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Duke Divinity School 
Alumni Association 


Bishop Paul Neff Garber 







Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2010 with funding from 
Duke University Libraries 





painted by John Michael Williams, R.A., in 1742 when 

Wesley was in his fortieth year. 

(reproduced by permission of Wesley College, Bristol, 
England, location of the original portrait) 




Sponsored by The World Methodist Council 

and The Commission on Archives and 

History of The United Methodist Church 

Bishop of The United Methodist Church, General Editor 



Assistants to the General Editor 


Prepared and edited under the supervision 

of The World Methodist Council and The 

Commission on Archives and History 

Published by 
The United Methodist Publishing House 

Copyright © 1974 by The United Methodist Publishing House 

All rights in this book are reserved. 
No part of the book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever 
without written permission of the publishers except brief quotations 
embodied in critical articles or reviews. For information address 
The United Methodist FubUshing House, 201 Eighth Avenue South, 
Nashville, Tennessee 37202. 

ISBN 0-687-11784-4 












General Editor 

Frank Baker 

Robert J. Bull Elmer T. Clark Fred P. Corson 

Frank H. Cumbers Maldwyn L. Edwards F. Gerald Ensley Albea Godbold Odd Hagen 

Assistant Editor 


John H. S. Kent Frederick E. Maser T. Otto Nall John H. Ness, Jr. 

Frederick A. Norwood Louise L. Queen Lee F. Tuttle Walter N. Vernon, Jr. 

Assistant Editor 


Nolan B. Harmon, a.b., m.a., d.d., l.h.d., litt.d., ll.d. 
General Editor 

Frank Baker, b.a., b.d., ph.d. 

Editor-in-Chief, Oxford Edition of 
Wesley's Works; 

Professor of English Church His- 

The Divinity School, Duke Uni- 

Durham, North Carolina 

Robert J. Bull, b.a., b.d., s.t.m., 


Professor of Church History 
Drew Theological Seminary 
Madison, New Jersey 

Fred P. Corson, a.b., a.m., b.d., 

D.D., L.H.D. 

Bishop and Past President 
World Methodist Council 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

F. Gerald Ensley, a.b., s.t.b., 

PH.D., D.D., L.H.D., LL.D. 

Bishop and Past President 
World Methodist Council, Ameri- 
can Section 
Columbus, Ohio 

Albea Godbold, b.a., b.d., m.a., 

PH.D., D.D. 

Chairman of the Editorial Board 

Frank H. CtrMBERS, b.a., b.d., d.d. 

Book Steward and General Man- 

The Methodist Publishing House, 
London (1948-1964) 

Colchester, Essex, England 

Maldwyn L. Edwards, m.a., b.d., 
PH.D., d.d. 
President Former International 

John C. Bowmer, m.a., b.d., ph.d. 
Methodist Archives and Research 

London, England 

Leland D. Case, b.a., m.a., litt.d., 


Editor, Author, and Historian 
Former Editorial Director of Meth- 

and Assistant to the General 

Editor of the Encyclopedia 
Executive Secretary Emeritus, 

Commission on Archives and 

The United Methodist Church 
Lake Junaluska, North Carolina 

Frederick E. Maser, a.b., th.b., 
m.a., d.d., ll.d. 
Executive Secretary 
World Methodist Historical Society 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

T. Otto Nall, a.b., b.d., d.d., litt. 

D., LL.D. 

Bishop and President 

Former Association of Methodist 

Historical Societies 
The Methodist Church 
Hong Kong, China 

John H. Ness, Jr., b.a., b.d., l.h.d. 
Executive Secretary 
Commission on Archives and 

The United Methodist Church 
Lake Junaluska, North Carolina 


Methodist Historical Society 
Bristol, England 

John H. S. Kent, m.a., ph.d. 

Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History 

and Doctrine 
The University of Bristol, England 
(Overall British Editor) 


odist General Church Publica- 
Tucson, Arizona 

J. Manning Potts, m.a., th.b., 

TH.M., D.D., LITT.D. 

Former Editor and Church 

The Upper Room 
Crystal River, Florida 

Frederick A. Norwood, b.a., b.d., 


Professor of the History of Chris- 
Garrett Theological Seminary 
Evanston, Illinois 

Louise L. Queen, Assistant to the 
General Editor 
Administrative Assistant 
Commission on Archives and His- 
The United Methodist Church 
Lake Junaluska, North Carolina 

Lee F. Tuttle, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
General Secretary 
World Methodist Council 
Lake Junaluska, North Carohna 

Elmer T. Clark, b.d., a.m., s.t.d., 
LL.D., litt.d. 
First General Editor 
(deceased 1966) 

Odd Hagen, m.a., d.d., ll.d. 
Bishop and President 
World Methodist Council 
(deceased 1970) 

Walter N. Vernon, Jr., a.b., m.a., 
b.d., litt.d. 

Administrative Associate Editor 
United Methodist Board of Educa- 
Nashville, Tennessee 

Edwin A. Schell, b.s., b.d. 
Archivist and Executive Secretary 
Baltimore Conference United 

Methodist Historical Society 
Baltimore, Maryland 

Bruce C. Souders, b.a., b.d. 

Chairman of English Department 
Shenandoah College 
Winchester, Virginia 


And Their Responsibilities 


Bishop and Former Superintendent 
Malaysia Singapore Area. Eugene, 

South East Asia 

Albert Aspey 

Chairman of District and General 

The Portuguese Methodist Church. 

Douro, Porto. 
EiLERT Bernhardt 
Minister. Oslo. 

David H. Bradley, b.a., m.a., 


Secretary, African Methodist Epis- 
copal Zion Church 

Historical Society. Bedford, Penn- 

A.M.E. Zion Church 

Byron W. Clark 

Field Correspondent, United Meth- 
odist Board of Missions, 
Manila, Philippine Islands. 


John B. Cobb, b.a., b.d., d.d. 

Missionary to Japan (1918-1964) 

Claremont, California 


Donald G. L. Cragg, m.a., ph.d. 
John Wesley College, Alice, C.P., 

South Africa 
(together with Leslie A. Hewson) 
South Africa 

Paul Elungworth, m.a., b.a. 
Missionary in Dahomey (1957-61) 

and in Cameroon ( 1954-67) ; 
Education Secretary, Methodist 

Missionary Society, London. 
Indonesia and Africa 

Garfield Evans, m.a., d.d. 

Pastor and College President in 

Cuba (1924-57). 
Lakeland, Florida 

George E. Failing, d.d. 

Editor, The Wesleyan Methodist, 

Marion, Indiana 

The Wesleyan Methodist Church 
of America 

Goldwin S. French, ph.d. 

Chairman, Department of History, 

McMaster University, 
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 

R. D. Eric Gallagher, m.a., b.d. 
Secretary of the Conference, The 

Methodist Church in Ireland. 
Belfast, (together with Frederick 


Ralph G. Gay, b.d. 

Director, Wesley Foundation, 

Glenville State College 
Glenville, West Virginia 
Christian Methodist Episcopal 

Leslie R. M. Gilmore, b.a. 

Secretary, Wesley Historical 

Society of New Zealand, 
Morrisville, New Zealand 
Neiv Zealand 

John O. Gross, s.t.b., d.d., s.t.d., 


Former General Secretary of Edu- 
cational Institutions, 

Board of Education, The Methodist 

Nashville, Tennessee 

Educational Institutions, U.S.A. 

Leslie A. Hewson, m.a., ph.d. 

Historian, South African Method- 

Grahamstown, C.P., South Africa. 

(together with Donald G. L. 

South Africa 

Mansfield Hurtig, b.d. 

Vastervik, Sweden. 
Finland and Sweden 

Frederick Jeffery, o.b.e., b.a., 


Vice Principal, Methodist College, 

Belfast, Ireland (associated with 

R. D. E. Gallagher). 

Francis P. Jones, th.d. 

Director of Literature Program for 
Nanking Theological Seminary, 
Foundation for Theological Edu- 
tion in Southeast Asia. 

Claremont, California 


Alan Keighley, b.d., m.a. 

Pastor, English Language Congre- 
gation of (Rome) Chiesa 
Evangclica Methodista D'ltalia (to- 
gether with Reginald Kissack). 

Willis J. King, ph.d., d.d., ll.d. 
Bishop in Liberia (1944-56) 
New Orleans, Louisiana 

Reginald Kissack, m.a., b.d. 

Chairman of Liverpool District, 

(former pastor in Rome) 

Byron S. Lamson, b.d., d.d. 

Editor, The Free Methodist, 
Winona Lake, Indiana. 
Free Methodic Church 

John Lawson, ph.d. 

Associate Professor of Church 

Candler School of Theology, 

Atlanta, Georgia. 
Doctrinal Articles 

Mrs. Eula Kennedy Long, b.a. 
Brazilian missionary leader and 

author (1913-34). 
Roanoke, Virginia. 

Neils Mann, b.d. 

Pastor, Central Mission, 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Edwin Maynard, a.b., m.a. 

Editorial Director, Division of 

United Methodist Church, Evans- 
ton, Illinois. 
Latin America 

J. Gordon Melton, b.a., b.d. 

Institute for the Study of American 

Evanston, Illinois. 
Methodist Variations, U.S.A. 

John H. Ness, Jr., b.a., b.d., l.h.d. 
E,\ecutive Secretary, Commission 

on Archives and History, 
United Methodist Church, Lake 

Junaluska, North Carolina. 
Evangelical United Brethren 


Ted Noffs, b.d. 

Pastor, Wayside Chapel, Sydney, 


J. Waskom Pickett, b.a., m.a., 

D.D., LL.D., L.H.D. 

Bishop in India (1936-56). 
Dearborn, Michigan 

Ralph Habdee Rtves, ph.d. 

Department of English, East Caro- 
lina University, 
Greenville, North Carolina. 
Methodist Protestant Church 

Clement D. Rockey, m.a., ph.d. 
Bishop of Burma (1941-51); of 
Pakistan (1957-64). 

Eugene, Oregon. 

Charles A. Sauer, m.a., d.d. 

Former missionary and education 

leader in Korea, 
Ashley, Ohio. 

Hermann Schaad, b.d. 
Pastor, Basel, Switzerland. 
Switzerland, Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Austria 

Shockley, b.d., m.a., 
Candler School of 

Grant S 


Atlanta, Georgia. 
A.M.E. Church 

C. Ernst Sommer, m.a., m.ed., 





Edwin L. Taylor, b.d. 

Conference Secretary, The Meth- 
odist Church in the Caribbean 
and the Americas. 

St. Johns, Antigua. 

West Indies 

Willl\m G. Thonger, d.d. 

Former Superintendent, Belgian 



Erris C. H. Tribbeck 

Pastor, Rue Roquepine, Paris, 
(together with H. E. Whelpton) 

Vaclav Vancura 

Methodist Superintendent in 


Gustavo A. Velasco 
Professor, Mexico City. 

Gaither p. Warfield, a.b., m.a., 
b.d., d.d. 
Former missionary to Poland, and 

Executive Secretary, 
Methodist Commission on Overseas 

Rockville, Maryland. 

H. E. Whelpton 

Pastor, Mantes, Yvelines, France, 
(together with Erris C. H. Trib- 

Werner T. Wickstrom, ph.d. 
Former missionary to Liberia. 
Harlingen, Texas (together with 

Bishop Willis J. King). 


Southeast Asia 

Albert Aspey 
Spain and Portugal 

EiLERT Bernhardt 

David Bradley 
A.M.E. Zion Church 

Byron W. Clark 

D, G. L. Cragg 
South Africa 

Garfield Evans 

George E. Failing 

G. S. French 

R. D. E. Gallagher 


Wesleyan Methodist 
Church of America 



Ralph G. Gay 
C.M.E. Church 

L. R. M. Gilmore 

New Zealand 

John O. Gross 


Institutions, U.S.A. 

Mansfield Hubtig 

Frederick Jeffery 

Francis P. Jones 

Byron S. Lamson 

John Lawson 

EuLA K. Long 

Niels Mann 

Free Methodist 

Doctrinal Articles 




Edwin H. Maynard 
South America 

J. Gordon Melton 

Variations, U.S.A. 

Ted Noffs 

J. Waskom Pickett 

Ralph H. Rives 
M.P. Church 

Clement D. Rockey 

Charles A. Sauer 

Hermann Schaad 

Crant Shockley 

C. Ernst Sommer 

Edwin L. Taylor 


A.M.E. Church 


Church of the 

William G. Thonger 

Vaclav Vancura 

Gustavo A. Velasco 

Gaither p. Wabfield 

History as a report of what has happened comes out of 
life. This is true also about our Methodist history. From 
its very beginning Methodism has been an ongoing move- 
ment. Individuals and people were by the inspiration of 
the Holy Spirit converted, committed and commissioned 
to serve other individuals and nations with the new- 
creating Word of God. We can today see the footprints 
of these marvelous people all over the world and we 
sincerely hope that Methodism's endless hne of splendor 
has not yet come to an end. 

Interwoven in this Methodist movement are persons, 
institutions, initiatives, changes, fulfillments and much 
more. Some people have names well known to World 
Methodism and even to World Christianity. Other names 
are not so well known but beloved in their own part of 
the world for what they did in promoting the Kingdom 
of God. Some of these people, institutions, movements are 

already forgotten by most of us, but others are still in 
fresh remembrance. 

These volumes are written to make history alive, that 
we should not forget our forefathers. If you find this 
story well written, it may partly be due to the authors 
and editors, and we certainly thank those who have edited 
these volumes, the late Dr. Elmer T. Clark and these 
last years. Bishop Nolan B. Harmon. But it is in the 
first hand thanks to those who wrote history with their 
life and work and so fully committed themselves to the 
Divine caUing that history became ahve. 

Stockholm, March 8, 1968 

Odd Hagen 

President, World Methodist Council 

Bishop, Northern Europe Area 


In this modem age it is natural that the Methodist 
Church in various countries should seek closer union with 
churches akin to it in theological emphases and historical 
antecedents. Nevertheless there persists as strongly as 
ever the realisation of Methodists that, in John Wesley's 
phrase, they are one people in all the world. They honour 
their common beginnings in the 18th century, they rejoice 
in their theological emphases and social witness, and they 
believe that each member of the World Methodist Council 
can bring its own riches to the common treasury. 

For all these reasons it is not only essential to have 
periodic meetings of the Council and its Executive, to- 
gether with visits of ministers and laymen to various 
countries, but also an authoritative work of historical 
reference for Methodists everywhere. The French have a 
proverb that in order to jump forward one must step 
back. We do not go back to Wesley and our fathers 
as a means of escapism. In a word, it is not back to 
Wesley but forward from Wesley. We know our past 
in order that we may plan our future. Without such 
knowledge as this massive work of research supplies, we 
would not know our genealogy, nor the roll-call of our 

honoured dead, nor the legacy into which we have 

The Encyclopedia is of special interest in its world- 
wide reference. Even the most knowledgeable may be 
unaware of the inspiring story of Methodism in countries 
other than their owti. 

Most important of all in this ecumenical age is the 
need for Methodists to know their own history and dis- 
tinctive witness in order that they may enter fruitfully 
into dialogue with members of other churches. 

For all these reasons this work, which may properly 
be called unique, needs not only to be in public but 
private libraries. It has been edited with distinction and 
it will be welcomed and deeply appreciated by all those 
who know that our future is indissolubly linked with our 

Cardiff, Wales, May 24, 1968 
Maldwyn Edwards 
President, International 
Methodist Historical Society. 


This Encyclopedia is designed to give helpful informa- 
tion regarding the history, doctrines, institutions, and 
important personages, past and present, of world Meth- 
odism. For well over half a century Methodist ecumenical 
gatherings and historical societies have been requesting 
such a publication — one which might embody in a clear, 
comprehensive way the works and ways of the Methodist 
movement over the whole world. 

In response to this expressed need, some years ago 
Dr. Elmer T. Clark, then both executive secretary of the 
Association of Methodist Historical Societies and the 
American secretary of the World Methodist Council, be- 
gan to make plans and to collate material for what was 
then planned as a "Methodist Dictionary." Dr. Clark had 
numerous conferences with historians, publishers, libra- 
rians, and other interested persons both in Britain and in 
America. Repeated contacts were made with representa- 
tives of the Methodist "connection" in many lands, all of 
whom proved helpful and cooperative, and a vast amount 
of material began to be gathered from far and near. 

Dr. Clark, however, because of advancing years, asked 
to be relieved of editorial responsibility in 1964, and to 
the regret of all has not lived to see the completion of 
this work. The present editor took charge upon Dr. 
Clark's retirement, and he, with a competent stafiF of 
writers, consultants, and collaborators, has endeavored to 
carry through and finish the work so well planned and 
begun these several years ago. 

The Enajchpedia of World Methodism, as it came to 
be called, was sponsored and financed by the World 
Methodist Council and the Commission on Archives and 
History of The United Methodist Church, formerly known 
as the Association of Methodist Historical Societies. The 
Publishing House of The United Methodist Church, 
U.S.A., has generously assumed the expense both of pub- 
lishing and promoting the Encyclopedia, looking to the 
editors to be responsible for the compilation of the 
complete manuscript, and for the relevance and accuracy 
of all items herein presented. 

It should be noted that almost a century ago a 
Cyclopaedia of Methodism was compiled and published 
by Bishop Matthew Simpson of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in America. Likewise, Canadian Methodism 
brought out the Cyclopedia of Methodism in Canada 
in 1881, edited by the Reverend George H. Cornish; and 
the Centennial Encyclopedia of the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church, edited by Bishop Richard R. Wright, 
Jr., was pubhshed in 1916. But Bishop Simpson's 
Cyclopaedia has long been outdated, and while it en- 
deavored in its day to reflect Methodism in America, in 
Britain, and, as far as then was possible, in other lands, 
it naturally fell short of the comprehensiveness which a 
like publication must have today. Furthermore, epochal 
changes over the whole earth, as well as the enormous 
growth of Methodism itself, have occurred since 1876 
when Simpson compiled his work, and with this growth 

has come a vast amount of new content, as well as of 
change, in world-wide Methodism. The present editors, 
however, would like to acknowledge their indebtedness 
to Bishop Simpson's Cyclopaedia as a pathfinder in this 
effort. The Canadian work is largely a biographical listing 
of the ministers and churches of that land, though we are 
indebted to it and to the Canadian editor for many in- 
formative articles which are to be found therein. The 
same is true also of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church encyclopedia, which makes quite a contribution 
in outlining the personalities and institutions of that con- 

As world-wide Methodism itself has become more and 
more conscious of its unity, and more and more assured, 
as John Wesley expressed it, that "the Methodists are 
one people," the time has arrived for an encyclopedic 
publication to be produced not for one land or church, 
but for ecumenical Methodism itself. The editors and the 
sponsors of this work, therefore, hope to provide for the 
ministers and thinking laity of the Methodist connection 
everywhere, and for all other interested persons, the means 
whereby may be ascertained all manner of essential facts 
regarding Methodist history and development in the past, 
as well as its personal and institutional life of the present 
— and this in all lands and among all people where 
Methodism has made its home. 

Since The United Methodist Church in America (which 
has underwritten the expenses of this project) with its 
eleven million members is the largest organized body 
among the Methodist Churches of the world, it is almost 
inevitable that the history, organization, institutions, and 
personalities of that church should take up a proportion- 
ately greater part of this work than do the other Methodist 
bodies herein presented. It is hoped that the world-wide 
Methodist public for whom this work is produced will 
understand and sympathize with this fact, as well as 
with the difficulties of securing comparable information 
from every other Methodist community throughout the 
world — though this last has painstakingly been at- 

The Methodist Church of Great Britain has shared 
greatly in planning and collating the material for this 
Encyclopedia, and through a competent original planning 
committee and a talented editor, is to be thanked for an 
enoimous contribution to its publication. Admittedly, all 
the Methodisms of the world stand in debt to that of 
Great Britain as the cradle of the whole movement. Our 
British editorial staff therefore has taken great pains to 
set forth as far as possible all matters having to do with 
the beginnings of Methodism in Britain; and the historic 
sites, cities, important activities, and leading persons of 
the Methodist movement there, from its beginning until 
now, will be found in these pages. Many British writers 
have contributed interpretative articles of great value, 
as well as of historical import, to these pages. 

In the coverage extended by this Enctjclopedia to all 
organized Methodist Churches in various parts of the 
world, it will of course be understood that practically all 
these have stemmed either from British or American 
Methodism. Thus their particular organizational patterns, 
rituals, service books, and nomenclature have been pri- 
marily influenced by one or the other of these two mother- 
land Mefhodisms from which they came. A more detailed 
description and heavier emphasis, therefore, has had to 
be placed upon the antecedent British and American 
"connections" and their fundamental organizational pro- 
cesses than it has been possible to give to different Meth- 
odist groupings in other parts of the world. The Methodist 
bodies today are not only many and varied, but have 
each in their turn modified through the years their re- 
spective original organizational and worship patterns. 
Obviously it would be well-nigh impossible to follow out 
all such changes in each church now treated in this 

For instance, the organization of the General Board of 
Missions of The United Methodist Church, or as it is 
in England, the Methodist Missionary Society, can each 
respectively be described in overall and fairly specific 
separate accounts, bringing up to date their present 
activities. But it would be impossible in this work to 
attempt to tell how each of the separate Methodist con- 
nections in different parts of the world, or the different 
Methodist Churches as now organized, carry on the details 
of their particular missionary work. We do, however, in 
the overall article relating to each church or connection 
(apart from the United Methodist Church or the British 
Methodisms) endeavor to outline that church's general 
work in the field of missions, as also in that of education, 
publishing interests, etc. 

Method of Compilation 

In compiling this work, it was necessary to secure an 
editor and in some instances an editorial staff in each 
respective land or in each organized branch of Methodism. 
These editors assumed the responsibility of fumi.shing 
primarily a general history of the development of Meth- 
odism in their particular region or separately organized 
church; and also of preparing biographies of those persons 
who, past and present, have had the most to do with its 
progress. The names of the respective editors with the 
countries or churches they have represented in this 
compilation will be found in the list of Area Editors. 

In addition to the regional editors, as those for instance 
in South Africa, Germany, South America, New Zealand, 
etc., the large, separately organized Methodist connec- 
tions which have stemmed from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in America — such as the African Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion 
Church, the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, the 
Free Methodist Church, and others — have likewise each 
been represented by a special editor chosen in almost all 
cases from the particular connection involved. These per- 
sons have been responsible in their turn for compiling 
and sending in the material descriptive of the life, in- 
stitutions, and personalities who have been a part of 
their church's institutional hfe. In one or two instances 
it was found difficult to secure an editor from the connec- 
tion to be treated, and therefore it was necessary to 
secure other knowledgeable and competent editorial help. 

American Historical Societies 

In the United States, the Methodist Historical Societies 
of the different annual conferences and regions were 
originally asked to nominate the persons and institutions 
whose accounts should be treated, in order that a history 
of the progress of Methodism in their respective areas 
might be obtained. Each official Historical Society was at 
an early date supplied with printed forms on which they 
nominated personalities, colleges, pioneer churches, camp 
grounds, and the like, which had meant much in their 
past Methodist life. They were also asked to indicate 
persons who might be able to write authoritatively con- 
cerning such items nominated for inclusion. In taking 
over from Dr. Clark the task of completing this work, the 
present editor followed this same course until from all 
the annual conferences in the U.S.A. he had secured 
listings which the regional Methodist leaders or Historical 
Societies felt would represent fairly their own organiza- 
tions. The editor of the Encyclopedia and sponsoring 
authorities have been guided by each local Historical 
Society's judgment upon the names and institutions which 
they indicated should be included — or excluded. 

In addition to these nominations from regional editors 
and Historical Societies, Bishop Simpson's Cyclopaedia of 
Methodism of a hundred years ago was carefully ex- 
amined, as well as other books which might be expected 
to contain a treatment of important persons or events 
perhaps otherwise overlooked. 

For the record of significant personalities, the editors 
searched Who's Who in American Methodism, edited by 
Carl Price (1916); and also Who's Who in Methodism 
edited by Elmer T. Clark (1952); as well as Who's Who 
in The Methodist Church, published by the A.N. Marquis 
Company (1966). Clinton Howell's Prominent Personali- 
ties in American Methodism (1945) was also carefully 
examined. It is inevitable that some omissions will be 
noticed which should have been included; and there wall 
also probably be instances where the inclusion of certain 
items or biographies will be called in question. All has 
however been subject to editorial review and definite 
action with regard to every item. (The special guide- 
lines which were adopted in selecting biographies will 
be indicated later in this Preface. ) 

Categories of Presentation 

Beside the regional editors and those for the different 
large Methodist connectional bodies which have their 
own life and history, there are various categories of pre- 
sentation in this work each of which was put under the 
supervision of a competent editor. Such separate, but 
important, fields as Methodist doctrine, education and 
educational institutions, eleemosynary institutions, worship 
practices and ritual — each of these categories was super- 
vised by a special editor. In the list of Area Editors will be 
found the names of these special editors, and their re- 

Biographical Coverage 

It will be noticed that a very large proportion of the 
Encyclopedia is taken up with biography — the lives of 
men and women whose careers had much to do with the 
Methodist movement in their respective lands and times. 

This is because admittedly the story of Methodism cannot 
be told apart from the Methodists who have made it. 
We have therefore endeavored in this work to outline the 
lives and indicate the character of all persons who have 
had a significant part in its larger life. Some have been 
very important, some not so important, but each person 
appearing in this work has been nominated for inclusion 
by those who were in position to evaluate the lives so 
chosen, and to judge of their import in their respective 
fields of endeavor. If, therefore, biographies seem to take 
up more space than is usual in a work of this nature, 
it is because Methodism has always been best represented 
by persons rather than by historical or documentary rec- 
ords, or even by ongoing institutions. Furthermore, one 
of the chief uses to which an encyclopedia of this nature 
is to be put is that of 'looking up" basic details about 
particular individuals. 

The Inclusion of Living Persons 

The inclusion of the biographies of living persons in 
this Encyclopedia was a matter carefully considered. 
However, it was decided by a vote of the Editorial 
Board of the project in a meeting in 1964 that a truncated 
view of world Methodism would be presented if every 
living Methodist among its present-day millions should be 
excluded from these pages. Since, however, no life can 
be safely evaluated until its record is complete, it was 
decided that although those living Methodists who are 
involved in the larger work of their churches should be 
included, they should be treated in brief biographical 
sketches outlining only their biographical data with the 
more important positions they have held or now hold, 
and that no attempt be made to evaluate editorially their 
contribution. In the case of all those who have completely 
finished their course, however, and who may be seen in 
the larger perspective of the years, it has been our en- 
deavor to summarize and evaluate in some perceptive 
way their distinctive part in the work of world-wide 

In deciding what living persons would appear in this 
work, it was determined that such persons should have, 
or have had, some official connection with the larger 
institutional work of one of our general Methodist Church 
bodies. There are many famous Methodists over the world 
whose names will be written large in universal history, 
but unless such persons have actually participated in a 
definite way in the organizational or some other funda- 
mental aspect of the work of their respective general 
churches, it was decided somewhat regretfully that their 
biographies could not be included. Among the Methodists 
of the United States, for instance, there have been scores 
of Methodist members of the Congress, a great number 
of governors of states, captains of industry, and able 
representatives in almost every field of public influence — 
astronauts, beauty queens, athletes of Olympic renown, 
physicians, lawyers, soldiers, men and women high in all 
manner of professions and occupations. Many of these 
have proved to be of great worth in their own local 
Methodist churches, but the editors deemed it wise to 
place in this work only those whose lives and talents 
have in some special way been involved in the work of 
the general Church. There are a few exceptions to this 
rule, but such exceptions will be seen as so clearly impor- 
tant that the editors felt that these instances should be 
included, or the Encyclopedia would be lacking. 

Specificalh', we have tried to include all who have 
come within the following categories: 

( 1 ) All bishops in the various Episcopal Methodisms. 

(2) All presidents of Conferences, as in England, and 
in the non-Episcopal connections. These will be found, 
as are the bishops, in their respective church tabular 
listings in the Appendix, with the years of their 
presidency. The biographical sketches of certain out- 
standing presidents and other leaders, as provided by 
the area editor in the respective lands or connections, 
are included alphabetically in the main body of this 

(3) General Church officers and executives who have 
been elected to their respective positions by a repre- 
sentative church board or agency, and who have served 
in such an executive position for at least eight years, 
or who were members of the Council of Secretaries 
in 1971. This will necessarily exclude those executives 
who have been selected or appointed to a lesser posi- 
tion in a general board. 

(4) College presidents who are now retired but who 
have served as president of a Methodist or Methodist- 
related institution for at least ten years before retire- 
ment. Also certain active college presidents have been 
so outstanding in the larger work of the church that the 
editors representing their particular region or connec- 
tion have nominated them and written their biographi- 
cal sketches for the main body of the work. 

(5) Certain city pastors, who by reason of their 
eminence and the status of the churches which they 
serve or have served, especially if such pastors have 
been members of any General Conference, or have 
served in a commanding pastorate or pastorates for 
at least ten years. 

Some persons who might otherwise be qualified in the 
above listings may possibly have been omitted through 
inadvertence. It will be understood that all editorial deci- 
sions have been made in good faith. In some cases desired 
biographical accounts have not been furnished. 

Also it will be understood that with scores of different 
writers supplying their respective accounts from different 
regions, it is almost inevitable that these will differ some- 
what in length and in type of treatment. The importance 
of a character treated in these pages therefore is not to 
be measured by the length of his biographic sketch, nor 
should the inconsequential incidents often to be found 
in a biography be discounted, as these may reflect a life 
more aptly than do titles held or work done. 

Sites and Historic Shrines 

The part played by the liistorical record is prominent 
in almost every item covered. Indeed the demand for the 
Encyclopedia has come largely from the Historical 
Societies, whose chief interest, as their name implies, 
is in recording the eventful past. Therefore, it has been 
our aim to record the beginning and development of 
Methodism in each place where it is now established, 
together with an up-to-date evaluation of its present status 
and potentiality. 

Every effort has been made to include all noteworthy 
pioneer preaching places, churches, sites, and historic 
shrines reflecting significant beginnings in any land or 
mission field. Here the nominations of the respective 
Historical Societies and those of the editors representing 

the different lands of the world have had to be depended 
upon. We covet for this Encyclopedia that it may outline 
the development of Methodist history in each region of 
the world where there are, or ever have been (as once 
there were in Russia and mainland China) Methodist 

Doctrinal Articles 

While disclaiming the effort to set forth in a complete 
way the theological and doctrinal position of present-day 
world-wide Methodism, we have undertaken to present 
in a series of doctrinal articles (listed under their own 
subject matter) what we should like to consider the norm 
of Methodist teaching in regard to each such doctrine. 
It is not the aim of this Encyclopedia to reflect any 
specific present-day school of Methodist thought, since 
these admittedly vary greatly, hut to present the basic 
teaching of John Wesley, and of the early Methodist 
fathers upon each subject herein treated, with an indica- 
tion of such later developments as may be considered 
generally normative in present-day Methodist thought. 
Able scholars, and scholarly critics, in addition to the 
capable editor of these doctrinal articles, have assisted in 
these presentations. 

The United Methodist Church 

After the compilation of the Encyclopedia had pro- 
ceeded far toward a conclusion. The Methodist Church, 
U.S.A., joined The Evangelical United Brethren Church 
in 1968 to form The United Methodist Church. In view 
of this late but important development, it became neces- 
sary to re-edit much of the Methodist material already in 
manuscript form, to make it conform to the late changes 
in organizational pattern and nomenclature. The editors 
are well aware, and trust that our readers will also be 
aware, that organizational changes due to the recent 
formation of The United Methodist Church are continuing 
to take place and will no doubt continue to take place 
in years yet to be, as happens with all living institutions. 
Also, just at this time, various Methodist bodies formerly 
connected to one or the other of the large Methodist 
connections are becoming autonomous churches — e.g. 
Burma, Cuba, Argentina, Chile, while other regions are 
expecting to become autonomous soon. Such recent and 
impending changes, while making our editorial task more 
difficult and forcing a delay in publication, gives great 
promise ecclesiastically for Methodism over the world. 
As the Baltimore Bicentennial of 1966 put it, Methodism 
is "forever beginning." 

Since the Evangelical United Brethren Church has now 
merged into American Methodism, it was necessary to 
secure the history and development of that church, not 
only in America but over the world, since that now be- 
longs in this Encyclopedia as completely as does that 
of any other Methodist body. This called at a late hour 
for the preparation and inclusion of many more articles 
covering the biographical sketches, institutions, etc., of 
the Evangelical United Brethren Church exactly as had 
been the case with all other Methodisms included here. 
This should be understood by Methodists in other lands 
when they find in this Encyclopedia United Brethren in 
Christ, Evangelical Association, United Evangelical, and 
Evangelical Church accounts. 

The Evangehcal United Brethren, as their history will 

show, originally had a close affiliation with American 
Methodism so that no great strain was put upon either 
connection when The United Methodist Church was 
formed. It is hoped that this Encyclopedia will be of 
value to those in the former Evangehcal United Brethren 
tradition by indicating to them much of the history and 
life of Methodism of which they are now a part; and 
that in turn Methodists will be able to find in the 
Evangelical United Brethren records and histories now 
incorporated in these pages much information that will be 
of help to them in this larger brotherhood of The United 
Methodist Church. 

Educational and Eleemosynary Institutions 

It was not found possible to set forth the record of 
every educational institution which had been spon.sored 
by, or is now in connection with The United Methodist 
Church except those which are presently in existence, 
and which came into existence during the nineteenth 
century. Nor is it possible to hst any but the chief educa- 
tional institutions in connection with the Methodist 
churches of other lands. Reference may be made to the 
records of the Boards of Education and kindred agencies 
of the various Methodist Churches, by those who wish 
to make a study of the almost innumerable academies, 
schools, and colleges which flourished, or did not flourish, 
during the nineteenth century. We have not endeavored 
to describe those which ended before 1900. There are 
certain historic exceptions to this procedure, as for in- 
stance the first Cokesbury College, Transylvania College, 
and Augusta College in the United States. There are also 
certain other institutions which had such influence while 
they lasted that the Encyclopedia would lack something 
if their records should not be told. 

We do however carry a table in the Appendix giving 
the names and immediate statistics of the many present- 
day educational institutions of The United Methodist 
Church. The more significant of these, we describe in- 
dividually under their own names in the main body of 
this work. 

The same sort of table will be found listing the hospitals 
and homes, orphanages, and the like, now in connection 
with The United Methodist Church in the United States. 
Of these, something like forty of the most important will 
be described under their own names in the body of the 
work. These forty were nominated by persons in what was 
then the Board of Hospitals and Homes of The Methodist 
Church and who were in position to make a competent 
judgment upon such an evaluation. 

The same procedure which was adopted in the case of 
defunct Methodist colleges has been followed with ref- 
erence to early camp meeting sites, and also many camp 
grounds, youth assembly sites, etc. Some have been begun 
within recent years and are sHll in existence. Certain of 
these aie today sponsored and maintained by annual con- 
ferences, and quite often their records are mentioned in 
connection with the history of such conferences. How- 
ever, there has been a plethora of camp grounds all over 
American Methodism during its past, and even in its 
present years, and it is not possible to identify and catalog 
all of them. Exceptional situations such as Chautauqua, 
New York; Asbury Park in New Jersey; and the Seashore 
Assembly on the Gulf Coast — these, and possibly a few 
others of high import in early days, have been described. 


Mention has been made of the fact that British and 
American Methodism have been the two prime centers 
from which later Methodist Churches and missions 
stemmed. However, since the Methodisms of Britain and 
of America have come to differ in certain particulars, 
especially in nomenclature, organization, and the hke, 
it is often necessary to explain certain of these differences 
in the more important instances where they occur. Happily 
there are not many such, and the differences noted usually 
have more to do with nomenclature than with funda- 
mental life and processes. 

The matter of including present-day statistics reflecting 
the strength and immediate moves of many present-day 
Methodist churches has given some concern since by its 
very nature an encyclopedia may not keep up with 
ephemeral changes. However, it was decided that while 
statistics might soon be "out-dated" in the ongoing of the 
years, this Encyclopedia to be relevant (even for years 
beyond its publication date) should indicate as best it 
can the present stiength and status of all institutions and 
persons treated. 

Local Churches and Congregations 

In order to reflect adequately the life of present-day 
American Methodism, an invitation was extended in 1966 
to every local church which numbered upon its rolls 
2,000 members or more, to record its story in these pages 
in a brief, factual way. Some of these large churches are 
old and historic, some are quite new, as their respective 
histories will show. A wholehearted response was secured 
from the vast majority of the larger churches over the 
United States (there proved to be well over three hun- 
dred of them!) and their histories up to the present will 
be found briefly narrated herein under the names of the 
cities or towns where they are located. 

Cities, States and Conferences 

Likewise, it was felt that the history of American Meth- 
odism in cities which numbered at least 100,000 in- 
habitants might very well be told in order to complete 
the setting forth of present-day Methodism in the United 
States. This has been done largely throughout this work. 
There are instances where the story of Methodism in a 
certain city is essentially the story of the first or leading 
Methodist church now there; and occasionally the story 
of Methodism and the growth of a particular local church 
will be the record of Methodism in its locale. 

Also in view of the fact that American Methodism is 
proportionately such a large part of the ongoing of Meth- 
odist life in the present world, we have included in this 
Encyclopedia the history of Methodism in the different 
States of the Union; and also the accounts of the separate 
armual conferences of The United Methodist Church. We 
should have been glad to do this for all other Methodisms 
in other parts of the world, but it was not found possible 
(except to a degree in the case of Austraha) to secure 
the annual conference records from the many annual con- 
ferences extant in other nations — certainly not without 
taking many more years to compile this Encyclopedia, 
especially since aimual conferences and general Meth- 
odist Church alignments are changing rapidly in many 

Method of Presentation 

While anxious to supply all requisite facts and informa- 
tion which an encyclopedia of this nature should have, 
we have avoided a too great dependence upon abbrevia- 
tions, and we carry a list of those most frequently used. 
However, it is our endeavor to present full and readable 
running accounts of the lives, institutions, and subjects 
treated, rather than reducing each of these to a summary 
assortment of letters and figures. 


The Encyclopedia is illustrated by photographs and 
other graphic material depicting persons or institutions 
herein described. It has not proved possible to secure 
illustrations from every region and from all the smaller 
Methodist groups, although in the effort to represent 
the wider Methodism as fully as possible, some lowering 
of the quality of reproduction has occasionally been ac- 
cepted rather than the discarding of an illustiation al- 
together. In the mainstream of Methodism, where illustra- 
tions have proved easier to secure, there has been little 
attempt to rank in order of importance the subjects which 
might be included, so that the presence or absence of 
an illustration implies no judgment about the relative 
significance of the subject: those utilized are representa- 
tive samples of what was readily available. Nevertheless 
we believe that collectively the illustrations included do 
present a true cross section of World Methodism in its 
varied phases and at its different levels. 

General Index 

A general index has been provided in the Appendix to 
the Encyclopedia which will indicate the page upon which 
any name or item treated herein may be found. The 
entire work is, of course, arranged in alphabetical 
sequence as are similar publications. However, it was 
felt that since many names are mentioned in other than 
their own accounts and since many persons and locations 
are not tieated in the main listing, this work would not 
be complete unless we should indicate in an overall index 
all the names and items of any import to be found in 
these Methodist armals. 

AccxmACY in Presentation 

While every effort has been made to insure accuracy in 
the factual presentation of the material herein, it is 
scarcely possible that a work covering such a vast develop- 
ment over the whole world, past and present, with scores 
of writers contributing to its compilation, can be pub- 
lished without minor errors being found here and there. 
In some lands and churches, records, especially early 
ones, have been poorly kept or may not be considered 
authoritative. At all events, the respective writers in the 
various lands and regions must be depended upon to 
give accurate accounts of their own Methodism with no 
possibility of other authorities being able to review closely 
such work. Where obvious errors will be found, these 
should be called to our attention for future correction; 
but where debatable matters of opinion or editorial evalua- 
tion are set forth, these must stand upon their own merit 
and be the responsibility of the writer and editors. 

As the Encyclopedia has been in compilation for several 
years, certain of our writers who contributed during earlier 
stages of the work have passed away before they could 
see their work published herein. Their writings, although 
brought out here posthumously, will reflect a very real 
and present helpfulness much appreciated by the editors 
and others to whom their names and work will be very 

The Appendix 

An Appendix has been prepared which will gather a 
number of non-related items which have extensive his- 
torical value but which are too lengthy to place within 
given articles. The most numerous examples would be 
tabular Ustings of bishops and conference presidents, col- 
leges, annual conferences, etc. 

One series in this section is the collection of maps which 
depict the growth of the Methodist Episcopal and Meth- 
odist Episcopal South Churches across the United States. 

In Appreciation 

The editors wish to thank all those who had a part in 
shaping or contributing to this Encyclopedia. A list of 
our writers will be found elsewhere in the work. As there 
are over twelve hundred contributors, it has not been 
found possible to give individual writers a complete cita- 
tion except where a writer is himself included in the main 

Wholehearted thanks go out to the many who have 
ably cooperated with our editorial staff in compiling this 
work. Especially are we grateful for the enormous work 
done by Dr. John Kent, editor for British Methodism, who 
is considered the leading authority on nineteenth century 
British Methodist history. He has been ably assisted by 
many co-workers in Great Britain. These have planned 
wisely, and shared largely in this whole compilation. Dr. 
Maldwyn L. Edwards, recognized as an authority on the 
Wesley family, has given interesting and scholarly studies 
in the Wesley personalities; and Dr. Frank Baker, pres- 
ently in the United States, considered the foremost re- 
searcher and authority on early Methodist life and work, 
has not only written extensively for the Encyclopedia, 
but as a member of our editorial group has given his 
valuable time and judgment on many problems, especially 
those of Anglo-American correlation of the work. 

The work of the original British committee planning 
for the Encyclopedia was under the direction of the 
Reverend Wesley Swift, after Dr. Frank H. Cumbers felt 
compelled to resign from his position as editor. With 
the death of Mr. Swift, Dr. John Kent became editor. 
Minutes of the original planning committee indicate that 
Dr. E. Benson Perkins, Dr. Frank H. Cumbers, Dr. J. 
Alan Kay, Dr. Frank Baker and Wesley Swift, secretary 
and convener, participated in the drawing up of the 
British hst. Mrs. D. J. Kent played an indispensable role 
in the supervision of the British entries. This original 
list was prepared in 1959. 

Material dealing with the great and growing Methodism 
of Australia was gathered over several years and was 
contributed directly from that land by the Reverend 
Raymond H. Doust (deceased) and Dr. Harold Wood. 
However, most of the Australian material was finally as- 
sembled and edited by the Reverend T. D. Noffs with 
the assistance of the Reverend S. G. Claughton (New 

South Wales), the Reverend R. C. S. Dingle (deceased; 
Queensland), the Reverend Arnold Hunt (South 
Australia), and the Reverend S. J. Jenkins (Western 

Special thanks are due to our editorial co-workers and 
the supervisory committee which met from time to time 
and gave its judgment and directions upon many matters 
having to do with the compilation of this work. Bishop 
Fred P. Corson and the late Bishop Odd Hagen, who 
were presidents successively of the World Methodist 
Council, gave advice and personal help; Dr. Lee F. Tuttle, 
the General Secretary of the World Methodist Council, is 
to be thanked for encouragement and helpful participa- 
tion in the work of supervision. Dr. Albea Godbold, the 
former executive secretary of the Association of Meth- 
odist Historical Societies, also made a great personal 
contribution as chairman of the supervisory committee, in 
compiling the history of Methodism in the various States 
of the Union, and in the organizational development of 
each annual conference in the U.S.A. 

Dr. John H. Ness, Jr., the executive secretary of the 
Commission on Archives and History of The United Meth- 
odist Church, has ably served on the overall supervisory 
committee. In addition, he has been responsible for, and 
has himself contributed, many of the biographies and 
institutional items reflecting the Evangelical United 
Brethren Church in its historic development and present- 
day United Methodist Church status. 

The Encyclopedia owes a debt of gratitude to Mrs. 
Roger J. Martinson, who has not only acted as editorial 
secretary for the Encyclopedia but has been a participant 
in many decisive matters connected with the actual compi- 
lation of the manuscript. Mrs. Louise Queen has served 
as a member of the supervisory group and has acted as 
the compiler and editor of the illustrative material to be 
found in the Encyclopedia. She also has personally con- 
tributed many items of historic import. 

Last, but not least, the Publishing House of The United 
Methodist Church should be accorded deep appreciation 
for making a great and unselfish contribution to world 
Methodism in publishing and promoting at great expense 
these huge and comprehensive volumes. 

The editor, himself, cannot forbear expressing his own 
sense of renewed appreciation for Methodism both past 
and present as he comes to the completion of this work. 
To go over the accounts of the many Methodist men and 
women found herein is to live again with them, and to 
live with them is to be enriched in spirit and challenged 
in mind to be found worthy of the heritage they have 
left — a heritage we are convinced that many who are 
living today will in turn supplement by their own lives 
and service. 

The Encyclopedia goes forth with hope and expectation 
that it will fulfill an inspirational as well as informative 
mission, and act as a strong connectional bond tying to- 
gether and holding together the Methodists of the world. 
The Methodists are indeed "one people" but they live in 
many lands and have compiled and are compiling many 
separate records as they have worked for the cause of 
Christianity. We commend this Encyclopedia to all with 
the hope that these pages will fulfill such a high mission. 

Nolan B. Harmon 
February 29, 1972 


The names of persons, places, and most institutions 
treated in this volume will be found listed alphabetically 
through these pages. However, institutions such as local 
churches, hospitals, chapels, and the like will usually be 
found under the name of the city or town where they are 
located. Exceptions are those unusual institutions whose 
names are perhaps even better known than the cities in 
which they are located. 

Bibliographical references in most cases have been 
placed below each article, pointing the reader to further 
information. The more important of these works appear 
in abbreviated form with the article, but are gathered 
together in the appendix, where the alphabetical Bibliog- 
raphy should be consulted for fuller publishing data. 
Where there is no such entry in the general bibliography, 

these details are given in the reference at the end of the 
individual article, except in a few instances where full 
information was not available. 

In addition to the main alphabetical bibliography, we 
have included in the appendix a subject bibliography 
hsting standard works in many areas of study. In this 
subject bibliography, as usually in the articles in the main 
encyclopedia, works are listed only by their short titles. 

A feature of presentation in the Encyclopedia is the 
use of capital letters to indicate that the name so treated 
is to be found elsewhere in the work as a separate item of 
its own. This obviates the prolific use of q.v. ("which 
see" ) . Exceptions in such capitalization appear when a 
name reoccurs in any one item. 


Ala. — Alabama 

AME — African Methodist Episcopal 

AMEZ — African Methodist Episcopal 

Ariz. — Arizona 
Ark. — Arkansas 
Aug. — August 

B.A. — Bachelor of Arts 

B.C.E. — Bachelor of Civil Engineer- 

B.D. — Bachelor of Divinity 

B.Mus. — Bachelor of Music 

B.R.E. — Bachelor of Religious Educa- 

B.S. — Bachelor of Science 

B.W.I.— British West Indies 

Calif . — California 

C.B.E. — Commander of (the Order 

of) the British Empire 
CME — Christian Methodist Episcopal 
Co. — County 
Colo. — Colorado 
Conn. — Connecticut 

D.C. — District of Columbia 
D.D. — Doctor of Divinity 
Dec. — December 
Del. — Delaware 

Dip. Ed. — Diploma in Education 
D.R.E. — Doctor of Religious Educa- 
D.S. — District Superintendent 

E. — East; Eastern 

E.C. — Evangelical Church 

Ed.D. — Doctor of Education 

E.E. — Electrical Engineer 

EUB — EvangeUcal United Brethren 

F.B.A.— Fellow of the British Acad- 
Feb. — February 
Fla.— Florida 
FMC — Free Methodist Church 

Ga. — Georgia 

Ida. — Idaho 
111.— Illinois 
Ind. — Indiana 

Jan. — January 

Kan. — Kansas 
Ky. — Kentucky 

La. — Louisiana 

L.H.D. — Doctor of Humane Letters 

Lit.D. — Doctor of Literatiue 

Litt.D. — Doctor of Letters 

LL.D. — Doctor of Laws 

M.A. — Master of Arts 

Mass. — Massachusetts 

MC— The Methodist Church (United 
Kingdom); see TMC for The 
Methodist Church (U.S.A.) 

M.D. — Doctor of Medicine 

Md. — Maryland 

ME — Methodist Episcopal 

Me. — Maine 

MES — Methodist Episcopal, South 

M.H.A. — Master of Hospital Admin- 
Mich. — Michigan 
Minn. — Minnesota 
Miss. — Mississippi 
Miss. Soc. — Missionary Society 
M.L.S — Master of Library Science 
Mo. — Missouri 
Mont. — Montana 
MP — Methodist Protestant 
M.Th. — Master of Theology 
MYF — Methodist Youth Fellowship 

N. — North; northern 
N.C. — North Carohna 
N.D. — North Dakota 
N.E. — Northeast 
Neb. — Nebraska 
Nev. — Nevada 
N.H. — New Hampshire 
N.J. — New Jersey 
N.M. — New Mexico 
Nov. — November 
N.S. — Nova Scotia 
N.S.W.— New South Wales 
N.W. — Northwest 
N.Y.— New York 
N.Y.C.— New York City 
N.Z. — New Zealand 

Oct. — October 
Okla. — Oklahoma 
Ont. — Ontario 
Ore. — Oregon 

p.— page 

Pa. — Pennsylvania 


P.E. — Presiding Elder 

Ph.D. — Doctor of Philosophy 

P.I. — Philippine Islands 

PMC — Primitive Methodist Church in 

Great Britain 
P. R.— Puerto Rico 
Prov. — Provisional 

ret. — Retired 
R.I.— Rhode Island 

S. — South; southern 

Sask. — Saskatchewan 

S.C. — South CaroUna 

Scand. — Scandinavia 

S.D.— South Dakota 

S.E. — Southeast 

Sept. — September 

S.T.B. — Bachelor of Sacred Theology 

S.T.D. — Doctor of Sacred Theology 

supt. — Superintendent 

S.W. — Southwest 

Switz. — Switzerland 

S.W. A. — Southwest Africa 

Tenn . — Tennessee 

Th.B. — Bachelor of Theology 

Th.D. — Doctor of Theology 

Th.M — Master of Theology 

Theo. — Theological 

TMC— The Methodist Church 
(U.S.A.); see MC for The Method- 
ist Church (United Kingdom) 

U. — University 

U.B. — United Brethren in Christ 

U.E. — United Evangelical Church 

U.K. — United Kingdom 

UMC — United Methodist Church 

UMC (UK)— United Methodist 

Church (Great Britain) 

UMFC — United Methodist Free 
Churches (Great Britain) 

U.S.A. — United States of America 

USSR — Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 

Va. — Virginia 
Ver. — Vermont 
V.I — V%gin Islands 

W. — West; western 

Wash. — Washington 

W.I.— West Indies 

Wise. — Wisconsin 

WFMS — Women's Foreign Mission- 
ary Society 

WHMS — Woman's Home Missionary 

WMC — Wesleyan Methodist Church 
(Great Britain) 

WMMS — Wesleyan Methodist Mis- 
sionary Society 

WMS — Women's Missionary Society 

WSCS— Women's Society of Chris- 
tian Service 

WSWS— Women's Society of World 

W.Va. — West Virginia 

Wyo. — Wyoming 


Note: We endeavor to indicate the Annual Conference 
to which each ministerial contributor of The United Meth- 
odist Church and of the United Church of Canada may 
now belong; and also we indicate the city or land of 
residence of all lay contributors where this could be 
ascertained. Such listing may not be exact, however, since 
ministers "locate" or transfer, and lay writers change their 
residence. It did not prove possible to indicate the Con- 
ference membership of ministerial writers in certain of 
the lands and churches outside the United States and 

Canada since there are no general "World Methodist 
Minutes" which might be referred to for such immediate 

Due to the length of time the Encyclopedia has been 
in compilation, the addresses of a few of our early con- 
tributors cannot be obtained. An asterisk by a name indi- 
cates that a biographical sketch of such person will be 
found in the main section of the Encyclopedia. Degrees 
held by our contributors have been listed where these 
could be obtained. 

Abbey, Merrill R., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Professor, Garrett Theological Semi- 
Detroit Conference 

Adams, Harhy W., b.a., b.d. 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

Akebs, Edward D. 
Park Ridge, 111. 

Akers, George R., b.a. 
Conference Secretary 
Wyoming Conference 

Aldrich, Charles S., a.b., b.d., m.a. 
Western New York Conference 

Allen, A. R. 

Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada 

Allen, Clinton L. 
East Ohio Conference 

Allen, H. T. 

British Columbia Conference 

Alley, James W., m.d. 
Missionary to Bolivia 

Alm, Ragnah 
Southeast Asia 

Alphonse, E. S. 
West Indies 

"Alter, Chester M., b.s., ph.d., 

LL.D., D.P.S. 

University chancellor 
Denver, Colorado 

Amos, Edison M., b.a., b.d., th.m. 

Baltimore Conference Historical 

"Amstutz, Hobart B., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Bishop, Southeast Asia and Pakistan 
( Editor for Southeast Asia ) 

"Anderson, Hurst R., a.b., ll.d., 
M.S., litt.d., ed.d. 
University president 
Washington, D. C. 

Anderson, Robert L., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Kentucky Conference 

Andrews, Stanley G., m.a., dip.ed. 
Former General Secretary for Over- 
seas Missions, Auckland 
Suva, Fiji 

"Araya, Samuel 

Archibald, William D., a.b., b.d., 

Conference historian 
North Indiana Conference 

Armstrong, F. W. 
Manitoba Conference 

Arnold, Frank R. 
West Ohio Conference 

Ashmore, Ann L. 

Assoc. Editor, Mississippi Advocate 
Jackson, Miss. 

Ashmore, Samuel E., d.d. 
Editor, Mississippi Advocate 
North Mississippi Conference 

AsPEY, Albert 

Minister, Portuguese Evangelical 

Methodist Church 
( Editor for Portugal ) 

Atkinson, Lowell M., b.a., b.d., 

M.A., PH.D. 


Northern New Jersey Conference 

Attig, C. J. 

Member, Iowa Conference Historical 

LeMars, Iowa 

Austin, Gl.'Vdys W. 
Des Moines, Iowa 

Baass, Erich 

Babbs, J. Carlton, b.a., d.d., b.d., 



Rocky Mountain Conference 

Bailey, A. Purnell, b.a., b.d., th.m., 


Executive Sec, Commission on Chap- 
Virginia Conference 

Bainbridge, Warren S., a.b., b.d., 



Rocky Mountain Conference 

BAmO, T. C, M.A., TH.M., PH.D. 


"Baker, Eric W., m.a., d.d., ph.d., 


Past President and Secretary, British 

Methodist Conference 

"Baker, Frank, b.a., b.d., ph.d. 

Editor-in-Chief, Oxford Ed. Wesley's 

Professor, Divinity School, Duke Uni- 

Durham, N. C. 

( Editorial Board ) 

Baker, Gordon Pratt, a.b., b.d., 


Editor, General Board of Evangelism 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Baker, Henry H. 
Rocky Mountain Conference 

"Banks, John S., m.a., b.a. 
Manchester, England 


Banks, Lucy 

San Antonio, Texas 

Barber, Natalie (Mrs. Edward) 
La Paz, Bolivia 

Barcus, Edward R. 
North Texas Conference 

Barkalow, Gale L. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

Barnes, Harold R., b.a. 

Administrator, Children's agency 
California-Nevada Conference 

Barnwell, Mary Lou, a.b., m.a., 


Executive, Board of Missions 
San Mateo, Calif. 

Barro.n, J. Daniel, a.b., b.d., m.a. 
North Texas Conference 

Barton, Jesse Hamby, Jr., a.b., b.d., 


Dean, Southwestern College 
Winfield, Kansas 

Bartoo, Beatrice B. 
Kenmore, N. Y. 

Bass, Henry B. 
Enid, Okla. 

Bass, John H. 
Enid, Okla. 

Bates, Virgil L. 

Riverside, Calif. 
Baugh, Stanley T. 

Member, Conference Historical Society 

Little Rock Conference 

"Bauman, Ernest J. 
President, Colegio Ward 
Buenos Aires, Argentina 

BaUMAN, LeROY E., B.A., S.T.B. 


Iowa Conference 

Baumhofer, Earl F., ph.b., m.a., 

D.D., S.T.B. 


Minnesota Conference 

Bayha, Marjorie Morris (Mrs. 
Walter G. ) 
Palo Alto, Calif. 

Bayliss, John A., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


North Arkansas Conference 
Beal, William C., Jr. 

President, Conference Historical 

Western Pennsylvania Conference 
Bean, Frank G., a.b., d.d. 


Iowa Conference 
Bearden, Robert E. L., a.b., b.d., 


Executive Committee, Commission on 

Archives and History 
Little Rock Conference 

Beattys, Gertrude W. (Mrs. Frank 
Westfield, N. J. 

Beckerlegge, Oliver A., m.a., ph.d. 

Sheffield, England 

Beisiegel, Karl 

Bell, A. C., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Texas Conference 

Bennett, Mary Jo 

Bennett, Talbert N., b.d. 
West Virginia Conference 

Bennett, William T., b.d. 
Maine Conference 

Berger, Evelyn Miller, a.b., m.a., 


Oakland, Calif. 

"Berkheimer, Charles F., a.b., d.d. 
Central Pennsylvania Conference 

Bernhardt, Eilert 
( Editor for Norway ) 

Besslre, Bert A., a.b., b.d., m.a., d.d. 
Nebraska Conference 

Betts, E. Arthur 
Maritime Conference 

Bielby, Norwenna R. 

Blackard, Embree H., a.b., b.d., 

M.A., TH.B., d.d. 


Western North Carolina Conference 

Blackburn, Robert M., a.b., b.d., 



Florida Conference 
Blackwell, Derwood L., b.a., m.a., 

B.D., D.D. 


Texas Conference 

Blake, William, b.a. 

Conference Historian 

Wisconsin Conference 
Blakemore, John Haywood, a.b., 

B.D., D.D. 

Exec. Sec, Conference Board of Edu. 
Virginia Conference 

Blanchard, Bernard 

Blankenbaker, Wilmer a., b.d. 


Virginia Conference 

Blankenship, Paul F., b.d. 
Memphis Conference 

Blanshan, Ruth 
Green Bay, Wise. 

Blight, William T., b.a., b.d. 
Past President of Conference 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

Blomberg, Beulah Swain 

Bohmfalk, Ebwin F., a.b., d.d. 
North Texas Conference 

Boigegrain, Walter J., b.a., m.a., 

Past President 

Western Jurisdiction Commission on 
Archives and History 

Boone, Norman U., b.s., b.d. 
Mississippi Conference 

Booth, Gratla 
Waterbury, Conn. 

Booth, Mae 
Mentor, Ohio 

Borchert, John L., a.b. 

Journalist, Methodist Information 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Borger, Clarence J., a.b., b.d., m.a., 

Kansas West Conference 

BoROM, W. Robert, b.c.e., b.d. 
South Georgia Conference 

BOTT, E. J. 
Yellowstone Conference 

BowDON, J. Henry, Sr., a.b., b.d., 

South Central Jurisdictional Commis- 
sion on Archives and History 
Louisiana Conference 

° BOWEN, CaWTHON a., b.a., M.A., 

Editor, Church School Publications 
Mississippi Conference 

Bo\vEN, Gilbert Haven 
South Carolina Conference 

Bowen, Ted 

Administrator, Methodist Hospital 
Houston, Texas 

Bowers, Joseph Edward, a.b., d.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

Bowes, Harold R., b.d. 
Lincoln, England 

Bowles, Lee, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

"BowMEB, John C, m.a., b.d., ph.d. 
Archivist, The Methodist Church 
London, England 

Boyle, Ray N. 
Malvern, Ark. 

"Bradley, David H., a.b., a.m., 


Historian, A.M.E. Zion Church 

(Editor for AMEZ Church) 

Bradley, Selman, b.d. 

Vice-president, Conference Commis- 
sion on Archives and History 
Alabama- West Florida Conference 

"Brandenburg, E. Craig 
Assoc. Gen. Sec, Division of Higher 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Brandt, Nelle 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Braren, Elizabeth Garrett 
Sarasota, Fla. 

"Brashares, Charles W., a.b., d.d., 

S.T.B., LL.D., L.H.D., UTT.D. 

Bishop, The United .Methodist Church 

Bridge, J. David, b.a., b.d. 

Nevifcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs., En- 

Bright, Warren H., a.b., s.t.b. 
West Ohio Conference 

Brinson, John C, b.d. 

Sec.-Treas., Conference Commission on 

Archives and History 
Louisville Conference. 

Brooks, William E., b.s., s.t.b. 

Secretary, Jurisdiction Commission on 

Archives and Historj' 
Florida Conference 

Brown, G. Alfred, b.d., d.d. 

Secretary, Conference Commission on 

Archives and history 
Central Te.xas Conference 

Brown, Harold S., b.d. 


West Ohio Conference 
"Brown, Mary Sue 

Gatesville, Texas 

Brown, Willis C. 

Brunger, Ronald A., b.a., m.a., 
Past President, Conference Historical 

Detroit Conference 

Bryan, Monk, b.a., b.d., d.d. 


Missouri East Conference 
BucHHEiT, Phil 

Spartanburg, S. C. 

"Bucke, Emory Stevens, b.a., s.t.b., 

D.D., LL.D. 

Book Editor, The United Methodist 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Buell, Harold E., b.s., s.t.b., m.ed., 



Florida Conference 

"Bull, Robert J., b.a., b.d,, s.t.m., 


Professor, Drew Theological School 
Virginia Conference 
(Editorial Board) 

Bumgabner, George W., b..a, m.a., 


Historian, Conference Historical 

Western North Carolina Conference 

Bunt, W. P. 

British Columbia Conference 

Burchett, Mrs. Thomas 
Ashland, Ky. 

BuRKiTT, William T. 

Burns, Norman, o.b.e. 
Leominster, Herefords., England 

Burns, William K., b.s., s.t.b. 
Northern New Jersey Conference 

Burnside, Albert 
Toronto Conference 

Butcher, Galelma J. 
Norfolk, Va. 

Butt, W. F. 

St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada 
Buxton, E. L. F. 

Layman and past Vice-President of 

Wanganui, New Zealand 

"Cain, John B., b.a., litt.d. 
Conference historian 
Mississippi Conference 

Caldwell, Mary French 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Calhoun, Clayton, b.a., b.d., d.d. 
College president 
Florida Conference 

Calkin, Homer L., b.a., m.a., ph.d. 
Management analyst, State Depart- 
Washington, D. C. 

"Calkins, Raoul C, a.b., m.a., 
S.T.B., d.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Cameron, Richard M., b.d. 


Western Pennsylvania Conference 
Cammack, Eleanore 

Archi\ist, DePauw University 

Greencastle, Ind. 


"Cannon, William R., a.b., b.d., 


Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
Carlisle, Mrs. Robert 
Midwest Cit>', Okla. 

Carlton, Bascom W., a.b., b.d. 
Florida Conference 

Carlyon, James T., b.d. 
North Texas Conference 

Carmean, Edna J. 
Annville, Pa. 

Carothers, L. R., b.d. 

Member, Conference Historical Society 
East Ohio Conference 

Carr, Hester Bruce 

Carr, Nannette Tomlinson 
Gulfport, Miss. 

Carrington, N. B., b.d. 
Baltimore Conference 

Carroll, Edward G., a.b., b.d., 



Baltimore Conference 

Carroll, Grady L. E. 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Carroll, James Elwood, a.b., b.d., 
M.A., d.d. 
M. P. Historian 
Western North Carolina Conference 

Carson, Verle J., a.b., b.d. 
Detroit Conference 

"Carter, Cullen T., b.a., b.d. 
Minister and historian 
Tennessee Conference 

Carter, David, b.a., b.d., s.t.m. 
Southern New England Conference 

Carter, Deane G. 
Fayetteville, Ark. 

Case, Ernest R., a.b., s.t.b., s.t.m. 
Vice-president, General Commission on 

Archives and History 
Southern New England Conference 

Case, L. Lyle, a.b. 

Conference Historical Society 
North Indiana Conference 

"Case, Leland D., b.a., m.a., litt.d., 


Founder and former editor, Together 

Tucson, Ariz. 
( Consultant ) 

Caster, Janice W. (Mrs. J. W.) 
El Paso, Texas 

Catlin, Robin J. O. 


Cavanacii, E. \'. 

Tampa, Fla. 
Chafee, Robert S., a.b., ma., s.t.b. 

Chaimian, Conference Historical Soc. 

South Indiana Conference 
"Chambers, Cubtis A., a.b., b.d., 

S.T.M., S.T.D., D.D. 

Editor, Together 

Eastern Pennsylvania Conference 

Chambers, Wesley A., m.a. 

Minister and former Warden of the 

Deaconess Order 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

Chandler, Douglas R., a.b., s.t.b., 

M.A., D.D. 

Professor, Wesley Theological Semi- 
Baltimore Conference 

Chappell, Wallace E., b.s., b.d. 
Central Texas Conference 

Chase, Don M., a.b., a.m., b.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 

"Chaves, Ottilia de O. 
Past president. World Federation of 

Mediodist Women 

Cheek, Maurice B., b.d. 


California-Nevada Conference 

Cherry, Conrad, b.d. 
Northwest Texas Conference 

Chestnut, Mrs. Amos 

Columbus, Ind. 
Chidsey, J Walker,, b.d., d.d. 


North Georgia Conference 

Cihlde, Donald B. 
Sussex, England 

Chiles, Robert E., a.b., b.d., m.a., 


Asst. Dir. Gen. Studies, Hunter 

West Ohio Conference 

Christman, C. Wesley, Jr., b.a., 


Past President, Northeastern Jurisdic- 
tional Historical Society 
New York Conference 

Christman, S. Fred, b.d. 
Central Pennsylvania Conference 

Chubb, James S., a.b., s.t.b., s.t.m., 

PH.D., D.D. 


Nebraska Conference 
'Church, Paul V., b.s., b.d., d.d. 
General Secretary, Program Council, 

Northern Illinois Conference 

Cl.\rk, Alva H., b.s., th.m., th.u. 
Nebraska Conference 

Clark, Byro.n W. 
Philippine Islands 
( Editor of Philippines ) 

Clark, Clyde S., b.a., b.d. 
Louisiana Conference 

Clark, Colin D., m.a. 


Wellington, New Zealand 

"Clark, Elmer T., b.d., s.t.d., a.b., 
a.m., ll.d., litt.d. 
First General Editor of the Encyclo- 
Western North Carolina Conference 

"Clark, Mary Helen 

Clary, George E., Jr., a.b., s.t.b., 

M.ED., ED.D. 
Professor, Paine College 
Vice-chairman, Conference Historical 

South Georgia Conference 

Clary, Warren Upton 
Savannah, Ca. 

Claughton, Stanley' G. 

Clayton, Cranston, b.d. 
New York Conference 

Clement, R. Frederick, m.a. 
Minister, Pitt Street Church 
Auckland, New Zealand 

Cleveland, Millard C, a.b., b.d., 

TH.M., D.D. 


Florida Conference 

Cleveland, Weyman R., b.d 
South Georgia Conference 

Cobb, John R., Sb. 
Missionary to Japan 
South Georgia Conference 
(Editor for Japan) 

Cobb, Stephen C, b.a., b.d. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

CoE, Mrs. S. S. 
High Point, N. C. 

CoE, Wendell L., a.b., s.t.b., s.t.m. 
Oregon-Idaho Conference 

CoLAW, Emerson S., b.s., b.d., m.a., 



West Ohio Conference 

Cole, S. Walton, a.b., th.m., th.d. 
North Indiana Conference 


Stockton, Calif. 

Cook, Marvin 

Cook, Pierce Embbee, Jb., b.d. 
South Carolina Conference 

Cooper, George Frederick, b.d. 


North Alabama Conference 

Cooper, R. Laurie 
New Plymouth, New Zealand 

Coots, Fred H., Jr., b.d. 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

D.D., S.T.D. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

Corbett, J. Elliott, b.d. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

Cordes, Donald W., a.b., m.a. 
Hospital Administrator 
Des Moines, Iowa 

Core, Arthur C, a.b., b.d., ph.d. 
Professor, United Theological Semi- 
Nebraska Conference 

Court, Alyn W. G. 

Court, Glyn 

Courtney, Robert H., d.d. 
East Ohio Conference 

Covington, Charles E., a.b. 
Peninsula Conference 

Cox, James R., b.d. 
Tennessee Conference 

Cragg, D. G. L., m.a., PH.D. 
Tutor at John Wesley College 
Federal Theological Seminary 
Alice, C.P., South Africa 

"Cragg, E. Lynn, b.a., b.d. 

Former Warden of Wesley House 
Fort Hare, South Africa 

Craig, Gordon N., b.a., b.d. 
Florida Conference 

Craig, Nancy 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Cravens, Sherman A., b.d. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

Crawford, Nace B. 

Curator, Conference Commission on 

Archives and History 
Texas Conference 

Cresswell, Amos S., m.a. 
Cheadle, Cheshire, England 

Crisman, Homer C, b.d. 
Rocky Mountain Conference 

Crist, Milton B., b.d. 
Baltimore Conference 

Crovvder, T. Harold, m.d. 

Vice-President, Conference Commis- 
sion on Archives and History 
Virginia Conference 

Crume, Harold G., b.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

Crutchfield, Finis A., b.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

Gulp, Everett W., a.b., s.t.b. 
Baltimore Conference 

Culver, Frank P., Jr., b.a., ll.b., 
Fort Worth, Texas 

"Cumbers, Frank H., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Former Book Steward, The Methodist 

London, England 

Cunningham, William Jefferson, 



North Alabama Conference 
Curry, J. C, b.s., th.b. 


Oklahoma Conference 
Curry, J. W., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


South Carolina Conference (1866) 
Curry, Paul M., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


Central Illinois Conference 

Curry, Robert L., a.b., b.d., s.t.m. 


Eastern Pennsylvania Conference 
Curtis, Lawrence R., b.a., b.d. 


Troy Conference 

Daniels, Daisy P. 
Arlington Heights, 111. 

Daniels, Jack Kyle, b.a., b.d. 


Central Texas Conference 
Daum, Bessie 

Lawrence, Kan. 
Davey, Cyril J. 

General Secretary, Methodist Mission- 
ary Society 

London, England 
Davidson, Carl M., b.d., d.d., ll.d. 


Rocky Mountain Conference 

Davidson, John H., b.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Davidson, Mrs. Jane 
Kingsport, Tenn. 

"Davies, Rupert E., b.a., m.a., b.d. 

Principal, Wesley College 
Bristol, England 

Davis, Edwina B. 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Davis, Howard, b.d. 
Oklahoma Confererrce 

Davis, William J., a.b., s.t.b., s.t.m. 
New Hampshire Conference 

Davis, Wilma (Mrs. L. A.) 
San Antonio, Texas 

Davison, Mrs. John L. 

Green Bay, Wise. 
Dawson, Dana, Jr., a.b., b.d., m.a., 



Louisiana Conference 
Dawson, John B. 

New Zealand 

Deale, Geoffrey 

Dean, Dorothy Johnson 
Yeadon, Pa. 

DeBardi Joseph P., a.b., s.t.b., d.d. 
West Virginia Conference 

Decker, Ralph W., a.b., m.a., s.t.b., 

PH.D., D.D., ll.d. 


Wyoming Conference 
Dellow, Percy 

Layman, Board of Wesleydale Chil- 
dren's Home 
Auckland, New Zealand 

Derby, Howard W. 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Derrig, Mrs. Dorothae 

Akron, Ohio 

DeVore, W. Gehl, b.a., b.d., d.d. 


Northern Illinois Conference 
Dickinson, C. H. 

London Conference 

Dill, R. Laurence, Jr., b.d. 

North Alabama Conference 

Dittes, Orval Clay, a.b., d.d. 
Minnesota Conference 

Doggett, Carroll A., Jr., b.a., b.d. 


Baltimore Conference 
Doggett, John N., Jr. 


Missouri East Conference 


Doggett, Robert Caxton, b.a., b.d. 
Florida Conference 

DoLBEY, George W., m.a., b.d. 
Manchester, England 

Dolling, John S., m.a. 
Aberystwyth, Cards., U.K. 


Macon, Ga. 

Dorff, Earl N. 

Member, General Board of Evangelism 
Oklahoma Conference 

Doty, Mrs. J. R. 
State College, Pa. 

Doughty, W. Lamplough, b.a., b.d. 

Drake, M. Richard, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
East Ohio Conference 

Drinkard, Eugene T., b.d. 
North Georgia Conference 

Dugmore, D. p., m.a. 

Senior Lecturer in Education 
Johannesburg Training College, South 

Duncan, Gordon B., b.a. 

Editor, Methodist Publishing House 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Durham, Lewis E., a.b. 
Foundation Executive 
California-Nevada Conference 

•Dunkle, William F., Jr., b.a., b.d., 


Northern Illinois Conference 

Earl, Jesse A., a.b. 
West Virginia Conference 

Eccles, Robert S., a.b., b.d., ph.d. 
South Indiana Conference 

Eckman, Margaret 
Morristown, N. J. 

Eckstein, Herbert 

Edgar, Fred R., b.d., m.a., ph.d. 


North Texas Conference 

Edge, H. Fred, b.d. 

Vice-President, Conference Commis- 
sion on Archives and History 
Virginia Conference 

Edwards, John 


"Edwards, Maldwyn L., m.a., b.d., 

D.D., PH.D. 

Warden, New Room 


Bristol, England 
( Associate Editor ) 

Edwahds, Michael S., m.a., m.litt. 
Oxford, England 

EiDE, T. Lennard, b.d. 


Northern Illinois Conference 

Eller, Paul H., b.d. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

Ellincworth, Paul, m.a., b.a. 
General Secretary, Methodist Mission- 
ary Society 
London, England 
( Editor for Indonesia and Africa ) 

Els, a. 

Ensor, Lowell S., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
College president 
Baltimore Conference 

°Esch, L Lynd, b.d. 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

Essert, F. Harold, b.d. 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

Evans, Edgar J., b.d. 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

"Evans, Garfield, a.b., b.d., d.d., 


Teacher and Minister 
Former Cuba Conference 
( Editor for Cuba ) 

Evans, J. Claude, b.d. 

Chaplain, Southern Methodist Univer- 
South Carolina Conference 

Exman, Eugene 
Barnstable, Mass. 

Exum, John M. 

Editor, C.M.E. Church 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Ezra, Bernice Harness 
Lafayette, Ind. 

Failing, George E. 
Marion, Ind. 
(Editor of The Wesleyan Church, 


Falkingham, Wilfred E. 

Superintendent minister, Central Mis- 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

Fansler, Kenneth G. 
Springfield, Pa. 

Farey, Arthur 

Area Director, Methodist Information 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Farrow, Willard S. 

Administrator of Methodist Home 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Fawcett, J. M. 
Alberta, Canada 

Fawcett. Roy E. 
Little Rock Conference 

Feaver, Laurence E., b.d. 
W. Ohio Conference 

Fenstermaker, William E., b.d. 
Western Pennsylvania Conference 

Ferguson, Dwayne L., b.d. 
Iowa Conference 

Ferreira de Sa, Jenny Moraes 

Fetter, C. Willard, b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Few, Benjamin C., b.d. 
North Arkansas Conference 

Fiebic, Herbert L., b.a. 

Former Connexional Secretary and 

President of Conference 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

Fink, Harold H., a.b., d.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Fisher, James A., Sr., b.s., b.d., m.a., 

Memphis Conference 

Fisher, Roy W., b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

FiSK, Erla S. 
Downey, Calif. 

Fitzgerald, Mildred 

Roswell, N. M. 

Fleck, Wilbur H. 

Flemington, William F., m.a., b.d. 

Flores, Joao Prado 


Foley, A. Elizabeth 
Jersey City, N. J. 

Fontaine, Oscar L., b.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

Ford, Florence R. 

Ford, Ruth Sykes 
Huntsville, Ala. 

Ford, Wilfred F., b.a. 

Former Director of Christian Edu. 
Wellington, New Zealand 

FoRDYCE, Robert E. 
New Plymouth, New Zealand 

Forrest, A. C. 

Hamilton Conference 

Fossett, Clarence L., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Baltimore Conference 

Foster, George A., b.d. 
Florida Conference 

Fowler, H. T., b.d. 
Tennessee Conference 

Fowler, James W., Jr., a.b. 
Minister-Church Official 
Western North Carolina Conference 

FoY', Whitfield 

Francis, David N. 

Franklin, Denson N., b.d., a.b., d.d. 

Minister and Autlior 

North Alabama Conference 

Freeland, S. p. 

Superintendent Minister Kimberley 

(E) Circuit 
South Africa 

Freeman, Alfred H. 
Texas Conference 

French, Goldwin S. 

Hamilton Conference 


(Editor for Canada) 
Fridy, William Wallace, b.s., b.d., 



Soutli Carolina Conference 

Fulton, A. Byron, b.d. 


Western Pennsylvania Conference 

Funk, Theophil 

Gabrielson, John 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
Gadd, D. H. Bernard, b.a. 


Rotorua, New Zealand 

Galliers, Brian J. N. 

Galloway, Benedict A., b.d. 


Louisiana Conference 

"Gamble, Foster K., b.d. 
North Alabama Conference 

Gamertsfelder, Ruth 

Naperville, 111. 
Gannaway, Bruce F. 

Superintendent Melbourne District 

Florida Conference 

"Gabber, Paul N., a.b., a.m., ph.d., 

D.D., L.H.D. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

Garcia, Peter Nelson, b.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

Gardner, E. Clinton, b.d. 
Tennessee Conference 

"Garrison, Edwin R., a.b., b.d., d.d., 


Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
Gatke, Robert Moulton, a.b., b.d., 


Oregon-Idaho Conference 

"Gattinoni, Carlos T. 
Bishop, Argentine Evangelical Method- 
ist Church 
Buenos Aires, Argentina 

Gay, Ralph G., b.d. 


West Virginia Conference 

( Editor for CME Church) 

Georg, Mrs. H. L. 

George, A. Raymond, b.a., m.a., 



George, Edwin F., b.d. 


West Ohio Conference 
Gerdes, Emma 

San Antonio, Texas 
Getsinger, William 

Dearborn, Mich. 
Getty, Donald A., b.d. 


California-Nevada Conference 
Getz, J. Henry 

United Church of Canada 

Gibbs, Avery White (Mrs. Arnold) 

Lakewood, Colo. 
Gibson, Dan L. 

Albany, Ga. 
Gilchrist, Carl 

Charleston, W. Va. 
Gildart, Robert 

Albion, Mich. 
Gilmore, Leslie r.m., b.a. 

Secretary, Wesley Historical Society 

Morrinsville, New Zealand 
GiVENs, Ethel 

Rochester, Minnesota 
Gleckler, Bryce 

Dodge City, Kansas 
GocKEH, George G. 

South Indiana Conference 


"Godbold, Albea, b.a., b.d., m.a., 

PH.D., D.D. 

Chairman, Editorial Board and Assis- 
tant to General Editor 
Missouri East Conference 

GoLDHAWK, Norman P., b.a., m.a. 
Shrubsall Tutor in Church History and 

History of Doctrine 
Richmond College, Surrey 

Goncalves, Antonio de Campos 

Gonzalez, Justo L, bachiller en 
letras, s.t.b., s.t.m., m.a., ph.d. 
Puerto Rico Prov. Conference 

Gonzalez, Ruth Mehl de 

Editor, Methopress 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
GooDALL, Tom 

"GooDLOE, Robert W. 


Central Texas Conference 
GooDLOE, W. Henry, a.b., b.d., d.d. 


North Arkansas Conference 
"GooDSON, W. Kenneth, a.b., d.d. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
Gordon, D. Bruce, m.a. 

Superintendent Minister, Central 
Church and Mission 

Dunedin, New Zealand 

Gorrell, Donald K., a.b., m.a., b.d., 


Professor, United Theological Semi- 
East Ohio Conference 

Goss, Brian 

Goss, Walter A, b.a., m.a. 
Minister, Twickenham, Middlesex 

Goto, Taro, b.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 

North Indiana Conference 

GouGH, Galal, b.d. 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

GouwENs, Donald L. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Gowland, William 

Grace, Duane G., b.d. 
Minnesota Conference 

Grant, John Webster 

Toronto Conference 


Gravely, William B., b.d., b.a., 


Professor, University of Denver 
South Carolina Conjference 

Gray-, Ina Turner 

Secretary-Archivist, Kansas West Conf. 

Comm. on Archives and History 
Winfield, Kan. 

Gray, J. Robert, s.t.m. 


Western Pennsylvania Conference 
Gray, William H. 

Green, Marvin W., b.d., b.a., ph.d. 


Northern New Jersey Conference 
Green, W. A. 


Greenwalt, Howard, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 

Greer, Martin L., b.d. 


West Virginia Conference 
Gregory, Arthur S. 


Griffiths, L.G.S. 

Warden of Moroka Missionary Institu- 
tion, Thaba 'Nchu, O.F.S. 
South Africa 

Grice, John H., m.a., b.a. 
British minister 
Badulla, Ceylon 

Grimes, Ronald L., b.d. 
Florida Conference 

Grocott, John, D., b.a. 

Former Secretary, Council for Chris- 
tian Education 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

Grooms, Jordan H. 

"Gross, John O., a.b., s.t.b., s.t.d., 

D.D., LL.D. 

Education executive 

Kentucky Conference 

(Editor of Educational Institutions, 


Grunstead, E. O., b.d. 
North Dakota Conference 

Gruver, Esdras S., B.S., b.d. 


Virginia Conference 
Guerra, Jose d'Azevedo 

Guthrie, W. Nelson, Sr., b.d. 


North Alabama Conference 

Hackett, William O., b.d. 
Conference historian 
Peninsula Conference 

Hager, Wesley H., b.a., b.d., m.a., 



Minister and author 
Missouri East Conference 

Hahn, Jack A. L., b.a., m.h.d., ll.d. 
Hospital Administrator 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Haines, Lee 

Hallowell, G. a. 
Toronto, Canada 

Hames, Ebic W., ma. 

Former Principal of Trinity College 
Auckland, New Zealand 

Hamilton, Arcus J., Jr. 


Oklahoma Conference 

Hamilton, Charles W., b.a., m.a., 

S.T.B., D.D. 


East Ohio Conference 

Hammer, Paul Ernst 

Hammer, Wolfgang 

Hammitt, William A., a.b., l.h.d., 



Central Illinois Conference 
Hamner, Herschel Towles, A.B., 

North Alabama Conference 

"Hampton, Vernon B., a.b., ph.d. 
Educator and historian 
Staten Island, N. Y. 

Hambick, Richard M., Jr. 
Staunton, Va. 

Hancock, Eugene H., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


Iowa Conference 
Haney, James M., b.a., b.d. 


Eastern Pennsylvania Conference 
Hann, Paul M., b.a., s.t.b., d.d. 


Iowa Conference 

Hanna, Earl K., b.mus., s.t.b. 


Rocky Mountain Conference 
Hansen, Wilfred, b.a., b.d. 


New York Conference 
Harmon, A. Peale 

Vicksburg, Miss. 
"Harmon, Nolan B., a.b., m.a., b.d., 

d.d., L.H.D., LITT.D., ll.d. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
(General Editor) 

Harper, George 


Yellowstone Conference 

Harper, Jolly B., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Louisiana Conference 

"Harper, Marvin H., b.s., b.d., ph.d. 
Minister and author 
North Georgia Conference 

"Habrell, Costen J., a.b., d.d., 
utt.d., ll.d. 
Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

Harris, Archer O. 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

Harris, John Walter, b.s., s.t.b. 
Conference Historical Society 
Wisconsin Conference 

Harrison, Gilberthorpe 


Wirrall, Ches., England 

Harrison, Samuel J. 
Detroit Conference 

Hartman, Kenath, M.S. 
Hospital Administrator 
Wilmette, 111. 

Haselmayer, Louis A. 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa 

Hatch, Byron G., b.s., b.d. 
Detroit Conference 

Hatten, Charles T., a.b. 

President, Conference Commission on 

Archives and History 
Pacific Northwest Conference 

Haverstock, Calvin B., Jr., b.d. 
Central Pennsylvania Conference 

Hawkins, Thomas J., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Hawley, John W. 
Western Pennsylvania Conference 

Hayes, E. Pearce, a.b., a.m., b.d., 



Hayes, William C. F., b.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

Haymes, J. O., b.d. 
Northwest Texas Conference 

"Hazenfield, Harold H., b.d. 
North Indiana Conference 

Heck, J. Holland, a.b., e.e. 
West Chester, Pa. 

Heck, Josephine 
Dallas, Texas 

Hedgpeth, Herschel H., b.a., m.a., 

S.T.B., D.D. 


Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

Heinsohn, Edmund, b.d. 
Southwest Texas Conference 

Heitke, Roy Samuel, b.d. 

President, Conference Historical Soc. 
Minnesota Conference 

Heminger, E. Lowell 
Findley, Ohio 

Hemphill, Kenneth R. 


Kansas East Conference 

Hempstead, Alfred G., a.b., b.d. 
Maine Conference 

Henderson, Harold 

Henderson, V. N., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Northwest Texas Conference 

Hendricks, John Rallson, b.a., 
s.t.b., d.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Henry, Edgar A., a.b., d.d. 
Central Pennsylvania Conference 

Henry, William R., b.a., b.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

Herbert, Hugh S., a.b., s.t.b., d.d. 
Yellowstone Conference 

Herd, George W., a.b., d.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Herrell, a. Myron, a.b., b.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 

Herrin, W. Vaughn 
Hospital Administrator 
Peoria, 111. 

Hess, J. P., Sb. 
Knoxville, Term. 

Hesselgesser, Irene 

Hewson, Leslie A., m.a., ph.d. 
Professor, Rhodes University 
Grahamstown, C.P., South Africa 

Hibbard, Robert B., a.b., s.t.b., 



East Ohio Conference 

Hill, A. Wesley 

Irish Conference 
Hill, Anita 

Garland, Texas 
Hill, Ethel Ellis (Mrs. Ben O.) 

Fort Worth, Texas 
Hill, Joyce 


Santiago, Chile 

"HiLLER, Hahley Edward, b.d. 
Minnesota Conference 

HiNCHLiFF, Canon P. B., m.a., b.d., 

PH.D., D.D. 

Professor, Rhodes University 
Grahamstown, C.P., South Africa 

HiNSON, D. F. 

Hemel Hempstead, Herts., England 

Hixsox, Marion G., b.a., b.d. 
Rocky Mountain Conference 

HOFF, C. E. 

HocGARD, J. Clinton 
A.M.E. Zion Church 

HoHN, Roland Gilbert, b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

"Holdcraft, Paul E., b.d. 
Baltimore Conference 

°Hollister, John N. 
Claremont, Calif. 

Hollowell, Howard H., b.a., d.d. 
Central Te.xas Conference 

Holt, D. D., a.b., d.d. 
College President 
North Carolina Conference 

°HoLT, Ivan Lee, a.b., ph.d., d.d., 

LL.D., S.T.D., L.H.D. 

Bishop, The Methodist Church 
Hood, John W. 

Albuquerque, N. M. 
HooN, John, a.b., s.t.b., s.t.m., d.d. 

Member, Commission on Archives and 

Kansas West Conference 
"Hooper, Thomas LeRoy, a.b., m.a., 

B.D., M.ED., D.D. 

West Virginia Conference 
HoRSLEY, Mrs. Isabel 

Muskegon, Mich. 
Hough, Mrs. S. S. 

Lebanon, Ohio 
Howard, A. R. 

South Carohna Conference 
Howard, Jimmy E., b.a. 

Conference Historical Society 

North Alabama Conference 

Howe, Gaylon L., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


Florida Conference 
Howell, Erle, b.lit., b.d. 

Conference Historical Societv 

Pacific Northwest Conference 
Howes, Allan J., a.b., b.d., d.d. 

Western Pennsylvania Conference 
Hubach, Frederick G., b.a., m.d. 


.New York 

Hubbard, William A., b.d. 
Kansas East Conference 

Hubery, Douglas S. 

Methodist Missionar>' Society 
London, England 

Hudson, Hubert R. 

Huffman, Harry O., b.d. 

Secretary, Conference Historical Soc. 
North Indiana Conference 

"Huffman, Lautience L. 
Dayton, Ohio 

HuGGiN, James George, a.b., b.d. 
Western North Carolina Conference 

Hughes, Harold H., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Hughes, H. Trevor, m.a. 
Attleborough, Norfolk, England 

Hughes, J.\mes R., b.d. 
Peninsula Conference 

Hughey, Elizabeth, b.s., m.a. 

Librarian, Methodist Publishing House 
Nashville, Tenn. 

HuKiLL, Ellis P., Jr., a.b., b.d. 
Soutli Indiana Conference 

Humphreys, Sexson E., b.a., m.a., 


Newspaper editor 
Indianapohs, Ind. 

Hunt, Rockwell D. 
Stockton, Calif. 

Hublbert, Mahlon D., Jr., a.b., 



Western Pennsylvania Conference 

HuRTiG, Mansfield 
(Editor for Finland and Sweden) 



South Georgia Conference 
Hutchinson, G. M. 

Alberta Conference 


Hyles, Frank Thomas, Jr., b.a., b.d. 

Conference Historical Society 

Alabama-West Florida Conference 
Idol, Vera 

High Point, N.C. 
Iglehart, Chables W. 

New York Conference 
Illsley, W. 

Former Warden, Moroka Missionary 

Thaba 'Nchu, O.F.S., South Africa 


Jackman, Everett E., b.d. 
Nebraska Conference 

Jackson, Mrs. T. Haller 
Shreveport, La. 

Jackson, Ruth G. 

San Antonio, Texas 
Jackson, Ruth M. 

Indianola, Iowa 

Jefferies, Keith R. 

"Jeffery, Frederick 
( Co-Editor for Ireland ) 

Jeffords, Erskine M., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Nortliern Illinois Conference 

Jennings, Peter, m.a. 
London, England 

Jervy, Edward D., b.d. 
Holston Conference 

Jewett, Paul N., b.d. 


Northern New Jersey Conference 
Job, Reuben P., b.d. 


North Dakota Conference 

Johnson, B.\sil L., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Kansas West Conference 

Johnson, John J. 
Fredericksburg, Va. 

Johnson, Mrs. Estel E. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 

Johnson, Lewis A. 
Flat Rock, Ohio 

Johnson, Lowell B., b.a., b.d., m.a. 
Conference Historical Society 
New York Conference 

Johnson, M. S. 

Johnson, Mrs. R. L. 

Chatsworth, Cahf. 

Jones, Arthur E., Jr., m.a., ph.d. 
Librarian, Drew Universit\' 
Madison, N. J. 

Jones, Daniel, a.b., b.d., th.d. 


Alabama- West Florida Conference 
°JoN-ES, Francis P. 

Nortliern New Jersey Conference 

( Editor for China ) 

Jones, George W., b.a., b.d. 


Texas Conference 
Jones, Joh.n Bayley, a.b., s.t.b., 

S.T.M. , D.D. 


Baltimore Conference 


Jones, William C, b.d. 


Texas Conference 

Jordan, John H., b.d. 


Maine Conference 

Jorge, Norman Kerr 

JuDD, Doris M. 
Hyattsville, Md. 

Kaelble, Alfred 

Kalas, J. Ellsworth, b.s., b.d., d.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

Kauffman, Lester M. 
Baltimore Conference 

Keedy, Paul E. 

Kees, Francis M., b.d. 
Western Pennsylvania Conference 

Keese, William A., a.b., d.d. 
Baltimore Conference 

Keever, Homer M., b.d. 
Conference historian 
Western North Carolina Conference 

Keith, Mrs. Campbell, m.a. 
Institutional administrator 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Keith, Mrs. Guy 
Beaumont, Texas 

Kelly, John J. 

Northern New York Conference 

Kemmerlin, Thomas W., b.d. 

President, Conference Historical 

South Carolina Conference 
Kendall, D. Homer, b.d. 


Central Pennsylvania Conference 
Kendall, R. Elliott 


"Kent, John H. S., m.a., ph.d. 

Bristol, England 

( Editor for Great Britain ) 
Kerr, Mrs. Arthur C. 

New Orleans, La. 

Kerstetter, William E., a.b., 
ll.d., s.t.b., ph.d., l.h.d. 
President, DePauw University 
South Indiana Conference 

Kewlev, Arthur E. 

Newfoundland Conference 


Conference Historical Society 
West Michigan Conference 

KiMBRouGH, Edwin, b.a., b.d., d.d. 
North Alabama Conference 

King, Kenneth E. 
Blackpool, England 

King, Mrs. Walter Hughey 
Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

"King, Willis J., a.b., ph.d., d.d., 


Bishop, The United Metliodist Church 
( Editor for Liberia ) 

Kinghorn, Kenneth Cain, b.d. 
North Indiana Conference 

KiRACoFE, John W. 
Boiling Springs, Pa. 

KiRBY, H. F., B.A. 

Chaplain, Kingswood College 
Grahamstown, South Africa 

Kirkland, Richard L 
Selma, Ala. 

"KlRKPATRICK, Dow N., A.B., B.D. 


Northern Illinois Conference 

KissACK, Reginald, m.a., b.d. 
Liverpool, England 
( Co-Editor for Italy) 

Klaus, Leroy H., b.a., b.d. 
Minnesota Conference 

Kline, Lawrence O., b.a., b.d., 



Wyoming Conference 

Klingman, Vern L., b.a., th.m., 
Yellowstone Conference 

Knecht, David F., b.a., b.d. 
North Dakota Conference 

Knecht, John R., b.d. 
College president 
South Indiana Conference 

Koehnlein, W. D., b.d. 
South Indiana Conference 

Krueger, Kenneth W., b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

KuHN, Donald, b.a., b.d. 


California-Nevada Conference 

Kupferle, W. H., Jr., b.d. 
Central Texas Conference 

Lacy, Creighton B., a.b., b.d., ph.d. 
Professor, Duke Divinity School 
Western North CaroUna Conference 
LaFavhe, Floyd B., b.d. 

Vice-president, Conference Historical 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

Lager, Axel 

Laing, Alan K. 
Champaign, 111. 

Lambdi.v, Henry L., b.d. 
Northern New Jersey Conference 

Lambert, Blaine, b.s., b.d., d.d. 
Conference Historical Society 
Minnesota Conference 

Lambert, Claudia E. 
Norfolk, Va. 

Lambert, Mark Thomas 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 

"Lamson, Byron S. 
Winona Lake, Ind. 
(Editor for Free Methodist Church) 

Lancaster, Richard L., b.a., b.d., 



South Indiana Conference 

Lance, Harlan E., a.b., m.a. 

Director, Special Services, United 

Methodist Church 
Evanston, 111. 

Lantz, j. Edward, a.b., b.d. 


North Georgia Conference 
Laskey, Josephine S. 

Director of Colegio Americana 

Rosario, Argentina 
Laurenson, George L, c.b.e. 

Former Gen. Supt., Home and Maori 

Auckland, New Zealand 

Lavender, Raleigh B., b.d. 
Nortli Alabama Conference 

Lavery, Milton M., b.a. 
Troy Conference 

"Lawson, John, m.a.,, b.d. 
Professor, Emory University 
Atlanta, Ga. 
( Editor for Doctrinal Articles ) 

Lawton, George, m.a. 
Rector of Checkley 
Staffs., England 

Leary, William 

Lee, Edwar, b.d. 


California-Nevada Conference 

°Lee, Lawson 

Missionary to Uruguay 
Lee, Phoebe W. (Mrs. Y. O.) 

Hong Kong 
Leedy, Roy Benton 

West Ohio Conference 
Lehman, Clayton G., b.d. 


Kansas East Conference 


Lehmberg, Benjamin F., b.a., d.d. 
Rocky Mountain Conference 

Leonard, Richard D., ph.b., a.m., 



Central Illinois Conference 

LeRoque, Noel C, a.b., s.t.b., d.d. 

Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

Letts, J. Meade, b.s., m.a., b.d. 
East Ohio Conference 

Lewis. Edward Br.^dley, b.a., th.m. 
Baltimore Conference 

Lewis, M. Pennant 

Lewis, Samuel D., a.b., b.d. 
Florida Conference 

Licorish, Joshlta E., b.d., b.a., s.t.m. 
East Pennsylvania Conference 

Lightner, George S., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Lindemood, O. Rex, b.d. 
North Indiana Conference 

LiNDSEY, J. A., A.B., b.d. 

Minister, Conference Historical 

Mississippi Conference 


Administrator, Children's Home 
North Carolina Conference 

Linger, Ross, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
West Virginia Conference 

Little, Brooks B., a.b., b.d., m.a. 
Archivist-librarian, The Upper Room 
North Carolina Conference 

Lloyd, A. Kingsley 

LocKETT, Walter M., Jr., b.a., b.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Roanoke, Va. 
( Editor for Brazil ) 

Long, G. Ernest, b.a., m.a. 
Professor, Handsworth College 
Birmingham, England 

Long, James Alvin 

Long, Margaret (Mrs. Roy E.) 

South Dakota Conference 
Long, Robert 


Longman, A. D. 

Winnipeg, Canada 

Lonsdale, Marjorie 

Loofboubow, Leon L. 
Minister, historian 
California-Nevada Conference 

Loomis, Herbert D., .\.b., s.t.b. 
Central New York Conference 

Lord, Charles Edwin, b.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 

LoTZ, Charles J. 

Central Illinois Conference 

Loxx, Tom J. 

Lowell, Walter R. 
A.M.E. Zion Church 

LoY, Mrs. Allen 

LoYD, H. Brown, b.d., d.d. 
Central Texas Conference 

Lundy, Clyde E., b.d. 
Holston Conference 

LuTSCH, Mrs. Walter M. 
Lakewood, Ohio 

Lyman, Howard A., a.b., b.d. 
Erie Conference 

Lytle, D. Russell 

Missouri East Conference 

MacCanon, Robert R., b.d. 
Iowa Conference 

MacDonald, Scott, b.d., a.b., d.d. 
Former President, Jurisdictional Con- 
ference Historical Society 
Detroit Conference 

Macedo, Luiz Gonzaga 

MacMillan, Margaret B., ph.d. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Madison, J. Clay, a.b., d.d. 


Western North Carolina Conference 
Madison, John V., a.b., b.d., m.a. 


South Dakota Conference 
.Maetche, a. W., b.d. 


Northern Illinois Conference 
Mann, Niels 


( Editor for Denmark ) 

Manning, Norman P., Jr., b.a., b.d. 
North Georgia Conference 

"Marsh, Daniel L., a.b., a.m., litt. 

- D., s.t.b., PH.D. 

University Chancellor 

Southern New England Conference 

Martin, A. W., a.b.. b.d., d.d. 
North Arkansas Conference 

Martin, Eldon H., b.a., m.a., b.d., 



Troy Conference 

Martin, Lamar 

Mississippi Conference 

°Martin, William C., a.b., b.d., 

D.D., LL.D. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

Martinez, Miguel 
Boh via 

Mart\', Howard H. 
Iowa Conference 

Marvin, John E. 
Detroit Conference 

"Maser, Frederick E., a.b., th.b., 
m.a., d.d., ll.d. 
Ex. Sec, World Methodist Historical 

Eastern Pennsylvania Conference 
( Editorial Board ) 

Mason, Donald 

Massengale, Robert Glenn, a.b., 

B.D., PH.D. 

Alabama- West Florida Conference 

Mather, George K. 
Westminster, Md. 

Maxwell, Harold H., b.d. 
Rocky Mountain Conference 

May, James W., a.b., b.d., ph.d. 
South Georgia Conference 

Mayes, Allan M., b.s., b.d., s.t.m. 
Texas Conference 

Mayfield, L. H., b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

"Mayfield, Robert G., a.b., ll.b., 


Executive, Lay Activities 
Wilmore, Ky. 

Maynard, Edwin H., a.b., m.a. 
Church editor 
Northbrook, 111. 
( Editor for Latin America ) 

McAnally, Tom, b.a., m.a. 
Lincoln Neb. 

McCoNNELL, H. Ormonde 


McCoBMicK, James R., b.d. 
Southern California-Arizona Conf. 

"McCoy, Lewistine 

McCrory, Quitman, b.a., b.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

McCroky, Robbie H. (Mrs. Arthur) 
Wichita Falls, Te.\as 

"McCuLLOH, Gerald O., a.b., m.a., 

S.T.B., PH.D. 

Gen. Sec, Board of Education, United 

Methodist Chiuch 
Minnesota Conference 

McDavid, Joel D., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Alabama-West Florida Conference 

McDou'ell, Matthew, Alexander, 

Former President of Conference 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

McElvany, Harold, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

McGary, Grace Harmon 
Louisville, 111. 

McGee, J. Lester, b.d. 
Missouri East Conference 

McGowan, Guy B., b.d. 
Nortli Alabama Conference 

McGuiRT, Milton L., b.d. 
South Carolina Conference 

McIntyre, W. W., B.S., d.d. 
Virginia Conference 

McKean, Maurice D., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Michigan Conference 

McKervill, Hugh W. 
Hamilton Conference 

McKiRDY, Wayne M., b.a., th.m. 
North Dakota Conference 

McKnight, J. J., b.d. 
Little Rock Conference 

McLanachan, Mary 
Dayton, Ohio 

McLeod, D. M. 

McMahan, John W., a.b., ma., 
S.T.B., d.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

McMahan, Maurine H. 
El Paso, Texas 

McNeer, Rembert D., b.d. 
Virginia Conference 

McPheetebs, Chilton C, b.a., b.d., 


Southern California-Arizona Conf. 

"McPheeters, Julian C, b.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 

McPhebson, Nenien C, Jr., ph.b., 
b.d., d.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Mead, Charles L., Jr. 
Presbyterian minister 
Plainfield, N. J. 

Meahs, W. Gordon, b.a,, ll.d., 


Former General Missionary Secretary 
Methodist Church of South Africa 

Megill, Esther L. 
New York City 

Meib, J. Kenneth 

Melton, J. Gordon, b.d. 
North Alabama Conference 
( Editor for Methodist Variations, 


'Merritt, Kinsey N., 
Highstown, N. J. 

Merwin, William H., a.b., b.d. 

Southern California-Nevada Confer- 

Metzgeb, Paul O., b.s., b.d. 
Minnesota Conference 

Mevis, Floyd W., b.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

"Michalson, Gordon E., b.a., m.a., 


College president 

Southern California-Arizona Conf. 

Mickey, Harold C, b.a. 
Hospital administrator 
Rochester, Minn. 

"Millhouse, Paul W. 

Bisliop, The United Methodist Church 
Miller, Charles R., b.d. 


Central Pennsylvania Conference 

Miller, Gene Ramsey (Mrs. R. 
Cleveland, Miss. 

Miller, Lois 

Missions executive 
New York City 

Miller, Roy D., b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Silver Springs, Md. 

MiscH, Fannie Rrownlee 
Tulsa, Okla. 

Misneh, Peter L., b.d. 
Maine Conference 

MiSTELE, Hans 

Mitchell, Kenneth J., b.a., s.t.b., 



Southern California-Arizona Conf. 

Mitchell, Thomas G., a.b., b.d. 
Florida Conference 

Mohansingh, Samuel 

MojZES, Paul B., b.a., ph.d. 
Professor, Lycoming College 
Florida Conference 

Monk, Robert C, b.a., b.d., m.a., 



Northwest Texas Conference 

"Monti, Daniel P. 

Moody, Ruth B. (Mrs. E. P.) 
Lake Junaluska, N. C. 

Moore, Flora C. 
Peoria, 111. 

Moore, G. Nelson, b.d. 
North Carolina Conference 

"Moreland, J. Earl, a.b., l.h.d., 


College president 
Ashland, Va. 

Morphis, John W., a.b., m.a., b.d. 


North Texas Conference 
Morris, Julia 

Fort Worth, Texas 

Morrow, Thomas M. 

Moseley, Franklin S., a.b., b.d. 

Conference historian 

Alabama-West Florida Conference 
Moss, Arthur Bruce, a.b., a.m., b.d. 


New York Conference 

MouRA, Epaminondas 

MousLEY, Harvey K., b.d. 
Southern New England Conference 

"Muelder, Walter G., b.s., s.t.b., 

PH.D., L.H.D. 

Professor, Boston University 

Soutliem New England Conference 


Cleveland, Ohio 
MuNDAY, Walter I., ll.b., ll.m., 

B.D., D.D. 

Louisville Conference 

MuNBOE, W. Frazer 
Maritime Conference 

MuNSON, Fred 
Memphis, Tenn. 

MuRRELL, Jesse L., b.d. 
Kentucky Conference 

MussER, Carl Wilson 
Alexandria, Va. 

Myers, T. Cecil, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
North Georgia Conference 

Nader, Sam, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Louisiana Conference 

Nail, Olin W., b.a., b.d. 
Southwest Texas Conference 

Nall, Frances (Mrs. T. Otto) 
Past President, World Federation of 

Methodist Women 
Hong Kong 

°Nall, T. Otto, a.b., d.d., litt.d., 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
( Editorial Board ) 

Nance, Dana W. 
Oak Ridge, Tenn. 

Neale, Herbert W., b.a., b.d. 


California-Nevada Conference 
Neef, Hermann 


Neilson, J. Morrison, m.b.e., m.a., 

British minister 
Wilmslow, Cheshire, England 

Nelson, Harvey A., b.a., s.t.b., d.d. 
Iowa Conference 

Nelson, Mary Sue (Mrs. John) 
Paris, Tenn. 

Nesbitt, M. Wilson, a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Western North Carolina Conference 

°Ness, John H., a.b., d.d. 


Central Pennsylvania Conference 
•Ness, John H., Jr., a.b., m.a., b.d., 


Ex. Sec, Commission on Archives and 

Central Pennsylvania Conference 
( Editor for EUB Church) 

New^all, Jannette E. 
Professor, Boston University 
Boston, Mass. 

Nevvinc, Ralph 
Kingston, Pa. 

Newton, J. O., b.d. 
Maine Conference 

Newton, John A., m.a., b.a., ph.d. 
Professor, Didsbury College 
Bristol, England 

Nichols, E. M. 

British Columbia Conference 

Nichols, Oscar T., b.a., b.d. 

Louisville Conference 
Nichols, Ralph Wesley, b.d. 


Alabama-West Florida Conference 
Nicholson, R. Herman, a.b., b.d., 



Western North Carolina Conference 
Nisbett, Clarence Elmer, b.d. 

Oklahoma Conference 
Nlx, J. E. 

Alberta Conference 


NoFFS, Ted 
( Editor for Australia ) 

Nolan, Mildred Nlxon 

Oak Ridge, La. 
Nordstrom, Clayton E. 

Detroit, Mich. 
Norman, Mrs. G. R. P. 

Toronto, Canada 
Norman, W. H. H. 

"North, Eric M., b.d. 

New York Conference 
North, Jack B., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


Central Illinois Conference 

Northcutt, Guy 

Marietta, Ga. 
Norton, Clarence Clifford, b.d., 

PH.D., LL.D. 

South Carolina Conference 
"Norwood, Frederick A., b.a., b.d., 


Professor, Garrett Theo. Seminary 

East Ohio Conference 

( Editorial Board ) 
Nye, John A., b.a., b.d. 


Iowa Conference 
Nye, Richard E., a.b., s.t.b. 


Pacific Northwest Conference 
Nye, Russell G., b.d. 

Iowa Conference 


Nylin, Henry G., b.s., m.a., b.d. 
Central Illinois Conference 

O'Connor, Donald R., b.s., b.d., 



Southern California-Arizona Conf. 

Odon, Louis O., b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Oliphint, Benjamin R., b.a., b.d., 

S.T.M., PH.D. 
Louisiana Conference 

Orians, Howard L., b.d. 

Wisconsin Conference 

Orlamunder, Paul 

Orr, a. Everil, m.b.e. 

Superintendent, Central Mission 
Auckland, New Zealand 

OsBORN, John, H., b.d. 
Central Illinois Conference 

Osborne, S. L. 

Bay of Quinte Conference 

Owens, Carl G., b.d. 
Texas Conference 

Oxley, J. E. 


Ozburn, Mrs. S. J. 
Tampa, Fla. 

"Pace, James 

Missionary to Bolivia 

Pacheco, Joao Goncalves 

"Palmer, Everett W., b.a., b.d., 

S.T.D., D.D. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

Palmer, Louis D., a.b. 
Wyoming Conference 

Panisset, J. B. 

Panzer, Robert A., a.b., m.a., s.t.b., 



California-Nevada Conference 

Parsons, Sabra 
Denton, Texas 

Patton, Russell R., a.b.,, b.d., 


Kentucky Conference 

Peacock, Anne 
Coral Gables, Fla. 

Peacock, Mary Thomas 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Pearson, Ruth (Mrs. John M.) 
New York City 


Peeples, F. H., b.d. 
Memphis Conference 

Pellovve, William C. S. 
Detroit Conference 

Fennewell, Almeh, b.d. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

Pepper, Anthony T., m.a. 


Worcester Park, Surrey, England 

•Perkins, E. Benson, m.a., ll.d. 
Former Secretary, World Methodist 

Birmingham, England 

Perkins, F. Elwood, a.b., th.b., 



Southern New Jersey Conference 

Persons, William R., b.a.,, 



Rocky Mountain Conference 

Petersen, Mrs. Vincent A. 
Davenport, Iowa 

Peterson, Arthur T., Jr. 

Pfister, J. Ralph 

Church of the United Brethren in 
Christ (Old Constitution) 

Phillips, Bess G. (Mrs. Marcus F.) 
Jackson, Tenn. 

•Phillips, Glenn Randall, a.b., 
d.d., l.h.d., ll.d. 
Bishop, The Methodist Church 

Phillips, H. Arthur, b.d. 
North Carolina Conference 

I*HiLLiPS, William H., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
East Ohio Conference 

Phillipson, W. Oliver, m.a. 
Taunton, Surrey, England 

Phinney, William R., b.s., m.a., b.d. 
New York Conference 

•PiCKETT, J. WaSKOM, b.a., M.A., D.D., 

ll.d., d.h.l. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

(Editor for India) 

Pierce, L. W., b.d. 
Holston Conference 

Pierce, Robert Bruce, a.b., m.a., 



Northern Illinois Conference 

PiLKiNGTON, James P. 

Methodist Publishing House 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Bishop, Brazil 

PoDOLL, Elmer H., b.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 

PoLSON, Marvin M., b.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

Post, Allen 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Potter, Hugh O. 
Owensboro, Ky. 

•PoTTS, J. Manning, m.a., th.b., 
th.m., d.d. 

Editor, The Upper Room 
Virginia Conference 

Powell, C. D. 
Alberta Conference 

Powell, Floyd W., a.b., b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Powell, Lillian 
Waynesboro, Ga. 

Price, Thomas M., a.b., b.d. 
Texas Conference 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Quarles, Garland R. 
Winchester, Va. 

•Queen, Louise L. (Mrs. Rufus) 
Adm. Asst., Gen. Commission on Ar- 
chives and History 
Lake Junaluska, N. C. 
(Assistant to General Editor) 

•Quillian, Joseph D., Jr., b.a., b.d., 


Dean, Perkins School of Theology 
North Texas Conference 

Rack, Henry, b.a., m.a. 

Professor, Hartley- Victoria College 

•Raines, Richard C., a.b., s.t.b., 

D.D., S.T.D., ll.d., d.h.l. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

•Rainey, Joe Sharp, b.d. 
Virginia Conference 

Ramsdale, William F., b.d. 
Kansas West Conference 

•Rast, John Marvin, b.d., m.a., d.d. 
South Carolina Conference 

Rattenbury, H. Morley, m.a. 
Hoylake, Cheshire, England 

Reagan, John F., b.a., b.d. 
Institution executive 
Yellowstone Conference 

Reamey, George S., a.b., b.d., d.d., 


Editor, Virginia Advocate 
Virginia Conference 

•Reed, Elbert E. 
Missionary to Chile 

Reed, Frank T., b.d. 
Northern New Jersey Conference 

Reeves, Howard N., Jr., b.mus., b.d., 

S.T.M. , S.T.D. 

Eastern Pennsylvania Conference 

Reichert, Earl W., b.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

Reid, J. C. 

Manitoba Conference 

Reid, William W., m.a. 
Church official 
Whitestone, L.I. N.Y. 

Reily, D. a. 

Reisner, Ensworth, a.b., S.T.B. 


Wisconsin Conference 

Reitor, Noemi Deulofeu 

Reynolds, A. G. 
Toronto Conference 

Rice, William C. 
Baldwin City, Kan. 

Richards, Ellis H., a.b., b.d., ph.d. 
Northern New Jersey Conference 

Ricketts, John B. 
Greenville, S. C. 

RiDDicK, Roland P., b.d. 


Virginia Conference 

Ridley, Roy Ben, b.d. 
Florida Conference 

RiST, Martin, a.b., b.d., th.b., ph.d. 
North Indiana Conference 

Rives, Ralph Hardee, a.b., ph.d. 
Enfield, N.C. 
(Editor for M.P. Church) 

•Rives, Dina 

Robbins, Mrs. Newit Vick 

Vicksburg, Miss. 
Roberts, Griffith T., m.a., b.d. 

Chairman of District 

Anglesey, U. K. 

Robinson, Milton 
Missionary to Bolivia 
Ancoraimes, Bolivia 



"RocKEY, Clement D., a.b., b.d., 

M.A., PH.D. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
(Editor for Pakistan) 


Northern Illinois Conference 

Rogers, Edward, b.a., b.d. 

Gen. Sec, Christian Citizenship Dept. 
London, England 

ROHRBACH, Edgar B., b.d. 

Northern New Jersey Conference 

RoBiE, Kenneth Glen, b.a., b.d. 
Louisiana Conference 

Rose, E. A. 

RoTON, OuiDA Wade 
Acworth, Ga. 


Rozzelle, C. Excelle, b.d., D.D. 
Western North Carolina Conference 

°Rupp, E. Gordon, f.b.a., b.a., m.a., 


Cambridge, England 

RuTTER, Kenneth P., 

Sachman, Dieter 

Sadler, Harold Davis, a.b., b.d. 
Little Rock Conference 

Sage, Ernest E. 
Auckland, New Zealand 

Salvador, Joao Goncalves 

Salvador, Jose Goncalves 

Samples, Eual Emery, b.a., b.d., 
Mississippi Conference 

Santos, Almir dos 

Sargent, Abbie E. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Sartorio, Paul L., b.a., b.d. 
New York Conference 

°Saueb, Charles A., b.d. 

West Ohio Conference 
( Editor for Korea ) 

Sayre, Charles A., b.s., b.d., ph.d. 
Southern New Jersey Conference 

ScHAAD, Hermann 

(Editor for Switzerland, Bulgaria, 
Hungary and Austria) 

Schaefer, Heinz 

"ScHELL, Edwin A., b.s., b.d. 
Conference Historian 
Baltimore Conference 
( Consultant ) 

Schilling, Ablo L. 

Naperville, 111. 
"Schilling, S. Paul, b.s., s.t.b., 



Baltimore Conference 

"Schisleb, William R., Jr., 


Schneeberger, William 

ScHOLZ, Ernst, d.d. 

Church official 

ScHULTZ, Arthur L., b.d. 


West Pennsylvania Conference 
Schwartz, Benjamin F., a.b., s.t.b., 



Nebraska Conference 

Alberta Conference 

Scorsonelli, Alfredo 

Scott, Kenneth J., b.d. 


West Virginia Conference 

Scott, Leland, b.d. 


Southern California-Arizona Confer- 
Scbimshibe, Joe B., b.a., b.d., d.d. 


New Mexico Conference 

ScRiviN, Arthur H. 

Former General Secretary for Over- 
seas Missions and President of Con- 
Auckland, New Zealand 

Seemueller, Theophil 

Sells, Ernest L. 

Missionary to Rhodesia 
Lake Junaluska, N. C. 

'Sells, James W., a.b., ll.d., d.d. 

Mississippi Conference 
'Sessions, C. Carl, b.s., ll.b., b.d., 


Central Texas Conference 


Sewell, James H., b.d. 


Little Rock Conference 
Shackford, Joseph T., b.d. 


Oklahoma Conference 

Shaffer, Frank L., b.d., b.a. 
West Virginia Conference 

Shaffer, Harry E. 

Castro Valley, Calif. 
Shamblin, J. Kenneth, b.a., b.d., 



Texas Conference 

Shannon, Charles E., a.b.., b.d. 
Western Nortli Carolina Conference 

Shaver, Robert G., b.d. 
Louisville Conference 

Shaw, Thomas 

General Secretary, Wesley Historical 

Helston, Cornwall, England 

Sheard, Harriet 

Dayton, Ohio 
Sheffield, Wesley 

North Dakota 
Sheller, Roscoe 

Sunnyside, Wash. 
Shelton, W. a., b.d. 


North Alabama Conference 

"Sherlock, Hugh B. 

West Indies 
Sherwood, Lawrence F., a.b., b.d., 



West Virginia Conference 

Shierson, Harry E. 

San Diego, Calif. 
Shippey, Frederick A., a.b., b.d., 


Troy Conference 
Shipps, Howard F., a.b., th.b., s.t.d. 
Southern New Jersey Conference 

Shockley, Grant S., a.b., b.d., m.a., 

Minister, Educator 
Holston Conference 
(Editor for AME Church) 

Short, Harry R., b.d. 


Louisville Conference 
"Short, Roy H., a.b., b.d., th.m., 


Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
Shroyeb, Montgomery J., b.d. 
Baltimore Conference 



SiFTON, Mrs. Flora 

St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada 
SiLEH, AnnG. (Mrs. J. B.) 

Waynesville, N. C. 
"SiLVEiRA, Paulo Guarracy 

Simpson, Mrs. Claude M. 

Nashville, Tenn. 
SiSLER, Paul D. 

Nebraska Conference 
Skeete, F. Herbert, a.b., b.d., s.t.m. 


New York Conference 

Skillman, Lula Hunter 

Nortli Carolina 
Skinner, Michael J., m.a. 

Michael Gutteridge Tutor in Syste- 
matic and Pastoral Theology 

Wesley House, Cambridge, England 

Smeltzer, Wallace Guy, b.s., 

S.T.B., D.D. 


Western Pennsylvania Conference 

Smith, Bessie Archer 
Retired Missionary 
Montevideo, Uruguay 

"Smith, Earl M. 
Retired Missionary 
Monte\ ideo, Uruguay 

Smith, Harold N., b.d. 


Northern New Jersey Conference 
"Smith, Horace Greeley, a.b., 

d.d., s.t.b., ll.d., l.h.d. 


Nortliern Illinois Conference 

Smith, Howard H., b.d. 

President, Conference Commission on 

Archives and History 
Central Pennsylvania Conference 

Smith, Irving L., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


Oklahoma Conference 
Smith, J. Castro, b.d. 


Holston Conference 

Smith, James Roy, b.a., m.a., b.d., 



Virginia Conference 
"Smith, LeGhand B. 

Smith, Marlin E., a.b., b.d. 


Wisconsin Conference 
Smith, Mary F. 
"Smith, Matthew D. 

Mitchell, S. D. 
Smith, Raymond Alexander, a.b., 

B.D., PH.D. 


Western North Carolina Conference 

Smith, Warren Thomas, b.a., b.d., 

PH.D., D.D. 


North Georgia Conference 

"Smith, Wilbur K. 

Smyth, Charles R. 
Educator-M inister 
Southern New Jersey Conference 

"Snavely, Guy E., a.b., ph.d. 
College President 
Biniiingham, Ala. 

Snodcrass, Ottis Rymeb, b.d. 
West Virginia Conference 

Snyder, John 

"SocKMAN, Ralph W., b.a., d.d., 

M.A., PH.D., S.T.B., D.D., L.H.D. 


New York Conference 

SoLTMAN, John C, b.a., b.d., s.t.m. 
Pacific Northwest Conference 

"Sommer, G. Ernst, ph.d., m.a., 


Bishop, Germany 

( Editor for Germany ) 

Sommermeyer, Lewis 
Fort Worth, Texas 

Sorensen, Gordon, b.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

"SosA, Adam F. 

Souders, Bruce C, b.d. 

Member, General Commission on Ar- 
chives and History 
East Pennsylvania Conference 
( Consultant ) 

Spafford, Arthur L., b.d. 
Detroit Conference 

"Spann, J. Richard, b.d. 
Southwest Texas Conference 

Spellman, L. U., b.d. 
Southwest Texas Conference 

Spellman, Norman W. 
Central Texas Conference 

Spencer, Harry, b.d. 
Northern Illinois Conference 

Spore, Kenneth L., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Little Rock Conference 

Spreng, L. Ethel 
Naperville, 111. 

Stagey, Donald S., b.d. 
New York Conference 

Stagey, John 

Stackhouse, W. C, a.b., b.d. 


South Carolina Conference 

"Stafford, Thomas A., b.d. 
Church Official 
Minnesota Conference 

"Stanger, Frank Bateman, a.b., 

th.b., s.t.m., d.d., ll.d. 

Seminary President 

Southern New Jersey Conference 
Stapelberc, Eric 

Starkey, Lycubgus M., Jr., b.a., 

b.d., PH.D. 


North Indiana Conference 

Statham, Margaret 

Stauffeb, Eugene E., a.b., b.d., d.d. 


Northern Illinois Conference 

Steadman, Melvin Lee, Jr., b.d. 
Virginia Conference 

"Steckel, Karl 

Steel, Edward Marvin, Jr. 
Morgantown, W. Va. 

"Steel, Marshall T., b.a., b.d., d.d., 


College President 
Little Rock Conference 

Steele, William T., b.a., m.a. 
Tennessee Conference 

Steelman, Robert B., a.b., s.t.b., 


President, Conference Commission on 

Archives and History 
Southern New Jersey Conference 

Stein, K. James, b.d. 

Member, General Commission on Ar- 
chives and History 
North Dakota Conference 

Stephens, Peter 

"Stephenson, Frank W., b.d. 
Western Pennsylvania Conference 

Stetleb, Edwin L. 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Stevens, Thelma 
New York City 

Stewart, Martin Buren, b.a., b.d., 



New Mexico Conference 



SncHER, Hermann 

Stine, Cawlev E., b.d. 


Eastern Pennsylvania Conference 
Stockham, Richard J. 

Birmingham, Alabama 
Stockwell, Spencer L. 

South West Texas Conference 
Stokes, Mack B., a.b., b.d., ph.d., 



Holston Conference 
Stone, Elbert B. 

Louisville, Ky. 
Stone, H. Darrel 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
"Straughn, James H. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
"Strohl, C. Orville 

Kansas West Conference 
Sturm, Roy A. 

Wisconsin Conference 
Supples, Raymond L. 

Chevy Chase, Md. 

Swan, Lowell B. 

Rocky Mountain Conference 
Sweet, Pearl S. 

Seal Beach, Calif. 
Taggett, D. Coyd 

Northern Ilhnois Conference 
Tate, Robert S., Jr. 

Southwest Texas Conference 
Tavares, Jurema 

Taylor, Ben J. 

Fairfield, Iowa 
Taylor, Daniel E. 

Oregon-Idaho Conference 
Taylor, Ernest R. 

"Taylor, Edwin L. 

West Indies 

( Editor for West Indies ) 

Teeter, Bonner E., b.d. 


Oklahoma Conference 
Templin, J. Alton, b.a., th.d. 


Southern New England Conference 
"Theuer, Donald A. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Thigpen, Mrs. Charles R. 

Albuquerque, N. M. 

Thomas, Alfred John, b.d. 


Central Pennsylvania Conference 
Thomas, Francis C. 

Thomas, G. Ernest, s.t.b., th.d., 

Detroit Conference 

Thompson, Charles E., b.d. 
Northern New York Conference 

Thompson, Claude Holmes, a.b.. 

B.D., PH.D. 


Florida Conference 
Thompson, G. Frazer 

Thompson, Royce L. 

Washington, D.C. 
"Thonger, William G. 


( Editor for Belgium ) 

Thornburc, Mrs. D. W. 

Sante Fe, N. M. 
Thornley, Robert, ma. 

Former President of Conference 

Takapuna Church, Auckland, New 
Thrasher, Harold, a.b., s.t.b. 


Nortliem Indiana Conference 

Thurston, Elwyn O., a.b., b.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

TiCE, Frank 

TiCKNER, Leon Howard 

Erie Conference 
TowLSON, Clifford W., m.a., b.a., 

b.d., PH.D. 

Fomier Headmaster, Woodhouse 

Grove School 
Apperley Bridge, Yorkshire, England 


New York 
Tredway, Thomas 

Northern Illinois Conference 
Trevethan, p. J. 

Bethesda, Md. 
Tribbeck, Erris C. H. 


(Co-Editor for France) 

Trick, Ormal B. 

Oregon-Idaho Conference 

Trueblood, Roy W. 

Central Illinois Conference 
Tucker, Francis Bland 

Christ Church ( Episcopal ) 

Savannah, Ga. 

Tucker, Frank C, a.b., b.d., d.d. 

Missouri East Conference 
Turner, J. Munsey 

Turner, Lynn W. 

Westervllle, Ohio 
Turner, Martha Leach 

Toledo, Ohio 

'Tuttle, Lee F., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
General Secretary, World Methodist 

Western Nortli Carolina Conference 
( Editorial Board ) 

Tuttle, R. G. 

Western North Carolina Conference 

Twiddy, William M. 

Northern New Jersey Conference 

Uhlinger, James R., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Southern New England Conference 

Vago, Ismael a. 

"Valenzuela, Raimundo a. 
Bishop, Methodist Church of Chile 
Santiago, Chile 

Van, Clarence C, b.d. 
New York Conference 

Vanbuskirk, G. Bennett, b.d. 
New Hampshire Conference 

"Vancura, Vaclav 
(Editor for Czechoslovakia) 

Vanderpool, W. Harry, b.a., b.d. 
Northwest Texas Conference 

Van der Poss, J. D. P. 

Department of Bantu Languages 
University of Stellenbosch, South 

°Veh, Raymond M., b.d. 
Western Ohio Conference 

Veh, Mrs. Raymond M. 
Thiensville, Wis. 

Velasco, Gustavo A. 
(Editor for Mexico) 

Vernon, Ruth M. 
Nashville, Tenn. 

"Vernon, Walter N., Jr., a.b., m.a., 
b.d., litt.d. 

North Texas Conference 
( Associate Editor ) 

Vevers, J. A. 

Veysie, D. C, m.a. 
Superintendent minister 
East Rand Circuit, South Africa 

ViCKERS, John A. 

Vine, Victor E. 
Okehampton, Devon, England 

VivioN, King, b.d. 
South Georgia Conference 


•VoicT, Edwin E., b.s., m.a., b.d., 

D.D., PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D., L.H.D. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

VoRHis, Wilfred D. 
Middlffown, Ohio 

VOBR.\TH, F. E. 

Tlic Evangelical Church 

VosBURC, Frederick, a.b., s.t.b., 



Detroit Conference 

Wade, Wilfred 

Wagner, H. Hughes, a.b., s.t.b., d.d. 
Southern New England Conference 

Wainvvright, Arthur W. 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Waitzmann, Ludvvig 

Wakefield, Gordon S. 

Wallace, Aldbed Pruden, .\.b., 
B.D., d.d. 
West Virginia Conference 

Wallace, Eleanor Darnall (Mrs. 
Donald A. ) 
Wilmette, 111. 

Walls, A. F. 

Walton, Wilbur Latimer, b.s., d.d. 
Alabama-West Florida Conference 

Ward, A. Marcus 

Ward, A. Sterling, a.b., b.d., th.d. 
Missouri West Conference 

'Ward, W. Ralph, Jr., a.b., s.t.b., 
s.t.m. , d.d., ll.d., s.t.d., l.h.d. 
Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

•Ward, W. W., b.d 
Central Texas Conference 

"Warfield, Gaither p., a.b., b.d., 

M.A., d.d. 

Minister, Church o£Bcial 
Virginia Conference 
( Editor for Poland ) 

Waring, Mabel E. 
Fall River, Mass. 

Warnick, Mrs. John H. 
Dallas, Texas 

"Washburn, Paul, b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

Washer, Robert R., a.b., s.t.b., d.d. 
Southern California-Arizona Confer- 

Waterhouse, John W. 

Watts, Harrison D. 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Watters, Elizabeth Quillan 
Stephens, Ga. 

Weatherly, Mary H. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

Weaver, Harold R., b.a., b.d., ph.d. 
Wisconsin Conference 

Weaver, Jean 
Dayton, Ohio 

Webb, John, R., a.b., d.d. 
Oklahoma Conference 

Webster, Roy E. II, a.b., b.d. 
Louisville Conference 

Weeks, John Wesley 
Decatur, Ga. 

Weimer, Glenn D., b.a., b.d. 
South West Texas Conference 

Weir, John H. 

Welch, H. Alden, b.a., b.d. 
Northern New Jersey Conference 

"Weldon, Wilson O., b.a., b.d., d.d. 
Editor, The Upper Room 
Western Nortli Carolina Conference 

"Welliver, Lester A., a.b., m.a., 

B.D., D.D., LL.D. 


Central Pennsylvania Conference 

"Werner, Hazen G., a.b., d.d., b.d., 

LL.D., st.d. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 

Werner, Stella Biddison 
Bethesda, Md. 

°Wertz, D. Frederick, a.b., b.d., 

s.t.b., m.a, th.d. 

Bishop, The United Methodist Church 
"West, Arthur, a.b., m.a., s.t.b., 


Minister — Church 0£BciaI 
Missouri East Conference 

West, C. A., b.d. 

President, Conference Commission on 

Archives and History 
Texas Conference 

West, Donald J., b.d. 


North Georgia Conference 
West, Roberta Baur 

Chinook, Mont. 

Westbrook, Francis B., b.a., mus.b. 


London, England 

Westbrook, Norman B., b.d. 
North Alabama Conference 

Wheatley, Marshall A. 
Royal Oak, Mich. 

Wheeler, Sterling F., b.a., b.d., 



Southwest Texas Conference 

Whelpto.n, H. E. 
( Co-Editor for France ) 

White, Charles D., a.b., b.d., d.d. 
Western North Carolina Conference 

White, Gordon B., a.b., b.d., th.d. 


Central Illinois Conference 
White, James F., a.b., b.d. 


California- Nevada Conference 

White, Walter B., Jr., b.a., b.d. 
Louisville Conference 

Whiteside, Grace 
Watertown, S. D. 

Whyman, Henry C., b.s., b.d., 



New York Conference 

WiCKSTROM, Werner T., b.d. 

Nortliern Illinois Conference 
( Editor for Liberia ) 

Wiley, Edward E., Jr., a.b., d.d., 

B.D., M.A. 

President, Conference Commission on 

Archives and History 
Holston Conference 

Wiley, Elizabeth 
Naperville, 111. 


Chairman of Natal District 
South Africa 

Wilkinson, John T., m.a., b.a.m., 


Former Principal, Hartley-Victoria 
College, Manchester now of Knight- 

Radnorshire, Wales 

"Will, Herman, Jr., ll.b., a.b. 
Washington, D.C. 

Williams, Charles Scott 
Williamsport, Pa. 

Williams, Ethel L. 
AMEZ Church 

Williams, Frank L., b.d. 
Baltimore Conference 


Williams, Hugh E., b.d. 
Iowa Conference 

Williams, Ira E., Jr., a.b., b.d. 
New Mexico Conference 

Williams, Roy D., b.d. 
Memphis Conference 

Wilson, Edward N., a.b., d.soc. sc, 


Retired College Official 
Baltimore, Md. 

Wilson, J. Gbaydon, a.b., th.m. 
Nebraska Conference 

Wilson, Mrs. Paul A. 
North Carolina 

Wilson, Robert S. 

Evangelical Congregational Church 

Wilson, Ronald H., a.b., m.h.a. 
Institutional Administration 
Gaithersburg, Md. 

Wilson, James Frederick, b.d. 
South Georgia Conference 

Wing, Herbert, Jr. 
Carhsle, Pa. 

WiNKLEY., John, W., b.d. 
California-Nevada Conference 


Newfoundland Conference 


Detroit Conference 

Woffobd, Warren C. 

Wolgemathe, Minnie 
Dayton, Ohio 

"Wood, A. Harold 

Wood, A. Skevington 

Wood, Louis 
Midland, Mich. 

Woodring, De Wayne S., b.s., b.d. 
Church Official 
East Ohio Conference 

Woods, Marion F., a.b., b.d., m.a. 
Central America 

Woodward, Mrs. Joseph R. 
Dearborn, Mich. 

"Woodward, W. 

Workman, James W., a.b., b.a., b.d., 
m.a., ll.d. 
Little Rock Conference 

WoRLEY, W. Paul, b.d. 
Holston Conference 

Wrenn, Raymond Fitzhugh, a.b., 


Church Official 
Virginia Conference 

Wright, C. David, b.d. 
West Ohio Conference 

Wright, Mrs. F. P. 
Houston, Texas 

Wright, Robert Roy, a.b., b.d. 
Church Official, Editor 
New York Conference 


D.D., L.H.D. 



President, Methodist Women. West 


Ye.\tes, John W., b.s., m.a. 
North Mississippi Conference 

Yinger, G. Dempster, b.a., d.d. 
Iowa Conference 

Tingling, L. Carroll, Jr., a.b., b.d. 
Baltimore Conference 

Yoak, J. B. F., Jr, a.b., d.d. 
West Virginia Conference 

Young, Carlton, R., s.t.b. 
Educator — Musician 
East Ohio Conference 

Young, Frank V., b.d. 
Erie Conference 

Young, John F. 
Church Official 
Columbus, Ohio 

Zara, Louise 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

"Zeuner, Walther 

Minister, Member COSMOS, Secre- 

tar>', Germany Central Conference 

AAPJIE, HANS, Transvaal pioneer, was born in Makapan's 
tribe about seventy miles north of Pretoria, South Africa, 
went to the Cape Colony for employment in about 1874, 
was converted, learned to read and write and married a 
Christian. He returned to the Transvaal in about 1876 but 
only gained permission two years later from Makapan to 
preach and teach. The Chairman of the District visited 
this area in March 1882 and met a congregation of about 
150 in a well-constructed church building. Twenty adults 
and forty children attended a day school run by Aapjie 
in the same building. He taught them the letters of the 
alphabet out of the Bible. In April 1884, George 
Weavind, Secretary of the Transvaal Synod, visited this 
Society and baptized 116 adults and sixtv-six children. In 
August 1885 Watkins baptized a further thirty-one chil- 
dren and fifty-four adults in this Society. 

Journal of the Methodist Historical Society of South Africa. 

Vol. Ill, No. 2 (October 1958). 

Minutes of South African Conference, 1939. D. C. Veysie 

ABBOTT, BENJAMIN (1732-1796), early .\merican pi- 
oneer preacher, bom in New- Jersey, U.S.A., the son of 
Benjamin Abbott, Sr., and Hannah Burroughs, in 1732. 
His father was a substantial land owner, his mother a 
"godly woman of effectual prayer." 

Following the early death of both father and mother, 
he learned the hatmakers' trade in Philadelphia. In early 
youth Abbott had fallen pretty deeply into the ways of 
sin. Soon after coming of age he hired himself for planta- 
tion work in south Jersey, and there purchased his own 
farm and married. 

Upon hearing a Methodist itinerant, Abraham Whit- 
worth, preach with simplicity and power, Abbott first 
knew his sins forgiven, his conversion taking place Oc- 
tober 12, 1772. 

He immediately began to witness for Christ and be- 
came the first native Methodist itinerant for New Jersey. 
As a local preacher for seventeen years he carried forward 
a most effective work of evangelism, church building, 
and organization of new societies throughout south Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Herbert As- 
bury says it is believed that Abbott obtained more con- 
verts than any other Wesleyan preacher except John 
Wesley, George Whitefield, and possibly Robert 
Williams. Joseph Sickler in his History of Salem has as- 
serted that "as an exhorter and weaver of spells over his 
listeners, Abbott had no equal in his time or possibly in 
all the history of the Methodist Church." 

The work of Abbott was of great importance during the 
Revolution. In 1779, there being no official appointment 
in New Jersey, this lay preacher vmofficially assumed the 
chief responsibility for leadership in Methodism. Scudder 
has asserted in his volume on American Methodism, "Here 
New Jersey was his vast circuit, and he was the chief 

instrument in preserving the spiritual life of its societies 
during the distracting period of the Revolution." 

The final period of Abbott's life ( 1789-96) came with 
his ordination and reception into the traveling ministry 
at the Conference held May, 1789, at Trenton, N. J. He 
was anpointed to the Dutchess Circuit, where in the next 
sixteen months the membership increased from a scat- 
tered few to nearly 1,400. Revivals broke out in every 
part of the circuit and four new circuits were added. 
Throughout the few years remaining until his death, 
Abbott continued to preach and organize new societies in 
New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Del- 
aware, and Mar>land. The Minutes of the Philadelphia 
Conference, M. E. Church in 1796, recording his death, 
say: "Perhaps he was one of the wonders of America. No 
man's copy; an uncommon zealot for the blessed work of 
sanctification, he preached it on all occasions, and in all 
congregations . . . He was seldom heard by anyone to 
speak about anything but God and religion, and his whole 
soul was often overwhelmed by the power of God." 

Abel Stevens concludes his story of Abbott by saying: 
"He had led hosts of souls from the lowest abysses of vice 
into a good life and into the church, from the Hudson to 
the Chesapeake. His singular yet most effective hfe will 
ever remain a marvel, if not a mystery. An extraordinary 
individuahty of character, sanctified by extraordinary en- 
dowments of divine grace, must be its chief explanation. 
They fitted him for a peculiar work, and he did it thor- 
oughly with all his might and to the end." 

J. M. Buckley, History of Methodists. 1896. 
J. F. Hurst, History of Methodism. 1901-04. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Howard F. Shipps 

ABBOTT, DAVID GUSHWA (1863-1939), was a mission- 
ary of the M. E. Church in the Central Provinces of India, 
now Madhya Pradesh State, 1900-1934. He began his 
ministry at Khandwa immediately after a severe famine, 
and superintended an orphanage and a refugee camp of 
a thousand persons. Subsequently he was at different 
times superintendent of every district and participated 
in the care of every educational institution in the Con- 

Born in a mining camp in Californlv during die period 
of the gold rush, he was educated at Iowa Wesleyan 
College and Boston University School of Theology. 
He married Martha Day, formerly a missionary in Cal- 
cutta and Moradabad. His older half-brother, Edward 
Newsom, had been a missionary in India for some years. 

Abbott twice represented the Central Provinces Annual 
Conference in General Conference and often in the Cen- 
tral Conference, the Executive Board and the Mid-India 
and National Christian Councils. He made a three-year 
court fight to establish the right of Christian converts to 
draw water from public wells, the first high-court decision 



giving Christians the right to share, without discrimina- 
tion, the use of public facihties. The principle, previously 
denied, is now guaranteed to all citizens by the Indian 

Abbott died March 29, 1939, while walking near his 
home in Los Angeles. For two years prior to his death he 
had been president of the Interdenominational Mission- 
ary Association of Greater Los Angeles. 

J. N. Hollister, Southern Asia. 1956. 

The Indian Witness. April 1, 1909, p. 247. 

Minutes of the Madhya Pradesh Annual Conference. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

1939. In the meantime, in 1931, the D.D. degree had 
been conferred upon him by Ohio Wesleyan University. 

Bishop Abe was active in the movement for the organi- 
zation of the United Church of Christ in Japan, and served 
as Chairman of its Organizing General Conference in 

His influence has extended beyond his own church and 
even into international relations. He was fraternal dele- 
gate to the M. E. General Conference in 1928. As Na- 
tional Chairman of the Y.M.C.A. of Japan, he attended the 
Toronto and Cleveland Conferences in 1931 and traveled 
in Europe. From 1933 to 1941 he was chairman of the 
National Christian Conference of Japan. In 1941 he 
headed a group of Japanese Christians who went to the 
United States to secure the understmding of missionary 
leaders regarding the organization of the United Church, 
and to strive for the preservation of peace between the 
two countries. During the war he served as President of 
the Central China Religious Federation, and, after re- 
turning to Japan at the end of the war, became President 
of the Japan Christian Peace Association. In 1949-50, at 
the invitation of the Board of Missions, he traveled in the 
U. S. A., speaking in twenty-eight states about the Chris- 
tian movement in Japan. 

Since 195.5, Dr. Abe has been General Secretary of the 
Educational Association of Christian Schools in Japan, 
at the same time serving as pastor of a new congregation 
which he founded after the war. He renders invaluable 
counsel in the leadership of the United Church and to 
many educational institutions. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. 

John B. Cobb, Sr. 

ABERCROMBIE, RALPH (1837-1914), British Methodist, 
was a son of Richard Abercrombie. He was bom at 
Whitby on July 31, 1837, and entered the United Meth- 
odist Free Church ministry in 1861. He was Con- 
nexion al Editor from 1883 to 1892, was one of the 
committee which edited the New Hymn Book of 1889, 
and in that year was elected president. He served on the 
committee which led to the Union of 1907. He died in 
Manchester on February 2, 1914. 

YosHiMUNE Abe 

UMCiUK) Minutes, 1914 

OLrvER A. Beckerlecge 

ABE, YOSHIMUNE (1886- ), Bishop of the Japan 

Methodist Church, educator and ecumenical leader, was 
bom in Hirosaki in northern Japan, and baptized in the 
Methodist Church there in 1901. This church, said to be 
the oldest Methodist Church in Japan, was founded by 
Dr. Abe's uncle, Yoitsu Honda, who in 1907 became the 
first bishop of the Japan Methodist Church. From the 
Hirosaki Church have gone out over two hundred Chris- 
tian preachers. 

Yoshimune Abe graduated from Aoyama Gakuin, Meth- 
odist College in Tokyo, in 1908 and from its theological 
department in 1912. Then in the U. S. he received a 
B.D. degree from Drew Seminary and an M.A. from 
New York University, both in 1915. 

Returning to Japan he served successively as pastor of 
the Aoyama College Church, Dean of the Academy, and 
Dean of the Theological Department, and in 1933 be- 
came president of the university. He held this post until 
he was elected Bishop of the Japan Methodist Church in 

ABERCROMBIE, RICHARD (1797-1881), British Meth- 
odist, was bom in Norwich on January 24, 1797. He was 
converted while in the army in France after Waterloo, 
later accompanied Lorenzo Dow in Ireland, and assisted 
in the establishment of Methodist work in Gibraltar, but 
was expelled from the Wesleyan Methodists in 1834 be- 
cause of his Reform sympathies. He left the army in 
1836, and immediately associated himself with the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Association and entered the ministry, 
contenting himself throughout his ministry with serving 
in the poorer circuits. Two of his sons, Richard Elijah 
and Ralph Abercrombie, entered the ministry. He died 
in London on July 2, 1881. 

U.M.F.C. Minutes, 1881. Ouver A. Beckeblegce 

ABERNATHY, JOHN REAGAN (1879-1957), American 
minister, was born near Hamilton, Tex., October 29, 1879. 
He attended Proctor Seminary in Texas, Scarritt Collegiate 
Institute at Neosho, Mo., and Vanderbilt School of 



Theology. He was awarded the D.D. degree by Okla- 
homa City University Abemathy was married to Helen 
Hinman October 16, 1907 at Centralia, Mo. 

"Brother John," as he was often called, joined the 
Southwest Missouri Conference in 1900, later trans- 
ferred to the Missouri Conference, and then went to 
Oklahoma in 1908. He served a number of pastorates in 
Oklahoma City, was superintendent of the Tulsa and 
Oklahoma City Districts, commissioner of education for 
the Conference, and associate pastor at St. Luke's 
Church, Oklahoma City. 

Abemathy was prominent in civic affairs. In 1910 at 
Guthrie he organized the first Boy Scout troop in the 
state, and the Boy Scouts of America gave him the Silver 
Beaver award. He was one of the first ministers to become 
active in the work of Alcoholics Anonymous as a counsel- 
or. He was a life-long Mason serving the Lodge in almost 
every capacity, including Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of the State of Oklahoma, Deputy Inspector Gen- 
eral of the Scottish Rite, 33rd Degree Mason, and Chap- 
lain of India Temple of the Shrine. 

Abemathy died December 31, 1957. 

Clegg and Oden, Oklahoma. 1968. 

Minutes of the Oklahoma Annual Conf., 1958, p. 168. 

OscAH L. Fontaine 

ABERNETHY, GEORGE (1807-1877), pioneer settler and 
govemor of the Oregon territory, was bom in New York 
Crry, October 7, 1807. For some years he was an account- 
ant in that city, where he married Anne Cope on January 
21, 1830. 

In 1840 Jason Lee invited him to take over the financial 
management of the Oregon Mission. He sailed with Lee 
and his party aboard the Lausanne, arriving in Oregon 
June 1, 1840, after a voyage that took them around the 

This group of settlers cultivated land, opened an acad- 
emy, and built a mill. Abemethy's warehouse in Oregon 
City was the territory's first brick structure. He bought 
a press and helped to establish Oregon's first newspaper. 

Abemethy was well hked and trusted by business rivals 
and by those who otherwise were distrustful of missionary 
influence in public affairs. This popularity made him the 
natural compromise for govemor of the provisional gov- 
ernment in 1845 when a deadlock arose. He was re-elected 
in 1847. 

A major event in Abemethy's administration was the 
Whitman massacre at Waiilatpu and the war carried out 
against the Cayuses who had committed the offense. 
Abemethy's handling of this action and his work to shake 
Congress out of its apathetic attitude toward Oregon 
won him wide approval. Oregon became a Territory in 

After the secular department of the Oregon Mission 
was closed, Abemethy engaged in private business as a 
merchant. He was the first Oregon merchant to establish 
credit in New York. George Abemethy and Company, 
established in 1850, was the first wholesale house in the 
Territory. He built lumber mills, flour mills, operated 
numerous sailing vessels, and carried on trade with Ha- 
wah, California ports, and ports on the Adantic coast. 
Financial reverses and a flash flood on the Willamette 
which swept away his store and mills forced him into 
bankmptcy in 1861. 

Abemethy operated a wholesale business in his later 

years in Portland. He was elected as Oregon's first lay 
delegate to the General Conference of the M. E. Church 
held in Brooklyn, N. Y. in 1872. 

He died May 2, 1877, and is buried in Portland. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 

Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. 

Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1963. Erle Howell 

ABERNETHY, THOMAS SMITH (1803-1882), one of the 
five preachers who helped organize the Alabama Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church in 1832. His father was 
Henry Abemethy, who with his wife, Rebecca Firth, 
moved to Giles Co., Tenn. in 1812, where young Tom 
Abemethy joined the church in 1819. In 1823 he joined 
the Tennessee Conference, and was immediately trans- 
ferred to the Mississippi Conference and appointed to 
Marion Circuit in Ala. He served also Chickasawhay, 
Claiborne, Marengo, Prairie Creek, Greensboro and Erie 
Circuits and was a charter member of the Alabama Con- 
ference. In that Conference he served Black Warrior 
Circuit, Marion and Selma — he is said to have preached 
the first sermon ever preached in Selma — Marengo, Flat- 
woods, Poet Oak, Sumterville, Belmont, Uniontown, 
Lower Peachtree, Dayton Colored Mission, Spring Hill 
and Linden Circuits. 

Thomas Abemethy was married three times — to Martha 
W. Lucy in 1827; to Eleanor L. Lucy in 1842; and to 
Ellen CoUins Lordin in 1851. He left seven children by 
his first wife and three by his second, and his descen- 
dants have continued to give character and importance to 
many places and situations in Ala. Thomas Smith Aber- 
nethy, Jr., the son of his first wife, joined the Alabama 
Conference in 1854, and after serving in several stations, 
including Pensacola, died in 1871. 

Thomas Abemethy died April 13, 1882 at Dayton, 
Ala., where he is buried under a monument which gives 
the essential dates of his life. 

Greene County Democrat, Eutaw, Ala., Mar. 24, 1955. 
J. G. Jones, Mississippi Conference. 1887, 1908. 
M. E. Lazenby, Alabama and West Florida. 1960. 
Our Southern Home, Livingston, Ala., Mar. 10, 1955. 


ABILENE, TEXAS, U.S.A. The first Methodist church orga- 
nized in Taylor County, Tex. was at Buffalo Gap in 
1877, a year before the county was organized with Buffalo 
Gap as the county seat. In 1881 a church was organized 
in the new town of Abilene, and two years later the 
county headquarters were moved there. 

First Church has had an illustrious history, and is still 
a strong church with almost a thousand members, and 
church property valued at over $800,000. Three men 
who serve as pastors in the early days of this church 
became bishops of the M. E. Church, South. They were 
Sam R. Hay, Edwin D. Mouzon, and H. A. Boaz. 

St. Paul Church had a unique beginning. In February, 
1909, at the close of a revival meeting held by the famous 
evangelist, Abe Mulkey, a collection was taken to build a 
new edifice for First Church. Soon it was decided that 
instead they would start a new church organization and 
use the money for the new project. So St. Paul Church 
was bom with 250 members and a $35,000 church build- 
ing. J. T. Hicks was the first pastor. For the past 60 years 
St. Paul has enjoyed a steady growth with a number of 
the outstanding leaders of the conference serving as pas- 


tors, and many of the distinguished men and women of 
the city and the conference counted among its lay leader- 
ship. In 1968 this church reported a membership of 2,324, 
a church school enrollment of 1,660, a church structure 
valued at over $1,400,000, and parsonage property' 
worth $58,000. 

In 1968 there were 12 Methodist churches in Abilene 
with 7,407 members, and property valued at about 

McMuBHY College was established at Abilene in 1923 
under the leadership of J. \V. Hunt, pastor of St. Paul 
Church. He served as the first president of the college. 
In 1968 the school had assets of more than $9,000,000. 
The members of St. Paul have spearheaded every move- 
ment for the growth and development of the college. 

J. O. Haymes, Northwest Texas Conference. 1962. 

J. O. Haymes 

ABINGDON PRESS, the trade name under which the 
Publishing House of The United Methodist Church pub- 
lishes religious books — not simply for United Methodists 
but for a wide Christian constituency. This name was first 
adopted by the Methodist Book Concern of the M. E. 
Church in 1915. In 1923 Cokesbuhy Press was set up 
as the book publishing department of the Publishing 
House of the M. E. Church, South in N.\shville, Tenn. 
At church union in 1939, when the publishing and sales 
operations of the uniting Churches became The Methodist 
Pubhshing House, the name Abingdon-Cokesbury was 
taken as a trade name for book publishing of that House, 
and it was used for fifteen years. In 1954 the Board of 
Publication of The Methodist Church, upon recommenda- 
tion of the Publisher, went back to the single name Abing- 
don for the book press, and took the name Cokesbury to 
denominate the official Methodist book stores over the 
country. The Book Editor of The Methodist Church has 
always been the editor of the respective book presses of 
the Publishing House, and is editor now of the Abingdon 

Abingdon Press handles the publishing of many official 
United Methodist resources. In recent years it has issued 
such publications as The Interpreter's Bible and The 
Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. Annually it pubHshes 
over one hundred books. In 1969 it received the John 
Barnes Publisher of the Year Award, the first time a 
church-owned press had been so honored. 

N. B.H. 

ABSTINENCE. (See Ethical Traditions, Am; and Tem- 
perance Movement in England. ) 

ACADEMIES. (See Education in the United States.) 

ACUFF, FRANCIS (1770-1795), American preacher and 
son of Timothy Acuff, was bom in Culpepper County, 
Va., and was reared in Sullivan County, Tenn., where his 
family moved in 1773. 

As a young man, Acuff showed early signs of great 
promise of leadership and ability, and was admitted to the 
conference in 1793. He served the Greenbrier and Hol- 
ston Circuits, then went to Kentucky where he died 
near Danville just three months after his appointment to 
the circuit. He died in August, 1795. 

On May 1, 1796, Francis Asbury visited Acuff 


Chapel and found "the family sorrowing and weeping 
on the death of Francis Acuff, who from a fiddler became 
a Christian; from a Christian, a preacher; and from a 
preacher, I trust, a glorified saint." 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 
R. N. Price, Holston. 1903-13. 

Elmeh T. Clark 

ACUFF, TIMOTHY (1732-1823), American pioneer, was 
bom in Virginia. In 1773 he moved westward with his 
family and secured land by homestead in Sullivan Co., 
Tenn., which was then a part of North Carolina. In 
1785 he secured a grant of additional land for his service 
in the Revolutionary War. 

He built Acuff Chapel, the first Methodist meeting 
house in Tennessee. It was a school as well as a church. 
At that time the nearest church was Page's Meeting 
House one hundred miles away, and the only other school 
within a 100-mile radius was one conducted by Samuel 
Doak at Washington. Timothy Acuff's son, Francis, be- 
came a Methodist preacher. 

Bishop Francis Asbury preached at AcuflF Chapel 
more frequently than at any other place in the Holston 

Acuff died in 1823 and was buried in the chapel grave- 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

Clyde Enoch Lundy. Holston Horizons. Bristol, Tenn.-Va.: 

Holston Conference Inter-Board Council, The Methodist 

Church, 1947, 

I. P. Martin, Holston. 1945. 

R. N. Price, Holston. 1903-13. L. W. Pierce 

Acuff CuAPt 

ACUFF CHAPEL, the first Methodist meetinghouse in Ten- 
nessee, was erected in 1786. In 1785 a Methodist class, 
composed chiefly of emigrants from Virginlv, was orga- 
nized in Sullivan County near where Blountville now 
stands. The chapel was built on land given by Timothy 


and Anna Leigh Acuff. Micajah Adams assisted Acuff 
in planning for the building. Francis Asbuby preached 
at Acuff Chapel several times, as did a number of other 
Methodist pioneers. For a time the chapel was also used 
as a school. Timothy Acuff and his wife, along with numer- 
ous other early settlers of the area, are buried in the ceme- 
tery adjacent to Acuff Chapel. The successor to the Acuff 
Chapel congregation was Adams Chapel, which was built 
in 1887. Acuff Chapel was sold, moved from its original 
site, and used for a dwelling for a number of years. In 
1962 the HoLSTON Conference Historical Society pur- 
chased the building and moved it back to its first loca- 
tion. It has been completely restored and was designated 
as a national Methodist historic Shbine by the 1964 
General Conference. A road marker has been erected 
beside Highway 126, noting the Chapel's history and its 
present location. 

R. N. Price, Hohton. 1903-13. 

Louise L. Queen 

ACWORTH, GEORGIA, U.S.A. Acworth Methodist 
Church is an historic church in Cobb County, north 
Geobcia, organized in 1858. It may be the only church in 
America built on land requiring an Act of Congress to se- 
cure. Now in its third building, it is situated on a bluff 
overlooking Acworth and Allatoona Lakes. 

The site belonged to the United States Government 
and was included in a fifty-year Master Plan for recre- 
ation. At the urging of Mr. and Mrs. Ray Harrison it was 
sought as the site for the Acworth church's relocation. 
W. A. "Pete" Roton, chairman of the Official Board, and 
many others worked to get Congressional action trans- 
ferring 7.4 acres to the church, the bill being signed by 
President Eisenhower in September, 1957. 

On his March to the Sea, General W. T. Sherman 
stopped in Acworth on June 4-9, 1864, ordering every 
church to be destroyed except the Methodist, then being 
used for a hospital. It is said that the real deciding factor 
was the Masonic Hall then on the second floor of the 
church building, and Sherman, it is alleged, favored the 

For many years Acworth was on a circuit, becoming 
a full-Hme charge in 1957. 

OuiDA Wade Roton 

ADAM, THOMAS (1701-84), British Anglican, rector of 
Winteringham, Lincolnshire, was one of the fathers of 
Anglican Evangelicalism and a close friend and corre- 
spondent of Samuel Walker. Adam's Private Thoughts 
on Religion, posthumously pubHshed (1786), impressed 
such intellectuals as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and John 
Stuart Mill. In 1755 Adam was consulted by John Wes- 
ley, on Walker's advice, about separation of the Meth- 
odists from the Church of England, and strongly urged 
against it. 

A. Westoby, Memoir. 1837. A. Skevington Wood 

ADAMS, CHARLES VAN NESS (1885-1970), banker and 
churchman, was born Aug. 11, 1885 at Port Royal, Pa., the 
son of Furman and Sarah (Van Ness) Adams. His father 
was a preacher in the Central Pennsylvanla. Con- 
ference. Young Adams was educated at the school which 
is now Lycoming College. Later he served as a member 
of its board. Entering the field of banking, he was presi- 


dent of the First National Bank, Montoursville, Pennsyl- 
vania, 1920-65, and then became chairman of the board of 

An active churchman, Adams was church school super- 
intendent at Montoursville for 31 years. He became a lay 
member of the Central Pennsylvania Conference in 1940 
and for 12 years was conference lay leader. He served 
10 years as chairman of the conference board of educa- 
tion. He was a delegate to 10 General Conferences, 1928- 
64, and the 1939 Uniting Conference. Elected a member 
of the General Board of Missions in 1936, he served 
continuously until 1964. During that period he was chair- 
man of the board's finance committee for 24 years, trea- 
surer four years, and vice-president of the world division 
16 years. On retiring in 1965, he made his home in 
Williamsport, Pa. He died there Aug. 7, 1970. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. 
Williamsport Sun-Gazette, August 12, 1965. 

Charles F. Berkheimer 

ADAMS, FRED WINSLOW (1866-1945), minister and 
authority on liturgy, was born in Belfast, Me., Aug. 31, 
1866, the son of True Page and Dorcas Ellen (Winslow) 
Adams. His father was a member of the East Maine 
Conference. Fred attended Boston University three 
years, Harvard one year, and Yale Divinity School one 
year. Syracuse University awarded him the honorary 
b.D. degree in 1905. He married Harriet Heath, June 
11, 1901, and they had two sons. 

Admitted on trial in the New York East Conference 
in 1896, Adams served churches in Brooklyn, Yalesville, 
and New Haven. In 1902, he transferred to the Troy 
Conference where he was appointed to First Church, 
Schenectady, for the next 13 years. Going to the New 
York Conference in 1915, he was pastor of St. Andrew's 
Church, New York City, for one year, and then had two 
years as superintendent of the New York District. In 
1918 he went to Trinity Church, Springfield, Mass., 
where during a 12-year pastorate, he led in building the 
magnificent edifice for which that church is still known. 
The Ecumenical Methodist Conference met there in 

Adams was professor of Liturgies at Boston Univer- 
sity School of Theology, 1930-37. Fond of liturgy, he 
was able to express and incorporate his views in the 
church he planned and built at Springfield. Beginning in 
1936, he served several years on the commission on 
worship of the Federal Council of Churches. For a 
short time before his death he was a member of the com- 
mission on worship of The Methodist Church where he 
emphatically expressed views which his compeers called 
the "High Church Methodist tradition." He claimed that 
every true liturgical prayer should have a series of ele- 
ments which he carefully outlined. He was known and 
was in demand for two lectures: "Mark Twain and other 
Marks," and "James Whitcomb Riley, Prince of Hoosiers 
and Prophet of Cheer." Small of stature, positive in 
thought, and dynamic in speech, Adams exerted consid- 
erable influence in the general church. He died in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., May 21, 1945. 

General Minutes, ME. 

Minutes of the New England Conference, 1946. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

N. B. H. 




ADAMS, JOHN (1791-1850). American preacher and re- 
vivalist, was boni in Newington, N.H., Feb. 14, 1791. His 
parents were Jolin and Abigail Coleman Adams. Like the 
two United States presidents named John Adams, his 
ancestry may be traced to Henry Adams, who came from, Eng., in 1635. 

As a young shoemaker of 17, Adams was moved by a 
sermon delivered by George Pickering, the first Meth- 
odist lie had ever seen. Continuing under .Methodist 
preaching he was converted on June 23, 1810, and short- 
ly tliereafter united with the church and was appointed 
a class leader. 

In 1812 he joined the New England Conference. 
During his ministry he was stationed at widely scattered 
points, primarily in Maine, Massachusetts, and New 
Hampshire. Even when stationed he traveled widely, 
both in America and abroad, conducting revivals, speak- 
ing at camp meetings, and doing the work of an evange- 
list, often receiving from 100 to 300 people into his 
churches within a short time. of his effectiveness as a revivalist and because 
"reformation" was his primary theme, he was known 
among his contemporaries as "Reformation John Adams." 

He died September 30, 1850 at Newmarket, N. H. 

J. Mudge, New England Conference. 1910. Ernest R. Case 

ADAMS FAMILY, THE, of Virginia, has left a record of 
distinguished service. Ann Adams, wife of Colonel Wil- 
liam Adams, was converted in a Metliodist revival in 
1773, and soon won her husband and ten children to the 

"Church Hill," the Adams home, located near the Falls 
Anglican Church in Fairfax Co., was built in 1750. Torn 
down in 1964, woodwork from the house has been in- 
corporated in "the Methodist (headquarters) Building" 
of Northern Virginia, and in the Wesley Foundation 
Chapel at the University of Virginia. A Methodist class 
was formed at "Church Hill" in 1774 and continued to 
meet there until 1778. This society became Fairfax Chap- 
el, and it has two modem-day descendants: Dulin and 
Crossman Churches at Falls Church. The work at Ale.x- 
andria was an outgrowth of the Adams class, and Trinity 
Church, Alexandria, began with a part of the original 

Ann (Lawyer) Adams was born in Stafford Co. in 
1732. Her husband, also bom in Stafford Co. Nov. 3, 
1723, was from a family which settled as early as 1677 
near what became the town of Falls Church. He became 
county sheriff Nov. 23, 1768. In early life he was an 
Anglican and was active in and attended the Falls Church. 
George Washington's Ledger shows that in 1770 he paid 
one pound to Adams as his subscription toward decorating 
the Falls Church. "Church Hill" adjoined land owned by 
Washington, and his Diary refers to surveying with Col- 
onel Adams on April 4, 1799. 

"Church Hill" was the congenial home of Bishop As- 
BUHY on numerous occasions. His Journal for Sat., May 
12, 1781, says. 

Reached Mr. Adams's about eight o'clock at night: I always 
come to this house weary, but generally get my body and 
soul refreshed. 

Colonel Adams died Sept. 4, 1809. Following Meth- 
odist practice at that time, he by his will gave freedom 
to more than twenty slaves. 

The ten children born to William and Ann Adams were 
prominent in Methodist circles. Simon Adams served in 
the Revolutionary War and settled near Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, in 1786. He was active in spreading Methodism 
in that state. While returning from a visit to Virginia, 
he was robbed and murdered near Pineville, Kentucky, 
in December 1809. 

William Adams, son of Simon and Catherine (Wren) 
Adams, was born in Fairfax Co., Va., June 29, 1785. He 
was "piously educated, . . . joined the church at an early 
age, and in 1813 commenced preaching." In 1814 he 
joined the tiaveling connection and continued effective 
until his death in Shelby Co., Ky., in Aug., 1835. He served 
many years as secretary of the Kentucky Conference. 
He was married in 1803 to Ann Standiford, and their 
daughter, Frances, became the bride of Methodist preach- 
er, William Gunn (1797-1853). 

The second "Church Hill" son, William Adams, Jr., 
died unmarried Dec. 3, 1779, after a brief useful life in 
the ministry. 

The third son, Samuel Adams, died Aug. 7, 1805 after 
an effective life as a preacher. By his will he gave free- 
dom to his slaves, and he donated "fifty pounds ... to the 
building of Methodist meeting houses." 

The fourth son, Wesley Adams, was a pioneer preacher 
in Georgia and Florida. He married three times and 
had 13 children. One daughter, Elizabeth, married Rich- 
ard Tydings, a preacher. Charles Darius Adams, a grand- 
son of Wesley Adams, was a Methodist preacher. He died 
in Pooler, Ga'., Dec. 6, 1923. 

The fifth "Church Hill" son, John Adams, died at 70 
years of age in Dec, 1839, at Leesburg. He was a class 
leader in the Old Stone Church at Leesburg, and was 
buried in the church yard. 

The sixth son, Edward Adams, was a class leader in 
Loudoun Co. 

Sarah Adams, a daughter of "Church Hill," was mar- 
ried June 6, 1778, to William Watters, first native- 
born American Methodist itinerant. She died Oct. 29, 
1845, leaving an extensive estate. By her will she freed 
her slaves. 

Ann, another daughter of "Church Hill," married Col- 
onel George Minor of "Minor's Hill," Fairfax Co. Minor 
was converted to Methodism and contributed the land 
for Fairfax Chapel at Falls Church. All of the Minor 
descendants were prominent in Methodist circles. 

Susannah, or Sukey, Adams was bom in 1766 at 
"Church Hill." In 1782 she married Captain Lewis Hip- 
kins. After his death in 1794 she married Richard Wren, 
and their son, Thomas Sanford Wren, became prominent 
in Methodism — as are many of the Wren family descen- 

The tenth child of "Church Hill," Margaret Adams, 
married John Childs, a Methodist preacher. Licensed to 
preach in 1789, he located, was re-admitted to the travel- 
ing connection in 1816, located again in 1823, and then 
returned to the active work in 1827. John and Margaret 
Childs had eight children, including Mary Y. Childs who 
married John R. Wren. One son, John Wesley Childs 
(1800-1850), entered the Methodist ministry April 29, 
1826. He was married in 1834 by John Early, later 
bishop, to Martha Binns Susannah Rives. Early was a 
brother-in-law to Margaret Childs. J. Rives Childs, author 
and foreign service officer, is a grandson of John Wesley 

Frances Ann Cooksey, daughter of Samuel and Jemima 


(Dame) Adams, married Alexander Gustavus BrovvTi 
( 1833-1900), who served in the itinerancy and as financial 
secretary of Randolph-Macon College. 

Raymond F. Wrenn, executive secretary of the North- 
ern Virginia Methodist Board of Missions, is a descendant 
of James and Anne (Adams) Wren. 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

J. Rives Childs, Reliques of the Rives. Lynchburg, Va.: J. P. 
BeU Co., 1929. 

County Court Record, 1768-1770, Fairfax County, Va., p. 

Melvin L. Steadman, Jr., Falls Church: By Fence and Fire- 
side. Falls Church, Va.: Public Library, 1964, pp. 92-109, 
W. Walters, Short Account. 1806. 

Melvin L. Steadman, Jr. 

AODICKS, GEORGE D. (1854-1910), German-American 
minister and educator, was bom at Hampton, 111., Sept. 
9, 1854. He received a B.A. from Central Wesleyan 
College, VVarrenton, Mo., in 1875 and an M.A. in 1886. 
Following his graduation he taught one year in the prepa- 
ratory department of Central Wesleyan and then attended 
Garrett Biblical Institute, 1876-77. Admitted to the 
St. Louis German Annual Conference of the M. E. 
Church, he became professor of German of the Mount 
Pleasant German College and Iowa Wesleyan College 
until 1885 when he accepted a pastorate at Pekin, 111. for 
five years. In 1890 he was appointed professor of Prac- 
tical Theology at Central Wesleyan College, and in 1895 
he became president. He died in office on Jan. 31, 1910. 
During his presidency, the faculty and student body were 
expanded, new buildings erected, and Mount Pleasant 
German College absorbed. He was a delegate to the Gen- 
eral Conferences of 1900, 1904 and 1908, and was a mem- 
ber of the University Senate of the M. E. Church. German 
Wallace College, Berea, O., granted him an honorary D.D. 
in 1898. 

Minutes of the St. Louis German Conference, 1878-1911. 
Commemorative Volume of the 50th Anniversary of Central 
Wesleyan College 1864-1914. 
The Pulse, 1906. Central Wesleyan College Yearbook. 

Louis A. Haselmayer 

ADELAIDE, AUSTRALIA, is the capital of South AustraUa. 
Known as the City of Churches, Adelaide is the business 
center for the pastoral and industrial interests of South 
Australia. Historically, the strength of Methodism in Ade- 
laide has always been considerable and due, in no small 
measure, to the enthusiastic witness of pioneer Methodist 
ministers and laymen. Adelaide is the metropohs of the 
South Austrahan Conference. 

The Central Methodist Mission, Frankhn St., Adelaide, 
S. Aust., is one of the major centers of urban work with 
the Australian church. It is also known locally as 
"Maughan," James Maughan being the first Methodist 
New Connexion minister in the state and the founder of 
the Mission's original congregation in 1863. In 1888 the 
New Cormexion Methodists merged with the Bible 
Christians, the Franklin St. church becoming the major 
church of the latter denomination. 

The Central Mission proper was established as the 
'West Adelaide Methodist Mission" at the first conference 
following Methodist union in 1900. Its beginnings owed 
much to the "Forward Movement" in British Methodism. 


Central Mission, Adelaide, Australia 

The Mission's advocates behaved that the work of Hugh 
Price Hughes and others in the Central Missions of the 
mother church provided a pattern which could be suc- 
cessfully followed in South Austraha. For years the Mis- 
sion's work was hampered by long-standing debts and it 
was not until the ministry of W. H. Cann that the finances 
were put on a sound footing and the institutional outreach 
of the Mission grew. Further growth took place under 
Cann's successor, Samuel Forsyth, O.B.E. 

The Mission stands at the center of a network of in- 
stitutions and services — Aldersgate Village (Homes for 
the Aged), "Lentara" Children's Homes, Kuipto Colony 
(a men's rural rehabilitation center). Goodwill Store, and 
Lifeline Counselling Centre. The Mission is the major 
shareholder in a commercial radio station and its "Pleasant 
Sunday Afternoon" and evening service are broadcast 
each week. 

In 1965 all buildings on the Frankhn St. site were 
demohshed and a new Mission Center with church, chap- 
els, halls and various ancillary facilities were erected, at 
a cost of one million dollars. 

During the ministry of A. Erwin Vogt, L.Th., in 1949, 
there has not only been considerable development in the 
Central Mission complex but both state and federal gov- 
ernments look upon the Mission's social institutions as 
models for all agencies to emulate. 

Kate Cocks Babies' Home in the Adelaide suburb of 
Brighton is an institution maintained by the South Aus- 
trahan Conference for the care of unmarried mothers and 
the provision of facihties for the adoption of their chil- 
dren. It had its origins in the concern of Miss Kate 
Cocks, M.B.E., the first head of Women Pohce in the 
state, who in the 1930's began to care for pregnant girls 
in her own home. The interest of the church eventually 
led to the establishment in 1937 of the present institution 
in what had earUer been the Brighton Training Home 
(Bible College conducted by W. G. Torr, a Bible Chris- 
tian schoolteacher) and later Brighton College. Its orig- 
inal name was "Methodist Home for Babies and Unmar- 
ried Mothers." 

Miss Kate Cocks was herself in charge of the work from 
1935 until her retirement in 1950. It is estimated that 
over 3,500 children have passed through the Home since 
its inception. It is administered by the Conference Wom- 
en's Welfare Department, located on Wattle St., Brigh- 


toil, S. Aust. Deaconess P. Bonython has been the super- 
intendent since 1957. 

Lincoln College, an incorporated body associated with 
the South Austraha Conference, is to be distinguished 
from Wesley. Lincoln, opened in 1952, is the church's resi- 
dential college within the University of Adelaide. The 
Master, W. F. Hambly, was President General from 

Pirle Street Methodist Church in the heart of the city 
of Adelaide is the "descendant" of the first Methodist con- 
gregation to meet in South Australia. Sometimes teimed 
"the cathedral church," it was established on its present 
site in 1851. For half a century it was the major Wesleyan 
church and the parent congregation of many churches in 
the suburbs and country. The inaugural service of united 
Methodism took place at Pirie Street on Aug. 14, 1899, 
and the church has been the scene of many Annual and 
General Conferences. Numerous distinguished preachers 
from overseas have occupied its pulpit. Pirie Street has 
long had a reputation for its fine choral work and for its 
contribution to church music in South Austraha. 

Some of the names which stand out on its roll of min- 
isters are those of D.^niel J. Draper, John C. Symons, 
William Butters, Henhy Howard, John G. Jenkin, and 
W. Frank Hambly. 

Under the leadership of Trevor Byard, appointed in 
1965, Pirie Street Church has entered into union with the 
historic Stow Congregational Church, forming the "Union 
Church of the City," as of June 1, 1969. 

Prince Alfred College in the Adelaide suburb of Kent 
Town is a Methodist boys' school providing education 
and accomodation (for a limited number), from first 
grade to the matriculation (pre-University) level. In the 
early years of the Colony of South Australia the Meth- 
odist Church conducted several day schools in city and 
country centers. With the devek)pment of the State edu- 
cational system these declined and were closed. How- 
ever, the desire for a boys' school under Methodist 
auspices persisted, an early resolution giving as the pur- 
pose of such an institution "the education of our sons 
and the training of candidates for the ministry." 

The foundation stone of the College was laid by Prince 
Alfred, the Duke of Edinburgh, on Nov. 5, 1867, and 
classes commenced two years later. In 1902 Way College, 
a Bible Christian Boys' College, was closed and many of 
the students and staff transferred to Prince Alfred Col- 
lege. A sister school, Methodist Ladies' College, took over 
the Way College property in 1903. The College is now 
an incorporated body. 

Wesley Theological College, Wayville, was establi.shed 
in 1927 with the Rev. Frank Lade as tlie first principal. 
Prior to the setting up of this institution, students for the 
ministry had been trained at a college at Brighton and 
earlier at Prince Alfred College. 

As with all Methodist theological institutions in Aus- 
tralia, Wesley College receives for training candidates 
accepted by the annual conference. Matriculated students 
undertake work at the University of Adelaide and con- 
currently study for diploma or degree examinations set by 
the Melbourne College of Divinity. A joint lecturing pro- 
gram brings together the faculty and students of three 
seminaries — Wesley (Methodist), Parkin (Congregation- 
al), and the Baptist College. 

Incorporated with Wesley College is the Chapman 
Alexander Bible Institute. This was established as a lay 
training center in 1914 through the generosity of .some 

Methodist laymen as a result of the impact of the Chap- 
man-Alexander Evangelistic Missions of 1909 and 1912. 
In 1927 the Institute was handed over to the South 
Australian Conference which now undertakes respon- 
sibility for carrying out the founders' intentions. Evening 
classes offer a variety of courses to interested laymen. 

(For die further history of work in and around Ade- 
laide, see South Australia Conference.) 

Australian Editorial Committee 

ADEN, FRED (1890-1965), American missionary educator 
in Argentina and for thirty-five years director of Colegio 
Ward in Buenos Aires. He was born in Garrison, Neb., 
LI.S.A., and attended Nebraska Wesleyan University 
and the University of Southern California, where he re- 
ceived the A.B. and M.A. degrees. 

Aden married Meda Pettet in June, 1916, and in Jan., 
1918 they went to Buenos Aires, where he became a 
teacher at Colegio Ward. He became director in 1920, 
continuing until his retirement in 1955. 

He received a doctorate in pedology from the Univer- 
sity of Southern California in 1931 and a doctorate in 
laws from Occidental College in 1946. In 1954 the Amer- 
icas Foundation gave him the "Americas Award" in recog- 
nition of "his lifetime devotion to inter-American accord 
as director and head of Ward College." 

From their retirement home in Stockton, Calif., the 
Adens returned in 1963 for the golden anniversary of 
Colegio Ward and the inauguration of "Aden Center," a 
group of four buildings — hbrary, science hall, lecture hall, 
and chapel. A bronze bust of Aden by Fioravanti has 
been placed in the reception hall of Aden Center near the 

A. G. Tallon, Rio de la Plata. 1936. 

Pearl S. Sweet 

ADKINS, LEON McKINLEY (1896- ), American min- 

ister, church official, and General Secretary of the Divi- 
sion of the Local Church of the Board of Education, The 
Methodist Church, for nearly three quadrennia, was born 
at Ticonderoga, New York, July 14, 1896. 

Adkins joined the Troy Conference on trial in 1921, 
and after sei-ving three appointments of his Conference, 
he became pastor of tlie large First Church, Schenectady, 
New York, 1937-50, and University Church, Syracuse, 
1950-55. He was elected to the Northeastern Jurisdic- 
tional Conferences of 1940, 1944, 1948, and the General 
Conference of 1948. He was a member of the General 
Board of Education of The Methodist Church from 1940 
to 1955, when he was elected General Secretary of its 
Division of the Local Church. In this capacity he served 
on many important church commissions including the 
International Council of Religious Education and the Gen- 
eral Board of the National Council of Churches. He was 
a trustee of Green Mountain College, Poultney, Vermont, 
1940-60; Syracuse University, 1952-56; Paine College, 
and Scarritt College. During the first World War he served 
as second Lieutenant of Infantry in the United States 
Army. Dr. Adkins is the author of the hymn, "Go, Make 
of All Disciples," in The Methodist Hymnal of 1964. 

After retirement in 1966, he continued to reside in 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

Who's Who in America, 1966-67. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 


cal United Brethren Church — General Council of 

AMINISTRATIVE BOARD. (See Official Board.) 

ADRIAN, MICHIGAN, U.S.A., is a small city in the 
southeastern part of the state and a Methodist center. In 
the summer of 1830, Adrian was made a preaching point 
on a large wilderness circuit, and a society of five members 
was organized. 

In 1837, following the building of the first railroad of 
the area from Toledo to Adrian, Adrian became a station. 
The first church was begun in 1838. It was a thick-walled 
brick church which stood until 1965 — during its last cen- 
tury a Disciples of Christ church. By 1842 the Adrian 
church had 350 members and was for some years the 
largest church in Michigan. Methodist growth had been 
so rapid that in the summer of 1851 a second church was 
organized, but this was given up in 1858. In 1863-64 a 
large new brick church was built on Broad St., which was 
used for 98 years. 

In 1854 the Adrian District was organized with Elijah 
H. Pilcher as presiding elder. In 1856 the Detroit Con- 
ference was organized in Adrian. The Michigan Con- 
ference had previously met here in 1842 and 1849. The 
Detroit Conference has met in Adrian repeatedly through 
the years— in 1864, 1877, 1886, 1904, 1921, 1939, 1956, 
and 1961-66. 

In 1859 a college was moved to Adrian from Leoni 
under the Wesleyan Methodist banner. In 1866 Adrian 
College became a Methodist Protestant college. A church 
called "The First Methodist Church" was organized at 
the college on April 14, 1867 — a small group supported 
by college people until 1879, who never possessed a build- 
ing. In the I870's the Congregational church in Adrian 
fell upon evil days, and in 1879 it became the Plymouth 
Methodist Protestant Church. This church was supported 
by people related to the college and home mission funds 
of its denomination. In 1939 the Plymouth Church was 
merged with the First Church. 

James V. Watson published in Adrian a monthly re- 
ligious paper, The Family Favorite, in 1849-50, and then 
an early Michigan Christian Advocate (which see), be- 
fore he went on to the editorship of the Northwestern 
Christian Advocate in Chicago. The Adrian District 
Methodist, a monthly paper, was begun at Adrian in 
October 1873 by Orrin Whitmore, presiding elder. In 
Jan., 1874 this paper became the Michigan Christian 
Advocate and continues to this day. 

A Uniting Conference, bringing together the M. E. 
and M. P. churches of Michigan, was held at Adrian in 

The Adrian church erected a new building near the 
college in 1961-62 at a cost of about $800,000. Church 
membership has been increasing in recent years and in 
1969 stood at nearly 1,300. The Detroit Annual Con- 
ference usually meets at Adrian College, with First Church 
sharing the responsibilities of host. 

Minutes of the Michigan and Detroit Annual Conferences. 
E. H. Pilcher, Michigan. 1878. Ronald A. Brunger 

ADRIAN COLLEGE, Adrian, Michigan, chartered in 1859, 
traces its origin to the Wesleyan Theological Institute 


founded in 1845 by the Wesleyan Methodist Church. 
The college was transferred to the Methodist Protes- 
tant Church in 1868 and continued under these auspices 
until Unification in 1939. After this union the college was 
successfully integrated into the educational program of 
The Methodist Church in Michigan. The phenomenal 
growth of the college is reflected in a comparison of the 
value of holdings in physical plant and endowment: In 
1939 its properties were worth $489,795; in 1966 the 
total value was $11,402,169. It grants the A.B. and B.S. 
degrees. The governing board consists of twenty-seven 
trustees elected by Detroit and Michigan Annual Con- 

John O. Gross 

ADRIANCE, JACOB (1835-1922), American preacher and 
western pioneer, was born Oct. 22, 1835 in Aurelius, 
Cayuga Co., N. Y. He was converted at age sixteen and 
almost from the first felt that he was destined to preach. 
He attended Wilson Collegiate Institute. 

In 1857 Adriance moved to Nebraska, settling in De- 
Sota. He was received on trial in the Kansas-Nebraska 
Conference in 1858 and moved to Fremont, where he 
assumed charge of the Platte Valley Ciicuit, which had 
twelve points to visit over a 300-mile route and took a 
month to cover. 

In 1859 he transferred to Pikes Peak, accompanying 
Presiding Elder William H. Goode to the Cherry Creek 
Mission. Together they became the founders of Meth- 
odism in Colorado. He and Goode founded the first 
Methodist organization at historic Central City. Later he 
helped start congregations in Golden, Denver, and Boul- 
der. The Denver church became the famed Trinity 
Church. His great energy and determination won him 
great respect, even among the hard-bitten gold miners 
who had swarmed into Colorado. He ogranized the first 
Sunday school in the state. It was a union school with all 
groups cooperating in it. He was appointed chaplain to 
the lower house of the Colorado legislature as the Terri- 
tory's provisional government was formed. 

In 1860 Adriance returned to New York, where he 
married Fannie A. Rogers. They went back to Colorado 
that same year, and she frequently accompanied her hus- 
band on his circuit visits. 

In 1862 he went to Nebraska where he located until 
being readmitted into the conference in 1864. He served 
several large circuits until deafness forced him to give up 
his church work. 

Adriance kept a meticulous diary of his work in the 
mining area, and this has become a valued source of early 
Methodist history there. 

He died Dec. 18, 1922 at Fremont, Neb. 

W. H. Goode, Outposts of Zion. 1963 

Kenneth Metcalf, The Beginnings of Methodism in Colorado. 

( Unpublished dissertation, Iliff School of Theology, 1948. ) 

Lowell B. Swan 

name a formal quadrennial program of The Methodist 
Church, U.S.A., was carried on for the four years from 
1948 to 1952. In a sense this move was a continuation 
of the Crusade for Christ, which had been a similar 
emphasis and movement during the previous quadren- 
nium. The Crusade for Christ had proved highly success- 


ful, and in order not to lose the momentum of interest 
which the general church had achieved in world-wide 
rehabilitation, and especially in funds for missionary and 
church extension causes, "The Advance," as it was com- 
monly called, was planned and put on by the General 
Conference of 1948. 

The Board of Missions and the Methodist Com- 
mittee ON Overseas Relief were the only beneficiaries 
of the Advance. The annual income from this source to 
the two agencies exceeded what they had received during 
the corresponding four years from the Crusade for Christ. 
There was a Week of Dedication as part of the Advance 
program, not for the purpose of emphasis, but in order 
that a special appeal might be made for specific objects 
as a part of the Advance. Contributions were made by 
individual churches to specific objects not otherwise pro- 
vided for in the general program, and securing these 
specials was made the responsibility of the respective dis- 
trict superintendents. 

Following the close of the period for the Crusade in 
1952, its emphasis and appeal was made a regular feature 
of missionary outreach of The Methodist Church. Thus 
"mission specials," and the Week of Dedication were 
made permanent in The Methodist Church. 

Crusade Scholarships were a part of the Crusade move- 
ment, and this has resulted in the bringing in of numerous 
chosen young people to the United States by Crusade 
Scholarship funds. These funds have cared for their ex- 
penses and given them an opportunity to be trained for 
leadership. The scholarships have also been available 
for students of the United States. 

Bishop CosTEN J. Harrell was general chairman of 
the Advance Committee, and its executive director was 
Dr. E, Harold Mohn. The treasurer of World Service, 
Dr. Thomas B. Lugg, was made treasurer of the Ad- 
vance. Each Jurisdiction was represented on the Advance 
Committee, and through the quadrennium, by able pro- 
motional work and emphasizing the idea of sacrificial 
givings and Advance Specials, it accomplished much for 
the church. The formal report of the Advance Committee 
to the General Conference of 1952 may be consulted for 
an overall description of its work and accomplishments. 

N. B. II. 

ADVENT, The Second, and ADVENTISM. The return of 
Christ to earth to inaugurate the final resurrection, the 
last judgment and the end of the world has been tradition- 
ally described as the Second Advent. The expectation of 
Christ's return has been part of traditional Christian be- 
lief from New Testament times. It is sometimes described 
as the Parousia (Greek for "coming" or "presence"), and 
it would be more correct to call it the final than the second 
advent, because Christ also returned to earth at his resur- 
rection and he continues to return in so far as he dwells 
within men. Although many New Testament Christians 
expected his final return to take place in the near future, 
the Church came eventually to accept the belief that it 
would be long delayed. There have been nmnerous at- 
tempts to calculate the date of the Second Advent, and 
those who have made these attempts have usually come 
to the conclusion that it would happen very soon. But 
these detailed predictions have not been accepted by the 
main Christian churches. 

The belief in the Second Advent was itself a modifica- 
tion of the Jewish Messianic hope. Many Jews expected 


a Messiah to come as the nation's deliverer to inaugurate 
a new and blessed era; and some forms of this expecta- 
tion linked his coming with the future judgment and resur- 
rection. Christians, however, believed that since Jesus 
was the Messiah, the Messianic age had already begun. 
But the last judgment and the final resuirection had not 
taken place, and they expected Jesus to return again to 
earth for these events. 

There has been a great amount of detailed discussion 
of the New Testament teaching about the Second Advent. 
Most of the New Testament books contain a reference 
to it, and Paul expected it to occur in the near future 
(I Thess. 4:13-18; I Cor. 15:20-57). The argument that 
he changed his views later in his life is put forward by 
some scholars but it has not won general acceptance. 
When a later generation of Christians realized that Jesus 
was not going to return as soon as the first Christians 
expected, they began to modify their views (II Pet. 
3:1-10), and some scholars claim that this modification 
was already being made by the writers of the synoptic 
gospels, especially by Luke. But there is evidence even in 
these writings that his advent was expected soon (Mark 
13:28-37; Luke 21:29-36). The gospel and letters of 
John contain an emphasis which has greatly appealed to 
modern interpreters. Although they retain the expectation 
of Christ's return (John 5:25-29; 6:40, 44, 54; I John 
2:18; 3:2), they also affirm that men receive either eter- 
nal life or judgment in the present, according to their 
reaction to Christ (John 3:16-21, 36; I John 5:12). The 
return of Christ, some writers believe, will be preceded 
by special signs, many of which will be supernatural 
(Mark 13:1-21; II Thess. 2:1-12; Rev. 6:1-20:10). But 
in other passages it is asserted that his return will be 
sudden and unexpected (Matt. 25:13; Mark 13:32; I 
Thess. 5:2). New Testament writers have disagreed wide- 
ly about Jesus' own teaching on this subject. According 
to the gospel writers, he predicted that he himself would 
return to earth. This is beyond dispute since the gospels 
not only contain prophecies of the Son of Man's return 
(e.g. Matt. 24:30; Mark 14:62; Luke 21:27; John 5:25- 
29) but they also identify Jesus with the Son of Man 
(e.g. Mark 8:31 and parallels; John 5:26-27). Many 
scholars, however, regard the New Testament as un- 
reliable at this point, some of them denying that Jesus 
ever prophesied the advent of a Messiah, and others 
claiming that although he expected the coming of the 
Son of Man, he did not identify himself with him. Many 
other scholars contend that the gospels are correct in re- 
cording that Jesus prophesied his own return. 

Scholars have also disagreed about the essential empha- 
sis of Jesus' teaching on this subject. C. H. Dodd has 
claimed that Jesus' distinctive message was a realized 
eschatology, the teaching that the kingdom of God had 
already come in his own ministry. Dodd agrees that there 
are predictions about the future in Jesus' teaching, but he 
claims that the original and distinctive feature of his 
message is its teaching about the present. Dodd's view 
has been modified by Joachim Jeremias who speaks of an 
"eschatology in the process of realization." Rudolf Bult- 
mann, on the other hand, claims that the distinctive fea- 
ture of Jesus' teaching is his proclamation of the immi- 
nence of the kingdom of God and the challenge to 
decision which accompanies this proclamation. Oscar 
Culbnann, however, claims that in the teaching of Jesus, 
as in the rest of the New Testament, there is a tension 
between present and future eschatology. Jesus proclaims 



that the Messianic age has already come with his own 
ministry but at the same time he proclaims that it will 
come in its fullness at his Second Advent. Here is a ten- 
sion between the "already" and the "not yet," which, 
Cullmann claims, runs right through the New Testament. 

Although the interpretation of Jesus' teaching on this 
subject is highly controversial, there is no doubt that the 
New Testament writers themselves expected him to re- 
turn, and that this expectation was one of the main 
themes of the early Christian message. 

A much discussed problem connected with the Second 
Advent is the interpretation of the millennium (period 
of a thousand years) mentioned in Rev. 20:1-10. Many 
early Christians were premillenarians, believing that the 
Lord would return visible to earth before the millen- 
nium. By the end of the fourth centur>' this \iew was 
rejected mainly because of the influence of Origen and 
Augustine. It has been revived from time to time, especial- 
ly by mystical groups in the middle ages and by Ana- 
baptists at the time of the Reformation. During the 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries it has been held by 
numerous members of the Holiness and Pentecostalist 
movements as well as by the Plymouth Brethren, the 
Mormons, the Christadelphians, the Jehovah's Witnesses, 
the Seventh Day Adventists and other groups. By contrast 
with the premillenarians Augustine suggested that the 
whole period during which the earthly church existed 
was the millennium. This interpretation is postmillennial 
since it assumed that Christ will not return visibly until 
after the millennium. Other interpreters feel no need to 
give an account of the millennium at all, and they argue 
that since there is no other evidence of millennial teaching 
in the New Testament, disproportionate emphasis has 
been given to the one passage in Revelation. 

Other problems connected with the Second Advent 
are whether it will be visible and whether the resurrection 
which will follow it will be bodily. In connection with the 
final judgment some theologians have revised the tradi- 
tional belief in eternal punishment and have argued that 
ultimately all men will be saved (universalism, a doctrine 
which was taught as early as the third century by Origen) ; 
others have argued that while the redeemed will live 
eternally, the damned will cease to exist (annihilation- 
ism, or conditional immortality). Another question is 
whether eternal life will be in time or beyond time. And 
yet another is whether men will sleep or will have a 
conscious existence between their physical deaths and the 
final resurrection. Those who believe in a conscious inter- 
mediate stage disagree about its nature, some regarding 
it as a probationary period, and others not. 

The Wesleys. The Wesleys fully shared the traditional 
expectation. Charles Wesley's hymns refer to it, as for 
example, the hymn "Lo! He comes with clouds descend- 
ing." John Wesley often speaks of the Second Advent, 
and he has outlined in considerable detail his beliefs about 
the future of mankind and the world. He claims that at 
the moment of an individual's death, when the soul is 
separated from the body, an intermediate state begins, 
in which the righteous man enjoys happiness and the 
condemned man is punished. A man's fate will be con- 
firmed at the last judgment when all men, women and 
children will receive a sentence of acquittal or condem- 
nation which will be final and irrevocable (Works V., 
pp. 174-180; VI., pp. 381-391, 496-497). He also argues 
that animals as well as human beings will share in the 
final redemption (Works VI., pp. 241-252). 

In his Notes on the New Testament Wesley, closely 
following the interpretation of the German scholar Bengel, 
puts forward a striking but not generally accepted theory 
about Rev. 20:1-10. He claims that the destruction of the 
Beast, which he believes to be a future Pope, will occur 
in A.D. 1836. This event will be followed by two mil- 
lenniums (periods of a thousand years), the first of which 
will bring an era of great blessedness when the Church 
will make remarkable progress. At the end of this first 
millennium Satan, who has been imprisoned, will be 
loosed, and the second millennium will begin, during 
which the saints will reign in heaven and people on earth 
"will be careless and" At the end of the second 
millennium Christ will return visibly to earth in glory, 
Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire, the final resur- 
rection and the last judgment will take place, and the new 
heaven, the new earth, and the new Jenisalem will ap- 
pear (Notes on the New Testament, pp. 999, 1036-1041, 

This interpretation of Revelation is not an example of 
premillennialism, the belief that Christ will return to 
earth before the millennium. Wesley clearly states that 
the beginning of each millennium will take place in the 
invisible world and will be unknown to men. Christ will 
not return visibly until both periods have been completed. 
This theory has not been generally accepted by Methodists 
and it is doubtful how much importance Wesley himself 
attached to it. But he did emphasize the Second Advent, 
the final resurrection and the last judgment, and he also 
stressed the importance of the Church's mission to all 
nations and its future glory on the earth (Works V, pp. 
37-52; VI., pp. 277-288). 

Methodist Teaching in the Nineteenth and Twentieth 
Centuries. The leading Methodist theologians of the nine- 
teenth centtiry, including Adam Clarke and W. Burt 
Pope in Britain and John Miley in America, believed in 
the visible return of Christ. They rejected premillen- 
nialism. They taught that there was an intermediate state 
in which men consciously existed between their deaths 
and the last judgment, but they did not regard this state 
as in any way similar to Purgatory. They believed that 
after the last judgment the redeemed would enjoy ever- 
lasting happiness and the condemned would suffer ever- 
lasting punishment. Pope also laid special emphasis on the 
future glory of the Church on earth, which he believed 
would be accomplished before the Second Advent. None 
of them attempted to defend the details of Wesley's ac- 
count of Rev. 20:1-10, and Clarke stated that the key 
to the prophecies of the Book of Revelation was not yet 
known to men, and that much of the book's teaching 
should be understood as merely symbolical representa- 

The great success of the missionary movement and the 
general social progress of the Western world had its effect 
on theologians in the closing years of the nineteenth 
century. The British scholar, J. Agar Beet, for example, 
whose account of the Second Advent was sufficiently 
traditional to expect a visible return of Christ, argued 
that there was so much spiritual progress in the present 
age that Christ would not return in the near future — ^his 
coming would take place only in an age of spiritual 
stagnation. Beet was conservative in his outlook, but 
other theologians of this and later periods were strongly 
affected by the tides of liberal thought. Their influence 
reached its peak in the first thirty years of the twentieth 
century, and it survived even after the Second World 


War. These theologians saw the future, not in terms of 
a spectacular divine intervention, but in terms of the 
gradual growth of the Kingdom of God on earth. They 
also believed in the immortality of the individual, and 
they regarded the ultimate goal as eternal life beyond 
this world. But they laid great emphasis on the building 
of a perfect earthly community, in which all men would 
be obedient to Cod. The Church had a special task to 
play in the establishment of this community, and the 
task would extend over a long period of time. They 
recognized that there could be setbacks in the process of 
the Kingdom's growth, and some of them admitted that 
the Kingdom would never be perfectly completed on 
earth. They all affirmed that God's activity was necessary 
for the growth and perfecting of the Kingdom, and they 
discerned his activity in the inspiration of the indwelling 
Spirit and in the gift of an ideal for which they could 
work. Among British representatives of this type of 
thought are John .Scott Lidgett, Arthur Samuel 
Pe.\ke, and T. F. Clas.son. Among American representa- 
tives are Bohden P. Bowne, Harris Franklin Ball, 
and Edwin Lewis. 

After the First World War a reaction against liberal 
theology began and this was evident in Methodist thought 
about the Second Advent. Indeed before this time tlie 
American, Olin A. Curtis, was emphasizing that any 
progress on earth was no more than a preparation for 
the ultimate goal of the new, eternal and spiritual race 
in Christ. The American, Albert C. Knudson, although 
his sympatliy with the new reaction was strictly limited, 
said that the importance of the earthly ideal ought not to 
be exaggerated, and that the emphasis .should be put on 
the social character of the life hereafter. In his later 
writings Harris Franklin Rail did not speak as confidently 
of the attainment of the earthly kingdom as he did in his 
earlier works. Other theologians, while not denying the 
possibilit)' of progress on earth, refuse to link this ques- 
tion witli their understanding of the Second Advent. 
They also emphasize that God and man will inaugurate 
the final events. Among British Methodists who make 
this emphasis are H. M. Hughes and John Lawson, 
and among American Methodists are L. Harold De- 
Wolf, Mack B. Stokes, and Claude H. Thompson. These 
writers do not commit themselves to a belief in the visible 
descent of Christ at his Second Advent, but they claim 
that the world will end in a manner worthy of its creator, 
and that the Cod who passes judgment will be a Cod of 
love. They also believe that God gives men life immediate- 
ly after death. 

The contrast between liberalism and the reaction against 
it has not been as great in Methodist as in Continental 
theology, and the distinction between the two groups of 
scholars is often a very fine one. The main differences are 
about the relation of the final events to the social and 
spiritual progress of mankind, and the extent to which 
human cooperation plays a part in the coming of the 
Kingdom. The secwnd group is also more ready than tlie 
first to speak exphcitly of the Second Advent, although it 
does not claim to know what precise form it will take. 

Of the twentieth century writers who have been men- 
tioned, some teach universaUsm, the belief that all men 
will ultimately be saved (Lewis), and some believe that 
after death there will be an intermediate state of prepara- 
tion (Curtis) or even of remedial punishment or spiritual 
discipline (Glasson, Hughes, Law.son), but these views 


are not shared by all of the two groups. Another viewpoint 
which is certainly not typical of Methodist teaching is that 
of the British preacher, Leslie D. Weatherhead, who, 
in addition to affirming a belief in universalism and in a 
period of discipline after death, argues in favor of rein- 

Since the end of the Second World War, existentialism 
and demythok)gizing have become central topics of theo- 
logical discussion, and these influences are reflected in the 
work of the American theologians Carl Michalson and 
Schubert Ogden, both of whom reject the expectation of 
a Second Advent. Michalson claims that Christ has al- 
ready given new meaning to life because in him God 
has granted to man the responsibility of ruling the world. 
Ogden argues that man's final destiny is to be loved by 
God, as he opens himself in faith to God and as he loves 
both God and men. This destiny is achieved in this life, 
and it does not depend on personal survival of death. 

While some Methodists have adhered strictly to the 
traditional expectation of a visible Second Advent, the 
leading Methodist theologians of the t\ventieth century 
have all modified the traditional view, although the extent 
of their modifications has varied greatly. Controversy on 
this matter has been less heated in Methodism than in 
some other denominations. The dispute over the Second 
Advent has been part of the dispute about biblical literal- 
ism. It was one of the issues in the attack on Borden P. 
Bowne and H. C. Mitchell in the first decade of the cen- 
tury, and when Harold Paul Sloan attempted to secure 
a revision of the American Methodist "Courses of Study," 
the Second Advent was one of the traditional positions 
which he was concerned to maintain (1916-1928). The 
outcome of these controversies was that Methodism al- 
lowed a great liberty of interpretation with respect to 
this and related doctrines (see Bible, Authority of). 

Another source of division in both the nineteenth and 
the twentieth centuries has been the spread of premillen- 
nialism, the belief that Christ will visibly return to earth 
before the millennium. Although Methodists are far re- 
moved in outlook from premillennialists such as the 
Mormons, the Seventh Day Adventists, and the Jehovah's 
Witnesses, they have a greater spiritual link with the pre- 
millennialists of the Holiness and Pentecostalist move- 
ments, chiefly because of the traditional Methodist empha- 
sis on perfection. Dissatisfied Methodists have played a 
large part in the development of the Holiness movement, 
and some of the leaders of twentieth century Pentecosta- 
lism, like, for example, C. F. Parham in America and T. B. 
Barratt in Norway, were formerly Methodists. But many 
of die Methodists in the Holiness movement, like Phineas 
Bresee of the Church of the Nazarene, did not accept The doctrine has not been popular 
among practicing Methodist ministers and it has been 
consistently rejected by leading Methodist theologians. 
Its pessimistic attitude to human affairs has never been 
consistent with the typical Methodist ethos, and premil- 
lennialists have not usually found the Methodist Church 
to be a congenial spiritual home. 

Although the traditional hymns, the liturgies, the creeds, 
and the doctrinal standards of Methodism include refer- 
ences to tlie Second Advent, the Final Resurrection and 
the Last Judgment, Methodism in practice allows great 
liberty in the interpretation of these doctrines. The tradi- 
tional presentation of these doctrines needs revision in 


the twentieth century. But in spite of their differences of 
opinion most twentieth century Methodist theologians 
have preserved certain characteristics which have always 
been part of Methodism's heritage. These include a con- 
fidence in the ultimate triumph of God, a belief in life 
after death, an awareness of man's accountability before 
God, an emphasis on the inwardness of religion, and an 
urgent desire to preach the gospel to all nations and to 
improve both the material and the spiritual condition of 
mankind. (See also Resurbection.) 

J. Agar Beet, The Last Things, London: Hodder and Stough- 

ton, 1898, pp. 87-89. 

Borden P. Bowne, Studies in Christianity. Boston: Houghton 

Mifflin Co., 1909, pp. ,301-354. 

E. T. Clark, Small Sects. 1949. 

Adam Clarke, The New Testament of Our Lord and Savior 

Jesus Christ, The Text in the Abridged Translation with a 

Commentary and Critical Notes. New York: Waugh and Mason, 


O. A. Curtis, The Christian Faith. Grand Rapids, Mich.: 

Kregel, 1956, pp. 397-456; II, pp. 917, 1002. 

L. H. DeWolf, The Case for Theology in Liberal Perspective. 

Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1959, pp. 164-181. 

T. F. Glasson, His Appearing and His Kingdom. London: Ep- 

worth Press, 1953. 

H. M. Hughes, Christian Foundations. London: Epworth Press, 

1933, pp. 207-234. 

Albert C. Knudson, The Doctrine of Redemption. Nashville: 

Abingdon-Cokesbury, 1933, pp. 498-499. 

John Lawson, Comprehensive Handbook of Christian Doctrine. 

Englewood Chffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967, pp. 247-270. 

Edwin Lewis, A Manual of Christian Beliefs. New York: 

Scribners, 1927, pp. 1927, pp. 126-130. 

A New Heaven and a New Earth. Nashville: 

Abingdon-Cokesbury, 1941. 

John Scott Lidgett, The Spiritual Principle of the Atonement. 

London: Charles H. Kelly, 1897, pp. 410-416. 

Carl Michalson, The Hinge of History. New York: Scribners, 

1959, p. 146. 


The Rationality of Faith, New York: Scribners, 

1963, p. 138. 

John Miley, Systematic Theology. New York: Methodist Book 

Concern, 1894, II, pp. 423-475. 

J. T. Nichol, Pentecostalism. New York: Harper & Row, 1966, 

pp. 26-32, 41-44. 

S. M. Ogden, The Reality of God. New York: Harper & Row, 

1966, pp. 206-2.30. 

A. S. Peake, Christianity, Its Nature and Truth. London: 

Duckworth, 1908, pp. 297-298. 

, The Revelation of John. London: Joseph Johnson, 

1919, p. 376. 

W. Burt Pope, Compendium of Christian Theology. 1880, pp. 

H. F. Rail, Modern Premillennialism. 1920. 
, Religion as Salvation. Nashville: Abingdon-Cokes- 
bury, 1953, pp. 198-243. 

Harold Paul Sloan, The Course of Study of 1921. 1921. 
Mack B. Stokes, The Epic of Revelation. New York: McGraw- 
Hill, 1961, pp. 223-228. 

Claude H. Thompson, Theology of the Kcrygma. Englewood 
Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1962, pp. 107-125. 
Leslie D. Weatherhead, The Christitm Agnostic. Nasliville: 
Abingdon Press, 1965, pp. 253-339. 

J. Wesley, Explanatory Notes on the New Testament. 1755. 
, Works. 1829-31. Arthur W. Wainwright 

ADVOCATE, CHRISTIAN, American bi-weekly journal for 
Methodist ministers, carries news items and articles on 
church polity and practice as these are related to current 
events. Published by the Methodist Publishing House, on 
order of the General Conference, at Na.shville, Tennes- 
see, with editorial offices in Park Ridge, Illinois, it is 
presently one of three publications comprising the official 
general church periodicals. The other two are Together 
and Religion in Life. The Central Christian Advocate, 
formerly in this group, was discontinued with the dissolu- 
tion of the Central Jurisdiction. 






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First American Methodist Church-wide Weekly 

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As published today the Christian Advocate, with To- 
gether, perpetuates the name and the tradition of the 
weekly Methodist newspaper, the Christian Advocate, 
first issued September 9, 1826, by the Methodist Book 
Concern in New York City. This newspaper was begun 
under the direction of Nathan Bancs, then senior Book 
Steward. Its first editor was Barber Badger who, though 
his name appeared on the masthead as editor, performed 
his duties under the close supervision of Bangs. Bangs 
became editor in title and fact in 1828, serving in this 
capacity' from 1828 to 1832, and again from 1834 to 

Begun as a part of Bangs's program to make Amer- 
ican Methodism more American, the Christian Advocate 
at the outset had as its purpose "to promote the King- 
dom of Christ on earth and to increase the sum of human 
happiness . . ." To "afford delight and instruction to all 
classes of men" was also included in its objective. Readers 
hailed it for "spreading Christian holiness throughout the 
land." Almost immediately successful — the first printing 
of 5,000 copies was soon exhausted — the Christian Advo- 
cate in 1827 merged with The Wcsleyan Journal in 
Charleston, S. C, which had been begun in 1825. Follow- 
ing this merger, four other unofficial (conference or pri- 
vate) papers from Philadelphia to the Holston Con- 
FERE.NCE joined the central organ. Out of the merger with 
The Wesleyan Journal came the title Christian Advocate 
and Journal, which held until 1828. In that year Zion's 
Herald, an imofficial publication of New England Meth- 
odism, was purchased by the Book Concern, so that the 
title of the Christian Advocate and Journal became the 
Christian Advocate and Journal and Zion's Herald. This 
title stood until 1833, when the Zion's Herald portion was 
dropped, to be bestowed upon a new publication of the 
Wesleyan Association in Boston. The New York paper 
continued as the Christian Advocate and Journal until 
1866, when the title was changed to The Christian Advo- 
cate, with a New York dateline. 

The widespread popularity of the paper, which by 
1828 had the largest circulation of any publication re- 
ligious or secular in the nation (25,000), prompted the 
rise of similar journals throughout the church, designed 
to serve smaller geographic areas. The 1830's were an 
age of sectionalism, and each section desired its own 
news organ to treat local events. Thus, at a very early 
period was raised the problem of how to make a national 
pubhcation locally appealing. For the 1830's the solu- 
tion seemed to be a multiplication of papers. In 1834 
the Book Concern, at its Western branch in Cincinnati, 
began publication of the Western Christian Advocate. 
Such a stir in other sections was caused by this action 
that the General Conference of 1836 accorded official 
sanction to several more sectional journals. These were 
the Southwestern Christian Advocate, Nashville, Tennes- 
see; the Richmond Christian Advocate, Richmond, Vir- 
ginia; the Southern Christian Advocate, Charleston, South 
Carolina; and the Pittsburgh Christian Advocate, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. The newer papers were published 
by committees but underwritten by tlie Book Concern. 
Consequently they were not so directly identified with the 
Book Concern as were the papers in New York and Cin- 

During the next two decades such ;irrangements were 
made for still more papers: the Northern Christian Advo- 
cate (Auburn, New York, officialized 1844); the Cali- 


fornia Christian Advocate (San Francisco, officialized 
1852); the Pacific Christian Advocate (Salem, Oregon, 
officialized 1856). In addition to these papers sponsored 
by the Book Concern in New York, the Western Book 
Concern (after 1836 a separately chartered enterprise), 
with General Conference sanction, in 1853 began the 
Northwestern Christian Advocate in Chicago. In 1856 
this Concern was authorized to publish the Central Chris- 
tian Advocate, in St. Louis, a paper that had been begun 
k)cally in 1852. In 1868, the Western Concern, with Gen- 
eral Conference approval, assumed publication responsi- 
bility for the Methodist Advocate, begun several years 
earlier as a private publication in Atlanta, Georgia. In 
1876 the New York Concern was authorized to under- 
write the Southwestern Christian Advocate in New Or- 
leans, Louisiana. The Atlanta paper, long known as the 
Methodist Advocate-Journal, in 1925 became the South- 
eastern Christian Advocate, then later the Soutliern Edi- 
tion of the Western Christian Advocate. In 1884 it was 
moved to Athens, Tennessee, then to Cincinnati. The 
Southwestern Christian Advocate, by 1896 being spoken 
of as the publication of the Negro members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church in the South, was for a time the 
Southwestern Edition of the Western Christian Advocate. 
For the most part, however, it continued as a more or 
less separate publication and was the forerunner of the 
Central Christian Advocate, published for the Central 
Jurisdiction, 1940-1968. 

The indi\idual sectional papers begun during the nine- 
teenth century came more directly into the tradition of 
the Christian Advocate during the early years of the 
twentieth century. In October, 1931, those that had not 
merged with older and larger papers became editions 
of The Christian Advocate — A National Weekly. Besides 
die papers already mentioned, others, including The Meth- 
odist (privately published in New York City from 1860 to 
1884), the Omaha Christian Advocate (Omaha, Ne- 
braska) and the Rocky Mountain Christian Advocate 
(Denver, Colorado) merged into the mainstream of The 
Christian Advocate between 1884 and 1917. 

By 1940 The Christian Advocate — A National Weekly 
was being published in five editions: the New York, the 
Cincinnati, the Central (Kansas City), the Northwestern 
(for Chicago, but edited in Kansas City), and the Pacific 
(San Francisco). These editions were chiefly made up of 
standard material, modified by localized news pages for 
the different sections. 

Methodist Protestant Papers. In a sense it might be 
said that the Methodist Protestant Church was 
founded on and sustained by the strength of its church 
papers, which in 1941, together witli the paper of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, merged into The 
Christian Advocate. Prior to the 1828 rift in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and even before the beginning of the 
Christian Advocate in 1826, a publication entitled the 
Wesleyan Repository was being published in Philadelphia 
by a Refonner, William S. Stockton. As the organ of 
those Episcopal Methodists with republican sentiments, 
the Wesleyan Repository lasted from 1821 to 1824, when 
it was succeeded by a publication entitled Mutual Rights, 
published in Baltimore from 1824 to 1828. Those persons 
adhering to die editorial policies of Mutual Rights, which 
advocated lay representation in the courts of the church, 
became, generally speaking, the first members of the 
Methodist Protestant Church, when it was officially called 



into being between 1828 and 1830. In 1828 Mutual Rights 
became Mutual Rights and Christian Intelligencer; this, 
in 1831, was succeeded by The Mutual Rights and Meth- 
odist Protestant. In 1834 the paper became The Methodist 

During the 1850's controversy over the slavery issue 
led to a plea from the Northern and Western conferences 
of the Methodist Protestant Church for a church organ 
with an anti-slavery editorial policy. Unable to effect a 
change in the Methodist Protestant, which remained edi- 
torially silent on the subject, the Northern and Western 
conferences purchased the Western Recorder. pri\atel>' 
begun by Cornelius Springer in 1839 in Zanesville, 
Ohio. At this time the Methodist Protestant became the 
organ of the Southern and Eastern conferences. ( In ef- 
fect, the church divided over the support of the papers. ) 
When the Western Recorder was purchased from Ancel 
Bassett, who had bought it from Springer, its title was 
changed to the Western Methodist Protestant. In 1860 
its place of publication was moved from Zanesville to 
Springfield, Ohio. Until 1866 it was published as the 
Western Methodist Protestant, the title being changed in 
that year to the Methodist Recorder. This was the organ 
of the short-lived denomination known as The Methodist 
Church, which resulted from the ill-consummated union 
of the Wesleyan Methodist Church and the Western por- 
tion of the Methodist Protestant Church in 1866. In 1871 
the place of publication of the Methodist Recorder was 
moved from Springfield to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Although The Methodist Church and the Methodist 
Protestant Church united in 1877 (both together becom- 
ing the Methodist Protestant Church), the Methodist Re- 
corder and the Methodist Protestant, continued as separate 
papers until 1929, when they merged to become The 
Methodist Protestant Recorder, circulated from Baltimore. 
For a brief time (August 1940 to December 1940) this 
paper was published under the title The Methodist Re- 
corder, signifying the merger of the Methodist Protestant 
Church into The Methodist Church in 1939. 

Papers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
When the North-South split occurred in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in 1844, church papers being pub- 
lished in the South, as the responsibility of local commit- 
tees, immediately became organs of the Southern church. 
These included the Southwestern Christian Advocate 
(Nashville), the Southern Christian Advocate (Charles- 
ton), and the Richmond Christian Advocate. In the ten- 
year interval between the division in the church and the 
establishment of the Southern Methodist Publishing 
House, the number of officially sanctioned church papers 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, increased sub- 
stantially. By 1854 there were nine such organs being 
published in Nashville, Richmond, Charleston, St. Louis, 
Galveston, Louisville, Memphis, and San Francisco. The 
General Conference, however, assumed financial responsi- 
bility for only those in Nashville, Charleston, and St. 

By 1858 it was evident that the denomination could not 
support such an array of publications and the General 
Conference singled out the Nashville paper for its official 
sanction, offering ownership of the other organs to the 
conferences. Thus, almost from the beginning of its pub- 
lishing program, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
had only one official paper, although from time to time 
during the 1800's and early I900's, the Southern Meth- 
odist Publishing House assumed the cost of the Pacific 

Methodist, published in San Francisco. The Nashville 
paper had been privateK' begun as the Western Meth- 
odist in 1833. In 1836, when officially recognized, it be- 
came the South-Western Christian Advocate, and in 1846 
the Nashville Chri.stian Advocate. For a brief interval it 
merged with a Louisville publication to become the Nash- 
ville and Louisville Chri.stian Advocate (1851-1854). Re- 
verting to Nashville Christian Advocate in 1854, its title 
became Christian Advocate in 1858, and so remained 
until Unification. 

Since Unification. On January 2, 1941, the five organs 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church (New York, Cincin- 
nati, Central, Northwestern, and Pacific edition of The 
Christian Advocate), the Christian Advocate of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, and The Methodist Re- 
corder of the Methodist Protestant Church, were merged 
into one periodical with five editions, one for each of the 
geographical jurisdictions of the church. Published in 
Chicago, this paper on all its editions bore the title Tlie 
Christian Adovcate. the editions being distinguished by 
number. The arrangment continued until 1951 when The 
Christian Advocate, modified by area news inserts, ap- 
peared. In 1956 the General Conference authorized a 
major change in the program of periodical publications, 
which resulted in a division of The Chri.stian Advocate 
into two distinctly different pubfications: Together, which 
canied forward the family publication tradition of The 
Christian Advocate; and the New Christian Advocate, 
which carried forward the ministerial-journal tradition of 
the paper. 

Both magazines, published monthly, were begun in Oc- 
tober, 1956. The area-news-supplement anangement was 
continued in Together, which has carried Area News 
Editions since 19.57. These area news editions are called 
TANES: Together Area News Editions. In 1960 the New 
Christian Advocate, originally published in digest format, 
became the Chri.stian Advocate, on a bi-weekl> publica- 
tion schedule and in conventional magazine format, 
which is its present style. Together continues as the 
monthly magazine for Methodist families, issued as a 
handsomely designed and colorfully illustrated publication 
employing methods of contemporary journalism both with 
regard to technical and editorial production. 

Together and the Christian Advocate are produced 
under the supervision of an Editorial Director, elected 
quadrennially by the Board of Pubhcation, which also 
elects the editors of the two publications. At present the 
Christian Advocate has a circulation of appro.ximately 
38,000; Together a circulation of approximately 700,000. 

Character of the Advocate Over the Years. Since 1826 
the church papers tliat form the background of today's 
Christian Advocate have played decisive roles in the his- 
tory of the denomination. Begun strictly as newspapers, 
designed to inform the reader about happenings in the 
world around him as well as within the church, the early 
nineteenth century publications were made up of church 
news, sermons, items of general interest (more often 
than not clipped from other publications), and helpful 
features of various kinds to improve the physical and 
spiritual well-being of the reader. Without exception 
the early editors took positive stands on issues of the day, 
and employed both wit and sarcasm to make their points. 
Doctrinal controversy being of special significance, the 
editors of Methodist papers frequently crossed swords 
with their fellows in other churches (and often in their 
own). Because the Methodist itinerant ministers assumed 


responsibility as agents for the Methodist papers, these 
were usually more effectively distributed than papers 
of other denominations, and thus early became popular 
media for the advertising profession, which is said to have 
had its origin in the church press. Seldom able to support 
themselves by circulation income alone, the Methodist 
papers continually battled their own consciences (and the 
opinions of their readers) on the subject of the propriety 
of die advertisements, many of which were for cure-alls 
and other nostrums. Often economics won out, although 
ultimately by setting high standards of their own, the 
church press was instrumental in raising the standards of 
advertising in general. 

As the nineteenth century grew older and secular publi- 
cations multiplied, the church newspapers suffered de- 
clining circulations. To keep abreast of changing tastes, 
the nevvspaper format and concept of the church paper 
gradually changed to that of the magazine. The mechani- 
zation of the printing industry in the last two decades of 
the centur\ brought about radical changes in st>'le, until 
by the middle of the second decade of the twentieth cen- 
tury the papers bore recognizable characteristics of pres- 
ent-day publications. The change in format from news- 
paper to magazine was accompanied by a change in 
editorial approach, the news-centered item giving way to 
the editorial and the feature article. Throughout the nine- 
teenth century the papers here mentioned were typically 
circulated to subscribers numbering from 10,000 to 50,000, 
at rates varying over the years from $1.00 to $3.00. 

Testimony to the importance of the church papers of 
Methodism that are ancestors of today's Christian Advo- 
cate is the fact that many of their editors later rose to 
ranks of high official importance in the denomination. In 
the episcopal Methodisms, the step from the editor's post 
to tlie bishop's chair was often short and easily made. And 
in the Methodist Protestant Church scarcely was any 
influence more widely felt than that of the editor. Sig- 
nificantly, while the papers during die nineteenth century 
were powerful instruments of division within the denomi- 
nation, during the twentieth century they became the most 
powerful "advocates" of union. 

While not directly in the tradition of the papers that 
form the background of the Christian Advocate, it is 
interesting to note that during die nineteenth century 
especially in the MethodLst Episcopal Church, several 
foreign language newspapers were either directly pub- 
lished or subsidized by the publishing houses of the 
denominations. By far the most successful and influential 
was Der Chrisllichc Apologcte, a German version of the 
Christian Advocate, which began publication in Cincin- 
nati in 1839 and lasted for a century. Addressed to the 
German Methodists, tin's weekly paper was of major im- 
portance in the growth of the church among immigrants 
and first generation Gennans in the Ohio Valley. Similar 
papers in Bohemian, Swedish, and Norwegian were also 
published during the latter part of tlie nineteenth cen- 
tury and the early part of the twentieth century under 
the sponsorship of the Methodist Book Concern. 

A. H. Bassett, Concise History. 1877. 

Book Agents' reports to General Conferences. 

Christian Advocate files, including publications of the ME, 

MES and MP Churches. 

E. J. Drinkhouse, History of Methodist Reform. 1899. 

J. P. Pilkington, Mcttwdist Puhlishinfi House. 1968. 

James P. Pilkington 


AFFILIATE MEMBER (U.S.A.) (See Membership in Meth- 
odist Churches.) 

AFRICA. This immense area was, for many centuries, 
known as the "Dark Continent," due mainly to the lack 
of knowledge of the continent because of its inaccessibil- 
ity, and the generally assumed backwardness of its in- 
habitants. This lack of accessibility applied especially to 
the part of the continent below the Sahara Desert. 
Egypt (and to some extent Ethiopia) and North Africa 
have been known to Europeans for many centuries. In 
fact, Egypt has long been recognized as having a civiliza- 
tion that dates back for many centuries, antedating that of 
Greece and Rome. In the years following World War II, 
however, much of the lack of information and consequent 
mystery about Africa and the Africans has been cleared 
up, due to the greatly improved communications media 
and transportation facilities. It is now known that the peo- 
ples of Africa have always had a culture of their own, and 
that their development has paralleled that of similar 
groups elsewhere at the same stages of their development. 

The emergence of the new African nations into the 
political life of the Western world has increased the sig- 
nificance of Africa and the Africans for the rest of that 
world. Their presence in the United Nations and the 
associated agencies of that body is exceedingly important 
to the peace of the world. Certain facts, therefore, relative 
to the continent should be known in order to have an 
intelligent approach to a knowledge of the history of the 
Christian missionary enterprise on that continent. These 
facts have to do with the land area, its history, and its 

The Continent of Africa is the second largest in the 
world. It comprises an area of 11,850,000 square miles 
and a population of 190,000,000. It is pear-shaped, with 
its biggest bulge near the Equator, and extends in length, 
from north to south, about 5,000 miles and in width, in 
some sections, about 4,000 miles. The fact that the conti- 
nent has few indentations on its coastline, either east or 
west, was largely responsible, in the earlier centuries, for 
its inaccessibility. The further fact that it was (and is) 
one of the most tropical of the continents, and, therefore, 
afflicted with the diseases characteristic of the tropics, has 
made it difficult for survival in its humid climate. 

One of Africa's great appeals to the industrial coun- 
tries of the Western world has been, and still is, a large 
depository of raw materials needed by the rest of the 
world. According to John Gunther, Africa produces ninety- 
eight percent of the diamonds, fifty-five percent of the 
gold, twenty-two percent of the copper, as well as other 
materials like manganese, chromium, and uranium. Two- 
thirds of the cocoa and three-fifths of the palm oil of the 
world come from Africa. 

While relatively little is as yet known of the history of 
peoples of Africa below the Sahara, the researches of mod- 
ern scholarship have revealed that some of these people 
had considerable historical and political achievement, and 
some artistic and cultural attainments. Evidence has been 
found which reveals the existence of large African king- 
doms below the Sahara, such as the ancient kingdoms of 
Ghana, Melle, and Songhay, all in the West Sudan and 
the Niger Valley; the great Niger River playing much the 
same role in the West as the Nile in the East. Here great 
kingdoms flourished for a period covering much of the 
middle ages, and comparing favorably with the Arabic 


and European cultures of that date. There is evidence, 
also, of works of art: paintings on rocks in South Africa; 
the Benin bronze in Nigeria, et cetera. But, as Gunther 
reminds us, "Africa South of the Sahara has little history 
until the white man came." This has, particularly, to do 
with written records, which do not exist as such. 

The Christian missionary' enterprise in Africa has, un- 
derstandably, been influenced by the difficulties involved 
in the physical, political, and commercial problems en- 
countered in the penetration of the continent. The first 
effort at Christian penetration of the continent came, of 
course, in what may be called the "Apostolic Age," evi- 
dence of whose beginning is to be found in the New Testa- 
ment itself: Simon, the Cyrenian (Luke 23:26), probably 
a Jewish settler from Cyrene, in North Africa; other 
Cyrenians mentioned in tlie Book of the Acts of the 
Apostles (6:9, 11:20, 13:1); the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 
8:26-40). By the end of the second century a.d., there 
existed in Egypt and North Africa strong Christian 
churches. The church in Ethiopia was set up during the 
reign of Constantin. The church in North Africa had a 
brilliant career between the second and the fifth centuries 
A.D., particularly in the production of great leaders, such 
as Tertullian, Cyprian, and Augustine, but failed and was 
completely extinguished by the end of the Fifth Century, 
A.D. Some of the reasons given for the failure of the 
church in North Africa are: its own internal controversies; 
its failure to evangelize the indigenous population; and 
the "Vandal invasion" (the Gothic Tribes from Central 

With the Moslem invasion in the Seventh Centiir>' a.d., 
the Christian penetration on the continent came to a close. 
Only two Christian movements remained from the early 
centuries: the Coptic Church in Egypt and the Church 
in Ethiopia (doubtless helped by occasional contacts with 
the Coptic Church in Egypt) . 

The next opportunity for the expansion of the Christian 
movement in Africa came in the 15th Century a.d., with 
the explorations of the Portuguese on the West Coast of 
Africa, below the Sahara. It was during the 15th and 16th 
Centuries that Portugal developed its huge political em- 
pire and its immense trade with the new countries dis- 
covered during this period. While one of the announced 
purposes of the explorations was to increase adherents 
to the Christian faith, the emphasis on trade overshadowed 
all other interests, including religion, and this trade de- 
veloped almost completely into the traffic in human beings 
being forced into slavery for life. The slave-trade ac- 
companied the Christian mission and was not regarded 
as inconsistent with that mission. Later, other European 
nations (Dutch, French, Spanish, Enghsh) became in- 
volved in this traffic in human beings, to the extent that 
this type of trade for them oxershadowed all other types 
of trade. The inevitable result of this terrific grip of the 
African slave-trade upon the European nations, who were 
the leaders in the traffic, was the nearly total extinction 
of missionary interest in Africa during the 17th and 18tb 
Centuries of our era. 

One of the by-products of the Evangelical Revival 
which swept England and America during the latter part 
of the 18th Century was the conviction that something 
must be done to eliminate the African slave trade. Led 
by the Quaker community in America and a small group 
of Christian leaders in England, the African slave trade 
was outlawed by England and America in the early part 
of the I9th Century. This made possible a new interest 

in the missionary enterprise in Africa. A logical outcome 
of this new interest in missions was the founding of mis- 
sionary societies. One of the earliest attempts to found 
such a society was made by Thomas Coke, the well-known 
Methodist. It was hoped by the promoters of the society 
that it would be undenominational, but the plan met 
with little support and was dropped. 

The failure of the interdenominational effort led to the 
organization of denominational societies, among them the 
Wesleyan Methodist Society. The Wesleyan Methodists 
were among the first to send missionaries to Africa. Their 
first mission was to Sierra Leone, on the West Coast of 
Africa, to minister to former American sla\es who had 
been the servants of British loyalists during tlie American 
Re\olutionary War. After the war these British loyalists 
took their servants with them to Nova Scotia. Because of 
the inhospitable climate, a home was found for these 
former slaves in Sierra Leone, where other Africans had 
already been settled. In 1811, the Wesleyan Methodist 
Conference sent George ^\^^RRE^■ with three associates 
to minister to these people. Despite Warren's death in 
less than a year, his associates continued the work until 
his successor arrived. This proved to be the beginning of 
a permanent work in Sierra Leone by the Wesleyan So- 

The American Methodists began missionary work in 
.Africa in the same way, and for much the same reason; 
namely, to provide religious leadership for former slaves 
from America who had been settled on the West Coast of 
Africa, under the auspices of the American Colonization 
Society. The name of the new colony was called "Li- 
beria," in honor of their new-found freedom, and after 
a brief period of tutelage by the Colonization Society, 
they established themselves as a Republic, with a form of 
government modeled after that of the United States of 
America. The first missionary was Melville B. Cox 
(1833), who hved for only five months, but in that time 
began to stabilize the relations between the local .Method- 
ists among the former sla\es and the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in America. The work was permanently 
estabhshed under the leadership of John Sevs (1834- 

British and American Methodists have been active in 
promoting work in Africa since those early beginnings in 
the first third of the 19th Century. One of the most vigor- 
ous results of the efforts of the British Wesleyan Society 
was in South Africa. The Methodists in South Africa 
have for many years been completely autonomous and 
now number more than 650,000. British Methodists have 
missionary work in other parts of Africa, primarily in 
those areas where the British Government exercised polit- 
ical dominance. Despite the changes in political alle- 
giance since World War II, Metliodists in these former 
colonies of Great Britain have continued to look to the 
Mother Church in Britain for guidance; nor has the 
Mother Church failed them in this respect. 

American Methodists, while interested in the promotion 
of missionary work in Africa, have normally not attempted 
to go into territory already occupied by their British 
brethren. There have been some exceptions, but, in the 
main, the two groups have arranged comity agreements 
which have reduced overlapping to the minimum. In 
addition to the work being carried on in Africa by the 
principal British and American Methodist churches, there 
are several independent Methodist denominations operat- 
ing missions on the continent. Notable among these are 


ttie three Negro Methodist denominations; the A.M.E., 
the A.M.E. ZioN, and the C.M.E. The Free Methodist 
Chuhch also has missions in several countries in Africa; 
the Wesleyan Methodist Chuhcii, U.S.A., operates a 
mission in Sierra Leone. The total Methodist membership 
is 1,085,500. 

For the administrative divisions of Methodist work in 
Africa and the history of the respective conferences, as 
well as the Africa Central Conference of The United 
Methodist Church, reference must be made to the Gazet- 
teer and Statistics of Methodist Overseas Missions pub- 
lished periodically by the Board of Missions of The 
United Methodist Church. The work in certain of tlie 
l.irger centers, such as Leopoldville — now Kinshasa, 
lilisabethville, and others, may be found there under 
these respective names. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1949. 

Kindlay and Holdsworth, Wesleyan Meth. Miss. Soc. 1921-24. 

Charles Pelham Groves, The Planting of Christianity in Africa. 

.3 vols. London: Lutterworth Press, 1948. 

John Gunther, Inside Africa. 

Willis J. King, The Negro in American Life. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 

World Methodist Council. Handbook. 1966. Willis J. King 

(AACC). (See All Africa Conference of Churches.) 

ence approved in 1920 legislation for the organization of 
Central Conferences for designated regional areas. The 
form of organization, relationships, duties, powers, and 
privileges were defined. Thus the first assembly for im- 
plementing a South Africa Central Conference in Africa 
was called by Bishop Eben S. Johnson which included 
the conferences of his area (Cape Town), namely, Congo, 
Southern Rhodesia, Southeast Africa, and Angola. It 
was held at Old Umtali, Rhodesia, June 21-25, 192L 

The second session was held in Cape Town, South 
Africa, Oct. 3-12, 1923 with eight delegates from the 
four conferences of the area. The following mutual in- 
terests and concerns were discussed: the Itineracy, Tem- 
poral Economy, Publishing, Missions and Church Ex- 
tension, Education, Sunday Schools, State of the Church, 
Centenary Conservation and World Service and Medical. 

The third session was held in Johannesburg, South 
Africa, Nov. 24 — Dec. 5, 1927 with seven delegates from 
the four conferences attending. The Episcopal address 
expressed that of all the missionaries, a feeling of grati- 
tude. "Touching the work committed to our charge in 
Africa, we have much cause for rejoicing. Notwithstand- 
ing the necessity for retrenchment that we have faced 
during the quadrennium, and the consequent reduction 
in places of our missionary staff, the work of God has gone 
on among us. Indeed there have been some glorious 
achievements. We had hoped to increase the number of 
our mission stations across the continent, but long dis- 
tances separate us in Angola and the Congo. With pro- 
found gratitude, I report much increase in all fields. 
Missionaries may decrease; the native must increase." 
This was the last session of tfie Soutli Africa Central 
Conference of the M.E. Church. 

The General Conference, after the uniting of the three 
denominations in The Methodist Church (1939) approved 
of the continuing of more effective Central Conferences. 


Thus the first Africa Provisional Central Conference was 
called by Bishop Springer on June 4-16, 1943 with fifty- 
one delegates from the six conferences of his area. This 
was the only time that Liberia was included in the area 
for the Central Conference. Due to travel conditions none 
were able to attend. 

The scope of interests and activities was increased 
to include woman's work, discipline and ritual, inter- 
denominational relations. An executive committee for 
functioning between meetings was elected. Gradually ad- 
ministrative responsibilities were being accepted. 

Having met the requirements of the Central Conference 
Enabling Act of 1948, Bishop Booth called the first 
session of tlie Africa Central Conference on Oct. 6-17, 
1948 at Old Umtali, Southern Rhodesia. Fifty-three dele- 
gates from tlie five conferences attended. A commission 
was elected to write a supplementary Discipline for the 
churches of the conferences related. Arrangements were 
suggested for a uniform training of church leaders within 
the African background of culture and customs. 

The second se.ssion of the Africa Central Conference 
was held on Oct. 1-9, 1952, at Katako Kombe, Belgian 
Congo, following the General Conference of The Meth- 
odist Church. The main concerns of the conference were 
the meeting of the challenges for evangelism, educa- 
tion, training of leadership, increasing urban areas, main- 
taining a world-wide interest and program of extension in 
the area of the five conferences constituting the Central 

The third session of the Central Conference was held 
at Ehsabethville, Belgian Congo, on Oct. 10, 1956. An 
advance was made with the authorization of the General 
Conference to divide the area and elect bishops to be 
assigned by the Conference accordingly. Bishop Booth, 
who was previously elected in 1944 for Africa by the 
Northeastern Jurisdiction, was assigned for episcopal 
supervision of the two conferences of the Congo. Bishop 
Ralph Dodge was elected for eight years and assigned 
to the Sahsbury Area which included Angola, Rhodesia, 
and Southeast Africa. 

The fourth session was held on Aug. 20-29, 1960 at 
N Yodiri, Southern Rhodesia. Although the General Con- 
ference of 1960 authorized the election of a third bishop, 
this was not accepted and the two bishops were reassigned 
to the areas they were serving. The major attention was 
given to Central Conference administration, organization 
and rules of order, revision of the Discipline, publications 
and communications. 

The fifth session was held at Mulungwishi, Democratic 
Republic of tfie Congo on Aug. 27— Sept. 4, 1964. The 
programs for the quadrennium of "One Witness in One 
World" adopted by die General Conference of that year 
was implemented by urging each participating conference 
to arrange and conduct an effective program of Evange- 
lism. Bishop Booth retired from Africa after twenty years 
to take an Episcopal appointment in America. 

The General Conference in the 1960 session granted 
authority to the Central Conference to elect for and by 
itself the episcopal leadership needed for its conferences. 
This conference was authorized to elect up to four bishops, 
if it was deemed necessary to supply each of those con- 
ferences with a bishop to lead the work there. 

The following were elected for four-year terms and 
assigned as noted: Angola — Harry P. Andheassen; Congo 
— John Wesley Shungu; Mozambique — E. A. Zunguze; 
Rhodesia — Ralph E. Dodge. 



The first session of the Africa Central Conference of 
The United Methodist Church was held at Gaberones, 
Botswana, Aug. 23-31, 1968. The joint Episcopal report 
included a survey of the work of all the five participating 
conferences with recommendations for the establishing of 
a third conference in the Congo and the inauguration 
by the Central Conference of the cooperative mission 
undertaking with the London Missionary Society' at Maun, 

Since the four-year terms of all the bishops had expired 
the elections were held by ballot for the coming quadren- 
nium. Bishop Dodge was elected for life and immediately 
retired. Bishops Andreassen, Shungu, and Zunguze were 
reelected for four years. Bishop Abel Muzorewa was 
elected for a four-year term to replace Bishop Dodge in 

Ebnest L. Sells 

(hereafter referred to as the A.M.E. Church), the first 
national organization of any kind established by Negroes 
in North America, grew out of a small Prayer Band con- 
ducted by Richard Allen in St. George's Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1786. 
A desire to be free from paternalistic control and dis- 
crimination experienced at St. George's caused a group 
of Negroes to withdraw from the church in 1787 and 
form the Free African Society. From this organization 
emerged in 1794 a semi-independent church named 
Bethel. Following much controversy and litigation, Beth- 
el became an autonomous Negro Methodist church in 
1816 and was the nucleus for African Methodism. 

During the week of April 7-13, 1816, Richard Allen 
called a "Convention Meeting" of Negro Methodists in 
the Philadelphia-Baltimore vicinity for the purpose of 
organizing a Negro Methodist denomination. Response 
came from Negroes in Pennsylvania, Maryland, New 
Jersey, and Delaware, and the A.M.E. Church was or- 
ganized. Richard Allen was elected bishop of the new 
denomination on April 10, 1816, and was consecrated 
the following day. 

The work of the new Church was divided into terri- 
tories, circuits, and stations among the .seven founding 
travelling preachers, with a membership of nearly 5,000. 
Two annual conferences, Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
were created. By 1864, Allen, Morris Brown, elected 
bishop in 1828, and Daniel A. Payne, elected bishop 
in 1852, had organized conferences in New York (1822), 
Ohio (1830), Indiana (1840), Canada (1840), New 
England (1852), and Missouri (1855). 

The years immediately following the Civil War wit- 
nessed a phenomenal growth of African Methodism in 
the south and southeast and further developments in other 
parts of the country. Conferences organized were: South 
Carolina, Louisiana, Cahfomia (1865), North Carolina, 
Virginia, Georgia, Florida (1867), Alabama, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, Pittsburgh 
(1868). The half century preceding 1923 saw still other 
state conferences established: Kansas (1876), Oklahoma 
(1877), Iowa (1883), Illinois (1884), Michigan, Colo- 
rado (1887), Puget Sound (1892), West Virginia (1908), 
Northwestern and Nebraska (1920). Delaware did not 
become a state conference until 1923. With these con- 
ference organizations the A.M.E. Church became a na- 

tional body (see also Negro Methodist Union Negotia- 

A summary of the denomination's statistics in 1964 fol- 
lows: Episcopal Districts, 18; Active Bishops, 20; Annual 
Conferences, U.S.A., 79; Churches, 5,878; Membership, 
1,166,301; Church Schools (Sundav schools), 6,543; 
Enrollment, 400,000; Ministers, 5.878; Colleges, 9; Theo- 
logical seminaries, 8; Publications: Christian Recorder, 
A.M.E. Review, Voice of Missions, Woman's Missionary 
Recorder, Journal of Religious Education. 


Bishops, The Council of, is the e.xecutive body of the 
A.M.E. Church with general oversight and authority dur- 
ing the interim between meetings of the General Con- 

Church Extension, Department of: The Nineteenth 
General Conference meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
in 1892 consolidated the administration of church exten- 
sion activity. Prior to the organization of the Church Ex- 
tension Department, grants, loans and donations had been 
negotiated and processed through the Department of 
Missions. The General Conference of 1888 authorized 
this relationship with the parent Home and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society. Bishop Abram Grant, upon becoming 
president of the newly formed Church Extension Society 
in 1892, selected Cornelius T. Shaffer for the position 
of secretary-treasurer. The General Conference of 1900 
voted the first funds the Department received. The 
Church Extension Society assisted in saving and organiz- 
ing almost 2000 churches between 1900 and 1925. L. H. 
Hemingway, secretary from 1938 to 1948, was elected to 
the bishopric from this position. 

Education, General Board of: The Thirty-Fourth Gen- 
eral Conference meeting at Chicago, 111., in 1952 
\-oted to merge the Board of Education and the Board of 
Religious Education and create a new General Board of 
Education with three subdivisions: Division of Educa- 
tional Institutions, Division of Christian Education, and 
Editorial Division. This was the first major structural 
reorganization in the higher education department of 
the denomination since the organization of the Board of 
Education under William D. Johnson, the first secre- 
tary, in 1884. 

In 1936 the Board of Religious Education had been 
established to coordinate the work of the Sunday School, 
the Allen Christian Endeavor League, and the Leader- 
ship Training program of the connection. Prominent in 
this reorganization was S. S. Morris, Sr., active in the 
Allen Christian Endeavor League since the 1920's. Bishop 
Charles S. Smith is likewise to be acknowledged as the 
chief architect of the A.M.E. Sunday School Union in 

Evangelism, Department of: The Thirt\'-First General 
Conference meeting at Detroit, Michigan, in 1940 cre- 
ated the General Commission on Evangelism (later the 
name was changed to Department of Evangelism) upon 
the recommendation of the Council of Bishops and in 
response to the urgent plea of several ministerial leaders, 
including N. H. Jeltz, W. Leake, U. S. Robinson, W. 
Eason, E. J. Odum and others. Bishop George B. Young 
was selected by the Council of Bishops for the presidency 
of the Commission, and E. J. Odum was elected by the 
General Conference to be the first director-secretary. 
Upon the deadi of E. J. Odum in 1959, G. H. J. Thido- 
beaux was elected to the office. 


Finance, Department of: The Fourteenth General Con- 
ference held at Nashville, Tennessee in 1872, formally 
organized the Department of Finance to centraUze the 
collection and disbursement of connectional funds. Provi- 
sions for the functions of this department were made in 
1844 and 1864 when the General Conference adopted 
a per-capita assessment plan to be administered through 
the annual conferences. The first secretary was J. H. Bur- 
ley. The Department of Finance is supervised by a board 
composed of Episcopal District representatives. Seven 
secretaries of this department have been elected to the 
bishopric: James C. Embry (1896), Benjamin W. 
Arnett (1888), James A. Handy (1892), Josiah H. 
Armstrong (1896), Morris M. Moore (1900), Edward 
W. Lampton (1908), and John Hurst (1912). In 1956 
the General Conference adopted a general budget and 
general treasury plan. 

General Board, The, is the administrative body of the 
A.M.E. Church and is composed of departmental com- 
missions, general officers, elected delegates, and bishops. 
It coordinates and administers the program of the church 
through various boards, councils, commissions, commit- 
tees, and organizations. Membership is by election of the 
General Conference. 

General Conference, The, is the governing body of the 
A.M.E. Church. Composed of the bishops as ex-officio 
presidents (according to the seniority order of their elec- 
tion) and elected delegates (ministerial and lay), this 
body meets quadrennially. General Conferences have met 
as follows: 



Miami, Fla. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Cincinnati, O. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 




Philadelphia, Pa. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Baltimore, Md. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Baltimore, Md. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


New York, N, Y. 


Cincinnati, O. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Washington, D. C. 


Nashville, Tenn. 


Adanta, Ga. 


St. Louis, Mo. 


Baltimore, Md. 


Indianapolis, Ind. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Wilmington, N. C. 


Columbus, O. 


Chicago, 111. 


Norfolk, Va. 


Kansas City, Mo. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


St. Louis, Mo. 


Louisville, Ky. 


Chicago, 111. 


Cleveland, O. 


New York, N. Y. 


Detroit, Mich. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Kansas City, Kan. 


Chicago, III. 

Organizing Convention 

Judicial Council, The: The Thirty-Fourth General Con- 
ference meeting at Chicago, Illinois in 1952 estabhshed a 
Judicial Council composed of five ministerial and five lay 
members elected for terms of eight years on a rotating 
basis. The Council (an appellate body) is the highest 
judicial body in the Church. It is amenable only to the 
General Conference. Its jurisdiction includes appeals, 
questions of constitutionality, and rulings of bishops. 
Judge Perry B. Jackson (Cleveland, Ohio) is President 
of the Council. 

Laymen's Organization, The: From its beginning to the 
turn of the present century the A.M.E. Church had been 
basically clergy controlled. Lay activity was prevalent 
chiefly at the local church level and in the exercise of 
the missionary function. Exceptions to this were H. T. 
Keahng and John R. Hawkins who had been elected to 
general officership as early as 1896. The General Con- 
ference of 1904 was the first to legislate on the matter 
when it decreed lay representation at the Annual and 
General Conference levels. Additional legislation by suc- 
ceeding General Conferences extended lay rights to in- 
clude membership on the Episcopal Committee and the 
Committee on the Revision of the Discipline, and finally 
to all committees of the General Conference. Today there 
exists in the A.M.E. Church a strong and vital Laymen's 
Organization providing opportunities for training, service 
and fellowship. Additionally, there are lay organizations 
in each local church, annual conference and episcopal 
district. The connectional lay group meets quadrennially. 

Missions, Department of: The twelfth General Con- 
ference meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1864 or- 
ganized the Department of Missions by formally estab- 
lishing "The Home and Foreign Missionary Department" 
which had been in existence but inactive since 1844. The 
first secre\:ary of Missions elected by the General Con- 
ference was John M. Brown. The work of the Department 
is supervised by a board composed of the bishops, Epis- 
copal District representatives, the secretary, and Women's 
Auxiliary representatives. The official pubUcation of the 
Department is the Voice of Mission, originated in 1892. 
Six former secretaries have been elected to the bishopric: 
John M. Brown (1868), James A. Handy (1892), 
Richard H. Cain (1880), William B. Derrick (1896), 
Henry B. Parks (1908), William W. Beckett (1916). 
John P. Collier, Jr. is the present secretary with offices 
in The Interchurch Center, New York City. 

Pensions, Department of: The Thirty-Second General 
Conference meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1944 
created a Department of Pensions. Bishop D. Ward 
Nichols was elected to the chairmanship of the Depart- 
ment and Daniel L. Witherspoon was elected secretary- 
treasurer. The newly authorized Department opened of- 
fices in the A.M.E. Sunday School Union Building in 
Nashville, Tennessee. The General Conference of 1948 
elected Jesse E. Beard to the secretary-treasurership, 
Witherspoon having died earlier that year. In 1964 the 
General Conference elected James M. Cranberry to suc- 
ceed Beard. 

Publications, Department of: The General Conference 
of 1952 reorganized the administration of publishing. 
The Book Concern, whose history reached back to a pro- 



vision in the first Discipline (1817) and which had been 
estabhshed by Richard Allen in 1818, merged with the 
Sunday School Union founded in 1882 by Bishop Charles 
S. Smith under the management of the General Board of 
Publications. At the time of tlie unification of the two 
agencies (1952), William D. Johnson, Jr. was manager 
of the Book Concern and E. A. Selby was serving as 
secretary-treasurer of the Sunday School Union. By the 
order of the General Conference the secretary-ti-easurer 
of the Sunday School Union became the first secretary of 
the newly created department. The official name of the 
publishing house is African Methodist Episcopal Sunday 
School Union. 

Research and History, Bureau of: The Thirty-third 
General Conference meeting at Kansas City, Kan. in 1948 
created the Bureau of Research and History. This acHon 
ended a long period of neglect and support for historiog- 
raphy in the church. Some historical writing and research 
had continued, however, by men elected to that task by 
the General Conference. The earhest of these was Bishop 
Daniel A. Payne. His work, History of the A.M.E. 
Church (1891), gives the most comprehensive coverage 
of the development and progress of the denomination 
from 1787 to 1856 that is available. The historical and 
statistical data in the unique Budget series of Benjamin 
W. Aniett, published annually from 1884 until his death 
in 1906 are also valuable. Bishop Henry M. Turner 
wrote the classic Genius and Theory of Methodist Polity 
in 1885. About 1916 John T. Jenifer produced Centennial 
Retrospect History of the A.M.E. Church. This was fol- 
lowed by the work of Charles S. Smith in 1922, who 
wrote a comprehensive sequel volume to Payne's work 
covering the period, 1856-1922, A History of The A.M.E. 
Church. The book Preface to The History of the A.M.E. 
Church (1950) by Bishop Reverdy C. Ransom offers a 
sociological interpretation of A.M.E. history. In 1959 E. A. 
Adams compiled and published the Yearbook And His- 
torical Guide to The A.M.E. Church. Bishop Robert R. 
Wright has contributed three volumes to the literature 
of African Methodism: The Encyclopedia of African 
Methodism (1916), The Encyclopedia of African Meth- 
odism (revised edition 1947) and The Bishops of the 
A.M.E. Church (1963). 

Women's Missionary Society, The: In May, 1944 at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Women's Mite Missionary 
Society and the Women's Home and Foreign Missionary 
Society merged to form the Women's Missionary Society, 
an auxiliary to the Department of Missions in fund raising, 
promotion and cultivation. The Women's Mite Missionary 
Society (Women's Parent Mite Missionary Society) was 
organized in Bethel A.M.E. Church, Philadelphia, Pa., in 
1874. The first president was Mrs. Mary A. Campbell, 
the wife of Bishop Jabez P. Campbell. Mrs. Christine 
Smith served as the last president of the group before the 
merger. The Women's Home and Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety was organized in 1896 to assist the work of African 
Methodism overseas, having been convinced of its need 
by Bishop Henry M. Turner, then serving in Africa. Mrs. 
Lucy Hughes, the last president of the W.H.F.M.S., be- 
came the first president of the united organization. The 
Women's Missionary Recorder, founded in 1912, is the 
official publication of the Society which has branch soci- 
eties and youth auxiliaries in practically every annual 
conference. The incumbent president of the Women's Mis- 
sionary Society is Mrs. Anne Heath. 


The A.M.E. Church has been a continuous participant 
in various ecumenical movements since 1867, when it was 
represented at the Fifth General Assembly of the Evan- 
gelical Alliance in Amsterdam, Holland, by Bishop Daniel 
A. Payne. African Methodists (Benjamin F. Lee, Robert 
A. Johnson, and John G. Mitchell) were members of the 
commission constituted by the A.M.E. General Confer- 
ence in 1876 to convene the First Ecumenical Method- 
ist Conference held in 1881 at London, England. They 
have participated in every World Methodist Confer- 
ence since that time. In 1884 the A.M.E. Church aided 
in the celebration of the Centennial of American 
Methodism held in Baltimore, Maryland. The A.M.E. 
Church was represented at the Parliament of Religions 
held in connection with the Columbian Exposition in 
Chicago in 1893. 

In the present century African Methodism has been 
identified with the founding of the Federal Council of 
Churches, the National Council of Churches, the 
International Council of Rehgious Education, and the 
precursor World Council of Churches meetings at 
Stockholm, Lausanne, Oxford, Edinburgh, and Utrecht. 
A.M.E. churchmen were participants in the organizing 
conference of the World Council of Churches and each 
of its succeeding meetings. In 1966 the A.M.E. Church 
became the seventh full participating member of the 
Consultation on Church Union. 

Department of Urban Ministries and Ecumenical Re- 
lations. In 1968 Bishop Frederick D. Jordan was as- 
signed to a newly established Department of Urban Min- 
istries and Ecumenical Relations by the t^vent\'-eighth Gen- 
eral Conference meeting in Philadelphia, Pa. The creation 
of this position became a "first" in these fields among black 
Christian denominations in the United States. 


From 1847 to 1890 eight colleges and seven theological 
schools were founded and organized by the A.M.E. 
Church. They are: 



State Year 





Edward Waters College 



Paul Quinn College 



Allen University 

South Carolina 


Morris Brown College 



KiTTRELL College 

North Carolina 


Shorter College 



David Payne College 



Campbell College" 





Lee Seminary 



Young Seminary 



Dickerson Seminary 

Soutli Carolina 


Turner Seminary 



Jackson Seminary 



Nichols Seminary 



Lampton Seminary" 



Payne Seminary 



"Inactive in 1964 

The A.M.E. General Conference of 1964 voted that 
there should be only two official seminaries operated 
and supported by the Church. They are Payne and 



Turner. In 1958 Turner Theological Seminary became one 
of the first four Negro schools to become a part of the 
Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta, 


District Mission Schools. Immediately following the 
Civil War in the United States the A.M.E. Church and 
other independent Negro denominations, as well as white 
denominations, made extensive efforts to educate as well 
as evangelize the Negro freed man. One of the most 
heroic of these efforts was that of the Negro to help 
himself. Through A.M.E. annual conferences, divided into 
four educational districts, pastors were instructed to pro- 
vide schools for the freed men and all people of color. 
Among these District Mission Schools were Selma Insti- 
tute in Alabama, Abbeville and Sumter Schools in South 
Carolina, Payne and Normal and Preparatory Schools in 

Homes. The first home to provide professional care for 
elderly Negroes in the United States was organized in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1864 and was incorporated 
in 1867. Stephen Smith (18P-1873), a wealthy mine and 
quarry owner, contributed the land, $40,000 in cash, 
and the stone for the building of the home which was 
named for him. Since that time his legacy has yielded 
the institution more than $100,000. Smith was an A.M.E. 
lay minister, member of the General Conference from 
18.36 to 1864, and organizer of two churches, Zion in 
Philadelphia and Murphy at Chester, Pennsylvania. The 
first location of the Stephen Smith Home was 340 South 
Front Street. In 1868 or 1870 it moved to its present 
location. For many years the home was considered an in- 
stitution of the A.M.E. Church. In recent years it has 
become a voluntary community-supported agency of the 
city of Philadelphia. 

In the early 1900s Bishop James A. Handy was instru- 
mental in establishing two homes for aged Negioes in 
Jackson, Michigan and Baltimore, Maryland. 

Hospitals. Douglass Hospital in Kansas City, Kan., 
was founded in 1898 and became the property of the 
Fifth Episcopal District of the A.M.E. Church in 1905. 
Bishop Abram Grant accepted the institution on behalf of 
the Church. In 1924 a new site was purchased and the 
hospital was moved. With the aid of a large federal grant 
and several lesser donations in 1945, Douglass has become 
a representative health agency and nurse training school 
in the greater Kansas City area. 

The organizational meeting for the founding of Provi- 
dent Hospital and Training School for Nurses in Chicago, 
III., was held in the parsonage of Quinn Chapel in 1891 
"at the sohcitation of Daniel H. Williams, the brilliant 
Negro heart surgeon. John T. Jenifer (1835-1919), who 
was then pastor of Quinn Chapel, became president of 
the hospital's governing board. He and Williams, who 
later organized and directed Freedman's Hospital in 
Washington, D, C, gave much of their professional lives 
and fortunes to the founding of the Provident institution. 

Institutional Church. At the turn of the century the 
A.M.E. Church, sensing the need for a new approach to 
the religious life of the Negro in the urban centers of 
the north, midwest and west, developed in Chicago, 111. 
the concept of the institutional church. The distinguishing 
feature of this new type of church was the fact that it 
constructed its program with the assumption that the 

"church exists for the people rather than the people for 
the church." 


South Africa. Negro Methodist work in South Africa 
was traditionally under British (Wesleyan Methodist) 
control prior to 1892. Until 1886 this arrangement was 
taken for granted by the Africans. In 1886 the Wesleyan 
Methodist Church required and instituted a separate meet- 
ing of tlieir African pastors and placed a white president 
and secretary over them. In 1892 the African Wesleyan 
Methodist pastors, under the leadership of M. M. Mokone, 
withdrew from die Wesleyan Methodist body and created 
the Ethiopian Church, an independent organization, at 
Pretoria. The Ethiopian Church of South Africa was for- 
mally organized and opened iii 1893. Between 1893 and 
1895 Mokone was head of the African Church. 

The 1896 annual meeting of the Ethiopian Church 
Conference held at Pretoria voted to unite with the 
A.M.E. Church. Later that same year James M. Dwane, 
representing the African Church, came to the United 
States to be received into the A.M.E. Church by Bishop 
Henry M. Turner. The historic ceremony took place in 
Allen Temple, Atlanta, Ga. 

West Africa. Prior to the organization of a denomina- 
tional program of missions, several significant efforts were 
made by members and ministers of the A.M.E. Church 
to extend their connection abroad. 

Daniel Coker (1780-1846) sailed to West Africa (Isle 
of Sherbro) in 1820 with a group of expatriated slaves 
under the sponsorship of the American Colonization So- 
ciety. Following an epidemic resulting in many deaths 
on Sherbro, the decimated group led by Coker returned 
to Sierra Leone, a British settlement of Negroes from 
Nova Scotia and England developed following the Revolu- 
tionary War. En route to Africa, Coker organized an 
A.M.E. Church on the ship, "Ehzabeth." Later, in Sierra 
Leone he estabhshed an A.M.E. Church. The first A.M.E. 
annual conference was organized there in 1891 by Bishop 
Henry M. Turner, who also organized a Liberian Annual 
Conference later that same year. 

IncJia. The General Conference of the A.M.E. Church 
meeting in 1960 at Los Angeles, Cahf. took the following 
action widi respect to the establishment of missions in 
India: "Be it hereby enacted into law by this historic 
A.M.E. General Conference, to provide a salary equal to 
that of a General Officer for a worker or a missionary to 
further establish and expand Christian missions in India 
under the guidance and direction of the A.M.E. Church. 
Native workers in India sincerely urge and request that 
the A.M.E. Church do this." This motion was implemented 
by the appointment of H. A. Perry to the General Office 
of "Representative to India." In 1964 Perry was reap- 
pointed but no appropriation was made for the work. 

Caribbean. A group of approximately 2,000 free Ne- 
groes emigrated from the United States to Haiti in 1824 
at the invitation of the president of the country to culti- 
vate the land and engage in various occupations. This 
group included many members of the A.M.E. Church, 
a large number of whom had come from Bethel Church 
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Scipio Beane (1793-1835), an itinerant in the Balti- 
more Conference, while in Haiti (1826-1827) to regain 
his health, labored among the people. Upon returning 
to the Conference in 1827 he requested and was ap- 
pointed there as the first A.M.E. missionary pastor of the 



denomination. During 1827-1828, Beane organized St. 
Peter's Church at Port-au-Prince. 

Following the death of Beane in 1835, the A.M.E. 
Church in Haiti and Santo Domingo experienced a period 
of decline. About 1840 Henry Allen organized an inde- 
pendent "Haitian Union Methodist Society." New interest 
was shown in the work in the 1870's and by 1887 an 
annual conference had been organized. 

In 1898 C. C. Astwood organized a church at Santiago, 
Cuba. By 1900 it was reported that there were two more 
stations in Cuba at Havana. A.M.E. missions were estab- 
lished in the Leeward Islands at Antigua and on the 
Virgin Islands by 1900. In the Windward Islands work was 
founded at Dominica, Tobago, Barbados, Trinidad (Por- 
tan) and St. Thomas before the turn of the centuiy. On 
the island of Jamaica the A.M.E. Church began work in 
1915 after being approached b>- several ministers of the 
United Methodist Free Church requesting merger. Mis- 
sion points on the adjacent Bahama and BeiTnuda Islands 
were established in the 1870's by the British Methodist 
Episcopal Church, an autonomous African denomination 
which voluntarily separated from the A.M.E. Church in 
1856 but reunited with the parent body in 1884. 

South America. African Methodism was founded in 
Latin America through the work of independent Negro 
Methodists, John C. Urling and Hubert Criffith, an e.\- 
Wesleyan NIethodist minister. In 1873 they requested 
annexation to the A.M.E. Church. Bishop Willis Naz- 
ERY (a B.M.E. Bishop at the time) granted the petition, 
and organized them and several other B.M.E. churches 
and ministers in the Cuianas. 

Canada. Fugitive Negro slaves from the United States 
account for the sizable Negro population in Can.\da at 
the beginning of the 1800's. Many of these slaves had 
formerly belonged to A.M.E. churches in the United 
States and desired to continue this relationship. In re- 
sponse to this interest African Methodist societies were 
organized in Canadian communities where Negroes were 


Between 1858 and 1864 the first denominational Jour- 
nal appeared, entitled The Repository of Religion and 
Literature, edited by John H. Brown. The A.M.E. Church 
Review succeeded the Repository and has been published 
continuously since its inception in 1884. The first editor 
of the Review was Benjamin T. Tanner. The editor of 
the Repository and three editors of the Review have been 
elected to the bishopric: John M. Brown (1868), Ben- 
jamin T. Tanner (1888), Levi J. Coppin (1900) and 
Reverdy C. Ransom (1924). The present editor of the 
Review is Ben H. Hill. 

In 1841 the predecessor of The Christian Recorder 
was founded as The A.M.E. Church Magazine. It first 
appeared in 1844 as a monthly publication edited by 
George Hogarth. In 1848 it became a weekly paper and 
was renamed The Christian Herald. Augustus R. Green 
became its first editor. The General Conference of 1852 
replaced the Herald with The Christian Recorder and 
elected M. M. Clarke as editor. 

The Journal of Religious Education (1940), edited 
by Andrew \^^^ite and published at Nashville, Tennes- 
see, is the monthly publication in the field of Christian 
Education for the A.M.E. Church. 

Missionary periodicals developed by the A.M.E. Church 

are; The Voice of Missions (1892) and The Woman's 
Missionary Recorder (1912). 

The General Conference of 1880 and 1886 approved 
the publication of a Southern edition of The Christian 
Recorder. The paper was founded and edited by Henry 
M. Turner and first published in 1886 as a private enter- 
prise. In 1888 it became a connectional organ. 

The General Conference of 1952 meeting at Chicago, 
Illinois ordered the Soutliern Christian Recorder and 
The Western Christian Recorder to merge and created 
The Southwestern Christian Recorder. Following the 
merger. Singleton L. Jones was elected editor of the new 
publication. In 1960 the General Conference ordered one 
connectional paper, The Christian Recorder, and elected 
B. J. Nolan as editor. 

Sex'eral editors of the four Christian Recorders have 
been elected to the bishopric: Jabez P. Campbell (1864), 
Henry M. Turner (1880), Benjamin T. Tanner (1888), 
Benjamin F. Lee (1892), Robert R. Wright, Jr. (1936), 
John H. Clayborn (1944), Eugene C. Hatcher (1952). 

The Western Christian Recorder was founded in 1891 
as a pri\ate enterprise and edited by J. Frank McDonald. 
Publication was suspended at the end of one year of 
operation. Later it resumed publication under the same 
editorship and continued to 1900. The General Conference 
of 1900, meeting at Columbus, Ohio, accepted it as one of 
its connectional organs. McDonald, who continued as 
editor, was elected a General Officer at the General 
Conference of 1912. 


The Connectional Sunday School Union of the A.M.E. 
Church was organized on Aug. 11, 1882 at Cape May, 
N. J. through the influence of Charles S. Smith. Earlier 
in that same year Smith had petitioned the Council of 
Bishops for authorization to organize the Sunday Schools 
of the A.M.E. Church into a Sunday School Union, "to 
systematize the Sunday School work among the colored 
people, to provide them with a literature and text books, 
to extend the work of the Sunday Schools ... to provide 
for Sunday School Institutes, and to provide schools . . ." 
The petition was granted and the Sunday School Union 
was authorized but no funds were made available for its 

In 1883 Smith instituted the observation of Children's 
Day to finance the work of the Sunday School Union. 
By 1884 a majority of the annual conferences of the 
connection liad endorsed the agency and the General 
Conference meeting that year granted it official recogni- 
tion as a department. Smith, the prime mover in its found- 
ing, became the first corresponding secretary, proposed 
its first constitution, and located its headquarters in Bloom- 
ington, Ind. In 1886 it moved to Nashville, Tenn., where 
a building was purchased for a publishing plant and the 
offices of the A.M.E. Sunday School Union. A.M.E. Sun- 
day School literature was the first to be published in 
America for the exclusive use of Negroes. In 1886 tlie 
Sunday School Union was incorporated. In 1936 an ef- 
fort, led by S. S. Morris, to coordinate the rehgious educa- 
tion concern of the denomination in the area of Sunday 
Schools, youth work, and leadership training resulted 
in the establishment of the Board of Religious Education. 

In 1952, by action of the General Conference, tlie 
work of the Board of Religious Education was united with 
the Board of Education, which dealt primarily with gen- 
eral and higher education, to create The General Board 



i)f Education with three subdivisions; Divison of Educa- 
tional Institutions, Division of Cliristian Education, and 
I'^ditorial Division. 

Leaders in the Connectional Sunday School Union 
movement in African Methodism have been: Bishop 
Charles S. Smith, Conference Secretary, 1882-1900, Bish- 
op William D. Chappelle, Corresponding Secretary, 
1900-1908, Ira Biyant, Secretary-Treasurer, 1908-1936 
and E. A. Selby, Secretary-Treasurer since 1936. 


Yoiith work in African Methodism, U.S.A., began with 
the formation of Christian Endeavor societies in local 
churches in the 1880's. In 1896 the General Conference 
adopted a resolution designating these local Christian 
Endeavor Societies as the official youth groups for the 
denomination. In 1900 these local groups were formed 
into a connectional society and designated the Allen 
Christian Endeavor Society. In 1904 the General Con- 
ference changed the name "Society" to "League" and 
adopted a pledge and constitution. In 1936 the Allen 
Christian Endeavor League merged with the Sunday 
School Union to form the Department o{ Religious Edu- 

The name of the General Secretaries of the Allen 
Christian Endeavor League from its inception are: 
Bishop B. W. Arnett, 1900-1904; E. J. Gregg. 1904-1908; 
J. C. Caldwell, 1908-1920; S. S. Morris, 1920-1959. 

E. A. Adams, Yearbook and Historical Guide. 1959. 

Articles of Association of the African Methodist Episcopal 

Church of the City of Philadelphia in the Commonwealth of 

Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1799. 

L. L. Berry, Century of Missions (AME). 1942. 

Levi Jenkins Coppin, Unwritten History. New York; Negro 

Universities Press, 1968 reprint of the original ( 1919). 

J. A. Davis, Episcopacy. 1902. 

W. J. Gaines, African Methodism. 1890 

, The Negro and the White Man. New York; Negro 

Universities Press, 1969 reprint of the original ( 1897 ). 
J. A. Handy, AME History. 1901. 
].T. ]eniiei. Centennial Retro.ipect (AME). 1916. 
D. A. Payne, History (AME). 1891. 

, Recollections. 1888. 

K. C. Ransom, Preface (AME). 1950. 

C. S. Smith, History (AME). 1922. 

H. M. Turner, Genius and Theory. 1885. 

H. R. Wright, Centennial Encyclopaedia. 1916, 1948. 

Grant S. Shockley 

history of this church in America is difficult to secure with 
exactness. Early leaders such as Peter Williams, Francis 
Jacobs, George Collins, Abraham Thompson, June Scott, 
Thomas Miller, and James Varick are of course all dead 
and not all of these were gifted in writing, or, because 
of circumstances, were not able to open their thoughts and 
deeds to posterity. However, these early founders of tlie 
church at least dreamed large dreams, for their concept 
of Methodism involved more than a casual approval of 
human rights and privileges. 

Contrary to common belief, the movement of these 
Africans towards the establishment of a Negro church 
appears not to have been one of protest but of expediency. 
Caught up, as they were, in the early spirit of Methodism, 
they brought new dimensions to Christian interpretation. 
For where once the struggle for independence seemed 
insignificant within the church, their venture in the Afri- 

can Chapel demanded a liberal interpretation of the Chris- 
tian way and the true spirit of brotherhood wherever 
men met for prayer and hymn. Thus the basic spirit of 
Old John Street Church in New York was carried be- 
yond its walls and influence. 

William Stillwell, the appointed minister of this 
African Chapel, called Zion, and its companion chapel, 
Ashury, had after a time become so dissatisfied with the 
temporal affairs of the Methodist Episcopal Church that 
he informed his congregations he was withdrawing from 
the Methodist fold over tlie control of church property. 
Along with 5,000 others, the leaders of this African Chapel 
were granted sole right of control over any and all prop- 
erty which they should acquire, thus obtaining for them- 
selves rights and privileges which later engulfed the New 
York Methodist Episcopal Annual Conference in bitter 
controversy. In Stillwell's decision appears to have been 
the influence of his uncle, Samuel, one-time trustee of 
John Street and class leader of Peter Williams. The seeds 
of the Zion Methodist movement may well have been 
sown some years earlier (1781) in prayer sessions. Thus 
the date of 1796 stands merely as a new paragraph in the 
history of the church. Strangely enough the Methodist 
leadership which brought about the Stillwell secession 
tolerantK acquiesced in the requests of their African 
brethren in 1796 and formall)' agreed to this acceptance 
in 1801. Of this Stillwell secession in Methodist history, 
Joshua Soule wrote to Bishop McKendree in Septem- 
ber, 1820: 

You will doubtless see Bishop George in Baltimore or its 
vicinity and recei\e from him a narrati\e of the disastrous 
events which have transpired in this station. Suffice it to say 
that se\eral hundred have separated themselves from tlie 
fellowship of our church, established an independent congre- 
gation embodied under a system of government which secures 
a perfect equality of right and power to every member, male 
and female — properly speaking, an ecclesiastical democracy 
in the most extensive sense of the word. 

The final separation from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church did not come for Zion and Asbury Churches, how- 
ever, until July 21, 1820, when the Resolution of With- 
drawal was drawn and approved. It is to be noted that 
here again property control and not ill treatment brought 
about the breach. Even this act appears not to have been 
final, for conversations witli the Philadelphia Con- 
ference took place as late as December of that year 
and on into the following year as the Methodist Con- 
ference met in Milford, Delaware. Then a letter, the 
writing of which was uiged by Ezekiel Cooper, was 
sent to the Conference setting forth die contention "that 
it was well known that the conferences would not accept 
Negro ministers" and they requested the right to establish 
an annual conference to be presided over by Bishop Mc- 
Kendree or miij other. The letter, signed by James Varick 
and George Collins for the African Chapel, was acted 
upon by the Philadelphia Conference in response to a 
committee report (members were Ezekiel Cooper, Thomas 
Ware, and Edward White). The report, signed by the 
conference secretary George Cox, was dated April 19, 
1821. It made provision for a bishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church to attend the conference of the African 
churches, a member (presumably of the New York 
Conference) to preside at die sessions if no bishop 
were present, and that a Methodist Episcopal bishop 
would ordain their deacons and elders providing the 


New York Conference agreed. The New York Conference, 
however, responded that this was a General Conference 
matter and could not be acted upon by the annual con- 
ferences. Conversations at healing the breach were not 
resumed until long after when the General Conference 
met in Chicago in 1868, but no concrete action was taken 
at that or in the subsequent General Conferences. Mean- 
while a new church had been organized. 

Out of the early days of this new church at least five 
points of emphasis and goals can be noted: the desire to 
bring within the Christian fold more Negroes, both free 
and slave; the desire to intensify the spiritual develop- 
ment of both ministers and lay people through the ex- 
ercise of their faith, their abilities and fellowship; the. 
desire to launch out into missionary endeavor; the impera- 
tive of educational development and opportunity; and, 
finally, the imperative of economic development among 
free men. Close study will reveal that denominational 
efforts have continued along these lines. 

Jealous always of the rights and privileges of people, 
the first major crisis within the church came about when 
one of its elected superintendents (Superintendent Bish- 
op) became eager to set aside the decision of the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1852 which held that the three super- 
intendents were to be considered equal. Another facet 
of the controversy involved the change of the word 
African in the name of the church to Wcsleijan, a change 
not authorized by the General Conference. 

As a result of these differences of opinion, the New 
York Conference (A.M.E. Zion) ordered that the Bishop 
be tried. He refused to submit to the trial, and the con- 
ference refused to allow him the chair. In 1853 the con- 
ference conducted the trial and expelled the Reverend 
Bishop. The breach was finally healed in the ratification 
of what was called the Agreement of Newburg. 

A second crisis developed in 1872, evidently as a result 
of the possibility of unification with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. The movement evidently was a continua- 
tion of the enthusiasm of the Chicago Methodist Episcopal 
General Conference before which Singleton T. Jones had 
spoken. It appears that it was his idea that the sessions of 
the Zion General Conference should be held at a point 
where easy conversations could be carried on. The major 
part of the church met in Charlotte, N. C, where the 
Jones group finally agreed also to meet. 

Three other significant developments in Zion Church 
history need to be mentioned. One was the widening 
of lay participation in these General sessions, climaxing 
in equal lay representation in 1928; and the other was the 
striking of the words "male" and "female" from the Dis- 
cipline in 1876. Also, a Connectional Council was author- 
ized in 1900. This group, composed of officers of the 
Boards, the General officers, and the Board of Bishops, 
meets annually and approves or disapproves the work of 
the departments. 

The title of Superintendent for the top leadership of 
the church was not changed to the present designation of 
bishop until 1868, and then was ratified only as a com- 
promise with the African Methodist Episcopal Church 
as one of the basic points looking toward organic union. 
The Zion Methodist group insisted, however, on the re- 
tention of all laws regarding laymen in the church and 
their participation in General Conference sessions (two 
from each annual conference). No doubt this insistence 
on lay privileges led to the failure of the movement for 
union with the A.M.E. Church, although the conversa- 


tions were conducted throughout the 19th and into the 
20th centuries. 

The second step in the development of the episcopacy 
did not come until 1880 when the General Conference 
finally agreed to the election of bishops for life and conse- 
cration for the same. It appears that the power of the 
episcopacy increased with this act only to be challenged 
by actions of the General Conference in 1956 as efforts 
were then made to constitute a Judicial Council, after 
the pattern of that in The Methodist Church. This mat- 
ter occupied the attention of each General Conference 
since that time. 

Educational emphasis within the denomination actually 
began with the constiuction of the first church building 
in 1800, when a school room was provided. However, an 
earUer reference must be acknowledged. Efforts to estab- 
lish a university (later called Rush University) were not 
successful despite the sympathy of many people, the gift 
of land in New York state, and the cooperative l^eginnings 
of a church-state project in Pennsylvania (Zion Hill Insti- 
tute in Washington County). It appears that the Pennsyl- 
vania state venture hinged upon a grant from the State 
Legislature of some $5,000. William Howard Day, a 
resident of Harrisburg and one of the great lay leaders 
of the church, is said to have prevented its passage by 
influencing the governor to veto the measure. Day was 
opposed to any type of segregated school development. 
Just how much this single act influenced the attitude of 
the leadership of the church is not known, but Day did 
find himself in difficulty with the denomination, although 
later he was cleared of all charges. 

In abandoning the Pennsylvania project the denomina- 
tion gave the Allegheny Conference permission to continue 
with the venture if it could find the means as a conference. 
The defeat of the state-participating-relationship no doubt 
led to the decision to reject all interest in a denomina- 
tional project in the North, and to concentrate efforts in 
the South. The General Conference authorized such ac- 
tion, and as a result Rush University was tiansferred to 
Fayetteville, North Carolina, and under Bishops J. W. 
Hood and C. R. Harris was developed as Zion Wesley 
Institute, which will be traced in the development of 
Livingstone College (see Salisbury, North Carolina). 
The denomination, however, found interest in or devel- 
oped more than ten different institutions, two of which 
are now being conducted as junior colleges moving to- 
wards development of a four-year status. 

The Zion Church has been keenly interested in fostering 
the Wesleyan idea of ministerial improvement, and early 
utilized the annual conference sessions as a training 
ground. Local churches were expected to create or provide 
hbraries in line with the church's emphasis on the edu- 
cation of children and their membership through the Sun- 
day school movement. The close of the 19th centurv' saw 
legislation which clarified the status of baptized children, 
provided for the production of church school literature, 
and the beginnings of youth instruction within the church. 
This work of the denomination has been greatly empha- 
sized in the past sixty years or more, chiefly under the 
guidance of James W. Eichelberger, Secretary of Chris- 
tian Education, while a wider experience of interdenomi- 
national participation has been spearheaded by Bishop 
W. J. Walls. 

Missions took the early church into New England and 
as far north as Nova Scotia. Emphasis later shifted to 
the South (1860), when such men as John Williams, 



James Walker Hood, Deacon David Hill, Wilbur S. Strong 
(Alabama), Singleton T. Jones, John Jamison Moore 
(West Coast, including San Francisco in 1852) — led by 
the superintendent and later Bishop Joseph Jackson 
Clinton — followed hard after the Union armies, orga- 
nizing and admitting churches. Foreign missionary activ- 
ity appears to have begun with the sailing to Africa in 
1876 of Andrew Cartwright and the subsequent evolve- 
ment of the "Training in America" policy of Bishop 
John Bryant Small, the first bishop assigned to a foreign 

Women were instrumental in all these mission enter- 
prises from the first. Eliza Ann Gardner and Malvina 
Fletcher were not only interested in home missions but 
foreign as well. Miss Gardner lent impetus to the work in 
Nova Scotia, and later to that in the South, while Malvina 
Fletcher was instrumental in fostering the work in the 
South through raising funds and securing passes for the 
mission workers. In 1880 the General Conference created 
the Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Society. 
Florence Bandolph stands out as one of the most ardent 
presidents of this group and left office witli the whole 
church possessing a new appreciation of its missionary 
responsibility. Mission work now takes the church into 
South America and the Caribbean as well as to Africa. 
The first native African bishop, S. Dorme Labtey, was 
consecrated in 1960. 

Church Publications. The church has been closely iden- 
tified with the development of the Negro press, both 
secular and religious. For example. The Anglo-African 
appeared prior to 1863. A new printing press was ordered 
in 1864, which indicated that this publication was actual- 
ly a continuing one. 

The Star of Zion was established in 1876 by J. A. Tyler, 
with the concurrence of Bishop J. W. Hood. It Ijecame the 
official paper of the denomination at the General Con- 
ference of 1880, and A. L. Bichardson was elected editor 
when Tyler declined the office. Its editors, following Tyler 
and Bichardson, have been J. McH. Farley, John C. 
Dancy, George W. Clinton, J. W. Smith, George C. 
Clement, J. Harvey Anderson, William Jacob Walls 
(Senior Bishop), W. H. Davenport, William A. Black- 
well, and Walter R. Lovell. The paper is published in 
Charlotte, North Carolina, and has had great influence in 
the Zion connection. 

The A.M.E. Zion Quarterly Review is an official organ 
of the church published at three-month intervals and 
devoted to matters of scholarly, historical, and current 
ecclesiastical interest in the larger context of church life. 
It was first published in 1890 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
under the editorship of George W. Clinton. The Review 
was accepted by the 1892 General Conference which met 
in Old John Wesley Church, Pittsburgh, and it has con- 
tinued since that date. The present editor is David H. 
Bradley, who is also secretary of the A.M.E. Zion His- 
torical Society. The quarterly magazine is published in 
Bedford, Pennsylvania. 

The Missionary Seer is the official publication of the 
Home and Foreign Missionary Department. It was estab- 
lished in 1904 to promote the missionary interests of the 
church and has been published monthly since that time, 
being distributed throughout the denomination in Amer- 
ica and overseas. 

Pensions. The forerunner of the Department of Pen- 
sions and Relief can be said to be the Annual Conference 
Fund of the New York Annual Conference (1839), al- 

though the Department as such did not come into exis- 
tence until later. The resolution to establish such a fund 
read: "Whereas, on account of the people's delinquency 
in many of our stations and circuits, our preachers fail to 
get means to support their families and are compelled to 
neglect their duties as ministers or suffer. We have there- 
fore agreed in our associated capacity as ministers to estab- 
lish a fund to be used in relief of our brother ministers 
connected with this conference, when they are in want of 
relief or help. We therefore adopt the following constitu- 
tion." The resolution follows. By the end of the century 
an extensive if inadequate arrangement was in force as 
reported by the secretary, John F. Moreland. 

The Church Extension Department was incorporated in 
1905 as a Pennsylvania corporation "for the promotion of 
the temporal welfare of the church." Seven secretaries have 
headed this department. 

The Book Concern was first established in 1841 and 
was located in New York City. 

The Sunday School Department, as it was originally 
called, received no early action on the part of the General 
Conference, except through that of the established policy 
of the church and its annual conferences where insistence 
was made that attention be given not only to the teaching 
of children but the providing of libraries. The General 
Conference took more concrete action in 1888, when the 
work was fully organized with a superintendent and edi- 
tor, and with T. A. Weathington as its financial secretary. 
The Sunday School Board, predecessor of the Board of 
Christian Education, Home and Church, came into exis- 
tence in 1916. Its companion Board of Schools and Col- 
leges was authorized much earlier in 1892. 

Three other departments are of much more recent 
origin — the Bureau of Evangelism, the Department of 
Public Relations, and the Historical Society, the latter 
being proposed in 1944 and placed on a firm basis in 

The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church today 
is composed of 52 annual conferences in America, South 
America, the Caribbean, and sections of West Africa. Its 
churches number approximately 2,500, served by 1,575 
ministers, and with a membership of 750,000. Sixty-eight 
superintendents and bishops have served the denomina- 
tion, with twelve active bishops now and eleven general 
officers. (See also Negro Methodist Union Negotiations.) 

D. H. Bradley, AMEZ Church. 1956, 1970. 

J. W. Hood, One Hundred Years. 1895. 

Missionary Seer files. 

C. Rush, Short Account (AMEZ), 1843. David H. Bradley 

CHURCH. This body, known officially as the African Union 
Fiist Colored Methodist Protestant Church of America or 
Elsewhere, was fonned by the merger of the African 
Union Church and the First Colored Methodist Protestant 
Church. The African Union Church dated from 1813 in 
Wilmington, Delaware. A lawsuit developed between 
Ezion Church, a predominantly black congregation, and 
Asbury Church, the predominantly white parent congre- 
gation. The suit emerged because the members of Ezion 
did not wish to accept a white minister sent them as 
pastor. When Asbury Church won the court fight, Peter 
Spencer and his followers left Ezion and started the Union 
Church of Africans. In 1850, shortly after the death of 
Spencer, a schism occurred when a minority faction left 


to form a church with an episcopal pohty. This later body 
became the Union American Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The Union Church of Africans emerged from this strug- 
gle as the African Union Church. 

The first Colored Methodist Protestant Church has an 
obscure origin, but probably originated from a schism in 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church. On November 
2.5, 1865, representatives met with representatives of the 
African Union Church and hammered out the merger 
that formed the African Union Methodist Protestant 

The doctrine is Wesleyan and the polity of the church 
is similar to that of the Methodist Protestant Church. 
There is no foreign mission program, and home missions, 
are cared for by the women. In 1957 they reported 5,000 
members in 33 churches. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

Census of Religious Bodies, 1936. J. GonDON Melton 

AGENCY. The United Methodist Church, U.S.A., uses 
the word "agency" in its polity as referring to "a Council, 
Board, Division, Commission, Committee, or other body 
established to carr>- out the work of the church." The 
Constitution of The United Methodist Church, Article 
IV. 8 indicates the type of agencies which the Ceneral 
Conference may initiate and direct — such as publishing, 
evangelistic, educational, missionary, benevolent; and it 
is also empowered "to pro\ide Boards for their promo- 
tion and administration." Similar regulations give the right 
to Jurisdictional Conferences and Central Conferences to 
establish Boards, et cetera. By usage which in time came 
to be common among all Methodists, these Boards, Com- 
mittees, etc., are designated as "Agencies," and are so 
named when referred to in certain paragraphs of the 
Discipline. [Discipline 1968, paragraph 26-3. ) 

Chapter V of the Book of Discipline itself outlines and 
treats of The General Agencies of The United Methodist 
Church. "The General Agencies of The United Methodist 
Church are the regularly established councils, and boards, 
commissions, and the committees which have been con- 
stituted by the General Conference." 

Discipline, 1968, paragraphs 801, 802. N. B. H. 


of the leaders of the A.M.E. Zion Church, was born Oc- 
tober 28, 1875 at Anamabu in the Gold Coast Colony, 
West Africa. He entered the Wesleyan Methodist School 
at Cape Coast around 1883 and was converted at the 
age of 14. He was licensed to preach two years later and 
for a time followed studies leading to full-time Christian 

Through the efforts of Bishop John Bryan Small of the 
A.M.E. Zion Church and the encouragement of a Mr. 
Anaman, he sailed for America July 10, 1898, where he 
was enrolled at Livingstone College, Salisbury, N. C. He 
graduated with the B.A. degree in 1902 and ten years 
later received an honorary A.M. from that institution and 
a D.D. from Hood Theological Seminary. For a time 
after his graduation he assisted at the college. 

In November, 1905, he married Rose D. Douglass. To 
this union fotir children were bom — Abna Azalea, Kweg- 
yir. Rosebud, and Rudolf. 

Meanwhile Aggrey became an elder in the Zion Church 
(1903) and began a profitable ministry in and around 


Salisbury. In 1920 he accepted a position on the survey 
(of African education) staff of Jesse Jones, supervised 
by the Phelps Stokes Fund. In 1921 he attended the first 
meeting of the International Missionary Council and the 
following year he attended the Foreign Missions Con- 
ference of North America in Atlantic City. During this 
time he was also attending Columbia University. 

A second commission to survey African education in 
areas not contacted in the first survey left London in 
January, 1924. Two of the original members of the first 
commission were in this group — Jesse Jones and Aggrey. 

James Aggrey became assistant vice principal of Achi- 
mota College in 1924 and served until his death. He had 
been given a leave of absence to write his dissertation 
at Columbia when death came suddenly on July 30, 1927. 

Edwin W. Smith, Aggrey of Africa. New York: Richard R. 
Smith, Inc., 1930. David H. Bradley 

AGRA, India, was one of the capitals of the Moghal Em- 
pire in India and is the site of the world-famous Taj 
Mahal. It was also the headquarters of the British Prov- 
ince of Agra, which was joined with the Province of 
Oudh, former capital of the Moslem Kingdom of Oudh, 
to form the United Provinces. Since Indian independence 
the name has been changed to Uttar Pradesh, thus con- 
tinuing the use of the initials "U.P.," by which common 
usage has designated the area for more than a century. 

The Roman Catholic Church came to Agra in the days 
of Akbar, greatest of Moghal Emperors. The church main- 
tains a college known as St. Peter's, and the Missionary 
Society has another college, St. John's. There are also 
Roman Catholic and Anglican high schools for boys and 
girls. The Baptists (British) have developed and main- 
tained a boys' high school. 

The M. E. Church established simple primary schools 
in borrowed or rented premises in the quarters of the 
lowly and oppressed sweepers (scavengers) and chamars 
( leatherworkers ) , and maintained them with great diffi- 
culty for nearly three decades. Many families confessed 
Christ and strove persistently to establish for tliemselves 
and their neighbors a new pattern of life. They were se- 
verely handicapped by their environment; every possible 
obstacle to progress was theirs. Two missionaries, Sarah 
and Sadie Holman, decided that the school children 
needed to get away, at least during school hours, from 
their cramped and sordid environment. Their school was 
transferred to the church and parsonage, and relatives 
and friends were persuaded to build a new school struc- 
ture on the church grounds. Other buildings followed and 
equipment was added. A high school intended primarily 
for the underprivileged attracted children from the most 
privileged homes. Present enrollment is 865, and the 
school is now known as the Holman Institute. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

AGRA CONFERENCE. Agra, India, is the great city of this 
conference, with a population of about 430,000. The 
conference was authorized by the General Conference 
of 1952 and was organized in 1956. It includes districts 
that formerly were part of the Delhi Annual Con- 
ference. There are presently seven districts of the con- 
ference, namely: Agra, Aligarh, Bulandshahr, Mathura, 
Meerut, Muzaffamagar, and Roorkee. 

Besides Agra, the conference contains the cities of 


Aligarh, Hulandsliahr, Dchra Dun, Ghaziabad, Mathura, 
Meerut, Mussoorie, Roorkee and Vrindahan. Mathura and 
Vrindaban are sacred cities associated with Krishna. Ali- 
garh is the site of Mushm Univereity, Roorhee of a Gov- 
ernmental Technical University, Meerut has a teaching 
and Agra an examining university. 

At last reporting the conference had sixty-five ordained 
pastors, and fift\-seven supply pastors, serving a member- 
ship, full and preparatory, of 130,087. 

Discipline, 1968. P. 1901. 

Project Handbook Overseas Missions of The United Methodist 

Church. New York: Board of Missions, 1969. N. B. H. 

AHGREN, MAGNUS FREDRIK (1851-1937), Swedish min- 
ister, was born in Stvrestad, Noorkoping, Sweden, Oct. 
15, 1851. 

His special gifts as teacher and preacher were manifest 
early. In 1870 he came into contact with the Methodists, 
and two years later he became teacher at a Methodist day 
school in Orebro. In the same year he was sent to Gothen- 
burg as a local preacher, working also at the printing 
office called Wesleyana. In 1873 he was accepted on 
trial in the conference and in 1875 became pastor in 
charge in Jonkoping. 

In 1876 Fredrik Ahgren went to America, where he 
studied at Northwestern University, and was pastor in 
a Swedish-American Methodist church in Chicago. For 
some years also he taught at the Garrett Seminary, 
Evanston. These years helped him to master the English 
language, and he in time became the best interpreter the 
Sweden Conference ever had. 

In 1879 he returned to Sweden and worked as pastor 
in Gavle, Uppsala (twice); at Stockholm, in St. Peter, 
St. Paul, and Trinitv, where he staved for ten years 
(1896-1906); and again in 1913-16, Linkoping and 
Ostersund. Everywhere he gathered great crowds around 
his pulpit. Archbishop Soderblom at the Methodist Con- 
ference in Uppsala in 1926 commented appreciatively 

Magnus F. Ahcren 


regarding Ahgren's influenc-e on the students of theology 
at the University of Uppsala, and in Stockholm at Trinity 
he became the highly esteemed preacher of the "Upper 
Ten." When he was seventy years of age he acted as prin- 
cipal for the theological school at Uppsala. For many 
years he was president of the Epworth Youth Organiza- 
tion. He retired at seventy-five, and died on Sept. 11, 
1937. Four times he had been a delegate to the General 
Conference — and during the First World War he pre- 
sided with appointment-making power at the Sweden 
Conference sessions in 1917 and 1918. 

Svenska Folkrorelser. Stockholm, 1927, ii, p. 1067. 
Minutes of Sweden Annual Conference, 1938. 

Enic Stapelberc 
Mansfield Hurtic 

AHMAD SHAH, EBENEZER (1887- ), was bom in 

Jagraon, India, on Oct. 25, 1887, the son of Ahmad Shah, 
a priest of the Church of England in the Punjab, and 
Sophiah. He became a member of the Methodist Church 
at LucKNOw while he was a lecturer in philosophy at 
Canning College. His annual conference put him on many 
committees and instructional boards. 

He was also active in public life, serving in the State 
Legislative Council, 1927-44; on the National Defense 
Council during the second World War, 1941-45; as leader 
of a delegation to the Middle East in 1944, and to Burma 
and Malaysia in 1945. He was chairman of the National 
Labor Tribunal of the Government of India, 1943-45. 

His earned degrees were from Punjab University, B.A., 
1910; Allahabad University, M.A., 1916; Oxford (En- 
gland) University, B.Litt., 1922. He served many years 
as professor of philosophy in Lucknow University and 
as visiting professor or lecturer in philosophy in European 
and American universities. He was president of the Indian 
Christian Association of the United Provinces, 1936-39; 
member of the executive committee of the National Chris- 
tian Council of India, 1931-35, and again, 1946-50. 

When Ahmad Shah retired from his university posts, 
he signified his desire to give his remaining years to the 
Christian ministry, and in an extraordinary departure from 
precedent, the Lucknow Annual Conference of The 
Methodist Church voted to receive him despite his age, 
and he was ordained as deacon and elder. Shortly there- 
after, he was elected secretary of the executive board of 
The Methodist Church in Southern Asia, in which position 
he served with distinction. 

Ahmad Shah married Salome Ishur-Ditt, a graduate of 
Isabella Thobubn College, on March 2, 1917. She 
served in his stead in the United Provinces Legislative 
Council in 1946 while her husband was out of India. Both 
Ahmad Shah and his wife were awarded the coveted 
Commander of the Indian Empire title for their respective 

Debrett's Peerage. Surrey, Eng.: Debrett Office, Neville House, 
Eden Street, Kingston Upon Thames, 1967. 
Who's Who in The Methodist Church. 1966. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

ican bishop and college president, was born in Camilla, 
Ga., on Feb. 10, 1872. He was a son of the parsonage; 
his parents were James Thomas and Kate L. (McRaeny) 
Ainsworth. He was educated at Emory College, receiving 
an A.B. in 1891, and a D.D. in 1905. On Oct. 11, 1893, 



he married Mary Nicholson, a gracious lady vs'ho survived 
him many years. 

He entered the South Georgia Conference in 1891 
and held pastorates at Grace Church, Macon, Montesume, 
Bainbridge, Dublin, and Mulberry Street, Macon, all 
in Georgia. After that came his pastorate in the influential 
and historic Wesley Monumental Church, Savannah. 
In 1909 he became president of Wesleyan College at 
Macon, but after three years in that office he returned to 
Mulberry Street Church, Macon. He was elected bishop 
by the General Conference of the M. E. Church, South 
in 1918. 

Bishop Ainsworth was a gifted preacher, with a strong 
"oratorical" voice and the measured, impressive delivery ol 
a bom orator. He was in demand as a speaker for the 
temperance cause, and later the Prohibition movement. 

While serving as president of Wesleyan he befriended 
the Soong sisters of China, who were then students at 
Wesleyan, and Madam Chiang Kai Shek lived in tlie 
Ainsworth home for a time. He was in the Ecumenical 
Conferences of 1911, 1921, and 1931, and was an officer 
of the Ecumenical Methodist Council. His Episcopal ad- 
ministiation included China as well as conferences in his 
homeland. He retired in 1938. and died on July 7, 1942, 
at Asheville, N. C. He was buried in Riverside, Macon, 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in Americati Methodism. 1916. 

N. B. H. 

AITKEN, ROBERT (1800-1873), British evangelical An- 
glican minister, better known as "Aitken of Pendeen." He 
was bom in Ro.xburghshire, Scotland, the son of a school- 
master. He attended Edinburgh University, 1815-1818, 
but did not take a degree, tliough he always added the 
claim A.M. to his publications. Brought up an Arminian, 
he was confirmed as an Anglican in 1821, and ordained 
by the of 0.\ford in 1824. 

In 1829, while a curate in the Isle of Man, Aitken 
underwent a kind of evangelical conversion. He now 
associated closely with Wesleyan Methodlsts, preach- 
ing in their chapels in the Isle of Man. From there he 
went to the north of England. In 1833-34 he conducted 
revival missions in Leeds. A sermon of his in Woodhouse 
Grove School helped to launch the famous school revival 
described in Benjamin Gregory's Autobiographical Rec- 
ollections. In 1834 he actually allowed his name to stand 
as a candidate for the Wesleyan Methodist ministry. He 
wanted to act as a free revivalist, however, and the Con- 
ference committee appointed to c-onsider his case reported 
unfavorably. Though he still regarded himself as an Angli- 
can, he also offered himself as a mediator in the Samuel 
Warren controversy of 1834-37, but his offer was re- 
jected. After this he severed his connection with Meth- 
odism, and in Cornwall in later life he never associated 
with it. 

From 1836 to 1840 Aitken ran his own sect. The Chris- 
tian Society, which had more than twenty societies scat- 
tered about the country. The attempt failed, however, and 
in 1841 Aitken returned to the Church of England (from 
which he had never been formally extruded) on a sacra- 
mental platfomi close to that of the Oxford Mo\'ement. 
His career continued to be erratic. He served under the 
famous Vicar of Leeds, Walter Farquhar Hook, for three 
years (1843-47), but again failed to estabhsh himself. 

In 1849 he retired to Pendeen, in Cornwall, a remote 
living which his wife obtained for him, and spent the 
rest of his life there. Self-important and ambitious, Aitken 
was always looking for a cause which would make his 
name. In 18.54 he again turned to Wesleyanism, publishing 
a tract on the subject of union between the Wesleyans 
and the Church of England. This formed the basis of an 
approach in 1856 to Convocation (the ruling body of the 
Church of England) by a small group of Anglican min- 
isters, but the move led to nothing, because the proposed 
scheme did not take into cxinsideration the suspicion 
which now filled Nonconformity at the thought of Anglo- 
CathoUcism. The claim that Aitken combined "Cathol- 
icism" and "Evangelicahsm" and was a significant influ- 
ence leading to a futui-e reconciliation of these groups 
does not bear serious examination. 

Aitken died in 1873. John Kent 

Motozo .\kazawa 

AKAZAWA, MOTOZO (1875-1936), bishop of the Japan 
Methodist Church, was born in a country village in 
Okayama Prefecture, where for generations his Buddhist 
family had been brewers of rice wine. Although he had 
some contact with Christianity as a boy, he seems to have 
drifted away from its influence, for when he was twenty- 
one he was sent to Honolulu to extend the family's sake 
business. Within a few months there came a tremendous 
change in his life, largely through the influence of the 
Rev. S. Kihara. He gave up the liquor business and began 
to help in evangelistic work. For more than a year he 
served as pastor of a small church on Maui. 

Feeling the need for more education, he crossed the 
Pacific to California, and in 1897 enrolled as a student 



in tlie College of the Pacific, then at San Jose. He served 
as pastor of the Japanese mission there. Later he went to 
tlie University of Texas, where he was graduated in 1905. 
He liad one year of seminary at Vanderbilt before re- 
turning to Japan to enter the pastorate. 

The remainder of his life was spent in the Japan Meth- 
odist Church — as pastor (especially in Osaka and Kobe), 
as special evangelist for the Great Forward Movement 
(corresponding to the Centenary Movement in the 
U.S.A.), as president of the Lanibuth Training School 
for Christian Workers, and as secretary of the Board of 
Missions. In 1930, on the death of Bishop Kocoho 
UsAKi, he was named to fill the unexpired term, and was 
reelected at the two following General Conferenc-es, serv- 
ing until his death on May 12, 1936. 

Bishop Akazawa was a man of deep spirituality and 
evangelistic passion, greatly beloved by his Japanese and 
missionary associates. 

John B. Cobb, Sm. 

AKERS, MILBURN PETER (1900-1970), newspaperman 
and Methodist layman, was born in Chicago, May 4, 1900, 
the son of Edwin W. and Anna May (Wilson) Akers. 
He received the A.B. degree from McKendree College 
in 1925, and the honorary LL.D. and L.H.D, in 1952 
and 1958 from Illinois Wesleyan University and 
Otterbein College. He married Beulah M. McChire, 
Oct. 4, 1925, and they had one daughter. 

In his profession Akers served as reporter for the St. 
Louis Post-Dispatch, 1923-27; telegraph editor, lUinois 
State Register, Springfield, 1927-30; Associated Press, 
Chicago, 1930-33, Springfield, 1933-34, and Washington, 
D. C, 1934-37; superintendent of reports. State of Illinois, 
1937-39; assistant to the Secretary of the Interior, 1939- 
41; succes.sively political and editorial writer, managing 
editor, and executive editor, Chicago Sun-Times, 1941- 
59; and editor, 1959 until retirement in 1965. 

Akers was a trustee of MagMurray College (Illinois). 
As chairman of the board of trustees of McKendree Col- 
lege, he was influential in helping that school to achieve 
full academic accreditation in 1970. He was a member of 
the Quadrennial Commission on Higher Education, 1956- 
60, and was executive director of the Federation of Inde- 
pendent Illinois Colleges and Universities. At one time he 
served on the National Council of Churches, and on 
the Methodist Commission on Public Relations and In- 
formation. For some years he was in demand as a speaker 
at annual conferences and lay assemblies. He was killed 
May 27, 1970, in a traffic accident on an Illinois highway. 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church. 1966. 

Jesse A. Earl 
Albea Godbold 

AKERS, PETER (1790-1886), American minister and edu- 
cator, was born Sept. 1, 1790 in Campbell Co., Va. He 
revealed early evidence of leadership and ability when he 
taught school very capably at the age of sixteen. 

His parents were devout Presbyterians and desired 
young Akers to be a minister, but he preferred law and 
moved to Kentucky. He taught school briefly at Mount 
Sterling, Ky., then moved to Flemingsburg, where he en- 
tered the law office of Major W. P. Fleming. In 1817 he 

Peter Akers 

was admitted to the bar, went into partnership with Major 
Fleming, and soon gained note as an unusually gifted at- 

In 1818 he married Eliza S. Faris. A turning point 
came in the life of Peter Akers in 1821. His wife, who 
had lost two children and was seriously ill, was converted 
to Methodism by their physician, the Rev. Dr. Houston. 
On March 25, 1821, after a sermon by Houston, Akers 
and his wife joined the M. E. Church, thus bringing to 
Methodism one of its most eloquent and forceful figures. 
Mrs. Akers died shortly before her husband delivered his 
first sermon in July 1821. He was licensed to preach the 
following September and was recommended for admission 
to the Kentucky Conference. Admitted on trial, he was 
appointed to the Limestone Circuit. 

In 1823 Akers fell seriously ill while serving the Flem- 
ing Circuit, and few thought he would recover. After 
that, however, he enjoyed a new flow of inspiration which 
made him one of the most effective evangelists that part 
of the church has known. People were awed by the power 
and eloquence of this large framed but gentle man, and 
responded in great numbers to his call to the church. 

After serving at Lexington, Ky. for a year, he became 
agent for Augusta College in 1827. Following that as- 
signment he served Louisville, Danville, and Harrods- 
burg for several years. He returned in 1831 to his former 
post as agent for Augusta College. 

It was in 1832 that Peter Akers went to Illinois, 
where he served first as an evangelist. He became presi- 
dent of McKendree College — its first president — in 
1833-34, and then founded Ebenezer Manual Labor 
School while also serving the new Beardstown appoint- 

Akers was named presiding elder of the Quincy Dis- 


trict, whicli he traveled for two years. Bet^veen the years 
1840 and 1852 he served the Springfield, Jacksonville, and 
Quincy Distiicts. He then returned to McKendree College 
as president until ill health forced him to ask for transfer 
to the Minnesota Conference in 1857. 

The great love his Illinois brethren held for him was 
shown when they asked him in 1865, at age 75 and 
superannuated, to return to Illinois. He did so and served 
the Jacksonville and Pleasant Plains Districts until for- 
mally superannuated again in 1870. 

Akers was a delegate to eight General Conferences, 
leading many of the delegations, but this modest and 
genuinely humble man never sought ecclesiastical office. 
He died March 21, 1886, after having dedicated 65 years 
of his life to the chiu-ch. 

Journal of the Illinois Conference, 1886. 
J. Leaton, Illinois. 188.3. 

Ch.\rles J. LOTZ 

AKIN, DUDLEY DUNCAN (1844-1938), American min- 
ister, son of Joseph Akin, was bom Feb. 16, 1844 at 
Lancaster, Garrard Co., Ky., and died Nov. 5, 1938 at 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 

He served in the Union forces during the Civil War 
and was for some time imprisoned in the Andersonville 
Prison. He was licensed to preach Aug. 6, 1870 and 
joined the Kentucky Conference of the M. E. Church, 
on trial, Feb. 23, 1872. After serving eight years in that 
conference, he was transferred to the South Kansas 
Conference. From then until his retirement he was one 
of the leaders in that conference. He was appointed to the 
McPherson District in 1906, to the Hutchinson District 
in 1910, and retired in 1916. He served as conference 
secretary, 1887-1892, and was a delegate to the General 
Conference in 1904. 

Akin was a member of the educational committee which 
located Southwestern College in Winfield, Kansas, 
and he helped in starting that institution. He gave forty- 
four years of active service to the church. He was a 
charter member of the Central Kansas Conference, 
and was one of five charter members still living at the 
fiftieth anniversary observance of the organization of the 
Southwest Kansas Conference. 

Herbert, Barton and Ward, Southwest Kansas Conference. 


Journal of the Southwest Kansas Conference, 1883, 1904, 1916, 

1939. W. F. Ramsdale 

AKRON, OHIO, U.S.A. Methodist circuit riders came to 
what is now Akron as early as 1820. A Methodist class 
was formed in the community in 1830, and a frame church 
40 by 26 feet was erected in 1836. The building burned 
in 1841 and another was erected. Then in 1872 a Gothic 
structure was built which had the distinction of being the 
first church in America with rooms especially provided 
for a graded Sunday school. It became widely known as 
the "Akron Plan." The edifice had eight rooms for children 
under sixteen and eight for persons over that age. Teach- 
ers in the Sunday school assisted in writing the first 
graded lesson series. This church burned in 1911, and 
in 1914 First Church's present edifice was erected. A 
chapel was added in 1940, and an education annex in 
1956. Trinity Church, a former German Mediodist con- 
gregation, merged with First Church in 1955, and VVooster 
Avenue Church did the same in 1964. In 1969 Akron 

had 14 Methodist churches with 12,119 members. The 
three largest congregations with their memberships and 
the value of their plants were: First, 2,884, $1,486,356; 
Firestone-Park, 1,211, $414,500; and Christ, 1,155, $710,- 
000. Centenary Church with 469 members is a predomi- 
nantly Negro congregation. Akron has one A.M.E. Zion 
and five C.M.E. churches. 

General Minutes, MEC and TMC. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 

Jesse A. Eabl 


ALABAMA is a state in the "deep South." From Tennessee, 
the Cumberland Plateau extends into the northern part 
of the state, while in the south, the Coosa Valley lies 
hemmed in by the Piedmont Plateau. Toward the Gulf lies 
the coastal alluvial plain. In earlier days, much of the 
state was covered by pine forests. 

Traditionally Alabama has been a great cotton growing 
state, but recent >ears have brought diversified farming; 
salt, marble, and natural gas are plentiful; coal and iron 
are mined and processed; and cement is manufactured. 
Birmingham and Bessemer are great steel producing cen- 
ters. Alabama was organized as a territory March 3, 1817, 
and it became a state December 14, 1819. 

Before Alabama was a part of the Union, the Method- 
ists had entered the region. The famous Lorenzo Dow, 
though not under episcopal appointment at the time, 
preached the first Protestant sermon in what is now Ala- 
bama, in May, 1803, to settlers along the Tombigbee and 
Tensaw Rivers. 

M.\TTHEw Parham Sturdivant, Sent out in 1808 by 
the South Carolina Conference, was the real founder 
of Methodism in Alabama. In 1811, Alabama was at- 
tached to the Western Conference, and in 1812 to the 
Tennessee Conference, one of the successors of the 
Western body. In 1813, when the Mississippi Conference 
was formed, Alabama was included within its boundaries, 
and it so continued until 1832 when the Alabama Con- 
ference itself was organized. When first formed the Ala- 
bama Conference included all of the state below the 
Tennessee River, west Florida, and most of Mississippi's 
eastern tier of counties. The part of Alabama north of the 
Tennessee River was served by the Tennessee Conference 
until 1870. 

The Methodist Protestant Church organized a con- 
ference in Alabama in 1829 at Smith's Ferry, Perry Coun- 
ty. After the division of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in 1844, Alabama Methodism of course became 
a part of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. How- 
ever, in 1867, following the Civil War, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church entered the state and organized an 
Alabama Conference. In 1876 the Negro ministers and 
churches of that body were set apart as the Central 
Alahama Conference. The presence of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church caused some tension, but both it and 
the Methodist Protestant Church continued active in the 
state until Methodist unification in 1939. 

On October 7, 1808, the Tennessee Conference assigned 
James Gwin to an area that included Madison County, 
Alabama, and reported on September 30, 1809, that die 
Fhnt Circuit (which included Huntsville) had been or- 
ganized with 175 white and four colored members. This 
was the beginning of North Alabama Methodism. 

In Florida, Protestantism was outlawed until the United 
States bought the territory from Spain in 1819. In that 



year Alexander Talley was sent to establish Methodism 
in Penscola. West Florida became a part of the Alabama 
Conference in 1832 and has so continued. In 1956 the 
body was appropriately renamed the Alabama-West 
Florida CoNFEnENCE. 

In its march across Alabama, Methodism established 
the state's first college at LaCrange (chartered in 1830), 
now Florence State College. East Alabama Male Col- 
lege, now Auburn University, was begun by the Meth- 
odists in 1858, as were Southern University at Greensboro 
in 1856 (now HmMiNCHAM-SouTHERN College), and 
Alabama Conference Female College at Tuskegee in 1854 
(now Huntingdon College, Montgomery). Centenary 
Institute at Summerfield, Dallas County, was launched by 
the Methodists in 1839 and served well for many years. 
In 1890 an orphanage was established in the buildings. 
The institution was moved to Selnia in 1911. Now known 
as the Selma Oqjhanage, it is one of the finest homes for 
children anywhere. 

Athens College, founded in 1822, was incorporated 
in 1843, and Snead College was started about 1900. The 
Alabama and North Alabama Conferences (MES) 
operated the Memorial Hospital in Montgomery from 
1922 to 1931. The North Alabama Conference maintains 
in Birmingham the Carraway-Methodist Hospital, a gift 
to the conference from Charles Newton Carraway. Fair 
Haven Home for the aging at Birmingham is operated by 
the two Alabama conferences. The North Alabama Con- 
ference has an assembly ground at Camp Sumatanga, and 
the Alabama-West Florida Conference maintains a similar 
facility in connection with the conference headquarters 
at Blue Lake near Andalusia. Both conferences support a 
number of homes for retired ministers and their widows. 
Wesley Foundations are maintained by both conferences 
at the state institutions of higher learning. The total 
church membership in the two conferences is over 327,- 

M. E. Lazenby, Alubanui and West Florida. 1960. 

A. West, Alabama. 1893. Franklin S. Moseley 

1880. It was founded as the organ of the Alabama and 
North Alabama Conferences of the M. E. Church, 
South. Prior to thLs time the Alabama Conference, or- 
ganized in 1832, and the North Alabama Conference, set 
up in 1870, had been served by papers in neighboring 

The North Alabama Conference in 1878 sent an invita- 
tion to the Alabama Conference session to join in the 
project of establishing a paper "to be conducted in the 
interest of Methodism in the two Conferences." Each 
conference authorized a committee to work on the ob- 
jective. There was some hesitation, but the conferences 
approved in 1880 the election of the first editor, A. S. 
Andrews, pastor of First Church, Opelika, Ala. The first 
issue was printed May 25, 1881. 

The title was changed to the Methodist Christian Advo- 
cate with the issue of Oct. 30, 1956. This was done to give 
the publication a name more inclusive of the territory 
it serves — Alabama and West Florida. 

The roster of editors is: A. S. Andrews, 1881 (May- 
November); J. W. Christian, 1881-82; J. W. Rush, 1882- 
87; W. C. McCoy, 1887-90; J. M. Mason, 1890-91; Z. A. 
Parker, pro tem, two months; Thomas Armstrong, 1892- 
94; J. O. Andrew, 1895-98; Henry Urquart, 1898-1902; 

H. H. McCoy, 1902-03; Henrv Trawick, 1903-05; J. D. 
Ellis, 190.5-06; J. S. Chadwick, 1906-10; J. B. Cumming, 
1910-12; J. M. Glenn, 1912-13; L. C. Bran.scomb, 191.3- 
22 (in 1915 J. B. Wadsworth, a layman, was elected an 
editor with Branscomh, who at the time was also presiding 
elder of the Birmingham District. In this year, according 
to general understanding, the two editors worked without 
compensation from the Advocate); M. E. Lazenby, 1922- 
35; Foster K. Gamble, 1935-41; Acton E. Middlebrooks, 
1941-48; J. A. Gann, 1948-50; M. E. Lazenby (second 
tenure), 1950-53; Thomas P. Chalker, 1953-65; Herschel 
T. Hamner, 1965- 

The Advocate several times has had a publisher (later 
termed business manager) as well as an editor. Among 
these: T. J. Rutledge, 1881; G. R. Lynch, 1882; S. M. 
Hosmer, 1895; H. W. Rice, 1929. Occasionally there have 
been associate editors, as J. W. Christian, 1881; M. E. 
Lazenby, 1920. Sometimes tliere have been assistant edi- 
tors-business managers, as J. M. Wiglev, a layman, and 
S. T. Slaton. 

The first Publishing Committee consisted of Anson 
West, A. S. Andrews, R. H. Rivers, T. J. Rutledge, J. W. 
Christian, John A. Thompson. 

The present Board of Trustees consists of five members 
from each of the two conferences. 

The Advocate achieved strong stature in circulation 
for the first time during the editorship of L. C. Brans- 
comb, when sub-scriptions rose to 27,000. This was then 
the largest circulation attained by a paper in the M. E. 
Church, South. The Advocate became well known across 
the denomination in those years. 

The paper has known some uncertain seas, but in each 
instance the ship has been steadied. For example, at the 
1916 session of the North Alabama Conference, a move 
was made for consolidating the paper with the Wesleyan 
Christian Advocate of the Georgia conferences. On that 
occasion a minority report, brought in by one person, I. K. 
Waller, prevailed and preserved the Advocate. 

The most imposing issue doubtless is the Semicenten- 
nial Edition of Sept. 25, 1930, when M. E. Lazenby was 
editor. It was 58 pages, bound in glossy cover (there was 
no issue the next week), and gave brief historical sketches 
of institutions, individuals, and churches of the two con- 

Alabama Christian Advocate, Semicentennial Edition, Sept. 

25, 1930. 

M. E. Lazenby, Alabama and West Florida. 1960. 

Methodist Christian Advocate, Oct. 30, 1956. 

Minutes of the North Alabama Conference, 1882, 1883. 

Herschel Towles Hamner 


ence was formed in 1832 by dividing the Mississippi Con- 
ference. When organized the Alabama Conference in- 
cluded all of Alabama below the Tennessee River, west 
Florida, and most of Mississippi's eastern tier of counties. 
The part of Alabama north of the Tennessee River was 
served by the Tennessee Conference until 1870. At the 
time of its organization, the Alabama Conference had 
8,196 white and 2,770 colored members. 

In 1863, while the Civil War was raging, the Alabama 
Conference was divided to form the Mobile and Mont- 
gomery Conferences. The Mobile Conference included 


west Alabama and east Mississippi, while the Montgom- 
ery Conference took in east Alabama and west Florida. 
In 1870, there was a radical reorganization of the annual 
conferences of the M. E. Church, South in Alabama. 
The northern half of the state was designated as the 
North Alabama Conference. The eastern counties of 
Mississippi were given to the Mississippi and North 
Mississippi Conferences. The Mobile and Montgomery 
Conferences, after having existed only seven years, were 
merged to reconstitute tlie Alabama Conference. Thus 
when the Alabama Conference reappeared in 1870, it was 
limited to the southern half of Alabama and the part of 
Florida west of the Appalachicola River. 

On Oct. 17, 1867, the M. E. Church organized the 
Alabama Mission Conference which included both white 
and Negro ministers and churches. The organizational 
session was held "in the college building" at Talladega 
with Bishop Davis W. Clark presiding. The bishop 
declared, "I now convoke the Alabama Conference to be 
admitted as a Mission Conference until constituted a full 
conference by the proper authority of the church." (Laz- 
enby, pp. 365-66.) It became a full conference in 1868. 
The entry of the "Northern" branch of Methodism into the 
state caused some tension. 

In 1876, by permission of the General Conference, the 
Alabama Conference (ME) was divided along racial 
lines into two conferences, the white section retaining the 
original conference name, while the Negro group was 
called the Central Alabama Conference. 

In 1939, the four white Methodist conferences in Ala- 
bama were merged into the North Alabama and Alabama 
Conferences of The Methodist Church, and the Central 
Alabama Conference became a part of the Central 
Jltrisdiction of the new church. In 1968, with the orga- 
nization of The United Methodist Church, the Central 
Jurisdiction was dissolved, and the Central Alabama 
Conference was placed temporarily in the Birmingham 
Area of the church, pending full absorption by the Ala- 
bama-West Florida and North Alabama Conferences. 

As Methodist union approached in 1939, the Alabama 
Conference (MES), afraid that its Florida territory 
would be taken from it and given to the Florida Con- 
ference, memoriahzed the Uniting Conference to main- 
tain the status quo. The boundaries of the conference 
were not disturbed, and in 1956 it appropriately changed 
its name to the Alabama-West Florida Conference. 

The Alabama-West Florida and tlie North Alabama 
Conferences constitute the Birmingham Area of the 
church, and the two work together in supporting a num- 
ber of institutions and causes. They jointly publish the 
Methodist Christian Advocate, and they share in the 
ownership and maintenance of colleges, orphanages, and 
homes for the aged. The Alabama-West Florida Con- 
ference has nine districts and approximately 130,000 
members, and the North Alabama Conference has twelve 
districts and some 199,500 members. 

General Minutes, 1867-1878, MEG. 

M. E. Lazenby, Alabama and West Florida. 1960. 

A. West, Alabama. 1893. N. B. H. 

ALABASTER, FRANCIS ASBURY (1866-1946), American 
educator, was bom in Rochester, N. Y., June 10, 1866. 
His father was a Methodist minister for many years. 

His early education was received in the pubhc schools 


of Elmira, Cortland, and Auburn, N. Y. His high school 
education was obtained in Ann Arbor and Detroit, Mich, 
and Indianapolis, Ind. 

In 1890, Alabaster received his B.A. from Northwest- 
ern University, Evanston, 111., graduating with honors. 
He continued his studies as a graduate student at Uni- 
versity of Chicago, specializing in Greek and Latin. In 
1898 he received his M.A. degree from University of Ne- 
braska. Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., awarded him 
an honorary LL.D. degree in 1918. 

Alabaster was named professor of Greek and Latin at 
Nebraska Wesleyan University in 1893, and was 
elected Dean of the College of Liberal Arts in 1911, a 
position he held until his retirement in 1943. 

He was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Phi Kappa 
Phi, honorary scholarship fraternities, and was a leader 
in establishing the Phi Kappa Phi chapter on the campus 
of Nebraska Wesleyan. He was a great favorite of the 
students and faculty alike. He was much in demand as 
a lecturer, as much for his humor as his wide range of 
interests. "Dean Allie," as his students called him, was 
well known for his lecture on unusual epitaphs, which 
he collected from old cemeteries and graveyards through- 
out the eastern United States. 

For many years Alabaster was an active member of 
First Methodist Church near the college campus, and 
was active in the work of Nebraska Wesleyan's Alumni 
Association. He served as secretary of the Alumni Associa- 
tion for three years after his retirement. 

Lincoln Nebraska Journal-Star, June 23, 1946. 

Everett E. Jackman 

Methodist Church is a stately edifice of modern brick 
construction which was begun on its present site of a city 
block in 19.57, the sanctuary being completed in 1961. Its 
unusual beauty comes from the modernistic multi-colored 
glass windows combined with contemporary architectural 
design. Features greatly appreciated are the exposed ag- 
gregate panels back of the altar, the concealed lighting 
of the mahogany cross, the Brides' Room, the carillon, 
and the overall electronic system. Two morning worship 
services are conducted in the sanctuary which seats 
over 600, and likewise two sessions of the church school 
in the education building erected to care for 700. The 
staff is composed of a minister, assistant minister, min- 
ister of education, business assistant, pastor's secretary, 
educational secretary, three choir directors, three organ- 
ists, and two custodians. 

The church was organized on Sept. 29, 1898, when 
the city was composed of tents, tumble weeds, mesquite 
brush, and native cactus, and has grown from a member- 
ship of fifteen on that opening day to 2,460 now. In its 
beginning Grace was part of a circuit, being connected 
with Tularosa, Capitan, and La Luz, but in 1912 it be- 
came a station charge. Today the church owns property 
valued at $507,313. 

Being near the site of the first atomic explosion, the 
members are cognizant of man's spiritual need. Because 
of the location near Holloman Air Force Base and White 
Sands Missile Range, people from all over America and 
around the world may be found in the congregation 
on a given Sunday. 

General Minutes, TMC, 1968. Martin Buren Stewart 



ALASKA. It might be said that the great northwestern 
area of North America known as the State of Ahiska was 
"discovered" three times by as many generations of peo- 
ple in the United States, and that each "discovery" was 
foUowed by increasing interest on the part of American 
churches, In each of these new periods of interest, the 
Methodist Church was among those concerned. 

The first "discovery" came in 1867 when Ahiska was 
purchased from Russia by the United States for $7,200,- 
000. The second, sending thousands of people from the 
States into the Territory, began in 1896 with the dis- 
covery of gold in the Klondike area. Finally, Alaska was 
"discovered" when it became an important frontier during 
and after World War II for the protection of North 
America from possible invaders, and when thousands of 
American youth were stationed there in the armed ser- 

In the first two decades after the transfer of Alaska 
from Russia to the United States, there was relatively 
little concern by either the people or the churches with 
the "vast wilderness of ice" which the nation had ac- 
quired. Even the military forces stationed in Alaska were 
slim. The Russian Greek Orthodo.x Church had for more 
than a century worked among the Indians, the Aleuts, and 
the Eskimos in the area, and had builded their faith 
among ritualistic-loving people. A few stateside churches 
sent missionaries to the people, but results were meager. 

The late Bishop W. Vernon Middleton noted in 1958, 
"The first concrete evidence of Methodist interest in 
Alaska was in 1885, when at the annual meeting of the 
Woman's Home Missionary Society of the former M. E. 
Church, a 'Bureau for Alaska' was created. A year later 
the church sent the Rev. and Mrs. John H. Carr to Unga 
in the Shumagin Islands to establish a church and school. 
. . . Unfortunately, Mrs. Carr died the next year at the 
age of twenty-two, and Mr. Carr returned to the States. 
In 1888 the Woman's Home Missionary Society com- 
missioned a missionary to Alaska, but on her arrival she 
became ill and died shortly afterward. In the meantime 
various societies across America were raising money to 
establish a home for children in Alaska, one of the great 
needs of the territory. Dr. Sheldon Jackson (Presby- 
terian missionary), then agent for education in Alaska, 
came to the aid of the women and helped them to secure 
a 160-acre site at Unalaska for the first permanent Meth- 
odist work in Alaska. The Jesse Lee Home was estab- 
lished as a home and school in 1890. . . . Within three 
weeks of opening, the Jesse Lee Home was filled to capac- 
ity." This early ministry was basically for the Eskimos 
and Aleuts. 

Six years later, gold was discovered in the Klondike 
and then in other remote areas of Alaska. In the next 
few years many thousands of prospectors arrived, mostly 
from the United States. More than fifty percent of the 
gold hunters stayed only one year in Alaska before re- 
turning home, many of them poorer than when they 
entered tlie territory. Then the Missionary Society began 
to feel a concern for men seeking gold, and for men and 
women settling in a few hastily begun mining towns. 
The first churches were erected, and the first pastors 
were sent to serve them. 

In 1904 the M. E. Church ofiRcially established the 
Alaska Mission. However, the General Minutes show that 
diere was mission work in the territory as early as 1898. 
C. J. Labsen of the Western Norwegian-Danish Con- 
ference was superintendent of the mission and served as 

pastor at Juneau and Wrangel. From 1899 to 1902 the 
Alaska Mission appears in the index of the General 
Minutes, but no appointments or statistics are listed. The 
Alaska Mission was "organized and held in Tacoma, Wash- 
ington, September 23-24, 1903" with Bishop John W. 
Hamilton presiding. Four ministers received appoint- 
ments. The next year the session was held in Juneau with 
Bishop Hamilton again in charge. Thereafter the mission 
met annually until 1924 when the work was made a part 
of the Puget Sound Conference. In 1939 the Alaska 
Mission was reinstituted, and in 1961 it became the 
Alaska Mission Conference. 

In 1906 A. B. Leonard, a missionary executive, visited 
Alaska and reported churches in Ketchikan, Douglas, 
Juneau, and Skaguay. He said there 'vere plans to estab- 
lish new churches in Seward and Fairbanks that year. 

Methodist churches in Alaska have increased as com- 
munities ha\e grown and changed, and as centers of in- 
dustry have developed. Anchorage has become an impor- 
tant port city, and Matanuska Valley is an agricultural 
area. Today there are 30 churches and preaching places, 
tvvo hospitals, two community centers, and a relocated 
Jesse Lee Home serving the young state. Population is 
growing, the airplane is the principal means of travel, and 
new industries based on the area's almost unlimited re- 
sources are emerging. 

In addition to its ministry to Aleuts, Indians, and Es- 
kimos, The Methodist Church is making its largest con- 
tribution (numerically) to the permanent white and mixed 
populations of the growing cities. Unlike the earlier one- 
year transients, these residents are building their homes 
and careers in Alaska. Also, the churches are ministering 
to men in the armed service of the nation, many of them 
stationed in lonely and isolated posts. Recently it was 
estimated that there were 76,000 service men in Alaska 
most of whom had connections with Protestant churches 
"back home." Amiy and navy chaplains serving in Alaska 
cooperate in many ways with the Methodist and other 
ministers working tliere. 

In 1960, after years of study, fund raising, and prepa- 
ration, Alaska Methodist University was established on 
a 500-acre campus in the outskirts of Anchorage. This 
has been Methodism's largest single contribution to the 
educational needs of the new state. It is a liberal arts 
institution with high educational standards, and with "the 
cross at the center of the educational process and goal." 
Alaska University means, for one thing, that Alaskan youth 
need not leave their home state to secure an education in 
a church-related arts college. There are presently 400 
students enrolled, and a highly competent Christian fac- 
ulty. Methodists from the older states have contributed 
about $4,000,000 for the buildings, program, and scholar- 
ships of the university. 

Leading in the campaign to establish the Alaska Univer- 
sity, and then to raise funds for its erection and support, 
has been P. Gordon Gould, a former pastor and mission 
superintendent in Alaska. Gould was born in Alaska, re- 
ceived his early training in the Jesse Lee Home, and was 
the first Alaskan to become an ordained Methodist min- 
ister. He spoke to church audiences across the United 
States on Alaska's "most significant need" — a church-re- 
lated liberal arts college. 

On March 27, 1964, a severe eartliquake which cen- 
tered in Anchorage wrought widespread destruction of 
property in parts of Alaska. There was heavy damage to 
several of the buildings of Alaska Methodist University; 


the Jesse Lee Home which had been moved to Seward 
in 1925 was ruined beyond repair; in Turnagain, Seward, 
Seldovia and elsewhere churches and parsonages were 
damaged or demoHshed. 

On learning of the losses, Methodist churches in other 
areas on a swifdy made plea from the Council of 
Bishops undertook an "Alaska Earthquake Appeal" which 
raised some $1,750,000 to help rebuild the institutions. 
The funds provided made it possible to relocate the Jesse 
Lee Home on a 25-acre campus in the more favorable 
climate of Anchorage; to restore damaged buildings at 
Alaska University, replace furnishings and scientific equip- 
ment, and provide some tuition aid for students whose 
families suffered economic reverses in the earthquake; 
and to assist where necessary in rebuilding or relocating 
churches and parsonages. Two years after the earthquake, 
a Methodist leader said, "The spirit of the frontier con- 
tinues — and this has become Alaska's finest hour." 

In 1967, the Alaska Mission Conference had 16 pastoral 
charges, 4,070 members, and property valued at $4,193,- 
060. The mission conference officially dates its beginning 
from the session of the Alaska Mission held in Juneau in 

W. Vernon Middleton, Methodism in Hawaii and Alaska, 1960- 


Annual Reports Division of National Missions, Methodist Board 

of Missions. 

General Minutes, M. E. Church, 1898 5. W. W. Reid 

Grant Hall, Alaska Methodist University 

grew out of a study of the needs of the Territory of 
Alaska by the Board of Missions of The Methodist 
Church. In January, 1957, the Division of National Mis- 
sions elected a board of trustees, and on February 4, 
1957, the university was chartered by the then Territory 
of Alaska. The university opened for instruction in Oc- 
tober, 1960. 

Established initially as a four-year-college of liberal 
arts (fully accredited in December, 1964), it now in- 
cludes the College of Business Administration and Eco- 
nomics. It grants the B.A. and B.S. in Business degrees. 
The governing board of twenty-nine trustees includes six 
permanent trustee positions (bishop of the Portland Area; 
officers of the National Division and the Woman's Divi- 
sion; and the superintendent of the Alaska Mission), with 
the balance elected by the board. 

John O. Gross 



ALBANY, GEORGIA, U.S.A. First Church was organized 
in 1841 and established an early outreach for social and 
human problems, and remains a successful downtown 
place of worship. 

This church has helped organize and provide mem- 
bers for seven other Methodist churches in Albany. De- 
spite the membership contributions to new churches, 125 
years after its organization Albany First Church main- 
tains a membership of 2,374. Albany itself has grown 
from a mere village in 1841 to a population of approxi- 
mately 75,000 by 1966. 

In its long history, the church has belonged to three 
conferences — the old Georgia Conference that em- 
braced the entire state prior to 1866; then the Florida 
Conference, to which all of southwest Georgia was as- 
signed from 1845 to 1866; and now the South Georgia 
Conference, from the time of its establishment in 1866 
to the present time. 

Many consecrated and devoted men have served Al- 
bany First Church as pastors since 1841, but no pastor 
served as long as four years until Henry D. Moore began 
a quadrennium in 1865. 

The church became a station with a full-time pastor in 
1855, under the ministry of Peyton P. Smith, The first 
permanent church building was erected in 1854 on a lot 
at the corner of Flint Avenue and Jackson Street, on which 
lot the church still stands, with its present expanded facil- 
ities and property valued well above one million dolars. 
A new church was erected in 1901-02, and an education 
building was completed in 1930. In 1952 the congrega- 
tion moved into the present sanctuary seating 1200, and 
about 1963 added a building valued at $650,000 which 
houses many additional classrooms for the church school. 
There is a chapel, a parlor, and a dining room in which 
some of the most helpful functions of the church are 

The late Augustus W. Muse, Sunday school superin- 
tendent from 1874 to his death in 1922, was a noted 
church pioneer who probably did more for Methodism in 
Albany, Ga. than any other one person. 

The records are not definite as to the exact number — 
twelve are presently in the active ministry — but First 
Church has sent forth into the ministry a considerable 
number of young men. 

General Minutes, TMC, 1968. Dan L. Gibson 

ALBANY, NEW YORK, U.S.A. Because Captain Thomas 
Webb was barrack master in Albany before he went to 
New York in 1766 to help Philip Embuby, it can be said 
that Albany was one of the first cities in America in 
which Methodist services were conducted. Webb preached 
to the soldiers, and also held services in his own home. 
Apparently Webb did not organize a Methodist society 
in Albany, though Freeborn Garrettson seems to sug- 
gest that he found Methodists there when he preached in 
the city more than 20 years later. By 1876 there were 
six Methodist churches in the city with about 1,800 mem- 
bers. In 1963 First Church merged with Trinity. In 1968 
Trinity Church reported 1,349 members and a plant 
valued at $2,113,079. In that year there were five Meth- 
odist churches in the city with about 4,100 members. W. 
Earl Ledden was elected bishop in 1944 while serving 



as pastor of Trinit\' Church. The 1948 Northeastern Juris- 
dictional Conference was held in Trinity Church. 

Minutes of the Troy Conference. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Jesse A. Earl 

Albea Godbold 

ALBERT COLLEGE, Belleville, Ontario, Canada. In the 
early 1850's the Methodist Episcopal Church in Canada 
had revived and grown sufficiently to make possible the 
establishment of its own college, Victoria College (Uni- 
versity) being no longer suitable because of the bad 
feeling between Wesleyan and Episcopal Methodists. The 
Episcopal leaders were convinced that such an institution 
was necessaiy to save young men "for the country and 
the Church" and to broaden the educational opportunities 
for young women. At the General Conference of 1854 this 
conviction became a reality. 

With much effort plans were laid and funds collected 
for Belleville Seminary, which was incorporated and 
formally opened on July 16, 1857. From the outset it 
was designed as a preparatory school for men and women, 
in which no religious tests would be required. In ac- 
cordance with the general policy of the church, public 
money was not accepted for the maintenance of the semi- 

After a short period of affiliation with the University of 
Toronto, a university charter was secured, by which the 
seminary became Albert University, with power to confer 
degrees in arts. Within the university there were two col- 
leges — Albert College for men, and Alexandra College 
for women. In the former. Bachelor's and Master's De- 
grees were granted; in the latter the degrees were Mis- 
tress of Liberal Arts and Mistress of English Literature. 
The charter was broadened in 1870 to permit work in all 

Under the energetic presidency of Albert Carman, 
Albert University made a notable contribution to the edu- 
cational history of Ontario. Its graduates were numerous 
and respected. In 1884, however, church union dictated 
a reorganization by which Albert University was amalga- 
mated with Victoria, and it became once again a prepara- 
tory school under Methodist auspices. 

Since 1884, Albert College has continued in operation 
in Belleville, Ontario, first under the Methodist Church 
and after 1925 under The United Church of Canada. 
New buildings have been added, and the student body 
has increased. Above all, the college remains a school in 
which a sound secondary education is imparted in a 
Christian context. In so doing the college perpetuates 
and embodies the intentions of its founders. 

W. E. L. Smith, Albert College, 1857-1957. N.p., n.d. 

T. Webster, ME Church in Canada. 1870. G. S. French 

ALBERTA COLLEGE (former Methodist college in Edmon- 
ton, Alberta). In the spring of 1903 Thomas C. Buchanan 
sponsored the formation of a college in Edmonton under 
the auspices of the Methodist Church. In 1904, the col- 
lege was incorporated by the legislative assembly of the 
North West Territories, and J. H. Riddell, of Wesley 
College, Winnipeg, was appointed as first principal. 
Classes began on Oct. 5, 1903, with an enrollment of 
sixty-seven in a large room over a store in Edmonton. 
The departments of study were arts, matriculation, music, 
and commercial. The college was originally called Mc- 

Dougall College, after the pioneer Methodist missionary, 
George McDougall, on whose property the building 
was erected in downtown Edmonton. 

When the University of Alberta was established in 
1908, the arts classes at the college were discontinued, 
and the students became the nucleus of the first student 
body of the provincial university. In 1909 a theological 
department was added to Alberta College, and this part 
of the college became affiliated with the University of 

J. H. Riddell was succeeded as principal of Alberta 
College in 1917 by Francis Stacey McCall, an early 
graduate who continued as principal until 1947. The col- 
lege maintained a steady growth, with the erection of a 
new wing in 1926, an auditorium and gymnasium in 1951, 
and large new classroom facilities in 1953 and 1959. 

On the retirement of McCall in 1947, George Harrison 
Villett became principal until his death in 1959, to be 
followed by Hartford A. Cantelon. Sidney R. Vincent 
was appointed in 1965. 

Under the aegis of the Board of Colleges of the United 
Church of Canada since 1925, Alberta College has con- 
tinued to fulfil its role as a coeducational residential junior 

J. Macdonald, The History of the University of Alberta. 

Edmonton: the university, 1958. 

J. H. Riddell, Middle West. 1946. J. E. Nix 

ALBERT'S CHAPEL, an octagonal stiucture known as the 
"Round Church," is located at Sand Ridge on Route 33, 
Calhoun Co., W. Va. It is claimed that someone in tlie 
community, after reading a sermon by T. DeWitt Tal- 
mage on the text, "It is He that sitteth upon the circle of 
the earth" (Isa. 40:22), concluded that a church ought 
to be round, and it resulted in the building of this archi- 
tecturally odd edifice. 

Albert Poling, a veteran of the Spanish-American War, 
for whom the church was named, was designated by the 
district conference to see that a church was built in the 
community. Voluntary labor felled trees for lumber and 
did the actual work of construction. The land for the 
church and the adjoining cemetery was given by Wesley 
and Asbury Poling. The church which will seat about 
125 was dedicated in 1903. One of five churches on the 
Sand Ridge Circuit, Albert's Chapel reported 42 members 
and an average church school attendance of 23 in 1969. 
Each year many motorists stop to visit the "Round 

West Virginia Review, Aug., 1932. 

Minutes of the West Virginia Conference. Jesse A. Earl 

ALBION COLLEGE, Albion, Michigan, was chartered in 
1835 by the Michigan Territorial Legislature. While the 
college did admit male students, degrees were granted 
only to women until 1861, when the name was changed 
from Albion Female Collegiate Institute and Wesleyan 
Seminary to Albion College. The institution has been 
greatly assisted by the Kresge and Ford Foundations in 
the development of its plant and endowment. The col- 
lege and the local Methodist church jointly erected a 
sanctuary and reUgious education building and share the 
facilities. A Phi Beta Kappa chapter was installed in 
1940. Degrees granted include the B.A. and M.A. 
The governing board of thirty-three members include 



six elected by the Detroit Annual Conference, six 
by the alumni, and fifteen by the board. 

John O. Cboss 

ALBISTON, ARTHUR (1866-1961), Australian preacher, 
educator, and theologian, was born at Emerald Hill near 
South Melbourne, Aug. 19, 1866. His father, Joseph Albis- 
ton, was one of six ministers sent from the British 
Wesleyan Methodist Conference to be missionaries in 
Australia. He arrived in Victoria in Feb., 1854. 

His early education was received in a state school, but 
later, at thirteen or fourteen years of age, he was sent to 
Wesley College. In those days the theological institution 
was housed in Wesley College and students for the min- 
istiy were trained there. Through the influence of a young 
theological student, John Nail, he gave himself to Christ. 
This he said "was the beginning of my call to the work 
of preaching the Christian Gospel." While at Wesley 
College Ardiur won medals in mile races, and also rowed 
in the college "four." 

After leaving Wesley College he graduated Master of 
Arts at Melbourne University. It was while he was study- 
ing at the university that a fellow student, the late Albert 
T. HoLDEN, suggested to him that he should preach. In 
due time he became a local preacher. 

In his final year at the university he met Henhy Bath, 
who had a very great influence upon his future life and 
preaching. Bath's personal influence was "overwhelming 
and overpowering." He tells of a deep spiritual experience 
which would not have been possible except for the in- 
fluence of Bath. It was through these experiences that 
Arthur Albiston became the celebrated preacher that 
Methodism honors. Through it all there was the influence 
of his own father, whom he described as a man of one 
book, who prayed and thought in teims of Scripture and 
through whom he learned to do his own thinking. 

After a year as a local preacher in Castlemaine where 
his father was superintendent, Arthur began his ministry 
in 1889 as fourth minister in the Hawthorn Circuit. In 
1891 he visited England and Europe with his father. The 
following year he spent as fourth minister in South Mel- 
bourne. He was ordained in 1893 and was appointed to 
tlie Mildura Circuit as Superintendent Minister. 

In 1919 Albiston was elected President of the Victori- 
an AND Tasmanian CONFERENCE. In 1920 the conference 
appointed him as full-time theological tutor to assist Dr. 
Sugden, Master of Queen's College. For seventeen years 
he held the position of theological tutor and professor of 
theology, and for one more year continued as professor 

In 1938 he was elected President-General of the Meth- 
odist Church of Australasia. He was then 71 years of age. 
He visited all the Australian states, going to Central 
Australia and Alice Springs, and New Zealand. As 
President-General he exhibited accuracy of definition, 
clarity in interpretation, and firmness in decision in matters 
of procedure and law. 

He was a minister of the Methodist Church for 72 
years. He was both "a prince of preachers" and a saint 
of God. 

Australian Editorial Committee 

ALBRIGHT (ALBRECHT), JACOB (1759-1808), American 
minister, founder of the Evangelical branch of The 

Jacob Albright 

Evangelical United Brethren Church, was born near 
Pottstown, Pa., May 1, 1759. He served in the local 
militia during the closing years of tlie Revolutionary War. 
In 1785, Albright married Catherine Cope and settled on 
a farm in northeastern Lancaster Co., Pa. In addition to 
farming, he conducted there a successful tile and brick 
factory and became known as the honest tile maker. 

In a period of unrest, brought on by the sudden death 
of several of his children and the preaching of Anthony 
Houtz, an evangelistic Reformed pastor, at their funeral, 
Albright turned to his neighbor Adam Riegel, a follower 
of the United Brethren in Christ. Riegel gave him counsel 
and led him through prayer to experience the peace of 
God. In the home of another neighbor, Isaac Davies, 
Albright was led into the fellowship of a Methodist class 
and found the orderly religious experience his soul craved. 
This class eventually licensed him as an exhorter, a lay 
preacher in Methodism. 

Albright felt called to preach to his Gennan brethren 
near his boyhood home, but he was deeply conscious of 
his lack of technical preparation. Finally, the Spirit of 
God prevailed, and in 1796, he started out to obey the 
call. On horseback, he traveled to the many German 
people of Pennsylvania and neighboring states, preaching 
in churches, schools, and private homes. In 1800, he 
organized three classes in three separate southeastern 
Pennsylvania counties. By 1807, the first conference was 
held with five itinerant and three local ministers and a 
membership of two hundred. The name, "The Newly 
Formed Methodist Conference," was adopted at Albright's 
suggestion. Albright strongly favored the spirit and orga- 
nization of Methodism. Two things ultimately prevented 
his bringing his movement into the M. E. Church: the 
lack of interest in continuing the Gennan language in 
American Methodism, and the loss of his membership in 



the Lancaster County class due to absences lequired b\' 
liis preaching. 

\V()in out by intensive itinerant labors and a tubercular 
condition, Jacob Albright died at the home of a friend at 
Kleinfeltersville, Pa., May 18, 1808. He was buried 
in the famil\- plot nearby, whereon a memorial chapel 
was built by an appreciative denomination fifty years 
later. The work which he began giew into The Evangelical 
Church, which merged in 1946 witli the Church of the 
Ifiiited Brethren in Christ to become The Evangelical 
I'nited Brethren Church. 

H. W. Albright, Evangelical Church. 1942. 

A. Stapleton, Jacob Albright. 1917. 

R. Yeakel, Evangelical Association. 1894. Edwin F. George 

ALBRIGHT COLLEGE, Reading, Pa., chartered in 1856, 
traces its origin to Union Seminary founded by the Central 
Pennsylvania Conference of the Evangelical Association 
at New Berlin, Pennsylvania. In 1887, its name was 
changed to Central Pennsylvania College. 

Meanwhile, in 1881, Schuylkill Seminary was foiined 
by the East Pennsylvania Conference of the Evangelical 
Association in Reading. After a brief move to Fredericks- 
burg, Pa., it returned to Reading and in 1923 became 
Schuylkill College. 

Albright Collegiate Institute, named after the founder 
of The Evangelical Church, J.^vcob Albright, was estab- 
lished at Myeistown, Pa., in 1895, merging eventually 
with Central Pennsylvania College in 1902, under the 
name of Albright College. Then, in 1928, it consolidated 
with Schuylkill, under the name of Albright College of 
The Evangelical (later Evangelical United Brethren) 
Church, in Reading, at its present location. 

Albright's charter pledges the college to provide for 
the "moral, literary, and scientific education of all persons 
of both sexes." Its privileges are open to all whom they 
may benefit without distinction of race or creed. 

As a Christian college, Albright aims to remain true to 
the fundamental, moral and religious principles of its 
denomination, which is democratic in policy, emphasizing 
individual worth and high moral responsibility. It seeks 
to make possible the highest intellectual development in 
an atmosphere of Christian ideals. 

Full-time enrollment in 1966-67 academic year at Al- 
bright College is 1126, consisting of 651 men and 475 
women. Other statistics include: Library, 101,000 vol- 
umes; total faculty, 93; campus acreage, 65; number of 
buildings, 28; value of physical plant, $10,684,515; en- 
dowment, book value, $2,551,655; and current income, 
$3,013,773. Gifts and grants received during the past 
five years total $3,006,290. There are over seven diousand 
living alumni including 5,050 graduates and 2160 former 

Among the distinguished alumni of Albright College 
are Dr. Arthur R. McKay, President, McCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary, Chicago, 111.; George C. Bollman, Presi- 
dent, George W. Bollman Hat Company, Adamstown, Pa.; 
Clarence W. Whitmoyer, President, Whitmoyer Labora- 
tories, Myerstown, Pa.; Judge J. Sydney Hoffman, Judge 
of the Superior Court of Pennsylvania; William E. Deard- 
en. Vice President, Hershey Chocolate Corporation, Her- 
shey. Pa.; and Dr. Cyrus E. Beekey, Academic Dean, 
Kutztown State College, Kutztovvm, Pa. 

Albright College is located at the base of Mt. Penn 
in the northeast section of Reading, Pennsylvania. The 
campus lies at the edge of one of the residential sections 

of the city. By its location, the college enjoys the bene- 
fits of a suburban environment as well as the advantages of 
an urban center. 

Arthur L. Schultz 

.Albright Chapel 

ALBRIGHT MEMORIAL CHAPEL, Kleinfeltersville, Pa., 
L^S.A., a shrine of The E\ angelical United Brethren 
Church, was erected to the memory of Jacob Albright, 
founder of the Evangelische Gemeinschaft (Evangelical 
Association). A victim of tuberculosis, Albright had taken 
seriously ill in May, 1808, in Harrisburg, Pa., and was re- 
turning home by horseback. He could go no farther than 
the home of George Becker, Kleinfeltersville, about twenty 
miles from his home. He died there on May 18 and was 
buried two days later in the Becker family cemetery. 

On Oct. 13, 1850, an appreciative church dedicated a 
memorial stone chapel near his grave in commemoration 
of the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the de- 
nomination. In the same year the Becker family deeded 
the land upon which the church was built and included 
the adjacent cemeteiy plot, a total of one acre, to the 
East Pennsylvania Conference for the denomination. Due 
to faulty construction the building was completely rebuilt 
in 1860. 

The General Conference of The Evangelical Church 
in 1934 recommended that the Historical Society of the 
Church become the custodian of the property. The title 
was transferred in 1941 to this general church agency. 
With the formation of The United Methodist Church, the 
chapel and grave became one of the national historic 
shrines. The present ownership is vested in the Commis- 
sion ON Archives and History of The United Methodist 
Church. The Commission formed a committee of five local 
persons and its executive secretary to advise in the admin- 
istration of the program and property. The former prac- 
tice of annual pilgrimages has been re-iniriated. 

John H. Ness, Jr. 

Church was the first Protestant denomination to establish 
work in Albuquerque. The New Mexico Mission was or- 
ganized in 1872, and for the next seven years the superin- 
tendent of the mission and other preachers occasionally 
visited Albuquerque. In 1879 N. Hewitt Gale was ap- 
pointed to take charge of the denomination's work in 



Albuquerque. On April 18, 1880, Thomas Harwood, 
superintendent, officiated at the organization of a church 
with five members. This was the beginning of First Meth- 
odist Church. 

In 1887 the M. E. Church established two educational 
institutions in Albuquerque — the Boys Biblical and Indus- 
trial School for preparing Mexicans for the Spanish-speak- 
ing ministry, and the Harwood School for Girls. The 
first school closed in 1931, while the latter, sponsored 
by the Woman's Home Missionary Society, continues to 
this day. In 1911 the society established a sanitorium in 
Albuquerque which became the Bataan Memorial Meth- 
odist Hospital in 1952. 

In 1881 the Denver Conference of the M. E. Church, 
South organized a New Mexico District with eight 
charges, one of which was Albuquerque. The denomina- 
tion had begun work in Albuquerque in June, 1879. On 
January 15, 1882 a church was organized in Albuquerque, 
and a building was erected during that year. This was the 
beginning of Central Methodist Church. The congrega- 
tion built a new church in 1912 and anotlier in 1951. 

The work of the M. E. Church among Spanish-speaking 
people in Albuquerque was formally organized by Thomas 
Harwood in 1880. In time two more Spanish-speaking 
congregations were organized. Then in 1924 the three 
congregations were united to form El Buen Samaritano 
Methodist Church. This church has more than 600 mem- 
bers today, and it holds bilingual services. Aldersgate, 
another Spanish-speaking church, was organized in 1959. 

First M. E. Church sponsored the organization of an 
A. M. E. Church in Albuquerque in 1882. Now known 
as Crant Chapel, it has over 400 members. This church 
emphasizes child care, and it promotes projects for young 
people and adults in the community. Phillips Chapel 
C. M. E. Church, which has about 80 members, was 
established in 1935. The Free Methodist Church orga- 
nized a congregation of 21 persons in the city in 1957. 

At unification in 1939, The Methodist Church had hvo 
English-speaking and one Spanish-speaking churches in 
Albuquerque with a total of nearly 17,000 members, and 
property valued at more than $5,000,000. Central Church 
with 4,552 members is the largest. Two others have more 
than 2,000 members, and three more have memberships 
ranging from 1,350 to 1,750. 

In 1968 Albuquerque was designated as the city of 
residence for the bishop of the newly created Northwest 
Texas-New Mexico Area of the South Central Jurisdiction. 

John W. Hood, Methodism in Albuquerque, unpublished thesis. 
Department of History, University of New Mexico. 1947. 

Jesse A. Earl 
Ira E. Williams, Jr. 

Bataan Memorial Hospital. The beginnings of this in- 
stitution date from 1912 when Thomas Harwood deeded 
ten acres to a group of women of the M. E. Church for a 
sanitarium for tubercular patients. In 1952 the Deaconess 
Sanitarium was discontinued and the proceeds of $1,500,- 
000 were used to build Bataan Memorial Hospital, so 
named because the 200th Coast Artillery of New Mexico 
fought at Bataan in the Philippines at the beginning of 
World War II. In 1965 the Woman's Division of the Gen- 
eral Board of Missions transferred title to the hospital to 
the New Mexico Conference, which in turn sold it for 
$2,000,000 in 1969 to the Lovelace Foundation for Med- 
ical Education and Research. pj 3 pj 

Central Avenue Church. The congregation which be- 
came Central Avenue M. E. Church, South was organized 
Jan. 15, 1882, though the denomination began conducting 
services in the town in June, 1879. In 1939 the church 
reported 1,100 members. The present church edifice was 
erected in 1951. The design of the sanctuary is unique 
in that its architecture conforms to that of a church which 
Gregory, sixth century bishop of Tours, says he saw on 
one of his pilgrimages, as recorded in his History of Tours. 
The plant, which occupies a city block adjacent to the 
University of New Mexico, is valued at $813,000. In 
1969 the church reported 4,552 members and a total of 
$226,000 raised for all purposes. John W. Hood 

First Church. This church was organized with five 
charter members April 18, 1880, under the leadership of 
Thomas Harwood, superintendent of the New Mexico 
Mission, M. E. Church. It was the first Protestant congre- 
gation in Albuquerque, and its first building was erected 
in 1881. N. H. Gale, who was appointed to Albuquerque 
Nov. 1, 1879, was the first pastor. From the beginning 
First Church has stood at Fourth Street and Lead Avenue 
in downtown Albuquerque. A new education building 
was erected in 1949 and a new sanctuary in 1955, both 
structures combining in their architecture Indian, Spanish- 
American, and traditional Protestant forms. In 1939 the 
church had 1,447 members. Through the years First 
Church contributed members and financial support to 
eleven new congregations established in Albuquerque. In 
the mid-1960's the church reported more than 3,100 
members, but by 1969 the number had dropped to 2,023. 
In that year the plant was valued at $1,144,888 and the 
total amount raised was $127,586. 

Mrs. Harry E. Walter, Eighty-five Years of Methodism in the 
Heart of Albuquerque. Albuquerque: Roy Thompson Printing 
Co., 1965. 
General Minutes, ME and TMC. Ira E. Williams, Jr. 

Hahwood Schooi,, Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Harwood School is an institution related to the Boards 
of Missions and Education of The United Methodist 
Church. It was estabhshed in 1887 under the leadership 
of Thomas Harwood and his wife who enhsted the co- 
operation of the Woman's Home Missionary Society of 
the M. E. Church. Started as a school for Spanish-speak- 
ing girls, tlie institution now ministers also to girls of 
Italian, Syrian, Russian, Negro, and other national and 


ethnic origins. Some students come from broken homes, 
others are referred by the department of welfare. The 
teachers are approved by the state board of education. 
The students recei\'e indixidual attention which promotes 
understanding and Christian commitment. The school has 
no endowment. In 1970 it reported eleven teachers, 71 
students, a budget of $158,600, and a plant valued at 

T. Harwood, New Mexico. 1908, 1910. 

Dorothy WoodruflF, Methodist Women Along the Mexican 
Border. Cincinnati; Womens Division of Christian Service, n.d. 
Yeurbook, General Board of Education, TMC, 1969. 

Leland D. Case 

St. John's Church, a gabled red brick structure, stands 
in the northeastern section of Albuquerque. It was or- 
ganized Oct. 15, 1950 with 47 members, James J. Stewart 
pastor. The first units of the church edifice were erected 
in 1952 and 1954, and the sanctuary which .seats 800 was 
completed in 1962. In 1969 the church reported 2,437 
members, a plant valued at $688,000, and $151,000 raised 
for all purposes. Leland D. Case 

ALDER, ROBERT (1795-1870), British Metliodist, and also 
a leading influence in the development of Canadian Meth- 
odism, entered the Wesleyan ministry in 1816. He was 
sent to Nova Scotia and Montreal, returning to England 
in 1828. He served as a secretary of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Missionary Society from 1833 to 1851. As 
British representative, he helped to negotiate the union 
of the Methodist Conference of Upper Canada with the 
British Conference in 1833, and was also largely responsi- 
ble for the British demands which led to the collapse of 
the union in 1840. However, he took a prominent part in 
promoting the reunion of the two conferences in 1847, and 
was president of the first reunited Canadian Conference. 
He resigned from the Wesleyan ministry in 1853 and 
received Anglican ordination, subsequently becoming 
Archdeacon of Gibraltar. 

G. E. Long 

ALDERSGATE COLLEGE, Moose Jaw, Canada, is a college 
of the Free Methodist Church. It was organized in 
1940 imder the name of Moose Jaw Bible School. The 
first principal was Miss Florence Pickert (1941-47), and 
her successor was M. C. Miller (1947-54). Subsequent 
terms have been of shorter duration. The school was 
founded to provide training for ministerial and lay work- 
ers in the church. 

The name was changed to Aldersgate College sometime 
after 1958, and with added buildings and increased fac- 
ulty, it now provides basic business training and offers 
courses on the junior college level. University of Sas- 
katchewan affiliation, when granted, will provide trans- 
fer to Canadian colleges and universities with full credit. 

Byron S. Lamson 

ALDERSGATE STREET was a street in London upon which 
stood the meeting place in which John Wesley had his 
heart warming experience. In his Journal for Wed., May 
24, 1738, he writes: "In the evening I went very unwill- 
ingly to a society in Aldersgate Street, where one was 
reading Luther's preface to the Epistle to the Romans. 


About a quarter before nine, while he was describing 
the change which God works in the heart through faith 
in Christ, I felt my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did 
trust in Christ, Christ alone for salvation: and an assurance 
was given me, that he had taken away my sins, even 
mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death." 

Aldersgate Street has been shortened to "Aldersgate" 
in Methodist nomenclature, and has come to represent in 
a sense an experience as well as a place. The name has 
become somewhat synonymous with the visitation of the 
Holy Spirit when men pray as they often do for "an 
Aldersgate experience." Aldersgate Street today is a busy 
thoroughfare in the heart of London, with stores and 
storage rooms where residences, and possibly meeting 
rooms, originally stood. But over the entire Methodist 
world many churches and chapels have been given the 
name Aldersgate. 

N. B. H. 

ALDERSGATE SUNDAY. The World Methodist Council, 
assembled in Oxford in 1951, commended the observance 
of the Sunday immediately preceding Wesley Day, May 
24, as a World Methodist Sunday, without excluding the 
observance of Wesley Day itself. The value of so using 
Aldersgate Sunday in remembrance of the faith of our 
fathers, and rededication to our world mission, was empha- 
sized by resolution of the World Methodist Council at 
Oslo in 1961. 

E. Benson Perkins 

ALDERSON, EUGENE WEBSTER (1854-1939), American 
preacher, was born Oct. 15, 1854 in Hart Co., Ky., son 
of A. L. Alderson of the Louisville Conference. He 
was licensed to preach at the age of nineteen, went to 
Texas in 1875, and engaged in teaching for a few years, 
being the founder of the North Trinity College at Gaines- 
ville. In 1879 he joined the North Te.\.\s Conference 
and served successively in the leading appointments of 
the conference. He became unusually competent in de- 
fending Methodist theology and polity in the years when 
debate was vigorous between denominations. His logic 
was relentless, his knowledge wide and deep, but withal 
he was courteous to his "opponents." He was a delegate to 
four General Conferences, where he always had great 
influence. At the 1910 General Conference, M. E. 
Church, South, in Asheville, N. C, he was chairman 
of tlie Committee on Revisals (of the Ritual) which pro- 
posed, and the conference adopted after much debate, 
a series of revisions chiefly in tlie burial and baptismal 

Alderson was a man of genuine scholarly attainments 
and yet popular with youth and laymen. A truly great 
preacher, he undoubtedly shaped much of the doctrinal 
stance of North Texas Methodists in his lifetime. 

N. B. Harmon, Rites and Ritual. 1926. 

Journal of the North Texas Conference, 1939. 

M. Phelan, Expansion in Texas. 1937. Walter N. Vehnon 

ALDERSON, WILLIAM HULBURD (1896-1968), pastor and 
conference leader, was boni at Princess Anne, Md., April 
19, 1896, the son of George T. and Alphonsa (McConnor) 
Alderson. He held the A.B. degree from the University of 
Delaware (1915), the B.D. from Drew (1921), and the 



honorary D.D. and LL.D. from Syracuse and Bridge- 
port Universities, respectively. On June 15, 1921, he mar- 
mired Laura M. Hall, and they had three children, Wil- 
liam H., Edith (Mrs. Hugh Stevens), and Robert B. 

Alderson served one year in the air corps during the 
first World War. He was admitted to the Wilmington 
Conference in 1918, and was ordained deacon in 1919 
and ELDER in 1921. In the latter year, he served as field 
agent for Drew Theological Seminary. In 1922 he 
transferred to the New York East Conference where 
his appointments were: Islip, 1922-25; New Britain, 1925- 
32; Brooklyn North District, 1932-39 (seven years); and 
First Church, Bridgeport, 1939-64. He served as chair- 
man of several annual conference boards: missions, 1944- 
49; pensions, 1948-63; education, 1952-56; and urgent 
needs crusade, 1964. Regarding Alderson as an able dis- 
trict superintendent, Bishop Francis J. McConnell nomi- 
nated him to write the chapter entitled, "In the Cabinet" 
for the book. The District Superintendent, His Office and 
Work in The MethodKt Church, which was published in 

It was said that as a well-known and widely loved min- 
ister, Alderson spoke in Bridgeport not only to his own 
parish but also to the whole city. During his long pastorate 
there he served on the boards of the United Fund, Re- 
habilitation Center, Associated Charities, Red Cross, Child 
Guidance Clinic, YMCA, Mayor's Commission on Human 
Rights, the Council of Churches, and other community 
organizations. He was a trustee of Drew Uiversity and a 
member of the Board of Associates of the University of 
Bridgeport. He had two terms as state grand chaplain of 
the Masonic order, and while in New Britain was presi- 
dent of the Rotary Club. 

Alderson was a delegate to six General Conferences, 
1932-36 and 1952-64. He was chairman of that body's 
committee on entertainment, 1960-64. A delegate to seven 
Jurisdictional Conferences, 1940-64, he was chairman of 
the Jurisdictional committee on expense and arrangements 
for 14 years, and at different times was a member of the 
board of appeals, and the commission on evangelism. 

Retiring in 1964, Alderson served interim pastorates 
in the next few years at Mamaroneck and Schenectady, 
New York. He died of a heart attack Jan. 22, 1968, while 
in Dallas, Texas, attending a meeting of the General 
Conference committee on entertainment. 

General Minutes, MEC, and MC. 

Minutes of the New York Conference, 1968. 

Who's Who in Methodism, 1952. Robert Roy Wright 

ALDRED, JOHN (1818-1894), New Zealand Methodist 
minister, was bom in Suffolk, England. He was brought up 
in the Church of England, but later joined the Methodist 
Church and became a minister in 1839. He arrived in 
New Zealand on the mission brig "Triton" in 1840. 

Aldred joined George Buttle and Samuel Ironside 
at Ahuahu (near Kawhia) for a few months to learn the 
language, and then proceeded to Te Aro (Wellington), 
where he was the first resident Methodist minister. From 
that base Aldred traveled far and wide and, among other 
things, became the first clergyman of any church to visit 
the Chatham Islands. During his ministry, his time was 
about equally divided between the Maori and the Eu- 
ropean work. 

He was later appointed to Nelson (1843), Hutt (1849), 
and Christchurch (1854). In this latter place, he again 

had the distinction of being the first resident Methodist 
minister. Three more short ministries followed — Hutt 
(1859), Wellington (1862), and Dunedin (1864). In 
1867 an accident near Port Chalmers compelled retire- 
ment from active work. He died in Christchurch on Jan. 
14, 1894. 

Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, I, ed. G. H. Scholefield. 
Wellington: New Zealand Government, Department of Inter- 
national Affairs, 1940. L. R. M. Gilmore 

ALEGRETE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, Brazil. Institute Rural 
Metodista de Alegrete is located in Alegrete, state of Rio 
Grande do Sul, deep in the cattle country of South Brazil. 
This is the first and at present only industrial school op- 
erated by Methodists in Brazil. Approximately one hun- 
dred children from eight to ten years of age are taken off 
the streets and taught trades that wall give them a chance 
in life. 

The products of the students' work make this institution 
almost self-supporting. The president of the Board of the 
Institute is a layman, Antonio Salomao. 

William R. Schisler, Jr. 

DioNisio Di Alejandro 

ALEJANDRO, DIONISIO DEISTA (1893- ), first native 
Filipino to be a bishop of The Methodist Church, was 
born at Quiapo, Manila, Feb. 19, 1893. His ancestry was 
Filipino with a slight admixture of Chinese. He was bap- 
tized at the age of thirteen in San Isidro, Luzon, by 
Bishop George A. Miller, and was educated in that 
city. He came to the U.S.A. subsequently for further 
training and was graduated from Asbury College, Wil- 
more, Ky. He took further ministerial training at the 
Union "Theological Seminary in Manila and then 
served as pastor in the Philippine Islands Conference, 
coming into that conference in full connection in 1918. 


He was ordained by Bishops Eveland, Stuntz, and J. W. 
Robinson, and served as pastor of Knox Memorial, Cen- 
tral Student Methodist, and Ellinvvood churches in Manila. 
He was the first Filipino delegate to the Central Con- 
ference of Southern Asia and attended the 1948 and 
1960 General Conferences of The Methodist Church. 

Bishop Alejandro was first elected to tlie episcopacy 
in 1944 by the Phihppine Islands Central Conference, but 
was not consecrated until after World War H in 1946, 
since no bishops of The Methodist Church could be pres- 
ent to consecrate him. He helped to reopen the Union 
Theological Seminary after the war and taught there and 
at H.A.RRIS Memorial School (for deaconesses) in 1946. 
He also is credited with starting the Ilocano and Tagalog 
editions of The Upper Room after the war. 

Despite arrest and questioning by the Japanese during 
their occupation. Bishop Alejandro managed to carry on 
his work as leader, organizer, and counselor of Philippines 
Methodism during the war. As a Philippines Central Con- 
ference representative in the episcopacy, Bishop Alejandro 
sei-ved for four years, 1944 to 1948, not being reelected 
for the ensuing three quadrennia, but he was elected 
again in 1960. He retired at the Central Conference in 
1964, and continues to make his home in Manila. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

ALEXANDER, GROSS (1852-1915), American minister, 
scholar, teacher, author, and editor, was born in Scotts- 
ville, Ky., June 1, 1852. He received his B.A. degree from 
the University of Louisville in 1871 and his B.D. degree 
from Drew Theological Seminary in 1877. He was 
awarded an honorary S.T.D. by Emory and Henry Col- 
lege in 1890, and Emory College honored him with a 
D.D. degree in 1912. 

From 1873 to 1875 he was professor of Greek and Latin 
at Warren College in Kentucky. He was pastor at 
churches in Lake Mohonk, N. Y. and New Brighton, 
Staten Island from 1875 to 1877. In 1877 he joined the 
Louisville Conference of the M. E. Church, South 
and served churches in Louisville, Ky. for seven years. He 
was a distinguished member of the Theological Depart- 
ment of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., from 
1885 to 1902. He was named presiding elder of the Louis- 
ville District in 1902 and served until 1904. 

Alexander was elected Book Editor of the M. E. 
Church, South in 1906 and in this capacity edited the 
Methodist Quarterly Review. He was the author of a 
number of books. A scholarly, though somewhat eccentric 
man, with a commanding presence, he exerted great in- 
fluence in the councils of his church. He was a member 
and one of the secretaries of all the General Conferences 
(MES) from 1894 through 1914. 

He died September 6, 1915. 

Jourruil of the Louisville Conference, 1916. 
Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942. 

Elmer T. Clark 

ALEXANDER, ROBERT (1811-1882), pioneer American 
preacher whose family came to America from Scotland 
in the 17th century. His father left the Presbyterian 
Church and became a Methodist. Robert Alexander was 
bom in Smith Co., Tenn. in 1811. He was admitted into 
the Tennessee Conference in 1830, transferred to Ala- 
bama and then to Mississippi, and was appointed mis- 


sionary to Texas in late 1836, and there he spent the 
rest of his life. 

Texas independence in 1836 led to the establishment 
of a Methodist mission there. Some of Stephen F. Austin's 
group of settlers wrote to the bishop who was to hold the 
Mississippi Conference in Natchez, asking for mission- 
aries. The bishop read the letter to the conference and 
asked if anyone would volunteer. Robert Alexander did 
and received the appointment, and along with him went 
Martin Ruter and Littleton Fowler. 

The new missionary entered Texas in Sabine County, 
but shortly moved on to newly founded Austin. The 
constituency to be served came largely from the 300 
families Stephen F. Austin had brought across the Sabine 
River from the United States in 1821. Alexander labored 
in Texas forty-four years — thirteen as pastor, twenty-three 
as presiding elder, four as Bible agent, and four years 
as a superannuate. 

A vigorous promoter of education, he helped organize 
several colleges, one of them Rutersville College which 
later became Southwestern University at Georgetown, 
Texas. Likewise he gave effective effort in the production 
of church papers, one of which became the Texas Chris- 
tian Advocate, now The Texas Methodist. 

On three different occasions the bishop appointed to 
serve Texas was unable to attend the conference, and the 
preachers on these occasions elected Robert Alexander 
to preside and make the appointments. 

When the Texas Conference met in 1840 there were 
twenty-five preachers and 1878 members. At Robert Alex- 
ander's death in 1882, Methodist preachers in Texas num- 
bered around 500 and there were six conferences, with 
20,000 members. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1949, 1950, 1957. 
Fitzgerald and Galloway, Eminent Methodists. 1897. 
M. Phelan, Texas. 1924. 
W. N. Vernon, William Stevenson. 1964. 

Robert W. Goodloe 

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM MARVIN (1877-1940), minister, 
educator, and board secretary, was born at Hartsville, 
Tenn., Oct. 4, 1877. His parents soon moved to Augusta, 
Kan., where he grew to manhood. He won the B.A. degree 
at Central College (Missouri) in 1906, and later the 
M.A. at Southern Methodist University. Both institu- 
tions conferred the D.D. degree on him in 1925. He 
married Carolyn Wells, Dec. 26, 1906, and they had one 

Admitted to the Missouri Conference (MECS) in 
1903, Alexander was a pastor for 13 years. He served 
briefly at St. Joseph, Brookfield, and Fayette, and had 
four-year terms at Palmyra and Hannibal. He was presid- 
ing elder of the Fayette District one year, and held the 
Hannibal District two years, leaving the one in 1921 to 
become president of Howard Payne College, and going 
from the other in 1924 to become professor of sociology 
and the rural church in Central College. He served in 
the latter position until 1930. 

Alexander was a delegate to six General Conferences, 
1922-40, and the 1939 Uniting Conference. In 1930 he 
was elected secretary of the department of schools and 
colleges. General Board of Ecucation (MEGS), and served 
with distinction until unification. In 1940, he became 
associate executive secretary. Division of Higher Educa- 
tion, General Board of Education, The Methodist 



Chuhch. He had hardly begun work in the new position 
before death took him on his sixty-third birthday, Oct. 4, 
1940. He was buried in Nashville, Tenn. 

General Minutes, MECS. 

Minutes of the Missouri Conference, 1941. Albea Godbold 

ALEXANDRIA, LOUISIANA, U.S.A., First Church. As early 
as 1811 the Rapides Circuit is listed as an appointment 
in the Western Conference, with Thomas Nelson named 
pastor in charge. 

In 1814 John Shrock was appointed to the Rapides 
Circuit and did much of his fiery preaching from the 
Parish Court House steps. Shrock was a zealous preacher 
flaying the sins of the day in strong language. He is re- 
membered for the fact that he aroused indignation among 
the early settlers in referring to Alexandria as a "hard 

In 1834 the name of Rapides Circuit was changed to 
Alexandria Circuit. When the Louisiana Conference 
was organized by Bishop Solile in 1847, the Alexandria 
Circuit became a station. The first building was erected 
prior to the Civil War and was burned by the Federal 
troops on their retreat after the Battle of Mansfield. Three 
other buildings have housed the congregation through 
the years. 

During the first World War, while a revival was in 
progress in the church, the flooring broke injuring a large 
number of people. One lady became so excited she 
climbed through a window, thinking the church had been 
bombed by the Germans. 

Present plans call for complete new facilities costing 
over a million dollars. The church now has a member- 
ship of 1,775 and church school enrollment of 1,062. 
Recent pastors who have served the church are Byron C. 
Taylor, Virgil D. Morris, J. Henry Bowdon, Guy M. Hicks, 
and Ben R. Oliphint. 

General Minutes, TMC, 1968. 

Ben R. Oliphint 

ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA, U.S.A., was founded in 1748 as 
Virginia's chief Potomac river port. It achieved promi- 
nence during the Revolution as the home town of George 
Washington and of George Mason, audior of the Bill of 
Rights. In 1800 it became part of the District of Colum- 
bia, but was retroceded to Virginia in 1847. 

Alexandria has been a Methodist center since the 1770's. 
Bishop AsBURY visited the city 25 times, four of them with 
Bishop Coke. On May 26, 1785, the two bishops visited 
General Washington at his home here, soliciting his sup- 
port of a petition to the Virginia legislature for the eman- 
cipation of Negro slaves. Though refusing to sign the 
petition, Washington promised to lend his support to the 
cause if it should come before the legislature. Bishop Coke 
was in Alexandria on April 30, 1791, when he received 
the letter which notified him of the death of John Wes- 

The first Methodist church in Alexandria, since 1883 
called Trinity, was formed in 1774 by twelve persons 
under the leadership of John Littlejohn, an 18-year 
old layman, and 17-year old William Duke, one of the 
preachers of tlie Frederick (Maryland) Circuit. It was the 
third religious organization in the city, antedated only 
by Christ Episcopal Church, and the Presbyterian Meet- 
inghouse. A church was erected in 1792, until which time 
services were held in the Fairfax County Court House. 

A second building, dedicated in 1804 by Asbury, w-as 
removed and re-erected on its present site in 1942. 

Former pastors of Trinity include Phillip Catch, Wil- 
LL\M Watters, Robert Stravvbridge, Freeborn Gar- 
rettson, Ezekiel Cooper, Nicholas Snethen, Norval 
Wilson, Stephen George Roszel, Stephen Asbuby Ros- 
zel, John Lanahan, and Bishop Robert R. Roberts. 
Lyttleton Morgan and George G. Cookman were chap- 
lains of the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate, 
respectively, while pastors here. Alfred Griffith was 
the minister of Trinity when he introduced into the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1844 the motion asking for the resigna- 
tion of Bishop James O. Andrew — a motion which pre- 
cipitated the split of the nortliem and southern sections 
of the M. E. Church. Two members of Trinity have be- 
come Methodist Bishops: Beverly Waugh and 
Alpheus W. Wilson. 

Alexandria was a center of the Reform Movement 
of the 1820's which led to the organization of the Meth- 
odist Protestant Church. The Alexandria M. P. Church 
was one which in 1939 remained out of Methodist re- 
union and formed the Bible Protestant denomination, 
which now has two congregations in the city. 

Roberts Memorial Church was organized in 1834 by 
Negro members of Trinity. First named for Charles A. 
Davis, who was pastor of both churches, its name was 
later changed when Davis became a minister of the M. E. 
Church, Soutli. The name now honors Bishop Roberts. 
Roberts Memorial was one of the founding churches of 
the Washington Annual Conference of Negro Methodists. 

Alexandria was a part of the "Old" Baltimore Con- 
ference, and was headquarters of a presiding elder's dis- 
trict, usually named Potomac, from 1801 to the Civil War. 

Following the Plan of Separation of 1844 the Balti- 
more Conference did not immediately leave the M. E. 
Church. This left Alexandria and all of Northern Virginia 
in the northern branch of the church. The M. E. Church, 
South, just organizing, was quick to find sympathizers in 
the area. In 1849 Leroy M. Lee of the Virginia 
Conference (MES) lectured in Alexandria on behalf 
of Southern Methodist views. A number who heard 
him were tried and expelled from the M. E. Church 
(later "Trinity"). Eventually about 200 were expelled 
for their southern views and formed the Washington 
Street, M. E. Church, South. Leonidas Rosser, pastor, 
toured the South, appealing for funds with which the 
church was built in 1850. Following tlie Civil War, in 
1866, this and other churches in Northern Virginia, in the 
District of Columbia, and in Maryland joined with 
"old" Baltimore Conference churches of southern sympa- 
thies to form the Baltimore Conference of the M. E. 
Church, South. From that time on, Alexandria was usually 
the residence of a Presiding Elder of that conference. 

All Northern Virginia and many communities in Mary- 
land were intensely Southern in their sympathies. The 
Old Baltimore Conference was the name insisted upon 
by its preachers and people as it held the records dating 
from the Christmas Conference, and of the old un- 
divided conference. This was due to the fact that the 
secretary of the undivided Conference, John S. Martin, 
adhered to tlie South and managed to take the conference 
records with him — smuggling them out of Baltimore under 
hay in a ship bound for Norfolk while a provost guard 
of Northern soldiers was searching for them — so the story 
goes. The War coming on intensified the division of the 


Methodists, and "Roman was to Roman more hateful than 
a foe," for years and years afterward. 

Alexandria had been founded chiefly by Scottish mer- 
chants, and was a place of strong federal sentiment until 
the eve of the Civil War. Southern sentiment flared into 
prominence when Alexandrian, General Robert E. Lee, ac- 
cepted command of Confederate troops, and Alexandria 
became the first Southern towm to be occupied by the 
(Northern) Army of the Potomac. From this time on 
Southern Methodism prospered in all Virginia. Trinity 
Church began a long decline, to be saved long after by 
Methodist union and relocation. As the population of 
Alexandria grew by immigration from all parts of America, 
the city's attitudes again shifted away from regional at- 
tachment toward a cosmopolitan outlook. Differences be- 
tween Northeni and Southern Methodism in time van- 

Methodist Union in 19.39 coincided with the beginning 
of the city's greatest population growth. There were in 
1966 seventy-two Methodist churches in Alexandria and 
the two adjoining counties of Arlington and Fairfax. These 
churches had 55,000 members. There were eleven other 
churches of the Methodist familv, listed with approximate 
membership: Three E.U.B. (1,500), two A.M.E. Zion 
(600), two Bible Protestant (700), two Wesleyan 
Methodist (400), one Free Methodist (300), and one 
C.M.E. (300). 

The Alexandria District of the Virginia Conference of 
The Methodist Church was formed at the time of Meth- 
odist Union in 1939, from parts of five districts of the 
three uniting denominations. Northern Virginia, perhaps 
more than any other area, greatly benefited from the 
merger. Overlapping of work, which had been harmful, 
was eliminated, and so many new churches were estab- 
lished that by 1962 no district in Methodism was larger 
both in membership and number of ministers. In that year 
the district was divided. The resulting Alexandria and 
Arlington Districts both have offices in the headquarters 
building of The Methodist Church in Northern Virginia, 
built in 1962 on land which had been sold only once since 
it had been owned by George Washington. Here also are 
the headquarters of the Northern Virginia Methodist 
Boards of Missions and of Education, and the library of 
the Methodist Historical Society of Northern Virginia. 
This is a memorial to Jacob Simpson Payton, long-Hme 
Washington editor of the Christian Advocate, who lived 
in the Alexandria District. 

Adjoining the district headquarters is the seven-story 
Hermitage in Northern Virginia, a home for aged persons 
operated by the Virginia Conference. 

Alexandria was the birthplace of Bishop Paxil B. Kern, 
whose father was pastor of Washington Street Church. 

Raymond Fitzhugh Wrenn 

Washington Street Church was formed shortly after 
1844 when Methodism experienced its great schism over 
the slavery issue. However, its spiritual legacy goes back 
to the coming of the Wesleyan itinerant preachers around 
1770. Francis Asbury first mentioned "tlie school in Alex- 
andria" in his Journal in 1772 and first visited the Meth- 
odist Society here in November 1783. From the labors of 
Asbury and others came Alexandria Station Church, later 
known as Trinity. 

Shortly after the Plan of Separation was agreed upon 
at the General Conference in New York in 1844, those 

in the Alexandria Station Church who held with the 
Southern view withdrew and formed a new congregation. 

To the new and struggling congregation on Nov. 1, 
1849, came Leonidas Rosser. He found the group without 
church or parsonage and involved in litigation as they 
were attempting to hold the old Station Church building. 

Embued with the zeal of an Asbun,', Rosser set out 
upon an extensive trip south to collect funds for his new 
church. A Negro congregation in Ch.\rleston, S. C, con- 
tributed liberally, and a Huguenot church in the same 
city gave $350. He returned to Alexandria with $10,000 
toward the building of an edifice on South Washington 

When Rosser left Washington Street Church in 1851, 
the new building had been built, parsonage furniture 
acquired, a library established, and the church rolls num- 
bered some 325 members. 

Then came the Civil War and on Jan. 6, 1862, Wash- 
ington Street Church was appropriated by the Federal 
Government as a hospital, and this purpose it served for 
the duration of the war. On Oct. 8, 1865 the church was 
reopened for worship. In 1905 the U.S. Court of Claims 
awarded the church $4600 for "the said use and occupa- 
tion, including damages incident thereto" during the war 

The present Reconstruction Gothic facade to the main 
building was added in 1875-76. In 1907 a new educational 
building known as the George R. Hill Memorial was 
dedicated with William Jennings Bryan as the speaker. 
This building was demolished in 1953, and on Mother's 
Day in 1954 the present structure of Colonial architecture 
was opened as the new educational building. Ministering 
today to over 2500 members in a city and surrounding 
area numbering nearly a half million people, the church's 
influence cannot be measured. 

Washington Street Church has grown with the city of 
Alexandria, widi the nation's capital, and indeed, located 
as it is, with the nation as a whole. From its ranks have 
come preachers, bishops, missionaries, congressmen, and 
men and women prominent in every walk of life. It has 
historically taken great interest in mission work both at 
home and abroad and has exerted a far-reaching effect 
upon the city of Alexandria, the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, and the nation. 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

Charles D. Bulla, Souvenir History: Washington Street M. E. 
Church, South, Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria, Va.: 
Robert S. Barrett, 1910. 

The First Hundred Years, 1849-1949, Wash- 
ington Street Methodist Church. N.p., 1949. 

Carl Wilson Musser 

ALFALIT, an inter-denominadonal literacy organization 
which serves all of Spanish-speaking America. Its origins 
are to be found in a memorial fund for Bishop John 
Branscomb established by the Methodist women in 
Florida, to be used in Cuba. Two factors combined to 
make it a continent- wide movement: the expansion and 
success of the work itself, and the Castro revolution, 
which forced its leaders out of the country. It combines 
literacy work with evangeUsm, community development 
projects, and the production and distribution of simple 
reading materials for the new literates. Although its head- 
quarters are in Alajuela, Costa Rica, some of its strong- 
est work is to be found in Nicaragua, the Dominican 



Republic, Bolivia and Ecuador, countries where the 
Alfalit movement includes thousands of people. 

JusTO L. Gonzalez 

ALGERIA and TUNISIA, countries of North Africa, are 
contiguous, and Methodist work there is integrated in a 
single administration. Algeria is much larger, having an 
area of 919,591 square miles and a population of 13,000,- 
000, while Tunisia has 58,000 square miles and about 
4,600,000 people. 

Algeria was anciently under the control of the Romans, 
Vandals, Arabians, and Turks, but it became French in 
1830 and remained so until 1962, when it became inde- 
pendent by a plebiscite and became a member of the 
United Nations. 

The early history of Tunisia centered at Carthage and 
it was said to have been founded by Phoenician refugees 
around 800 b.c. Its history was similar to that of Al- 
geria, and it became a French protectorate in 1881. De- 
mands for independence began after World War I, but 
this was not achieved until 1956, when the country be- 
came a member of the United Nations. An American-type 
constitution was adopted the following year and Tunisia 
became a republic. 

American Methodist work was started in Algeria and 
Tunisia in 1908 under the direction of Bishop Joseph 
C. Hartzell. Delegates to the 1907 World Sunday 
School Convention in Rome, visiting Algiers, were con- 
vinced of the strategic position and opportunity in this 
area of Islam. Edwin F. Frease was the first superin- 
tendent. In 1909 the Woman's Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety of the M. E. Chubch assumed the support of two 
Englishwomen who had conducted an independent mis- 
sion since 1893. Other European women were accepted, 
and the first American woman missionary arrived in 1922. 

Work centered in Algiers, Constantine, Fort National, 
Oran, Tunis, Bizerte, and several small towns. The rigid 
form of Mohammedanism, and the Algerian Revolution 
in 1962 limited evangelistic work, but wider contacts 
were made in medical and social centers, hostels for 
young men and women, and the distribution of the Bible 
and religious literature. 

The European population, which is largely Cathohc, 
was about one million before independence, and is now 
80,000. The work is organized as the North Africa 
Provisional Conference, a part of the Central Con- 
ference of Middle and Southern Europe, UMC. 

A. B. Moss 

ALGIERS AND EL-BIAR. (See North Africa Provisional 
Annual Conference.) 

ALICE SPRINGS, Northern Territory, Central Australia. 
John Flynn Memorial Church, erected in 1956, is a tribute 
to the memory of the late John Flynn, who gave his life 
to bring Christian fellowship to all who lived in the 
scattered and lonely settlements of inland Australia. 

Vast distances and much forbidding terrain made his 
task particularly di£Bcult. In spite of the impossible, Flynn, 
with the unusual gifts of vision, faith, and courage, pio- 
neered a chain of inland hospitals and was instrumental 
in the establishment of the Royal Flying Doctor Service 
of Australia, which now covers all inland areas of the 
continent of Austraha. 

The Memorial Church, erected by the Australian In- 
land Mission of the Presbyterian Church of Austraha, is 
of unique architectural design and is conceived as three 
forms in one: a circle of stones within an oval court, and, 
uniting them, a rectangular church. "The circle of stones," 
in aborigine legend, makes it a place set apart. "The 
oval court" signifies the open spaces, and "the rectangular 
church," in which the congregation is contained, bridges 
east to west, and unites the whole. 

The John Flynn Memorial Church is given over to the 
United Church in North Australia, which is not another 
rehgious denomination, but a cooperative movement of 
the Congregational, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches 
in Austraha. The whole of the Northern Territory of 
Australia comes under this cooperative activity. It is a 
daring experiment in church unity. 

A multiple ministry ser\es the church with ministers 
from each of the cooperating denominations being ap- 
pointed in turn and having responsibility for pastoral care 
of the local community; pastoral visitation in the sparsely 
populated district which covers an area of 300,000 square 
miles; and specialized social, welfare, and education ac- 
tivity among the 7,000 aborigines of the area. 

Australian Editorial Committee 


January 1958 a conference of Christian leaders from all 
over Africa was held at Ibadan, Nigeria. This was gen- 
erally considered to be the most widely representative 
conference of any kind which had been held in Africa 
at that date. It was decided to constitute a more perma- 
nent body under the title "All Africa Conference of 
Churches," which has held assemblies at Kampala, Uganda 
in 1963 and at Abidjan, Ivory Coast in 1969. Its 83 
member churches include twelve Methodist groups. Meth- 
odists who have played important roles in the AACC in- 
clude its first General Secretary, D. G. S. M'Timkulu of 
South Africa, his successor S. H. Amissah of Ghana, 
and its first Associate General Secretary, J. S. Lawson 
of Togo. Its headquarters in 1970 were in Nairobi, Kenya. 

Drumbeats from Kampala. London; Lutterworth Press, 1963. 
With Christ at Work in Africa Today. Abidjan, Ivory Coast: 
Ministry of Information, 1969. Paul Ellingworth 

supply work which is in a father-son succession, consist- 
ing of Hugh H. and Kennedi Linn, who have produced 
this notable auxiliary of the Church in India. Hugh H. 
Linn was superintending the Methodist hospital in Vikara- 
bad, in Hyderabad State, when he began making the 
medical tablets that he had such difficulty in obtaining 
commercially. Cinchona febrifuge was in early years his 
main product. Friends asked him to provide pills for use 
in their hospitals, dispensaries, schools, and for distribu- 
tion in villages. Gradually he added better machines and 
increased the number of medicines made. At length he 
was released from other responsibilities and gave his en- 
tire time making and distributing medicines for use in 
missions. His son, Kenneth Linn, took degrees in pharma- 
cology and joined his father. Medicines have been sold 
to mission institutions and church workers of all denomi- 
nations at prices that meant substantial savings and still 
yielded profits to be used to help in the healing ministry. 
Over forty million tablets have been made, and quantities 


of medicines and ointments produced elsewhere have 
been supplied. 

J. N. Hollister, Southern Asia. 1956. 

Reports of the South India Conference. J. Waskom Pickett 

1910 by Sam Higginbottom, American Presbyterian mis- 
sionaiy, after a term of service in Ewing Christian Col- 
lege at Allahabad, India. He believed tliat a missionary 
program in India had to include instruction in agriculture. 
Accordingly he studied agriculture while on furlough and 
raised money with which to start the institute. He started 
with support from the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States, and in 1944 broadened the support to include 
other churches. The Methodist Board of Missions and 
the Methodist Church in Southern Asia responded eager- 
ly. The institute instructs candidates for agricultural de- 
grees from the University of Allahabad, operates a large 
model farm, does considerable research in agriculture and 
animal husbandr\', and has established a factory for the 
manufacture of farm implements. The latest enrollment 
statistics show about 550 students. 

Reports of the Allahabad Agriculture Institute and the Board 
of Missions of The Methodist Church. J. Waskom Pickett 

ALLAN, CHARLES WILFRID (1870-19.58), British minister, 
was born in 1870 of Methodist parents, and was early 
inspired to pattern himself after the well-known Wesleyan 
missionary to China, David Hill. Accepted for the Wes- 
leyan ministry, he was trained at Headingley College, 
whence he was appointed in 1895 to Hill's district of 
Central China, laboring with him during the last year of 
Hill's life and continuing in the same area for a further 
twenty-three years. In addition to evangelical warmth 
and great pastoral devotion, he proved himself a very 
able linguist, because of which he was invited in 1913 
to help in preparing the Union Version of the Bible. His 
greatest work was probably for the Christian Literature 
Society in Shanghai from 1930 until 1943. He edited 
several Chinese periodicals, publi.shed innumerable 
books, and even translated Hasting's Bible Dictionary 
into Chinese, as well as preparing a Chinese commentary 
on Isaiah. The best known of his several English works 
were: The Lives of Chu and Lii, Our Entry into Hunan, 
Makers of China, the scholarly Jesuits in the Court of 
Peking, and a revised edition of William Scarborough's 
Chinese Proverbs. 

After repatriation from Japanese interment, he became 
a SUPERNUMERARY minister in Hull, where he died May 
12, 1958. 

Frank Baker 

ALLAN, THOMAS (1864-1932), Australian minister, was 
born in 1864 at Mt. Barker, South Australia. He was or- 
dained as a minister of the Primitive Metliodist Church 
of South Australia in 1888, and in 1896 he responded 
to the call for volunteers to work among miners in the 
newly discovered goldfields of Western Australia. He was 
the only Primitive Methodist minister in Western Aus- 
tralia and shortly after his arrival the union of his church 
and the Wesleyans was consummated. He was then ap- 
pointed to the rapidly growing city of Kalgoorlie in the 
heart of the goldfields. He retiirned later to serve at 


Boulder, and was appointed chairman of the Goldfields 
District in 1906. He was elected president of the Con- 
ference in 1910. For some years he served as Secretary 
of Home Missions, and in this office he played an impor- 
tant part in establishing Methodism in the area being 
opened up along the great southern railway. His most 
enduring work, however, was done as Secretary-Organizer 
of the Methodist Homes for Children in Perth. Its suc- 
cessful estabhshment was due in no small measure to his 
extraordinary influence and prestige throughout the state. 
Before his death, which occiuTed suddenly in 1932 at 
Perth, he was invested as a "Member of the British Em- 
pire" in recognition of his services to church and state. 

Australian Editorial Committee 

ALLAN LIBRARY. The Wesleyan Methodist Conference 
of 1884 accepted with giateful thanks the gift of the very 
valuable library of Thomas Robinson Allan (1799-1886), 
a lawyer and Methodist layman. The housing of the library 
proved difficult, however. When the books were kept at 
the Central Hall, Westminster, a great number of the vol- 
umes could not be put on shelves and had to remain in 
bo,\es, so that the library was not used to the best ad- 
vantage. In 1919 an agreement was entered into with 
the London Library, one of the most important libraries 
in the United Kingdom, for the purchase of the Allan 
Library. The Wesleyan Conference of 1920 approved of 
the arrangements, and a tiust deed governing the adminis- 
tration of the funds was created. Under this trust deed the 
conference appointed tiustees to administer the funds 
accruing, for the purpose of enabling Wesleyan ministers 
and others whom the trustees may approve to pursue 
their studies and research work in the London Library 
by payment in part (as they may judge fit) of both the 
enhance fee and annual subscription. In making awards, 
the trustees are to bear specially in mind the need to 
help those ministers and others who live in districts where 
suitable libraries are not available. The president of the 
Conference for tire year is the ex-officio chairman of the 
trustee meeting and is entitled to vote. 

John Kent 

ALLEGHENY COLLEGE, Meadville, Pa., was estabhshed in 
1815 by a gioup of citizens of Meadville, then a frontier 
community of four hundred residents. The college was 
chartered in 1817, under Presbyterian auspices, and in 
1833 became related to the Pittsburgh Conference of 
the M. E. Church. Timothy Alden, its first president, 
determined upon a strong liberal arts college, seeking 
furtlier funds and books from among his friends in New 
England. Under his leadership, an academic hbrary of 
more than 5,500 volumes was created through the gen- 
erous gifts of Wilham Bentley, Isaiah Thomas, and James 
Winthrop. Martin Ruter, Allegheny's first president 
under Methodist connection, was a zealous educational 
leader and president of the first Methodist Academy in 
New Market, N. H. On Allegheny's faculty with Ruter 
was Matthew Simpson, later a bishop and one of the 
most influential Methodists of his day. 

William McKinley, twenty-fifth president of the 
United States, was a student at Allegheny at the out- 
break of the Civil War. Miss Ida M. Tarbell, first Lincoln 
biographer, was graduated in 1880 and established the 
excellent Lincoln coUection in Reis Library. Bishop James 



M. Thobltin, pioneer mission leader in India, and his 
sister, Isabella, founder of Isabella Thoburn College, 
were Allegheny graduates. 

A Phi Beta Kappa chapter was installed in 1902. De- 
grees granted are the B.A., B.S., M.A. in Ed. 

The governing board is made up of fift\- members, 
sixteen of whom are nominated by the Western Pennsyl- 
VANL\ Conference of The Methodist Church. 

John O. Gross 

ALLEINE, RICHARD (1611-1681), and JOSEPH (1634- 
1668), English Puritan di\ines. Richard was bom at 
Ditcheat, Somerset, educated at Oxford, and ordained in 
1641. Joseph was born at Devizes, Wiltshire, educated at 
O.xford, and ordained in 16.55. He married Theodosia, 
Richard's daughter, in 1655. Both men were ejected from 
the Church of England in 1662 for nonconformity. Rich- 
ard died at Frome, Dec. 22, 1681; and Joseph (after 
periods of imprisonment) at Taunton, Nov. 17, 1668. 
John Wesley composed his Coven.\nt Service from 
directions pubhshed by the two Alleines. Wesley also re- 
printed part of Joseph AUeine's best-selling treatise on 
conversion. An Alarm to the Unconcerted (1672) in his 
Christian Library (vol. 24). 

Joseph Alleine, Remains ( 1674 ) . Richard Alleine, Wor/c.? 
(1671). Dictionary of National Biography. F. Hunter, "The 
Origins of Wesley's Covenant Service," London Quartcrhj 
aiul Holhorn Review, January, 1939. Charles Stanford, Joseph 
Alleine: His Companions and Times (1861). Henry Rack 

ALLEN, ALEXANDER JOSEPH (1884-1956), an American 
bishop of the A.M.E. Church, was born Sept. 22, 1884 
in Columbus, Ga. He was the son of the Rev. George W. 
and Phoebe (Harvey) Allen. He was educated at Clark 
College, Atlanta, Ga., and the Yale Divinity School, 
New Haven, Conn., from which institutions he receixed 
the A.B. and B.D. degrees, respectively. He also held the 
honorary degrees of D.D. and LL.D. from Paul Quinn 
College and Wilberforce Unh-ersity. In 1915 he mar- 
ried Jewett Washington, to which union four sons were 
born. He served as pastor in Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. He was elected to the 
episcopacy from the staff of the American Bible Soci- 
ety' and assigned to the then newly created Sixteenth 
Episcopal District of his church which was Latin America. 
In 1948 he was reassigned to the Third Episcopal Dis- 
trict, and in 1956 to the Fourth, both of which were in 
the U.S.A. Bishop Allen served as the first president of the 
Educational Board of his church. He was the first son of 
a general officer to be elected a bishop. 
He died Nov. 21, 19.56. 

R. R. Wright, Bishops (AME). 1963. Grant S. Shockley 

ALLEN, BEVERLY (1760P-1810?), American preacher and 
known as the first apostate Methodist elder, began preach- 
ing in 1778. From his home near what is now Durham, 
N. C, he worked with James O'Kelly on the New Hope 
Circuit which included the region in the vicinity of Dur- 
ham, Chapel Hill, and Raleigh. Next, with Philip Bruce, 
he took Methodism into the Cape Fear Valley. Francis 
Asbury first met Allen in July, 1780, and wrote in his 
journal, "A promising young man, but a little of a dis- 

According to the General Minutes, Allen acted as an 
assistant (in effect a presiding elder), 1782-84. In 1783 
he organized the Salisbury Circuit on the Yadkin River 
in central North Carolina. In 1784 he was appointed 
to Wilmington. He was elected an elder at the Christmas 
Conference in 1784, but was not ordained until the 
meeting of the first annual conference at the home of 
Major Green Hill in North Carolina, April, 1785. At 
that conference Allen was appointed to Georgia, the 
first preacher to be assigned there. Thomas Coke said, 
"Beverly Allen has all Georgia to range in." But Allen 
did not go to Georgia; he spent the summer of 1785 as a 
free lance preacher in North Carolina and that fall went 
into South Carolina. Asbury was definitely displeased, 
writing in his journal, "I was grieved at Beverly Allen's 
conduct; hurt to the cause of God may follow." 

In 1786 Allen married into one of the first families in 
the low country of South Carolina, and for fi\e years was 
popular and prominent as a preacher and presiding elder 
in Charleston and its environs. Then suddenly in 1792, 
because of a morals charge against him, he was expelled 
from the connection. 

After his expulsion, Allen moved to Augusta, Georgia, 
and went into business. Becoming involved in debt for 
which he was about to be prosecuted, he shot and killed 
the officer sent to arrest him. Fleeing to Logan County, 
Kentucky, then known as "Rogues' Harbor," Allen prac- 
ticed medicine for some years. As a boy the famous Peter 
Cartwright boarded in Allen's home while attending 
school in Russellville, and several years after becoming a 
Methodist preacher, Cartwright visited Allen and was with 
him when he died. Allen, who had embraced Universal- 
ism, frankly said he thought the mercy of God would 
cover every case except his own. Cartwright judged the 
man leniently, giving him credit for the good he did and 
saying he fived and died a friend of the Metliodist Church. 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

P. Cartwright, Autobiography. 1956. 

General Minutes, ME. 

F. A. Mood, Charleston. 1856. Homer Keev'er 

ALLEN, FRANCES GRACE (1864-1957), American mis- 
sionary, was born near Palmyra, Mich., July 12, 1864. 
Her father's family were Methodists from the days of 
Wesley and her father was a local preacher in the M. E. 
Church before joining tlie Free Methodists in Mich- 

The family moved to Kansas, where Grace taught in 
the public schools. In 1888, she went to Mozambique 
with the second part\' of missionaries to be sent out by 
the Free Methodist Board. In 1891 she was transferred 
to Natal, a new field. She founded the girls' school at 
Fairview and sei-ved as principal. In 1926 she took charge 
of the mission in Pondoland. Traveling by means of a cart 
or riding horseback, she supervised two main and seven 
outstations with the schools. 

Miss Allen served fifty-two years in Africa, and is 
considered one of the church's greatest missionaries. She 
died in Oklahoma City, Okla., April 15, 1957, at age 92. 

B. S. Lamson, Free Methodist Missions. 1951. 

Byron S. Lamson 

ALLEN, JOHN (17P-1810), British preacher and one of 
John Wesley's itinerants, was born at Chapel-en-le-Frith, 


Derbyshire. He was converted in 1759, and became a 
traveling preacher in 1766, retiring in 1779 to Liverpool. 
There are a number of brief references to him in John 
Wesley's letters, which leave the impression he was a man 
of great integrity, trusted by Wesley himself. Allen died 
at Liverpool, Feb. 20, 1810. 

T. Jackson, Lives of Early Methodist Preachers. 1837-38. 

John Kent 

ALLEN, JOHN CLAUDE (1899- ), a bishop of the 
C.M.E. Church, was bom April 5, 1899, at Talladega, 
Ala. He received an A.B. degree from Talladega College, 
was licensed to preach in 1926, and sen'ed as minister 
and presiding elder in Michigan, Indiana, SouUieast Mis- 
souri, and Illinois Annual Conferences. From 1946 to 
1958 he was general secretary of Kingdom Extension. He 
was elected bishop at the 1954 General Conference. 

Harris and Craig, CME Church. 1965. 

E. L. Williams, Biographical Directory of N 

19Rfi Rai 


v'cgro Ministers. 
Ralph G. Gay 


Adanta, 1938-39; Eastpoint and Fairburn, Ca., 1942; 
Asbury in Savannah, Ga., 1942-48; Central Church, At- 
lanta, 1948-56. He then taught philosophy and religion 
at Clark College for one year (1956), when he became 
editor of the Central Christian Advocate in New Orleans. 
He was a delegate to the General Conferences of 1956, 
1960, and 1964. He is a trustee of Bethune-Cookman 

Bishop Allen was elected bishop on the second ballot 
at the Central Jurisdictional Conference held in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., in Aug., 1967, which conference was called 
to elect a bishop to replace the late Bishop Marquis 
L. Harris. He was assigned to the Gulf Coast Area com- 
prised of the Central Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, 
and Upper Mississippi Conferences of the Central Juris- 
diction, with headquarters at Waveland, Miss. In 1968 he 
was assigned to the superintendency of the Holston 
Conference, United Methodist Church. 

Daily Christian Advocate, Central Jurisdictional Conference, 
The Methodist Church, Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 19, 1967. 
Who's Who in The Methodist Church. 1966. N. B. H. 

L. Scott Allen 

Richard Allen 

ALLEN, LINEUNT SCOTT (1918- ), American bishop 

and church editor, was bom in Meridian, Miss., May 
4, 1918, the son of Louis and Mable (Fiedler) Allen. 
He is a graduate of Clark College, Atlanta, Ga., and 
holds a B.D. degree from Gammon Theological Semi- 
nary and a M.A. from Northwestern Univxrsity, and 
the LL.D. from Bethune-Cookman College. He mar- 
ried Sarah Adams on Feb. 19, 1942. He was received on 
trial in the Atlanta Conference of the M. E. Church in 
1938 and came into full connection in 1940. His appoint- 
ments included Covington, Ga., 1939-41; Georgia Oliver, 

ALLEN, RICHARD (1760-1831), American preacher and 
founder of the A. M. E. Church, was bom Feb. 14, 1760 
in Philadelphia, Pa. His parents were slaves and were 
sold to a farmer near Dover, Del. when Allen was very 

In 1777 Allen was converted and he began to preach 
about 1780. So impressed was his master with young 
Allen's preaching that he allowed meetings to be held in 
his house. In due time, Allen's master was himself con- 
verted and allowed Allen and his brother to purchase their 



He traveled and preached in Delaware, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and Maryland. Allen was present at the 
Christmas Conference, the organizing conference of 
Methodism in America held in Baltimore, Md. in 1784. 
The next year he traveled as an "assistant" on the Balti- 
more Circuit, and held meetings in Baltimore. One of 
those who noticed Allen's progress as a preacher was 
Bishop Francis Asbury, who frequently gave Allen 
preaching assignments. 

In February, 1786 he came to Philadelphia and 
preached at St. George's Methodist Church and at 
various places where there was a large Negro population. 
In 1787, after his influence had drawn more and more 
Negroes to St. George's Church, there was a dispute as 
to whether the Negroes should have a separate church. 
Finally, Richard Allen and his followers formed the "Free 
African Society." 

In July, 1787, was dedicated the first church to be 
used by Allen. This meeting house was called Bethel, 
a name suggested by the dedication prayer delivered by 
John Dickins, a white clergyman, who asked that this 
meeting house "might be a Bethel to the gathering of 
thousands of souls." Dickins was the delegate at the 
famous Christmas Conference who made the motion to 
form the Methodist Episcopal Church. The new church 
had regular ministers sent by the Methodist Conference. 

Allen's ordination as a deacon was at the hands of 
Bishop Asbury in 1794. This made Allen the first Negro 
to receive ordination from the M. E. Church. In 1816, 
the year he was ordained an elder, Allen saw that other 
Negro churches had been formed in New York, New 
Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, and he got sixteen 
of them together and formed the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church at a convention held in Philadelphia, 

The new church elected Allen as its first bishop, and 
he guided the steady growth of the church until his death 
March 26, 1831. 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 
Dictionary of American Biography. 

G. A. Singleton, African Methodism. 1952. 
Who Was Who in America, 1607-1896. 

Wright and Hawkins, Centennial Encyclopedia. 1916. 

H. D. Watts 

ALLEN, WILLIAM (1834-1908), American pioneer preach- 
er and philanthropist, was bom in Kentucky in 1834, came 
to Texas in 1856, and settled near Gainesville. He was 
licensed to preach in 1860, joined in 1861 what was then 
the East Texas Conference (MES) and was stationed at 
Decatur. Bishop Enoch M. Marvin ordained him as dea- 
con, and two years later he was set apart as elder by 
Bishop H. H. Kavanaugh. The East Texas Conference 
Journal of 1862 indicates that no minutes were kept of 
its sessions from 1862 to 1865 due to the Civil War. 

When the War Between the States broke out, he be- 
came chaplain, continuing that service to the end of the 
struggle. He was received into full connection in 1865, 
and then asked to be located. Thereupon he estabhshed 
a school in a community called Betliel, which seems to 
have been located about twenty-five miles north of Dal- 
las. There he taught for fourteen years. 

Though serving as "preacher in charge" for only two 
years, his heart was in the cause of the church. He evi- 
dently prospered financially. For some years he was a 

trustee of Southwestern University, and his biographers 
give figures to show that he was one of its heaviest 
financial contributors. Likewise he gave bountifully to the 
building of homes for superannuated ministers, the Meth- 
odist Orphanage at Waco, the Ann Browder Mission Home 
in Dallas, and to the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
of North Texas. His monetary support of the Methodist 
work for students attending the state school at Denton was 
so generous that they named the chapel in his honor. 
He was a member of the Texas State Senate for four 
years. Five books came from his pen. He died at Frisco, 
Texas in 1908. 

Journal, East Texas Conference. 1861. 

Te.xas Methodist Historical Quarterly. Vol. I, Article IV, 1910. 

Robert W. Goodloe 

ALLEN, YOUNG J. (1836-1907), American Methodist mis- 
sionary to China and often called a "missionary states- 
man," was born on Jan. 3, 1836, in Burke Co., Ga. 
Orphaned, he became the ward of wealthy relatives. He 
was reared a Primitive Baptist, but became a Methodist 
at Salem Mediodist Camp Ground in Ne\\'ton Co., Ga. 
when he was seventeen years old. He attended Emory 
AND Henry College in Virginia, and later Emory Col- 
lege at Oxford, Ga., where he was regarded as the out- 
standing student. He was greatly admired by such other 
students as Atticus Haygood. 

In 1858 Allen graduated from Emory, sold his planta- 
tion and slaves, married Mary Houston, was admitted on 
trial to the Georgia Conference, and offered himself 
to the Board of Missions of the M. E. Church, South. 
The Aliens were appointed to China and reached Shang- 
hai in July, 1860. Young J. Allen learned the language, 
and in his first service he so clearly enunciated John 
14:31, "Arise and let us go hence," that the entire body 
of native hearers rose and left the room! 

The Civil War came in America, and for four years the 
missionaries had no salary and no word from home. In 
order to support his family, Allen took a position as 
teacher and translator for the Chinese government. He 
became convinced that missionaries ought to break down 
the Chinese attitudes that were barriers to their becom- 
ing Christians. So he organized and supervised small 
schools. Later he was the founder and for ten years the 
president of the Anglo-Chinese College in Shanghai (later 
merged with Soochow University). He helped establish 
the Methodist Press. With Laura Haygood he helped 
start the McTyeire School for upper-class girls. 

The literary work of Young Allen was colossal and 
would comprise a library of nearly 250 volumes, most of 
them translations. He authored three books, and founded 
and edited The Review of the Times, the first newspaper 
of world events printed in Chinese for the average reader. 

His counsel was often sought by Chinese liberals. K'ang 
Yu-wei, a chief advisor to the emperor, was not a Chris- 
tian, but he acknowledged that his interest in reform 
was due chiefly to the writings of Young J. Allen and 
Timothy Richard. The Chinese called Allen Lin Lo-chih, 
and in the last decade of the nineteenth century his name 
was probably more widely known than that of any other 
foreigner in China. 

He returned to the United States five times to attend 
mission conferences, and to speak to churches, camp 
meetings, commencements, and annual and General Con- 
ferences. He was three times a member of the General 



Conference, and on his last visit to the States refused to 
be nominated for tlie episcopacy. 

Allen crowned his work of forty-seven years by at- 
tending the Centennial Conference of Missions in China. 
He became ill a week later, and died on May 30, 1907, 
in Shanghai. 

Warren Akin Candler, Young /. Allen, The Man Who Seeded 

China. Nashville. Cokesbury, 1931. 

Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of Christian Missions 

in China. New York: Macmillan Co., 1929. 

Missionary Review of the World, September, 1912. 

A. M. Pierce, Georgia. 1956. 

G. G. Smith, Georgia. 1913. Donald J. West 



(See North Carolina Con- 

ALLEN UNIVERSITY, the first effort in higher education 
among Negroes in South Carolina, began as Payne 
Institute in Cokesbury in 1870, under the auspices of the 
A.M.E. Church. In 1880 the South Carolina Annual 
Conference relocated the school in Columbia, where it 
was chartered and renamed Allen University. From 
the very beginning of the school's history a theological 
department, the William F. Dickerson Theological Semi- 
nary, was an integral part of the institution. About 1882 
a department of law was added but later discontinued. 
Allen has held accreditation for a number of years. B. J. 
Clover is president of the school as this is written, and 
L. E. Crumlin is dean of the seminary. 

Grant S. Shockley 

ALLENTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA, U.S.A., was founded in 
1762, but because much of the early population was of 
German descent, Methodism was slow to gain a foothold 
there. Bishop Asbury passed through on July 22, 1807, 
noted diat the town was "beautifully situated," and went 
on. In 1843 a Methodist church with six members was 
organized with Newton Hester as pastor. The next year 
a building was erected at Law and Linden Streets, and 
the church was called Linden Street. At first there was 
some persecution because the Germans objected to the 
worship of God in English, and because they regarded 
the Methodists as intruders in their territory. Even so the 
Methodists reported 40 members in 1844. In 1872 a 
second church called Chew Street (later Calvary) was 
organized. In 1921 when the Linden Street and Calvary 
Churches had 482 and 133 members, respectively, they 
merged to form Asbury Church, the new building of 
which was dedicated in 1922. In 1939 the church had 
1,011 members, and in 1969 the report showed 1,449 
members, a plant valued at $1,186,000, and $1.34,883 
raised for all purposes. 

General Minutes, ME and TMC. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopedia. 1878. 

Fbancis C. Thomas 
Jesse A. Earl 

ALLEY, JAMES AAURDOCK (1867-1955), Irish minister 
and statesman, was born in Dublin, a son of the manse. 
He was educated at the Methodist College, Belfast. 
His extensive itinerant ministry took him to all parts of 
Ireland, and he was appointed to many important posi- 
tions. He was secretarv of the Irish Conference, 1913-21, 

James M. Alley 

and was chiefly responsible for the 1915 Act of Parliament 
which constituted the Statutory Trustees of the Method- 
ist Church in Ireland, of which later he was for many 
years secretary and treasurer. From 1920 he was one of the 
Irish members of the Legal Hundred until that body 
ceased to exist, and he was elected president of the Irish 
Church in 1922. Other posts held were those of general 
secretary, and treasurer of the Home Mission Department. 
Alley's obituary in the Irish Minutes of the Conference 
observes that no summary of the offices held could indi- 
cate adequately the extent and variety of his service. His 
advice and help were in constant demand, his remarkable 
gift for friendship was such that he was beloved in all 
parts of the land, and when the time came to give up the 
last of his official positions he had the distinction of being 
elected an honorary member of the conference for the 
rest of his life. 

R. L. Cole, Methodism in Ireland. 1960. 
F. Jeffeby, Irish Methodism. 1964. 

Frederick Jeffeby 

ALLEY, JOHN (1799-1847). Canadian bishop, was bom 
in Haldimand (later Cobourg), Upper Canada, Sept. 21, 
1799. His parents moved to the state of New York in 1811. 

When Alley entered the ministry in 1830, he joined the 
New York Conference, later also serving in the Troy 
and Black River Conferences. 

Alley became very interested in Methodism in Canada, 
which was made up at that time of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Canada and the Wesleyan Meth- 
odists. There was a great deal of bitterness between tlie 
two factions, and Methodists in New York generally sided 
with the Wesleyan group. 

While serving in the Black River Conference Alley 
paid a visit to his birthplace and became acquainted 



with ministers from both sides. He then saw first hand 
that some of the ideas held by Methodists in New York 
about the Canadian Methodist Episcopal group were en- 
tirely wrong. 

Upon returning home Alley published a series of letters 
in the Northern Christian Advocate which did much to 
clear up areas of misunderstanding and to create a more 
favorable attitude toward the Methodist Episcopal de- 
nomination in Canada by members of the M. E. Church 
in New York. 

In 1845, with the health of Bishop John Reynolds 
failing, a special General Conference was called by the 
Canadian Methodist Episcopal Church to elect a new 
General Superintendent. Remembering the persuasive 
and diplomatic way he had represented the church's 
viewpoint to Methodists in New York, the conference 
unanimously elected Alley as bishop. He was ordained 
at the hands of Bishop Reynolds, who was assisted by 
David Smith and Philander Smith. 

Bishop Alley was to have a short episcopacy hampered 
by illness and injury, but he was able through great force 
of will to give Canadian Methodism a much needed 
vitality it had lacked during the last few years under an 
aging leader. His work was hampered by rheumatism 
brought on by a severe cold contracted while moving 
from his home in New York to his new post. Then while 
attending the annual conference of 1846, his leg was 
badly broken in a runaway horse accident. The injury 
was complicated by a painful bone disease from which 
Bishop Alley died June 5, 1847. He is buried near Hamil- 
ton, Ontario. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

T. Webster, ME Church in Canada. 1870. H. D. Watts 

ALLIN, THOMAS (1784-1866), British minister, was born 
at Broseley, Shropshire, on Feb. 10, 1784. He joined the 
Methodist New Connexion in Hanley, and entered its 
ministry in 1808. He was twice president of the Con- 
ference, 1822 and 1846, and served as missionary secre- 
tary and ministerial tutor. He wrote voluminously in de- 
fense of the polity of the New Connexion. His office of 
corresponding secretary made him for fifteen years the 
virtual executive of the denomination. He died in Long- 
ton, Staffordshire, on Nov. 7, 1866. 

Samuel Hulme, Memoir of the Rev. Thomas Allin. 1881. 

Oliver A. Beckerlecce 

ALLISON, CHARLES FREDERICK (1795-1858), prominent 
Canadian layman and benefactor, was born in Cornwallis, 
Nova Scotia, Jan. 25, 1795. His grandparents had settled 
there after migrating in 1769 from Newton Limavady in 
Ireland. Charles AUison was educated in a local school, 
and in 1812 moved to Parrsboro, where he found em- 
ployment as a clerk. Five years later he went to Sackville, 
across the New Brunswick border, and entered into part- 
nership as a general merchant with Wilham Crane. 

Alhson was raised in the Church of England, but ac- 
cording to T. Watson Smith, 

During a serious illness, he was visited by William Smith- 
son, with whom he had become personally acquainted as a 
fellow worker in temperance effort. ... In response to his 
inquiries the sufferer tearfully admitted his sincere desire for 
conscious salvation, and gratefully listened to proffered coun- 

sel. Having resolved to enter into communion with tlie Meth- 
odist Church, he in 1833 joined Richard Bowser's class. 

He became a devout and staunch supporter of the Sack- 
ville Methodist Church. Convinced of his responsibility 
as steward of his wealth, he became, in D. W. Johnson's 
words, "according to his means, among the most generous 
benefactors of society in any age." 

In January, 1839, AHison wrote a letter to William 
Temple, chairman of the New Brunswick district of the 
Wesleyan Methodist Church, in which he proposed to 
"purchase an eligible site and erect suitable buildings in 
Sackville . . . for the establishment of a school [in which 
not only the elementary, but higher branches of education 
may be taught] to be altogetlier under the management 
and Control of the British Conference." He pledged, in 
addition, £100 per annum for ten years toward the sup- 
port of the school. 

At a joint meeting of the New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia Districts held in July, 1839, AHison's generous offer 
was accepted gratefully, and a committee was appointed 
to put it into effect. He withdrew from business to give 
his personal oversight to the venture. The cornerstone 
was laid by him on July 9, 1840, and the building was 
ready for occupation early in the summer of 1842. Subse- 
quently, when the need for a ladies' academy was recog- 
nized, Allison again contributed generously to its estab- 

He died in 1858, leaving £500 for the academies and 
haff that amount for the university whenever it should 
be organized, all in addition to his previous gifts. 

When making his offer, he had remarked: "The Lord 
hath put it into my heart to give this sum. ... I know 
the impression is from the Lord, for I am naturally fond 
of money." 

D. W. Johnson, Eastern British America. 1924. 
T. W. Smith, Eastern British America. 1877, 1890. 

ALLISON, DAVID (1836-1924), Canadian scholar and 
administrator, was born in Newport, Nova Scotia, July 
3, 1836. He was educated at Halifax Academy, Mount 
Allison Academy, and Wesleyan University, Con- 

Upon graduation in 1859 he became principal of Stan- 
stead Academy, and the following year came to Mount 
Alhson Academy as instructor in classics. When the uni- 
versity opened he became professor of classics. On the 
retirement of Humphrey Pickard in 1869, Allison was 
appointed Mount Allison's second president, and during 
his nine-year term, the college grew and its work de- 

In 1878 Allison left Mount Allison to become chief 
superintendent of education in the Province of Nova 
Scotia. In this position he wrote most of the texts on 
British history used in the schools, as well as an English 
grammar. Subsequently he resumed office again as presi- 
dent of Mount Allison, and served until his retirement in 

As a Methodist layman, Allison worked for the church 
in many ways. 

A member of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, he 
was keenly interested in local history and wrote a paper 
on the Settlement of Earhj Townships, which is in the 
Society's collections. 



D. W. Johnson speaks of him as "a man of striking 
personaht>', great energy, and commanding abihty. In 
his prime he was a magnetic leader and a prince among 
teachers." AHison died in Hahfax, where he had lived 
since retirement, on Feb. 13, 1924. 

D. W. Johnson, Eastern British America. 1924. 
T. W. Smith, Eastern British America. 1877, 1890. 

ALLISON, JAMES (1802-1875), Wesleyan Methodist mis- 
sionary in South Africa, was born in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, on July 4, 1802, and came to South Africa with the 
Irish party of 1820 settlers. On Jan. 4, 1827, he married 
Dorothy Thackwray, who died at Pietermaritzburg on 
June 23, 1864. His second marriage was to a widow, 
Mrs. Mary McCarthy Dunn (bom Rae). He became a 
catechist at Platberg, near Thaba 'Nchu, in 1837 and 
was received into full connexion as a minister in 1843. 
His outstanding qualities and success led to his designation 
in 1846 for pioneer work among the Swazi. Allison 
founded a station at Mahamba but was forced to abandon 
it in 1847 after a clash between the Swazi paramount 
chief and lesser chiefs in the area. Accompanied by some 
Swazi converts, he migrated to Indaleni in Natal. In 
1852 he resigned from the ministry' after differences with 
the mission authorities and founded an independent mis- 
sion at Edendale, near Pieterm.aritzburg, to which most of 
his Indaleni congregation removed. The dispute was set- 
tled in 1861 and Edendale was handed over to the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Missionary Society. But in spite of 
the reconciliation Allison did not return to tlie ministry. 
He died on April 1, 1875, and was buried in the min- 
isters' section of the Wesleyan Cemetery in Pietermaritz- 

J. Whiteside, South Africa. 1906. D. C. Veysie 

ALMA COLLEGE. During the nineteenth century the M. E. 
Church of Canada showed remarkable audacity and 
foresight in establishing educational institutions. One of 
these was Alma College, founded by a progressive group 
of citizens of the railway center St. Thomas, and of Elgin 
County, inspired by Albert Carman, a bishop of the 
M. E. Church. Sheriff Munroe, Judge Hughes, and Archi- 
bald McLachlin, with Bishop Carman, secured approval 
by the 1877 session of Niagara Conference for the found- 
ing of an "Educational Institution designed to afford 
young ladies a liberal course of instruction in all that 
tends to make their lives useful and happy, and their 
tastes elevated and refined . . ." It was hoped that a 
school for the sons as well as the daughters would 
evolve, a school "without distinction of race or creed, 
whose teachings and curriculum of studies are free from 
sectarian tenet and dogma and which admits to its Board 
of Management a fair representation of local interests . . ." 
The General Conference of the church gave its approval, 
and a charter was granted by an Act of the Ontario 
Legislature in 1877. 

The site chosen for the college was six acres adjacent 
to a ravine that winds through the city of St. Thomas. 
The area has since been increased to ten acres. The archi- 
tect drew the plans for a collegiate Gothic building a 
hundred feet in length, seventy-three feet in vvddth, and 
five stories high, at a total cost of $50,000. This imposing 
ivy-covered building is still the main building of the 

The school, named "Alma" in honor of Mrs. C. Munroe 
and her daughter, was formally opened on Oct. 13, 1881. 
B. F. Austin wa.s installed by Bishop Carman as the first 
princ-ipal, with Mrs. Margaret Capsey as lady principal 
or dean (1881-92). The first student to enroll was Mary 
Bums, afterward the wife of T. W. Crothers, at one time 
Minister of Labor, Ottawa. Marilla Adams, who gained 
distinction as an artist and teacher, graduated in 1884, 
and died in Nov., 1966, at the age of 103, eighty-two 
years after she graduated. 

Matriculation subjects were offered from the outset. 
In 1885 a course in "practical cookery" was added, prob- 
ably the first to be taught in a high school. Among other 
courses were a kindergarten teachers' course (1885), 
natural science including geology and astronomy, Latin, 
Greek, French, and German, and commercial (1887). 
Special emphasis was given to art, music, and Bible 

Today the majority of the students are enrolled in the 
five-year arts and science program prescribed by the De- 
partment of Education of Ontario for Grades 9 to 13 
inclusive. The school has always endeavored to meet the 
needs of the students by offering a wide range of options. 
The graduates of the secretarial and commercial courses 
continue to be in great demand. The Music and Art De- 
partments have attracted many outstanding teachers. 

Many additions and improvements have been made to 
the original structure. The McLachlin wing was added in 
1888, the gymnasium and swimming pool in 1923, the 
Garden Theater in 1930, the Ella D. Bowes Chapel in 
1948. In 1959 the Perry Dobson Music Building was 
completed; in 1963, the new gymnasium; in 1964, the 
Dobson Memorial Library and the W. F. Thomas Arts' 
Theater; and in 1965, the Barbara Heck dining hall and 

Under the direction of principals Benjamin F. Austin 
(1881-97); Robert I. Warner (1897-1919); Perry S. Dob- 
son (1919-47; 1951-53), who was also president (1953- 
62); Bruce Millar (1947-49); Stephen J. Mathers (1949- 
51 ) ; and Mrs. Steele Sifton ( 1953- ) , the college has 

attracted students from Western Ontario and from various 
countries. Many of those from other nations have been 
the daughters of missionaries or of business or government 
personnel in foreign service. During the Second World 
War the college was a haven for girls of St. Hilda's 
School in Whitby, Yorkshire, who were evacuated to 
Canada. Students have come from church-affiliated schools 
in Angola, Trinidad, and Hong Kong. Hence, on one oc- 
casion, a chapel service was led by an African student, 
in Umbundu, with the responses from the students in 

The relationship of the college to the church is closely 
maintained through the Board of Colleges of The United 
Church of Canada. The college receives no government 
grants or assistance, but is dependent on fee income for 
its operation. The church makes a grant toward rebgious 
instruction. The college continues to follow the wishes 
of the founders in providing a sound fourfold education. 

Alma College is more than a school; it is a home, a 
worship center, and with its traditions and its ivy-covered 
walls, it seems "a castle." 

Centennial of Canadian Methodism. 1891. 

Cornish, Cyclopaedia of Methodism in Canada. 1881. 

E. E. Edwards, History of Alma College. St. Thomas: the 

college, 1927. Flora Sifton 


ALMANACS. The Methodist Almanac. The Southern 
Methodist Almanac, The Methodist Year Book, The 
Southern Methodist Year Book, The Methodist Protestant 
Year Book, The Southern Methodist Handbook. 

Almanacs, comprising calendars, astrological calcula- 
tions, national statistical information, agricultural advice, 
proverbs, and vignettes tantalizing the curiosity, have 
ever appealed to the American public. It is said that these 
items, typified by the famous Poor Richards Almanac, 
together with medical books, were the most numerous 
publications of the American press in colonial times. 

In 1834, following a proposal to the General Con- 
ference of 1832, the Methodist Book Concern issued the 
first Methodist Almanac under the editorship of David 
Young. This 48-page publication, typical of the proto- 
type (except that it carried almost exclusively Methodist 
information plus a catalog of Book Concern publications 
as supplementary material), was the forerunner and direct 
ancestor of the year books published by the three Meth- 
odist churches which united in 1939 to form The Meth- 
odist Church. The immediate success of tlie first Meth- 
odist Almanac assured the continuation of this publication 
by the Methodist Book Concern, and its gradual expansion 
into a booklet of several hundred pages a century later. 
At that time the Book Concern of the M. E. Church issued 
its last year book — this was in 1933. 

During the middle years of the nineteenth century, as 
the program of the Book Concern became geographicalh' 
diversified, special editions of the Almanac were issued 
each year, particularized for different sections of the 
country. By this time the books had become valuable as 
media for secular advertising both for New York firms 
and those farther west, such as in Cincinn.'Vti. In 1885 
all the editions were combined and tfienceforth published 
as the Methodist Year Book, a title that in 1880 had re- 
placed the habitual "Methodist Almanac." The Year Book, 
without calendar, astrological calculations, and advertising, 
continued to be published through the hundredth number. 
Best known of the M. E. yearbooks is the 1884 Meth- 
odist Centennial Year Book, a publication of 412 pages 
that has long stood as a landmark volume for information 
about the M. E. Church. 

In tlie course of the years, similar pubhcations appeared 
as items in the pubhshing program of the M. P. Church 
and the M. E. Church, South. When the latter church 
began its publishing house in Nashville in 1854, among 
its first advertised items was the Southern Methodist 
Almanac, duplicating at least in form the Methodist Al- 
manac of the Northern Church. The Southern Methodist 
Almanac appeared until the outbreak of the Civil War, 
and in 1862 the Southern Methodist Publishing House 
issued the Confederate States Almanac, often cited as one 
of the reasons for die harsh treatment suffered by the 
Nashville-based enterprise when the city fell to Union 
forces in 1862. When the Southern Methodist publishing 
program was recommenced following the war, Southern 
Methodist Almanacs again made their appearance. Until 
after the turn of the century Southern Methodist Hand- 
books and Southern Methodist Year Books were published, 
sometimes by the denominational publishing house and 
sometimes by individuals. The Southern Methodist Hand- 
book, published by Thomas N. In'ey, was issued through- 
out the first quarter of the twentieth century. At least for 
a portion of this period, the denomination was also official- 
ly publishing a Southern Methodist Year Book as a sec- 
tion of the annual minutes of the church. In the latter 

form the Southern Methodist Year Book was continued 
through 1940. 

In 1882 the M. P. Church commenced publication of 
the Methodist Protestant Year Book. Although the original 
Year Book did not continue, another Methodist Protestant 
Year Book was begun in 1918 and was issued for at least 
two years. 

Although never among the more prominent items of 
any of the Methodist denominations, the almanacs are 
significant both as period pieces and as forerunners of 
statistical and quick-reference publications currently is- 

Journals of the General Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 1796-1872. 

The Methodist Almanac, M. E. Church, 1837-1933 (repre- 
sentative numbers ) . 

The Methodist Year Book, M. E. Church, 1837-1933 (repre- 
sentative numbers). 
J. P. Pilkington, Methodist Publishing House. 1968. 

James P. Pilkincton 

ALMORA, India, is the headquarters of the government 
in an area known as Kumaun. Along with the adjoining 
area of Garhwal, and other territories in the lower and 
medium ranges of the Himalayas, it was ceded by Nepal 
to British India in 1816. There are summer residences and 
health resorts to which people come to escape from the 
intense heat of the plains. Kumaun includes, in addition 
to Almora, Naini Tal, Ranikhet, Dwarahat, Sat Tal, and 
Pithoragarh, all important centers of Methodist work. 

It was to Naini Tal that Clementina and William 
Butler fled from Bareilly on the eve of what was 
known as "the mutiny" but is lately and more frequently 
called "the first war of Independence." Naini Tal was 
outside the area originally planned for Methodist work 
in India, but plans were revised and the first house of 
worship of the M. E. Church in India was built there 
with funds mostly provided by British friends. The comer- 
stone was laid by Henry Ramsey, commissioner of the 
.\lmora Division. In time the Methodist Church developed 
three large schools — Humphreys High School in a cen- 
tral location for local residents, the Philander Smith Col- 
lege for Boys (originally Oak Openings School), and 
Wellesley School for Girls, established primarily for board- 
ers who came from widely separated homes on the plains. 
Many missionary children were enrolled in these board- 
ing schools, where English was the medium of instruction 
in all classes. The M. E. Church built summer homes for 
its missionaries, so that they could spend their vacation, 
necessary for health reasons, where they could be with 
their children for a few weeks each summer. 

When the European and Anglo-Indian population in 
India was radically reduced with Independence, these 
schools were closed and their properties sold to the state 
government. The money reaUzed from the sales was re- 
invested in schools elsewhere in Uttar Pradesh. 

Almora was the home of Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant, 
first chief minister of Uttar Pradesh after Independence 
and later deputy prime minister in Nehru's national cab- 
inet. Pandit Pant was a student in Ramsey High School 
at Almora and several times made generous personal 
contributions to the school. A number of his relatives in 
Almora became Christians. 

Missionary work was begun in Almora in 1850 by the 
London Mission, which developed high quality boys and 



girls schools in Almora. The first missionaries were the 
Rev, and Mrs. J. H. Budden. Two of their daughters be- 
came Methodist missionaries. 

Ramsey High School for boys, for a few years an inter- 
mediate college, was named for Henry Ramsey, an official 
of fervent Christian spirit and benefactor of Methodists. 
The girls' school, called Adams Higher .Secondary School, 
was raised to high school status shortly after its transfer 
to the Methodist Church. It has become an asset of im- 
measurable value to the church and to the people of the 
area. In 1926 when the London Mission decided that it 
was overextended and should withdraw from Almora, all 
the work was made over to the Methodist Church. This 
included the first leprosarium in India. Manohab Masih, 
who had been deputed by the London Missionary Society 
to prepare for service, was appointed superintendent, 
and developed a number of clinics in rural areas. He 
became a member of the North India Annual Conference. 

Dwarahath, some twelve miles from Ranikhet, was an 
early outpost of Episcopal Methodism in India. Many 
prominent missionaries of the early years served in Dwar- 
ahath. Schools for girls and boys were developed, and 
reached high levels of educational effectiveness. The girls' 
school, which developed a boarding department and 
educated many orphan girls, was closed some t\vent>' 
vears ago. The boys' school with strong support from the 
local community has been lifted to the higher secondary 
school le\el. 

Ranikhet became a summer resort for British troops. 
The Wesleyan Methodist Church developed a junior 
high school there, but made it over to the Methodist 
Church of Southern Asia about 1920. With generous 
support from local Hindus and Moslems, it has been 
lifted to the higher secondary school level. This is a 
mountain resort of great beauty. 

In Sat Tal, ten miles from Naini Tal, and approxi- 
mately five miles by bridle patli from the end of the rail- 
way, the Methodist Church has a retreat and conference 
center on adjoining properties. The Ashram at Sat Tal, 
founded by E. Stanley Jones, is the progenitor and 
model for other ashrams around the world. 

J. N. Hollister, Southern Asia. 1956. 
J. E. Scott, Southern Asia. 1906. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

minister, educator, and linguist of the Republic of Pan- 
ama and Caribbean Methodism, was born on the 
island of Carenero on June 24, 1896. This is said to be the 
island where Christopher Columbus "careened his ships in 
the year 1502" — now in the Province of Bocas del Toro, 
Republic of Panama. Efraim Alphonse was the son of 
John Benoni Alphonse and Carlota Reed de Alphonse. 
He received first an elementary education and completed 
his education at Calabar College in Jamaica. On Oct. 22, 
1919, he married Philibert Hyacinth Oglivie (Romelis) 
and to them were born eleven children — eight of whom 
survive. One is a minister of the Methodist Church in 
Birmingham, England; another an educational mission- 
ary in tlie Congo in Africa, serving under the Board of 
Missions of The United Methodist Church, U.S.A. 

Efraim Alphonse felt the call to a teaching ministry 
under the preaching of M. C. Surgeon of the British 
Methodist Church in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Young 
Efraim — with what in his islands is called a "six standard 
education" — went out in 1917, and began a pioneering 

Efraim Alphonse 

work with scarcely any preparation. He learned the 
dialect of the Indians as he listened to them, soon 
mastered it, and began to teach it as well as to preach 
and evangelize. In time he reduced the language to writ- 
ing, composing a grammar which the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute of Ethnology published. In time he became a trans- 
lator in that language for the American Bible Society, 
translating four Gospels, Acts and Romans, writing hymns, 
and the like. He went for more collegiate training in 1924, 
when he took a course in tlieology and then returned to 
the Indians. He spent a total of thiity-seven years among 

The Latin American Mission engaged Alphonse as a 
traveling evangelist during the years 1950 to 1954 and 
sent him to cover such countries as Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Barbados, Trinidad, and subsequently the 
Bahamas, especially the tourist city of Nassau. 

He has been twice to England on a missionary deputa- 
tion and also to Portugal for their centenary service 
there. He was in England for the bicentenary anniversary 
of the establishment of British Methodist work overseas, 
especially that in the West Indies. 

For ten years he was superintendent minister of Meth- 
odist work in Jamaica, and finally in Panama City as 
deputy chairman and then as chairman of the whole Cen- 
tral America area of the British Methodist churches. He 
took part in the organization of the autonomous Methodist 
Church of the Caribbean and the Americas in May, 1967. 

Efraim Alphonse has written several books, among 
them: Among the Valient e, God at the Helm, and an un- 
published novel. Black Man, Bear Mij Cross. He is the 
author of a hymnbook in the Valiente language. In a 
literary contest for natives of Latin America, Mexico to 
Argentina, he won the first prize in the World Dominion 
Essay Contest. He is considered a linguist of the first rank. 

The Panamanian government conferred on him the 



highest honor in July, 1963, making him a member of the 
Orden de Vasco Nunez de Balboa. In August of that same 
year, the Municipal Council of the city of Panama gave 
him the freedom of the city and a key, as under Resolu- 
tion No. 41 of Aug. 22, 1963. This was signed by the 
President and Vice President of the Republic. 

He retired in Februan,', 1967, though he has continued 
to serve as a member of the faculty of the Methodist Theo- 
logical Seminary in Alajuela, Costa Rica. 

Marion F. Woods 

ALSTORK, JOHN WESLEY (1852-1920), a bishop of the 
A. M. E. Zion Church; he was bom in Talladega, Ala., 
Sept. 1, 1852, the son of Frank and Mary Jane Alstork. 
Entering Longwood Institute in 1868, he made rapid 
advancement, soon becoming an assistant teacher. He 
entered Talladega College in 1871, and in 1872 he mar- 
ried Mamie Meta Lawson. A year later he joined the 
A. M. E. Zion Church. Licensed to preach in 1878, he 
joined the Alabama Conference in 1879, being ordained 
a DEACON in 1882 and an elder in 1884. In the same year 
he was appointed to the important Clinton Chapel (Old 
Ship), Montgomery, Ala., where he was extremely suc- 
cessful, paying off the indebtedness on the church and 
building a new parsonage. He was twice appointed a 
PRESIDING ELDER, oHcc in 1889 and again in 1893. During 
the latter term he founded Greenville College, later 
changing the name to Loma.\-Hannon Industrial College. 
He was elected to seven General Conferences, and in 
1900 he was elected to the episcopacy. 

He was a delegate to the Ecumenical Conferences 
of 1901 in London and of 1911 in Toronto. In 1911 he 
also organized the South Alabama Conference and a year 
later the Cahaba Conference. His influence was wide- 
spread. He was a Trustee of Livingstone College; the 
State Normal School; Hale Infirmary; Longridge Acad- 
emy; and the Industrial and Orphan School, Macon. He 
was a National Grand Master of the A. F. & A. M.; 
Lieutenant Commander, United Grand Council; Inspector 
General, Order of Love and Charity; Director of the 
Order of the Good Shepherd; Director of the Loan and 
Investment Company; a member of the Federation of 
Churches as well as the Sociological Congress. He was 
the recipient of an honorary D.D. degree from Living- 
stone College, and an honorary LL.D. from Princeton 
College, Indiana. He died quite suddenly while speaking 
at a Sunday School Convention held at Searcv, Ala. 
July 23, 1920. 

The A.M.E. Zion Quarterly Review, 1953, Vol. LXIV, No. 2, 

pp. 103-04. 

J. W. Hood, One Hundred Years, 1895. 

Frederick E. M.^ser 

ALTER, CHESTER M. (1906- ), American university 

chancellor, was born in Rush Co., Ind., on March 21, 
1906, the son of David O. and Maggie (Brookbank) 
Alter. He received the Ph.D. degree in chemistry at 
Harvard University in 1936 and has been honored with 
numerous honorary degrees. 

As an educator Dr. Alter's career includes that of 
teacher in the public schools of Indiana, 1923-25; teach- 
ing fellow at Harvard, 1929-30; university scholar, 1930- 
32; research associate, 1932-33; instructor in chemistry, 
Boston University, 1934-37; assistant professor, 1937- 

40, professor, 1940-53; acting dean of the graduate school, 
1944-45; dean, 1945-53; chancellor of the University of 
Denver, 1953-67. 

He gave a dinner in honor of the Council of Bishops 
of The Methodist Church at Denver University on the 
eve of the General Conference of 1960 held there, and 
his address was the feature of that occasion. He served 
as delegate to the General Conference in 1956, 1960, 
1964 and 1968; as a member of the church's General 
Board of Education and of the Council on World 
Service and Finance; trustee of Alaska Methodist 
University; Fellow of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, and a member of other scholastic organiza- 
tions. He has been active in civic life, serving as director 
and president of the Denver Rotary Club. In 1961 he 
was the recipient of the Alumni Distinguished Service 
.Award of Ball State Teachers College. He has contributed 
technical papers to scientific publications. 

On July 1, 1933, he was manied to Arvilla Morrison, 
and their children are Katherine Jane (deceased) and 
Richard David. Upon retirement he has continued to live 
in Denver. 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. 

J. Marvin Rast 

ALTON, JOHN TAYLOR (1883-1961), American minister 
and Judicial Council member, was born Aug. 22, 1883, 
at Gradenhutten, Ohio, the son of John and Malinda 
(Parrish) Alton. He was educated at Mount Union Col- 
lege (A.B., 1912, and D.D., 1925) and Boston Univer- 
sity (S.T.B., 1915). He married Roberta H. Swartz, Aug. 
7, 1907, and they had a daughter, and a son Ralph 
Taylor, who was elected bishop in 1960. 

Alton was in the New Hampshihe Conference five 
years, as a supply 1913-15, and as a member 1915-18. 
During that period he served two terms in the state legis- 
lature. In the first World War he served one year as a 
YMCA secretary at Kelly Field, Te.xas. In 1918 he trans- 
ferred to the North-East Ohio Conference where his 
appointments were: Minerva, Akron (Grace), Norwalk 
District, and Cle\'eland (Windermere). In 1933 he trans- 
ferred to the Ohio Conference where he served Colum- 
bus, Broad Street; the Springfield District; Cincinnati, 
Westwood; and the Columbus District. He was a reserve 
delegate to the 1940-44 General Conferences and a dele- 
gate in 1948. Elected to the Judicial Council in 1948, he 
served eight years and was vice-chairman, 1952-56. His 
annual conference administrative offices included chair- 
man of the board of missions, trustee of White Cross 
Hospital in Columbus, trustee of the Methodist Children's 
Home at Worthington, and manager of the board of con- 
trol of the South Side Settlement in Columbus. He retired 
in 1953, and died in Cincinnati, Dec. 8, 1961. 

Clark and Stafford, Who's Who in Methodism. 1952. 

General Minutes, ME and TMC. 

C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

Minutes of the Ohio Conference, 1962. N. B. H. 

ALTON, RALPH TAYLOR (1908- ), American pastor 

and bishop, was born in Deerfield, O., on Aug. 10, 1908, 
the son of John Taylor and Roberta Hazel (Schwartz) 
Alton. He was educated at Ohio Wesleyan Uni\'Ersity, 
receiving the A.B. degree there in 1928, and honorary 
D.D. in 1951. He took his theological work at Boston 


Ralph T. Alton 

University, receiving tlie S.T.B. degiee in 1932. His 
wife is Marian Bannon Black, whom he married on July 
23, 1931, and they have two children. 

Bishop Alton was ordained to the ministry of the M. E. 
Church in 1932 and served pastorates in Massachusetts, 
Ohio, and Wisconsin. He was elected bishop by the 
North Central Jurisdiction in 1960 and assigned to the 
Wisconsin Area, making his home in Madison. He was a 
reserve member of the Judicial Council, 1956-60, and 
is a trustee of Lawrence UNrvERSiTv at Appleton, Wis. 
and North Central College, Naperville, 111. Since be- 
coming a member of the Council of Bishops he has served 
on the Methodist Committee for Overseas Relief 
(chairman, 1964-68), Board of Hospitals and Homes 
(vice-chairman, 1964-68), Division of the Local Church, 
Board of Education, 1960-68, and is currently a member 
of the Board of Missions and the Program Council. In 
the National Council of Churches he serves on the 
executive committee of the Division of Overseas Minis- 
tries and as a member of the Assembly. 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Whos Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

ALTUS, OKLAHOMA, U.S.A., First Methodist Church, 

was organized in a dug-out at old Frazier, two and one-half 
miles west of Altus, on Oct. 31, 1887. At that time Altus 
was a part of the state of Texas. The Frazier settlement 
was moved to Altus in 1890 because of a flood. The turn 
of the century marked the beginning of a new era. In 
September, 1901, a new structure (the present building) 
was erected to the great satisfaction of all its members 
and of the entire community. The opening service was 
attended by people from the entire countryside, who came 
in wagons, hacks, buggies, and on horseback. R. A. Walker 
was then minister. 

The church has since added an educational building 
and kept the church up-to-date with modern improve- 


ments, such as air conditioning, public address system, 
etc. The present ( 1968) membership is 2,048. 

Lee Bowles 

ALVAN DREW SCHOOL, Pine Ridge, Kentucky, U.S.A., 
a home mission project of the Woman's Home Mission- 
ary Society of the M. P. Church, in the early 1920's. 
It was established by a group of Methodist educators 
from New England who purchased land, constructed 
buildings and gathered a highly capable staff of teachers. 

One of the early leaders in establishing the school 
which served the needs of this area of Kentucky was 
Mrs. M. O. Everett. Under the superintendency of Dr. 
and Mrs. T. R. Woodford it reached a peak enrollment 
of around 300 pupils. The school also had its own farm, 
a store, and a church. 

Alvan Drew School graduated its first class in 1926. 
The last class to graduate was in 1947, when the school 
was discontinued. Some of the buildings formerly used 
by Alvan Drew School are now part of the Dessie Scott 
Children's Home. 

A.D.S. Reunion Association, Second Reunion, Pine Ridge, 
Kentucky, July 24-25, 1964. Program. 

R. B. Stone, "The Story of Alvan Drew School." Unpublished 
nis., 1934. James H. Stbauchn 

JOAO A. Amaral 

AMARAL, JOAO AUGUSTO DO (1896- ), bishop of 
the Methodist Church of Brazfl, was bom in Petropolis, 
state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on Aug. 8, 1896, the son 
of Joao Augusto and Emilia (Jones) Amaral. He received 
his education at the Instituto Granbery, Juiz de Fora, 
Brazil; then studied at Emory and Henry College, 
U.S.A., and received his B.D. from Southern Methodist 
University in Dallas. He returned to Brazil in 1925 
and was ordained deacon in 1926 and elder in 1932. 
Amaral served mainly in churches of the Federal District 
and of tlie state of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, both 
as pastor and as district superintendent. 

For a number of years he was president of the Method- 
ist Association, which is tlie official holding body for all 
Methodist property in Brazil. In 1954 he represented 
Brazil at the World Council of Churches Assembly in 



EvANSTON, 111., and at New Delhi and Uppsala, and for 
a term served as a member of that body's Central Com- 

He was first elected bishop in 1955. Reelected in 1960 
and again in 1965, he took charge of the Third Episcopal 
Region, which comprises the eastern portion of the state 
of Sao Paulo and the immediate area surrounding the 
great metropolis, Sao Paulo. 

His wife is the former Margarida B. do Amaral and 
they have three children. He hves in Sao Paulo, after 
retiring in 1970. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church. 1966. Eula K. Long 

AMARILLO, TEXAS, U.S.A. Methodism was established 
in Amarillo in 1888. Following the adjournment of the 
Northwest Tex.4S Conference at Weatherford on Nov. 
19, Jerome Haralson, presiding elder of the newly created 
Vernon District, and Isaac L. Mills, pastor of the Claren- 
don Mission, went to Amarillo and there at a service in 
the courthouse on Nov. 23, they organized a Methodist 
church. The ne.xt year a five-point Amarillo Circuit was 
fonned, and in 1891 Amarillo became a station which 
reported 145 members in 1892. In 1909 the church had 
885 members, and a second congregation was formed, the 
original body then being called Polk Street Church. Ama- 
rillo became the head of a district in 1910. At unification 
in 1939 there were in the city four churches with a total 
of 4,600 members. In 1969 there were 11 congregations, 
12,000 church members, property valued at $5,285,000, 
and budgets aggregating $825,000 per year. The A. M. E. 
Church and the C. M. E. Church each have one con- 
gregation in Amarillo. 

General Minutes, MES and TMC. 

Jesse A. Eabl 

Polk Street Church was organized in 1888. It was given 
its present name in 1909 when a second congregation 
was fonned in the city. Through the years as the mother 
church of Methodism in Amarillo, Polk Street Church 
has sponsored the organization of ten other congregations. 
The membership of Polk Street rose above 500 in 1906, 
and since that time it has been a strong church not- 
withstanding its sharing of members and resources to 
form new congregations. In 1920 when there were two 
Methodist churches in Amarillo, Polk Street reported 
1,642 members; in 1939 when there were four churches 
it had 2,830 members; and in 1969 its rolls showed 4,234 
members. In the latter year its property was valued at 
$2,031,859, and it raised for all purposes $337,836. Two 
pastors of Polk Street Church, Samuel R. Hav and O. 
Eugene Slater, were elected bishops, the one in 1922 
and the other in 1960. Members of the congregation are 
found in positions of responsible leadership diroughout 
the city. 

General Minutes, MES and TMC. 

Jordan H. Grooms 

AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. On the call of the Revolu- 
tionary patriot, Ehas Boudinot, the American Bible Society 
was founded on May 10, 1816, with its "sole object" to 
"encourage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures 
without note or comment." Until 1900 its channel of dis- 
tribution in the U.S.A. and main sources of support were 
widespread local auxiliary societies, through which mil- 
lions of Bibles and Testaments were brought to the in- 

\\imi< AN Bible Society, New York City 

creasing population. Thereafter, as denominational agen- 
cies multiplied, auxiliaries began to drop out. Support has 
since been sought from individuals, churches, and legacies. 
"Agencies" directly administered by the Society have 
undertaken distribution, especially to underprivileged 

Work abroad, begun in 1820, saw the first pennanent 
"agency" in the Levant in 1836, followed by others in 
Latin America and Asia, and by direct supplies to mis- 
sions in Africa. Now by collaboration with the British 
AND Foreign Bible Society (and others), American sup- 
port serves almost every country on the globe, most of 
which are dependent on the Bible Societies for Scripture 

Several hundred languages in many lands have first 
received the Scriptures through translations published by 
the Society. A staff of expert linguists and exegetes now 
assists translators in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the 
Island World. In a number of countries the Society has 
fostered the formation of national societies as essential 
arms of the respective national churches, and has con- 
tinued to assist them financially. It was a leading par- 
ticipant in forming in 1946 the "United Bible Societies," 
a world fellowship of now some thirty-five national soci- 
eties. This has eliminated competition and duphcation 
of operations the world over. Important responsibilities 
of the United Bible Societies have been borne by the 
staff of the American Bible Societv', which provides a large 
part of its budget. 




Throughout its history the Society has adhered to its 
original missionary policy of supplying the Scriptures to 
the multitudes at cost or below, and making free grants 
where justified. It has supplied millions of Scriptures 
without charge to the armed forces of the U.S.A. (to 
both sides in the Civil War), and millions more to war- 
torn countries, especially after the first and second World 
Wars. It has given special service to the blind for more 
than 125 years, and has sponsored periods of world-wide 
Bible reading. The Society's circulation in the U.S.A. in 
1966 was 757,058 Bibles, 2,309,269 Testaments, 8,062,- 
226 Gospels and other integral portions, and 17,773,560 
Selections. World circulation by the Bible Societies was 
appro.ximately 1,140,000 Bibles, 1,020,000 Testaments, 
12,200,000 Gospels, and 8,300,000 Selections. These were 
in 452 languages and dialects. Its budget for 1966 was 
$6,645,000 (not including cost of Scriptures sold), of 
which $3,885,000 had to be secured from living donors. 
Its headquarters is the new Bible House at 1865 Broad- 
way, New York City. 

The Methodist churches have had an important relation 
to the Society. A Methodist, William Burd, was among 
the founding delegates in 1816. The ubiquitous Nathan 
Bangs was briefly an unsalaried secretary (1827-28). 
When the Methodist Missionary Society was approved by 
the 1820 General Conference the latter removed "and 
Bible" from the Society's title. Due probably to difficulties 
in securing Scripture supplies for their increasing number 
of Sunday schools, the Methodist General Conference of 
1828 established a Methodist Bible Society which merged 
with its Tract Society and Sunday School Union in 1833. 
As soon as the American Bible Society was able to pro- 
vide a wide-spread supply of Sunday school Scriptures, 
the General Conference of 1836 liquidated the Methodist 
Bible Society. In 1840 the Society elected Edmund S. 
Janes to be Financial Secretary, and he addressed many 
conferences in behalf of the Society. At the same time a 
provision was added to the Discipline requiring every 
church to report its contributions to the American Bible 
Society and its auxiliaries. In 1846 the M. E. Church 
recommended in the Discipline that all pastors preach 
annually on the Bible cause and take a collection. This 
provision continued in the M. E. Church until the church 
centralized its benevolent organization, at which time the 
American Bible Society continued to be a part of de- 
nominational benevolences. 

Somewhat similar provisions were made in the M. E. 
Church, South. The reunion of the churches continued 
the relationship. The Discipline of 1968 (Par. 1417) 
reads, "To encourage the wider circulation of the Holy 
Scriptures throughout the world, and to provide for the 
translation, printing, and distribution essential thereto, 
the American Bible Society shall be recognized as one of 
the general missionary agencies of The United Methodist 
Church, and the Council on World Service and Fi- 
nance shall make appropriate provisions for participating 
in its support." Ever since the time of E. S. Janes in 
1840, one of the principal executive secretaries of the 
American Bible Society has been a Methodist: E. S. 
Janes (1840-44); Noah Levings (1844-49); Joseph 
Holdich (1847-78); A. S. Hunt (1878-98); William 
I. Haven (1898-1928); Eric M. North (1928-56); 
Laton E. Holmgren ( 1955- ) . Odiers of the staff at 

headquarters and in the field have been Methodists, no- 
tably John R. Hykes (China, 1893-1921); Carleton 
Lacy (China, 1921-41); J. L. McLaughlin (Philippines 

and Chicago District, 1906-40); Hugh C. Tucker (Brazil, 
1887-1934); F. G. Penzotti (Latin America, 1883-1906); 
J. P. Wragg (Atlanta and New York, 1901-29). There 
have been three Methodist presidents out of the twenty: 
William Henry Allen (1872-80); Enoch L. Fancher 
(1885-1900); and Daniel Burke (1944-62). At present 
(1966) there are eleven Methodists on the Board of 
Managers. Sixty-two denominations were represented by 
delegates at the Society's 1966 Advisory Council. 

H. O. Dwight, History of the American Bible Society. New 
York: Macmillan, 1916. 

American Bible Society Historical Essays, 1966 (unpublished). 

Ebic M. Nobth 

AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, Washington, DC, was char- 
tered by Congress, Feb. 24, 1893. The initiative for the 
founding was taken by Bishop John Fletcher Hurst 
of the M. E. Church, who became its first chancellor and 
directed the purchasing of a seventy-five acre campus in 
northwest Washington. His plans, and those of his imme- 
diate successors, included only graduate and professional 
studies. Experience proved, however, that the university 
needed an undergraduate school to support the graduate 
program, and in 1925 the College of Liberal Arts, now 
the College of Arts and Sciences, was established. 

While the university was Methodist in origin, there 
was, during the first half-century of its life, no formulated 
plan for the church to participate in financial support. In 
1952, the General Conference made it a part of the World 
Service program — general benevolences — of the church. 
In 1956, as a part of the church's special four-year empha- 
sis on higher education, $1,000,000 was set aside from 
general benevolences for a School of International Ser- 
vice. The school was opened in 1958 by President Dwight 

The relocation of Wesley Theological Seminary on 
the campus of the university, and the development of the 
Lucy Webb Hayes Collegiate School of Nursing, closely 
associated with Sibley Hospital, greatly augmented The 
American University's service. The projected concentra- 
tion of Methodist institutions in the area around the uni- 
versity will create one of the nation's largest Protestant 
cultural centers. 

The university consists of eight major schools: Arts and 
Sciences, Business Administration, Government and Public 
Administration, International Service, Graduate, Law, 
Nursing, and Continuing Education. Wesley Theological 
Seminary is affihated academically with the university. 

The governing board of forty-eight active trustees, nine 
honorary, are elected by the board and confirmed by the 
Board of Education of The United Methodist Church. 

John O. Gross 

AMES, EDWARD RAYMOND (1806-1879), American 
bishop, was born on May 20, 1806, at Amesville, Ohio, a 
town named for his father. He attended Ohio University, 
supporting himself by teaching. While there he opened a 
school at Lebanon which in later years became Mc- 
Kendree College. 

He was licensed to preach by Peter Cartwright and 
joined the Illinois Conference in 1830. When the 
Indiana Conference was formed, Edward Ames be- 
came a member and continued serving circuits and sta- 
tions in Indiana except for two years spent in St. Louis. 



Edward R. Ames 

AMES, HERBERT THOMAS (1844-1936), American lay- 
man, was bom on June 7, 1844, in Tioga Co., Pa., the 
son of Thomas Whipple and Mary Amy Ames. He re- 
ceived the LL.B. degree from the University of Michigan 
in 1869. Ames married Lizzie A. Wise on Dec. 23, 1876, 
and they had two children. 

Ames began the practice of law in Williamsport, Pa., 
in 1867. He became mayor of Williamsport at the age of 
83, winning as a candidate of the Prohibition party, with 
which he was affiliated. 

He was a delegate from the Central Pennsylvania 
Annual Conference to the M. E. General Conference in 
1884 and to all other General Conferences from 1900 to 
1928 — more times than any other layman of his confer- 
ence. He was a member of Old Pine Street Church in 

Ames wrote the report of the Committee on Tem- 
perance at the General Conference in 1908, which re- 
sulted in the cieation of the Methodist Board of Tem- 
perance. Prohibition and Public Morals. He was always 
on the Temperance committee, and was twice on the 
Committee on Judiciary. He sponsored tlie original mo- 
tion for full representation of laymen in the annual con- 
ferences at the General Conference of 1916, and was 
regarded as the fatlier of the movement. It was enacted 
into the law of the church in 1932. 

Ames died at Williamsport in 1936. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

Charles Scott Williams 

He became a presiding elder, and in 1840 was elected 
missionary secretary, to serve in the West and among the 
Indians. The council of the Choctaws elected him a 

Back in Indiana in 1844, he served churches and dis- 
tricts until 1852. He was named to succeed Bishop Mat- 
thew Simpson as president of Indiana Asbury Univer- 
sity but declined. He was a delegate to the General Con- 
ferences of the M. E. Church in 1844, 1848, and 1852, 
when he was elected bishop. 

During the Civil War, Bishop Ames was an opponent 
of slavery. He was appointed a chaplain in tlie Union 
army. Secretary of War Stanton issued an order permitting 
him to take over the churches of the M. E. Church, 
South, and install northern pastors in the pulpits. This 
was done in Tennessee, Louisiana and other states. Mc- 
Kendree Church, Nashville, and Church Street Church, 
Knoxville, were seized and their pastors displaced. This 
seems to have been done without the knowledge of Presi- 
dent Abraham Lincoln, and when Andrew Johnson be- 
came President, he ordered these churches returned to 
Southern Metliodists, but there was a lengthy delay in 
complying with the order. 

After the war Bishop Ames was active in e-xtending 
the work of Northern Methodism throughout the South. 
Because of his political activity he was offered important 
positions in government, but he declined. 

He died at Baltimore on April 25, 1879, and was 
buried in Greenmount Cemetery there. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

Herrick and Sweet, North Indiana Conference. 1917. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 

W. W. Sweet, ME Church and Civil War. 1912. 

Elmer T. Clark 

AMOS, WALTER HANSEL (1908- ), a bishop of the 
C. M. E. Chi'rch, was born at Milan. Tenn., on March 
16, 1908. He received an A.B. degree from the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, a B.D. degree from Garrett Biblical 
Institute, an M.A. degree from the University of 
Chicago, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of 
.Michigan. He was ordained a deacon in 1936 and an 
elder in 1938. In 1962 he was elected to the office of 

Harris and Craig, C.M.E. Church. 1965. 

E. L. Williams, Biographical Directory of Negro Ministers. 

1966. Ralph G. Gay 

AMOUGIES METHODIST CENTER is located on a beautiful 
piece of Belgian Methodist property on top of a hill over- 
looking Flanders, which is sixty miles west of Brussels. 
Since 1948 it has been a youth and children's vacation 
center and an appreciated assembly ground for religious 
conferences and camps. 

William G. Thonceh 

AMSTUTZ, HOBART B. ( 1896- ) , bishop of The Meth- 
odist Church who served in the countries of Southeast 
Asia and Pakistan, was bom in Henrietta, Ohio, on Sept. 
18, 1896. He was educated at Northwestern Univer- 
sity and Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, III. 
In 1938 Baldwin-Wallace College conferred upon 
him the D.D. degree. 

He married Celeste T. Bloxsome of Pennville, Ind., in 
1923, and in 1926 he and his wife went to Malaya as 
missionaries. Most of their service was in Singapore, 
where Amstutz was pastor of the noted Wesley Church. 
He was also at one time a teacher and principal of the 



Anglo-Chinese School, principal and founder of Trinity 
Theological College, professor in Union Theological Semi- 
nary, and superintendent of the Singapore and Kuala 
Lumpur districts. 

He and his wife were in Singapore at the time of the 
Japanese attack on the Malay Peninsula in 1941. Mrs. 
Amstutz managed to escape to India, where their daugh- 
ter and son were in Woodstock School, in Mussoorie, re- 
maining there until the close of the war. However, Am- 
stutz elected to stay in Malay and continue in ministry 
with the people among whom he had done missionary 
service for so many years. When Singapore fell, he was 
interned with other Americans and British. His imprison- 
ment lasted three and one-half years, but diuing the time 
his chief suffering was due to malnutrition. After his liber- 
ation he toured the churches and schools of the Peninsula, 
helping to reopen and reorganize them, and planning 
with the national leaders for the future Christian institu- 
tions and missionary service. 

Hobart Amstutz was elected a bishop by the Southeast 
Asia Central Conference in 1956. As a member of the 
Council of Bishops, he has been depended upon to give 
guidance and speak authoritatively upon conditions in 
Southeast Asia and to serve upon certain important com- 
mittees, such as COSMOS. He retired at the Central 
Conference of Southeast Asia in 1964 and subsequently 
was recalled and given the episcopal supervision of the 
West Pakistan Area, where he and Mrs. Amstutz were 
in residence in K.'^r.'^chi until the General Conference of 

ANAHEIM, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A., was originally set- 
tled in 1857 by a group of Germans from San Francisco. 
By the articles of incorporation the colony attempted to 
prohibit any minister of the gospel from settling among 
them to preach. However, in time the M. E. Church 
succeeded in establishing German language work in Ana- 
heim. In 1883 when the Southern California Conference 
organized a German District, the record shows that the 
presiding elder, G. A. Bollinger, also served as pastor of 
the Anaheim and Pasadena charge. The denomination 
maintained a German language church, known as Broad- 
way, in Anaheim until 1942. 

English-speaking circuit riders visited Anaheim in 1875, 
and the Anaheim-Artesia Circuit was formed in 1878. 
Ten years later a church costing $1,800 was built, and 
the presiding elder of the Los Angeles District reported, 
"Anaheim ... a population of 3,000, which so long 
defied our endeavors to get a foothold, has finally yielded 
to the persistent faith and sacrificing toil of the pastor, 
D. O. Chamberlayne, and we now have a good property 
in the heart of the city." The membership grew slowly, 
seven in 1888 and only 35 in 1900, but by 1920 there 
were 412. During the 1920's there was friction in the 
church over the Ku Klax Klan. The pastor, James A. 
Geissinger, opposed the Klan while the pastor of another 
denomination in the community served as the Klan leader. 
Eventually the anti-Klan sentiment prevailed in the Meth- 
odist congregation, but not without a split which resulted 
in the organization of what is now known as the East 
Anaheim Church. In 1969 The United Methodist Church 
had five churches in Anaheim with 4,255 members, prop- 
erty valued at $1,894,000, and $239,000 raised for all 

purposes during the year. There are two Free Methodist 
churches in the city. 

General Minutes, ME and UMC. Jesse A. Earl 

Albea Godbold 

ANCORAIMES, Bolivia, is a city where the Methodist 
Church has undertaken for some years a general rural 
reconstruction program, especially among the Aymara 
Indians. There is a good church building where a mis- 
sionary of the Division of World Service of the Board 
OF Missions, U.S.A., serves as pastor. The town is in the 
Lake Titicaca District of the Bolivia Provisional Con- 

Aymara Girls' School, in Ancoraimes, is a student home 
for Aymara Indian girls and young women. In 1966 it 
had an enrollment of thirty-five. These students attend 
the Methodist grammar school in Ancoraimes and the 
School of Christian Vocations, with classes in domestic 
science, gardening, and child care. 

The Aymara Indians have an awakened interest in 
education, but girls have received the least opportunities. 
The Girls' School, unique in its area, responds to this need. 
It was organized in 1954 through the efforts of Berta 
Garcia, a Bolivian nurse who represented the Methodist 
Women's Confederation of Latin America. Late in 1956 
it came under the Woman's Division of the Methodist 
Board of Missions, U.S.A. The present buildings, con- 
structed in 1959, provide dormitory rooms, classrooms, a 
chapel, and a dining hall. The director in 1966 was Julia 

Frank S. Beck Medical Center, a Methodist clinic, 
serves an area along the shores of Lake Titicaca populated 
by about 100,000 Aymara Indians. There is no other 
modern medicine nearby. The facilities include a six-bed 
chnic for surgery. X-ray facilities, and laboratory, caring 
for an average of twenty-four patients daily. A weekly 
traveling clinic reaches several nearby towns. 

Through the interest of Frank S. Beck, founder of the 
American Clinic in La Paz, medical attention was of- 
fered from the earliest years of Methodist rural Indian 
work on the Bolivian high plains. Cleto Zambrana, pastor 
and educator, sei-ved as medical practitioner in the area 
in the early years. A number of nurses have served medical 
needs. In 1956 the first resident physician, Pablo Monti 
of Argentina, began work, attending an average of four 
patients a day. He was followed by other doctors from 
Argentina and Bolivia. Graduate nurses from the Meth- 
odist School of Nursing in La Paz have served their year 
of rural service at this center. The latest phase of the 
work has been in public health by missionary nurses. 

The present clinic facilities were inaugurated in Sept., 
1965. A five-ton mobile medical unit takes medical aid 
to the area around Ancoraimes. 

School of Christian Vocations is an institution in An- 
coraimes for youth of the Aymara Indians, offering pre- 
professional training on the secondary level in a three- 
year curriculum adapted to the needs of the primitive 
rural area. Fields emphasized are Bible study, teacher 
training, and trade subjects such as agriculture, car- 
pentry, metal work, typing, tailoring, and weaving. 

The vocational school was organized in 1957, supple- 
menting the existing system of rural elementary schools 
operated by The Methodist Church in the lake area. A 
Bible school was opened by Keidi Hamilton in 1955, and 
the project became a part of the "Land of Decision" 



emphasis for Bolivia in 1956-60. Milton Robinson was in 
this work until 1965, and the present director ( 1966) is 
Carl Williams. 

Enrollment in 1966 was si.\t>'-five boys and fifteen girls. 
Graduating classes number about ten students each year. 
Some graduates have taught in the Methodist schools of 
the area; others have continued studies in government 
normal schools, in Wesley Seminary in Montero, or in 
secondary schools in La Paz. 

This school has responded to the rising interest in 
education among the Aymara Indians following the social 
revolution of 1952. 

Barbara H. Lewis, ed., Methodist Overseas Missions, Gazetteer 
and Statistics. New York: Board of Missions of The Methodist 
Church, 1960. Milton Robinson 

ANDERSON, DAVID LAWRENCE (1850-1911), mission- 
ary educator, was born in Summerhill, S. C, Feb. 4, 
1850. After two years in Washington College (now Wash- 
ington and Lee) and a period on the staff of The Atlanta 
Constitution, he entered the Methodist ministry and was 
soon a PRESIDING ELDER ill the North Georgia Con- 
ference. On Dec. 31, 1879, he married Mary Garland 
Thomson of HuntsviDe, Ala., and they went to China as 
missionaries in 1882, wliere he became presiding elder 
of the Soochow District. 

In 1899 he launched the establishment and develop- 
ment of Soochow University. On furlough in 1900 he col- 
lected $50,000 in New Orleans for the new university, 
a fund that was later raised to $100,000, and in 1901 on 
his return to Soochow the university was formally opened. 

He was several times a delegate to the General Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church, South, the last time in 
1910, when it is reported tliat he made a deep impression 
on the Conference with his presentation of the missionarv 

China Mission Yearbook, 1911. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

North China Herald, Shanghai, for March 24, 1911. 

FnANCis P. Jones 

can temperance and suffrage refonn leader, was born 
April 27, 1861, in Decatur, Ind. Her father, Elam S. 
Preston, was a pioneer minister in the North Indiana 
Conference, M. E. Church. 

She was educated at Fort Wayne College, DePauw 
University, and the University of Minnesota. 

A dynamic and forceful leader, she was moved by what 
she saw in Page, N. D. to form a local chapter of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. That same year 
(1889) she was named assistant organizer and evangelistic 
superintendent of tlie North Dakota W.C.T.U. From 
1893 until she retired in 1933 she held the presidency of 
the state organization. 

The National W.C.T.U. elected her assistant recording 
secretary in 1904. She became recording secretary in 1906 
and held the post for twenty years. i 

She married James Anderson, a minister of the M. E. 
Church, in 1901. 

When the North Dakota state constitution was adopted, 
a prohibition clause was included, due in large measure 
to the efforts of Mrs. Anderson. As president of the North 
Dakota W.C.T.U., she attended all but two sessions of the 

state legislature, and is credited with having initiated 
action on t\\'o dozen or more laws dealing with protection 
of the health, safety, and morals of North Dakota's young- 
er generation. Through the suffrage departments of the 
state and national W.C.T.U., Mrs. Anderson also gave 
vigorous support to legislation extending voting rights to 

In recognition of her public spirited work which re- 
flected gieat credit to the state, a life-size portrait of Mrs. 
Anderson was presented to the state of North Dakota 
and hangs in the state capitol. 

Mrs. Anderson died Nov. 30, 1954 in Fargo, N. D. 

Minutes, North Dakota Conference, 1954. 
Woman's Who's Who of America, 1914-15. 

Harrison Watts 

ANDERSON, FELIX S. (1893- ), a bishop of the 

A. M. E. ZiON Church, was born at Wilmington, N. C, 
Oct. 3, 1893, to Charles and Betty (Foye) Anderson. 
He attended Livingstone College, Salisbury, N. C, 
and Western Theological Seminary, Pittsburgh, Pa. He 
married Bessie B. Bizzell on April 28, 1920 and they had 
six children. 

He was converted Feb. 10, 1910 in Boston, Mass., de- 
cided to enter the ministry, and preached his trial sermon 
in Aug., 1913 at Clinton Chapel Church, Charlotte, N. C. 
He was ordained deacon on Nov. 15, 1915, and elder, 
Nov. 17, 1917. He served the following churches: Rocky 
Creek Circuit; Mainville Circuit (Western North Caro- 
lina Conference, A.M.E. Zion); Cedar Grove; Gilmore 
Chapel; Big Zion, Albemarle, N. C; Mt. Washington 
Church, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Trimble Chapel, Oakdale, Pa.; 
First, Providence, R. I.; Mt. Lebanon, Elizabeth City, 
N. C; Kadesh Church, Edenton, N. C; Hunter Chapel, 
Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Shaw Metropolitan, Atlanta, Ga.; Union 
Chapel, Athens, Ga.; St. Peter Church, Trinity, Southern 
Pines, N. C; Big Zion, Mobile, Ala; Broadway Temple, 
Louisville, Ky. He served three teims in the Kentucky 
legislature (General Assembly). 

Journal of the A.M.E. Zion General Conference, 1960. 

David H. Bradley 

scholar, was born at Arbroath, Scotland, on Jan. 25, 1913. 
He was educated at Arbroath High School, the University 
of St. Andrew's, Wesley House, Cambridge, and the Uni- 
versity of Lund. From 1941-46 he was a chaplain in the 
R.A.F.V.R. He served as assistant tutor at Richmond Col- 
lege, London, from 1939-41, and was tutor of Old Testa- 
ment itydies at Handsworth College, Birmingham, from 
1946-56. From 1956 to 1958 he lectured at St. Andrew's 
University; he was professor of Old Testament studies at 
Durham from 1958 to 1962. In 1962 he became Old 
Testament professor at Edinburgh University. He has 
written A Critical Introduction to the Old Testament 
(1959), and articles in Peake's Commentary on the Bible 
(1962); he translated Mowinckel's He That Cometh 
(1956) and Kapelrud's The Has Shamra Discoveries and 
the Old Testament (1959). He was president of the So- 
ciety for the Study of the Old Testament in 1963, and 
has been secretary of the International Organization for 
the Study of the Old Testament since 1953. 

Peter Stephens 




ANDERSON, HURST ROBINS ( 1904- ). American uni- 

versity president, was horn in Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 16, 
1904, son of Foster C. and Ora Estelle (Rohins) Ander- 
son. He was graduated from Ohio Wesleyan UNivERsiTi', 
A.B., 1926; LL.D., 1949; graduate study in Michigan Law 
School, 1927-28; Northwestern University, M.S., 1934; 
Litt.D. from Simpson College, 19.58, and Ed.D. from 
the University of Chattanooga, 1960. 

He hecame an instructor in Allegheny College in 
1928 in English language and debate, becoming professor 
of speech 1940-43, and registrar in 1940. He was presi- 
dent of Centenary Junior College, 1943-48; president of 
Hamline University, St. Paul, Minn., 1948-52; presi- 
dent of American University, Washington, D. C, 1952- 

He was vice president of the University Senate of The 
Methodist Church; president of the Junior College Coun- 
cil, Middle Atlantic States Association, 1947-48; New 
Jersey Association of Colleges and Universities, 1946-48; 
president National Association of Schools and Colleges 
of The Methodist Church, 1964-65; executive board of 
the World Methodist Council; past president Associa- 
tion of American Colleges; trustee Washington Center 
Metropolitan Studies, Wesley Junior College, Dover, Del.; 
China International Foundation; board of governors Wes- 
ley Theological Seminary, Washington; board of regents, 
American Foundation for Creece; honorary chairman, Sino 
American Cultural Commission; past chairman. Commis- 
sion Inter-American Schools Service; vice chairman, 1960 
White House Conference on Children and Youth; vice 
chairman, Board of Foreign Scholarships; executive com- 
mittee. Continuing Commission of Muslim-Christian Co- 
operation. He is author of Practical Speaking, and of 
many articles in educational publications. Upon retire- 
ment he continued to live in Washington. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. J. Marvin Rast 

ANDERSON, JAMES ARTHUR (1857-1946), American 
minister, church leader and historian, was born at Browns- 
ville, Tenn., on Nov. 13, 1857. He died in Conway, Ark., 
on Sept. 13, 1946. 

He attended Vanderbilt University and was licensed 
to preach in 1877. He was admitted into full connection 
in the Arkansas Conference two years later at the age 
of twenty-two. He retired fifty-five years later at the age 
of seventy-seven, after serving for nineteen years as a 
pastor, nine years as editor of the Arkansas Methodist, 
and twenty-seven years as presiding elder. He became 
a recognized authority on Methodist Church law early in 
his ministry. As a young presiding elder of twenty-five, 
he appealed a ruling of the presiding bishop, which was 
later sustained by the College of Bishops of the M. E. 
Church, South, then having constitutional appellate 

Anderson was one of the founders of Hendbix and 
Galloway Colleges, and was largely instrumental in unit- 
ing the educational interests of Arkansas Methodists in 
one institution of higher education (Hendrix College) 
at Conway, Ark. Both Hendrix College and the University 
of Arkansas recognized, with honorary degrees, his out- 
standing service to church and state in Arkansas. 

Anderson was a member of five General Conferences of 
his Church and two Methodist Ecumenical Conferences 
(1891 and 1931). He was a frequent contributor to a 
vdde variety of publications, including a section on the 

"Churches of Arkansas," in D. Y. Thomas' four volume 
histoiy Arkansas and Her People, and the author of two 
full length books: Religious Unrest and Its Cure; and 
what was undoubtedly the crowning achievement of his 
eventful career. Centennial History of Arkansas Meth- 
odism, published in the year of his retirement from the 
active ministry. 

At the time of his death, his life long friend, O. E. 
Goddard, said of Anderson: "At the age of twenty-five he 
had gained recognition as a conference leader. At seventy- 
five, he was still the dominant spirit in his Conference — 
the only preacher 1 ever knew to maintain leadership for 
more than half a century." 

J. A. Anderson, Arkansas Methodism. 1935. 

Journals of the North Arkansas Conference, M.E. Church, 


Who's Who in America. A. W. Martin 

ANDERSON, KARL EDWIN (1867-1946), was one of "the 
twelve apostles" sent to Southern Asia by the M. E. Board 
OF Missions near the close of the nineteenth century. They 
had responded to an appeal from Bishop James Mills 
Thoburn, whose episcopal area then stretched from the 
Persian Gulf across India, Burma, Malaya, the Dutch 
East Indies, and the Philippine Islands. The same terri- 
tory now has eight Methodist bishops. Bishop Thoburn 
wanted candidates who would accept half or less of the 
regular missionary salaiy and would promise to remain 
unmarried for three years. 

When the bishop's call came, Karl Anderson had com- 
pleted his seminary studies and had served pastorates in 
Iowa. He was engaged to marry Emma J. Wardle, but 
their missionary vocation was so strong that they agreed to 
the bishop's terms. He arrived in India on Dec. 5, 1897. 
Six years later he married Miss Wardle. 

He was born in Greenview, 111., on Jan. 28, 1867, of 
parents who had migrated from Sweden. He served En- 
glish-speaking congregations in Madras and Bangalore. 

At various times Anderson was superintendent of the 
Madras, Bangalore, and Kolar Districts. His most notable 
missionary service was given in Bangalore Richmond 
Town Church, connected with the Baldwin High Schools, 
and in tlie Bidar disbict, where he pioneered in develop- 
ing district jatras, or camp meetings. 

During the third term of their service, Anderson was 
plagued by recurring illness, and decided to settle in 
Glendale, Cahf. Anderson died in Glendale, on Sept. 5, 
1946, and Mrs. Anderson, April 23, 1963. 

A son, Richmond Karl Anderson, is a medical adminis- 
trator and research director who has sei-ved with the 
Rockefeller Foundation, spending eight years in India 
with public-health training and with improving medical 

A daughter, Dorothea (Mrs. Bernard Kemper) served 
a short term as an educational missionary in Southern 
India, and later tauglit religious education in the San 
Francisco Theological Seminary and in the public schools 
in California. 

B. T. Badley, Southern Asia. 1931. 

J. N. Hollister, Southern Asia. 1956. J. Waskom Pickett 

ANDERSON, SIDNEY RAYMOND ( 1889- ) , evanglistic 
missionary and leader in the East China Conference, 
was born in Rising Star, Tex., on Dec. 7, 1889. He was 



graduated from Vandebbilt University Divinity School 
in 1914, and went to China that same year as a mission- 
ary of the M. E. Church, South. In 1920 he was married 
to Olive Lipscomb, of Mississippi. 

Their term of service comprised 49 years, mostly in 
Shanghai, where they developed the Moore Memorial 
Church into one of that city's leading institutions, with 
one to two thousand persons involved daily. 

As a Conference leader, Anderson helped organize and 
develop the adult education program and young people's 

After 1951 the Andersons spent twelve years in Hong 
Kong, caring for the refugees from the ten mainland 
Methodist conferences, opening schools and clinics, and 
working in a program of personal counseling. 

They retired in 1963 to live among the Chinese in 
San Francisco, and later moved to Wesley Woods, Atlanta, 

Francis P. Jones 

Stonew.\ll Anderson 

ANDERSON, STONEWALL (1864-1928), American clergy- 
man and educator, was born March 7, 1864 in Helena, 
Ark. He was the son of Rufus Doak and Martha Elizabeth 
Peyton Anderson. 

He entered Helena District High School at Wheatley, 
Ark. in 1884. In 1886 he was licensed to preach at the 
Methodist Church in Wheatley, and joined the White 
RrvER Conference in 1886 and served the Spring Creek 

In 1887 he entered Hendrix College, Conway, Ark. 
Shortly before he was to graduate he accepted the pas- 
torate of a Fayetteville, Ark. church. He joined the 
Arkansas Conference (MES) in 1891 and was reap- 
pointed to the Fayetteville church. The Conference ap- 
pointed him to Central Church, Fort Smith, Ark. in 1892. 

While serving as presiding elder of the Fort Smith 
District, a post he had been named to in 1898, he com- 
pleted his interrupted college work at Hendrix College 
by correspondence. He received his B.A. in 1900, only 
two years before being installed as president of Hendrix 
College. He served the college for eight highly progressive 
years, which saw major improvements in the college's 
standards, facilities, and finances. The college presented 
him with a D.D. degree in 1907. 

In July 1910 he was named Ceneral Secretary of the 
Board of Education of the M. E. Church, South. He 
undertook a program of standardization of all the schools 
and colleges belonging to the church, the raising of edu- 
cational requirements for entry into annual conferences, 
development of a department to encourage young people 
to enter the church and to provide for their haining, and 
support for church-affiliated schools and colleges. 

Anderson was a member of six General Conferences 
(1902, 1910. 1914, 1918, 1922, 1926). He died June 
8, 1928 at his home in Hillsboro Court, Nashville, Tenn. 

Arkansas Methodist, June 14, 1928. 

Journal, Little Rock Conference, 1928. 

Unpublished material in archives of Hendrix College and 

General Board of Education, Nashville, Tenn. 

Kenneth L. Spore 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM FRANKLIN (1860-1944), American 
bishop, was born at Morgantown, Va. (now W. Va.), on 
April 22, 1860. He earned degrees at Ohio Wesleyan 
University, Drew Theological Seminary, and New 
York University. Six colleges and universities honored 
him with doctorates, in recognition of his outstanding 
achievements as a church and educational leader. 

Bishop Anderson was ordained in 1887 and appointed 
to Mott Avenue Church, New York City. He also served 
churches in Kingston and Ossining, N. Y. He became 
closely associated with the church's educational work in 
1898, when he was made recording secretary of the Board 
OF Education in the M. E. Church. In 1904 he was 
named corresponding secretary. 

He was elected bishop in 1908 and assigned to the 
Chattanooga, Tenn. Area. He also served the Cincin- 
nati and Boston areas. While assigned to Boston he was 
acting president of Boston University, 1925-26. 

In 1914 he visited missions in North Africa and for 
four years supervised Methodist work in Italy, France, 
Finland, Norway, North Africa, and Russia. He made 
numerous trips abroad during World War I, and in 1922 
the French government decorated him as Chevaher of the 
Legion of Honor. 

His administrative abilities led to his election as presi- 
dent of the Board of Education of the M. E. Church. He 
served from 1920 to 1932. For the next two years he 
was professor of the history of religion at Carleton Col- 
lege, Northfield, Minn. 

Elected to the joint Commission to revise The Methodist 
Hymnal in 1930, Bishop Anderson served with Bishop 
Warren A. Candler of Atlanta as joint chairman of 
the commission. 

During his retirement years Bishop Anderson made 
his winter home in Winter Park, Fla., and he taught in the 
Bible department of Florida Southern College, 1937- 

He was the author of two books. Compulsion of Love 
(1904) and Hammer and Sparks (1943), numerous 



magazine articles, and was editor of The Cliallengc of 
Today (1915). 

He died on July 22, 1944, and was buried in the 
Kensico, N. Y. cemetery. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Who Was Who in America, 1934-1950. Elmeu T. Clark 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM KETCHAM (1888-1947), American 
preacher, was born in New York, April 27, 1888, the 
son of William Franklin and Lula Ketcham Anderson. 
He graduated from VVesleyan Uni\ersity with an A.B. 
in 1910, from Columbia with an M.A. in 1913, and from 
Union Theological Seminary with a B.D. in 1914. Wes- 
leyan awarded him the D.D. degree in 1930. 

He sersed pastorates in Ohio and Pennsylvania. In 
1918-19, while secretary of the Inter-Church World Move- 
ment in Ohio, he was the leading organizer of the Ohio 
Council of Churches. 

In 1940 Anderson was elected the first executive secre- 
tary of the General Conference Commission on the 
Courses of Study of The Methodist Church. From 
this office he supervised fifty pastors' schools, which were 
in-service training agencies for Methodist ministers 
throughout the U.S.A. He also organized the Washington 
Seminar, the Conference on Ministerial Education at Gar- 
rett Biblical Institute, and a similar conference at 
Gammon Theological Seminary. These were graduate 
in-service agencies for ministers. He was responsible for 
many forward looking moves in ministerial training, and 
held the position of executive secretary until his death 
Feb. 7, 1947. 

He was a delegate to the Uniting Conference in 19.39, 
and to the General Conferences of 1940-44. He edited 
the annual Evanston Conference Series of Lectures on 
the Ministry in 1942 and 1943, and the symposium on 
Protestantism in 1944. He also edited Making the Gospel 
Effective, 1945, and the Christian World Mission, 1946. 
Samples of hLs poetic and musical compositions are to be 
found in the 1939 edition of The Methodist Hymnal. 

In 1914 he married Fanny Spencer, the daughter of 
missionaries in Japan. All three of their daughters have 
served as missionaries and the son, William F. Anderson, 
has served as director of the Interdenominational School 
of Theology, and in other mission enterprises, in Portu- 
guese East Africa. 

C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

Minutes, Commission on Ministerial Training of The Methodist 

Church. Nashville Office, Board of Education. 

Minutes, Pittsburgh Annual Conference, 1947. 

J. Richard Spann 

ANDERSON, INDIANA, U.S.A., First Church. Methodism 
came to Anderson in 1826. In 1839 a tract was donated 
for a church and cemetery, and for several years the 
congregation worshiped in an uncompleted frame building 
with a dirt floor and pews made of split logs set on pegs. 
In 1850 a frame church 36 by 50 feet was erected on 
another lot, and in 1871 a brick edifice 50 by 80 feet 
with a seating capacity of 500 was built. A fourth struc- 
ture of stone was erected in 1900. As other Methodist 
churches were organized in Anderson, the mother congre- 
gation was called Meridian Street Church, but in 1900 
it took the name of First Church. At that time it had 625 
members, and three other Methodist churches in the city 
had a total of 566. W. H. Bransford was pastor of First 

Church, 1931-59. It had 1,650 members when he began 
and 3,502 at the end of his pastorate, most of the growth 
coming after World War II. In 19.50 an education build- 
ing was erected, the only part of the church plant left 
standing after a disastrous fire in 1960. Plans for rebuild- 
ing were projected, and in 1965 First Church's fifth 
sanctuary was dedicated. In 1969 the church reported 
3,073 members, property valued at $2,491,900, and .$295,- 
628 raised for all purposes. In the same year Anderson 
had eight other Methodist churches with a total of 2,803 

General Minutes, ME and TMC. 

Souvenir Anniversanj Booklet of First Church, 1951. 

Jesse A. Earl 

ANDREASSEN, HARRY PETER (1922- ), Methodist 
bishop, was bom in Trondheim, Norway, on Dec. 4, 
1922, the .son of Arne and Margot Andreassen. He re- 
ceived the B.D. degree from the Methodist Union Semi- 
nary, Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1949; and the M.C.E. 
from Emory University in 1957; and the Th.D. from 
Burton College and Seminary in 1961. On Oct. 29, 1949, 
he married Lilly Waag (a graduate nurse), and they have 
four children: Alf Magne, Solvi, Marit and Harrv Peter, 

Harry Andreassen served as evangelist of the Methodist 
Church in Northern Norway, 1942-44; pastor's helper, 
Stavanger Methodist Church, 1944-45; student pastor, 
1945-49; pastor Sandnes Methodist Church, 1949-50. He 
was ordained in 1949 and took his first church at Sigerf- 
jord, Norway. After a year of study in Lisbon in 1950, he 
was appointed missionary for Angola, Portuguese West 
Africa, 1952, and became district superintendent, con- 
ference evangelist, statistician in 19.52; inspector of mis- 
sion work, Malange Region, 1957-64; and was elected 
bishop of The Methodist Church on Aug. 31, 1964, at the 
Africa Central Conference, where he heads the Meth- 
odist work in Angola. Present headquarters are at Luanda, 
Angola, Portuguese West Africa. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

ANDREW, JAMES OSGOOD (1794-1871), American 
bishop, was bom in Wilkes Co., Ga., on May 3, 1794. He 
was the son of John Andrew, the first native Georgian to 
enter the Methodist ministry. 

James Andrew joined the South Carolina Con- 
ference on trial in Dec, 1812, when the conference in- 
cluded much of Georgia and North Carolina as well 
as South Carolina. He was sent to the Saltcatcher 
(Saltkehatchee) circuit in the lower part of the state. 
Following this appointment he served in succession the 
Bladen and Warren circuits which were mainly in North 
Carolina; Charleston, S. C; Wilmington, N. C; Colum- 
bia, S. C; and Augusta and Savannah in Georgia. 

He was a delegate to the General Conference at 
Baltimore in 1820, and four years later he became 
PREsroiNG elder of the Edisto District, which covered all 
of lower South Carolina and Georgia. He was a delegate 
to the General Conference again at Baltimore. He was 
retumed to Charleston in 1827 and the following year was 
delegate to the General Conference at Pittsburgh. His 
appointments were then Greensboro and Athens, Mad- 
ison, and Augusta, all in Georgia, and in 1832 he was the 
leader of his delegation to the General Conference at 


James O. Andrew 

Philadelphia, where he was elected bishop. His episcopal 
assignments included most of the conferences in the South 
and as far west as Ohio, Kentucky, and Missouri. He 
lived in Augusta, Ga. 

In 1838 he became president of the board of trustees 
of a Manual Labor School at Covington, Ga., but this 
school did not meet the needs of the conference and 
Emory College was founded at Oxford, only a few miles 
from Covington. He moved his family to this new town. 

Bishop Andrew was married three times — to Ann 
Amelia McFarlane in 1816, to Mrs. Leonora Greenwood 
in 1844, and to Mrs. Emily Sims Childers after tlie death 
of his second wife in 1854. 

His first wife owned a Negro girl, and the slave be- 
came the property of the bishop on her death. The laws 
of Georgia did not permit owners to free their slaves, 
but Bishop Andrew declared that the girl was at liberty 
to leave the state at any time when provision could be 
made for her maintenance elsewhere. But he became more 
seriously involved with slavery because his second wife 
owned slaves inherited from her first husband. Immedi- 
ately on his marriage, the bishop executed legal papers 
renouncing all ownership of the slaves and securing them 
to his wife. The law of the church disapproved of slave- 
holding in states which legally permitted their freedom, 
which was not the case in Georgia. 

The abolition sentiment was strong in the General Con- 
ference of 1844 and the Northern delegates were in the 
majority. The case of Bishop Andrew led to a lengthy 
debate. He offered to resign his episcopal office but this 
the Southern delegates would not permit. Agreeing with 
their Northern brethren that slavery was a moral evil, 
they contended that any surrender to Northern abolition 
sentiment would be disastrous to the church in the South 
where slavery was an established institution and where 
laymen and ministers of all denominations were slave- 

After several days of debate the Northern delegates, 
by a vote of 110 to 68, secured the adoption of a resolu- 
tion asking, but not demanding, that Bishop Andrew cease 
from exercising the functions of the episcopacy so long 
as his connection with slavery remained. At the same time 
it was decided that his name should stand in the minutes, 
hymn book and Discipline as usual and that his support 
as a bishop should continue. The conference declared 


that its action "was neitlier judicial nor punitive. It neither 
achieves nor intends a deposition, nor so much as a legal 
suspension. Bishop Andrew is still a bishop; and should 
he, against the expressed sense of the General Conference, 
proceed in the discharge of his functions, his official 
acts would be valid." However, when the episcopal as- 
signments were published his name did not appear. 

On the passage of the original resolution the Southern 
delegates presented a long document of "protest." It was 
pointed out that Andrew had violated no law or rule of 
the church, that he had not been charged or brought to 
trial for any offense, and that the Northern delegates, by 
mere force of numbers, had substituted expediency for 
law. Thus a precedent had been established, which sub- 
jected "any Bishop at any time to the will and caprice of 
a majority of the General Conference, not only without 
law, but in defiance of the restraints of and provisions of 
the law." If a bishop could be deposed for one thing he 
might also be deposed for any other thing, and if a bishop 
could be so treated so might any other minister or even 
lay member. The General Conference thus asserted its 
supremacy and placed itself above the law and the 

In this situation the General Conference adopted the 
historic Plan of Separation, which provided for two 
branches of the church, each with its own General Con- 
ference. The Southern conferences decided to unite in a 
separate connection. 

Bishop Andrew continued his episcopal work in the 
Southern Church. Five times he visited Texas and pre- 
sided over conferences there. He died in New Orleans 
on March 2, 1871. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

A. H. Redford, Organization of MES. 1871. 

G. G. Smitli, James Osgood Andrew. 1882. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 

J. J. Tigert, Constitutional History. 1894. Elmer T. Clark 

ANDREW COLLEGE, Cuthbert, Ga., was chartered by 
the Georgia Legislature in 18.54 as a senior college for 
women, making it one of the oldest institutions of its kind 
in the United States. The college was named for Bishop 
James Osgood Andrew, who in 1856 dedicated the school 
to the "service of God." 

During the Civil War, schoolwork was suspended for 
three years, and the buildings were used by the Confed- 
erate government as a hospital. In 1866 the school re- 
opened and included in its curriculum a course in physical 
education, the first such course to be required of women 
in the South. The school was reorganized as a junior col- 
lege in 1917 and became coeducational in 1956. 

The governing board has thirty-six members, plus three 
ex officio; it is self-perpetuating; the majority must be 
Methodist ministers. 

John O. Gross 

ANDREWS, CHARLES GREEN (1830-1900), American 
minister and educator, was born in Madison County, 
Miss. His parents were wealthy and socially prominent 
in the area. 

He was a graduate of Centenary College in La., 
where he received his B.A. degree in 1850. Twenty-one 
years later he was to return to his alma mater to begin a 
long and distinguished term as the president of die col- 



Andrews first entered the Mississippi Animal Con- 
ference (MES) on trial in Dec., 1858, at Woodville, 

In Nov., 1865, Andrews was elected secretary of the 
Mississippi Annual Conference, a post he held for 34 
years. In 1880 he was chosen as president of the con- 
ference in the absence of the bishop. He was a member 
of every General Conference from 1870 until his death. 

As a delegate to the first Methodist Ecumenical Con- 
ference at City Road Chapel, London, in 1881, he 
delivered an address on education. He also attended the 
Ecumenical Conference of 1891 in Washington, D. C. 

Always interested in the church's program of higher 
education, Andrews was instrumental in the establishment 
of MiLLSAPS College, Jackson, Miss, and helped to guide 
its early progress as a member of its Board of Trustees. 

One of those baptized and received into the church by 
Andrews was the distinguished Charles Betts Gallo- 
way who was later elected to the episcopacy. 

Andrews died Jan. 7, 1900, and was buried in Rose 
Hill Cemetery, Meridian, Miss. 

J. B. Cain, Mississippi Conference. 19.39. 

J. G. Jones, Mississippi Conference. 1887, 1908. 

J. A. Lindsay, Mississippi Conference. 1964. 

Minutes, Mississippi Conference, 1900. J. A. Lindsey 

Edward G. Andrews 

ANDREWS, EDWARD GAYER (1825-1907), American 
bishop, was bom in New Hartford, N. Y., Aug. 7, 1825. 
He joined the church when he was ten years old. He at- 
tended Cazenovia Seminary and received his college edu- 
cation at Wesley'an University, Middletown, Conn., 
where he graduated in 1847. He later received honorary 
degrees from Genesee College, Allegeny College, and 
Wesleyan University. 

He joined the Oneida Conference in 1848, and was 
later ordained by Bishops Janes and Scott. After serving 
pastorates for six years his voice failed, and in 1854 he 
became a teacher at Cazenovia Seminary. He left briefly 
to become president of Mansfield Female College in 
Ohio, but returned to Cazenovia as principal, remaining 

until 1864 when he was, again able to return to the pas- 

He became pastor at Stamford, Conn, and later served 
several New York City' churches. His election as bishop 
came in 1872. He was assigned to Des Moines, Iowa. 

In 1876 Andrews was asked by the Board of Missions 
and die bishops to go to Europe and India to organize or 
reorganize Methodist work there. On this assignment he 
formed annual conferences in south India, Sweden, and 
Norway. He also visited Germany, Switzerland, and 

On his return in 1880 he was assigned to episcopal 
supervision in Washington. For the last six years of his 
active service — 1898 to 1904 — he was in New York, 
where he retired. In 1901 Bishop Andrews was a delegate 
and a presiding officer at the Third Ecumenical Meth- 
odist Conference in Washington. 

In 1907, three years after he retired. Bishop Andrews 
crossed the continent to attend a meeting of bishops at 
Spokane, Wash. He was then 82 years old, and the trip 
overtaxed his strength. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Dec. 31, 1907, shortly after returning from the Spokane 
meeting. He was buried in Oakwood Cemetery, Syracuse, 
N. Y., near the grave of his brother, Charles, who was 
Chief Justice of the New York Court of Appeals. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

Journal, General Conference, M. E. Church, 1908. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Francis J. McConnell, Edward Gayer Andrews. New York: 

Eaton & Mains, 1909. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 
Who Was Wlw in America, 1897-1942. Elmer T. Clark 

ANDREWS, ERNEST HERBERT (1873-1961), New Zea- 
land layTnan, was born in Nelson of a pioneering family. 
He was graduated from Christchurch Teachers' College 
and from Canterbury University College, and from 1890 
imtil 1907 he taught in various parts of the country. The 
following year he entered business. In 1919 he was 
elected to the Christchurch City Council, served on nu- 
merous public bodies, and from 1941 until 1950 was 
mayor of Christchurch. 

He was a member of the board of hustees of St. Albans 
Methodist Church, a member of the Connectional Secre- 
taryship Committee, and chairman of the Methodist Times 
Committee. For outstanding public service he was made 
a Commander of the British Empire in 1946, and was 
knighted in 1950. Wesley A. Chambers 

ANDREWS, ROBERT F. (1927- ), an ordained elder 

of the Wabash Conference of the Free Methodist Church, 
U.S.A., attended Central College, 1944-46; Greenville 
College, A.B., 1949; and Asbury Theological Semi- 
nary, B.D., 1952. He was pastor at Caldwell, Kan., 
1952-55; Northern Regional Director, Free Methodist 
Youth (FMY), 1955-60; president, Wessington Springs 
College, South Dakota, 1960-65; director-speaker. Light 
and Life Hour, 1965-67; speaker. Light and Life Hour, 
Director Light and Life Men International, 1967-71; 
speaker. Light and Life Hour — general director of Evan- 
gelistic Outreach, 1971. He has been a contributing editor 
to Youth in Action; editor. Transmitter and Trust; writer, 
Arnold's Commentary, The Free Methodist, Light and 
Life, Current. His overseas travels in Youth Crusades and 
radio surveys include the Dominican Republic, Nether- 
lands, Antilles, Europe, Israel, India, Philippines, Taiwan, 
Hong Kong, Japan, and Alaska. 



He married Genevieve Arlene Hendricks on June 25, 
1949, and their children are Robert F., Mary L., Melva 
A., and Vondria B. He resides in Winona Lake, Indiana. 

Byron S. Lamson 

ANDREWS, ROBERT MACON (1870-1947), American 
minister and educator, was born in Orange Co., N. C, 
Aug. 18, 1870. He graduated from Yadkin ville Normal 
School and Yale Divinity School. He was awarded an 
honorary D.D. degree by Adrian College, Adrian, Mich, 
in 1919. 

Admitted on trial by the Methodist Protestant 
Church in 1896, he served the Roanoke, Va. charge for 
two years. 

During the years 1898-1900, Andrews was connected 
with Asheville and Swannanoa Mission under the direction 
of the Board of Missions and Church Extension, M. P. 

For 20 years after 1900, Andrews served many churches 
throughout North Carolina. He was twice elected to 
five-year terms as president of the North Carolina 
Conference of the M. P. Church. In addition, he repre- 
sented his conference at eight General Conferences, 
and was a member of the famed Uniting Conference of 
1939. When High Point College opened in 1924, An- 
drews was chosen its first president. He served in this 
position until 1936, when he became editor of the Meth- 
odist Protestant Herald, which was published in Greens- 
boro, N. C. After ending his work with the Herald in 
1939, he continued to be active in the ministry of The 
Methodist Church until his death March 10, 1947. 

Journal, Western North Carolina Conference, 1947. 

J. C. Madison 

ANGLES, ADOLFO (1929- ), Bolivian minister, was 

born near La Paz. He studied law at the university in 
La Paz, later attending the Facultad Evangehca de Teo- 
logia (Union Theological Seminary) in Buenos Aires, 
Argentina, and Illinois State University in Normal, 111. He 
married Graciela Salomon, a nurse, and they have four 
children. He has worked in The Methodist Church in 
Bolivia since 1958. He was chaplain of American Institute 
(Colegio Evangelico Metodisto) in La Paz, pastor of 
several churches, and a district superintendent, 1962-65. 

Natalie Barber 

ANGOL, Chile, is a community of approximately 20,000 
in the fruit growing region of Mallico Province and the 
center of the Southern District of the Chile Conference. 
It is best known because of the location of El Vergil 
Agricultural Institute three miles to the south of 

N. B. H. 

ANGOLA, named for Ngola, a sixteenth century chief- 
tain, is a Portuguese territory in southwest Africa. Por- 
tugal has occupied Angola for nearly 500 years, the 
oldest area of European settlement in Africa south of 

Methodist missionary work in Angola was established 
in 1884-85. In 1884 the General Conference (ME) 
had elected William Taylor as Missionary Bishop for 
Africa, and he sent William R. Summers and Charles W. 

Gorden to set up headquarters at Luanda. Taylor arrived 
in 1885 with a company of forty, including evangelists, 
agriculturists, artisans, linguists, and printers. He proposed 
to organize a series of "self-supporting stations" similar 
to those he had already instituted elsewhere. From Lu- 
anda some of the party moved up the river Cuanza and 
along an old slaveroad, setting up units, the fifth and final 
being at Malange, 200 miles from Luanda. The Angola 
District was organized with Amos E. Withey as presiding 
elder. Eight thousand acres of land was later acquired at 
Quessua, near Malange, where agricultural, industrial and 
educational work developed. Heli Chatelaine, one of the 
pioneers, discovered the structure of the Kimbundu lan- 
guage, and devising a phonetic system of spelling 
made some extensive Biblical translations. In 1897 Chate- 
laine, with Swiss support, instituted an independent Mis- 
sion Philafricaine in which he worked until his death in 
1908. This byproduct of Methodism is still active. 

The Board of Foreign Missions of the M. E. Church 
took over the work in 1897, following Ta>'lor's retirement 
in 1896. The Congo Mission Conference was organized 
by Bishop J. C. Hartzell, Angola being a District. The 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society sent Miss Cora 
Zentmire in 1899, but she died within two years. 

In 1902 Angola became the West Central Africa Mis- 
sion Conference, the Angola Mission Conference in 1920, 
the Angola Provisional Annual Conference in 1940, and 
the Angola Annual Conference in 1948. 

By the middle of the twentieth century the member- 
ship exceeded 30,000; there were 150 churches, 900 
preaching places and 200 Sunday schools, enrolling over 
20,000. The churches were practically all self-supporting. 
The Emanuel Theological College was organized at Dondi 
in cooperation with the United Church of Christ, U.S.A. 
and the United Church of Canada. Training schools at 
Quessua include elements for evangelistic work, teaching, 
agriculture, industries and nursing. Four district central 
schools hold 1,500 enrollment, and there are numerous 
village units. A press and a 20-bed hospital are at Ques- 
sua. Ten other Protestant missions are at work in Angola, 
the oldest being the Baptist Missionary Society of Great 
Britain, which dates from 1878. The American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions undertook work in 

In 1961 rebellion erupted in northern Angola. The 
result was almost half a million refugees in neighboring 
countries, great loss of life, persecution of the church and 
its leaders, expulsion of missionaries, and considerable 
loss in the growth and vitality of the church. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1949, 1950, 1957. 

Barbara H. Lewis, ed., Methodist Overseas Mission Gazetteer 

and Statistics. New York: Board of Missions, 1960. 

National Geographic, Sept., 1961. A. B. Moss 

ANGOLA ANNUAL CONFERENCE. The present confer- 
ence is organized with the following districts: Luanda, 
Cuanza North, Dembos, Malange North, and Malange 

Luanda, the capital of Angola, is a modern port city 
with a population of 170,000 — about 150,000 of whom 
are Africans and 20,000 Europeans. In Luanda itself 
there are two self-supporting Methodist congregations, 
with a membership of about 2,354 and with African pas- 
tors and staffs. 

Present-day Methodist work in the conference is di- 



vided into two major regions: Luanda and Malange. These 
regions are sul)divided into districts, ImiI since the up- 
rising in 1961 three districts have been closed, though 
new churches have sprung up. Tlie Methodist Churcli in 
the Angola Conference has approximately 38,000 full and 
preparatoiy members, at last reporting, served by 61 
ordained and 68 supply pastors. 

The Conference is attached to the Salisbury Area of 
The United Methodist Church. 

Barbara H. Lewis, ed., Methodist Overseas Missions, Gazetteer 
and Statistics. New York: Board of Missions, 1960. N. B. H. 

ANKER, HARRY P. (1888-1958), an American missionary 
to the Congo, was born on Oct. 13, 1888. He graduated 
from Hope College in Holland, Mich., and from Vandeb- 
BiLT University and did further work at the University 
of Chicago when he was home on furlough. On Oct. 
24, 1914, he married Eva Van Erden and was assigned 
to Africa in 1916, spending 38 years of his life in .ser- 
vice there. He was stationed at Wembo Nyama in the 
Central Congo most of this time, doing a great deal of 
teaching and was the head of the Bible School. For a 
long time he was the bishop's representative and was ac- 
tive on a number of committees. He was known for his 
fairness in dealing with others and also for his unusual 
sense of humor. 

In 1954 he retired for reasons of health and for a time 
resided in Cleai-water, Fla. There he taught for a period 
in Trinity Bible College. On May 27, 1956, he became 
the first pastor of a new church, Skycrest, in Clearwater. 

N. B. H. 

ANKER-VELAG, FRANKFURT. (See Germany, Publish- 
ing Interests.) 

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, U.S.A. First Church, dates 
back to the preaching of John Baughman on the Detioit 
Circuit in Nov., 1825. Baughman organized a society of 
five members July 29, 1827. An early member was Ben- 
jamin Packard, one of the founders of Albion College. 

Ann Arbor was made a station in 1835. A great revival 
broke out in the winter of 1837-38, and 118 people 
joined the church, including Judson Collins, who was a 
graduate in the first class of the University of Michigan 
in 1845, and later served in the first Methodist mission to 
China. A church was begun in 1837, and dedicated in 
the Michigan Conference sessions in 1839. 

In 1866 the present site at the corner of Washington 
and State Streets was acquired. The second church seating 
1,200 people was built and dedicated Aug. 21, 1867; it 
stood until 1940. 

In July 1871 the Women's Foreign Missionary Soci- 
ety of the church was organized with 53 charter members. 
The Women's Home Missionary Society was orga- 
nized Nov. 14, 1883; its organization was delayed by 
relief work for sufferers from forest fires in northern Mich- 
igan. The first mission circle for girls was organized in 
1876. A small Chinese Sunday school was maintained 
for a time. 

Famous ministers who have served here through the 
years include Elijah Pilcher, Henry Colclazer; Seth 
Reed; Benjamin Cocker, who stood for woman's suffrage 
in 1870; Lewis R. Fiske, later president of Albion Col- 
lege, 1877-1897; William Shier; Edward S. Ninde; 
Arthur W. Stalker, who served 25 years, 1905-1930; 

Fred B. Fisher, who resigned from the bishopric in 
India to come back here; Charles W. Brashares, 
Fisher's successor, who after fourteen years as pastor was 
elected bishop; and Hoover Rupert. 

Among the ministers going out from this church have 
been Wellington Collins, Judson Collins, Leander Pilcher, 
Isaac Elwood, James Jacklin, Arthur Stalker, George 
Brown, Charles Allen, NIerton Rice, and Edward Rams- 
dell. At least ninety foreign missionaries have gone out 
from Ann Arbor First, including Gertrude Howe, who 
served 50 years in China; and Thomas Johnson, who 
served 46 years in India; and fifty-five missionaries have 
gone into the home field. 

The Church's location near the central campus of the 
University of Michigan has proved ideal. A Wesley Hall 
for student work was acquired in 1922. The present 
building was erected in 1940, and one wing was added in 
1956. The Wesley Foundation for student work is 
housed in one wing of the church. The property was 
valued at $1,245,098 in 1968; the membership was re- 
ported to be 3,040. 

Detroit Conference Historical Collection. 

E. H. Pilcher, Michigan. 1878. Ronald A. Brunger 

ANNANDALE, VIRGINIA, USA. Annandale Church, 

served as the community "Meeting House" from 1840 
to 1950, until the population explosion in what became 
a Washington, D. C. suburb brought scores of other 
churches. Many of these community churches, including 
the Roman Catholic church of Annandale, were organized 
within the walls of Annandale Methodist. 

In its wide and varied history as community center it 
has served as hospital for the Union Army during the 
Civil War, housed tlie first pubHc school in Annandale, 
sponsored the first Boy Scout troop in the area, and housed 
civic clubs, fraternal orders and many other community 
activities. It was once the rallying point for a protest 
meeting to the state's governor (with the governor pres- 
ent) for better roads. 

From 1946, the 100th anniversary of the church, to 
1967 the church grew in membership from several hun- 
dred to nearly 3,000, keeping pace with the population 
explosion. It still has tliree sanctuaries, tlie first, a "little 
white church" landmark now being shared by the congre- 
gation of a small sect; the second, converted into a youth 
activities center; and the third, the place of worship for 
the congregation who use it for three identical worship 
services each Sunday morning, with tlie largest average 
attendance of any church in the Virginia Conference. 

Officially designated as a central suburban church, 
Annandale Church is ringed by a score of new congrega- 
tions, which it helped organize and establish. It is an 
experimental church, seeking always new approaches to 
meaning and relevancy. Some of the successful probes 
are Yokefellow Groups (psycho-spiritual growth gioups). 
Festival of Refigion in the Arts, Walk-In Counseling, 
Coffee House, and the Annandale Christian Community 
for Action. 

It is regularly the home for other denominations, scout 
groups. Alcoholics Anonymous, Red Cross, American Field 
Service, civic associations, and many other community 

The door to the conference room, a multi-purpose room 
in the recently completed administrative and educational 
wing, is the front door from tlie old Adams House, Bishop 



Asbury's base of operations in the area. Through this 
door Asbury passed many times, and in that house An- 
nandale Chuich had its inception. 

Annandale Methodist Church, pamphlet, n.p., n.d. 
The Fairfax City Times, Aug. 14, 1964, p. 14. 


ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND, U.S.A. Calvary Church. As 

early as 1746 George Whitefield preached in Annapolis. 
Joseph Pilmobe preached there on July 12, 1772. 
Francis Asbury made his first visit on Nov. 25, 1773. 
Subsequently small classes were held in the homes of 
Mrs. Catherine Small and Mrs. Catherine Wheddon. It 
was not until 1785 that a society of Methodism was actual- 
ly founded. 

The first building was erected in 1786 on a site not 
far from the governor's residence. In 1789 the Annapolis 
Methodists moved into a building which was formerly 
an armory. This was located on the grounds within the 
present State Circle at the head of Maryland Ave., and 
was known as "the old blue church." Another site was 
chosen on State Circle in 1817 where another church 
was erected. Ceneral Lafayette visited this church in 
Dec, 1824. This building was replaced by a new struc- 
ture in 1860 and was known as Salem Church. The 
church took the name of Calvary in 1921. 

Frank M. Liggett, ed., Methodist Sesqui-Centennial. Balti- 
more: Waverly Press, 1934, p. 10. 

One Hundred Fiftieth Anniversary of the Founding of Meth- 
odism in Annapolis, Calvary Methodist Episcopal Church, 
State Circle and North Street, 1935. Annapolis: Art Press, 1935. 

Edison M. Amos 

Samuel Annesley 

ANNESLEY, SAMUEL (1620P-1696), English Puritan di- 
vine, a nephew of the Earl of Anglesey, was educated 
at Oxford. His ecclesiastical preferments included a chap- 

laincy to the Puritan admiral, the Earl of Warwick (1644), 
but he was rejected as a nonconformist in 1662, and 
died in London, Dec, 1696. His daughter Susanna 
Wesley was the mother of John and Charles Wesley. 

A. Clarke, Memoirs of the Wesley Family. 1823. 

G. J. Stevenson, Wesley Family. 1876. 

Daniel Williams, Excellency of a Public Spirit. 1697. 

Henry Rack 

ANNESLEY, SUSANNA. (See Wesley, Susanna.) 

ANNISTON, ALABAMA, U.S.A. First Church, is a down- 
town church whose modem colonial style adds gi'ace to 
a city known for its beautiful buildings. Anniston itself 
is a city of approximately 35,000 and a metropolis of 
North Alabama. First Church, with its towering spire 
lighted at night and uplifted cross on the top, is a land- 
mark in the city. The building was completed in 1957 at 
a cost of approximately one million dollars. It is noted 
also for its magnificent Schlicker Organ and a beautifully 
designed stained glass window picturing the birth, cruci- 
fixion, and resurrection of Christ. The building was 
erected during the pastorate of R. Edwin Kimbrough. 

First Church, Anniston is one of the historic churches 
of Alabama Methodism. It has been ser\'ed by distin- 
guished ministers, among them Bishop Hoyt M. Dobbs 
— who was elected to the episcopacy while pastor of this 
church — and W. G. Henry, minister, seminary professor, 
and member of the Judicial Council of The Methodist 
Church. The Anniston Church has been host a number 
of times to sessions of the North Alabama Conference. 

The present membership is 2,200. The church supports 
a medical missionary to Africa and is known for its 
zealous missionary interest. For many years First Church 
has had a Missionary Memorial Fund, whose proceeds 
are used to help educate a student from some foreign 
country who is studying in this countiy, and planning 
to return to his native land for Christian service. 

R. Laurence Dill, Jr. 

ANNUAL ASSEMBLY, British. (See Wesleyan Meth- 
odist Association. ) 

ANNUAL CONFERENCE (The United Methodist Church, 
U.S.A.). This is the basic organization in The United 
Methodist Church and is so declared in the Constitu- 
tion in these words: "There shall be Annual Conferences 
as the fundamental bodies of the Church . . . with such 
powers, duties, and privileges as are hereinafter set forth." 

Annual conferences in American Methodism had their 
beginnings in 1773 when Thomas Rankin, who was sent 
by John Wesley to the new world, convened a company 
of Methodist preachers in Philadelphia. At this time the 
appointments of the preachers were made, and by the 
question and answer process, characteristic of Wesley's 
conferences, the affairs of the societies were regularized. 
In the earliest years as many as three, but more frequently 
two, such conferences were convened annually. 

Follovdng the Christmas Conference of 1784, as the 
response to Methodist preaching gathered momentum and 
the circuit riders moved in ever-widening spheres, it be- 
came too difficult for all preachers of the Methodist soci- 
eties to gather in one place, so it was arranged that they 
should assemble on a geographical basis to report the 



year's activity; each to have his character examined; and 
he stationed for the ensuing year. 

The annual conference with fixed geographical bound- 
aries became firmly established in Methodist polity by 
the General Conference of 1796 when six conferences 
were formed; namely. New England, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, Virginia, South Carolina, and Western; 
the latter being unbounded due to the anticipated ex- 
pansion of Methodism into frontier territory. 

Methodism is a church characterized by many con- 
ferences but the annual conference "is the basic body. . . ." 

It is the organic center of tlie minister's church relation- 
ship. In the beginning only ministers attended the an- 
nual conferences; and from the beginning only those fully 
ordained and meeting certain qualifications were admitted 
to membership. Laymen were in time recognized as being 
important to the annual conference, and today play a vital 
role in its affairs. The minister, however, has a unique 
personal identification with his annual conference. He be- 
longs to the annual conference as a lay person belongs to 
the local church. His name appears on its roll and the 
official record of his ministry is kept in its journal. The 
annual conference respects and responds to his call to the 
ministry, evaluates his qualifications, approves his train- 
ing, and in the end recommends him to the bishop for 

In the annual conference the minister comes to recog- 
nition among his peers. Here he may be elected by them 
as delegate to the General and Jurisdictional Confer- 
ences. Here he may be nominated to important boards 
and committees, and comes to exercise wide influence 
in the church beyond the bounds of his annual appoint- 
ment or conference. 

When a pastor's years of service are completed, he 
asks the annual conference for retirement from the "travel- 
ing ministry," and when it is granted, it is from the annual 
conference that he receives his pension. In retirement, 
the minister continues to enjoy all the rights and privileges 
of the annual conference, and is still eligible for election 
as a delegate to the General and Jurisdictional Con- 

Each year the annual conference passes on every min- 
ister's character, and should one be charged with words 
or actions unbecoming to a minister, it is from among his 
peers that a court is established for his trial. 

A ministerial member may be related to an annual 
conference as a novitiate on trial, as a full connection 
member under appointment, as a supernumerary, on a 
leave, or retired. Each status is granted or denied him 
by appropriate action of the annual conference. 

A ministerial member in good standing in any annual 
conference may be transferred to any other airnual con- 
ference at the request of the presiding bishop of the con- 
ference into which he is going, and with the permission 
of the presiding bishop of the conference to which he 
belongs, provided the member himself gives consent to the 
transfer. It is possible for a minister to serve in a special 
appointment beyond the bounds of his own annual con- 
ference — as a connectional editor for instance — but no 
minister in effective relationship may be appointed to a 
charge (pastorate) in a conference to which he does not 

Lay persons do not "belong" to the annual conference 
in the substantive, binding, and personal sense that char- 
acterizes the membership of the clerical members. Lay 
members are elected from each pastoral charge. They 


must be at least 21 years of age and must have been 
members of The United Methodist Church for at 
two years, and of the local church they represent for at 
least one year. The president of the Conference Women's 
Society of Chri.stian Service, and the conference lay 
leader are also to be members of the annual conference. 
Lay members are chosen by the Charge Conference. 
Recent General Conferences have changed the above 
regulations somewhat.) 

Through the years an element of basic equality has 
been evident in annual conference membership since 
charges large or small have been represented alike by one 
minister and one lay member each. The balance swung 
in favor of the ministers when large churches had more 
than one conference member appointed to serve them. 
This has now been corrected by providing that a charge 
having more than one ministerial member may have an 
equal number of lay members. General and Jurisdictional 
Conference delegations are also equally divided between 
the laity and the clergy. 

Lay members participate in all matters of annual con- 
ference business except those pertaining to ministerial 
relations. These are acted upon by ministers only. With 
the exception of the Board of the Ministry, and the Com- 
mittee on Conference Relations, there is lay representa- 
tion on all boards, commissions and committees, and in 
many instances laymen chair these bodies. On several 
annual conference boards the Discipline specifies the num- 
ber of lay persons to be included in the membership, and 
in the case of die Commission on World Service and 
Finance, it is ordered that the laymen shall be a majority. 
Through the hands of this commission pass all financial 
matters pertaining to the business of the conference; hence 
it is a most important commission. 

A further illustration of the basic character of the an- 
nual conference is noted in the fact that amendments 
to the Constitution of The United Methodist Church and 
changes in the Discipline may originate in the annual 
conference. Moreover, an amendment to the Constitution 
having received a two-thirds majority of General Con- 
ference members present and voting, then returns to the 
annual conferences where it must receive a two-thirds 
majority of all members of the several annual conferences 
present and voting in order to be approved. Favorable 
action in the annual conferences is determinative for all 
constitutional changes within the church. 

The annual conference is an important factor in epis- 
copal administration. A bishop presides over the annual 
conference, and though the conference selects the place 
for holding the session, the bishop sets the time. Should 
no bishop be present, tlie conference by ballot, without 
nomination or debate, elects a presiding officer from 
among the traveling elders, who during the session dis- 
charges all duties of a bishop except ordination. The 
bishop is related intimately to the annual conference 
through his appointive powers, and his concern for the 
well-being of the pastors, the welfare of all charges in the 
conference, and the outreach and witness of the church. 

The annual conference sets the number of districts, 
thereby determining the number of district superinten- 
dents. The bishop appoints the superintendents, but the 
annual conference by setting the salaries, allowances, and 
administrative apportionments for the office, determines 
to a significant degree the quality of the men who may 
be appointed. 

The annual conference chooses its own staff. The secre- 



tary, treasurer, statistician and such other personnel, paid 
and unpaid, are elected by the Conference, and, as in 
the case of the district superintendent, in most conferences 
the annual conference, or a board authorized by it, sets 
the salary, allowances, and office expenses of this admin- 
istrative personnel. 

All apportionments to local churches, with the excep- 
tion of the Episcopal and General Administration funds, 
are determined by the annual conference. The total "ask- 
ings" are established here and also the bases for appor- 
tionment to the various churches. All requests for funds 
to meet administrative costs, or to support institutions or 
programs sponsored by or related to the church, must be 
reviewed by the conference Commission on World Ser- 
vice and Finance. Its recommendation then goes to the 
annual conference for final decision. 

Further insight into the significance of the annual con- 
ference may be noted in its relation to other United 
Methodist institutions and structures. Though the hope 
for a Methodist institution or agency may arise out of 
the concern of an informed group, it usually crystallizes 
into substance only when the annual conference becomes 
the mothering agency. The general boards of The United 
Methodist Church are creatures of the General Confer- 
ence; yet their effectiveness and influence depend almost 
entirely upon the armual conferences through which they 
must work. 

It is clear that the annual conference deals with signifi- 
cant aspects of the witness and mission of The United 
Methodist Church. It is the keystone in United Meth- 
odism's connectional structure. It is the gathered assembly 
of the churches within geographical regions. In it the 
separated units find oneness. It is the base from which 
the churches resolve common problems, express similar 
concerns, and interdependently proclaim the gospel. 

The annual conference in session has many facets. At 
times it appears to be a political forum. Within the frame- 
work set for it by the General Conference, the annual 
conference makes its own rules, and the decisions of the 
bishop as presiding officer are always open to appeal. 
Debate on the conference floor is frequently impassioned 
and sometimes so virulent that an outsider might conclude 
that opposing personalities are irreconcilable enemies; 
yet when the final vote is taken and the majority con- 
firmed, the lines re-form and the next problem is con- 
fronted without reference to personal differences on the 
preceding matter. Asbury's Journal for May 1, 1787 re- 
flects the nature of an annual conference at this point 
when he says, "We had some warm and close debate but 
all ended in love and peace." 

The annual conference sometimes resembles the meet- 
ings of stockholders of an industrial corporation. Close 
attention is given to money matters, receipts, apportion- 
ments, indebtedness, pensions, minimum salaries, parson- 
age and car allowances, and of late years health and hos- 
pital benefits for ministers and lay employees of the 
churches and the conference. None of these financial mat- 
ters is dealt with casually. It is almost a tradition with the 
annual conference that no more dollars are budgeted for 
the year to come than have been received in the year 
just closed. Thus an annual conference must give major 
attention to financial minutiae. 

An annual conference also can be likened to a spir- 
itual rally. There is always much singing and prayer. The 
session invariably opens with the observance of the Sacra- 

ment of Holy Communion, and devotional addresses be- 
gin or close each day. Several times during tlie session a 
visiting bishops, noted preacher, college president or semi- 
nary dean appears as "conference preacher" or "lecturer," 
and without fail the message carries a note of inspiration 
as well as admonition and guidance for pastors and lay- 
men alike. 

Annual conference is a great time for book buying and 
the distribution of the printed literature of the church. 
Many an informal discussion is held in the book display 
room where the gossip runs high on how the voting 
will go, what will happen to the proposals before the 
conference, and who will be appointed where for the 
coming year. 

Historically, the annual conference session was the one 
occasion throughout the year when the pastors saw one 
another and had the opportunity of sharing their concerns 
and hopes for a creative and faithful ministry. Today, 
pastors and lay members see each other far more fre- 
quently, but the annual conference is still the main occa- 
sion when all of them are together with the interests of the 
church as the center of their concern. The spiritual 
and religious significance of these conference meetings 
remains an important factor in the on-going life of the 

Though the annual conference is basic to the church's 
polity, it is so structured that it can respond creatively to 
a changing world. Annual conference procedures have 
changed many times through the years. Geographical 
boundaries which in early years followed pioneer trails, 
waterways and mountain ranges, in recent years have 
tended to conform to state lines. The size of the annual 
conference has also been subject to change. In early days 
it was geographically large. Then as the membership of 
the church increased and territories became more heavily 
populated, large conferences were divided. In recent years 
the pattern has been reversed with the conferences of 
some episcopal areas merging to make the area and con- 
ference boundaries coterminous. 

In the years immediately preceding 1784, annual con- 
ferences frequently met in two sessions, "a preliminary 
meeting in which business was submitted to a regional 
group, and a final meeting in which the business was 
finished." Of recent date some annual conferences are 
experimenting with an adjourned session held during the 
year when matters which cannot be dealt with in a brief 
annual conference session can be explored at some depth. 

The annual conference is a continuing entity, and more 
and more it tends to look ahead and project plans for ex- 
tending and strengthening the mission of the church. It 
is possible that long range planning will become increas- 
ingly the chief business of the annual conference as other 
conferences within United Methodist structure deal with 
current issues confronting the church. 

The annual conference has a basic place in United 
Methodist history and structure, and in generations to 
come it promises to continue to be the springboard of a 
triumphant and expanding church. 

Discipline, TMC, UMC. 

W. Ralph Ward, "The Annual Conference — for Methodists the 
Traditional Form and Foundation for a Triumphant Church." 
Unpublished. W. Ralph Ward, Jr. 

ANNUITANT SOCIETIES. (See Connexional Funds 
Department. ) 



ANTHONY, BASCOM (1859-1944), American preacher, 
was bom July 14, 1859, at Plainville, Ga. His parents were 
[ames D. and Emilv (Baugh) Anthony of Gwinnett Co., 

He was admitted to the South Georgia Conference 
in 1881 and in the years that followed served as pastor 
of many churches in south and southwest Georgia. He 
was appointed presiding elder of the Macon, Dublin, 
Savannah, and Thomasville Districts. After his retirement 
he supplied for a short time at the church in Sandersville, 
Ga., where his father had been pastor when he was a 

His many years of service to the Methodist Church 
were recognized by Emory Uni\ersity in conferring an 
honorary D.D. degree upon him. He represented the 
South Georgia Conference at seven General Confer- 

He was one of the unique and colorful figures of 
C;eorgia Methodism, even in his retirement years. He 
had a very distinctive way of praying that made people 
feel that if they looked up they would see the Lord. 
Anthony stressed the humility of Christians in his prac- 
tice of addressing the Lord as "Master." 

Bascom Anthony devoted his entire ministry to Georgia 
Methodism. Even after his strength failed, making it 
difficult for him to stand for the sermon, he continued to 
preach, the stewards placing for him a chair in the pulpit. 

During his long retirement he became a contributing 
editor of the Wesletjai} Christian Advocate, The Macon 
Telegraph, and The Savannah Morning News, where his 
work became popular. His book. Fifty Years in the Min- 
istry, was pubhshed in 1937. A fine, earnest man, noted 
for his frankness, blunt manner of speaking, and familiar- 
ity with a wide range of subjects, he died in Tampa, Fla. 
on Jan. 16, 1944. 

Bascom Anthony, Fifty Years in the Ministry. Macon, Ga.: 

tlie author, 1937. 

Journal, South Georgia Gonference, 1944. 

George E. Clary, Jr. 

ANTHONY, CHARLES VOLNEY (1831-1908), American 
preacher and western pioneer, was born in Portage, Alle- 
gheny Co., N. v., on Feb. 22, 1831. 

When he was seven, his family moved to a farm near 
Fort Wayne, Ind. He hved in Fort Wayne until he left 
to join his brother, Elihu, in Santa Cruz, Calif., in 1851. 
Anthony joined the Methodist church in 1853 in Cali- 
fornia. He returned to Fort Wayne College to prepare 
for the ministry. In 1855 he joined the newly organized 
California Conference. 

Although he had no academic degrees, Charles An- 
thony was an excellent e.\ample of the remarkable pioneer 
preacher-scholar of that day. He read the Bible in Hebrew 
and Greek every day. His favorite book was the Greek 
New Testament. 

While pastor at Vallejo in 1856, he became a close 
friend of Admiral Farragut, then commander of the U. S. 
Navy Yard. In 1882-85 Anthony served as presiding elder 
of the Stockton District. He was a member of the 1872 
and 1892 General Conferences of the M. E. Church, 
and was a member of the General Missionary Committee 
from 1884 to 1888. 

His well-known book. Fifty Years of Methodism in 
California, was written at the request of the Conference 

but was printed at his own expense. Charles Anthony 
died Jan. 14, 1908 in Watsonville, Calif. 

G. V. Anthony, Fifty Years. 1901. 

Leon L. Loofbourow, Cross in the Sunset: The Development 
of Methodism in the California-Nevada Annual Conference of 
The Methodist Church and of Its Predecessors with Roster 
of All Members of the Conference. San Francisco: Historical 
Society, California-Nevada Annual Gonference, The Methodist 
Church, 1961. 

, In Search of God's Gold. 1950. 

Minutes, California Gonference, 1855-1908. 

John W. Winkley 

ANTHONY, JAMES D. (1825-1899), American preacher, 
was born in Abbeville Co., S. C, Oct. 12, 1825. He was 
the son of a minister in the M. E, Church, Whitfield 

In 1835 the Anthony family moved into Cherokee In- 
dian country in what became Cherokee Co., Ala. On 
July 4, 1839, when he was 14 years old, young Anthony 
lost his right eye in the explosion of a powder horn. 

In 1843 the family moved to Vann's Valley, Floyd Co., 
Ga. James Anthony was converted at a camp meeting 
held near his home in Oct., 1844. His license to preach 
was granted at Rome, Ga. in Oct., 1846. In December of 
that year he was admitted to the Georgia Conference 

He worked tirelessly in the cause of Methodism in 
Georgia and Alabama, and soon became a much loved 
and respected figure. He served a number of appointments 
in the Georgia, Mobile, and South Georgia Conferences. 
As a young preacher in Sandersville, Ga., where his son, 
Bascom Anthony, later served as a supply pastor, James 
Anthony had a memorable encounter with General Wil- 
liam Tecumseh Sherman, as the Union Army arrived on 
its march to the sea during the War between the States. 
As a result of Anthony's plea, first in the name of Christ 
and then in the name of the Masonic order, the new 
Methodist church and the Masonic Temple were spared 
from destruction. 

Anthony's autobiography, recounting his years as a min- 
ister, was published in 1896. The "bishop of the wire- 
grass," as he was fondly called in south Georgia, died 
Jan. 26, 1899 in Savannah, and was buried in Sanders- 
ville, Ga. 

James D. Anthony, Life and Times of Rev. }. D. Anthony, 
an Autobiography with a Few Original Sermons. Atlanta: 
the author, 1896. 

George Esmond Glary, Jr., Our Methodist Heritage in South 
Georgia: Collected Papers of the South Georgia Methodist 
Historical Society, 1956-1960. Savannah, Ga.: South Georgia 
Methodist Historical Society, 1960. 
Journal, South Georgia Gonference, 1899. 

George E. Glary, Jr. 

ANTIGUA is a self-governing associated state within the 
British Commonwealth. It is one of the Leeward Islands 
of the Eastern Caribbean. Antigua has an area of 108 
square miles and its dependency, Barbuda, 62 square 
miles. The population is 61,000 (1967 estimate). The 
capital, St. Johns, has an excellent harbor, as does Fal- 
mouth on the south coast. 

Visited by Christopher Columbus in 1493, Antigua was 
occupied by neither Spanish nor French, because of the 
scarcity of water. The English established a settlement in 
1632, the Treaty of Breda in 1667 certifying that sover- 



eignty. Because of its position and harbors, Antigua early 
became the base for British naval activity. From 1725, 
"Nelson's Dockyard," inside English Harbor, was the 
Caribbean fleet's home port and major repaii- facility. The 
colony also developed as the focus of British administra- 
tion for the Leeward Islands. 

Antigua was the first of the West Indian islands to re- 
ceive Methodist preaching and to organize a society. 
Nathaniel Gilbert, lawyer and planter of Antigua, was 
converted by John Wesley in 1758, while visiting 
England. Returning to Antigua in 1760, he began preach- 
ing in his own home. His brother Francis, a physician, 
joined in the effort. When Nathaniel died in 1774, the 

Gllbert Memorial Church, Antigua 

society numbered over 200. Soon after that, Francis Gil- 
bert returned to England because of ill health, and the 
society continued under local leadership. With Wesley's 
approval, Francis Gilbert's wife urged Franc;is Asbuby to 
go to Antigua, but he declined. Class meetings and 
prayer meetings were maintained by a Negress and a 
mulatto, Sophia Campbell and Mary Alley. 

In 1778 John Baxter, a shipwright and local preacher, 
went to the naval dockyard at English Harbor, and 
assumed leadership of the Antigua society. Within a year, 
he had gathered 600 slaves into society classes, while 
retaining the good will of the planters. Mrs. Mary Gilbert 
returned to Antigua in 1781, following the death of her 
husband, Francis, and devoted herself to work with tlie 
Negro women. Her means and social position proved of 
much advantage to the mission. In 1783, Baxter built 
the first Methodist church in the West Indies, in Temple 
Street, St. Johns. 

At the historic Christmas Conference at Baltimore, 
Md., Jeremiah Lambert was ordained elder and ap- 
pointed to Antigua, but he developed tuberculosis and 
returned to America. Arrangements were also made for 
Baxter to come to America for ordination. He arrived at 
Baltimore for the conference on June 1, 1785, was or- 
dained as deacon by Thomas Coke that day and as elder 
on June 2, and was appointed to Antigua. For several 
years this appointment appeared in tlie Minutes of the 
American M. E. Church. Returning to Antigua, Baxter 
assumed all the functions of his office and began regular 
visitation to other nearby islands. 

In 1786 the British Methodist Conference appointed 
William Warrener to Antigua. He was ordained by 
John Wesley as the first missionary to be sent out to non- 
English people by the British Methodists. In late 1786, 
Coke, intending to visit Nova Scotia, was blown south 

by storms and landed at Antigua at Christmas. He found 
Baxter and proceeded to visit a number of tlie neighbor- 
ing islands under Baxter's guidance. Coke confirmed the 
work, organizing it into a spreading circuit with Baxter 
at the head. In succeeding years Coke made several visits 
to Antigua, and the Antigua District was constituted in 

Warrener returned to England in 1797, and Baxter 
died in 1807. Other ministers took their place, but a lack 
of adequate leadership caused a decline in the quality of 
church life around 1811-12. By 1820, however, the circuit 
was strong enough to form its own missionary society, 
and in 1823 membership reached a peak of 4,560. The 
Metliodist community at this time represented over one- 
third of the population. All of the island's five Methodist 
ministers were drowned near St. Johns' harbor in 1826. 
Between 1846 and 1866 personal quarrels among church 
leaders divided the Methodist community, economic diffi- 
culties led to emigration, and membership declined by 
nearly a thousand. Under the autocratic chairmanship of 
Thomas M. Chambers (1872-87), controversy continued, 
and against opposition the staff of the circuit was reduced. 
Despite the chairman's and Synod's protests, the district 
was included from 1884 to 1904 in the autonomous West 
Indian Conference. When the area returned to the juris- 
diction of the British Methodist Conference, the district 
was appropriately named the Leeward Islands District. 
The chairman resided in St. Kitts until 1950. 

In May, 1967, when the Methodist Church of the 
Caribbean and the Americas was organized, the orga- 
nizing conference was held in St. Johns, Antigua, and 
Antigua was chosen to become the headquarters of the 
new autonomous conference. The government of Antigua 
granted a site for the conference headquarters. The his- 
torical connection which Antigua had with Britain and 
America from early days was another reason for the choice 
of Antigua as the headquarters of the new church. On the 
eve of entry into die new church in 1966, the Leeward 
Islands District had 85 places of worship, with 35 min- 
isters (including 25 West Indians), 15,479 full members 
and a total community of 58,270. It was responsible for 
thirteen primary schools witli 1,525 pupils, and one sec- 
ondary school with 150 students. 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

W. Box, Memoir of John Gilbert. Liverpool, 1835. 

J. J. Chapman, Antigua and the Antiguans. London, 1844. 

An Extract of Mary Gilbert's Journal. London: Harvie, 1768. 

E. W. Thompson, Natluiniel Gilbert. 1961. 

A. B. Moss AND Editors 


Late Colonial to the Early National Period. The Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church was the last of the mainline 
Evangelical denominations to organize in the United 
States and its emergence was received with marked suspi- 
cion, even hostility. Some Methodists had supported the 
American cause in the Revolutionary War. Others re- 
mained loyal to the king or refused, for conscience' sake, 
to bear arms. Theirs had the stronger impact and for 
years after the war, despite protestations of loyalty to the 
new republic, Methodists were regarded as more Enghsh 
than American. They were identified closely with John 
Wesley who, with the movement he fathered, had for 
decades been the focal point of ecclesiastical contention. 
Over the years a sizable anti-Methodist Uterature had 


been produced and some of it, particularly that critical 
of Wesley, had been reprinted in America. Soon, how- 
ever, an indigenous American anti-Methodist literature 
evolved from controversies over Methodism's distinctive 
emphases in doctrine and polity. 

The initial attacks were cast in a Wesleyan mold, main- 
ly reflecting a negative reaction to the theology of the 
Methodist Revival. One of the earliest was a sermon pub- 
lished by Presbyterian Henry Pattillo in 1788 in which 
he assaulted Wesley for his "extreme ignorance" of pre- 
destination. Wesley's understanding of perfection was 
repudiated by Elijah Norton who, in The Methodist Sys- 
tem and Church Annihilated by the Scriptures of Truth 
(1812), warned that no one could be saved who shared 
such erroneous opinions. In a strange, if not ironic twist, 
Methodists were accused of blasphemy by Frederic Plum- 
er, a freethinker and admitted anti-Trinitarian, in The 
Mystery Revealed (1813). In this early period the most 
sustained theological controversy was that between the 
Methodist itinerant, Martin Ruter, and Francis Brown, 
Congregational minister and president of Dartmouth Col- 
lege. From 1814 to 1816 the two men debated the merits 
of predestination, producing in the process five major 
publications. In the same vein was Presbyterian Seth 
Williston's A Vindication of Some of the Most Essential 
Doctrines of the Reformation (1817), designed to refute 
Nathan Bangs' The Errors of Hopkinsianism Detected 
and Refuted. 

Methodist pohty became an issue as soon as its results 
posed a threat to the territorial arrangements of other 
denominations. James Wilson, pastor of Beneficent Church 
in Providence, Rhode Island, in his Apostolic Church 
Government Displayed (1798), sought to remove the au- 
thoritative ground from under the episcopacy. To the same 
purpose was John Kewley's An Enquiry into the Validity 
of Methodist Episcopacy (1807). Kewley, a former Meth- 
odist turned Episcopalian, held that the Methodist epis- 
copacy was a merely human contrivance issuing from 
Wesley's vanity and spiritual pride. 

In these early controversies Methodists sometimes 
found themselves at a disadvantage. Congregational and 
Presbyterian clergymen, with their superior formal edu- 
cation, triumphed over Methodist spokesmen whose grasp 
of historical theology was not always equal to the demands 
made upon them. Nathan Bangs and Martin Ruter were 
exceptions. So was Timothy Merritt. But their efforts 
were piecemeal and uncoordinated at a time when the 
circulation of anti-Methodist pamphlets and bacts was 
increasing sharply. To counteract this activity the Tract 
Society was established in 1817 and the following year 
saw the first issue of the Methodist Magazine. With 
these two instruments Methodism's apologetical task was 
launched. They were joined in 1826 by the Christian 
Advocate, which at once demonstrated its superior abil- 
ity to respond immediately to sectarian sniping. Within 
its first month the Advocate was at war with the Congre- 
gational Boston Record, and the Presbyterian New York 
Observer over Methodist use of the Camp Meeting. 

To carry on its defense, 19th century Methodism pro- 
duced a number of gifted writers and editors including 
WiUiam McKendree Bangs, John Emory, Wilbur Fisk, 
Samuel Luckey, George Peck, Benjamin Franklin Tefft, 
D. D. Whedon, and Daniel Wise. From the 1820s on- 
ward their abilities were fully employed. Methodism had 
become a force in the religious hfe of the nation with ef- 
fects that other denominations found unsettling. Through- 


out the century Methodists were engaged by all the 
major churches and by many of the sects in often pro- 
longed and bitter controversy. Certain issues were com- 
mon in nearly all of the disputes. Even so, there were 
recognizable variations in content and thrust which were 
insisted upon by denominational advocates as indis- 
pensable to true religion. For this reason the controversial 
literature can best be examined in the context of the 
denominational agitation which inspired it. 

Early National Period to the Civil War. (a) Congre- 
gationalists and New England. Congregational opposition 
to Methodist expansion into New England was vocal 
and bitter. Rejected out of hand was Methodism's "mo- 
narchical and aristocratical" polity which, according to 
Congregational apologists, elevated the clergy to a privi- 
leged rank at the cost of subverting the democratic rights 
of the laity. In the early 1800s Congregationalists had 
been upset by a number of cases where Methodist clergy- 
men, accused of crimes actionable in the civil courts, had 
been tried in advance by church tribunals and adjudged 
innocent. They supposed that this issue had been settled 
in the 17th century when it was decided that the power 
of the civil authority was not only superior and anterior 
to any discipline taken by the church, but independent 
of it. Here, two centuries later, were the Methodists at- 
tempting to pull down the wall of separation. It was held 
that this foolish attempt by Methodists to influence civil 
authority posed a threat to the nation's political stability 
and had to be curbed. Charges of anti-republicanism 
were repeatedly sounded. John Barber's Thoughts on 
some parts of the Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church (1829) was one of the eariier and fuller state- 
ments. The Congregational Quarterly Christian Spectator 
took up the attack and throughout 1829 was doing battle 
with the Methodist Magazine, the Christian Advocate 
and Zion's Herald. The issues were rejoined in the 30s, 
40s and 50s. In 1846 Z. K. Hawley published one of the 
best remembered controversial pieces, his Congregational- 
ism and Methodism, in which Methodism is dismissed 
as inconsequential while Congregationalism is credited 
with having made New England "the brightest spot within 
the circumference of the globe." 

Drawing upon Lterature of this kind and combining 
it with personal observation, Parsons Cooke, pastor of 
First Church, Lynn, Mass., issued two ambitious vol- 
umes in 1855 which represent the acme of anti-Methodist 
publications from Congregational sources. The first was 
A Century of Puritanism and a Century of its Opposites. 
In it Cooke expressed several convictions: (1) Arminian 
doctrine was inadequate to "supply the energy of a reli- 
gious body without artificial and unscriptural appHances 
such as Methodism has"; (2) Methodist camp meetings 
("comic operations") have occasioned spurious conver- 
sions (wasn't "backshding" a word peculiar to the Wes- 
leyan vocabulary?); (3) the elasticity of Methodist doc- 
trine has issued in the revival of heresy; and (4) the 
whole of Methodist organization, like a leech, draws its 
life blood from the healthy, living bodies of other 
churches. The Second Part of Cooke's Centuries covers 
much the same ground but in sharper language. Its thesis 
is explicitly stated: "the M. E. Church of the United 
States is a corrupt and corrupting corporation, and the 
best interests of religion require that it should cease." 

Congregationalism, led by The New Englander, pur- 
sued an anti-Methodist crusade to the eve of the Civil 
War, although both the ground and the tone of the con- 



tentioii were somewhat altered. Argumentation became 
more substantive and less ad hominem. Theological dis- 
cussion assumed more sophistication and precision. 
Throughout the period Methodists relied heavily upon 
D. D. Whedon, perhaps the most formidable of their 
champions. From his editorial chair at the Methodist 
Quartcdy Review he energetically pressed Methodism's 
theological claims and, unintimidated by name or reputa- 
tion, took on all its opposers. 

While Congregationalists led the attack against Meth- 
odism in New England they were by no means the only 
antagonists on the field. Writers for other traditions added 
to the growing pile of anti-Methodist pamphlets, but their 
statements tended only to elaborate and reinforce Con- 
gregational concerns. The eccentric Elias Smith, editor 
of The Christians Magazine, writing nearly a generation 
after Methodism's formal organization, still viewed it as 
a British outpost on American soil. The Unitarian Chris- 
tian Disciple and Theological Review criticized Wesley 
for his credulity and superstition and ridiculed his spir- 
itual offspring in America for their fanaticism and mock 
humihty. The eclecticism which characterizes these con- 
tributions is nowhere better exemplified than in Asahel 
Bronson's A Plain Exhibition of Methodist Episcopacy 
(1844). Not only did he borrow freely from fellow critics 
in New England, he also availed himself of the argu- 
ments contained in Mutual Rights, the principal literary 
organ of the Reformers in the M. E. Church who had 
advocated a more democratic form of church government. 

(h) Presbyterians. Presbyterian attacks on Methodism 
intensified in the 1820s at a time when suggestions for 
greater cooperation (even union) among the churches 
were being seriously advanced. Closer relationships be- 
tween Presbyterians and Methodists were out of the ques- 
tion as far as Samuel Pelton was concerned. In The 
Absurdities of Methodism (1822) he argued that truth 
could not be sacrificed merely for good fellowship and 
the truth was that Methodism was more Roman than 
Protestant. Pelton was answered by Laurence Kean in 
1823. Immediately he rejoined with A Reply which added 
nothing new except an intensifying of the aspersions 
which were freely traded. 

This exchange of insults was courtly compared with 
that ensuing from Presbyterian-Methodist debates in the 
South. In 1827 the Lexington Presbytery, deciding to 
move against growing Methodist power in Virginia, is- 
sued a Pastoral Letter which provoked a feud lasting the 
better part of two years. Henry Ruffner prepared and 
published anonymously a Review of the Controversy be- 
tween the Methodists and Presbyterians in Central Vir- 
ginia (1829) as a simple statement of fact. But its objec- 
tivity was a pretense, and it too became an element in 
the dispute. 

The Presbyterian campaign spread to other parts of the 
South. One of the most salient outcroppings was seen in 
1827 with the first appearance of the Calvinistic Maga- 
zine. For its duration, consistency and unqualified hos- 
tility it ranks as foremost among the anti-Methodist pro- 
ductions of the 19th century. From the emergence of the 
movement in England to its rise and development in 
America, every aspect and facet of the denomination's his- 
tory was searchingly scrutinized and derided. Wesleyan 
hymnology was excoriated. Wesley's banslation of the 
New Testament was dismissed as a mutilation of scripture 
sense. All the old objections to Arminianism and epis- 
copacy were recataloged. The question of Methodist loy- 

alty was reopened with the "discovery" that Francis 
AsBURY, contrary to widely held opinion, actually tried 
to strangle American independence in its cradle and per- 
petuate monarchy and the Established Church. Pick any 
volume or number at random, the reader will not be dis- 
appointed in his expectations. 

G. W. Musgrave offered a summary of the Presbyterian 
position in The Polity of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in the United States (1843). It was based in part on his 
observations of the Methodist Protestant agitation in Balti- 
more, but he was most indebted to such Presbyterian 
sources as Ashbel Green's Christian Advocate (Phila- 
delphia), the Princeton Review, and two of William An- 
nan's controversial writings. The Difficulties of Arminian 
Methodism (1832) and his anonymously issued A Dia- 
logue between a Presbyterian and a Methodist (1834). 
Musgrave was an inspiration to Frederick A. Ross who 
intensified the anti-Metliodist campaign in the South by 
his editorial labors on the revived Calvinistic Magazine. 
His rejection of Methodism as a debauched pietism pre- 
cipitated a mighty counter-attack. Two new Methodist 
publications were founded to do battle, Russell Reneau's 
Arminian Magazine (Rome, Georgia) and The Jonesbor- 
ough Monthly Review edited by William G. Bbownlow. 

The Princeton Revieiv was not to be compared with the 
Calvinistic Magazine in its scholarship and general tone. 
However that may be, it was strongly opposed to Meth- 
odism's doctrinal position and led the attack against its 
.\rminianism and theology of giace. Methodism's reliance 
upon false doctrine was diagnosed by Henr\' Brown in 
his Arminian Inconsistencies and Errors (18.56). He ex- 
pressed a widely shared Presbyterian conviction when he 
said that Methodist difficulties were traceable to an im- 
precise doctrinal statement. His suggestion: adopt a com- 
mon confession, preferably the Westminster. 

(c) Baptists. The bitterest and most sustained confron- 
tations between Baptists and Methodists took place in the 
South. Between them there was an active dislike and mis- 
trust. Baptists repudiated the centralization of power man- 
ifest in Methodist connectionalism and the episcopacy. 
For their part Methodists could accept neither the radical 
decentralization of Baptist organization nor its insistence 
upon befievers' baptism. Compared with other ecclesias- 
tical debates, that between Baptists and Methodists was 
slow in starting, but once under way was carried by its 
momentum well into the 20th century. The earliest pro- 
longed dispute was between William F. Broaddus and 
Henry Slicer. In A Sermon on Baptism (1835) Broad- 
dus took exception to the Methodist practice of infant 
baptism and baptism by any mode other than immersion, 
and he maintained his position despite Slicer's several 
replies and rejoinders. 

Baptist militancy against Methodists, and everyone else, 
was best expressed in the person and work of James 
Robinson Graves, preacher, audior, editor, controversialist 
and denominational gadfly. Some of his most vigorous 
writing was directed against Methodists whom he con- 
sidered the "most belligerent and offensive of all Prot- 
estant sects." He published what is perhaps the best and 
most widely known of all anti-Methodist works, his monu- 
mental The Great Iron Wheel (1855). Methodism was 
pictured as a vast piece of machinery kept in motion by 
bishops whose despotic powers rested upon passive obedi- 
ence and non-resistance. Under episcopal direction the 
iron wheel of Methodism transgressed the rights of its 
own clergy and laity and moved inexorably to crush the 


civil rights of free men everywhere. WiUiam G. Brown- 
low, who had moved so decisively against the CalvinUiic 
Methodist, did tlie same against Graves from his new 
position as editor of Brownloiv's Knoxville Whig. He re- 
sponded in The Great Iron Wheel Examined in language 
as offensive as that used by Graves. 

A recurrent Baptist criticism fastened on Methodism's 
practice of granting church membership to regenerate and 
unregenerate alike. This is the burden of Amos Cooper 
Dayton's Theodosia Ernest (1856), a fictionalized ac- 
count of how one young Methodist came to see the light 
and joined the Baptists. Writing tit tor tat, William Pope 
Harrison published Theophihis Walton (1858), a fiction- 
alized account of how one young Baptist came to see the 
light and joined the Methodists. In reply Dayton pre- 
pared Baptist Facts against Methodist Fictions (1859), 
the evidential basis for tlie portrait of his heroine. 

(d) Episcopalians. Nothing emerges more clearly from 
the controversial hterature of the 19th century than the 
durability of John Wesley as the whipping boy for the 
failures and shortcomings of American Methodism. To 
the Anghcans and their American counterparts, the Epis- 
copalians, he was a schismatic. In common they agreed 
that from Wesley's misound teaching on the Witness 
OF THE Spirit issued a succession of false assurances 
which culminated in the organization of an unauthorized 
church with an illegitimate episcopal succession. These 
points were debated by William White, bishop of Pennsyl- 
vania, and John Emory as early as 1817. Episcopahans 
hammered away at Methodism's doctrine of the church 
and the form of its episcopacy. William Edward Wyatt, 
in an 1820 sermon, and George Thomas Chapman, in two 
volumes of sermons published in 1828 and 1836, at- 
tempted to prove that Wesley had no intention of estab- 
lishing an episcopacy. Wyatt went so far as to suggest 
that Thomas Coke's overture to Bishop White (see Coke- 
White correspondence) respecting the reunion of Meth- 
odists and Episcopalians was actually instigated by Wes- 

Discussions on Christian unity took concrete form in 
1846 with the organization of the Evangelical Alliance. 
Episcopalians struck a sour note in the moderate buoy- 
ancy of the period by publishing a series of "Sketches of 
Sectarianism," one of which, entitled "Methodism as held 
by Wesley," ridiculed American Methodism's attempt at 
self-legitimation. Efforts by Methodist peacemakers to 
bridge the ecclesiological gulf were repulsed. John P. 
Durbin's overtures were turned aside by William Herbert 
Norris in two tiacts published in 1844, the first of which, 
Methodism and the Church opposed in Fundamentals, 
was an uncompromising statement of the Episcopal posi- 

The terms of the Episcopalian-Methodist debate did 
not alter during the next half century. The exclusive 
claims of the Episcopal Church were renewed while 
Methodism's insistence on its right to be called a church 
was dismissed as pretentious. A hope was repeatedly 
voiced that Methodists would eschew their errors and 
return to Mother Church. The American Quarterly Church 
Review devoted itself in part to this end. 

(e) Lutherans and German Reformed. By and large the 
Lutherans and German Beformed had no axes to grind 
with Methodism until the 1840s when, like others, they 
became aroused by the impact of the church's phenomenal 
growth. The division of Methodism in 1844 was used by 
editors of many church papers as an occasion for making 


observations respecting Methodism's tendencies. The edi- 
tor of the Baltimore-based Lutheran Observer echoed the 
thoughts of many when he asserted that Methodism's 
success had led to the loss of its integrity, while its ec- 
clesiastical vision had been blurred by particularism. 

The GeiTnan Beformed found revivalism distasteful 
and disapproved of Methodists as its most facile prac- 
titioners. The representative statement was supplied by 
John W. Nevin, Beformed theologian, educator and edi- 
tor, who indicted Methodism for its adherence to the 
"new measures" in The An.xious Bench (1843) . 

Post Civil War Period. The organization of the Evangel- 
ical Alhance, begun in the 1840s, was effected in 1867. In 
its wake the old controversies over church union were 
revived and aged polemists sought to do again what they 
had done a generation earlier. In 1880 James B. Graves 
revised his Great Iron Wheel and published The New 
Great Iron Wheel as a full-scale attack on the M. E. 
Church, South. Belations with Episcopalians were exac- 
erbated by the conditions for church union set fortli in the 
Lambeth Quadrilateral and by the self-generated proposal 
that the Protestant Episcopal Church change its name 
and become the Church of America. 

There had been some criticism of Methodism by Boman 
Catholic writers earlier in the century, but in their con- 
troversies Methodists were more often the aggressors. 
Orestes Brownson took occasional pot shots at Method- 
ism in his Quarterly Review, but it was not until after 
the Civil War that a Catholic anti-Methodist campaign 
was mounted. During these years Methodist influence in 
national affairs was running full tide. Catholics charged 
Methodists with hypocrisy for criticizing tlie Catholic 
way in church-state relations on the one hand while, on 
the other, doing everytliing in their power to use the 
state for their ov\ti ends. John Gilmary Shea, writing in 
The American Catholic Quarterly Review (January, 
1882), charged that Methodists had aligned themselves 
with the Bepublican Party in a bid to control the govern- 

Serious disagreements among denominations continued 
into the 20th century, but the period of nearly chronic 
abuse was about over. Although considerably attenuated, 
the stream of anti-Methodist literature did not cease; 
however, its texture was altered by the introduction of 
criticism from non-religious sources. One of the earliest 
representatives of this new genre was Henry B. Dawson, 
editor of The Historical Magazine. Throughout the 1860s 
he impugned Methodist participation in the Bevolution- 
ary War and sought to discredit its historical literature 
for a corrupting subjective bias. 

From the 1880s until the end of the period Methodism 
shared fully in the caustic judgments of a group of self- 
appointed critics-at-large. "The Great Infidel," Colonel 
Bobert G. Ingersoll, lectured and wrote extensively 
against Methodists for their superstition and repressive 
influence. In Kansas, Edgar Watson Howe, publisher of 
The Globe, turned his back on his Methodist upbringing, 
ridiculed the church and delighted in exposing the short- 
comings and peccadilloes of the clergy. From Waco, 
Texas, William Cow^jer Brann performed similarly in his 

Brann's sardonic tone was reflected in some of the 
realistic fiction of the day. The most striking instance was 
Harold Frederic's The Damnation of Theron Ware 
(1896). Young Ware, a rising preacher, becomes unset- 
tled by his introduction to German higher criticism and 



the corrupting influence of some "liberated" acquaint- 
ances. The resulting moral and spiritual degeneration is 
paralleled by Ware's emancipation from the Methodist 
system whose deficiencies are laid bare. 

The inheritor of these diverse strands, the one who 
wove them together into a new pattern, was the 20th 
century literary and social critic, H. L. Mencken. From 
the time he aimed his first barbs at the Methodists in his 
free lance column in the Baltimore Evening Sun until he 
relinquished the editorship of The American Mercury 
in 1933, he missed no opportunity to throw dead cats 
into their sanctuaries. He considered Methodists to be 
the degenerate descendants of the New England Puri- 
tans who, like their bluenose forebears of the 17th cen- 
tury, were actively seeking to control the life and mind 
of the nation. Mencken's contempt for the Methodists 
was monumental. With characteristic insouciance he dis- 
missed them with the remark, "So far as I am aware, no 
man of any genuine distinction in the world today is a 

Around the "Baltimore Sage" gathered a group of like- 
minded as.sociates, "Menckenites, " who shared not only 
his prejudices, but his facile, if frequently outrageous, 
use of the English language. One of these was Herbert 
Asbury who recounted a sort of spiritual odyssey in Up 
From Methodism (1926). He scolded the church for its 
ignorance, narrowness, hypocrisy and arrogance, the em- 
bodiment of the worst features of its pioneer bishop, 
Francis Asbury. Even more damning was Sinclair Lewis' 
Elmer Gantry, the highly controversial, best-selling novel 
of 1927. While overdrawn. Gantry emerges as the epitome 
of ministerial insensitivity, ignorance, superficiality, op- 
portunism and spiritual poverty; in short, a clerical 
mountebank. Gantry, quick to take the main chance, put 
aside his Baptist upbringing and became a Methodist 
when he saw the advantages of having a "really big 
machine" behind him. It may have been behind him, but 
he so drove and manipulated it that at the close of the 
book no one can doubt that he is well on his way to 
achieving the desire of his heart, the bishop's chair, 
worthy successor of Bishop Wesley R. Toomis, Lewis' 
burlesque of the episcopacy. 

While Elmer Gantry was a commercial success, there 
was convincing evidence that the public, no less than 
the clergy, was tiring of the repeated and unqualified 
abuse heaped upon organized religion. The nihilism of 
the Mencken school of criticism precluded any positive 
suggestions or corrective measures. It was palpably in- 
adequate. Methodists, hke other Evangehcals, were aware 
of the disorders in their own house. Ghurch papers were 
filled with articles citing this or that shortcoming. Satires 
were published by Methodist authors which delineated 
both Methodism's greatness and its smallness. In 1928 
Dan B. Brummitt released Shoddy, a novel which ex- 
plored the careers of two ministers, one of whom, through 
self-seeking and calculation, attained the episcopacy but 
with it spiritual blight. The other achieved self-fulfillment 
by freely giving himself to his flock and its needs. Later 
in the period the dark side of ministerial character and 
the system of ecclesiastical preferment was reexamined 
by Gregory Wilson, a pseudonymous author, in The 
Stained Glass Jungle (1962). This was followed in 1965 
by Charles Merrill Smith's How to Become a Bishop 
Without Being Religious which humorously, yet seriously, 
raised the question of the place of a genuinely religious 
man in the structures of the church. A generation separates 

the productions of the late 1920s and early '30s from 
those of the mid-'60s. All of them were written at a time 
when Methodism was searching for a new definition of 
its hfe and mission. They sustain the observation that if 
denominational warfare was coming to an end, there was 
no cessation of the church's ongoing task of critical self- 

Lawrence O. Kline 

ous and successful movement which opposes the conven- 
tions is likely itself to encounter opposition. This was 
certainly true of the Methodist Revival. The most perma- 
nent monument to this counter-attack is furnished by the 
various forms of printed polemic, though these were oc- 
casionally either encouraged by or resulted in physical 
persecution by individuals or mobs. 

Throughout the eighteenth century the expanding peri- 
odical press frequently echoed the chorus of protest 
against Methodism, mainly by printing unfriendly re- 
views or letters from correspondents, though occasionally 
by articles and news items with an anti-Methodist slant. 
On the whole, however, both newspapers and magazines 
played fair, publishing the replies which Wesley and his 
followers sometimes offered in their own defense. Meth- 
odists also featured in eighteenth century plays and novels, 
usually as figures of fun. The most characteristic attack 
upon them, however, was in the prolific and multifarious 
pamphlet literature of the century, whether in cultured 
and reasoned prose, in ilhterate invective, or in satirical 
verse or lampoon. 

The general reason for these attacks was that the 
Methodists dared to be different. Perhaps it can best 
be summarized in one word, tlieir "enthusiasm," a word 
then used in its original sense of "inspired by a god," thus 
implying a presumptive and boastful claim of being nearer 
to God than was possible to ordinary humans. This en- 
thusiasm was revealed in the Methodists' teaching, with its 
emphasis upon conversion, upon a divinely implanted 
personal assurance of salvation, upon the possibility of 
Ijeing made perfect in Christian love. It was revealed in 
their meetings for worship and fellowship, in their exuber- 
ant hymn-singing, in the intimate confessions of their 
"bands," in their watchnights and love-fe.\sts, so wide 
open to satire by unfriendly observers. Sometimes the 
attacks were upoTi this enthusiasm in general, with only 
incidental mention of particular practices and leaders; 
sometimes a reasoned attempt was made to list and docu- 
ment a series of specific charges; too frequently reason 
gave place to personal abuse of Methodist leaders. Some 
satire was motivated by a sincere desire to maintain the 
status quo, as well as by genuine distrust of the unfamiliar; 
often the motive was to gain a quick penny, a cheap laugh, 
or personal revenge. 

It is difiicult to discern any pattern in die fluctuating 
numbers of anti-Methodist books and pamphlets pubhshed 
during successive years throughout the century. All the 
evidence is far from collected. Those which were mainly 
anti-Methodist in their purpose run into hundreds; those 
with occasional anti-Methodist references or an anti-Meth- 
odist slant probably number thousands, a figure enor- 
mously swelled by innumerable passages in newspapers 
and magazines. We deal only with the first class, noting 
in passing that the standard work on the subject, Richard 
Green's Anti-Methodist Fublications, is very far from com- 



plete. After a flood of over sixty publications directed 
against the Methodists in 1739, there followed a steady 
flow of about twenty a year for six years, and for the 
remainder of the century a trickle punctuated by sporadic 
freshets, as in 1759-61 (allied with the controversy over 
Christian perfection and George Bell's prophecies of 
the end of the world), in 1768 (when some Calvinist 
Methodist students were expelled from Oxford), and in 
1775 (mainly in response to Wesley's Calm Address to 
our American Colonies). 

The first printed attack appeared in a London news- 
paper. Fog's Weekly Journal, of which Number 214 for 
Dec. 9, 1732 carried a lengthy anonymous letter from 
Oxford (dated November 5) satirizing the Methodists, 
who had "made no small stir in Oxford," and suggesting 
as possible motives for their ascetic practices either 
penurious envy, "a veil for vice," or "enthusiastic madness 
and superstitious scruples." This called forth a widely 
advertised defense by a sympathetic witness (who may 
have been William Law, though this pamphlet also is 
anonymous) entitled The Oxford Methodists. 

Although Methodist beginnings in the Holy Club 
later proved of enormous significance, Oxford was a com- 
munity set apart, largely ignored by the busy world of 
London and other centers of commerce and fashion. It 
was some years later, while John Wesley was still en- 
gaged on his disappointing mission to Georgia, that one 
of his pupils, a late recruit to the Oxford Methodists, un- 
wittingly focused the attention of this larger public upon 
himself. George Whitefield had experienced an evan- 
gelical conversion in 1735, shortly after joining the Holy 
Club, and had been ordained deacon in 1736. The fol- 
lowing year, eager to second Wesley's efl^oi-ts in Georgia, 
and to use the interval of waiting as fruitfully as possible, 
Whitefield preached widely in his native area of Glou- 
cester, Bristol, and Bath, and also in London. He was 
much more flamboyant and dramatic than either John 
or Charles Wesley, and almost overnight found himself 
a popular preacher, though only twenty-two years old. 
Inevitably the general public began to take sides over 
this latest orator. Unfortunately he provided fuel for the 
fire kindled by his enemies by hurrying into print, in 1737 
with some sermons, and in 1738 (after a brief visit to 
Georgia), with insufficiently edited extracts from his jour- 
nal, which exhibited some of the more eff^usive and less 
critical elements of Methodist "enthusiasm." 

By this time John Wesley had returned from Georgia, 
had been introduced by the Moravians to a new religious 
dimension, and like Whitefield had come to emphasize 
spiritual regeneration rather than liturgical correctness, 
personal assurance of salvation rather than rigorous asceti- 
cism. In 1739 both men eagerly proclaimed this new 
teaching, and being frequently denied the pulpits of the 
parish churches they went to the masses of people who 
were prepared to hear them in the open air, both in tlie 
metropolis and in Bristol, then the third largest city in 
the kingdom. 

Both the proclamation of neglected (though completely 
orthodox) teachings and the readiness to flout ecclesi- 
astical conventions in order to preach the gospel angered 
the more conservative clergj'. Spokesmen for many such 
was Joseph Trapp, a London clergyman who preached 
a series of sermons which went through four editions in 
that chmactic year of 1739 under the title of The Nature, 
Folly, Sin, and Danger of being Righteous Overmuch: 
with a particular view to the doctrines and practices of 

certain modern enthusiasts. Edmund Gibson, the Bishop 
of London, entered the fray with a pastoral letter largely 
devoted to "A Caution against Enthusiasm. " This White- 
field answered, and there followed a chain-reaction of 
similar pamphlets pro and con. Typical of the more scur- 
rilous productions was The Methodists: an Humorous 
Burlesque Poem: address'd to the Rev. Mr. Whitefield 
and hi.s followers: proper to be bound up with his Ser- 
mons, and the Journals of his Voyage to Georgia, <b-c. It 
will be noted that Whitefield was the focal point of these 

A similar pattern is to be seen in succeeding years, 
still with Whitefield as the chief target. Although an 
article in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1739 criticized 
Wesley by name (or rather in the fashion of those days 
as "tlie Rev. Mr. W-sl-y"), he first drew concentrated 
attention because of his sermon Free Grace attacking the 
extreme Calvinist position on predestination — the sermon 
which also brought about his rift with Whitefield. Through 
the years that followed others of John Wesley's publica- 
tions led to pamphlets or books attacking his rather than 
Whitefield's views, and especially his teaching on Chris- 
tian perfection. Gradually he came to be recognized as 
the leading spirit of British Methodism in its various forms. 

It was in an attempt to put an end to attacks by 
thoughtful churchmen who simply did not understand 
Methodist principles that in 1743 Wesley published his 
famous apologia. An Earnest Appeal to Men of Reason 
and Religion. Although this succeeded to a limited extent, 
it also provoked further attacks, such as The Notions of 
the Methodists fully Disproved, and Remarks on a Book 
entitled An Earnest Appeal. By 1744 the Methodist Soci- 
eties were so obviously successful that the Bishop of 
London moved from general warnings to a specific 
(though anonymous) attack, in his Observations upon 
the Conduct and Behaviour of a Certain Sect, usually 
distinguished by the Name of Methodist, first printed in 
folio, and frequently reprinted in quarto. This he followed 
with The Case of the Methodists briefly stated, more 
particularly in the point of Field-Preaching, which he 
endeavored to prove violated the provisions of the Tol- 
eration Act. Thomas Herring, Archbishop of York, circu- 
lated Gibson's attacks, adding his oviai covering letter. 
Richard Smalbroke, Bishop of Lichfield and Conventry, 
printed his 1744 Visitation Charge to his clergy, in which 
he castigated the Methodists. These and similar works 
Wesley answered in A Farther Appeal to Men of Reason 
and Religion, in three parts. 

In spite of Wesley's lengthy apologiae, however, criti- 
cisms by churchmen continued intermittently tliroughout 
most of the century, the same charges being constantly 
reiterated, occasionally with such force and by such in- 
fluential leaders that they demanded an anfwer, even 
though this perforce covered the same old ground. Thomas 
Church, Vicar of Battersea and Prebendary of St. Paul's, 
engaged Wesley in a kind of pamphlet warfare at a con- 
sistently thoughtful and scholarly level. In 1747 Gibson 
issued another Visitation Charge to his clergy directed 
against Methodism, leading to a rebuttal by Wesley. In 
1748 George Lavington, Bishop of Exeter, similarly pub- 
lished an anti-Methodist charge to his clergy, which 
through a tragedy of errors led to the three progressively 
expanding parts of his well-known The Enthusiasm of 
Methodists and Papists Compar'd — which in turn led to 
a paper warfare both with Wesley and with Whitefield. 
Of far greater weight was a two-volume work by William 



Warburton, Bishop of Gloucester: The Doctrine of Grace: 
or, the Office and Operations of the Hohj Spirit vindicated 
from the Insults of Infidelitij and the Abuses of Fanaticism 
(1763), which again was answered by both Wesley and 

The Methodists suffered in the theater also, so that 
their suspicion of this literary medium \vas greatly in- 
creased. Strolling actors with makeshift lines upon make- 
shift stages early found them good for a laugh, but in 

1760 the Methodists graduated to the legitimate theater 
and the attention of major playwrights. Their chief op- 
ponent was Samuel Foote, who satirized Whitefield as 
"Dr. Squintum," but also ridiculed the whole Methodist 
emphasis upon conversion and personal spiritual experi- 
ence as hypociTsy or superstition. Even Lloyd's Evening 
Post condemned the "ribald and blasphemous outpour- 
ings" of Foote's The Minor, and described the whole 
thing as "steeped in lewdness." In the following year of 

1761 two similar plays appeared — The Register Office, 
by Joseph Reed, and The Methodist (supposedly a con- 
tinuation of The Miiwr), which seems to have been wjit- 
ten by Israel Pottinger, but was too libelous for public 
production. The plays were a far ciy from Oliver Gold- 
smith's She Stoops to Conquer (1773), where Tony 
Lumpkin's song was merely an incidental and unmalicious 
piece of satire, even though it did in fact reflect the 
popular opinion that the Methodists were hypocrites; 

When Methodist preachers come down, 
A-preaching that drinking is sinful, 
I'll wager the rascals a crown, 
They always preach best with a skinful. 

In 1768 Methodists at Oxford once more became news, 
though they were Methodists owing allegiance to White- 
field and the Gountess of Huntingdon rather than to the 
Wesleys. Six young men were expelled from St. Edmund 
Hall by the Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Durell, because they 
were "enthusiasts, who talked of inspiration, regenera- 
tion, and drawing nigh to God," holding meetings in 
private houses to spread these views. In the pamphlet 
warfare which resulted Whitefield issued his last publi- 
cation, A Letter to the Reverend Dr. Durell. 

The death of Whitefield in 1770 did little to take the 
pressure off of Wesley. Indeed, because of Wesley's adop- 
tion of an Arminian position towards predestination, espe- 
cially as set forth in the Minutes of his Conference that 
year, the opposition to him by Calvinist evangelicals in- 
creased. His most formidable opponents were Augustus 
M. ToPLADY, Richard Hill, and Rowlantj Hill, all men 
of high sincerity and warm Christian enthusiasm, but 
bitterly opposed to the doctrinal stand taken by Wesley 
and his societies. They were angry also because the term 
"Methodist" originally given to both wings of the revival 
was increasingly being confiscated by Wesley's followers. 
Unfortunately much of this Calvinist-Arminian contro- 
versial literature degenerated into personal invective, in 
which Wesley was not completely blameless. 

The most dangerous opponent of Wesley's organized 
Methodism at this period was probably Sir Richard Hill 
who with his Pietas Oxoniensis had proved the chief 
proponent of the six expelled Oxford students. In 1772 
Hill issued a major attack on Wesley entitled A Review of 
all the Doctrines taught by the Rev. Mr. John Wesley, 
following this in 1773 with Logica Wesleiensis: or, the 
Farrago Double Distilled. Wesley carefully replied to 

both, and enlisted as the literary champion of his doc- 
tiinal views the Rev. John William Fletcher, whose 
famous Checks to Antinomianism issued from this con- 
troversy with the Calvinists. 

Another pamphlet controversy flared up in 1775 after 
Wesley, converted by Dr. Samuel Johnson's support of 
government policy in his Taxation No Tyrrany, made use 
of Johnson's work in his own well-known pamphlet. 
Again there was much slinging of mud, especially by 
Wesley's enemies, witness Toplady's An Old Fox Tarr'd 
and Feather'd. Occasioned by what is called Mr. John 
Wesley's Calm Address to our American Colonies. 

By now Wesley was in his seventies, but he remained 
the target for rancorous attacks by younger men, such 
as that by Rowland Hill entitled Imposture Detected, 
aimed at the anti-Calvinist slant of Wesley's address at the 
stonelaying for the New Chapel in City Road, London, 
in 1777. To 1778-79 belong a series of eight scurrilous 
poems lampooning Wesley and the London Methodists, 
mostly having symbolic cartoons for frontispieces. The 
titles of two are sufficiently descriptive: The Fanatic 
Saints: or Bedlamites inspired; and Perfection: A Poetical 
Epistle, Calmly Addressed to the Greatest Hypocrite in 
England. It is difficult to see how such virulence could 
be aimed at an old man who in general had by now se- 
cured the respect and even affection of multitudes, unless 
it were motivated by envy. To this later period in Wes- 
ley's life belongs also the classic novel satirizing Meth- 
odism, the Rev. Richard Graves's The Spiritual Quixote, 
or the Summer's Ramble of Mr. Geoffry; a 
comic romance. (3 volumes, 1772-73). This is compara- 
tively kind in its poking of fun at the Methodists in general 
rather than at their leader in particular. Smollett's 
Humphry Clinker (1771) is also devoted to the adven- 
tures of Methodists, though he similarly smiles rather 
than sneers. References to the Methodists in the earlier 
works of Fielding and Richardson are much more inci- 
dental, though also somewhat more critical. 

Methodism served to arouse other Christian commu- 
nities to some of their own spiritual shortcomings, but 
as most of us are averse to having our faults indicated it 
was perhaps natural that those thus criticized, no matter 
how circumspectly or gently, should begin some vigorous 
faultfinding on their own. This was especially hue (as 
has been noted) with the Church of England. In 1760 the 
Roman Catholic bishop Richard Challenor published A 
Caveat against the Methodists, which reached a third 
edition in 1787. In 1766 "an Independent" noted "the 
encroachments of the Methodists and the Sandemanians" 
as important among The Causes and Rea.sons of the pres- 
ent Declension among the Congregational Churches in 
London and the Country. In 1770 Gilbert Boyce made 
public letters which he had exchanged with Wesley about 
the Baptist position, entitled A Serious Reply to the Rev. 
Mr. John Wesley in Particular, and to the People called 
Methodists in General, and in 1788 William Kingsford 
published his Vindication of the Baptists from charges 
made by Wesley. In 1778 John Helton issued his Reasons 
for Quitting the Methodist Society to join the Quakers. 
In one way and another most of the major religious com- 
munions crossed swords with Wesley, though it is never- 
theless accurate to claim that he strove to maintain a 
catholic spirit. 

In 1791, v^rithin a few months of Wesley's death there 
appeared a number of exposes seemingly designed to 



catch the market for topical sensationalism by indulging 
in the pleasant literary pastime of "debunking" a popu- 
lar hero. A distant kinsman, John Annesley Colet, issued 
An impartial Review of the Life and Writings, Public 
and Private Character, of the late Rev. Mr. John Wesley, 
much of which he later admitted was pure invention. 
Joseph Priestley published a collection of Original Letters 
1)1/ the Rev. John Weshy and his Friends, illustrative of 
his early history. The letters themselves were genuine, 
liaving originally been stolen from Wesley by his jealous 
wife; nevertheless Priestley's general intention seems to 
have been to underline his view that Wesley was "strong- 
ly tinctured with enthusiasm, from the effect of false 
notions of religion ver\' early imbibed." The well-known 
bookseller James Lackington — who had been set up in 
his business by Wesley's pioneer Lending Fund — pub- 
lished his Memoirs, vehemently assailing his benefactors, 
a fact which he lived to regret, though the recantation in 
his Confessions was unable to undo the mischief caused. 
Even tlie first full length biography of Wesley, John 
Hampson's Memoirs of the Late Rev. John Wesley (3 
volumes, 1791), contained much polemic against him 
from this disappointed preacher. 

After Wesley's death Methodism was never again quite 
the unified community which it had been during his 
lifetime, nor ever again so fresh and challenging in its 
spiritual vigor. Anti-Methodist literature in Britain, there- 
fore, is mainly a phenomenon of the eighteenth century. 
N'ot that controversy disappeared. While the parent body 
imperceptibly accommodated itself to the religious es- 
tabli-shment, though at the same time remaining distinct 
and independent, paper warfare constantly raged between 
children and parent. Nor was the world outside imin- 
terested in the spirited protests against Wesleyan Meth- 
odism from the Methodist Ne\a' Connexion, the 
Protestant Methodists, the Warrenites, and the Wes- 
leyan Reformers. Indeed these controversies frequently 
achieved headlines in the national press, while church- 
man and non-churchman alike took sides with the protag- 
onists and entered the literary fray. Nevertheless these 
remained basically internal controversies rather than con- 
certed attacks from without. From time to time local 
squabbles between the Methodists and an Anglican clergy- 
man or a renegade Methodist preacher would give rise 
to ephemeral literature unfriendly to Methodism. Fre- 
quently individual Methodists or groups of Methodists 
would find themselves the target for printed abuse be- 
cause of their association with the temperance movement 
or the working-class movement, but no branch of Meth- 
odism as such could be claimed to stand solidly behind 
these movements — not even the Primitive Methodists 
— so that no direct attack on Methodism itself was there- 
by involved. 

This has in general remained the .situation until the 
present time, perhaps with the exception of a movement 
within the Church oi England in the second half of last 
centuiy which claimed that in their increasing alliance 
with the Nonconformists the Methodists were deserting 
their founder, to whose high church ideals the Established 
Church itself remained loyal. This point of view was set 
forth both in pamphlets and in more substantial works 
such as H. W. Holden's John Wesley in Company with 
High Churchmen (1869), and R. Denny Urlin's John 
Wesley's Place in Church History (1870) and The 
Churchman's Life of Wcs/ei/ (1880). The main spokesman 

in defense of Methodism was the very capable James 
H. Rice. 

R. Green, Anti-Methodist Publications. 1902. 

A. M. Lyles, Methodism Mocked. 1960. Frank Bakeh 

ANTINOMIANISM. (See Doctrinal Standards of 

ANTLIFF, SAMUEL (1823-1892), Methodist, was 
the brother of William Antliff. He was born at Caun- 
ton, Nottinghamshire, on July 5, 1823, and became a 
Primitive Methodist traveling preacher at the age of sev- 
enteen at Chesterfield. He was an early advocate of tem- 
perance in the denomination. From 1868 to 1880 he 
.served as secretary of the Overseas Missionary Society; 
in 1873, when he was president of the Primitive Methodist 
Conference, he was also sent on a deputation to the 
colonial missions. In 1871 he visited Canada as a con- 
ference representative to the Primitive Methodists there, 
and in 1876 he again went to Canada and to the United 
States. He was one of the founders of the Primitive 
Methodist boys' boarding school, Elmfield College, at 
York, and acted as its secretary. In 1891 he was elected 
a delegate to the Ecumenical Methodist Conference 
held in Washington, though illness prevented his at- 
tendance. He died in 1892. 

H. B. Kendall, Primitive Methodist Church. 1905. 
Primitive Methodist Conference Minutes, 1892. 

John T. Wilkinson 

ANTLIFF, WILLIAM (1813-1884), British Methodist, was 
born at Caunton in Nottinghamshire of humble parents. 
He became the best-known figure in the middle period of 
Primitive Methodism. Beginning to preach at sixteen, 
he entered the Primitive Methodist itinerancy in 1830 
and served for thirty-one years in various circuits, in- 
cluding an outstanding period (1834-35) at Notting- 
ham, when the circuit was threatened with collapse by 
the secession of a number of local preachers and about 
three hundred of the members. Antliff organized a town 
mission in the spring of 1836, sometimes preaching four 
times on a Sunday, usually in the open air, and succeeded 
in restoring the confidence of the circuit. He served as 
Connexional Editor (1862-67) and as principal of the 
Sunderland Theological Institute (1868-81), the 
first Primitive Methodist experiment in theological col- 
lege training. He was chosen as president of the Primitive 
Methodist Conference in 1863 and 1865. He published 
The Life of the Venerable Hugh Bourne (1872). An 
outstanding preacher and a man of skilled judgment in 
legal issues, he received the D.D. degree from Wesleyan 
University, Middletown, Conn., in 1870. He died Dec. 
7, 1884. 

H. B. Kendall, Primitive Methodist Church. 1905. 
J. Petty, Primitive Methodist Connexion. 1860. 
Primitive Methodist Conference Minutes, 1884. 

John T. Wilkinson 

ANTWERP, Belgium, an ancient, historic city and port 
with a 1966 population of 243,426, has two Methodist 
churches of considerable influence. 

Antwerp Methodist Church (French) of the Belgium 
Conference was organized in 1922 in an old German 



church, 11 rue Bex, and was moved to 8 rue Gounod in 
1936. The congregation joined the Flemish Methodist 
community, moving into new premises, Verdussenstraat 
40, in 1966. Pastors have been W. Thomas, 1922-47; A. 
Wemers, 1948-49; W. Thomas, 1949-53; J. Werners, 1954- 
55; A. Lheureux, 1956-61; and M. Vandezande, since 

Antwerp Methodist Church (Flemish) of the Belgium 
Conference was organized downtown, at 29 St. Jansplein, 
in 1925. As stated above, this community with the French 
Methodist communit\' moved into the new premises on 
Verdussenstraat 40, in 1966. The pastors of this church 
have been A. Parmentier, 1925-37; Th. Kerremans, 1937- 
38; W. Thomas, 1939-44; J. Janssens, 1945-49; CI.' 
Bruggeman, 1940-50; M. Vannieuwenhuyse, 1951-61; M. 
Vandezande since 1962. 

William G. Thongeb 

AOTEA, early New Zealand VVesleyan mission station, 
was situated at Rao Rao Kauere on the shores of the 
Aotea Harbor on the west coast of the North Island. 
Mission work was established there in 1840, by H. H. 
TuRTON. This came as a direct result of urgent representa- 
tions made by local Maoris direct to the superintendent, 
J. Waterhouse, while he was visiting Kawhia. Turton 
was later replaced by Gideon Smales, who labored there 
with considerable success for twelve years. 

For some years during the Maori War period of the 
1860's the work was continued by Cort H. Schnacken- 
BERG, who later based his work on Kawhia. 

W. Morley, New Zealand. 1900. 


APOSTASY, FINAL. (See Perse\-erance, Final.) 
APOSTLES' CREED. (See Confession of Faith.) 

odist Church was organized in 1932 in Loughman, Fla., 
by E. H. Crowson and a few others. In 1931, Crowson, 
an elder in the Florida Conference of the M. E. 
Church, South, had been located (deposed from the 
itinerant ministiy) for "unacceptability." The new group 
published a "Discipline," rejecting episcopal authority 
and charging that the M. E. Church, South, had de- 
parted from its standards of beUef and holiness. The pre- 
millennial return of Jesus and holiness of a "second bless- 
ing" type are emphasized. In 1933, F. L. Crowson, the 
father of E. H. Crowson, was tried by the Florida Con- 
ference and suspended. He withdrew and joined his son's 
new group. 

The group has only a few congregations and less than 
a hundred members. It operates the Gospel Tract Club at 
Zephyr HiUs, Fla. It is not listed in the 1969 Yearbook 
of American Churches, Lauris B. Whitman, editor. 

Book of Discipline, Apostolic Methodist Church, 1932. 

Census of Relip,ious Bodies, 1936. 

E. T. Clark, Small Sects. 1937, 1949. J. Gordon Melton 


Henry G. Appenzeller 

APPENZELLER, HENRY GERHARD (1858-1902), one of 
three pioneer Methodist missionaries to Korea, was bom 
in Souderton, Pa., Feb. 6, 1858. His parents were Ger- 
man Lutherans of the Appenzell people of Switzerland, 
He taught school briefly, joined the First Methodist 
Church of Lancaster, Pa., and entered Franklin and Mar- 
shall College at the age of twenty. He was licensed to 
preach, served a small mission church, and then entered 
Drew Theological Seminary in 1882. 

While in Drew he became interested in mission work 
in J.a.pan and Korea. On Dec. 17, 1884 he married Ella 
J. Dodge and shortly after went to Korea. He completed 
his seminary work in Januar\ , was ordained by Bishop 
C. H. Fowler in San Francisco, Feb. 3, 1885, and set 
sail for Japan. 

Arriving in Seoul in June, 1885, with government 
permission to teach but not to preach, he opened a school, 
to v\hich the King gave the name of Pai Chai Hak Dang. 
In 1886 he was able to hold the first public service for 
Koreans. He founded First Methodist Churcli, Chung 
Dong, Seoul and was its pastor for years, completing the 
first foreign style church building in 1898. He also served 
as superintendent of his mission until 1892. In those days 
of arduous travel he made two trips to P>'engyang, one to 
the Manchurian border at Wi-Ju, one to Kongju and Pusan, 
covering si.x of the eight provinces and some 2,000 miles. 

He served on the Bible Committee and Board of Trans- 
lators, and for many years was president of Korean Reli- 
gious Tract Society. He wrote and translated many tracts 
and was manager of the bookstore where they were 
sold. He helped establish a Methodist Publishing House. 
For four years he edited and published a weekly journal, 
the Korean Christian Advocate. With George Heber 
Jones he edited and published a monthly journal. The 
Korean Repository, an English language authority on 
Korean matters. He was a charter member and for four 
years pastor of Seoul Union Church (English language). 



So strenuous was his activity that he grew old fast, 
was gray at 40, and went on his second furlough in 1900, 
■'worn in features, an old man though in middle life." 
Urged to fake a church in America, he felt the need in 
Korea and returned in 1901. The next June, en route to 
a meeting of the Bible translators at Mokpo, he was lost 
at sea in a collision about 100 miles south of Chemulpo, 
June 11, 1902. 

Three of his four children gave a total of sixty-eight 
years to missionary service in Korea. A son, Henry Dodge, 
was for hventy years head of the school his father 
founded. A daughter, Alice Rebecca, the first American 
Christian child bom in Korea, was for years president 
of EwHA College. A daughter Mary also taught at Ewha. 

William E. Griffin, A Modern Pioneer in Korea. New York: 
Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912. 

Official Minutes of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Korea 
Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1903. 

Charles A. Sauer 

APPLETON, WISCONSIN, U.S.A. First Church began in 
1848. At that time only fourteen people were banded to- 
gether in the first church service, held in what was known 
as the "Johnston Shanty." But each of the fourteen was 
determined to do his part toward organized church life 
and church membership grew rapidly. 

With labor and sacrifice they erected a small building 
on College Avenue, the town's main street. It burned 
within a few years. Undaunted, they set out to construct 
a new building, on Lawrence Street. For several years 
they were unable to get enough funds together to build 
beyond the basement wall. But they roofed that over 
in a crude manner, and there they held services. Finally, 
in 1878, a modest building was completed. 

In the 1920's the Lawrence Street building was sold; 
the membership had outgrown its quarters, and the pres- 
ent edifice was built. The Centennial was observed in 
1948, with a week of devotional meetings and pageantry. 
Appleton Methodists added a splendid new educational 
unit in 1964, containing fifteen classrooms, a spacious 
reception lounge, a combined fellowship hall and dining 
room, and a well-equipped kitchen. 

Many dedicated pastors have ser\ed First Church 
through the years. One of the recent, Ralph Taylor 
Alton, left here to become bishop of the Wisconsin 
area in 1960. 

Gordon Sorensen 

APPLEYARD, JOHN WHITTLE (1814-1874), Wesleyan 
missionary in South Africa, was born at Cirencester, 
Glos., England on June 15, 1814, entered the ministry in 
1838 and came to South Africa in 1840. He married 
Sarah Ann, eldest daughter of James Ahchbell, on April 
13, 1841. 

Appleyard possessed outstanding linguistic gifts and 
acquired a knowledge of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syriac, 
and Chaldean. He commenced the study of Xhosa soon 
after his arrival in South Africa and in 1850 published 
a major work which included an authoritative Xhosa 
Grammar and a pioneer comparative study of the Bantu 
languages (The Kafir Language, Grahamstown and Lon- 
don, 1850). Even more significant was his work as a 
Bible translator. Earlier missionaries had translated por- 
tions of the Bible into Xhosa, but the first New Testa- 
ment (1846) and complete Bible (1859) were the work 

of Appleyard, with some assistance from four other mis- 
sionaries. Between 1860 and 1864 he revised the entire 
Xhosa Bible singlehanded and supersised its printing for 
the British and Foreign Bible Society. This revised 
version of 1864 came under fire from missionaries of other 
societies and an interdenominational committee was ap- 
pointed to produce a new translation in 1868. Appleyard 
was a member but died before the revision of the New 
Testament was complete. Although the new translation 
(published in 1888) was of a high standard, many 
Xhosa speakers still prefer Appleyard's translation which 
is closer to the spoken language. In addition to his trans- 
lations, he composed a number of hymns and several 
religious works in Xhosa. 

Appleyard had trained as a printer and was appointed 
editor of the Wesleyan Mission Press, first at King Wil- 
liam's Town, and after 1854 at Mount Coke. His health 
was never robust and he died at King William's Town 
on April 4, 1874. 

Dictionary of South African Biography. 
Minutes, British Methodist Conference, 1874. 

J. D. P. van der Poll 

APPOINTMENT. In Methodist nomenclature an "appoint- 
ment" is the station, or pastoral charge, or other position 
in die church to which a preacher is foimally assigned 
by a bishop, or in non-episcopal Mediodism by the estab- 
lished appointive power. "Reading the appointments" has 
been traditionally the final act of any annual conference 
in Episcopal Methodism, and when the bishop reads the 
appointments, such formal, public pronouncement "sta- 
tions" the preachers for the ensuing year. Disciplinary 
regulations governing the making of the appointments, 
and many other matters having to do with these, are care- 
fully outlined. 

The reading of the appointment by the bishop fixes 
these appointments, and no parchment, or other certifica- 
tion, is ever demanded either by the minister who goes, 
or the charge to which he is appointed. By Methodist 
common-law this public reading of appointments takes 
the place of anything like a contract or contractual rela- 
tionship which other denominations necessarily use in 
their pastor and congregation relationship. 

N. B. H. 

APPROVED EVANGELISTS. ( See Evangelists. ) 


ARAYA, SAMUEL (1917- ), Chilean pastor and theo- 

logical professor, was bom in Santiago. He was educated 
at the Liceo of Chile, where he earned his secondary 
school diploma in sciences in 1936. He then studied at 
the Facultad Evangehca de Teologia (Union Theological 
Seminary) in Buenos Aires, Argentina; and, as a Cru- 
sade Scholar, earned the Th.M. degree at Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York, in 1960. 

He joined the Chile Annual Conference in 1941 
and served as pastor of churches in Chile and in New 
York City. In 1963 he was appointed director of the 
Methodist Bibhcal Seminary in Chile, which in 1965 
was incorporated into the Evangelical Theological Com- 
munity, an interdenominational seminary in Santiago, 
with Araya as one of its professors. 

He has served on a number of boards of The Meth- 


odist Church in Chile and presendy (1967) is executive 
secretary of the General Board of the annual conference 
as well as chairman of its Committee on Ecumenical Rela- 
tionships. He holds membership in the Latin American 
Association of Theological Institutions. 

Edwin H. Maynabd 

ARCH, JOSEPH (1826-1919), British Methodist, was 
bom in Barford, Warwickshire. He was a pioneer in the 
movement to organize agricultural workers in a trade 
union, and in 1872 he founded and became president 
of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union. He was 
a Primitive Methodist local preacher, and often 
seemed to combine his two major interests of preaching 
in village chapels and organizing his fellow laborers to 
improve their conditions. He became convinced that the 
most effective way of doing this was through politics 
rather than through the unions. He entered Parliament 
as a Liberal M.P. for Norfolk, North-West, in 1885. He 
was defeated at the time of the Irish Home Rule Bill in 
1886, but returned to the House in 1892, and sat until 

Joseph Arch: The Story of His Life. 1898. 
R. F. Wearmouth, Struggle of the Working Classes. 1954. 

E. R. Taylor 

ARCHBELL, JAMES (1798-1866), pioneer Wesleyan 
Methodist missionary in South Africa, was born in 
England in 1798. He married Ehzabeth Haigh in Leeds 
in 1818 and joined Barnabas Shaw at Leliefontein (Lily 
Fountain) in the same year. After two unsuccessful at- 
tempts to establish stations in Bushmanland and Great 
Namaqualand, he travelled as far north as Walvis Bay 
and volunteered for service in that area if a colleague 
could be found. Instead he was sent to the Bechuana 
Mission in 1825, and with T. L. Hodgson endeavored 
to revive the work among the Barolong which had been 
abandoned by Samuel Broadbent. Tribal warfare forced 
them to withdraw from the Transvaal and settle at Plat- 
berg, near present-day Warrenton. The population at this 
station soon became too great for the resources of soil 
and water. In May 1833, Archbell and John Edwards, 
accompanied by a group of tribesmen, trekked southeast 
in search of a more favorable situation. Later that year 
they peaceably conducted a migration of 12,000 men, 
women, and children to the Thaba 'Nchu area where they 
obtained a grant of land from the Basuto Chief, Mosh- 
oeshoe, and other local chiefs. The natives were located 
in tribal groups on various stations, Archbell himself set- 
tling among the Barolong at Thaba 'Nchu. In 1836-37 this 
station became the headquarters of the Afrikaner Voor- 
trekkers who were abandoning the Cape Colony and 
seeking independence. Archbell exercised a useful pastoral 
and preaching ministry among them and was asked by 
some to become their minister. Nothing came of this 
invitation, although Archbell himself wished to accept 
it. His linguistic studies issued in the publication of the 
first Tswana Grammar and New Testament Translations 
at GrahamstowTi in 1838. 

After a period in England, Archbell became the Meth- 
odist pioneer in Natal. He visited Port Natal (Durban) 
in 1841 and returned with his family when the British 
forces took control of the port in April 1842. In Decem- 
ber 1847, he resigned from the ministry after a clash 
with the mission authorities. 


Archbell subsequently became a leading figure in Natal 
society. He farmed, served on the Natal Land Commis- 
sion, ran a newspaper, founded a bank and the Natal 
Agricultural Society, became a member of the first Natal 
Legislative Council and was repeatedly mayor of Pieter- 
maritzburg. He died in Pietermaritzburg in March, 1866, 
and was buried in the Wesleyan Cemetery. 

John Bond, They Were South Africans. Cape Town, 1958. 

John Edwards, Reminiscences of the Rev. John Edwards. 

London, 1886. 

B. Shaw, South .\frica. 1841. 

J. Whiteside, South Africa. 1906. G. Mears 

ARCHER, ALBERT ERNEST (1878-1949), Canadian physi- 
cian, surgeon, and hospital administrator, was bom in 
Campbellford, Ontario, Canada, the son of a Canadian 
Methodist minister. He attended high school in Hamilton 
and St. Catharines, Ontario. After teaching school for a 
time, he attended the University of Toronto, graduating 
in medicine in 1902. After further training, in 1903 he 
began to practice in the Northwest Territories at Star, 
forty miles northeast of Edmonton. Here he continued a 
work among newly immigrated Galician faimers, begun 
under Methodist mission auspices in 1901 by H. R. 
Smith. In 1904, Archer maiTied Jessie Walker Valens 
of Lucknow, Ontario, a graduate in nursing of the Hamil- 
ton General Hospital. At first, patients were treated in the 
Archer home, which was removed in 1906 to the village 
of Lamont, on the building of the Alberta Northern Rail- 
way to that point. 

In 1911, a committee to organize a hospital was formed 
under the chairmanship of Archer. With the assistance 
of the Board of Home Missions of the Methodist Church 
of Canada, a fifteen-bed hospital was built and equipped 
in 1912, and Archer became the first superintendent. The 
hospital has continued to grow over the years, with the 
organization of a school of nursing, an unusual feature 
in a rural hospital. A tribute to its standing and efficiency 
was the recognition of the Lamont Public Hospital as 
standard by the American College of Surgeons in 1923, 
the first nonui-ban hospital to be so recognized in Canada 
at the time. 

As a public-spirited citizen. Archer sei-ved on the La- 
mont School Board, the village council, and one term 
as mayor. In medical associations he worked as president 
of the Alberta Medical Association, on the executive of 
the Canadian Medical Association and as its president 
in 1942, as president of the Alberta Hospital Association, 
and from 1945 to 1948 as economic adviser to the Ca- 
nadian Medical Association. He was a pioneer in Canada 
in the field of pubfic health, and served as a member of 
a committee of seven advising the federal government 
on health problems. 

He was a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, 
of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (Can- 
ada). He received honorary doctorates from the Univer- 
sities of Alberta and Manitoba. He was decorated with 
the O.B.E. and subsequently with the C.B.E. After he 
died in 1949, the Lamont Public Hospital was named the 
Archer Memorial Hospital to honor this rural doctor who 
was in advance of his time. 

J. H. Riddell, Middle West. 1946. 

J. E. Nix 

ARCHER, ARTHUR COLUMBUS (1885- ), American 
Free Methodist retired ordained elder, was born at 



Densmore, Kan. He served thirty-eight years as superin- 
tendent of conferences and pastor of churches in Kansas, 
Nebraska, Oregon, California, and Nevada. As a pio- 
neer worker he organized twenty-four churches. There 
were more than 10,000 seekers at the altar, and he re- 
ceived 2,600 into church membership. He is the author 
of a number of books. He and his wife reside at Sparks, 

Byron S. Lamson 

Raymond L. Archer 

ARCHER, RAYMOND LEROY (1887-1970), American 
missionary to Malaya and bishop for six vears, was born 
Oct. 31, 1887, in Tyler County, W. Va. He held the 
A.B., A.M., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of 
Pittsburgh, Drew, and Hartford, respectively. He mar- 
ried Edna Priscilla Cave, Wilmerding, Pa., on April 27, 
1916. Admitted on trial in the Pittsburgh Conference 
in 1909, he served three charges, and in 1911 transferred 
to the Malaya Conference where for the next 31 years he 
ministered as a missionary in Java, Sumatra, and Ma- 
laya. At different times he served as pastor, educator, 
treasurer-district superintendent, mission superintendent, 
honorary vice-consul in Medan, Sumatra, and chaplain 
to British troops. Returning to the United States in 1942, 
he was for eight years attached to the Board of Missions, 
first as assistant treasurer and then as an associate secre- 

Archer was a delegate to the 1936 and 1944 General 
Conferences and to the Uniting Conference in 1939. He 
was elected bishop in 1950, the first westerner so honored 
by the Southeast Asia Central Conference. He continued 
in office six years, supervising the work in Burma, Ma- 
laya, Sarawak (Borneo), and Sumatra. During his ad- 
ministration there was growth of native leadership in the 
conference, and the local churches gave greater support 
to their pastors and to the conference home missionary 

program. In 1955 entire villages were under regular in- 
struction in Christianity. In 1935 Archer published Mo- 
hammedan Mysticism in Sumatra. In 1950 he said, "Chris- 
tianity has achieved more success among the Moslems 
in Indonesia than anywhere in the world." 

After the expiration of his term as bishop. Archer served 
two years, 1957-59, as professor of missions at Drew. He 
then moved to Pittsburgh where he died, July 3, 1970. 

World Outlook, August, 1950. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. Jesse A. Earl 

ARCHITECTURE. The Octagon Form in Methodism. As 

is well known, John Wesley favored the octagonal form 
for his preaching houses or chapels. "Eight-sided chapels 
have no comers for the devil to hide in," whimsical ob- 
servers were quoted as saying. A more rational explanation 
is that two centuries before "functional" became the shib- 
boleth in a certain popular architectural school, Wesley 
saw advantages both esthetic and practical in what he 
called "octagon chapels" — advantages recognized latterly 
by "churches-in-the-round." 

Eight-sided baptistries had been erected by early Chris- 
tians, and the mausoleum of Constantine followed that 
pattern as did many chapter houses of medieval monas- 
teries. Sir Christopher Wren envisioned its superior possi- 
bilities for congregational worship, and after the London 
fire of 1666 incorporated it in his unused Great Model 
Plan of 1673 for rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral. English 
Presbyterians built an octagon-shaped house of worship 
in 1756 at Colegate, and the Anglicans used this archi- 
tectural form in a Gothic church erected at Hartwell, 
Bucks, in 1753. 

Wesley's enthusiasm for octagon chapels dates from 
Nov. 23, 1757. Of Norwich he wrote in his Journal, "I 
was shown Dr. Taylor's new meetinghouse, perhaps the 
most elegant one in Europe. It is eight-square, built of 
the finest brick, with sixteen sash-windows below, as many 
above, and eight skylights in the dome, which, indeed, 
are purely ornamental. The inside is finished in the high- 
est taste." 

His eye was attracted by the esthetic, but his alert 
mind reached for the concept later to be phrased by 
Louis Sullivan: "Form follows function." To Noncon- 
fonnists, both in England and America, places for wor- 
ship were "meeting-houses," but to logos-centered Wesley, 
his chapels always were "preaching-houses." Spreading 
the Word by preaching was the essence of Methodism, 
and he saw how the octagonal pattern gave the speaker 
a central position with acoustical advantages that came 
to full flower in the rapport of "singing Methodists." 
Lighting and ventilation were facilitated by windows; 
heating was economical. Moreover, semi-circular seating 
gave worshipers a visual and physical awareness of "to- 
getherness," augmenting the friendly concern for others 
so characteristic of early Wesleyan societies. 

There were economic advantages in constructing eight 
walls identical except for doors and windows and inexpen- 
sive construction stood high in Wesley's scale of values. 
"Let all our chapels," he wrote, "be built plain and decent, 
but not more expensive than is absolutely unavoidable: 
otherwise the necessity of raising money will make rich 
men necessary to us. But if so, we must be dependent 
upon them, yea, and governed by them. And then farewell 
to the Methodist discipline, if not doctrine, too." 

Thus to John Wesley the octagonal form for preaching- 



houses was functional and helped Methodism achieve its 
purpose. His conviction shows in his answer to Question 
No. 74 in The Large Minutes, "Is any thing (further) 
advisable with regard to building?" 

"1. Build all preaching-houses, where the ground will 
permit, in the octagon form. It is best for the voice, and 
on many accounts more commodious than any other. 

"2. Why should not any octagon house be built after 
the model of Yarm? . . . Can we find any better model? 

"3. Let the roof rise only one third of its breadth: 
this is the true proportion. 

"4. Have doors and windows enough, and let all the 
windows be sashes, opening downward . . ." 

The Methodist chapel at Yarm, Northumberland, 
which he noted with favor, was built in 1764. It was 
one of 14 that Wesley was associated with from 1761 to 
1776, and today is the oldest existing Methodist building 
of octagonal form. Wesley first preached in it on April 
24, 1764 and described it as "by far the most elegant 
Methodist preaching-house in England." Visitors today 
see it with a gallery which was added in 1815, and a few 
other changes including a porch and staircase extension 
added in 1873. It seats 320, though before the gallery 
was added it could accommodate a scant 200. 

Two other Wesley octagon chapels are still in Meth- 
odist use: Heptonstall, Yorkshire (1764) and Arbroath, 
Scotland (1772). The former is built high on a hillside 
and, says George W. Dolbey in The Architectural Expres- 
sion of Methodism, "still preserves in its interior much of 
its original Georgian simplicity." The Arbroath chapel is 
"the least spoiled by alterations and accretions," though 
several of the old square-headed Georgian windows have 
been replaced by stained glass. 

The spread of octagon chapels in England was slowed 
by the paradox of Methodism's growth, for this shape 
had its own practical limitation. It was difficult to add to 
a chapel with eight sides. Light is cast on this problem by 
Wesleyan history at Bradford: "The doors of the Octagon 
Chapel were for ten or twelve weeks scarcely ever closed 
by day or night, one party of worshipers frequently wait- 
ing without till those within had fulfilled the appointed 
hour of service." 

Although other architectural fonns superseded the 
octagonal in British Methodism, it was not forgotten. 
The "Pepper Box Chapel," officially known as Wesley 
Church at Higher Tranmere, Birkenhead, erected in 1862, 
was squared on the first floor but was a true octagon on 
the second. Dolbey notes that "at least an echo" of octa- 
gon chapels can be detected internally in several large 
Methodist central halls built toward the close of the 19th 

The octagon tradition seems never to have rooted itself 
in early American Methodism. One reason undoubtedly 
was that Bishop Thomas Coke, doing a hasty job of 
condensing The Large Minutes after the 1784 Christmas 
Conference at Lovely Lane Chapel in Baltimore, 
omitted the answer to Question No. 74, quoted above, 
from A Form of Discipline which was of course for Amer- 
ican consumption. Pertinent also was the octagon form's 
inability to cope with the rapid growth so characteristic 
of dynamic American Methodism. But a limiting factor 
even more typical of America was improvisation, the set- 
tler's ingenuity for using whatever was at hand to suit his 
purpose. Thus, stones and logs and sod became frontier 
churches or, like as not, the circuit rider adapted a bam, 
a house, or any available building to his use. The multi- 

sided Fort Pitt Blockhouse, for example, served Pitts- 
burgh Methodists in 1764, and in the 20th century the 
unused octagonal tower of the skyscraping Chicago Tem- 
ple (First Methodist Church) was transformed into the 
Chapel-in-the-Sky, favored for Easter Ser\'ices — and altar- 
minded couples. 

Some historians of American ecclesiastical architecture 
may detect influence of Wesley's octagon chapel upon 
the over maligned Akron Plan with its central pulpit. 'The 
relationship is clearer factually, if not historically, with 
churches designed under the aegis of 20th-centiiry func- 
tionahsm. Steel trusses and fabricated beams, the science 
of acoustics and ventilation, and realignment of liturgy 
to have more effective communication have influenced 
certain planners, such as Gabriel Loire of Chartres, toward 
the form once espoused by Sir Christopher Wren. And 
John Wesley. 

Peter Hammond, English author of Liturgy and Archi- 
tecture (1960), reports "the octagon once again is being 
adopted as a suitable architectural expression of the liturgy 
and life of the Uventieth-century Christian Church, espe- 
cially in Europe." He cites a new Methodist church at 
Sale, Cheshire, as "one interesting reversion to Wesley's 
favorite shape," adding that "some of the merits of the 
octagon are as relevant in the twentieth century as they 
were in the eighteenth." 

In America the trend is indigenous. As earh' as 1914 
at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Methodists commissioned Louis 
Sullivan, long before he was hailed as the "father of func- 
tionalism," to design a new church for Saint Paul's. 
Though the ecclesiastical vogue of that era was "Gothic 
in Pantalets," he created a "contemporary" building with 
pews arched about a central pulpit in a semi-circular 
sanctuary. Bishop W. A. Quayle characterized it as "a 
poem and a workshop," while Bishop Edgar Blake 
prophesied that it would "set the ideal for years to come." 

Noteworthy examples of American Methodist churches 
following the swing toward the octagonal or in-the-round 
form, usually with central pulpit, include: St. Luke's, 
Oklahoma City; Hollywood Ri\'iera, near Los Angeles; 
Bloomfield, Connecticut; Good Shepherd, Park Ridge, 
Illinois; St. Stephen, Mesquite, Texas. 

American Methodist architecture presently appears to 
be on the march — seeking fulfillment of purpose in form 
and structural materials. And as purpose is clarified, the 
trend turns from "Byzantine Bastard" and "Gothic Tunnel" 
of yesteryear to "contemporary" forms with facilities for 
preaching and audience participation. This is a trail trod 
by John Wesley. 

Norman G. Byar, "An Approach to Church Design," The 
Christian Advocate, Feb. 11, 1965. 
J. C. Bowmer, Lord's Supper. 1961. 
G. W. Dolbey, Architectural Expression. 1964. 
F. C. Gill, John Wesley. 1962. 

C. Deane Little, "Early Methodist Octagons," Proceedings 
of the Wesley Historical Society, XXV, 81-86 
Herbert E. Richards, "In Defense of Gothic," and "Down the 
Years with Church Architecture," Together, March, 1958. 
Edmund W. Sinnott, Meeting House and Church in Early Netv 
England. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. 

Harold E. Wagoner, "Church Architecture"; also "5 Distinctive 
New Churches" and "The Ideas Behind Them," Together, 
November, 1964. 

J. Wesley et al. The Large Minutes. 

Frank Lloyd Wright, "Is It Goodbye to Godiic?"; also, "8 
'Modern' Methodist Churches," Together, February', 1958. 

Leland D. Case 




Further Development in Britain. The spontaneous ori- 
gin, rapid growtii, and ecclesiastical development of Brit- 
ish Methodism find distinctive expression in the plan, 
form, and style of its buildings. The Foundery, London 
(1739), the New Room, Bristol (1739), and the New- 
castle Orphan House (1743) were religious community 
centers of a movement within the Church of England. The 
minor stream of eighteenth-century chapels which devel- 
oped from improvised preaching places was much influ- 
enced by Wesley himself, and reflected the rectangular 
auditory plan typical of eighteenth-century Anglicanism. 
A number of "Isroader-than-long" chapels owed their in- 
spiration to the Dissenting meetinghouse, and possibly to 
Moravian influence. Of Wesley's fourteen octagons, only 
three remain: Yarm (1764), Heptonstall (1764), both in 
Yorkshire; and Arbroath, Scotland (1772). The oldest 
Methodist chapel in continuous for worship is New- 
biggin-in-Teesdale (1760). These not-unpleasant build- 
ings were simple and were constructed of local materials. 

Wesley's Chapel, City Road, London (1778) epito- 
mizes the ecclesiastical development of Methodism. It 
became the norm for large chapels for half a century, and 
the e.x-architect minister, William Jenkins, made it his 
model. Only four chapels of this type today retain the 
once-popular arrangement of the Communion space in a 
recess behind the central pulpit. 

Large, early nineteenth-century chapels were erected 
in many towns like Sheffield, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
Redruth, Stockport, Birkenhead, Truro, and Derby. These 
were all spacious, rectangular, well-fenestrated buildings, 
each seating over a thousand people, and were usually of 
local stone, though brick was sometimes efl^ectively used. 

Mainly through Frederick James Jobson, another min- 
ister who had been an architect, the Gothic Revival af- 
fected Methodism from the 1840's, at first superficially 
and then in plan and structure. From 1850 to 1870 sixty 
percent of new churches were medieval in emphasis, 
though the detail was usually inferior owing to financial 
stringency. Renaissance Norman and Romanesque 
churches were also erected in this period, some of them 
of creditable design. 

Methodism shared in the general architectural con- 
fusion of the last quarter of the nineteenth century and 
the early twentieth century. French, Lombardic, Italian- 
ate, and Art Nouveau strains mingled with Renaissance 
and Medieval. Internally, pews were modernized and 
simple pulpits were replaced by grandiose pine or ma- 
hogany rostra. Near the end of the century, several large, 
well-massed and articulated Gothic churches were built. 
The Forward Movement brought the urban central mis- 
sions, mostly in a modified Renaissance idiom. The mod- 
ernized Gothic of tlie early twentieth century heralded a 
simpler style based on materials and function. Many 
churches transferred the pulpit to one side and placed 
the Communion table at the "east" end of the chancel. 

As Methodism tardily emulated Anglican medievalism 
in the nineteenth century, so in the twentieth it is slowly 
following universal modem trends in ecclesiastical design. 
However, recent developments indicate an increasing vi- 
rility of architectural expression and a greater willingness 
to experiment structurally, aesthetically, and internally. 

Annual Reports (from 1885) of Wesleyan Chapel Committee. 
M. S. Briggs, Puritan Architecture and Its Future. London: 
Lutterworth Press, 1946. 
G. W. Dolbey, Architectural Expression. 1964. 

A. L. Drummond, The Church Architecture of Protestantism. 

Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1934. 

F. J. Jobson, Chapel and School Architecture. 1850. 

E. Benson Perkins and Albert Hem, The Methodist Church 

Builds Again. London: Epworth Press, 1946. 

George W. Dolbey 

Development in the United States. Methodist church 
architecture in the United States has followed the general 
patterns of Protestant church building since the eighteenth 
century. It is indicative that the oldest Methodist church 
building in the U.S.A., St. George's, Philadelphia 
(1769), was constructed originally for another denomina- 
tion. The chief distinctive character of Methodist church 
buildings has been the communion rail reflecting the 
Anglican heritage. 

The earliest Methodist meetinghouses were simple 
structures, ornamentation being considered less important 
than the accommodation of many worshipers. Balconies 
frequently increased the capacity of the structure. Repre- 
sentative buildings were the original Lovely Lane Chap- 
el, Baltimore, (1774), Barratt's Chapel, Kent Coun- 
ty, Delaware (1780), and the original John Street 
Church, New York City (1768). 

In the period following the Revolution, Methodism 
began its rapid expansion westward. Frequently log cabins 
were erected such as Rehoboth Church, Union, West 
Virginia (1785), said to be the first Methodist church 
built west of the Alleghenies. Circuit riders preached 
wherever they found an audience, in the out-of-doors 
as well as in private homes. Temporary pulpits and rough 
shelters were erected for camp meetings. In more settled 
regions, churches were erected following tlie prevailing 
Federal style. First Church, Lynn, Massachusetts 
( 1791 ) followed this style which was favored by both 
Congregationalists and Episcopalians in the northeast. 
Less pretentious frame buildings appeared as frontier 
regions became more settled. McKendree Chapel, Cape 
Girardeau County, Missouri (1806), is a fine example. 

As the nineteenth-century battle of styles progressed, 
Methodism followed popular taste though often with a 
slight time lapse. The Federal style gave way to the Greek 
revival, an idiom followed by many Methodist churches 
in the eastern half of the country such as First Church, 
Edgartown, Mass. (1842). The period shortly before the 
Civil War saw the popularity of Gothic revival architec- 
ture, a fashion imported from England, while the period 
after the war saw a fascination with the Romanesque 
developed by H. H. Richardson, as in Harvard-Epworth 
Church, Cambridge. This was a period when great efforts 
at church extension were made and hundreds of churches 
were erected each year. A distinct Methodist contribu- 
tion of the time was the Akron plan, developed by Lewis 
Miller in First Church, Akron, Ohio. Superbly adapted to 
the church life of the times, it was characterized by a 
large hall for Sunday school opening exercises with small 
classrooms on a horseshoe balcony. The hall opened by 
sliding doors into the "auditorium" where pulpit, choir, 
and organ pipes were in the corner of a room with curved 
pews and a sloping floor. 

The twentieth century brought more sophistication. A 
fondness for renaissance buildings gave way to the second 
Gothic revival, popularized by such men as Ralph Adams 
Cram in Trinity Church, Durham, N. C. Increasingly 
Georgian revival buildings competed for attention as in 



First Church, Chapel Hill, N. C. Tlie stylistic revivals were 
championed witliin Methodism by Elbert M. Conover. 

After World War II contemporary architecture grad- 
ually took the lead within Methodism, anticipated by 
Frank Lloyd Wright's Chapel at Florida Southern Col- 
lege, Lakeland. Recent years have seen a shift from the 
divided chancel arrangement to various experiments. 
Based upon new theological currents and biblical studies, 
central type arrangements have become more and more 
common as in Englewood Church, Chicago ( 1963) . 

E. T. Clark, Album of Methodist History. 1952. 

P. N. Garber, Methodist Meeting House. 1941. 

James F. White, Protestant Worship and Church Architecture. 

N.p., n.d. 

James F. White 

ARCHIVES, BRITISH. The Methodist Archives and Re- 
search Centre at the Book Room, London, contains manu- 
script letters, journals, and poetical works of the Wesleys, 
letters of early Methodist preachers and personalities, 
nineteenth-century pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, 
minutes, and historical works. It is also the official re- 
pository of all conference journals. The Research Room is 
available for students from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mondays to 
Fridays (except bank holidays). Archive material is also 
found at Wesley's Chapel and the Mission House in Lon- 
don; the New Room, Bristol; the Chapel Office, Man- 
chester; and at most Methodist theological colleges. 
Thomas Jackson's library is at Richmond College; the 
HoBiLL Collection is at Hartley Victoria College, Man- 
chester; and there is a smaller collection of pamphlets at 
Wesley College, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 

Proceedings, Wesley Historical Society, XXXIII. 

John C. Bowmer 

Conference of The Methodist Church adopted a resolu- 
tion calling on the Council of Bishops to appoint a 
committee to formulate an archival policy for the church 
and to report to the 1968 General Conference. An Ar- 
chives Committee was composed of: Albea Godbold, 
chairman; Elizabeth Hughey, secretary; Henry M. Bul- 
lock, Eleanore Cammack, and Homer L. Calkin. John 
H. Ness, Jr., archivist of the Evangelical United 
Brethren Church, was included as an advisory member. 

In 1965 the officers of the Association of Methodist 
Historical Societies of The Methodist Church and the 
officers of The Historical Society of The Evangelical 
United Brethren Church were formed a committee by 
the Joint Commission on Church Union to prepare a 
draft on the Commission on Archives and History for 
the Discipline of the proposed United Methodist 
Church. The committee adopted the archival statement 
prepared by the Archives Committee for The Methodist 
Church. Thus an archival policy for The United Methodist 
Church was incorporated in tlie Plan of Union and 
adopted in principle with the rest of the Plan at the joint 
meeting of the General Conferences in Chicago in Nov., 

As written the legislation on archives requires the Gen- 
eral Commission on Archives and History to establish a 
central archives for The United Methodist Church and 
such regional archives as in its judgment may be needed. 
Archives, as distinguished from libraries, house not pri- 
marily books but documentary materials such as records. 

minutes, journals, diaries, reports, pamphlets, letters, pa- 
pers, manuscripts, maps, photographs, audio-visuals, re- 
cordings, and any other items regardless of physical form 
or characteristic which pertain to the activities and the 
history of The United Methodist Church. The bishops, 
General Conference officers, general boards, commissions, 
committees, and agencies of the church are directed to 
deposit official minutes or journals in the archives and to 
transfer correspondence, records, papers, and other ar- 
chival materials from their offices to the archives when 
they no longer have operational usefulness. Obviously the 
purpose of archives is to preserve the documents which 
will serve in later years as the sources for writing the 
history of the church. 

At the time of church union in 1968 there were few 
archival items in the possession of the Association of 
Methodist Historical Societies. Many libraries within The 
Methodist Church had small archival holdings of that 
denomination. The bulk of material had either been de- 
stroyed through the general church agencies or former 

In view of church union and following a program of 
promotion. Evangelical United Brethren archival records 
were being transferred to the cential depository of that 
denomination. With the organization of the Commission 
on Archives and History these archives were incorporated 
into the holdings of that agency. 

An archival committee was formed by the new Com- 
mission to contact the uniting agencies and urge the 
transfer of inactive records. By mid- 1969 this transfer 
was being duly effected in several instances. 

A careful study was conducted during the 1968-72 
quadiennuim to consider a central location for the United 
Methodist Archives. The present locations. Lake Juna- 
LUSKA, N. C. for Methodists, and Dayton, Ohio for 
Evangelical United Brethren, were continued by the Com- 
mission on Archives and History. 

John H. Ness, Jr. 

Methodist churches of the world have each shown care in 
preserving their own historical records and archives. The 
way in which this has been done, and the official archival 
repositories for the large organized Methodisms, are 
sometimes noted in the history of the respective churches 
in this Encyclopedia, as in the United Church of Can- 
ada and The United Methodist Church in America. 
The following list will indicate the name and address 
of the Archives of the various branches of Methodism. 

African Methodist Episcopal 

African Methodist Episcopal 

Zion Church 
African Union First Colored 

Methodist Protestant 

Church, Inc. 

Bible Protestant Church 

Christian Methodist Episcopal 

Churches of Christ 

in Christian Union 

Evangelical Congregational 

1716 Varnum St., N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 20011 

Box 146 

Bedford, Pa. 15522 
602 Spruce St. 
Wilmington, Del. 19801 

52 N. 22nd St. 
Camden, N. J. 08105 
Box 6447 

Memphis, Tenn. 38106 
Circleville, O. 43113 

121 S. College Street 
Myerstown, Pa. 17067 



Evangelical Methodist Church 

Fire Baptized Holiness 
Church ( Wesleyan ) 

First Congregational Methodist 

Church of U.S.A. 
Free Christian Zion Church 

of Christ 
Free Methodist Church 

of North America 
Holiness Methodist Church 

Pentecostal Holiness 

Church, Inc. 
Reformed Methodist Union 

Episcopal Church 
Soutliern Methodist Church 
United Brethren in Christ 

( Old Constitution ) 
United Christian Church 

United Methodist Church 
Commission on Archives 
and History 

Methodist Publishing House 

The Upper Room Library 

Historical Society 

Drew University Library 
Archives of Indiana 

Boston University School of 
Theology Library 

St. George's Church 

Lovely Lane Museum 

Garrett Theological 
Seminary Library 

Candler School of Theology 

Divinity School Library 

Divinity School Library 

Nippert Memorial Library 
Cincinnati Historical Society 
The Wesleyan Church 

United Church of Canada 

Methodist Church 
of Great Britain 

3036 N. Meridian 
Wichita, Kan. 67204 

600 Country Club Dr. 
Independence, Kan. 67301 
Henagar, Ala. 35978 

Nashville, Ark. 71852 

Winona Lake, Ind. 46590 

2823 Newton Ave. N. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 55411 

Franklin Springs, 

Ga. 30639 
Charleston, S. C. 29407 

Orangeburg, S. C. 29115 
Huntington College 
Huntington, Ind. 46750 
c/o Elder Henry C. Heagy 
Lebanon, Pa. R.D.4 17042 
Lake Junaluska, N. C. 28745 

601 W. Riverview Ave. 
Dayton, O. 45406 

201 Eighth Ave. South 
Nashville, Tenn. 37202 
1908 Grand Avenue 
Nashville, Tenn. 37203 
Ohio Wesleyan University 
Delaware, O. 43015 
Madison, N. J. 07940 
DePauw University 
Greencastle, Ind. 46135 
Commonwealth Avenue 
Boston, Mass. 02215 

326 New Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107 

2200 St. Paul St. 
Baltimore, Md. 21218 
2121 Sheridan Road 
Evanston, 111. 60201 

Emory University 
Atlanta, Ga. 30303 

Duke University 
Durham, N. C. 27705 
Southern Methodist Univ. 
Dallas, Tex. 
Eden Park 

Cincinnati, Ohio 45206 
Box 2000 
Marion, Ind. 46952 

Victoria College 
University of Toronto 
Toronto, Can. 
25-35 City Road 
London, E.C.I, Eng. 

ARDMORE, OKLAHOMA, U.S.A. First Church was or- 
ganized in 1888 by J. C. Scivally. It was first named 
Broadway. The present church was built under the 
leadership of J. T. McClure in 1924. The facilities in- 
clude a sanctuary, educational building, McClure Chapel, 

Cora Carlock Chapel, and a children's building, alto- 
gether worth nearly a million dollars. The church now 
(1968) has a membership of 3,314. It maintains a strong 
missionary program, and its care of the sick and shut-in 
members is outstanding. 

Youth are a primary concern. There is a strong program 
of teaching, worship, counseling, and recreation. This 
church is widely known for its music and worshipful 
services. These are broadcast each Sunday. 

Among the pastors have been G. B. Winton, R. E. L. 
Morgan, Ashley Chappell, and Harry S. DeVore. 

AREA, EPISCOPAL. An episcopal area in The United 
Methodist Church, U.S.A. is comprised of the annual 
conference or conferences assigned to a bishop for resi- 
dential and presidential supervision. In Methodist nomen- 
clature an area would roughly correspond to the word 
"diocese," as this was and is in the Episcopal churches, 
though the usual Methodist " area" is far larger than any 
diocese might possibly be. 

The "area system" came about as the pristine itinerant 
general superintendency of the early bishops came to be 
modified by the great growth of the church. It was found 
impossible, even in the time of McKendree and Roberts, 
for the bishops to continue to travel together, and there 
naturally grew up the custom of assigning different con- 
ferences to different bishops for visitation and presidency. 
By a transition easy to follow, it came about in time that 
the same man was assigned again and again to the same 
conference or conferences, and he determined his resi- 
dence in relationship to his conference assignment or area. 
Bishops, like successful pastors, which they were, did not 
like to "move " too often. 

The area system came to be more firmly established 
in the M. E. Church than in the M. E. Church, South. 
In the Southern Church the bishops assigned each other 
about among individual conferences with quite frequent 
changes as the need might be felt for a bishop's particular 
type of superintendency. In the M. E. Church less of gen- 
eral episcopal itinerating was done, and the bishops usual- 
ly remained for longer times in charge of each particular 

It should be noted that "areas" grew up about, and 
were named for, cities, as they often are today in United 
Methodism. This is in contrast to the usage of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church which names its dioceses after 
a region. 

The General Conference has provided that a bishop 
may not remain in one area longer than twelve years, 
although there has never been a formal test of the con- 
stitutional power of the General Conference to station a 
bishop. The area system lends itself to administration in 
a very apt way, and as the bishop is the chief executive 
of the conferences he supervises, he may put into effect 
the program of the church in his own area with due re- 
gard to all particular necessities and special emphases. 
The administrative pattern called for by the area system 
in tlie M. E. Church, and to which its bishops and people 
were accustomed, made it more difficult for the Jurisdic- 
tional system to be put into effect in the conferences 
of the former M. E. Church after union in 1939 than 
was the case in the conferences of the former M. E. 
Church, South. This difference was something commented 
upon, following Union, by those who carefully studied 
Methodist polity. It in part explains the failure of the 
Jurisdictional system to estabhsh itself as strongly in the 


Northern and Western conferences of The United Meth- 
odist Church as it has in the conferences of the former 
Southern Church. 

Following are the Jurisdictional areas of The United 
Methodist Church in the U.S.A., as presently constituted: 

Northeastern Jurisdiction: Boston Area; Habbisbubg 
Area; New Jebsey Area; New Yobk Area; Philadelphi,\ 
Area; Pittsbxxrgh Area; Syracuse Area; Washington 
Area; West Vibginia Area. 

Southeastern Jurisdiction: Atlanta Area; BraMiNCHAM 
Area; Charlotte Area; Columbia Area; Florida Area; 
HoLSTON Area; Jackson Area; Louisville Area; Nash- 
ville Area; Raleigh Area; Richmond Area. 

North Central Jurisdiction: Chicago Area; Dakota 
Area: Illinois Area; Indiana Area; Iowa Area; Mich- 
igan Area; Minnesota Area; Ohio East Area; Ohio West 
Area; Wisconsin Area. 

South Central Jurisdiction: Abkansas Area; Dallas- 
FoBT WoBTH Area; Houston Area; Kansas Area; Lou- 
isiana Area; Missoubi Area; Nebraska Area; Oklahoma 
Area; Northwest Texas-New Mexico Area; San Antonio 

Western Jurisdiction: Denver Area; Los Angeles 
Area; Portland Area; San Fbancisco Area: Seattle 

Areas may be changed by General Conference, or by 
Central Conference directions or advices, or by the way 
the respective Colleges of Bishops decide to assign the 

N. B. H. 

ARGENTINA is the largest Spanish-speaking country of 
South America and the second largest on the continent. 
The country's 1,072,700 square miles stretch 2,300 miles 
from a semitropical north to (and beyond) the frigid 
waters of the Straits of Magellan, and from the Andes to 
the Adantic. Argentina's population of 22,775,000 (1966) 
makes it the third largest Spanish-speaking country of 
the world. 

The temperate region supports diversified agriculture 
and vast herds of livestock. Argentina has a growing in- 
dustrial sector and is attempting to meet its own needs in 
such fields as automobile manufacture, textiles, and ma- 
chine tools. 

Argentina has the continent's highest living standard, 
with a per capita income of $799 in 1961. It also claims 
Latin America's highest literacy rate, with 86.7 percent 
of the adult population able to read and write (1962). 
There is a growing middle class of small business men, 
professionals, and the better-paid employees. In rural 
areas there is a tradition of large landholdings — some ex- 
tremely large. 

While the constitution of Argentina "supports Roman 
Catholic worship," it guarantees religious liberty. Prot- 
estants (known as Evangelicals) represent all of the de- 
nominational spectrum and are widely dispersed. Esti- 
mates as to their numbers range from 431,000 (1960) 
up to as high as 1,000,000, and their proportion in the 
population from 2.1 percent up to the range of 3 to 5 

Spanish sovereignty was established with the arrival of 
Pedro de Mendoza in 1536. The area became a part of 
Spain's new world empire as the Viceroyalty of Buenos 
AiBES. (Not applied until later was the name Argentina, 
deriving from the Spaniards' belief that the "River of 

Silver" was an easier way to the silver mines in the in- 
terior of South America.) 

The revolt against Spain came early, with a governing 
junta established on May 25, 1810. Formal independence 
was declared on July 9, 1816. Finally there emerged a 
strong federation based on a constitution (1853) similar 
to that of the United States. Since 1930 the army has been 
a major political influence. In 1966 a military group took 
control of the goveinment. 

Argentina has in its population mixtures of Spanish, 
Italian, German, British, French, Polish, and Indian. The 
present Indian population is one of the lowest percentages 
found in any country of Latin America. Extensive British 
investments during the nineteenth century, particularly in 
railways, utilities, mining, and shipping, resulted in a 
substantial English-speaking business community. 

The first Protestant preaching in Buenos Aires was 
heard in 1820 from James Thomson, a Scottish Baptist 
minister who had come to Argentina in 1818 to introduce 
a Lancasterian system of public schools (and who also 
represented the Bbitish and Fobeign Bible Society). 
In 1825 a treaty permitted British subjects to have their 
own churches and services in English. In 1832 some 
Methodist (his name lost to history) wrote from Buenos 
Aires to the Missionary Society of the M. E. Church in 
New Yobk, stating that he had succeeded in forming a 
small class and asking that a missionary be sent. The 
society responded by dispatching Fountain E. Pitts, 
who sailed from Baltimore in June of 1835 and visited 
Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. Pitts confirmed the 
need and recommended that a missionary be sent. 

The first, John Dempster, set out in 1836. He made 
contact with the English, Scots, and North Americans and 
asked the mission board to send a teacher to found an 
English-language school. Dempster was received by Juan 
Manuel de Rosas, dictator of the country, who was cordial, 
but enjoined him to "confine his labors to the foreign 

A school was started, but there were difficulties over 
its operation, and Dempster returned to the United States 
after five years. But he had laid the foundation for the 
church. He was succeeded in 1842 by William H. 
NoBBis who had worked previously in Uruguay. 

The work came to be known as the South America 
Mission, and Buenos Aires was the headquarters for ac- 
tivity that came to extend into the interior of Argentina, 
Uruguay, and, for a time, Paraguay. Succeeding Norris 
as superintendents were Dallas D. Lobe, 1847-54; 
Goldsmith D. Carrow, 1854-57, and William Goodfel- 
Low, 1857-69. During some of these years the mission 
was, as described by Barclay, "little more than a chap- 
laincy to the American and British colony of Buenos 
Aires." Under Goodfellow, expansion began, and by 1864 
there were four ministers holding services (one of them 
in French) and congregations meeting in Buenos Aires, 
RosARio, and Esperanza. The church in Argentina re- 
ported 128 members, and there was a day school with 
106 pupils. 

There was no preaching in the Spanish language by 
Methodists (or any other Protestants) until May 25, 1867, 
when a young English immigrant, John Francis Thom- 
son, preached in Spanish in Buenos Aires. 

Work in Spanish was enlarged under the superinten- 
dency of Henry G. Jackson (1869-78). In 1870 there 
arrived in Argentina Thomas B. Wood who opened Span- 
ish-speaking work in Rosario. He later became superin- 


tendent, serving from 1878-87. He was succeeded by 
Charles W. Drees (1887-93). Expansion continued, and 
by 1891 Drees enumerated twelve Spanish mission cen- 
ters in Buenos Aires alone, with work also at Rosario, 
Carcaraiia, San Carlos, Entre Rios Province, and in central 
Argentina. Preaching was in Spanish, English, French, 
and German. The Woman's Foreign Missionary Soci- 
ety of the M. E. Church joined the work in 1874, when 
two young women arrived in Rosario to found the school 
that later became Colegio Americano. Women's work in 
later years expanded into social welfare. Until the last 
years of the 1880's the Methodist Church was the only 
missionary agency in the River Plate region. Then other 
denominations began to enter. 

In 1893 the era of the pioneers ended as the South 
America Mission was replaced by the South America An- 
nual Conference, authorized by the 1892 M. E. General 
Conference, in recognition of the growing strength of 
the church and the need for more local self-government. 
Bishop John P. Newman organized the South America 
Conference on July 1, 1893, with thirty-eight members. 
Eighteen were North American missionaries; the others 
were Argentine, Spanish, French, Italian, and from other 
backgrounds. The new conference had six districts, of 
which Argentina was one (with Brazil, Chile, Para- 
guay, Peru, and Uruguay). There were 886 full members 
and 676 probationers in the Methodist churches of Ar- 
gentina at this time, and 2,198 Sunday school pupils. 

The next thirty years were years of consolidation and 
growth, with increased numbers of Argentine clergy 
gradually taking leadership. 

In 1924 the Latin America Central Conference 
was formed, electing in 1932 as its first bishop, Juan 
E. Gattinoni, pastor of Central Church, Buenos Aires, 
the first Latin American to become a Methodist bishop. 
Argentina and Uruguay became separate conferences in 

During the 1950's Methodists began missions in a num- 
ber of the villages and larger towns of Patagonia. In 1964, 
at the request of Bishop Sante Uberto Barbieri and 
the Argentina Annual Conference, the Latin America 
Central Conference set the region apart as the Patagonia 
Provisional Annual Conference. It became one of 
the areas of fastest growth for Methodism anywhere in 
the world, showing a membership gain of fifty-four per- 
cent in its first two years as a conference (partly owing 
to incorporation of a number of Welsh Methodist con- 
gregations). The new conference includes the old city of 
Bahia Blanca and congregations in the tovras scattered 
through the inhabited valleys far to the south. In 1966 
work was opened at Rio Gallegos, near the Straits of Ma- 

In 1965 the Argentine Republic contained 82 organized 
Methodist churches and 130 additional preaching places. 
There were 7,338 church members and 2,983 prepara- 
tory members. They were ministered to by 68 ordained 
clergy, 36 supply pastors, and 28 missionaries. 

Of the schools, Colegio Americano in Rosario and Cole- 
gio Ward in Buenos Aires are the best known, but many 
local churches operate day schools. The church operates 
a school and social service program in La Boca, the old 
harbor area of Buenos Aires. At the same time, it is ex- 
perimenting wath new approaches to city culture at the 
Urban Center, developed largely by laymen. Methodists 
are major participants, along with Waldensians, Presby- 
terians, and Disciples of Christ, in the Facultad Evangel- 


ica do Teologia, the seminary in Buenos Aires serving all 
Latin America. The Methodist Publishing House (Meth- 
opress) is also continent- wide in influence as a center for 
editing and publishing Christian books and magazines. 
The church maintains its own home mission program, 
taking particular interest in the Toba Indians of North- 
ern Argentina. The Argentine church has sent mission- 
aries into Bolivia, for many years having supported a 
doctor as medical missionary in the Altiplano. Churches 
of the country have been one of the sources of support 
for the work in Ecuador under the Latin American 
Evangelical Board of Missions. 

Just as Argentina has been the center for much of the 
political thought of South America, so Protestant church- 
men of Argentina have contributed substantially to theo- 
logical thought and the strategy of evangelism and mis- 
sions for the continent. Argentine Methodists have taken 
leading (and cooperative) roles in this area. Their lead- 
ership finds expression through the theological seminary, 
the mission board, and such groups as the Church and 
Society Board and the Provisional Commission for Evan- 
gelical Unity in Latin America. Of recent years there has 
been discussion of a proposed merger of Methodists, Wal- 
densians, and Disciples of Christ in Argentina, Uruguay, 
and Paraguay. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1949-57. 
El Estandarte Evangelico de Sud America. (Methodist pe- 
riodica] published in Buenos Aires, 220-page special issue on 
the 75th anniversary of the establishment of the Methodist 
Mission in Buenos Aires, 1911 ). 

Barbara H. Lewis, ed., Methodist Overseas Missions, Gazet- 
teer and Statistics. New York: Board of Missions, 1960. 
W. Stanley Rycroft and Myrtle M. Clemmer, A Factual 
Study of Latin America. New York: Commission on Ecumenical 
Mission and Relations, United Presbyterian Church in the 
U.S.A., 1963. 

Adam F. Sosa, "Rehgion's Role in Argentina," Pampa Breezes, 
July, 1966. 

Robert A. Stroud, The Patagonian Pioneer, August, 1966. 
World Methodist Council Handbook, 1966. 

Edwin H. Maynard 

Arthur Bruce Moss 

Adam F. Sosa 

Argentina Annual Conference (now an autonomous 
church) covers northern Argentina through Mendoza, 
La Pampa, and most of Buenos Aires Province. This 
region was formerly in the South American Conference, 
organized in 1893. In 1944 the name was changed to 
River Plate Conference, which then included Argentina 
and Uruguay; but in Feb., 1954, the Uruguay Provi- 
sional Annual Conference was organized to include the 
churches in that country. Headquarters of the Confer- 
ence have always been in Buenos Aibes. 

N. B. H. 

Methopress, a publishing, printing, and editorial en- 
terprise of The Methodist Church in Argentina, is often 
referred to as "The Methodist PubUshing House." 

The beginnings of the Methodist Press in Argentina 
must be sought about 1881 when Frederick Fletcher 
founded a school for boys. Soon it became a school of arts 
and crafts, as a newly converted typographer offered to 
teach these. 



The typographer, Senor Remigio Vasquez, soon trans- 
ferred to others his entliusiasm for the opportunity to 
"reach out and gi\e Hght to the souls who are Hving in the 
darkness of idolatry and sin." 

On March 11, 1883, El Estandarte (The Standard) 
was issued as the first Methodist publication in the coun- 
tr\'. At the same time the school shop was transformed 
into a press, called Imprenta Evangelica. 

In 1888 the M. E. Church made the institution official, 
and in 1889 it got its name: Imprenta Metodista (Meth- 
odist Press). In 1902 a grant was given by the Board of 
Missions in New York to buy new machines, enlarging 
the press's capacit\'. 

A turning point came between 1912 and 1915, when 
Daniel Hall, administrator, started to pubhsh books, 
and the print shop became a publLshing house. Now the 
work definitely became an editorial ministr>', and Alberto 
Lestard, another administrator, enlarged the production 
about twent\-five times. Large numbers of books, maga- 
zines, booklets, hymnbooks. Bibles, and other publica- 
tions were produced. At this time a bookstore. La Aurora, 
was created to promote and sell Protestant books. 

In 1953 Eduardo Gattinoni entered as manager of the 
Methodist Press, and is in charge of the whole operation. 
In 1955 a new building was secured and more equipment 
bought. It was at this time that the press was opened to 
secular production in order to help finance the editorial 

After a short interruption and some adjustments. La 
Aurora and Methopress editorial administration were made 
one — the present system. 

In 1964 a Department of Publications was organized, 
when the need was felt to give more professional assis- 
tance to magazines and books. Since then, layout, art 
work, and editing, as well as the planning of new projects, 
are done in this department. 

Thus, in eight\-four years, from typography classes at 
an arts-and-crafts school to a publishing house with forty 
persons working in it, the project has come to produce 
books for all Latin America. The Methodist Press repre- 
sents the continuous effort to "reach out into the darkness" 
of the secularized world with the light of tlie printed 

Ruth Mehl de Gonzalez 

Toba Indian Mission is a project in northern Argen- 
tina sponsored by The Methodist Church of Argentina. 
The mission to Toba Indians is in the Pro\'ince of Chaco 
and serves some 22,000 Indians scattered throughout a 
vast territory. The work is in cooperation with the Men- 
nonite and Disciples of Christ Churches. 

An Argentine doctor, Enrique Cicchetti, has estab- 
lished himself in Castelli, a frontier town at the edge of 
the jungle where the Indians live. From there he reaches 
several smaller places. Indians come to him for tieatment 
and are treated also in a local hospital where he practices. 
The Toba Indians are afflicted by many diseases. It is 
estimated that ninety percent are affected by tuberculosis. 

The Methodist Church of Switzerland has joined the 
mission by sending a nurse, Elisabeth Stauffer, who helps 
the doctor and gives maternity care. 

A teacher, Mrs. Virginia B. de Cicchetti, a former mis- 
sionary to Bolivia, is supported by the Methodist Wom- 
en's Federation of Argentina. She teaches the Toba chil- 

dren to read in their o\\x\ language. For a time Ruth 
Clark was sent as a' member of the team by the Board of 
Missions from New York. The influence of the mission is 
felt not only among the Indians but throughout the com- 

Carlos T. Gattinoni 

sia Evangelica Metodista .\rgentina). At the 1968 Gen- 
eral Conference (die Uniting Conference of The United 
Methodist Church), the two conferences of Argentina 
asked for and received permission to become an autono- 
mous Methodist Church. These two conferences were the 
.Argentine Conference, in the populous central and north- 
em part of the country including Buenos Aires; and the 
Patagonia Provisional Conference, encompassing southern 
Argentina to the Straits of Magellan. Pursuant to this 
authorization, after plans had been worked out within 
die framework of the Latin American Methodist Con- 
ference embracing the autonomous Methodist Churches of 
the entire continent, representatives of these two con- 
ferences met in Rosario, Argentina, on Oct. 4-7, 1969, 
and at an historic constituting assembly, organized the 
Argentine Evangelical Methodist Church. 

Besides declaring autonomy and approving a constitu- 
tion, the new Church elected as its first bishop a dis- 
tinguished minister, Carlos T. Gattinoni, 62, pastor of 
the Central Methodist Church in Buenos Aires. Bishop 
Gattinoni's father, Juan E. Gattinoni, now 91, had also 
been a bishop some years previously. Bishop Carlos Gat- 
tinoni was elected by the necessary two-thirds majority 
on the first ballot and was mandated to serve a four-year 
episcopal term. He succeeded retiring Bishop Sante 
Uberto Barbieri. Though no longer tied organically to 
The United Methodist Church through the General Con- 
ference, the Argentine Church, as is the case with other 
autonomous Mediodist bodies, has an affiliated autono- 
mous relationship with The United Methodist Church. 

"The Church has a Regional Appointment Committee 
which consists of the Bishop, the seven regional superin- 
tendents, and five laymen," explains Bishop John Wesley 
Lord who represented the Council of Bishops, U.M.C, 
at the organization. "In all but one district, this will be 
the committee that will assign pastors to local churches. 
In any event, the bishop is no longer die chief appoint- 
ing officer, but simply a member of the committee. In the 
Buenos Aires district, the local church appointments will 
be made by a committee consisting of die district superin- 
tendent, five laymen, and three ministers without bene- 
fit of bishop. Under this structure the laymen are given 
more responsibilit>' and the bishop less. This spirit pre- 
vailed in the conference as a new emergent and with no 
punitive overtones." 

The Argentine Evangelical Methodist Church has a 
membership of 10,918 (full and preparatory) in 197 
congregations. There are 69 ministers and the enrollment 
in 111 church schools is 4,773. 

N. B. H. 

ARIAS, MORTIMER (1924- ), bishop and editor of 

books for the church in Bolivia, was born in Uruguay. 
He studied at the Facultad Evangelica de Teologica 
(Union Theological Seminary) in Buenos Aires, earning 
the B.D. and M.T. degrees. He married Esther Legui- 


zamoii, a deaconess and nurse, and they have two chil- 
dren. He transferred to the Bolivia Annual Conference 
in 1962. He was superintendent of Central District; pastor 
of El Salvador Church in Cochabamba; and editor of 
Icthus Editorial (Icthus Press), a literature program for 
The Methodist Church in Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. 

At the organization of the Autonomous Methodist 
Church of Bolivia in Dec, 1969 Mortimer Arias was 
elected its first bishop. He presides over the newly orga- 
nized church which embraces the membership formerly 
belonging to the Bolivia Annual Conference of The United 
Methodist Church. 

Natalie Barber 

ARIZONA, the si.xth largest state, was admitted to the 
Union in 1912. It contains 113,575 square miles, and in 
1965 had a population of more than 1,500,000. 

The M. E. Church sent Horace S. Bishop and David 
Tuthill to preach as early as 1859. Other early preachers 
were Charles P. Cooke and John L. Dyer, known as 
"Father Dyer, the snowshoe itinerant." While serving 
as presiding elder of the Santa Fe District, Colorado 
Conference, he set out to preach to the Americans at 
Fort Wingate, N. M. Sometime after March 7, 1870, 
while on that journey. Dyer preached at Fort Defiance, 
just over the border in Arizona. 

In the fall of 1870, Charles P. Cooke, a local preacher 
from Chicago, came to Arizona to preach to the Indians 
and delivered a sermon at the Fort Bowie Military Reser- 
vation in southern Arizona. This was the beginning of 
permanent work by the M. E. Church in the territory; the 
M. E. Church, South also started its work in 1870. Cooke 
served as a missionary to the Pima Indians on their reser- 
vation on the Gila River, south of Phoenix. He later 
joined the Presbyterian Church. The Cooke Indian School, 
an interdenominational institution, is named for him. 

Alexander Gilmore, a member of the New Jersey Con- 
ference, served as U. S. Army chaplain at Fort Whipple 
near Prescott. In Feb., 1871, he organized a Sunday 
school at Prescott. Though it did not survive, that Sun- 
day school was the earliest organized work of the M. E. 
Church in Arizona. 

In 1872, Bishop Matthew Simpson sent Glezen A. 
Reeder of the North Ohio Conference as a missionary to 
Arizona. At the time the population of the teiTitory was 
esHmated at 30,000, some 20,000 of them Apache Indi- 
ans. It was said that there was one saloon for every 15 
people. Reeder wrote of the situation, "First, the Apaches 
are in open hostility — they are on the warpath; second, 
the influence of the saloon affects all; third, Romanism is 
well established and none too cordial to the incoming of 
other denominations; and fourth, vice is universally prev- 

The General Conference (ME) established the 
Arizona Mission in 1879. The General Minutes for that 
year show that George H. Adams was superintendent and 
soon preachers were appointed by Bishop Simpson to 
Camp Verde, Florence and Picket Post, Globe, Phoenix, 
Prescott, Tombstone, and Tucson. Apparently the first 
meeting of the Arizona Mission was held on July 7-10, 
1881 in the Presbyterian Church, Tucson, with Bishop 
Thomas Bowman in charge. Among those appointed in 
both 1880 and 1881 was George F. Bovard. Bovard was 
sent to Camp Verde the first year and to Phoenix the 
next. In the early years the Bovard family was influential 

in the University of Southern California which at its 
inception and for many years afterward was a Methodist 

The Arizona Mission grew slowly. The report for 1883 
showed six churches with a total of 143 members. There 
were 1,002 members and 16 churches in 1900. Twenty 
years later there were 34 charges and 4,436 members. 
In 1920, the Arizona Mission was absorbed by the South- 
em California Conference. This improved the organiza- 
tional structure and the economic status of the work, but 
Arizona Methodism was still handicapped by the fact 
that it was up to 650 miles from the seat of the annual 
conference. Arizona was largely a "port of entry" for 
young preachers who, desiring to come west, accepted 
small appointments in Arizona as stepping stones to larger 
places in the Southern California Conference. This situa- 
tion obtained until after union in 1939. 

The M. E. Church, South, like its sister denomination, 
began work in Arizona in 1870, In that year the General 
Conference established the Los Angeles Conference which 
included southern California, Arizona, and some other 
territory. The new conference had two districts, Los 
Angeles and San Bernardino, and Arizona was a part of 
the latter. Alexander Groves, who had a part in starting 
Southern Methodism in southern California, was appointed 
to "Arizona" in 1870. The next year he succeeded in 
gathering a class in Phoenix. This was the first Methodist 
congregation, and indeed the first Protestant congrega- 
tion, estabhshed in Arizona. It was the beginning of Cen- 
tral Metliodist Church, Phoenix. Groves served a total of 
ten years in Arizona, and according to the General Min- 
utes was appointed presiding elder of the Arizona District 
in 1875. Also, Franklin McKean and other preachers 
served appointments in Arizona during this period. 

In 1876, Lewis J. Hedgpeth was appointed presiding 
elder of the Arizona District and pastor of the church at 
Phoenix. Referred to as a "stalwart son of the Southern 
Church," Hedgpeth for 25 years "gave his tireless energies 
to preaching in Arizona," a record unequaled by any other 
Methodist preacher in tlie region for many years. Riding 
horseback, it took Hedgpeth five weeks to go from the 
conference in Los Angeles to his appointment in Phoenix, 
and it required longer still for his young family to make 
the journey. A severe drouth occurred in the Salt River 
Valley in which Phoenix is located during 1878, leaving 
the young minister and his family in want. A Catholic 
saloonkeeper and a Jewish merchant in the spirit of fron- 
tier fellowship took up an offering for the Methodist 

The growth of Southern Methodism in Arizona was 
slow. By 1907 the denomination had only 507 members 
in the entire territory. In that year, however, the Arizona 
Church Extension Society was formed, and with nearly 
100 members who pledged to give a minimum of $5 to 
each new church that was built, the society stimulated 
expansion. By 1918, eight new churches had been erected, 
and the total membership rose to 1,694. In the same 
year Bishop H. M. Dubose transferred J. E. Harrison 
from the West Texas Conference and appointed him pre- 
siding elder in Arizona. Largely because of Harrison's 
leadership, the General Conference of 1922 lifted the 
Southern Methodist work in Arizona to the status of an 
annual conference. 

The conference began with 21 pastoral charges and 
2,834 members. Church extension was zealously pro- 
moted, and by 1929 there were 32 appointments with 


4,876 members. There were losses during the economic 
depression of the 1930's, some churches closing and others 
suffering a decline in membership and finances. The 
Southern Methodist Hospital and Sanatorium at Tuc- 
son, acquired in 1926, rendered notable service, but due 
to financial difficulties it was lost to the church just before 
unification in 1939. In this period, however, the con- 
ference developed a strong youth organization and an 
excellent camping program. Lack of numerical strength 
and geographical isolation handicapped the conference, 
but even so it came to Methodist union in 1939 with 
5,309 members and 29 pastoral charges. 

The merger in 1939 helped Arizona Methodism. The 
state became a relatively strong district in the Southern 
California Conference (S. Calif. -Ariz, beginning in 
1940). However, with conference headquarters in Los 
Angeles, there was still a sense of psychological as well 
as geographical isolation. But after World War II the 
situation greatly improved. It may be said that ultimately 
the marked advance of Methodism in Arizona after the 
middle of the twentieth century was due more to the 
widespread use of air conditioning than to any other one 
factor. Arizona has a good winter climate, but it is hot in 
summer. The pioneer preacher, Lewis J. Hedgpeth, said 
facetiously that he had to change his theology when he 
began preaching in Arizona. If he dwelt on the terrors 
of hell in summer, his people would say, "Let us try any- 
thing once, " while sermons on the joys of heaven in win- 
ter would elicit the observation, "But look what we have 
here!" Air conditioning gave control over summer tem- 
peratures. This coupled with the dry climate of the region 
prompted electronic industries to locate in the state. Also, 
it encouraged many retired people to move to Arizona. 
Still further, more people began to spend winter vaca- 
tions in the area. 

Between 1955 and 1961, 12 new churches were built 
in Arizona, the total membership rose from 19,000 to 
30,000, and contributions to world service and odier 
benevolences greatly increased. In 1961, the Arizona 
District was divided to form the Phoenix and Tucson 
Districts. In 1967, the two districts reported 96 pastoral 
charges, 48,022 members, and churches and parsonages 
valued at nearly $25,000,000. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1949-57. 
E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 
General Minutes, ME and MES. 
Lewis J. Hedgpeth, Family Memoirs. Unpublished. 
E. D. Jervey, Southern California and Arizona. 1960. 
Journals, Arizona Mission, and the Arizona, Los Angeles, 
Southern California, and Southern California-Arizona Con- 

Herschel H. Hedgpeth 


ARKANSAS, carved from the Louisiana Purchase, is in 
the west south central United States. It became a terri- 
tory in 1819 and was admitted to the Union in 1836. An 
agricultural state, it also produces large amounts of oil 
and gas. It has great acreages of forests and picturesque 
mountains, and is noted for its thermal springs and for its 
many streams and lakes which are important for recrea- 

As early as 1765, traders from St. Louis followed an 
Indian trail in a southwesterly direction into what is now 
Arkansas. White settlements grew up along this and other 
Indian trails, particularly where they crossed streams. 

Methodist interest in Arkansas began in 1814. In that 
year the Tenne.ssee Conference created the "Mississippi 
District" comprised of the territory now included in Mis- 
souri and Arkansas. Samuel H. Thompson was appointed 
presiding elder; no preacher was appointed to Arkansas 
that year, but two local preachers were at work by 1814- 
15 in Arkansas — William Ste\'enson and Eli Lindsay. 
William Stevenson was born in South Carolina in 1768, 
and became a local preacher in Smith County, Tenn. in 
1800. In 1809 he moved with his family to Bellevue Val- 
ley, Mo., and did considerable preaching in .southeast 
Missouri during the next few years assisting the presiding 
elders, Jesse Walker and Samuel Thompson. In the fall 
of 1814, Stevenson's brother James who lived in Clark 
County, Ark., visited him. James was impressed with the 
influence of religion in Missouri and lamented its ab.sence 
in Arkansas. Moved by his brother's account of the spir- 
itual destitution in Arkansas, William Stevenson decided 
to accompany him there at once for a visit. It was a 400- 
mile trip mostly through wilderness; Stevenson preached 
at numerous settlements and homes. He preached one 
Sunday at the home of a man named Ciunming on the 
Forte Caddo River, a branch of the Ouachita. He was in- 
strumental in the conversion of Friend McMahon, for- 
merly a Baptist in Kentucky, who became a local preacher 
and accompanied him in later years on preaching toiu'S. 
He traveled as far west as Mound Prairie in Hempstead 
County near the Texas line. At Mound Prairie the people 
begged for a regular preacher. Stevenson promised that 
if he could not get a preacher appointed to the area, he 
would return himself the next fall and stay as long as he 

On that first trip to Arkansas in the fall of 1814, Steven- 
son stayed six to eight weeks, and he says in his auto- 
biography that he established "a few little societies." 
Stevenson returned to his home in Missouri in midwinter, 
and in the spring and summer of 1815 attended many 
camp and quarterly meetings with Samuel Thompson, the 
presiding elder. Stevenson talked with Thompson about 
Arkansas and the Red River country and the need for 
preachers in that region. The presiding elder urged 
Stevenson to join the annual conference, and promised 
to appoint him to Arkansas if he would. Stevenson left 
Missouri for Arkansas in the late summer or early fall 
of 1815, taking with him Joseph Reed, a local preacher 
who later became a conference member. Thompson, the 
presiding elder, saw to it that Stevenson was admitted 
in absentia to the Tennessee Conference in the fall of 

Stevenson says that he and Reed traveled to the south 
side of the Current River in northeast Arkansas a little 
below the Missouri line. There he began the formation of 
a circuit diat extended southwestward to Pecan Point, 
Tex., 400 miles from his home in Missouri. He says, "We 
got up small societies on the rivers and large creeks where 
the people had found good land." Stevenson's tour into 
Arkansas and Texas lasted six months. He spent the re- 
mainder of the conference year on the Bellevue Circuit 
in Missouri. 

At about the same time that Stevenson was preaching 
and organizing societies in Arkansas, several others were 
evidently starting to preach there also. One of the first 
of these was Eli Lindsay, who lived on Strawberry River 
in northeast Arkansas, and formed Spring River Circuit 
to which he was appointed in the fall of 1815. He was 
assisted by Jonathan Wayland; one society they fonned 


was Flat Creek (Unircli. They reported 88 white and 
four Negro members at the end of the year. Lindsay was 
the first preaclier appointed to serve in the state and 
Spring River was the first circuit organized. 

Henry Stephenson was also preaching in northeast 
Arkansas near Spring River before 1816. He was later 
for several sears a conference member, and helped to 
establish Methodism in Te.xas. In 1816, the Missouri 
Conference was established by dividing tlie Tennessee 
Conference. At the outset the new conference included 
Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois, and part of Indi.ana. Steven- 
son attended the first .session of the Missouri Conference 
which was held in Illinois in the fall of 1816. John 
ScRipps who was secretary of the conference, later wrote 
ill his memoirs that through S. H. Thompson, the presid- 
ing elder, William Stevenson, "the father of Methodism in 
Arkansas," was recognized at the conference .session. 

At the I8I6 conference, Stevenson was appointed to 
the "Hot Springs Circuit," the one he had formed in 
southwest Arkansas in 1815, and Philip Davis was sent to 
the Spring River Circuit, the one Eli Lindsay had orga- 
nized in northeast Arkansas. Thus Methodism was orga- 
nized and at work in both north and south Arkansas by 
the fall of 1816. 

On being appointed to Hot Springs Circuit in I8I6, 
Stevenson sold his farm in Missouri and bought another 
at Mound Prairie, Hempstead County, Ark. Moreover, 
many of his Methodist neighbors and friends in Bellevue 
Valley did likewise, and on arriving in Arkansas they 
helped to organize Methodist societies. They built a 
church at Mound Prairie in 1817 and called it Mount 
Moriah. It was of hewn pine logs and was some 28 by 
30 feet. Mount Moriah was the first Methodist church 
building erected in Arkansas. Due to some difficulty about 
the deed, the people abandoned the building after one 
year and put up another about a mile away and called 
it Henry's Chapel, the name it bore for 50 years. The 
Little Rock Conference Historical Society has erected 
a granite marker on the spot. 

In 1818, the Arkansas work was foiTned into a district, 
at first called Black River and later Arkansas. Stevenson 
served as presiding elder several years, with headquarters 
at Mound Prairie. By 1832 the Arkansas work had grown 
sufficiently to justify two districts. The area below the 
Arkansas River was called the Little Rock District. In 
1833, the Missouri Conference met at Salem, Washington 
County, in northwest Arkansas. 

The 1836 General Conference established the Arkansas 
Conference which initially included the Alexandria Dis- 
trict in Louisiana and the South Indian Mi.ssion District 
in Indian Territory. The first session of the Arkansas Con- 
ference was held in Batesville. At the time there were 
2,465 members in the conference, 423 of them colored. 

The Arkansas Conference adhered South following the 
division of 1844. At the c-onference session in November, 
1844, one preacher transferred to the Pittsburgh Con- 
ference and another to the Iowa Conference, presum- 
ably because they wished to remain in the M. E. Church. 
In 1845, the conference reported 9,454 members, a de- 
crease of nearly 400, as compared with 1844. The next 
year, however, there was a slight increase, and by 1854 
there were over 16,000 white and some 2,800 colored 
members. In that year the conference was divided to 
form the Ouachita Conference in the south half of the 
state. It became the Little Rock Conference in 1866. In 
1870, the Arkansas Conference was again divided to form 

the White River Conference in the northeastern part of the 
state, but the two merged in 1914 to form the North 
Arkansas Conference. There have been no conference 
boundary changes in the state since that date. 

When organized in 1836, the Arkansas Conference was 
served b>' the Western Christian Advocate published in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1851, the Memphis and Arkansas 
Christian Advocate appeared and continued with one or 
two changes in name until the Civil War. After the war 
there was the Arkansas Christian Advocate which for a 
time was called the Western Methodist. In 1882 came 
the Arkansas Methodist which has carried on to the pres- 
ent time. 

Until shortly after the Civil War, education in Arkan- 
sas was left almost exclusively to private effort. The min- 
utes of the Missouri Conference for 1833 list appoint- 
ments to six Indian mission schools and show that two 
others were to l>e supplied. When organized in 1836, the 
Arkansas Conference inherited these schools and in 1844 
passed them over to the Indian Mission Conference which 
was established that year. 

Both before and after the Civil War, the conferences 
in Arkansas sponsored academies or high schools, not 
by providing money but by stimulating, encouraging, and 
furnishing leadership. Trustees were largely local, and 
the schools were dependent on tuition for income. For 
the most part the principals were Christian men. The in- 
stitutions were permitted to advertise that they were 
under the patronage of the Methodist annual conference. 
Two of the more prominent Methodist academies in 
Arkansas before the Civil War were Washington Male and 
Female Seminary, estabhshed at Washington in 1846; and 
the Soulesbury Institute at Batesville which was started 
in 1850. They served well until forced out of existence 
by the war. 

Following the Civil War, the annual conferences and 
even district conferences sponsored academies. Fifteen 
or more such schools were established in Arkansas. Two 
of the strongest and best known were the Fort Smith 
District High School at Booneville, and the Clary Acad- 
emy at Fordyce. Academies under church auspices flour- 
ished because of the absence of public high schools. When 
the latter came, the former soon disappeared. 

There were no church or state colleges in Arkansas until 
the founding of the University of Arkansas in 1871. In the 
next 20 years the denominations fomided at least eight 
colleges. Beginning in 1868, the Methodist conferences 
individually made some unsuccessful attempts to estab- 
lish colleges. They soon concluded that cooperative effort 
in higher education was essential, and they agreed to sup- 
port one Methodist college for men and one for women. 
In 1884, the conferences bought for about $10,000 tlie 
Cential Collegiate Institute at Altus, a private school 
founded in 1876. In 1889, they established Galloway 
College for women at Searcy. In 1890, the Collegiate In- 
stitute was moved to Conway and its name was changed 
to Hendrix College. 

Nonvithstanding the agreement of the conferences to 
limit their support to two colleges, they soon found them- 
selves trying to maintain five. Two of the schools quickly 
closed. Three — Hendrix at Conway, Galloway at Searcy, 
and Henderson-Brown at Arkadelphia — continued until 
1926 when serious moves toward consolidation were initi- 
ated. By 1934 Galloway and Henderson-Brown had closed, 
and Arkansas Methodism's support for higher education 
was centered in Hendrix College at Conway, a coeduca- 


tional school which has become noted for academic ex- 

In 1890, the conferences established the Arkansas Meth- 
odist Home for children at Little Rock. The Methodist 
Hospital began in Memphis in 1910. From the outset the 
White River Conference joined in its support. 

In 1923 the M. E. Church, South created the Western 
Mediodist Assembly at Mount Sequoyah, Fayetteville. 
Through the years it served as the center for summer 
conferences and gatherings of church agencies and 
groups. In 1939, Mount Sequoyah became the property 
of the South Central Jurisdiction of The Methodist 

M. E. Church After 1844. In 1848, the M. E. Church 
organized a Missouri Conference vvidi an Arkansas Dis- 
trict. At the time the church had four appointments in 
Arkansas — Batesville, Bentonville, Van Buren, and Wash- 
ington. Anthony Bewley, who in 1845 opposed the 
Missouri Conference adhering South and who thereafter 
worked for the reorganization of the M. E. Church in 
Missouri, was appointed to Washington, Ark., at the con- 
ference session. Apparently some anti-slavery .sentiment 
and some loyalty to the M. E. Church prevailed in Wash- 
ington until the Civil War. Opposition to slavery had 
been promoted there by Jesse Hale, an "ultra abolitionist" 
who served as presiding elder of the Arkansas District of 
the Missouri Conference from 1826 to 1830 with head- 
quarters in Washington. Hale enforced the rule in the 
Discipline that no slave owner could hold an official posi- 
tion in the church. Hale's anti-slavery stance prompted 
William Stevenson and some laymen in south Arkansas 
who (though not advocates of slavery) did not like what 
they called the "Hale storm" to move to Louisiana where 
the disciplinai-y rule concerning slavery was not as vigor- 
ously enforced. Washington continued as an appointment 
of the M. E. Church in Arkansas until the Civil War. 
However, loyalty to the northern church did not survive 
the conflict; after the war Washington did not appear in 
the appointments of the M. E. Church in Arkansas. 

The Arkansas District became the Arkansas Conference 
in 1853. Its pre-war strength peaked at about 2,350 mem- 
bers in 1855. The membership fell to about half that 
figure by 1861, and the Arkansas work reverted to a dis- 
trict in the Missouri Conference (ME), an arrangement 
which continued until 1873 when the Arkansas Con- 
ference was again reconstituted. 

In 1879, the Negro preachers and churches in the 
Arkansas Conference (ME) — about 1,440 church mem- 
bers, one-fourth of the total — were set apart as the Little 
Rock Conference of the M. E. Church. That conference 
grew to a membership of about 6,000 by 1929 when it 
merged with the Lincoln Conference to form the South- 
west Conference. The Southwest Conference continued 
until 1939 when it became a part of the Central Jurisdic- 
tion of The Methodist Church. 

By 1910 the Arkansas Conference had achieved its 
maximum numerical strength, some 6,000 members. In 
1921, the number had declined to about 5,000, and in 
that year the Arkansas work became a district in the St. 
Louis Conference which in turn was absorbed by the 
Missouri Conference in 1931. 

In 1939, there were 24 pastoral charges in the Arkansas 
District of the Missouri Conference, only six of which 
were filled; the others were left to be supplied. There 
were 4,409 church members in the district. 

When the Little Rock and North Arkansas Conferences 

of The Methodist Church were organized in the fall of 
1939 each included about seven ministers from the 
former M.E. Church. 

Methodist Protestant Church. Throughout its history 
the Methodist Protestant Church had some congrega- 
tions and one or more annual conferences in Arkansas. On 
Dec. 11, 1830, about eight members, including two local 
preachers and one exliorter, of the M. E. Church at Cane 
Hill in western Arkansas, elected a chairman and secre- 
tary, and resolved to withdraw and associate under the 
Conventional Articles adopted by the Reformers at Balti- 
more in 1828. At the time they had not yet heard that the 
M. P. Church had just been organized the month before 
in Baltimore. The local preachers, Jacob Sexton and J. 
Curiton, conducted services regularly for the newly orga- 
nized group at Cane Hill and attendance increased. In 
the summer of 1831, they held a camp meeting at which 
there were 55 conversions. In September of that year. 
Sexton appealed in writing to the Tennessee Conference 
of the M. P. Church saying that his congregation of 35 
wished to be attached to it, and at the same time he 
asked that a mission be established in Arkansas. The con- 
ference granted both petitions. 

The Arkansas Mission became the Arkansas Conference 
(MP) in 1838. For the next 12 years, the new conference 
included the state of Missouri. As time passed the Meth- 
odist Protestants were said to have "thousands ' of mem- 
bers in Arkansas, but during and immediately after the 
Civil War the work was "totally disorganized, except a 
few churches in the extreme south part of the state." 
Those churches then linked up with the Louisiana Con- 
ference, and for some years there was an Arkansas and 
Louisiana Conference. 

In the 1880's the M. P. Church began to prosper again 
in the state, and there were four conferences — Arkansas, 
North Arkansas, Red River Mission, and Western Arkan- 
sas. In 1884 the Fort Smith Mission was formed, com- 
prised of northwest Arkansas and a part of Indian Terri- 
tory. From 1900 to 1908 diere was a Northeast Arkansas 
Conference which included that part of the state and 
southeast Missouri. In 1915 the Oklahoma Conference and 
the Fort Smith Mission were merged to form the Fort 
Smith-Oklahoma Conference which continued until 1939. 

In 1892, the Arkansas Mission, composed of Negro 
ministers and churches, was organized. It was absorbed 
by the Southwest Conference at the time of Union in 

The Arkansas Conference was reconstituted in 1884 and 
it continued until 1939. In 1932, the conference journal 
reported 38 preachers including one supernumerary and 
12 probationers, 4,074 church members, and 57 churches 
and 14 parsonages valued at $156,600. The congregation 
at Magnolia with 212 members was the largest in the 

When organized in 1939, the Little Rock Conference 
of The Methodist Church included 30 preachers in full 
connection (one was retired) from the Arkansas Confer- 
ence of the former M. P. Church. About half of the 30 
were transferred to the North Arkansas Conference for 
appointments. That conference began with a total of about 
20 former M. P. ministers. 

In 1939 Arkansas and Oklahoma formed an episcopal 
area of the South Central Jurisdiction with the bishop's 
residence in Oklahoma City. In 1944 Arkansas and 
Louisiana became an area with the episcopal residence 
in Little Rock. Since 1960 die Little Rock and North 



Arkansas Conferences have constituted an area. The two 
conferences cooperate in area-wide activities and inter- 
ests, such as the support of the Methodist Children's 
Home and the Arkansas Methodist, Hendrix College at 
Conway, financial assistance to ministerial students at 
Hendrix, the Methodist Hospital at Memphis, and Wesley 
Foundations at the state institutions of higher learning. 
Each conference has its own youth camps. The Women's 
Society of Christian Service is effectively organized 
in both conferences. 

In 1968, the Little Rock and Nordi Arkansas Confer- 
ences had 408 pastoral charges, 183,522 church mem- 
bers, and churches and parsonages valued at more than 

J. A. Anderson, Arkansas Methodism. 1935. 

A. H. Bassett, Concise History. 1882. 

General Minutes, ME, MES, and TMC. 

H. Jewell, Arkansas. 1892. 

Minutes, Little Rock and North Arkansas Conferences, and 

the Arkansas Conference, M.P. 

W. N. Vernon, William Stevenson. 1964. Tom J. Love 

ARLINGTON, TEXAS, U.S.A. First Church, had its be- 
ginnings in 1878 as the newest preaching point on a five 
point circuit, including Thomas Chapel, Wyatt's Chapel, 
Poindexter, and Mountain Creek. All the others have 
since disappeared. 

Central Texas was still pioneer and Indian country. 
The first railroad had just pushed westward, two years 
before, from Dallas to Forth Worth, a distance of thirty 
miles. Since Arlington, a small agricultural community, 
was halfway between, it showed promise of growth. 

For the first seven years the Methodist services were 
held in the office of the Shultz Lumber Yard. Then in 
1885 a lot was secured and a small frame building erected 
in the heart of the community. The soft stone marker, 
which is now enshrined in the present building, bore the 
words: "Centenary Methodist Church 1885." This name 
was adopted in 1884, and was to commemorate the "Cen- 
tenary" of the "Christmas Conference" of 1784 in 
Baltimore. Growth for Arlington and the church was 
slow. In 1899, after twenty-one years, there were only 
193 members. The first brick structure was erected in 
1907. The cornerstone, bearing the name "Centenary 
Methodist Church," is also enshrined in the present struc- 
ture. When this building was destroyed by fire in 1918, 
work started almost immediately to rebuild, using the 
same foundation. Art glass windows went into this edi- 
fice. When this building was also destroyed by fire, in 
1954, one of the large three paneled windows was spared, 
and is now over the main entrance to the present sanc- 
tuary. It bears likenesses of Jesus as the Good Shepherd, 
In the Garden, and Knocking at the Door. 

The present church structure was constructed in Semi- 
Gothic design in four stages, beginning in 1950. It was 
completed in 1965, wath a present evaluation of a million 
and a half dollars. Its membership of more than 2,800 
continues to grow. 

During the past fourteen years First Church has helped 
to found, finance, and furnish members for five additional 
Methodist churches in the now rapidly growing city of 
Arlington, as well as numerous churches beyond. It also 
has a strong missionary outreach. 

G. Alfred Brown 

ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA, U.S.A. Arlington Church held 
its first services in a one-room building located on what is 
now the northeast corner of Columbia Pike and Glebe 
Road as the Civil War loomed all around. Known as 
Hunter's Chapel, it was engulfed by war when the Union 
Aimy, preparing for a battle, burned the structure to the 

In 1870 a one-room schoolhouse was built on Colum- 
bia Pike on South Wayne Street which served as a com- 
munity church. Only five of the worshipers were Meth- 
odists, but they decided in 1893 to erect a Methodist 
church on a lot donated by Sanford Bradbury, one of the 
five, on Columbia Pike opposite South Edgewood Street. 
Mrs. Sarah Bailey, another of the five, solicited contribu- 
tions, mortgaged her farm for $3,000, and the members 
secured a loan from the mission board of the church in 
the amount of $400 which made it possible to pay for a 
building. At the service of dedication in 1893 a Wash- 
ington man present read a poem entitled "The Faithful 
Five," which he had written in honor of the charter 

Years later the United States Government paid $3,000 
as damages for the destruction of Hunter's Chapel. This 
paid off Mrs. Bailey's mortgage. 

In 1918-21 Arlington Church secured its first full-time 
minister. In the 1930's the great movement of people 
from Washington into the suburbs began and the church 
grew as the community grew. 

In 1939 the congregation purchased a lot at the comer 
of Glebe Road and South 8th Street, a building fund was 
started, and plans were drawn for a new church. World 
War II intervened, building plans were laid aside, and 
the church did its best to serve the increasing numbers 
who then flocked into Arlington. It was the first church 
in the metropofitan area to hold two identical worship 
services each Sunday morning. Ground for the present 
structure was broken in June, 1945, cornerstone was laid 
in April, 1946, and the building was open for use in 
April, 1947. 

This church had approximately 400 members in 1939; 
about 640 in 1943; approximately 1,100 in 1947; and 
some 2,800 in 1958. In 1969 there are 3,349 members, 
making it the largest church in the Vircinia Conference 
and one of the larger ones in all of Methodism. 

Roland P. Riddick 

Clarendon Church has for some years led the 
churches of northern Virginia in its emphasis upon a 
variety of study programs and financial support to both 
world and national missions, benevolences, which include 
homes for children and the aged, and the cause of church 
extension in a fast growing area. 

The church began with the organization of a Sunday 
school in a private home, in the Clarendon area of Arling- 
ton early in 1901. There were seven adults and fourteen 
children composing this first group, meeting in the home 
of Mr. and Mrs. Wilfiam H. Overal. A lot was purchased 
at the comer of Jackson and N. Irving Streets on which a 
frame church building was erected, and services began 
with the appointment of a pastor in 1906. At this time, 
Arlington County was in the bounds of the Alexandria 
District, Baltimore Conference, M. E. Church, South. 
W. H. Ballengee, pastor of Calvary Methodist Church, 
Washington, D. C, was a sponsor of the new church 
and advisor to the student minister, J. J. Rives, who 
served the church for four years while a student at George 



Washington University. Dr. Rives, who became a leading 
minister of his conference, has been retired for some years 
and is now Hving in nearby Falls Church, Va. 

The second site of Clarendon Church was at the corner 
of Tenth and N. Irving Streets where a brick educational 
structure was erected and served for both church and 
Sunday school purposes until it was outgrown and new 
property was purchased at N. Irving and SLxth Streets. 
Here the present church is situated with a sanctuary and 
educational building erected in 194 1. A large addition 
was made to the church school in 1951. 

At present Clarendon Church owns and uses a former 
residence for several young adult classes. 

A staff of three ministers, a director of Christian educa- 
tion, three secretaries, and a number of fine volunteer 
workers are seeking to minister adequately to a member- 
ship which is now spread out over a wide area. Clarendon 
Church is now in the Arhngton District of the Vibginia 
Conference and within a five-minute drive of Constitu- 
tion Avenue in the nation's capital. The senior minister, 
Wilham P. Watkins, has served the church since June, 

Mount Olivet Church, "the Oldest Church in Arlington 
County," was started in 1854, and today its congregation 
still worships on the same comer. The church was still 
new when Union troops occupied the building after the 
first battle of Bull Run. After using it as a hospital, com- 
missary, and a guard post, federal forces dismantled the 
building and used the lumber for shelter and camp fires 
during the winter of 1861-62. (In 1904, after years of 
litigation, a claim of $3,400 for such damages was allowed 
against the government. ) 

Although their church building had been destroyed. 
Mount Olivet's congregation carried on and by 1870 the 
first building had been replaced by a second sanctuary, 
much smaller than the first. For nearly half a century 
thereafter the church ministered to a small but devoted 
congregation in the predominantly rural community five 
miles from downtown Washington, D. C. 

As the country began to emerge from the great de- 
pression in the 1930's, a rapid population growth occurred, 
many persons arriving to staff the numerous New Deal 
agencies, and many of these settling in Arlington County. 
From 230 members in 1930, membership has continued 
to increase by leaps and bounds, until today it numbers 
over 2,700, with more than a thousand persons at worship 
on Sundays. During the past twenty-five years, the church 
has completed three major building programs to meet the 
expanding need, and today her buildings and grounds are 
valued at over a million dollars. During the past ten years, 
more than 2,300 members have been received, making it 
one of the fastest grovraig churches in the Metropolitan 
Washington area. 

Operating with the minister is a minister of evan- 
gelism, a director of Christian education, a director of 
youth work, and a church business administrator, sup- 
ported by an adequate clerical and technical staff, and 
with a budget of over $213,000. Mount Olivet is con- 
tributing to the support of missionaries in three foreign 
countries and at the same time is unique in her service to 
the immediate community. In addition to the full family 
of Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations, her facilities 
are presently being used by two weekday schools: one for 
"disturbed" teen-agers, and one for pre-school children 
from under-privileged homes. 

James Roy Smfth 


The earliest church history in the Arlington Heights area 
began in 1835 when the first Methodist circuit rider min- 
istered to the earliest settlers in Elk Grove, three miles 
south of present-day Arlington Heights. The first families 
arriving there early in 1834 by-passed the swampy set- 
tlement of Chicago and pushed west to find good farm 
land and established their home in the shelter of the 
woods. Soon diere were a dozen families and these eagerly 
awaited the arrival once in four weeks of William Royal. 
He preached in the log school house, married couples, and 
held memorial services for those who had died during 
his ab.sence. Many of his listeners had walked no less 
than ten miles to hear him. 

The settlement grew and a church building was erected 
in 1840 of dressed lumber shipped from Michigan to 
Chicago and hauled out to the grove by ox-team. This 
tiny church is believed to be the first house of worship in 
Cook County outside of Chicago. 

Here the congregation worshiped for eighteen years. 
The building itself was moved twice because the hilarity 
at nearby taverns disturbed divine services. 

After a series of successful revival meetings in 1858 
the Wheeling and Elk Grove congregations merged and 
moved to the village of Dunton (now Arlington Heights), 
where the new railroad was attracting settlers in large 
numbers. The new congregation met for worship in W. C. 
Wing's general store until a one-story frame church cost- 
ing $2,000 was erected at St. James and Dunton Streets. 

Students from Gabrett Biblical Institute at Evans- 
ton filled the pulpit when the membership could not sup- 
port a resident pastor. 

During the ministry of Alan Billman in the twenties the 
plant was enlarged just before the financial crash of 1929. 
The heavy building debt required a struggle to pay and 
it was not until 1950 that the mortgage was burned. By 
that time population figures for the town had zoomed and 
the church building was inadequate. Plans were inaugu- 
rated in 1954 for a building, the Dunton property sold to 
another chui'ch but was used jointly until the new build- 
ing was ready in Sept., 1956. The first unit built was for 
education, erected on an 18-acre site a mile east of town. 
By 1960 a new sanctuary was built, during the pastorate 
of Hughes Morris. 

Amos Thornbubg came to the church in 1965, but 
met an untimely accidental death during a storm on 
June 10, 1967. Dr. Charles Jarvis came in Sept., 1967 to 
minister to a membership of more than 3,000, supported 
in the work by three assistant pastors. 

B. T. Best, History of First Methodist Episcopal Church of 

Arlington Heights, 1928. 

Henry Lea, The Methodist Episcopal Church in Palatine and 

Vicinity. Elgin, 111.: News-Advocate Book and Job Printing 

House, 1887. 

Arlington Heights Herald, numerous issues. 

Daisy P. Daniels 

ARMINIAN MAGAZINE, described as "ConsisHng of Ex- 
tracts and Original Treatises on Universal Redemption," 
was first published by John Wesley in 1778. It was 
designed to be a doctrinal weapon against any teaching 
which ran contrary to the fundamental Wesleyan belief 
that "God willeth all men to be saved and to come to a 
knowledge of the truth" and also against the CalvinisHc 
Gospel Magazine. Wesley's aim was to publish "some of 
the most remarkable tracts on the universal love of God, 



and on His willingness to save all men from all sin, which 
have been wrote in this and the last centur\'." The early 
numbers contained biographies of eminent Christians, 
poetry, sermons, and accounts of the experiences of Meth- 
odists. There was also a sprinkling of travellers' tales and, 
in due course, missionary news and book reviews; but it 
was in no sense a news journal. Nhiny letters to and 
from John Wesley appeared. As it stoutly defended Ar- 
minian theology against the claims of Calvinism, so it 
defended Wesleyan polity against the attacks of more 
radical Methodists. 

In 1798 the title was changed to The Methodist Maga- 
zine and again in 1822 (under the influence of Jabez 
Bunting) to The Wesleyan Methodist Magazine. A slight 
modification was made in 1914 when it was named The 
Magazine of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, but in 1927 
it reverted to its former title. The Methodist Magazine. 
From 1804 to 1822 an Irish edition was published and 
from 1811 to 1870 there was also an abridged edition 
known as "The Sixpenny Edition." Religious fiction first 
appeared in 1877 and commercial advertisements on the 
cover a few years later. Until 1893 the magazine contained 
no illustrations except each month there was a portrait of 
a Methodist minister. These portraits were, in the main, 
finely engraved. In 1894, however, it assumed a new look 
and included illustrated articles on nature, travel, and 
other cultural topics. 

Even though it was reduced to a slender bi-monthly 
issue during the war years, it never ceased publication 
until it finally succumbed to economic pressures in 1969. 
Since 1947 it has served as the magazine of the Women's 
Fellowship of the Methodist Church. It has always been 
under the general direction of the Connexional Editor. 

An unofficial monthly continuation of the Methodist 
Magazine is in progress (1970), sponsored by a keen 
group unwilling to see it die. 

F. H. Cumbers, Book Room. 1956. 

R. Currie, Methodism Divided. 1968. 

"The Hundredth Year of the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine," 

an unsigned article in the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine, 

1877, pp. 1-12. John C. Bowmer 

ARMINIAN METHODISTS arose in 1831 or 1832 in the 
Derby Circuit; hence they were also described as "Derby 
Faith Folk." Four local preachers had been expelled from 
the Methodist society, and some six hundred members 
withdrew. They determined to call a minister of their ovvm, 
one Henry Breeden, a schoolmaster recently removed 
from Redditch, and a successful revival preacher. It is 
somewhat doubtful whether, as is sometimes asserted, the 
real reason for the secession was doctrinal, namely the 
holding of Sandemanian views of saving faith — that justi- 
fying faith is simple assent to the bare death of Christ. 
They adopted Wesley's Rules, his Sermons and Notes on 
the New Testament, and the Plan of Pacification as 
the standard of their doctrine and discipline. It is really 
difficult to see where this sect differed from the Wes- 
leyans, unless in its enthusiastic revivalism and its em- 
ployment of women preachers. A circuit was created with 
three preaching places in Derby and twenty-seven in the 
country. Among those who seceded was Elizabeth 
Evans — better known as Dinah Morris in George Eliot's 
Adam Bede — and for a time she served as a preacher. 
The first Annual Assembly was held in Derby in June, 
1833; and Henry Breeden was chosen president, an office 
which he retained for the next two years. 

In 1837 the sect joined forces with the Wesleyan 
Methodist Association and eventually became part of 
the United Methodist Free Churches. In addition to 
their center at Derby, they had societies at Leicester, 
Nottingham, and Redditch, and to the union they 
brought some twelve hundred members and seventy local 
preachers. Certainly as late as 1959 they had survived in 
Germany as the Bund freikirchlicher Christen, more 
popularly known as the Derhi.sten. 

O. A. Beckerlegge, United Methodist Free Churches. 1957. 
A. W. Harrison, article in Proceedings of W.H.S., xxiii. 

John T. Wilkinson 

ARMINIANISM. (See Arminius, Jacopus.) 

ARMINIUS, JACOBUS (1560-1609), was born Oct. 
10, 1560, the youngest child of Hermand Jacobzoon, a 
cutler of Oudewater in the south of Holland. Although 
orphaned at an early age by the death of his father, 
Jacobus' intellectual promise was noted by a succession 
of patrons who pro\dded for his schooling in Utrecht, 
Marburg, Leyden, and Geneva. Recognition of Arminius 
by the Merchant Guild of Amsterdam as a potential 
leader in the Reformed Church led to their sending him 
to the Academy at Geneva when he was twenty-one 
\ears of age. In Geneva he came under the influence of 
Theodore Beza. Here he lectured on the logical principles 
of Pierre de la Ramee. Under attack for his views on 
logic, AiTninius removed to Basel, where the university 
faculty offered to confer upon him the Doctor of Divinity 
degree. This honor he declined, feeling himself too young 
and undistinguished to accept. After a further period in 
Geneva and a trip to Italy, he returned to Holland where 
he served for sixteen years (1587-1603) as pastor of the 
Reformed Church in Amsterdam. In the plague of 1602, 
during which AiTninius' pastoral service was distinguished 
by fearlessness and devotion, two professors of theology 
at the University of Leyden succumbed. To one of these 
professorships, vacated by the death of Franciscus Junius, 
Arminius was appointed. 

The appointment was made in spite of strong opposi- 
tion by another professor of theology, Franciscus Gomarus, 
a proponent of the most rigorous supralapsarian Calvinist 
view of predestination (the doctrine that the decree of 
Particular Election was ordained by God before the Fall). 
Until his death on Oct. 19, 1609, Anninius continued in 
the chair of theology which today bears his name. His 
teaching career was under constant attack from the ad- 
herents of Calvinist orthodoxy. In defense of his theolog- 
ical position, he presented his "Declaration of Sentiments" 
before the States of Holland on Oct. 8, 1608. His death 
came in the midst of preparation for a second such ap- 
pearance, occasioned by the continuance of political 
and theological harassment. His enemies declared his 
illness and death to be a just punishment for his hereHcal 

Arminius' opposition to an absolute decree of divine 
predestination, and his defense of a universal atonement 
were strongly and ably argued. But the political strength 
of the high Calvinist party was such that "if the Arminians 
were dialectically victors, they were politically van- 
quished. The men who organized authority in Holland 
proved stronger than those who pleaded and suffered for 

A group of Arminius' followers prepared and presented 



to the States of Holland in 1610 a "Remonstrance" which 
summarized the challenge of the Arminian theology to 
the prevailing Calvinism at five points: unconditional 
predestination, limited atonement, man's inability to exer- 
cise faith, irresistible grace, and the perseverance of the 
saints. The Synod of Dort (Dordrecht) in 1618-19 con- 
demned the Remonstrants, banished their leaders, and put 
to death one of the chief partisans. The Remonstrant 
Brotherhood (Remonstrantse Broederschap ) , begun in- 
formally in 1610, continues today as a free church, pro- 
pounding a doctrine of free grace and working for the 
freedom of man in a free Christian society. The Remon- 
strant Brotherhood sponsored in 1960 an Arminius Sym- 
posium as a part of a national celebration of the four- 
hundredth anniversary of Arminius' birth. The sessions 
of the Symposium were held at Amsterdam, Leyden and 

His Theology. Amiinius' theological position emerged 
as a result of his being requested by the Reformed Church 
to write a defense of the supralapsarian view of predesti- 
nation. His studies led him to reject the current views of 
Coomhaert as being neither scriptural nor rational. Armin- 
ius held that the doctrine of absolute decrees of pre- 
destination would make God the author of sin, would re- 
strict God's GRACE, would leave multitudes of men without 
hope in that salvation was neither intended nor pro- 
vided for them in Christ, and would provide a false secu- 
rity for those elected to salvation. 

In Arminius' theological exposition, God is portrayed 
as having created with complete foreknowledge, and as 
subsequently preserving, governing and directing all 
things through His providence. "God is the most excellent 
object of knowledge, lucid and clear to the mind, uphold- 
ing himself to reason and the mental powers. He mani- 
fests himself to the external senses, the inward fancy or 
imagination, and to the mind of understanding." Moral 
virtues in man's experience are analogous to the divine 
attributes of justice, righteousness, truth, fidelity, patience, 
gentleness, and readiness to forgive. God wrought uni- 
versal atonement which is intended for all mankind 
through the mediatorship of Christ. Man must will to 
accept the proffered grace as a beggar reaches up to re- 
ceive alms extended to him. Conditionalism is a character- 
istic emphasis in Arminius' theology. When man receives 
saving grace through faith, he experiences conversion, re- 
birth and renewal. 

Sanctification was regarded by Arminius as open to 
any man through the continuingly cleansing and empower- 
ing presence of the spirit of God. "[Sanctification] is a 
gracious act of God by which he purifies man who is a 
sinner, and yet a believer, from the darkness of ignorance, 
from indwelling sin and its lusts or desires, and imbues 
him with the spirit of knowledge, righteousness and holi- 
ness, that, being separated from the life of the world 
and made conformable to God, man may live the life of 
God, to the praise of righteousness and of the glorious 
grace of God, and to his own salvation." 

The freedom and responsibility of man in acceptance 
and obedience are clearly emphasized. Salvation, Arminius 
wrote, "requires to be received, understood, believed, ful- 
filled in deed and reality." One implication of human 
freedom is man's ability, through neglect or disobedience, 
to fall from grace, to 'backslide.' In the state of grace 
man can be sustained and protected by the Holy Spirit. 
However, through his own negligence he may lose that 

state. Upon man's reopening his heart to God, grace will 
be given anew and the life of the spirit restored. 

Arminius' theology maintained a mid-position between 
Calvinism and Socinianism, i.e., the Unitarian thought of 
the period, in the responsible relation of man to God. 
He emphasized the biblical source, the rational under- 
standing, and the experiential authentication of the gospel 
of grace. His understanding of salvation has motivated 
strong evangelical and missionary concern in the develop- 
ment of the church from the seventeenth century on- 
wards. Arminius' plea for freedom and toleration com- 
mends his thought for consideration in the contemporary 
quest for unity and universality in the ecumenical spirit. 

His Influence on Methodist Theology. The Arminian 
view of grace and responsibility received a central and 
detei-minative emphasis in the theology of John Wesley. 
Grace, for Arminius, was viewed as a special act of God 
in relation to man wherein the Divine provides the com- 
mencement (inciting grace), the continuation (assisting 
grace), and the consummation (sanctifying grace), of 
salvation. This grace goes before, accompanies and fol- 
lows; it excites, assists, operates that we will, and coop- 
erates lest we will in vain. 

The Arminianism of Wesley was a recovery of this in- 
sistence upon grace as the power of God from the be- 
ginning to the end of man's salvation. Intermediary Ar- 
minianism in the Church of England, from Cudworth, 
through Tillotson and Pearson, to Copleston and Whatley, 
had lost the fine balance between Calvinism and Pela- 
GiANisM, and had moved into rationalism and latitudinari- 
anism. The High Church party was frequently designated 
"Arminian" by their Puritan opponents, with the imputa- 
tion that they were unsound on grace, and so not fully 
Protestant. It is significant that Wesley took up the title 
"Arminian" as one of honor. In Wesley's thought, the 
emphasis upon grace resulted in a strongly evangelical 
statement of the gospel and became a major power in the 
eighteenth century revival. Frederick Piatt was of the 
opinion that "It was the Arminian system of thought 
which lay at the theological sources of the great Meth- 
odist revival in the United Kingdom and America during 
the eighteenth century." 

To the insistence upon grace as the total ground of 
man's salvation the Methodist theological position added 
a characteristic Arminian emphasis upon the universality 
of the ATONEMENT, couditioualism with its stress upon 
man's responsibihty, the necessity of the conversion ex- 
perience, and the continuance of the Holy Spirit's work 
unto entire sanctification. The Methodist statement of 
Chbistian PERFECTION added the ethical demands to 
the working out of the experience of the Spirit. 

John Wesley, John Fletcher, Richard Watson, and 
William Burton Pope were the early Methodist theo- 
logians in whom the Arminian position is clearly dis- 
cernible. Wesley instituted in 1778 a periodical entitled 
The Arminian Magazine: Consisting of Extracts and 
Original Treatises on Universal Redemption. The work 
was introduced with "a sketch of the Life and Death of 
Arminius." The title of the magazine was changed in 
1798 to The Methodist Magazine, but the first genera- 
tion had effectively acknowledged the theological debt 
to Arminius. George Croft Cell, in The Rediscovery of 
John Wesley, described Wesley's position as, "evangelical 
Arminianism, . . . which he consciously derived from 
and confidently referred to Arminius himself." 

In the nineteenth century Nathan Bangs published 


a Life of Arviinius. As Book Editor for American Meth- 
odism he kept the consciousness of Arminian sources for 
Methodist theology clearly before the mind of the Meth- 
odist readers. Wilbur F. Tillett, Thomas O. Summers, 
Hubbard H. Kavanaugh, Miner Raymond, Daniel D. 
Whedon, John Miley, William Fairfield Warren, 
Randolph S. Foster, and Olin A. Curtis continued the 
theological exposition and adaptation of Arminianism in 
American Methodist theology through the century both 
South and North. [Alfred Pask wrote a dissertation on 
"The Influence of Arminius on the Theology of John 
Wesley" in 1938, a copy of which is in the library of 
New College, Edinburgh.] 

In twentieth century Methodism the emphasis in the- 
ology has continued to be upon free will and man's 
responsibility, the ethical e.xpressions of Christian disciple- 
ship, and man's need for growth in grace and obedience. 
The concern for the growth of a free church in a free 
.society, openness to consideration of newly emerging the- 
ological formulations and participation in the ecumenical 
movement have characterized Methodist doctrinal writing 
and teaching. The name of Arminius has, however, been 
heard with increasing infrequency. Even through three 
decades of revival of interest in Wesleyan studies, the 
roots of Wesley's theology in Arminius have not been as 
widely acknowledged as the early historical developments 
in Methodist theology indicate to be necessary for their 

James Arminius, Writings. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 

G. C. Cell, Rediscovery of John Wesley. 1935. 
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 

Gerald O. McCuUoh, ed., Man's Faith and Freedom. Nash- 
ville: Abingdon, 1962. 

"The Reformation," The Cambridge Modern History. New 
York: Macmillan, 1934. Gerald O. McCulloh 

ARMOR, MARY HARRIS (1863-1950), world temper- 
ance leader, a strong orator and platform personality, 
twice president of the Georgia Women's Christian Tem- 
perance Union, was bom at Penfield, Ga., March 9, 1863. 
She was the daughter of William Lindsay and Sarah 
Johnson Harris, sturdy Presbyterians, but she joined the 
M. E. Church, South when she was married to Walter 
F. Armor in 1883. She later rendered valuable service as 
a member of the executive committee of the Board of 
Temperance and Social Service of the M. E. Church, 

All of her mature life she was vitally associated with 
educational, civic, and religious activities. She was a dele- 
gate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1924 
and 1928. In 1918 Wesleyan College, Macon, Ga., 
conferred upon her the LL.D. degree, that college's first 
honorary degree. 

It was the temperance movement to which she felt 
called of God to give herself. She served as president of 
the Georgia W.C.T.U. for two terms, 1905-09 and 1924- 
26. In pursuing this call she became one of America's 
notable orators, lecturing in forty-six states and in a num- 
ber of foreign countries. She addressed world W.C.T.U. 
conventions in Boston, Glasgow, Brooklyn, London, 
Toronto, and Lausanne. She represented the U.S. A at the 
International Anti-Alcohol Congress in Milan, Italy, in 
1913, and was often referred to as the "Joan of Arc of 
the temperance movement." 

With a powerful and magnetic voice, she captivated 


liosts who heard her, and her life, motivated by a great 
faith in God and a desire to devote all her talents to this 
service, was a beneficent influence in ever-widening 

She died on Nov. 6, 1950, in Eastman, Ga., and is 
buried there. 

Georgia W.C.T.U. BulleHn, Nov.-Dec, 1950. 

Who's Who in the South, 1927. James Frederick Wilson 

ARMOUR, ANDREW (17P-1828), British lay missionary 
pioneer, was born near Glasgow, Scotland, and enlisted in 
the British army, joining a foot regiment, and saw service 
in Ireland, Gibraltar, and Madras. In 1792 he began 
the first Methodist society in Gibraltar, among the soldiers, 
and gained the governor's approval to preach. In Madras 
in 1798 he gathered Europeans and Indians together for 
Bible study, and the group continued to meet until the 
arrival of Methodist missionaries at Royapettah. In Gibral- 
tar he had learned French, Spanish, and Portuguese, and 
he added Tamil in Madras. Released from the army, he 
was sent to act as interpreter at the Supreme Court in 
Colombo, Ceylon; and in 1812 he was licensed to preach 
in Portuguese and Sinhalese, being by that time head- 
master of a government high school. He welcomed the 
first Methodist missionaries to Ceylon in 1814 (see W. M. 
Harvard), accompanied them on their first journeys, and 
interpreted for them. In 1816-17 his name appeared as 
"Assistant Missionary," but he reverted to his lay status 
and was ordained in the Church of England in Ceylon 
in 1821. He was a brilliant linguist, a good preacher, a 
pioneer of Christian work wherever he was stationed, a 
staunch supporter of Methodist and other missionary ef- 
fort, and was deeply mourned when he died in Ceylon in 

Findlay and Holdsworth, Wesleyan Meth. Miss. Soc. 1921-24. 
W. M. Harvard, Ceylon and India. 1823. Cyril J. Davey 

ARMS, GOODSIL FILLEY (1854-1932), one of the found- 
ers of Methodist work in Chile and for forty years a mis- 
sionary in that country, was bom Jan. 22, 1854, in Sutton, 
Can. A graduate of Wesleyan University, he became 
an elder in the Vermont Conference. In 1888 he was 
sent to South America by the Transit and Building Fund 
Society, a group gathering support for the William 
Taylor missions on the East Coast of South America. 
Arms and his wife, Ida Taggard Arms, were sent to Con- 
cepcion to reorganize the foundering schools for boys 
and girls which had been started ten years earlier. Though 
Arms devoted much time to evangehstic work, both he 
and Mrs. Arms were for twenty-eight years associated 
with the schools, which became Colegio Americano (for 
boys) and Concepcion College (for girls). He was also a 
pastor and spent two terms as presiding elder. He was 
president of Union Theological Seminary, Santiago, 1923- 

G. F. Arms, Missions in South America. 1921. 
W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1949-57. 

Edwin H. Maynard 

ARMSTRONG, ARTHUR JAMES (1924- ), bishop of 
the United Methodist Church, was bom at Marion, 
Ind., Sept. 17, 1924, the son of Arthur J. and Frances G. 
Armstrong. He was educated at Florida Southern Col- 
lege, A.B., 1948, and Emory Unr^rsity, B.D., 1952, 



and received honorary degrees from Florida Southern and 
DePauw. He married Phylhs Jeanne Shaeffer of San 
Bernardino, Cahf., and their children are James, Teresa, 
John, Rebecca, and Leslye. 

His pastorates were in Florida until he went from 
Vero Beach, Fla. in 1958 to the 3,200-member Broadway 
Church in Indianapolis, Ind. He became known as a 
radio and television personality in Indianapolis, was voted 
the city's "outstanding young man" in 1959, was on the 
Mayor's Task Forces on Community Relations and Hous- 
ing, director of the Urban League, the Community Ser- 
vices Council, and the Greater Indianapolis Progress 
Committee. His involvement in community life led The 
Indianapolis News to cite him as one of the city's twelve 
"movers and shakers" in 1966 — the only clergyman on 
that list. 

He was a delegate to the 1964 and 1968 General 
Conferences and also the World Council of Churches 
meeting in Uppsala, Sweden, a month before he was 
elected bishop. He was a preacher on the "Protestant 
Hour" in 1966 and 1967. 

The North Central Jurisdictional Conference, meeting 
in Peoria, 111., in July, 1968, elected him bishop on its 
twelfth ballot. Newspapers noted that he was one of the 
youngest men to be elected to the Methodist episcopacy, 
being but forty-three years of age. He was assigned to the 
Dakotas Area. 

Who's Who in America. 

N. B. H. 

ARMSTRONG, AUGUSTINE W. (1855-1940), Ameri- 
can circuit rider and historian, was born April 23, 1855, 
near Newark, Ohio, and graduated from Simpson Col- 
lege, Indianola, Iowa. While teaching school in 1871 
he joined the M. E. Church. After receiving a preacher's 
hcense in 1875, he was admitted to the Des Moines Con- 
ference in 1878 and ordained deacon in 1879. He was 
ordained elder in 1883 after completing the Methodist 
ministerial training course. He married Marv Carpenter 
at Elhott, Iowa, on Nov. 2, 1881. 

From 1878 to 1897 Armstrong ministered to fourteen 
charges: Macedonia, Audubon, Waukee, Iowa Center, 
Rippey, Fontanelle, Silver City, Villisca, Lenox-Clear- 
field, Greenfield, Randolph, Afton, Russell, and Garden 
Grove. From 1892 to 1895 he served as secretary of 
the Des Moines Conference. He was associate editor of 
the Omaha Christian Advocate for one year, 1897-98, 
and was again an itinerant, serving at Weldon, Bayard, 
Paton, Churdan, Ogden, EUston, Derby, St. Charles, Nor- 
walk, Farragut, Missouri Valley, Lanesboro, and Min- 
bum. He retired from the active ministry in 1919 and 
lived at Perry, Iowa. 

Having served as conference historian for fifty years, he 
completed in 1924 a history of the Des Moines Con- 
ference, covering a sixty-four year period. He also spent 
ten years writing a history of the Bishops of the M. E. 
Church. He died Sept. 26, 1940, and was buried at Perry, 

Minutes of the Des Moines and lowa-Des Moines Conferences. 

Martin L. Greer 


ican minister and conference historian, was bom Dec. 
29, 1886, at Harvey, N. D., the son of Charles E. and 
Jessie A. (Vary) Armstrong. He studied at Wesley Col- 

lege, Grand Forks, N. D., 1909-11, and was awarded 
the D.D. degree by that institution in 1936. He married 
Katherine M. Bridges, June 14, 1911, and they have one 
son, Richard C. 

Armstrong joined the North Daokta Conference in 
1909, was received into full connection in 1912, and was 
ordained elder in 1914. In 1919, he became executive 
secretary of the North Dakota Council of Churches and 
served until retirement in 1959. He was treasurer of his 
conference, 1954-57, and served as a trustee, 1930-59. He 
wrote The History of the Methodist Church in North 
Dakota, volume I (1945) and volume II (1960). He re- 
sides in North Fargo, N. D. 

Minutes of the North Dakota Conference. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

ARMSTRONG, JAMES (1787-1834), American preacher 
and administrator, was a native of Ireland who came to 
America as a lad with his parents. He was converted when 
seventeen, joined the M. E. Church in Philadelphia, 
and was Hcensed to preach at Baltimore in 1812. He 
went to Indiana in 1821 and was admitted into the 
Missouri Conference, being appointed to the Charles- 
town Circuit. He was presiding elder of the Indiana 
District of the Illinois Conference in 1824, and of the 
Charlestown District, 1825-27. He was appointed to India- 
napolis in 1828 and laid the foundations of Methodism 
there. In 1830 he was presiding elder of the new India- 
napolis District; in 1831 the new Crawfordsville District; 
in 1832 the new Missionary District in the new Indiana 
Conference. He led in building the first church north of 
the Wabash River at Door Village. 

Armstrong was a man of immense power, strong, log- 
ical, and conclusive. He laid deep and well the founda- 
tion of the church in this new and growing state. 

He died at his home in LaPorte County, Sept. 12, 1834. 

William P. Hargrave, ed. Sacred Poems of Rev. Richard Har- 
grove with a Biography of Himself, and Biographical Sketches 
of Sotne of His Coadjutors. N.p.: the author, 1890. 
F. C. Holliday, Indiana. 1873. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopedia. 1878. W. D. Archibald 

ARMSTRONG, JAMES EDWARD (1830-1908), Amer- 
ican minister and historian of the Old Baltimore Con- 
ference, was bom in Alexandria, Va., Oct. 15, 1830. 
His family moved to Baltimore when he was a child. 
As a youth he gave himself to God, soon expressing a 
desire to become a Methodist preacher. In 1853 the 
Baltimore Conference, without the usual recommendation, 
and in his absence, admitted young Armstrong on trial 
and gave him an appointment. 

He was ordained deacon by Bishop Levi Scott in 
1855. His diary contains this entry: "May its solemn vows 
be ever fresh in my memory." He was ordained elder by 
Bishop Beverly Waugh in 1857. He served fourteen 
pastorates and six terms as presiding elder. 

He married Margaret Hickman of Woodstock, Va. 

As a pastor he sought the poor and lowly and minis- 
tered to tliem with genuine courtesy. 

Armstrong received the D.D. degree from Randolph- 
Macon College, of which he was a trustee from 1895 
until his death. He was twice a member of the General 
Conference (MES), in 1894 and 1898. He wrote His- 
tory of the Old Baltimore Conference at the request of that 




James E. Armstrong 

When the Baltimore Conference met in Roanoke, Va., in 
March, 1908, Armstrong acted as one of the secretaries 
for the fiftieth time; for twenty years he was chief secre- 
tary. At the conference love feast he gave this testimony: 
"I have no worth or merit in myself. All to Christ I owe. 
If I am saved I will be a sinner saved by grace." 

He was not able to attend die last day of the con- 
ference, but for several days he kept busy preparing con- 
ference records for publication. He died on April 7, 1908. 

Minutes of the Baltimore Conference, MES, 1909. 

Rembert D. McNeer 

ARMSTRONG, JOSIAH HAYNES (1842-1898), an Amer- 
ican bishop of the A. M. E. Chlthch, was born in Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., on May 30, 1842. He was converted in 
1868 in Jacksonville, Fla. and licensed to preach in that 
same year. He was ordained a deacon about 1869 and 
elder in 1870. He became a member of the Florida An- 
nual Conference. He was a pastor and a presiding elder 
in Florida and served a term in the Florida State Legis- 
lature. He was elected to the episcopacy in 1896 and 
assigned to the Tenth Episcopal District of his church in 
Texas, taking him out of Florida as a resident for the 
first time in his ministry. 

He died in 1898 at Galveston, Te.xas. 

R. R. Wright, Bishops (AME). 1963. Grant S. Shockley 

ARNETT, BENJAMIN WILLIAM (1838-1906), American 
bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Brownsville, 
Pa., on March 6, 1838. He was converted in 1856, licensed 
to preach in 1865, ordained deacon in 1868, and elder 
in 1870. Amett was an outstanding churchman and civic 
leader. He rose to the positions of secretary (1876-1884) 
and financial secretary (1884-1888) of his church's Gen- 

eral Conference. In connection with the latter post he 
published notable "Budget" volumes containing statistical 
and vital A.M.E. as well as Methodist data and history 
from 1884-1904. 

In 1879 he was chaplain of the Ohio State Legislature, 
and in 1886 was elected a member of it. Amett was 
elected to the episcopacy in 1888 from the financial secre- 
taryship of the denomination. He served the Seventh, 
Fourth, Third, and First Episcopal Districts. Following a 
distinguished career as an orator, author, administrator, 
and civic leader, he died on Oct. 7, 1906. 

R. R. Wright, Bishops (AME). 1963. Grant S. Shockley 

ARNOLD, JOHN M. (1824-1884), American minister, 
was born in the Catskill Mountains, N. Y., on Oct. 15, 
1824. His father, a poor Baptist minister with eleven chil- 
dren, died when John was one year old. In 1839 John 
moved to the frontier in Michigan. Sickly in childhood, 
he fashioned a stiong body by will and determination. 

He entered the Michigan Conference on trial in 1849, 
and completed the course of studies in one year, receiving 
perfect marks. He served frontier appointments and then 
became presiding elder of the Owosso District, 1856-.59. 
While pastor at the Woodward Avenue Church, Detroit, 
then the largest church in Michigan, mission giving and 
attendance increased notably. 

Through his years as a pastor Arnold kept on hand a 
supply of books from the Book Concern, which he con- 
tinually sold. Later he opened a Methodist book store in 
Detroit which did a large business. In 1864 this became 
an official depository, specializing in Sunday school litera- 

After sei'ving as correspondent for the New York 
Christian Advocate, he promoted at the conference in 
1863 the idea of a state Methodist paper. In December, 

1873, he was one of the founders of the Michigan Chris- 
tian Advocate, which began publication in January, 

1874. Arnold put $1,100 into this stock company, was 
vice-president, business manager, associate editor, and 
then editor. He gained increasing influence in his edi- 
torials and saw the subscriptions rise to 10,000. 

In 1877 John Arnold was one of the leaders who re- 
established the Detroit Methodist Alliance, providing for 
mutual cooperation and help among the city's churches. 
In 1879-80 the Alliance made a mighty and successful 
effort to raise the debts on all the Detroit Methodist 

In 1875 Arnold was one of the leaders who determined 
the site and estabfished the Bay View Camp Ground. He 
promoted it vigorously in the Advocate. In 1884 it was 
said that he held "four of the most arduous offices of 
the Detroit Conference" and was serving on six commit- 
tees. He was a leader in the Centenary celebration and 
campaign to raise $500,000 in Michigan. His untimely 
death in Detroit on Dec. 5, 1884, seemed to sound the 
death knell to this drive. 

M. A. Boughton, ed.. Selections from the Autobiography of 

Rev. J. M. Arnold, D.D. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Index Publishing 

House, 1885. 

M. B. Macmillan, Michigan. 1967. 

Minutes of the Detroit Annual Conference, 1885. 

E. H. Pilcher, Michigan. 1878. Ronald A. Brunger 

ARNOLD, WILLIAM ERASTUS (1862-1938), American 
writer, historian and Conference leader of Kentucky, was 



born on Jan. 9, 1862, in Bourbon Co., Ky. He was left 
an orphan in his early infancy and was brought up by 
his mother's brother, Frank M. Henkle. He attended 
Kentucky Wesleyan College at Winchester, Ky., and 
after receiving the A.B. Degree there entered the Meth- 
odist ministry on March 23, 1883. He joined the Ken- 
tucky Conference (MES) on Sept. 10, 1884, and out 
of that conference retired in Sept., 1934, after fifty 
years in active service. 

He married Elizabeth Strother on Jan. 4, 1887, and 
to them were born five children. A man of untiring energy 
and one who became an interpreter of church law, he 
early obtained a position of leadership among his brethren. 
For four years he was editor of the Conference paper. 
The Central Methodist. He served as pastor of Richmond, 
Highlands, Danville, Stanford (twice), Flemingsburg, and 
Somerset. Made a presiding elder, he served the Mays- 
ville District, the Danville, the Covington, and the Lex- 
ington. Kentucky Wesleyan gave him the degree of D.D. 
J. R. Savage, his biographer and friend, said of him, "He 
will possibly be best known to posterity through his two 
able volumes of the History of Kentucky Methodism. He 
was at work on his third and last volume of the series . . . 
when he was taken ill and died on March 9, 1938 before 
he could finish the work." 

The Kentucky Methodist. June 6, 1938. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

N. B. H. 

ARRAH, India, is a city of some 60,000 in the Shahabad 
District of Bihar. It is the district headquarters for the 
government and also a Methodist Church headquarters. 

The first Methodist missionaries, the Rev. and Mrs. 
Arthur Lee Gray, came to Arrah in 1903, representing an 
independent organization centered in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
U.S.A. Gray was then a member of the Peninsula An- 
nual Conference. After several years of disappointing 
work, they asked the M. E. Church to accept responsi- 
bility for the area and this request was granted. Arrah 
was incorporated in the Bengal Conference. Help was 
obtained from recent converts in the Ballia District of 
the United Provinces immediately across the Ganges 
River, and within a few months several groups of Dhusiya 
Chamars confessed Christian faith and were baptized. 

The movement grew into a church of about 10,000 
members, preparatory members, and baptized children in 
the Shahabad District of Bihar. 

An adjustment of conference boundaries in 1913 shifted 
the Tirhoot Division and the Shahabad District of Bihar 
and the Ballia District of the United Provinces from the 
Bengal Conference to the North India Conference. The 
1920 General Conference passed an enabhng act author- 
izing the North India and the Northwest India Confer- 
ences to divide their territories so that an additional an- 
nual conference might be organized. Arrah District was 
in the territory set apart for the new conference, which 
at its organizing session chose for itself the name Luck- 
now Conference. 

Sawtelle School in Arrah was started in rented prop- 
erty in 1918, with a personal gift of 500 rupees from 
a woman missionary, and was financed for several years 
by designated gifts from friends in India and America. 
It was adopted by the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society, M. E. Church, in 1921. In 1923 the residential 
estate of a former indigo planter, most conveniently lo- 

cated, was purchased after si.x years of effort, and building 
plans were laid. In appreciation of gifts from the Saw- 
telle family of Cincinnati, Ohio, the name "Sawtelle" 
was given to the school. It is now a coeducational high 
school with separate dormitories for boys and girls. The 
first principal was Edna Abbott. She later served very 
effectively as a village evangelist, identifying herself so 
sacrificially with the depressed leather workers that the 
Brahman principal of a government high school, living 
next door, was helped to accept Christ and to become an 
active Christian. 

Maren Tirsgaard of Denmark and the United States 
served as principal for thirty years, and made Sawtelle 
one of the most successful and popular mission schools in 
the state. It has powerfully undergirded the church in 
Arrah-Buxar-Ballia area of India. 

J. N. Hollister, Southern Asia. 1956. J. Waskom Pickett 

ARTERS, JOHN M. (1877-1943), American minister and 
secretary of the M. E. General Conference, was born 
at Deals Island, Md., Aug. 13, 1877. He was received on 
trial in the Wilmington Conference in 1900. In 1899 
he received the B.A. degree from Dickinson College, 
and in 1929 was awarded the D.D. degree by that in- 
stitution. He served in the pastorate for nine years. His 
boundless energy, crusading spirit, ability as a public 
speaker and keen debater attracted attention state-wide, 
resulting in a call to be superintendent of the Anti-Saloon 
League of Delaware. 

In 1911 Arters transferred to the Maine Conference 
where he served as pastor of Congress Street Church in 
Portland, 1911-13, and Rumford, 1914-16. In 1917, 
shortly after his appointment to Waterville, he entered 
work with the Y.M.C.A. in the first World War. For a time 
he served as associate secretary of the General Board of 
Temperance, Prohibition, and Public Morals of his church. 
Returning to Maine he became presiding elder of the 
Portland District, 1919-24; pastor of Clark Memorial 
Church, Portland, 1925-28; at Grace Church, Bangor, 
1929-32; and presiding elder of the Bangor District, 
1932-38. Because of failing health he took 1939 as a 
sabbatical year and retired the following year. 

Arters was married to Anna Louise Morris of Dills- 
burg, Del. in 1901. 

Arters exerted leadership of a high degree in all of 
the many boards and commissions on which he served. He 
was for seventeen years treasurer of the Preachers' Aid 
Society. He represented the Maine Conference at six suc- 
cessive General Conferences. For many years before the 
coming of amplifiers, his strong voice boomed forth as he 
served as secretary of the General Conference. His services 
in this office continued until 1939, when he was unable to 
be a part of the Uniting Conference. 

He died at his home in Cape Elizabeth, Me., on Feb. 
18, 1943, and was buried in Pine Grove Cemetery, Fal- 

Journal of the Maine Conference, 1943. 

Alfred G. Hempstead 

ARTHUR, WILLIAM (1819-1901), British minister and 
author, was bom at Kells, County Antrim, Ireland, 
Feb. 3, 1819. Accepted for the Wesleyan Methodist 
ministry in 1837, he went to Gutti, Mysore, India in 
1839, but had to return because of ill health in 1841. His 



William Arthuh 

eyesight was never fully restored, and later a throat 
affliction intermittently reduced his voice to a whisper. 
He was secretary of the Wesleyan Methodist Mission- 
ary Society, 1851-68; first principal of Belfast Meth- 
odist College, 1868-71; again at the Mission House, 
1871-88, when he superannuated. He afterward lived 
mostly in the south of France until his death at Cannes, 
March 9, 1901. He was president of the Wesleyan Con- 
ference of 1866, and played a leading part in the first 
two Ecumenical Methodist Conferences in 1881 and 

Arthur visited America in 1855-56 and again in 1880, 
when he was a fraternal delegate to the General Con- 
ferences of the M. E. Church. Bishop Matthew Simp- 
son reflects American esteem for him: 

In the Chair of the [British Wesleyan] Conference in 1866, 
he showed rare administrative ability. A calm and dispassion- 
ate speaker, a ricli unction often attending his utterances and 
a disposition like the beloved disciple, he occupies a high po- 
sition among his brethren, while his pen richly dispenses wide- 
spread influence wherever his works are read. ( Cyclopaedia, 
in loc. ) 

Arthur's book. The Tongue of Fire, (1856) had tre- 
mendous influence on America as well as over the En- 
glish-speaking world. For many years and up to the time 
of Methodist Union, this book was one required in the 
course of study for young ministers in the M. E. Church, 
South. The theme of the book is that all Christianity 
waits upon and depends upon the power of the Holy 
Spirit, that Cod does his work "not by extraordinary 
people, but by giving ordinary people extraordinary 
power." It is still being reprinted in both England and the 

His other publications include A Mission to Mysore 
(1847); The Successful Merchant (1852), which had 
wide circulation in its time; The People's Day, an appeal 
to Lord Stanley against his advocacy of a French Sun- 
day (1855); The Modern Jove (1873), a review of the 

speeches of Pio Nono; The Life of Cidcon Ouseley 
(1876); The Pope, the Kings and the People (1877); 
and Religion Without God and God Without Religion 
(1885-87), attacks on Frederick Harrison and Herbert 
Spencer. He wrote the Femley Lecture of 1883, On the 
Difference Between Physical and Moral Law. 

T. B. Stephenson, William Arthur. 1907. 

John Kent 

ARTICLES OF RELIGION. In American Methodism. The 

Articles of Rehgion, as abridged by John Wesley and 
sent over with the Sunday Service, have always been 
accepted as standards of doctrine by the American Meth- 
odist Churches. The original Methodist Episcopal 
Church, organized in 1784, adopted these Articles, and 
other Methodist Churches stemming from it in time like- 
wise canied them. They have been published in every 
Book of Discipline of American Methodism since 1790, 
and the Book of Discipline itself was until 1968 always 
entitled the Doctrines and Discipline of The Methodist 
Church. The "doctrine" in this publication was and is 
largely, if not almost entirely, the Articles of Religion, 
though certain other material here and there in the Book 
of Discipline, as the General Rules and certainly the 
Ritual, add to and embody the teachings of the Articles, 
while early inclusion of some Wesley tracts represented 
more strongly Wesleyan emphases. 

Wesley sent over to the American Methodists twenty- 
four Articles of the Thirty-Nine. He did not feel it proper to 
send an Article corresponding to Article 38 of the Prayer 
Book which affirmed "the King's supremacy" and dealt 
also with "the civil majestrates." In view of the just-ended 
American Revolution, Wesley's action in striking out this 
whole Article is easily understood. However, at the orga- 
nizing Christmas Conference, the American Method- 
ists felt that there ought to be some sort of corresponding 
Article relating to their Church and government. Thus 
wdth the twenty-four which Wesley sent, the American 
Methodists drew up what has been from that day to 
this. Article 23 of the Methodist Episcopal Churches. 
We show this distinctly American Article in its proper 
place in the Articles below. It has been slightly changed 
from the original 1784 — or 1785 — text, to meet the change 
in the American government that came in 1789. 

At the 1808 General Conference of the M. E. 
Church, when the representative General Conference was 
created, the Articles of Religion were specifically put 
beyond the reach of any action by such General Con- 
ference or succeeding conferences. This was done by the 
first Restrictive Rule which stated — and today states: 
"They (General Conference) shall not revoke, alter, or 
change our Articles of Religion, or estabhsh any new 
standards or rules of doctrine contrary to our present 
existing and established standards of doctrine." This for- 
ever placed the Articles of Religion beyond the reach of 
the statutory action of a General Conference, save that 
conference's own initiative in recommending a constitu- 
tional change which it might do by two-thirds vote; 
needed also would be subsequent approval by three- 
fourths of the members of all the Annual Conferences 
present and voting. To date, there has been no serious 
proposal to amend the Articles of Religion in any respect, 
though there has been added to them in the newly orga- 
nized ( 1968 ) United Methodist Church, the Confession of 
Faith of the former Evangelical United Brethren Church. 



(See Standards of Doctrine, Confession of Faith, 
Sunday Service, and the General Conference for fur- 
ther study here.) 

Below we print in the left hand column the text of the 
Prayer Book of the Church of England as it was in 1784. 
In the right hand column, in a word for word parallel, 
will be found Wesley's abridgment. Blank spaces in- 
dicate an omission on Wesley's part — and this of course 
entailed a positive stroke of his pen in striking out ma- 
terial in the Prayer Book. New material written in by 

Articles of Religion of 
The Church of England 

I. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. 

THERE is but one living and true God, 
everlasting, without body, parts or pas- 
sions; of infinite power, wisdom, and 
goodness, the Maker and Preserver of 
all things, both visible and invisible. And 
in unity of this Godhead there be three 
Persons, of one substance, power, and 
eternity; the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost. 

n. Of the Word, or Son of God, which 
was made very Man. 

THE Son, which is the Word of the 
Father, begotten from everlasting of the 
Father, the very and eternal God, and 
of one substance with the Father, took 
Man's nature in the womb of the blessed 
Virgin, of her substance, so that two 
whole and perfect Natures, that is to say, 
the Godhead and Manhood, were joined 
together in one Person, never to be 
divided, whereof is one Christ, very God, 
and very man; who truly suffered, was 
crucified, dead, and buried, to reconcile 
his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, 
not only for original guilt, but also for all 
actual sins of men. 

HI. Of the going down of Christ into 

As Christ died for us and was buried, so 
also is it to be believed that he went down 
into hell. 

IV. Of the Resurrection of Christ. 
CHRIST did truly rise again from 
death, and took again his body, with 
flesh, bones, and all things appertaining 
to the perfection of man's nature, where 
with he ascended into heaven, and there 
sitteth, until he return to judge all men 

at the last day. 

V. Of the Holy Ghost. 

THE Holy Ghost, proceeding from the 
Father and the Son, is of one substance, 
majesty, and glory with the Father and 
the Son, very and eternal God. 

VI. Of the SufiBciency of the Holy Scrip- 

tures for salvation. 

Wesley is indicated by italics. No attempt is made here to 
interpret Wesley's omissions or give possible reasons why 
he made the changes he did. His position on many matters 
of doctrine will be discussed or explained in the various 
doctrinal articles which we carry elsewhere in this work. 
His omissions and the abridged text which he evidently 
approved — since he transmitted this to the American 
Methodists — may be variously interpreted by different 

N. B. H. 

(Wesley's abridgment) 

I. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity 

There is but one living and true God, 
everlasting, without body or 

parts, of infinite power, wisdom, and 
goodness; the maker and preserver of 
all things, visible and invisible. And 

in unity of this Godhead there are three 
persons, of one substance, power, and 
eternity — the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost. 

II. Of the Word, or Son of God, who 

was made very man 
The Son, who was the Word of the 

the very and eternal God, 
of one substance with the Father, took 
man's nature in the womb of the blessed 
Virgin; so that two 

whole and perfect natures, that is to say, 
the Godhead and Manhood, were joined 
together in one person, never to be 
divided; whereof is one Christ, very God 
and very Man, who truly suff^ered, was 
ciTJcified, dead, and buried, to reconcile 
his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, 
not only for original guilt, but also for 
the actual sins of men. 

HI. Of the Resurrection of Christ 

Christ did truly rise again from 

the dead, and took again his body, with 

all things appertaining 
to the perfection of man's nature, where- 
with he ascended into heaven, and there 
sitteth until he return to judge all men 
at the last day. 

IV. Of the Holy Ghost 

The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the 
Father and the Son, is of one substance, 
majesty, and glory, with the Father and 
the Son, very and eternal God. 

V. Of the SufiBciency of the Holy Scrip- 

tures for salvation 



HOLY Scripture containeth all things 
necessary to salvation: so that whatsoever 
is not read therein, nor may be proved 
thereby, is not to be required of any man, 
that it should be believed as an article of 
the Faith, or be thought requisite or nec- 
essary to salvation. In the name of the 
Holy Scripture we do understand those 
Canonical Books of tlie Old and New 
Testament, of whose authority was 
never any doubt in the Church. 

Of the Names and Number of the 
Canonical Books. 

GENESIS, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, 
Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 
The First Book of Samuel, The Second 
Book of Samuel, The First Book of 
Kings, The Second Book of Kings, The 
First Book of Chronicles, The Second 
Book of Chronicles, The First Book of 
Esdras, The Second Book of Esdras, 
The Book of Esther, The Book of Job, 
The Psalms, The Proverbs, Ecclesiastes 
or the Preacher, Cantica, or Songs of 
Solomon, Four Prophets the Greater, 
Twelve Prophets the Less. 

And the other books (as Hierome saith) 
tlie Church doth read for example of life, 
and instruction of manners; but yet doth 
it not apply them to establish any doctrine; 
such are these following: 

The Third Book of Esdras, The Fourth 
Book of Esdras, The Book of Tobias, The 
Book Judith, The Rest of The Book of Esther, 
The Book of Wisdom, Jesus the Son of Sirach, 
Baruch the Prophet, the Song of the Three 
Children, The Story of Susanna, Of Bel and 
the Dragon, The Prayer of Manasses, The 
First Book of Maccabees, The Second Book 
of Maccabees. 

All the Books of the New Testament 
as they are commonly received, we do 
receive and account them Canonical. 

VII. Of the Old Testament. 

THE Old Testament is not contrary to 
the New; for both in the Old and New 
Testament, everlasting life is offered to 
mankind by Christ, who is the only 
Mediator between God and man, being 
both God and man. Wherefore they 
are not to be heard, which feign that the 
old fathers did look only for transitory 
promises. Although the Law given from 
God by Moses, as touching Ceremonies 
and Rites, do not bind Christian men 
nor the civil precepts thereof ought of 
necessity to be received in any common- 
wealth; yet notwithstanding, no Chris- 
tian man whatsoever is free from the 
obedience of the Commandments which 
are called Moral. 

VIII. Of the Three Creeds. 

THE three Creeds — Nicene Creed, 
Athanasius Creed, and that which is com- 

The Holy Scriptures contain all things 
necessary to salvation; so that whatsoever 
is not read therein, nor may be proved 
thereby, is not to be required of any man 
that it should be believed as an article of 

faith, or be thought requisite or nec- 
essary to salvation. In the name of the 
Holy Scriptures we do understand those 
canonical books of the Old and New 
Testament of whose authority was 
never any doubt in the Church. 

The names of the 
canonical books are: 

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, 
Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 
The First Book of Samuel, The Second 
Book of Samuel, The First Book of 
Kings, The Second Book of Kings, The 
First Book of Chronicles, The Second 
Book of Chronicles, The Book of 
Ezra, The Book of Nehemiah, 
The Book of Esther, The Book of Job, 
The Psalms, The Proverbs, Ecclesiastes 
or the Preacher, Cantica or Song of 
Solomon, Four Prophets the Greater, 
Twelve Prophets the Less. 

All The books of the New Testament, 
as they are commonly received, we do 
receive and account canonical. 

VI. Of the Old Testament 

The Old Testament is not contrary to 
the New; for both in the Old and New 
Testament everlasting life is offered to 
mankind by Christ, who is the only 
Mediator between God and man, being 
both God and man. Wherefore they 
are not to be heard who feign that the 
old fathers did look only for transitory 
promises. Although the law given from 
God by Moses as touching ceremonies 
and rites doth not bind Christians, 
nor ought the civil precepts thereof of 
necessity be received in any common- 

wealth: yet noUvithstanding, no Chris- 
tian whatsoever is free from the 
obedience of the commandments which 
are called moral. 



monly called the Apostles' Creed— ought 
thoroughly to be received and believed: 
for they may be proved by most certain 
warrants of Holy Scripture. 

IX. Of Original or Birth-Sin. 

ORIGINAL sin standeth not in the fol- 
lowing of Adam, (as the Pelagians do 
vainly talk, ) but it is the fault and cor- 
ruption of the nature of every man, that 
naturally is engendered of the offspring 
of Adam, whereby man is very far gone 
from original righteousness, and is of 
his own nature inclined to evil, so that 
the flesh lusteth always contrary to the 
Spirit; and therefore in every person 
born into this world, it deserveth God's 
wrath and damnation. And this infec- 
tion of nature doth remain, yea, in them 
that are regenerated, whereby the lust 
of the flesh, called in Greek phronema 
sarkos, which some do expound the 
wisdom, some sensuality, some the affec- 
tion, some the desire of the flesh, is not 
subject to the law of God. And although 
there is no condemnation for them that 
believe and are baptized, yet the Apostle 
doth confess, that concupiscence and lust 
hath of itself the nature of sin. 

X. Of Free- Will. 

THE condition of man after the fall of 
Adam is such, that he cannot turn and 
prepare himself, by his own natural 
strength and good works, to faith and 
calling upon God, wherefore we have 
no power to do good works, pleasant and 
acceptable to God, without the grace of 
God by Christ preventing us, that we 
may have a good will, and working with 
us when we have that good will. 

XI. Of the Justification of Man. 

We are accounted righteous before God, 
only for the merit of our Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ by Faith, and not 
for our own works or deservings: 
wherefore that we are justified by faith 
only is a most wholesome doctrine, and 
very full of comfort; as more largely is 
expressed in the Homily of Justification. 

XII. Of Good Works. 

ALBEIT that Good Works, which are 
the fruits of Faith, and follow after 
Justification, cannot put away our sins, 
and endure the severity of God's judg- 
ment; yet are they pleasing and accept- 
able to God in Christ, and do spring out 
necessarily of a true and lively Faith; 
insomuch that by them a lively faith 
may be as evidently known, as a tree 
discerned by the fruit. 

XIII. Of Works before Justification. 

WORKS done before the grace of Christ, 
and the inspiration of his Spirit, are 

VII. Of Originator Birth Sin 

Original sin standeth not in the fol- 
lowing of Adam (as the Pelagians do 
vainly talk), but it is the cor- 
ruption of the nature of every man, that 
naturally is engendered of the offspring 
of Adam, whereby man is very far gone 
from original righteousness, and of 
his own nature inclined to evil, and that 

Vni. Of Free Will 

The condition of man after the fall of 
Adam is such that he cannot turn and 
prepare himself, by his own natural 
strength and works, to faith, and 

calling upon God; wherefore we have 
no power to do good works, pleasant and 
acceptable to God, without the grace of 
God by Christ preventing us, that we 
may have a good will, and working with 
us, when we have that good will. 

IX. Of the Justification of Man 

We are accounted righteous before God 
only for the merit of our Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ, by faith, and not 
for our own works or deservings. 
Wherefore, that we are justified by faith 
only is a most wholesome doctrine, and 
very full of comfort. 

X. Of Good Works 

Although good works, which are 
the fruits of faith, and follow after 
justification, cannot put away our sins, 
and endure the severity of God's judg- 
ments; yet are they pleasing and accept- 
able to God in Christ, and spring out 

of a true and lively faith, 
insomuch that by them a lively faith 
may be as evidently known as a tree 
is discerned by its fruit. 



not pleasant to God; forasmuch as they 

spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, 

neitlier do they make men meet to receive 

grace, or (as the School-authors say), 

deserve grace of congruity; yea, rather, 

for that they are not done as God hath 

willed and commanded them to be done, we 

doubt not but they have the nature of sin. 

XIV. Of Works of Supererogation. 

VOLUNTARY Works, besides, over 
and above God's commandments, 
which they call Works of Supereroga- 
tion, cannot be taught without arrogancy 
and impiety: for by them men do de- 
clare, that they do not only render unto 
God as much as they are bound to do, 
but that they do more for his sake, than 
of bounden duty is required: whereas 
Christ saith plainly. When ye have done 
all that are commanded you, say. We 
are unprofitable servants. 

XV. Of Christ alone without sin. 

CHRIST in the truth of our nature was 

made like unto us in all things, sin 

only except, from which he was clearly 

void, both in his flesh and in his spirit. 

He came to be the Lamb without spot, who, 

by sacrifice of himself once made, should 

take away the sins of the world; and sin, 

as St. John saith, was not in him. But 

all the rest, although baptized, and bom 

again in Christ, yet offend in many things; 

and if we say we have no sin, we deceive 

ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 

XVI. Of Sin after Baptism. 

NOT every deadly sin willingly com- 
mitted after Baptism, is sin against 
the Holy Ghost, and unpardonable. 
Wherefore the grant of repentance is 
not to be denied to such as fall into sin 
after Baptism. After we have received 
the Holy Ghost, we may depart from 
grace given, and fall into sin; and by 
the grace of God we may rise again, 
and amend our lives: and therefore 
they are to be condemned, which say, 
they can no more sin as long as they 
live here, or deny the place of forgive- 
ness to such as truly repent. 

XVII. Of Predestination and Election. 

PREDESTINATION to life is the everlasting 
purpose of God, whereby (before the foun- 
dations of the world were laid ) he hath 
constantly decreed by his counsel, secret 
to us, to deliver from curse and damnation 
those whom he hath chosen in Christ out 
of mankind, and to bring them by Christ 
to everlasting salvation, as vessels 
made to honour. Wherefore they which be 
endued with so excellent a benefit of God, 
be called according to God's purpose by 
his Spirit working in due season: they 
through grace obey the calling: they be 

XI. Of Works of Supererogation 

Voluntary works — besides, over 
and above God's commandments — 
which are called works of supereroga- 
tion, cannot be taught without arrogancy 
and impiety. For by them men do de- 
clare that they do not only render unto 
God as much as they are bound to do, 
but that they do more for his sake than 
of bounden duty is required: whereas 
Christ saith plainly: When ye have done 
all that is commanded of you, say. We 
are unprofitable servants. 

XII. Of Sin after Justification 

Not every sin wilUngly com- 
mitted after justification, is the sin against 
the Holy Spirit, and unpardonable. 
Wherefore, the grant of repentance is 
not to be denied to such as fall into sin 
after justification. After we have received 
the Holy Spirit, we may depart from 
grace given, and fall into sin, and, by 
the grace of God, rise again 
and amend our fives. And therefore 
they are to be condemned who say 
they can no more sin as long as they 
live here; or deny the place of forgive- 
ness to such as truly repent. 


justified freely: they be made sons of 
God by adoption: they be made the image 
of his only begotten Son Jesus Christ: 
they walk religiously in good works, and, 
at length, by God's mercy, they attain to 
everlasting fehcity. 

As the godly consideration of predestina- 
tion and our election in Christ is full 
of sweet, pleasant, and unspeakable com- 
fort to godly persons, and such as feel 
in themselves the working of the Spirit 
of Christ, mortifying tlie works of the 
flesh and their earthly members, and 
drawing up their mind to high and heavenly 
things; as well because it doth greatly 
establish and confirm their faith of eter- 
nal salvation, to be enjoyed through 
Christ, as because it doth fervently kin- 
dle their love towards God: so for curious 
and carnal persons, lacking the Spirit of 
Christ, to have continually before their 
eyes the sentence of God's predestination, 
is a most dangerous downfall, whereby the 
devil dost thrust them either into despera- 
tion, or into wretchlessness of most un- 
clean living, no less perilous than des- 

Furthermore, we must receive God's pro- 
mises in such wise as they be generally 
set forth to us in Holy Scripture: and in 
our doings that will of God is to be fol- 
lowed which we have expressly declared 
unto us in the word of God. 

XVIII. Of Obtaining Eternal Salvation Only 
by the Name of Christ. 

THEY also are to be had accursed that pre- 
sume to say that every man shall be saved 
by the law or sect which he professeth, so 
that he be diligent to frame his life ac- 
cording to that law, and the light of na- 
ture. For Holy Scripture doth set out unto 
us only the name of Jesus Christ, whereby 
men must be saved. 

XIV. Of the Church. XIII. Of the Church 

THE visible church of Christ is a con- The visible Church of Christ is a con- 

gregation of faithful men, in the which gregation of faithful men in which 

the pure word of God is preached, and the pure Word of God is preached, and 

the sacraments be duly ministered ac- the Sacraments duly administered ac- 

cording to Christ's ordinance, in all those cording to Christ's ordinance, in all those 

things that of necessity are requisite to things that of necessity are requisite to 

the same. As the Church of Jerusalem, the same. 

Alexandria, and Andoch, have erred; 
so also the Church of Rome hath erred; 
not only in their living and manner of 
Ceremonies, but also in matters of Faith. 

XX. Of the Authority of the Church. 

THE Church hath power to decree rites or 
ceremonies, and authority in controversies 
of faith; and yet it is not lawful for the 
Church to ordain any thing that is contrary 
to God's word written; neither may it ex- 
pound one place of Scripture, that it be 
repugnant to another. Wherefore, although 



the Church be a witness and a keeper of 
holy writ, yet as it ought not to decree 
any thing against the same, so, besides 
the same ought it not to enforce any thing 
to be believed for necessity of salvation. 

XXI. Of the Authority of General Councils. 
GENERAL Councils may not be gathered to- 
gether without the commandment and will 

of princes. And when they be gathered to- 
gether (forasmuch as they be an assembly 
of men, whereof all be not governed with 
the Spirit and word of God), they may err, 
and sometimes have erred, even in things 
pertaining unto God. Wherefore things or- 
dained by them as necessary to salvation 
have neither strength nor authority, unless 
it may be declared that they be taken out 
of Holy Scripture. 

XXII. Of Purgatory. 

THE Romish Doctrine concerning 

Purgatory, Pardons, Worshipping and 

Adoration, as well of Images as of 

Reliques, and also invocation of Saints 

is a fond thing, vainly invented, and 

grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, 

but rather repugnant to the Word of God. 

XXIII. Of Ministering in the Congregation. 

IT is not lawful for any man to take upon 
him the office of public preaching, or 
ministering the sacraments in the congre- 
gation, before he be lawfully called and 
sent to execute the same. And those we 
ought to judge lawfully called and sent 
which be chosen and called to this work 
by men who have public authority given unto 
them in the congregation, to call and send 
ministers into the Lord's vineyard. 

XXIV. Of speaking in the Congrega- 
tion in such a tongue as the 
people understandeth. 

IT is a thing plainly repugnant to the 
word of God, and the custom of the 
primitive church, to have public prayer 
in the church, or to minister the sac- 
raments, in a tongue not understanded 
of the people. 

XXV. Of the Sacraments. 

SACRAMENTS ordained of Christ, be 
not only badges or tokens of Christian 
men's profession; but rather they be 
certain sure witnesses, and effectual 
signs of grace and God's good will 
towards us, by the which he doth work 
invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, 
but also strengthen and confirm our 
faith in him. 

There are two Sacraments ordained 
of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, that 
is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the 

Those five commonly called Sacra- 
ments, that is to say. Confirmation, 

XIV. Of Purgatory 

The Romish doctrine concerning 
purgatory, pardons, worshiping, and 
adoration, as well of images as of 
relics, and also invocation of saints, 
is a fond thing, vainly invented, and 
grounded upon no warrant of Scripture, 
but repugnant to the Word of God. 

XV. Of speaking in the Congrega- 

tion in such a Tongue as the 
People Understand 

It is a thing plainly repugnant to the 
Word of God, and the custom of the 
primitive Church, to have public prayer 
in the church, or to administer the Sac- 
raments, in a tongue not understood 
by the people. 

XVI. Of the Sacraments 

Sacraments ordained of Christ are 

not only badges or tokens of Christian 

men's profession, but rather they are 


signs of grace, and God's good will 

toward us, by which he doth work 

invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, 

but also strengthen and confiim, our 

faith in him. 

There are two Sacraments ordained 
of Chiist our Lord in the Gospel; that 
is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the 

Those five commonly called sacra- 
ments, that is to say, confirmation. 



Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Ex- 
treme Unction, are not to be accounted 
for Sacraments of the Gospel, being 
such as have grown, partly of the 
corrupt following of the Apostles, 
partly are states of life allowed in the 
Scriptures; but yet have not like 
nature of Sacraments with Baptism and 
the Lord's Supper, for that they have 
not any visible sign or ceremony ordained 
of God. 

The Sacraments were not ordained of 
Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried 
about; but that we should duly use 
them. And in such only as worthily re- 
ceive the same, they have a wholesome 
effect or operation: but they that receive 
them unworthily, purchase to themselves 
damnation, as Saint Paul saith. 

XXVI. Of the Unworthiness of Minis- 
ters, which hinders not the effect of 
the Sacrament. 

ALTHOUGH in the visible Church the evil 
be ever mingled with the good, and some- 
times the evil have chief authority in 
the ministration of the word and sacra- 
ments: yet forasmuch as they do not the 
same in their outi name, but in Christ's, 
and do minister by his commission and 
authority, we may use their ministry, 
both in hearing the word of God and in 
the receiving of the sacraments. Neidier 
is the effect of Christ's ordinance taken 
away by their wickedness, nor the grace 
of God's gifts diminished from such as by 
faith and rightly do receive the sacra- 
ments ministered unto them, which be 
effectual because of Christ's institution 
and promise, although they be ministered 
by evil men. 

Nevertheless, it appertaineth to the 
discipline of the Church that inquiry be 
made of evil ministers, and that they be 
accused by those that have knowledge of 
their offenses: and finally, being found 
guilty, by just judgment be deposed. 

XXVH. Of Baptism. 

BAPTISM is not only a sign of profes- 
sion, and mark of difference, whereby 
Christian men are discerned from others 
that be not christened; but it is also a 
sign of regeneration, or new birth, 
whereby as by an instrument, they that 
receive Baptism rightly, are grafted into 
the Church; the promises of forgiveness 
of sin, and of our adoption to be the sons 
of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly 
signed and sealed; faith is confirmed, 
and grace increased by virtue of prayer 
unto God. The Baptism of young chil- 
dren is in any wise to be retained in 
the Church, as most agreeable with the 
institution of Christ. 

penance, orders, matrimony, and ex- 
treme unction, are not to be counted 
for Sacraments of the Gospel; being 
such as have giown out of the 
corrupt following of the apostles, and 
partly are states of life allowed in the 
Scriptures, but yet have not the like 
nature of Baptism and 

the Lord's Supper, because they have 
not any visible sign or ceremony ordained 
of God. 

The Sacraments were not ordained of 
Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried 
about; but that we should duly use 
them. And in such only as worthily re- 
ceive the same, they have a wholesome 
effect or operation; but they that receive 
them unworthily, purchase to themselves 
condemnation, as St. Paul saith. / Cor. 

XVII. Of Baptism 

Baptism is not only a sign of profes- 
sion and mark of difference whereby 
Christians are distinguished from others 
that are not baptized; but it is also a 
sign of regeneration or the new birth. 

The baptism of young chil- 
dren is to be retained in 
the church. 


XXVIII. Of the Lord's Supper. 
THE Supper of the Lord is not onl> a 
sign of the love that Christians ought to 
have among themselves one to another; 
but rather is a Sacrament of our re- 
demption by Christ's death: insomuch 
that to such as rightly, worthily, and 
with faith receive the same, the bread 
which we break is a partaking of the 
body of Christ, and likewise the cup of 
blessing is a partaking of the blood of 

Transubstantiation, (or the change of 
the substance of bread and wine,) in the 
Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved 
by Holy Writ; but is repugnant to the 
plain words of Scripture, overthroweth 
the nature of a sacrament, and hath 
given occasion to many superstitions. 

The body of Christ is given, taken, 
and eaten in the Supper, only after an 
heavenly and spiritual manner. And the 
mean whereby the body of Christ is 
received and eaten in the Supper is faith. 

The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, 
carried about, lifted up, or worshipped. 

XXIX. Of the Wicked, which eat not 

the body of Christ in the use of the 

Lord's Supper. 
THE wicked, and such as be void of a 
lively faith, although they do carnally 
and visibly press with their teeth ( as 
St. Augustine saith) the sacrament of the 
body and blood of Christ; yet in no wise 
are they partakers of Christ, but rather 
to their condemnation do eat and drink 
the sign or sacrament of so great a 

XXX. Of both kinds. 

THE cup of the Lord is not to be denied 
to the lay people: for both the parts of 
the Lord's Sacrament, by Christ's ordi- 
nance and commandment, ought to be 
ministered to all Christian men alike. 

XXXI. Of the one Oblation of Christ 
finished upon the cross. 

THE offering of Christ once made, is 
that perfect redemption, propitiation, and 
satisfaction for all the sins of the whole 
world, both original and actual: and 
there is no other satisfaction for sin 
but that alone. Wherefore the sacri- 
fices of masses, in the which it was 
commonly said, that the priest did 
offer Christ for the quick and the dead, 
to have remission of pain or guilt, were 
blasphemous fables and dangerous de- 

XXXII. Of the Marriage of Priests. 
BISHOPS, priests, and deacons, are not 
commanded by God's law either to vow 
the estate of single life, or to abstain 
from marriage: therefore it is lawful for 


XVIII. Of the Lord's Supper 
The Supper of the Lord is not only a 
sign of the love that Christians ought to 
have among themselves one to another, 
but rather is a sacrament of our re- 
demption by Christ's death: insomuch 
that, to such as rightly, worthily, and 
with faith receive the same, tlie bread 
which we break is a partaking of the 
body of Christ; and likewise the cup of 
blessing is a partaking of the blood of 

Transubstantiation, or the change of 
the substance of bread and wine in the 
Supper of our Lord, cannot be proved 
by Holy Writ, but is repugnant to the 
plain words of Scripture, overthroweth 
the nature of a sacrament, and hath 
given occasion to many superstitutions. 

The body of Christ is given, taken, 
and eaten in the Supper, only after a 
heavenly and spiritual manner. And the 
mean* whereby the bodv of Christ is 
received and eaten in the Supper is faith. 

The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, 
carried about, lifted up, or worshiped. 

XIX. Of Both Kinds 

The cup of the Lord is not to be denied 
to the lay people; for both the parts of 
the Lord's Supper, by Christ's ordi- 
nance and commandment, ought to be 
a^^ministered to all Christians alike. 

XX. Of the one Oblation of Christ, 

finished upon the Cross 
The offering of Christ, once made, is 
that perfect redemption, propitiation, and 
satisfaction for all the sins of the whole 
world, both original and actual; and 
there is none other satisfaction for sin 
but that alone. WTierefore the sacri- 
fice of masses, in the which it is 
commonly said that the priest doth 
offer Christ for the quick and the dead, 
to have remission of pain or guilt, is a 
blasphemous fable and dangerous de- 

XXI. Of the Marriage of Ministers 
The ministers of Christ are not 
commanded by God's law either to vow 
the estate of single life, or to abstain 
from marriage: therefore it is lawful for 



them, as for all other Christian men, to 
marry at their own discretion, as they 
shall judge the same to serve better to 

XXXIII. Of excommunicate Persons, how they 
are to be avoided. 

THAT person which, by open denunciation 
of the Church, is rightly cut off from 
unity of the Church and excommunicated, 
ought to be taken of the whole multitude 
of the faithful as an heathen and publican, 
until he be openly reconciled by penance, 
and received into the Church by a judge 
that hath authority thereunto. 

XXXIV. Of the Traditions of the 

IT is not necessary that tiaditions and 
ceremonies be in all places 
one, or utterly like; for at all times 
they have been diverse, and may be 
changed according to the diversity of 
countries, times, and men's manners, so 
that nothing be ordained against God's 
word. Whosoever, through his private 
judgment, willingly and purposely doth 
openly break the traditions and cere- 
monies of the Church, 

which be not repugnant to 
the word of God, and be ordained and 
approved of common authority, ought 
to be rebuked openly, (that other may 
fear to do the like.) as he tliat offend- 
eth against the common order of the 
Church, and hurteth the authority of 
the magistrate, and woundeth the con- 
sciences of the weak brethren. 

Every particular and national church 
hath authority to ordain, change, and 
abohsh ceremonies or rites of the Church, 
ordained only by man's authority, so that 
all things be done to edifying. 

XXXV. Of Homilies. 

THE second Book of Homilies, the several 
titles whereof we have joined under this 
article, doth contain a goodly and whole- 
some doctrine, and necessary for these 
times, as doth the former Book of Homilies, 
which were set forth in the time of Edward 
the Sixdi, and therefore we judge them to 
be read in Churches by the ministers dih- 
gently and distinctly, that they may be 
understanded of the people. 

Of the Names of the Homilies: 

1. Of the Right Use of the Church. 
2. Against Peril of Idolatry. 3. Of Re- 
pairing and Keeping Clean of Churches. 

4. Of Good Works: First of Fasting. 

5. Against Gluttony and Drunkenness. 

6. Against Excess of Apparel. 7. Of Prayer. 

8. Of the Place and Time of Prayer. 9. That 
Common Prayers and Sacraments Ought to be 
Ministered in a Known Tongue. 10. Of the 
reverend Estimation of God's Word. 11. Of 
Almsdoing. 12. Of the Nativity of Christ. 

them, as for all other Christians , to 
marry at their own discretion, as they 
shall judge the same to serve best to 

XXII. Of the Rites and Ceremonies of 

It is not necessary that rites and 
ceremonies should in all places be the 
same, or exactly alike; for they have 
been always different, and may be 
changed according to the diversity of 
countries, Hmes, and men's manners, so 
that nothing be ordained against God's 
Word. Whosoever, through his private 
judgment, willingly and purposely doth 
openly break the rites and cere- 
monies of the church to which he he- 
longeth, which arc not repugnant to 
the Word of God, and arc ordained and 
approved by common authoritv', ought 
to be rebuked openly (tliat others may 
fear to do the like) , as one that offend- 
eth against the common order of the 

and woundeth the con- 
sciences of weak brethren. 
Every particular church 
may ordain, change, or 

abolish rites and ceremonies. 

so that 

all things may be done to edification. 



13. Of the Passion of Christ. 14. Of tlie 
Resurrection of Christ. 15. Of the Worthy 
Receiving of the Sacrament of the Body and 
Blood of Christ. 16. Of the Gifts of the 
Holy Ghost. 17. For the Rogation-days. 
18. Of the State of Matrimony. 19. Of Re- 
pentance. 20. Against Idleness. 21. A- 
gainst Rebellion. 

XXXVI. Of Consecration of Bishops and 

THE Book of Consecration of Archbishops 
and Bishops, and ordering of Priests and 
Deacons, lately set forth in the time of 
Edward the Sixth, and confirmed at the same 
time by authority of Parliament, doth con- 
tain all things necessary to such consecra- 
tion and ordering; neither hath it any thing 
that of itself is superstitious and ungodly. 
And, therefore, whosoever are consecrated 
or ordered according to the rites of that 
book, since the second year of the fore- 
named King Edward, unto this time or here- 
after, shall be consecrated or ordered ac- 
cording to the same rites, we decree all 
such to be rightly, orderly, and lawfully 
consecrated and ordered. 

XXXVII. Of the Civil Magistrates. 
THE King's Majesty hath the chief 
power in this realm of England, and 
other his dominions, unto whom the 
chief government of all estates in this 
realm, whether they be ecclesiastical or 
civil, in all causes doth appertain; and 
is not, nor ought to be, subject to any 
foreign jurisdiction. 

Whereas we attribute to the King's 
Majesty the chief government, by which 
titles we understand the minds of some 
slanderous folks to be offended; we 
give not our princes the ministering 
either of God's word, or of the sacra- 
ments; the which thing the Injunctions 
also lately set forth by Elizabedi our 
Queen do most plainly testify: but that 
only prerogative, which we see to have 
been given always to all godly princes in 
holy Scriptures by God himself; that is, 
that they should rule all states and de- 
grees committed to their charge by God, 
whether they be ecclesiastical or tem- 
poral, and restrain with the civil sword 
the stubborn and evil-doers. 

The Bishop of Rome hath no juris- 
diction in this realm of England. 

The Laws of the realm may punish 
Christian men with death, for heinous 
and grievous offences. 

It is lawful for Christian men, at the 
commandment of the magistrate, to 
wear weapons, and serve in the wars. 

XXXVIII. Of Christian men's Goods, 
which are not common. 

THE riches and goods of Christians are 
not common, as touching the right, title. 

XXIII. Of the Rulers of the United 

States of America 
The President, the Congress, the gen- 
eral assemblies, the governors, and the 
councils of state as the delegates of the 
people, arc the rulers of the United 
States of America, according to the 
division of power made to them by the 
Constitution of the United States and 
by the constitution of their respective 
states. And the said states are a sov- 
ereign and independent nation, and ought 
not to be subject to any foreign 

XXIV. Of ChrisHan Men's Goods 

The riches and goods of Christians are 
not common, as touching the right, title, 


and possession of the same, as certain 
Anabaptists do falsely boast. Notwith- 
standing, every man ought, of such 
things as he possesseth liberally to give 
alms to the poor, according to his ability. 

XXXIX. Of a Christian Man's Oath. 

AS we confess that vain and rash swear- 
ing is forbidden Christian men by our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and James his 
apostle: so we judge that Christian 
religion doth not prohibit but that a 
man may swear when the magistrate 
requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, 
so it be done according to the prophet's 
teaching, in justice, judgment, and truth. 

In British Methodism. It should be noted that Wes- 
ley never established any Articles of Religion for British 
Methodism, and this is a mark that he never deliberately 
set up in Britain a Church polity and discipline separate 
from the Church of England, as he did for the new 
American nation. Separation came by a gradual process 
of unpremeditated drift. The British Conference of 1806 
indeed resolved that doctrinal standards be drawn up 
(Minutes, Q. 32), and the American Articles were 
adopted, apart from the necessary alteration in XXIII. 
Though these were printed in the former Wesleyan 
Methodist Book of Offices, they never seem to have es- 
tabhshed themselves in use to any perceptible extent, 
and examination of candidates for the Local Preachers' 
Plan and the Ministry was always on the basis of the 
well-loved and venerable Standard Sermons and Notes. 
The Articles were dropped silently at the union of the 
churches in 1932, and British Methodism now has no 
Articles of Religion, though she has been at least as 
successful as other branches in avoiding doctrinal dispute, 
and in maintaining orthodoxy. 

The Thirty-Nine Articles are for subscription by clergy- 
men of the Church of England on institution into the 
incumbency of a parish, and in former days on admission 
to the Universities. They are therefore a distinct element 
in the doctrinal standards of the Church of John Wesley's 
upbringing. Wesley never had a parish of his own in 
England, but he would subscribe to these Articles on 
becoming a member of his Oxford Colleges, and we can- 
not doubt that he would do so with complete conscien- 
tiousness. Wesley constantly and truly insisted that he had 
not departed from the doctrine of the Church of England. 
His characteristic phrase is: "I simply described the plain, 
old religion of the Church of England, which is now al- 
most everywhere spoken against, under the new name of 
Methodism" {Journal, Oct. 15, 1739). Indeed, his more 
intelligent opponents were fully aware of this, and when 
he cites his authorities for this doctrine he customarily 
includes these Articles. 

That Wesley accepted some of these doctrinal posi- 
tions may come as a surprise to some of his modem 
followers. And that this should be the situation is, when 
rightly understood, eloquent for the character of the 
Church of England, and of Wesley, her characteristic 
son. At the time when Europe divided between Roman 
Catholicism and down-the-line Protestantism, the English 
Reformation seriously attempted a middle way of mod- 
eration and comprehension. The Thirty-Nine Articles are 


and possession of the same, as some 

do falsely boast. Notwith- 
standing, every man ought, of such 
things as he possesseth liberally to give 
alms to the poor, according to his ability. 

XXV. Of a Christian Man's Oath 

As we confess that vain and rash swear- 
ing is forbidden Christian men by our 
Lord Jesus Christ and James his 
apostle; so we judge that the Christian 
religion doth not prohibit, but that a 
man may swear when the magistrate 
requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, 
so it be done according to the prophet's 
teaching, in justice, judgment, and truth. 

to be viewed as a part, though only one part, of this 
middle way. Many of them were drawn up with a good 
deal of subtlety, and are designedly capable of interpreta- 
tion in slightly different ways on some points which were 
at that time the subject of controversy. This was done 
for the purpose of holding together men of different 
views. In subscribing to these Articles Wesley would 
exercise this accepted Hberty of interpretation, and we 
may sometimes see from his own writings how he exer- 
cised it. 

In viewing Wesley's revision of these historic Articles, 
it is important to keep one thing in mind: That Wesley 
omitted some things does not mean that he repudiated 
them. For instance, he struck out Article III, affirming 
belief in the descent into hell, but he kept in the creed 
which he sent to American Methodism the clause affirm- 
ing belief in the descent into hell (the American Meth- 
odists took this clause out of the Apostles' Creed almost 
immediately). We are upon safe ground by stating that 
experience had no doubt taught Wesley that some clauses 
in the Thirty-Nine Articles were not expedient to be 
made mandatory in the conditions of the new nation. No 
one has ever claimed that the Articles are a self-sufficient 
guide to Christian faith and practice, or that all the 
Articles are equally important, much less that they repre- 
sent Wesleyan emphases. Wesley has not recorded his 
reasons for making his revision in the way he did, and 
so we are left to surmise. Perhaps his long experience in 
the leadership and controversies of Methodism had 
taught him that some of these venerable Articles were 
capable of difficulty or misunderstanding in the then 
present conditions, and might possibly be more so in 
America. It is an incontrovertible fact, however, that 
out of the thirty-nine, he took only twenty-four which 
he sent to America. 

F. Baker, John Wesley. 1970. Shows Wesley's early doubts 

about some of the Thirty-Nine Articles, Fletcher's suggestion 

that he should purge them, and a comparative study of the 

results, pp. 235-39, 389-90. 

E. Harold Browne, Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles. 

London, 1860. Patristic support for the Anglican position. 

Gilbert Burnett, Bishop of Sarum, On the XXXIX Articles. 

1699, and later editions. A classic document of historic interest, 

written to conciliate the Nonconformists. 

E. J. Bicknell, A Theological Introduction to the 39 Articles 

of the Church of England. London, 1919, and later editions. 

Detailed theological exposition. 

Horace M. DuBose, The Symbol of Methodism, Being an 

Inquiry into the History, Authority, Inclusions and Uses of the 


TuiDty-Five Articles. Nashville: Publishing House of the M. E. 

Church. South. 1907. 

.\. A. Jimeson, \otes on the Tuienty-Fice Articles of Religion 

as Received and Taught by the Methodists in the United 

States. Cincinnati: Applegate & Co., 1854. 

H. Wlieeler, Articles of Religion. 1908. John Lawson 

ARVADA, COLORADO, U S.A. Arvada Church. The 

first rehgious senice ever held in the vicinity of Arvada 
was in the year 1866, when the Rev. D. W. Scott, Meth- 
odist pastor at Golden, preached here," according to 
Stone's history of Colorado, Vol. I, p. 665. The founding 
date of the Arvada Church remains obscure in the annals 
of history. The cornerstone of the present sanctuary, 
located at 6750 Carr St., reads as follows: "Arvada United 
Methodist Church founded c.\ 1870," denoting the ob- 
scuritN- of the founding dates. In 1870, Arvada appears 
in the conference journal as the "Blackhawk-Arvada" 
charge, with an enrollment of 30 members. The first 
church building was erected at a cost of $1,500. This 
venture incurred a debt of $300. In 1880 a parsonage 
was secured, valued at $800. 

During its century of history the Arvada Church has 
been relocated twice, with the congregation taking the 
present location in 1963. 

Arvada Church played the role of a small community 
church until the post war population boom began to 
transform Arvada from a small town into a thriving sub- 
urban community. In 1951 the population was about 
2,300. The astronomical growth is reflected in the recent 
census of approximately 41,000. Church membership has 
increased from thirty- as recorded in the first conference 
journal to about 2,000. 

Eabl K. Hanna 

Theodor AnvmsoN 

ARVIDSON, AUGUST THEODOR (1883-1964), bishop 
of the Central Conference of Northern Europe, was bom 
in Jarpas, Sweden, Oct. 13, 1883. His parents were 
Lutherans, but as a young man he came into contact 
with Methodism in Gothenburg and became a member 


of Emanuel Chiu-ch. He was graduated from the Theo- 
logical School at Uppsala in 1906 and was received into 
the Sveriges Arskonferens (Swedish Conference) in full 
connection in 1909. He served as pastor at Vaxjo, 1906- 
09, at Ostersund, 1909-15, and at St. Peter Church, Stock- 
holm, 1918-24. He was district superintendent of the 
Northern District, 1915-18, and of the Western, 1924- 
31. He was manager and director of the Methodist Book 
Concern and Methodist headquarters, Stockholm, 1931- 

Arvidson was elected eight times as a General Con- 
ference delegate, and in 1942 was appointed to act as 
superintendent in charge of all Scandinavia because war- 
time conditions prevented a bishop from coming from the 
United States. In 1946, the Northern European Central 
Conference, meeting in Gothenburg, elected him bishop. 
He served seven years until he retired in 1953. 

He was chairman of the Swedish Methodist Youth Or- 
ganization (Epworth League), 1920-36; chairman of the 
Conference Board of Education, 1934-46; chairman of 
the Swedish Free Church Council, 1943-52; chairman 
of the Evangelical Alliance, Swedish Branch (after Prince 
Oscar Bemadotte), 1947-53; and a member of the Swed- 
ish Bible Society, 1947-57. 

Bishop Arvidson was an eminent preacher and pastor, 
well known and highly esteemed, especially among stu- 
dents, for his sermons and Bible studies, his wide read- 
ing, and as a master of language. He wrote several books 
and translated most of the writings of E. Stanley Jones 
and Leslie VVeatherhead. Even after his retirement he 
was active as a preacher, lecturer and Bible study leader. 
He helped bridge the gap between Lutherans and Meth- 
odists in Scandinavia. 

F. D. Leete, Metliodist Bishops. 1948. 
Minutes of Sweden Annual Conference, 1964. 
Svenska Folkroreher. Stockholm, 1937, II, 303. 

Mansfield Hubtic 

ASBURY, DANIEL (1762-1825), early American preach- 
er, was born in Fairfax Co., Va., on Feb. 18, 1762. Though 
not related to Francis Asbury, he served under the Bish- 
op for many years and was a close friend. 

Daniel Asbury went to Kentucky when he was about 
sixteen years old and was captured there by the Indians 
and carried to the Far West and then into Canada. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War he was taken prisoner by the 
British and jailed in Detroit. He finally escaped and 
found his way back to Virginia after spending five years 
in captivity. 

He was converted and in 1786 was received into the 
conference and sent to Amelia Circuit in Virginia. Many 
important appointments followed, including districts in 
Georgia and North Carolina. In the year following 
his admission he was sent to North Carolina, where he 
spent most of his later life. In 1789 he was sent to form 
the Lincoln Circuit, which covered three counties and 
parts of two others. 

In 1794 he held the first camp meeting in the region, 
and William McKendree, Nicholas Watters, and other 
famous men were among the preachers. It was so suc- 
cessful that another camp meeting was held the next 
year at Bethel in Lincoln County, N. C. The Rock Springs 
Camp Ground, near Denver, N. C, is the descendant of 
the first camp meeting at Rehoboth. 



In 1824 Daniel Asbury asked for and was granted the 
superannuate relation. He settled near the present Ter- 
rell in Catawba Co., N. C, where he met and married 
Nancy Morris. Here, in 1791, he organized Rehoboth 
Church, the first west of the Catawba. It was housed in 
a log building with a shed on one side for Negroes, and 
the congregation flourishes to this day. 

In the Rehoboth churchyard, where he was buried, 
is a marker with this inscription : 

Rev. Daniel Asbury, the pioneer preacher of Methodism in 
Western N. C. was born Feb. 18, 1762, died May 5, 1825. 
He organized here the first circuit in 1789 and the same 
year organized the first Methodist Church in the State, west 
of the Catawba River. The first church building was erected 
in 1791. The first camp meeting was held here in 1794. 

W. L. Grissom, North Carolina. 1905. 

M. H. Moore, North Carolina and Virginia. 1884. 

Louise L. Queen 

ASBURY, FRANCIS (1745-1816), first general superin- 
tendent or bishop of American Methodism and its greatest 
figure, was born in the parish of Handsworth, near Bir- 
mingham, Eng., on Aug. 20/21, 1745. His parents, Joseph 
and Elizabeth Asbury, had only one other child, a daugh- 
ter who died in infancy; and since he himself was never 
married, the immediate family left no descendants, though 
Herbert Asbury claimed collateral descent. 

Early Years. Young Asbury received little formal edu- 
cation, but he could read the Bible in his seventh year. 
He became an apprentice blacksmith at the Old Forge, 
which was owned by a Methodist named Foxall. He 
became intimate with the son, Henry, who later became 
a rich iron merchant in America and built the Foundry 
Methodist Church in Washington, D.C, the name of 
which was reminiscent of the forge in England. Asbury 
dedicated the premises in 1810. 

Asbury was converted soon after he entered the ap- 
prenticeship, became a local preacher, joined the con- 
ference, and served five circuits. On August 17, 1771, at 
the conference in Bristol he responded to John Wesley's 
call for volunteers to go to America, and with Richard 
Wright he sailed almost immediately, landing at Phila- 
delphia on October 27. 

Following Wesley's example, he began writing his 
Journal on shipboard. But whereas Wesley said he came 
to the New World to learn the true sense of the gospel 
by preaching it to the Indians, Asbury came avowedly 
as an evangehst. "I am going to live to God," he wrote, 
"and bring others so to do." 

Beginnings in America. After ten days in Philadel- 
phia, Asbury proceeded to New York, where he found 
Richard Boardman, who had arrived in 1769. Board- 
man believed in a "settled ministry," but Asbury desired 
"a circulation of preachers" and was distressed because 
both were present at the same time. "My brethren seem 
unwilling to leave the cities," he wrote, "but I think I 
will show them the way." This was a notable decision; it 
initiated the era of the circuit rider and established itin- 
erancy firmly in American Methodism. The preachers fol- 
lowed the advancing frontier and the fluctuating popula- 
tion, and their movement spread everywhere. Soon the 
conference adopted a time limit of six months, widi three 
months for the preachers in Philadelphia and New York. 

Asbury proceeded to "show them the way" by mount- 
ing a horse and riding through the ensuing years more 

than a quarter of a million miles, surpassing the traveling 
record of John Wesley. Until his death fortv-five years 
later he never had a home of any kind. During the Revo- 
lution he retired to the home of Judge Thomas White 
near Dover, Delaware, for about twenty months, but 
he continued to preach throughout the state. 

The war stimulated the desire of the American Meth- 
odists for the ordinances at the hands of their own preach- 
ers, none of whom were ordained. This desire was op- 
posed by both Asbuiy and Wesley. In 1779 the Virginia 
preachers held a conference at Broken Back Church in 
Fluvanna Count\' where they ordained each other and 
decided to administer the ordinances. Asbury rushed to 
their next conference at Manakintown in Powhatan Coun- 
ty and persuaded them to defer their action for a year. 

These developments finally forced Wesley to take ac- 
tion. As a result of reading Lord King's book on The 
Primitive Church he had become convinced that bishops 
and presbyters were of the same order and that he, as a 
presbyter of the Church of England, was also an "epis- 
copos" and had the right to ordain. Accordingly he set 
aside by the imposition of his hands and prayer Dr. 
Thomas Coke and sent him to America to consecrate 
similarly Francis Asbury, with the title "general super- 
intendent" — changed by Asbury in 1788 to "bishop," an 
act which brought opposition in the New World and the 
denunciation of Wesley, but which, in view of Wesley's 
owni words, the General Conference allowed to stand. 

Organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church. As- 
bury refused to accept the appointment of an English- 
man so soon after the Revolution and said he would await 
election by the preachers. At the famous Christmas Con- 
ference, which assembled at Baltimore on Dec. 24, 
1784, and continued until Jan. 3, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in America was organized as the world'5 first 
independent Methodist denomination. Asbun,' was unan- 
imously elected and consecrated, the status of Dr. Coke 
was recognized, Cokesbury College in Mar>'land was 
established, and all the machinery of the church was set 
in motion. 

Immediately Asbun' rode southward to Charleston, 
S. C. On the return trip he met Coke near Louisburg, 
N. C, at the home of Major Green Hill, a local preacher 
and Revolutionary officer. There they held an annual con- 
ference — the first of the new church, although conferences 
had been held annually since 1773. 

Thereafter Asbury each year rode the rounds from 
New England to Charleston, usually going one way along 
the Atlantic coast and the other west of the mountains. 
More than sixty times he crossed the Appalachian range. 
In the main he spent the nights in the cabins of the set- 
tlers, often crowded in one room with the family, children, 
and dogs. Once Bishop Whatcoat slept on the bed while 
Asbury and a strange lady slept on the floor. Once he slept 
with sixteen adults and several children in seven beds in 
one vermin-infested room, and on his first visit to Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, he slept in the jail. None of these dis- 
comforts deterred the man who said, "Live or die, I 
must ride." 

But his accommodations were not always so primitive. 
Governors Tiffin of Ohio and Van Cortlandt of New 
York entertained him. Among his favorite stopping places 
were the houses of the prominent and wealthy Henry 
Dorsey Cough of Maryland, James Rembert of South 
Carolina, Judge Thomas White of Delaware, Colonel 
Thomas Dorsey of Maryland, Philip Barratt of Dela- 

Elizabeth Asbury 

Asbuby's Boyhood Home 

Francis Asbuby 
BY Charles Real Polk 

Francis Asbuby, 
Enc. by a. H. Ritchie 

Francis Asbury 
BY Frank O. Salisbury 

i-B CO 



ware, and main' others. He was once invited to spend 
the night with George Washington but could not do so 
because he "must hurry on." 

His Last Days. Asbury attended his hist conference in 
October, 1815, at Bethlehem Meeting House, a log 
chapel near Lebanon, Tennessee, in which the Woman's 
Missionary Society of the M. E. Church, South, was later 
organized. Because of failing eyesight he turned over to 
Bishop McKendbee the stationing of the preachers — the 
first time he had ever done so. The two bishops separated 
expecting to meet at the Virginia Conference at Raleigh, 
N. C. 

Asbury then crossed the mountains into North and 
South Carolina. The last entr\' in his Journal was made 
on Dec. 7, 1815, at Granby, S. C. This was at the head of 
navigation of the Congaree River opposite Columbia. 
Nothing remains of the community except a marker on a 
stone in a field, but it was once important enough to be 
\isited by George Washington. The year following As- 
buiy's visit the Granby courthouse was sold and moved 
across the river to Columbia, where it became a Presby- 
terian church; the father of Woodrow Wilson was pastor 
there when the future President was fourteen years old. 

From this area the bishop and his traveling com- 
panion, John Wesley Bond, turned northward to Vir- 
ginia, determined to reach the General Conference at 
Baltimore. At Richmond the bishop could neither walk 
nor stand, but he insisted on preaching. He was canied 
in arms into the church and preached his last sermon 
sitting on a table and supported by pillows. The travelers 
pushed on at a snails pace toward Baltimore, but near 
Spottsylvania in Virginia he collapsed and was carried 
into the log cabin home of George Arnold, an old friend. 
Two days he lingered, and once he tried to preach. 
On Sunday afternoon, March 31, 1816, he passed away, 
trying in his last delirium to take up a missionary col- 

There was a funeral attended by a large company 
from the neighborhood, and he was buried at Arnold's. 
On the first day of the General Conference John Wesley 
Bond and a committee were sent to remove the body to 
Baltimore. "A vast procession," said to have been the 
largest ever seen in Baltimore up to that time, led by 
Bishop McKendree, followed the body from Light Street 
Church to Eutaw Street Church, where McKendree 
preached the funeral sermon. The body was buried in 
the church, a noble epitaph being placed over the tomb, 
and there it rested for forty years. Subsequently, in 1854, 
it was removed to Mount Ohvet Cemetery, in Baltimore, 
where it rests with the remains of Robert Strawbridge, 
Jesse Lee, Reuben EUis, Wilson Lee, John Haggerty, 
Bishops George, Emory and Waugh, and other leaders 
of early Methodism. 

His Abiding Contribution. Francis Asbury was a fore- 
most creator of the American heritage. Cities, streets, 
colleges, churches, and individuals bear his name. His 
blue eyes look out from stained-glass windows on both 
sides of the Atlantic. In England his boyhood home is a 
municipally designated shrine. When his feet touched the 
American shore they never touched another, and because 
of his devotion and spiritual contribution a celebrated 
British artist painted as his coat of arms the American 
shield upheld by angels. 

He became the best-known man in America. He 
traveled more, knew more people, and had a better 
knowledge of the trails, towns, and villages, than any 

other person. In his last letter he told a correspondent 
in England to address him simply in "America." 

Asbury founded at Thomas Crenshaw's in Hanover 
County, Va., the first Sunday school in America, just 
as Hannah Ball, a Methodist, started in England a Sun- 
day school fourteen years before Robert Raikes started 
what some historians have called the first in the world. 
The Christmas Conference instructed the preachers, all 
unlearned men, to preach annually on education, and to 
those who insisted that they had no gift for this the reply 
was, "Gift or no gift, you are to do it." In North Carolina 
in 1780 he raised the first money ever given for Meth- 
odist education in America, and in Virginia he promoted 
the Ebenezer Academy, which was established in 1784, 
three years before Cokesbury College opened its doors. 
"How many institutions of learning, some of them re- 
joicing in the name of Wesleyan," said President Calvin 
Coolidge, "all trace their existence to the service and 
sacrifice of this lone circuit rider." In 1789 in North Caro- 
lina he founded the Arminian Magazine; it did not long 
survive, but it reappeared in 1818, and with some lapses 
and under difi^erent names it survives to this day. In 1789 
he started the Methodist Publishing House, which is 
now the greatest of its kind in the world. 

Asbury sits in bronze on his horse in the nation's cap- 
ital. In unveiling the great monument President Coolidge 
declared; "His outposts marched with the pioneers, his 
missionaries visited the hovels of the poor, that all might 
be brought to a knowledge of the truth. Who shall say 
where his influence, written on the immortal souls of 
men, shall end? He is entitled to rank as one of the build- 
ers of our nation." 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

H. K. Carroll, Francis Asbury. 1923. 

W. C. Larrabee, Asbury and His Colahorers. 1868. 

Jesse Lee, Short History. 1810. 

W. P. Strickland, Francis Asbury. 1858. 

E. S. Tipple, Francis Asbury. 1916. Elmer T. Clark 

ASBURY, NEW JERSEY, U.S.A., located in Warren Coun- 
ty near the Hunterdon County line, was the first town 
in the U.S.A. to be named in honor of Bishop Francis 
Asbury. The home of Col. William McCullough in 
Hall's Mills was Asbury 's abode on numerous occasions, 
the scene of his preaching, and the center of itinerant 
Methodist activity affecting much of New Jersey's north- 
western territory. Under McCullough 's leadership, a Meth- 
odist meeting house was erected in 1796, with Asbury 
participating in tlie ceremony of cornerstone laying. The 
chapel was named for Asbury, and at McCullough's sug- 
gestion the village was renamed "Asbury" at the same 
time. The action was the culmination of more than a 
decade of Methodist preaching in and around Hall's 
Mills. McCullough had settled there in 1784, after his 
Revolutionary War service, and found that the early 
preaching of Joseph Everett in the vicinity in 1782 had 
planted Methodist seed which bore fruit in the forma- 
tion of a society in 1786. McCullough's mansion on the 
banks of the Musconetcong River was a preaching place 
and a home where itinerants were welcomed. It is still 
standing. Ezekiel Cooper mentions stopping there in 
1787 and meeting the class. Asbury and Richard What- 
coat stopped with McCullough on June 29, 1789. 

In 1803, on a visit to the area and to McCullough's, 
Francis Asbury refers in his Journal to "Asbury Town." 



The town became the head of an extensive circuit em- 
bracing parts of three counties in northern New Jersey. 
It has been successively in the Philadelphia, New 
Jersey, and Newark Conferences, and is now in the 
Northern New Jersey Conference. 

The original Asbury meeting house was replaced by 
a larger, steepled church in 1842. This was destroyed 
by fire in 1913, when the present brick edifice was 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

V. B. Hampton, Newark Conference. 1957. 

Minutes of the New Jersey and Newark Conferences. 

Vernon B. Hampton 

ASBURY COLLEGE, Baltimore, Md., was begun in 1816 
as a stock company under Samuel K. Jennings, physician, 
local preacher, and the biographer-designate of Francis 
Asbury. Baltimore City Station assumed the debt of 
$8,500 and took control of the school in 1817. Howe\er, 
financial woes were unabated and an appeal for subscrip- 
tions was made by the 1818 Baltimore Conference. 
Inability to finance a building and the embarrassment 
of other debts led the male members of the church to 
divest themselves of the college in 1819, and by the fol- 
lowing year its doors were closed permanently. Martin 
RuTER, educator and later pioneer of Texas Methodism, 
was awarded an Asbury M.A. in 1818. 

Edwin A. Schell 

ASBURY COLLEGE, Wilmore, Ky., was founded in 1890 
by John Wesley Hughes, a member of the Kentucky 
Conference, M. E. Church, South. Ownership was 
vested vWth the founder until 1905 when he transferred 
the property to a self-perpetuating board of trustees. The 
board is bound in perpetuity to operate a college accord- 
ing to the doctrinal standards set up by John Wesley 
and his immediate followers. 

The college is known internationally and ranks at the 
top among liberal arts colleges in the U.S.A. in the number 
of its graduates who have entered the ministry and other 
fields of Christian service. The majority of the students 
it enrolls are members of Methodist churches. 

Henry Clay Morrison, distinguished evangelist of 
the M. E. Church, South, served the college as president 
for twenty-five years. All of the men who have served 
as president since 1890 have been Methodist ministers. 

John Gross 

ASBURY COTTAGE (England). This tiny cottage of four 
rooms, which was the boyhood home of Francis Asbury, 
is situated in the country borough of West Bromwich 
which adjoins the city of Birmingham. It is the property 
of the Borough Council, and has been registered as a 
historic building. It was reopened in November 1959 
after restoration and furnishing, through the cooperation 
of the World Methodist Council with tlie Borough 
Council, and is open for visitors. Methodist services were 
conducted in the kitchen for many years in the eighteenth 

E. Benson Perkins 

the Indlan Mission Conference on Nov. 4, 1847 at 
Doaksville, Indian Territory. Bishop William Capers 

presided and appointed Thomas B. Ruble to establish 
and superintend the work. 

A three-story brick building was erected on an 80-acre 
tract northeast of the present city of Ei'faula, Okla. 
Asbury represented for scores of Indian children the only 
opportunity' for any schooling throughout a large area. It 
planted Methodism solidly in the hearts of the Indian 
people. Several sessions of the Indian Mission Conference 
were held within its walls. 

During the Civil War the smaller buildings of Asbury 
were burned and the large building received extensive 
damage. Thomas Bertholf, superintendent during the en- 
tire course of the war, was given the task of rebuilding 
the school. After his death in 1867, John Harrell took 
up the work until 1868, when he was relieved by Thomas 
Ruble. Fire destroyed the main building in 1869. John 
Harrell returned as superintendent and rebuilt and re- 
started the school. After another disastrous fire in 1887, 
the school was not rebuilt. Later Eufaula Boarding School 
was established to carr>' on the work so nobly begun. 

An imposing memorial has been erected at the out- 
skirts of Eufaula in memory of the school and its leaders. 
The stones of the memorial are stones rescued from the 
ruins of die original school and stand today to recall the 
heroism of those who saw Asbury through its remarkable 

Babcock and Bryce, Oklahoma. 1937. 

Minutes of the Oklahoma Indian Mission Conference, 1844- 

Quarterly Conference Minutes, First Methodist Church, Eu- 
faula, Okla. Oscar Fontaine 

of theology, located in Wilmore, Jessamine Co., Ky. It 
was founded in 1923, on the campus of Asbury College, 
by Henry Clay Morrison, then president of Asbury 
College, and his faculty colleagues, as a graduate theo- 
logical seminary committed to the historic Wesleyan in- 
terpretation of evangelical Christianity. The founder, 
Henry Clay Morrison, became the first president of the 
Seminary, serving until his death on March 24, 1942. 

From 1923 to 1931 the Seminary was an integral part 
of Asbury College. In 1931 Articles of Incorporation were 
drawn up and the Seminary became a separate institu- 
tion. In 1939 the Seminary moved to its own campus 
(across the street from the College) and the curriculum 
of each school became independent of the other. In 
1941 Asbury Theological Seminary became an indepen- 
dent administrative unit, and has operated as such since 
that date. 

It is an accredited member of the American Association 
of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. 
The Articles of Incorporation of the Seminary declare its 
objective to be: "To prepare and send forth a well-trained, 
sanctified, Spirit-filled, evangelistic ministry." 

The Seminary offers courses leading to the three de- 
giees of Master of Divinity, Master of Religious Educa- 
tion, and Master of Theology. The present faculty num- 
bers diirty. The current annual enrollment is 409. Alumni 
with earned degrees total 1,875. These serve in all fifty 
states of tlie U.S.A., the District of Columbia, and in 
forty-three other countries. Among tlie alumni, 1,263 
serve as local pastors, 207 as missionaries, 155 as teach- 
ers, 46 as chaplains, 31 as full-time evangelists. Even 
though approximately eighty percent of the graduates 



are in Methodist bodies, more than forty different de- 
nominations are served by the alumni. 

Asbury Theological Seminary has had three presidents: 
Henry Clay Morrison (1923-42); Julian C. McPheeters 
(1942-62); Frank Bateman Stanger (1962- ); and 

the following deans; Frank Paul Morris (1923-24); Fred 
H. Larabee (1924-46); William D. Turkington (1946- 
63); J. Harold Greenlee (1963-64); Maurice E. Culver 
( 1964-67 ) ; and Robert A. Traina ( 1967- ) . 

The Seminary is engaged in an extensive program of 
academic and physical expansion. 

Paul Frederick Abel, An Historical Study of the Origin and 
Development of Asbury Theological Seminary. (M.A. Thesis, 
Columbia University, New York, 1951.) 

Robert Owen Fraley, An Historical Survey of Asbury Theologi- 
cal Seminary 1923-1949. (M.R.E. Thesis, Asbury Theological 
Seminary, 1950. ) 

Howard Fenimore Shipps, A Short History of Asbury Theolog- 
ical Seminary (published by Asbury Theological Seminary, 
1963.) Fbank Bateman Stanger 

ASBURY TRAIL. Francis Asbury crossed the Appalachian 
Mountains about sixty times, using different routes. In 
1810 he took "the new route" and followed the old ab- 
original Cataloochee Trail, along which the Cherokee 
Indians crossed the mountains. In 1799 the trail was 
mentioned in literature and called a "turnpike." By that 
time the Indians had abandoned dieir settlements along 
the trail, although the area remained within dieir hunt- 
ing grounds and was protected by law. The old trail runs 
from Cove Creek, N. C, to the area around Cosby, Tenn. 
In general it parallels present Highway 284 and coincides 
with diat road at several points. It is still possible to 
identify parts of the trail where it leaves the highway. 

In 1955 the Boy Scouts of America and the Western 
North Carolina Historical Society, with the help of the 
American Association of Methodist Historical Soci- 
eties, sponsored the Asbury Trail Award for Explorer 
Scouts and tlieir fathers. The Award consists of a medal 
and a certificate, and the requirements are; hiking the old 
Cataloochee Trail, reading one of the recommended biog- 
raphies of Asbury, and submitting an essay of not less 

AsBUBY Trail Award 

than 1,000 words on Asbury and his contribution to Amer- 
ica. The official hike covers approximately 23 miles. The 
Award is non-denominational. 

Louise L. Queen 

ASHBY, DORIS MAY (?-1955), New Zealand laywoman, 
was a granddaughter of J. W. Worboys, an honored 
Methodist minister. She was associated in young woman- 
hood with the Thomdon Methodist Church, Wellington, 
and served on the national executive committee of the 
Young Women's Bible Class Union. 

Following her marriage to E. W. Ashby, she was 
associated successively with Invercargill Central Church 
and Wesley Church, Dunedin. While in Dunedin she 
served a term as national secretary of the Methodist 
Women's Missionary Union. She died in Dunedin on 
April 18, 1955. 

New Zealand Methodist Times, July 9, 1955. 


ASHBY, JOSEPH (1859-1919), British MeUiodist, was 
bom at Tysoe, Wai-wickshire, in June 1859. He was a 
shepherd boy at ten, a convert to Wesleyan Methodism 
at sixteen; he became a successful farmer, a justice of the 
peace, and a leader of agricultural workers in their strug- 
gle for self-betterment. His daughter's biography of him 
is an important source for the influence of Methodism 
on the Victorian countryside. 

Mabel Kathleen Ashby, Joseph Ashby of Tysoe. Cambridge 
University Press, 1961. John Kent 

ASHCRAFT, EDWIN PERRY (1879-1961), American mis- 
sionary of the Free Methodist Church in China, 1916- 
47. He was born in Proctor, Texas, Sept. 28, 1879. He 
received the A.B. and M.A. degrees at the University 
of Southern California, Los Angeles. He married Harriet 
Coyner in 1904. 

Ashcraft joined the Southern California Conference of 
the Free Methodist Church, and was a professor in the 
Free Methodist Seminary at Los Angeles, 1909-16. Ap- 
pointed missionary to China in 1916, he was made the 
superintendent there in 1920. Preeminently a man of 
prayer, he was a Christlike missionary, a wise and tactful 
administrator. He served the China mission until 1947. 
He made a special trip to China following the second 
World War to assist the conference leaders in reestab- 
lishing the mission. After retirement he rejoined the fac- 
ulty of Los Angeles Pacific College, 1952-55. 

He died in Altadena, Cahf. on Oct. 2, 1961, one of 
the best-loved persons in Free Methodism. 

The Free Metlwdist, Oct. 28, 1961. 

B. S. Lamson, Venture. 1960. Byron S. Lamson 

ASHEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA, U.S.A., is a city of over 
60,000 in western North Carolina, and from early 
days a place hospitable to Methodism. The first settlers 
in Asheville and Buncombe County were Methodists, 
Baptists, and Presbyterians. For some time the only 
preaching they had was by traveling ministers. When 
Francis Asbury crossed the mountains from Tennessee 
in 1800 and followed the French Broad River through 
Hot Springs (then known as Warm Springs) to Killians 
in Beaverdam, and to Buncombe Courthouse, he found 



Methodists waiting for him. He wrote in his Journal: 
"Tobias Gresox had given notice to some of my being 
at Buncombe County Courthouse and the Societ>- at Kill- 
yons." After that and from 1801 through 1813, with the 
exception only of 1804 and 1811, Asbury made annual 
visitations to Asheville. Asbur\- Memorial Church is the 
successor to the society- which met at Killians in that early 

F. A. Sondley in his History of Buncombe County 
states that the first church building in Asheville was the 
old log church used by Baptists which stood at the Melke 
place. It was built about 1829 and stood until 1842. 
"Apparently," wrote Sondley, "the ne.\t church after that 
at Melke place built in Asheville was an inferior frame 
structure of the Methodists." 

Asheville has located near it some important denomi- 
national summer assembly grounds. L.\ke Junaluska, an 
assembly of Southeastern Jurisdiction United Methodists, 
is located twenty-five miles west of Ashe\'ille. This as- 
sembly, together with the Presbyterian assembly at Mon- 
treal, the Baptist assembly at Ridgecrest, the Episco- 
palian assembly at Kanuga, the Lutheran assembly at 
Lutheridge, the Christian assembly at Christmount, the 
Associated Reformed Presbyterian assembly, Bonclarken, 
at Flat Rock, and the Blue Ridge Y.M.C.A. assembly, 
bring to Asheville during the year many of the religious 
leaders of the world. 

Asheville was host to the General Confehenxe of the 
M. E. Church, South, in 1910, and after unification the 
first conference of the Southeastern Jurisdiction was held 
in the Asheville Civic Auditorium in 1940. 

Within the city limits of Asheville there are now four- 
teen Methodist churches with a membership of 7,660 
and property valued at 83,500,000. 

Allen High School, a secondary school for Negro girls 
located at Asheville. was founded in October, 1887, b>' 
the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the M. E. 
Church. In 1941 it came under the supervision of the 
Women's Division of Christian Service of the Board of 
Missions, The Methodist Church. The school was named 
for Mrs. Marriage Allen of London, England, who gave 
money for the construction of a dormitory building. The 
land was given bv Dr. and Mrs. L. M. Pease of New York 

In the beginning only elementary work was provided. 
Later one year of high school work was added and grad- 
ually the curriculum was extended until Allen became a 
four-year accredited high school in 1924. Since January', 
1940 it has been a member of the Southern Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

The original buildings were replaced in 1952 by a 
dormitory known as the Muriel Day Residence Hall, and 
a school building, including an auditorium with a seating 
capacity of 288, was completed in May, 1956 Enrollment 
averages about 150 students, two-thirds of whom are 
doiTOitory students. 

The Brooks-Howell Home for retired deaconesses and 
missionaries was started in Asheville in 1957, the location 
having been chosen because of its climate, churches, 
medical facilities, and cultural opportunities. The home 
was named for Mrs. Frank G. Brooks, then president of 
the Woman's Division of Christian Service, and Mabel 
K. Howell, a resident of Asheville who had taught for 
many years at Scarritt College and had been an in- 
spiration to many young women going into full-time 
Christian service. The home in 1970 has a capacity for 

ninety residents, with adequate infirmary, library, crafts, 
and recreational facihties. The residents are making signifi- 
cant contributions to the various churches and to the 
religious life of the community. 

Central Methodist Church. In 1837 there were three 
congregations in the towni: Presbyterians, Baptists and 
Methodists, but all worshipped in the old wooden Meth- 
odist church. On July 20, 1830, two years after the struc- 
ture was erected, James A. Alexander gave title to the 
land on which this building was located, including the 
building erected "for a female academy and Methodist 
Episcopal Church and Sunday school ... as a gift for 
the use of the M. E. Church, and when the same is not 
in the occupancy of the said church, ministers of any 
other regular orthodox denomination of Christians who 
shall come duly authorized by their respective Churches, 
and whose moral and religious character and habits are 
unexceptionable, may be authorized to occupy as transient 

In 1848 this church had a membership of '65 whites 
and 59 colored people. About 1857 the old building was 
superseded by a brick building which in turn was re- 
placed in 1903 by a stone edifice which is known as 
Central Church, and one which has traditionally been 
considered one of the commanding churches of North 
Carolina Methodism and the Western North Carolina 
Conference. The 1970 membership was 2,440, and the 
total value of die church's property was $1,650,000. 

Asheville Citizen, 90th Anniversary Edition, July 17, 1960. 

E. T. Clark, Western North Carolina. 1966. 

WUliam Thrower Fitts, A History of Central Methodist Church, 

Aslieville, North Carolina, 1837-1967. Asheville: the church, 


General Minutes, ME, MES, TMC. Embree H. Blackahd 

P*HiLip Embury left New York City about 1770, along 
with other relatives and friends, to take up residence in 
upper New York State. They settled in the Camden Val- 
ley, some forty miles above what is now the city of Troy. 
J. E. Bowen states that Embury moved for several rea- 
sons. "First, to attend to land interests held in common 
with two brothers and five other individuals, each holding 
patent titles to one tliousand acres of land. Second, to 
build a permanent home for himself and family away 
from the wild excitements and growing immorality of the 
city. Third, possibly to escape the shock of Revolutionary 
conflict, already impending. Fourth and lastly, but not 
least, to institute a colony and organize a Methodist So- 
ciety, the beginning of a church enterprise for all time. 

Whatever the reasons, it is certain that Embury orga- 
nized a Methodist society at Ashgrove in 1770 or 1771. 
He was given encouragement and support by Thomas 
Ashton, a Methodist layman who had emigrated from 
Ireland and who had preceded Embury to the Camden 
Valley. Ashton was the first member of the new society 
and for many years thereafter was the leading layman. 
He organized many classes in the surrounding country- 
side in later years. 

Embury's life in his new surroundings was brief. Three 
years after his arrival, in August of 1773, he fell ill and 
died. Abraham Bininger, an aged Moravian missionary 
who was part of Embury's emigrant colony, cared for 
him in his last illness and preached his funeral sermon. 

For a number of years Embury's remains were buried 
in an unmarked grave. About sixty years after his death, 



his remains were taken from the unmarked grave and 
reinterred in the burial ground next to the Ashgrove 
cliurch. Above his gra%e a marble tablet was erected 
bearing the following inscription: 


The earliest American Minister of the Metliodist Episcopal 
Churcii here found his last earthly resting place. 
Precious in the sight of tlie Lord is the death of his saints. 
Born in Ireland, an emigrant to New York, Embury was the 
first to gather a little class in that city, and to set in motion 
a train of measures which resulted in the founding of the 
John Street Church, the cradle of American Methodism, and 
the introduction of a system which has beautified the earth 
with salvation and increased the joys of heaven. 

Thirty years later, during the Centennial of Amer- 
ican Methodism in 1866, Embury's remains were again 
moved, this time to Woodland Cemetery in the nearby 
village of Cambridge. There his remains rest today upon 
a hill. His grave is marked by the marble tablet referred 
to above and by a tall memorial shaft erected in 1873 at 
a cost of $2,000. The shaft was given by the local preach- 
ers of the M. E. Church. 

Although the society was organized in 1770 or 1771, 
it was not until 1788 that the first church building was 
erected in Ashgrove. Quite probably the lack of pastoral 
oversight by an ordained minister and the uncertain con- 
ditions existing prior to, during, and after the Revolu- 
tionary War account for the delay in the building of a 
church edifice. By the early 1830"s the society decided 
to build a larger place of worship. The first building was 
given to the Methodist society at Sandgate, Vt. They 
took it down, moved it, and erected it again in Sandgate. 
It was used for a number of years as a church and, after 
the society there disbanded, the building was sold to the 
town and is today used as the Town Hall. 

A second church building was erected at Ashgrove in 
1833. It was set on fire and destroyed on Nov. 6, 1835, by 
one Jonathan Curtis, a member of the congregation. A 
.somewhat singular character, he had come to the conclu- 
sion that the building was an object of pride to many of 
the Methodists who worshipped there. Feeling they were 
in danger of becoming idolaters, and so losing their souls, 
he decided to destioy the building. 

In 1836 the quarterly conference set in motion plans 
for the building of a new church. Since the population 
center had shifted to what is now tlie village of Cam- 
bridge, it was voted to build the new church there. The 
building was started in 1836 and finished in 1837. A 
replica of the original building at Ashgrove can be seen 
in the Cambridge Church today. 

Not everyone was satisfied with the move to Cam- 
bridge, and to mollify those who felt there should still 
be a church at Ashgrove, a chapel was built at the old 
site in 1839. This was used until 1858, when it was sold 
and moved to West Hebron, N. Y., to be used as a church. 

Nothing remains at Ashgrove of a once flourishing 
church but the graveyard in which are the remains of 
Methodist stalwarts like Thomas Ashton and John Baker, 
and the foimdation stones of one of the early church 
buildings. The site was designated as a Methodist Land- 
mark by the Troy Conference at its 1966 session. 

However, at Cambridge the Methodist society estab- 
lished by Philip Embury in 1770 or 1771 continues to 
witness and to serve the cause of Christ. This society 

was recognized at the Bicentennial Conference observance 
in 1966 as the oldest continuing congregation in the Troy 

J. E. Bowen, "Memorials of Ashgrove and Ashgrove-Cam- 
bridge," first printed in the Washington County Post, Cam- 
bridge, N. Y., 1887. Reprinted, 1924. 

C. Wesley Christman, Jr. 

ASHLAND, KENTUCKY, U.S.A., First Church has a his- 
tory which is really that of two strong churches, the 
former First M. E. Church, South and the former First 
M. E. Church. 

When Ashland was laid out in town lots in 1854, the 
Kentucky Iron, Coal and Manufacturing Co. offered free 
sites to churches capable of erecting suitable buildings. 
Among the six congregations taking advantage of this 
offer were the First M. E. Church, whose lot was at 15th 
St. and Carter Ave., and the M. E. Church, South, whose 
lot was at 13th St. and Winchester Ave. These two 
churches flourished. Antedating them is authentic docu- 
mentation outlining the beginnings of organized Meth- 
odism in the area. 

In 1919 the First M. E. congregation built the present 
red sandstone church at 18th St. and Carter Ave., and 
in 1927 the First M. E. South erected the activities build- 
ing which is now occupied by the Ashland Community 
College of the University of Kentucky. The completed 
plan, which would have included a cathedral-like sanc- 
tuary, was never finished. 

National depression years forced these faithful con- 
gregations into dire circumstances, but dedication to high 
Christian purpose prevailed within the two congregations. 
A plan of successful unification, developed in 1937, was 
a forerunner of the final unification of these two branches 
of The Methodist Church in 1939. 

At the time of merger Guy Coffman was the pastor of 
the First M. E. Church, South, and Carl E. Vogel was 
pastor of First M. E. On Sunday, Jan. 30, 1938, at the 
first service of the merged churches, Coffman preached 
the sermon on the text. "They were all with one accord 
in one place" (Acts 2;1). On alternate Sundays each of 
these ministers preached — one in the morning, the other 
in the evening. 

Out of First Church have come at least six ministers 
serving in the Kentucky Conference: Eugene P. Bar- 
bour, Jr., W. B. Garnett, Jr.. Wilham R. Jennings, Wil- 
liam L. Stratton, George Van Home, Jr., Robert W. Van 
Home, and Robert Rise who is in the Louisville Con- 
ference. A strong missionary program, including for more 
than thirty-five years the support of Dr. and Mrs. Alexan- 
der J. Reid in the Congo, and presently Mrs. and Mrs. 
William J. Funk in Sarawak, has been maintained. 

A church expansion program adopted in 1954 was ac- 
celerated and reached fruition with a $360,000 addition 
to the church on May 19, 1968, under the leadership of 
Edward L. Tulfis. 

In 1970 the church membership was 2,072, and the 
value of all property exceeded $1,600,000. 

Mrs. Thomas Burchett 

ASSISTANT. A term used in early English Methodism 
to designate a preacher superintending a circuit imder 
the supervision of John Wesley. In later years the term 
came to be applied in American Methodism in the usual 



sense in which it is used regarding anyone who assists — 
as a minister appointed to assist the regularly appointed 
pastor in any particular charge or appointment. 

Bishop Matthew Simpson explains that in Wesley's 
Large Minutes, which formed the early Discipline of 
the Methodists, the question is asked, "Who is the as- 
sistant?" The answer is given, "That preacher in each 
circuit who is appointed from time to time to take charge 
of the societies and the other preachers therein." Another 
question was, "Wliat is the office of an assistant?" The 
answer was, "To see that the other preachers in his circuit 
behave well and consistently; to visit the classes quarterly, 
regulate the bands, and deliver tickets, and take in and put 
out of the society or the bands; to keep the watchnights 
and love-feasts," etc. In the early history of the Metliodist 
societies in the U.S.A. this term remained in use. It was 
aftei-wards substituted by the phrase, "preacher in charge," 
whose duties are of a similar character. 

In the United States the preacher to whom Wesley as- 
signed the general superintendence of the societies prior 
to the organization of the church was called the general 
assistant. Prior to 1769 the societies were managed by the 
local preachers, by whom they had been formed. In that 
year Richabd Boardman and Joseph Pilmore were sent 
by Wesley, at the request of these societies, to act as 
pastors, and Wesley constituted Richard Boardman his 
general assistant. In 1771 Francis Asbuby came to Amer- 
ica, and in the following year Wesley made him his gen- 
eral assistant; but in less than a >ear he was superseded 
by Thomas Rankin, who had been sent out by Wesley, 
and who was Asbury's senior. 

The preachers from England, after the commencement 
of the Revolutionary War, returned to that countiy, and 
in 1779 the ministers requested Asbury to act as the 
general assistant. This position he held by the request of 
the conference until 1784, when at the organization of 
the M. E. Church lie was elected general superintendent 
or bishop. The term then dropped out of use. Jesse Lee 
says, "The general assistant was the preacher who had the 
charge of all the circuits and of all the preachers, and 
appointed all the preachers, and their several circuits, 
and changed them. His being called a general assistant 
signified that he was to assist Wesley in carrying on the 
work of God in a general way." 

In the development of the Methodist Church in the 
United States and the growth of large churches, more than 
one minister has often been needed. Thus in time the 
office of assistant minister or assistant pastor came to be, 
and the name of such appointee was placed in the con- 
ference minutes as "assistant." At times and in many 
churches today, the assistant came to be known also as 
the "associate minister." This was for the sake of euphony 
and to add a bit more of dignity to the office. If the as- 
sistant minister is a member of the conference, he is ap- 
pointed as "assistant" or "associate" by the bishop and his 
name is so listed in the conference appointments. If the 
helping minister is not an annual conference member, his 
name does not appear in the regular list of conference 
appointments, the local church alone being considered 
his employer. Regulations now in the Book of Discipline, 
especially in the provisions dealing with pension legisla- 
tion, provide how the years of service for each assistant 
or associate are to be counted toward a final pension 

An amendment to the Constitution of The Methodist 
Church adopted in the 1960-64 quadrennium provided 

that where a local church had more than one conference 
member appointed' to it. that church should be allowed 
lay delegates in the annual conference equal to the num- 
ber of associate or assistant ministers which the church 
might have. This amendment of the 1964 Discipline is 
now continued in the Constitution of The United Meth- 
odist Church. Every church in the annual conference must 
have at least one lay delegate, and this provision recog- 
nizes the right of a large church to have more representa- 
tion than does a small one. (See also Ministry and 

N. B. H. 

of approximately twent>-five congregations of the former 
M. P. Church that declined to participate in the 1939 
Methodist merger. They were originally known as the 
American Bible Fellowship. They had about 3,000 mem- 
bers in 1953 and were located in Michigan, in and around 
Detroit. They are listed in the Yearbook of American 
Churches through 1965. No statistics are given and the 
notation, "information declined," follows the entry. 

Ralph Lord Roy; Apostles of Discord. Boston: Beacon Press, 
1953. J. Gordon Melton 

ASSURANCE, CHRISTIAN, is a firm persuasion or con- 
viction of our being in a state of salv.\tion. The early 
Methodists strongly insisted upon this conviction as es- 
sential to a Christian experience, and maintained that it 
must be the privilege of every true believer. In his later 
writings, John Wesley admitted that, perhaps, his early 
expressions were too strong, and that he believed one 
might be a Christian without having so positive a con- 
viction as would exclude all doubt and fear; and yet at 
the same time, he vigorously maintained that a deep 
assured certainty was the privilege and duty of every 

In no other point did the early Metliodists differ so 
widely from those around them as in insisting upon this 
experience. It was this which gave life and power to their 
ministiations. They had personally experienced this gra- 
cious state, and were living in its constant enjoyment, and 
they testified frequently and forcibly of the peace and 
joy which accompanied it. At that period of time, the 
doctrine of assuranc^e was not generally preached in other 
pulpits, and many ministers, as well as private Christians, 
denied the possibihty of its attainment; yet it was by no 
means a new doctrine. Wesley remarks, "I apprehend 
that tlie whole Christian church in the first centuries en- 
joyed it, for though we have few points of doctrine ex- 
plicitly taught in the small remains of the anti-Nicene 
fathers, yet I think none that carefully read Clemens, 
Romanus, Ignatius, Polycarp, Origen, or any other of 
them, can doubt whether either the writer himself pos- 
sessed it, or all whom he mentions as real Christians; and 
I readily conceive, both from the 'Harmonia Confessio- 
num,' and whatever else I have occasionally read, that all 
Reformed churches in Europe did once believe 'every 
true Christian has the divine evidence of his being in 
favor with God.' I know likewise that Luther, Melanch- 
thon, and many others, if not all, of the Reformers, fre- 
quently and strongly asserted, that every believer is con- 
scious of his own acceptance with God, and that by a 
supernatural evidence." 



Thomas Aquinas taught that God sometimes gave to 
Christians direct knowledge on this subject, but that such 
cases were but few, and that Christians generally had not 
a satisfactory assurance. In the Reformation, Luther 
strongly asserted the privilege of this personal knowledge, 
and it is taught in the Augsburg Confession as involved 
in sa\ing faith. 

The Westminster Confession, in its eighteenth article, 
says, "Although hypocrites and other unregenerate men 
may vainly deceive themselves with false hopes, and 
carnal presumptions of being in the favor of God, and 
state of salvation (which hope of theirs shall perish), yet 
such as truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love him in 
sincerity, endeavoring to walk in all good conscience be- 
fore him, may in this life be certainly assured that they 
are in a state of grace, and may rejoice in the hope of 
the glory of God, which hope shall never make them 
ashamed. This certainly is not a bare conjectural and 
probable persuasion, grounded upon a fallible hope, but 
an infallible assurance of faith, founded upon the divine 
truth of the promises of salvation, the inward evidence 
of those graces upon which these promises are made, 
the testimony of the spirit of adoption witnessing with our 
spirit that we are the children of God, which spirit is tlie 
earnest of our inheritance, whereby we are sealed to the 
day of redemption. This infallible assurance doth not so 
belong to the essence of faith, but that a true believer 
may wait long, in conflict with many difficulties, before 
he can be a partaker of it; yet being enabled by the spirit 
to know the things that are freely given him of God, he 
may without extraordinary revelation, in the right use of 
ordinary means, attain thereunto; and therefore it is the 
dut\' of every one to give all diligence to make his calling 
and election sure, that thereby his heart may be enlarged 
in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, in love and thank- 
fulness to God, and in strength and cheerfulness in the 
duties of obedience, the proper fruits of this assurance, 
so far is it from inclining men to looseness. True believers 
may have die assurance of their salvation in divers ways 
shaken, diminished, and interrupted, as by negligence 
in preserving it, by falling into some special sin which 
woundeth the conscience and grieveth the spirit, by some 
sudden and vehement temptation, by God's withdrawing 
the light of his countenance and suffering even such as 
fear him to walk in darkness and have no light; yet are 
they never utterly destitute of that fear of God and life 
of faith, that love of Christ and the brethren, that sincerity 
of heart, and conscience of duty, out of which by the 
operation of tlie spirit this assurance may in due time be 
revived, and by which in the meantime they are sup- 
ported from utter despair." 

Sir William Hamilton, in his "Discussions on Philos- 
ophy," says, "Personal assurance, the feeling of certainty 
that God is propitious to me, that my sins are forgiven, 
fiducia, plerophoria fidci, was long universally held in the 
Protestant communities to be the criterion or condition 
of a true or saving faith. Luther declares that he who 
hath not assurance wipes faith out; and Melanchthon 
makes assurance the discriminating line of Christianity 
from heathenism. It was maintained by Calvin, nay, even 
by Arminius, and is part and parcel of all the confessions 
of all the churches of the Reformation down to the West- 
minster Assembly." 

Some Calvinistic writers who taught the doctrine of as- 
surance, maintained that it is an assurance, not only of 
personal salvation, but of final salvation also: their theory 

very naturally followed from the doctrine of predestina- 
tion. But Wesley, and the Methodist writers generally, 
advocate the doctrine of assurance as confined to a per- 
sonal salvation, and as connected with the of 
THE Spirit. This assurance arises, first, from an observa- 
tion upon our conduct as compared with the word of God. 
St. John declares, "hereby we know that we do know him, 
if we keep his commandments." "Whosoever keepeth his 
word, in him is, verily, the love of God perfected: hereby 
know we that we are in him." "If ye know that he is 
righteous, ye know that every one that doeth righteous- 
ness is born of him." 

Secondly, it proceeds more directly from an examina- 
tion of our thoughts, tempers, and impulses. The believer 
feels in his owii consciousness that he loves God, that he 
loves his brethren, and that he loves the exercises of holy 
worship. The Apostle says, "We know that we have passed 
from death unto life, because we love the brethren." And, 
"Hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall 
assure our hearts before him." Because we "love one 
another, not in word, neither in tongue, but in deed and 
in truth." So, also, we are conscious whether we are moved 
by impulses of pride, envy, and selfishness: or whether 
we have abiding faith and love. All these evidences we 
have from the testimony of our own spirits. 

Thirdly, in addition to those marks, God gives by his 
Spirit a clear, inward conviction, whereby we feel that 
we are the sons of God. (See Witness of the Spmrr.) 
The assurance which arises from the examination of our 
conduct and of our inward emotions is the result of care- 
ful reflection; and it depends for its steadfastness upon a 
conscious conviction that our walk and spirit are in per- 
fect haimony with the word of God. The assurance that 
comes from the witness of the Spirit brings with it calm- 
ness and peace; not the result of reasoning, but a state 
of joyous consciousness that we are walking in the light, 
and that a gracious, divine influence rests sweetly upon us. 
It is accompanied by emotions of gratitude, and by simple, 
filial trust, which relies upon God as a gracious, forgiving, 
and indulgent father. It is strengthened and confirmed by 
the self-examination and reasoning to which we have 
referred. It exalts the scriptural characteristics, and the 
believer realizes that the Spirit of God bears witness 
with his spirit, that he is bom of Him. (See also Doc- 
TRIN.A.L Standards and Witness of the Spirit.) 

R. H. Strachan, The Authority of Christian Experience. 

Nashville: Cokesbury Press, 193L 

J. Wesley, Letters. 19'31, Mack B. Stokes 

ATHEARN, WALTER SCOTT (1872-1934), though not a 
Methodist (he belonged to the Disciples of Christ), 
founded the School of Religious Education and Social 
Service at Boston University and later was president 
of Oklahoma City University, a Methodist institution. 
He was bom at Marengo, Iowa, July 25, 1872, the son of 
Elisha and Susan E. ( Longstretli ) Athearn. He was edu- 
cated at Drake University, the State University of Iowa, 
and the University of Chicago. On June 15, 1894, he 
married Florence Royalty. 

After five years as a public school principal, 1894-99, 
Atheam held several academic positions, and then taught 
rehgious education at Drake, 1909-16. He became pro- 
fessor of religious education at Boston University in 1916, 
and in 1918 was made dean of that institution's newly- 
foiTned School of Religious Education and Social Service. 



Resigning at Boston in 1929, he traveled abroad, and in 
1931 assumed the presidency of Butler University, India- 
napolis. In tlie next three years, he reorganized Butler's 
college of education, established a graduate college of 
religion, and expanded the evening and extension courses. 
He was dismissed from Butler in 1934, following an ad- 
ministrative controversy with the trustees. That same 
year he accepted the presidency of Oklahoma City Uni- 
versit>', but died in St. Louis, November 13, 1934. 

Atheam wrote nimierous books and articles. The volume 
entitled An Adventure In Religious Education (1930), 
gives an account of his work among the Methodists at 
Boston University. 

Christian Advocate, October 15, 1931, November 19, 1934. 
White, National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 27. 
Who's Who in America, Volume 16, 1930-31. 
Zion's Herald, May 17, 1926; June 15, 1927. 

Ernest R. Case 

ATHENS, GEORGIA, U.S.A., u-ith a population of 41,- 
059, county seat of Clarke County, located on the Oconee 
River, some sixty-six miles east of Atlanta, was settled 
in 1801. The oldest state chartered university in America, 
the University of Georgia, was established in 1785, but 
its opening was deferred due to lack of funds. Hope Hull, 
close friend of Francis Asbuhy and often called "father 
of Georgia Methodism," was instrumental in arousing 
public enthusiasm for the institution, which opened its 
doors in Athens in 1801. Hull served as a very active 

In 1803 Hull and his brother-in-law. General David 
Meriwether, moved from Washington, Ga., in Wilkes 
County, to Athens, and opened Methodist work. A log 
cabin, "23 by 24 feet," was built in 1804 for worship. 
That same year the large Apalachee Circuit was orga- 
nized. Asbury noted in his Journal, Mon., Dec 15, 1806, 
"Reaching Athens on Tuesday, we had an evening lecture 
at Hope Hull's." 

Hull raised funds for a chapel at the college in 1807- 
08. Sunday, Dec. 11, 1814, Asbury "preached in the col- 
lege chapel; the people were very attentive in that open 
penance house." Asbury went on to speak of the college, 
"the state of things is strangely changed since Doctor 
Brown [John Browii, Presbyterian minister, president 
1811-16] has had the presidency: he is a man of piety 
and order, . . ." 

First Church. "Hull's Meeting House" was built "in 
the environs of Adiens" in 1810 and used until Hull's 
death in 1818. For a time thereafter Methodism in Athens 
almost perished. In 1825 First Church was established and 
a frame structure "forty feet square with a gallery on 
three sides" was erected. The gallery was to accommodate 
the Negro membership. Lovick Pierce was appointed 
pastor in 1826 and reported the membership: 107 white, 
70 colored. A revival for college and community was con- 
ducted in 1827 by Thomas Stanley, Stephen Olin, 
Thomas Stamford, and Pierce. 

First Church was incorporated in 1828 by an act of 
the Georgia Legislature, granting it a charter and naming 
a self-perpetuating board of trustees. A noted revival in 
1846 saw 163 white and ninety colored members received. 
Following the revival "the colored membership had be- 
come so large" it requested its own church building and 
pastor. John M. Bonnell, a white preacher, was assigned 
in this capacity. 

In 1852 the present structure, known as the "Brick 
Church," was erected. It was enlarged and remodeled 
many times in succeeding years. The old wooden build- 
ing was moved and given to the Negro membership. 
About 1858, in a revival under J. N. Turner, a young 
slave, Lucius Holsey, was converted and received into 
First Church. He later became one of the first bishops 
of the C.M.E. Church. 

Other Churches. Additional Methodist churches ap- 
peared in Athens. The founding dates are often uncer- 
tain. Princeton Church was begun as a mission Sunday 
school, sponsored by the Watkinsville Church in 1835. 
Meetings were held in a warehouse of the Princeton 
Manufacturing Company. Oconee Street Church was or- 
ganized July 2, 1871, with sixteen members, located on 
Oconee Street near Broad. Richard Boggs provided land 
and Ferdinand Phinizy financed the establishing of Boggs 
Chapel, dedicated by Bishop George F. Pierce, June 
30, 1876. Beginning as a Sunday school in 1889, Tuckston 
Church was established in 1895. Young Harris Memorial 
Church, named for a prominent Athenian, Young L. G. 
Harris (benefactor of Young Harris College), was orga- 
nized Jan. 3, 1909, with a membership of 112. 

Largely through the efforts of First Church, Meth- 
odism's ministry to the academic community assumed 
added impetus with the establishment of the Wesley 
Foundation in 1927, with C. B. Harbour as director. 
No new Methodist churches were built in Athens until 
Oct. 7, 1956, when sixty-seven people joined the newly 
formed St. James Church. Chapelwood Church was es- 
tablished June 18, 1961. 

In 1970 the above mentioned churches in Athens have 
a total membership of 5,158, and propertv valued at 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

A. L. Hull, The Hulls of Georgia. Athens, Ga., 1904. 
Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the University of Georgia, 
1797-1817, Vol. I, Librar>-, Univ. of Georgia. 
A. M. Pierce, Georgia. 1956. 

G. G. Smith, Georgia. 1913. 
, Georgia and Florida. 1877. 

Robert G. Wilson, Methodism in Athens. Athens, Ga.: First 
Methodist Church, 1953. W. Thomas Smith 

ATHENS COLLEGE, Athens, Ala., was founded in 1822, 
three years after the admission of Alabama as a state. 
It is the state's oldest chartered institution of higher 
learning. At its beginning, the citizens of Athens pur- 
chased five acres of land, erected a building, and estab- 
lished the Athens Female Academy. Twenty years later, 
the people of Athens raised an endowment and expanded 
the academy into a four-year college. 

In January, 1843, the legislature of the state granted 
a charter incorporating the college as the Athens Female 
Institute of the Tennessee Annual Conference. When 
the North Alabama Conference was organized in 1870, 
the property was transferred to it and has remained so 

The institution became coeducational in 1931 and sub- 
sequendy the name was changed to Athens College. It 
grants the B.A., B.S., and B.S. in Education degrees. The 
governing board has twenty-one members, nine ministers 
and twelve laymen, elected by the North Alabama Con- 

John O. Gross 




William Atherton 

ATHERTON, WILLIAM (1775-1850), British minister, fa- 
ther of the first Methodist attorney-general, was bom at 
Lamberhead Green, Lancashire. He became a Wesleyan 
itinerant in 1797 and president of the Conference in 
1846. An early advocate of Methodist day schools, he 
served on the committee of 1836 which helped to estab- 
lish a connectional system of elementary education. He 
was considered one of the leaders of the Conference of 
those opposed to the dominance of Jabez Bunting. He 
was the author of The Life of Darcij, Lady Maxwell 
(1838). He died on Sept. 26, 1850. 

B. Gregory, Side Lights. 1898. 

Minutes of the Conference, 1851. 

Townsend, Workman and Eayrs, New History. 1909. 

G. Ernest Long 

ATKINS, ARTHUR GEORGE (1888- ), prepared for 

missionary service at Hartley College, London, Eng. After 
being ordained and commissioned for sevice in India, 
he went to Motihari in Bihar late in 1915. He was an 
appointee of the international and interdenominational 
Regions Beyond Mission. He acquired a scholarly mas- 
tery of Hindi. He was secretary of the Bihar and Orissa 
Missionary Council, 1920-22. 

In 1921 he married Lois Rockey, eldest daughter of 
the Methodist missionary, Noble Lee Rockey, and sister 
of Clement Daniel Rockey, later bishop. She had been 
a missionary of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Soci- 
ety of the M. E. Church for eight years. 

In 1922 Atkins became secretary of the India Sunday 
School Union, organized in 1874, with T. J. Scott, pio- 
neer M. E. missionary as its first president. In 1927 he 
and Mrs. Atkins were appointed as missionaries of the 
M. E. Board of Missions and began a distinguished new 
career. Atkins' appointments included Ballia, United 
Provinces, 1927; Jabalpur and Narsinghpur, Central 
Provinces, 1928-34; BareiUy Theological Seminary, 1934- 
38 and 1945-48; the Naini Tal English Church pastorate, 
1935-36 and 1942-48. He was superintendent of the Al- 
mora District, 1940-44; of the BareiUy District, 1944-45; 

of the Gaihwal District, 1949-53; and of Lee Memorial 
Mission, Calcutta, 1955-56. 

In all of these appointments Mrs. Atkins carried heavy 
responsibility. She was awarded the Beaver Medal by 
the Girl Guides Association and the Kaiser-i-Hind Medal 
by King George VI for social senice. 

Atkins received the B.D. degree as an external student 
of Serampore College in India, and the M.A. degree 
from Drew University for study in residence. Despite his 
heavy administrative duties he edited Sunday school notes 
for eighteen years, edited the Hindi edition of a young 
people's magazine for three years, a children's page of 
the Indian Witness for several years, and the Hindi edi- 
tion of The Upper Room for six years. He wrote numerous 
articles for English and Hindi perioilicals. He prepared 
courses of study for candidates for baptism and for church 
membership and wrote booklets on ethics. The Making of 
a Christian Home, and The Leading of Worship Services. 

He also translated into EngUsh the Ramayan of Tulsi 
Das, Rama-Charita-Manasa. It was published by the 
Hindu.itan Times, New Delhi, and has been accepted by 
Indian scholars and national leaders as a contribution 
to scholarship and to international understanding. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

James Atkins 

ATKINS, JAMES (1850-1923), American bishop, was 
bom at Knoxville, Tenn., on April 18, 1850. He was 
educated at Emory and Henry College, and received a 
D.D. degree from Trinity College. He was ordained to 
the ministry of the M. E. Church, South, in 1872, and 
served until 1879 in the Holston Conference. He was 
president of the Asheville Female College, 1879-89, and 
then became the president of Emory and Henry College, 
where he served until 1893. He retumed then to the 
Asheville Female College and served three years. 



In 1896, Atkins became the editor of Sunday-school 
literature, with headquarters at Nashville, Tenn. During 
this period he wrote a book entitled The Kingdom in the 
Cradle, in which he advocated gradual development, by 
an educational process, in the Christian life. This volume, 
along with Bushnell's Christian Nurture, had a profound 
influence on Christian education and evangelism in an 
age when a sudden conversion experience was highly 
valued. He started the system of teacher training, which 
reached the peak of its eff^ectiveness under the adminis- 
tration of his son-in-law, John W. Shackfobd. 

Atkins was elected a bishop in 1906. He was chairman 
of the Centenary Commission, which raised around $50 
million for home and foreign missions in 1918-19. Im- 
mediately thereafter Southern Methodist Missions were 
organized in Belgium, Poland and Czechoslovakia, 
and for four years Bishop Atkins presided in these fields. 

During tlie whole of his episcopal career, he made his 
home at Waynesville, N. C. He was one of the founders 
of the Southern Methodist Assembly, and was largely 
responsible for locating it at Lake Junaluska, N. C. He 
was the first chairman of the board of trustees of the 
assembly, and, in 1913, he built one of the 13 original 
homes on the assembly grounds. Later he built a second 
home on the assembly grounds, and after his death his 
widow presented it to the Assembly as a home for the 

Bishop Atkins died on Dec. 5, 1923, three days after 
reading the appointments at the Little Rock Confer- 
ence, and was buried at Waynesville, N. C. 

Journal, General Conference, MES. 
Who's Who in America. 

Elmer T. Clark 

ATKINSON, GEORGE WESLEY (1845-1925), local 
preacher, churchman, author, judge, congressman, and 
governor, was bom in Kanawha Co., W. Va., June 29, 
1845. Educated at Ohio Wesleyan (A.B.) and Howard 
University (LL.B.), he was awarded six honorary de- 
grees. He was twice married, first to Ellen Eagan in 
1868, and following her death in 1893, to Myra H. Cam- 
den in 1897. He was governor of West Virginia, 1897- 
1901. A loyal churchman, Atkinson was a member of 
the 1876 and 1888 General Conferences, was one of 
the founders of West Virginia Wesleyan College, 
and served as a trustee of the college for 28 years. The 
chapel at the college was named for him. A prolific writer, 
he published History of Kanawha in 1876, West Virginia 
Pulpit in 1878, Prominent Men of West Virginia in 1895, 
along with five other books on various subjects, and a 
number of poems and addresses. He died April 4, 1925. 

Thomas William Haught, West Virginia Wesleyan College: 
First Fifty Years, 1890-1940. 

Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942. Jesse A. Earl 

Albea Godbold 

ATKINSON, JOHN (1833-1899), British Primitive 
Methodist itinerant preacher, was born at Kirby Lons- 
dale, Westmorland, in Oct., 1833. He became president of 
the Primitive Methodist Conference in 1886, and was 
general missionary secretary, 1883-89, during which peri- 
od he inaugurated important changes of policy. In 1894 
he became the first secretary of the combined Insurance 
Company and Chapel Aro Association at York. A keen 
student of theology and philosophy, he was a regular 

contributor to the Christian Ambassador, and to its suc- 
cessor, the Primitive Methodist Quarterly Review. He 
was the author of the Life of Colin C. McKechnie. He 
died on Aug. 6, 1899. 

H. B. Kendall, Primitive Methodist Church. 1905. 

Ms. "Journal" (1854-99), in Hartley Victoria College Library, 

Manchester; also volumes of sermons in ms. 

Primitive Methodist Magazine, 1884. John T. Wilkinson 

ATLANTA, GEORGIA, U.S.A., is the key city of south- 
eastern United States. In 1969 Greater Atlanta, a five- 
county area, had a population of 1,250,000. Atlanta serves 
as the hub of the southeastern region in refigion, educa- 
tion, government, sports, commerce, industry, and trans- 
portation. She has many church administrative offices and 
some 700 local congiegations representing forty creeds 
and denominations with an aggregate membership of more 
than 382,000. Many of these churches have large congre- 
gations; at least forty have a membership of more than 
1,000 each. The two strongest communions in the city 
are the Methodists and the Southern Baptists. 

Methodism first came to Atlanta when it was a village 
called Marthasville, about 1840. In 1847 Samuel Mitchell 
gave lots to several churches in town, and the Methodists 
later exchanged their lot for one on Peachtree Street. 
At this time Atlanta was on the Decatur Circuit, and 
services were held in a little schoolhouse which stood on 
their lot. During the summer of 1847, Bishop James O. 
Andrew, George W. Lane, Alexander Means, and the cir- 
cuit pastors held a five-day meeting in a warehouse. In 
June a union Suntjay school was organized. Later the 
shell of a house, with a floor and puncheons for seats, 
was erected. Here the first service was conducted that 
was held in any regular preaching place in town. The 
church prospered. In 1849 the house was provided with 
pews and services were held regularly. During the same 
year a notable revival took place and the membership 
of the church increased to several hundred. In 1850 
what is now First Methodist Church became a station. 

Atlanta serves as the episcopal headquarters for the 
Georgia, North Georgia, and South Georgia Con- 
ferences of The United Methodist Church, the Sixth 
District of the A.M.E. Church, and of the C.M.E. 
Church. The four Methodist bishops presiding over these 
areas have their residences in Atlanta. Two offices of the 
Southeastern Jurisdiction and the Jurisdictional Council 
of The United Methodist Church are also in Atlanta, 
housed in the new Methodist Center which was com- 
pleted in 1966. For many years these offices were housed 
in the Wesley Memorial Methodist Church, which was 
built in 1904 and razed in 1964. It was a Methodist land- 
mark and public auditorium for sixty years. 

Greater Atlanta has nineteen degree-granting colleges 
and institutions of higher learning. Among these is a com- 
plex of five colleges and universities and one seminary 
that together comprise the largest center of higher edu- 
cation for Negroes in the world. Total enrolhnent of all 
nineteen colleges and universities is more than 30,000 
each year. 

Several of these nineteen institutions are Methodist, 
namely: Clark College, a Negro college belonging to 
The United Methodist Church; Morris Brown College, 
belonging to the A.M.E. Church; Emory University, 
belonging to the Southeastern Jurisdiction of The United 
Methodist Church; Candler School of Theology, a part of 


Emory University, which educates more ministers than 
any other Methodist seminary in the world; Gammon 
Theological Seminary, belonging to The United Meth- 
odist Church at large, and since 1959 a member of the 
Interdenominational Theological Center. Two other Meth- 
odist schools of theology also cooperate in the Center, 
namely: Phillips School of Theolog>-, belonging to the 
C.M.E. Church, and Turner Theological Seminary, be- 
longing to the A.M.E. Church. The Morehouse School 
of Religion is the fourth school comprising the Center 
and is affiliated with Morehouse College, a Baptist institu- 
tion primarily for Negroes. The Center was established 
in 1959 with Dr. Harry V. Richardson serving as the 
first president. It is a cooperative venture in theological 
education and educates nearly one-half of the Negro 
ministers in the United States who receive theological 

Greater Atlanta has the Methodist Children's Home, 
which belongs to the North Georgia Conference, and 
Wesley Woods, a modern home for the aged. Within 
Atlanta's confines are also The Protestant Radio and Tele- 
vision Center, an interdenominational agency in which 
the Southeastern Jurisdiction of The United Methodist 
Church has a vital stake, and Emory University Hos- 
pital, which serves as the training station for the uni- 
versity's School of Nursing. 

Some well-known churches in Atlanta include Allen 
Temple, Bethel A.M.E., First Church, Glenn Memorial, 
Grace, Martha Brown, and Trinity. The Free Methodist, 
Wesleyan, and A.M.E. Zion churches also have a few 
congregations in the city. 

J. Edward Lantz 

Allen Temple A.M.E. Church sponsors a $7,000,000 
housing project in Atlanta. The church celebrated its one 
hundredth anniversary in 1966. 

Bethel A.M.E. Church. Negro Methodists held separate 
services in Atlanta for at least a decade before the or- 
ganization of Bethel Church. They worshipped in a church 
building which had been placed on lots donated by benefi- 
cent whites. The first minister of this "African" church 
was a white man named Payne. Later Negro lay preachers 
served. By 1859 the church was known as "the African 
M. E. Church." During the Civil War years Bethel was 
presided over by Joseph Woods. Following the war, 
A.M.E. missionaries invited the congregation to unite 
witli their denomination, with union taking place at the 
1866 conference. In 1867 Wesley J. Gaines relocated 
Bethel near the corner of Butler and Old Wheat Sts. 
A large new structure was erected in 1868. In 1890 the 
present structure was begun, but was not completed until 
1899. It is a strong and influential church today, and has 
presented the musical morality pageant, "Heaven Bound," 
annually since 1930. 

Grant S. Shockley 

Emory University Hospital is a (335 beds, 18 bassinets) 
general hospital for private patients. A well-known and 
familiar institution to Atlantans and many people in the 
southeast, it is a continuation of Wesley Memorial Hos- 
pital, first built in 1905 as a joint project of the North 
and South Georgia Conferences of the M. E. Church, 
South. Eighteen years later, in December, 1922, a new 
hospital on the campus of Emory University in the Druid 
Hills section of Atlanta opened its doors. A fleet of 
ambulances loaned by Atlanta morticians delivered twen- 


ty-five patients from the older hospital in downtown At- 
lanta to the new one on the campus. 

Wesley Memorial ceased its separate legal existence in 
1925, and in that same year the name of the hospital was 
changed to Emory University Hospital. 

The year before the Lucy Elizabeth Memorial Ma- 
ternity Pavilion, erected by the children of the late Mrs. 
Asa G. Candler, Sr., in memory of their mother, was 
opened. The nationally-known Robert Winship Clinic for 
the study of neoplastic diseases was opened in June, 
1937, and the Conkey Pate Whitehead Memorial Surgical 
Pavilion, erected by Mrs. Lettie Pate Evans in memory 
of her son, was completed in 1946. 

In the fall of 1958 a renovation program got underway. 
It was c-ompleted nearly six years later at a cost of 

The first in-patient unit for psychiatric patients in a 
general hospital in Atlanta was opened in January, 1960, 
and in 1961 Emoiy University Hospital became one of 
the first hospitals in the nation to establish extensive clin- 
ical research facilities with the aid of grants from the 
United States Public Health Service. The Clinical Re- 
search Center has made possible controlled study of many 
patients suffering from complex diseases. 

Emory University Hospital developed the first post- 
anesthetic recovery room in Atlanta. It opened about 
1950. The hospital's intensive care unit, a ten-bed facility 
which was opened in September, 1963, was one of the 
first in Atlanta. For the year ending Aug. 31, 1968, the 
hospital admitted 10,571 adult patients. The present ad- 
ministrator is Burwell W. Humphrey. 

Edvvina B. Davis 

First Church is the central Metliodist church in At- 
lanta. It was begun by a group of Methodists in 1848 
who bought a piece of property at a cost of $150, on 
the eastern side of Peachtree Street, running from what is 
known as the Candler Building to Luckie Street. The 
first church was a frame building called Wesley Chapel. 
Its tower contained the only church bell in Atlanta that 
was not melted down during the Civil War, and it is still 
used in the present church. The little church was first 
on a circuit, but by 1850 it had regular preaching services 
each Sunday. Enhances were separate for the men and 
women, and Negro slaves sat in a balcony at the rear. By 
1858 it had 419 white and 192 colored members, and it 
raised $700, which was given to the Negroes to build 
their own church. In 1870 a new building, the finest in 
town, was erected where the Candler Building now stands, 
and its name was changed to First M. E. Church, South. 
Due to losses during the War, and the Reconsti-uction 
period, great sacrifices were made in order to build this 
structure. Among its members were a number of impor- 
tant political figures and also Henry W. Grady, the 
spokesman of the new South, whose name a Sunday 
school class still bears. 

In 1903 the present church was built at Peachtree and 
Porter Place. It is made of Stone Mountain heart granite 
with Gothic lines and stained glass windows. 

Following union in 1939, the name was changed to 
First Methodist Church. Since Atlanta had expanded, it 
was a suburban type church in a downtown location. 
There was thought of moving, but it was decided to 
make it a great downtown church. An education building 
was erected and paid for in 1953; and an additional story 



was added in 1962. Numerous adjoining parcels of land 
have been purchased for parking areas. 

The first Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of 
the M. E. Church, South was organized at First Church. 
Six foreign missionaries are now supported by the church. 
The Ecumenical Methodist Conference met in the 
United States for the second time in 1931 at First Church, 

Four of the church's pastors have been elected bishop: 
H. M. DuBose, H. C. Morrison, J. E. Dickey, and C. J. 
Harrell. Two college presidents have come from its 
membership: I. S. Hopkins of the Georgia Institute of 
Technology, and C. E. Dowman of Emory at Oxford. 
Pierce Harris was pastor of the church from 1940 to 
1967, and over 6,000 persons joined the church during 
his ministry. Its Sunday night services are known far and 
wide. Membership in 1970 was 2,467. 

Allen Post 

Glenn Memorial is the University Church located at 
the main entrance to the campus of Emory University. 
The sanctuary of Glenn Memorial, seating 1490 people, 
is the largest in Georgia Methodism and a striking ex- 
ample of Georgian architecture in the United States. Its 
architectural style is distinctively in the Christopher Wren 
tradition. The exterior body of the church follows closely 
that of the St. Michael's Episcopal Church in Charleston, 
S. C, built in 1760 and considered the finest of its kind 
in America. The colonnaded portico at the base of the 
Glenn tower is fashioned after King's Chapel near the 
Boston Commons, the first Protestant Episcopal Church 
edifice erected in America. Perhaps the outstanding fea- 
ture of Glenn Memorial is its tower and steeple which rise 
to a height of 170 feet. Both tower and steeple are mod- 
eled after All Saints, Bristol, England. 

The Church was actually organized as the Emory Meth- 
odist Church on Jan. 11, 1920, by Bishop Warren A. 
Candler in the Theology Building on the Emory Campus. 
There services of worship were held until 1931 when the 
sanctuary was constiucted. It was named in memory of 
W. F. Glenn (1839-1919), a leading Georgia Methodist 
minister. His daughter, Mrs. Howard Candler, whose hus- 
band was for ten years Chairman of the Board of Trustees 
of Emory, contributed most of the funds for the new 

The educational building, erected in 1939, is separated 
from the sanctuary by a large amphitheater, scene of col- 
lege graduations, concerts, and plays. In the educational 
building is located the Glenn Chapel, an almost exact 
small replica of one of Christopher Wren's most beautiful 
churches, St. Stephen's, Walbrook, near London, built in 

At its fortieth anniversary celebration in 1959 an ex- 
tensive remodeling and building program was launched. 
In addition to remodeling the sanctuary and educational 
building, a large youth building was constructed which 
can minister to 250 young people. The program was 
completed in 1965 at a cost of $700,000. 

Glenn Memorial occupies a strategic place in Meth- 
odism in the Southeastern United States as it has an un- 
usual congregation made up of a large number of college 
students, professors, and community residents and lead- 
ers. In its congregation are also several ministers and 
theologians. To its pulpit frequently come outstanding 
preachers and theologians of all denominations. One of 

its ministers, William T. Watkins (1928-30) later be- 
came a bishop of The Methodist Church. 

The 2,100 member church has sponsored many varied 
ministries, particularly in church extension, missions, 
drama, and education. In the 1950's and 60's six new 
churches were sponsored by Glenn in the greater Atlanta 
area. In 1956 the Church constructed on the campus of 
the Methodist Children's Home in Decatur, Georgia, an 
$80,000 cottage for girls who were orphans or from 
broken families. It was the first church in Methodism to 
do this. In 1951 Glenn began the first week-day church 
kindergarten in Georgia Methodism. It has long main- 
tained drama groups and presented productions in numer- 
ous other churches as well as its own. Since 1951 it has 
supported a full-time missionary in Calcutta, India. 

Ministers who have served the Church are: Thomas 
Lip.scomb (1920); H. C. Howard (1920-23); Waights 
G. Henry (1923-24); Joseph A. Smith (1924-25); Robert 
Z. Tyler (1925-28); WiUiam T. Watkins (1928-30); 
Wallace Rogers (1930-33); Nat G. Long (1933-42); 
Joseph A. Smith (1942-44); Edward G. Mackay (1944- 
50); W. Candler Budd (1950-59); Eugene T. Drinkard 

William Landiss, A History of Glenn Memorial Church, 1920- 
1959. (unpublished); located in the Glenn Memorial Library. 
The Spire, Information Bulletin of Glenn Memorial Church, 
Vol. 5, No. 2; Vol. 5, No. 3, 1959. Vol. 7, No. 3, 1961. Vol. 5, 
No. 7, 1960. Vol. 8, No. 2, 1963. Eugene T. Drinkard 

Grace Church, located at 458 Ponce de Leon Avenue, 
N.E., was organized Nov. 18, 1871. The church has oc- 
cupied three locations other than the present one. It 
came to its present site after being destroyed in the great 
Atlanta fire in 1917. The church has had phenomenal 
growth since 1947, when Charles L. Allen became pastor, 
with its membership increasing from 1,800 to 4,105 in 
1970. This growth has taken place even though Grace is 
an inner city, downtown church, serving metropolitan 
Atlanta. Members come from eight counties regularly. 
During the past six years, seven men have gone out from 
Grace to the active ministry. One distinctive feature is 
the Sunday evening service. Its members claim that it 
has probably the largest Sunday night service in American 
Methodism. Grace is currently spending $1,374,000 on 
expansion of facilities, and is engaged in a great program 
in missions, education, and evangelism. The Sunday 
morning service is televised. 

T. Cecil Myers 

Martha Brown Memorial Church celebrated its 50th 
anniversary on April 7, 1968 at its present location. Its his- 
tory dates back to the spring of 1892, when a group of 
spiritual-minded citizens of East Atlanta holding a union 
Sunday school decided to organize a church to be known 
as East Atlanta Methodist Church. 

In 1894 a lot was donated on Metropohtan Avenue, 
but actually the building of the church was begun in 
1896 and the services were finally started in 1898, with 
an enrollment of 56 members. 

J. F. Brown donated the present corner lot at Moreland 
and Metropolitan Avenues in 1914. It was during the 
building of the present sanctuary (1916-18) that it was 
suggested that the name, Martha Brown Memorial, should 
be given the new church in memory of Mr. Brown's de- 
ceased wife. 

Additional land was purchased and the educational 



building was erected in 1928. A new parsonage was built 
on land purchased and a lot donated across Metropolitan 
on Moreland during 1946-47. 

More land was acquired and additional educational fa- 
cilities were built in 1951. In 1959 the present parsonage 
was purchased on Greenleaf Road and the old parsonage 
became the Youth Center. 

Recent pastoral leadership includes Ruren Hancock, 
Gordon G. Thompson, Dumas Shelnutt, J. Walker Chid- 
sey, and J. W. Veatch, retired. Associate. 

In recent years this church has furnished to the Meth- 
odist ministry Wilton Moulder, William Floyd, Harry 
Alderman — all members of the North Georgia Con- 

The membership is approximately 1,400. 

J. Walker Chidsey 

Morris Brown College is a four-year accredited liberal 
arts college with a theological department. It was founded 
in 1881 by the North Georgia and Georgia Annual Con- 
ferences of the A.M.E. Church. Its charter was granted 
in 1885 and later that same year it received its first stu- 
dents. The first class was graduated in 1890. Liberal 
arts courses were instituted in 1894 and Turner Theo- 
logical Seminary was opened the same year. Since 1959 
the Seminary has been affiliated with the Interdenomina- 
tional Theological Center, a cooperative ecumenical ven- 
ture in theological education among several Negro schools 
in the Atlanta area. 

In 1906 Morris Rrown was rechartered as a university. 
This was later changed to its original and present college 
designation. In 1932 the institution was reorganized and 
relocated near Atlanta University. 

Grant S. Shockley 

Peachtree Road Church is one of the largest Methodist 
churches in southeastern U.S.A. It was founded April 28, 
1925, in the home of Dr. and Mrs. M. T. Salter at 3221 
Peachtree Road, N.E., with nineteen charter members. 
Ry giving notes for $15,000 to certain individuals, a lot 
was purchased in May at 3122 Peachtree Road, N.E., and 
on Sunday, June 7, 1925, the first public worship was 
held in a temporary wooden chapel. 

In 1941 the lot on which the church now stands was 
purchased at a cost of $18,000. The temporary buildings 
were moved from the original lot. In 1942 a recreation 
building with a kitchen and dining-room facilities, known 
as the Great Hall, was erected. This building was used 
for all services of public worship until 1949 when the 
beautiful white colonial-type buildings were erected at a 
cost of $485,000. In 1958 the members were again in- 
spired to build and plan ahead. A building committee 
directed the construction of a chapel, a children's build- 
ing, and an activities building where thousands of people 
come each month for Christian recreation which includes 
a variety of activities, a real ministry to the community 
as well as the church. 

Peachtree Road Church is known for its wide ranging 
program. In addition to the chancel choir, there are seven 
youth and children's choirs. There is a Sunday school 
enrollment of about 2,500, with an average attendance of 
1,250. The Sunday evening program is varied, with an 
active program for children, youth and young adults, and 
study groups for adults. The mid-week church night sup- 
per meeting is one of the most meaningful services in the 

church. Missionary giving amounts to over $100,000 a 

The church has grown in membership to a present total 
of 4,500, with a budget nearing $600,000. The church 
property is valued at $2,000,000. Since 1925 there have 
been twelve pastors, each having made a strong and vital 
contribution to the spiritual and physical growth of the 

Phillips School of Theology, of the C.M.E. Church, 
was established as a separate institution at Lane Col- 
lege, Jackson, Tenn., in 1944. The board of trustees of 
Lane College created the school by a special resolution 
authorizing the new school to be located on or near the 
campus of Lane College. 

In 1946, the General Conference of the C.M.E. Church 
enacted legislation which made the Phillips School of 
Theology a connectional school. The General Conference 
of 1950 adopted a special resolution in which Phillips 
School of Theology was named as one of the schools of 
the C.M.E. Church, to share equally witli the other schools 
in the distribution of educational funds. 

Phillips School of Theology moved to Atlanta, Ga. in 
1959 to form the Interdenominational Theological Cen- 
ter — a cooperative venture in theological education. Phil- 
lips School of Theology became one of the four partici- 
pating schools in the Center. It is housed in a modern 
building on the campus of the Interdenominational Theo- 
logical Center. 

St. Mark Church was organized in 1872 as a mission 
of First Curch in a little community of North Atlanta 
then known as Tight Squeeze. In 1878 the mission be- 
came self-sustaining and moved to Merritts Avenue, with 
Rishop Warren A. Candler, then a junior preacher, as 
its first pastor. It was known as Sixth Methodist Church. 
A few years later the name was changed to Merritts Ave- 
nue Church. 

In 1901, with a membership of 391, Merritts Avenue 
Church erected a new sanctuary at the corner of Peach- 
tree and Fifth Streets, to be known as St. Mark Church. 
The first service of worship was conducted March 22, 

The following ministers have been appointed to this 
church: Alonzo Monk, Charles O. Jones, S. R. Relk, A. M. 
Hughlett, W. R. Hendrix, Walter Anthony, S. E. Wasson, 
J. R. Mitchell, W. L. Duhen, S. H. C. Rurgin, J. W. 
Johnson, Lester Rumble, Joseph Owen, John L. Horton, 
John R. Tate, Dow Kerkpathick, Harry Lee Smith, Revel 
Jones, William A. Tyson, and Melton McNeill. 

Despite the change from a residential church to a great 
cosmopolitan congregation in the heart of the city, its 
membership has held its own. It reports 1,784 members. 

Through the years twelve beautiful stained glass win- 
dows have been added to the sanctuary. These windows, 
executed during a half century period by German glass 
workers, demonstrate excellence in art and craftsmanship 
and are highly valued in church architecture. In 1948 the 
Frances Winship Walters Chapel was erected and a new 
educational building was dedicated in 1956. 

St. Mark continues to serve the metropolitan area with 
its vital inner city program. The highlight of its mission 
is a ministry to the night people. Cab drivers, night club 
entertainers, bartenders, and night police comprise the 
night parishioners. St. Mark ministers today to a changed 
and changing city, proclaiming the gospel to people where 
they are. 

Trinity Church hfts a red brick tower amid a complex 



of marble buildings of state, county, and city governments 
on one side, and the concrete and bridges that make up 
the intricate highway interchange on the other. Organized 
in 1854 it now occupies its third location in a massive 
brick gothic structure. 

Green B. Haygood and others from Wesley Chapel 
(now First Church) organized an outpost Sunday school 
in 1853. Trinity Church was organized in September, 
1854. The first building was the only one other than the 
Shrine of the Immaculate Conception which was not 
burned by General Sherman when Atlanta was taken 
late in the Civil War. When the pastor, Atticus Hay- 
good, returned in 1864 he found the building filled with 
furniture. A new sanctuary was erected on a different site 
in 1872. The present sanctuary and educational building 
were completed in 1912. 

Many renowned Methodist leaders have come from 
Trinity: Atticus G. Haygood, pastor, bishop, and president 
of Emory College; Laura Haygood, missionary in China,- 
Eva Foreman; Julia Gaither; Anna Muse; Young J. Allen; 
David L. Anderson, president of Foochow University, 
and Vivian P. Patterson. 

Missionary concern was not all for foreign fields. Be- 
tween 1871 and 1895 eight new churches were organized: 
St. Paul, Mary Branan, Asbury, Grace, Park Sheet, Lake- 
wood Heights, St. John's, and Nellie Dodd. J. W. Lee 
organized a boys' club in 1906 which later became the 
first Boy Scout troop in Atlanta. Miss Mollie Stephens 
organized an "industrial home" in 1884 which later be- 
came Wesley House, before the National Board of Mis- 
sions was organizing such settlement houses. 

As the city of Atlanta has changed, so has the program 
of Trinity's work. Now an inner city church, its service 
is not only to those who drive many miles to attend, but 
also to the residents in low rent housing nearby and to the 
nearly 20,000 government office workers within two blocks 
of the church. 

Norman P. Manning, Jr. 

Wesley Woods, Atlanta, Georgia 

Wesley Woods Retirement Community, sponsored by 
the North Georgia Conference of The United Meth- 
odist Church, oflFers a variety of facilities and services for 
persons sixty-two years of age or older. It is located on an 
eighteen acre campus at 1825 Clifton Road, N.E., At- 

lanta, Georgia, on the northern edge of the Emory 
University campus. 

One of its buildings, "The Towers," represents a new 
architectural approach in housing for the elderly. It con- 
sists of two cylinder towers, one ten stories and one 
thirteen stories. It contains 202 rooms and apartments, 
a central dining room, a beauty shop, and recreation 
areas. Every residential room in the building has an out- 
side exposure and long corridors are virtually eliminated. 
The building was completed and occupied in February, 
1965, and within a year was almost completely filled. 

The medical services of the Community are offered in 
a 160-bed Health Center which is available not only to 
residents of Wesley Woods, but to persons from any geo- 
graphical area. Admission to this facility is made by the 
patient's own personal physician. 

Financial arrangements at Wesley Woods are flexible. 
There is a monthly charge in the Towers depending upon 
the type of accommodation and services requested. The 
rates set include rent, all utilities, maid service, laundry 
allowance, and all meals and a limited amount of health 
care. Accommodations include a room with a private 
bath, efficiency apartments and one bedroom apartments. 
There is no entrance fee required, and residents can 
terminate their rental agreement on thirty days' notice. 
Daily rates at the Health Center may also be arranged for 
semi-private rooms with three persons, or private rooms 
with private bath. The total value of the Wesley Woods 
facilities is approximately $5,500,000. 

Hiram Park Bell, Men and Things. Foote & Davis Co., 1907. 
Atticus G. Haygood, Cnj of One Half Million of Georgia's 
Children. Constitution Pub. Co., 1888. 
J. T. Jenifer, Centennial Retrospect (AME), 1916. 
William Landiss, "A History of Glenn Memorial Church, 1920- 
1959." Unpublished. 

Nat G. Long, The Story of Peachtree Road Methodist Church, 
1925-195S. Franklin Printing Go., n.d. 
H. W. Mann, Atticus Greene Haygood. 1965. 
Alfred Mann Pierce, Lest Faith Forget: The Story of Method- 
ism in Georgia. Atlanta: North and South Georgia Annual 
Conferences, 1951. 
G. G. Smith, Georgia. 1913. 

ATLANTA CONFERENCE (CJ). (See Georgia Confer- 
ence (CJ).) 

ATLAY, JOHN (1736-??), was John Wesley's book stew- 
ard from 1773 to 1788. He was born at Sheriff-Hutton 
in the County of York in December, 1736. Little is known 
of his early life; he seems to have become an itinerant 
about 1763; he was stationed at Haworth in 1765, when 
certain knowledge of him begins. He was stationed in 
London from 1773, and in the Minutes for 1776 the list 
of stations begins with the statement: "Joseph Bradford 
travels with Mr. Wesley. John Atlay keeps his accounts. 
Thomas Olivers corrects the press." 

Atlay was ofl^ended when John Wesley did not include 
his name in the Deed of Declaration in 1784, and 
was already talking of leaving the Book Room in 1785; 
in 1785 he was doing business on the side as a coal 
merchant. In the meantime he involved himself in the 
dispute at Dewsbury, where he supported the trustees in 
their demand that they be allowed to appoint their own 
preachers. At the Conference of 1788 he admitted that 
he had promised the trustees that he would if necessary 
become their minister, and so when the Conference de- 



cided to abandon the Dewsbury Chapel, he left the Book 
Room and settled there in September 1788. 

It is noteworthy that in a letter to Wesley, dated Sept. 
20, 1788, Atlay stated that the stock of the Book Room 
was worth £ 13,751 /18/5d, according to the prices given 
in the catalog, but that when Wesley had the stock valued 
by two booksellers, the\' suggested a figure of £4,827/10/ 
3/'2d. Atlay tried to set up a circmt of his own, meeting 
with some success in Shields and Newcastle. It seems 
likely, however, that he had quarreled with the Dewsbury 
trustees by 1791, when he was certainly in London. John 
Pawson alleged that he had adopted the views of Nicholas 
Manners (an itinerant between 1759 and 1784), who 
taught that as a result of the work of Christ all men are 
born in the same state as Adam's before the Fall. The 
exact date of Atlay's death is unknown. 

F. Cumbers, Book Room. 1956. 

L. Tyerman, John Wesley. 1870-71. Henry Rack 

Charles Atmore 

ATMORE, CHARLES (1759-1826), British preacher, was 
bom at Heacham, Norfolk, in 1759. He became a Meth- 
odist in 1779, and was accepted by John Wesley as 
an itinerant preacher in 1781. In 1787 he was responsible 
for opening the new preaching house at Glasgow, and in 
1790 Wesley commended him for starting Sunday 
SCHOOLS at Newcasde, "one of the best institutions which 
have been seen in Europe for centuries." Atmore was 
elected president of the Wesleyan Methodist Confer- 
ence in 1811, retired from the ministry in 1825, and 
died on June 30, 1826. His published writings include: 
The Methodist Memorial (Bristol, 1801), which gave 
"an impartial sketch of the Lives and Characters of the 
Preachers who have departed this Life since the com- 
mencement of the work of God, among the people called 
Methodists"; an Appendix to the Methodist Memorial, 
Containing a Concise History of the Introduction of Meth- 
odism on the Continent of America and Short Memoirs 

of the Preachers (Manchester, 1802); and an edition of 
Oliver Heywood's Family Altar (Liverpool, 1807). 

John Newton 

ATONEMENT. Atonement in Christian theology designates 
centrally the at-one-ment or reconciliation of sinful men 
to God through divine action in the life, passion, and 
resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is the re-establishment of 
the God-man relation which has been fractured by sin, 
and, in consequence, the restoration of personal whole- 
ness and right human relations. 

1. The New Testament presents no systematic atone- 
ment theory, but declares that in Christ God acted to 
reconcile the world to himself, and ^o call into being a 
new community charged with a reconciling ministry 
among men. The saving event is inteipreted in a variety 
of metaphors drawn from the law court, the slave market, 
the sheepfold, the home, temple worship, and men's ex- 
perience of death and life, defeat and victory. Jesus ap- 
parently conceived his messianic role in terms of the suf- 
fering servant passages of Isaiah. Uppermost in Paul is 
the notion, cast in legal terms, that God, unlike a judge 
who decrees the punishment demanded by strict justice, 
acquits the guilty. In forgiving love God in Christ iden- 
tifies Himself with and endures vicariou,sly the conse- 
quences of men's sin, accepting the repentant sinner. In 
Hebrews Christ as our High Priest brings to a climax 
the Jewish sacrificial system by offering his own life. The 
Johannine view, mystical and ethical, portrays Jesus' self- 
sacrifice as proceeding from and revealing the love of 
God, who seeks tlie loving response of men and their 
eternal fellowship witli himself. 

II. Post-biblical Christian thought has produced three 
main types of atonement theory. 1. Greek patristic thought 
(Irenaeus, Origen, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa) (c. 120- 
400) portrays Christ as imparting to men enlightenment, 
incorruption, and victorious deliverance from sin and 
death. His hfe and sacrificial death provided knowledge 
of God and his will and gave men an example. As the 
incarnate Logos who united God's immortal nature with 
man's mortal, he purged humanity from corruption and 
mortality, and made possible the elevation of man to re- 
newed union with God. His death on the cross — pictured 
as a supreme act of obedience, a recapitulation in reverse 
of Adam's fall, and a ransom paid to Satan for man's re- 
lease — was crowned by his resurrection, which demon- 
strated his supremacy over death and sin, which destroyed 
their power. This many-sided view has been influential 
in Methodist thought, but never dominant. 

The Greek conception suflPers from a substantialistic 
understanding of divinity and humanity, and of their 
union, as well as at times from a crude notion of the 
deception of Satan and a false ascription to him of a claim 
to the human race which even God must respect. How- 
ever, it expresses enduring truths: that the life, teach- 
ings, and resurrection of Christ no less than his death 
have saving value; that Christ imparts healing as well as 
rescue, sanctification as well as forgiveness; and that in 
him God decisively conquered evil and freed men from 
its power. As Charles Wesley sings: "He breaks the 
power of canceled sin. He sets the prisoner free." 

2. Medieval Latin and orthodox Protestant thought 
brought forth various theories which, though differing 
widely, agree in viewing the atonement as an objective 
transaction centering in satisfaction, or in penal subsHtu- 


tion. According to Anselm (c. 1033-1109), Christ satis- 
fied the honor of God which man's sin had offended. 
Reparation had to be made by man, the sinner, yet also 
by God himself, since finite man could not make amends 
for an offense against the Infinite. Hence the need for the 
God-man, whose vicarious death, completing a perfect 
life, provided superabundant satisfaction. This view re- 
flects the penitential pra.xis of the medieval Roman 
Church. Thomas Aquinas (c. 122.5-1274), adopted this 
view in essence, though he regarded the passion of Christ 
as the "fittest" mode of salvation rather than as necessary, 
utihzed Abelard's (c. 1079-1142) emphasis on the love 
kindled in man by Christ's sacrifice, and related the atone- 
ment to the ever-renewed mediation of grace in the 
SACRAMENTS. In Calvin's (1.509-1564) penal view, sin is 
a violation of the law of the divine Judge. By his death 
Christ in love took on himself the punishment required of 
men by divine justice, thus appeasing God's wrath, pro- 
curing his favor, and making his benevolence possible 
when Christ's work is accepted in faith. The Augsburg 
Confession (1530) also interprets Christ's suffering and 
death as a sacrifice offered for sin to "propitiate God's 
wrath" (Art. Ill, Ger. ed.) or to "reconcile the Father to 
us" (Latin ed.). 

This theme is reiterated in both the Anglican and the 
American Methodist Articles of Religion. Rooted in 
this tradition, the thought of John and Charles Wesley 
describes Christ's work primarily as a vicarious, substitu- 
tionary act which satisfies divine justice by offering a 
ransom and sacrifice for the sins of the whole world. How- 
ever, for the Wesleys the atonement ultimately springs 
from and proclaims God's boundless love. Moreover, its 
benefits are universally available, rather than limited to 
a special class of the predestined. In Richard Watson, 
the most influential Methodist theologian of the early 
nineteenth century, the satisfaction theory was upper- 
most. (Theological Institutes, London, 1832. Part II. xix- 
xxii. ) John Miley espoused essentially the governmental 
theory of Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), regarding the death 
of Christ- chiefly as a penal example which demonstrates 
the stem righteousness of God and the disastrous conse- 
quences of sin; here the punishment borne by Christ is 
necessary to safeguard the sacredness of the divine law 
and the human interests it aims to conserve in the divine 
economy. A similar line was taken by J. Scott Lidgett, 
The Spiritual Principle of the Atonement, London, 1897, 
a most respected scholar representing British Methodist 
thought. Edwin Lewis maintained in his later years a 
basically penal substitutionary view. 

Many Methodist theologians have felt that these con- 
ceptions largely fail to recognize the redemptive signifi- 
cance of the entire life of Jesus and his resurrection. It 
has been argued that they reflect abstract, legalistic, 
mechanical ideas of guilt, punishment, and merit, which 
are not literally transferable. For the most part, they tend 
to regard justice or honor rather than love as determina- 
tive in God, to separate the mercy of the Son too sharply 
from the righteousness of the Father, and to imply a 
change wrought by Jesus' death in God's effective attitude 
toward men. They also fail to emphasize sufficiently the 
importance of the sinner's repentant, trustful, obedient 
response. Nevertheless, this group of Methodist theolo- 
gians dramatize the depth of human wickedness, accent 
clearly the holiness of God, who cannot tolerate rebellion 
in those created for fellowship with himself, and sense the 
extreme costliness of the divine mercy. 

3. The moral or personal theory classically formulated 
by Abelard finds the barrier to redemption not in God 
but in man, and locates the cential meaning of Christ's 
death in its supreme disclosure of God's self-sacrificing 
love which moves men to repentance, love, and obedience. 
Jesus' life and teachings provide men with their perfect 
example, while contemplation of his cross in them 
the desire to serve the loving God there disclosed. Ele- 
ments of this view appear frequently in the thought of 
the Wesleys, as when Charles exclaims: "O Love divine, 
what hast Thou done! Th' immortal God hath died for 
me!" It is dominant in Schleiermacher, Ritschl, Bushnell, 
and liberal evangelical theology in general. In the twen- 
tieth century it has found vigorous expression in the 
thought of Methodists like Harris F. Rall and Albert 
C. Knudson. 

This conception may tend to overlook tlie objective 
triumph of God over evil dramatized in the resurrection, 
lacks an awesome awareness of the holy righteousness of 
God and the enormity of human sin, and often over- 
estimates the wilhngness of men to respond to the divine 
love. However, it clearly recognizes the saving meaning 
of both the life and the death of Christ, the centrality of 
the love of God proclaimed by the gospel, and the sinner's 
need of inner transformation if salvation is to be realized. 

III. Today there is wide recognition among Methodist 
theologians, as among others, that none of the historic 
views is sufiRcient in itself. All express true insights 
which can be conserved if they are synthesized and re- 
formulated. Adequate understanding of the New Testa- 
ment witness and the experience of the historic Chris- 
tian community require recognition of both objective and 
subjective factors, divine deed and human response. 
Reconcihation is wrought through the action of God, 
who in Jesus Christ reveals his righteous love, condemns 
sin, and offers to men his forgiving and renewing grace. 
To this redemptive activity men must repond in re- 
pentance, trust, and love, thankfully and obediently em- 
bracing the new life of sonship with God. This two-fold 
movement takes mainly four forms. 

1. In Jesus Christ God manifests to men a completely 
God-centered life of self-forgetful love, offering them the 
new relation with him that enables them to live in this 
spirit. To the degree that they respond positively and 
as followers of Christ devote themselves to God and 
neighbor, they are saved from seff-centeredness, "made 
one with the goodness of God himself (II Cor. 5:21; 
New Enghsh Bible), and given the true freedom which 
is found in the service of God alone. 

2. God discloses to men in Christ his victorious power 
over evil. He who in his temptations had triumphed over 
sin put both sin and death to rout in his cross and resur- 
rection. Thus God has demonstrated objectively his su- 
premacy over all that hinders fulness of fife, and opened 
the door to freedom and joy in the Holy Spirit. Wit- 
nessing the triumphant power of God, the victims of 
injustice, vice and hate, the weary and heavy laden are 
delivered from fear and find courage to go on in faith, 
knowing that light is lord over darkness, love over hate, 
life over death, and that nothing can separate them from 
the love of God in Christ Jesus their Lord. Yielding their 
lives to him in love and trust, they share his victory. 

3. In the cross of Christ God reveals in sharp contrast 
to his own holiness the heinous wickedness of human 
sin. A prerequisite of our forgiveness is a consciousness 
of our need of it. Through the cross God jars us out of 



our self-righteousness and complacency, making us aware 
of the depth of our spiritual need and of our often cruel 
treatment of others. Human evil, he declares here, is so 
great that highly religious men are capable of leaguing 
themselves with the most cynical and unscrupulous to 
murder the Son of God himself. God's perfect righteous- 
ness cannot condone such iniquity. Hence man, standing 
under self-indictment and the divine judgment, is help- 
less and lost apart from the amazing grace of God. The 
result of the death of Christ is thus not the mechanical 
discharge of a debt or the legalistic payment of a penalty, 
but a change in the heart of the sinner; he is awakened 
to a realization of his own sinfulness, and remorsefully 
seeks the forgiveness of the God and the neighbors his 
sin has wronged. This penitent spirit, elicited by the action 
of God in Christ, opens the way to restoration. 

4. In the life and death of Christ God manifests to 
men in matchless fashion his sacrificial, forgiving love. 
The God revealed in the cross is One who bears in his 
own heart tlie sins of those he loves. Precisely because 
he loves us, he endures unspeakable anguish through the 
disobedience of his own who receive him not, and com- 
passionately gives his all to win them back to himself. 
Such love has power to break man's sinful will and to 
evoke his shame and repentance. Receptively contem- 
plated, it calls forth man's answering love and the grate- 
ful commitment of his life. This perspective may be espe- 
cially noted in recent publications by Methodist scholars 
and evangehsts. (Among such are L. Harold DeWolf, 
A Hard Rain and a Cross, Nashville, 1966; Alan Walker, 
The Many Sided Cross, Nashville, 1962; and Don S. 
Browning, Atonement and Psijchothcrapy, Philadelphia, 

Thus utilizing the truths of the historic theories, we 
may say that men are redeemed through Jesus Christ in at 
least four interrelated and converging ways. On each of 
them may occur the divine-human encounter through 
which men are made new creatures in Christ. Atonement 
comes through revelation-and-response. God acts in Christ 
to reveal to men (1) the pattern of a perfect life, (2) 
his victorious power over evil, (3) the wickedness of sin 
in contrast to the divine holiness, and (4) his suffering, 
forgiving love. As men respond to God's redemptive ac- 
tivity, they experience ( 1 ) joyous endeavor to follow 
Christ, (2) victory over evil through trust in divine 
power, (3) conviction of sin, repentance, and obedience, 
and (4) self -giving love and devotion to God. 

[The leading British Methodist thought on the Atone- 
ment in the modern period is that of the New Testament 
scholar Vincent Taylor: see bibUography. He has re- 
stated the New Testament doctrine of the life and death 
of Christ as a representative sacrifice. God's Son as man 
offered the sacrifice of sinless obedience, which opens 
the way for man to come to God. Those who by faith 
make themselves one with Christ can share in the benefit 
of what He then did. Ed.] 

As seen by Christian faith, however, the atonement is 
far more than a particular event or series of events in 
human history. Truly understood, on the divine side it is 
an eternal reality. A cross in the innermost nature of God 
preceded and follows the cross erected between two 
thieves on Golgotha. That is to say, there is within the 
nature of God a principle of redemptive spiritual self- 
sacrifice analogous to that seen in the sufferings of the 
incarnate Son in the days of his flesh. The redemptive 
activity of God in Christ is best viewed, as D. M. Baillie 

has suggested, as "the point in human history where we 
find the actual outcropping of the divine Atonement," 
which calls us individually back to God. (God Was in 
Christ, Charles Scribner's Son, 1948, p. 201.) The his- 
torical atonement occurred because at the heart of the 
universe, "eternal in the heavens," is One whose deepest 
nature is invincible, holy, sacrificial love. Jesus Christ 
saves because he is Mediator of that Love to sinful, 
finite men. 

G. E. H. Aulen, Christus Victor, 1930. English trans, by A. G. 

Hebert, London, 1945. 

E. W. Dillistone, Christian Understanding of the Atonement. 

Philadelphia, 1968. 

L. Hodgson, The Doctrine of the Atonement. London and 

New York, 1951. 

J. Scott Lidgett, The Spiritual Principle of the Atonement. 

London, 1897. 

H. W. Robinson, Redemption and Revelation in the Actuality 

of History. London and New York, 1942. 

, Suffering, Human and Divine. London, 1939. 

Vincent Taylor, The Atonement in New Testament Teaching. 
London, 1940. 

, Forgiveness and Reconciliation. London, 1948. 

, Jesus and His Sacrifice. London, 1937. 

S. Paul Schilling 

AUBREY, THOMAS (1808-1867), Welsh minister, was 
born on May 13, 1808, at Cefn-Coed-y-Cymer, South 
Wales. He entered the Wesleyan Ministry in 1826, and 
was soon recognized as one of the foremost preachers of 
his generation. It has been said of him that his eloquence 
in public debate was overpowering; and as a defender of 
the Methodist constitution he had no equal in Wales. He 
was chaiiman of the North Wales District from 1854- 
65, and was mainly responsible for the formation of the 
District Home Mission Fund and the District Chapel 
Fund, which, unlike the corresponding connectional funds, 
are administered by the district itself. His critics regarded 
him as an autocrat, which was probably not entirely un- 
fair, but his policies were progressive and enterprising. 
A breakdown in health, probably caused by overwork, 
compelled him to become a supernumerary in 1865; he 
died in Rhyl, Nov. 16, 1867. 

Gbiffith Roberts 

AUBURN, ALABAMA, U.S.A. From 1836 until 1937 
Methodism in Auburn was virtually synonymous with 
the Auburn Methodist Church. On Jan. 13, 1937, a 
Wesley Foundation was organized to serve the students 
of Alabama Polytechnic Institute. Frankhn Shackleford 
Moseley was its first director. However, there had been 
student ministers working with Methodist students and 
teaching religious education courses in the college since 
1916. From 1916 to the present time student pastors 
and Foundation directors have been Albert E. Bamett, 
Arlie B. Davidson, Frankhn S. Moseley, Grifiin Lloyd, 
Everett Barnes, Mary Kirkman Holsambach, Norwood 
Jones, Walter H. Bozeman, Joe Neal Blair, Ashland Shaw, 
and G. Maxwell Hale, Jr. In recent years the Wesley 
Foundation has served as a Christian social conscience 
in the community and state. 

Methodism expanded further in Aubuin in 1958 when 
Grace Church was organized with the help of Auburn 
Church. This congregation now numbers 478 members 
(1970). Pastors who have served the church are Sterhng 
Whitley, Garland Emmons, Jake B. Brown, O. C. Brown 
III, and J. Thomas Carr. 



Auburn Church, founded in 1835 or 1836, was one 
of the first buildings erected in Auburn, Ala. It was 
built for a church school on land provided by the town's 
founder, John J. Harper. The roll of Methodist ministers 
begins in 1836, and hsts Morgan Turrentine, 1836-37, as 
the first. Records indicate that a large Methodist society 
was organized as early as 1837. Family names of the 
first Auburn settlers include Harper, Scott, Williams, Hill, 
Eady, Nimn, Glowers, Perry, Yancy, Clark, Shorter, and 
Owsley. Many of these original residents were undoubt- 
edly in the Methodist society. 

At the instigation of the quarterly conference of the 
Auburn Church, in session on Nov. 26, 1855, the Ala- 
bama Conference of the M. E. Church, South founded 
the East Alabama Male College in Auburn. This school 
formally opened in 1858, but closed during the Civil 
War. When it reopened, finances were so depleted that 
the conference transferred the institution to the State of 
Alabama in 1872, when it -was reorganized and named 
the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama. 
In 1899 it became Alabama Polytechnic Institute, and 
because it was universally called "Aubuni," the name 
became Auburn University in 1959. 

The Auburn Church early showed an interest in mis- 
sions as well as in education. In 1861 Mrs. E. C. Dowdell, 
a member of this church, wrote Bishop James O. Andrew 
urging him to take the lead in organizing a women's mis- 
sionary society. As a result of her concern and the con- 
cern of others in the years immediately following, wom- 
en's work was begun in the M. E. Church, South in 1878. 
In 1879 Mrs. Dowdell was elected president of the Ala- 
bama Foreign Missionary Society, which had also been 
organized in 1878. She held this position for thirty years 
until her death. In 1912 there were four missionary soci- 
eties in the Auburn Church: Foreign, Home, Young Peo- 
ple's, and Juvenile. The Foreign and Home societies 
merged that year to become the Woman's Missionary 
Society. The Young People's society became the Epwobth 
League, and the Juvenile society was absorbed in the 
Junior Sunday School Department. In 1940, following 
unification of the major branches of American Methodism, 
women's work was organized locally as the Woman's 
Society of Christian Service in accordance with the 
action of the General Conference. Today the church pro- 
vides full support for a missionary couple in Japan, in 
addition to its regular World Service giving. 

In 1850 the original log church-school building was 
replaced by a handsome frame structure during the pas- 
torate of S. F. Pilley. In 1899, when J. B. K. Spain was 
pastor, tliis building was remodeled and expanded, and 
it continued in use until 1955 when a new and larger 
structure of Georgian design was completed during the 
ministry of Joel D. McDavid. 

Forty-seven ministers have served the church during 
its existence. Four of these served repeat pastorates after 
an interval of service elsewhere. Membership in 1970 
was 1,562. 

M. E. Lazenby, Alabama and West Florida. 1960. 

Official Records, Auburn and Grace Methodist Churches. 

Ross and Hollifield, A History of The Methodist Church, 

Auburn, Alabama, 1836-1944, and Supplementary Material 

added, 1944-1954. N.p., nd. 

A. West, Alabama. 1893. Daniel Jones 

AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND. Central Mission. The Cen- 
tral Mission in Auckland, New Zealand, follows on the 

work of both PRiMmvE and Weslevan Methodist 
churches. The first Primitive Methodist church in Auck- 
land was opened on Sunday, March 16, 1851, on a site 
in Alexandra Street (later renamed Airedale Street) 
granted by the government through the good offices of 
Governor George Grey. Robert Ward was the first 

On the Wesleyan side, the story goes back to 1884, 
when two zealous laymen of the Pitt Street Church per- 
suaded the quarterly meeting to start a mission in a needy 
part of the city. This was known as the Helping Hand 
Mission. In 1895 the mission became a separate circuit. 

From the time of Methodist Union in 1913, the former 
Primitive Methodist work at Airedale Street was worked 
within the Auckland Central Circuit under the direction 
of the superintendent. In 1927, the former Wesleyan 
work, by that time carried on at two centers, France 
Street and East Street, was amalgamated with Airedale 
Street. The unified work, which became known as Meth- 
odist Central Mission, Auckland, has since been carried 
on from the Airedale Street site. Superintendent A. Everil 
Orr was appointed there in 1933. 

In 1964, a nine-story office building was opened front- 
ing on Civic Square, with a new church, seating 320, and 
the mission offices and other facilities alongside. In coop- 
eration with sister churches, the mission developed a 
counseling center and a Samaritan Life-Line telephone 
counsehng service. 

Over the years, a number of important institutions 
were developed under the auspices of the mission. 

Campbells Bay Health Camp was purchased on Oct. 
19, 1934. The first building was erected in one day, July 
23, 1935. Later buildings were opened in December, 
1937. For a time the camp was used by the New Zealand 
Federation of Health Camps, and was the first of its kind 
in the Auckland District. Since 1954, the buildings have 
been used extensively for camps and retreats by Methodist 
and other church groups and for summer holiday accom- 
modation of church families. 

Wesley Geriatric Hospital, Mt. Eden. A large residence 
was purchased from the late S. A. Bull and opened as a 
convalescent hospital on Sept. 30, 1950. From 1957 on- 
ward, additional land was acquired; and in 1964, a mod- 
em forty-bed hospital (later extended to forty-six) was 
opened on the site. A well-equipped occupational therapy 
unit was started in 1966. 

Astley House, Mt. Albert, housing sixty-two elderly 
women, was originally owned by the late William Astley 
and was officially opened by him on May 2, 1942. Later 
additions were partly subsidized by the state. 

Tyler House, Mt. Albert (adjacent to Astley House), 
was purchased in 1954. With the Thomas Ashby Memorial 
Hospital wing, added in November, 1959, it now houses 
twenty-four elderly men. 

Leigh Haven Cottages, Mt. Albert (adjoining Astley 
and Tyler House), was opened in June, 1960, to provide 
residences for single and married people. Here a total of 
thirty-two people are housed. 

Winstone Lodge, Remuera. Opened in 1956, as a hostel 
for young women, this lodge provides accommodation 
for thirty business girls and university students. 

A. Everil Orr 

Dunholme Theological College, Remuera, Auckland, 
was the fifth institution for the training of theological 
students in New Zealand. The fourth — following Puke- 



KAWA — was located in Ponsonby, where a house was 
rented for the year 1911 only. Students moved into resi- 
dence in 1912, and Dunholme was in use from 1912 to 
1928. The first principal was C. H. Garland and the 
second C. H. Laws. During that period, seventy-eight 
men were trained, one of them a Maori, Matarae Tauroa. 

R. E. Fordyce, Dunholme Methodist Theological College. Wes- 
ley Historical Society, New Zealand, 1951. 
W. J. Williams, New Zealand. 1922. Robebt E. Fordyce 

Pitt Street Church, Auckland, New Zealand 

Pitt Street Church is the "mother church" in the coun- 
try's largest city. It was opened in 1866 and was de- 
scribed as "the noblest and most ecclesiastical building 
in the city." The opening services covered two Sundays, 
and of the six services, three were taken by a Presbyterian, 
a Baptist, and a Congregational minister respectively. 

The first Methodist Church in Auckland had been built 
in 1843, in High Street. It was a weatherboard building 
forty by twenty-five feet, with a vestry twelve by eight 
feet. Before this church was erected, Methodist services 
had been held in a saw pit, in private homes and later 
in the courthouse. 

In 1845, an addition of sixteen feet was made to the 
length of the High Street Church. Three years later a 
new brick church was built, which in turn had to be 
lengthened by sixteen feet a Uttle later, and a gallery 
was built around three sides. It was then the largest 
church in Auckland, and today forms part of the mag- 
istrate's court. 

With the growth of the city it became necessary to 
build a still larger central church. About an acre of land 
was purchased a mile farther out, at the corner of Pitt 
Street and Karangahape Road, and the present brick 
church was built. Because the ground fell away sharply 
toward the back of the section, massive walls of scoria 
were first built which now enclose the Sunday school hall 
beneath the church. Labor and materials were costly. 
Following the Maori Wars there was a trade recession 
in the colony, and as a result the trustees had to borrow 
more than £5,000 of a total cost of £11,000. Interest 
rates were high, and the debt was not cleared until 1882. 

The church was opened in 1866. Congregations and 
the Sunday school were large. A gallery was built at the 
back of the church and in 1877, a wooden structure was 
erected as a Sunday school hall. The following year an 

organ was imported, and the galleries were completed at 
a cost of £800. 

A substantial addition was made at the back of the 
church in 1887. On the lower floor a lecture hall and 
eight classrooms were built, while on the church level, 
a church parlor and four classrooms were added, these 
additions greatly improving the proportions and the ap- 
pearance of the building. 

In 1935, the separate Sunday school building was re- 
moved to a nearby suburb, where it forms the Christian 
Education block of Wesley Church, Mission Bay. In its 
place the Wesley Bi-Centenary Hall of three stories was 
built at a cost of £17,000. 

With the approach of the Pitt Street Church Centenary, 
the trustees, early in the 1960s, planned and carried 
through a complete renovation of the church interior, and 
the addition of a commodious porch. The side galleries 
were removed, re\'ealing the full beauty of the stained- 
glass windows; and the organ, one of the finest in New 
Zealand, was entirely rebuilt. 

E. W. Hames, One Hundred Years in Pitt Street. Pitt Street 

Methodist Church Trustees, 1966. 

W. Morley, New Zealand. 1900. 

Pitt Street Methodist Church Trust, Minute Books. 

R. Fredebick Clement 

Prince Albert College is described elsewhere under its 
earlier name of Wesley College and Seminary. Here refer- 
ence is made only to the affairs of the trustees who, in the 
name of the church, took the property over in 1858, 
paying the owners, who were ministers and missionaries, 
the sum of £3,720. 

In 1868, Wesley College and Seminary closed. The 
property was leased by the trustees to other education- 
alists, until in 1895 it was again opened by the trustees 
under the name of Prince Albert College. But on Dec. 28, 
1906, the board of governors told the trustees that they 
were no longer financially able to continue the work of 
the college; so it was closed again. 

The Methodist Conference of 1907 gave the trustees 
leave either "to sell or lease for a lengthened term." 
The trustees then offered the property for sale, but the 
highest offer was only £12,500. As the mortgage and over- 
draft amounted to £8,743, there would have been just 
under £4,000 in hand, and the property would have gone 
from the connexion forever. Therefore, the Conference 
of 1908 agreed to the leasing of the property for fifty 
years to a firm of land agents at £696 per annum, subject 
to valuation for all buildings and improvements being 
paid at the end of the term, less the sum of £5,000, the 
value of the buildings on Jan. 1, 1908. This firm of land 
agents, acting under the terms of their lease, erected on 
the Queen Street frontage a total of seventeen shops, and 
the rental from these and the original school buildings 
became the principal source of income when the trustees 
took direct control again in 1948. 

Not until 1940 was the debt of £8,743 finally cleared, 
because in the meantime the trustees had most generously 
assisted both Trinity College and Wesley College with 

In 1937, the lessees offered to sell to the trustees their 
interest in the property for £33,000. The trustees de- 
clined, as they considered the price asked too high. But 
in 1948, the trustees purchased the lease for £24,000, 
and this meant a mortgage liability to the Bank of New 
Zealand of £20,000. However, substantial rents of nearly 



£4,000 a year (later rising to £6,500) gave the trustees 
confidence to proceed. 

It was at this point that J. W. Shackelford resigned as 
secretary of the trust, and Conference paid him a well- 
deserved tribute for his consistent safeguarding of the 
interests of the church throughout his long term of nearly 
forty years. 

Since the trustees entered into possession of the prop- 
erty in 1946, they have been able to pay off the mortgage 
to the bank, and to show in their balance sheet (for the 
year ending June 30, 1966) assets valued at £170,000. 

Ambitious plans for the development of the site have 
already begun with the construction of a block of ofiBce 
buildings on the Turner Street frontage of the property 
(opened in 1965). Later developments will include a 
motel and a conference center. 

Minutes of the New Zealand Methodist Conference. Prince 
Albert College Trust Minute Boohs. Percy Dellow 

Pukekawa Methodist Theological College, in Auck- 
land, was the third of five temporary institutions for 
the training of theological students prior to the erection 
of Trinity College. Students moved into residence fol- 
lowing the closing of Prince Albert College in 1906 
and continued there until 1910. 

Arthur H. Scrivin 

Trinity Theological College, Auckland, New Zealand 

Trinity Theological College is an institution of the 
Methodist Church of New Zealand. In the early days of 
the colony, ministerial recruits were placed on probation 
directly in circuits. In 1875, a modest beginning was 
made at Wesley College, Three Kings. In 1911, a prop- 
erty was leased in Dunholme, suburb of Remuera, and 
under C. H. Garland and C. H. Laws, a separate min- 
isterial training was built up. 

In 1929, the institution was transferred to new build- 
ings on a commanding site near the University of Auck- 
land, and named Trinity College. It accommodates sixty 
men, just over half of whom are divinity students, and 
the rest, boarders attending the University of Auckland. 

The college curriculum has always been designed to 
preserve a high standard of biblical scholarship. Trinity 
has had four principals: Laws (1929-30), Harry Ran- 
STON (1931-41), Eric W. Hames (1941-62), and David 
O. Williams ( 1963- ) . 

There are three other professors and some visiting 
lecturers. The college is responsible for a school for 
Christian workers, which gives an elementary one-year 
course of training for laymen. The library contains early 
mission records and some valuable Wesleyana. 

Eric W. Hames 

Wesley College, Paerata, twenty-seven miles south 
of Auckland, established in 1922, inherits the traditions 
of the Wesleyan Native Institution and of Wesley College, 
Three Kings, and seeks to offer a sound Christian educa- 
tion to Maoris, Europeans, and Pacific islanders, thus 
providing an interesting experiment in multiracial com- 
munal life. Situated amid beautiful, rolling farmlands, it 
has a traditional emphasis on agriculture, but it also 
offers the usual academic courses. In 1966 there was 
accommodation for 210 boys, but die board has plans 
for extension by steps to a maximum of 300. 

Possessing useful endowments, the school is able to 
maintain good standards at a moderate fee. It has been 
served by only three principals: R. C. Clark, E. M. Mar- 
shall, and C. A. Neate. The chairman of the board is 
J. Stuart Caughey, a leading Auckland businessman. 

E. W. Hames, Wesley College — A Centenary Survey. Wesley 
Historical Society, New Zealand, 1944. Ehic W. Hames 

Wesley College, Three Kings, Auckland, was opened 

in 1876. After the Maori Wars, and in view of European 
settlement, an attempt was made to combine training 
of potential Maori leaders with theological education 
for Europeans. The property of the Wesleyan Native 
Institution was resumed, and the name Wesley College 
was taken. For twenty years, the dual arrangement con- 
tinued. In 1895, the theological department was detached, 
and Wesley College continued as a training school for 
Maori boys, under the guidance of J. H. Simmonds. 
Many of these young men qualified and were ordained to 
the ministry among their own people. In 1922, the school 
was moved to new buildings on a farm of 680 acres at 
Paerata, twenty-seven miles south of Auckland. The Three 
Kings property was sold to the government for develop- 
ment as a housing estate. 

Eric W. Hames 

Wesley College and Seminary (later Prince Albert 
College), Auckland, was opened on an eight-acre site, 
as a coeducational school for the children of Wesleyan 
missionaries on Jan. 1, 1850, with a roll of forty drawn 
from mission stations in Fiji, Tonga, Australia, and 
New Zealand. The college was owned by the mission- 
aries themselves, £20 shares having been bought by them 
in proportion to the number of children in each family. 
At the request of the missionaries, Joseph H. Fletcher 
was appointed the first headmaster. 

In 1858, the owners sold their interest in the property 
to trustees, who thereafter conducted the college as a 
connexional school. About four acres of the land was sold 
in 1865 to pay off mortgage debts; and three years later, 
economic hardship forced the college to close, and the 
buildings were leased for use as a private school. 

The buildings were again utilized for a Methodist 
school with the opening of Prince Albert College for 
boys in 1895. There was an enrollment of thirty-six. A 
department for girls was added a year later. The work of 
the college prospered for some years under the prin- 
cipalship of Thomas Jackson, and it became Auckland's 
leading secondary school. During die period 1895 to 1906, 
accommodation was provided at the college for a total of 
thirty-eight theological students undergoing training for 
the ministry. 

In 1906, moved by fears for the future of private 
schools with the introduction of free state secondary 
education, the trustees closed the college and two years 



later leased the propert>' for fifty years. Dining the greater 
part of that period, the buildings were used as a private 
hotel operated by the Salvation Army. 

With the old building still leased as a boardiiighouse 
to a private operator, the property is being developed 
as a commercial building site, which (as the official entry 
in the 1966 Minute Book has it) "will endow a school 
in pei-petuity." However, it may be some years before 
such a school can be reestablished. 

Arthur and Buttle, A Tale of Two Colleges. Wesley Historical 
Society, New Zealand, 1950. L. R. M. Gilmore 

Wesleyan Native Institution, Auckland, came into be- 
ing because the success of the Wesleyan Mission to the 
Maori people led to a demand for a school suitable for 
training teacher-pastors to reside in the scattered Maori 
villages. On October 7, 1844, the governor made a grant 
of six acres of land on what was then the outskirts of the 
town of Auckland, and here a modest beginning was made 
under Thomas Buddle. In 1849, the institution moved 
to a farm property a few miles out at Three Kings, where 
the students could live off the land, and Alexander Reid 
came from England to take charge. For several years the 
institution flourished, catering to young men in training 
for the native ministry and to younger pupils; but the 
disputes of the ne.\t two decades led to a change of tem- 
per among the Maoris. The institution declined and was 
forced to close in 1869. It was reopened in 1876 under 
the name of Wesley College, Three Kings. The original 
grant of land now in the city of Auckland is held as an 
educational endowment, part being occupied by Trinity 

E. W. Hames, Wesley College — A Centenary Survey. Wesley 
Historical Society, New Zealand, 1944. Ekic W. Hames 

Wesleydale Children's Home, Mount Roskill, Auck- 
land, carries on the work of several earlier homes. In 
1913, a well-known Methodist layman, A. C. Caughey, 
and his sister, Mrs. W. H. Smith, gave a house of twenty 
rooms at Mount Albert, Auckland, to serve as an orphan- 
age for needy children, irrespective of creed. The building 
was enlarged, renovated and modernized for use as a 
church orphanage, as intended by the donors. 

It was opened on Nov. 13, 1913, with Joseph Blight 
and his wife as manager and matron. Later, a second home 
was bought nearby from Mr. and Mrs. Percy Winstone, 
and still later a third home in Buckland Road, Epsom. 
This last was used as a home for girls. 

The need for a new building Ijecame urgent, and a site 
of eleven acres was purchased on the slopes of Mount 
Roskill. It was decided that one home should be built 
there for both girls and boys, and the foundation stone 
was laid on May 2, 1954. The completed building was 
officially opened, and named "Wesleydale" on Oct. 29, 
1955. In 1961, there were fifty-one children in residence. 

In 1966, with only nineteen enrolled, the work was re- 
organized, part of the buildings being developed as a 
family home and the remainder as a reception center 
from which children would move to foster homes or dis- 
persed family homes. 

Percy Dellow 

AUGUSTA, GEORGIA, U.S.A., population 70,626, the 
first city into which Methodism was introduced in 
Georgia, was established as Fort Augusta by General 
James Oglethorpe in 1735. Located on the Savannah 

River, it owes its growth to industry and agriculture. In 
1789 the former St. Paul's Episcopal Church was rebuilt 
as a place of worship for all denominations. Francis 
AsBURY preached tliere in 1796. 

Augusta was then the gay capital of Georgia, and the 
plain preachers who gathered huge crowds in the rural 
areas had no success with the pleasure loving people of 
the city. In 1798 Stith Mead came to Augusta to visit 
relatives and preached such a fiery sermon in St. Paul's 
that he was forbidden to preach there again. "Augusta," 
he wrote, "had then about 4,000 people, not one of whom 
knew his right hand from the left in religious matters." 
However, Rachel Doughty invited him to preach in her 
house, and the first Methodist society was organized. 

The Methodist meetinghouse, later called St. John, 
was built in 1801, and John Garvin was appointed to one 
of the few one-station charges in America. When Asbury 
saw the bell in the tower he was horrified: "It is the 
first I have seen on any of our meeting houses, and I 
hope it will be the last." He first observed, "It is cracked 
and I hope it will break." (Journal, Nov. 16, 1806.) 
Bishops Coke and Asbury came to Augusta when the 
South Carolina Conference met there in 1804. 

Augusta became the largest inland cotton port in the 
world, and because of its industry, it was known as the 
"Connecticut of the South." In 1856 another church 
was needed to serve the eastern part of the city, and St. 
James was established by some members of St. John. 
Five men who served St. John were elected to the epis- 
copacy: J. O. Andrew, G. F. Pierce, J. S. Key, W. A. 
Candler, and H. M. Dubose. 

In 1857 Asbury Church was begun in the factory area 
of the city, and in 1875 St. Luke was begun in the mill 
section. A congregation was organized in the Woodlawn 
area in 1889, and in 1890 Mann was founded. As the 
boundaries of Augusta expanded, so did Methodism. In 
1925 Mize was begun, and Trinity-on-the-Hill was started 
in 1926. 

Some of the oldest churches in Methodism surround 
the city. Liberty was begun in 1785, Pierce in 1800, and 
Philadelphia in 1821. As a result of the coming of Fort 
Gordon in the second World War, and the Savannah 
River Plant in 1950, the city mushroomed in size. Several 
churches were already near the military areas, such as 
Lewis, founded in 1901, Grovetown begun in 1883, and 
Marvin started in 1891, but even though these churches 
grew as well as the downtown churches, new congrega- 
tions were organized to care for the influx. Accordingly, 
Burns and Riverview were begun in 1948, St. Mark in 
1949, and Martinez in 1956. Aldersgate was established 
in 1962 and Cokesbury in 1963. It should be said also 
that North Augusta, just across the river and belonging 
to the South Carolina Conference, has a very strong 
church sei-ving that large community. 

Other branches of Methodism are also represented in 
the city. There is a Wesleyan Church, and a Southern 
Methodist Church was begun in 1965. Among the 
Negro Methodists the C.M.E. Church is the strongest. 
Trinity was established in 1840. Williams was begim in 
1873, Miles in 1888, Rock of Ages in 1890, and Hudson 
Grove in 1945. Paine College was established in 1884 
by the M. E. Church, South and the C.M.E. Church. 
Paine has been instrumental in training Negro preachers, 
social workers, and teachers. An A.M.E. Zion church and 
a large A.M.E. church are also located in Augusta. 



Trinity Church was organized in 1840, thirty years 
before the C.M.E. Church. The General Conferences of 
1873, 1886, and 1910 met at Trinity. Bishops Joseph 
A. Beebe, Isaac Lane, Lucius H. Holsey, M. F. Jami- 
son, and George W. Stewart were elected at General 
Conferences held at Trinity. 

More than half of the members of St. John M. E. 
Church, South were colored when Trinity was organized. 
The members purchased the freedom of the first colored 
pastor, James Harris of Athens, Ga., to fill the pulpit. He 
began his ministry in 1850 and was followed by Ned 
West, a native of Augusta. Three former pastors have 
been made bishops and three have been general officers. 

Trinity Church has a heritage and reputation based 
upon a background of more than a hundred years of un- 
broken service from its present location. 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 
Harris and Craig, CME Church. 1949. 
A. M. Pierce, Georgia. 1956. 

St. John Church, A Chronicle of Christian Stewardship. N.d. 
George Oilman Smith, A Hundred Years of Methodism in 
Augusta, Georgia. Augusta, Ga. : Richards & Shaver, 1898. 

Donald J. West 

AUGUSTA COLLEGE was located at Augusta, Ky., and 
was the first Methodist college organized after Cokes- 
bury had been destroyed. A county academy had been 
in operation for several years, when, learning that the 
Ohio and Kentucky Conferences desired to found an 
institution of learning, the citizens of Augusta tendered 
it for the purpose of organizing a college. One of the 
reasons which made for its acceptance was the fact 
that Augusta was on the Ohio River and thus accessible 
by boat in that day when roads were almost nonexistent 
and the railroad had not yet appeared. 

In 1822 John P. Finley was appointed as principal, in 
which office he remained until 1825. In 1823 Jonathan 
Stamper was appointed missionary to collect funds for 
Augusta College. In 1825 John P. Dubbin was appointed 
professor of languages and Joseph S. Tomlinson professor 
of mathematics, in which chairs they remained until the 
spring of 1832. In 1828 Martin Ruter, who had been 
book agent in Cincinnati, was elected president. In 1831 
H. B. Bascom and Burr H. McKown were added as pro- 
fessors. In 1832 Ruter resigned the presidency and took 
charge of a church in Pittsburgh, and Durbin was 
elected editor of the Christian Advocate in New York. 
Tomhnson was then elected president and J. H. Fielding 
professor of mathematics. Tomhnson remained president 
until 1844, when a proposition was made to place the 
Transylvania University at Lexington under the care of 
the Kentucky Conference, and to accompUsh that purpose 
Augusta College was abandoned. The enterprise at Lex- 
ington was unsuccessful, and in a few years an attempt 
was made to resuscitate Augusta College. Owing to the 
division which had taken place in the church, and the 
difficulties in the border states, and the Ohio Conference 
having transferred its patronage to the Ohio University 
at Delaware, but Utile was accomplished and the institu- 
tion was for the second time abandoned. 

During the period of its existence this college was of 
great service in the West. In its halls were educated 
many young men who became prominent both in the 
ministry and in the various professions of life. The impulse 
which it gave to the cause of education led, directly or 

indirectly, to the establishment of other institutions which 
are still enjoying prosperity. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopedia. 1878. 

N. B. H. 

AULT, JAMES MASE (1918- ), American seminary 

dean, was born at Sayre, Pa., Aug. 24, 1918. Following 
work in tool engineering and service in World War II 
as a first lieutenant, he won magna cum laudc the A.B. 
at Colgate in 1949, and the B.D. at Union Theological 
Seminary in 1952. He earned the S.T.M. degree at 
Union in 1964, and studied at St. Andrews University, 
Scotland in 1966. He was ordained deacon in 1950 and 
elder in 1952. His pastorates include Carlton HUl, 
Rutherford, N. J., 1951-53; Leonia, N. J., 1953-58; and 
First Church, Pittsfield, Mass., 1958-61. He became dean 
of students and associate professor of practical theology 
at Union Seminary in 1961 and director of field educa- 
tion and full professor in 1964. He was made dean and 
professor of pastoral theology at Drew University, July 
1, 1968. Ault published a Methodist study book, Re- 
sponsible Adults for Tomorrow's World, in 1962. He is a 
member of the Northern New Jersey Conference and 
serves on the commission on church and economic life 
of the National Council of Churches. He married 
Dorothy Mae Barnhart, Dec. 22, 1943, and they have 
three children. 

The Drew Gateway, .\utiimn, 1968. 

Jesse A. Eabl 
Albea Godbold 

AULT, WILLIAM (17P-1815), was a British Methodist 
pioneer missionary to Asia. Nothing is known of his early 
life, but he deserves remembrance as one of those who 
accompanied Thomas Coke on the first mission to Asia. 
Ault's wife died at sea on the five-month voyage. He was 
appointed to Batticaloa on arrival in 1814, preached to 
soldiers and civilians, and began language study but was 
stricken with fever and died, the first Methodist missionary 
to do so in Asia, on April 1, 1815. 

Findlay and Holdswortli, Wesleyan Meth. Miss. Soc. 1924. 

W. M. Harvard, Ceylon and India. 1823. 

W, Moister, Wesleyan Missionaries. 1878. Cybil J. Davey 

AUSTIN, MINNESOTA, U.S.A. First Church has been for 
several generations one of the strongest churches in the 
Methodist connection in the state. The first Methodist 
class in Austin was organized in 1854 by several early 
settlers, and the first quarterly conference was held in 
October of 1856. In 1861 the first building was erected, 
following a ministry by a circuit-riding pastor who came 
from Iowa. This building has been succeeded by four 
others. The present sanctuary, which seats one thousand, 
was erected after a city-wide revival in 1906. An exten- 
sive education wing was added in 1956. 

In 1952 the church assumed the full support of a mis- 
sionary family sent out by the Methodist Mission Board 
to the Philippines, and has carried that support since. 
The mission and benevolence giving of the church has 
been unusually generous. 

The church is notable for having within its member- 
ship a cross-section of the life both of the city and country- 
side — business and professional people, rank and file of 
labor unions, a large group of farm families, and an un- 
usual group of professional women being in its member- 



ship. Austin First was one of the first churches of the 
state to accept on its staff a fully ordained woman min- 
ister. Its youth work has been particularly strong. In 
1960 the church sponsored a "daughter-church" in a new 
section of the city of Austin, providing two hundred and 
fifty of the charter members of the new body, and giving 
extensive financial support for a dozen years. This new 
church is called Fellowship Methodist Church. The tradi- 
tion of lay preaching has been strong in the church for 
many years. Such pulpit leadership has strengthened the 
church, and has been extended to many other churches 
in the vicinity. In the mid-1960's the church became a 
leader in the ecumenical movement, and played a vital 
role in bringing about a new climate among the various 
churches of the city. Present membership is approximately 

AUSTIN, TEXAS, U.S.A., the capital of that state and a 
city of both historic and national import, has a popula- 
tion of 275,000. It was founded by Stephen F. Austin 
in 1821. Between 1836 and 1839 the seat of government 
shifted several times. The Texas Congress at length au- 
thorized a commission to select a location for the capital. 
By a vote of three to two the commission recommended 
"Waterloo," on the banks of the Colorado River; Con- 
gress accepted the report but ordered the town to be 
called "Austin." 

A generation later a Detroit architect drew plans for 
the capitol, and a Chicago firm accepted 3,000,000 acres 
of land as price of construction. In recent years this land 
has produced oil wells and rich minerals. 

The capitol building is second in size to the national 
capitol at Washington, D. C. Half a mile north of the 
capitol is the campus of the University of Texas, set aside 
for this purpose by Congress in 1839. The Declaration 
of Independence, March 2, 1836, recalled that Mexico 
had failed to establish any system of public education, 
and reaffirmed the conviction "that unless a people are 
educated ... it is idle to expect the continuance of civil 
liberty, or the capacity for self-government." The Uni- 
versity opened in 1883 with thirteen professors and 218 
students. Today it is the largest state university in the 
South, with an enrollment of 32,000 students in the main 
branch located at Austin. 

Methodism has been noted in Austin for its ministry 
to the University of Texas students. Succession of strong 
campus pastors and work of the students as well as an 
organization of an Epworth League in 1891 eventually 
made possible in 1914 the Daniel Fund. This financed 
the family of J. W. Daniel for mission work in Brazil 
and inspired the students of Southern Methodist Univer- 
sity to start their Earl Moreland Fund. Moreland was 
also a missionary in Brazil. There is at present a new 
Wesley Foundation building across the street from the 
University Church. This Foundation, with a full staff of 
trained workers under the leadership of Robert Breihan, 
ministers to one of the two largest concentrations of Meth- 
odist students in the entire nation, with about 5,000 of 
the 32,000-student body of the University being either 
Methodist or of Methodist preference. C. W. Hall, "dean" 
of Methodist Student Work in Texas, served as director 
for 1933-1956. 

In the Bible Chair part of the Foundation, courses are 
offered in Bible and Religion for which degree credit is 
given by the University. Guilds of Lay Theologians are 
sponsored, and regular classes on Sunday are conducted. 

All the avenues over which students can he reached for 
the Christian faith are explored. 

Many leaders in church and state have come from the 
.Methodist students on the University of Texas campus, 
including Motoza Akazawa of Japan, who attended the 
University in 1908. He went to Vanderbilt for his theo- 
logical training and was later elected the first bishop of 
the Methodist Church in Japan. 

The population of Austin in 1840 was 856; by 1970 it 
had grown to 275,000. 

In January, 1840, a census of Austin showed "seven- 
teen Methodists, twelve Presbyterians, eleven Episcopal- 
ians, ten Baptists and ten Roman Catholics; two organized 
churches — one Methodist and one Presbyterian." Meth- 
odism was introduced by John Haynie "at the residence 
of David Thomas .... The next minister to pioneer in the 
'capital in the wilderness' was the Rev. Homer Thrall 
. . . under whose supervision a Methodist chiuch was 
reared." In 1970 there were about 17,000 Methodists in 
Austin, divided as follows: 14,660 members in fourteen 
congregations in the Soutli Central Jurisdiction, United 
Methodist Church; 500 members in the two Latin Amer- 
ican congregations; 1,650 members in the five A.M.E. 
congregations; and one small C.M.E. church. Three of 
these congregations have a history of more than one 
hundred years each. 

On Aug. 17, 1835, William B. Travis, the Texas hero, 
wrote the New York Christian Advocate: "I wish you 
would do me and the good cause the favor to pubhsh 
such remarks as will call the attention of the reverend 
Bishops . . . and the Board of Missions, to the subject of 
spreading the Gospel in Texas. . . . Texas is composed of 
the shrewdest and most intelligent population of any 
new country on earth; therefore a preacher to do good 
must be respectable and talented. In sending your heralds 
in the four corners of the Earth, remember Texas." Six 
months later, Travis, a Texas immortal, lay dead in the 

The next year a letter was sent from Austin to Bishop 
James O. Andrew, presiding at Natchez, Miss., asking 
that he send them a missionary. The Bishop read the let- 
ter to the conference and inquired if anyone was willing 
to volunteer. Robert Alexander accepted the challenge, 
and thus began forty-four years of service in Texas. At 
the same time Martin Ruter and Littleton Fowler 
joined Alexander as the first official missionaries to Texas. 

Edmund Heinsohn writes, "When a student in the Uni- 
versity of Texas ... in 1905, [I] saw Negroes who were 
attempting to walk across the campus of the University 
rocked off by white students. This same campus . . . has 
. . . become integrated during the last few years, and has 
also witnessed the reception of Negro students into the 
membership of white churches around the campus. The 
reception of Negro students into the University Church 
did not cause the loss of a single member." 

Schools in Austin are: University of Texas; Austin 
Presbyterian Seminary; Episcopal Theological Seminary; 
Concordia College (Lutheran); St. Edwards University 
(Catholic); and Huston-Tillotson College (for Ne- 
groes ) . 

Eugene Campbell Barker, Life of Stephen F. Austin. Nash- 
ville, Dallas: Cokesbury Press, 1925. 
O. W. Nail, Texas Methodism. 1961. 

M. Phelan, Texas. 1924. R. W. Goodloe 

Edmund Heinsohn 


First Church. As narrated above, Methodism came to 
Central Texas through die ministry of John Haynie in 
1840, and he was assigned to the Austin Circuit which 
included the areas now in Travis and Bastrop Counties. 
After holding his first service at the residence of David 
Thomas, the little group moved later to a log house built 
by the men of the community and located south of what 
is now known as Woolridge Park, just west of the city 
library. Indian raids and uprising in the Republic of Texas 
made it impossible for the church to continue during the 
two years from 1843 to 1845. However, the congregation 
reorganized again in 1846 and began to hold preaching 
services in the House of Congress of the Republic of 
Texas with Homer S. Thrall as pastor. After that, the 
First Church was moved in 1854 to a little red brick 
church on East Mulberry (10th Street) when Dr. Phillips 
became pastor. In 1883, Central M. E. Church, South, 
was constructed on the comer of East Tenth Street under 
the leadership of E. A. Goodwyn. Later the name was 
changed to Tenth Street Church, and later still to the 
First Methodist Church, which name it has held since 
that date. 

The church moved to its present location on the Corner 
of Twelfth and Lavaca and Colorado Streets in 1922, 
where the first unit of the present sanctuary was con- 
structed. The congregation completed the present church 
building in 1928 under the leadership of E. R. Barcus 
and W. F. Bryan. The education building located just 
north of the main building was constructed in 1953. Min- 
istering in the shadow of the Capitol of the state, the 
services of First Church reach hundreds of students of 
the University of Texas, visitors to the capital city, and 
officials of the State. 

Listed among former pastors are Kenneth Pope, pres- 
ently Bishop of the Dallas-Fort Worth Area of The United 
Methodist Church. He served as pastor at First Church, 

The community is rapidly growing and First Church 
at present has a membership of 2,155. 

Robert S. Tate, Jr. 

University Church was constituted a church in the 
M. E. Church, South in the latter part of 1887. An 
early minister in his report to the quarterly conference 
stated that the membership consisted of "thirteen souls, 
good spirited and willing." The church in time came to 
have more than 3,000 communicants. New suburban 
churches have been built, and the membership is now in 
excess of 2,500. The church began holding services in an 
abandoned chapel and now has physical properties valued 
at over $1,200,000. 

The genesis of University Church was the desire of 
Austin Methodism to minister to the University of Texas. 
At the present time 148 faculty and staff members and 
their families are on the membership roll. But enrolled 
too are many from the state government and from the 
business and professional classes of Austin. At one time 
sixty-seven lawyers and an actual quorum of the Texas 
State Supreme Court of nine members were affiliated 
with University Church. The church is located north 
across the street from the main campus of the University 
and east across the street from the Wesley Foundation, 
and together they minister to a student body in excess of 

University Church has had both long and short pas- 

torates. The writer of this article served for twenty-five 
years (1934-59), and his successor, James William Mor- 
gan, served for ten years. Across the years the church has 
had a great laity, and from this church great numbers 
have gone into the ministry, government, business, and 
the various professions. It presently has two full-time mis- 
sionaries in BoLrv'iA. When the membership of the local 
church was integrated in 1957, the official board by a 
unanimous and standing vote gave its approval. When 
there came a change in pastors, the chairman of the pas- 
toral relations committee said: "There is one thing sure, 
this church does not want to back-track on any of the 
positions it has taken on the great social issues." The 
University Church pulpit is held to be one of the prophetic 
pulpits of American Methodism. 

Edmund Heinsohn 
AUSTIN CONFERENCE. (See West Te.xas Conference.) 


Society was organized in a meeting called for that pur- 
pose on Oct. 27, 1932. The sponsors of the Society were 
F. R. Swynny, C. J. MacAulay, and S. C. Roberts and 
the meeting was called for by H. C. Foreman, president 
then of the Conference. 

The objects of the Society are: 1) Australasian Meth- 
odist historical research, and 2) to promote the study 
of Methodist history, biography and literature. In this the 
Society has been successful and is recognized by the Gen- 
eral Conference. From its inception it has published the 
Journal and Proceedings. Many have given the Society 
distinguished service, and included among its officers 
have been F. R. Swynny, F. H. McGowan, R. H. 
Doust, V. S. Little, Miss Emily Pickering, L. Deall, H. 
Rabone, C. O'Reilly, G. J. Pitt, G. B. Minns, and Major 
Cook. The present president is S. G. Claughton, and the 
general secretary is Wesley Tredinnick. 

Stanley G. Claughton 

AUSTRALIA. The eastern seaboard of Australia was dis- 
covered by Captain Cook in 1770. The first colony. 
New South Wales, was established at Sydney in 1788; 
the next, the island of Tasmania, at Hobart in 1804. 
Population spread from New South Wales along the east 
coast and, later, to the south and west. 

The area is 7,686,843 sq. km. A large part of the 
continent, mainly in the north, center and west, is infertile 
and sti