rachel," dedicating it to his friends. 
Captain William Stone, of Maryland, and 
Dr. James Williamson, of Rappahannock. 
He later returned to Maryland, in which 
state he has been represented by prominent 
descendants. 

Hamor, Thomas, brother of Captain 
Ralph Hamor, of the council, was at George 
Harrison's house, near Warrascoyack, at 
the time of the massacre of 1622. He de- 
fended himself and escaped. But on Janu- 
ary 24, 1623, Harrison wrote that Thomas 
Hamor was very sick. He probably died 
scon after. 



Hardiman, Francis, son of Colonel John 
Hardiman (q. v.), was burgess for Charles 
City county in 1718; justice of Charles City 
county, and died about 1741 when his will 
was admitted to probate. He married (first) 
Henrietta Maria, daughter of Captain John 
Taylor, clerk in 1699 of Charles City, and 
v.ho died in 1707. He married (second) 
Jane Cross, widow of John Cross. 

Hardiman, John, came from Bristol to 
\'irginia, and was a justice of Charles City 
county in 1699 and 1702 ; burgess for Prince 
George county in 1710; lieutenant-colonel 
of the militia, and died before 171 1. He 
married Mary, daughter of Colonel Francis 
Eppes, of Henrico county, and left issue — 
John, Francis, James, Littleberry and Wil- 
liam. 

Hardwick (Hardinge, Hardidge, Hard- 
age), William, was son of William Hard- 
\vick, a tailor, prominent with his father- 
in-law, Thomas Sturman, in the disturbances 
of Maryland. The son was a justice and 
lieutenant-colonel of militia in Westmore- 
land county and was a burgess in the assem- 
blies of 1686, 1688 and 1692-93. His daugh- 
ter and heiress, Elizabeth! was wife of Colo- 
nel Henry Ashton. 

Hardy, George, came from Bristol, Eng- 
1.1 nd to \'irginia before i'13'i, when he is 
called "shipwright." In 1644 he patented 
300 acres of land on Lawne's creek. He had 
a noted mill on Lawne's creek, and its suc- 
cessor is still used. He was burgess for Isle 
of Wight in 1641, 1644, 1645, 1649 and 1652 
His will, dated March 16, 1654, was proved 
April 14, 1655, and by it he left his estate 
mainly to his "kinsman," George Hardy Jr., 
ancestor of Samuel Hardy, president of the 
cfintinental congress, who died in 1785. 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Harlowe, John, was a burgess from War- 
wick county in the assembly of 1658-59. 

Harmanson, George, son of Thoinas Har- 
manson (q. v.), was burgess for Northamp- 
ton county in 1720-1722, 1723-1726. 

Harmanson, John, was a burgess from 
Northampton county in the assembhes of 
1761-1765, 1766-1768, and May, 1769. A 
descendant of Thomas Harmanson, immi- 
grant from Germany. 

Harmanson, Matthew, a descendant L>f 
Thomas Harmanson (q. v.), was a burgess 
for Northampton county in 1736-1740. 1742- 
1747 and 1 748- 1 749. 

Harmanson, Thomas, son of Thomas I lar- 
nianson (q. v.), was a burgess in 1723-1726. 

Harmanson, Thomas, a German Protes- 
tant, born in Brandenburgh, settled in 
Northampton county, Virginia, about 1680, 
and was naturalized by act of assembly. 
October 24, 1684. In 1688 he was a bur- 
gess in the assembly. 

Harmer, Charles, son of John Harmer. 
warden of Winchester College in England, 
came to Virginia in 1622, aged twenty-four ; 
was a commissioner or justice for Accomac ; 
burgess in 1632 and died before 1644. He 
married Anne Sou they, daughter of Henry 
Southey, Esq., of Rimpton, in Somerset, 
England, and she married (second) Colonel 
Nathaniel Littleton, of the council. He died 
issueless, and his property was heired by 
his brother, John Harmer, Greek reader at 
Oxford, who sent his son. Thomas Harmer, 
t.> Virginia about 1652. 

Harmer, John, was burgess from Wil- 
liamsburg in the assembly, 1742-1747. A 
justice of the York county court. 



Harris, John, of an ancient Devonshire 
family, settled at an early date in St. Ste- 
phen's parish, Northumberland county, Vir- 
ginia. His father was Joseph Harris, and 
liis uncle. William Harris, of Hayne, mem- 
lier of parliament for St. Ives and Oakhamp- 
ton in several parliaments in the reign of 
William and Mary. He was burgess for 
Northumberland in 1703-1704, and his will, 
dated September 20, 1718, was proved May 
20, 1719. He married Hannah Kenner, 
daughter of Captain Richard Kenner, of 
Northumberland county. 

Harris, John, several years in Virginia ; 
burgess for Shirley Hundred Island, in 
Charles City Corporation in 1629 and 1630. 

Harris, Richard, was a burgess from Han- 
over county in the assembly of 1723-26. 

Harris, Robert, was a burgess from Han- 
over county in the assembly of 1736-1740, 
and in the session of May 6, 1742. In the 
session of September 4, 1744, William Meri- 
wether represented Hanover in place of 
Robert Harris, who had accepted the place 
or surveyor of a county (Louisa). 

Harris, Captain Thomas, born 1586, came 
to Virginia during the government of Sir 
Thomas Dale, and settled at the Neck of 
Land, in Henrico; member of the house of 
burgesses in 1623-24, 1639 and 1647. He 

married (first) Adria . (second) 

Joane , and had a son. Major William 

Harris (q. v.). 

Harris, William, son of Captain Thomas 
Harris, was burgess for Henrico in 1653, 
1656 and 1658; captain and major in the 

militia. He married Lucy , and his 

will was proved in Henrico, June, 1678. He 
left issue. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



253 



Harris, William Samuel, was a burgess 
from Halifax county from 1753 to 1758. 

Harrison, Benjamin, patented lands in 
Virginia in 1635. He was clerk of the coun- 
cil, 1634, and burgess in 1642. He acquired 
a large estate in the present Surry and 
Prince George counties. He died in 1649. 
Ancestor of the Harrison family which has 
furnished two presidents to the United 
States. 

Harrison, Benjamin, son of Benjamin 
Harrison, of "Berkeley," Charles City coun- 
ty, was sheriff of Charles City county, 1728. 
He was burgess in 1736- 1740, 1742, 1744, 
and died while he was a member the last 
year named. He married, circa 1722, Anne, 
daughter of Colonel Robert Carter, of "Coro- 
toman," and was father of Benjamin Harri- 
sfai, the signer (q. v.). 

Harrison, Benjamin, of "Berkeley," was 
the oldest son of Colonel Benjamin Harrison, 
of the council of state. He was born in 
1C73 ; was attorney-general, 1699, and bur- 
gess in 1705-1706, during which session he 
was speaker; treasurer of the colony. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Major Lewis 
Burwell. He died April 10, 1730, leaving 
issue — Benjamin (q. v.) and Elizabeth. 

Harrison, Burr, was son of Cuthbert Har- 
rison, of Acaster, Caton and Flaxby, in York 
county, England, and was baptized in the 
parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster, De- 
cember 28, 1637. He settled in Stafford 
county, Virginia, and was ancestor of the 
Harrisons of Northern Virginia. 

Harrison, Lieutenant George, son of Wil- 
liam Harrison, of Aldcliffe, Lancashire. He 
cjime to Virginia in 1618. In the spring of 



I''i24 he was mortally wounded in a dual 
fought with Colonel Richard Stephens, of 
the council. Sir John Harrison, his brother, 
was a member of the Virginia Company of 
London. Sir John owned Aldcliffe Flail; 
was member of parliament ; was knighted, 
and died September 28, 1669. 

Harrison, Dr. Jeremiah, came to Virginia 
about 1649 and patented lands near Wil- 
liamsburg. His wife was Frances Whit- 
greaves, sister of Thomas Whitgreaves. 
of county Stafford, England, who saved the 
life of Charles II. at the battle of Worcester. 
He died without issue and his widow mar- 
ried Colonel Giles Brent, of "Peace," in Staf- 
ford county. 

Harrison, Thomas, born in 1616, qualified 
as minister of Elizabeth River parish in 
1640, and used his influence against the 
Puritans, who were numerous on the south 
side c^f James river. After the Indian massa- 
cre in 1644 he turned Puritan. He refused 
to read the book of common prayer and 
was banished from the colony. He visited 
Boston and then went to England, where he 
was chaplain to Henry Cromwell, and in 
Christ Church preached a sermon on the 
death of Oliver Cromwell. 

Harrison, Thomas, Jr., sheriff' of Prince 
William county, 1732; burgess for that 
county at the assembly of 1742-1747, 1748- 
[749, 1752-1755 ; burgess for Fauquier coun- 
ty, 1761-1765, 1766-1769, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Thomas Marshall. 

Harrison, William, burgess for Prince 
George county in 1703-1705. 

Hartwell, William, brother of Henry 
Hartwell, Esq., of the council, was a justice 
of the peace for James City county, and 



254 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



during Bacon's rebellion was captain of Sir 
William Berkeley's body guard. He had 
a son William, whose only daughter married 
Colonel William Macon ; a daughter Mary, 
who married George Marable, and a son 
John, whose daughter Elizabeth married 
Richard Cocke. 

Harwood, Colonel Edward, son of Colonel 
William Harwood (q. v.), was a justice for 
Warwick county in 1770; member of the 
house of delegates. 1780; county lieutenant 
of Warwick in 1788, etc. 

Harwood, Humphrey, son of Captain 
Thomas Harwood. was captain and major; 
burgess for Warwick county in 1685 and 
1092; father of William Harwood (q. v.). 

Harwood, Joseph, was a burgess for 
Charles City county in 1715, probably a son 
of Joseph Harwood, who patented land in 
the county in 1665. 

Harwood, Samuel, son of Joseph Har- 
wood. who patented lands in Charles City 
county in 1665 ; was burgess for Charles 
City county in 1710-1712. He married Tem- 
perance Cocke, daughter of Captain Thomas 
Cocke Sr.. of Henrico, and was father of 
.'^amuel Harwood (q. v.). 

Harwood, Samuel, Jr., son of Samuel Har- 
wood and Temperance Cocke, his wife, was 
burgess for Charles City county in 1720- 
1723. His will was proved by his widow, 
Agnes, in 1745. father of Major Samuel Har- 
wood fq. v.). 

Harwood, Major Samuel, of Weyanoke. 
son of Samuel Harwood Jr., was a member 
of the convention of 1776; died in 1778. 
Married Margaret Woddrop, daughter of 



John Woddrop, of Xansemond, a prominent 

merchant. 

Harwood, William, son of Humphrey 
Harwood, and grandson of Captain Thomas 
Harwood. of the council of state, resided in 
Warwick county; was major of the War- 
wick militia and burgess for the county in 
tlie assemblies of 1712-1714 and 1727-1734; 
died by a fall from his horse June 2, 1737; 
father of William Harwood, of Warwick 
county (q. v.). 

Harwood, William, son of William Har- 
wood. of Warwick county, was colonel of 
the Warwick militia and represented that 
county in the general assembly from 1742 to 
1775, and in the famous convention of I77ri 
that declared for state independence. He 
was father of Colonel Edward Harwood. 
long a member of the house of delegates. 

Hatcher, William, was born in 1614, and 
was a member of the house of burgesses for 
Henrico county in 1644, 1645. i'J4'J' 1649, 
i('>52. 1654 and 1659. For speaking dis- 
respectfully of the speaker of the house, he 
was censured by the house in 1654. His 
temper got him into trouble again during 
I'.acon's rebellion, with which he was doubt- 
less a sympathizer. He was heavily fined. 
He died not long after. 

Haviland, Anthony, an active promoter of 
the rebellion of Nathaniel Bacon. Jr He 
resided in that part of Charles City county 
now known as Prince George countv. Me 
was the author of the first proclamation 
issued by Bacon. His wife, "an excellent 
divulger of news." went up and down the 
country carrying Bacon's manifestoes. Havi- 
land was fined for his part in the rebellion 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



255 



5,000 pounds of tobacco, about one-tenth of Grissell Hay. and children, David, Robert, 
his estate. He died in 1679. Lydia, Helen and .Mary Hay. 



Hawkins, John, doubtless a brother of 
Major Thomas Hawkins, was a member of 
the house of burgesses for Essex in 171 1, 
1714, 1718, 1720-1722. His will, dated Feb- 
ruary, 1725-26, was proved in Essex, June, 
1726. He left two sons, Thomas and Wil- 
liam, besides daughters, Mary and Eliza- 
beth Rennolds. 

Hawkins, Captain Thomas, represented 
Ijenbigh, on James river, in the house o 
burgesses in 1632, removed to Rappahan 
neck, where he was vestryman of Sitting 
bourn parish in 1665 and a justice of Rappa 
hannock county in November, 1670, or 
earlier. His will, dated February 8, i()75 
v^as proved November, 1677. His legatees 
were his wife Francis and sons, Thomas and 
John. 

Hawkins, Major Thomas, son of Captain 
Thomas Hawkins, commanded a force 
which protected the frontiers of Essex coun- 
ty after Bacon's rebellion. During the re- 
bellion he sided with Sir William Berkeley, 
but was captured and imprisoned by Bacon. 
He died before 1696. He probably left no 
children. 

Hay, Anthony, was a cabinetmaker of 
Williamsburg, and in 1767 purchased the 
famous Raleigh Tavern, which was the fav- 
orite meeting place of the patriots before the 
revolution. He was the father of George 
Hay, who prosecuted .Aaron Burr for 
treason. Anthony Hay died in 1772. 

Hay, Dr. Peter, a prominent physician of 
Williamsburg. He died in 1766, leaving a 
brother, David Hav, of New York ; a widow, 



Hay, William, John and Peter, were sons 
of James Hay and Helena Rankin, his wife, 
01 Kilsythe parish and shire of Sterling in 
Scotland, \^'illiam Hay was educated at 
the L'ni\ersity of Glasgow and came to \'ir- 
ginia in 1768. He studied law under John 
Tazewell of Williamsburg, and practiced 
his profession till the revolutionary war 
shut up the courts; afterwards he never re- 
sumed it. He married (firstj Ann Gary; 
(second) Elizabeth Tompkins, and left 
issue. He was father of William Hay, the 
lawyer, whose name figures in Randolph's 
"I'ieirorts," and Hening and Munford's "Re- 
ports." Hon. James Hay, now United 
States Congressman from Virginia, is a 
great-grandson of William Hay, the immi- 
grant. 

Hay, William, was born in 1613, and set- 
tled in York county, where he was one oi 
the justices of the county court, and burges:; 
in 1658 and 1659. He died January 23, 
1668-69. He married several times, but left 
only one daughter, Elizabeth, who married 
Sr.muel Snignell, and she leaving no chil- 
dren, his property descended to Rober; 
Hay, son of Jcjhn Hay, his brother. 

Haynes, Thomas, was a burgess from 
Warwick county in the assembl}' of 1736- 
1740. 

Haynie (Haney), John, was a burgess 
from Nt)rthumberland count}' in the assem- 
bly of 1657-1658. He was father of Richard 
Haynie (q. v.). 

Haynie, Richard, was a burgess from 
Northumberland county in 1695, 1696, 1697. 



256 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPH-y 



1698 and 1702-1705. He married Elizabeth 
Bridgar, and died about 1724. In his will, 
he names sons Bridgar, Richard, McMillon, 
Ormesby, Charles and Samuel. 

Hayrick, Thomas, was a burgess from the 
upper part of Elizabeth City in the assem- 
bly of 1629-30. 

Heyrick, Henry, was a burgess from 
Warwick county in the assembly of 1644. 

Hayward, Samuel, came to Virginia about 
1675. His father, Nicholas Hayward, had 
extensive business with Virginia and was a 
well known notary public in London. 
Samuel was clerk of Stafford county and 
in 1685 was a member of the house of bur- 
gesses for the county. He married Martha, 
sister of John and Lawrence Washington, 
the immigrant ancestors of the Washington 
family of the Northern Neck. His sister 
married Richard Foote, of London, who 
came to Virginia and was ancestor of the 
Foote family. His son Samuel was English 
consul at Venice in 1741. 

Heale, George, son of Nicholas Heale or 
Haile, of York county, planter, was justice 
of Lancaster court from 1684 and was a 
burgess for Lancaster county in 1695 and 
1697. He died the latter year, leaving is- 
sue, Nicholas, George, John, Joseph, Ellen, 
Elizabeth, Sarah and William. 

Heale, George, grandson of George Heale 
(q. v.), was a burgess for Lancaster couuty 
from 1759 to 1761 inclusive. He married 
Sarah Smith, daughter of Philip Smith, of 
Northumberland county, and had issue, 
William, who married Susannah Payne, 
daughter of Josias Payne, the elder, of 
Goochland county. 



Hedgman, Peter, was a burgess from 
Prince William county in 1736-1740, and ] 
for Stafford county in 1742-1747, 1748-1749, ' 
1752-1755 and 1756-1758. He was a justice 
of Stafford in 1745 and other years. He- 
made his will November 29, 1764, which 
was proved August 12, 1765. He left issue. 

Heley, Willis, was pastor of Mulberry 1 
l.'^land, and in 1635 he received a grant for 
250 acres in Mulberry Island on account of 
his i)ious and godly conduct. 

Henley, Rev. Samuel, born in 1740, came ; 
to Virginia in 1770, and qualified as pro- 
fessor of moral philosophy in William and ] 
Mary College. He was secretary of the | 
"Virginia Society for the Promotion of Use- j 
ful Knowledge," in 1772. In 1775 he re- 
turned to England and was assistant master 
at Harrow school. In 1778 he was elected 
a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and 
four years later was made rector of Rendle- 
sliam in Suffolk. Finalh- in 1805 he was 
ajipointed principal of the newly established 
East India College at Hertford. He re- 
signed this post in January, 1815, and died 
December 29, of the same year. He engaged 
largely in literary work, and had an exten- 
sive correspondence. But the most import- 
ant of his works was the translation of 
Beckford's romance "Vathek," which made 
him famous. 

Herbert, John, of Prince George county, 
Virginia, was a son of John Herbert, apothe- 
cary of London, and grandson of Richard 
Herbert, citizen and grocer of London. He 
was born in 1659, and died March 17, 1704. 
leaving issue Buller and Richard Herbert. 
This family had the same arms and crest 
as the poet George Herbert. He left a large 
estate and a handsome library. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



257 



Herrick, Henry, was a burgess for War- 
wick county in 1644 and 1644-1645. In a 
note in the Richmond "Standard," he is 
said to have been a nephew of Thomas 
Herrick, of Elizabeth City county. 

Herrick, Thomas, was a burgess for 
Elizabeth City county in 1629-1630. 

Hethersall, Thomas, came to Virginia in 
1621 in the Margaret and John, which had a 
famous fight with two Spanish ships which 
she beat off. Hethersall wrote an account 
of the fight (still in manuscript) in which 
he describes himself as "late Citysone and 
Grocer of London." In 1623, as of Pashbe- 
hay, gentleman, he patented 200 acres at 
Elunt Point. The headrights included him- 
self, his wife Mary, and his children, Rich- 
ard and Mary. A John Hethersall died in 
York county in 1679. 

Heyman, Peter, grandson to Sir Petei 
Heyman, of Summerfield, in county Kent, 
England, was collector of customs for lower 
James river in 1699, and in 1692 was one of 
the deputy postmaster generals for the colo- 
nies. He was killed on board the Shorehani 
in a fight with a pirate ship near Cape 
Henry, April 29, 1700. Buried at Hampton, 
v/here his tombstone was lately seen. 

Heyward (pronounced Howard), John, 
ancestor of the Howard family of York 
county patented lands in James City county 
in 1635, on account of the adventure of his 
brother, Francis, and others into the colony. 
He was a member of the house of burgesses 
in 1654, and died in 1661, leaving issue 
Henry, William and Elizabeth. 

Hickman, Richard, clerk of the council, 
was son of Thomas Hickman, and Martha, 

VIR-17 



hit, wife, daughter of Captain Henry 
Thacker. His will was proved in York 
county in 1 731, and names brothers and sis- 
ters. He was a descendant of Nathaniel 
Hickman, who patented lands in Xorthum- 
bcrland county in 1653. 

Higginson, Captain Robert, "citizen and 
printer-stainer of London," was a son of 
Thomas Higginson and Anne, his wife, of 
iJerkeswell, county Warwick, England. 
About 1625 he married Joanna Torkesy, and 
in 1643 removed to Virginia, where in 1645 
he commanded at Middle Plantation (then 
a palisaded settlement). He died in 1649, 
leaving an only daughter Lucy, who mar- 
ried successively three prominent men, 
(first) Sergeant Major Lewis Burwell ; 
(second) Colonel William Bernard, of the 
ccuncil, and (third) Colonel Philip Lud- 
well, by each of whom she had children. 

Hill, Edward, came to Virginia before 
1622, when he was living at Elizabeth City; 
he fought off the Indians and escaped the 
massacre of 1622, was buried May 15, 1622. 
He left a daughter, Elizabeth ; brother of 
John Hill, mercer of London in 1620. 

Hill, Humphrey, was an extensive mer- 
chant of King and Queen county. He was 
vestryman of St. Stephen's parish, and colo- 
nel of the county militia. His will, dated 
February 8, 1774, was proved March 13, 
1775. He married Frances Baylor, and had 
issue Humphrey, Robert, William, Baylor, 
John, Edward, Ann and Elizabeth. 

Hill, John, was a son of Stephen Hill of 
Oxford, England, fletcher. He was a book- 
binder before his immigration to Virginia, 
in 1621. He was one of the justices, and 



258 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



\va^ a burgess in 1642, for Lower Norfolk 
county. 

Hill, Nicholas, was a justice of the count}- 
court of Isle of Wight, major of the militia 
and burgess in 1660, 1663, 1666. He mar- 
ried Silvestra Bennett, one of the two 
daughters of Edward Bennett, a wealthy 
merchant of London, who was greatly in- 
terested in the settlement of Virginia. He 
died in 1675, leaving issue. 

Hill, "Mr. Thomas," was a burgess from 
James City in the assembly of 1641. He 
afterwards settled" in York county, where 
his place was named "Essex Lodge," whicn 
was the headquarters of Washington at the 
siege of Yorktown in 1781. His widow mar- 
ried Thomas Bushrod (q. v.). 

Hite, Abraham, son of Jost Hite, was a 
leading man of affairs in Hampshire county, 
Virginia, and represented it in the house 
of Ijurgesses in 1769. 1770, and in the con- 
vention of May 6, 1776. 

Hite, Isaac, son of Jost Hite, was born 
May 12, 1723, married Eleanor Eltinge, 
April 12, 1745 ; prominent in affairs in the 
Shenandoah. He died September iS, 1795, 
leaving issue Anne, who married Tames 
Buchanan, of Falmouth ; Mary, married Dr. 
John McDonald; Eleanor, married John 
Williams; Rebecca, married General Wil- 
liam Aylett Booth; Isaac; Sarah, married 
Jonathan Clark. 

Hite, John, son of Thomas Hite, was a 
burgess for Berkeley county in the assembly 
of 1 775-1 77''^- 

Hite, Jost, a native of Strasburg, in Al- 
sace, emigrated to Pennsylvania, and in 
1732 came with his three sons-in-law, 



George Bowman, Jacob Chrisman, Paul 
Froman, and others to the valley of Vir- 
ginia. In 1734 he was appointed one of the 
first magistrates to administer justice in the 
valley. He greatly aided in stimulating thc 
r?pid settlement of that part of Virginia. 

Hite, Thomas, son of Jost Hite, was 
burgess for Berkeley county in the assem- 
bly of 1 772- 1 774. 

Hobbs, Francis, born in 1624, was bur- 
gess for Isle of Wight county in 1654, cap- 
tain of militia and justice in 1666. 

Hobson, Thomas, born in 1666, son of 
Thomas Hobson, was clerk of Northumber- 
land county from about 1710 to 1716. His 
father, who was born about 1635, was clerk 
from about 1664 to about 1710. Thomas 
Hobson, Jr., was burgess in 1700-1702. In 
consequence of the long terms of the clerk- 
ship in the family he named one of his 
daughters "Clerk" Hobson. 

Hockaday, William, came to Virginia 
about 1640, was a merchant and lawyer, and 
in 1635 was a burgess for York county. 
When New Kent was separated from York 
in 1654, his residence fell into that county. 

Hockaday, William, was a resident of 
New Kent county, and a burgess for that 
county in the assembly from 1748-1749. He 
was a descendant of William Hockaday, 
merchant, who came to Virginia about 
1640. 

Hoddin (Hodin), John, was a burgess 
from Elizabeth City in the assemblies of 
1642-1643 and 1644. 

Hodges, Thomas, was a burgess from 
Norfolk county in the assemblies of 1696 
and I 696- I 697. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



259 



Hoggard, Nathaniel, was selected in 1722 
til the vacancy in the house of burgesses 
from Warwick county caused by the death 
of James Roscow. Anthony Hoggart died 
in Albemarle county in 1754. His will 
names son, Nathaniel Hoggart, and grand- 
son Anthony Hoggart. 

Holecroft, Captain Thomas, son of Sir 
'1 horn as Holecroft, of Vale Royal, Cheshire, 
England, came to ^''irginia with Lord Dela- 
ware in 1610, commanded one of the ft)rts 
at Kecoughtan, and died there. He married 
the celebrated Alary, daughter of Hon. 
I-ienry Talbot, son of George, Earl of 
Shrewsbury. 

Holiday, Anthony, was a burgess from 
Isle of Wight county in the assembly of 
1692-93, and 1705-06 and one of the jus- 
tices. 

Holladay, Anthony, was burgess from 
Nansemond county in the assembly of 1752- 
1755. Doubtless a descendant from An- 
thony Holiday of Isle of Wight (q. v.). 

Holland, Gabriel, yeoman, one of the first 
settlers at Berkeley Hundred in 1620; bur- 
gess in 1623, when he was a signer of "The 
Tragical Relation of the General Assembly," 
married twice, (first) Mary ; (sec- 
ond) Rebecca . 

Hollier, Simon, burgess for Elizabeth City 
county in 1727-1734; son of Simon Hollier, 
who died about 1697 ; justice of the peace, 
and captain of militia. He died in 1747. 
when his inventory shows that he owned 
forty-seven negroes. 

HoUoway, John, a prominent lawyer, 
came to Virginia from England about 1700, 
and was first a resident of King and Oueen 



c(?unty, for which he was a burgess in 1710- 
1712, and 1712-1714. Removed to Williams- 
burg and was first mayor of the city under 
the charter of 1722. Burgess for York 
ccmnty in the assemblies of 1720-1722, 1727- 
1734, and for Williamsburg, in that of 1723- 
1726. He was elected speaker November 
2 1720, and continued to hold that office 
in connection with that of treasurer till his 
death in 1734. He married Elizabeth 
Cocke, widow of Dr. William Cocke, sec- 
retary of state, and sister of Mark Catesby, 
tb.e naturalist, but he left no issue. 

Hollows, John, was one of the first jus- 
tices of the court for Westmoreland county, 
being in 1655 major of the militia. In 1654 
ht was a burgess for the county. 

Holman, James, burgess from Goochland 
county in the assembly of 1736-1740. He 
left issue a son James, who in 1769 married 
Sarah Miller, daughter of William Miller. 

Holmwood, John, was an emigrant from 
England to Charles City county. He was 
a burgess in 1656 and a just'l^e in 1658. He 
married Jane, daughter of Gregory Bland, 
son of John Bland, an eminent merchant of 
London. She had been previously the wife 
of her cousin, Edward Bland, of "Kimages," 
ill Charles City county. 

Holt, James, son of Thomas Holt, for- 
merly of Hog Island in the county of Surry, 
v.as a successful lawyer of Norfolk, and was 
burgess for Norfolk county in the assembly 
of 1772-1774 and 1775-1776, and in the con- 
\entio!is of 1774, 1775 and 1776. He died 
in 1779, and left his law library to the court 
of the county of Norfolk, and most of his 
property to the children of his brother 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Henry, whom he names Claremond, Lean- 
lier, Sarah and Thomas. 

Holt, John, was brother-in-law of W illiam 
Hunter, editor of the "X'irginia Gazette." 
He was born in 1720, received a good edu- 
cation, was a merchant of \\'illiamsburg, 
mayor, and on his removal to New York 
was editor of the "New York Gazette and 
Post Boy." He was printer to the state of 
New York. He died January 30, 1784, and 
there is a tombstone to his memory in St. 
Paul's churchyard, New York City. 

Holt, Robert, was a burgess from James 
City in the assembly of 1655-1656. 

Holt, Thomas, was a burgess from Surry 
county in the assembly of 1699 and in 1700. 
He was a son of Randall Holt, of Hog 
Island, who married Elizabeth Hansford, 
sister of Major Thomas Hansford. 

Holtzclaw, Jacob, was a prominent mem- 
ber of the first German colony of miners, 
who were from, or from near, Nassau-Siegen, 
Germany. He was the schoolmaster of this 
colony. His will was admitted to probate 
February 29, 1760, and his descendants are 
numerous in Virginia and the south. 

Hone, Major Theophilus, was the son of 
Thomas Hone, of Farnham, Essex county, 
England, who married Judith Aylmer, 
daughter of Theophilus Aylmer, archdeacon 
of London: justice of Warwick county in 
1652 ; burgess for James City county in 
1666, and sheriflf in 1676. He died before 
1689, when his widow Katherine Armistead, 
sister of Colonel John Armistead of "Hesse" 
married Major Robert Berkeley (his second 
wife). 

Honeywood, Philip, served as colonel in 
the roval armv during the civil wars. But 



in 1649 he came to \'irginia. He obtained 
a large grant of land in New Kent, and 
probably remained in the colony till the 
restoration in 1660. He was knighted for 
his services and loyalty by the King. In 
1662 he was in command of the garrison 
of I'lymouth and soon after he was its gov- 
ernor. He died at Charing, county Kent, 
Fngland, in 1684. 

Hooe, Rice, was born about 1599 and 
came to Virginia in 1635 ; was burgess for 
Shirley Hundred Island 1632, and for 
Charles City county 1644, 1645, and 1646. 
He had a son Rice Hooe, who was doubtless 
father of Rice Hooe, of Stafford county, (q. 

Hooe, Rice, probably a grandson of Rice 
Hooe, the original settler of the name, was 
burgess for Stafford county in 1702-1703; 
he was also lieutenant-colonel of the county 
militia. 

Hope, George, of Hampton, Virginia, was 
l)orn in Cumberland county, England, 
March 28, 1749. He came to Virginia from 
White Haven about 1771. During the 
.American revolution he superintended the 
construction of gunboats for the American 
navy. He married Rebecca Meredith. His 
son, \\'ilton, married Jane, daughter of 
Commodore James Barron, and was father 
of the poet, James Barron Hope, of Nor- 
folk. 

Hornby, Daniel, son of Daniel Hornby, 
merchant tailor, of Richmond county. He 
was burgess for that county in 1732-1734, 
succeeding John Tayloe. who was promoted 
to the council. He married Winifred 
1 ravers, daughter of Captain Samuel Trav- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



261 



Horsey, Stephen, was a burgess fri)m 
Northampton county in the assembly of 
'"53- 

Hoskins, Anthony, was a Ijurj^ess from 
Northamptiin count}- in the assembly of 
1^52. 

Hoskins, Bartholomew, was born in lOoo, 
received a grant in 1620 for in the corpor- 
ation of Elizabeth City : vestryman of Lyn- 
haven ])arish in i()40: burgess for Lower 
Norfolk county in 1649. 1652. 1^)54; living 
ir. 1(^55- 

Hough, Francis, came to \irginia in 1620 
aiul in 1624 lived at Elizabeth City. lie 
tir.ally settled in Nansemond county, when 
lie had various grants of land. He was a 
burgess for Nutmeg Quarter in February. 
ifi33; and in 1645, during the Indian war. 
was a member of the council of war for the 
ciainties of Isle of \^'ight and Upper and 
Lower Norfolk. He died in the parish of 
St. Peter's, the Poor. London, but left de- 
scendants in Virginia. 

Howard, Allen, was a burgess from Allie- 
marle count}- in the assemblies of 1752-1755 
and 1758-1761. His will was jjroxed in 
( loochland county, July 21, 1761. and names 
issue Benjamin, William, John, .Anne, Re- 
becca and Elizabeth. 

Howard, Benjamin, son of .\llen Howard, 
ol Goochland county, whose will was proved 
July 21, 1761 : was burgess for Buckingham 
county in 1769-1771. He was elected to the 
assembly of 1772- 1774. Init died before the 
assembly began. 

Howe, John, of .\ccomac. gentleman, was 
born in 1693, was a justice for Accomac in 
163 1, a burgess in 1632- 1633, and com- 



mander-in-chief of the county from July, 
^''37- to January 2, 1647, about which time 
he died. 

Hubbard, Robert, was a burgess from 

\\'arwick count}- in the assembly of 1696- 

IM97, 

Huddleston, John, was cummander of the 
ship Bona Xoi'a of 200 tons, and performed 
man}- voyages to X'irginia carrying servants 
and passengers. He patented land in Vir- 
ginia. After the Indian massacre in 1622, 
he was sent on a fishing voyage to New- 
foundland, and stopped at Plymouth. He 
f'und the settlers there starving, and shared 
his provisions with them, thus saving the 
colony. 

Hull, Peter, was a burgess from Isle of 
Wight county in the assembly of 1644. 

Hull, Richard, son of Richard Hull, and 
a descendant of John Hull, immigrant, who 
died in Northumberland county in 1668. He 
was colonel of the Northumberland militia. 
and a burgess for Northumberland county 
in the assembly of 1762-1765, succeeding 
Presley Thornton, promoted to the council. 
He married Elizabeth (iaskins. and died in 

Hume, George, son of Lord George Hume 
of the barony of \\"edderburn, P.erwick- 
shire, Scotland, and Margaret, his wife, 
daughter of Sir Patrick Hume of Lumsden, 
\< as born at W'edderburn Castle May 30, 
KiQ/, and came to Orange county, \'irginia. 
in 1721. and engaged in land surveying. He 
made the first survey of Fredericksburg. 
lie married Elizabeth Proctor, of Spottsyl- 
\ania county, in 1728, and died in Culpeper 
county in 1760, leaving issue. The titles 
and honors of the familv as I'.arl of Dunbar 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



and Alarchmont, are dormant, liut really be- 
long to the descendants of George Hume. 
He had an uncle Francis, who took sides 
with the pretender and was captured at the 
battle of Preston in 1715, and sent to Vir- 
ginia in 1716, where he was factor to Gov-' 
ernor Spots wood and died in 1723. 

Hunt, William, was "a principal aider and 
abettor" of Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., in his re- 
bellion, was taken prisoner and died in 
prison before the rebels were reduced to 
their allegiance. He resided at Bachelor's 
Point, Charles City county, where his tomb- 
stone records his death as of November 11, 
1676. His descendants have been numerous 
and respectable. 

Hunter, William, born at Yorktown, was 
the son of William Hunter, of Hampton. 
He was deputy postmaster general to Ben- 
jamin Franklin. After the death of William 
Parks in 1750, he was editor of the "Vir- 
gmia Gazette," published in \\' illiamsburg. 
He died in August, 1761. 

Hunter, William, a burgess for Nanse- 
mond count}- in the assembly of 1748-1749. 

Hutchings, John, son of Daniel Hutch- 
ivigs, mariner, of Norfolk county, and grand- 
son of John Hutchings, of "Pembroke 
Tribe," Bermuda, was born in 1691 and died 
i'l April,- 1768. He was an eminent mer- 
chant of Norfolk ; was mayor of the bor- 
ough in 1737, 1743 and 1755 ; and burgess 
from 1738 to 1756. He married Amey, 
daughter of John Godfrey, of Norfolk, and 
had issue John, Jr. (q. v.), Joseph (q. v.), 
Elizabeth married Richard Kelsick, Mary 
married Dr. John Ramsay, Frances married 
Charles Thomas, and Susanna married Ed- 
ward Champion Travis. 



Hutchings, John, Jr., son of Colonel John 
Hutchings ( q. v.), was member of the house 
of burgesses from 1756 to 1758. 

Hutchings, Joseph, son of Colonel John 
Hu-^chings ( (j. v.), was a burgess from Nor- 
f(_;lk borough in the assemblies of 1761-1765, 
(Jctober, 1765, 1766- 1768, May, 1769, 1769- 
'7/1' '772-1774. and 1775- 1776. He repre- 
sented Norfolk borough in the conventions 
of March and July, 1775 ; colonel of the \'ir- 
ginia militia in the skirmish at Kempsville. 
\\ here he was captured. 

Hutchinson, Captain Robert, was a bur- 
gess from James City in the assemblies of 
1641, 1642-1643, of 1644-1645 and of 1647. 

Hutchison (Hutchinson), William, was a 

burgess from Warrosqueake in the assem- 
bly of 1632. 

Hutt, Daniel, merchant of London, and 
master of the ship May Flower came to Vir- 
ginia in 1668. He settled at Nomini Bay, 
Westmoreland county. He had a plantation 
of 1,505 acres, twenty-seven servants, and 
100 head of cattle. He married Temperance, 
daughter of Dr. Thomas Gerrard, in 1669, 
and his will was proved in 1674. He left 
issue Anne Hutt and Gerrard Hutt. His 
widow Temperance married (secondly) 
John Crabb, merchant. 

Hyde, Robert, a lawyer of York county, 
\irginia. He married Jane, daughter of 
Captain John Underbill, Jr., of Felgate's 
Creek, York county, and formerly of the 
city of Worcester, England. He has de- 
scendants in the Saunders, Hansford, etc., 
families. By tradition he was closely re- 
lated to Edward Hyde, Lord Clarendon. 
He died in 1718, leaving a son Samuel, and 
a daughter, who married John Saunders. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



263 



Ingles, Mungo, a native of Scotland, born 
in 1657, died in 1719; master of arts of the 
Lniversity of Edinburgh and brought over 
to Virginia as master of the grammar school 
of the college of AVilliam and Mary by 
President P.lair, when he returned with the 
charter in iftg^,- He served till 1705 when 
he resigned because of difficulty with Dr. 
r.lair; but in 1716 he was reelected and 
served till his death in 1719. He was one 
of the first feoffees of Williamsburg and a 
justice of James City county. He married 
in Virginia, Ann, daughter of Colonel James 
P>ray, of the council. His son James was 
clerk of Isle of Wight from 1729 to 1732. 

Ingram, Joseph, came to \'irginia in 1675 
with Sir Thomas Grantham. He was a 
young man of standing in England, and 
had the title of "Esquire." After Bacon's 
death he was elected general of the rebels, 
and met with much success in defeating Sir 
William Berkeley's forces. Grantham per- 
suaded him to make terms by surrendering 
West Point, a Bacon stronghold, and from 
that moment, January 10. 1676, the reiiel- 
lion collapsed. 

Innes, Hugh, was a burgess for Pittsyl- 
vt^nia county m May, 1769, 1769-1771, 1772- 
1774. He was one of the justices of that 
county. 

Innis, Henry, was the son of Rev. Robert 
Innis, and was born in Caroline county, Vir- 
ginia, January 4, 1752. He studied law, and 
on coming of age removed to Bedford 
county, Virginia. Here he served as eschea- 
tor (1779) and in 1781 was commissioner 
of the specific tax and commissary of the 
Bedford militia. In 1782 he was appointed 
commissioner for the district composed of 
the counties of Bedford. Campbell. Char- 



lotte, Halifax, Henry and Pittsylvania. In 
^ovember, 1784, Mr. Innis was elected by 
the legislature, attorney general for the 
western district of Virginia, but early in 
the year 1785 he removed to Kentucky, 
%vhere he served as attorney general. He 
died September 20, 1826. He was brother 
of Captain James Innis, attorney general of 
\'irginia. 

Irvine, Alexander, qualified as professor 
of natural philosophy and mathematics in 
William and Mary College in 1729. In 1728 
he ran the dividing line between Virginia 
and North Carolina. 

Isham, Henry, son of William Isham, of 
Bedfordshire, England, and his wife Mary, 
sister of Sir Edward Brett, of Blendenhall, 
county Kent, England, came to Virginia 
about 1056, where he had a grant of land. 
Settled at Bermuda Hundred, where he 
married Katherine, widow of Joseph Royall 
of Henrico county, and had: I. Henry, who 
died unmarried. 2. Mary, who married 
W^illiam Randolph. 3. Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried Colonel Francis Eppes of Henrico. A 
fine impression of the Isham arms, on a red 
wax seal, is attached to a paper at Henrico 
court house. 

Iverson, Abraham, was a burgess from 
Gloucester county in the assembly of 1653. 

Jackson, Rev. Andrew, was minister in 
Lancaster county, succeeding John Ber- 
trand. He came from Belfast, Ireland, and 
had probably been a Presbyterian minister. 
He died in 1710. 

Jackson, John, was a burgess from Mar- 
tm's Hundred in the assembly of 1619, and 
from James City Island in the assembly of 
1632. " 



264 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Jackson, Mr. Joseph, was a burgess from 
Charles City in the assembly of 1641. 

Jackson, Robert, was a son of Joseph 
Jackson, of Carlisle, Cumberland, England. 
He resided at Vorktown, Virginia, where he 
married in 1731-32 a Miss Brett, of that 
place. He was grandfather of Sir John 
Ji'.ckson, of Kingston, Jamaica. 

Jarrell, Thomas, was a burgess from 
Southampton in the session of February i, 
1752. In the session of November ;, 1753, 
Robert James represented Southampton in 
place of Thomas Jarrell, deceased. 

Jaquelin, Edward, son of John Jaquelin, 
of county Kent, England, and Elizabeth 
C raddock, his wife, came to Virginia in 
1697: settled at Jamestown, where he mar- 
ried Rachel Sherwood, widow of William 
Sherwood. When she died, he married in 
1706, Martha, daughter of William Gary, of 
Warwick county. He was born in 1668 and 
died in 1739. His eldest daughter ElizaJjeth 
married Richard Ambler, a merchant of 
Yorktown, and his daughter Mary married 
John Smith, of "Shooter's Hill." Middlesex 
county. 

Jefferson, John, was a burgess from Flow- 
erdieu Hundred in the first assembly of 
1619. He is believed to have been ancestor 
of Thomas Jefferson. 

Jefferson, Peter, son of Thomas Jefferson. 
of Henrico, was a justice of the peace, and 
a vestryman of his parish. He was a bur- 
gess from Albemarle county (in the place of 
Joshua Fry, deceased), and in the sessions 
of August 22, 1754. October 17, 1754, May 
I, 1755, August 5, 1755, October 27, 1755. 
He was a man physically strong, a good 
mathematician, skilled in surveying, fond 



of standard literature, and in politics a 
British Whig. He and Fry were the com- 
pilers of a map of Virginia, known as Fry 
and Jeft'erson's map. He married in 1738 
Jane, daughter of Isham Randolph, of 
Goochland county. He was the father of 
President Thomas Jefferson. He died in 
1757- 

Jenkins, Henry, came probably from the 
city of Dublin, where he states his brother 
Daniel Jenkins lived. He was 1695 "justice 
of the Quorum and commander-in-chief for 
the county of Elizabeth City." In 1676 he 
had supported Nathaniel Bacon, Jr. He 
was burgess from Elizabeth City in 1685, 
and for York in the assembly of 1696-1697. 
ITis will was proved in Elizabeth City 
county September 24. 1698. He had issue 
Henry Jenkins, Jr. 

Jenings, Edmund, son of Edmund Jen- 
ings, Esq., of Virginia, was admitted at- 
torney in the Baltimore county court 
March, 1724; burgess for Annapolis in the 
Maryland assembly ; took his seat in the 
Maryland council, October 21, 1732, and 
was an active member till 1752; was com- 
missioned secretary of the province, March 
20, 17^,2-1"/ 2,2,. and resigned that offfce in 
1755. He married Ariana, widow of Thomas 
I'ordley and daughter of Matthias X'ander- 
heyden, July 2, 1728. and died in Yorkshire. 
England, in March, 1756. His daugiUer 
Ariana married John Randolph, attorney 
general of Virginia. 

Jenings, Edmund, son of Edmund Jen- 
ings. Esq.. of Maryland, was a lawyer of 
Lincoln's Inn, London. In 1769 he present- 
ed to "the Gentlemen of Westmoreland 
county," a portrait of the Earl of Chatham, 
which hangs in the court house at Montross. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



^65 



Pie had estates in Yorkshire, and was liv- 
ing in 1778. 

Jenings, Peter, was born in 163 1 and 
<iied in 1(171. He is spoken of as one "who 
faithfully served' King Charles 1. He set- 
tled in Gloucester county, where he was 
King's attorney, and in 1663 a member of 
tlie house of burgesses. September 16, 1670, 
he received a grant for the attorne_\- gener- 
al's office. He died in 1672, and his widow 
Catherine, daughter of Sir Thomas Luns- 
ford, married Ralph Wormeley, Esq. 

Jennings, John, clerk of Isle of Wight 
4.ounty. 1 662-1677. was an adherent of Na- 
thaniel r.acon during Bacon's rebellion of 
1G76. He was sentenced to banishment, but 
<lied before the time set for leaving the 
<.ounty. He married Martha, daughter of 
Robert Harris, and left descendants. 

Jerdone, Francis, son of John Jerdone, 
magistrate of Jedburgh, Scotland, was born 
January 30, 1721, came to Virginia in 1745, 
and settled at "^'orktowft. Later he moved 
tc Louisa county, where he died in 1771. 
He was an eminent merchant. He married 
Sarah Macon, daughter of Colonel William 
Macon, of New Kent county, Virginia. 

Johnson, Jacob, born about 1639. prob- 
ably in Holland, patented land in \"irginia 
in 1673, was naturalized in 1679, was a 
member of the house of burgesses in 1693, 
and died in 1710. He was a brick merchant 
and lawyer. He had a Presbyterian church 
on his land, and the minister, Josiah Matkie. 
lived with him. His son, Jacob Johnson, 
Jr., married Margaret Langley, daughter of 
Captain A\'illiam Langley, of Norfolk 
county. 

Johnson, John, "yeoman and ancient 



planter" was living at Jamestown in 1(124, 
with his wife Anne, son John and daughter 
Anne, who married Edward Travis, ances- 
tor of a family long resident on the island. 

Johnson, Joseph, was a burgess from 
Charles City in the assembly of 1639. 

Johnson, Rev. Josiah, probably a native 
of England, came as minister to Virginia in 
1766, when he was admitted master of the 
grammar school of the college of William 
and Mary. In 1771 he married Mildred 
Moody, of Williamsburg, and died in 1773. 
His widow married (secondly) Thomas 
E\-ans. afterwards a member of congress. 

Johnson, Fhilip, was a burgess from King 
and Oueen county in the assemblies of 1752- 
1755 and 1756-1758. He was son of William 
Johnson, of King William county, who died 
before 1738. He married Elizabeth Bray, 
daughter of Colonel Thomas Bray, of 
■"Littletown," James City county, \'irginia. 
He had a son James Bray Johnson, whose 
only daughter Elizabeth married Samuel 
Tyler, chancellor of the eastern district of 
Virginia : and by a second wife he had 
James Johnson, of Isle of Wight county, 
who was a member of congress. 

Johnson, Richard, was a burgess from 
King and Oueen county in the assemblies of 
1722 and 1723-1726. He was a son of Colo- 
nel Richard Johnson of the council, and 
made his will in 1733. leaving his {property 
to his two nephews Thomas and Richard. 

Johnson, Thomas, son of Colonel Rich- 
ard Johnson, of the council, was a burgess 
from King William county in the assem- 
blies of 1715. 1718. and 1720-1722. He lived 
at "Chericoke" in King \\"illiam countw on 
Pamunkev river. He married Ann. daugh- 



266 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



tcr of Colonel Nicholas Meriwether, of New 
Kent. He died and was buried at "Cheri- 
coke" in 1734. 

Johnson, Thomas, was a burgess from 
Northampton county in the assemblies of 
1645. 1646, 1652, 1653 and 1654. He was one 
of the justices of the county court and lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the militia in 165b. His 
will, dated November 25, 165S, was proved 
December 28. 1658, and names sons Obe- 
dience and Richard Johnson and probably 
Thomas Johnson. 

Johnson, Thomas, son of Thomas John- 
son of "Chericoke," (q. v.), was known as 
Thomas Johnson "major" to distinguish 
him from his nephew of the same name. He 
was member of the assembly from Louisa 
county from 1758 to 1775, of the county 
committee of ."-afety, and of the conventions 
ol 1775 and 1776. He was also one of the 
signers of the association in 1769. 

Johnson, William, was a burgess from 
Spottsylvania county in the assembly of 
1 736- 1 740. 

Johnson, William, son of Thomas John- 
sun of "Chericoke," was a member of the 
house of burgesses for Louisa in 1761-1765 
At the last session, May i, 1765, his place 
v\as taken by Patrick Henry, Johnson hav- 
ing accepted the office of coroner. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Hutchinson. His son 
Thomas, was father of the celebrated law- 
yer, Chapman Johnson. 

Johnston, Andrew, a native of Glasgow, 
in Scotland, was born in 1742; came to 
Petersburg. Virginia, where he acquired a 
large fortune as a merchant. He died May 
5. 1785- 



Johnston, George, an eminent lawyer of 
Fairfax county, burgess in the assemblies of 
1758-1761 and 1761-1765. He seconded in 
a powerful and logical speech Patrick 
Henri's resolutions of May 30, 1765, against 
the Stamp Act. He lived in Alexandria. 
He was reelected to a seat in the assembl\- 
which convened November 4, 1766, but died 
in the summer of 1766. He married Sarah 
McCarty, daughter of Major Dennis Mc- 
Carty, of Westmoreland county, Virginia. 
His will dated February 2^. 1766, was 
jiroved January 19, 1767, and names wife. 
Sarah, and children, Mary Massey, George 
and William Johnston. George Johnston, 
one of these was lieutenant-colonel and aide- 
de-camp to \\'ashington, and his confiden- 
tial military secretary from December, 1776. 
until his death at Morristown, June. 1777. 

Johnston, Peter, was born at Annan, in 
Scotland in 17 10, come from Edinburgh ti> 
(^sl)()rne's on James river, where he was a 
prominent merchant; he moved to Prince 
Edward county for which he was a burgess 
at the assembly of May, I7C)9. He gave the 
land on which Hampden Sidney College 
was esta!)lished, and his will, which was 
proved December 18, 1786. shows that he 
was a man of culture. He married Martha 
Rogers, a widow, daughter of John Butler, 
and had Peter, born 1763, judge of the gen- 
eral court, and father of General Joseph 
L. Johnston. 

Johnston, William, was a burgess from 
Spottsylvania county in the sessions of May 
19, 1763, January 12. 1764. October 30, 1764. 
and May i, 1765. 

Jones, Anthony, was born in 1598 and 
ci>me to Virginia in 1620; burgess for Isle 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



of Wight. i(-'39, and March, 1642-1643. He 
made his will in Isle of Wight countw 
August 16, \f14q. 

Jones, Cadwallader, son of Richard Jones, 
merchant of London, was lieutenant-colo- 
nel in the Stafford militia in 1680. He car- 
ried on a trade with the Indians and was 
living in 1699. He wrote an essay on the 
Indian trade, with a MS. map or plat of 
Louisiana. 

Jones, Rev. Emmanuel, was licensed for 
Virginia May 28, 1700. He was son of John 
Jones, of .Anglesea. Wales. He was born 
in 1688, matriculated at Oriel College, Ox- 
ford, April 26, 1687, and took his B. A. de- 
gree March 3. 1692. He was minister of 
Petsworth parish. Gloucester county, Vir- 
ginia from 1700 till his death January 29. 
1739, leaving sons Emmanuel Jones, Jr.. and 
Richard Jones. 

Jones, Emmanuel, Jr., son of Rev. Em- 
manuel Jones, was a student of \\'illiam and 
Mary College and usher of the grammar 
school. In 1755 he was made master of the 
Indian school at the college and held that 
position till 1777, when he resigned. He ap- 
pears to have been afterwards minister of 
St. Bride's parish, Norfolk county. He mar- 
ried Miss Macon, of New Kent, and had 
Emmanuel Macon Jones, of Essex. 

Jones, Gabriel, was the son of John and 
Elizabeth Jones, emigrants to Virginia from 
Montgomery county, North Wales. He was 
born May 17, 1724, near Williamsburg. In 
April, 1732, his family being at that time in 
England, he was admitted as a scholar of 
the "Blue Coat School," Christ's Hospital, 
London, where he remained seven years. 
He was then apprenticed for six years to 



Mr. John Houghton, solicitor in the high 
court of chancery. Returning to Virginia, 
he lived for a time near Kernstown, Fred- 
erick county. In 1746, when only twenty- 
two, he was appointed prosecuting attorney 
for August county. On October 16, 1749, 
he married Margaret, widow of George 
Morton, and daughter of William Strother 
of King George. He was burgess from 
Frederick county in the assembly of 1748- 
1749, from Augusta county in the assembly 
of 1756-1758. from Hampshire in the assem- 
bly of 1758-1761, and from Augusta again 
in the assemblies of May, 1769, and 1769- 
177 1. When Rockingham county was con- 
stituted in 1777, he became a citizen of that 
county and its prosecuting attorney. He 
v/as a member of the state convention of 
1788, and died in October, 1806. 

Jones, Rev. Hugh, came to Virginia from 
luigland in 1716, and was appointed mathe- 
matical professor in William and Mary Col- 
lege. He preached at Jamestown and 
serxed as chaplain of the general assembly 
and lecturer in Bruton church, Williams- 
burg. He left the province for England in 
1722, and in 1724 brought out his "Present 
State of Virginia." He returned to Vir- 
ginia and resumed his work in St. Stephen's 
parish, King and Queen county. Not long 
afterwards he went to Maryland where he 
served in various parishes. He died Sep- 
tember 8, 1760. In his will he expressed his 
desire to be buried with his feet to the 
westward, contrary to the usual mode of 
burial. "He wanted," he said, "to be facing 
his people as they rose from their graves. 
He was not ashamed of them." 

Jones, John, son of Peter Jones, founder 
of Petersburg, was a member of the county 



268 



VIRGINIA BI0(;RAPHY 



court of Brunswick, and in 1772 a member 
of the house of burgesses. In 1788 he rep- 
resented Brunswick in the state conven- 
tion. In after years he was in the state 
senate and was president of that body. He 
married Elizabeth Binns, daughter of 
Charles Binns. in July. 1758. 

Jones, Orlando, son of Rev. Rowland 
Jones, first minister of Bruton parish. \\ il- 
liamsburg, was burgess from King William 
in 1712-1714, 1715, 1718. He married 
(first) Martha Macon, daughter of Gideon 
Macon, and (second) Alary W'illiams. 
(laughter of Janies Williams, of King 
and Queen county. lie was born De- 
cember 31. 1681. was a scholar at Wil- 
liam and Mary College in 1699, and died 
June 12, 1719, leaving by his first wife, one 
son. Lane Janes, and a daughter, Frances. 
who married Colonel John Dandridge. 

Jones, Rev. Owen, was licensed for \'ir- 
ginia August 17, 1703, and came to \'ir- 
ginia soon after, where he was made rector 
of St. Mary's parish, Essex county, and still 
held the charge twenty years later. 

Jones, Peter, was in 1674 major in com- 
mand of a fort near the falls of Appomattox 
river. He had a son Peter, who died in 
1721. A grandson, Peter Jones, son of Peter 
Jones, was the founder of Petersburg. The 
last was captain and then major of the 
Prince George county militia, and died in 
Amelia county in 1734. (William and Mary 
College Onarterly. xix.. 2S7). 

Jones, Rice, came from Canada in 1623 ; 
settled in Warwick county and patented 
land in Warroscjueake, on the south side 
ot the James river in 1628. 

Jones, Richard, was a burgess from 



Amelia county in the assembly of 1736-1740. 
He was probably the Richard Jones wlio 
died in Amelia county in 1759, and names 
sons Richard, Peter, Daniel and Llewellyn 
Jones, and daughter .\m_\' Watson, Prud- 
ence Ward, Rebecca Ward and Martha 
Jcaies. 

Jones, Robert, a royalist, who recei\ed 
many wounds in the civil war, emigrated 
to Mrginia about 1650. In 1676 he took 
sides with Bacon, was condemned to death, 
but was spared because of his former loy- 
alty to the King, Major Thomas Hansford, 
jirominent in the rebellion had in his family 
a tutor, a Robert Jones, who may have been 
this man. 

Jones, Robert, was a burgess for Surry 
county in the assembly of 1752- 1753. 

Jones, Robert, represented Southampton 
county in 1733 in place of Thomas Jarrell. 
deceased. 

Jones, Robert, was a burgess from Essex 
cc'unty in the assembly of 1723-1726. 

Jones, Roger, ancestor of a distinguished 
family of the L'nited States, came to \^ir- 
ginia in 1680 with Lord Culpeper, and had 
charge of a sloop-of-war in Chesapeake 
Bay, for the collection of customs and the 
suppression of piracy. He married Dorothy 
\\alker. daughter of John \\'alker. of Mans- 
field, in Nottinghamshire. England, ar.d 
died in 1 701. leaving sons Frederick and 
Thomas (cj. v.). 

Jones, Rev. Rowland, was a son of Rev. 
Rowland Jones, vicar of Wendover, in coun- 
ty Bucks. England. He was born at Swin- 
brook, near Burford in Oxfordshire, edu- 
c:.ted at Merton College, Oxford, was first 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



269 



pastor of Bruton parish, Williamsburg, 
Virginia, in 1674, and after a service of four- 
teen years died April 2t,, 1688, and was 
buried in Williamsburg. 

Jones, Thomas, son of Captain Roger 
Jones, was a man of large estate and had 
extensive commercial transactions. He 
patented large bodies of land, and was a 
colonel of the militia in King \^'illiam 
county. He married February 14, 1725. 
Elizabeth Pratt, widow of William Pratt, 
and eldest daughter of Dr. William Cocke, 
formerly secretary of state. 

Jones, William, member of a prominent 
family in Northumberland county, was 
burgess for that county in 1692-1693. He 
was a son of Mr. Robert Jones, of "Fleet's 
Bay," who died in 1675, leaving sons Sam- 
uel, Robert, Maurice and William, and a 
brother John Jones. 

Jones, William, was a burgess for Nor- 
thampton county in 1659; a prominent jus- 
tice of the peace. 

Jones, Wood, brother of Peter Jones, the 
founder of Petersburg, was a member of the 
house of burgesses for Amelia county in 
1752. 

Jordan, Colonel George, came to Virginia 
in 1635 and resided in Surry county, near 
"Four Mile Tree," on James river. He was 
a justice of Surry in 1652, and for many 
years later; burgess in 1659, 1674 and 1676; 
attorney general of the colony from 1670 to 
1678, when he died. In 1673, Surry court 
gave him a certificate for the importation of 
thirty-eight persons into the colony, among 
whom were Mr. William Jordan, Mrs. Ann 
Jordan, his wife, Mr. John Gary, Mr. Robert 
Lee, etc. He left no issue, but his brother. 



.Vrthur Jordan, is numerously rejjresented 
through descendants. 

Jordan, John, was burgess for Westmore- 
land county in 1695-1696. He came from 
Maryland and married Dorcas, widow of 
I'atrick Spence. His stepdaughter, Elinor 
Spence, married Andrew Monroe, ancestor 
ot President James Monroe. 

Jordan, Richard, was burgess for Isle of 
Wight county in 1676. He left a son John, 
whose son John of Newport parish, Isle of 
Wight county, made a deed about 1730. 
The family were Quakers. 

Jordan, Samuel, settled on James river 
at an early date and called his place "Jor- 
dan's Jorney." He represented the planta- 
tion in the first assembly 1619. In the 
massacre of 1622 he successfully fought off 
the Indians. He died in 1623, and his 
widow Cecilly married William Ferrar, of 
the council of state, after a flirtation with 
the minister of the parish, Greville Pooley, 
that was taken notice of by the council in 
a solemn proclamation. 

Jordan, Samuel, was justice of the peace 
for Albemarle county, 1 746-1761 ; captain. 
T753; sherift'. 1753-1775; county lieutenant 
of the new county of Buckingham in 1761. 
and burgess of Buckingham, 1766-1769. 
During the revolution he served as colo- 
nel of the county militia and was com- 
missioner for the carting of cannon in 
Buckingham. He married Ruth Meredith, 
daughter of Colonel Samuel Meredith, of 
Hanover. His daughter Margaret married 
Colonel William Cabell. 

Jordan, Thomas, was born in 1600 and 
was living in \^irginia in 1624; burgess for 
Warrosqueake, Isle of \\'ight, 1629, 1631. 



270 



VIRGINIA LllOGRAPHY 



and September, 1632, and a commissioner 
in 1629. His descendants have been num- 
erous in Isle of Wight county. Richard 
Jordan, a burgess for Isle of Wight in 167G 
was probably a son. 

Julian, William, was living at Elizabeth 
City in 1625. He patented 600 acres on the 
eastern branch of Elizabeth river July 4, 
1636. •• He was a justice of Lower Norfolk 
county in 1637. In 1646 the governor and 
council relieved him from all his offices on 
account of his great age. His wife was 
named Sarah. 

Justice, Ralph, burgess for Accomac 
county in 1753-1755, succeeding Edmund 
Allen, who accepted the office of sheriiif. 

Kecatough (Catataugh), brother of Pow- 
hatan, a chief of the Pamunkey Indians in 
1607. 

Keeling, William, a burgess for Princess 
Anne county in 1756-1758. He was a de- 
scendant of Ensign Thomas Keeling, of 
Lower Norfolk county, 1639, first of his 
fnmily in Virginia. 

Keeton, John, was a burgess for Nanse- 
niond county. He was a Dutchman and 
was naturalized by act of asseml)ly in 1679. 

Keith, George, is styled by John Smith 
as "a Scotchman who professed scholar- 
ship," was for a time minister at Bermuda, 
but came to Virginia in 1617. He was born 
in 1581. In 1624 he was minister of Eliza- 
beth City and in 1635 he was pastor of 
Chiskiak, one of the new settlements in the 
York. He was probably ancestor of the 
celebrated George Keith, who figured in 
Pennsylvania at the close of the century. 



Keith's or Skiffes creek in James City 
county, N'irginia, perpetuates his name. 

Keith, James, was a burgess from Hamp- 
shire in the sessions of November 3, 1761, 
January 14, 1762, and March 30, 1762. In 
the session of November 2, 1762, James 
Mercer represented Hampshire "in place of 
James Keith, who had accepted a clerk- 
ship." 

Keith, James, was a native of Scotland, 
and on March 4, 1728-29, received the King's 
bounty of twenty pounds to go as minister 
to Virginia. He probably settled at first in 
Henrico county, where he married Mary 
Isham Randolph, daughter of Thomas Ran- 
dolph and Judith Fleming, a daughter of 
Colonel Charles Fleming. He then lived in 
Hamilton parish, Fauquier county, for many 
years. His daughter, Mary Randolph Keith, 
married Colonel Thomas Marshall, father of 
John Marshall, chief justice of the United 
States. 

Kemp, Edmund, was nephew of Richard 
Kemp, secretary of state; justice for Lan- 
caster county in 1653 ; his widow married 
Sir Gray Skipwith. and his son Matthew 
was member of the council. 

Kemp, Matthew, son of Colonel Alatthew 
Kemp, member of the council, was burgess 
for Middlesex county in 1685, and 1692; 
justice from 1698 and sheriiif 1706. His will 
was dated May 4, 1715 and proved in Mid- 
dlesex, January 2, 1716. He left a son Mat- 
thew (q. v.). 

Kemp, Matthew, son of Matthew Kemp, 
o' Middlesex county, was born in 1695 ^^^ 
died in December, 1739; was burgess for 
Middlesex county in 1723-1726 and 1727- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



271 



1734; sheriff of Middlesex in 1729, after- 
ward in 1732 clerk of the general court and 
the secretary's ofifice, as well as James City 
county. His daughter Elizabeth married 
Robert Elliott, clerk of Middlesex county, 
1 762- 1 767. 

Kempe, William, of Howes in Leicester- 
shire, England, gentleman, emigrated to 
Virginia in 1618. He was a justice in 1628 
and in 1629-30 he represented "the upper 
parts of Elizabeth City" in the house of 
burgesses. 

Kemper, John, son of John George 
Kemper, elder of the German Reformed 
Church at Meusen, near Siegen in Germany, 
and Agnes Kleb, his wife. He was one of 
the original colonists at Germanna, who 
were brought over by Governor Spotswood 
to operate his iron works in Spottsylvania 
county. He married in 1715 or 1716 Elis- 
beth (Alice) Utterbach, daughter of Har- 
man Utterbach. 

Kendall, John, was a member of the house 
of burgesses for Northampton from 1752 to 
1761 inclusive. He was probably the John 
Kendall who was a member of the North- 
ampton committee of safety, 1774-1776. 

Kendall, William, was burgess for Nor- 
thampton county at the sessions of March, 
1657-1658, September, 1663, when he is 
st\led lieutenant-colonel, October, 1666, 
and doubtless all the sessions of the "Long 
Assembly" until 1676, November, 1683, 
when he is styled colonel, April, 1684, and 
November, 1685, when he is styled speaker. 
His will dated December 29, 1685, was 
proved July 28, 1686, and names son-in-law 
Hancock Lee and Mary, his wife, and son 
William Kendall. 



Kendall, William, son of Colonel William 
Kendall (q. v.), was a member of the house 
of burgesses for Northampton county in 
1688 and 1692-1693. He made his will Jan- 
uary 29, 1695, which was proved July 28, 
1696. He left two sons \\'illiam and John, 
and three daughters. 

Kenner, Richard, was a burgess from 
Northumberland county in the assembly of 
1688 and in the session of April 16, 1691. 
He was captain in the militia and a justice 
of the peace. He married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Matthew Rodham, in 1664, and was 
father of Captain Rodham Kenner (q. v.). 

Kenner, Rodham, son of Captain Richard 
Kenner, was born in St. Stephen's parish, 
Northumberland county, March 23, 1671. 
He was a captain, justice of the peace, and 
burgess from Northumberland in 1695, 1699 
and 1700-1702. He married Hannah Fox, 
daughter of Captain David Fox and Han- 
nah Rail, his wife, and left issue. 

Kenner, Rodham, son of Richard Kenner, 
who descended from Richard Kenner, the 
emigrant from England to Virginia about 
1660. He attended William and Mary Col- 
lege in 1760, and was burgess for Northum- 
berland county from 1773 to 1775, and 
member of the conventions of 1774, 1775 
and 1776. He was a signer of the West- 
moreland address against the Stamp Act in 
1760 and county lieutenant in 1785. He 
married in 1763, Elizabeth Plater, daughter 
of George Plater, Esq., of Maryland. 

Kennon, Richard, founder of the family 
in \'irginia, was a prominent merchant liv- 
ing at Bermuda Hundred, on James river. 
Ill 1685 he was factor for Mr. William 
Pasrsren. a London merchant. He was a 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



constant visitor to London ; justice of the 
peace for Henrico county in 1680 and other 
years; burgess in 1686. He married Eliza- 
beth Worsham, daughter of William Wors- 
ham and Elizabeth, his wife. He died in 
1696 and in his will names his children 
Richard, William, Martha, married Robert 
Munford, M-ary married Major John Boil- 
ing, of "Cobbs," Elizabeth married Joseph 
Royall, Sr., Sarah, and Judith, married 
Thomas Eldridge. 

Kennon, Richard, son of Colonel William 
Kennon, of "Conjuror's Neck," near Ber- 
muda Hundred, and grandson of Richard 
Kennon (q. v.). He was born April 15, 
1712, and settled on James river in Charles 
City county, at a place still called "Ken- 
non's" opposite to Brandon in Prince 
George county. He was justice of Charles 
City county, colonel of the militia, and bur- 
gess from- 1738 to 1755. He married Anne 
Hunt, daughter of William Hunt, of Charles 
City county; died in 1761, and left issue. 

Kennon, William, son of Colonel Richard 
Kennon, of Charles City county, was a jus- 
tice of the peace and colonel of the militia. 
He was burgess for Charles City county 
during the assemblies of 1758-1761, and 
1761-1765, after which time he removed to 
North Carolina. In 1774 he was chairman 
of the county committee of Rowan county. 
North Carolina, and in 1775 chairman of 
that of Micklenburg county. He married 
Priscilla Willis, daughter of Colonel Fran- 
cis Willis, of Gloucester county, Virginia, 
and left issue. 

Key, Thomas, "an ancient planter," had 
land on Warwicksqueake river, opposite 
Basse's Choice; in 1626 was member of the 



house of burgesses for Denbigh, 1829-1830- 
His wife was named Martha. 

King, Henry, descended from Michael 
King, who lived in Nansemond county, 
about 1690; was a justice of Elizabeth City 
county from 1769; burgess in 1772, 1773 
and 1774, and member of the conventions of 
1/74' 1775 and 1776. He married Rachel 
Westwood, daughter of \\'illiam West- 
wood. 

Kingsmill, Richard, came to Virginia be- 
fore 1625, when with his wife Jane, son 
Nathaniel and daughter Susan, he was liv- 
ing at "Neck of Land," which he repre- 
sented in the house of burgesses in 1624. 
He afterwards lived on Jamestown Island 
and had also a patent for 850 acres on the 
cast side of Archer's Hope Creek, still 
known as Kingsmill. He was survived 
by an only daughter who married (first) 
Colonel William Tayloe ; (second) Colonel 
Nathaniel Bacon. He used the same arms 
as Sir William Kingsmill, of Hampshire, 
England. 

Kingston, Thomas, a burgess for Martin's 
Hundred in 1629. He was agent for Thomas 
Covell, of London, merchant. He died 
about 1639 when his widow married 
Thomas Loving. 

Kingswell, Edward, born about 1593. 
came to Virginia in 1633 from St. Sepul- 
chre's parish, London. He died about 1636. 
His wife, Jane, was the widow of Sir Wil- 
liam Clifton, of Little Giddings, Hunting- 
donshire, England. 

Kippax, Rev. Peter, son of John Kippax, 
of Colne, county Lancashire, England. He 
matriculated at Brazenose College, Oxford. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



January i8, 1689, aged eighteen, and was 
B. A. in 1693. He was licensed for \'ir- 
ginia November i, 1699, and was present at 
the convention of the clergy in Williams- 



burg in February, 
mond county. 



He lived in Rich- 



Klug, George Samuel, was born in Elb- 
ing, Prussia, and was student under the 
celebrated Mosheim, who wrote "The Ec- 
clesiastical History." He was ordained at 
Danzig, August 30, 1738, and soon after 
came to Virginia and was second minister 
of the German Lutheran settlers in Madi- 
son county. He died in 1761. 

Klug, Samuel, a native of Gloucester" 
county, \'irginia, was a student of William 
and Mary College, and in 1765 became sub- 
usher of the grammar school. He visited 
England for ordination as a minister, re- 
turning in 1768. He then became minister 
of Christ Church, Middlesex county. In 
1775 he was chairman of the county com- 
mittee of safety for Gloucester county. He 
married Elizabeth Yates and continued 
minister of Christ Church till his death in 
1795- 

Knight, Nathaniel, son of Mr. Samuel 
Knight, of Strodwater, in Gloucestershire, 
England, was a chirurgeon in Surry county, 
and died in 1678 without issue. In his will 
he leaves numerous legacies to his friends. 

Knight, Captain Peter, was a burgess for 
Gloucester county in 1658 and 1660, and for 
Northumberland county in 1684 and 1685. 

Knott, James, was living in 1632-1635 in 
Accomac county, and in 1632 was given 
fifty acres at the mouth of Hampton river, 
together with "the house called the great 



house," to keep a house of entertainment 
for strangers. 

LaGuarde, Elias, one of the vignerons 
from Languedoc, France, sent over in 1620 
to Buckroe in Elizabeth City county. He 
was living in 1633. The name was probably 
anglicised into "Elligood," a prominent 
family in Princess Anne county in later 
tmies. 

Lamb, Anthony, an early resident of 
Poquoson parish, York county. He died 
December 29. 1700. lie was ancestor of 
the Lamb family, represented by Hon. 
John Lamb, late a member of congress. 

Lambert, Thomas, was the first person 
to introduce the method of drying tobacco 
on lines or sticks, instead of in heaps ; sher- 
iff of Lower Norfolk county, 1643 ; burgess 
in 1649, 1652, 1661 ; lieutenant-colonel of the 
militia. Lambert's Point, near Norfolk, is 
named for him. 

Landon, Thomas, son of Thomas Landon, 
gentleman, of Credenhill, Herefordshire, 
England, settled in Middlesex county, about 
168S. He had been "eldest groom of his 
majesty's buttery" before coming. His 
brother Silvanus was president of the Eng- 
lish company at Baudjarmassingh, India. 
Thomas Landon died in 1709. His daughter 
Betty was one of the wives of Colonel 
Robert Carter, of Corotoman, and was 
mother of Colonel Landon Carter, of "Sa- 
bine Hall," Richmond county. 

Lane, Captain John, was a burgess for 
King and Queen county in 1692-93, but his 
seat was vacated by order of the house. 
His daughter Jane married (first) Willis 
Wilson ; (second) Colonel Gawin Corbin. 



274 



\'IRGIXIA BIOGRAPHY 



Langbourn, William, was son of Robert 
Langbourn and ^lar}- Dandridge, his wife, 
ot Fetter Lane, London. He was born Oc- 
tober 21, 1723, came to \"irginia and settled 
in King William county. He married Sus- 
anna Smith of "Shooter's Hill," Middlesex 
county. He died March 19, 1766. He left 
son William, who was lieutenant-colonel in 
the American revolution. 

Langhorne, John, probably a grandson of 
Captain John Langhorne living in 1689, wa.s 
a burgess for Warwick county in 174S-1749. 
He was father of William Langhorne, who 
was a burgess for.\\'arwick county in 1772- 
1774, and 1775, the last session ; and mem- 
ber of the conventions of 1774 and 1775. 

Langley, Ralph, a member of the family 
of Langleys of Yorkshire, England, resided 
at York plantation, York county, \'irginia, 
was justice, captain, burgess in 1657, and 
sheriff in 1667. He married Mary, widow 
of Robert Lewis, and died issueless in 1683. 

L^gley, William, son of \\'illiam Lang- 
ley, who patented land in Lower Norfolk 
county in 1656. He lived on Tanner's Creek, 
was a justice of the peace in 1699, captain 
in 1708, and a member of the house of bur- 
gesses in 1715. He married ^largaret Thel- 
aball, daughter of James Thelaball and 
Elizabeth Mason, daughter of Francis 
Mason. He died about 1718, and left 
issue. 

Lanier, John, came from England to \'ir- 
ginia about 1670 and settled in Prince 
George county. He took sides with Bacon 
in the rebellion of 1676. He was ancestor 
of the poet Sidney Lanier. He made his 
will June 5, 1717, which is recorded in 
Prince George county and names children 



Xichdlas, Sampson, John, Robert and 
Sarah married p]rewer. 

Langston, Anthony, formerly ensign in 
I'rince Maurice's regiment during the civil 
war. He spent fourteen years in \'irginia, 
and on his return to England was a captain 
in the naval service. John Langston, who 
took part with Bacon in 1676, and left de- 
scendants in \'irginia was probably a near 
relative. 

Lankford, Benjamin, was a burgess for 
Pittsylvania county in the assembly of 1775- 
1776 and a member of the conventions of 
July, 1773, and May, 1776. 

Latane, Rev. Lewis, a Huguenot, fled 
from I'rance to England in 16S5, after the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes and came 
to \'irginia in 1 700, where he at once be- 
came minister of South Farnham parish, 
Essex county. He was a man of education 
and high character. He died in 1733, leav- 
ing children John. Charlotte. Phebe, Henri- | 
etta and Marian. " 

Lawne, Captain Christopher, arrised in 
\'irginia April 17, 1609, with 100 settlers, 
sent out by a private company in which 
Richard Wiseman, Nathaniel Basse and 
others were joined with him as associates. 
He settled on or near what is still known 
as Lawne's Creek, dividing Isle of Wight 
and Surry counties. Captain Lawne repre- 
sented his plantation in the first assembly 
July 30. 1619. He died before November 4, 
1620. This was the first plantation in Isle 
of Wight count}', \'irginia. 

Lawrence, Rev. John, was the eldest son 
of John and Dorothy Lawrence of Worm- 
leyberry House, parish of Wormeley, Here- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROAIINENT PERSONS 



275 



fordsliire, England. He was associated with 
the early history of Presbyterianism in 
America. He had a sister in \'irginia where 
he resided, and then went to Maryland 
where he preached three years. After that 
he went to Carolina and, returning to \'ir- 
ginia, died in Lower Norfolk county in 
1684. 

Lawson, Anthony, merchant of London- 
derry, Ireland, came to Virginia about 1668 
as agent for certain persons of that city. 
He married (first) Ann Okeham, relict of 
Mr. John Okeham; and (second) Mary 
Gookin, daughter of Colonel John Gookin, 
and widow of William Moseley. He was 
justice of Lower Norfolk county from 1673 
to 1693 and of Princess Anne from 1696 to 
1701. Burgess for Lower Norfolk in 1688. 
He died in 1701, leaving son Thomas and 
other children. 

Lawson, Anthony, son of Thomas Law- 
son, and grandson of Anthony Lawson, 
who came to \'irginia from Londonderry, 
was born in 1729, practised law, was a jus- 
tice of Princess Anne county, 1760-1775 ; 
sheriff, 1768-1770; lieutenant-colonel of the 
militia of Princess Anne ; was captured by 
the British and sent to East Florida, but 
was exchanged. Died in 1785. 

Lawson, Rowland, came to Virginia 
about 1637 with his wife Lettice, and his 
brothers Richard and Epaphroditus. He 
was a justice of Lancaster 1652-1655, and 
died about 1661, leaving children Rowland, 
Jr., Elizabeth, John and Henry. The will 
(1706) of Rowland Lawson, Jr., bears a seal 
showing arms — a chevron between three 
martlets, identical with the arms of the 



Lawsons, of Yorkshire and Northumber- 
land, England. 

Laydon, John, born in 1581, came to \'ir- 
ginia in 1607, among the first settlers, in 
the ship Sarah Constant. His marriage to 
Ann Burras, a maid of i\Irs. Forest who 
cr.me in the second supply (October, 1608) 
^vas the first Christian marriage in the Eng- 
lish settlements. She was fourteen years 
younger than her husband. They passed 
safely through the starving time, as the 
census of 1625 shows that they were both 
living at Elizabeth City with their four 
children — \'irginia, Alice, Katherine and 
Margaret. 

Laydon, Virginia, daughter of John Lay- 
don, and Anne Burras, his wife, was the 
first child of English parents born in Vir- 
ginia. She was born about 1609, and was 
living with her parents at Elizabeth City 
in 1625. 

Lear, John, son of Thomas Lear and 
Elizabeth Bridger, his wife, and grandson 
of Colonel John Lear of the council, was a 
member of the house of burgesses for 
Nansemond county in 1715-1720 and 1727- 
1734, and in 1723 he was sheritt. 

Lederer, John, German explorer. In 1669 
he made an exploration from the head- 
waters of York river, towards the moun- 
tains. In May, 1670, in company with 
Major Harris, he made a second voyage 
from the falls of James river to the Mona- 
can village, thence 100 miles westward to 
the south branch of the James river and 
from thence southwest to the Chowan and 
tlie Roanoke rivers, and visited the Tusca- 
roras. Later he went to Maryland, and Sir 



276 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



\\'illiam Talbot translated his journal from 
the Latin and published it. 

Lee, George, only son of Richard Lee, 
(who was grandson of Richard Lee, the 
immigrant), and Martha Silk, his wife, was 
born in London August i8, 1714, settled at 
"Mt. Pleasant," Westmoreland county. On 
the death of Colonel Daniel McCarty, he 
represented his county in the house of bur- 
gesses, and was a delegate in 1744-1747, 
1748-1749; deputy clerk under his brother- 
in-law, George Turrberville, from 1740 to 
1742, clerk 1742-1761 ; vestryman of Cople 
parish 1755, and -justice of the peace. His 
will, dated September 15, 1761, was proved 
January 26, 1762. 

Lee, Hancock, son of Richard Lee, Esq., 
was born in 1653, was justice for Northamp- 
ton county in 1677, later removed to Nor- 
thumberland county, where he was justice 
in 1687 and burgess in 1688 and 1698. His 
military rank was that of captain. He mar- 
ried (first) Mary, only daughter of Colonel 
William Kendall; (second) Sarah, daughter 
of Isaac Allerton, Esq. He died May 25, 
1709, leaving issue. 

Lee, Dr. Henry, was an early resident of 
York county ; was justice of the peace and 
burgess in 1652. He died in 1657. He mar- 
ried Marah Atkins, daughter of Thomas At- 
kins, and was the ancestor of the Lees of 
the Peninsula of Virginia. He is supposed 
to have been a brother of Richard Lee, of 
Westmoreland, ancestor of General Robert 
E. Lee. 

Lee, Henry, of "Leesylvania," Prince 
William county, third son of Henry Lee 
and Mary Bland, his wife, was born in 
1729, probably at "Lee Hall," Westmore- 



land. He was justice of the peace of Prince 
William and county lieutenant. He was 
burgess in the assemblies of May, 1769, 
1769-1771, 1772-1774, and 1775-1776, and 
member of the conventions of 1774, 1775, 
1776. Henry Lee married Lucy Grymes, 
the "Lowland Beauty." He died in 1787. 
He was father of Light Horse Harry Lee, 
and grandfather of General Robert E. Lee. 

Lee, John, was the son of Hancock Lee 
and Mary Kendall, his wife, was clerk of 
Essex county from 1745 to 1761, and bur- 
gess from 1761 to 1767. He died August 
II, 1789, at the home of his nephew, John 
Lee, Jr., son of his brother Hancock Lee. 

Lee, Richard, the second son of Henry 
Lee and Mary Bland, his wife, w-as born 
about 1726, and was generally known as 
'Squire Richard Lee." He was a justice of 
the peace of Westmoreland county, one of 
the vestry of Cople parish, naval officer of 
the port of South Potomack; burgess from 
1756 to 1775, member of the conventions of 
1774, 1775, 1776; and of the house of dele- 
gates from 1777 to 1793. He married his 
first cousin, Sally, daughter of Peter Poy- 
thress. His will, dated February 6, 1790. 
was proved in Westmoreland county, March 
2i, 1795- 

Lee, William, was a practicing physician 
in York county in 1660. He had a brother 
George Lee, "citizen and grocer of London," 
who dealt largely with Virginia. Among the 
servants shipped over by him were his two 
nephews, John Jones and John Symonds. 
In 1660 George Lee sent his "brother" 
George Underwood to collect his dues in 
hands of his brother ^^■illiam and others, 
resident in Virginia. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



277 



Le Grand, Peter, came to Virginia with 
his wife and five children in 1700 and settled 
at "Alanakintown," Goochland county. His 
will is recorded at the court house and bears 
date February 12, 1736-1737. His son Peter 
was a burgess for Goochland county in 
1758-1761, and for Prince Edward county in 
1761-1765, 1766-1768, 1772-1774 and 1775. 
He married Lucy Nash, daughter of Colonel 
John Nash, and was father of Nash Le 
Grand. 

Leigh, William, probably a son of Francis 
Leigh of the council, was burgess for King 
and Queen county in 1696, 1697, 1698, 1699, 
1700-1702, 1703-1704, and died the last year 
(1704). He was in 1702 colonel command- 
ing the militia of King and Queen county, 
as well as judge of the vice-admiralty court 
ot the colony. 

Lewis, Andrew, son of John Lewis (q. 
v.), and Margaret Lynn, his wife, was born 
in Ulster, Ireland, 1720: served in the 
French and Indian war as major, and in the 
unfortunate expedition of Major Grant, in 
1758, was taken prisoner and carried to 
Montreal; in 1774 he was made a brigadier 
general; and defeated the Indians at Point 
Pleasant in October, of that year ; a repre- 
sentative of Botetourt county in the house 
uf burgesses in 1772, 1773, 1774 and 1775, 
and in the conventions of 1774 and 1775 ; 
commissioned colonel and promoted briga- 
dier general in the continental army. He 
drove Lord Dunmore from Norfolk and 
Gwyn's Island in 1776 and was on duty in 
the lower part of the state when he con- 
tracted a fever of which he died September 
25, 1781. 

Lewis, Charles, son of John Lewis (q. v.), 
and Margaret Lynn, his wife, was born in 



1736; killed October 10, 1774 at the battle 
of Point Pleasant, where he was a major of 
the \'irginia troops. 

Lewis, Fielding, son of Colonel John 
Lewis of "Warner Hall" and Frances Field- 
ing, his wife, was born July 7, 1725, and re- 
sided in Spottsylvania county, which he 
represented in the house of burgesses in 
1760-1761, 1761-1765, 1765-1768. He was 
vestryman, justice, and colonel of the 
militia. He lived at "Kenmore" in Fred- 
ericksburg. He married (first) Catherine 
A\'ashington ; (second) Elizabeth or Betty 
Washington, sister of General Washington. 
Fielding Lewis made his will in 1781. 

Lewis, John, son of Charles Lewis of 
"The Byrd," Goochland county; descended 
from John Lewis who came to Virginia in 
1653 and settled on Poropotank Creek, 
Gloucester county ; was burgess for Halifax 
county in the assembly of May, 1769. He 
married his cousin, Jane Lewis, daughter 
of his uncle, Robert Lewis, of Albemarle. 
His will dated October 26, 1790, was proved 
in Pittsylvania county, August 21, 1794. 

Lewis, John, immigrant, first settler in 
present limits of Augusta county. He was 
born in France in 1673, of Scotch-Irish 
parents, but went to Scotland after the re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes. \\'hile 
there he married Margaret Lynn, a daugh- 
ter of the laird of Loch Lynn. He removed 
tc county Donegal, province of Ulster, Ire- 
land, but there slaying his landlord in a 
quarrel, he came to Pennsylvania where he 
spent the winter of 1731-1732. In the sum- 
mer of the latter year he emigrated with 
his sons to the valley of Virginia and reared 
his cabin one mile east of Staunton. In 1745, 
when Augusta was formed into a county, 



278 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



he was made one of the first justices. He 
employed much of his time in surveying 
lands, and in one of his trips to the country 
west of the Alleghanies he gave the Green- 
briar river its name. He died leaving five 
sons, all distinguished in the history of Vir- 
ginia — Thomas. Andrew, William, Charles, 
and Samuel. 

Lewis, Robert, son of Colonel John Lewis 
and Elizabeth Warner, his wife, was born 
at "Warner Hall," Gloucester county, and 
baptized Alay 4, 1704. He removed to 
Louisa county, and was vestryman of Fred- 
ericksville parish, justice, and colonel of the 
militia, and in 1745 and 1746 was burgess in 
the general assembly. His will dated Sep- 
tember I, 1 75 1, was proved September 11, 
1766. He married (first) Jane Meriwether, 
daughter of Colonel Nicholas Meriwether, 
by whom he had issue. He married (sec- 
ond) Elizabeth Thornton, by whom no 
issue. 

Lewis, Thomas, son of John Lewis (q. 
V ) and Margaret Lynn, his wife, was born 
in Donegal, Ireland, April 27, 1718, came 
to Virginia with his father, was surveyor of 
Augusta county in 1746; was a member of 
the conventions of 1775 and 1776, commis- 
sioner in 1778 to treat with the Indians and 
member of the convention of 1788 from 
Rockingham county. He died January 31, 
1790. 

Lewis, William, son of John Lewis (q. v.) 
and Margaret Lynn, his wife, was born 
about 1724, taught by Rev. James Waddell, 
studied medicine in Philadelphia, severely 
wounded in Braddock's defeat, practiced 
medicine in Augusta county ; colonel in the 
continental line during the American revo- 
lution. He died in 1812. 



Lewis, Zachary, son of Zachary Lewis, 
of Brecon, Brecknock, Wales, was born in 
Spottsylvania county, June i, 1702. He was 
a lawyer of large wealth and practice. He 
served in the house of burgesses in 1757- 
1758 and 1758-1761. He married, in 1729, 
Mary Walker, daughter of Colonel John 
Walker. He was a vestryman of St. 
George's parish, Spottsylvania county. He 
died January 20, 1765, leaving issue. 

Lightfoot, William, son of Colonel Philip 
Lightfoot, resided at Yorktown and at 
"Tedington," Charles City county. He was 
a burgess for Charles City county in 1756, 
1757 and 1758, and died before 1771, leaving 
issue by his wife ]\Iildred Howell, William 
Philip, Mary married William Allen, of 
Surry, Mildred married Walter Coles. 

Lindsay, David, son of Sir Hierome Lind- 
say, knight of the mount. Lord Lyon-king- 
at-arms of Scotland, was born at South 
Leith, Scotland. January 2, 1603, and was 
rector of Yeocomico parish, Northumber- 
land county, Virginia. He died April 3, 
1667, leaving an only daughter Helen, who 
married Captain Thomas Opie, who has 
descendants in Virginia. 

Lister, Thomas, fifth son of James Lister, 
of Shibden Hall, Yorkshire, baptized De- 
cember 9, 170S, died August 15, 1740, in 
Virginia ; married Ann, daughter of John 
Lewis of Virginia, 1733. He had a son Wil- 
liam who returned to England, and several 
daughters, who married Virginians. 

Lister, William, burgess for Lancaster 
county in 1705-1706; he was justice and 
major of the militia. 

Littlepage, Colonel James, was son of 
Richard Littlepage (q. v.), and was born 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



279 



July 14, 1714; first clerk of Louisa county, 
1742-1760; burgess for Hanover county in 
I7()4 to succeed Nathaniel \\'est Dandridge, 
whose election he contested and "who em- 
ployed I'atrick Henry to defend his cause; 
was reelected to the assembly of I7()(i-i7(j8. 
but died in 1766. By his second wife Eliza- 
beth Lewis, daughter of Zachary Lewis, he 
had General Lewis Littlepage, who was 
chamberlain and confidential secretary to 
the King of Poland. 

Littlepage, Richard, was son of Air. Rich- 
ard Littlepage, who patented land in New 
Kent, \'irginia, 1660. He was vestryman 
of St. Peter's church, justice, and burgess 
for New Kent in 1685. He died March 20, 
1717, and was father of James Littlepage 
(q. v.). 

Livingston, William, was a merchant of 

New Kent county. He contracted in 1716 

with Charles Stagg, dancing master and 

theatrical manager, to c;)perate the first 

theatre in America at \\'illiamsburg. The 

theatre was built, and comedies and 
tragedies represented. 

Llewellyn, Daniel, of Chelmsford, Essex, 
England, came to ^'irginia in or before 1642 
and settled near Shirley in Charles City 
county. He received various grants of land, 
^^■as justice of the peace for Charles City 
county, a captain of militia and a member 
of the house of burgesses fur Henrico 
county in 1(143 '^^'"^ i'''44 '^"^^ f'"" Gharles 
City county in if^ft. 1652. 1653, 1636. He 
married Anne, widow of Robert Hallam 
and died at Chelmsford, in ihC^. lea\ing 
a son Daniel in \'irginia. born 1(47. 

Lloyd, Cornelius, was a London merchant 
who came to A'irginia and was memlier of 



the house of burgesses for Lower Norfolk 
county 1642-43 and 1644, for Isle of Wight 
1645, ^iid again for Lower Norfolk county, 
1647, 1652, when he received the rank of 

lieutenant-colonel, and 1633 when he held 
the rank of colonel. He \A-as born about 
1608 and died before December 20, 1654. 

Lloyd, Edward, was a brother of Colonel 
Cornelius Lloyd, and was a burgess for 
Lower Norfolk county i644-if)46. was a 
Puritan and removed to Alaryland in 1648, 
and was ancestor of the family of the Lloyd 
name there. 

Lloyd, John, son of Colonel Williarr. 
Llo^d, of Rappahannock, was justice lor 
Richmond county in 1693, ^""^ w^s recom- 
mended to the English government as a 
suitable man in estate and standing for 
appointment to the council. He married, 
about 1693, Elizabeth, onl}- child and heir- 
ess of Colonel John Carter, Jr. He removed 
to England about 1700 and resided in the 
city of Chester. 

Lloyd, Thomas, son of Colonel William 
Lloyd, of Rappahannock county, was bur- 
gess for Richmond county in 1699. 

Lloyd, William, came to A'irginia before 
1667 and patented extensive tracts of land. 
In 1686, he was a justice of Rappahan- 
nock and lieutenant-colonel of the militia. 
He married (first) Mary, widow of Moore 
Fauntleroy ; and (second) Elizabeth, widow 
of John Hull. He was burgess for Rappa- 
hannock in 1685. He had two sons John 
and Thomas (cj. v.). 

Lobb, George, was a burgess in 1(136: one 
of the principal silk-raisers in ^'irginia. 

Lockey, Edward, was a merchant of 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



London, who came to York county, Vir- 
ginia, about 1650. He married in 1661 
Elizabeth, widow of Mr. John Hansford, 
f Either of Colonel Thomas Hansford, of 
Bacon's rebellion. He died in 1667 in the 
parish of St. Catherine Creechurch, Lon- 
don, leaving his property to his nephew 
Isaac Collier, and other relatives in Vir- 
ginia. His brother John Lockey was a Lon- 
don ship captain and merchant. 

Lomax, Lunsford, of "Portobago," Caro- 
line county, son of John Lomax, and grand- 
son of Rev. John Lomax, i\I. A., of Emman- 
uel College, Cambridge, a Puritan divine, 
was born November 5, 1705. and repre- 
sented Caroline county in the house of 
burgesses from 1742 to 1756. Lie married 
twice (first) Mary Edwards; (second) 
Judith Micou, and died June 10, 1772, leav- 
ing issue. 

Lord, John, son of Thomas Lord, one of 
the original proprietors of Hartford, Con- 
necticut, removed to Virginia, and was 
living in Westmoreland county 1668; jus- 
tice and militia captain for that county, 
November 5, 1677. He had issue Elizabeth, 
who married James Neale, of Maryland, and 
William Lord, sherifif of Westmoreland 
county in 1729. 

Loving, Thomas, was a merchant who 
resided at Martin's LIundred, James City 
cc'unty. He was member of the house of 
burgesses for James City county in 1644, 
1646 and in March, 1657-1658. He was also 
surveyor general of Virginia until his death 
in 1665. He married before 1639 the widow 
of Thomas Kingston. His daughter and 
heiress Anne married October 28, 1666, Dr. 
Edward Thruston, son of John Thruston, 



chamberlain of Bristol, England, who has 
descendants in Virginia. 

Lovelace, Colonel Francis, son of Sir Wil- 
liam Lovelace, and brother of Richard 
Lovelace, the poet, served Charles I. m 
\\'ales, and commanded Caermathen from 
1644 until it was captured by Langhorne in 
October, 1645. His estate was sequestered 
by the parliamentarians and in 1650 he 
came to Virginia. At the surrender of Vir- 
ginia to the parliamentary commissioners in 
1652 he was allowed to repair to Charles 
II. with the news. After the restoration he 
was made governor of New York from 1667 
to 1673. His sister Anne married Rev. John 
Gorsuch, of England and \^irginia. 

Lucas, Thomas, gentleman, patented 600 
acres in Lancaster county in 1652 and was 
burgess for that county in 1657-1658, and 
died in 1673. He had had two wives, the 
last being Margaret, widow of Captain John 
Upton, whom he married in 1657. His son 
Thomas by the first marriage died without 
issue, and administration on his estate in 
England was granted to his cousin and next 
of kin John Lucas. 

Luddington, William, burgess for York 
county in 1646. 

Ludlow, Thomas, son of Gabriel and 
Phillis Ludlow, of an ancient family in W ilt- 
shire, England, and nephew of Colonel 
George Ludlow (q. v.). He was baptized 
at Warminster November i, 1624, came to 
Virginia and became lieutenant-colonel of 
the militia of York county. His brother 
John qualified on his estate December 20. 
1660. Lie left a son George, who died with- 
out issue and a daughter Elizabeth, who 
married John Wiles of Culford parish. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



281 



county Suffolk, England, and a daughter 
Mary. His widow Mary married Rev. Peter 
Temple, of York county, Virginia. 

Luke, George, was the son of Oliver Luke 
Esq., of Woodend, Bedfordshire, England, 
and grandson of Sir Samuel Luke, who is 
supposed to be the hero of Pludibras. He 
was born July 29, 1659, came to Virginia 
about 1690, and in 1722 was collector of the 
customs for the lower district of James 
river. He married Mary Fitzhugh, the 
widow of Dr. Ralph Smith, and died 1724. 
His wife survived him and kept ordinary in 
Williamsburg. 

Lupo, Lieutenant Albino, gentleman, 
born in 1584, came to Virginia in i6io; his 
v.'ife Elizabeth born 1597, came to Virginia 
in 1616; both patented lands in Kecough- 
tan parish, Elizabeth City corporation. 

Lyddall, Captain John, son of Colonel 
George Lyddall, was a burgess for New 
Kent county in 1692-1693. George Lyddall 
was a son of Sir Thomas Lyddall and Brid- 
get, his wife. In 1679 he had command of 
a fort on the Mattapony river, and died in 
New Kent January 19, 1705. 

Lyde, Cornelius, son of Lionel Lyde, who 
was "an eminent merchant in Bristol," 
lived in King William county, which he 
served as major of the militia and repre- 
sentative in the house of burgesses in 1736- 
1738. He died the latter year. 

Lynch, Charles, emigrant, was a justice 
for Albemarle county in 1745, captain in 
1747, burgess, for Albemarle in 1748- 1749. 
Ho married Sarah, daughter of Christopher 
Clark, Sr., and his will was proved May 10. 
1753- ^Is h^d issue Charles Lynch, who 
originated "Lynch Law" in Virginia against 



jiredatory Tories — John, the founder uf 
Lynchburg, Christopher, Edward and 
Mary. 

Lyne, George, burgess for King and 
Queen county at the last assembly 1775- 
1776, and a member of the conventions of 
1774, 1775 and 1776. Brother of William 
Lyne (q. v.). 

Lyne, William, was burgess from King 
and Queen county I\lay i, 1769 and 1769- 
1771 ; member of the committee of safety 
of King and Queen county ; afterwards was 
a colonel in the revolution. He was son of 
William Lyne, who came from Bristol, 
England. He married his first cousin Lucy, 
daughter of Henry Lyne. 

Mackie, Josias, son of Patrick Mackie, of 
St. Johnstone, county Donegal, Ireland, was 
an early Presbyterian minister, who came 
to Virginia about 1700 and died in 1716. He 
resided, at the time of his death, at the 
house of Jacob Johnson, on whose land in 
Princess Anne county, there was a Presby- 
terian church. By his will he left his Latin, 
Greek and Hebrew books to three non-con- 
forming ministers on Potomac river — Mr. 
Henry. Mr. Hani])ton and Mr. ?\Iakemie. 

Macklin, Frederick, was son of Colonel 
John Macklin, and grandson of William 
Macklin, who came from Scotland to \'ir- 
ginia about 1725. He was justice, county 
lieutenant, burgess for Brunswick county 
in 1705-1769. and member of the conven- 
tions of 1775 and 1776. He married Lucy 
Rollins and his will was probated in Bruns- 
wick December 26. 1808. 

Macon, Gideon, who is believed to have 
been a Huguenot, or of Huguenot descent, 
was living in New Kent county as early as 



282 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



1682 and was a member of the house of 
burgesses for that county. He died before 
1703, when his widow Martha married Na- 
thaniel West and afterwards a Air. Bigger. 
His daughter Alartha married Orlando 
Jones, and their daughter I'~rances Jones 
married Colonel John Dandridge and was 
the mother of Airs. Alartha Washington. 

Macon, William, son of Gideon Alacon, 
was born November 11, 1694, and was bur- 
gess for New Kent county in 1736-1740. He 
married Alary Hartwell September 24, 1719, 
and had two sons William and Henry, and 
six daughters Ann, Alartha, Alary, Eliza- 
beth, Sarah, Judy. 

Macon, William, son of William Alacon, 
and grandson of Gideon Alacon, the emi- 
grant, was born January 4, 1725; was bur- 
gess for Hanover county in Alay, 1769, and 
1769-1771. He married Lucy Scott, and 
died before November 24, 1813, leaving 
issue. 

Madison, James, son of Ambrose Aladi- 
son, was born March 27, 1723. He resided 
in Orange county and was lieutenant-colo- 
nel of the militia. He died February 29, 
1801. He was father of James Aladison, 
president of the United States. 

Madison, John, son of Captain John Alad- 
ison, of King and Queen county, and Isa- 
bella Todd, his wife, was first clerk for 
Augusta county, and member of the house 
of burgesses in 1748, 1749, 1752, 1753, 1754. 
He was father of James Aladison, president 
of William and Mary College, and of 
George Aladison, governor of Kentucky. 

Major, Edward, patented land in 1637, 
450 acres in the upper county of New Nor- 



folk (Nansemond), and in 1645, it)46, it-'5- 
and 1653 he was a member of the house ui 
burgesses for Nansemond. He was speaker 
of the house in 1652 and lieutenant-colonel 
of the militia in 1653. He married Sus- 
anna Aston, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Walter Aston, of Charles City count}-, and 
was dead in 1655. 

Makemie, Francis, was born near the 
town of Ramelton, county Donegal, in 1658. 
He was student of ministry at Glasgow 
University in 1676; licensed to preach in 
1681 and went as missionary to America. 
He travelled in Alaryland, Virginia and 
Barbadoes trading as well as preaching. In 
1690 he became a resident of Accomac 
county, where he married Naomi, eldest 
daughter of William Anderson (q. v.). In 
the spring of 1706, he formed at Philadel- 
phia the first Presbytery ever organized in 
America. The next year he was arrested at 
Newtown, Long Island, for preaching 
without a license. He was released but 
fined heavily. In 1708 he died at his resi- 
dence in Accomac, Virginia. 

Mallory, Philip, came of an ancient and 
distinguished family in Yorkshire. He was 
son of Thomas Mallory, dean of Chester, 
was baptized April 29, 1618, and was ma- 
triculated May 28, 1634, at Corpus Christi 
College. B. A. from St. Alary's Hall, 
April 27. 1637; AI. A. January 16, 1639-1640 
and was rector of Norton, county Durham, 
from 1641 to 1644 when he was ejected by 
the parliamentary authorities. He is said 
to have gone with Prince Rupert's fleet to 
the West Indies. The date of Air. Alal- 
lory's arrival in Virginia is not known but 
hi 1656 he was appointed together with Air. 
John Green to examine all ministerial can- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROAIINEXT PERSONS 



didates for parishes. In September, 1660, 
he officiated as a minister in York county 
at the celebration of the restoration of 
Charles 11. In IVIarch, 1661, he was sent to 
England by the general assembly in regard 
to church affairs, and died in London soon 
after his arrival. He left all his Virginia 
estate to his nephew, Roger Mallory, from 
whom the Virginia family descends, and 
among his legacies was I20 to "erecting and 
building a college in Virginia." He mar- 
ried Catherine, daughter of Robert Batte, 
vice-master of University College, Oxford, 
but had no issue. 

Mallory, Roger, was son of Thomas Mal- 
lory, D. D., rector of Eccleston, in county 
Lancaster, England, a royalist minister and 
brother of Rev. Philip Mallory. Roger 
Mallory came to Virginia before 1660, set- 
tled in New Kent county, was justice of 
King and Queen in 1690. His son William 
was ancestor of the Mallorys of Elizabeth 
City county. He probably had a son, Roger, 
ancestor of the Mallorys of Louisa county. 

Mallory, Thomas, was son of Thomas 
Mallory, D. D., a royalist minister, brother 
of Rev. Philip ilallory. He settled in that 
part of Charles City county afterwards 
known as Prince George county and was 
ancestor of the Mallorys resident in Prince 
George, Brunswick, etc. He was born in 
1636. (See \Mrginia ^Magazine, xii, 402). 

Mann, John, merchant, emigrated to \'ir- 
ginia from England and died in Gloucester 
county January 7, 1694. He married Mary, 
widow of Edmund Berkeley. He left a 
daughter, Mary, who was wife of Colonel 
Matthew Page, of the council, and a daugh- 
ter, Sarah, who married (first) Joseph 
Ring; (second) Joseph Walker, Esq. 



Mansell (Mansfield), David, came to 
Virginia in 1619, and was one of the hired 
men of George Sandys, treasurer. He lived 
on tlie south side of the James river, oppo- 
site to Jamestown. Later in 1631-1632, he 
represented Martin's Hundred in the house 
of burgesses. 

Marable, George, was son of George Mar- 
able of Jamestown. He resided at James- 
town, was captain of the militia and mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses from James 
City county in 1714-1718, taking a leading 
pr.rt. He married Mary Hartwell, daugh- 
ter of Captain William Hartwell, brother 
01 Henry Hartwell of the council of state. 
He had George ]\Iarable, Jr., and Henry 
Hartwell Marable. The former died in 
Charles City county in 1776, leaving issue 
Edward, William, Benjamin, Hartwell, 
(ieorge and Abraham, and daughters Amy 
Drinkard, Agnes Collier and Martha Major. 

Marable, Matthew, represented Bruns- 
wick county in the house of burgesses from 
i-rig to 1775. 

Marable, William, was a burgess for 
James City county in 1736-1740. 



Marot, Jean, came to Virginia m the 
Iluguenot emigration in 1700. He was. in 
1704 secretary of Colonel William Byrd at 
Westover, and was then twenty-seven years 
old. The next year he opened an ordinary 
ill Williamsburg. He died in 1717, and by 
/lis wife Anne had issue Edith, who married 
Samuel Cobbs, Rachel who married Richard 
Booker, and Anne who married (first) 
James Ingles: (second) James Shields, of 
York county. 

Marshall, John, one of Bacon's supporters 
in 1676. When the royal commissioners 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



opened their office in 1677 at Swann's Point, 
Marshall and others lodged complaints 
against Sir William Berkeley which they 
recanted ; Marshall begged pardon on his 
bended knees. His will was proved June 9, 
1688. and mentions son Humphrey, daugh- 
ter Mary, "a younger son" unnamed, and 
brothers Humphrey Marshall and Peter 
Best. 

Marshall, Captain Roger, born in 161 1, 
was in the military service of the colony, 
and in 1646 was in command of Fort Royall 
alias Rickahock Fort on the Mattapony 
river. 

Marshall, Thomas, son of John Marshall, 
of Westmoreland county and Elizabeth 
Markham, his wife, was born in Washing- 
ton parish, Westmoreland county, April 2, 
1730; was a lieutenant in the French and 
Indian war; burgess for Fauquier county in 
the assemblies of 1761-1765, 1766-1769, 1769- 
1771, 1772-1774. 1775, and a member of the 
conventions of 1774, 1775, 1776; colonel of 
the Third Virginia Regiment in the Conti- 
nental army; in 1780 surveyor-general of 
the lands in Kentucky appropriated to the 
officers and soldiers of the Virginia Conti- 
nental line ; removed to Kentucky and died 
there June 22. 1802. He married Mary Ran- 
dolph Keith, and was father of Chief Justice 
John Marshall. 

Marshall, Thomas, was burgess for North- 
ampton county at the last session of the 
assembly of 1723-1726, in the place of 
Thomas Harmanson. who died. He was 
burgess in the assembly of 1727-1734. but in 
1732 vacated his seat by accepting the office 
of sheriff. 

Marshall, Captain William, came from 



Barbadoes to Virginia. He was burgess for 
Elizabeth City county in 1692 and died the 
same year, being murdered by some sailors 
at Hampton, Virginia. He married Hannah 
Hand and left one son, William Marshall. 
His widow married (second) Captain Rich- 
ard Booker, of Gloucester county, and left 
issue by him. The name Marshall has de- 
scended in the Booker family. 

Marshart, Michael, was a London mer- 
chant who settled in Virginia about 1640 
and furnished the colony with supplies at 
difTerent times. He had ships trading as 
far as Canada. 

Martian (Martue), Nicholas, was a French 
Walloon, who obtained his denization in 
England before coming to Virginia; born in 
1591 ; arrived before 1620; first burgess for 
the first settlement on the York river, 1632; 
took a leading part in 1635 at the meeting 
at William Warren's house, near the pres- 
ent Yorktown, in protesting against Sir 
John Harvey's tyranny. His will, dated 
Alarch I. 1656, was proved April 24, 1657, 
and in it he names his three daughters — 
Elizabeth, wife of Colonel George Reade ; 
Mary, wife of Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Scasbrook. and Sarah, wife of Captain Wil- 
liam Fuller, sometime governor of Mary- 
land. 

Martin, Colonel John, came to \^irginia 
about 1730. In 1738 he advertised for a 
stolen silver pint cup with his arms en- 
graved thereon, "a chevron between three 
half moons." He was a member of the 
house of burgesses for Caroline county, 
where he resided in 1738-1740 and 1752- 
1756, in which last year he died. He mar- 
ried Martha Burwell (1703-1738), and left 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMIXEXT PERSONS 



285 



three sons — George, John and Samuel — and 
four daughters, one of whom, Lucia, married 
(first) Henry Boyle, youngest son of the 
Earl of Shannon, (second) James Agar, of 
county Kilkenny, Ireland, Lord Clifden ; 
another daughter, Elizabeth (born July 16, 
1721), married Patrick Barclay, merchant of 
Louisa county Virginia ; and another, Patty, 
married, in 1756, Edmund Sexton Perry, 
speaker of the Irish house of commons 
(1771-1785). Colonel John Martin's sons 
were doubtless Tories, and went to England 
at the time of the revolution. He had three 
brothers — George Martin, of Dublin, Esq., 
Doctor of Physic ; Sparkes Alartin, Esq., of 
Bush House, county Pembroke, England, 
and Henry Martin, who went to Virginia. 

Martin, John, was a burgess for Lower 
Norfolk county in 1651. 

Martin, Thomas Bryan, was the nephew 
of Lord Thomas Fairfax, being a son of his 
sister Frances. He came to Virginia in 
1 75 1 and succeeded George WilHam Fair- 
fax as the Lord's land agent. He was a 
burgess for Hampshire county in the assem- 
bly of 1756-1758, and for Frederick county 
in the assembly of 1758-1761 ; colonel of the 
militia. When Lord Fairfax died in 1781, 
"Greenway Court" was willed to Colonel 
Martin. 

Marye, Rev. James, a native of Rouen, 
Normandy, France, came to England in 
1726, and was ordained in the English 
church. He married, in London, Letitia 
Maria Anne Staige, sister of Rev. Theo- 
dosius Staige. He came to Virginia in 1729 
and was for a short time minister of the 
Parish of St. James, Northam, Goochland 
county. In October, 1735, he became min- 



ister of St. George's Parish, Spottsyivania, 
and continued till his death in 1767. He 
was succeeded bv his son. Rev. James Marye, 
Jr. 

Marye, Peter, was a son of Rev. James 
Marye, a native of Rouen, France, who 
came in 1729, by way of England to Vir- 
ginia as a minister of the Church of Eng- 
land. He was born February 20, 1737; 
studied at William and Mary College; was 
burgess for Spottsyivania county in May, 
1769. He married, December 6, 1773, Elea- 
nor, daughter of Colonel William and Anne 
(Coleman) Green, of Culpeper county. 

Mason, David, son of John Mason Jr., 
who was one of the first justices of Sussex 
county (1754) and grandson of Captain 
John Mason, who died September 3, 1755; 
was burgess for Sussex county in the assem- 
blies of 1761-1765, 1766-1768, 1769-1771, 
1772-1774, 1775, and a member of the con- 
ventions of 1774, 1775 and 1776. His will 
was proved in Sussex, June 16, 1785, and 
shows that he left sons — William, John, 
James, Henry. David, Benjamin, Peyton 
and Joseph Mason — and daughters — Re- 
becca, wife of Timothy Rives ; Elizabeth 
Rives, and Mary Jeffries. 

Mason, Lieutenant Francis, born in 1585, 
came to Virginia in 1613 with his wife Anne 
and daughter Anne. He married (second) 

in 1623-1625, Alice . He was justice 

of Lower Norfolk county from 1637 to 1648; 
sherilif in 1646. He died in 1648, leaving a 
daughter Elizabeth, who married James 
Thelaball (a Huguenot immigrant), and 
sons, Lemuel and James (q. v.). 

Mason, Francis, son of James Mason, was 
born in Surry county, Virginia, in 1647; was 



MRGIXIA BIOGRAPHY 



a justice, major of militia and burgess in 
1692. He married, in 1673, Elizabeth Binns, 
daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Walter 
Aston, of Westover, and widow of Thomas 
Binns. By a former marriage he had a son 
James. 

Mason, George, immigrant, born 1630, 
came to Virginia about 165 1, a strong royal- 
ist, settled in Staltord county; was a mem- 
ber of the Northern Neck committee in 
1667; sheriff of Staftord, 1669; member of 
the house of burgesses for Stafford in 1676, 
and county lieutenant commanding the 
militia. He died in 1686. 

Mason, Colonel George, son of Colonel 
George Mason, the immigrant, was like his 
father county lieutenant of Stafford and was 
a burgess for the county April, 1688, April, 
1691, October, 1693, April, 1695, September, 
1696, April and October, 1697; September, 
1698; April, 1699; August, 1701, and IMay 
and June, 1702. He married three times 
and died in 1716. He was grandfather of 
George ]\Iason, of the American revolution. 

Mason, James, a son of Francis Mason, 
of Lower Norfolk county, was a burgess for 
Surry county in 1654; he died about 1670. 
leaving a son Francis, born in 1647, who 
married Elizabeth Aston, widow of Thomas 
Binns, and daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Walter Aston, of Westover. 

Mason, Colonel Lemuel, son of Lieutenant 
Francis Mason, was born in Virginia about 
1628; was justice of Lower Norfolk county 
from 1649: sheriff, 1664 and 1668; member 
of the house of burgesses, 1654. 1657, 1658, 
1659, 1660, 1663, 1666, 1675, 1685, 1692; 
colonel of the militia in 1680. and presiding 
justice. His will, dated June 17, 1695, was 



proved September 15, 1702. He married 
Anne, daughter of Henry Seawell, of Sea- 
well's Point (Sewell's Point; . 

Mason, Thomas, burgess for Norfolk 
county in 1696-1697. 

Massie, Thomas, son of Peter Massie, who 
emigrated from England and patented lands 
in New Kent county, Virginia, in 1698; was 
vestryman of St. Peter's Church, New Kent, 
in 1708, and burgess in the assembly of 
1723-1726. He married Mary Walker, 
March 23, 1699, and had issue. He was 
father of William Massie (q. v.). 

Massie, William, son of Thomas Massie 
(q. v.), was born in New Kent county, May 
28, 1718. He was burgess for the county in 
1748 and 1749, in which latter year he died. 
He married Martha Macon, daughter of 
Colonel William ]Macon, and after his death 
she married Theodorick Bland. He was 
father of Major Thomas ]\Iassie, of Am- 
herst, aide to Washington. 

Mathew, Thomas, was a merchant, who 
acquired lands in Staft'ord and Northumber- 
land counties. In 1676 he represented Staf- 
ford in the house of burgesses. He removed 
to England at a later date and lived in the 
parish of St. Margaret, Westminster. He is 
celebrated as the author of a narrative of 
Bacon's rebellion, published in Force's 
Tracts, signed "T. M." In his will dated 
May 6, 1703, and recorded February 8, 1706, 
in the probate court of Canterbury, he re- 
fers to himself as "formerly of Cherry Point, 
in the parish of Bowtracy, Northumber- 
land county., \'a.," and asks to be buried 
by the side of his son William in the 
"Church of St. Dunstan's in the East.'" He 
gave all his estate in England and Virginia 



5URGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



287 



to his three children — John, Thomas and 
Anna — and in 1712 the will was presented 
in Northumberland county court by his 
"brother-in-law," Captain John Cralle. Rob- 
ert Walton, in his will proved in Northum- 
berland, July 19, 1671, mentions his sister, 
Frissie Mathew,and brother-in-law, Thomas 
Mathew, and there is a power of attorney 
dated January 3, 1737, and on record in 
Northumberland, from Thomas Mathew, of 
Sherbon Lane, London, gent., and Mr. John 
Mathew, of London, merchant, and Anna, 
his wife, which Thomas and Anna were the 
surviving children of Thomas Mathew, for- 
merly of Cherry Point, in Virginia, to 
Thomas Crompton, of Maryland, to sell his 
Isnds in Virginia. 

Matthews, George, son of John ^Matthews, 
who came to A'irginia about 1737 and was 
one of the first settlers on the great tract 
of land granted to Benjamin Borden, was 
born in 1739; was first a merchant in Staun- 
ton ; in 1774 a captain of a company in the 
battle of Point Pleasant; in June, 1775, a 
burgess for Augusta in the assembly ; soon 
after appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 
Ninth Virginia Regiment; captured with 
his regiment at Germantown ; exchanged in 
1781 and commanded the Third Virginia 
Regiment under General Green in the south ; 
removed to Georgia in 1785, where he was 
elected to the first congress, 1789-1791, and 
made governor, 1793-1796; brigadier gen- 
eral in the expedition for the capture of 
West Florida in 181 1. He died in Augusta, 
Georgia, August 30, 1812. 

Maury, James, son of Matthew Maury 
and Mary Anne Fontaine, was born April 
8. 1718; was educated at William and Mary 
College; ordained a minister in 1742; then 



was a minister one year in King William 
county, and afterwards was minister of 
Fredericksville parish, Hanover and Louisa 
counties; plaintiiif in the famous parson's 
cause, 1763; and died June 9, 1769. He 
married Mary Walker, daughter of James 
Walker, and was father of Rev. Matthew 
Maury, who succeeded him in the parish, 
and of Rev. Walker Maury (q. v.). 

Maury, Matthew, was of Castle Mauran, 
Gascony, France, came to Virginia in 1708. 
He married, in 1716, Mary Anne Fontaine, 
sister of Revs. Francis and Peter Fontaine 
( q. v.). He was ancestor of the Maurys of 
Virginia. 

Maury, Walker, son of Rev. James and 
Mary (\^'alker) ^laury, was born July 21, 
1752; educated at William and Mary Col- 
lege, 1770-1774, where in the latter year he 
obtained the Botetourt gold prize for class- 
ical learning; had a grammar school in Wil- 
liamsburg, and in 1786 was made principal 
of the Norfolk Academy. He died of the 
}-ellow fever, October 11, 1788. He married 
Mary Grymes. 

Mayo, John, son of Major William Mayo 
and Anne Perratt, his wife, was born in 
Virginia about 1737; was burgess from 
Cumberland county in the place of John 
Fleming, deceased, at the session of March 
31, 1768, till the close of the assembly. 1769; 
then burgess for Cumberland in 1769-1771, 
1772-1774, 1775-1776; member of the con- 
ventions of 1774. 1775. 1776; he was colonel 
of militia; died at his seat "Powhatan," in 
Henrico county, June 17, 1780. He married 
Mary Tabb, of Gloucester county and left 
issue. 

Mayo, William, a noted surveyor, was son 



288 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



of Joseph j\Iayo and Elizabeth Hooper, his 
wife, of Poulshot, county Wilts, England, 
and was baptized at Poulshot, November 4, 
1684; he first emigrated to Barbadoes, of 
which he made a survey. He married here 
Frances Gould and went with her to Vir- 
ginia in 1723 ; qualified in 1728 as one of the 
first justices for Goochland; in 1730 ap- 
pointed major of militia; in 1729 one of the 
surveyors to run the dividing line between 
Virginia and North Carolina; made in 1737 
a map of the Northern Neck ; surveyed Rich- 
mond in 1737; in 1740'colonel of the Gooch- 
land militia. He married (second) Anne 
Perratt, about the year 1732. He died Oc- 
tober 20, 1744. 

McCarty, Charles, a descendant of Den- 
pis McCarty, who came to Virginia about 
1670; was a member of the convention of 
May, 1776. He married Winifred Tarpley, 
daughter of Travers Tarpley, of Richmond 
county, and his will, dated 1784 and 
proved 1788, names children — Bartholomew, 
Charles Travers, Fanny, Winney, Elizabeth, 
Tarpley, Presley and John. 

McCarty, Daniel, son of Dennis Mc- 
Carty, who died in Richmond county in 
1694, was born in 1679; was burgess for 
Westmoreland county in 1705-06, 1715, 1718, 
1720-1722, 1723. He was speaker of the 
house of burgesses in 1715 and 1718. He 
was a man of great estate and his massive 
silver table service, still preserved, bears the 
date of 1620, and the arms of the Earls of 
Clancarty. He died May 4, 1624, leaving 
issue, among others Daniel McCarty Jr. 
(q. v.). 

McCarty, Daniel, Jr., son of Daniel Mc- 
Carty (q. v.), was collector of Potomac 



river, colonel of the militia, and burgess for 
Westmoreland county from 1734 to 1744, 
when he died. He married Penelope Hig- 
gins, and had issue. 

McDowell, Samuel, son of John Mc- 
Dowell, a surveyor for Benjamin Borden 
(q. v.), and grandson of Ephraim Mc- 
Dowell, who emigrated from Ireland to 
Pennsylvania and thence to Virginia about 
1735. He was burgess for Augusta county, 
1772-1774, 1775-1776, and member of the 
conventions of 1774, 1775 and 1776. He was 
father of the celebrated surgeon, Ephraim 
McDowell, who married a daughter of Gen- 
eral Evan Shelby. 

McKenzie, Dr. Kenneth, born in Scotland, 
resided in Williamsburg; married Joanna 
Tyler, daughter of John Tyler, of James 
City county. His will was proved March 
I/' 1755- Portraits of Dr. McKenzie and 
his wife are still extant. 

Mead, William, born in Bucks county, 
Pennsylvania, October 10, 1727, moved to 
Loudoun county, Virginia, in 1746, and 
thence to Bedford county, about 1754. He 
was one of the incorporators of New Lon- 
don, Bedford county; sheriff of the county, 
justice of the peace and deputy surveyor 
under Richard Stith. He served as lieu- 
tenant of militia in the French and Indian 
war, and as ensign in the American revolu- 
tion. He married (first) Anne Haile, (sec- 
ond) Martha Cowles. 

Meade, Andrew, was the son of David 
Meade (q. v.), of Nansemond county. He 
married Susanna, daughter of Buckner Stith, 
of Brunswick county. He represented 
Nansemond county in the conventions of 
July 17, 1775, and December i, 1775. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



Meade, David, was the son of Andrew 
Meade (born in the county of Kerry, Ire- 
land) and Mary Latham, his wife. David 
Meade, in 1729 or 1730, married Susanna, 
daughter of Sir Richard Everard, governor 
of North CaroHna, and Susannah Kidder, 
his wife, eldest daughter of Dr. Richard 
Kidder, bishop of Bath and Wells. He re- 
sided in Nansemond county, and died there 
ii; 1757, in his forty-seventh year. 

Meade, David, son of David Meade and 
Susanna Everard, his wife, was born July 
29, 1744. He was a burgess for Nansemond 
county in 1769, but in 1774 removed to 
"Maycox," on James River in Prince George 
county. In 1796 he removed to Jessamine 
county, Kentucky, where at a very old age 
he died at his beautiful residence "Chau- 
miere des Prairies." He married Sarah 
Waters, daughter of William Waters, of 
Williamsburg, and left issue. 

Meade, Richard Kidder, son of David 
Meade (q. v.) and Susanna Everard, his 
wife, was born in 1750, in Nansemond 
county. During the American revolution 
he was first captain of a company in the 
Second Virginia Regiment commanded by 
Colonel William Woodford, and afterwards 
was aide-de-camp to General Washington. 
He married (first) Jane Randolph, aunt of 
John Randolph, of Roanoke, and (second) 
Mary Grymes, daughter of Benjamin 
Grymes. He was father of Bishop William 
Meade. 

Meares, Thomas, patented 300 acres in 
the Upper county of New Norfolk in 1637 ; 
was burgess for Lower Norfolk in Febru- 
ary, 1645, October, 1646, and November, 
1647. He was a Puritan and removed to 

VI"— 19 



Maryland in 1649, ^'""J '" 1654 was a resi- 
dent at Providence or Annapolis. He was 
born in 1602. 

Melling, William, came from England to 
Virginia before 1636, when he obtained a 
grant for 100 acres in Accomac. He was a 
member of the house of burgesses from 
Northampton, July, 1653, and March, 1657- 
58. There is a notice June 28, 1661, in the 
Northampton records of "William Mellings, 
late of Virginia, now resident in London, 
gentleman." 

Mercer, George, eldest son of John Mer- 
cer, of "Marlborough," was born June 23, 
1733, was educated at William and Mary 
College ; was lieutenant and captain in 
Washington's First Virginia Regiment in 
the French and Indian war, and later lieu- 
tenant-colonel of Colonel Byrd's Second 
Virginia Regiment; aide-de-camp to Wash- 
ington, and was wounded at Fort Neces- 
sity, July 3, 1754. In 1761-63 he was bur- 
gess for Frederick county, and in 1763 
went to England as agent for the Ohio 
Company. While there he was appointed 
stamp distributor and was given charge of 
the stamps for Maryland and Virginia. 
When he reached Virginia and learned of 
the feeling among the people, he resigned 
his office and, entrusting the stamps to Cap- 
tain Sterling, commander of his majesty's 
ship. Rainbow, he returned to England. He 
married, on August 18, 1767, at Scarboro, 
England, Mary Neville, daughter of Chris- 
topher Neville, of Lincoln. He was later 
appointed lieutenant-governor of North 
Carolina, but he did not ever act as gov- 
ernor. He died in London, April, 1784. 

Mercer, James, younger brother of John 



290 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Mercer, of "Marlborough," \vas born Feb- 
ruary 19, 1716; was a resident of Virginia 
before 1745. He was captain in the Car- 
thagena expedition in 1740. He returned 
to Virginia in 1755 as captain of the 
Eighteenth Regiment of Foot, commanded 
by Colonel Dunbar, in the expedition against 
Fort Duquesne, and continued in the mili- 
tary service till his death, when he had 
attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He 
died, unmarried at Albany, New York, Sep- 
tember 27, 1757. 

Mercer, John, of "Marlborough," an emi- 
nent lawyer, was son of John Mercer, of 
Dublin, Ireland, and his wife, Grace Fenton, 
and grandson of Robert Mercer and his 
wife, Elinor Reynolds, and great-grandson 
of Noel Mercer, of Chester, England, and 
his wife, Ann Smith ; born in Dublin, Febru- 
ary 6, 1740, and emigrated to Virginia in 
1720, at the age of sixteen. He studied law, 
and entered on the practice in 1728. He 
acquired large landed possessions in Vir- 
ginia and Ireland, and improved his great 
natural abilities by extensive study in polite 
literature. He left a library of 1500 volumes, 
one-third of which were law books. He 
was secretary of the Ohio Company and 
vestryman of Acquia church. He was the 
author of an "Abridgement of the Laws of 
Virginia," published at Williamsburg in 
1737, with a continuation in 1739, no copy 
of which last is known ; and of a second edi- 
tion published in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1759. 
He was also the author of a tract against 
the Stamp Act, said to be the first published 
ill Virginia. He married (first) Catherine 
Mason, aunt of George Mason, the states- 
man of the revolution ; married (second) 
Anne Roy, of Essex county. He died at his 



seat, "Marlborough," in Stafford county, 
Virginia, October 14, 1768. 

Mercer, John Fenton, son of John Mer- 
cer, (jf "Marlborough," was ensign in 1754 
ii' Fry's regiment in the French and Indian 
war, lieutenant in Robert Stewart's com- 
j-iany on the Fort Duquesne expedition, and 
captain in Washington's regiment ; was 
killed in action and scalped by the Indians, 
.April 18, 1756, at Edwards' P'ort. on the 
Warm Springs mountains, while in com- 
mand of a scouting party of 100 men. 

Meredith, Samuel, son of Samuel Mere- 
dith (died April 14, 1762), was born in Han- 
oxer county in 1732 ; captain of a company 
in the French and Indian war, 1758; cap- 
tain of an independent company of Hanover 
in 1775; burgess for Hanover county in 
1 766- 1 769, and member of the convention 
of December, 1775 appointed colonel of the 
first battalion of minute men in May, 1776; 
moved from Hanover to Amherst county 
about 1780; was lieutenant-colonel of the 
Amherst militia, justice of the peace and 
sherifl:". He died December 22, 1808. His 
second wife was Jane Henry, a sister of 
Patrick Henry. 

Meriwether, Francis, son of Nicholas 
Meriwether, a native of Wales, was a large 
landholder in Essex county ; clerk of Essex 
county from 1692 to 1702; senior justice of 
Essex in 171 1; and burgess for the county 
\v 1 705- 1 706. He married Mary Bathurst. 
daughter of Lancelot Bathurst, and died in 
1712 or 1713. 

Meriwether, Nicholas, son of Nicholas 
Meriwether, of Wales, was born October 
26, 1667 ; resided first in James Citj' county, 
then in New Kent, and latterly in Hanover. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



291 



He was a justice, coroner, sheriff and lieu- 
tenant-colonel; burgess for New Kent in 
the assemblies of 1705-1706, 1710-1712, 1712- 
1714, 1715, 1718, 1720-1722; burgess for 
Hanover, 1723-1726 and 1727-1734. He was 
a large landowner in New Kent, Hanover 
and Albemarle counties. He married Eliz- 
abeth Crafford, and his will was proved in 
Goochland county, November 20, 1744. 

Meriwether, Nicholas, a native of Wales, 
born in 1631 ; was clerk of Surry county, 
Virginia, in 1655, and in 1656 purchased 
from Nathaniel Bacon the "Island house," 
on Jamestown Island; appointed justice of 
Surry county in 1672 and died December 19, 
1678. He was a large patentee of land and 
founder of an influential Virginia family. 

Meriwether, William, son of Colonel 
Nicholas. Meriwether, of Hanover county, 
was a burgess in 1734-1740. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Bushrod, of 
Westmoreland county and had issue. 

Metcalfe, Richard, son of Gilbert Met- 
calfe, merchant of London, descended from 
an ancient family in Yorkshire; settled in 
Richmond county, Virginia. He died be- 
fore 1712, leaving Gilbert Metcalfe and other 
children. 

Metcalfe, Thomas, son of Samuel Met- 
calfe, grocer of Northwich, Cheshire, Eng- 
lanl, was born August 10, 1734. He came 
to Virginia in 1751 with his uncle, John 
Metcalfe, and settled in King William 
county. He married, in 1756, Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of Dr. John Strachey, for- 
merly of Sutton Court, England, but then 
of King and Queen county, Virginia. Left 
issue. 



Meux, John, immigrant, resided in New 
Kent county, Virginia. He died March 19, 
1727, and his wife, Elizabeth, died August 
7, 1713. They left issue — John, Ann, Rich- 
ard. 

Milner, Francis, son of Colonel Thomas 
Milner, was a burgess for Nansemond 
county in 1699. His daughter Anne mar- 
ried Major Thomas Cary. 

Milner, George, an officer under Bacon, 
who made terms for his life at the surrender 
of West Point, January 16, 1677. 

Milner, Thomas, lived in Nansemond 
county in 1675 ; was clerk of the house of 
burgesses, 1681-84; burgess in 1688 and 
1691-93, and speaker during 1692 and 1693. 
He was lieutenant-colonel of the militia of 
Nansemond in 1680. His daughter Mary 
married Colonel Miles Cary, of "Rich Neck," 
Warwick county, and died October 27, 1700. 
He used the same coat-of-arms as the Mil- 
ners of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land. He died in 1694. 

Milner, Thomas, son of Colonel Thomas 
Milner, was a burgess for Nansemond 
county in 1698, 1699, 1700- 1702. It was 
doubtless his son Thomas, third of the name 
in Virginia, that married, in 1719-20, Mary 
Selden, daughter of Samuel Selden and Re- 
becca, his wife, of Elizabeth City county. 
They had a son, Samuel Milner, who died 
without issue in 1788. 

Minge, James, was the first of the family 
of Minge in Virginia. He lived in Charles 
City county, Virginia ; was well educated, 
and in 1671 is called a surveyor. He took 
sides with National Bacon. Jr., and was 
clerk of the house of burgesses which assem- 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



bled in June, 1676 under Bacon's authority. 
He was also clerk of the assembly called by 
General Ingram, shortly after Bacon's death, 
in October, 1676. He was very useful to 
Racon in drawing up his laws and papers. 

Minor Doodes, was a Dutch ship captain 
who came to Virginia about 1650, and set- 
tled first in Nansemond county. In 1665 he 
was living in Lancaster county. In 1673 
the general assembly naturalized IMinor 
Doodes and his son Doodes Minor. His will, 
dated December 13, 1677, was proved in 
Lancaster county. It is sealed with the 
wax impression of a ship. He was ancestor 
of the Minor family of Spottsylvania county. 

Miller (Muller), Adam, was a native of 
"Shresoin," Germany, and was the first set- 
tler, or one of the first settlers, in the valley 
of Virginia. In 1726 or 1727 he located land 
at Massanutting, on the Shenandoah river. 
This tract, now in the southwestern part of 
Page county, near the Rockingham line, he 
sold; and in 1741 settled near Elkton, at 
Bear Lithia Springs. He served in the 
French and Indian war, and died about the 
close of the revolution. In religion he was 
a Lutheran. 

Mitchell, John, was an eminent physician 
and botanist. He was born in London, and 
his Virginia home was at Urbanna, Middle- 
sex county. He was a fellow of the Royal 
Society and gave to Linnaeus much valuable 
information on American flora. Among his 
researches in this science are "Dissertio 
brevis de Principio Botanicorum et Zoolo- 
gorum," dedicated to Sir Hans Sloane, and 
dated Virginia, 1738, and "Nova Plantarum 
Genera," dedicated to Peter Collinson 
(1741). They were published at Nurem- 



berg, 1769. He contributed several articles 
to the "Philosophical Transactions." He 
wrote an article on the "Yellow Fever in 
Virginia in 1737-42," which was published 
by Benjamin Rush in the "American Medi- 
cal and Philosophical Register" (1755). He 
is also credited with "A Map of the British 
and French Dominions in North America," 
London, 1755 ; "The Contest in America be- 
tween Great Britain and France" (anony- 
mous about 1757), and "The Present State 
of Great Britain and North America." Lin- 
naeus bestowed Mitchell's name on the 
"Mitchella Repens." He died in London in 
March, 1768. 

Mitchell, Richard, was burgess for Lan- 
caster county in the assemblies of 1761- 
1765, October, 1765, 1766-1768, 1769-1771, 
1772-1774. He was son of Robert Mitchell 
(q. v.). He was living in 1789. 

Mitchell, Robert, was burgess for Lan- 
caster county in the assembly of 1742-1747; 
living in 1755 ; father of Richard Mitchell 
(q. v.). 

Mitchell (Michell), William, came to 
Northampton county from Maryland, where 
he had in 1650 served as councillor ; was 
burgess for Northampton in 1658; captain, 
etc. He appears to have been an early ex- 
ample of an atheist (see Neill, "Virginia 
Carolorum"). 

Molesworth, Colonel Guy, was son of An- 
thony Molesworth, Esq., of Fotherington, 
in county Northampton, England. During 
the civil wars (1642-1649) he was colonel of 
a regiment of horse and received twenty- 
five wounds battling for the King. In 1650 
he was banished to Barbadoes, and after- 
wards came to Virginia. In 1660 he aided 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



293 



Berkeley in drawing an address to Charles 
II. for pardon, and soon thereafter returned 
to England. His nephew, Robert Moles- 
worth, was created Viscount Molesworth in 
1716. 

Monroe, Andrew, uncle of President 
James Monroe, represented Westmoreland 
county in the house of burgesses from 1742- 
1746. 

Monroe, Andrew, ancestor of President 
Monroe, was an early resident of Maryland, 
where he commanded a pinnace in the serv- 
ice of Cuthbert Fenwick, general agent of 
Lord Baltimore. He was a Protestant, and 
when Richard Ingle declared for parliament 
in 1645, Monroe took sides against Lord 
Baltimore's government and eventually set- 
tled like other refugee Marylanders at Mat- 
tox Creek, in Westmoreland county, under 
the Virginia authority. He died there in 
1668. 

Monroe, Andrew, grandfather of Presi- 
dent James Monroe, was a burgess for 
Westmoreland county in 1742-1747. 

Montague, James, son of William Mon- 
tague, a descendant of Peter Montague (q. 
v.), was born in Middlesex county, Febru- 
ary 18, 1741. He was one of the magistrates 
of the county and a burgess in the assem- 
blies of 1772-1774 and 1775. He was a cap- 
tain of militia. He married Mary Eliza 
Chinn, daughter of Joseph Chinn, and died 
in 1781 or 1782, leaving issue. 

Montague, Peter, was born in 1600, and 
was the son of Peter and Eleanor Montague, 
of Boveny parish, Burnham, Buckingham- 
shire, England. He came to Virginia in 
1621 and was employed by Captain Samuel 



Mathews on his plantation on James river. 
He afterwards removed to Upper Norfolk 
(Nansemond) county, which he represented 
iri the house of burgesses in 1652 and 1653. 
About 1654 he removed to Lancaster county, 
then including Middlesex, and represented 
that county from 165 1 to 1658. He was a 
large landholder and leading citizen. His 
will was recorded in Lancaster, May 27, 
1659. He has numerous descendants in 
Virginia. 

Moody, Sir Henry, baronet, was son of 
Sir Henry Moody, baronet, of Garsden, 
Wiltshire, and Deborah Dunche, his wife. 
After her husband's death, in 1632, Lady 
Deborah, with her young son, sailed for 
America, and after living at Lynn, Massa- 
chusetts, from 1639 to 1643 sought religious 
freedom among the Dutch at Gravesend, 
Long Island. Her son, Sir Henry, served 
in the army of King Charles I., and in 1650, 
after due submission to the parliamentary 
authorities, he sailed to Long Island in 
order to join his mother. Later he came to 
\'irginia, and in 1660 was sent by the assem- 
bly to New York to make a treaty with the 
Dutch, but Governor Berkeley would not 
confirm the articles. He returned to Vir- 
ginia and died at the house of Colonel Fran- 
cis Moryson, at Elizabeth City, about 1662. 

Moon, Captain John, born at Berry, near 
Gosport, in the parish of Stoke, Hampshire, 
England. He represented Isle of Wight 
county in the house of burgesses in 1639, 
1652, 1654, and perhaps other years. His 
will was recorded August 12, 1655, in Isle 
of Wight county, and mentions a wife Pru- 
dence and three daughters, Sarah, Susanna 
and Marv Moon. 



294 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Moore, Augustine, came from England to 
Virginia about 1705, and acquired a great 
fortune in the tobacco trade. He was born 
about 1685 and died July 28, 1743. He 
erected a large brick building on his planta- 
tion in King William county, which he 
called "Chelsea," after the more famous seat 
of his ancestors in England. He was a de- 
scendant of Sir Thomas Moore. He mar- 
ried twice, (first) Mary Gage, (second) 
Elizabeth Todd, daughter of Thomas Todd 
and Elizabeth Bernard, his wife, daughter 
of Colonel William Bernard, of the council. 

Moore, Augustine, was son of Bernard 
Moore (q. v.) and was burgess from King 
William county, succeeding his father in the 
assemblies of 1772-1774 and 1775-1776. He 
married Sarah Rind, and left issue. 

Moore, Bernard, was son of Colonel Au- 
gustine Moore, of "Chelsea," King William 
county, and Elizabeth Todd, his wife. He 
was a justice and colonel of the militia in 
King William county, and was burgess for 
the county from 1744 to 1758 and from 1761 
to 1772. He married Anna Katherine Spots- 
wood, daughter of Governor Alexander 
Spotswood, and was father of Augustine 
Moore (q. v.). 

Morgan, Francis, was a justice of York 
county in 1648; captain of militia, and bur- 
gess for York in 1647, 1652 and 1653. He 
died in 1657, leaving one son Francis, who 
was heir to his large estate. This last left 
two daughters, co-heiresses, living in 1698 
— Sarah, wife of Thomas Buckner, and 
Anne, wife of Dr. David Alexander. 

Morgan, Morgan, a Welshman, removed 
from Pennsylvania to Virginia ; settled 
within the present boundaries of Berkeley 



county, West Virginia, and erected, about 
1726 or 1727, at the site of the village of 
Bunker Hill, within the present county of 
Berkeley, West Virginia, what is said to 
have been, and probably was, the first cabin 
on the Virginia side of the Potomac, be- 
tween the Blue Ridge and North mountains. 
He died in 1779. 

Morlatt (Morlet), Thomas, was a burgess 
in 1624 and signed "The Tragicall Relation." 

Morley, William, was a burgess for James 
City county in 1660. 

Moryson, Colonel Charles, son of Major 
Richard Moryson, succeeded his uncle, 
Major Francis Moryson, as captain of the 
fort at Point Comfort. In 1680 he was 
colonel of the militia of Elizabeth City 
county and presiding justice. He died 
about 1692 at Plymouth, in England, when 
about to return to Virginia. His widow, 
Rebecca, who had previously been the 
widow of Leonard Leo, married (third) 
Colonel John Lear. 

Moryson, Lieutenant Robert, son of Sir 
Richard Moryson, of Leicestershire, lieu- 
tenant-general of the ordnance, was lieu- 
tenant of the fort at Point Comfort in 1641, 
in the absence of his brother, Captain Rich- 
ard Moryson. In York county the court 
]5ermitted his widow, Jane, to qualify as an 
administratrix on his estate October 25, i''i47- 

Moseley, Arthur, son of William Moseley, 
an English merchant of Rotterdam, Hol- 
hmd, who came to Virginia in 1649 and re- 
ceived grants of land in Lower Norfolk 
county, was burgess in 1676, and one of the 
justices of his county. He died in 1703. 

Moseley, Edward Hack, son of Hillary 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



^95 



p.nd Hannah (Hack) Moseley. was a l)ur- 
gess for Princess Anne county in 1752, 1753, 
1754. 1755; 1755' surveyor and searcher of 
Elizabeth and Nansemond rivers ; burgess 
for Princess Anne from 1762 to 1769. He 
was also sheriff and colonel of the count}' ; a 
Loyalist in the revolution and friend of 
Benedict Arnold. He married Mary Bas- 
sett, daughter of Colonel William Bassett, 
of "Eltham," New Kent county, who died 
in her thirty-eighth year, August 23, 1755, 
and is buried at "Greenwich," Princess Anne 
county, one of the Moseley seats. He mar- 
ried (second) Frances \V}lie, who survived 
him. His will was dated May 24, 1782, and 
was proved .^pril 10, 1783. He left a son 
Edward Hack Moseley, Jr. His residence 
ii, Princess .A.nne was called "Rolleston." 

Moseley, Edward, son of William Mose- 
ley and Mary Gookin, his wife, daughter of 
Captain John and Sarah Gookin, was born 
in 1661, and was county lieutenant of Prin- 
cess Anne county, justice of the peace and 
high sheriff, and burgess in 1700-1702, 1703- 
1705, 1706. He died in 1736. He married 
several times, his first wife being Frances, 
daughter of Colonel John Stringer, of North- 
ampton count}-. His father, William Mose- 
ley, was second son of William Moseley. 
merchant of Rotterdam. 

Moseley, Edward Hack, Jr., scmi of Colo- 
nel Edward Hacke Moseley and Mary Bas- 
sett, his wife, was burgess for Princess Anne 
county from 1769 to 1775. He was born in 
1743, and died February 4, 1814. He mar- 
ried Martha Westwood. 

Moseley, William, lived in Essex county, 
v^as burgess for that county in 1695. His 
will, proved April 10, 1700. names sons, Wil- 



liam and John, daughter Martha, and three 
brothers, Edward, Robert and Benjamin 
]\loseley. 

Mossom, Rev. David, son of Thomas Mos- 
som, chandler, was born at Greenwich, 
Kent, England, March 25, 1690, schooled at 
Lewisham, admitted sizar at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, June 5, 1705. He became 
rtctor of St. Peter's Church, New Kent 
ctiunty, \'irginia, in 1727, and continued 
forty years. On January 6, 1759, he per- 
formed the marriage of George WashingtO!i 
to Martha Custis, widow of Colonel Daniel 
Parke Custis, and daughter of Colonel John 
L'andridge. He died January 4, 1767, leav- 
ing issue. 

Mottrom, John, resided in 1644 at York, 
in York county, Virginia. He was a suc- 
cessful merchant and shipper. About 1645 
he removed to Chicacone — the first settle- 
ment on the Virginia side of the Potomac 
river — where his house became a resort for 
Protestants who fled from Maryland. When 
Northumberland county was formed in 1645, 
he represented it in the house of burgesses. 
He was burgess again in 1652, and was 
justice of the peace and colonel of the 
militia. He had issue, among others Major 
John .Mottrom (q. v.). 

Mottrom, John, son of Colonel John Mot- 
trom, was a justice of Northumberland 
county court, and a major in the county 
militia. In 1675 he was a burgess. He left 
issue, Captain Spencer Mottrom. 

Moyses, Theodore, was living in Virginia 
ill 1625. Burgess for Archer's Hope in 
J.imes City corporation in 1629. 

Munford, Robert, son of James Munford, 



296 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



who in 1689 patented lands in Prince George 
county. He was a vestryman of Bristol 
parish. Prince George county ; a member of 
the house of burgesses, 1720-1722; justice 
of the county court, and colonel in the 
militia. He married, in 1701, Martha Ken- 
non, daughter of Colonel Richard Kennon, 
of "Conjuror's Neck," Henrico (now Ches- 
terfield county). He died about 1735, leav- 
ing issue: i. Major James Munford. 2. 
Colonel Robert Munford (q. v.). 3. Ed- 
ward. 

Munford, Robert, son of Colonel Robert 
Munford and Martha Kennon, his wife, was 
a member of the house of burgesses for 
Prince George county in 1736- 1740. He 
married Anna Bland and died in 1744, leav- 
ing children, Robert, Theodorick and Eliz- 
abeth. His widow married (second) George 
Currie, by whom she had two daughters. 

Miyford, Robert, son of Robert Munford 
and his wife, Anna Bland, was educated at 
Wakefield, England. He was in the French 
and Indian war under. Colonel William 
Byrd, last of that name. When Brunswick 
county was formed in 1765 he was made 
county lieutenant and was one of the first 
two members of the house of burgesses. 
He was burgess from 1765 to 1775. During 
the American revolution he saw much serv- 
ice of different kinds. He was a scholar, 
and in 1798 published a volume of prose and 
poetry. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Beverley, of Essex, his cousin, and 
had issue. 

Nantaquas, brother of Pocahontas, whom 
John Smith compliments as "the manliest, 
comeliest, boldest spirit I ever saw in a 
savage." 



Nash, Abner, son of Colonel John Nash, 
was burgess for Prince Edward county in 
the assemblies of 1761-1765 ; he moved to 
North Carolina, where he was elected first 
speaker of the senate, second governor of 
North Carolina, member of the assembly 
and member of the continental congress 
(1782-1786). His brother. General Francis 
Nash fell in the battle of Germantown. 

Nash, John, was a burgess for Prince Ed- 
ward county in the assemblies of 1752-1755 
and 1756-1758; one of the first justices of 
Prince Edward county (1754) ; colonel of 
the militia. He died in 1776 and names in 
his will sons, John, Abner and Francis ; 
daughters, Anne Haskins, Lucy Le Grand, 
Mary Read and Betty Read, and grandson, 
Nash Le Grand. 

Nash, John, Jr., son of Colonel John Nash, 
was member of the convention of March 
20, 1775. He married, in 1768, Anna Tabb, 
daughter of Thomas Tabb, of Lunenburg. 

Nash, Thomas, a burgess for Lunenburg 
county in 1756-1758. 

Neale, Christopher, son of Christopher 
Neale and Hannah Rodham, his wife, daugh- 
ter of Matthew Rodham, was born June 23, 
1 67 1, and was burgess for Northumberland 
county in 1705-1706 and 1710-1712. He died 
in 1 72 1. 

Neale, John, merchant, leased fifty acres 
at Strawberry Banks, in Elizabeth City, in 
1632,, removed to Accomac, and did a large 
business between 1632 and 1639; vestry- 
man, 1636; sheriff^, 1636, and burgess for 
Accomac in 1639, and was justice the same 
\ear. His daughter, Henrietta Maria, mar- 
ried the second Richard Bennett. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PRORIINENT PERSONS 



297 



Neale, Richard, son of Christopher Neale 
and Hannah Rodham, his wife, was born 
August 28, 1682 ; was burgess for North- 
umberland county in 1712-1714. 

Necottowance, chief of the Pamunkey In- 
dians and the last who held authority over 
the Powhatan confederacy. He made a 
treaty of peace with the English in 1646, in 
which he consented to many restrictions of 
his power. 

Needier, Benjamin, son of Culverwell 
Needier, clerk assistant of the house of com- 
mons, and grandson of Rev. Benjamin Need- 
ier, a non-conformist minister, was bred to 
the bar in England. He came to Virginia 
and became distinguished as a lawyer. He 
was vestryman of Stratton Major parish. 
King and Queen county ; clerk of the coun- 
cil, 1739, and died before 1741. He married 
Alice, daughter of Gawin Corbin, of Vir- 
ginia, and had at least one daughter, who 
married Rev. William Robinson, commis- 
sary to the bishop of London ("Virginia 
Magazine," xiv, 26). 

Nelson, Captain Francis, probably third 
son of Thomas Nelson, of Cheddleworth, 
Berkshire, England. He commanded the 
Phoenix, which brought a part of the First 
.Supply, but did not arrive till April 20, 1608. 
He made several voyages to Virginia and 
in 1612 sailed with Captain Thomas Button 
to Hudson's Bay, and died there in the win- 
ter of 1612-13, at "Port Nelson," named for 
him. 

Nelson, Thomas, an eminent merchant of 
^orktnwn, son of Hugh Nelson, of Penrith, 
county Cumberland, England, was born 
February 20, 1677, and came to Virginia 
about 1700, where he amassed a large for- 



tune. He married (first) Margaret Reade, 
daughter of Robert Reade, eldest son of 
Colonel George Reade, secretary of state, 
and (second) Mrs. Frances Tucker (nee 
Courtenay). He was father of William 
Nelson, president of the Virginia council. 

Nemattenow, or "Jack-o'-the-Feather," an 

influential chief and a great favorite with 
Opechancanough. He killed a white man 
and was killed in turn by the white man's 
friend. It is believed that his death was 
the immediate cause of the Indian massacre 
of 1622. 

Neville, Joseph, a burgess for Hampshire 
county from 1773 to 1776, and a member of 
the conventions of December i, 1775, and 
May 6, 1776, which last declared independ- 



Newman, Alexander, burgess for Rich- 
mond county in 1696-1697. 

Newton, George, was born 1678, and went 
to school in Lancaster, England. He was 
son of George Newton, one of the justices 
of Lower Norfolk county, Virginia, as early 
as 1645. He was a burgess for Norfolk 
county at the assembly of 1723-26. He mar- 
ried Apphia Wilson, daughter of Colonel 
James Wilson, and left issue — Thomas New- 
ton, who was father of Thomas Xewton, 
burgess (q. v.). 

Newton, John, eldest son of Thomas New- 
ton, of Hull, Yorkshire, was a ship captain, 
and settled in Westmoreland county about 
1670. He married Rose Tucker, daughter 
of John Tucker, of that coilnty, and died in 
1695-1697. He was founder of a distin- 
guished family in that section of Virginia. 

Newton, Thomas, son of Thomas Newton 



298 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



and Amey Hutchings, daughter of John 
Hutchings, of Norfolk, was burgess for Nor- 
folk county from 1765 to 1775, and member 
of the conventions of 1775 and 1776. He 
married Martha Tucker, daughter of Colo- 
nel Robert Tucker, of Norfolk, and was 
father of Colonel Thomas Newton, member 
of Congress from 1801 to 1831. 

Nicholas, Major Abraham, was appointed 
adjutant-general of the militia of the colony 
ill 1733 and was mayor of Williamsburg in 
1736. He died in September, 1738. He was 
frther of Abraham Nicholas Jr., attorney- 
at-la\v, who died December 18, 1751. 

Nicholas, Dr. George, an eminent physi- 
cian, had a grant for land in Virginia in 
1729. He married Elizabeth Carter, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Robert Carter, of "Coroto- 
man," and widow of Nathaniel Burwell, of 
"Carter's Creek." Gloucester county. He 
was father of Robert Carter Nicholas, the 
distinguished treasurer of Virginia at the 
time of the revolution. 

Nicholas, John, son of Dr. George Nich- 
olas and Elizabeth Carter, his wife, served 
as clerk for Albemarle county from 1749 to 
1815 ; as burgess from 1756 to 1768; and as 
member of conventions of 1774 and 1775 for 
Buckingham county. He married Martha, 
daughter of Colonel Joshua Fry. 

Nimmo, James, came to \'irginia from 
Linlithgow county, Scotland, about 1720, 
and settled in Princess Anne county, where 
he married Mary, daughter of Jacob John- 
son. For several years he taught school, 
but in 1728 he was appointed King's attor- 
ney and continued in that oflice till Novem- 
ber 10, 1752. He also acted as surveyor of 
the county. He died in 1753, leaving issue. 



Nimmo, William, came from Linlithgow 
county, Scotland, to \"irginia, where he 
qualified as an attorney-at-law in the gen- 
eral court in 1743. He had a large practice. 
His will was proved in the general court 
September 12, 1748. He was nephew of 
James Nimmo, of Princess Anne county, 
Virginia (q. v.). 

Norsworthy, Tristram, patented 150 acres 
in 1643 i" Isle of Wight county. He was 
burgess for Upper Norfolk county (Nanse- 
mond) in January, 1639-40. In 1656 he is 
referred to as "Lt. Col. Tristram Norsworthy 
of ye Ragged Islands, gent." In 1654 he 
was one of the justices of Nansemond. In 
1699 George Norsworthy, eldest son of 
]\Iajor George Norsworthy, which last was 
eldest son of Tristram Norsworthy above 
named, was appointed by the council lieu- 
tenant-colonel and commander-in-chief of 
Nansemond county. 

Norton, John, a merchant of London, 
came to Virginia and settled at Yorktown ; 
burgess for York county in 1752-1755. He 
married Courtenay Walker, daughter of 
Jacob Walker, of Elizabeth City county, and 
had issue — Frances, who married her first 
cousin, John Baylor, and John Hatley, 
George and Daniel Norton, who all came 
from London and settled in Virginia. 

Norton, Captain William, contracted with 
some private merchants in London to come 
tf) Virginia in 1621 to conduct the glass fac- 
tory near Jamestown. Norton took four 
Italians and two servants with him, and 
made all manner of glass, especially glass 
beads for trade with the Indians. He died 
ii' 1623, and George Sandys succeeded him 
in charge of the glass works. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



299 



Norvell, William, a descendant of Hugh 
Norvell, an early immigrant, was burgess at 
the last assembly under the royal govern- 
ment, 1775-1776, and member of the conven- 
tions of 1775 and 1776. He died in 1802, 
leaving his property to his great-nephews 
:ind nieces, children of William Lightfoot, 
of James City county. 

Norwood, Captain Charles, was a near 
kmsman, perhaps a brother, of Colonel 
Henry Norwood, and served in the army of 
King Charles 1. From 1654 to 1657 he was 
c!erk of the general assembly of Virginia. 
He was afterwards a captain under Colonel 
Henry Norwood at Tangier in 1667. 

Norwood, Colonel Henry, was an officer 
in the royal army during the civil wars; 
emigrated to Virginia in 1649, ^"^ after- 
wards wrote an account of his voyage ; was 
sent by Governor William Berkeley to King 
Charles II. in 1650, and in 1653 went to 
England, where he was arrested and con- 
hned for several years in the Tower of Lon- 
don ; at the restoration was made treasurer 
of Virginia and captain of Sundown Castle, 
lieutenant-colonel of Lord Rutherford's 
regiment, and lieutenant-governor of Tan- 
gier. He was living as late as 1682. 

Nottingham, Benjamin, was a burgess for 
Northampton county, 1703-1705 and 1710- 
1712. He left issue, and the family is still 
prominent on the "Eastern Shore." 

Ogle, Cuthbert, a musician, residing in 
Williamsburg. He died in 1735, leaving an 
interesting collection of songs and other 
musical literature. 

Oldis, Thomas, settled in Elizabeth City 
county and was burgess in January, 1640. 



His grandson Thomas was living in Eliza- 
beth City in 1691. William Oldis, mer- 
chant, and his wife Jane, were living in Isle 
of \\'ight county in 1665. William Oldis 
had a brother Valentine, an apothecary of 
London. 

Opechancanough, chief of the Pamunkey 
Indians; he planned the massacres of 1622 
and 1644. He was captured by Sir William 
Berkeley and was killed while a captive at 
Jamestown in 1646 by a soldier out of re- 
venge. He was also known as Apachisco. 
He was able, resourceful and unforgiving. 

Opitchapam, brother of Powhatan, who 
was succeeded by him in 1618 as chief of 
tlie Powhatan confederacy. He was also 
known as Taughaiten, Itopatin, Istan, Sas- 
sapen, etc. He was succeeded by Ope- 
chanough. 

Opie, Thomas, was a ship captain from 
Bristol, England. He married, about 1672, 
Helen Lindsay, daughter of Rev. David 
Lindsay, of Northumberland county, who 
was son of Sir Hierome Lindsay, of Scot- 
land. He died in 1702, leaving issue in Vir- 
ginia. 

Opussoquionuske, Queen of the Appomat- 
tox Indians. In 1610 she surprised some of 
the members of the company sent by Lord 
Delaware to find gold mines and killed four- 
teen of them at a feast. Captain Yardley 
then landed and burnt her town. WHien 
Dale founded Bermuda Hundred in iC^it,. he 
drove the Indians away entirely. 

Osborne, Edward, Jr., was a son of Ed- 
ward Osborne, of Chesterfield county. He 
was a justice in 1749 and member of the 
house of burgesses in 1769 and 1770. 



300 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Osborne, Jenkin, was born in 1600, came 
to Virginia in 1617, and was living at Shir- 
ley Hundred in 1624. In 1635 he patented 
400 acres in Charles City county on the 
south side of James river, between the lands 
of Captain John W'oodlief and William 
Bailey. 

Osborne, Richard, was a delegate to the 
house of burgesses for Fairfax county in 
1748-1749- 

Osborne, Captain Thomas, came to Vir- 
ginia in November, 1616, and settled at 
Coxendale, in the present Chesterfield 
county, about 1623. He also patented land 
on Proctor's creek, Henrico county (now 
Chesterfield) ; was a commissioner (justice) 
for the "upper parts" in 163 1, and member 
of the house of burgesses, 1629, 1629-30, 
1631-32, 1632-33. 

Osborn, Thomas, was born in Chesterfield 
county, and removed to Prince William 
county, of which he was a burgess in 1736. 
He died before 1750, leaving a daughter 
Anne, who married John Randolph, and a 
daughter jMary, who married William Hen- 
ley, of Henrico. 

Owen, Goronwy (Gronow), son of Owen 
Goronwy, was born at Llanfair, Mathafarn 
Eithaf, in the shire of Anglesea, Wales. He 
attended the grammar school at Bangor, 
and was afterwards at Jesus College, Ox- 
ford, from 1741 to 1745. After this time he 
was curate of several parishes in Wales and 
England and taught school. In 1757 he was 
appointed master of the grammar school of 
the College of William and Mary, and came 
to Virginia. He held this place till about 
September, 1760, when he was compelled to 
resign because of his drinking habits. He 



was soon after appointed minister of St. 
Andrew's Parish, Brunswick county. He 
died in 1770. Mr. Owen was not only cele- 
brated for his classical attainments, but also 
for his poetic genius, which ranks him as 
the greatest poet of Wales. He married 
three times (first) Ellen Hughes, (second) 
Anne Dawson, widow of James Clayton, 
(third) Joan Simmons. He has descendants 
living in Alabama and Louisiana. His most 
famous poems are "The Last Day of Judg- 
ment" and an "Elegy" on his friend Lewis 
Morris. 

Ousley, Captain Thomas, was burgess for 
Stafford county in 1692-93. 

Pace, Richard, came to Virginia before 
1620, when he received a grant for 400 acres 
on the south side of James river, four miles 
;)bove Jamestown, which grant he called 
"Pace's Paines." In 1622 he saved James- 
town and other settlements by informing 
the authorities of the impending massacre 
which had been revealed to him by one of 
his servants, a converted Indian named 
Chanco. His widow, Isabella, married (sec- 
ond) Captain William Perry, of the council. 
His son and heir, George Pace, married 
Sarah, daughter of Captain Samuel May- 
cox. 

Page, Francis, eldest son of Colonel John 
Page, of the Middle Plantation, was first 
clerk of the house of burgesses commis- 
sioned by the governor, which he held till 
his death. He died May 10, 1692, aged 
thirty-five. He married Mary Digges, 
daughter of Governor Edward Digges, and 
had an only daughter Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried her cousin, John Page. 

Pagett, Anthony, came in 1623 as a serv- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



301 



ant : burgess for Flowerdieu Hundred in 
1629. 

Palmer, John, was a clerk in the office of 
the attorney-general, and in 1740 was ad- 
mitted as an attorney to practice in the 
county courts. He was bursar of the Col- 
lege of William and Mary and died in 1759. 
He married Elizabeth Low Tyler, daughter 
cf John Tyler, and left daughters. 

Palmer, Thomas, came to Virginia with 
his wife and daughter in 1621, burgess for 
Shirley Hundred Island in Charles City cor- 
poration in 1629. 

Panton (Penton), Anthony, first rector of 
the first settlements on York river — Chis- 
kiack and York ; he came to Virginia about 
1630, and after several years incurred the 
displeasure of Governor Harvey and Rich- 
ard Kemp, his secretary of state, and on 
October 8, 1638, he was heavily fined and 
banished from the colony, on pain of death 
if he returned. He appealed his cause to 
the King, who upon the recall of Harvey 
referred the complaint to his successor, Sir 
Francis Wyatt and his council. They sus- 
pended Harvey's order and required that 
Panton should be indemnified for his losses 
out of Harvey's estate which was done. His 
York plantation and his lots at Jamestown 
were sold to reimburse Panton and his other 
creditors. 

Paradise, John, was son of Peter Para- 
dise, of Greek extraction, who in 1753 was 
English consul at Salonica, where John 
Paradise was born. He was educated at 
the University of Padua, but resided the 
greater part of his life in London, where he 
was an intimate of Dr. Samuel Johnson. 
He married Lucy Ludwell, youngest daugh- 



ter of lion. Philip Ludwell, of "Green- 
spring," Virginia, removed to Virginia but 
about 178S returned to London and died 
there December 12, 1795. A table at which 
Dr. Johnson and other members of the 
Essex Street Club played, and formerly the 
property of Paradise, is still preserved in 
Williamsburg. His daughter Lucy, born 
in England about 1770 married in 1787 
Count Barziza, a Venetian subject, and one 
of their sons came to Virginia and made 
Williamsburg his home. 

Parahunt, a son of Powhatan, sometimes 
called "Tanx Powhatan," the little Powha- 
tan. He was chief of the Indians at the 
falls of James river in 1607. 

Parker, George, of Accomac was son of 
Thomas Parker, 1633-1685, of Isle of Wight 
county. He was sheriff of Accomac, for 
many years justice of the peace and major 
of the militia. He bought lands in Acco- 
ir.ac county called "Poplar Grove." He died 
in if'174, leaving a son. Major George Parker, 
who married Anne Scarborough. 

Parker, Richard, son of Dr. Alexander 
Parker, a prominent physician of Essex 
county, Virginia, was born in 1729, and died 
ir. 181 3. Pie studied law and settled at 
"Lawfield," Westmoreland county. In 1775, 
he was member of the Westmoreland 
county committee of safety, and in 1788 was 
elected judge of the general court, in which 
office he continued till his death. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of William Beale, 
of Richmond county. 

Parker, Richard, son of James Parker, of 
Trangoe, Cornwall, England, emigrated to 
Nansemond county, Virginia, about 1654. 
He had three sons, Thomas, Richard and 



302 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Francis Parker, who were living in 1681. 
From Richard was descended Dr. Richard 
Henrv Parker, who died at Portsmouth in 

Farker, Backer, was a burgess tor Acco- 
mac county in 1 736-1 738, and died in July, 
1738. 

Parkes, William, born in England, and 
emigrating to Maryland, he established in 
1729 at Annapolis "The Maryland Gazette." 
Soon after he established a printing press 
at Williamsburg, Virginia, and was em- 
plo)-ed by both governments to print their 
laws. He issued -in Williamsburg, on Fri- 
day, August 6, 1736, the first number of a 
weekly called "The \'irginia Gazette." In 
1742 he opened a book store in Williams- 
burg. He died at sea on a trip to England. 
April I, 1750. His daughter Sarah married 
John Shelton, and their daughter Sarah was 
first wife of Patrick Henry. 

Parramore, Thomas, was a burgess for 
Accomac county in 1748-1749, 1758-1761, 
1761-1765, 1766-1768, 1769, 1769-1771. 

Pasteur, Dr. John, a native of Geneva, 
cyme to Virginia in 1700 in the French 
Huguenot colony. He settled at Williams- 
burg and practiced his profession as sur- 
geon, barber and wigmaker. He married 
and had several children, among them: i. 
James, rector of St. Bride's parish, Norfolk. 
2 John James "peruke maker." 3. Dr. Wil- 
liam, mayor of Williamsburg. 

PasteiU", Dr. William, was son of Dr. 
Jean Pasteur, and was partner with Dr. 
George Gilmer, as surgeon and apothecary ; 
justice of the peace of York county, and 
mayor of Williamsburg in 1775, when the 



powder was removed from the magazine by 
Lord Dunmore. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of \\'illiam Stith, president of 
William and Mary College. 

Pate, Richard, was a member of the house 
cf burgesses for Gloucester county in July, 
1653. He died in 1657, when his nephew, 
John Pate, afterwards member of the coun- 
cil, qualified as administrator. 

Fatton, James, was born in 1692 at New- 
ton Limmavady, Ireland, and was for many 
years master of a merchant vessel, engaged 
in bringing immigrants from Ireland to 
\'irginia. He was largely interested with 
William Beverley in investments in \'ir- 
ginia lands. He settled finally in Augusta 
county, and on May 27, 1742, was commis- 
sioned county lieutenant, and was burgess 
for Augusta in the assembly of 1752-1755. 
While still a member he was killed by some 
Indians at Draper's Meadow in Montgomery 
county. He left issue IMary, wife of Wil- 
liam Thompson and Margaret, wife of Colo- 
nel John Buchanan. His sister Elizabeth 
was wife of John Preston, of Donegal, Ire- 
l?nd, who also came to Virginia. 

Fayne, Florentine, was a burgess for 
Elizabeth City county in 1641 and 1658- 
1659- 

Payne, John, son of George Payne and 
Mary Woodson, his wife, was born Decem- 
ber 4, 1713, in Goochland county. He 
served in the house of burgesses from 1752 
to 1768, and was lieutenant-colonel com- 
manding the militia. He married twice, 
but the name of his first wife is not known. 
His second wife was Jane Smith, daughter 
of Philip Smith, of Northumberland county. 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



303 



and widow of John Chichester. He died 
July 28, 1784. 

Payne, Josias, son of George Payne and 
Mary Woodson, his wife, was born October 
30, 1705. He married Anna Fleming, and 
was burgess for Goochland in 1761-1765, 
and 1766-1769. He removed to Pittsylvania 
county, and died there in 1785. 

Feachey, Samuel, son of Robert Peachey 
and Ann Hodgskin, his wife, of Milden 
Hall, Sufifolk, England. He came to Vir- 
ginia in 1659, was justice of Richmond 
county, and in 1704 lieutenant-colonel of 
the militia. He died about 1712. He was 
great-grandfather of William Peachey, colo- 
nel of the sth A'irginia Regiment in the war 
of the revolution. 

Pead, Rev. Duell, came from England in 
1683 and was minister of Christ Church, 
Middlesex county, and held the charge 
seven years, tie then returned to England, 
and became minister, it is believed, of New- 
land St. Lawrence, county Essex, England. 

Pecke, Thomas, a merchant at Skift'e's 
Creek, Warwick county, in 1659. He was 
son of Mr. H. Pecke, of London, England. 

Peeine, William, was a burgess in ^larch, 
1624. 

Peirse, Thomas, sergeant-at-arms of the 
first general assembly at Jamestown, July 
30, 1619. 

Pelham, Peter, son of Peter Pelham, an 
early New England artist, committee clerk 
of the house of burgesses, organist for Bru- 
ton Church, living in 1776, father of Peter 
Pelham. Jr., clerk of Brunswick county. 

Pendleton, Henry, son of James Pendle- 



ton, descendant from Philip Pendleton, who 
was born in Norwich, England, in 1650, 
and came to Virginia in 1674. He was bur- 
gess for Culpeper county in 1769-1771, 1772- 
1774. and 1775-1776, and member of all the 
conventions of 1774 and 1775. He was 
nephew of the famous statesman of the 
revolution, Edmund Pendleton. 

Pepiscumah, or Pipsico, a chief of the 
Quiyoughcohannocks on James river in 
160S. His name is still preserved in that 
of a place in Surry county, called "Pipsico." 

Peppet, Lieutenant Gilbert, was living at 
Flower de Hundred in 1624; in 1627 had 250 
acres at the mouth of Warwick, adjoining 
Stanley Hundred ; burgess in 1625. 

Perkins, Peter, was a burgess for Pittsyl- 
\iinia county in 1775-1776, and a member of 
the conventions of March and December, 



Ferrin, Thomas, son of Edward Perrin, 
merchant of Bristol, was living in Glouces- 
ter county, Virginia, in 1686. He married 

Elizabeth , and was father of Captain 

John Perrin, of Sarah's Creek, who died 
November 2, 1752. 

Perrott, Richard, was a resident of York 
county in 1647. In 1657 he was appointed 
sheriff of Lancaster, and in 1670 sheriff of 
Middlesex county. He was presiding mag- 
istrate of the latter county, and burgess in 
the assemblies of October 10, 1676, and Oc- 
tober 10, 1677. He died November 11. 
i586, leaving sons Richard (q. v.) and 
Henry Perrott, who was the first American 
t' enter Gray's Inn, 1674. Seals of the 
Perrotts at Middlesex courthouse bear three 
pears for arms. 



304 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Perrott, Richard, son of Richard Perrott, 
Si., (q. v.), was born February 24, 1650, 
being the first male child of English par- 
ents born on the Rappahannock river. He 
was justice of Middlesex county in 1673, 
and other years. He married Sarah Curtis 
(born in Gloucester county, August 16, 
1657) daughter of Major Thomas Curtis, 
and widow of William Halfhide. He left 
it^sue. 

Perry, Peter, brother of JMicajah Perry, 
merchant of St. Catherine, London, came to 
Virginia about 1685 as agent for his 
brother's great firm. Located first in York 
county and then in Charles City county, of 
which he was burgess in 1688. He left de- 
scendants in Charles City. 

Peter, John, son of Thomas Peter, and 
brother of Alexander Peter, of Glasgow, 
Scotland, settled with his brother Walter 
Peter in Surry county, and died in 1763. 

Pettus, Thomas, was a burgess from Lun- 
enburg in the assemblies of 1769-1771, 1772- 
1774 and 1775-1776. Descended from Colo- 
nel Thomas Pettus of the council, who lived 
at "Littletown," James City county in 1660. 
He died in 1780. 

Peyronie, William Chevalier de, was a 

French Protestant, settled in Virginia and 
highly esteemed ; at Fort Necessity he was 
ensign and was severely wounded ; he re- 
ceived the thanks of the house of burgesses 
and was given a captain's commmission, 
August 25, 1754. He was killed July 9, 
1755, at the defeat of General Braddock. 

Peyton, Francis, son of Valentine Pey- 
ton, and brother of Colonel Henry Peyton 
(q. v.), was born in Prince William county, 



and was burgess for Loudoun county in the 
assemblies of 1769, 1769-1771, 1772-1774, 
1775, and the conventions of 1775 and 1776. 
He was vestryman, justice, county lieuten- 
ant, 1 78 1 and other years, member of the 
house of delegates 1780 and of the state 
senate, 1798-1803. He died in 1808-1810. 
Married Frances Dade. 

Peyton, Henry, son of Valentine Peyton 
(q. v.), was burgess for Prince William 
county in the assemblies of 1756-1758 and 
1758-1761; sheriff 1751 ; justice, 1754-1761 ; 
county lieutenant in 1755. His will was 
proved in Prince A\'illiam county, August 6, 
1781. He left issue. 

Peyton, Henry, brother of Colonel Valen- 
tme Peyton (q. v.), was born in London. 
1630-1631, was a citizen and merchant tailor 
ot that city, came to Westmoreland county, 
Virginia, about 1656, and died there in 1659. 
He married Ellen Partington, daughter of 
Richard Partington, of London, and left 
issue. 

Peyton, Robert, son of Thomas and Eliza- 
beth Yelverton Peyton, and grandson of 
Sir Edward Peyton, Bart, of Isleham, Cam- 
bridgeshire. He came to Virginia before 
1679, was a lawyer and in 1680 was a major 
of the Gloucester county militia. His grand- 
son, John Peyton, succeeded to the title of 
knight baronet by failure of title in Eng- 
land. 

Peyton, Valentine, son of Henry Peyton 
of Lincoln's Inn, Middlesex county, Eng- 
land, a royalist, was baptized in St. Dun- 
stan's Church, West End, London, July 31, 
1627, and came to Virginia about 1650. He 
was lieutenant-colonel of the Westmoreland 
county militia and one of the justices of the 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



3"5 



ccurt. He died in 1665. His wife who was 
Frances Gerard, daughter of Thomas Ger- 
ard, married (first) Colonel Thomas Speke ; 
(second) Valentine Peyton; (third) Cap- 
tain John Appleton ; (fourth) Colonel John 
\\'ashington. 

Peyton, Valentine, son of Henry Peyton, 
and grandson of Henry Peyton, the emi- 
grant (q. v.), was born in Hamilton parish. 
Prince William county, circa 1686-1688, was 
burgess for the county in the assembly of 
1736-1740; was justice in 1743 and sherilif in 



1749; and 
Peyton (q. 



ied 1 75 1. ITe left issue Henry 



Phelps, John, a 

>unty in 1752-1755. 



burgess for Bedford 



Fhettiplace, William, was a member of 
the Virginia Company of London, came to 
Virginia in 1607, was a valuable soldier. 
Probably returned to England. 

Fhettiplace, Michael, was a member of 
the Virginia Company, came to Virginia in 
1607. Probably returned to England. 

Filkington, William, came to Virginia in 
1620, at his own expense; his wife Mar- 
garet came at her own expense. He pat- 
ented 300 acres in 1635 on the east side of 
Lawne's Creek, which separates Surry and 
Isle of Wight counties. 

Pinkard, Captain John, was a resident 
of Lancaster county, Virginia, and in 1688 
was a burgess in the assembly. He died in 
1690. He left sons John, Thomas, and 
Tames, daughters, and wife, Elizabeth. 

Pleasants, John, son of John Pleasants, 
of St. Savior's, Norwich, England, worsted 
weaver, was baptized February 27, 1644- 
viR-20 



1645, and emigrated to Virginia about 1665. 
He acquired a large property, but, having 
adopted the religious tenets of the Quakers, 
was not allowed to take his seat in the 
house of burgesses to which he was elected 
from Henrico in 1692-1693. He married 
Jane Larcom, widow of Samuel Tucker, of 
Bristol. He died in 1698, leaving three chil- 
dren John, Joseph and Elizabeth. 

Proby, Peter, believed to have been the 
Peter Proby, who was son of Emmanuel 
Proby, lord mayor of London, was a jus- 
tice of the county court of Elizabeth City. 
He married Jane, daughter of Bertrand 
Servant, a Frenchman naturalized, and died 
in 1692, leaving sons Peter, Bertrand, 
Thomas and John. 

Pocahontas, the celebrated daughter of 
F^owhatan, head warchief or werowance of 
the Powhatan confederacy of eastern \'ir- 
ginia. In December, 1608, she saved the 
life of John Smith, and at various times 
afterwards brought supplies to the famished 
colonists. In April, 1613, while on a visit 
to the Potomac Indians, she was captured 
by Captain Samuel Argall and brought to 
Jamestown, where a year later she mar- 
ried John Rolfe. She is believed to have 
lived afterwards at Varina with her hus- 
band till she accompanied him to England 
in 1616. Here she was made much of, wined 
and dined and taken to the play. Lord and 
Lady Delaware introduced her at court. 
Her portrait was engraved by the cele- 
brated artist, Simon de Passe. When about 
to return to Virginia, with her husband, 
she died at Gravesend, and was buried there 
March 21, 1617. She left an only son 
Thomas Rolfe, who was reared in England 



3o6 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



by his uncle, Henry Rolfe, and afterwards 
came to Virginia, where he was captain, 
etc. His daughter Jane married Robert 
Boiling. 

Pochins, a son of Powhatan, and chief of 
the Kecoughtan Indians in 1607. In 1610, be- 
cause of the murder of Humphrey Blunt 
by some of his tribe. Gates drove him and 
all his tribe away from the neighborhood 
of Hampton. 

Pole, David, one of the vine dressers sent 
in 1620 to Buckroe to teach the colonists 
how to plant mulberry trees and vines, 
raise silkworms and make wine. In 1627 
he leased sixty acres at Buckroe for ten 
years. 

Pollard, Joseph, born in 1687, in King and 
Queen county, and moved to Goochland in 
1754. He married Priscilla Hoomes, and 
had nine children — two sons and seven 
daughters. Sarah, one of his daughters, 
married Judge Edmund Pendleton, the great 
Revolutionary patriot. The present attor- 
ney-general of the State, John G. Pollard, is 
a descendant. 

Pollington, John, came to \'irginia before 
1619, where he was a member of the first 
general assembly from Henrico. After the 
massacre of 1622 he removed to Warwick- 
squeake plantation, in the present Isle of 
Wight county, and represented it in the 
general assembly of 1624. 

Poole, Henry, member of the house of 
burgesses from Elizabeth City in 1647. 

Poole, Robert, probably the minister "Mr. 
Poole," who preached at Jamestown on the 
afternoon of the arrival of Sir Thomas Dale, 
May 19, 161 1. He had two sons Robert and 
John. The former in 1619 was an inter- 



preter, and in 1627, as heir of his father and 
brother John he received a patent for 300 
acres east of the church in Mulberry Island. 

Fope, Nathaniel, immigrant, settled in 
Maryland as early as 1637 and was a mem- 
ber of the Maryland general assembly. ' 
About 1648, he removed over to Virginia, 
to escape the turmoils of Maryland, and 
lived in Westmoreland county till his death 
ii, 1660. He was one of the magistrates, 
and a lieutenant-colonel of militia. He had 
several children, one of whom, Ann, mar- 
ried Colonel John Washington, ancestor of 
President George \\'ashington. 

Popeley, Lieutenant Richard, patented in 
1637 700 acres in the lower county of New 
Norfolk, due in right of his marriage with 
Elizabeth, widow of Henry Sothell, and for 
the transportation of fourteen persons. He 
was born in 1598 in the parish of Wooley, 
Yorkshire, England, and in 1620 came to 
Virginia, where in 1624 he was living in 
Elizabeth City. In 1631 he accompanied 
William Claiborne to Kent Island. In 1639 
he was captain at middle plantation, where 
he patented 1,250 acres west of the pali- 
sades. He died about 1643. 

Fopleton (Popkton), William, came in 
if>22 as a ser\ant of John Davies ; burgess 
for "Jordan's Jorney" in Charles City cor- 
poration in 1629. 

Fortlock, William, a burgess for Norfolk 
county in 1 748-1749. 

Pott, Captain Francis, brother of Gov- 
ernor John Pott (q. v.), came to Virginia 
before 1628, captain of Point Comfort in 
1630; removed from ofifice in 1634, when 
Captain Francis Hooke was put in com- 
mand ; took part in a meeting at York in 



f 




.^,, .. ^POWHATAN- --^rr 

a '^^''^^ <^i'^crcii to him vrifcner 



J 6, 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



307 



1635 to protest against the tyranny of Sir 
John Harvey ; went to England on the same 
ship with the deposed governor as one of 
the agents of the assembly ; arrested on 
arrival there and confined in Fleet prison ; 
released and patented 2,000 acres in Nor- 
thampton county. Burgess in 1635 ; died 
about 1658 in Northampton county, Vir- 
ginia. 

Powell, John, came to Virginia in the 
S7t.'alloLC in 1609, and in 1624 John Powell, 
ot Newport News, "an ancient planter" re- 
ceived a patent there for 150 acres. In Sep- 
tember, 1632, he was a burgess for the dis- 
trict from "Waters' Creek to Marie's 
Mount." He was probably father of John 
Powell (q. v.). 

Powell, John, probably son of John Pow- 
ell, "ancient planter," (q. v.), was a mem- 
ber of the house of burgesses for Elizabeth 
City county in 1657-1658, 1659-1660, 1663, 
1 666- 1 676. 

Powell, John, was a burgess for North- 
ampton county in 1700-1702. 

Powell, Captain William, came to Vir- 
ginia with Sir Thomas Gates in 1610, was 
the commander of the fort at Jamestown, 
one of the two first members for James City 
corporation in the general assembly, 1619, 
repelled the Indians when they attacked 
Jamestown in March, 1622. He afterwards 
led an expedition against the Chickahominy 
Indians and was prol^ably killed by them 
between January 20 and January 24, 1623. 
His widow married Edward Blaney. He 
left a son George Powell, who died in Vir- 
ginia about 1650. The family seems to have 
come from Surrey county, England, and in 
1656 William Powell of Southwarke in the 



county of Surrey, England, leaker, as heir 
of George Powell, sold certain lands in 
Surrey county, \'irginia. patented originally 
by Captain William Powell, brother of the 
said William Powell. Two brothers were 
often given the same name. 

Power, James, an eminent lawyer, who 
came to Virginia from Ireland, was a mem- 
lier of the house of burgesses for King Wil- 
liam county in 1742-1747, and for New Kent 
in 1752-1755 and 1756-1758. His daughter 
married Peter Lyons, the counsel for the 
parsons in the famous case in Hanover in 
1763. His armorial book-plate is well 
known to collectors. 

Power, Dr. John, was son of John Power, 
.'I Spanish merchant, of England, of ancient 
family. He settled in York county, where 
he married Alary, daughter of Rev. Edward 
FoUiott, of Hampton parish, York county. 
He died about 1692, and left issue, Major 
Henry Power, of New Kent county, who 
died in 1739. John Power who died in 1720. 
and Elizabeth Power who married Colonel 
Cole Digges. 

Powhatan, head warchief, or emperor, of 
the Powhatan confederacy, numbering about 
thirty-four tribes. He is said to have been 
the son of an Indian, who was driven by the 
Spaniards from the West Indies. He was 
born at the falls of Richmond, lived at Wer- 
rowocomoco, Purton Bay, York river, till 
about three years after the arrival of the 
English, when he took up his residence at 
"Orapakes," at the head of White Oak 
Swamp. He died in April, 1618. He was 
also called \\'ahunsenaca\vh. Ottaniack. and 
Manatowick. 

Poythress, Francis, came to Virginia 



3o8 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



about 1633. and patented lands on James 
river, in that part of Charles City county 
now known as Prince George. He was bur- 
gess for Charles City county in 1645 and 
1647, and for Northumberland county in 
1649. He had the rank of captain. He mar- 
ried, and had a daughter who married 
Thomas Rolfe and a son Francis. 

Poythress, John, was son of Major Fran- 
cis Poythress, of Charles City county, and 
grandson of the immigrant, Captain Francis 
Poythress. He was burgess for Prince 
George county in 1723 and 1726. 

Poythress, Peter, of "Flower de Hun- 
dred," Prince George county, was son of 
John Poythress, and was member of the 
house of burgesses from Prince George 
from 1768 to 1775. and also member of the 
revolutionary conventions of 1774, 1775 and 
1776. He was also a member of the house 
of delegates. His only daughter and heiress 
Anne, born December 13, 1712, died April 
9. 1758, married Richard Bland, of Jordan's 
Point, Prince George county. 

Prentis, William, was a prominent mer- 
chant of Williamsburg. He married Mary 
Brooke, daughter of John Brooke. He died 
about 1769, leaving among other sons 
Joseph Prentis, a prominent patriot of the 
revolution, and for many years judge of 
the general court. 

Presley, Peter, son of Peter Presley (q. 
v.), lived at "Northumberland House," Nor- 
thumberland county. He was a justice of 
the peace and lieutenant-colonel of the 
militia, and a burgess for Northumberland 
from 171 1 to 1748, about which time he was 
murdered by two of his white servants. 
His will was proved September 10, 1750. 



He married \\'inifred Griffin, daughter 01 
Colonel Leroy Griffin, and left an onh 
daughter, ^^■inifred, who married Anthony 
Thornton. His grandson Colonel Presley 
Thornton (q. v.), inherited all the Presltn- 
estates and was member of the council 1760- 
1769. 

Presley, Peter, son of William Presley 
(q. v.), was burgess for Northumberland 
county in 1677, 1684, 1691, also one of the 

justices of the county. He was father of 
Peter Presley, of "Northumberland House." 

Presley, William, son of William Pres- 
ley (q. v.), was burgess in the long assem- 
bly 1661-1675, but was returned to Bacon's 
assembly in June, 1676. After the restor- 
ation of Berkeley, he was again a repre- 
sentative and is remembered for his saying 
t'lat "he believed that the governor would 
have hanged half the country, if they had 
let him alone." 

Presley, William, was an early inhabitant 
of Northumberland county and was burgess 
in 1647, 1648. He died in 1657, leaving two 
sons, William (q. v.), and Peter (q. v.). 

Preston, William, was son of Rev. Wil- 
liam Preston, of Brougham, Westmoreland 
county, England. He was master of arts of 
Queen's College, Oxford. In 1752 he came 
to Virginia and became professor of moral 
philosophy in William and Mary College. 
In 1755 he was minister of James City par- 
ish. In 1757 he resigned and went back to 
England where he was rector of Ormside 
and died in 1778. He married Mary Tyler, 
daughter of John Tyler, of James City 
county, Virginia. 

Preston, William, son of lohn Preston, a 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



309 



ship carpenter from Newton, Limmavady, 
in the north of Ireland, and Elizabeth Fat- 
ton, his wife, was born December 26, 1729, 
{■nd came with his father to Virginia in 
1735. He was a man of marked energy and 
decision, and served as surveyor and county 
lieutenant of Fincastle, and Montgomery 
counties, and was a burgess for Augusta 
county in 1765, and 1766-1768, and for Bote- 
tourt county in 1769-1771. He married 
Susanna Smith, daughter of Francis Smith, 
of Hanover, and was progenitor of a very 
distinguished Virginia family. He died 
June 28, 1783. 

Price, Arthur, was a burgess for Eliza- 
beth City county in February, 1645, and for 
York county in November, 1645. 

Price, Thomas, was burgess for Middle- 
sex county in 1 734- 1 740. He vacated his 
position the latter year by becoming clerk 
of the county, in which office he continued 
till 1762. He. was burgess again in 1758- 
1761. 

Price, Walter, came in 1618, burgess for 
Chaplain's Choice in Charles City corpor- 
ation in 1629, and for Jordan's Jorney and 
Chaplain's Choice in 1630. 

Prince, Edward, was a burgess for 
Charles City county in 1645. 

Proctor, John, was brother of Thomas 
Proctor, "citizen and haberdasher of Lon- 
don." On July 5, 1623, he engaged with 
the London Company, of which he was a 
member, to carry over 100 settlers. He came 
to Virginia and resided on his lands on 
Proctor's Creek in the present Chesterfield 
county. When the massacre occurred in 
1622 he was probably in England, for his 
wife, Mrs. Alice Proctor, is mentioned as 



holding the plantation successfully against 
the Indians. In 1625 he resided with his 
wife in the present Surry county. 

Pryor, Captain William, was one of the 
first settlers on York river. He was a jus- 
tice of York county from 1633 till his death 
in 1647. His will shows that he was a man 
of very large estate. He left two daughters 
Mary and Margaret — the latter of whom 
married Thomas Edwards, of the Inner 
Temple, London. 

Pugh, Daniel, burgess for Nansemond 
county in the house of burgesses 1734- 
1740. 

Purdie, Alexander, born in Scotland and 
was employed by Joseph Royle in the office 
of "The Virginia Gazette." He succeeded 
him as editor on his death in 1766, and soon 
formed a partnership with John Dixon, who 
married the widow of Joseph Royle. In 
1774 the partnership was terminated and 
Purdie ran an independent "Gazette." This 
"Gazette" appeared every Friday. He died 
at Williamsburg in 1779. 

Pyland, James, was a resident of Isle of 
Wight county, and for his strong royalist 
sympathies was expelled from the house of 
burgesses in 1652. He left a son Edward, 
and there was a James Pyland living in Isle 
o' Wight in 1724. Robert Pyland was bur- 
gess for Warwick county in 1647. 

Quiney, Richard, citizen and grocer of 
London, was son of Richard Quiney, of 
Stratford-on-Avon, and brother of Thomas 
Ouine}-, who married, February 10, 1615- 
1616, Shakespeare's daughter Judith. He 
married Ellen, daughter of John Sadler, of 
Stratford, and niece to Anne Sadler, the wife 
of John Harvard, founder of Harvard Col- 



3IO 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



lege. He and his father-in-law, John Sad- 
ler, purchased Brandon on James river from 
Robert Bargrave, grandson of Captain John 
Martm. They also owned Powell Brooke, 
or Merchant's Hope. These estates became 
vested about 1720 in Nathaniel Harrison. 
His will was proved in England, January 3, 
1656. 

Ramsey, Captain Edward, probably son 
of Thomas Ramsey, was burgess for James 
City county 1663, 1665, and possibly other 
years. 

Ramsay, Patrick, son of Andrew Ram- 
say, provost of Glasgow, Scotland, 1734- 
1735, was a merchant at Blandford, Vir- 
ginia, married November 26, 1760, Eliza- 
beth Poythress and left issue in Virginia ; 
grandfather of General George D. Ramsay, 
brigadier-general United States army. 

Ramsey, (sometimes spelt Ramshawe), 

Thomas, was a member of the house of bur- 
gesses for Warwick river in 1631-1632, for 
Gloucester in 1655, 1656, 1658. 

Randolph, Beverley, son of William Ran- 
dolph, of "Turkey Island," and Elizabeth 
Beverley, his wife, was justice of Henrico 
for 1741 ; succeeded Edward Barradall as 
burgess for the college in 1744-1747 and was 
burgess for it again in 1748-1749. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Light- 
foot, but left no issue. 

Randolph, John, son of Sir John Ran- 
dolph, was born in Williamsburg in 1728; 
educated at William and Mary College ; 
studied law at the Middle Temple, London, 
in 1745; returned to Virginia and became 
eminent as a lawyer ; succeeded Peter Ran- 
dolph as clerk of the house of burgesses, 
1752-1766; burgess for Lunenburg county 



ir 1769, and for \\'illiam and Mary College 
ill 1774 and 1775. He was a Tory in his j 
sympathies, and went to England at the j 
lieginning of the American re\-olution, and ! 
died there January 31, 1784. He married ' 
Arianna, daughter of Edmund Jenings, at- ' 
torney general of Maryland. His body was 
brought back to Virginia and buried in the 
College Chapel. 

Randolph, Henry, half-brother to the poet 
Thomas Randolph, and uncle of William 
Randolph of Turkey Island, came to Vir- 
ginia in 1642. He was clerk of Henrico 
county from about 1656 and of the house 
of burgesses from 1660 to his death in 1672. 
He married Judith, daughter of Henry 
Soane, speaker of the house of burgesses. 
She married (secondly) Major Peter Field, 
and had a son Captain Henry Randolph, of 
Swift's Creek, Henrico, now Chesterfield 
county. 

Randolph, Isham, son of William Ran- 
dolph, of "Turkey Island," lived at "Dunge- 
ness," Goochland county. He succeeded 
Abraham Nicholas as adjutant general of 
the militia in 1738, and was burgess for 
Goochland in 1736-1740. He died in No- 
vember, 1742, and was buried at Turkey 
Island, Henrico county. His daughter Jane 
married Colonel Peter Jefiferson, father of 
Thomas Jefferson. 

Randolph, Sir John, was son of Colonel 
William Randolph of "Turkey Island," 
Henrico county; born 1693, died March 9, 
1737. He was educated at William and 
Mary College, Gray's Inn, and the Temple 
in London and on his return engaged in the 
practice of law in Virginia ; was clerk of 
the council, treasurer, agent of the assem- 
bly in England, president of the county 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



ciiurt of Gloucester, lieutenant-colonel ot 
the militia for that county ; burgess and 
speaker. He was the only native resident, 
who ever received the honors of knight- 
liood. He was also first recorder, in 1736, 
of the borough of Norfolk. He seems to 
have been considered as head of the Vir- 
ginia bar in his day. Me was interred in 
tlie chapel of \Villiam and Alary College, 
which he represented in the legislature. He 
was a great nephew of Thomas Randolph, 
the poet. He was father of John Randolph, 
attorney general of Virginia, and of Peyton 
Randolph, first president of the continental 
congress. In his latter vears he resided in 
Williamsburg. 

Randolph, Richard, son of William Ran- 
dolph and Mary Isham, his wife, of Turkey 
Island, resided at "Curls Neck,'" Henrico 
county ; justice of Henrico and colonel of 
the county : burgess at the assemblies of 
1 727- 1 734. 1 734- 1 740. 1742-1747 and 1748- 
1749; treasurer of Virginia 1736-1738; mar- 
ried Jane, daughter of Major John Boiling, 
of Cobbs. He died in 1749. 

Randolph, Richard, son of Richard Ran- 
dolph of "Curls Neck," Henrico county, 
was justice of the peace, and burgess for 
Henrico in 1766-1769, 1770-1772, and signer 
of the associations of 1769 and 1772. He 
n'.arried Anne, daughter of David Meade, of 
Nansemond. He left issue. He was brother 
of John Randolph, father of John Randolph, 
of "Roanoke." 

Randolph, Thomas, son of William Ran- 
dolph and Mary Isham, of "Turkey Island," 
was born about 1683, justice of Henrico in 
1713, burgess in 1720-1722. He married 
Judith Fleming of New Kent county. He 



settled at "Tuckahoe," in Goochland county 
set off from Henrico in 1727. 

Randolph, WiUiam, born in 165 1, died 
April II. 171 1 ; was son of Richard Ran- 
dolph, a royalist, and Elizabeth Ryland, his 
wife. His family was an ancient one in 
Northamptonshire. England. He came to 
\'irginia about 1673. succeeded his uncle 
Henry Randolph as clerk of Henrico county 
in 1673, and held the office until 1683; bur- 
gess 1685 to 1699. and in 1703, 1704-1705 
and 1710; attorney general 1696; speaker of 
the house of burgesses 1698. He married 
Mary, daughter of Henry Isham, of Ber- 
muda Hundred, on James river, and had 
issue: William, the councillor, who married 
Elizalieth ISeverley ; Thomas, of "Tucka- 
hoe ;" Isham, of "Dungeness ;" Sir John; 
Richard, of "Curls;" Elizabeth, who married 
Richard Bland ; Mary, married William 
Stith ; Edward, a sea captain; Henry, died 
unmarried. 

Randolph, William, son of Thomas Ran- 
dolph, of "Tuckahoe," was born in 1712, 
burgess for Goochland in the assembly of 
[742-1747, but died in 1745 and was suc- 
ceeded by George Carrington. He married 
Maria Judith, daughter of Alann Page, of 
"Rose well" Gloucester county. 

Randolph, William, of "Wilton." Henrico 
county, was son of William and Elizabeth 
(I'.everley) Randolph of "Turkey Island," 
was burgess for Henrico in 1758-1761 ; mar- 
ried Anne, daughter of Benjamin Harrison, 
of Berkeley, and died in 1761. 

Ransone, Captain James, son of Peter 
Ransone, resided on the North river, and 
represented (iloucester county (now Math- 
ews) in the house of burgesses from 1692 



312 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



to 1700. He left three sons George, Robert 
and Peter. 

Ransone, Peter, father of Captain James 
Ransone, settled in Elizabeth City county, 
which he represented in the house of bur- 
gesses in 1652. The same year he patented 
lands on Mobjack Bay in the present 
Mathews couhty. He had issue three sons 
James (q. v.), C^eorge and William. 

Ravenscroft, Samuel, came to Boston 
from England in 1679, and served in the 
military of Massachusetts with the title of 
captain. He was- a member of the church 
of England, and on June 15, 1686, took 
steps, with others, to found King's Chapel in 
Boston and was later one of its wardens. 
He owned a sloop, which traded to Vir- 
ginia. He was a friend of Governor Andros 
and when that official was seized and im- 
prisoned by the Boston authorities, the 
same fate befell Captain Ravenscroft. He 
was released, and came to Virginia about 
the time (1692) when Andros became gov- 
ernor of that colony. He married Dyonisia, 
daughter of Captain Thomas Savage, and 
died about 1695. His widow married (sec- 
ondly) Thomas Hadley, superintendent of 
the building of the capitol in Williamsburg 
(1705)- 

Ravenscroft, Thomas, son of Captain 
Samuel Ravenscroft, was born in Boston 
June 29, 1688; came to Virginia with his 
father in 1692. He was sheriff of James 
City county in 1722, but in 1723 removed 
to Prince George county, where he pur- 
chased a tract of land on James river origin- 
ally patented by Captain Samuel Maycox, 
killed by the Indians in the massacre of 
1622. He was a burgess for Prince George 



in the assembly of 1727-1734, and in that 
o*^ 1734-1740, dying in the year 1736. He 
was father of John Ravenscroft, a justice of 
Prince George county. John Stark Ravens- 
croft, first bishop of North Carolina, wa^ 
his great-grandson. 

Read, Clement, was born in King and 
Queen county in 1707, was educated to the 
law, qualified as an attorney in Goochland 
and Brunswick in 1733. In February, 1746, 
he became the first clerk of the new county 
of Lunenburg, which position he held for 
seventeen years ; burgess for that county in 
the assemblies of 1748-1749, 1752-1755, 1758 
-1761 and 1761-1763; also county lieutenant, 
presiding magistrate, member of the ves- 
try. He died January 2, 1763, and was bur- 
ied at his seat called "Bushy Forest" in the 
present county of Charlotte. 

Read, Clement, Jr., son of Colonel Clem- 
ent Read (q. v.), succeeded his father as 
burgess for Lunenburg in 1763 and contin- 
ued a burgess till the session of May, 1765, 
when he accepted the ofiiice of coroner. He 
was, however, burgess for the new county 
of Charlotte in October, 1765, and in 1766- 
1768. 

Read, Isaac, son of Clement Read (q. v.), 
was burgess for Charlotte county, succeed- 
ing his brother Clement in the assemblies 
of May, 1769 and 1769-1771, and later was 
a member of the conventions of August, 
1774, and March and July, 1775, by which 
last body he was appointed lieutenant-colo- 
nel of the Fourth Virginia Regiment. Dur- 
ing the war he died from exposure, and was 
buried in Philadelphia. 

Reynolds, Charles, is said to have lived 
ir Isle of Wight, for which he was a bur- 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



313 



gess in 1652. But the name was more likely 
Christopher Reynolds who came in 1622 and 
died in Isle of Wight county in 1654, leav- 
ing wife Elizabeth, and children Christo- 
pher, John, Richard, Abbasha, Elizabeth 
and Jane. 

Revell, Randall, a wine cooper, was a 
member of the Alaryland general assembly 
in 1638, and in 1658 was a burgess for Nor- 
thampton^ county, Virginia. His descend- 
ants were prominent on the eastern shore. 

Richards, Richard, was a burgess for 
"Captain Perry's downward to Hogg 
Island" in February and September, 1632, 
and for James City county in 1641. 

Richardson, John, was a burgess for 
Princess Anne county in 1692-1693. 

Richardson, Richard, was burgess for 
New Kent county in 1727-1734, but in 1732 
he accepted the office of sheriff and re- 
signed. He was father of John Richardson, 
of New Kent. 

Ricketts, James, one of the justices of 
Elizabeth City county in 1712 and other 
\ears, was burgess for the county in 1720- 
1722, and in 1723. He died about 1726. He 
married Jane Wilson, daughter of Colonel 
William Wilson, and widow of Nicholas 
Curie. She married (thirdly) Meritt 
Sweeney. 

Riddick (Reddick), James, a burgess for 
Nansemond county in 1715, 1718, 1720-1722. 
Probably father of Lemuel Riddick (q. v.). 

Riddick (Reddick), Lemuel, burgess for 
Nansemond county from 1736 to 1775 and 
member of the convention of March 20, 
1775. He was probably father of Willis 
Riddick. 



Riddick (Reddick), Willis, burgess for 
Nansemond county from 1756 to 1775 and 
member of the convention of March 20, 
1775- 

Ridley, Peter, was burgess for James 
Cit}- county in I'ebruary, 1645, and Novem- 
ber, 1645. 

Ring, Joseph, lived at "Ringfield" for- 
merly patented by Captain Robert Felgate 
m York county on Felgate's Creek. He was 
I- prominent justice of York county, and 
in 1691, one of the feoft'ees of Yorktown. 
He was recommended to the authorities in 
England by the governor as a suitable man 
for membership in the council. He died 
February 26, 1703, aged fifty-seven, and the 
house in which he lived is still standing. In 
the garden is his tombstone, bearing his 
coat-of-arms. 

Rind, William, was an apprentice of Jonas 
Green of Annapolis. He was invited in 1766 
to Williamsburg by the leading Virginia 
patriots to set up an opposition paper, the 
"Gazette" then published in Williamsburg 
being too much under government control. 
On November 7. 1766, he was elected public 
printer. He died August 19, 1773, and his 
paper Avas continued two years by his 
widow Clementina. In 1775, John Pinck- 
ney was editor of the paper. 

Roane, Charles, immigrant, was son of 
Robert Roane, gentleman, of Chaldon, 
Surrey county, England, who died about 
1676. He came to \'irginia before 1672 and 
had numerous grants of land in Petsworth 
I'arish, Gloucester county, and other places 
in Virginia. During Bacon's rebellion he 
suffered much from the rebels on account of 
his sympathy with Governor Berkeley. 



314 



VIRGINIA BIOGRAPHY 



Roane, William, son of William Roane, 
cf Essex county, by his wife Sarah Upshaw, 
was a descendant of Charles Roane and was 
burgess for Essex in 1769, 1770-1772, 1772- 
1774, and qualified as King's deputy attor- 
ney in 1768. He was a member of the Essex 
county committee in 1774, and was colonel 
of the Essex militia in 1777. He married 
Elizabeth Ball, daughter of Colonel Spencer 
Ball, and was father of Judge Spencer 
Roane, of the Supreme Court of Appeals. 

Robertson, Archibald, son of William 
liobertson, merchant and baillie of Edin- 
burgh and brother of Arthur Robertson, 
chamberlain of Glasgow, 1760, migrated to 
Virginia in 1746 and settled in Prince 
George county. He married Elizabeth 
daughter of John Fitzgerald and Elizabeth 
Poythress, his wife. One of his sons was 
John Robertson, deputy commissary gen- 
eral of Virginia in 1781, and another was 
William Robertson, clerk of the council and 
father of Lieutenant-Governor Wyndham 
Robertson. 

Robertson, Moses, a minister of the Es- 
tablished Church, who came to Virginia 
in 1729, and had charge of a parish in 
Lower Norfolk county. He married Sus- 
anna Thruston, daughter of Dr. Edward 
Thruston. From 1743 till his death in 
1752 he was minister of St. Stephen's 
parish, Northumberland county. He left 
three sons Closes, Francis and John Wil- 
loughby Robertson. 

Robertson, William, came to Virginia 
about 1700. He was a lawyer and served 
for many years as clerk of the council of 
Virginia. He died in 1739, leaving an only 
daughter Elizabeth, who married John Lid- 
derdale. a merchant of Williamsburg. 



Robins, John, son of John Robins, wh 
died on his voyage to Virginia, settled about 
1630 in Elizabeth City county, with his 
servants. He patented several tracts of land 
— one of them in 1642 being for 2,000 acres, 
in Gloucester county, on which he resided 
the last years of his life, and which is still 
known as Robins' Neck ; burgess for Eliza- 
beth City in 1646 and 1649, 'i"^ ^ justice for 
that county in 1652. 

Robinson, Colonel Beverley, son of John 
Robinson, president of the Virginia coun- 
cil, was born in Virginia in 1723, and is. 
stated to have gone to New York in 1745 
as captain of an independent company from 
Virginia. He is also stated to have served 
under Wolfe at the capture of Quebec, in 
1759. He married an heiress, Susanna, 
daughter of Frederick Phillipse, of Philiipse 
Manor, New York. At the time of the revo- 
lution he raised the Royal American Regi- 
ment of Tories, and was appointed its colo- 
nel. At the conclusion of the war he went 
to New Brunswick and thence to England, 
where he resided at Thornsbury, near Bath. 
He died there in 1793. 

Robinson, Christopher, son of Colonel 
Christopher Robinson, of Middlesex county, 
Virginia, and nephew of Bishop John Rob- 
inson of London, was born in 1681 ; ma- 
triculated at William and Mary College, 
r.nd was member of the house of burgesses 
in 1705-1706, 1710-1712, 1712-1714, and died 
February 20, 1727. He married, in 1703, 
Judith, daughter of Colonel Christopher 
Wormeley, and widow of William Bever- 
ley. 

Robinson, Henry, son of John Robinson, 
president of the council, was born in Mid- 
f'lesex county April 7, 1718. He settled in 



BURGESSES AND OTHER PROMINENT PERSONS 



315 



Hanover county and represented that 
county in the house of burgesses in 1752- 
1755 and 1 756- 1 758. He married Molly, 
daughter of Colonel Thomas Waring, of 
"Goldsberry,"' Essex county, Mrginia. He 
died before September 21, 1756. 

Robinson, John, son of John Robinson, 
president of the council, was born Febru- 
ary 3, 1704. He studied at William and 
Mary College, and after graduation was 
probably for many years the most influential 
man in Virginia. He resided in King and 
Queen county upon the Mattaponi river 
where his residence was known as "Mt. 
Pleasant." He was a member of the house 
of burgesses for King and Queen county 
from 1736 to 1765 and speaker of the house 
from 1738 to 1765, and treasurer during the 
same period. As a presiding officer he was 
compared to Richard Onslow, speaker of the 
house of commons. As treasurer he ably 
administered the financial affairs of the col- 
ony, but was too free in lending out the 
colony's money. On his death in