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Duke Divinity School 
Alumni Association 


Bishop Paul Neff Garber 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2010 with funding from 
Duke University Libraries 






Sponsored by The World Methodist Council 

and The Commission on Archives and 

History of The United Methodist Church 

Bishop of The United Methodist Church, General Editor 


Assistants to the General Editor 


Prepared and edited under the supervision 

of The World Methodist Council and The 

Commission on Archives and History 

Published by 
The United Methodist Publishing House 

Copyright © 1974 by The United Methodist Publishing House 

All rights in this book are reserved. 
No part of the book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever 
vvdthout written permission of the publishers except brief quotations 
embodied in critical articles or reviews. For information address 
The United Methodist Pubhshing House, 201 Eighth Avenue South, 
Nashville, Tennessee 37202. 

ISBN 0-687-11784-4 













The names of persons, places, and most institutions 
treated in this volume will be found listed alphabetically 
through these pages. However, institutions such as local 
churches, hospitals, chapels, and the like will usually be 
found under the name of the city or town where they are 
located. Exceptions are those unusual institutions whose 
names are perhaps even better known than the cities in 
which they are located. 

Bibliographical references in most cases have been 
placed below each article, pointing the reader to further 
information. The more important of these works appear 
in abbreviated form with the article, but are gathered 
together in the appendix, where the alphabetical Bibliog- 
raphy should be consulted for fuller publishing data. 
Where there is no such entiy in the general bibliography. 

these details are given in the reference at the end of the 
individual article, except in a few instances where full 
information was not available. 

In addition to the main alphabetical bibliography, we 
have included in the appendix a subject bibliography 
listing standard works in many areas of study. In this 
subject bibliography, as usually in the articles in the main 
encyclopedia, works are listed only by their short titles. 

A feature of presentation in the Encyclopedia is the 
use of capital letters to indicate that the name so treated 
is to be found elsewhere in the work as a separate item of 
its own. This obviates the prohfic use of q.v. ("which 
see"). Exceptions in such capitalization appear when a 
name reoccurs in any one item. 

Ala. — Alabama 

AME — African Methodist Episcopal 

AMEZ — African Methodist Episcopal 

Ariz. — Arizona 
Ark. — Arkansas 
Aug. — August 

B.A. — Bachelor of Arts 

B.C.E. — Bachelor of Civil Engineer- 

B.D. — Bachelor of Divinity 

B.Mus. — Bachelor of Music 

B.R.E. — Bachelor of Religious Educa- 

B.S. — Bachelor of Science 

B.W.I.— British West Indies 

Calif. — California 

C.B.E. — Commander of (the Order 

of) the British Empire 
CME — Christian Methodist Episcopal 
Co. — County 
Colo. — Colorado 
Conn. — Connecticut 

D.C. — District of Columbia 
D.D. — Doctor of Divinity 
Dec. — December 
Del. — Delaware 

Dip. Ed. — Diploma in Education 
D.R.E. — Doctor of Religious Educa- 
D.S. — District Superintendent 

E. — East; Eastern 

E.G. — Evangelical Church 


Ed.D. — Doctor of Education 

E.E. — Electrical Engineer 

EUB — Evangelical United Brethren 

F.B.A. — Fellow of the British Acad- 
Feb . — February 
Fla. — Florida 
FMC — Free Methodist Church 

Ga. — Georgia 

Ida. — Idaho 
111.— Illinois 
Ind. — Indiana 

Jan. — January 

Kan. — Kansas 
Ky. — Kentucky 

La. — Louisiana 

L.H.D. — Doctor of Humane Letters 

Lit.D. — Doctor of Literature 

Litt.D. — Doctor of Letters 

LL.D. — Doctor of Laws 

M.A. — Master of Arts 

Mass. — Massachusetts 

MC— The Methodist Church (United 
Kingdom); see TMC for The 
Methodist Church (U.S.A.) 

M.D. — Doctor of Medicine 

Md. — Maryland 

ME — Methodist Episcopal 

Me. — Maine 

MES — Methodist Episcopal, South 

M.H.A. — Master of Hospital Admin- 
Mich. — Michigan 
Minn. — Minnesota 
Miss. — Mississippi 
Miss. Soc. — Missionary Society 
M.L.S — Master of Library Science 
Mo. — Missouri 
Mont. — Montana 
MP — Methodist Protestant 
M.Th. — Master of Theology 
MYF — Methodist Youth Fellowship 

N. — North; northern 
N.C. — North Carolina 
N.D.— North Dakota 
N.E. — Northeast 
Neb. — Nebraska 
Nev. — Nevada 
N.H. — New Hampshire 
N.J. — New Jersey 
N.M. — New Mexico 
Nov. — November 
N.S. — Nova Scotia 
N.S.W.— New South Wales 
N.W.— Northwest 
N.Y.— New York 
N.Y.C.— New York City 
N.Z. — New Zealand 

Oct. — October 
Okla. — Oklahoma 
Ont. — Ontario 
Ore. — Oregon 

p. — page 

Pa. — Pennsylvania 


P.E. — Presiding Elder 

Ph.D.— Doctor of Philosophy 

P. I.— Philippine Islands 

PMC — Primitive Methodist Church in 

Great Britain 
P.R.— Puerto Rico 
Prov. — Provisional 

ret. — Retired 
R.I.— Rhode Island 

S. — South; southern 

Sask. — Saskatchewan 

S.C. — South Carohna 

Scand. — Scandinavia 

S.D.— South Dakota 

S.E. — Southeast 

Sept. — September 

S.T.B.— Bachelor of Sacred Theology 

S.T.D.— Doctor of Sacred Theology 

supt. — Superintendent 

S.W. — Southwest 

Switz. — Switzerland 

S.W. A. — Southwest Africa 

Tenn. — Tennessee 

Th.B. — Bachelor of Theology 

Th.D. — Doctor of Theology 

Th.M — Master of Theology 

Theo. — Theological 

TMC— The Methodist Church 
(U.S.A.); see MC for The Method- 
ist Church (United Kingdom) 

U. — University 

U.B. — United Brethren in Christ 

U.E. — United Evangelical Church 

U.K. — United Kingdom 

UMC — United Methodist Church 

UMC (UK)— United Methodist 

Church (Great Britain) 

UMFC— United Methodist Free 
Churches (Great Britain) 

U.S.A. — United States of America 

USSR — Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 

Va. — Virginia 
Ver. — Vermont 
V.I — Virgin Islands 

W. — West; western 

Wash. — Washington 

W.I. — West Indies 

Wise. — Wisconsin 

WFMS — Women's Foreign Mission- 
ary Society 

WHMS — Woman's Home Missionary 

WMC — Wesleyan Methodist Church 
(Great Britain) 

WMMS — Wesleyan Methodist Mis- 
sionary Society 

WMS — Women's Missionary Society 

WSCS — Women's Society of Chris- 
tian Service 

WSWS — Women's Society of World 

W.Va. — West Virginia 

Wyo. — Wyoming 

lACE, JOHN JAMES (1861-1947), was born in Glen 
Auldin, Ramsey, Isle of Man, May 17, 1861, son of Wil- 
liam and Anna Lace, Wesleyan Methodists. Licensed to 
preach in 1880, he was educated in the schools of the 
Isle of Man, graduated from the Conference Course of 
Study in 1889, having been ordained deacon in 1888, and 
elder in 1891. He received his A.B. degree from the old 
Chaddock College in Quincy, 111., U.S.A., in 1896, later 
attending Northwestern University and Garrett 
Biblical Institute at Evanston, 111. 

He served pastorates in Missouri and Iowa until 1902 
when, for health reasons, he transferred to the Colorado 
Conference where he served as pastor and district super- 
intendent until 1916, when he was appointed superinten- 
dent of the Utah Mission where he served until 1925. 
Then, returning to the Colorado Conference, he was 
again a district superintendent for two terms, and in 1932 
took the retired relation, making his home in Denver, 
Colo., where he passed away April 12, 1947, survived by 
his wife and four children. His body rests in the cemetery 
at Fort Collins, Colorado. 

John J. Lace was a cultured and fervent preacher, a 
wise and successful administrator, and a leader of keen 
insight and ability. 

Journals of the Utah Mission and the Colorado Conference. 
H. M. Merkel, Utah. 1938. Warren S. Bainbbidge 

LACKINGTON, JAMES (1746-1815), was an eccentric 
bookseller, who was bom at Wellington, Somersetshire, 
and became a Methodist about 1760. Self-educated but 
penniless, he was befriended by the London Methodists, 
and was given £5 from a benevolent fund to set himself 
up in business. His business prospered and became the 
largest of its kind in London. With prosperity he turned 
from the Christian faith altogether, and wrote books which 
were regarded as being of a light nature, in which he 
poured scorn on Methodism. He returned to the faith 
some years later and, in 1804, renounced his infidel views 
in his Confessions. In reparation for his infidelity he built 
chapels at Taunton and Budleigh Salterton. He had an 
erratic and unpleasing personality. 

Confessions of ]. Lackington. London, 1804. 
J. G. Hayman, Methodism in North Devon. London, 1871. 
Memoirs of the First Forty-Five Years . . . of James Lacking- 
ton. London, 1791. Thomas Shaw 

LACY, GEORGE CARLETON (1888-1951), bishop of the 
Methodist Church, was bom in Foochow. Fukien, China, 
on Dec. 28, 1888, and was educated in Foochow and 
Shanghai mission schools. His father, William H. Lacy, 
directed the Foochow Mission Press and, after 1903, the 
Methodist Publishing House in Shanghai. His grand- 
mother, Mary Clarke Nind, helped to organize the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society (MEC) in the 

George C. Lacy 

North Central states, and in the 1890's embarked on an 
unprecedented world tour of Methodist mission stations. 

Carleton Lacy was graduated from Ohio Wesleyan 
University in 1911 and entered Garrett Biblical Insti- 
tute, to receive his bachelor of divinity degree in 1913, 
and master of arts from Northwestern University the 
following year. During student days he filled pastorates 
in Detroit, Mich., U.S.A., in Bloomington, III, U.S.A., and 
Somers, Wise, U.S.A. He was received on trial in the 
Wisconsin Annual Conference in September 1912, was 
transferred two years later to North China Annual Con- 
ference, then in rapid succession to Foochow and Kiangsi 

After studying at Nanking Language School, he served 
as an itinerant missionary and district superintendent in 
Kiangsi Province, later as principal of William Nast 
Academy in Kiukiang. 

In 1918, he married Harriet Lang Boutelle, who had 
gone to Canton, China, as a Y.W.C.A. secretary. They 
had two children, Creighton Boutelle and Eleanor Maie. 
From 1921 until 1941, Lacy was lent by the Methodist 
Board of Missions to the American Bible Society, as 
secretary of its China agency, and then to the China 
Bible House formed with the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. For many years he wrote as China correspondent 
for Zion's Herald, The Christian Century and other church 
periodicals. In 1928-29 he studied at Union Theological 
Seminary and Columbia University, receiving a second 
master's degree. He was also awarded honorary doctorates 
of divinity by Ohio Wesleyan and Garrett. He was a dele- 
gate to the General Conference of 1932. 

He was appointed in 1935 as a member of the Joint 




Commission on Unity of the M. E. Church and the M. E. 
Church, South, in China. He was elected bishop by the 
China Central Conference of 1941 and assigned to the 
Foochow Area. 

During the Second World War, when part of his Epis- 
copal Area was occupied by Japanese troups. Bishop Lacy 
travelled extensively through remote regions, several times 
from West China to Indi.\ and thence to America and 
back. During the earlier years of Japanese occupation he 
wrote two monographs on The Creaf Migration and the 
Church in West Cliitia and Tlie Great Migration and the 
Church Behind the Lines. He also published in Chinese a 
series of Bible studies. The Book of Revelation and the 
Messages of the Old Testament Prophets. 

Under "term episcopacy" in China, Bishop Lacy's tenure 
was to end in 1949, but the advent of Communist Govern- 
ment made it impossible to hold a Central Conference 
with new elections. With tightening pressures on the 
Church and on American personnel after the Korean War 
began, he officially resigned and turned his authority over 
to Bishop W. Y. Chen. Communist police, however, re- 
fused to grant an exit peimit when other missionaries left, 
and kept him under increasing surveillance, restriction, 
and eventual house arrest until his death of a heart attack 
in December 1951. His body was buried in the city of 
his birth, in the little mission cemetery beside his parents, 
attended — and this was at Communist orders — only by 
his faithful cook. 

W. N. Lacy, China. 1948. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Who's Who in America, 1950-51. Cbeighton B. Lacy 

LACY, HENRY ANKENY ( 1917- ), is Executive Secre- 

tar\' for India and Nepal, Board of Missions of The United 
Methodist Church. He was born in Foochow, Chin.\, 
where his parents, grandparents and great-grandmother, 
and a number of uncles and aunts were Methodist mis- 
sionaries. He was graduated from Whittier College in 
1940 and married his classmate, Elizabeth Day Pickett. 
After training in social work at George Williams College 
in Chicago, 111., U.S.A., he went to I.ndia in 1941, arriving 
just before the Japanese attack on Honolulu. He served as 
manager of the Parker High School and the Nathaniel 
Jordan Hostel in Moradabad. His first term was inter- 
rupted by a call to serve in the Office of Strategic Ser- 
vices in China, and he spent a year there. 

Returning to America eager to take more additional 
training than a furlough would allow, he accepted an 
appointment with the Methodist Children's Home Society 
of Detroit and studied at Wayne University, earning his 
Master's Degree in social work. When he went back to 
India, he was appointed principal of the Ingraham Insti- 
tute, Ghaziabad. 

In 1961, the Division of World Missions asked him to 
become the first lay missionary chosen to serve as one of 
its executive secretaries. His field was India, Nepal, and 
Pakistan. When the board was reorganized in 1964, and 
unified administration of the work of the Woman's Divi- 
sion and the World Division was accomplished, he and 
Chanda Christdas of India were appointed executive 
secretaries for India and Nepal with coordinate responsi- 

He represented the laymen of the Delhi Annual Con- 
ference in the General Conference of 1956. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

LACY, WILLIAM H. (1858-1925), an American mission- 
ary who spent thirty-seven years as such in Foochow 
and Shanghai, China, most of that period in the publish- 
ing of Christian literature in various Chinese dialects. He 
was born in Milwaukee, Wise, on Jan. 8, 1858, graduated 
from Northwestern University in 1881; and later re- 
ceived the A.M. and D.D. degrees from that University, 
and the B.D. from Garrett. He joined the Wisconsin 
Conference in 1882, and the following year married 
Emma Nind. In 1887 they sailed for China as missionaries. 
He was manager of the Methodist Press in Foochow until 
1903, when he moved to Shanghai and together with 
Young J. Allen organized the Methodist Publishing 
House, probably the first official collaboration of the two 
branches of the .Methodist Church which had been sepa- 
rated since 1844. For a period he was secretary of the 
All-China Finance Committee. 

Lacy's wife, affectionately known as "Mother Lacy," 
died in Ruling a month before her husband's death in 
Shanghai, Sept. 3, 1925. All five of the Lacy children be- 
came missionaries: Walter (author of A Hundred Years of 
China Methodism) in Foochow, 1908-27; Henry, in Foo- 
chow and Singapore, 1912-52; Carleton; Irving for one 
teiTn in Yenping; and Alice, 1917-21, in Foochow, where 
she died. And a grandson, Henry, Jr. is a Mission Board 
executive secretary for India and Nepal. 

Francis P. Jones 
W. W. REm 

LADE, FRANK M. A. (1868-1948), Australian minister 
and educator, was the foundation principal of Wesley 
Theological College in the South Australian Conference. 
After training at Queen's College, Melbourne, and eigh- 
teen years circuit experience in the Victoria and Tasmania 
Conference he was transferred to South Australia in 1911. 
He was a circuit minister for eleven years, then in charge 
of the Brighton College for training ministers from 1922 
until its reconstitution and relocation in 1927 as Wesley 
College. He was Principal of this institution until his 
retirement in 1937. 

Lade became a well-known public figure through his 
relentless opposition to the gambling and liquor interests. 
For two years he led a campaign on behalf of the Prohibi- 
tion League and for a time edited the temperance paper, 
The Patriot. 

He was widely recognized as an expository preacher 
of exceptional quality and a much-respected teacher by 
successive generations of theological students. Lade was 
twice President of the South Australian Conference (1916 
and 1936), and was Secretary-General from 1920-1929 
and President-General of the Methodist Church of Aus- 
tralasia from 1929-1932. 

Australian Editorial Committee 

LADIES' AID SOCIETIES. Activities and organizations 
which might have been called Ladies' Aid .Societies existed 
from the begimiing in American Methodist local churches. 
In John Street Chitrch (built in 1768), New York City, 
"the women provided a house for the preacher and 
furnished it." 

However, the women's organizations which furnished 
parsonages and promoted social activities were slow to 
gain official recognition. Ladies' Aid Societies are not 
mentioned in the Discipline of the M. E. Church until 
1904. The M. E. Church, South and the Methodist Prot- 



estant Church never oflRcially recognized the Ladies' Aid 
Society as such, though in 1890 the former provided for 
a "Woman's Parsonage and Home Mission Society," the 
purpose of which was to "procure homes for itinerant 
preachers and otherwise aid the cause of Christ." Four 
years later the name was changed to "Woman's Home 
Mission Society" while its pui-pose remained the same. 
In 1910 the Southern Church voted that its General Board 
of Missions should include a Woman's Missionary Council 
with Home and Foreign Departments. But regardless of 
the nomenclature used, there were in effect Ladies' Aid 
Societies in the Methodist denominations. 

In 1911 the Methodist Book Concern published The 
Ladies' Aid Manual which gave pointed suggestions on 
how to organize and conduct a Ladies' Aid Society. Op- 
posing questionable means of raising money, the book sug- 
gested plans and activities which it said would "contribute 
to the social, intellectual, and financial de\elopment of 
the church without incurring any just criticism." 

Pastors and others believed that the Ladies' Aid Society 
and similar organizations were helpful to the churches. 
Dan B. Brummitt, editor of one of the editions of the 
M. E. Church Christian Advocate, praised the Ladies' Aid 
Society as "an organization that never suspends, dies, nor 
takes a leave of absence. It is many things in one: a pas- 
toral reinforcement, a financial treasure chest, a woman's 
exchange, a recreation center, a cookery school, a needle- 
work guild, a relief society, a school of salesmanship, a 
clearing house for domestic and church problems, a prayer 
meeting — each in turn plays many parts." 

In 1939 The Methodist Church effectively combined the 
work of the women in the Woman's Society of Chris- 
tian Service. Since that time there has been no real 
dichotomy in the work of the women in Methodism, 
though a few small churches may maintain Ladies' Aid 
Societies in name or in fact while some women's circles 
in larger churches may emphasize local church and social 
activities more than the total program of the Women's 
Society of Christian Service. 

Discipline, ME, MES, and MP. 

R. E. Smith, The Ladies' Aid Manual. New York: Methodist 
Book Concern, 1911. Jesse A. Earl 

Albea Godbold 

Ladies Repository 

LADIES REPOSITORY, THE. A journal established by the 
General Conference of the M. E. Church in 1841, 

designed especially for women. The Ohio Conference 
in 1840 memorialized the General Conference to establish 
such a publication, and that Conference directed the Book 
Agents at Cincinnati to issue such as soon as proper 
arrangements could be made. In January 1841, the first 
number of The Ladies Repository came from the press 
as a monthly magazine under the editorial care of L. L. 
Hamline (later bishop), who had been elected assistant 
editor of The Western Christian Advocate. What were 
described as "sprightly and classical editorials" gave char- 
acter to the publication, and its circulation rapidly in- 
creased. On the election of Hamline to the bishopric 
in 1844, he was succeeded by Edward Thomson, who 
had been principal of Norwalk Seminary, and under whose 
editorship the Repository continued to prosper. Thomson, 
however, became president of Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity in 1848, to be succeeded as editor by Benjamin F. 
Tefft, then professor of the Greek Language and Litera- 
ture in the Indiana Asbury University. Under his care, the 
Repository obtained a still wider circulation. When Tefft 
in turn accepted the position of president of the Genesee 
College, then at Lima, N. Y., William C. Larrabee, 
who had been in the chair of Mathematics in the Indiana 
Asbury University, was elected his successor. Succeeding 
him, when he became state Superintendent of Education 
in Indiana, the Book Committee of the M. E. Church 
elected Davis W. Clark in his place, who was re-elected 
editor by the General Conferences of 1856 and 1860. 
Clark, however, was also elected bishop in 1864 and was 
succeeded by Isaac W. Wiley, who sei"ved two quad- 
rennia but likewise was elected bishop in 1868. Erastus 
Wentworth became editor then in 1872. Four years later 
the General Conference of 1876 elected Daniel Curry 
as editor and authorized the appointment of a committee 
who should have power to change the name and style 
of publication of the journal. The committee on consulta- 
tion resolved that the title should be changed to that of 
National Repository, and under that name it continued to 
be issued after January 1877. The National Repository 
was a monthly magazine devoted to general and religious 
literature. In time it changed its scope from the pattern 
which had been followed by the old Ladies Repository 
to a more general type of issue. The journal was illustrated 
and adapted to the wants of the general reader. Daniel 
Curry continued to be editor for some time until the 
General Conference of 1880 discontinued the publication 
of the magazine. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1881. N. B. H. 

LAFAYETTE, INDIANA, U.S.A. Trinity Church began 
about 1824 in what was then a small log cabin settlement 
known as Star City on the banks of the Wabash River. An 
itinerant Methodist preacher named Hackalieh Vreeden- 
burg came to the settlement, and John Huntsinger, whose 
cabin was then in what is "downtown Lafayette," wel- 
comed the preacher, told him several Methodists lived in 
the settlement, called them together and that night a 
Methodist service — the first church service of any kind 
held in Lafayette — was held in the John Huntsinger home. 
Hackalieh Vreedenburg is recorded in 1825 as being the 
preacher of a circuit in which Lafayette was one appoint- 
ment on the Crawfordsville work. Services continued to 
be held in the Huntsinger home. 

After a time Henry Buell, the second pastor to be 
assigned to the circuit, came to Lafayette, but he was 



disturbed by firing of guns and yelling outside the court- 
house and seems to have left the ministry after that. He 
was followed by Eli Pearce Farmer who organized the 
first church in Lafayette at the courthouse there, and in 
1828 Stephen R. Boggs was sent from the Illinois Con- 
ference to the Crawfordsville Circuit. The ne.xt year 
came James Armstrong who held the first Methodist Quar- 
terly Conference in the town in the Eli Huntsinger wheel- 
wright shop. 

The first house of worship in the city was erected by 
Boyd Phelps in 1831. It was a 30 x 40 foot frame struc- 
ture located on Sixth Street on the second lot south of 
Main Street facing the east. The building cost $1,500. 
In 1836, the lot on the northwest corner of Fifth and 
Perry Streets was purchased for $400 and the building 
moved there. This building was dedicated in 1845 and 
was rented weekdays as a schoolhouse at $5 per month. 
Thus early, the Methodist Church was linked with edu- 
cational possibilities and forces of the day. 

In 1850 the congregation was divided in order to 
start a new congregation at Ninth and Brown Streets. The 
cemetery for the church was where St. Boniface Church 
now stands. It is believed that the body of John Hunt- 
singer still rests beneath St. Boniface. 

In 1868, the lot now occupied by Trinity Methodist 
Church was purchased by Henry Taylor and John W. 
Heath at a cost of $7,000, and presented to Trinity Church 
as a suitable place of worship. The present Trinity Church 
building was constructed in 1869 on the lot at a cost of 
$90,000. The building is yet looked after and kept in 
repair, and was the scene of a centennial celebration in 
1969. The old parsonage one day gave way to a new 
modern education building. This is astir seven days a 
week with church activity. A new $42,000 parsonage was 
built in Vinton Woods, one of Lafayette's exclusive resi- 
dential areas. 

Trinity Methodist Church early attained great stature 
and prestige in the Northwest Indl^na Conference, 
indeed throughout the entire state, especially during the 
unprecedented twenty-nine year pastorate of Thomas 
Frederick Williams (1919-1948). It has always been a 
downtown church — a church at the heart of the city. 

Trinity is the mother Church of all Methodism in the 
entire area. Its people believe that the history of its in- 
fluence for good in countless ways through more than a 
hundred years can never be adequately told. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Bernice Harness Ezra 

College, Santiago, Chile, was bom and educated in New 
York State. She was preceptress of Mount Allison Semi- 
nary, Sackville, New Brunswick, when in 1878 William 
Taylor invited her to go to Santiago to develop a school. 
There she met and in 1882 married Ira Haynes LaFetra, 
and they worked together in a school with sections for 
boys and girls. The school later developed into Santiago 
College, now an outstanding school for young women. 
She worked in Chile for twenty-five years. 

G. F. Arms, Missions in South America. 1921. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Metlwdist Missions. 1957. 

Edwin H. Maynard 

LAFETRA, IRA HAYNES (1851-1917), missionary to South 
America, was known as "builder of the Chile Mission." 
On completion of studies at Boston University School 

OF Theology he was invited to go to Chile by William 
Taylor (later bishop), arriving at Valparaiso in 1878 and 
ministering first to seamen in that port city. The next year 
LaFetra moved to Santiago, where he reorganized the 
English-language Union Church and founded a school. 
There he met and married Adelaide Whitefield (L.a- 
Fetra), and their labors, with those of others, resulted in 
Santiago College, one of the leading educational in- 
stitutions of Chile. In 1880 he was elected as the first 
president of the conference of missionaries set up to ad- 
minister the self-supporting missions that had been estab- 
lished by Taylor on the West Coast of South America. Ill 
health forced his retirement in 1906. 

G. F. Arms. Missions in South America. 1921. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Methodist Missions. 1957. 

Edwin H. Maynard 

LAFFERTY, JOHN JAMES (1837-1909), colorful American 
editor and the fifth editor of what is now the Virginia 
Methodist Advocate, was the only child of George and 
Elizabeth Lightfoot Lafferty. His father was educated in 
Ireland, and later served with an engineer who surveyed 
a railroad connecting Virginia and North Carolina. 
His mother was of the historic Virginia family of the 
Lightfoots. When the son was eleven months of age, his 
father was drowned at a James River ferry during a wind- 

Young Lafferty made an excellent record at Emory 
and Henry College in Virginia. He was graduated next 
to the head of his class. 

He served as chaplain of a cavalry regiment in the 
War Between the States. After a year he was stricken 
with a "severe malady," but recuperated sufficiently to 
accept the post of major of cavaliy offered him by the 
Confederate States War Department. He served in this 
capacity until the war was over. 

Immediately following the war, pastoral appointments 
were scarce, so Lafferty took his family to Lexington, Va., 
and engaged in several business enterprises. These proved 
quite successful financially. 

In 1874 he was offered a connection with the Rich- 
mond Christian Advocate, predecessor of the Virginia 
Methodist Advocate. The financial plight of the Advocate 
was not encouraging from the standpoint of support. The 
successful businessman took the matter to God in earnest 
prayer. The outcome was his decision to cast his lot with 
the church paper. Due to his business ability, the Advo- 
cate prospered financially. He served as its editor for 
twenty-seven years. 

Editor Lafferty quickly became known as the best 
editor in the M. E. Church, South. This deeply spiritual 
man was "a master of sarcasm" when the occasion de- 
manded it. He was widely known throughout the South- 
land not only as editor, but as a college and chautauqua 
lecturer. He died on July 23, 1909. 

J. J. Lafferty, Sketches of Virginia Conference. 1890-1901. 
Minutes of the Virginia Conference, 1909. 

Richmond Christian Advocate, May 26, 1932, and various other 
numbers. George S. Reamey 

LA GRANGE, ILLINOIS, U.S.A. First Church is one of 

the larger suburban churches west of Chicago. This 
church had its beginning in 1872 in the home of Isaac P. 
Poinier, one block from the site of the present church. 
Later in the same year a "Methodist Society" was orga- 



nized. Upon completion of a two-story school building on 
the site of the present church, services were held in the 
school building. Poinier, whose home was only one block 
away, served as Sunday school superintendent, organist 
and janitor. He often carried coal from his own home to 
heat the building. The first resident pastor was William 
H. Holmes, who served from 1875 to 1877. The Society 
grew in zeal and numbers, due largely to the consecrated 
efforts and diligent work of the Ladies Aid Society. 

After a time land was donated for a new church build- 
ing, stone was purchased and a contractor engaged, but as 
work was about to begin, the project was discontinued be- 
cause Poinier and several other influential members moved 
away. For a time, members of the Methodist Society 
joined persons of other denominations in services held in 
the railroad station, with the Rev. Mr. Metcalf, the station 
agent and a Baptist preacher, in charge. 

By 1884, the Methodists had become stronger, and in 
October 1884, the First M. E. Church of La Grange was 
organized by Luke Hitchcock, presiding elder of the 
Chicago District. A pastor was appointed and services 
were held in the Masonic Hall. The year ended with nine 
members. Financial expenditures for the year were: $216 
for the pastor; $52 for the rent of the hall; and $10 
given to missions. 

In 1885 and 1886, services were continued in the 
Masonic Hall and later were held in a skating rink. Addi- 
tional families were added to the membership of the 
church. A Board of Trustees was elected and incorpora- 
tion papers were completed on July 21, 1886. The frame 
school building which had been used by the church in its 
beginning was purchased by the trustees at a cost of 
$2,000. The building was remodeled to make it an ac- 
ceptable place of worship and was dedicated on Nov. 
28, 1886. Electric lights were installed in 1892 at a cost 
of $75. 

Plans for a new church building began to develop in 
1890. In May 1893, construction was started and by Nov. 
5, 1893, one section of the new building was completed. 
In 1894 a parsonage was built. Work on the main part of 
the church building was continued and the sanctuary was 
dedicated on Jan. 6, 1895. A pipe organ was installed in 
1907, and in 1908 the building was enlarged. As the 
church continued to grow in membership, need was seen 
for more adequate church school facilities, and a two- 
story educational building was added and dedicated in 

By 1947, the church had 1,179 resident members. The 
building which had served the congregation well for fifty- 
two years was becoming inadequate. So in 1951, a new 
sanctuary and fellowship hall were completed and in 1962 
there had been added a new educational building, chapel 
and offices, bringing the total value of the church build- 
ing to $1,250,000. 

This church has been served by a succession of twenty- 
nine ministers. The parish boundaries now encompass an 
area ten miles long and two miles wide. Within this parish 
are the villages of La Grange and La Grange Park, having 
a total population of more than 30,000. With a member- 
ship now of 2,100, the First United Methodist Church of 
La Grange will celebrate its centennial in 1972. 

Eugene E. Stauffeh 

LAGRANGE COLLEGE, LaGrange, Georgia, U.S.A., was 
chartered as LaGrange Female Academy in 1831 and 

has had the longest history among non-tax-supported in- 
stitutions of higher education in Georgia. It was pur- 
chased by the North Georgia Conference of the M. E. 
Church, South in 1856, and on Jan. 29, 1857, began 
operation as a Methodist institution. In 1934 its name 
was changed to LaGrange College, and in 1953 it be- 
came a coeducational college. It offers the B.A. degree. 
The governing board is made up of thirty-four members 
nominated by the board and confirmed by the North 
Georgia Conference. 

John O. Gross 

LAHORE (population 1,297,000) is the capital of West 
Pakistan. Pakistan's federal capital is 200 miles to the 
northwest, near the city of Rawalpindi. Lahore is eighteen 
miles west of the Indo-Pakistan border. It is headquarters 
for the West Pakistan Railways and for Punjab University, 
which includes many colleges and high schools in Lahore, 
and other colleges and high schools throughout the 
Punjab. Many factories and business and government 
offices make Lahore an important business center. 

Lucie Harrison Girl's High School was the first Meth- 
odist Primary School organized in the beginning of Meth- 
odist work in the Punjab. It became a high school in 1953. 
The school includes all classes, kindergarten through high 
school. The present principal, Mrs. Priscilla P. Peters is a 
well qualified and capable Pakistani, with an efficient 
teaching staff. 

United Christian Hospital, an institution in which 
Methodists cooperate, was organized in 1947 when the 
throes of partition, including an influx of Moslem refugees 
from India, and departing Hindu and Sikh fugitives bound 
for India, created great medical, health and sanitation 
problems. The various denominations combined, rented 
an empty Forman College Hostel for a temporary hospital 
center, and later moved into a fine permanent new hospital 
set-up in a Lahore outskirt, Gulberg (sometimes spelled 
Gulbarg), in 1965. The United Christian Hospital has 
established a fine reputation with its skilled Pakistani 
and missionary doctors, nurses, supervisors and tech- 
nicians. Its managing committee represents all major de- 
nominations and those provide missionary doctors and 
nurses, pay their salaries, and finance the budget so as to 
add to the income from hospital fees, and thus provide 
adequate salaries for Pakistani members of the staff. 

Kinnaird College for Women is an Anglican Institu- 
tion. Methodists and Presbyterians cooperate by provid- 
ing missionary members of the staff and supply additional 
funds to help in providing for expenses of Pakistani staff 
members and other college expenses. The enrollment is 
limited to 300 girls. Christian girls who wish to go to col- 
lege seek admission to Kinnaird. Miss P. Mangat Rai, a 
competent and well known Pakistani, is principal. 

Kinnaird Teacher Training Center trains Christian 
women to become teachers in primary schools, or in pri- 
mary and junior high classes in recognized high schools. 
Candidates for such training must have a government 
certificate, as high school passed. Many who have com- 
pleted two years of college work also come here for train- 

Forman Christian College is an old institution of far- 
reaching fame. It is staffed and supported jointly by the 
Presbyterians and the Methodists. Forman celebrated its 
centenary anniversary in 1965. The present principal is 
E. J. Sinclair, a weD qualified senior Pakistani staff mem- 



Chafel, Fobman CnHiSTiAN College, Lahore, Pakistan 

ber, well trained, with a fine reputation and recognized 
administrative ability. The enrollment of Forman before 
Partition was almost one thousand; in late 1947, only 150 
students remained. Enrollment however is again near the 
one thousand mark. The College enjoys an admirable 
standing and reputation, and many Pakistani leaders in 
government are graduates of the college. 

Clement Rockev 

LAITY, GENERAL BOARD OF. (See Lay Movement in 
American Methodism. ) 

LAKE BLUFF, ILLINOIS, U.S.A. Lake Bluff Children's 
Home, founded in 1894 by Methodist deaconesses, is a 
church-related child care agency imder the control of a 
regularly constituted Board of Trustees. Chartered and 
licensed by the State of Illinois to serve as an Illinois 
Corporation, not for profit, it is a member agency of the 
Child Welfare League of America and the Welfare Coun- 
cil of Metropolitan Chicago. It is afiiliated with the Rock 
RrvER Conference of The United Methodist Church, and 
with the National Association, as well as the Board of 
Health and Welfare Ministries of The United Meth- 
odist Church. The home is also approved and endorsed 
by the Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry, 
the Subscription Investigating Committee, and by the 
Community Fund of Chicago. 

Care is provided for children whose own homes have 
been disrupted by illness, death, divorce, and other social 
and emotional problems; who are within the normal range 
of physical and mental health; who have Protestant back- 
grounds; whose residence is within the area served by the 
Rock River Conference. 

Services to children from their infancy for as long a 
time as care is needed include group living at the Home 
for boys and girls of grade school age; adoption of infants 
and older children; care in Group Homes in nearby 
communities for high school boys and girls; foster Board- 
ing Homes within the area for boys and girls of all ages; 

casework services to all children under care and to their 
families; counseling services to minor imwed mothers; 
and remedial "school" care for some types of emotionally 
disturbed children. 

Erskine M. Jeffords 

LAKE FARM. The home of James Thorne, the Bible 
Christian leader. (See Bible Christians.) 

odist assembly ground, owned and operated by the South- 
eastern Jurisdiction of The United Methodist Church, is 
located at Lake Junaluska, N. C, U.S.A., on Highway 
19, twenty-six miles west of Asheville, and three miles 
north of Waynesville. Its doors were first opened on 
June 25, 1913. About thirteen years prior to this occasion 
the idea had been expressed that there was a need of a 
"Chautauqua type" of Southern Assembly. James Atkins 
(later bishop), visited Chautauqua, N. Y., and conversed 
with Bishop VrNCENT, then Sunday School Editor of the 
M. E. Church. Later Atkins became Sunday School Editor 
of the M. E. Church, South, and invited members of the 
Sunday School Board to be his guests in Waynesville for 
their meeting. There he proposed the idea of a "Southern 

In 1908 during the Second Laymen's Missionary Con- 
ference, the statement was made that "we need a place 
where ministers and laymen, together with their families, 
can meet on the common level of Worship, Inspiration, 
Instruction and Wholesome Recreation." The response was 
gratifying and a committee was appointed. Headed by 
Atkins, the committee members, some of whom had visited 
Waynesville, settled upon Tuscola in Haywood County, 
N. C, now Junaluska — a location universally described as 
"beautiful for situation." TTie Blue Ridge and the 
Great Smoky Mountains surrounding the lovely Rich- 
land Valley, are rich in beauty and majesty. Among the 
men most responsible for the establishment of this noted 
religious center, which soon became known as the "Sum- 



Lake Junaluska, North Carolina 

mer Capital of Southern Methodism," were: John R. 
Pepper, John P. Pettijohn, General Julian S. Cabr, B. M. 
olds, S. C. Satterthwaite, B. J. Sloan, Hugh Sloan, Riley 
Burgher, R. B. Schoolfield, L. B. Davenport, A. D. Reyn- 
M. Ferguson, George R. Stuart, Alden Howell and S. C. 

James Cannon (later bishop), was elected first Super- 
intendent; W. F. Tillett became Superintendent of Gen- 
eral Program and Evangelistic Work. The first permanent 
officers, with Atkins as Chairman and leader, were elected 
in 1910. From 1911 to 1913 a dam was built, to form the 
250-acre lake; the auditorium was erected, a few streets 
were opened and thirteen private cottages were built. 
On June 25, 1913, W. F. Quillian, Sr. turned the light 
switch and a great conference of laymen opened with 
singing, under the leadership of J. Dale Stentz. The Mis- 
sionary address was by Robert E. Speer. Four thousand 
people attended, $152,000 was raised for Missionary work, 
and seven young people were consecrated for Missionary 
work in Africa with Bishop Walter Lambuth. 

Four years after the opening of the Southern Assembly, 
the Sunday School Board of the M. E. Church, South held 
a demonstration Leadership School for the training of 
volunteer teachers at Junaluska. This was a fore-runner 
of a new type of Leadership training. In 1922 the Sunday 
School Board built an Education Building (now known as 
Shackford Hall), as well as lodges and a cafeteria on the 
southwest shores of the Lake. The system of Leadership 
Training Schools conducted by the International Council 
of Religious Education had its beginning at Lake Juna- 

The Board of Missions of the M. E. Church, South in 
time purchased the "Junaluska Inn" and used it for Mis- 
sionary training Conferences. Following a disastrous fire, 
a new Mission Building was erected, later to be known 
as Lambuth Inn. This popular center is used regularly 
by the Missionary Groups and the Women's Society of 
Christian Service. Junaluska is the site for Candler Camp 
Meeting and the Annual Schools of Evangelism for the 
Southeastern Jurisdiction. It was at Junaluska that the 

Board of La\' Activities of the M. E. Church, South was 
organized, with George L. Morelock as its first 

During the late twenties and early thirties the owner- 
ship of the Assembly was still vested in a Board of Com- 
missioners. The war, the panic and the depression made 
its operation very difficult financially, and it was forced 
into receivership. Under the leadership of the bishops 
and of W. A. Lambeth, funds were raised and all assets 
were purchased by the Methodist Church, South. A new 
Board of Trustees was elected and a new charter and 
certificate of incorporation were secured. The name was 
changed from The Southern Assembly to The Lake Juna- 
luska Methodist Assembly. 

Following World War II, Edwin L. Jones of Charlotte, 
N. C, was elected President of the Board of Trustees, 
which was then composed of the bishops and one lay and 
one clerical member from each annual conference in the 
Jurisdiction. In 1948 the General Conference of The 
Methodist Church, in session at Boston, Mass., accepted 
ownership of the Assembly, and then transferred it to 
the Southeastern Jurisdiction, where it was accepted at the 
session in Columbia, S. C, the same year. 

The Southeastern Jurisdictional Conference elects trus- 
tees, who in turn set up the administration and super- 
vise the management of the Assembly's business and op- 
eration. The properties, formerly owned by the Board of 
Missions, the Sunday School Board and the Commission- 
ers, have all been transferred to the Lake Junaluska 
Assembly, Inc. 

In the course of a summer's season, thousands of people 
come to attend the conferences, workshops, training 
schools, platform hours, and engage in wholesome recrea- 
tional activities. The George R. Stuart Auditorium, with 
a seating capacity of three thousand, has provided the 
platform for world renowned leaders in religion, govern- 
ment, education and science. The iMemorial Chapel, with 
its Room of Memory, is the spiritual center of the Assem- 
bly. Bounded by the mountains, lake and landscape, fami- 
lies have here established homes; hotels and lodges have 



been erected, and all the comforts and conveniences of 
modem civilization have been installed. 

The World Methodist Council built its headquarters 
for the American Section at Junaluska. A handsome build- 
ing of native stone was erected on the site formerly 
occupied by the Cherokee Hotel. Elmer T. Clark, Exec- 
utive Secretary, gave his collection of Wesleyana to the 
Council, and this notable collection, with supplements, is 
housed in the museum there. The offices and library of 
the Association of Methodist Historical Societies (now 
Commission on Archives & History) are in the building, 
also. Thousands of visitors annually come to this building, 
including many scholars and students of Methodist history. 

The Western North Carolina Annual Conference 
and the quadrennial sessions of the Southeastern Jurisdic- 
tional Conference usually meet at Junaluska. In 1956 the 
World Methodist Conference was held there. 

Speakers of national and international prominence who 
have appeared on the platform throughout the years in- 
clude Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, Vice President (then) Rich- 
ard Nixon, commentator Lowell Thomas, United Nations 
Representative Dr. Frank Graham, World Evangelist Dr. 
Billy Graham, and Lord Caradon, Representative of The 
United Kingdom to the United Nations. 

Mason Crum, The Story of Junaluska. Greensboro, N. C: 

Piedmont Press, 1950. 

Elmer T. Clark, Junaluska Jubilee. Nashville: the Assemblv, 


Maud M. Turpin, The Junaluska Story. Published by the 

Greater Junaluska Development Campaign, 1946. 

James W. Fowler, Jr. 

was built. With the first regular "season" in 1890, Lake- 
side began its tradition of combining in its program, 
religion, education, culture, and recreation. 

Almost all of the great Chautauqua lecturers and per- 
formers came to Lakeside. In those early summers the 
throngs arrived at "the Summer City on the Lake" by 
excursion boats, special trains, private buggies, and even- 
tually cars. 

The Lakeside Methodist Church was dedicated in 1900, 
and a pavilion was built in 1909. Hugh Hoover Audito- 
rium was consecrated in 1929 "to the highest uses of 
worship and the noblest interests of mankind." 

A Lakeside Crusade was launched by Ohio Methodists 
in 1959. By 1964 over $750,000 had been raised and 
Lakeside given an entirely new look. 

Wesley Lodge, a winterized multipurpose building of 
natural stone, became the focal point of the Youth Center. 
The administration building and Auditorium Hotel were 
modernized and winterized and became the Fountain Inn. 
With these fine facilities, groups now come to Lakeside 
throughout the year. 

The new pavilion, with spacious sun decks; the Schunk 
Memorial Carillon Tower and aluminum cross are new 
landmarks on the Lake Erie Shore. A trailer park offers 
completely modem facilities for trailers and for camping. 

Over the years countless thousands of men, women, 
children, and youth, have been strengthened in faith and 
purpose because of the guidance and inspiration they 
found at Lakeside. This is the Lakeside which truly has 
its place in history, and which will continue to serve 
through the years as "the vacation place with a purpose." 

LAKELAND, FLORIDA, U.S.A. First Church is the largest 
church in the headquarters city of Florida Methodism, 
where the Episcopal Residence, Florida Southern Col- 
lege, and the conference offices are located. First Church 
Lakeland is noted for its large church school and for its 
commitment to missions. It stands high among the de- 
nomination's larger churches in the proportion of its total 
income devoted to benevolences. It is located on an 
exceptionally beautiful site, with spacious lawns sloping 
down to Lake Morton. Membership in 1970 was 2,768. 

Robert Caxton Doggett 

LAKESIDE, OHIO, U.S.A., is a reUgious center and en- 
campment on the shores of Lake Erie. The old-time 
CAMP meeting that flourished over a century ago and 
was a mark of early Methodism is said to have been the 
genesis of the Lakeside of today. 

As early as 1842, camp meetings and "Sunday out- 
ings" were being held on the rocky shores of Lake Erie 
near Port Clinton. Many famihes were influenced at these 
meetings and converted under the powerful preaching of 
the pioneer ministers. Following the suggestion of Richard 
P. Duvall, a movement began to establish Lakeside as a 
Christian meeting and vacation center. 

A few houses, gingerbread in style, rose on the cleared 
lots overlooking Lake Erie. But for many years wooden 
tents were the prevalent stmctures. In reality simply 
shanties, these tents were used only for sleeping — with 
piles of straw covered with quilts serving for beds. Cook- 
ing was done outdoors, with the earhest risers responsible 
for starting the morning coffee. 

As more and more people visited Lakeside, the need 
for a hotel grew. In 1875 the first unit of Hotel Lakeside 

LT.S.A. This assembly, owned and operated by the Texas 
Conference (UMC), is located twelve miles southwest of 
Palestine on state route 294. The board of tmstees, 
elected by the conference, is composed of ministers and 
laymen. Established in 1947 on 452 acres of land donated 
by Anderson County and Palestine, it has since grown to 
1,400 acres. There are two lakes and two olympic-sized 
swimming pools on the grounds. With two cafeterias, 
twelve brick cabins, and twenty-four air-conditioned camp 
units, the Assembly can accommodate 1,400 people at 
one time. Four buildings provide space for offices, assem- 
bly rooms, class rooms, a book store, a gift shop, as well 
as quarters for the Texas Conference Historical Center 
with its valuable archives. A beautiful stone chapel was 
given by the J. R. Peace family, East Bernard, Texas. A 
big tabernacle is used for large assemblies. There are 
homes on the grounds for the permanent staff of four, 
as well as housing for a number of summer staff workers. 
The assembly is open the year round for use by confer- 
ence and church agencies. Youth assemblies for each of 
the eleven districts of the conference are held at Lakeview 
each summer. The assembly registers some 30,000 persons 
per year for meetings and activities. The property is 
valued at $2,250,000. The Texas Conference contributes 
about $100,000 per year for its operation and main- 

Nace B. Crawford 

LAKEWOOD, COLORADO, U.S.A. Lakewood Church is 

the third largest Methodist church in metropolitan Den- 
ver. The church began in 1881, when a small group of 
Christian men and women met for worship, first in private 



liomes and then in a school house, in the sparsely settled 
fanning community of Lakewood. To reach the little 
school house, worshipers had to cross fields and open a 
wire gate which crossed a road that is now a six-lane 

In 1902, Miss Hannah Robb of Lakewood gave one-half 
acre of ground with the stipulation that a Methodist 
church be built on it within five years or the property 
would revert to the owner. Accordingly, in 1904, the men 
of the church built a one-room frame chapel. Its simple 
furnishings consisted of pulpit, thirty wooden chairs, an 
organ and a kitchen range. 

The presiding elder's report of September 1904 states, 
"Last Spring a new church was built in Lakewood and 
Sunday, August 28th, Brother Wood and I dedicated it 
free of debt, with enough money to buy a new organ and 
$97.00 to spare." 

The church became known as the Lakewood M. E. 
Church, and was the only place of worship in the com- 
munity until 1930. In March 1921, the women organized 
the "Willing Workers." In those early years, they literally 
held the church together through their efforts. They 
helped pay the pastor's salary, assisted a hospital and 
sponsored a nurse's training there, and met conference de- 
mands by holding bazaars and suppers. This was no easy 
task as food was prepared by kerosene lamplight and 
water had to be carried from across the street. 

During the early years, student ministers from the 
Iliff School of Theology served the church. Then in 
1941 H. Preston Childress became the first full-time min- 
ister. At that time the membership was 165, but babies 
and children must have been counted; for on that first 
Sunday he preached, there were only thirty-five present, 
four of whom were men. H. P. Childress served the 
church for eleven years; he saw it through the depression, 
the glowing pains of the war years, and the throes of a 
building campaign, when the need for a larger church 
became evident. 

The new Lakewood Methodist Church, of early Ameri- 
can design, opened its doors for worship March 1950, at 
1390 Brentwood Ave. Much of the interior furnishing was 
done by the men of the church: pews to seat 250, chancel 
furniture, paneling and kitchen cabinets. 

In 1953, church membership jumped to 917, with 596 
enrolled in Sunday School. A full-time secretary was hired, 
and a newspaper, "The Church Visitor," was started. The 
church again experienced an almost phenomenal growth 
and construction was started September 1955 on the 
present sanctuary which seats approximately 500. Septem- 
ber 1961 the new educational wing was consecrated to 
serve the ever increasing enrollment of the Sunday school. 
A Moller pipe organ was installed in 1964. A church staff 
of eleven, of whom three are full-time ministers, now 
serves the membership of over 2,000. 

Avery Whtte Gibbs 

LAKEWOOD, OHIO, U.S.A. Lakewood Church of 1968 
is the third structure erected on its site at the comer of 
Detroit and Summit Avenues. The first church, a small 
one-room building, was built in 1876, near the center of 
the church lot at a cost of $5,005, including the lot. Its 
membership was twenty. The eighteen charter members 
mortgaged their homes as security to cover the cost of 
the first church. 

The initial subscription for the second building was 

made in January 1902. The cornerstone was laid in June 
1904. The new Lakewood M. E. Church was dedicated on 
March 26, 1905; 185 names were then on the rolls. Its 
cost was $13,000. The new church stood as a monument 
to the faithful and harmonious effort of the entire mem- 

Today the church worships in a third structure, a beau- 
tiful stone church of Gothic design. The original part of 
the present edifice was constructed in 1913, at a cost of 
$50,000. A week of special dedicatory services was ar- 
ranged and a bishop from Washington, D. C. came to 
deliver the sermon for the dedication services on Sunday, 
Sept. 21, 1913. 

1914 saw the opening of the east wing, used then for 
the Sunday school. 1951 was the year of a ground-break- 
ing ceremony for the new education building which was 
added to the north of the main part of the church, at a 
cost of approximately $500,000. 

While Methodist heritage is the glass through which 
is seen not only the various deeds of past years but the 
history of the church's spiritual nature, there is one tan- 
gible, material hnk to the past — the church bell. During 
the construction of the first church (in 1876), a member 
contracted for a bell to be cast and shipped from the 
Fulton Company of Pittsburgh, Pa. The bell has been 
used in all three churches and yet summons people to 
church Sunday morning. Its heartwarming peal is caused 
by the bell itself swinging and allowing the clapper, hang- 
ing inside, to strike against its sides. 

1968 started another phase in the life of the church, 
with the sanctuary refurbished and refurnished. Lake- 
wood United Methodist Church has grown to a present 
membership of approximately 4,000. It continues to be a 
church dedicated to the Glory of God. 

Mrs. Walter M. Lutsch 

A. J. Lamar 

LAMAR, ANDREW JACKSON (1847-1933), an American 
minister, long-time secretary of the Alabama Confer- 
ence (1909-1929), and Publishing Agent of the M. E. 
Church, South, in its closing years, and a man of great 
influence in his cormection, was bom in Walton County, 



Ca., on May 29, 1847. He was the son of Andrew Jackson 
and Mary Athena (Jackson) Lamar. His grandfather was 
an officer in the Continental Army and a governor of 
Ceorci.\. He was educated at the high school in Athens, 
Ga., and was a sophomore at the University of Georgia 
until the Fall of 1863 when he, with his fellow students, 
went into the Confederate States Army. He served through 
the war in Virginia in Cabell's battery of Artillery. "I was 
a powder monkey," he told B. A. Whitmore, his fellow 
Publishing Agent, years later. At the end of the war he 
went to Alabama where he had an opportunity to attend 
again the University of Georgia, where he graduated in 
law in 1873. 

He was converted in 1874 under the preaching of the 
unique and colorful Simon Peter Richardson, his presiding 
elder, and joined the Alabama Conference. Thereafter he 
served Alabama pastorates "from some of the least to some 
of the highest" — Union Springs; Greenville; Auburn; 
Mobile; Montgomery; Salina were among them, and he 
was made the presiding elder of the Mobile and then the 
Montgomery districts later on in life. He was elected Pub- 
lishing Agent of the M. E. Church, South, in 1903, and 
moving to Nashville where the Publishing House was 
located, served in this position for thirty years. 

A small man in size but with keen gray eyes, Lamar 
brought to his work great sagacity and understanding, 
both of business and of the church which he served and 
loved. His Conference elected him to all the General 
Conferences of the M. E. Church, South, from 1890 to 
and including that of 1930. He became a man of marked 
influence at all sessions of this great body, and exerted 
enormous influence over his church. Together with B. A. 
Whitmore, the Publishing Agent, he helped the Publishing 
House of the Church develop into a great and successful 
institution as the years went by. 

He married Martha Elsworth of Mobile on Jan. 8, 1878; 
and after her death married Mary U. Urquhart of Selma, 
Ala., on June 9, 1897. A daughter, Mrs. Wilham M. 
Teague, survived her parents. 

Lamar was a decided opponent of Unification that final- 
ly came about in 1939 and spoke accordingly. He con- 
tinued active in the management of the Publishing House 
until 1932 when he formally retired. He died in Nashville, 
Tenn., March 27, 1933, and was buried in Montgomery, 
Ala. Bishop Warren A. Candler wrote his memoir for 
the Alabama Conference and said of him, "He was an 
intimate and beloved friend. I do not recall that I ever 
heard words fall from his lips that were amiss, or deeds 
done by his hands that were unworthy." 

Journal of the Alabama Conference, MES, 1933. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

N. B. H. 

American senator. Supreme Court Justice, and strong 
Methodist layman, was bom in Eatonton, Putnam County, 
Ga., on Sept. 1, 1825. He graduated from Emory College 
(Oxford, Ga.) in 1845 with the highest honors. He mar- 
ried the daughter of A. B. Longstreet, the president of 
Emory, and to them were bom one son, L. Q. C. Jr., 
and three daughters. Having studied law at Macon, Ga., 
he was admitted to the bar in 1847, moved in 1849 
to Oxford, Miss., and continued further studies as well 
as teaching mathematics at the University of Mississippi. 
The distinguished Albert T. Bledsoe, then teaching 

philosophy at the University, later said, "1 taught Lucius 
to think." Justice Lamar long afterward commented that 
there was "something in" what his old teacher said. 

Lamar was elected to Congress in 1856 from Missi.ssippi 
and was a member of that body at the time the Civil 
War broke, resigning his seat after Mississippi passed her 
ordinance of secession. During the War he served as a 
Lieutenant-Colonel in the Confederate States Army for a 
time and was sent by the Confederate states on a European 
mission. In 1872 he was again elected to Congress from 
Mississippi and in 1876 to the Senate. His speech in the 
Senate on the death of Charles Sumner was acclaimed 
over the nation, as it proved one of the first moves toward 
establishing again the brotherhood which had been broken 
by the terrible years of war. For if ever there was a 
northern champion it was Charles Sumner of Massachu- 
setts, and if ever there was a southerner it was L. Q. C. 
Lamar of Mississippi. Seconding the motion to adjourn 
when the death of Sumner was announced in the Senate, 
Lamar delivered a deeply moving address which he closed 
by saying, "If we knew each other better, we would love 
each other more." For this President John F. Kennedy 
gave Lamar a chapter in his book Profiles in Courage. 

He was put in the Cabinet in 1885 by President Cleve- 
land, and then appointed to the Supreme Court in 1888. 
A constant churchman he was ever loyal to Methodism. 
He was one southern layman of prominence whom Bishop 
Simpson put in his Cyclopaedia. 

The Justice died Jan. 23, 1893 and was buried in 
Macon, Ga. 

Wirt A. Gate, Lucius Q. C. Lamar, Secession and Reunion. 

Chapel Hill, N. C, 1935. 

Dictiorwry of American Biography. 

John F. Kennedy, Profiles in Courage. New York: Harper & 

Row, 1964. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. N. B. H. 

LAMB, ELKANAH J. (1832-1915), American United 
Brethren missionary to Colorado and colorful Western 
preacher, was born Jan. 1, 1832, in Wayne County, Ind., 
son of Esau and Elizabeth Moon Lamb. He received a 
common schooling, was a cooper by trade. Lamb became 
acquainted with Chief Black Hawk and leaders and war- 
riors of other Indian tribes and was wounded in border 
warfare in Kansas in 1864. He was noted as a mountain 
climber and supervised various Rocky Mountain rescue 
operations. E. J. Lamb was licensed by Kansas Confer- 
ence, Church of the United Brethren in Christ, in 1864 
and ordained by the same Conference in 1870. He mar- 
ried Mrs. J. J. Morger and was father to seven children. 
Lamb was appointed by the mission board to Colorado 
in 1871, where he helped build the first United Brethren 
Church in Colorado, along the Platte River about twelve 
miles from Denver. In 1872 he surveyed Nebraska in 
preparation for organizing a Nebraska Conference. He 
served as presiding elder in Colorado Conference several 
years. Lamb died at Estes Park, Apr. 7, 1915. A daughter 
had been murdered in a log cabin several years previously. 

Religious Telescope, April 21, 1915. Robert R. MacCanon 

LAMBERT, JEREMIAH ( ?-1786), was the first Ameri- 
can Methodist itinerant appointed to serve beyond the 
Alleghenies, and the first Methodist preacher to be sta- 
tioned in Tennessee. Sixty members were already in 



Tennessee at the time of Lambert's appointment in 1783, 
but nothing is known of their origin. One theory is that 
John King, John Dickins and Lee Roy Cole, who had 
labored in North Carolina in 1777, may have also 
preached in Tennessee. This has not been proved, al- 
though if it were, it would not alter the fact that Lam- 
bert was the first man officially appointed to serve beyond 
the Alleghenies. His circuit was enormous, comprising all 
the settlements on the Watauga, Nolichuckey and Holston 
Rivers. Living conditions were exceedingly primitive and 
the danger from the Indians was very real. Lambert's 
work was fruitful although not astounding, and at the next 
Annual Conference he reported seventy-six members, a 
gain of sixteen. 

He served various appointments including Old St. 
George's in Philadelphia, and in 1785 Asbury appointed 
him to serve as a missionary to Antigua. It is not known 
whether he actually reached Antigua in the West Indies, 
since his health broke shortly after his appointment, and 
he died the following year, 1786. 

Lambert was a native of New Jersey although the date 
of his birth is not known. That he was an outstanding 
preacher is attested by Thomas Ware, another early 
Methodist itinerant, who writes, "He had in four years 
. . . without the parade of classical learning, or any 
theological training, actually attained to an eminence in 
the pulpit which no ordinary man could reach by the aid 
of any human means whatsoever . . . The graces with 
which he was eminently adorned were intelligence, in- 
nocence and love. . . ." 

In the Conference Minutes he is spoken of as "an 
Elder; six years in the work; a man of sound judgment, 
clear understanding, good gifts, genuine piety, and very 
useful, humble and holy; diligent in life, and resigned 
in death." 

A. W. Cliffe, Our Methodist Heritage. 1957. 
A. Stevens, History of the M. E. Church. 1867. 

Frederick E. Maseb 

LAMBETH, WILLIAM ARNOLD (1879-1952), American 
clergyman, was born at Thomasville, N. C, on Oct. 5, 
1879. He received degrees from Dltce, Yale, and Harvard 
Universities, did graduate work at Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity, and honorary degrees were conferred on him by 
three institutions. 

He entered the ministry of the M. E. Church, South 
in 1905 and was pastor in Salisbury, Greensboro, Walk- 
ertown, Winston-Salem, Reidsville, High Point, and 
Gastonia, all in the Western North Carolina Confer- 
ence. From 1924 to 1930 he was pastor of Mount Vernon 
Place Church in Washington, D. C. He then returned 
to his native state and served churches in Durham, Ashe- 
ville, and High Point, and was superintendent of the 
Winston-Salem District. 

Lambeth was a member of the Uniting Conference 
at Kansas City in 1939, and of all the General and 
Jurisdictional Conferences between 1938 and 1948. 
In 1936 the College of Bishops of the M. E. Church, 
South asked him to conduct a campaign to pay the in- 
debtedness of $100,000 on the Lake Junaluska Assem- 
bly. This he did, and the Assembly was accepted by 
the General Conference in 1938 as an institution of the 
church. Lambeth then became its president, superinten- 
dent, and treasurer (without salary), a position which he 
held until 1944. He then became superintendent of the 

Greensboro District, where he served until he retired in 
1949. He died at Morehead City, N. C, on Nov. 20, 1952. 

Mason Crum, The Story of Junaluska. Greensboro: Piedmont 

Press, 1950. 

Who's Who in America. Elmer T. Clark 

LAMBUTH, JAMES WILLIAM (1830-1892), American mis- 
sionary and father of the more famous Bishop Walter 
R. Lambuth, was bom in Louisiana on March 2, 1830, 
but was reared in Madison County, Miss. His grandfather, 
William Lambuth, was born in Hanover County, Va., and 
was sent by Bishop Asbury in 1800 as a missionary to 
the Indians in Tennessee; he died at Fountain Head in 
that state in 1837. His son, John Russell Lambuth, was 
bom at Fountain Head in 1800 and volunteered as a 
missionaiy to the Indians in Louisiana. 

The family moved early to Louisiana. James graduated 
from the University of Mississippi in 1851 and began 
to preach among the Negroes. In 1854 he was sent to 
China to aid in establishing the mission of the M. E. 
Church, South, in Shanghai. At the outbreak of the Civil 
War, he returned to Mississippi but went back to China 
in 1864. In 1886 he and his son, Walter, went to Japan 
and formed the Southern Methodist mission there. He 
died at Kobe, Japan, on April 28, 1892. 

J. Cannon, Southern Methodist Missions. 1926. 

Dictionary of National Biography. 

William Washington Pinson, Walter Russell Lambuth, Prophet 

and Pioneer. Nashville; Cokesbury Press, 1924. 

Elmer T. Clark 

Walter R. Lambuth 

LAMBUTH, WALTER RUSSELL (1854-1921), American 
missionary and bishop of the M. E. Church, South, was 
born in Shanghai, China, on Nov. 10, 1854, the son of 
missionary parents, James William and Mary Isabella 
(McClellan) Lambuth. In 1859 he was sent to his rela- 
tives in Tennessee and Mississippi for his early education. 
His parents returned during the Civil War, and the son 
went back to China with them in 1864 and remained 
five years. 

He graduated from Emory and Henry College in 



1875, studied theology and medicine at Vanderbilt 
University and received a medical degree. In 1877 he 
was ordained an elder in the Tennessee Conference and 
was sent to China, where he worked in Shanghai and 
adjacent areas. He returned on furlough in 1881 and 
studied at Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New 
York and received a second degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

He returned to China in 1882 and organized medical 
and hospital service at Soochow and Peking. In 1885 with 
his father he founded the Japan Mission of his Church 
and established the notable Kwansei Gakuin and the 
Hiroshima Girls' School. 

In 1891 he was assigned to field service in the United 
States and editor of the Methodist Review of Missions, 
and in 1894 he was elected General Secretary of the Board 
of Missions with headquarters at Nashville, Tenn. In this 
capacity he helped in uniting Methodism in Canada and 
forming the autonomous Japan Methodist Church, a union 
of all Methodist bodies working in that field. 

Lambuth was elected bishop by the M. E. Church, 
South in 1910 and was assigned to Brazil. In the same 
year the Board of Missions projected a mission in Africa 
and in 1911 Lambuth, accompanied by John W. Gilbert 
of Paine College and a leader in the C.M.E. Church, 
went to that continent; they travelled 2,600 miles by boat 
and rail and 1,500 miles on foot through the jungles to 
the village of Wembo Nyama in the Belgian Congo, 
where their cordial reception by Chief Wembo Nyama 
convinced Lambuth that he had been providentially led 
to the Batetela tribe, and he proceeded to arrange for a 
mission. He was away from home a year or more and 
on his return he recruited a group of missionaries which 
he took to the Congo in 1913. For his travels through 
Africa he was made a Fellow of the Royal Geographic 
Society at London. 

During World War I he went to Europe and visited 
the front and made arrangements for establishing Southern 
Methodism in Belgium, Poland, and Czechoslovakla. 
In 1921 he took a party of missionaries to Siberia and 
founded a mission there, but it met opposition and was 
of short duration. He served briefly on the Pacific Coast 
and for a period resided at Oakdale, Calif. 

Bishop Lambuth participated in the Ecumenical 
Methodist Conferences, the World Missionary Con 
febence, and other movements involving the cooperatior 
of the churches. He was the author of three books on 
medical missions, the Orient, and the missionary move- 
ment. He died at Yokohama, Japan, on Sept. 26, 1921, 
and his ashes were buried by the side of his mother in 
Shanghai. He is rightly considered to be one of the great 
missionary leaders of Methodism. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

J. Cannon, Southern Methodist Missions. 1926. 

General Conference Journal, 1922. MES. 

William W. Pinson, Walter Russell Lambuth: Prophet and 

Pioneer. Nashville: Cokesbury Press, 1925. 

Who's Who in America. Elmer T. Clark 

LAMBUTH COLLEGE, Jackson, Tennessee, is a continuation 
and expansion of Memphis Conference Female Institute 
which was estabhshed in 1843. It became a coeducational 
school in 1923, when its name was changed to Lambuth 
College honoring Bishop Walter Russell Lambuth, 
whose death had occurred two years before. 

In 1939, at the time of Union, it lacked accreditation 

and its total properties were valued at $225,100. Today 
the buildings and grounds are valued at almost $7,000,- 
000. The college is in a period of academic growth and 
enrichment. It offers the B.A. and B.S. degrees. The 
governing board has twenty-eight members elected by the 
.Memphis Annual Conference. 

John O. Gross 

LA MESA, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A. First Church was orga- 
nized in 1895 at a small resort called La Mesa Springs. 
This is Spanish for "the table," inasmuch as it was upon 
the tableland of the little town of San Diego. The church 
gives witness of having the greatest mission outreach of 
the entire Southern California-Arizona Conference. 
In the current budget of the church, over forty percent 
of all funds received are designated for various mission 

The church grew slowly, but since the influx of the 
huge population movement to the southwest part of the 
nation, the whole community has increased remarkably. 
The church grew toward 1,000 members during World 
War II, with the tremendous number of service personnel, 
particularly from the United States Navy, living in the 
area. By 1950 its membership had passed the thousand 
mark, and eight years later had doubled. It reached 2,500 
in 1962. The growth toward a truly significant church was 
accelerated in 1956, when a Spanish styled sanctuary was 
built, of the classic style appropriate to the history and 
culture of the region. This sanctuary greatly appealed to 
the community, and the church rapidly enlarged all areas 
of its life. 

The mission emphasis for which the church is noted, 
had its origin in the needs of the Mexican people in the 
town of Tijuana, some thirty-five miles distant across the 
border to the south. Responding to the recognition of the 
need, there was organized in the '50's a Settlement House 
called Casa de Todas (House for All), with First Church 
the motivating factor. By 1961, Casa de Todas had grown 
into a group of buildings: chapel, hospital, clinic, a social 
welfare center and school. A "person to person" type of 
Christian fellowship has developed, with over 120 fam- 
ilies "adopting" families south of the border, and sharing 
friendship and concern with them. 

This international mission concern has expressed itself 
in other Tijuana projects: Casa de Esperanza (House of 
Hope), an orphanage for double orphans which has found 
its chief support from the La Mesa Church; Project 
Amigos (Friends), a social welfare center of which the 
Church is a major supporter, including the support of the 
Laubach Literacy Director for Baja California (State of 
Lower California); and Bethel Methodist Church in 
Tijuana, La Mesa again being a major supporter. The 
Mission outreach is not limited to "south of the border." 
The Church is supporting missionaries in Peru, where it 
also built a high school building, in Argentina and 
Africa, with a deep involvement in Ludhiana Medical 
School in India, where a building was given. 

In 1952 La Mesa Methodist Church, mindful of its own 
community needs, commissioned nearly ten percent of its 
active worshiping members to become charter members 
of the new adjacent San Carlos Methodist Church, and 
gave a $71,000 gift of land to the new congregation. 
The church currently has a staff of three full-time minis- 
ters and a membership of 2,308. 

Herschel H. Hedgpeth 



Lazarus Lamh.ami 

LAMILAMI, LAZARUS, the first ordained Australian Ab- 
original minister. He was one of the earlier Aboriginal 
converts after the establishment of a mission in Arnhem 
Land by the Methodist Church of Australasia. With head- 
quarters in Darwin, the North Australia district included 
five mission stations, at Milingimbi, Yirrkala, Elcho Island, 
Croker Island and Goulburn Island. 

It was at Goulburn Island's small but picturesque 
church in November 1966, that Lazarus Lamilami was 
ordained as the first Australian Aboriginal minister. He 
thus serves his own people who have known only Euro- 
pean, Fijian, Tongan, Chinese and Rotuman missionaries 
as their spiritual leaders in the past. 

For the past twenty years Lazarus has worked and 
preached among his fellows and has travelled widely 
throughout Australia on missionary deputation, making a 
great impact on his audiences. He became the first Ab- 
original Christian pastor and submitted himself to special 
study and intense preparation to ready himself for the 
unique and historic day of his ordination. 

Australian EDrroRiAL Committee 

LAMPARD, JOHN (1859-1935), a one-time associate of 
General William Booth in the Salvation Army, founded 
an independent mission among the Gonds in a village in 
the Satpura Hills of Balaghat, Central Provinces, India. 
He began his work as a bachelor. He wore the simplest of 
village-style clothes and lived for four years in a two-room 
mud hut with a grass roof. 

In a famine in 1897, many orphans came to the mis- 
sion. Seven other European missionaries joined him and 
his wife. In 1906, the missionaries decided that the inter- 
ests of the work required integration in a church. They 
asked the Methodist Chuich to take over from them. The 

Rev. and Mrs. John Lampard and the Rev. and Mrs. 
Thomas Williams joined the Methodist Church and be- 
came missionaries of the Board of Missions. The small 
school of the independent mission has developed into a 
coeducational middle school and has produced many lead- 
ers of the church and ser\'ants of the people. 

Lampard later rendered distinguished service in Baroda 
State, where he became a friend of the Gaekwar (Ruler) 
and influenced state policy on questions related to the 
civil rights of Christians and the responsibilities of the 
state to promote the welfare of its citizens. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

LAMPE, JOHN FREDERICK (1703-1751), was a musician 
and a friend of Handel. Lampe was born in Saxony, 
Germany, but settled in England in 1726 and was as- 
sociated with Handel at Covent Garden, London, as a 
bassoonist and composer. Lampe came under the influence 
of the Wesleys on Nov. 29, 1745, and was converted 
from Deism. In 1746 his tunes for Charles Wesley's 
hymns were published in Hymns on the Great Festivals 
and Other Occasions. From 1748-51 he was in Dublin, 
and there produced A Collection of Hymns and Sacred 
Poems (1749). He died in Edinburgh, Scotland. The 
Wesleys thought highly of his music, and Charles Wesley 
wrote an ode in memory of him. Two of Lampe's tunes 
are still in the British Methodist hymnbook. 

J. T. Lightwood, Music of the Methodist Hymn-hook. 1935. 
Wesley Historical Soc. Proceedings. H. Morley Rattenbury 

LAMPLOUGH, EDMUND SYKES (1860-1940), a British 
Methodist layman, was an underwriter at Lloyd's. He 
was born on April 6, 1860, at Islington, London, and 
made his career at Lloyd's, of which he became deputy 
chairman. For thirty-three years he was a member of the 
committee of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary So- 
ciety, and became its treasurer and then president of 
the Laymen's Missionary Movement. With John H. Ritson 
he was treasurer of the Theological Institution. President 
of the Wesley Historical Society from 1937-40, Lamp- 
lough discovered 162 original letters of John Wesley, 
preserved many Wesley relics and buildings, and estab- 
lished Wesleyan memorials. A keen musician, he sei^ved 
on the committee for the Methodist hymnbook. He was 
vice-president of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
and vice-president of the Methodist Conference in 1935. 
He died on Oct. 20, 1940. 

J. T. Lightwood, Music of the Methodist Hymn-book. 1935. 
Wesley Historical Soc. Proceedings. H. Morley Rattenbury 

American bishop of the A.M.E. Church, was bom in 
Hopkinsville, Ky., on Oct. 21, 1857. His education was 
self-acquired. He was admitted to the North Mississippi 
Annual Conference in 1886, ordained deacon in 1886 
and elder in 1888. He held pastorates in Kentucky and 
Mississippi. He was presiding elder in Mississippi. He 
served as a General Officer (Financial Secretary) from 
1902-1908, and was elected bishop in 1908 and died in 
1910. He was the author of two books: Analysis of Bap- 
tism and Digest of Decisions of the Bishops of the A.M.E. 

R. R. Wright, The Bishops. 1963. 

Grant S. Shockley 



LAMSON, BYRON S. (1901- ), an American Free 

Melhodist minister and ordained elder of the Central 
Illinois Conference and editor of The Free Methodist, 
was born at Boone, Iowa. His degrees are: A.B., Green- 
ville College, 111.; M.A., University of Southern Calif.; 
graduate studies. University of Rochester; Northwestern 
University; Garrett Biblic.'VL Institute, D.D., 
Seattle Pacific; Litt.D., Los Angeles Pacific. He served 
as pastor of churches in California and Illinois, and was 
Dean, 1927-30, and President, 1930-39, of Los Angeles 
Pacific College. He was General Missionary Secretary, 
1944-64, and became editor of The Free Methodist in 

While pastor of the college church, Greenville, 111., 
Lamson was elected General Missionary Secretary. He 
served in this capacity for twenty years, has visited the 
overseas churches in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. 
The mission church membership increased from less than 
9,000 to over 50,000 during this time, and many mission 
fields became regular conferences. General Conferences 
were established in Egypt and Japan. The Free Method- 
ist World Fellowship was organized under Dr. Lamson's 

After serving as editor of The Free Methodist since 
1964 and becoming eligible for retirement in June 1969, 
the denomination's Board of Administration requested him 
to continue as editor until June 30, 1970, with the title 
of "Acting Editor." Under his editorship. The Free Meth- 
odist (circulation 100,000) celebrated in 1967 its one 
hundred years of service with a special anniversary issue. 
Included were special greetings from the President, the 
Prime Minister of Canada, editors of church publications 
and many denominational leaders. 

Dr. Lamson has written Holiness Teachings of Jesus; 
Modern Prayer Miracles; Venture; To Catch the Tide. 
He serves as chairman of the Committee on Research for 
Church Growth. He is the editor of the Free Methodist 
Church material in this Encyclopedia of World Method- 
ism. Dr. and Mrs. Lamson reside at Winona Lake, Ind. 

N. B. H. 

LANAHAN, JOHN (1815-1903), an American minister 
and Book Agent of the Book Concern of the M. E. 
Church, was bom at Harrisonburg, Va., in 1815. His 
parents were Roman Cathohc, but of liberal tendencies, 
and they allowed their children to attend Protestant 
churches. He was converted at eighteen years of age and 
received on trial of the Baltimore Conference in 1838. 
He served prominent appointments, including the district 
superintendency and proved popular as a man and as a 
preacher. He is said to have been of commanding presence 
and always enlisted the undivided attention of his Con- 
ference when he rose to speak. 

When the Civil War came, Lanahan continued to ad- 
here to the section of the Baltimore Conference which 
remained with the M. E. Church, although most of his 
brethren adhered to the M. E. Church, South, they even- 
tually becoming the "Old Baltimore." Lanahan supported 
Bishop Simpson in his bringing pressure on President 
Lincoln to appoint more Methodists into the offices of 
government. He was elected in 1860 to the General 
Conference of that year as an alternate, but took the 
place of Thomas Sewell who was not present. At the 
General Conference of 1868, he was elected as one of 
the Agents of the New York Book Concern and acted in 

that capacity for four years. He continued to be elected 
by his Annual Conference to the General Conference of 
his Church, serving in every one from 1868 to 1900. He 
died on Dec. 8, 1903, in Baltimore, Md. 

J. E. Armstrong, Old Baltimore Conference. 1907. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. N. B. H. 

LANCASTER, JAMES PRESTON (1877-1963), missionary 
to Cuba and Mexico, was born on March 1, 1877, in 
Troup County, Ga., U.S.A. He attended Lafayette Col- 
lege, in Lafayette, Ala., and later enrolled in Roanoke 
Normal College in Roanoke, Ala. 

In May 1900, he received his first license to preach 
from the North Alabama Conference. In November 
1901 he joined the North Alabama Conference of the 
M. E. Church, South, and was assigned to the Miller- 
ville Circuit which included seven churches. 

In 1904 he was appointed by the Board of Missions 
(MEGS) to La Gloria, Cuba, where he was to take charge 
of the English work. In 1908 he was appointed by Bishop 
Candler as Director of the school Colegio Ingles in 
Camaguey, Cuba. He married Elsie Whipple in 1908 in 
Camaguey and five children were born of this union. 

In 1910 his health broke in Cuba and he and his 
family returned to the United States and went to Colo- 
rado. At the Denver Conference (1910), he was ap- 
pointed to Trinidad, Colo. In 1912, Bishop Hendrk 
appointed him to the English work at Torreon, Mexico 
and he became a member of the Mexican Conference. 

In 1914, due to political unrest in Mexico, Bishop 
Candler again appointed him to the church in La Gloria, 
Cuba. In 1918 he was allocated by the Mission Board to 
the Women's Council to work as Director of Palmore Col- 
lege, Chihuahua, Mexico. 

In 1921 he accepted the leadership of the Mexican 
work in Texas and New Mexico and in 1927 he left 
the Spanish work and became a member of the New 
Mexico Conference, where his membership remained 
until his retirement in 1949. 

In 1952 he became pastor of the Chadboum Spanish 
Gospel Mission in Colorado Springs, Colo., a pastorate 
he held until his death in October 1963. His name was 
included in the memorial service of the New Mexico Con- 
ference Annual Meeting in 1964. 

Minutes of the New Mexico Conference, 1964. 

Mary Jo Bennett 

LANCASTER, OHIO, U.S.A. Firsf Church owes its origin 
to a group of Methodists who met in a log cabin, the 
home of Edward Teal, to hear James Quinn preach in 
1799. Bishop Francis Asbury is said to have been a per- 
sonal friend of Edward Teal, and visited there many times 
previous to the forming of the permanent organization 
which took place in 1812. The Methodist Society (not 
yet an organized church) was one of the first religious 
groups to hold meetings in this area, and had been meet- 
ing for nearly three years before the town of Lancaster 
came into being in 1801. However, the records indicate 
that the group had met in various cabins, and in the 
open, until 1812, when they organized themselves into a 
Methodist church, and built the first log cabin church. 

The present church building is the third constructed by 
this congregation. It is located about two city blocks from 
the original first church location. It was built in 1905-07, 
and extensively remodeled and expanded into a much 


larger structure in 1950-51. The church membership had 
grown to 3,000 members by the year of its Sesquicenten- 
nial Celebration in 1962. The present buildings, grounds 
and parking areas cover about one-fourth of a city block 
and are located just one block from the center of the 
city. The congregation numbered 3,111 in 1970. 

George W. Herd 

LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA, U.S.A. First Church is one 

of the leading churches of the Philadelphia Confer- 
ence, and, through the years, has been one of the most 
influential Methodist churches in and about Lancaster. Its 
early preachers extended Methodism as far as Pottsville 
in the anthracite area. 

The first Methodist sermon was probably preached in 
Lancaster by Joseph Pilmore in the Old Court House in 
Center Square on June 2, 1772. Later a class was formed, 
but it eventually died out and for some years there was 
no Methodist preaching in Lancaster. Matthew Simpson 
says that Henry Boehm conducted a Methodist service 
in Lancaster in 1803, preaching in the market-house from 
a butcher's block. 

In 1807, William Hunter and Henry Boehm were 
assigned as missionaries to that part of Pennsylvania 
lying between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, and 
Francis Asbury requested Boehm to translate the Dis- 
cipline into German for the large German population in 
this area. On one occasion when Boehm was proof-reading 
the German Discipline, he was forced to remain in Lan- 
caster overnight because of a heavy rain. He called upon 
a Philip Benedict whom he had heard about from a 
Methodist woman in Lancaster who felt Benedict was 
desirous of becoming a Methodist. Boehm had a satisfac- 
tory interview with Benedict and his wife, and on Oct. 
14, 1807, when Boehm next came to the city, he formed a 
class of six members consisting of Benedict, his wife and 
four others. The home of the Benedicts on 125 or 129 
Duke Street then became a regular Methodist preaching 

The class grew, larger quarters were needed, and a 
property was secured and a building erected on Walnut 
and Christian Streets. It was dedicated Dec. 17, 1809. 
Growth for a time was slow. Originally on the Lancaster 
Circuit, the church was made a single station in 1811 
with Thomas Ware as pastor; but it was again placed on 
a circuit the following year, not becoming a separate sta- 
tion permanently until 1828. 

In 1842 a new building was erected on Duke Street 
below Walnut, and it was dedicated Sept. 4 of that year. 
Although now heavily in debt, the church assisted in the 
building of another Methodist Church in Lancaster, St. 
Paul's on Queen Street. By 1855 First Church had grown 
to such proportions that a session of the Philadelphia An- 
nual Conference was held there with Bishop Beverly 
Waugh presiding. 

The church gave increased impetus to the expansion of 
Methodism in Lancaster, building a mission which later 
became Western Church. In a real sense First Church be- 
came the mother church of Lancaster city, and the Lan- 
caster area, either directly or indirectly assisting in the 
founding and growth of many of the Methodist churches. 
As the church continued to grow, larger quarters became 
increasingly necessary, and in 1889 the present Church 
edifice was begun. It was completed at a cost of $87,000 
and was dedicated by Bishop Chables H. Fowxer June 


12, 1892. In subsequent years renovating and expansion 
programs added to the practicality and beauty of this 
mother church of Lancaster. 

In 1970 First Church reported 1,307 members, prop- 
erty valued at $1,550,715, and $132,834 raised for all 

Centennial Jubilee Souvenir Program, First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Lancaster, Pennstjlvania, edited by a Committee. Lan- 
caster, 1907. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Frederick E. Maser 

LANCE, JOSEPH R. (1925- ), pastor, chaplain, Indian 

bishop, was born on Oct. 15, 1925, at Meerut, U.P., India. 
His father, Rockwell Lance of Rajasthan India, served 
in the former Delhi Conference and retired as district 
superintendent of the Roorkee. Educated at the Ingraham 
Institute in Ghaziabad and at Parker High School, 
Moradabad, Joseph Lance studied at Lucknow Christian 
College, India, (A.B., 1948); Garrett Theological 
Seminary (Crusade Scholar), A.M., B.D., 1956. Or- 
dained deacon in 1944, he began his ministry as chaplain 
of the Madar Union Sanatorium near Ajmer, India. While 
here he married Sushila Sentu, a post-graduate nurse, the 
daughter of a United Presbyterian minister. After studying 
in America, 1953-56, he returned to Madar in "1956. Then 
he moved to Delhi as pastor of Christ Methodist Church 
(1,200 members), 1957-66. In 1966 he was appointed 
executive secretary of the Council of Christian Social Con- 
cerns covering the whole of The Methodist Church in 
India. An effective preacher in English and Hindustani, 
he was a delegate to the General Conference (TMC) in 
1964; attended the Asia Consultation at Port Dickson, 
Malaya; and the Assembly of the East Asia Conference 
at Singapore. He went to the United States as a member 
of the Mission to America team in 1966, and toured widely 
for five months, speaking in various churches. In Septem- 
ber 1968, Lance and the Council on Social Concerns 
sponsored a major conference of ministers and laymen 
in New Delhi dealing with the place of the foreign mis- 
sionary in India. From the conference came a recommen- 
dation that there be more "Indianization" of church 
personnel, and that invitations to new foreign mission- 
aries be based "on local needs for specialists and experts." 
At forty-four years of age, Joseph R. Lance was elected 
bishop on the second ballot on Jan. 2, 1969, at the South- 
ern Asia Central Conference, Bangalore, India. He was 
assigned to the Lucknow Area. 

Daily Indian Witness, Bangalore, India, January 2, 1969, Vol. 

XIV, No. 4, p. 58. 

Garrett Alumni News, February, 1969. Jesse A. Earl 

LANDER, JOHN McPHERSON (1858-1924), an American 
preacher, educator, and missionary to Brazil, was bom 
in Lincolnton, N. C, on Dec. 17, 1858. He was the son 
and grandson of Methodist preachers. He graduated from 
WoFFORD College in 1879. Desirous of becoming a mis- 
sionary to China (as China was in those early days the 
"dramatic" and desirable mission field), he went to Van- 
DERBiLT where he spent two years studying in the medical 
and theological departments. On Jan. 14, 1886, he married 
Thompson Hall. 

He taught two years at Williamston Female College in 
South Carolina, and while there was approached by 
Bishop J. C. Granbery, who was trying to find an educa- 
tor to start a school for boys in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. 



Lander accepted the call, and with his wife and first 
child, Laura, sailed for Brazil in June 1889. The voyage 
was dangerous because of a fire on board and consumed 
thirty-three days. They arrived, however, in time for 
Lander to be received into the annual conference on 
July 7, 1889. He was appointed at once to found the 
school; and since he did not know the language, J. VV. 
VVolling was sent as his associate. Total equipment seems 
to have been a blackboard and bo.\ of chalk. Lander re- 
mained some twelve years at Granbery (now called In- 
STiTUTO Granbery) and established it on a sound basis. 
He also served as pastor of several churches, presiding 
elder, editor of the official church paper Expositor Cristao 
and agent of the publishing house. In all his work, expe- 
cially at Granbery, Mrs. Lander was a devoted helper, 
teaching most of the time. In 1903, Lander received a 
D.D. degree from Wofford College. 

Ilhiess beset the last years of his life, and he died in 
the Palmyra Sanatorium, Minas Gerais, on March 20, 

World Outlook, January 1940. Eula K. Long 

LANDER, SAMUEL (1833-1904), American clergyman- 
educator, was bom in Lincolnton, N. C., on Jan. 30, 1833. 
A graduate of Randolph-Macon College, Va., he taught 
in various schools, sei"ved as president of Davenport 
Female College in North Carolina, and in 1861 was 
licensed to preach. In 1864 he was admitted on trial into 
the South Carolina Conference, M. E. Church, South. 

As pastor of the Williamston, S. C, circuit, 1872, he 
was led to establish the Williamston Female College, and 
remained the head of the institution until his death, July 
14, 1904. Previously that year the college had moved to 
Greenwood, S. C. It was renamed for its founder. Lander 
College, and from 1906 to 1948 was owned and operated 
by the Methodist Conference (MES and subsequently The 
Methodist Church, SEJ). Lander College now, through 
offer of the Conference in 1948, is owned and operated 
by the community of Greenwood. 

Lander was a delegate to the General Conferences 
of 1890 and 1894. 

Samuel Lander was married to Laura A. McPherson on 
Dec. 20, 1853. They were the parents of eleven children, 
nine of whom lived to useful adulthood, namely: Martha 
(Mrs. George E. Prince), Jolm, William Tertius, Angus, 
Neil, Kathleen (Mrs. John O. Willson), Malcolm, Frank, 
and Ernest. Tertius and Frank became physicians in Wil- 
liamston; Kathleen became the wife of the Rev. John O. 
Willson, D.D., who succeeded Lander as president of 
Lander College. John became a missionary to Brazil and 
founder of Granbery College there. 

J. Marvin Rast 

LANDER COLLEGE, Greenwood, South Carolina, for more 
than seventy-five .years a Methodist college, was founded 
by Samuel Lander (1833-1904) at Williamston, S. C, 
on Feb. 12, 1872, as Williamston Female College. In 1904 
it was moved to Greenwood and named Lander, honoring 
its founder. 

The college was offered to the South Carolina Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church, South, in 1898 as a part 
of its educational system, and in 1906 it came under the 
jurisdiction of the conference. It continued this relation- 
ship until 1948, when the South Carolina Conference 
voted to deed the college to the Greenwood County 

Education Commission in order to concentrate support 
on Columbia and Wofford Colleges. 

Serving as president of the college during its church- 
related period were: Samuel Lander (1872-1904); John 
O. Willson (1904-23); Robert O. Lawton, acting presi- 
dent (1923); B. Rhett Turnipseed (1923-27); R. H. 
Bennett (1927-32); John W. Speake (1932-41); John 
Marvin (1941-48). 

John O. Gross 

LANDON, ALFRED MOSSMAN (1887- ), American 

layman, governor, and presidential candidate, was bom 
at West Middlesex, Pa., on Sept. 9, 1887. He was edu- 
cated at Marietta Academy in Ohio, and graduated in 
law from the University of Kansas in 1908. He received 
the honorary LL.D. degree from Washburn and Marietta 
Colleges and Boston University and the L.H.D. from 
Kansas State University. 

Removing to in young manhood, he was em- 
ployed in a bank at Independence until 1912, after which 
he was an oil producer and operator of radio broadcasting 
stations. He was an officer in the Chemical Warfare Ser- 
vice of the U.S. Army during World War I. 

Mr. Landon was chairman of the Republican State 
Central Committee in Kansas and in 1932 he was elected 
governor of the state and served two terms. In 1936 he 
was the Republican nominee for President of the United 
States, losing to Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Long active in Methodist affairs, he was a member of 
the Kansas Conference delegation of the M. E. Church 
at the Uniting Conference of 1939. He was elected chair- 
man of the important committee on Publishing Interests of 
that Conference and helped fomiulate the legislation 
which correlated the publishing work of the three Method- 
ist Churches then merging into The Methodist Church. He 
resides in Topeka, Kansas. 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Elmer T. Clark 

Church, located on Skippack Pike and Bethel Road, is the 
successor church to and is erected very near the site of the 
first chapel used by the Methodists in Pennsylvania out- 
side of Philadelphia. Joseph Pilmore in various places 
in his Journal wrote of preaching at Metchin (now Bethel 
Hill). On Oct. 13, 1770 he wrote, "Mr. Edward Evans 
and I set out in the morning for Metchin — a place about 
20 miles from the city, to open a new Chapel which had 
been built by a few persons who loved the Redeemer, and 
wished to advance His Kingdom in the World." The 
ground on which the chapel was built was the gift of 
Hance Supplee who donated also an adjoining lot for a 

During the Revolutionary War Washington's Army was 
twice encamped in the general region of the church, and 
in October 1777, several of Washington's officers were 
quartered with Abraham Supplee, a local preacher and 
son of Hance Supplee. Following the Battle of German- 
town the chapel was used as a temporary hospital for the 
wounded, and about thirty Revolutionary War Veterans 
are buried in the cemetery. 

The chapel at first was not under the care of any 
particular denomination. In the year 1782, however, it 
was regularly organized under the Methodists. In January 
of that year the ground and buildings upon it were deeded 


by David Wagener and his wife to John Tyson, Andrew 
Supplee, Samuel Castner, Christopher Zimmerman, Abra- 
ham Supplee and Benjamin Tyson for the sum of five shill- 
ings. The deed further states it was for them or their 
heirs ". . . or any that shall hereafter become members 
of that Society forever for the Special use of that Society 
called the Methodist for a worship house and Burying 
place for the only use of that Society or such whom they 
of that Society (sic) or belonging to that meeting or 
that may at any time become members of that Society 
shall tolerate to preach or allow to hold worship in . . . ." 

The church was used until 1845 when the present 
building of stone and brick was erected on ground given 
by Samuel Supplee adjacent to the original church. A new 
front was added to the church in 1904 and two years later 
the original building was torn down. 

For many years the size of the church and congrega- 
tion remained static, but recently, with the movement of 
many persons to the suburbs, the church has been slowly 
growing. The church building has been renovated, and an 
educational unit and a new parsonage have been added. 
The present Bethel Hill Church is in possession of the 
original deed quoted above. 

J. Lednum, Rise of Methodism. 1859. 

Maser and Maag, Journal of Joseph Pilmore. 1969. 

Fredebick E. Maser 

LANE, GEORGE (1842-1904), Australian minister and 
conference president, was born at Hitchin, England, on 
July 31, 1842. He was the son of a Baptist minister and 
with his parents came to New South Wales, Australia 
when twelve years of age. While still young he was led, 
under the ministry of John Watsford, to dedicate his 
life to Christ. He offered himself as a candidate for the 
Methodist ministry in 1864, and was accepted. 

His gifts as preacher and administrator soon attracted 
the attention of the Conference, and in 1883 he was ap- 
pointed Secretary of the Home Mission Society — a posi- 
tion he held for six years. He subsequently administered 
the property affairs of the Church for several years, and 
his business acumen and abundant energy won for him 
the confidence of all who were associated with him. He 
was twice elected President of the General Conference 
and throughout the whole of his career he was held in 
the highest esteem by the Methodist people in general. 

He took a prominent part in uniting the Wesleyan, the 
Primitive Methodist and the United Free Methodist 
Churches at the beginning of the century, and in all he 
did he exhibited a fraternal and humble spirit. Every gift 
he possessed he placed at the disposal of the Master whom 
he served with unflagging zeal, and great efficiency to the 

Toward the close of his life the University of Victoria 
in Canada conferred on him the D.D. degree. 

Australian Editorial Committee 

LANE, ISAAC (1834-1937), American bishop of the 
C.M.E. Church, was bom a slave on March 3, 1834, five 
miles north of Jackson, Tenn. He joined the M. E. Church, 
South on Oct. 21, 1854. Licensed to exhort in November 
of 1856, he received a license to preach shortly thereafter. 
In 1866, he was ordained deacon and elder by the newly 
formed Tennessee, North Alabama, and North Mississippi 
Annual Conference. At the same meeting of the Confer- 
ence, he was appointed presiding elder of the Jackson 


Isaac Lane 

District and served in that capacity until 1870. Then, he 
was appointed minister of Liberty Church in Jackson, 
Tenn., the "Mother Church" of his denomination, and 
elected as a delegate to the first General Conference of 
the C.M.E. Church. At the General Conference of 1873, 
he was elected to the office of bishop. 

Deprived of a formal education himself, he received 
what he had by his own hard work. He had a great in- 
terest in the education of his race and founded Lane 
College in Jackson, Tenn., which bears his name. As a 
bishop, he was a leader in church expansion and pro- 
moted the taking of the church to his people as they 
moved into the north and west. 

Bishop Lane served until 1914 when he was granted 
release from administrative duties upon his request. He 
died on Dec. 5, 1937. 

Harris and Patterson, C.M.E. Church. 1965. 
I. Lane, Autobiography. 1916. 

Ralph G. Gay 

LANE COLLEGE, Jackson, Tennessee, an institution of 
the C.M.E. Church, was founded in 1882 by Bishop 
Isaac Lane. The name Lane Institute was adopted in 
1883, but the present name of Lane College was adopted 
in 1895, when the institution offered its first instructional 
program at the college level. The college has a four-year 
undergraduate program in the liberal arts, and offers B.A. 
and B.S. degrees. 

The governing board is made up of eighteen members 
elected by the board upon nomination by sponsoring con- 
ferences of the C.M.E. Church. Each member senes a 
three-year term. 

Lane College statistics are as follows: library, 40,989 
volumes; total enrollment, 1,034; number of foreign stu- 
dents, nine; total faculty, forty-nine; campus acreage, 
forty-two; number of buildings, seventeen; value of physi- 
cal plant, $2,985,242; endowment, book value, $378,487; 
market value, $3,600,000; current income, $2,004,314; 
current expenditures, $1,880,958. 

LANGDALE, JOHN WILLIAM (1874-1940), American 
minister and Book Editor of the M. E. Church, was 




bom in Newcastle, England, on Aug. 14, 1874, of Amer- 
ican and English parentage. He was naturalized by his 
father's citizen.ship, being the son of John Wilkenson and 
Annie (Walton) Langdale, and was brought to the United 
States in his infancy. He received the B.A. degree from 
Wesleyan University, Conn. 190.3, its D.D. in 1914, 
and also studied at the Boston University School of 
Theology and at Harvard. His wife was Alice Belle 
Bamatt of Crafton, Pa., whom he married on Jan. 10, 

In 1905, he entered the Methodist ministry and became 
pastor of Meyersdale. Pa., 1905-08; Beaver, Pa., 1908-12; 
Avondale Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1912-16; New York 
Avenue Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1916-25; at which time 
he became the superintendent of the Brooklyn South Dis- 
trict. He served as district superintendent 1925-28, when 
he was elected Book Editor of the M. E. Church, and in 
this office exercised great influence and gave decided gen- 
eral leadership to his Church in many ways. He was a 
member of the executive committee of the Board of 
Foreign Missions, a director of the Brooklyn Federation 
of Churches, and chairman of the committee on policy of 
the Council of Churches, the chairman of the 
Commission on the Revision of the Ritual, which revision 
he presented to the General Conference of 1932. He 
served on the Joint Hymnal Commission of 1930-34, as 
its secretary, and took a place of acknowledged leader- 
ship in the revision of the Hymnal, as well as in that of 
the Responsive Readings in the Hymnal which were re- 
worked at that time. 

A large genial man with a passion for details and with 
an avid interest in all Church-wide moves and affairs, 
Langdale enjoyed great popularity and the abiding affec- 
tion of his brethren. He was the founder and first editor 
of Religion in Life. This Journal was begun by him with 
an interdenominational outreach designed to take the 
place of the old Quarterly Review which had gone out of 
existence. It has since been continued as an official pub- 
lication of the Church. 

His health became greatly impaired after a time and 
shortly after the reorganization of the Methodist Pub- 
lishing interests at Church union, he died in the Brook- 
lyn Methodist Hospital on Dec. 10, 1940. His funeral 
was conducted by Bishop Francis J. McConnell in the 
New York Avenue Church in Brooklyn, and a large repre- 
sentation of ministers from the entire New York area was 
present to do him honor. 

Journal of the New York East Conference, 1941. N. B. H. 

LANIUS, JACOB (1814-1851), American minister and 
leader in Missouri Methodism, was born at Fincastle, 
Va., Jan. 9, 1814. His parents moved to Potosi, Washing- 
ton County, Mo., when he was a child. The elder Lanius 
was a saddlemaker and the boy learned the trade. At 
fourteen Jacob joined the Methodist Church in Potosi, 
and soon felt called to preach. He was Hcensed to preach 
Aug. 20, 1831, and was admitted to the Missouri Con- 
ference on trial that fall at Jackson. He was ordained 
deacon by Bishop Joshua Soitle in 1833, and elder by 
Bishop Robert R. Roberts in 1835. His appointments 
were as follows: 1831, Bowling Green Circuit, junior 
preacher; 1832, St. Charles Circuit, junior preacher; 1833, 
Paris Circuit; 1834, Richmond Circuit; 1835, Meramec 
Circuit; 1836-1837, Belleview Circuit; 1838, Springfield 
District; 1839-1840, Cape Girardeau District; 1841-1842, 

Jacob Lanius 

Palmyra Station; 1843, Hannibal Station; 1844-1845, 
Bowling Green Station; 1846-1849, Hannibal District; 
1850-1851, Columbia District. 

In 1833, Lanius started keeping a journal on loose 
sheets of paper, and apparently continued it the rest of 
his life. The journal shows that as a young preacher Lanius 
was dedicated, devout, popular, humble, studious, and 
successful. There are constant references to books which 
he was reading. At twenty he wrote, "I am convinced . . . 
that . . . education is too much neglected by the ministry." 
He refers frequently to "flattery" and prays that his head 
will not be turned by the words of commendation which 
he hears. He was a good revival preacher, and rejoiced 
when the saints shouted and the sinners came to the 
mourners' bench. He expected the church to be built up 
under his ministiy, and if there were no conversions and 
no additions to the church, he felt that he had failed. Be- 
cause he did not win a convert or a new member during 
his first year at Palmyra, he insisted in all seriousness that 
he ought to move. But the people asked for his return and 
the bishop reappointed him for a second year. 

Lanius' health became impaired when he was about 
twenty-five, and on occasion he was incapacitated for 
weeks at a time. Notwithstanding physical weakness, he 
persevered with diligence and zeal, and his reputation as 
a preacher and a leader in the conference grew. He was 
a delegate to the General Conference (MES) of 1850. 

In the 1830's Lanius sensed the growing tension in 
Methodism over slavery. In 1837 he noted in his journal 
that the Methodist preachers of the north and the south 
had apparendy come to think of themselves as members 
of different ecclesiastical bodies. He deplored the situation 
and said he favored sending southern preachers north 
and northern preachers south; he beheved "this would 
prevent local interest and selfish feelings from entering 
the ministry." He felt that the preservation of "ministerial 
peace and harmony" was essential for the cause of Christ. 
As early as 1834 Lanius resolved "to pay more attention 
to the slave population than I have hitherto done," though 
he said he knew that would not be popular with the white 
people. When the division of the church came in 1844, 
Lanius adhered to the south. 


Lanius died in 1851 at thirty-seven years of age, leaving 
a wife and several children. For decades afterward his 
memory was green in Missouri Methodism. D. R. Mc- 
Anally, Editor of the St. Louis Christian Advocate, said 
in 1881 that Lanius 'Tjecame eminent among the eminent 
in the Missouri work." W. S. Woodard in Annals of Mis- 
souri Methodism said in 1893, "Missouri has produced 
many faithful heralds of the cross, but probably no one 
who was more deeply consecrated to his work nor success- 
ful in it than Jacob Lanius. ... He was one of the most 
successful preachers that ever traveled in Missouri." 

Jacob Lanius, Journal, original manuscript in Historical De- 
pository of Missouri East Conference, Centenary Church, St. 

Andrew Monroe, Recollections, manuscript in Commission on 
Archives and History, Lake Junaluska, N. C. Albea Godbold . 

L'ANSE, MICHIGAN, U.S.A., is situated on the south 
shore of Keweenaw Ray, which is formed by the Kewee- 
naw Peninsula, a strip of land jutting sixty-five to seventy 
miles in a northeasterly direction into Lake Superior. This 
area receives its name from the Indian word "Ke-wa-we- 
non" which means "carrying place or portage." 

Into this area in the year 1834 came the young Daniel 
M. Chandler from New York State, who had received 
and responded to a call to minister to the Chippewa In- 
dians of the Upper Peninsula of the Michigan Territory. 
The way had been prepared for him by Elder John Sun- 
day, a Chippewa evangelist who had come into this region 
two years before from the missions of upper Can.\da. A 
log cabin was purchased from a trader of the American 
Fur Company and it served D. M. Chandler as a dwelling 
house, school and church. Soon the young missionary was 
teaching thirteen or more Indian children in the kitchen. 

Thus begins the history of the Methodist Church at 
L'Anse. Chandler was a beloved missionary who found an 
early grave due to overexertion and exposure. Others 
followed his pattern of devotion. The experiences of John 
PiTEZEL, who came to this mission in 1844, are written 
very interestingly in his book. Lights and Shades of Mis- 
sionary Life. Peter Marksman, one of the early preachers, 
a Chippewa convert, is among the names to be remem- 
bered. He is buried in the local cemetery. Kewawenon 
was a flourishing Indian mission for many years; in 1844 
it reported sixty-five members. 

In 1873 a Methodist church was built at L'Anse. This 
building is still standing but is no longer being used for 
worship. In 1879 a Methodist Society was founded at 
Pequaming, ten miles away, the same year that the village 
was organized. The Ke-vva-we-non mission was coupled 
with this congregation. This became the site of the Indian 
camp meetings where services were held for two weeks 
each year for many years. Later the camp meetings were 
transferred to grounds closer to L'Anse. A church was 
built at Pequaming which was later to become the build- 
ing for worship at L'Anse. 

Soon after the Ford Motor Company moved out of 
Pequaming the town was abandoned and is now a ghost 
town. The church building was moved to L'Anse, it was 
covered with native stone and an addition was built on. 
This is the building where the L'Anse congregation now 
worships. In 1964 a small educational wing was added. 
After the Pequaming congregation merged with the 
L'Anse congregation, the Haraga Methodist Church, 
located on the west side of Keweenaw Ray, was added 


to the charge. The present charge includes L'Anse and 
Raraga Methodist Churches and the Zeba (Ke-wa-we- 
non) Mission. 

Konstantin W'lpp 

LANSING, MICHIGAN, U.S.A., was named by settlers 
from Lansing, New York, who built the first house in 
Lansing, Mich., in 1843. The settlement was located at 
the confluence of Grand and Red Cedar Rivers, and was 
chartered as a city in 1859. It is now the capital of 

Lewis Coburn preached the first Methodist sermon 
there in the log house of Joab Page, a Justice of the 
Peace who lived in "Lower Town," now North Lansing. 
Page became the first leader. The first meeting was held 
in 1845, and the first society was organized in 1846. 
F. A. Rlade was pastor from 1847 to 1848, and preached 
on April 7, 1847 to sixty people when Lansing had less 
than thirty in population. Lansing first appeared in the 
M. E. Church records in 1848, with R. R. Richards as 
pastor for six months, and seventy members were then 
reported. That year a horse barn was purchased and used 
by the Methodists until 1865. 

A class was organized in the winter of 1849-50 in 
"Middle Town," meeting principally in the State Capitol 
legislative halls. This was the beginning of Central 
Church. Resin Sapp, pastor 1849-50, also acted as chaplain 
of the Michigan Legislature. In 1850 a lot was deeded to 
First Church by the State of Michigan. Subsequently this 
lot was deeded to Central Church, which in 1859 started 
a subscription fist to erect a new building. A brick struc- 
ture was begun in 1862, at a cost of $10,000, and was 
dedicated by Rishop Simpson on Aug. 4, 1863. 

The present Ionia sandstone building was dedicated on 
April 20, 1890 by Rishop Joyce. A revolving lighted 
cross, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Rurton, was dedi- 
cated Dec. 31, 1922. D. Stanley Coobs, a native of Mich- 
igan, was appointed pastor of Central Church in 1938, 
remaining until 1952, when he was elected bishop. 

With the help of Central Church, three other Method- 
ist churches were organized in Lansing: Asbury Church, 
Mt. Hope Avenue, and Potter Park. In 1868 First Church 
bought a site and erected a wooden structure in North 
Lansing in 1870. Methodism prospered, and in 1876 Lan- 
sing had three Methodist churches: Central with 313 
members; First with 138 members, and the German 
Church, with 133 members. 

In 1970 Lansing, including East Lansing, had 8,046 
members. Central Church had 2,129 members and prop- 
erty valued at $2,150,844; Mt. Hope Avenue had 969 
members; and First Church had 722 members. The city 
itself lists twelve United Methodist churches, one A.M.E. 
church, one Wesleyan, and one Free Methodist. 

General Mirtutes. 

E. O. Izant, History of Central Methodist Church. 1950. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Jesse A. Earl 

LA PAZ, Rolivia, is the largest city in that land with 
347,394 people. Recause of its accessibility, it is the seat 
of government in Rolivia, though Sucre is the legal capi- 
tal. La Paz lies in the heart of a gigantic canyon about 
three miles wide, ten miles long, and 1,500 feet deep, at 
an altitude of about 11,800 feet, and is framed with high 
Andean peaks. The city is served by several airlines and 



has the Pacific terminus of the only railroad that crosses 
the continent. 

In La Paz there is the Church of the Reformation; the 
Central Church, with a fine modern building at a strategic 
intersection in the downtown city; the Church of the Re- 
deemer, the principal Aymara Indian church, with the 
largest Methodist congregation in Bolivia. Its program 
includes social service in the poorer section of the town, 
the section in which it is located. The Church of the 
Resurrection is in Obrajes, adjoining the American Clinic, 
and is a church which ministers to that community as 
well as the hospital community; the Church of the Messiah 
is a new church in Tembladerani, organized in 1958, and 
at last reporting was the church most rapidly growing in 
La Paz. This church, as well as the Church of the Resur- 
rection, has Bolivians as pastors. Other institutions in La 
Paz are the American Clinic, the Colegio Evangelico 
Metodista, and the Methodist School of Nursing. 

Chapel, American iNsrnurE, La i^AZ, Bolivia 

American Clinic (PfeifiFer Memorial Hospital) is a 
Methodist hospital in La Paz. In 1920 plans were made to 
begin a hospital on land adjoining the American Institute, 
as Colegio Evangelico Metodista was then called, in 
La Paz. A retired American army doctor. Dr. Warren, 
and a Methodist missionary nurse. La Rose Driver, came 
to La Paz to open this hospital, but Warren was unable 
to secure a general license to practice medicine in Bolivia, 
so this medical work was postponed. 

By 1930 Frank S. Beck had returned to Bolivia, and 
he opened the American Clinic in the location where it 
was originally planned. Although the Methodist Board 
OF Missions did not have funds to maintain medical work 
in Bolivia, it aflBrmed the project with the hope that pay- 
ing patients could help support the work with the poor. 
The clinic was started with three beds, a pressure cooker 
for a sterilizer, and a kit of instruments bought as war 
surplus from the First World War. The first patient treated 
was a woman in labor suffering from eclampsia, and Beck 
saved both mother and child. As more income became 
available, better equipment was obtained, and a new wing 
was added for an operating room and patient rooms. 

The clinic had grown to fifteen beds by 1935, but this 
was insufficient. While home on furlough Beck told the 
needs to Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer of New York. She offered 
$30,000 toward a new building and equipment. Land was 
purchased in Obrajes, a suburb of La Paz about a thou- 
sand feet lower than the main city, an altitude in which 
it was felt patients would recover more quickly. As con- 
struction began on the large clinic and the nurses' home. 

contributions came in from individuals and business firms 
in Bolivia and the United States. Mrs. Pfeiffer donated 
another $25,000 and left $50,000 more in an endowment 
fund. The building was finished in 1940. Other groups 
and persons from the LInited States and from the Ameri- 
can and British communities in La Paz donated equip- 
ment. The clinic was named Pfeiffer Memorial Hospital 
in gratitude to the Pfeiffers, but locally continues to be 
known as the American Clinic. 

Bill Jack Marshall, who came to Bolivia in 1955, suc- 
ceeded Beck as director. Pablo Monti, a missionary from 
Argentina, and Enrique Cicchetti, an Argentine church 
worker and pastor, both worked at the clinic. Louis 
Tatom III, a missionary surgeon, had been there for 
almost two years when he and Murray Dickson were 
both killed in an automobile accident. Director since 
1966 is Thoburn Thompson. 

The American Clinic continues to serve all levels of 
Bolivian society — from the country's Aymara Indian to 
the foreign community. In 1965 there were 3,050 out- 
patients, 1,780 bed patients, 545 operations performed, 
and 514 babies delivered. Plans for the near future call 
for adding a service wing, and later a pediatrics and 
preferential unit. 

Methodist School of Nursing, the first nursing school in 
Bolivia, is related to the American Clinic. The school 
has had a great influence on changing the status of nursing 
in Bolivia from a menial job into a respected profession. 
Although the school was started unofficially earlier, it 
was organized formally in 1939 by Miriam Beck, daughter 
of Dr. and Mrs. Frank S. Beck, and was recognized by 
the government a year later. Miss Beck was director for 
many years, then returned to work after her marriage to 
Robert Knowles in 1946. 

High school graduation is required for admission. 
Nurses who have been trained at the school have made 
a great contribution to the welfare of the Bolivian people 
through their work as instructors and supervisors of 
nursing at the clinic and in other hospitals or clinics, in 
the mines, and in public health work. Students receive 
practice at the American Clinic and other hospitals and 
clinics of La Paz. 

The school has graduated 170 nurses from its beginning 
to 1966. In 1962 the program was changed from three 
years to four, placing more emphasis upon subjects such 
as public health and anthropology. 

The enrollment in 1966 was fifty girls. There are five 
Bolivian instructors, plus the Bolivian director, Senorita 
Eunice Zambrana, daughter of one of the first Methodist 
pastors. Several doctors from the clinic and city teach at 
the school, some without remuneration. 

In 1963 a section was built onto the original building 
for offices, classrooms, laboratories, and dormitories, and 
the unit named "Residencia Bessie de Beck" in honor of 
Mrs. Frank S. Beck. 

Barbara H. Lewis, Methodist Overseas Missions, Gazetteer and 
Statistics. New York: Board of Missions, 1960. 

Natalie Barber 

LA PORTE, INDIANA, U.S.A. Historically the First Meth- 
odist Church in La Porte was one of the first Protestant 
churches in the northern part of the state. It was the 
first Protestant organization in La Porte County. 

In 1832 the La Porte Mission was organized. In 1836 
the first church building was built in what is now the 



city of La Porte. In 1919 the First Methodist Church and 
the German M. E. Church united. This united congrega- 
tion has grown to be one of the two largest Methodist 
Churches in the Northwest Indiana Conference. 

The La Porte Church has a history of unique program- 
ming- to meet the needs of its community. As early as 
1896 a church school and worship service was organized 
to minister to mute and deaf people in northern Indiana. 
Today it continues to lead in creative church programming 
under its four ministers: a senior pastor, minister of evan- 
gelism, minister of education, minister to senior adults. 
Each minister is responsible for his particular area of the 
church program. 

In 1970 First Church reported a membership of 1,926, 
property valued at $1,165,725, and $67,743 raised for all 

LARGE, RICHARD WHITFIELD (1873-1920), Canadian 
medical missionary, was born Feb. 8, 1873, at Kincardine, 
Ontario, where his father Richard was the Methodist 
minister. Educated in various primary and secondar>' 
schools, he studied medicine at Trinity Medical College, 
Toronto, from which he graduated in 1897. 

Large came to British Columbia in 1898 under the 
auspices of the Methodist Church, and for a period was 
superintendent of a hospital built by the Japanese in 
Steveston, at the mouth of the Eraser, to serve a fishing 
community of between five and six thousand people. 
After special ordination by the Methodist Conference, he 
moved to the Indian village of Bella Bella where his skill 
as physician and surgeon quickly became known. He soon 
saw that without a hospital his work could not succeed. 
With the help of the church, government and the vil- 
lagers, a twelve-bed unit was opened in October 1902. 
He also rebuilt the hospital at Rivers Inlet, some seventy 
miles distant. 

He then undertook to train the Indians in preventive 
medicine. With the extensive use of charts and lantern 
slides, he initiated a campaign of education on such sub- 
jects as ventilation, sanitation, cleanliness, and nutrition, 
as well as on the effects of alcohol. "No Spitting" signs 
throughout the village gave warning of a fine to those 
who might be guilty of this method of spreading tuber- 

In 1910, Large was asked to take over the medical 
work at Port Simpson, a large Indian village thirty miles 
north of Prince Rupert. Adjoining it was a white com- 
munity which offered educational opportunities for his 
three sons, all of whom became physicians. Here at Port 
Simpson, as at Bella Bella, Large was not only medical 
superintendent but also health officer, coroner, and justice 
of the peace. His hobby was music. Gifted with an out- 
standing baritone voice, he was much in demand on the 
concert platform as well as at church gatherings. 

As with many pioneer ministers, he was a victim of 
the hardships and overwork of frontier communities. 
Doubtless these contributed to his death on Aug. 25, 
1920, at the early age of forty-seven. The hospital at 
Bella Bella, now known as the "R. W. Large Memorial 
Hospital," stands as a tribute to the dedicated life of this 
man of God. 

R. G. Large, The Skeena: River of Destiny. Vancouver: Mitch- 
ell, 1958. 

Mrs. F. C. Stephenson, Canadian Methodist Missions. 1925. 

W. P. Bunt 

LARGE MINUTES are summaries of several conferences 
held with his preachers by John Wesley, beginning in 
1744. Their origin lies in a pamphlet, entitled Minutes of 
Some Late Conversation.^ between the Revd. Mr. Wesley 
and Others, published by Wesley in 1749. This pamphlet 
was concerned with the organization and polity of the 
Methodist movement, and it came to be known as the 
"Disciplinary Minutes," to contrast it with a second such 
pamphlet which dealt with the doctrinal position of the 
Methodists. The Disciplinary Minutes were revised and 
edited by Wesley in 1753 to form a code of regulations 
to which the preachers were asked to subscribe if they 
wished to remain in connection with Wesley. This code 
of regulations of 1753, entitled simply Minutes of Several 
Conversations, came to be called the Large Minutes. The 
adjective "large" referred to the fact that these minutes 
were a distillation of Wesley's several conferences with his 
preachers, and not to the actual bulk of the document 
itself, which was not great. 

The edition of 1753 underwent revisions and additions 
in editions which appeared in 1763, 1770, 1772, 1780, 
and 1789. Preachers in the Methodist connection were 
asked to signify their loyalty to the Large Minutes by 
signing their names to them. When they had done so, they 
were presented with copies bearing an inscription of the 
fly-leaf signed by Wesley: "As long as you freely consent 
to and earnestly endeavor to walk by these rules we shall 
rejoice to acknowledge you as a fellow laborer." 

In the light of problems which developed after Wesley's 
death in 1791, the Wesleyan Methodist conference of 
1797 decided to accept a revision and rearrangement of 
the Large Minutes which had been drawn up by John 
Pawson. This edition of 1797 became the basic ecclesias- 
tical document of nineteenth century British Methodism, 
having the same role in Britain as the Discipline in 
America. (Original copies of the document bear the in- 
correct date 1779 on the title page, due to a printer's 
error.) After reading and subscribing to the Large Min- 
utes, each British ordinand was presented with a copy 
bearing Wesley's inscription on the fly-leaf, signed by the 
President and the Secretary of the Conference. 

The edition of 1797 does reflect the Amiinian and 
evangelical quality of early Methodist theology, but its 
main concern is with the practical on-going life of the 
Methodist Church. There is an abundance of advice on 
pastoral visitation, the religious instruction of children, 
a preacher's use of his time, and other such matters. The 
Large Minutes also deal with such questions of polity as 
property deeds, the means of removing men remiss in 
their duties from pastoral office, tlie administration of the 
Preachers' Fund, and the support of the Kingswood 
School for the children of preachers. In 1831 David 
Thomson, the Secretary of the conference, published a 
definitive edition of the edition of 1797 to assure its being 
standard throughout British Metliodism. 

The Large Minutes exercised a crucial influence on 
American Methodism. The 1773 conference at St. 
George's Church, Philadelphia, affirmed its loyalty to 
"the doctrine and discipline of the Methodists, as con- 
tained in the Large Minutes" and declared that "if any 
preachers deviate from the Minutes, we can have no 
fellowship with them till they change their conduct." 
American conferences after 1773 continued to accept the 
Large Minutes as their guide, though they came in- 
creasingly to amend and adapt them to American condi- 



The Discipline adopted by the Christmas Confebence 
at Baltimore in 1784 was based upon the 1780 edition of 
tlic Large Minutes. Since the 1784 Discipline became 
the basis for all further editions of the American Disci- 
pline, the Large Minutes thus exerted an important 
influence upon American as well as British Methodism 
in the nineteenth century. This was true in the Canadian 
and other Methodist churches which developed in this 
period as well. 

R. Emory, History of the Discipline. 1856. 

M. Simpson, Cycloimedia. 1878. Thomas Tredway 

LARRABEE, WILLIAM CLARKE (1802-1859), American 
pioneer educator and minister, was born at Cape Eliza- 
beth, Maine, Dec. 23, 1802. His father, a sea captain, 
died soon after he was bom. From his seventh year he 
lived with his grandparents and uncle, working on the 
fann and attending school. At sixteen William went to 
work in the house of John L. Blake, to whom he was 
bound for five years. 

Converted in a Methodist meeting, he was licensed 
to preach in June 1821. He joined the Oneida Confer- 
ence in 1832 but never took a pastoral appointment. 
Larrabee was graduated at Bowdoin, Brunswick, Maine, 
A.B., 1828. He married Harriet Dunn on Sept. 28, 1828, 
and was the father of four children. He named his home 
"Rosabower" in memory of his daughter Emma, who died 
in infancy and who is buried on the campus of DePauw 

Larrabee taught in and later was principal of the Wes- 
leyan Seminary at Kent's Hill, Maine; principal of the 
Academy at Alfred, Maine; tutor in the preparatory school 
at Middleton, Conn., which was the forerunner of Wes- 
leyan University; and was principal of Oneida Con- 
ference Seminary, Cazenovia, N. Y., 1831-35. In 1840 
he was sent as a delegate to the General Conference. 

Bishop Matthew Simpson persuaded Larrabee to go to 
DePauw, where he was professor of mathematics and 
natural science, 1840-52, acting as president for one year 
during that time. 

He was the first state superintendent of public in- 
struction in Indiana, 1852-54, and in a sense was the 
founder of the public school system of that state. From 
1854 to 1856 he was superintendent of the Indiana In- 
stitute for the Bhnd at Indianapolis. 

In 1856 he was made superintendent of public instruc- 
tion again and kept that office until the year of his death. 
He wrote Lectures on tlic Scientific Evidences of Natural 
and Revealed Religion; Wesley and His Coadjutors (2 
vols.); Ashunj and His Coadjutors (2 vols.); and Essays, 
Rosabower . 

Larrabee gained in a rare degree the confidence and 
affection of his students. Retiring in January 1859, he 
died May 4 of that year at Creencastle, Ind. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

National Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Jesse A. Earl 

LARSEN, CARL J. (1849-1934), American minister and 
Scandinavian Conference organizer, was born in America, 
settling at Chicago, where the family became Methodists. 
Upon his marriage in 1878, he and his bride moved to 
Oakland, Calif. There, as a wood carver by trade, he 
became foreman in one of the largest carving and de- 
signing factories on the Pacific Coast. 

He accepted a call to the ministry and began to preach 

to the Scandinavian people in Oakland. In 1880 he led 
in the erection of the first Scandinavian church on the 
Coast and entered the California Conference on trial. 
His missionary zeal in 1881 led him to visit Oregon and 
Washington where lie found many persons from the 
Scandinavian countries who welcomed the Christian 
gospel. In 1882 he was transferred to the Oregon Con- 
ference and organized a Norwegian-Danish congregation 
in Portland. 

In 1884 he became a charter member of the Puget 
Sound Annual Conference and was appointed to Tacoma. 
There he organized a congregation of his fellow-country- 
men in 1885. Later he organized churches in Seattle; 
Spokane; Moscow, Idaho; Montana, and did pioneer 
mission work in Alaska. 

When the Nonvegian-Danish work in the Northwest 
was organized into a Missionary Conference in 1888, 
Larsen became superintendent. His field covered Idaho, 
Oregon, and Washington. 

C. J. Larsen is credited with organizing churches in 
San Francisco, Calif.; Tacoma, Seattle, and Spokane, 
Wash.; Portland, Ore.; and Blaine, Idaho. He presided 
over the first Quarterly Conference at Fair Haven, Belling- 
ham. Wash., in 1890, and delivered the sermon at the 
opening of the church at Butte, Mont., in 1895. He died 
at Portland, Ore. in 1934 and was buried there. 

Martin Larson, ed., Memorial Journal of Western Norwegian- 
Danish Methodism. (A brief history of Western Norwegian- 
Danish Methodism. ) Privately printed in 1944 by Melvin L. 
Olson, M. K. Skarbo, David C. Hassel, and Martin T. Larson. 

Erle Howell 

LARSON, HILDA (1864-1901), was the first foreign mis- 
sionary of the Swedish Methodist Church (U.S.A.), bom 
in Nettraby, a suburb of Karlskrona, Sweden, on Dec. 24, 
1864. She was brought to the United States as a small 
child and she and her parents were charter members of 
the Swedish Methodist Church in Evanston, 111. She 
was converted at the Des Plaines Camp Meeting and at 
once wished to go into Christian sei-vice. She was trained 
as a Deaconess at the Lexington Avenue Methodist 
Church in New York until she sailed for Africa with John 
Oman and his wife and daughter, on Aug. 24, 1895. She 
was stationed at Vivi, Congo, until after John Oman's 
untimely death. Bishop Hartzell then in charge of work 
there appointed her to Quessua, Angola, which she 
reached on Sept. 13, 1897, after two months of travehng. 
At the Conference at Quhongua which opened on June 
1, 1899, she was appointed Teacher-in-Charge of the 
school at Quessua. She was very ill the last few months in 
Africa but became a great deal better on a long voyage 
home and arrived in New York on Aug. 30, 1900. She 
spoke in many of the Swedish Methodist Churches and 
influenced many for Christian service. She died on Nov. 
21, 1901, and is buried in the family plot at Rosehill 
Cemetery, Chicago, 111. 

Central Northwest Conference Minutes, 1942. 

Siindebudet, Dec. 4, 1901. 

Vinter-Rosor, 1903. A series of Christmas annuals published 

by the Swedish M. E. Book Concern, Chicago. 

Beulah Swan Blomberc 

LARTEY, S. DORME (1900-1969), the first native African 
bishop to be elected in the A.M.E. Zion Church, was 


bom and educated in Ghana, later moving to Liberia. 
In 1933 he entered the ministry of the Presbyterian 
Church and in 1939 joined the A.M.E. Zion Church under 
the late Bishop J. W. Brown. The following year he was 
appointed a presiding elder by Bishop Brown. Under 
Bishop Cameron C. Alleyne he was again appointed to 
this position as well as to the superintendency of the 
Mount Coffee Mission. 

Under the late Bishops Edgar B. Watson and Hampton 
T. Medford (1946-1952) he served as Bishops' Deputy. 
He was married to the former Alicia Smith, daughter of 
the late Vice President James S. Smith of Liberia. 

S. Dorme Lartey was elevated to the episcopacy of 
the Church in May 1960. At the time he listed his birth 
date as Sept. 10, 1900. He died suddenly Aug. 2, 1969. 

David H. Bradley 

LARWOOD, SAMUEL ( ? -1755), a British Methodist, 
was a traveling preacher. He was at Conference in Bris- 
tol in 1745, London in 1748, Leeds in 1753, and at the 
Irish Conference at Limerick in 1752. He became an 
Assistant in 1747 and was in Ireland during 1748-52. 

He had a dispute with Joseph Cownley in Dublin in 
1748, because Cownley considered Larwood autocratic 
in admitting and expelling members. In August 1749 the 
Grand Jury "presented" Charles Wesley, John (sic) 
Larwood, and seven others to be of ill fame, vagabonds 
and disturbers of the peace, and fit to be deported. 
Larwood became involved in the breach of 1754, and took 
and repaired tlie Presbyterian Meeting House in Zoar 
Street, Southwark, and settled there as an Independent 
minister. He died of fever in November, 1755, and Wesley 
buried him, commenting that he was "deeply convinced 
of unfaithfulness and yet hoping to find mercy." 

V. E. Vine 

LAS CRUCES, NEW MEXICO, USA . St. Paul's United 
Methodist Church. The city of Las Cruces was founded 
in 1840 on the lower Rio Grande River, near El Paso, 
Texas, but Methodism here, according to a local historian, 
dates back to 1873 "when itinerant preachers rode into the 
dusty little town and preached to the few Anglo inhabi- 
tants." Thomas Harwood, superintendent of the New 
Mexico Mission, recorded the date as "in October, about 
the 20th." 

Hendrix M. E. Church, South, was built about 1880 
by a twenty-family congregation under leadership of a 
layman. Judge R. L. Young. This building at times also 
served Presbyterians, Christians, Disciples, Baptists, and 
Episcopalians, some of whom joined the Methodists for 
Sunday school, with an average attendance of thirty-five. 

In the early days the irrigated valley lands brought 
in settlers to produce cotton, fruits, and livestock with 
consequent prosperity for the church. Old Hendrix was 
razed in 1912 and replaced by St. Paul's, which served 
till 1965, when offices, chuich school rooms, fellowship 
hall, and kitchen were added as well as a new sanctuary 
which, with supplementary facilities, can seat more than 
1,000. A great narthex window, thirty-five feet high and 
sixteen feet wide, depicts sword and Bible witli the in- 
scription, Spiritus Gladius. Other art windows illustrate 
the lives of St. Paul and John Wesley, and the develop- 
ment of Methodism. 

In 1950 St. Paul's donated land and supplied a mem- 


bership nucleus for the University Church. Its parish is 
associated with the New Mexico State University of 
Agriculture, Engineering, and Science. 

St. Paul's has been served by thirty-three pastors since 
1888 (James W. Weems), to the present (Robert M. 
Templeton, Jr., 1967). Membership reported in 1970 
was 1,688. 

Leland D. Case 

LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, U.S.A. Methodism is strongly es- 
tablished in the internationally publicized city of Las 
Vegas, whose population exceeded 124,000 in 1970. Re- 
nowned for its desert climate, legalized gaming resorts, 
and nearby atomic experiments. Las Vegas is also an im- 
portant center for air travel, national defense, conventions, 
education (Southern Nevada University), and natural 
wonders, being a gateway to Grand Canyon, Bryce Can- 
yon, Zion Park, Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, Colorado River, 
Death Valley and ghost towns of a bygone mining era. 

When the railroad came through in 1905, the first 
organization completed in the fledgling community was 
the Methodist Church, begun in a tent before the town 
was chartered. Official minutes of the Nevada Mission of 
the M. E. Church, Sept. 3, 1905, said, "This is a great 
country'. We have entered it. We will stay." The first 
appointed pastor was J. W. Bain. Later Las Vegas and 
Clark County were assigned to the Southern Cali- 
fornia-Arizona Conference with headquarters in Los 

Las Vegas Methodism celebrated its fiftieth anniversary 
with unusual community response in 1955, the historical 
statement being prepared by Fred J. Wilson. At that time 
a church sanctuary was erected for the newly formed 
Griffith Church, a memorial to E. W. Griffith, pioneer 
merchant and the first Las Vegas Sunday school superin- 
tendent. Ten years later, his son Robert Griffith was cited 
by Bishop Gerald Kenn-edy as Conference Layman of 
1965 and presented the Distinguished Layman's Award. 
As part of the sixtieth anniversary celebration, the Meth- 
odist Foundation of Southern Nevada was begun to aid 
in church extension. In 1970 there were five United 
Methodist churches in Las Vegas with a combined mem- 
bership of 3,505. 

Donald R. O'Connor 


ican missionary executive and president of the Woman's 
Division of the Board of Missions of The United Meth- 
odist Church, was born in Columbia County near Mag- 
nolia, Ark., on Jan. 12, 1900. She was the daughter of 
Virgil Montrey and Marie (Ansley) Davis. She studied 
at Newcomb College, New Orleans, La., 1917-21, re- 
ceived a B.A. degree from Southern Methodist Uni- 
versity in 1922, and took post-graduate at Columbia 
University, 1922-23. On March 19, 1925, she married 
Glenn Eugene Laskey, a petroleum geologist, and their 
daughter is Ann Marie (Mrs. Howard Cecil Kilpatrick, 
Jr.). For a time Mrs. Laskey taught in the Ruston (Louisi- 
ana) High School. She joined the M. E. Church, South 
in 1915 and became president of the Wom.\n's Society 
OF Christian Service of the Louisiana Conference, 
1945-53; and was the recording secretary of the South 
Central Jurisdiction of W.S.C.S., 1953-56. She has been 
a member of the Board of Missions of The Methodist 



C;hurch since 1956, and in 1964 became president of the 
Woman's Division of the Board of Missions. Mrs. Laskey 
has also served as a member of the e.\ecutive committee of 
the American Section of the World Methodist Council, 
1965. She was a delegate to the General Conference 
of 1948 and '52, and to the World Methodist Con- 
ference, Oslo, Norway, 1961. She served upon the Board 
of Directors of the Lincoln Parish, Louisiana Foundation, 
1950-60; is a trustee of Sue Bennett College; Cente- 
N.ARY College, where she was awarded the degree of 
L.H.D. in 1967; the St. Paul School of Theology, 
ScARRiTT College; and Pfeiffer College. Her home 
is in Huston, La. In May 1968 the library at Scarritt Col- 
lege was named in her honor, the Virginia Davis Laskey 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B.H. 

LATCH, EDWARD GARDINER (1901- ), American 
pastor and chaplain in the Congress of the United States, 
was bom in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 14, 1901, the son of 
William J. and Caroline (Lockhart) Latch. He was edu- 
cated at Dickinson College (A.B., 1921; A.M., 1925; 
D.D., 1944); Drew Unix-ebsitv, (B.D., 1924); Amer- 
ican University ( L.H.D. ). 

On March 1, 1926, he married Maria Vandervies, and 
they had one daughter and one son. 

Joining the Baltimore Conference of the M. E. 
Church in 1922, his appointments were: Vienna, Oakton, 
Va., 1925-28; Arlington, Va., 1928-32; Chevy Chase, Md., 
1932-41; Metropolitan Memorial, Washington, D. C, 
1941-67. He was appointed Chaplain of the U. S. House 
of Representatives in 1966, and was elected Chaplain in 

Dr. Latch was a delegate to the World Methodist 
Conference in 1951, 1956, and 1961. He has been a 
trustee of Dickinson College, American University, Wes- 
ley Theological Seminary, Sibley Memorial Hospital, 
and Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association. 

Under his guidance the Metropolitan Church grew from 
624 members to more than 3,100, making it today the 
largest Methodist church in Washington, D. C. 

In retirement Dr. Latch continues to live in Washington. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. Jesse A. Earl 


ternational woman leader of Australia, was bom in 
Mullumbimby, New South Wales, on July 4, 1907, the 
daughter of John Francis and Florence (Norris) Robert- 
son. She was educated at Sydney Teachers Training Col- 
lege, Sydney, Australia. She was married to Raymond 
John Latham on March 24, 1932, and their children are 
John Granville and Helen (Mrs. Fenton George Sharpe). 
Mrs. Latham was President of the World Federation 
OF Methodist Women, 1961-66; President Emeritus and 
member of the Executive Committee of the World Fed- 
eration of Methodist Women, 1966-71; Area Vice-Presi- 
dent for Australasia of the World Federation of Methodist 
Women, 1956-1961; and Vice-President of the World 
Methodist Council, 1961-1966. She is on the Executive 
Committee of the Australasian Federation of Methodist 
Women; Vice-President and secretary of New South Wales 
Federation of Methodist Women; Vice-President of New 
South Wales Executive of Women's Auxiliary to Over- 


seas Missions; Secretary of Five Dock Branch of Women's 
Auxiliary to Overseas Missions. She has been a representa- 
tive to the National Council of Women; Pan-Pacific and 
South-East Asian Association; and the United Nations 

Lee F. Tuttle 

LATHBURY, MARY ARTHEMISIA (1841-1913), American 
hymn writer, whose hymn "Day is Dying in the West" 
was rated by W. Garrett Horder, the English hymnologist, 
as "one of the finest and most distinctive hymns of modem 
times. It deserves to rank with 'Lead, kindly Light,' of 
Cardinal Newman, for its picturesqueness and allusion- 
ness, and above all else for this, that devout souls, no 
matter what their distinctive beliefs, can through it voice 
their deepest feelings and aspirations." 

Miss Lathbury was born at Manchester, N. Y., on 
Aug. 10, 1841. She was the daughter of a local Methodist 
preacher and had two brothers who were ministers of that 
church. She contributed to periodicals for children and 
young people, and was one of the editors of the Methodist 
Sunday School Union of which John H. Vincent (later 
bishop) was the secretary. Through him she became asso- 
ciated with the Chautauqua movement — which Bishop 
Vincent founded — and she became known as the "Laure- 
ate of Chautauqua." She founded what she called the 
"Look Up Legion," based on Edward Everett Hale's four 
rules of good conduct: "Look up, not down; Look forward, 
not back; Look out, and not in; And lend a hand." The 
music for her famous hymn — named "Chautauqua" — was 
written by W. F. Sherwin in 1877 especially for Miss 
Lathbury's verses. The h\Tnn has not been especially 
popular in England, but the tune is deeply fixed in Amer- 
ican church life so that, as Robert G. McCutchan put it, 
" "Day is dying in the west' and the tune Chautauqua 
have become synonymous in the American mind." 

Since this hymn contains only two stanzas, or divisons, 
other writers have attempted to lengthen it by adding 
other verses. However, one of the brothers of Miss Lath- 
bury, who held the copyright after his sister's death, re- 
fused to allow the hymn to be used in the Methodist 
Hymnal of 1930-34 unless the exact words Miss Lathbury 
wrote and them only should be printed. Miss Lathbury, 
who never married, died in East Orange, N. J., on Oct. 
20, 1913. 

R. G. McCutchan, Our Hymnody. 1937. N. B. H. 

LATHERN, JOHN (1831-1905), Canadian minister, was 
bom at New Shield House, Cumberland, England, July 
13, 1831. Educated at Alston Grammar School and as a 
mining engineer, he volunteered in 1855 to become a 
Wesleyan missionary. He was received on probation by 
the Conference of Eastern British America and stationed 
in Fredericton. Ordained in 1859, he served on various 
circuits for twenty-seven years. 

In 1886 he was appointed editor of The Wesleyan, 
and in 1895 he returned to circuit work in Dartmouth. 
In 1899 he became a supernumerary and lived in Halifax 
until his death. 

Honored with a D.D. by Mount Allison University 
in 1884, he held many eminent positions in the church. 
He was elected president of the Nova Scotia Conference 
in 1881; and was a delegate to many General Con- 
ferences. He was a regent of Mount Allison University 
from 1891 until his death. 



He published a number of books and pamphlets, among 
which are A Macedonian Cry; Bapfisma, Exegetical and 
Controversial; and the Institute Lectures — Cromwell, 
Havelock, Cobden, and English Reformers. 

D. W. Johnson says of him: "As a preacher he stood 
in the front rank. His intellectual powers were of an high 
order, and whilst a devoted Methodist, he belonged to all 
the churches and was a most ardent advocate of Christian 

D. W. Johnson, Eastern British America. 1924. 

T. W. Smith, Eastern British America. 1890. E. A. Betts 

Conference of The United Methodist Church composed of 
the annual conferences of that church in Central and 
South America. It met quadrennially to govern its affairs 
and elect bishops. The conference was proposed in a 
memorial from Chile to the General Conference of 
the M. E. Church of 1920 and was authorized by that 
General Conference in 1924. This Central Conference 
was a development from the old South America Annual 

The Latin America Central Conference was organized 
at a session in Panama City, April 3-13, 1924. It included 
work of the M. E. Church in Argentin.\, Bolivia, Chile, 
Costa Rica, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and at that time 
Mexico. Twenty-two ministers, seven laymen, and four 
laywomen were members. The second session, also held 
in Panama, took place April 9-14, 1928. This session asked 
the General Conference for power to elect and consecrate 
its own bishops and proposed that the bishops should be 
national ministers, two in number in order to better ad- 
minister its vast territory. By the third session, held in 
Santiago de Chile, Feb. 6-14, 1932. the request had 
been granted. The conference, however, asked for the 
return of the beloved North American bishop, George 
A. Miller. It then elected as the first national bishop, 
Juan E. Gattinoni, pastor of Central Church, Buenos 

The tenure of national bishops was established as a term 
episcopacy of four years. A bishop could be re-elected, 
but no one could be elected bishop if more than sixty-five 
years of age. Bishops elected in 1932 and 1936 were 
consecrated at M. E. General Conferences in the United 
States the same years. Since 1940 bishops were conse- 
crated at the sessions of the Central Conference itself. 

After the second session, Mexico withdrew from the 
Central Conference in order to organize in 1930 the 
autonomous church of Mexico, made up of former work 
of the M. E. Church and M. E. Church, South. The 
South American annual and provisional annual confer- 
ences thereupon formed two areas. The River Plate Area 
consisted of Argentina, Uruguay, and Bolivia; the Pacific 
Area consisted of Chile, Peru, Panama, and Costa Rica. 

The Latin America Central Conference continued to 
meet every four years in the principal cities of both areas: 
Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Lima, Cochabamb.\, and 
Santiago de Chile. In 1966 it reported a membership of 
thirty-five ministers and thirty-five laymen, all of whom 
were, of course, elected by their respective annual con- 

The Latin America Central Conference came to an 
end as it held its last meeting in Santiago, Chile, Jan. 
27 — Feb. 6, 1969. Its delegates and the conference itself 
had decided to disband as a Central Conference of The 

United Methodist Church, since its component annual 
conferences were granted permission by the U.M.C. to go 
into, and become autonomous churches, if and as they 
could. They did decide to do this at the 1965 meeting, 
adopting measures permitting the separate conferences 
in the different countries to become autonomous churches; 
and at the same time, organizing themselves together with 
Mexico and Cuba into the Council of Latin American 
Evangelical Methodist Churches, (Consejo de Iglesias 
Evangelicas Metodistas de America Latina) commonly 
referred to as CIEMAL. This Central Conference of 
1969 saw the retirement of Bishop Sante U. Barbieri 
and Bishop Pedro Zottele. In their places it elected 
Fedehico P.\gura and Raimondo A. Valenzuela, each 
for a four-year term. 

The Chile Conference, being ready for autonomy, orga- 
nized itself into an autonomous Methodist Church in the 
Santiago meetings and elected as its superintendent Valenzuela. The Central Conference itself assigned 
Bishop Pagura to Panama and Costa Rica, and requested 
that the bishops of The United Methodist Church provide 
episcopal supervision for the other Latin American coun- 
tries involved which had not as yet been able to organize 
as autonomous churches. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

Adam F. Sosa 


was an agency for coordination of mission work con- 
ducted in Latin America by boards of missions based in 
North America. It lasted from 1913 until 1965, when its 
work was assigned to the Division of Overseas Missions of 
the National Council of Churches, U.S.A. 

Latin America was excluded from the agenda of the 
Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910 on the ground 
that Latin America, at least nominally, was already Chris- 
tian. However, the secretaries of boards having work there 
held two meetings during the Edinburgh conference and 
agreed to hold a conference to do for Latin America what 
Edinburgh had done for the rest of the world. A commit- 
tee was appointed, including Samuel Guy Inman, later 
to become secretary of the Committee on Cooperation in 
Latin America; and H. C. Tucker, Methodist missionary 
to Br.\zil. 

In 1913 a committee of the Foreign Missions Confer- 
ence of North America convened a Conference on Latin 
America in New York, and at its conclusion a continuation 
committee was set up, called the Committee on Coopera- 
tion in Latin America. Members were from five United 
States denominations, including the M. E. Church and 
M. E. Church, South. Later the committee was expanded, 
and in 1914 it was decided to hold the Congress on Chris- 
tian Work i. f atin America. This took place in Panama 
in 1916 and is commonly known as the Panama Congress. 

The congress was the first great meeting of Evangelicals 
to be held in that area, and it gave impetus to the develop- 
ment of Protestant missions in Latin America. It also 
served to arouse interest of churches in the United States. 
At the close of the congiess, the Committee on Coopera- 
tion in Latin America was made peimanent, and head- 
quarters were established in New York. 

The committee dealt with some of the major issues 
raised by the congress, including adequate occupation of 
territory, comity agreements. Christian literature, and 



In 1919 the committee established a Spanish language 
magazine, La Nueva Democracia, which continues to the 
present. In the same year the committee stimulated the 
broadening of Colegio Ward in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 
from a Methodist institution into a joint work with the 
Disciples of Christ. The Evangelical Union Seminary of 
Puerto Rico (Seminario Evangelico de Puerto Rico) was 
founded in 1919 with six mission boards cooperating. 
The committee fostered the International Faculty of The- 
ology and Social Sciences in Buenos Aires, which later 
developed into the Union Theological Seminary ( Facul- 


Prior to formation of the CCLA, there was not a single 
union paper, school, or coordinating agency in any coun- 
try of Latin America. The CCLA fostered national com- 
mittees on cooperation, many of which later developed 
into National Christian Councils. 

Methodist leadership in the CCLA during its early 
years incuded Tucker, Frank Mason North, Harry 
Farmer, Ralph E. Diffendorfer, and Thomas S. Dono- 
HUCH. Wade Crawford Barclay led a project to create 
and publish a church-school curriculum known as Curso 
Hispano- Americano, and under Barclay a Conference on 
Christian Literature — the first of its kind — was held in 
Me-xico City in 1941. Gonzalo Baez-Camargo, Meth- 
odist of Mexico, served as secretary of the CCLA's Com- 
mittee on Christian Literature and organized a curriculum 
conference at Montevideo in 1949. 

Subsequent to the Panama Congress, the committee 
sponsored missionary conferences at Montevideo, Uru- 
guay, in 1925, and at Havana, Cuba, in 1929. 

Throughout its life the CCLA conducted many surveys, 
of which two are noteworthy here: One requested in 1919 
in the West Indies, led to formation of the Board for 
Christian Work in Santo Domingo by the Methodist, 
Presbyterian, and United Brethren Churches; a study of 
Ecuador in 1943 led to formation in 1945 of the United 
Andean Indian Mission, with the Evangelical United 
Brethren as one of four participants. 

In its later years the committee gave up many of its 
functions to the churches and Evangelical Councils of 
Latin America. With the formation of the National Coun- 
cil of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. in 1950, the CCLA 
became a part of the Council's Division of Foreign Mis- 
sions. It retained its identity within the Council until re- 
structure in 1965, when the CCLA was discontinued and 
its responsibilities assigned to the Division of Overseas 

W. Stanley Rycroft, "The Committee on Cooperation in Latin 
America" (unpublished ms., translated from article in Spanish 
in El Predicador Evangelico, located in office of the National 
Council of Churches, New York). Edwin H. Maynaud 


is a missionary-sending board organized first by Meth- 
odists of Central and South America, and now represent- 
ing both Methodists and Waldensians. 

In 1960, prior to the General Conference of The 
Methodist Church, several delegates from the Latin Amer- 
ican countries met with Bishop Sante Uberto Barbiebi 
to discuss the idea of forming a Latin American Board of 
Missions. The idea was carried back to their home 
churches, and in October of that year, on the occasion of 
the Latin American Central Conference (with dele- 
gates also attending from the autonomous Methodist 

churches of Mexico and Brazil, and also from Cuba), 
the board was officially constituted. 

The board engaged in some exploratory investigation 
and decided to begin work in Ecuador. It was felt that 
the witness to the Gospel was weakest in this nation. It 
is true that work was being carried on by several denomi- 
nations or independent missionary boards, but that such 
work was limited by the origin and nature of these groups 
— mostly representing "nonhistorical" or "conservative 
evangelical" groups — as well as by the fact that the 
emphasis was primarily on work among the Indians. It 
was felt that there was a deep need for a strong evangel- 
ical witness among other sectors of the society, particularly 
those who, by reason of their relatively advantaged social 
position, constituted the leadership groups with influence 
and authority in society. 

Further exploration and consultation were carried on 
by the board in Ecuador. It was decided not to start a 
Methodist Church there, but rather to work through the 
denominations already present, wherever cooperation 
should prove to be possible. A relationship was established 
with the United Evangelical Church of Ecuador, which 
was emerging as the result of consultations between the 
United Andean Indian Mission, the mission of the Church 
of the Brethren, and the Evangelical Covenant Church 
(though the last-named dropped out before the united 
church was formed) . 

In 1964 Bishop Alejandro Ruiz of Mexico undertook 
responsibility for finding a couple to initiate this coopera- 
tive work, and in 1965 Dr. and Mrs. Ulises Hernandez 
arrived in Ecuador to represent the Latin American Board 
of Missions. This couple, joining forces with the United 
Evangelical Church, has devoted its time to the training 
of the ministry, strengthening the Christian education 
program, and evangelism. The board in 1967 was consid- 
ering sending another couple. 

In 1962 the Waldensian Church showed interest in 
forming a part of the Latin American Methodist Board of 
Missions. Therefore the word "Evangelical" was substi- 
tuted for "Methodist" in the name. 

Carlos T. Gattinoni 

TION COMMISSION (CELADEC: Comision Evangelica 
Latino Americana de Educacion Cristiana) is an inter- 
denominational body that serves Methodist churches of 
Latin America, and to which Methodists have contributed 
financial support and leadership. 

The commission states as its purpose to serve Protestant 
churches in all of the Americas except in the United 
States and Canada, and "to help the churches of Latin 
America in the fulfillment of their mission of proclaiming 
the Gospel through Christian education." 

CELADEC was founded in October 1962, by the 
action of councils of federations of churches and, where 
they do not exist, by individual denominations. Member- 
ship is on the same basis for all, and the Methodist 
churches of all Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries 
of Central and South America are related to CELADEC. 

In turn, CELADEC serves as a regional grouping in 
aflSliation with the World Council of Christian Education 
and Sunday School Association, which gives technical 
and financial aid to some of its projects. It also enjoys the 
sponsorship and financial assistance of the Latin America 
Department of the Division of Overseas Ministries of the 



National Council of the Churches of Christ in the 

A triennial Assembly, made up of delegates from mem- 
ber bodies, governs CELADEC. An executive committee, 
elected by the Assembly, meets once a year. Gerson A. 
Meyer of Brazil has been general secretary since the 
organization of CELADEC. First chairman of the execu- 
tive committee and presiding officer was Raimundo 
Valenzuela of Chile, who was succeeded in January 
1967, by Federico Paguba of Argentina. The territory 
that CELADEC ser\'es is divided into five regions, each 
with a secretary. 

Specific tasks undertaken may be divided roughly into 
two categories: (1) the development of curriculum and 
occasional teaching materials, and (2) the training of 
leaders for Christian education. Reasoning that traditional 
materials, which presume a high level of education, can- 
not reach some eighty percent of the population, CELA- 
DEC makes extensive use of audiovisuals and drama. 

CELADEC sponsors a series of regional study seminars 
and held a continental curriculum conference in 1968. 

In the area of leadership training, CELADEC spon- 
sored a conference in Alajuela, Costa Ric.\, in 1964 to 
celebrate the centennial of Christian education in Latin 
America. Seventeen countries were represented. 

In 1966 ninety percent of CELADEC's budget was 
contributed by churches in the United States through the 
National Council of Churches, with The Methodist Church 
a major contributor. The churches of Latin America are 
expected to increase their portion of the support in due 

Raymond A. Valenzuela 

CHURCHES, COUNCIL OF (Consejo de Iglesias Evan- 
gelicas Metodistas de America Latina), known briefly as 
CIEMAL, is an organization formed at Santiago, Chile, 
Jan. 27-Feb. 6, 1969. The formation of this new regional 
body is considered an epochal step in South American 
Methodism, and also in that of Mexico and Cuba since 
the autonomous churches of these lands joined with 
Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Panama, 
Costa Rica, and Brazil to form CIEMAL. 

This organization move was made pursuant to the 
authorization given to the former members of the Latin 
America Central Conference to become autonomous 
churches. The Chile Conference took advantage of this 
to organize itself into the Methodist Church of Chile 
(Iglesia Metodista de Chile) during this series of meet- 

This was the first of seven autonomous churches 
scheduled to come into being if this should prove possible 
and expedient during the 1968-72 quadrennium. Although 
the churches in these seven countries would no longer be 
organically related to The United Methodist Church in 
the United States, they will have a close relationship with 
fraternal and other ties just as does the church in Brazil, 
Mexico and Cuba. 

This organizational meeting in Santiago immediately 
followed and was based upon the last meeting of the Latin 
America Central Conference. That conference among its 
last actions recognized the formal retirement of Bishop 
Sante U. Babbieri, who had sers'ed the Buenos Aires 
Area for twenty years; and that of Bishop Pedro Zottele 
of the Santiago Area who had been elected in 1962. 
Taking the places of these were two new bishops elected 

by the Latin America Central Conference, Federico 
Pagura, 45, who had been professor of pastoral counseling 
and chaplain at the Union Theological Seminary in Buenos 
Aires (who was assigned to head the Methodist work in 
Panama and Costa Rica); and Raimondo A. Valenzuela, 
53, a Christian education executive and United States 
missionary to Cuba, who following his election was as- 
signed to head the new Methodist Church of Chile. 

CIEMAL marks a positive and definite linkage of the 
Methodists in these ten Latin American countries in a 
single body. In setting up CIEMAL, the constituting 
assembly specified that it would be a non-legislative, non- 
executive body, reserving the functions of legislation and 
administration to the several Churches comprising it. The 
purposes, as defined by the organizing leaders, are on co- 
ordinated planning, strategy, and programming; mutual 
support, and depth of relationships. As one delegate put 
it, "We seek to preserve the autonomy of each church, but 
to have a strong nexus for interdependence and mutual 

The pohcy and work of CIEMAL will be determined by 
its General Assembly, which will meet even.' five years. 
Between Assemblies, the work will be in the hands of 
an eleven-member Directive Committee, comprising one 
representative from each country, and the president of 
the Latin American College of General Superintendents 
(all bishops, presidents, and other heads of churches). 
The president of the College in 1969 was Bishop Ale- 
jandro Ruiz of the Methodist Church of Mexico. 

The Directive Committee for the next five years, elected 
by the constituting assembly, it is noted, have laymen as 
all three of its officers. The chairman is Eduardo Gat- 
TiNONi, publisher from Buenos Aires; the vice-chairman, 
Mrs. Celia Hernandez, Women's Societv' leader from 
Mexico; and the secretary, Gerson Rodrigues, educator 
from Bauru, Brazil. 

The constituting assembly drafted a "Message to the 
Methodist Churches of Latin America" which emphasized 
hope, the need for change, ecumenism and the place of 

At this writing it appears that the membership of 
CIEMAL will be e.xpanded to include the Methodist 
Church in the Caribbean and the Americas. This 
comprises British Methodist-related churches in Jamaica, 
Haiti, and other Caribbean islands. Central America and 
Guiana. The constituting assembly invited the Church 
of the Caribbean and the Americas to join in its organiza- 
tion, and that Church's president, Hugh Sherlock of 
Antigua, attending the assembly, expressed the view that 
the invitation would be accepted. 

CIEMAL has set up a Jltjicial Council along the 
lines of that of The United Methodist Church, and laid 
out broad guidelines for common planning and action in 
education, social action, mission, evangelism and other 
program areas. The nine-member Judicial Council is 
representative of all Latin America and will have authority 
to adjudicate not only actions of CIEMAL but also to 
handle judicial matters of the churches themselves where 
this is desired and so enacted. The Methodist Church of 
Chile delegated such authority to the Judicial Council 
at its organizing conference. 

N. B. H. 

TION OF, is an organization representing women in the 



countries of Latin America. The confederation was 
founded in 1938 under leadership of Lena Knapp (now 
Mrs. John Haynes) and Mrs. Carlos C.\ttinoni. The 
puipose is to unite the Latin American Methodist women 
to do together things they could not do so effectively in 
each country alone. This has included the support of 
missionaries, publication of study books, missionary texts 
and bulletins, and the exchange of ideas. 

The confederation has held a Congress every four 
years: 1942 in Buenos Aires, Argentina; 1946 in 
Santiago, Chile; 1950 in Montevideo, Uruguay; 1955 
in Lima, Peru; 1959 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and 
1963 in Mexico City; the seventh in Cochabamba, 
Bolivia, in January, 1967. 

The presidents have been Maria Aguirre of Chile, Mrs. 
Juanita R. Balloch (wife of Bishop Balloch), Mrs. Bessie 
Archer Smith (Mrs. Earl M. Smith) of Uruguay, Mrs. 
Esther Moore Saenz of Argentina, and Mrs. Teresa P. 
Araneta of Peru. 

The confederation began supporting missionaries in 
1942, after its first Congress, when Adelina Gattinoni 
became the first missionary. The number was increased to 
two and, in October 1955, to three. They were serving in 
1966 in Chile, Bolivia, and Peru. Missionaries who have 
served have been Margarita Caminos, an Argentine to 
Bolivia; Dorcas Courvoesier, an Argentine to Bolivia; 
Berta Garcia, a Bolivian to Bolivia; Rosa Sherlian, an 
Argentine to Bolivia; Teresa Silvera, a Uruguayan to 
Bolivia; Maria Glicinia Fernandez, a Brazilian to Peru; 
Francisca Cariqueo, a Chilean to Chile. 

From 1951 to 1966 the confederation published eight 
study books. The group has also published mission study 
texts each year since 1953, translating the books pub- 
lished in the United States by Friendship Press of New 
York. The work has been done with the backing of the 
Committee on Cooper.\tion in Latin America, and 
is used in eight countries. This is the only translation of 
Friendship Press texts into other languages. 

Since 1955 the Confederation Bulletin has served 
women's work in all the Latin American countries where 
there is Methodist work, functioning as a channel for 
interchange of ideas. Editors have been Mrs. Evodia C. 
Silva of Mexico, Mrs. Sylvia P. Huaroto of Peru, and 
Mrs. Rubi Rodriguez Etchagoyen of Argentina. 

Pamphlets are issued on subjects such as prayer and 
Family Week. Prayer calendars have been published at 
times by the Spiritual Life Department. 

The confederation has enjoyed the support and coopera- 
tion of the Woman's Division of the Board of Missions 
of The Methodist Church in the U.S.A. 

Bessie Archer Smith 

LATIN MISSION, located in south Florida, was orga- 
nized by the M. E. Church, South in 1930. It grew out 
of work among Cuban refugees and Italian immigrants 
who resided mostly in Key West, Miami, and Tampa. 
H. B. Someillan, a young preacher in the Florida Con- 
ference, vowed to devote his life to a ministry among the 
Cubans. His special service began in 1894 in Ybor City, 
a Latin quarter in Tampa. Someillan had some help from 
the Woman's Missionary Council of the denomination. 

In time some seven churches were organized in the 
three cities mentioned. Someillan 's work laid the founda- 
tions for a Latin District which the Florida Conference 
formed in 1913. In 1917, the district reported six 

churches, 481 church members, and 1,212 Sunday .school 

In 1930, the Latin District was elevated to the status 
of a mission. At that time the number of churches still 
stood at six, but the total church membership had fallen 
to 320. Gradually the number of members increased. 
When the Latin Mission was absorbed by the Florida 
Conference in 1943, there were five churches and 622 

General Minutes, MES, TMC. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

Albea Godbold 

LA TROBE, BENJAMIN (1725-1786), British Moravian, 
was bom in Dublin on April 19, 1725. A Baptist of 
Huguenot stock, he was influenced by John Cennick 
when a student in Dublin. La Trobe became a Moravian 
minister and did much to make Moravianism understood 
by members of other churches. Friendly with Ch.\rles 
Wesley, he took part in the abortive negotiations for 
union of Moravians and Methodists in 1785-86. He 
greatly influenced Samuel Johnson and visited him on his 
death bed. With August Spangenberg he compiled an 
authoritative survey of Moravian doctrine. La Trobe be- 
came president of the Brethren's Society for the Further- 
ance of the Gospel, and warmly supported Count 
Zinzendorf's ecumenical ideas. He died in London on 
November 29, 1786. 

W. C. Addison, The Renewed Church of the United Brethren. 

London, 1932. 

E. Langton, History of the Moravian Church. 1956. 

C. W. Towlson, Moravian and Methodist. 1957. 


LATVIA. (See Baltic States.) 

LAVINGTON, GEORGE (1684-1762), British critic of 
Methodism and Moravianism, was bom at Mildenhall, 
Wiltshire, Jan. 8, 1684, and was educated at Winchester 
and Oxford. He was appointed chaplain to George 1 and, 
in 1746, of E,\eter. A faked pastoral charge, 
representing him as a friend of Methodism, provoked his 
£nf/iu.sia«m of the Methodists and Papists Compar'd 
(Parts I-III, 1749-51). To this catalog of Methodist 
extravagance, which ignored or misunderstood the good 
results of the revival, replies were published by George 
Whitefield and Vincent Perronet (1749) and by 
John Wesley (Feb. 1, 1750; Dec. 1751). Lavington's 
most interesting argument was that Methodist conversion 
experiences could be explained in physical and psychologi- 
cal terms; he rejected Wesley's claim that they were the 
work of the Holy Spirit. Later Wesley records a visit to 
Exeter Cathedral on Aug. 29, 1762, when he was "pleased 
to partake of the Lord's Supper with my old opponent. 
Bishop Lavington." Lavington died soon after, on Sept. 
13, 1762. 

R. Polwhele, ed.. The Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists 

Compared (reprint, including life of Lavington; London: Whit- 

aker, 1820, 1833). 

J. Wesley, Letters, iii, 259-71, 295-331. 

Frank Baker, "Bishop Lavington and the Methodists," Proc. 

Wes. Hist. Soc, .x.xxiv, 37-42. Henry Rack 

LAW, WILLIAM (1686-1761), British Nonjuror and mystic, 
was born at King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire, and was 



educated at Cambridge. He refused the oath of allegiance 
to the Hanoverian King George I, and resigned his fellow- 
ship at Emmanuel (1716). After some years in the house- 
hold of Edward Gibbon (grandfather of the historian) at 
Putney, Law retired to King's Cliffe (1740) and died 
there, April 9, 1761. 

John Wesley read Law's Practical Treatise upon Chris- 
tian Perfection (1726) and A Serious Call (1728) at 
O.xford, and began to pursue "inward holiness" by self- 
discipline as Law recommended. By 1738 he had adopted 
the Moravians' views of salvation by faith, and attacked 
Law for failing to teach this. From the 1740's Law 
developed a mystical theologv based on the writings of 
Jakob Bohme (d. 1624). Wesley attacked Law (1756) 
for departing from Scripture by teaching unconditional 
salvation for all, based on a divine spark in every man; 
for his weak doctrine of the atonement; and for his 
disparagement of the means of grace. Although Law 
opposed eighteenth-centur\' rationalism, Wesley believed 
that his system, by contradicting the "Scriptural" scheme 
of salvation, destroyed the Christian case against Deism. 

E. W. Baker, A Herald of the Evangelical Revival. 1948. 

J. B. Green, John Wesley and William Law. 1948. 

Law, Collected Works. 9 vols.; ed., Richardson, 1792; G. 

Moreton, 1893. 

J. H. Overton, William Law: Non-Juror and Mystic. 1881. 

C. Walton, Notes and Materials for an Adequate Biography of 

William Law. 1854. Henry Rack 

LAW, METHODIST (U.S.A.). The ruling law of The Unit- 
ed Methodist Church is found in the Booh of Discipline of 
that and the other respective Methodist Churches. The 
Discipline contains and sets forth first the constitutional 
law of the church. Also certain Judicial Council deci- 
sions interpreting the Constitution may be referred to in 
the published decisions of that body. 

Constitutional law may only be changed by constitu- 
tional processes. This calls for the joint action of the 
General Conference and of the members of all the 
annual conferences who must agree to any constitutional 
change by a two-thirds majority of those "present and 
voting" both in the General Conference and in the several 
annual conferences. In the event an Article of Religion 
or a standard of belief is to be changed, it requires a 
three-fourths vote of the electorate in the annual con- 
ferences following a two-thirds General Conference vote 
recommending the change. 

Constitutional law is interpreted by the Judicial Coun- 
cil according to processes outlined in the Constitution, 
and by the rules of procedure developed by the Judicial 
Council itself. 

The larger part of the Book of Discipline is in the 
fomi of statutory law which may be written, revised, 
amended or changed at the instance of any General 
Conference acting within its normal powers. A majority 
vote in most instances suffices to alter or write statutory 
law for The United Methodist Church. 

Statutory law itself may be divided into adrninistrative 
law dealing with the processes and procedures of the 
organizational work of the church in all its departments; 
and trial law or the procedures which are to be followed 
when a church member — whether a bishop, elder, local 
preacher, supply preacher, deaconess or regular church 
member — is to be tried for a violation of some phase of 
Methodist disciphne. Offenses against the moral law are, 
of course, the most heinous, and when a person is found 

guilty, such person may be e.xpelled from the member- 
ship of the church. Disciplinary infractions for mal- 
administration on the part of certain church officers may 
be tried according to the processes outlined in the Book 
of Discipline, if these offenses are such as to warrant 
a trial. All matters relating to trial law are carefully 
prescribed and when followed out according to the law 
of the church, there is no recourse in the civil law by the 
person found guilty. Civil authorities in the United States 
have long taken the position that a church member is 
bound by the law of his own church, which law he 
subscribed to upon his admission to that church; if 
therefore the church follows its own announced proce- 
dures in dealing with those who offend against its laws, 
the civil power refuses to take jurisdiction over the result 
of such ecclesiastical proceedings. 

The Book of Discipline containing Methodist law is 
often held up before judicatory bodies as the "book of 
law" of The United Methodist Church and referred to 
in all matters which have to do with its life, teachings, 
and processes. When any matter touching Methodist rules, 
regulations, or law is brought before a civil court and the 
court does take jurisdiction over such matter, the Book 
of Discipline is usually formally presented to the court 
as authoritative Methodist law. 

Parliamentary law also governs Methodist bodies when 
they meet in session, in order that proceedings may move 
smoothly but formally in line with accustomed processes 
which prevail in such bodies. The General Conference 
has a Committee on Rules which prescribes all such mat- 
ters, and many annual conferences likewise formally adopt 
rules for their own procediu^es. Quite often the rules of 
the General Conference in so far as they apply are 
adopted for the governing of annual conferences and of 
other formal church gatherings. The authoritative Roberts' 
Rules of Order which has established itself as the arbiter 
in this entire field in America, is usually the basic guide 
and director in all matters of rule and parliamentary 
governance in American Methodist bodies. 

LAW AND GOSPEL. The relation of the religion of the 
Law to the gospel of God's grace is a matter which is 
important for the understanding of the gospel, and for its 
spiritually balanced and healthful proclamation. This was 
a subject of constant controversy in Wesley's time, and 
there are numerous references in Wesley's work to teach- 
ers whom he felt were in error, and replies to attacks 
made upon his understanding of the gospel. This con- 
troversy still goes on today, though stated in somewhat 
different terms. A note on this matter is therefore neces- 
sary for the understanding of Wesley's doctrine, and for 
its application today. 

Historical background. The preparation for the Chris- 
tian gospel and the Christian Church was the religion 
of the Old Covenant, the religion of the Law of Moses. 
The foundation of this Covenant was in the grace of God, 
in that He had freely set His love upon the Hebrew peo- 
ple, the descendents of Abraham, and chosen them to be 
His Covenant people (Genesis .\ii 1-3, xvii 1-8, etc., 
Deuteronomy iv 32-9, vii 7-9). However, the basis on 
man's side for the continuance of this Covenant was 
obedience to God's revealed Law (Exodus xxiv, 3-8, etc). 
Nevertheless, the idea of faith, and of loving trust in God, 
was always there as well (Genesis xv 6, Deuteronomy 


vi 3-7, Habhakuk ii 4). Thus the normal pious Jew loved 
the Law, regarded the possession of it as the privilege of 
his nation, and obeyed it gladly (Psalm cxix, etc). In this 
no formal difference was made between liturgical and 
ceremonial commandments, such as the law of the Temple, 
worship, and of unclean meats, and the moral and social 
commandments, such as justice, truthfulness, humanity, 
and charity. All these things were the Law of God 
alike. Thus in the Decalogue some commandments, like 
those forbidding idolatry and enjoining the Sabbath, are 
ceremonial; others, like the prohibition of theft and 
adultery, are moral; whereas the commandment regarding 
the taking of the name of God in vain is both. It is not 
possible to draw a sharp distinction between inward and 
outward commandments, because a sincere worshipper 
sees an inward meaning symbolized in a religious cere- 
mony. Nevertheless, the more thoughtful and spiritually 
minded among the Hebrews always contrived to emphasize 
that God is more concerned with the inward spirit of moral 
obedience than with the mere performance of customary 
ritual, no matter how venerable and significant (Psalm 
xl 6-8, Amos v 21-4, Micah vi 6-8). 

Our Lord came as the fitting climax of this tradition. 
He reverenced and confirmed the religious institutions of 
Israel as an expression of the will of God (Matthew v 
17-19, .x.xii 2-3, Luke iv 16, John ii 17). He sternly de- 
nounced extemalism and hypocrisy (Mark vii 5-16, Luke 
xi 37-42 ) , and He taught that a stricter standard of inward 
obedience was required in the new age (Matthew v 27-8, 
Mark x 2-12). The rest of the New Testament substantially 
answers to this principle. Thus in particular, though St. 
Paul under controversial pressure to vindicate the proposi- 
tion that the Gentile Christians do not need to be cir- 
cumcised, and to adopt the whole religion of the Mosaic 
Law, can on occasion make rather extreme statements of 
the antithesis between Law and Gospel (Galatians v 1-4), 
yet he does assent to the master-proposition that the Law 
is of divine origin, and good (Romans iii 1-2, vii 12), 
and it is the due preparation for the Gospel (Galatians iii 
23-4). The great essay upon this theme is the Epistle to 
the Hebrews. Here the institutions of Judaism are dis- 
played as a divinely given foreshadowing of the higher 
institutions and permanently valid spiritual principles of 
the Christian religion. 

The church followed upon this track, though she was 
forced to embark upon the traditional distinction between 
the moral law of the Old Covenant, which is of permanent 
validity, and the ceremonial law, which was abolished in 
Christ. This clearly answers to the practical situation as 
it has existed in the Church. The Church has always 
reverenced the Jewish Scriptures as Christian Scriptures, 
not as an account merely of the historical origins of the 
Christian faith, but as a book authoritative for Christian 
doctrine, and for the guidance of the devotional and moral 
life. Nevertheless, the Church did not in point of fact 
literally obey the Scriptural commandments regarding the 
sacrifices, the festivals, the law of ceremonial cleanness, 
and the like. The desire of Christian theology to illustrate 
so far as possible the parallel between the lower and legal 
institutions of the Jewish religion, and the higher and 
spiritual institutions of the Christian religion, led many of 
the traditional theologians of the Church to describe the 
Christian faith as "the new Law." Just as, in particular, 
the Jewish Sabbath was a foretype of the Christian day 
of worship, so in general the whole institution of Judaism 
(the Law), was a foretype of the whole Christian institu- 



tion. DiflRculty which has been felt by some about this 
phrase illustrates a point of controversy which arose at 
the Reformation period. 

In his effort completely to outlaw the "merit-earning" 
theology prevalent in many quarters in the mediaeval 
church, and to emphasize the principles of salvation "by 
grace alone" and "through faith alone." Luther fell back 
upon Paul's rugged antithesis, mentioned above as voiced 
in some passages, between "Law" and "Grace." It is there- 
fore a characteristic theme of Luther, and of Protestant 
theology following him, that admission into the Christian 
Gospel of the religion of law (that is to say, the hope of 
a man that he may fit himself for God, and win divine 
favor, by self-imposed effort in obedience to the Law of 
God), is a radical corruption and a denial of the funda- 
mental principle of salvation by grace alone. Thus "legal- 
ity" is the opposite quantity to the Gospel. However, this 
evangelical principle, like other principles, can be per- 
verted by partial and superficial minds into an error. The 
error in question is that of antinomianism (anti: "against"; 
nomas: "law"), which is the affirmation that the Christian 
who is saved by grace, and who walks by faith is on thtit 
account released from the duty of obedience to the moral 
law of God. This clearly is the evangelical principle falling 
into dangerous unbalance, and into an error of excess. 

A fair and balanced reading of Luther makes it plain 
that he himself was not an antinomian. Yet in some pas- 
sages in his works there are strong and paradoxical ex- 
pressions of the antithesis between "law" and "grace" 
which speak of "the Law" almost as an enemy of "the 
Gospel." If such passages are isolated from the context 
they may be interpreted as a substantiation for antinomian 
doctrine. And some less wise evangelical teachers have 
at times fallen into this trap of misunderstanding. It may 
perhaps be said that antinomianism can exist in three 
degrees. There can be a very mild degree of antinomi- 
anism, in theoretical principle only. The believer may 
profess himself to have escaped altogether from the sphere 
of duty to obey the moral law of God into the Chris- 
tian "liberty" of freely following the impulse of love. And 
on the basis of this he may live a strict moral life. Then 
there may be a moderate practical antinomianism, in 
which the believer deludes himself that the deep spiritual 
experience which he can profess, and the many devotional 
exercises which he enjoys, in some way compound for 
minor moral failings in matters of truthfulness, honesty, 
self-control, or human kindness. Finally there is the out- 
right antinomianism of the "lunatic fringe" of those who 
affirm that because they are accepted by God through 
the sole merits of Christ they are in principle free to 
indulge their vices if they wish. By contrast, it is surely 
the sound and long-established Christian position that the 
high purpose of the evangelical experience of salvation 
by grace is to enable man effectually and from the heart 
to carry out his unsparing duty of obedience to the moral 
law of God, sovereign over him, as over all men. The 
sure guide is that Christ came not to destroy the law, but 
to fulfill it (Matthew v, 17). 

Wesley on the Law and the Gospel. It is plain from 
everything which he did and wrote that the fully evangeli- 
cal Wesley, after the Aldersgate Street experience, 
continued to be every inch the exponent of strict moral 
discipline. Anything which savored of antinomianism, or 
which by implication could be used as a religious excuse 
for moral compromise, was to him anathema. Antinomi- 


anism and quietism were to him "Satan's masterpieces," 
the using of the principles of rehgion to overthrow 

From an early date in 1739 Wesley was troubled in 
the Fetter-lane Society by antinomian and quietist 
teaching, and it was this issue which caused him to 
separate from Fetter-lane, and so from the Moravians, 
on July 20, 1740 (see Journal Nov. 1, 1739— July 23, 
1740). Characteristic of the controversy are the notes 
for June 5, 1740, "I came to London; where finding a 
general temptation prevail, of leaving off good works, 
in order to an increase of faith, 1 began, on Friday the 
sixth, to expound the Epistle of St. James; the great 
antidote against this poison:" and for June 23, "I con- 
sidered the second assertion, that there is but one com- 
mandment in the New Testament, viz. 'To believe;' that 
no other duty lies upon us; and that a believer is not 
obliged to do anything as commanded. How gross, 
palpable a contradiction is this to the whole tenor of the 
New Testament! Every part of which is full of command- 
ments, from St. Matthew to the Revelation!" It was be- 
cause Wesley had had fragments of Luther thrown at him 
in this controversy that he later reacted against Luther's 
Commentary on Galatians in a not altogether judicious 
manner (Journal, June 15, 1741). (See Faith.) 

Wesley's systematic teaching on the relation of the Law 
to the Gospel is largely contained in his Standard Sermons, 
XXIX, "The Original of the Law"; XXX, "The Law 
Established Through Faith, i"; XXXI, "The Law Estab- 
lished Through Faith, ii"; and also sermon XLIX, "The 
Lord our Righteousness," and his first and second "Dia- 
logue Between an Antinomian and his Friend." (Works, 
vol. x). A summary of his authoritative teaching may be 
given from sermons XXIX and XXX. Christ set aside 
the Jewish ceremonial law, and established the moral law 
on a better foundation (XXIX 2,3). The moral law was 
declared to man at the creation, and is the glorious 
representation of the nature of God ( XXIX ii ) . The law 
of God is pure (iii 2,3). It is certainly not of the nature of 
sin, but is the detector of sin (4). The keeping of it 
works the blessing of man (12). The first great use of the 
law is to trouble the conscience of man, and to convict 
him that he is a sinner (iv 1). The second is as a stem 
schoolmaster of divine punishment, to bring him to 
penitence (2). The diird ofEce of the law, forgotten or 
denied by many, is to keep the evangelical believer alert 
in his spiritual discipline (3). It reminds him of the sin 
yet remaining in his heart, and of the need for keeping 
close to Christ (4-7). The antinomian is sternly warned 
for his careless language: "Who art thou then, O man, 
that 'judgest the law, and speakest evil of the law?' — that 
rankest it with sin, Satan, and death, and sendest them 
all to hell together?" (8). 

In sermon XXX, those who would abolish the sover- 
eignty of the moral as well as of the Jewish ceremonial 
law over the believer have a zeal but not according to 
knowledge (3-6). The most usual way to make void the 
law through faith is not to preach it at all, as is the case 
with those deeply mistaken teachers who use the phrase 
"a preacher of the law" as though it were "a term of 
reproach, as though it meant little less than an enemy to 
the gospel" (i 1,2). Free forgiveness through "the suf- 
ferings and merits of Christ" is not to be offered to careless 
and impenitent men, but only to those who through the 
preaching of the moral law of God know themselves to be 


in need of forgiveness (3). This approach is the Scriptural 
and apostolic method (4-11). If the comfort of free for- 
giveness through the Cross is the only thing which is 
declared to the congregation, without the constant re- 
minder of the unsparing demands of the moral law of 
God, the preaching of the Gospel will gradually lose its 
force ( 12) . "A second way of making void the law through 
faith is, the teaching that faith supersedes the necessity of 
holiness" (ii 1). Any teaching is most dangerous which 
can be understood as implying that inward and outward 
righteousness of life is in some way less imperatively 
necessary for the "converted" Christian who lives by evan- 
gelical grace than it is for other men (2-4). This error, 
which is a mistaken reaction against Christian phariseeism, 
is entirely contrary to Scripture (5-7). Yet the most 
common way of making void the law is not to teach it, 
but simply to do it by a careless and easy-going hfe (iii 
1 ) . The evangelical principles ought to make the believer 
more zealous for right than he was before ( 2-4 ) . 

VV^esley then seriously challenges his hearers to compare 
in detail the manner of their lives previously, when they 
were struggling outside the evangelical experience, with 
what it is now after evangelical conversion. Are they as 
abstemious, contemptuous of show, luxury, fashion, and 
the praise of this world, as economical of money and 
time, as austere and plain-spoken, and as careful to avoid 
gossip and flattery, as they were then? Are they as regular 
at Church service and private prayer now as they were 
then, or do they find themselves kept away by "a little 
business, a visitor, a slight indisposition, a soft bed, a dark 
or cold morning?" Are they as earnest in speaking to 
others of Christ? If any believer finds that he has in- 
sensibly "let up" on any of these duties since he came to 
the evangelical experience, he is on spiritually perilous 
ground (5-8). Clearly for Wesley sanctification and holi- 
ness were not emotional experiences, as an alternative to 
zealous churchmanship and strict morality. They were 
a life of imsparing devotional and moral discipline, but 
empowered by the evangelical experience and the indwell- 
ing Spirit. Christian liberty is not escape from the law, 
but power to obey it. 

P. Allhaus, The Divine Command. Philadelphia, 1966. 

W. Andersen, Law and Gospel. London and New York, 1961. 

C. H. Dodd, Gospel and Law. New York, 1951. 

W. Elert, Law and Gospel. Philadelphia, 1967. 

John Fletcher, Checks to Antinomianism. New York: Soule and 

Mason, 1819. 

G. A. F. Knight, Law and Grace. London, 1962. 

W. B. Pope, Compendium of Christian Theology. 1880. 

A. R. Vidler, Christ's Strange Work. London, 1963. 

R. Watson, Theological Institutes. 1823-26. 

J. Wesley, Standard Sermons. 1921. John Lawson 

LAWRENCE, JOHN (1824-1889), American United 
Brethren clergyman, soldier, jurist, was bom in Wayne 
County, Ind., Dec. 3, 1824. Although educated in public 
schools with limited academic training, he was considered 
one of the most brilliant ministers in the Church. For a 
time he taught public school in northwestern Ohio. Mar- 
ried twice, his first wife died early in his ministry. In 1843 
he joined the Sandusky Conference, Church of the United 
Brethren in Christ, and became a charter member of the 
Michigan Conference. He served first as a circuit preacher 
and later as presiding elder. 

Lawrence became assistant editor of the Religious Tele- 



scope in 1850, and two years later the sole editor. He 
continued in this editorial office until 1864, when he 
entered the Union Army as chaplain of the 15th U.S. 
Colored Troops, and later was made a captain of his 

Following the Civil War he was appointed judge of a 
Freedman's Court, Nashville, Tenn., and afterwards prac- 
ticed law in that city. He did not return to the active 
ministerial service. 

A. W. Drury wrote, "He [Lawrence] was one of the 
most brilliant and most successful editors the Religious 
Telescope has had." Following Lawrence's death the 
Nashville Daily American paid him a glowing tribute 
recounting his many virtues as an attorney and honorable, 
liberal, patriotic citizen. He was a great writer. Some of 
his contributions were: Manual of Rules of Order; His- 
tory of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ 
(2 vol.); Slavery Question; and Plain Thoughts on Secret 
Societies. He died in Nashville, Aug. 7, 1889. 

A. W. Drury, History of the UB. 1924. 

Religious Telescope, Aug. 14, 1889. John H. Ness, Sn. 

LAWRENCE, KANSAS, U.S.A. First Church has a history 
which parallels the history of the state. The stand of 
Methodist citizens on the question of slavery in the 
1840's caused the name "Methodist" to be practically 
synonymous with "Free State," and many of the immi- 
grants sent out by the North were Methodists. The first 
such groups arrived in August and September of 1854, 
and in November of that year the first Methodist service 
was held in the "Hay Tent," so-called because it was 
made of hay. The first sermon was preached by a Meth- 
odist minister from Missouri. Early in 1855, the Meth- 
odist Church was organized as a local society and plans 
were made for building a stone church but these plans 
failed to materialize. Meetings were held regularly, how- 
ever, in homes and other available buildings. 

In 1856, a primitive church was erected of rough board 
sides, canvas roof, dirt floor, and black walnut seats. 
This building was called "The Tent." It was destroyed by 
a storm in less than a year. In 1857 a frame building 
was erected which the Methodists shared with other de- 
nominations. It was also used by the city school during 
the winter. Plans were started in 1862 for a larger church 
building, but on Aug. 21, 1863, Quantrell and his band 
of guerillas raided Lawrence, killing and wounding men 
and ruining buildings. The seats of the little Methodist 
church were removed and it was used as a morgue. One 
hundred fifty men were killed, many of them leading 
Methodists. In spite of this disaster, plans for a new church 
continued. This red brick building was much larger than 
its predecessor and it served Lawrence Methodists for 
twenty-five years. At the laying of the comer-stone in 
1864, the Kansas State Journal reported, "this ceremony 
has eclipsed any other occasion in our history as a state." 

By 1872 plans were made for a much larger church 
building which would be the largest and finest west of the 
Mississippi River outside of St. Louis. Work progressed 
rapidly until the financial panic of 1873, when all con- 
struction stopped for fifteen years. But by 1891 the con- 
gregation was able to move into the beautiful stone 
church which with very few exterior changes is still in 
use. In 1959 the sanctuary was enlarged and a new heat- 
ing and air-conditioning system was installed. An addition 
to the north side for religious education was built in 


1962. Thus the church has tried to keep pace with the 
growth of the times and of the town. Membership in 
1970 was 2,193. 

Bessie Daum 

LAWRENCE, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A., is situated on 
the .Merrimac River and is a great manufacturing center 
on the Boston and Maine Railroad, twenty-eight miles 
from the city of Boston. That part of the city north of the 
Merrimac River is in the New Hampshire Conference. 

Methodist work in Lawrence began in answer to a 
request made of the presiding elder, Elihu Scott, at the 
Methuen, Mass., Quarterly Conference, May 1846, asking 
that a preacher be sent to Lawrence. At the ensuing an- 
nual conference, James L. Slason was sent with a mis- 
sionary appropriation of $125. There being no place to 
meet, Charles Barnes on 5 Broadway opened his own 
home for public worship. A concert hall was later secured. 
In 1845, L. D. Barrows became pastor with a $200 
missionary appropriation and twenty-three members re- 
ported. Bridgeman's Hall on Oak Street was then us^d 
until a building was erected on the comer of Haverhill 
and Hampshire Streets, and the basement was finished 
for dedication March 26, 1848, with Barrows preaching 
on the theme, "Worship God!" 

A second church appearing in 1853 on Garden Street 
showed a good growth of spiritual interest and the en- 
thusiastic support of the people. The work was continued 
faithfully and this church had a good deal of evangelistic 
interest and missionary spirit. A Sunday school was early 
started on Bodwell Street, and Seth Dawson was super- 
intendent for many years. In 1880 the church known as 
St. Mark's was organized, and continues to serve today. 

Oaklands, in neighboring Methuen, was also a mis- 
sionary product of the Garden Street Church, where at 
Cook's Comer, Miss Mary E. Cook had an important 
part. It later became the scene of growing Italian work 
with a church building, a pastor, and fifty-four members. 

With the influx of French Canadians around Garden 
Street, a merger of this church was effected with the 
Haverhill Street Church in 1910. Both David B. Dow 
and George W. Farmer were appointed to the new Central 
Church Society. Preliminary plans were then made for a 
new church edifice. This was built on Haverhill Street 
opposite from the "Common," under the pastorate of 
Edwin S. Tasker, beginning in 1912. This church con- 
tinues its great ministry in the heart of Lawrence. 

For several years in the early 1880's a mission Sunday 
school was conducted by different denominations in a 
chapel belonging to the Y.M.C.A. of Lawrence, situated 
on Lake Street in the Arlington section of the city. With 
most having Methodist leanings, in April 30, 1891 at a 
meeting called to consider the matter, the presiding elder, 
George W. Norris of the Dover District, was asked to 
organize the society into a M. E. Church. This was done 
and is now St. Paul's. The Vine Street Church came into 
the New Hampshire Conference by transfer from the 
German Conference which had work there then. 

Cole and Baketel, New Hampshire Conference. 1929. 
Journal of the New Hampshire Conference. 

William J. Davis 

LAWRENCE UNIVERSITY, Appleton, Wisconsin, was 
founded in 1847, one year before Wisconsin achieved 


Lawrence Memorial Chapel 

statehood, as a joint effort of the Rock River Confer- 
ence and Amos Adams Lawrence, a Boston merchant 
with wide philanthropic, educational, and political in- 
terests. The present charter makes the institution's forty- 
two member board of trustees a self-perpetuating body. 
Its ties with The United Methodist Church are through 
a board of twelve visitors, six elected by the East Wis- 
consin Annual Conference and six elected by the West 
Wisconsin Conference. At least nine are alumni mem- 
bers nominated by alumni. 

In 1964 Lawrence College and Milwaukee-Downer Col- 
lege merged to form Lawrence University. It is made up 
of Lawrence College for Men, Downer College for Wom- 
en, the Conservatory of Music, and the affiliated Institute 
of Paper Chemistry. A Phi Beta Kappa society was in- 
stalled in 1914. Degrees offered are the B.A. and B.M. 
( Music ) . 

John O. Gross 

LAWRY, HENRY HASSALL (1821-1906), New Zealand 
minister, was bom in New South Wales and was educated 
at KiNGSwooD School, England, where he was converted. 
He became a local preacher and entered business in 
London. Prompted by filial duty, he came to New Zea- 
land with his father, Walter Lawry, arriving in 1844. 
In the same year, Henry was received on probation 
and studied Maori under James Duller at Tangiteroria. 

After teaching at the Wesleyan Native Training Insti- 
tution in Auckland, he became the first missionary at 
the Pehiakura Station, and for five years covered a wide 
area of country around the Manukau Harbor. A second 
scattered circuit (Waima) undermined his health. He 
was brought back to Wesley Three Kings College, and 
in 1874 superannuated. 

Subsequently, he served with the Auckland Auxiliary 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society. He revised 


and re-edited a Maori book of services. He acted as 
interpreter in the Maori land court. He was a man of rich 
and varied experience, wide reading, and deep spirituality. 

W. Morley, New Zealand. 1900. William T. Blight 

LAWRY, SAMUEL (1854-1933), New Zealand Methodist 
minister, was bom in St. Mabyn, Cornwall, England, in 
1854 and came to New Zealand at the age of eight. 
For thirty-four years he was a circuit minister, and then 
in 1911, he became connexional secretary. This position 
he held for sixteen years. He was secretary of Conference 
for seven years, and then president in 1904, and again in 
1913, on the occasion of Methodist Union. 

Steeped in Methodist tradition, thoroughly versed in 
Methodist polity and procedure, prominent in the philan- 
thropic and social movements of his time, he gave fifty 
years of devoted service to his church. He died at Christ- 
church on July 26, 1933. 

Minutes of the Netc Zealand Methodist Conference, 1934. 

William T. Blight 

LAWRY, WALTER (1793-1859), early missionary to Aus- 
tralia, Tonga and New Zealand, was born at Rutheren, 
Cornwall, England, on Aug. 3, 1793. Converted in early 
age, he soon began to preach. He was accepted in 1817 
as a candidate for the ministry by the Wesleyan Con- 
ference in England and was appointed as assistant mis- 
sionary in New South Wales. He arrived in Sydney in 
May i818, and became the colleague of Samuel Leigh. 

The situation which confronted them was such that 
they "agreed to live on two meals a day if they could 
have another missionary and a printing press." Lawry 
was stationed at Parramatta, and served there with con- 
spicuous success for four years. He then went to Tonga 
to commence the Friendly Islands Mission. In 1822 the 
Tongan Islands had been abandoned by the London 
Missionary Society because of the ferocity of the natives. 
Lawry worked amongst them until his health compelled 
him to retire in 1825, when he went back to England. 

For nineteen years he remained in English circuit work. 
He returned to the Southern Hemisphere in 1843, having 
been appointed General Superintendent of the Wesleyan 
Missions in New Zealand, and Visitor of those in Polynesia, 
an office he held for eleven years. He established the Wes- 
leyan Native Training Institution in Auckland and founded 
Wesley College and Seminary. 

In 1854 he retired from the duties of the ministry 
because of failing health and settled in Parramatta, New 
South Wales, where he died on March 30, 1859. His 
diary (as yet unpublished) is a classic description of life 
in early Australian history. 

J. Colwell, Century in the Pacific. 1914. 

W. Morley, New Zealand. 1900. 

E. W. Hames, Walter Lawry and the Wesleyan Mission in the 

South Seas. Wesley Historical Societ>', New Zealand, 1967. 

William T. Blight 

LAWS, CHARLES HENRY (1867-1958), New Zealand 
minister, was bom at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, in 
1867, and was brought to New Zealand at the age of 
seven. He heard the call to the ministry at an early age, 
and became the leading preacher of the Methodist Church 
in New Zealand. Mainly through his advocacy, the New 




Zealand Coiifereiicc gained its independence from Aus- 

He insisted on better training for ministers and was 
the driving force behind the building of Trinity Theolog- 
ical College and hostel in Auckland (1929). For a period 
of eleven years ( 1920-31 ) he held the position of principal 
of the theological college, first at Dunholme and then at 
Trinity College. Earlier, he was secretary of Conference 
six times, and president twice — in 1910, and again in 
1922. As a leader and administrator he was without peer 
and as a preacher he belonged to the very front rank. He 
died in Auckland on Feb. 8, 1958. 

Wesley Parker, Rev. C. H. Laws, B.A., D.D., Memoir and 
Addresses. A. H. & A. W. Reed, 1957. L. R. M. Gilmore 

LAWSON, ANNA ELIZABETH (1860-1951), was a life- 
long missionary to India representing the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of the M. E. Church. She 
was bom in Clio, Iowa, U.S.A., Feb. 2, 1860. At the age 
of fourteen, she joined the M. E. Church and decided to 
prepare for service in the church at home or abroad. In 
1881, she graduated from Iowa Wesleyan University 
and became a teacher in country schools. She was active 
in church work, including teaching Sunday school classes. 

In 1885, she went to India as the first missionary from 
the Des Moines Branch of the Society. She was appointed 
to the girls' orphanage in Bareilly. After furlough, she was 
appointed principal of the Methodist Girls' School at 
Meerut and remained there throughout her second term, 
establishing a reputation as a skillful administrator and a 
beloved servant of the church. 

In the terrible famine that came late in the nine- 
teenth century, and continued into the twentieth, she was 
sent to Phulera, Rajputana, as manager of a home in 
which hundreds of orphaned children were gathered. Re- 
turning from a second furlough, she was again appointed 
to Rajputana and served as principal of the girls' school 
in Ajmer. Many girls whose lives were saved by her ef- 
forts during the famine were then her students. 

Miss Lawson had a flair for business. She early became 
treasurer of the funds of the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society within her annual conference. From her parents' 
estate che received a legacy which, through her steward- 
ship, became a great asset of the Kingdom. She purchased 
property in the summer resort of Mussoorie, and made 
it available for missionary recruits studying Indian lan- 
guages. She engaged competent instructors to help the 
missionaries, and was one of the founders of the Landour 
Language School. She also purchased a cottage in Sat Tal 
for use by women teachers in Methodist schools, so that 
they might have the advantage of a rest away from the 
summer heat of the Indian plains, and share in privileges 
provided by the Ashrams of E. Stanley Jones. 

In 1951 Iowa Wesleyan University bestowed upon her 
the honorary L.H.D. degree. A short time later that year 
she passed away, in her ninety-second year. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

LAWSON, JOHN (1909- ), the editor of the doc- 

trinal articles in the Encyclopaedia of World Methodism, 
is a minister of the British Methodist Church. He was 
bom in Leeds, Yorkshire, in which city his family have 
been Methodists ever since his great-great-grandfather, 
John Lawson, was converted there in 1802. While a 

student of agriculture he received a call to preach, and 
later entered the separated ministry in 1932, receiving 
his theological education at Wesley House, Cambridge. 
For twenty years he was employed in the pastoral min- 
istry, chiefly in mral circuits in the eastern counties of 
England. During this time he wrote his dissertation. The 
Biblical Theology of S. Irenacm, and a number of other 
books, chiefly on Wesley doctrine and general theology. 
Since 1955 he has taught church history, historical the- 
ology, Wesley history, and Wesley theology, at the 
Candler School of Theology, Emory University, Atlanta, 
Georgia, U.S.A. Among his more recent publications is 
A Comprehensive Handbook of Christian Doctrine. He is 
a firm upholder of the Wesley heritage of doctrine and 
devotion, and keenly interested in the movement for 
Christian unity. 

N. B. H. 

LAWSON, MARTIN E. (See Judicial Council.) 

LAWTON, OKLAHOMA, USA., Centenary Method'st 
Church. Less than two weeks after the official opening 
of Lawton, on Aug. 18, 1901, B. F. Gassaway, missionary 
to the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Indians, organized 
the M. E. Church, South, with funds provided by the 
Board of Missions of that Church. The lot where the 
congregation met was on the comer of 9th and D, and 
a canvas tent housed the twenty-four original members. 
In November, the charge was made a station and the 
new minister, W. F. Dunkle, Sr., arrived, only to have 
the tent blown down that very night. Members built a 
box structure to house the church within the week and, 
shortly, the new church had an organ, active commissions, 
an Epworth League, Women's Societies, a full slate of 
officers, and a modest parsonage. 

During the pastorate of A. J. Worley (1903-04), a new 
frame structure was built and the canvas windows and 
homemade seats were replaced by oak pews and stained 
glass windows. R. S. Satterfield (1905-06) and the rapid- 
ly growing church were host to the Oklahoma Conference 
in 1906, an ambitious project considering the fact that the 
church had no electricity nor plumbing. Business meet- 
ings for the gathering were held in the Ramsey Opera 
House. From this conference, Lawton sent forth her first 
ordained minister, R. E. L. Morgan. 

On Jan. 21, 1907, during the pastorate of A. L. Scales, 
the present church site at the corner of 7th and D was 
purchased. The church built a recreational building during 
the years of World War I in order to better serve the 
personnel at Fort Sill. With Wilmore Kendall (1918-21) 
plans were made and funds procured for the new Cen- 
tenary M. E. Church, South, so-named because of funds 
used from the Centenary Fund of the Board of Church 
Extension (MES) and the War Work Commission of the 
same Church. Wilmore Kendall worked actively but, 
because of his blindness, requested a new pastor for the 
supervision of the actual building, J. D. Salter (1922-24). 
The cornerstone was laid in 1922, and in 1924 the ladies 
of the church contributed a pipe organ, kitchen and 
parlor fumishings, stained glass windows, and church 

In 1939, the Northern and Southern Methodist churches 
of the city united and Centenary members took an active 
part in the united annual conferences. By 1943, under the 
pastorate of Forrest A. Fields (1941-48), all loans on 



church properties were paid off. The Second World War 
gave an added incentive to the youth program, and it 
expanded to include junior and senior high groups and a 
flourishing college and career. 

During the pastorate of J. W. Browers, Jr., beginning 
in 1952, the remodeled sanctuary was dedicated, and the 
old First Presbyterian Church at 8th and D was purchased 
to be used as the youth building. Under the leadership of 
Argus Hamilton, Jr. (1960-64), a modem education-oflRce 
building was completed. 

The 1970 membership of 2,874 continues to reflect 
the pioneer spirit and Christian concern of the original 
twenty-four men and women who met in August of 1901 
with a dream and a commitment to the future. 

Clegg and Oden, Oklahoma. 1968. 

Chronicles of Comanche County, Vol. IV, No. 1, Spring 1968. 

Elwyn O. Thurston 

LAY DELEGATION (U.S.A.). In the early days of Amer- 
ican Methodism, indeed from 1784 until 1872 in the 
M. E. Church, and until 1866 in the M. E. Church, South, 
the Annual and General Conferences consisted wholly 
of ministers. There was no representation from the laity 
of the church, and the great call and demand for "laity 
rights" and lay representation was a major one in bring- 
ing about the organization of the Methodist Protestant 
Church. James R. Joy, who was familiar with early Meth- 
odist procedures, stated once that in early Methodism 
no one was allowed in a conference when it was in ses- 
sion, save its own members. All members were, of course, 
preachers, and there was no "gallery" for visitors, nor 
indeed were any visitors allowed. The secrecy of con- 
ference proceedings as carried on by ministers alone 
helped to intensify the call for lay rights. 

This was, of course, the Conference plan which the 
Wesleyans in England had been carrying on for many 
years before American Methodism originated. And it 
should be admitted that the business of the armual con- 
ferences was almost altogether ministerial, as few financial 
matters came under review. But as the Church grew in 
strength and in numbers, and as property in churches, 
in educational institutions, in publishing houses, and the 
like, was accumulated, the desire became more manifest 
that the laity of the church should have some voice in 
arranging its general plans. 

Local preachers began the first agitation towards this 
end, as they felt that in the delegated General Con- 
ference — meeting first in 1812 — they had been left with- 
out any representation, and of course without authority. 
As discussion spread in the Church a period of great 
turmoil ensued, and the laity rights movement finally 
brought about the organization of the Methodist Protestant 

During subsequent anti-slavery discussions in the Gen- 
eral Conference (after the Methodist Protestants had 
withdrawn), various matters regarding laity rights also 
came up. In 1842 a number of persons seceded to form 
the Wesleyan Methodist Church which, like the Meth- 
odist Protestants, introduced lay representation into their 
legislative bodies and rejected episcopacy and the pre- 
siding eldership. 

When the M. E. Church, South, was formed under 
the Plan of Separation, there was no difference between 
the episcopal Methodisms in the matter of lay representa- 
tion. But when the Southern Church reorganized follow- 

ing the Civil War in 1866, there was up for adoption a 
plan for lay representation to be acted on in the General 
Conference. That Conference created a special committee 
to report at the next General Conference (1870) upon 
the whole matter of lay representation. 

The Committee duly recommended this in 1870 with 
a provision that would admit laymen to the General 
Conference in equal numbers with ministers; and also 
recommended that four lay representatives should be 
elected to each Annual Conference from each presiding 
elders 's district; and that these four should be elected by 
the newly established District Conference — the District 
Conference being a strictly southern creation as of that 
date. It was specifically provided that the lay members 
were not to vote upon ministerial qualifications or char- 
acter — and it may be said that lay members never have 
been allowed to vote upon such up to the present day. 
In spite of opposition by John C. Keener, Norval 
Wilson, and Leonidas Rosser, Holland N. McT^xibe — 
to be elected bishop by that conference — managed to get 
the report for lay representation adopted by a good 

Later on in the M. E. Church, South, the ratio of lay 
representation in the annual conferences was changed so 
that in 1914 eight delegates were allowed to be elected 
from each presiding elder's district; then in 1926 it be- 
came one lay delegate for every 800 church members. 
When the Plan of Union was finally adopted, this be- 
came one lay delegate from every pastor's charge, no 
matter how large that charge should be, or how small. 

In the M. E. Church in 1860, the General Conference 
adopted a resolution expressive of a willingness to intro- 
duce lay delegation into the General Conference "when- 
ever the Church desired it," and agreeing to submit the 
question to a vote of the lay members of the church, and 
also to a vote of the ministry. The vote was taken in 1861- 
62, in the midst of the excitement of the Civil War, and 
resulted in 28,000 members in favor and 47,000 against; 
1,338 ministers for and 3,969 against. Thus it failed. 

After the close of the war the subject was again dis- 
cussed and the General Conference of 1868 submitted 
another plan for lay delegation to the consideration of 
the people. In spite of a great many technical matters 
which were involved in voting upon the proposed amend- 
ments, the result of the vote was a two to one majority for 
lay representation. The General Conference of the church 
in 1876 — still not quite convinced — ordered the appoint- 
ment of a committee who should consider, in the interim 
of the conferences, the question of the expediency of lay 
delegation. It reported favorably to the General Confer- 
ence of 1880. 

The plan of lay representation as proposed by the 
General Conference of 1872 and ultimately adopted pro- 
vided for two lay delegates from each annual conference, 
except where a conference had only one clerical delegate, 
and in such cases only one lay delegate was allowed. Lay 
and clerical members were to deliberate in one body but 
to vote separately (vote by orders), if such separate vote 
should be called for by one-third of either order. In such 
cases both orders had to concur. 

General Conference lay delegates were to be elected 
by an electoral conference of laymen which was to 
assemble on the third day of the session of each annual 
conference held previous to a General Conference. The 
electoral conference was to be made up of one layman 
from each circuit or station, and there were certain speci- 


fications as to age and church membership for them before 
they could be recognized. 

The above provisions continued with slight modifica- 
tions until 1900, when the M. E. Church adopted a 
written constitution. This put the election of lay dele- 
gates in the hands of a regular lay conference which was 
then established. This lay conference, as called for in 
1900, was something more than the old lay electoral 
conference which had only met once every four years. 
It was in effect, a parallel conference to that of the min- 
isters, and was established for the purpose of voting on 
constitutional amendments — and also of considering and 
acting upon matters relating to lay activities and such 
other matters as the General Conference might direct. 
One lay member from each pastoral charge was to be 
elected to the lay conference. Clerical and lay members 
were to meet in united sessions for certain parts of the 
joint program. 

When church union came about between the three 
Methodist Churches of the United States in 1939, it was 
evident that lay representation would be continued in 
much the same pattern as had been the case in the two 
Methodist Episcopal Churches. However, the Methodist 
Protestant plan of electing one layman from each charge 
was put into the Plan of Union, and followed out hence- 
forth. The old electoral lay conference, and the confer- 
ence of la\Tnen which sat in parallel with the conference 
of ministers in the M. E. Church, was done away in favor 
of the plan which the Southern Church had always pur- 
sued — that of having laymen actual integrated members 
of the annual conference itself. At present, therefore, each 
annual conference is organized with its ministerial mem- 
bership and its lay membership all sitting in a body and 
acting together upon all matters in general parliamentary 

The adoption of Amendment X in The Methodist 
Church allowed those churches which had more than one 
minister to send a lay delegate for each effective full-time 
minister in full connection appointed to their charge. This 
provision was continued in the Constitution of The United 
Methodist Church. "Each charge served by more than one 
minister shall be entitled to as many lay members as there 
are ministerial members" {Discipline, 1968, P. 36.) 

When ministerial character is involved, as admission 
to Conference or voting to grant ordination to a minister, 
the lay members are not constitutionally allowed to vote. 

Several Judicial Council decisions came about since 
1940 defining matters of lay participation in the annual 
conference. One of them holds that laymen have no right 
to call a conference of their own lay delegate member- 
ship apart from the annual conference itself unless this is 
to elect delegates to the Jurisdictional or General 
Conference (decision 74 J.C.); also that the ministerial 
members of the annual conference may exclude from their 
meeting place (if they choose to do so) the lay members 
when a matter of ministerial character is involved (deci- 
sion 42 J.C.). These decisions were made prior to 1968. 

Present regulations. The Constitution of The United 
Methodist Church provides that whatever be the number 
of ministerial delegates to the General and Jurisdictional 
Conferences an Annual Conference is allowed to elect, 
there shall be "an equal number of laymen." It also pro- 
vides that in electing laymen to the General Conference, 
the laymen of the annual conference shall sit and vote as 
a body in electing their delegates; while the ministerial 
members sit as a body electing their delegates. Recent 

General Conferences provided that if a minister is se- 
lected to act as spokesman and leader of a delegation in 
one quadrennium, at the next quadrennium the lay leader 
of the delegation shall be the leader, and so on alternative- 
ly. In the General Conference the laymen and ministers 
sit together with each delegation assigned its own seats, 
and laymen and ministers are equally assigned to commit- 
tees in accordance with the rules of the General Confer- 
ence itself. Voting can be called for by "orders" — that is 
the lay members must be polled as lay members, and the 
clerical members as ministers. Such a vote can be ordered 
by one-third of either order when one of that order makes 
such an appeal. The vote by orders is, however, a block- 
ing move, designed to defeat a pending measure. It is 
never made to further a measure since it is much more 
difficult in a close decision to carry each order by a 
majority than to carry the whole house. 

Women delegates. Women have been given full laity 
rights in the Methodist Churches since early in the present 
century. Their admission to the conferences as lay per- 
sons followed the victory of lay representation in both 
Episcopal Methodisms. The struggle for full laity rights 
for women in the M. E. Church was concluded victorious- 
ly for them when the constitution of 1900 of that church 
was adopted. However, not until 1914 did the M. E. 
Church, South allow women to become stewards and 
enjoy all other lay rights except admission to the con- 
ference and ordination. Both these rights were subse- 
quently given. Not until after union and in 1956 did 
the General Conference pass legislation declaring that 
"women are included in all provisions of the Discipline 
referring to the ministry" (Discipline, 1960, P. 303). This 
allowed women to become members of the annual con- 
ference and the traveling ministry if and when an annual 
conference shall elect such to membership. These rights 
were carried over into the United Methodist Church in 

E.U.B. Church. The struggle for laity rights in the 
E.U.B. Church and its antecedent bodies followed much 
the same lines as it did in the Methodist Episcopal 
Churches. For the successive steps which led to full laity 
representation, see the synopses of the General Confer- 
ences of these Churches listed under General Conference. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

Discipline, UMC. 

N. B. Harmon, Organization. 1948, 1953, 1962. N. B. H. 

LAY LEADER is the name of an officer of The United 
Methodist Church. He is, of course, a layman who may 
be an Annual Conference Lay Leader in which case he 
is elected by the Annual Conference; or a Charge Lay 
Leader elected by the Charge Conference and serving in 
his own local church. 

The office of Lay Leader grew out of a need felt by 
the Board of Lay Activities and kindred agencies in The 
Methodist Church — and its antecedent Churches — before 
the Union of 1939. The Constitution of The United Meth- 
odist Church makes the Conference Lay Leader a mem- 
ber of the Annual Conference by virtue of his office. He 
is chairman of the Conference Board of the Laity also by 
virtue of his ofiBce. Annual Conference Boards of the 
Laity, as they are now, have specified membership, and 
a definite assignment of work and program upon which 
they report at each session of the Annual Conference. 

In the local charge the Lay Leader, who is elected by 



the Charge Conference, has the following privileges 
and responsibilities: membership in the Charge Confer- 
ence; in the Board of Administration; and in the Council 
on Ministries. In general, he represents the work of the 
laity in the local church in all manner of ways. In instances 
where more than one church is on a charge, the Charge 
Conference must elect additional Lay Leaders so that 
there will be one Lay Leader for each church. The Lay 
Leaders, both in the Local Charge and in the annual 
Conference, each have certain representative responsibili- 
ties which they are called upon to assume at the sessions 
of these respective bodies. Present duties and responsibili- 
ties are outlined in the Book of Discipline. (See also Lay 
Movement in American Methodism. ) 

Discipline, UMC, 1968. N. B. H. 

ficially recognized at the organization of The Methodist 
Church in 1939 with the creation of a General Board of 
Lay Activities, is in reality as old as Methodism it.self. 

From the very beginning of Methodism in England, 
John Wesley made use of laymen as preachers and lead- 
ers. John Cennick, Thomas Maxfield, John Nelson 
and others were among the earliest and best known of 
these laymen. Furthermore, all the preachers Wesley sent 
to the new world, including Francis Asbuby, were lay- 
men. It was not until the organizing Conference (the 
Christmas Conference) of the M. E. Church in 1784 
that the preachers of American Methodism received ordi- 

The first three Methodist Societies organized in Amer- 
ica on the Wesley plan were founded by laymen. Philip 
Embury, a carpenter and teacher, organized the John 
Street Society in New York. Captain Thomas Webb 
of the British Army formed the Society later called St. 
George's in Philadelphia; and Robert Strawbridge, 
a farmer, began Methodist Societies in Maryland. Nor 
did the laymen cease their activities following the ordina- 
tion of the preachers at the conference of 1784. Abel 
Stevens, the nineteenth century historian of American 
Methodism, comments on their value by writing, "Scores 
of other preachers and laymen of these times, faithful 
and invincible pioneers of Methodism . . . men who not 
only labored before the itinerants arrived, and afterward 
with them, but provided them food and homes and 
'preaching houses,' should be commemorated forever by 
the Church." 

Unfortunately, no official recognition was taken of these 
laymen. They were not members of the annual confer- 
ences and they had no place in the General Confer- 
ences of the Church. They had no organization other 
than a makeshift "District Conference" — which in the 
pioneer period did not last long — through which they 
might exert an influence on the growing church. 

Agitation for lay representation in the annual and Gen- 
eral Conferences, however, was stirring the church. In 
1821 a layman, William S. Stockton, founded a paper 
called the Wesleyan Repository and Religious Intelli- 
gencer. It was later succeeded by a magazine entitled. 
The Mutual Rights of Ministers and Members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Stockton, a man of progres- 
sive views, fearlessly set forth in fiis magazine his ideas 
in favor of lay representation and lay activities. He is said 
to have been the first person publicly to have advocated 
lay representation, and in this sense is the father of the 

movement. Ezekiel Cooper, second Book Editor of the 
M. E. Church, contributed to the Repository two articles 
favoring lay representation — one on the "Question of Lay- 
delegation" and the other on "The Outlines of a Pro- 
posed Plan for a Lay-delegation." 

The General Conference of tlie M. E. Church meeting 
in 1828 rejected all memorials on the subject, and shortly 
thereafter the Methodist Protestant Church was orga- 
nized. That church provided for lay representation in 
each of the annual conferences and for an equal number 
of laymen and ministers in the General Conference. 

In 1852, following the bisection of the Church in 
1844, tlie M. E. Church was again agitated by laymen 
and ministers desiring lay representation. In that year a 
group of laymen met in Philadelphia to discuss the situ- 
ation. The Philadelphia Chrisiian Advocate was launched, 
and the question was debated in its pages. In 1860 the 
General Conference was swayed by appeals for lay repre- 
sentation to the extent that it passed a resolution stating 
approval of the general idea "when it shall be ascertained 
that the church desires it." Pastors were requested to take 
a vote among their male members over twenty-one years 
of age "for" or "against " lay representation. The measure 
was voted down by a ratio of almost two to one. Agitation, 
however, continued. In 1868 the General Conference ap- 
proved a plan whereby each annual conference was to be 
represented at the General Conference by two laymen, 
and sent the plan to the annual conferences for possible 
approval. This plan became the law of the church, and 
in 1872 for the first time in the history of the M. E. 
Church, laymen sat in the General Conference (see Lay 
Delegation ) . 

Two years previously in 1870 the Southern Church 
had granted equal representation to ministers and laymen 
in the General Conference, and had passed a law provid- 
ing for four lay delegates from each district to sit with the 
ministers in the annual conferences and be an integral 
part of it. 

The new law in the Northern Church, however, did not 
abate the clamor for greater lay representation; and agita- 
tion for equal representation in the General Conference 
as well as representation in the annual conferences reached 
hurricane proportions. 

Laymen's Associations. In the meantime on Feb. 19, 
1889 a group of Methodist laymen in Philadelphia met at 
the Arch Street Church in Philadelphia and organized 
"Philadelphia Laymen's Association of the M. E. Church." 
Membership was limited to residents of Philadelphia, and 
they dealt with the questions of "new church buildings," 
"equal lay representation," "the admission of women to 
the General Conference," and other kindred subjects. The 
Association, furthermore, corresponded with laymen 
throughout the country proposing a convention of laymen 
to take place in Omaha prior to the General Conference 
of 1872. The meeting was held, memorials were sent to 
the General Conference for equal lay representation, and 
to this end an amendment to the constitution was pro- 
posed. The General Conference approved the measure, 
but it failed to pass the annual conferences. 

Another step, however, was now taken by the Phila- 
delphia Conference. A convention of laymen met in 
Norristown on March 9, 1893, where the annual confer- 
ence was meeting, and formed the Laymen's Association 
of the Philadelphia Annual Conference, the former Asso- 
ciation being formally dissolved. According to Charles 
F. Eggleston, writing in Pioneering in Penn's Woods, 



it was the "first Methodist Laymen's Association of any 
Annual Conference in the United States." 

The Association actively promoted similar organizations 
in other conferences. These Associations continued to 
agitate for equal representation of laymen and ministers 
in the General Conference, and by 1900 this goal was 

The next step was to secure equal lay representation 
in the annual conference.s — a measure that was voted 
down by the annual conferences in 1920 and 1924, but 
became the law of the Church in 1932. 

Southern Church. Ten years previous to this action of 
the Northern Church, the Southern Church, with a more 
progressive outlook, had organized a General Board of 
Lay Activities on Aug. 23 at Lake Junaluska, N. C. J. H. 
Reynolds was elected General Secretary but immediately 
resigned in order to continue his work as president of 
Hendrix College. George R. Morelock was elected 
to succeed him, and Morelock continued in this position 
until Methodist union in 1939, and then was elected the 
first executive secretary of the General Board of Lay 
Activities of The Methodist Church. He continued in this 
position until his retirement in 1948. 

Northern Church. The Northern Church had not been 
totally lax in challenging its laymen, but had at the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1908 also formed the Methodist 
Brotherhood. The first E.xecutive Secretary was Fayette 
L. Thompson, 1908-1912. He was succeeded by William 
S. BovARD. The General Conference of 1916 placed the 
responsibility for this work on the Superintendent of the 
Adult Department of the Board of Sunday Schools and 
named Bovard as Director. He served until 1920, when 
he was elected Executive Secretary of the Board of Sun- 
day Schools, and Bert E. Smith was elected his successor. 
In 1924 the General Conference formed four boards into 
the Board of Education and Bovard was then elected 
as Executive Secretary of this board. Smith was elected 
as Superintendent of Adult Work of the Board of Educa- 
tion and served in that capacity from 1924-1934. He 
was also Director of Men's Work, an adjunct of the Board 
of Education. Edgar T. Welch was the first president 
of this commission. He was succeeded by Judge H. R. 
Suavely who served up to the time of unification in 1939. 

Steps in Cooperation. On Feb. 28-29, 1928, in Louis- 
ville, Ky., an "All Methodist Conference on Men's Work" 
was held involving representatives of the M. E. Church, 
South, and M. E. Church. Out of this conference came 
the Joint Commission of Men's Work. This commission 
held its first meeting in Louisville on Dec. 27, 1928. John 
R. Pepper was elected president, Edgar T. Welch, vice 
president, and H. R. Suavely, secretary. This commission 
formed a Joint Men's Council which later became the 
Inter-Methodist Men's Council. The Inter-Methodist Men's 
Council held its first meeting in Louisville Dec. 5-6, 1929. 

Toward Unification of Lay Work. When it became ap- 
parent that the M. E. Church, M. E. Church, South, and 
the M. P. Church would unite, a meeting of responsible 
persons in Lay Activities and Men's Work of the three 
denominations was called on April 6, 1938 in St. Louis, 
Mo. At this meeting the group unanimously approved the 
idea of a General Board of Lay Activities as an auton- 
omous administrative arm of the united church. Approval 
was also given to organize Boards of Lay Activities in 
annual conferences and districts. The Official Board was 
to be the arm of lay activities in the local church. 

A Steering Committee on Lay Activities and Men's 

Work was set up to direct further procedures toward 
union. The Steering Committee drafted a communication 
to the Commission on Union dealing with the matter of 
Lay Activities and Men's Work. On April 26, 1939 in 
Kansas City, Mo., the Uniting Conference approved the 
organization of a General Board of Lay Activities as an 
official agency of The Methodist Church, U.S.A. 

The General Conference of 1940 fixed the headquar- 
ters of the General Board in Chicago, 111. In 1962 head- 
quarters were moved to Evanston, 111. George L. More- 
lock was elected the first executive secretary, a position 
he held until his retirement in 1948. Chilton G. Bennett 
was elected his successor, serving from 1948 until 1951. 
E. Lament Geissinger served as acting executive secre- 
tary during 1951-52. Robert G. Mayfield was elected 
General Secretary in 1952, and served until 1968. 

The General Board of the Laity. At the 1968 Uniting 
Conference, the General Board of Lay Activities (as it 
had been) of The Methodist Church and the Department 
of Christian Stewardship and the general organization 
of Evangelical United Brethren Men of the former E.U.B. 
Church were united under the name General Board of the 
Laity. (Paragraph 1183, Discipline. 1968.) This was man- 
dated to operate under the charter of its own incorporation 
and the Discipline of The United Methodist Church "to 
hold and administer trust funds and assets of every kind 
and character . . . and to develop and promote a program 
in keeping with its objective and functions." These func- 
tions are stated to be "that all persons be aware of and 
grow in their understanding of God, especially of his re- 
deeming love as revealed in Jesus Christ, and that they 
respond in faith and love — to the end that they may know 
who they are and what their human situation means, in- 
creasingly identify themselves as sons of God and members 
of the Christian community, live in the spirit of God in 
every relationship, fulfill their common discipleship in 
the world, and abide in the Christian hope." (Paragraph 
1186, ibid.) 

The organization of the new Board was provided for 
by the Discipline of 1968 and it was greatly enlarged over 
what the old Board had been. It was empowered to func- 
tion through two divisions — the Division of Lay Life and 
Work and the Division of Stewardship and Finance. Lay 
Life and Work is directed to function through two sec- 
tions: the Section of Lay Ministries, and the Section on 
United Methodist Men. Detailed directions for the proper 
administration of these and other divisions of the General 
Board of the Laity will be found in the current Discipline. 
Stewardship and Finance is heavily stressed. 

In each jurisdiction there may be a Jurisdictional Board 
of the Laity auxiliary to the general board, as the Juris- 
dictional Conference may determine. 

Annual Conferences are each directed to create a Con- 
ference Board of the Laity auxiliary to the general and 
jurisdictional board, and to follow through the general 
program of the whole Church in this field. 

A Conference lay leader shall be elected annually by 
the Annual Conference on nomination of its particular 
Board of the Laity. The duties of this office are carefully 
outlined in the Discipline as are the duties of the Charge 
Lay Leader. 

It is also directed that there shall be a Conference orga- 
nization of United Methodist Men which is auxiliary to 
the general, jurisdictional, and conference Boards of the 
Laity. This organization is designed to supplant and en- 



large the work of the old former Methodist Men as this 
organization was known in The Methodist Church. 

District Boards of the Laity are called for in regarding 
the general plan of work for these. As with other boards of 
the Church, general regulations governing this board may 
be changed by succeeding General Conferences in minor 
particulars from time to time. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 
Discipline, UMC, 1968. 

Pioneering in Penn's Woods, the Philadelphia Conference Tract 
Society, 1937. Robert G. Mayfield 

LAY PASTORS. In the late nineteenth century some 
British local preachers were paid to assist circuit min- 
isters, though without securing the training, status, al- 
lowances, and security of the ministers themselves. They 
were known variously as "hired local preachers," "lay 
agents," and "lay pastors," the latter becoming their of- 
ficial designation. Their employment was considered a 
necessary expedient in the Methodist Church after Meth- 
odist Union in 1932, though it was viewed with increas- 
ing misgivings. They were accepted and appointed by the 
Home Mission Department, usually from the ranks of 
accredited local preachers, and served four years on proba- 
tion, pursuing a directed course of studies, before being 
accepted on an approved list. The lay pastor was expected 
to wear civilian attire, and was subject to the jurisdiction 
of the Local Preachers' Meeting of the circuit to which 
he was appointed. After earlier attempts had been made 
to eliminate this "second class ministry," or at least to 
reduce its numbers, the Conference of 1947 urged circuits 
no longer to employ them, and this exhortation was re- 
emphasized by the Conference of 1963. Many of the 
former lay pastors were able through special training to 
gain acceptance to the regular ministry, and the Minutes 
of Conference no longer officially recognizes the standing 
of any except those who have retired in that work, whose 
names are listed. ( See Ministry. ) 

Frank Baker 


IN Methodism. ) 

LAYTON, (MISS) M. E. (1841-1892), was the first mis- 
sionary of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
sent to an appointment in Indla outside of the original 
India Mission field in Oudh and Rohilkhaud. She started 
the Calcutta Girls' School on its great career of service. 
Originally its students were mainly Europeans and Anglo- 
Indians. Now they represent many racial and creedal 
communities, and the school contributes powerfully to 
both the national strength and to church growth. She was 
bom in Delaware, U.S.A., February 1841, and died at 
Cawnpore, India, April 28, 1892. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

LAZENBY, MARION ELIAS (1885-1957), American min- 
ister, missionary, editor, and church historian, was born 
at Forest Home, Butler Co., Ala. Feb. 8, 1885. He was 
licensed to preach in 1906; was admitted into the Ala- 
bama Conference in 1907, and was appointed at that 
Conference to Cuba, where he served as pastor of the 
Trinity Church, Havana. Returning to his home confer- 

ence, he sened as pastor of several churches. In 1922 he 
became editor of the Alabama Christian Advocate, and 
in 1928 he transferred to the North Alabama Confer- 
ence and continued as editor until 1935. After serving 
as district superintendent and as pastor, he went to 
Chicago in 1943 to become assistant editor of the Chris- 
tian Advocate. Returning to Alabama in 1949, he was 
for one year superintendent of the Huntsville District 
before being recalled to the editorship of the Alabama 
Christian Advocate. In 1953 he retired and was asked 
to write the Hisiortj of Methodism in Alabama and West 
Florida. This last — a monumental task — was accepted by 
the conference shortly before Lazenby's death on Sept. 
12, 1957, at Montevallo, Ala. 

Clark and Stafford, Who's Who in Methodism. 1952. 
C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

arose in Bristol in 1742 as financially expedient, and 
rapidly developed into a valuable pastoral instrument, 
with the leader of each class not only collecting small 
weekly contributions for society expenses, but admonish- 
ing and encouraging his (or her) members. Otherwise 
their title might well have become "collectors" rather than 
"leaders." By about 1744 the Class Leaders were exer- 
cising this pastoral oversight, not chiefly by visits to the 
homes of those members on their class list, but by con- 
ducting a weekly fellowship meeting for them. Many 
who thus began as class leaders developed sufficient the- 
ological acumen and eloquence to become Local Preach- 
ers. The office of class leader was one which offered 
large scope for women as well as men. 

The leaders brought the money which they had col- 
lected to the Stewards of their society, and in early 
years this took place weekly. Gradually this led to a 
regular meeting of stewards and leaders with the minister 
or his preaching helpers in order to discuss the spiritual 
welfare of the society, and this became known as the 
Leaders' Meeting, comprising the preacher in charge (in 
the chair), the stewards (the executive officers), and the 
class leaders. Throughout Wesley's lifetime the leaders' 
meeting possessed only advisory powers, and Wesley him- 
self, or his preaching helpers, made the real decisions. 
The conference of 1797 for the first time gave the leaders' 
meeting the right of veto in the admission of members 
and in the appointment of the leaders themselves, thus 
sfightly reducing the prerogatives of the preachers. The 
spiritual influence of the class leaders was very high in- 
deed, but their administrative power remained very lim- 
ited. The undercurrent of dissatisfaction about this was 
one of the factors in the rise of most of the major disputes 
within Wesleyan Methodism. Most of the daughter bodies 
reduced ministerial prerogative and increased the power 
of the lay leaders, and gradually this liberalizing tendency 
affected the parent body also. At Methodist Union in 
1932 this was unequivocally written into the constitution 
of the new Methodist Church. The local Leaders' Meeting 
now possesses much greater authority, having complete 
oversight of the spiritual welfare of the society, including 
the appointment of leaders and stewards, and the admis- 
sion and discipline of members. 

Davies and Rupp, Methodist Church in Great Britain. 1965. 
W. Peirce, Ecclesiastical Principles. 1854. 
Spencer and Finch, Constitutional Practice. 1951. 

Frank Baker 



LEBANON VALLEY COLLEGE, Annville, Pennsylvania. 
U.S.A., is a college of The United Methodist Church, 
formerly of the E.U.B. Five citizens of Annville attended 
the East Pennsylvania Conference, Church of the United 
Brethren in Christ, in 1866, and offered an Academy 
building there valued at $5,500, for an institution of learn- 
ing. It was accepted, but no one could be found to operate 
the new school. There was no college graduate in the en- 
tire conference. G. W. Miles Rigor, who had attended 
college for three years, enlisted his neighbor, Thomas R. 
Vickroy, a Methodist minister and graduate of Dickin- 
son College, to join him in a joint partnership and take 
over the lease. Thus on May 7, 1866, the school opened 
as scheduled with Vickroy running the school, Rigor as 
agent, and fifty-nine coeducational students. 

Vickroy 's term saw eleven acres added to the "lot and 
a half of ground" conveyed by the original deed. A 
spacious four-story building was erected. A charter was 
granted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A com- 
plete college curriculum was established, based on the 
classics but including music and art, and two classes were 
graduated before Vickroy gave up his lease and moved 
west in 1871. At that point, it was decided that the Col- 
lege would not be leased again but would be operated 
henceforth by a board of trustees. 

The five presidents during the next twenty-five years 
had great difficulty in keeping the College afloat, due to 
lack of support ranging from open opposition to disinter- 
ested apathy. A library was established in 1874, and a 
college newspaper appeared in 1888. However in the fall 
of 1896, the school was debt-ridden, with an enrollment 
of only eighty. 

The administration of President Hervin U. Roop, 
starting in 1897, marked the first real period of expan- 
sion. Under his leadership five new buildings were 
erected, including a library donated by Andrew Carnegie, 
and the administration building was re-built after the 
disastrous fire of Christmas Eve, 1904. By 1905, enroll- 
ment had soared to 470, with a faculty of twenty-three. 

Loss of public confidence and financial support 
prompted Roop's resignation in 1905 and the College 
faced its darkest days. Bankruptcy was averted by the 
keen business sense and generosity of President Laurence 
Keister, who served from 1907 to 1912. 

President George D. Gossard finally gave the College 
stability when he achieved for it accreditation and a 
million dollar endowment fund. By the end of his twenty- 
year term in 1932, there were 653 students and thirt>'-two 
members of the faculty. 

Clyde A. Lynch, who came in 1932, faced a series of 
external crises during his eighteen years as president. The 
stock market crash shrank the handsome endowment 
raised by his predecessor; the Depression of the 1930's 
shrank the enrollment, followed by World War II; the 
post-war influx of returned war veterans then stretched it 
to more than capacity. Lynch 's administration started the 
policy of buying property adjacent to the campus to allow 
for future expansion, and also raised over a half million 
dollars, part of which was to be used for a new physical 
education building. This building was named in Lynch 's 
honor upon completion. 

The twelfth and latest president of the College, Fred- 
eric K. Miller, served for almost seventeen years. During 
his term, inflation caused mushrooming costs, but the so- 
called "Tidal Wave of Students" made possible selective 
admissions. The greatest physical expansion in the his- 

tory of the C^ollege then occurred, with seven new build- 
ings erected and several renovated. Two major fund- 
raising drives were successfully concluded. Enrollment 
increased by eighty percent, with a corresponding increase 
in faculty and administrative staff. The centennial of the 
founding of the College was observed by a year-long 
series of events. Miller became the first Commissioner for 
Higher Education in the State of Pennsylvania. 

At the start of its second century, as a fully-accredited, 
church-related, coeducational college of the liberal arts 
and sciences, Lebanon Valley occupies a thirty-five acre 
campus and twenty-eight buildings, and has a full-time 
enrollment of 838 students and a faculty of seventy-two 
members. A Master Plan for its development has been 
adopted by the Board of Trustees. 

Paul Wallace, History of Lebanon Valley College. 1966. 

Edna J. Cabmean 

W. Earl Ledden 

LEDDEN, WALTER EARL (1888- ), American bishop, 

was born in Glassboro, N. J., March 27, 1888, the son of 
Joseph Jackson and Miriam Risden (Higgins) Ledden. 
He graduated from Pennington, N. J., Seminary, Music 
Department (organ) in 1907. In 1910 he received the 
Ph.B. degree and in 1913 the A.M. from Dickinson 
College. He was awarded the B.D. by Drew Theolog- 
ical Seminary in 1913 and in 1913-14 did graduate work 
at Drew University. From Syracuse University, in 1927, 
he received the D.D. degree and, in 1944 was given the 
LL.D. degree by Dickinson College. In addition to these 
degrees and honorary doctorates, he is widely recognized 
as an accomplished organist and an authority on church 

Ledden was married to Lida Iszard July 2, 1913 (de- 
ceased October 1957). They had two sons and a daughter. 


Bishop Ledden was on trial as deacon. New Jersey 
Conference, 1912, and received in full connection as 
ELDER in 1914. He served as pastor of the Goodwill 
Church, Rumson, N. J., 1910-14; the First Church, 
Belmar, N. J., 1914-19; State Street Church, Camden, 
N. J., 1919-20; Broadway Church, Camden, N. J., 1920- 
26; Richmond Avenue Church, Buffalo, N. Y., 1926-30; 
Mathewson Street Church, Providence, R. I., 1930-38; 
and Trinity Church, Albany, N. Y., 1938-44. 

He was elected bishop and assigned to the Syracuse 
Area in 1944 and served as bishop of this area until his 
retirement in 1960. He was president of the Council of 
Bishops, 1956-57, and has served in many other important 
capacities, including chairman of the Interboard Commit- 
tee on Missionary Personnel; chairman, Interboard Com- 
mittee on Materials for Training in Church Membership; 
vice-president. Board of Evangelism; vice-president. 
Commission on Worship; member, Board of World 
Peace and Board of Missions; member of the executive 
committee of the Commission on Family Life. 

He was on the Division of Christian Life and Work, 
National Council of Churches; and from 1945 until 
1949 he was president of the New York State Council 
of Churches. 

He has been trustee of Drew University, Syracuse 
University, Folts Home for the Aged, Williamsville Home 
for Children, and Clifton Springs Sanitarium. 

He represented the Council of Bishops in visitation in 
Central and South Africa in 1948, and in South America 
in 1954. 

On Jan. 25, 1964, Bishop Ledden was married to 
Henrietta Gibson in the chapel of Christ Church, Meth- 
odist, New York. An unusual feature of the ceremony 
was that the marriage rites were performed by Bishop 
Herbert Welch, one hundred and one years of age, 
believed to be the world's oldest bishop, who was assisted 
by Harold A. Bosley, minister of Christ Church. 

After his retirement Bishop Ledden joined the faculty 
of Wesley Theological Seminary where he taught in 
the field of Ritual and Church Music. He has continued 
to work closely with the National Fellowship of Meth- 
odist Musicians. He and his wife presently reside in 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church. 1966. 

Mary French Caldwell 

LEDNUM, JOHN (1797-1863), American minister, his- 
torian and member of the Philadelphia Conference, 
was bom in Sussex County, Del., Nov. 15, 1797. He died 
in Philadelphia, Nov. 18, 1863. He was converted at nine- 
teen years of age and became an itinerant in the spring of 
1823. Considered by his colleagues as a "profitable preach- 
er" and as a "theologian of the first class," he is, neverthe- 
less, chiefly remembered for his book, A History of the 
Rise of Methodism in America . . . from 1736 to 1785. 
The book contains some errors, but, for the most part, it 
is accurate. Making no attempt at a literary style, Lednum 
presented his material in terse, factual statements. It is one 
of the recognized sources on early Methodism in America. 

Frederick E. Maser 

LEE, ADA HILDEGAROE JONES. (See Calcutta, India, 
Lee Memorial Mission.) 

LEE, ANNA MARIA (1803-1838), American missionary 
pioneer, was born in New York City, Sept. 24, 1803, the 
daughter of George Washington and Mary (Spies) Pitt- 
man. With a group of missionaries she sailed from Boston, 
July 29, 1836, by way of Cape Horn to Honolulu, arriving 
the day before Christmas. In April she continued her 
vovage to Oregon, and arrived at Fort Vancouver, May 
17', 1837. 

She wrote many poems. When Jason Lee, founder of 
the first mission in Oregon, asked her to be his wife, 
she gave her answer in a poem, 'Tes, where thou goest 
I will go." 

Their wedding Sunday, July 26, 1837, was the first 
marriage of a white man and white woman in the Oregon 

In the spring of 1838 Jason Lee was urged to return to 
the United States to report on the work, and try to secure 
more support. Before he left, she gave him another poem, 
"Must my dear Companion leave me, /Sad and lonely here 
to dwell?" 

Her son died soon after birth, and she died the next 
day, June 26, 1838. She was buried in the beautiful fir 
grove where she had taken her marriage vow. Her body 
has since been moved to the Lee Mission Cemetery at 
Salem, Ore. 

Theressa Gay, Life and Letters of Mrs. Jason Lee, First Wife 
of Rev. Jason Lee of the Oregon Mission. Portland: Metropoli- 
tan Press, 1936. 

John Parsons, Beside the Beautiful Willamette. Portland: Met- 
ropolitan Press, 1924. Ormal B. Trick 

LEE, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1841-1926), American bish- 
op of the A.M.E. Church, was born in Gouldtown, N. J., 
on Sept. 18, 1841. He graduated from Wilberforce 
University in 1872 with the B.D. degree. He was or- 
dained deacon in 1870 and elder in 1872. He was a the- 
ological professor at Wilberforce University (1873-1875), 
and later was President of Wilberforce (1875-1884). He 
was also an editor of The Christian Recorder (1884-1892). 
He was elected bishop in 1892, and retired voluntarily 
in 1924. He was a delegate and member of the Permanent 
Committee of Arrangements of the Ecumenical Meth- 
odist Council in 1881. 

His voluntary retirement in 1924 was noted as remark- 
able since he was the only bishop of his Church ever to 
do so. He was austere in appearance but had a keen 
sense of humor; was a man of deep learning, impatient of 
petty ambitions and jealousies. Bishop Wright said of him, 
"He seldom sought honors. 'They are too empty,' he 
said, 'but I do seek service.' " He answered in the same 
manner when someone asked, "Dr. Lee are you running 
for the Bishopric?" His answer was, "No, but I am stand- 
ing for it." He has churches named for him at Jacksonville, 
Fla.; Cincinnati, Ohio; Nashville, Tenn.; Little Rock, Ark.; 
Morgan City and Oak Grove, La. and Brownswood, Texas. 

R. R. Wright, The Bishops. 1963. 

Grant S. Shockley 

LEE, DANIEL (1807-1896), was an American missionary 
to the Indians of Oregon, 1834 to 1843. No account is 
given of his early life but in 1833, as a member of the 
New Hampshire Conference, he was commissioned by 
the Foreign Missionary Society of the M. E. Church as 
a missionary to the Indians of Oregon. The commission 
came from the Foreign Missionary Society because the 



U. S. Claim to the Oregon country was not established 
until 1846. He was to work under the superintendency of 
his uncle, Jaso.v Lee. 

In the spring and summer of 1833 the mission party 
of five men made the arduous si.\-month journey across 
the plains and mountains to Oregon, travelling in company 
with Nathatn'el Wyeth's fur traders. 

In Oregon the main mission station was established 
in the Willamette valley about ten miles north from where 
S.\LEM, the capital city of Oregon, is now located. Here 
Daniel Lee carried his full share of the hard labor needed 
to build log houses for the mission, and prepare wild 
land for fanning. The missionaries were largely dependent 
on their own efforts to feed themselves and the Indian 
children in their school. 

In 1838 Jason Lee gave Daniel the difficult job of 
opening a second mission station at the Dalles of the 
Columbia River. Under his direction this station was the 
most successful of the missions in the Indian work. He 
continued his work there until 1843, when his own ill- 
health and that of his wife (in June 1840 he had married 
Marie Ware, a newly arrived mission teacher), forced him 
to return to New England. There he published, in col- 
laboration with another returned missionary, J. H. Frost, 
a history of the Oregon mission. Ten Years in Oregon 
(N. Y.: 1844), a book which did much to inform the 
church about the Oregon mission. 

After some years of labor in the churches of the New 
Hampshire Conference, ill-health caused him to relocate. 
Shortly after he followed his sons westward where in 
Ohio, Kans.\s and Illinois he served small churches as his 
strength pemiitted. He died in Illinois, and he and his 
wife, who died some vears before him, are buried near 
Butler, 111. 

C. J. Brosnan, Jason Lee. 1932. 

Erie Howell, Northwest. 1966. Robert Moulton Catke 

LEE, DAVID HIRAM. (See Calcutta, India, Lee Memorial 


LEE, EDWIN FERDINAND (1884-1948), American mis- 
sionary bishop, was born in Eldorado, Iowa, July 10, 
1884, son of Andrew and Carrie (Anderson) Lee. He 
received his education at Northwestern University 
(B.S., 1909) and Garrett Biblical Institute (B.D., 
1924). He was awarded five honorary doctorates. He 
married Edna Dorman on June 8, 1909. 

Lee joined the Upper Iowa Conference in 1908, and 
his appointments were: New Hampton, Iowa, 1908-10; 
missionary to Batavia, Java, and pastor of Wesley Church, 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, 1910-12; Central Church, 
Manila, Philippines, 1912-15; Rockford, Iowa, 1915-17; 
and chaplain in the U. S. Army in France, 1917-19. He 
was decorated by the French Government for his war 
service and by the government of Serbia for his relief 
work after the Armistice, and was given the King George 
V Jubilee Medal in 1935. 

Lee was Associate Secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Missions in New York, 1919-24, and pastor of Wesley 
Church, Singapore, Straits Settlement, and superintendent 
of the Singapore District, 1924-28. Elected missionary 
bishop of Malaya and the Philippines in 1928, he served 
as such until he retired. 

Bishop Lee was a delegate to the International 
Missionary Conference, Madras, India, 1938; a Fellow 

Ein\ IN F. Lee 

of the Royal Geographic Society, London; member of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, New 

Caught in Singapore when the Japanese attacked the 
city in December 1941, Bishop and Mrs. Lee and fifty 
missionaries held out as long as possible against leaving 
the country. Just before the city's fall, Lee broadcast a 
message of hope assuring the people of America's ultimate 
victory. The Lees were evacuated on Jan. 30, 1942, with 
the Japanese only seventeen miles from the city. 

He served as director of the General Commission on 
Army and Navy Chaplains in 1944. He returned to 
Malaysia and the Philippines after the war and re-estab- 
lished Methodist churches and schools. He expressed great 
hope for the future of Christianity in that area. 

Retiring in June 1948, after forty years of unusual 
service around the world. Bishop Lee died Sept. 14, 

C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

World Outlook, November 1948. Jesse A. Eabl 

LEE, HANDEL (Li Han-to, 1886-1961), preacher and 
seminary president, was born in Kiangningchen, Kiangsu 
province, China, and received his education at the Uni- 
versity of Nanking, Nanking Theological Seminary, Bos- 
ton University School of Theology, and Drew The- 
ological Seminary, receiving the Ph.D. at Drew in 1933. 
After pastorates in Wuhu and Nanking he was appointed 
district superintendent in the Central China Conference 
(later called the Mid-China Conference) in 1927, and 
was elected president of the union (Methodist, Presby- 
terian, Disciples, and Baptist) Nanking Theological Semi- 
nary in 1931. He held this position until his retirement in 

Under his administration the seminary greatly enlarged 
its activities. During the Japanese War the seminary 
moved its main center to Shanghai, where it continued 


even after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Another branch of 
the seminary was opened in Chengtu, the educational 
center of Free China, and continued until the end of the 
war, when both branches were reunited on the Nanking 

Lee's wise leadership, both in his own church and in 
interdenominational activities, strengthened the church in 
central China to meet the difficulties of the Communist 
period, and the seminary which he headed for eighteen 
years is presently the only theological seminary still con- 
tinuing in mainland China. 

China Christian Yearbook, 1936-37. 

Francis P. Jones 

LEE, JAMES WILDERMAN (1849-1919), American clergy- 
man and author, was bom in Rockbridge, Ga., Nov. 28, 
1849. A graduate of Emory College, he joined the North 
Georgia Annual Conference, M. E. Church, South, in 
1874. He married Eufaula Ledbetter in 1875. He served 
churches in this conference intermittently a total of nine- 
teen years, among them. Trinity Church, Atlanta. 

Lee transferred to the St. Louis Conference in 1893, 
and was appointed to St. John's Church, St. Louis, where 
he sei^ved with distinction three separate appointments, 
1893-97, 1901-05, 1911-15. He was presiding elder of the 
St. Louis District 1897-1901, and Chaplain of Barnes 
Hospital, 1916-19. 

Lee joined with Dr. Wagner of the M. E. Church to 
edit and publish the short-lived Illustrated Methodist 
Magazine (1902-03), in expectation of promoting frater- 
nity and the ultimate union of the two Episcopal Method- 
isms. Under his leadership the present magnificent St. 
John's Church was built (1902-03), which the city listed 
as something visitors to the St. Louis World's Fair should 
by all means see. It is one of the finest examples of classic 
Roman Temple architecture in the United States. 

His journeys to Palestine for study, begun in 1894, 
resulted in Lee's writing The Romance of Palestine, Foot- 
prints of the Man of Galilee, and A History of Jerusalem. 
Three of his books received warm praise and wide circula- 
tion — Robert Burns, The Geography of Genius, The Mak- 
ing of a Man, which was translated into several languages, 
and The Religion of Science, the theme of which was the 
oneness of truth in science and religion. It placed Lee 
among the foremost "harmonizers" in the period of 
"science" versus "religion" controversy. 

The catholicity of his spirit and his instinctive humani- 
tarianism gave support to the many missionary, educa- 
tional and charitable enterprises with which he was 
associated in the cities of St. Louis and Atlanta, and in 
the annual conferences of the Church. Lee died in St. 
Louis, Oct. 4, 1919, as the result of a fall at the home 
of his son, Ivy Ledbetter Lee, in Rye, N. Y. He was 
buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery. 

Minutes of the St. Louis Conference, MES, 1920. 

Who's Who in America, 1914. Frank C. Tucker 

LEE, JASON (1803-1845), American pioneer of Protes- 
tant Christianity and United States territorial aspirations 
in the area of the present states of Oregon and Washing- 
ton. He was bom near Stanstead, Lower Canada (thought 
at that time to be south of the boundary and part of the 
U. S. ), June 28, 1803, the son of one of the Minutemen 
who fought at Concord and Lexington. His ancestral 
roots reached back 200 years in Massachusetts. 

Jason Lee 

At the age of twenty-three he was converted in a 
Wesleyan Methodist revival, and in 1829, in preparation 
for the ministry, he entered Wilbraham Academy, Wilbra- 
ham, Mass. 

In response to a request from four northwest Indians 
who in 1831 travelled to St. Louis asking about the white 
man's religion, a plea publicized through the church press, 
Wilbur Fisk, President of Wesleyan Uni\'ersity, rec- 
ommended Jason Lee to lead a missionary journey to that 
area. Lee accepted an appointment from the Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church and gathered a party includ- 
ing his nephew, Daniel Lee, Cyrus Shepard, a teacher 
of Lynn, Mass., and two other laymen, P. L. Edwards 
and Courtney M. Walker, both of Independence, Mo. 
The expedition's goods were shipped around Cape Horn 
to the Columbia River, and the party, consisting of seventy 
men in all, plus 250 horses, mules, and cattle, was led 
overland by Nathaniel J. Wyeth, a fur trader of the 

At Fort Hall, near the present city of Pocatello, Idaho, 
Jason Lee preached the first Protestant sermon heard west 
of the Rocky Mountains on July 27, 1834. After a kindly 
reception by P. C. Pambrun, Hudson's Bay official at 
Fort Walla Walla (now Washington), on September 1, 
the party traveled by barge down the Columbia River, 
arriving at Fort Vancouver, 100 miles from the Pacific, 
September 15. Upon advice of John McLoughlin, Chief 
Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Pacific 
coast, Lee established his mission on the east side of 
the Willamette River about sixty miles above its conflu- 
ence with the Columbia. 

Their desire to convert the Indians of the area was 
frustrated by difficulties of communication and, before 
long, by catastrophic illnesses which heavily decimated 
the tribal population. The Indian Manual Labor Train- 
ing School for the natives was established, and on its 
discontinuance in 1844 the building was sold to another 
institution also founded by Lee — the Oregon Institute, 
which later became Willamette University, the first 
school of college rank west of the Rockies. 

Lee opened Christian work at various places, including 
a mission at The Dalles, on the Columbia River, in 1837. 
He encouraged the emigration of Christian famihes to 
the Oregon country as a means of bringing civilized and 
Christian influences to that raw society. 

Jason Lee early became involved in the political devel- 


opment of the nortliwest, urging measures which would 
settle in favor of the United States the long-standing 
dispute with England over the boundary. He was instru- 
mental in drawing up a petition, signed by American 
citizens and Canadians who desired to become American 
citizens, asking that the laws of the U. S. be extended over 
Oregon. In the course of his journey east with this peti- 
tion he learned that his wife, Anna Marie Lee, had died 
in childbirth, the child also perishing. After two years' 
absence from Oregon, time spent in persuading govern- 
mental and church leaders of the urgency of development 
of the Oregon territory, Lee returned west by ship, with 
thirty-one new missionaries, including his new wife, the 
fdimer Lucy Thompson, of Barre, Vt. 

As the Oregon mission grew, it became increasingly 
occupied with white settlers, the Indian population having 
substantially diminished. Lee was deeply involved in the 
political controversy over British or American possession 
of the territory. The dispute also divided the missionaries, 
and John P. Richmond, a critic of Lee's political inter- 
vention, persuaded the Mission Board to replace Lee as 
superintendent of the mission. Lee learned of this action 
in November 1843, in the Sandwich Islands, to which he 
and his daughter (his second wife had died in 1842) 
had travelled in hopes of securing a ship to New York. 

Lee continued his dual role as political pioneer and 
Christian missionary by going to Washington in an at- 
tempt to persuade officials of die need for urgent action 
to establish American sovereignty in the Oregon territory, 
and by appearing before the Mission Board and success- 
fully defending the administration of the mission. In fail- 
ing health, he returned to his boyhood home in Stanstead, 
Canada, where he died March 12, 1845. 

Jason Lee must be counted as a strong influence in the 
spread of Protestant Christianity to the Pacific Northwest, 
and in the securing for the United States the area south 
of the 49th parallel — the Puget Sound Country, Cascade 
Mountains, and the great watershed of the Columbia 
River. Cornelius J. Brosnan has summarized these 

Consider Lee's visit in 1838 to the East, with his lectures in 
88 cities and towns, including the capital of tlie nation; his 
meetings and lectures promoted by a great and influential de- 
nomination . . . ; consider Slacum's widely quoted report; con- 
sider the Second Petition or Memorial of the Oregonians, 
framed at Lee's Mission House; the introduction of the Linn 
Bill; of Cushing's elaborate report, embodying two Lee docu- 
ments, with a publication and distribution of 10,000 copies; 
consider the fact that Lee's widely attended and published 
lectures dwelt upon the desirability of the Pacific Coast as a 
place of settlement and thus assisted in awakening an interest 
that sent the Peoria Party to Oregon in the spring of 1839, and 
was a factor in bringing between eight hundred and a thou- 
sand settlers . . . ; consider die Provisional Government of 
Oregon and the important part Lee's Mission had in its in- 
ception and promotion; consider that experienced politicians 
saw in the movement for an American Oregon vitality enough 
to make it an issue in a presidential campaign on the basis 
of our claims to that territory. When all these contributions 
are appreciated one cannot doubt that, though incidental and 
not primary, the Lee Mission was a significant factor in the 
settlement of the Oregon boundar>' controversy. 

A. Atwood, Conquerors. 1907. 
C. J. Brosnan, Jason Lee. 1932. 

John Martin Canse, Pilgrim and Pioneer: Dawn in the North- 
west. New York: Abingdon Press, 1930. 
H. K. Hines, Pacific Northwest. 1899. 


, Jason Lee, Pioneer of Methodism. San Francisco: 

Hammond Press, 1896. 

E. Howell, Northwest. 1966. 

John M. Parsons, Beside the Beautiful Willamette. Portland: 

Metropolitan Press, 1924. John C. Soltman 

LEE, JESSE (1758-1816), early American preacher, father 
of Methodism in New England and commonly regarded 
as next to Asbuby in influence, was born on March 12, 
1758, in Prince George County, Va., si.xteen miles from 
Petersburg. His father was converted under Devereux 
Jarratt, an evangelical Anglican who in the beginning 
days cooperated with Asbury and the Methodist move- 
ment. This led to the conversion of Jesse Lee. His educa- 
tion was limited but he attended a singing school and 
became a good singer. 

He joined the Society in 1774 under Robert Williams, 
who was then serving the Brunswick circuit, which in- 
cluded Halifax and Bute Counties in North Carolina 
as well as fourteen counties in Virginl\. Three years 
later Lee went to North Carolina to take temporary 
charge of the farm of a widowed relative, and there he 
became a class leader, exhorter, and local preacher. He 
preached his first sermon at a place called "the Old Bam" 
on Sept. 17, 1779. 

John Dickins was on the Roanoke Circuit and in order 
to devote time to literary work he asked young Lee to 
take his place for a few weeks, and thus began Lee's 
career as a traveling preacher. 

In July 1780, Lee was drafted into he army. He had 
scruples against war and refused to take the rifle that was 
offered him. Placed under guard, he prayed with his 
captors and was soon singing and preaching to tliem. He 
was willing to perfoiTn any unarmed duty and so he was 
made a wagon driver and became a sergeant of pioneers 
and unofficial chaplain. He was honorably discharged 
after serving three months. 

In 1782 he rode a circuit in North Carohna and Virginia 
and was admitted to the Conference on trial the following 
year. He did not receive word of the Christmas Con- 
ference, which he always regretted and attributed to the 
fact that Freeborn Garbettson, the courier sent to sum- 
mon the preachers, had preached too much along the way. 

His first appointment, in 1783, was to the Caswell 
Circuit, after which he served five years in North Carolina, 
Virginia, and Maryland. In 1785 he went from Salisbury, 
N. C, to meet Asbury at the home of Colonel Joseph 
Hemdon in Wilkes County. Asbury had been a Super- 
intendent (later called bishop) for only a month, and he 
appeared in "black gown, cassock, and band," whereupon 
Lee objected to the attire as unbecoming to Methodist 
simplicity. The rebuke caused Asbury to lay aside the 

Asbury took Lee with him on his southern tour. At 
Cheraw, S. C, a young man from Massachu.setts de- 
scribed the low state of religion in New England and 
Lee determined to go there. In 1790 he preached under 
"the Old Elm" on Boston Common and gave the next ten 
years of his fife to New England, where he became the 
virtual founder of Methodism. 

Jesse Lee weighed 250 pounds and on at least one 
occasion he used two horses, leading one and changing 
from time to time. He was elected to deacon's orders 
in 1786 but declined ordination; however, at the con- 
ference of 1790 in New York he was privately ordained 



DEACON by Asbury, and publicly ordained elder the fol- 
lowing day. 

In 1797 Asbury called Lee to assist him in the work of 
the episcopacy and at the General Conference of 1800 
he expected to be elected a bishop and had some reason 
to think that Asbury encouraged the hope. But he was 
defeated by Richard Whatcoat. This he attributed to 
Asbury, to whom he later wrote a scathing letter of 
denunciation. He had previously made attempts to reduce 
Asbury 's power and on one occasion Thomas Coke ob- 
jected to the passage of Lee's character. But when on May 
10, 1816, the funeral procession of Asbury, including the 
whole General Conference and an immense throng of 
citizens, moved through the streets of Baltimore, among 
the leading marchers and mourners was Jesse Lee. 

In 1801 Lee returned to the South as presiding elder 
in Virginia, and e.xcept for a roving commission as far 
southward as Savannah, he spent the next fourteen years 
in his native state, where he bought a small farm near 
his father. 

In 1809 Lee was elected chaplain of the U. S. House 
of Representatives and was reelected four times. In 1814 
he was elected chaplain of the Senate. The next year 
he was transferred to the Baltimore Conference and 
sent to Fredericksburg, a move which he considered to 
be a political maneuver to prevent his election to the 
General Conference. He refused to go to the appointment 
because it was not then in his conference. 

Jesse Lee in 1810 published A Short History of the 
Methodists in the United States of America, the first ever 
written. The Conference would not sponsor it and the 
author secured subscriptions for its publication. It seems 
that Asbury was not favorably inclined, but when he had 
seen the book he wrote, "It is better than I expected. 
He has not always presented me under the most favorable 
aspect; we are all liable to mistakes, and I am unmoved 
by his." 

Lee also wrote a life of John Lee, his brother, and he 
published two sermons. He kept a voluminous Journal, 
which was destroyed when the Publishing House in New 
York was bunied in 1836; Asbury's Journal was lost in 
the same fire. Fortunately, much of Lee's work was pre- 
served in the biography written by his kinsman, Leroy 

Jesse Lee died on Sept. 12, 1816, while attending a 
camp meeting near Hillsborough in Maryland. He was 
laid to rest in the old Methodist burying ground in 
Baltimore, but in 1873 his body was moved with others 
to Mount Olivet Cemetery where it rests today by that 
of Asbury, Bishops George, Emory, and Waugh, Robert 
Strawbridge and other stalwarts of early Methodism. 

F. Asbury, journal and Letters. 1958. 

W. W. Bennett, Virginia. 1871. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

William Larkin Duren, The Top Sergeant of the Pioneers: 

The Story of a Lifelong Battle for an Ideal. Emory University, 

Ga.: Banner Press, 1930. 

L. M. Lee, Jesse Lee. 1848. 

William Henry Meredith, Jesse Lee, A Methodist Apostle. New 

York: Eaton & Mains, 1909. 

M. H. Moore, North Carolina and Virginia. 1884. 

W. B. Sprague, Annab of the Pulpit. 1861. 

M. Thrift, Jesse Lee. 1823. Louise L. Queen 

LEE, LAWSON (1918- ), missionary to Uruguay, was 

born in Homestead, Okla. He studied at Oklahoma North- 

western College at Alva, Southern Methodist Uni- 
versity, and the University of Southern California. He 
held pastorates at Alva, Amett, Terral, Mutual, and Enid, 
all in Oklahoma. 

Lawson and Sylvia Lee came to Montevideo in March, 
1948. They worked one year as assistants in Central 
Church while learning Spanish. In 1949 they went to 
Paysandu, Uruguay, where they took a dying church and 
made it into a going concern. They built a church and 
parsonage from Lawson's own plans. In an outlying 
district, St. Luke's Church was founded. 

In 1962 the Lees were transferred to Montevideo, and 
he became executive secretary of The Methodist Church 
in Uruguay and later mission treasurer for Uruguay, as 
well as interim minister of Emmanuel Church. In 1966 
he was appointed one of the two ministers of Central 
Church, keeping his two executive positions as well. 

Lee's interests range from painting pictures to making 
plans for churches or assembling electronic organs. 

Earl M. SMrrn 

Leroy M. Lee 

LEE, LEROY MADISON (1808-1882), American minister, 
editor and leader of Southern Methodism, was bom at 
Petersburg, Va., on April 30, 1808. He was the son of 
Abraham and Elizabeth Lee and was related to Jesse 
Lee, whose biography he was later to write. He was 
converted in Petersburg on April 1, 1827, under the 
preaching of W. A. Smith and admitted to the Virginia 
Conference in 1828, then in session at Raleigh, N. C, 
under Bishop Soule. As eastern North Carolina was 
then a part of the Virginia Conference, Lee sei-ved several 
appointments in that state, including New Bern, later 
being moved to Trinity, Richmond, where his parsonage 
was destroyed by fire in 1835. Never robust, he was 
recuperating from a spell of illness shortly after this in 
Florida, and while there was elected editor of the Chris- 
tian Sentinel, a paper which had just been purchased by 
the Virginia Conference. For reasons of health he dropped 
out of the editorship for several months, but eventually 
came back and resumed the editorship of the publication 
which was now named the Richmond Christian Advocate 
— a paper destined to last under that name until 1940 
when it became the present Virginia Christian Advocate. 



LeRoy Lee kept his name "at the masthead of this for 
nearly a quarter of a century." He became a stalwart 
champion of the Southern point of view, and was a mem- 
ber of the General Conference of 1844, which divided 
the Church; of the Louisville Convention the next year; 
and of the first General Conference of the M. E. Church, 
South, in Petersburg in 1846. He declined reelection to 
the editorship in 1858 and was made presiding elder of the 
Norfolk District, but the Federal fleet taking possession 
of Norfolk on May 10, 1862, ended his work there for 
a time. 

Later Lee sen'ed Centenary Church, Lynchburg; 
Granby Street in Norfolk; Union Station, Richmond; and 
served as presiding elder two terms, and then spent one 
year at Ashland, in part acting as a chaplain of Randolph- 
Macon College there until he retired in 1881. Lee, 
besides his voluminous editorial writings, published in 
1847, Life and Times of Jesse Lee, his distinguished 

Lee — who was given die degree of D.D. by Transyl- 
\ania College in 1848 — married first Nancy Mosely Butler 
of Elizabeth City, N. C, who died the following Novem- 
ber. Afterward he married Virginia Addington in 18.36 
and to them were born nine children. 

The action for which Lee became most famous was 
his move in the 1870 Conference of the M. E. Church, 
South, to so arrange it that the power of the Southern 
bishops to "check" an action of the General Conference 
was made a properly constitutional provision, and not (as 
it had been since its adoption in 1854) a merely statutory 
one. Lee's old pastor and mentor, W. A. Smith, had 
written and sponsored the adoption of the statutory resolu- 
tion in 1854, but Smith himself realized the legislation 
was not constitutional and should have personally made 
a move to see that it was made constitutional had he not 
died. LeRoy M. Lee was chaiiman of the Committee on 
Episcopacy of General Conference of 1870, and brought 
in a statesmanlike report of which Bishop DuBose says, 
"The report of Dr. Lee on this provision has become one 
of the great State papers of Methodism. It is, in fact, 
a priceless dissertation on the constitution and particularly 
stresses the rights of the body of the elders, from whom 
the constitution was derived (or rather their successors, 
the clerical and lay members of the present-day Annual 
Conferences) to determine the processes by which un- 
constitutional acts of the General Conference may be 
arrested." (DuBose, p. 113-4.). The upshot was that this 
whole matter was passed by the General Confenice and 
referred for approval to the Annual Conferences. They 
adopted it and thus this constitutional provision as drawn 
up by Lee was firmly written into the organic life of the 
M. E. Church, South, to remain there until union with 
the M. E. and M. P. Churches in 1939. Lee acted as 
chairman of the powerful Committee on Episcopacy both 
in 1870 and in 1874. He died in Ashland, Va., on April 
20, 1882, and was buried in Virginia's famed Hollywood 
Cemetery overlooking the James River in Richmond. 

H. M. DuBose, History of Methodism. 1916. 

Minutes of the Virginia Annual Conference, 1882. N. B. H. 

LEE, LIM POON (1910- ), American lay leader 

among California Oriental United Methodists, was born 
in Hong Kong, Dec. 19, 1910. At the age of eight months 
he and his parents came to the United States to make their 
home. He was educated in the San Francisco public 

schools, graduated from the University of the Pacific 
in 1934 with an A.B. degree, did graduate work at the 
University of Southern California from 1934 to 1936, and 
received a LL.B. degree from Lincobi University School 
of Law, San Francisco, in 1954. He was in the U. S. 
Amiy, 1943-46; and served with the Counter Intelligence 
Corps in the Philippine Islands and Hokkaido, Japan. 
From 1939 to 1963 he was in public welfare and juvenile 
court work in San Francisco. He was field representative 
for Congressman Phillip Burton, San Francisco, from 1963 
to 1966. In 1966 he became acting postmaster of San 
Francisco and in 1967 was made postmaster, in which 
position he directs the work of over 10,000 postal workers. 
He has been a member and chairman of the board for the 
Department of Veteran Affairs in California; as chairman 
he presided over the board that determined policies for 
1,021 civil service personnel, and administered an annual 
budget of $15 million. He has been very active in the 
Veterans of Foreign Wars, and has served as vice chair- 
man of the National Legislative Committee. He is a mem- 
ber of the Chinese United Methodist Church in San 
Francisco, and has been lay leader of the California- 
Oriental Provisional Annual Conference. He teaches a 
church school class each Sunday, and is the church's lay 
leader. He serves as board member for the Chinese Branch 
of the YMCA; Telegraph Hill Neighborhood Center; 
Columbia Park Boys' Club; the Greater Chinatown Com- 
munity Service Association; the Multi-Culture Institute, 
and is a member of the Chinese Cultural Foundation 
which is building the Chinese Culture and Trade Center 
in San Francisco; he is the co-chairman of the Mayor's 
Committee on Survey and Fact-Finding in Chinatown. 
He and his wife Catherine were married in 1941, and have 
four children. 

Walter N. Vernon 

LEE, LUTHER (1800-1889), American preacher, was bom 
of illiterate parents in Schoharia, N. Y., Nov. 30, 1800. 
He joined the Methodist Church at the age of nineteen, 
and could barely read the Bible or hymn book, even after 
becoming a local preacher. On July 31, 1825, he married 
a school teacher, Mary Miller, and they had five sons and 
two daughters. She gave him all the education he ever 

Joining the Genesee Conference in 1827, when it 
extended into Canada and the roads and trails could be 
traveled only on horseback, he was assigned to Malone 
Circuit. Ordained deacon and elder a few years later, 
Lee served charges in Henvel, Lowville, Martinsburg, 
Watertown, and Fulton, N. Y., 1831-36. Transferring to 
the Black River Conference in 1836, he rose rapidly 
to a place of leadership. A fighting reformer, a powerful 
debater, the growing anti-slavery agitation captured his 
interest. After the assassination of Luther Lovejoy at 
Alton, 111., in 1837, he declared himself an abohtionist. 
In 1838 he located and became an agent in New York 
for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. In 1840 he 
took part in organizing the Liberty Party. 

At the organization of the Wesleyan Methodist Con- 
nection in 1843, he entered their traveling ministry and 
was president of their first General Conference in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in 1844. He was editor of the True Wesleyan 
for eight years, and served as pastor of Wesleyan churches 
in Syracuse, and Fulton, N. Y., and Fehcity and Chagrin 



Falls, Ohio. His last Wesleyan position was professor in 
Adrian College, 1864-67. 

With many others he returned to the M. E. Church in 
1867, and for ten years served the Court Street Church, 
Flint; Ypsilanti; Northville, and Petersburg charges in 

Luther Lee was the author of several valuable books 
which had a large sale. Among these were, Universalism 
Examined, Systematic Theology, Immortality of the Soul, 
and Autobiography of Luther Lee, D.D. 

Superannuated in 1877, Lee died in Flint, Mich., Dec. 
13, 1889. 

Dictionary of Atnerican Biography. 

National Cyclopediaiof American Biography. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Jesse A. Eabl 

LEE, THOMAS (1727-1786), British Methodist, was born 
at Keighley, Yorkshire, in 1727. As a young man, while 
working only half-time as an evangelist, he was able to 
establish societies where no itinerant had yet been. Even- 
tually he became one of William Grimshaw's preachers 
in the Haworth round, and then a regular itinerant from 
1755 until his death in 1786, traveling around the huge 
northern circuits. He was one of the most heroic of the 
early preachers, and often he and his wife suffered terrible 
persecution and hardship. 

T. Jackson, Lives of Early Methodist Preachers. 1837-38. 



LEE, UMPHREY (1893-1958), American preacher, edu- 
cator and author, was bom in Oakland City, Ind., March 
23, 1893. He went to Texas when his father, Josephus 
Lee, transferred there in 1910. He was educated at Trinity 
College (A.B., 1914), Southern Methodist LTniversity 
(M.A., 1916), and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1931). 
He seived several pastorates before going to the Univer- 
sity of Texas to establish the Wesley Bible Chair in 1919. 
In 1923 he became pastor of Highland Park Methodist 
Church, Dallas, Texas, on the campus of Southern Meth- 
odist University; it became one of The Christian Century's 
"Great Churches of America," and by 1960 was the largest 
in the denomination. During this time he also served as 
professor of homiletics of S.M.U.'s School of Theology and 
from 1937 until 1939 he was dean of the Vanderbilt 
University School of Religion. 

In 1939 he became president of Southern Methodist 
University and by 1954, when he left the presidency to 
become chancellor (because of health problems), the uni- 
versity's endowment had increased by $20,500,000 and 
eighteen new buildings had been erected. He was 
credited, more than any other individual, with molding 
the university into the great institution it had become at 
the time of his death June 23, 1958. 

Above and beyond his official posts, he was a member 
of the General Conferences of 1934, 1940, 1944, 1948, 
the Uniting Conference of 1939, and the Ecumenical 
Conferences of 1946 and 1951. He was the Cole Lec- 
turer at Vanderbilt University (1946); Quillian Lecturer 
at Emory University (1947); Fondren Lecturer at 
Southern Methodist University (1957). Also he was Presi- 
dent of the Civic Federation of Dallas, President of the 
Dallas Rotai-y Club, and President of the Philosophical 
Society of Texas. 

Umphrey Lee was author of the following books: Jesus 
the Pioneer (1926); A Short Sketch of the Life of Christ 
(1927); The Lord's Horseman: John Wesley (1928), 
which was revised in 1954; The Bible and Business 
(1930); Historical Backgrounds of Early Methodist En- 
thu.iiasm (1931); John Wesley and Modern Religion 
(1936); The Historic Church and Modern Pacificism 
( 1943) ; Our Fathers and Us ( 1958) . 

During the years that Umphrey Lee was pastor of the 
Highland Park Church he was engaged in research proj- 
ects in Europe toward his volumes pertaining to John 
Wesley. At home and abroad he was recognized as one 
of the interpreters of the Arminian tradition and the Wes- 
leyan movement. 

He held membership in the Medieval Academy of 
America, the American Historical Society, the American 
Society of Church History, and the Philosophical Society 
of Texas. Excelling as scholar, author, preacher, speaker, 
lecturer, and columnist, he was universally acclaimed by 
his colleagues for his pre-eminence among the ministers 
of Texas in his generation. 

Clark and Stafford, Who's Who in Methodism. 1952. 

Journal of the North Texas Conference, 1959. 

Who's Who in America. Walter N. Vernon 

LEE, WHAN SHIN (1902- ), a bishop of the Korean 

Methodist Church, was born in Kang-Dong, near Pyeng- 
yang, in what is now North Korea, Jan. 8, 1902. After 
study in the local Methodist Mission schools, he grad- 
uated from the Union Methodist Seminary in Seoul 
(high school level at that time) in 1927, and from Chosun 
Christian College, Seoul, in 1931. He received the B.D. 
degree from Vanderbilt Unu'Ersity in 1933, M.A. from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1935, and D.D., Yonsei 
University, Seoul, 1963. 

From 1935 to 1938 he seived as Director of Youth 
Work of the Korean Methodist Church. Ordained in 1938, 
he became President of the John Bible Institute in Pyeng- 
yang and served until the purge of all American-trained 
men in 1943. 

He served as Professor of Chosun Christian University, 
1945-1951, as General Secretary of the National Associa- 
tion of the Y.M.C.A., 1951-1954; and Professor, Meth- 
odist Theological Seminary, Seoul, 1955-1962. 

He was elected bishop of the Korean Methodist Church 
in 1962 and served one four-year term. He was a dele- 
gate to the East Asia Christian Conference, Bangkok, 



Whan Shin Lee 

1964, and to the E.A.C.C. Working Committee, Ceylon 
and Manila, 1965, and Y.M.C.A. World Committee, Ge- 
neva, 1953. 

He is the author of Frinciples of Youth Ciiicianre 
(1931); Visiting Europe and America after World War II 

He lives in Seoul. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. 

Charles A. Sauer 

LEE, WILLIAM BOWMAN (1864-1955), American preach- 
er and missionary to Brazil, was bom in Newbury Coun- 
ty, S. C, on July 16, 1864, son of a Methodist preacher. 
Having lost both parents in childhood, William Lee was 
forced to work for a living early in life. He united with 
the Methodist Church at sixteen; studied at Painesville, 
S. C, then moved to Durham, N. C, where he continued 
his studies while working with the Duke industries. He 
was esteemed by the Duke family and married a niece 
of the family, Mamie Fonville, on May 28, 1891. Deciding 
to become a preacher, he earned his B.D. degiee in the- 
ology from Trinity College, and was ordained a deacon 
at the North Carolina Conference in 1893. 

Accepted by the Board of Missions (MES), the Lees 
sailed for Brazil in 1895. Through long years in Brazil, 
Lee sei-ved as pastor, presiding elder, professor of math- 
ematics at Instituto Granbery, and later as Reitor 
(principal) of the same school; and he was for a time 
editor of the official weekly, Expositor Cristao. He also 
translated articles, hymns, and the Methodist Discipline 
of 1910, and the History of the Church, by Williston 
Walker. He was author of a book of sermons and a volume 
on The Teachings of the Prophets. He served on several 
church-wide committees, including the one on autonomy 
of the Methodist Church of Brazil. At first he had difficulty 
mastering Portuguese, but he later became the most fluent 
and eloquent of all missionaries, and was especially loved 
for his close identification with the Brazilians. 

Mamie F. Lee, his wife, taught for some years at 
Instituto Cranbery, and was a director of Colegio Mineiro. 
She is best remembered as the founder in June 1900, of 
the Joias de Cristo (Christ's Jewels), the first missionary 
society for children in Brazil. Under her inspiration and 
leadership, these children's societies helped raise funds 

to support Hipolito de Campos, Brazil's first missionary 
to Portugal. 

Four children were born to the Lees — Wesley, xMary, 
Lucy, and William. After his wife's death in July, 1944, 
Lee married the widow of Michael Dickie— Julia Coach- 
man, also an effective worker in the church. Before her 
death in 1956, she edited Aleluias, a new hymnal which 
the Methodist press published. Lee retired in Brazil, died 
in Sao Paulo in his daughter Lucy's home, and was buried 
in the Santo Amaro Cemetery. 

Expositor Cristao, Aug. 9, 1944. Joao Goncalves Salvador 

LEE, WILSON (1764-1804), pioneer American preach- 
er, was born in Sussex County near Lewes, Del., in 
November 1764. He was converted at the age of seventeen 
and entered the traveling ministry in 1784. He was prob- 
ably a member of the Christmas Conference, and was 
Bishop Whatcoat's assistant for one year. On the Alle- 
gheny circuit in 1784, situated among the mountains of 
West VmciNiA with no defined limits, he crossed the lofty 
ranges many times. 

Bedford wrote of him: "Reared in the midst of refine- 
ment and surrounded with the luxuries of life, his manners 
polished and possessing talents of a high order, Lee might 
have achieved eminence in any profession." His neatness 
of attire and habits, his love, his consuming zeal and excel- 
lent \oice commanded respect. With an ardent spirit but 
with slender physical resources, Wilson Lee hazarded his 
frail body for nine years in the roughest frontier circuits 
of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Tennes- 

His early charges were Allegheny circuit, 1784; Red- 
stone circuit, 1785; and Talbot, 1786. Spending six years 
in Kentucky and middle Tennessee, Lee's frontier circuits 
were from the Monongahela to the banks of the Ohio — 
Kentucky, Slat River, Green River, Great Barrens, and 
Cumberland River — in which stations there was great 
savage cruelty and frequent deaths. Wilson Lee apparently 
had great success in the vicinity of Nashville, Tenn. 
The first church building was erected of stone in 1789 or 
1790 — now McKendree Church, Nashville. Two of Lee's 
converts were General James Robertson, the founder of 
Nashville, and his wife. 

In 1793 Lee came east, and in 1794 went to New En- 
gland. He was pastor of John Street Church, New 
York. 1795; St. George's, Philadelphia, 1796-99, and 
presiding elder of the Baltimore District, 1801-03. A 
fei-vent spirit, he lost his health in 1804 and was super- 
annuated, dying October 11 of that year. He was buried 
in Anne Arundel County, Md. 

Henry Boehm wrote, "I heard Lee preach in 1797 at 
St. George's when he was stationed there. He was a tall, 
slender man, had a musical voice and his delivery was 
very agreeable. He was one of the great men of Method- 
ism and a great favorite of Mr. Asbury." 

H. Boehm, Remirtiscences. 1875. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

J. F. Hurst, History of Metlwdism. 1901-04. 

A. H. Bedford, Kentucky. 1868-70. Jesse A. Earl 

LEE, JESSE, PRIZE was established by the Association of 
Methodist Historical Societies to encourage research and 
publication in the field of American Methodism. It is part 
of the program of awards, which includes grants-in-aid, 
administered bv the Awards Committee of the Commis- 



siON ON Archives and History. In response to annual 
announcement of competition for the prize, numerous 
manuscripts of book length have been submitted. Awards 
were made as follows; in 1967 to Lewis M. Purifoy, 
"Negro Slavery, the Moral Ordeal of Southern Method- 
ism"; in 1968 to Lester Scherer, "Ezekiel Cooper, an Early 
American Methodist Leader," and in 1970 to William B. 
Gravely, "Gilbert Haven, Racial Equalitarian." The prize 
was made a biennial affair in 1970. 

Frederick A. Norwood 

LEE MEMORIAL MISSION. (See Calcutta. India, Lee 
Memorial Mission.) 

LEEDS, England. In 1740 John Nelson heard John Wes- 
ley preach in Moorfields, London, and returned to 
Birstall, near Leeds, to share his experience. By 1742 his 
evangelism had spread to Armley; and here William 
Shent heard him, brought by his wife, Mary, who had 
been converted at John Nelson's door. Shent invited Nel- 
son to Leeds, and there he preached outside Shent's bar- 
ber's shop in spite of threats to kill him. This shop, at the 
bottom of what is now Briggate, became the headquarters 
of a society that numbered fifty when John Wesley first 
visited it on April 8, 1743. The house was licensed for 
Methodist worship on April 7, 1746, and remained the 
center of Methodism until the first chapel was built in 
1751. This chapel was built around the house of a basket- 
maker, Mathew Chippendale; and when it was roofed 
over, the old house was pulled down and the debris 
thrown through the chapel window. It got the name of 
the "old Boggart House" because it was supposed to be 
built in a haunted area. Shent continued his barber trade; 
his preaching and accounts exist today (in the handwriting 
of the steward, Thomas Hey, the eminent surgeon), not- 
ing payment to Shent of 7/6 a quarter for shaving the 
preachers, and a similar sum was spent on kneecaps for 
John Wesley. John Nelson died in 1774. 

After his wife's death Shent "fell into sin" and was 
turned out of the society. An eloquent letter to the 
Keighley society restored him, but in 1787 he died a 
drunkard. Methodism had taken firm root in Leeds, how- 
ever; one hundred years later the vicar of Leeds wrote 
"the de facto estabhshed religion is Methodism." The 
Boggart House was the only chapel until Albion Street 
(1802); then Isle Lane (1815), Wesley Meadow Lane 
(1816), Brunswick (1825), St. Peter's (1834), and Ox- 
ford Pace (1834) were built. Of these only Brunswick 
remains as it was. For about a hundred years these chapels 
remained fairly full, and revivals kept them so. In 1794 a 
thousand members were added, and another thousand in 
1838, under the preaching of John Rattenbury. Numbers 
rose between 1797 and 1840 from 2,460 to 8,079. 

There were also reversals. Leeds took part in the con- 
troversies which followed Wesley's death, and added a 
few of its own. Most Leeds Methodists were originally 
"Church Methodists" and held their services at 7 a.m. 
and 5:30 p.m. to avoid the hours of sei'vice of the parish 
church. It was freedom from establishment which led the 
builders of Albion Street out of the Wesleyan connection 
in 1802. Alexander Kilham's reforming party sent 
seventy of its members to the Wesleyan Conference which 
met in Leeds in 1797. Not being able to agree, they 
withdrew to Ebenezer Chapel (bought from the Baptists) 

and began an independent e.xistence as the Methodist 
New Connexion. 

A more severe reversal began with the proposal in 1826 
to build an organ in the new Brunswick Chapel. This 
was the start of the Leeds Organ Case. When the Con- 
ference of 1827 overruled an adverse vote of the District 
Meeting, seventy of the Leeds local preachers and leaders 
went on strike against the plan, and in the end more than 
a thousand members left the Leeds circuits and set up 
the Protestant Methodists. When controversy broke out 
again in 1849 as a result of the Fly Sheets agitation, 
the Wesleyan Reformers began in Leeds with a huge 
tea meeting, in which "a thousand persons partook of the 
beverage." Two thousand members left the Wesleyan 
Methodist societies in the course of this controversy. In 
1857 these joined with the Protestant Methodists and 
others to form the United Methodist Free Churches. 
At about the same time the Church of England, under 
the leadership of the famous Vicar of Leeds, Walter Far- 
guhar Hook, reorganized and reanimated itself. Hook re- 
built the parish church, and with it twenty-one other 
churches, twenty-seven schools, and twenty-three vicar- 
ages. He won many back to the Established Church. 

Primitive Methodism first entered Leeds on Nov. 29, 
1819, when William Clowes opened a mission. In a 
single year the membership of the Primitives was 984, 
but it was three years before the first chapel was built 
at Quarry Hill. By 1830 forty preaching places were on 
the plan, and by 1932 there were nine circuits, though 
some of these were single-minister stations. As a conse- 
quence of the Forward Movement, Oxford Place Chapel 
became the head of a new circuit in 1891, and three 
years later Samuel Chadwick was sent to be superinten- 
dent of the "new mission." Thirty thousand pounds was 
spent on remodeling the premises, and in his twelve-year 
ministry the membership rose from 294 to 957. Aggressive 
evangelism and social work went hand in hand, and tracts 
were distributed every week to 2,500 houses. Chadwick 
went to Cliff' College in 1907, and in 1910 George Allen 
began another great ministry of ten years. 

Brunswick Chapel had an Indian summer dating from 
the ministry of A. E. Whitham, who began to preach 
there in 1918. He had musical and poetic gifts which 
enriched his sermons. Brunswick began to grow, and in 
1925 Leslie D. Weatherhead began there a ministry of 
eleven years, in which it was necessary to be at the church 
door an hour before time if one wanted a seat. He re- 
moved to the London City Temple in 1936 and was suc- 
ceeded by Willl-vm E. Sangster. On the day that war 
started in 1939, Sangster began his term in London. None 
of the large Leeds city congregations survived the war 
intact, and Brunswick was no exception. In an effort at 
reorganization, Brunswick and Oxford Place Chapels were 
placed together in a new central circuit. A team ministry, 
committed to serve the city, hopes in the redevelopment 
of the city center to build premises fit for mission to the 
twentieth century. But Leeds has been no exception to 
the rule that the Methodist churches in the inner belt of 
the industrial cities have declined sharply since 1932, and 
this decline has been only partly compensated by growth 
among the suburban societies. 

John Banks 

LEESBURG, VIRGINIA, U.S.A., thirty-eight miles north- 
west of Alexandria, is the county seat of Loudon County. 



Settled in 1749 and incorporated in 1758, it was probably 
named for Francis Lightfoot Lee and Philip Ludwell Lee, 
local landholders who were among the town's first trust- 
ees. The town still has some old houses of stone and brick 
with i\y-clad walls shaded by elms and oaks, and door- 
ways with massive knockers. 

Prior to 1769 Methodism flourished in four places in 
America — New York; Philadelphia; Sam's Creek, Mary- 
land; and Leesburg, Virginia. The Methodist Society in 
Leesburg is regarded as the oldest in the state, and pre- 
sumably it began under the leadership of Robert Straw- 
bridge or some of his local preachers. In the early days 
Leesburg was one of the towns nearest to Sam's Creek 
where Strawbridge, according to Asbury's Journal (April 
30, 1801), built the first Methodist chapel in America. 

Site of Old SroNE Ciiuucii, Lee.sbuhg, 
FIRST Methodist Church property in America 

The Old Sfone Church. On May 11, 1766, the Methodist 
Societ\' purchased a half-acre lot in Leesburg for "no 
other use but for a church and meetinghouse and grave- 
yard." The Old Stone Church, as it came to be known, 
was begun in 1766, completed in 1770, and dedicated free 
of debt, June 24, 1790. The earliest dated tombstone in 
the Old Stone Church cemetery is 1777. It stands at the 
grave of Captain Wright Brickell who was converted at 
Norfolk under Joseph Pilmore. Brickell was one of the 
original Book Stewards of the Methodist Societies in 
America. Richard Owings, the first native-born Methodist 
local preacher in America, died at Leesburg in 1786, and 
he and a number of other prominent Methodist preachers 
are buried in the cemetery. 

When the 1796 General Conference designated six 
annual conferences with geographical boundaries, the 
"northern neck of Virginia," including Leesburg, became 
a part of the Baltimore Conference. When the M. E. 
Church divided over slavery in 1844, the Baltimore Con- 
ference adhered North. However, in 1848 more than half 
the members of the Old Stone Church in Leesburg de- 
cided to affiliate as a congregation with the Virginia 
Conference (MES). For a few years the two groups 
worshiped alternately in the Old Stone Church, but in 
1850 a lawsuit ensued and the court ruled that the 
church belonged to the M. E. Church because that body 
had held title to it since 1766. In 1853 the members who 
adhered South built their own church. 

As time passed the Northern membership in Leesburg 
dwindled, and in 1894 the Old Stone Church was aban- 
doned. In 1897 the Negro congregation of the Wash- 
ington Conference (ME) in Leesburg instituted and 

lost a lawsuit for possession of the Old Stone Church. In 
1900 the parsonge adjoining the church was sold for 
$416.05, and in 1902 the Old Stone Church was torn 
down. The communion table was then given to the Lees- 
burg Southern church as the descendant congregation of 
the Old Stone Church group which adhered South in 

Today the Old Stone Church Site and Cemetery, des- 
ignated as one of the historic shrines of American Meth- 
odism by the 1964 General Conference, is the property 
of the Virginia Methodist Historical Society. 

Recent History. The Leesburg Southern Church con- 
tinued as an appointment in the Virginia Conference until 
1861 when the Baltimore Conference (ME) divided into 
northern and southern branches. The Leesburg church 
then adhered to the Old Baltimore (southern) part of the 
conference. As is well known, that wing of the Baltimore 
Conference was officially received into the M. E. Church, 
South at the 1866 General Conference and it continued 
as the Baltimore Conference of that denomination until 
unification in 1939. 

As a strategic town in northern Virginia, Leesburg was 
involved in the Civil War, and the church suffered, but 
in after years it grew, had distinguished pastors, and was 
regarded as a strong, cultured, conservative appointment 
in the Baltimore Conference (MES). One feature of the 
church program in comparatively recent years has been 
a summer union Sunday evening service in front of the 
Loudon County Courthouse with the square largely filled 
with worshipers, some of them passersby who stop for 
the service at the county crossroads. 

At unification, Leesburg and all of the Virginia terri- 
tory of the Baltimore Conference (MES) became a part 
of the Virginia Conference (MC), and when the Arlington 
District was formed in 1962, Leesburg, which had been 
in the Alexandria District for many years, fell within the 
new district. 

In 1969 the Leesburg Church reported 725 members, 
property valued at $274,500, and $32,836 raised for all 

Columbia Lippincott Gazateer, 1952. Columbia Univ. Press. 
General Minutes, MEG, MEGS, MC, and UMC. 
Frederick E. Maser, The Dramatic Story of Early American 
Methodism. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1965. 
Melvin L. Steadman, Jr., Leesburg's Old Stone Church (pam- 
phlet, 1964). 

W. W. Sweet, Virginia Methodism. 1955. 

Virginia, A Guide to the Old Dominion, 1940. Virginia Writers' 
Project, 1947, Fourth Printing. Albea Godbold 

LEETE, FREDERICK DELAND (1866-1958), American bish- 
op, was born at Avon, N. Y., Oct. 1, 1866, of English 
Puritan and French Huguenot ancestry. He was the son 
of Menzo Smith Leete, under whom he was converted 
in a revival at thirteen. A grandson of Alexander Leete, 
the bishop was the eighth descendant from William Leete, 
Colonial governor of Connecticut. Frederick Leete was 
educated at Syracuse Unu'ersity (A.B., 1889; A.M., 
1891), and held the honorary D.D., L.H.D., and LL.D. 
degrees. He married Jeanette Fuller on July 28, 1891, 
and they had three children. 

Leete united with the Northern New York Confer- 
ence in 1888 and was appointed to Dryer Memorial 
Church, Utica, 1888-91. He served as Y.M.C.A. Secretary, 
Utica, 1891-94; First Church, Little Falls, 1894-98; Mon- 
roe Avenue, Rochester, 1898-1903; University Church, 



Frederick D. Leete 

Syracuse, 1903-06; Central Church, Detroit, Mich., 
1906-12. He was elected bishop in 1912 and assigned to 
the Atlanta Area, 1912-20; the Indianapolis Area, 1920- 
28; and the Omaha Area, 1928-36, when he retired. 

Bishop Leete was a member of three Ecumenical 
Methodist Conferences, 1911, 1921, 1931, and was 
president of the Ecumenical Council of the Americas and 
Orient, 1931-44. He was a life member of the American 
Historical Association; a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
Arts, London. 

Bishop Leete served on every commission that dealt 
with church union prior to 1939, and was said to be 
one of the most creative minds of the Northern commis- 
sion. Bishop Moore wrote, "Bishop Frederick D. Leete 
was one of the most valuable members of the Commission. 
He spoke always with directness and understanding, and 
his suggestions, motions and decisions contributed greatly 
to working out the plan of Union. By his long ministry in 
prominent pastorates in the Northland, his discerning 
episcopal service in the Atlanta area, he had acquainted 
himself not only with the mind of his own church but 
with the necessary position and requirements of the 
Church, South. . . . He met the issues with deep insight, 
clear vision, broad churchmanship, calm courage and 
genuine statesmanship." (Long Road to Methodist Union, 
p. 128.) 

Leete's Methodist Bishops, published in 1948, contains 
interesting facts about 250 Methodist bishops. Though 
the accounts are not always accurate in minor matters, it 
is a valuable collection of biographies. 

Bishop Leete's personal "Methodist Bishops' Collection," 
containing nearly all the books and pamphlets written 
about the 250 bishops covered in his book and including 
some 4,000 letters from bishops, has been housed at 
Southern Methodist University, along with his rare 
library of Methodist historical material. 

Bishop Leete died on Feb. 16, 1958. 

C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

J. M. Moore, Long Road to Union. 1943. Jesse A. Earl 

LEEWARD ISLANDS (district of the Methodist Church 
IN THE Caribbean .\nd the Americas), formerly referred 
to a group of British islands in the Eastern Caribbean, 
including St. Kitts (properly called St. Christopher), 
Nevis and Anguilla, Antigua and Montserrat. St. Kitts, 
Nevis and Anguilla form a self-governing associated state 
within the British Commonwealth, though Anguilla in 
1968 refused to recognize the connection with St. Kitts 
and Nevis. Antigua is also an associated state. The teiTn 
"the Leeward Islands" also includes Guadeloupe which 
is an overseas department of France. 

The Methodist district includes the above mentioned, 
though there is no work on the i.sland of Cuadeloupe, and 
also St. Eustatius, which forms part of the Netherlands 
Antilles, and St. Martin (St. Maarten), which is partly a 
French possession, and partly within the Netherlands 
Antilles. In addition, the district includes the British as- 
sociated state of Dominica, geographically the most north- 
erly of the Windward Islands; the American and British 
Virgin Islands and Aruba and Cura9ao, in the Netherlands 
Antilles, 500 miles to the southwest off the coast of 
Venezuela. Its work is carried on in English. 

Antigua, the headquarters of the district and of the 
MCCA, is the subject of a separate article. 

The broad lines of development throughout the district 
are similar, though there are variations from one island 
to another. In most places, lay Methodist initiative pre- 
ceded the visits of Thomas Coke and the stationing of 
the first British ministers. A period of rapid expansion 
despite opposition, was followed in the 1820's by a decline 
in membership. The liberation of the slaves in British 
colonies in 1834, occasioned some political disturbance 
from which the church suffered, and in the mid-nineteenth 
century, economic depression in the West Indies led to 
emigration from the smaller islands, while the internal 
struggle of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Britain led 
to the withdrawal of some missionary staff. Nevertheless, 
the church gradually expanded during the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries, and in some islands, such as 
Tortola in the British Virgin Islands, Methodism came to 
form the largest Christian community. The Leeward 
Islands District (then known as the Antigua District) was 
incorporated into the autonomous West Indian Conference 
in 1884, despite the opposition of its chairman and a 
majority of members of the synod. 

Methodism entered Curasao about 1930, when a local 
preacher named Obed Anthony began preaching in a 
hired hall, and in the open air. He and his followers later 
entered the Dutch Protestant Church, but a Methodist 
minister was stationed in Curasao from 1945. Meanwhile, 
in Aruba, Methodist services and prayer meetings had 
been begun by Thomas Markham, a local preacher from 
Montserrat, and others. The first minister, W. J. Barrett, 
was appointed in 1939, and was transferred to Curasao 
in 1945. The first Methodist minister in St. Croix, Ameri- 
can Virgin Islands, was appointed in 1967. 

In 1967 the district became a founder member of the 
Methodist Church in the Caribbean .\nd the 
Americas. It has maintained throughout its history con- 
nections with other parts of the Caribbean area and of 
world Methodism. 

Methodism was introduced into St. Kitts by Lydia 
Seaton, a servant who had lived in the house of Frances 
Turner, one of Nathaniel Gilbert's converts in Antigua. 
The first Methodist community, which Thomas Coke 
visited in 1787, 1789 and 1805, included the editor of the 



local newspaper, named Cable, and a jeweller named 
Bertie. William Hammet was stationed in St. Kitts by 
Coke, and followed by Thomas Owens and others. A 
schism, led by an Anabaptist local preacher and a former 
missionary, divided the church in 1806, but a revival 
took place about 1815. The church contained at this time 
an unusually high proportion of white members. Relations 
with Anglicans in the 1820's were tense, but the Methodist 
community was by far the largest denomination on the 
island. Education made slow progress, and support by 
missionaries from Britain diminished. A second revival 
took place in 1870, after a long period of decline, but 
lives and property were lost from time to time through 
fire (1867), hurricane (1871) and flood (1880). The 
first Kittitian minister, Alban E. Belboda, began work in 
1913. During the period of the West Indian Conference 
(1884-1904), the St. Kitts District became distinct from 
the Antigua District. From 1904, when the Leeward 
Islands District was created, to 1950, the chairman of the 
district resided in St. Kitts. 

Coke's first visit to Nevis in 1787 was unsuccessful, 
but the island was visited soon after by William Hammet, 
and Thomas Owens was stationed there after Coke's 
second visit in 1789. On this occasion. Coke held in Nevis 
a conference of West Indian staff. A chapel was built in 
Charlestown, the main town, in 1790, with the support 
of prominent planters such as the cousins Richard and 
Walter Nisbett and William Brazier. By the time of Coke's 
third visit, in 1793, the church had 400 members in 
Charlestown alone. In 1797, controversy on moral issues 
between the minister and some planters led to an attempt 
to burn down the church, and there were further attacks 
on the church in 1816. Local leadership was difficult to 
maintain, and membership ebbed and flowed in Nevis as 
elsewhere. Wesleyan Methodist discipline aroused some 
opposition. The abolition of slavery caused less disturb- 
ance in Nevis than in St. Kitts, and churches were 
crowded by the mid-1830's. A further period of decline 
in mid-century was followed in 1861 by a revival of the 
Obeah cult. Lender a succession of capable ministers, the 
Church was steadily built up until the period of the 
autonomous West Indian Conference (1884-1904). It was 
from Nevis that William Claxton and William Powell 
emigrated to Guyana in 1802, to establish Methodism 

Metliodism was brought to Anguilla by one of its own 
citizens, John Hodge, who returned home in 1813, to find 
no minister of any denomination on the island. Two years 
later, a missionary from St. Barts (St. Bartholomew) 
visited Anguilla, to find that Hodge had gathered around 
him a Methodist community of 250 members. The deputy 
governor of the island paid public tribute to his work in 
1817, and he was ordained in 1822. During the years of 
economic depression, most Methodists remained faithful 
to the church, and the island has made a disproportion- 
ately large contribution to the ministry and deaconess 

Before Coke's first visit to the Dutch Island of Sf. 
Eustatius (Statia) in 1787, a class of twenty Methodist 
members had been gathered by a Negro slave, converted 
in North America, and known as "Black Harry." At first 
he was allowed to preach freely, and the Dutch governor 
went to hear him, but later his influence over his fellow- 
slaves aroused the apprehension of the white planters, 
and public preaching was forbidden. Coke preached 
privately to the authorities, and organised six classes dur- 

ing a two weeks' visit. On his return at the end of 1788, 
Coke found that Black Harry had been banished, and an 
edict prohibiting public prayer was in force. Nevertheless, 
Coke baptised 140 people. WiUiam Brazier of St. Kitts 
was sent to lead the Methodist community, but he was 
soon driven from the island. Within a year Coke returned, 
to receive a personal rebuff from a new Dutch governor, 
though Methodists were allowed to meet privately. No 
minister w;is appointed to the island until Myles Coupland 
Dixon arrived in 1811, but under his successor, Jonathan 
Raynar, (1815-1818), St. Eustatius became a separate 
circuit, and relations with the Dutch authorities greatly 
improved. The church was destroyed by earthquake in 
1842, but the church's work was helped by government 

St. Martin is an island of thirty-nine square miles, 
divided between Dutch and French administration. John 
Hodge of Anguilla visited both parts of the island in 
1847. He was driven from the French sector after one 
successful meeting, but found a more friendly reception 
in the Dutch colony. At first, the island was visited by the 
missionary stationed in St. Bartholomew, but in 1819 a 
new circuit of St. Martin's and AnguiUa was constituted. 
The attitude of the French authorities changed, and they 
gave an annual grant to the mission. Emancipation of the 
slaves came in 1849 to the French part of the island, and 
in 1863 to the Dutch part, as to St. Eustatius and other 
Dutch possessions. The French government later pressed 
for the appointment of French-speaking ministers, and 
few local preachers were to be found, so that although 
the church enjoyed a good reputation, its pulpits were 
sometimes unfilled. 

When Coke visited Tortola, the largest of the British 
Virgin Islands, with William Hammet in 1789, he found 
no church there, though he was well received by the 
authorities, and the Moravians had been at work in the 
neighboring island of St. Thomas for over fifty years. The 
church grew rapidly, until in 1796, it included among 
its members almost half the slave population. The Wesley- 
an missionary John Brownell was assaulted in 1806 by one 
of a group of white men whose conduct Brownell had 
attacked in print, and in 1814, a schismatic movement 
was led by an ex-missionary named Stewart. Nevertheless, 
there was no official opposition to the church. In the early 
years of the nineteenth century, the islands had been 
served by a staff of three ministers, but by 1884 these 
had been reduced to one. Nevertheless, by the beginning 
of the twentieth century, the Methodist community in- 
cluded more than eighty percent of the inhabitants. The 
proportion has since declined, but a majority of the people 
are still Methodists. Methodism has played a prominent 
role in education, and women's and youth organizations 
are active. 

Methodism was a relatively late arrival to the United 
States Virgin Islands. St. Thomas, then a Danish posses- 
sion, became a center of Moravian work in 1732, and, 
with St. Croix, was brought within the Anglican diocese 
of Antigua in 1848, but it was not until 1891, during the 
period of the autonomous West Indian Conference, that 
the first Methodist minister, J. B. Foster, was stationed 
there. Work is expanding in St. Thomas and in St. Croix, 
and a Methodist minister was stationed in St. Croix for 
the first time in 1967. 

A Methodist society with a dozen members existed in 
Montserrat as early as 1793, and Coke already planned to 
establish a circuit there, but it was not until 1820 that 



the first missionary, John Maddock, arrived. He died 
within a year, and although he was immediately replaced, 
the growth of the church was steady rather than spectac- 
ular. Many of the settlers were Irish Roman Catholics, 
and among the indigenous inhabitants, there were periodic 
revivals of the Obeah cult. There has been close coopera- 
tion with government, particularly in educational work. 
Dominica was visited by Coke in 1787 and 1788. The 
small Methodist community, led by a Mrs. Webley, re- 
ceived its first minister, an Irishman named William Mc- 
Cornock, in 1788. Within six months, he had died. The 
early history of Dominican Methodism, until 1817, is 
marked by a high rate of mortality and sickness among 
missionaries, and consequently by periods during which 
the station was left vacant. Controversy about church 
property in 1810 severely reduced the membership, but 
by 1833 it had risen to almost 1,000. Roman Catholicism 
was well established in Dominica before the beginning 
of Methodist work, and its influence has continued to 
predominate. (See also West Indies.) 

Kindling of the Flame, British Guiana District, 1960. 

C. E. LawTence, The Wesley of tlie West Indies, Montserrat, 

1938. Paul Ellincwobth 

in the state senate, built a magnificent mansion near the 
town later named for him — Creenwood, in Leflore County. 
The Civil War brought him great financial loss as he 
remained loyal to the Union until his death on Aug. 31, 
1865. Other members of the Leflore family moved to In- 
dian territory. A half-brother, Forbis Leflore, served as 
an assistant Methodist preacher and interpreter for preach- 
ers. For a time there was a Methodist appointment called 
Leflore, and a county in Oklahoma named for the family. 

Babcock and Bryce, Oklahoma. 1937. 

Angie Debo, Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic. Norman: 

University of Oklahoma Press, 1934, 1961. 

Dictionartj of American Biography, Dumas Malone, ed. Vol. XI, 

pp. 143-44. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1933. 

Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, Vol. VII, pp. 

141-51. Walter N. Vernon 

LEGAL HUNDRED. The name used in the Wesleyan Metli- 
odist Church for the select hundred preachers and their 
successors to whom Wesley assigned the legal conduct 
of Conference business bv his Deed of Declar.\tion, 

Frank Baker 

LEFFINGWELL, CLARA (1862-1905). American Free 
Methodist missionary', was born at Napoli, N. Y., Dec. 
2, 1862. In 1886 she was licensed to preach, and sers'ed 
churches in New York and Pennsylvania. In 1896 she 
went to China under the China Inland Mission. She was 
there during the Boxer riots. Her concern was the evan- 
gelization of the Chinese and in having her own denomi- 
nation share in it. After a term she returned home to 
crusade for the establishment of Free Methodist missions 
in China. The General Conference and Missionary Board 
were persuaded. She was appointed superintendent for 
China with the authority to raise the needed funds, and 
secure recruits for the field. In less than two years she 
had done both — breaking her health through overwork. 
However, she went to the field with several new mis- 
sionaries. Within a few weeks, she had located a field 
for the Free Methodists in Honan Province. Stations were 
opened at Chengchow and Kaifeng. She lived only a few 
months afterward and died in China, July 16, 1905. 

B. S. Lamson, Venture! 1960. 

Sellevv, Clara Leffingwell, A Missionary. N.d. 

Byron S. Lamson 

LEFLORE, GREENWOOD (1800-1865), American Indian 
chief and strong supporter of Methodist mission work 
among Indians, was bom on June 3, 1800 near what is 
now Jackson, iMiss. He was the son of a French-Canadian 
trader and merchant, and of a French-Indian mother. 
When twelve years old he went to Nashville, Tenn., 
where he was educated, living in the home of Major 
John Donly whose daughter, Rosa, he married. Returning 
to Mississippi he became one of the chiefs of the Choc- 
taws and was soon verj' influential among them. He 
opened his home as headquarters for Alexander Talley 
in his preaching tours, and also served as inteipreter. He 
was one of the chief leaders in the signing of the treat)' 
of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which caused much bitterness 
among the Choctaws who opposed leaving their old home 
for the lands of Oklahoma. Leflore decided to stay in 
Mississippi rather than to migrate west, and became a 
prosperous land and slave owner. He served four years 

LEGION OF SERVICE was a Youth movement started by 
the United Methodist Church in Britain in 1922, and 
intended as an advance on both the Christian Endeav- 
our and the Scouting movement. Some idea of its mood 
may be gathered from the Aspiration of its highest grade 
of membership, the Cuides: 

As the shepherd counted the flock 

And tlirough the night sought high and low 

The missing sheep, so let me seek 

The lost until I find; 

Nor the lost man alone, 

But Heaven's ideal of all he may become, 

The mother-tliought of God for every life, 

Gi\ing myself with joy to win his best. 

Believing still, though failures oft recur. 

Drinking the cup Christ drank, 

'For their sakes,' saving with Him, 

'I sanctify myself.' 

A Fellowship of Service was also created, to sene the 
leaders of the Legion, and those who did other types of 
Youth work. At the time of Methodist Union, the Legion 
of Service reported twenty-two Senior branches with 687 
members, and fourteen Junior branches with 363 mem- 
bers. The United Methodist Church had about 139.000 
members at the time. 

John Kent 

LEIFFER, MURRAY HOWARD (1902- ), American 

clergyman, educator. Judicial Council member, was bom 
at Albany, N. Y. He was educated at the College of the 
City of New York and the University of Southern Cali- 
fomia, receiving also the B.D. degree from Garrett 
Theological Seminary, M.A. from the University of 
Chicago and Ph.D. from Nortitwestern University. He 
was ordained and joined the Southern Californla.- 
Arizona Conference, 1927. but has since served as an 

As a teacher he has been instructor in sociology at 
Chicago Training School, 1929-32; associate professor of 
sociology and social ethics at Garrett, 1929-32; associate 



professor, 1932-35; and professor since 1936. He orga- 
nized and directed the Bureau of Social and Religious 
Research, making surveys that were of great value to 
church bodies, general and local. Among these was a study 
of the Methodist episcopacy, carried on with the aid of the 
Council of Bishops. 

His membership on church board and committees has 
included the Board of Temperance, the Board of Chris- 
tian Social Concerns, and the General Conference Com- 
mittee on correlation and editorial revision, which last 
helped in editing the Discipline (TMC) in 1952, 56, 60 
and 64. He was elected to the Judicial Council of the 
church in 1964 and in 1968 became its president. 

Dr. Leiffer has written: Manual for the Study of the 
City Church, City and Church i7i Transition and The 
Effective City Church. He edited The Urban Fact Book 
and Crowded Ways. Two of his books centered about 
laymen — The Layman Looks at the Minister and In That 
Case. His involvement with the ministry and training min- 
isters spurred his authorship of The Methodist Ministry; 
Retirement and Recruitment in the Methodist Ministry, 
The Role of the District Superintendent; and The Epis- 
copacy in the Present Day. After and while teaching at 
Singapore and Manila in 1961 and 1965 he wrote The 
Methodist Church in Singapore, and Methodist and Other 
Protestant Churches in Manila. 

He is a member of a number of learned and profes- 
sional societies. 

In 1924 he married Dorothy Corinne Linn and they 
had one son, Donald John, a teacher of sociology. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. T. Otto Nall 

Samuel Leigh 

LEIGH, SAMUEL (1785-1852), first Australian Methodist 
minister, was bom on Sept. 1, 1785, at Milton, Stafford- 
shire, England. Associated with the Independent Church 
at Hanley, he enrolled in a Theological School conducted 
by the Rev. Dr. Bogue, a strict Calvinist. Leigh favored and quietly withdrew. He then joined the 
Wesleyan Society at Portsmouth, England and assisted 
Joseph Sutcliffe. Appointed to the Shaftesbury Circuit, 
he interested himself for two years in Christian Education. 
He was deeply influenced by an interview he had with 
Thomas Coke, who was then setting out for missionary 
fields in CE'ixON. 

On Oct. 3, 1814, he was ordained and his authority 
"to feed the flock of Christ and to administer the holy 
sacraments" was signed by Adam Clarke, Samuel 
Bradburn, Thomas Vasey and John Gaultier. 

Leigh left Portsmouth on Feb. 28, 1815, enroute to 
New South Wales, Australia. He arrived in Sydney in 
the "Hebe" on August 10, and the following day presented 
his credentials to Governor Macquarie who, suspicious of 
"sectaries," gave Leigh the opportunity to become a 
servant of the Government. To the credit of Macquarie, 
Leigh's sincerity and forthrightness won his admiration 
and practical support. 

Leigh held services in the Rocks area, Sydney, and 
pioneered work at Castlereagh, Parramatta, Windsor, 
Lower Portland and Liverpool. By 1819 he had estab- 
lished the first Methodist circuit with fourteen preaching 
places. This involved riding horseback over 150 miles each 
week. He visited and preached in Newcastle on several 
occasions. He befriended and was supported by Samuel 
Marsden, who held the position of Senior Chaplain (C 
of E), and became an active member in the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge and Benevolence. 

Leigh helped establish the Colonial Auxiliary Bible 
Society in 1817. On Marsden's suggestion and with his 
support, he was able to visit New Zealand. He returned 
for health reasons to England in 1820 and married 
Catherine Clewes. 

In 1821 he established a mission in Hobart, leaving 
William Horton in charge. In February 1822, he founded 
the first Wesleyan mission at Whangaroa. Returning to 
New South Wales he became acting superintendent of 
Sydney Circuit and later was stationed at Parramatta. It 
was there his wife died on May 15, 1831, and was buried 
in St. John's cemetery. Because of indifferent health he 
again returned to England. He died May 2, 1852. 

He has an honored place in Australasian history and 
his work is perpetuated in New South Wales by the 
Leigh Theological College, Enfield, and the Leigh Me- 
morial Centenary Church, Parramatta. 

Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. II, 1967. 

J. Colwell, Illustrated History. 1904. 

C. H. Laws, Toil and Adversity at Whangaroa. New Zealand, 

Wesley Historical Society, 1945. 

Rita F. Snowden, The Ladies of Wesley dale. London: Ep- 

worth Press, 1957. 

Alexander Strachan, Remarkable Incidents in the Life of the 

Rev. Samuel Leigh. London: James NichoUs, 1855. 

Stanley G. Clauchton 

LELIEVRE, MATTHIEU (1840-1930), French pastor and 
historian, was the son of Jean Lelievie (1793-1861), who 
was bom in Normandy of Roman Catholic parents. On 
his return from fighting in Napoleon's armies, Jean 
Lelievre was converted at the age of thirty-eight and 
became a Methodist minister. Three of his sons entered 
the Methodist ministry. Matthieu, born circa 1840, though 
he entered the ministry quite young, quickly became one 
of the leading men. Succeeding one of Charles Cook's 
sons, he became secretary of the French Sunday School 
Union. He started a teacher's paper, which was an im- 
mediate success, and continues to this day. 

He was known, not only as a preacher, but also as an 
author. He wrote lives of several of the early French 
Methodist ministers, of John Hunt of Fiji fame and of 
William Taylor of California. His volume on the pioneer 



preachers of the West in the United States does them 
justice. His Hfe of John Wesley ran through five editions, 
carefully revised and improved. It was translated into five 
languages: English, German, Italian, Spanish, and Tamil. 
He also edited, with D. Benoit, Crespin's Livre des 
Martyrs, the French equivalent of Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 
his share being two large quarto volumes. Several volumes 
on French Huguenot history show the breadth of his in- 
terests. His last book was on Wesley's theology, written 
only a couple of years before he died, well over eighty 
years old, a labor of love. 

With others he started a Home Missionary Society, 
after the 1870 war with Prussia, in order to revive the 
churches of all denominations. 

For years, he was editor of the French Methodist 
paper, I'Evangeliste. Though Methodism was a small 
minority compared to the Reformed and Lutheran 
Churches, Lelievre made this journal one of the most in- 
fluential religious papers. 

He was several times President of the French Confer- 
ence and was awarded the D.D. {honoris causa) by the 
University of Ohio. 

Theophile Rou.\, Matthieu Lelievre. 1932. H. E. Whelpton 

LENHART, JOHN L. (1805-1862), American clergyman 
and Navy chaplain, was born Oct. 29, 1805, to a well- 
known Pennsylvania family. In 1830 he entered the 
Philadelphia Conference, though his membership sub- 
sequently was in the New Jersey and Newark Confer- 
ences. Illness came while at Cross Street, Paterson, N. J. 
His physician recommended a seashore appointment, 
whereupon he became a chaplain in the U. S. Navy. Re- 
taining membership in the Newark Conference when it 
was set off from the New Jersey Conference, he was the 
first chairman of the conference board of stewards. 

The Civil War found Lenhart serving aboard the 
Cumberland. Eligible for retirement, he chose to sewe 
further. He was the first Navy Chaplain to die as the 
result of enemy action, when the Cumberland was rammed 
and sunk by the Confederate ship Virginia (formerly the 
Merrimack) at Hampton Roads, Va., March 8, 1862. 
"When it was seen that the Cumberland must go down 
all the officers in charge of the wounded were ordered on 
deck and to bring with them such of the wounded as 
there might be some hope of saving, which order was 
obeyed by the surgeons and others. The Chaplain, instead 
of coming on deck, went into his room and shut the door 
when in a few minutes he met his fate, the ship going 
speedily down." It was thought the door swung shut after 
the chaplain entered the room and that he was unable to 
open it due to damage to the vessel. Writing to a friend 
before the fatal attack he said: "It is just as near my 
heavenly home from the Cumberland as from any other 

V. B. Hampton, Newark Conference. 1957. 
History of the Chaplain Corps, U. S. Navy. 
Minutes of the Newark Conference, 1862. 

Edgar R. Rohrbach 

LEONARD, ADNA BRADWAY (1837-1916), American 
pastor, presiding elder, missionary secretary, was born at 
Berhn, Ohio, on Aug. 2, 1837, the son of John and Nancy 
(Davis) Leonard. Educated at Union College in Alliance, 
Ohio (A.M., 1881; Hon.D.D., LL.D.), he entered the 

Pittsburgh M. E. Conference in March, 1860. From 
then until 1886 he served churches in Ohio and the 
Leavenworth District in the Kansas Conference. He 
was elected corresponding secretary of the Missionary 
Society and Board of Foreign Missions in 1888, serving 
as such until 1912. 

Leonard's pastorates were characterized by revivals. 
During his three years at Central, Springfield, Ohio, the 
membership rose from 590 to 805. As presiding elder in 
Kansas at the first and fourth rounds he would preach 
and hold Quarterly Conference on Saturday, then preach 
twice on Sunday, administer Communion, and hold a love 
feast. On the second and third rounds he would preach 
and hold Quarterly Conference. As far as was possible, 
he aided pastors in revivals during the fall and winter. 
In 1885 Adna Leonard was a candidate for Governor of 
Ohio on the Prohibition ticket. He was elected a delegate 
to the General Conference eight times, and was sent 
to three Ecumenical Methodist Conferences, 1891, 
1901, and 1911. 

On Feb. 19, 1861, he married Caroline Amelia Kaiser 
and they had seven children, one son, Adna Wright 
Leonard, in time becoming a bishop. 

A. B. Leonard was elected corresponding secretary of 
the Missionary Society of the M. E. Church and sei-ved 
longer than any of his predecessors, or from 1888 to 1912. 
He visited twenty-five foreign countries one or more times 
on five missionary tours, 1893, 1901. 1904, 1906. and 
1907. On the 1907 trip, lasting eight months and eighteen 
days, he preached forty times and transacted the business 
of the Missionary Society. Financial expenditure for for- 
eign missions in 1888 amounted to $244,000. By 1912 it 
increased to $822,000, having reached its highest peak 
in 1906, which was $831,000. The 1912 General Confer- 
ence unanimously adopted a resolution stating that 
Leonard had set an example of devotion to the cause of 
missions and that he be made Secretary-emeritus for life, 
empowering the Board to make him a grant annualh' as 
it should judge advisable. After writing his autobiography. 
The Stone of Help, in 1915, he died April 22, 1916. 

A strong figure in the Church, Dr. A. B. Leonard was 
an outstanding preacher and great Missionary Secretary. 

A. B. Leonard, The Stone of Help, Autobiography. Cincin- 
nati, Ohio and N. Y. : Methodist Book Concern, 1915. 
C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

Jesse A. Eaul 

LEONARD, ADNA WRIGHT (1874-1943), American bish- 
op, was bom in Cincinnati, Ohio, on Nov. 2, 1874. He 
was educated at New York Univ.-rsity, Drew Theolog- 
ical Seminary, and The American School of Archeology, 
Rome, Italy. He was received on trial in the Cincinnati 
Conference in 1899 and ordained deacon the same year. 
He was united in marriage to Marv Luella Dav, Oct. 9, 

Churches served by A. W. Leonard include Green 
Village, New Jersey; First Church, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 
American Methodist Church, Rome, Italy. He returned to 
America in 1903 and afterwards ser\'ed Grace Church, 
Piqua, Ohio; Central Church, Springfield; Walnut Hills 
Church, Cincinnati; and First Church, Seattle. He was 
elected bishop of the M. E. Church in 1916. As bishop 
he served the following areas: San Francisco, 1916-1924; 
Buffalo, 1924-1932; Pittsburgh, 1932-1940; and Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1940-1943. 

The following colleges and universities conferred honor- 



Adna W. Leonard 

ary degrees upon him: Ohio Northern University, 
College of Puget Sound, University of Southern California, 
Syracuse University, Allegheny College, West Vib- 
GixiA Wesleyan College, The American University, 
and Western Maryland College. 

Bishop Leonard died in an aiiplane accident over Ice- 
land in 1943, while on an inspection tour of the American 
forces in Europe and Africa, at the request of President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, and in the interest of the Commis- 
sion on Chaplains of the Federal Council of Churches 
of Christ in America. He was buried in Iceland. His chil- 
dren were Adna Wright Leonard, Jr., and Mrs. Henrv G. 
Budd, Jr. 

Bishop Leonard was an impressive soldierly looking 
man of great force of character. He was a stickler for 
parliamentary order and saw that his conferences followed 
out exactly the procedures outlined in the Discipline, and 
drove ahead with the programs of the church. His tragic 
death in the line of duty for both his church and nation 
was deeply felt by his brethren. 

Journals of Puget Sound Conference, 1910-16; Pacific North- 
west Conference, 1943. 
C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

Erle Howell 

LESLIE, DAVID (I797-I869), an American missionary, cir- 
cuit rider, and leader in Christian education in the Pacific 

A member of the New England Conference, he 
volunteered for service in the Oregon mission to the In- 
dians in 1836. He and his family reached Oregon in 
September 1837, completing an eight-month voyage from 
Boston around the Horn. For two years, when the super- 
intendent, Jason Lee, was seeking reinforcements from the 
east coast, Leslie was acting-superintendent. 

Before the United States and Great Britain settled the 
Oregon boundary in 1846, there was no legal government 
in Oregon established by a sovereign state. In 1838 the 
settlers near the mission appointed Leslie a justice of the 

peace. In this capacity he conducted the first trial by jury 
held in Oregon, a trial in which one of the settlers was 
acquitted from the charge of murder. He prepared a 
memorial for the American settlers, petitioning the U.S. 
Congress to extend protection to the settlers in Oregon. 
He joined with the settlers to establish a temporary gov- 
ernment, which served the pioneers as their only govern- 
ment until the U.S. established the territorial government 
of Oregon in 1848. 

After the close of the Indian mission in 1846, Leslie 
remained in Oregon to work among the white settlers. 
Never a man of robust physical strength, the work of the 
circuit rider left him broken in health and, at the early 
age of fifty-two, he took the supernumerary relation. But 
his labors for the church never ceased until death closed 
his work in March 1869. 

Living on his land claim near Salem, he served the 
church in many ways, but the service which gave him a 
large place in the history of Methodism in Oregon was his 
long service to Willamette University, the Methodist 
school which is the oldest university in the Pacific North- 
west. He was a member of the original board of trustees 
in 1842 (known as Oregon Institute until its charter in 
1853), and continued a member until his death in 1869. 
He was president of the board, succeeding Jason Lee, 
until his death, a period of twenty-five years. It was a 
period when the work to maintain the struggling pioneer 
university required his full devoted efforts, best described 
as a full-time, but non-salaried position. The Oregon Con- 
ference committee on education said in its report the 
year of Leslie's death, concerning Willamette University 
and Leslie's relation to it, "much of the honor of its place 
in the history of the church in Oregon will arise from the 
part he bore in laying its foundations, and carrying it 
through its earliest struggles and difficulties." 

R. M. Gatke, Willamette University. 1943. 

Robert Moulton Gatke 

LESLIE, ELMER ARCHIBALD (1888-1965), American cler- 
gyman and educator, was born in Tolono, 111., April 8, 
1888, the son of Robert and Mary (Campbell) Leslie. He 
received the A.B. degree from the University of Illinois in 
1910; the S.T.B. degree in 1913 and the Ph.D. degree in 
1916 from Boston University. He also studied at Leipzig, 
Glasgow, Halle, Berlin, O.xford and Jerusalem. 

Admitted on trial to the Maine Conference in 1911, 
he was ordained a deacon in 1912, joined the New 
England Conference in full connection in 1913, and 
received his elder's orders in 1915. He served Methodist 
churches in Urbana and Savoy, 111.; Kittery, Me.; Arhng- 
ton, Medford, Cambridge and Brookline, Mass. He 
founded and directed the Wesley Foundation at Har- 
vard University in Cambridge from 1918 to 1921. From 
1921 until 1957 he was professor of Hebrew and Old 
Testament literature at Boston University. He was widely 
known as a lecturer and writer. 

His numerous published works include Old Testament 
Religion (1936), The Psahns (1949), Jeremiah (1954) 
and Isaiah (1963). He was a contributor to Abingdon 
Bible Commentary and The Interpreter's Bible. 

Beloved bv colleagues and students alike, he was not 
only a scholar whose work was marked by carefulness 
and thoughtfulness, he was also one who never lost the 
pastoral touch. His deep faith and prayer life profoundly 
influenced his associates. 


On June 26, 1913 he married Helen Fay Noon, daugh- 
ter of a New England clergyman, by whom he had four 
children: Jean Taylor (Mrs. A. Donald Hackler), Robert 
Campbell, James S. and Donald WOliam (deceased). 

Elmer A. Leslie died at his winter retirement home in 
Winter Park, Fla., Feb. 26, 1965. 

Minutes New England .i^nnual Conference, 1965. 
Nexus, Alumni Magazine, Boston University School of Theol- 
ogy, May 1965. 
VVlio's Who in Methodism, 1952. Ernest R. Case 

LESSEY, THEOPHILUS (1787-1841), British Methodist and 
one of the most noted Wesleyan preachers of his time, 
was bom at Penzance, Cornwall, and was baptized by 
John Wesley himself. He was educated at Kingswood 
School, entered the ministry in 1808, and became presi- 
dent of the Conference in 1839, the first son of a Method- 
ist minister to be elected to that office. He died in London 
on June 10, 1841. 

G. Smith, Wesleyan Methodism. 1857-61. 

G. West, Sketches of Wesleyan Preachers. London, 1849. 

G. Ernest Long 

LEVERT, EUGENE VERDOT (1795-1875), American minis- 
ter and colorful character who was one of the "founders 
of Methodism in Alabama," was born Oct. 20, 1795, King 
William County, Va., the son of Dr. Claudius Levert, who 
was surgeon of Count Rochambeau's French fleet when it 
came to help the Americans win their independence. Dr. 
Levert married about 1785, Ann Lea Metcalfe, of one 
of the old families of Tidewater, Va. Eugene Levert came 
to Alabam.\ first in 1818, and joined the Methodist church 
near Huntsville in 1819. In 1821 he joined the Mississippi 
Conference which then e.xtended over the western part 
of Alabama, and was appointed to the Tuscaloosa Circuit, 
with Samual Patton as his senior minister. 

In 1822 he was sent to the Alabama Circuit with Joshua 
Boucher, but in 1823 was located by the Conference 
against his desire, because he had married on Jan. 23, 
1823, Martha Patton. (She subsequently became the 
mother of fifteen children.) The feeling in that day against 
young ministers marrying was \'er\- strong, hence the un- 
willing location. However, in 1825 he was readmitted 
and assigned to the New River Circuit, and in 1826 to 
the Cahaba Valley Circuit, but in 1827 he was forced 
to locate again, this time voluntarily due to his own health. 
In 1828 he was readmitted a second time, and served the 
Tuscaloosa Circuit, being one of tlie original presiding 
elders at the organization in 1832 of the Alabama Con- 
ference. Thereafter he served several appointments in 
his Conference including the Selma District and the 
Demopolis District. He was elected delegate to the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1840, and was one of the original 
trustees of Centenar\' Institute at Summerfield, in Dallas 
County, Ala. A zealous Mason, he became Grand Master 
of the Grand Council of the Masonic Lodge for Alabama 
in 1866-67. It is said that more children were named for 
Eugene V. Levert than probably for any minister in Ala- 
bama. The History of Methodism by West (page 613), 
gives some interesting facts in connection with Eugene 
V. Leveret's connection with the Tarrant family. 

Levert died April 19, 1875, and was buried at Marion, 

Greene County Democrat, Eutaw, Ala., March 3, 1955. 



Hyungki J. Lew 

LEW, HYUNGKI J. (1897- ), Korean bishop and au- 

thor, was born in Hich\un, North Pyeng-An Province, 
Korea, Nov. 17, 1897. He attended a Methodist Mission 
school, graduated from .Aoyama College in Tokyo, Ohio 
Wesleyan University, Boston University School of 
Theology, and then received his NLA. from Hai-vard in 

Returning to Korea that year he began work in reli- 
gious education for the M. E. Church Mission. In 1932 
he became general secretary of the Department of Educa- 
tion of the newly organized Korean Methodist Church. 
During these years he produced thirty volumes, including 
a translation of the Abingdon one-volume Bible Commen- 

Pressure of Japanese military authorities forced Lew 
and other American trained personnel out of church lead- 
ership in 1941, and he endured severe persecution until 
the end of World War II. In 1945, the American Military 
Government of Korea placed him in charge of the largest 
Japanese printing plant in Korea. 

In 1948 he was made President of the Theological 
Seminary, where he continued until 1953. When Bishop 
Yu-Soon Kim was kidnapped by the Communists after 
the in\asion of 1950, Lew was elected to succeed him. 
His two tenns involved care for thousands of refugees at 
Pusan, and rehabilitation of some 400 churches under the 
Bishop's Appeal Fund. 

In 1958, due to constitutional limit of two tenns, he 
returned to editorial work. A large Korean Bible Diction- 
ary came off the press in 1960. A Korean Bible Com- 
mentary in four volumes, averaging some 1,200 pages 
each, covering the entire Bible, was completed in 1968. 
Work has begun on a biography of church leaders. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church. 1966. 

Charles A. Saueh 

LEWES, DELAWARE, U.S.A., the site of the first Methodist 
Society in America, formed by George Whitefield. 
Whitefield visited the place, then knowni as Lewiston or 
Lewis Town, on Oct. 30, 1739 and remained two days. 



He was met in the evening by two or three leading per- 
sons and on the following day "preached at two in the 
afternoon to a serious and attentive congregation." "Per- 
sons of different denominations were present," he wrote, 
"and the congregation was larger than might be expected 
in so small a place, and at so short a notice. After sermon, 
the High Sheriff, collector, and chief men of the place 
came and took leave of me; and by their means we were 
provided with horses and a guide for our journey at a 
reasonable expense. ' 

In April 1741, William Becket. Anglican rector at 
Lewes, wrote: "It is surprising to observe how the vulgar 
everywhere are inclined to enthusiasm. Mr. Whitefield 
(the early minister of Methodism) had a vast crowd of 
hearers in May last when he preached four or five times 
from a balcony. They continued, unknown to me, to set 
up a religious society." 

The Society had seventeen members and survived only 
three years. It was revived in 1779 by Freeborn Gar- 
BETTSON. A frame church building, known as old Ebene- 
zer, was erected in 1788 and Bethel Church was built 
about two years later. In 1970 Bethel reported a member- 
ship of 556. 

C. Whitefield, Journals. 1960. Elmer T. Clahk 

LEWIS, EDWIN (1881-1959), American theologian, lec- 
turer, author, and professor, was born on April 18, 1881, 
in Newbury, England. He was the son of Joseph and Sarah 
(Newman) Lewis. He married Louise Newhook Frost 
(deceased 1953) on Jan. 5, 1904, and their children are 
Olin Lewis, Velva (Mrs. Kenneth B. Grady), and Faulk- 
ner Lewis (vice-president of the MacMillan Company). 
He married a second time Josephine Stults, who survives 
him. When Edwin Lewis was nineteen years of age, he 
went to Labrador with Sir Wilfred Grenfell and joined 
the Newfoundland Methodist Church of Canada, 1900-03, 
and then went into the North Dakota Conference where 
he served from 1904-05. He was educated at Sackville 
College, Canada; Middlebury College; United Free 
Church College, Glasgow; Drew Seminary (B.D., 1908; 
Th.D., 1918); New York State College for Teachers (B.A., 
1915), and Dickinson College (D.D., 1926). He trans- 
ferred to the Troy Conference in 1910 and served North 
Chatham, 1913-16; First Church at Rensselaer, New York; 
and then became an instructor in Greek and Theology at 
the Drew Seminary, 1916-18. He became adjunct profes- 
sor of Systematic Theology there in 1918 and in 1920 be- 
came a professor, which position he occupied until he 
retired in the early 1950's. 

Lewis publicly stated that his theological attitude 
changed somewhat as he progressed in his work, and he 
challenged certain extremely liberal teachings in his book, 
A Christian Manifesto, published in 1934. He also wrote 
]csus Christ and the Human Quest, 1924; A Manual of 
Christian Beliefs, 1927; Cod and Ourselves, 1931; Great 
Christian Teachings, 1933; The Faith We Declare (the 
Fondren Lectures for 1938); A Philosophy of the Chris- 
tian Revelation, 1940; A New Heaven and a New Earth 
(which were the Quillian Lectures at Emory University, 
1941); and The Creator and the Adversary, in which he 
opposed the rather widely held idea that there was no 
positive spirit of evil in the universe and that the good- 
ness of God was everything. "We have gone too far toward 
a benevolent monism," he told the writer of these lines. 
He was one of the co-authors of the Abingdon Bible 

Commentary, 1929, a work which is still held in high 

Upon his retirement from Drew, he taught for a time 
in Temple University in Philadelphia, though he con- 
tinued to maintain a home in Madison, N. J. He died in 
the winter of 1959. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

Journal of the Troy Conference, 1960. N. B. H. 

LEWIS, FELIX L. (1888-1965), twenty-third bishop of the 
C.M.E. Church, was born on Sept. 4, 1888, at Homer, 
La. He was licensed to preach in 1901 and was admitted 
to the Louisiana Conference in 1906. He received a B.S. 
degree from Wiley College and attended Garrett 
Biblical Institute. He served churches in Tennessee 
and Louisiana, and was appointed presiding elder for 
fifteen years. In 1934, he was elected general secretary 
of the Kingdom Extension Department, where he served 
until 1946 and his election to the office of bishop. He 
retired from service in January 1960, and died in August 

Harris and Patterson, C.M.E. Church. 1965. 

The Christian Index, May 16, 1946. Ralph C. Gay 

LEWIS, THOMAS HAMILTON (1852-1929), American 
Methodist Protestant president and church statesman, was 
born in Dover, Del., on Dec. 11, 1852. His father died 
in 1853 and the family moved to Maryland where he 
lived until he moved to Washington, D.C. in 1920. 

He entered Western Maryland College in 1871 and 
was graduated in 1875. Entering the Maryland Confer- 
ence of the M. P. Church in 1875, he served two pastor- 
ates: the first at Cumberland, Md., 1875-6; the other at 
St. John's Church in Baltimore, Md., 1876-81. 

On Dec. 11, 1877, he married Mary Ward, daughter of 
J. T. Ward, president of Western Maryland College. 

In 1881 he organized the Westminster Theological 
Seminary (now Wesley Seminary) and served as its 
first president from 1881 to 1885. He then became presi- 
dent of Western Maryland College, which he served until 
1920, a period of thirty-four years. In the meanwhile he 
was elected president of the General Conference of the 
M. P. Church, serving one four-year term. In 1920 he was 
again elected president of that body, serving eight years 
as its first full-time president. 

In 1928 he was elected Contributing Editor of the com- 
bined denominational papers. The Methodist Protestant 
and Tlie Methodist Recorder, continuing in that capacity 
until his death in 1929. To the last he was in full posses- 
sion of his extraordinary mental and spiritual gifts. He 
was buried in the Westminster city cemetery after a ser- 
vice in the Baker Chapel of the College. 

"Such in brief outline is the life story of the most re- 
markable man the Methodist Protestant Church has pro- 
duced." (1930 Maryland Conference Journal, p. 133). He 
was a superb preacher, a great orator. His presidency of 
the College gave it a firm educational and financial foun- 
dation. His three terms of president of the General Con- 
ference were conspicuous in administrative grasp of 
denominational policies and programs, giving to the 
Church a sense of unity and direction it greatly needed. 
Much of this focu.sed in the great centenary celebration 
(Methodist Protestant) in Baltimore in 1928. 

Perhaps his greatest achievement was in relation to 



Methodist unification. In 1908 he was elected president 
of the General Conference of his church. The General 
Conference of the M. E. Church, in session in Baltimore, 
sent a delegation, consisting of Bishop Warren, John F. 
GoucHER and Senator J. P. Dolliver, to the General Con- 
ference of the M. P. Church, in Pittsburgh, with a proposal 
to "renew organic fellowship with the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church." Their coming was enthusiastically received 
and their message referred to the committee on union. 
This latter committee acted in reply: "That a commission 
consisting of nine members be appointed by this Confer- 
ence for the purpose of meeting with a like commission 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and of other Methodist 
Churches in this country to promote as far as possible the 
reunification of Methodists in America." 

A deputation of three — T. H. Lewis, A. L. Reynolds, 
J. W. Hering — was sent to Baltimore. It was here that 
he made his remarkable appeal for Methodist union. He 
was at his best in voice and material. At the close, 
referring to his Church, the smallest body — "Brethren, if 
little Benjamin may but beat a drum or carry a flag while 
Judah and Ephraim once more march on to the same 
music of peace, joyfully we will say. Amen, God wills it." 

The editor of the Advocate wrote of the event: "At 
the appealing climax, they (the Conference) were on their 
feet again — laughing, cheering, saluting, singing — dele- 
gates and spectators alike swayed by the fraternal 

It happened, however, that the Conference took no fur- 
ther action for union and no meetings were ever held. 

Undaunted, T. H. Lewis made his way to the 1910 
session of the M. E. Church, South, and had a similar 
response as at Baltimore. That Conference also reached 
no conclusive decision with reference to union. 

Fortunately, both of the other Churches had appointed 
commissions to deal with the problem of overlapping 
areas. It was at a meeting of these two groups that he 
appeared, whether by invitation or voluntarily, for he was 
not a member of either body. But out of it all developed 
a tri-church movement for organic union. Several meetings 
of the three commissions were held, resulting in a body 
of "Suggestions" for union. And though he did not live to 
see it, the movement for Methodist unification, for which 
Thomas Hamilton Lewis labored, continued in various 
phases, culminating at Kansas City, Mo., in 1939. 

James H. Sthaughn 

LEWIS, WILLIAM BRYANT (1891-1956), American mis- 
sionary medical pioneer of the M. E. Church, South in 
the Belgian Congo, was born in Vicksburg, Miss., Oct. 
24, 1891. Educated at Millsaps College, and the Medi- 
cal School of Vanderbu,t University, he practiced medi- 
cine in Louisiana, 1913-16. He was with the Louisiana 
National Guard on the Mexican border, 1916-17, and then 
in France 1917-19 as a medical officer of the A.E.F. during 
World War I. He afterward continued medical studies at 
Tulane University, but the call to Christian service was 
overwhelming and he was appointed a medical missionary 
to the Congo in 1923. 

Lewis received permission from the Belgian government 
to establish a leper colony in association with the hospital 
and medical service he directed in Tunda Station. He also 
pioneered in the opening of rural dispensaries in outlying 
and remote villages in a wide area surrounding Tunda. 

These were served by trained native hospital attendants. 
Mrs. Lewis, tlie former Zaidee Hunter Nelson of Jackson, 
Miss., assisted her husband in the Tunda Hospital and in 
the organization of an evangelistic and health ministry in 
the mission area. On retirement they returned to Missis- 
sippi. A large and commodious hospital, the Lewis Me- 
morial Hospital, has been built at Tunda and named in 
honor of the Lewises. 

Ann L. Ashmore, The Call of the Congo. Nashville, 1947. 

W. W. Reid 

Wilson S. Lewis 

LEWIS, WILSON SEELEY (1857-1921), American educa- 
tor and bishop, was bom near Russell, N. Y., June 17, 
1857. Although raised in poverty and with little formal 
education, he started teaching rural school at age si.xteen. 
He worked his way through three years at St. Lawrence 
College at Canton, N. Y., and went to Iowa in 1880 to 
teach in the public schools. He felt he was called to preach 
and joined the Upper Iowa Conference in 1885. He 
was appointed pastor at Blairstown. In 1888 he became 
principal of Epworth Seminary, a Methodist preparatory 
school at Epworth, Iowa. After notable success there he 
was elected president of Morningside College, Sioux 
City, Iowa, in 1897 and transferred to the Northwest 
Iowa Conference. 

He travelled a year in Europe before assuming his 
post. The conference had recently taken over Morning- 
side College from a group of local promoters. It had one 
small building, a large debt, no assets and no public 
goodwill. Under President Lewis its academic standards 
were raised, the debt and the main building which now 
bears his name was erected. He secured financial support 
from near and far, including gifts from Andrew Carnegie 
and the General Education Board which formed the be- 
ginning of an endowment fund. 

National attention was attracted to his ability and in 
1908 he was elected bishop. His assignments were eight 
years at Foochow, China, and four years at Shanghai. He 
and Bishop James W. B.\shford superintended the work 
in China during the downfall of the Manchu dynasty 
and through the First World War. He was called back 
to the LT.S.A. in 1913 to participate in a nationwide cam- 
paign for finances to save Goucher College in Balti- 
more, Md. He came home again to give leadership in 
raising the Centenary Fund for Missions in 1919. He 
strongly supported the ill-fated Interchurch World Move- 
ment for missions which followed. 



A self-devised philosophy of missions guided his work. 
He made himself accessible to the Chinese pastors. He 
strengthened the local churches by increasing their self- 
dependency. He schemed to create among the Methodists 
an all-China awareness and loyalty in contrast to the local 
and regional fragmentations typical of that land. He in- 
sisted upon the steady up-grading of the church's educa- 
tional institutions. The church membership grew from 
22,000 in 1903 to 77,000 in 1920. 

His son, John, served as a missionary in China. His 
daughter, Ida Belle, eventually became President of Hwa 
Nan College at Foochow under the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society. In 1920 he was assigned to the 
Peking area. His health broke soon afterward and he 
returned to Siou.x City, where he died on Aug. 24, 1921. 
He is buried there in Graceland Cemetery under an im- 
pressive stone monument erected by the citizens. A boule- 
vard and a city park also bear his name. 

S. N. Fellows, Upper Iowa Conference. 1907. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Ida Belle Lewis, Bishop Wilson Seeley Lewis. Sioux City, la.: 

Morningside College, 1929. 

Minutes of the Northwest Iowa Conference, 1921. 

B. Mitchell, Northwest Iowa Conference. 1904. 

Frank G. Bean 

LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY, U.S.A. (population 107,944) 
is a city situated in the heart of the famous blue grass 
region of Kentucky, and Lexington itself is sometimes 
called the "capital of the blue grass." For the origin and 
the development of early Methodism in Lexington see the 
history of the First Methodist Church there in the 
article below. 

Centenary Methodist, now located in north Lexington, 
celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1966. It dates its origin 
from the latter part of December 1865, when 133 mem- 
bers withdrew from the Hill Street M. E. Church, South 
— now First Church — and met and organized on Jan, 3, 
1866, a new church which adhered to the M. E. Church. 
The first unit of this church's building was upon the comer 
of Broadway and Church Street and was dedicated on 
Oct. 14, 1866. The sanctuary was added in 1870. In 1955 
the congregation moved to the present location and re- 
mained there until it combined with Trinity Church which 
had been established under the district superintendency of 
A. G. Stone in 1940-46. Trinity itself was established as a 
church in 1945 when a pastor was appointed there. 

Old Centenary in its downtown location had by that 
time begun to face problems of limited space and inade- 
quate parking facilities, and its members were moving out 
to suburban areas. So Trinity and Centenary worked out a 
combination — "the most beautiful church wedding that 
has ever been held" states the Centenary brochure cele- 
brating this event. The new Centenary is quite commodi- 
ous and has a new educational building attached to the 
church. Centenary members claim that it "has the vitality 
of a young church and the stability of a mature church." 
Donald \V. Durham was the pastor of the church on the 
1966 centenary occasion. In 1970 the membership was 

Recent statistics indicate that total membership of the 
Methodist churches in the Lexington district is 19,109 and 
property values are of $9,438,065 last reporting. 
Centenary Methodist Church. Published by the Church Direc- 
tory of Publishers. Louisville, Ky., 1966. N. B. H. 

First Church is the historic downtown church of Lexing- 
ton. Here the first Lexington Society was organized in 
1789 while Lexington was still a frontier village. Five 
miles from Lexington in 1790 Bishop Asbury held the 
first Annual Conference west of the AJleghenies. In this 
conference plans were made for the starting of Bethel 
Academy, the first Methodist institute of learning west of 
the Alleghenies. In 1804 the society of Lexington became 
the first station west of the Alleghenies. In 1815 Bishop 
Asbury preached his last sermon in Kentucky in this 
church from the text found in Zephaniah 3:12-13. In 1819 
the church consisted of 113 white and seventy colored 

The first session of the newly formed Kentucky Con- 
ference was held here in 1821. All three of the Bishops 
— William McKendree, Enoch George, and Robert R. 
Roberts — were present. The Conference also met here in 
1822. The second location of the church was on Church 
Street between Upper and Limestone. On this lot a sturdy 
brick church 60x50 feet was built with a gallery above for 
colored people. 

Colored people continued to be listed as members of 
the church until the period following the Civil War, when 
the number greatly decreased. Stephen Chipley should be 
mentioned. He was an apprentice to Maddox Fisher, Lex- 
ington businessman and member of the Methodist Church. 
Fisher taught him the bricklayer's trade and reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. Stephen Chipley served on the 
Board of Trustees of the Methodist Church for fifty years. 

H. H. Kavanaugh was pastor in 1833 and 1834. In the 
summer of 1833 the epidemic of Asiatic cholera caused 
nearly 500 deaths in less than three months time. Every 
family was aff^ected and business was paralyzed. Under 
Kavanaugh 's ministry, however, a revival began in January 
1834 and lasted two months, and 200 people were added 
to the Methodist Church. He was elected bishop in 1854. 

The increasing membership of the Lexington congrega- 
tion made it necessary to select a new location. Property 
was acquired on High, or Hill Street, from the German 
Lutheran Community and here was built a church long 
known as the Hill Street M. E. Church, South. This was 
in 1841. In 1842 the Annual Conference was entertained 
here and H. B. Bascom dedicated the new church in that 
same year. H. H. Kavanaugh was pastor again in 1847- 
48. In 1842 H. B. Bascom became president of Tran- 
sylvania University, at that time a Methodist institution. 

Through the efforts of Kavanaugh and Bascom another 
great revival was held with far reaching effects that 
greatly strengthened the local church. R. K. Hargrove, 
later a bishop, was pastor in 1867. In 1878 H. P. Walker 
was pastor. During that time the Hill Street Auxiliary of 
the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society-, authorized 
by the General Conference in May of that year, was 
organized in the Hill Street Church. Their first annual 
session was held in the Hill Street Church in March 1879. 
F. W. Nolan was pastor from 1882-86. Under his pastorate 
the church was fully remodeled, and he was assisted in a 
notable revival in 1884 by Henry Clay Morrison. Bishop 
R. K. Hargrove, former pastor, presided at the Annual 
Conference session at HiU Street Church in 1890. 

Under the pastorate of E. G. B. Mann, 1907-11, the 
present First Methodist Church was built. Mrs. Scola 
Inskeep Chenowith left by will $10,000 toward the build- 
ing of the new stone church. She made three provisions: 
"The church was to raise $25,000. The new building was 


to be completed in two years. It was to be without debt 
when dedicated." These stipulations were carried out 
and the new church was dedicated on Jan. 10, 1909. The 
old name Hill Street M. E. Church, South was changed 
to First M. E. Church, South, Le.xington. Following uni- 
fication in 1939, the church became known as the First 
Methodist Church of Lexington. 

First Church in its long history has always assisted in 
starting other Methodist churches in Lexington. E. L. 
Southgate, pastor in 1894, with H. P. Walker, presiding 
elder, assisted in the organization of the Sunday school 
in the north section of the city. This later became Epworth 
Church. U. G. Foote, pastor in 1902-06, assisted in the 
establishment of the church that later became Park 
Church. For several years it was a mission under the 
Quarterly Conference of the Hill Street Church. 

In September 1907, O. B. Crockett was appointed as 
the first regular pastor of the Park Church. 

Under the ministry of Gilbert Combs in 1922-28 the 
Wesley Foundation of the University of Kentucky met 
in First Church. The Wesley Foundation continued here 
until it moved to the new location in 1964. 

On Oct. 10, 1940 the Woman's Society of Christian 
Service was organized here. The new Educational Plant 
was dedicated free of debt on Oct. 24, 1965. Present 
membership is 1,306, constituting a cross section of the 
city of Lexington. 

Russell R. Patton 

LEXINGTON CONFERENCE (ME), was organized at Har- 
rodsbuig, Ky., March 2, 1869, with Bishop Levi Scott 
presiding. A Negro conference, it was foiTned by dividing 
the Kentucky Conference (ME) along racial lines. Tlie 
conference began with two districts, Lexington and Louis- 
ville, twenty-six charges, and 3,526 members. The 1872 
General Conference added Ohio and Indiana to the 
territory of the Lexington Conference, and in 1873 it 
reported an Ohio District with twelve charges. In 1876 the 
conference boundaries were extended to include Illinois. 
That year the conference had an Indianapolis District, 
and it reported fifty-eight charges and 6,871 members. 
Later Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were added, 
while southwest Illinois was surrendered to the Central 
Missouri (later Central West) Conference. 

The Lexington Conference continued with two districts 
in Kentucky, one in Ohio, and one in Indiana, and for 
some years there was little growth in membership. In 1900 
the conference reported 9,182 members. In 1914 the 
Chicago-Indianapolis District was formed, and the confer- 
ence reported 12,506 members that year. In 1917 the 
Chicago District was organized with ten charges. During 
the First World War Negro migration to the north in- 
creased, and by 1920 the conference membership had 
risen to nearly 17,000. In 1938 the conference had 124 
charges, and nearly 25,000 members. 

The Lexington Conference's St. Mark Church in Chi- 
cago was known widely for years as one of the strongest 
congregations in Methodism. From 600 members in 1915, 
it grew to nearly 3,500 by 1930. From 1939 to 1964 the 
church regularly reported 4,000 to 4,700 members every 
year. In more recent years the St. Mark membership has 
greatly decreased. 

At unification in 1939, the Lexington Conference be- 
came a part of the Central Jurisdiction. 

Two members of the Lexington Conference were 

elected bishops in The Methodist Church, M. W. Clair, 
Jr. (1952) and M. Lafayette Harris (1960). 

The Lexington Conference supported Philander 
Smith College at Little Rock, Ark. In 1942 the 
churches of the conference raised about $1,100 for the 
college. Gammon Theological Seminary was com- 
mended as the one institution in the Central Jurisdiction 
for training ministers. 

In 1964, its last year, the Lexington Conference re- 
ported 124 charges, 130 ministers, 40,689 members, prop- 
erty valued at $10,522,390, At that time the Kentucky 
churches of the conference were merged with the Ten- 
nessee Conference ( CJ ) to form the Tennessee-Kentucky 
Conference, and the remainder of the conference was 
absorbed by the overlying conferences of the North Cen- 
tral Jurisdiction. 

General Minutes, MEC and MC. 

Minutes of the Lexington Conference. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia, 1882. Albea Godbold 

LEYLAND, ARTHUR STANLEY (1901- ), British minis- 

ter, was born Nov. 25, 1901, in St. George's, Shropshire, 
England. Accepted for the ministry in the Primitive 
Methodist Church in 1922, he was sent for theological 
training to Hartley College, Manchester, and served in 
circuits in different parts of the kingdom until 1945, when 
he came to the London area for the first of four terms 
there in Highgate, Bamet, Brixton Hill, and Streatham. 
From 1940 onward he acted as Assistant Secretary of the 
British Methodist Conference, and for many years con- 
ducted a weekly feature in the Methodist Recorder. 

Dr. Leyland pioneered the ministerial exchange pro- 
gram of the World Methodist Council in 1946, when 
he exchanged pulpits with Dr. Theodore C. Mayer of The 
Methodist Church, U.S.A. Since that time he has served 
as chairman of the British Committee on Ministerial Ex- 
changes in the World Methodist Council. He is also a 
member of the British Council of Churches Visiting 
Preachers and Exchange Committee. He has been a 
delegate from British Methodism to the World Confer- 
ence on several occasions. 

Frank Baker 

LIBERIA is a country on the southern "bulge" of West 
Africa. Methodism is as old as the country. Both Meth- 
odists and Baptists share honors in having had outstand- 
ing leaders among the original settlers. When the colonists 
gained foothold in present-day Liberia in January 1822, 
the Metliodist leader, Elijah Johnson held the little group 
together in a critical hour. During a revival in 1824, "up- 
wards of twenty persons, all professing Christ for the first 
time," were added to the Methodist Society. A few days 
later they were given a lot for a church, which was built 
and finished in 1825. 

When the first Methodist missionary, Melville B. 
Cox, arrived in Liberia in 1833, he helped stabilize the 
Methodist work and brought it under episcopal super- 
vision from America. Although Cox lived only four and 
one-half months after his arrival, he had carried the work 
beyond the boundaries of Monrovia. An Annual Confer- 
ence was organized on Jan. 10, 1834, by Rufus Spaulding 
and S. O. Wright; however, formal authorization had to 
wait until the General Conference of 1836. There were 
three ministerial members at that conference: Spaulding, 
Wright, and the Liberian, Anthony D. Williams. Williams 

liad been ordained in 1833 at the Oneida Conference. 
Wright is buried in Monrovia. Spaulding had to return 
home because of Iiealth. Late in 1834, John Seys arrived 
to assume leadership of the mission. Born in the West 
Indies, he was able to stand the tropical climate better 
than others. The Liberia Conference Seminary was opened 
in 1839, with Jabez Huiton as principal. On March 19, 
1837, a new Methodist church was dedicated in Monrovia. 
Built of stone, sixty-six by fifty feet, it is still in use today. 

The period 1833 to 1844 has been called the "Golden 
Age" of Methodist Missions in Liberia. Because of the 
toll in lives and broken health among the missionaries, 
the local leadership gradually shifted over to the Liberi- 
ans. A turning point in the life of the church came in 1851, 
for the conference had to decide whether to disband or go 
on under their own leaders; at this time Francis Burns 
was acting as President of the conference. In 1853 Bishop 
Levi Scott visited Liberia for the Annual Conference 
session held in Cape Palmas. There, for the first time in 
the country, an ordination service was held. Eleven men 
were ordained as de.'VCOns and eight as elders. For the 
first time since its founding the conference had ministers 
set apart to perform the ordinances and sacraments of 
the church. In 1856 Francis Bums was elected the first 
Liberian missionary bishop by the General Conference of 
the M. E. Church. He was the first "missionary bishop" 
ever elected, the office largely being created to take care 
of the type of supervision Burns was to give. He gave 
leadership until his death in April 1863. He was followed 
in the episcopacy by another well qualified Liberian, John 
W. Roberts, brother of the first President of Liberia, 
Joseph J. Roberts. By 1868 the Liberia Annual Confer- 
ence was given full status in the M. E. Church with rep- 
resentation in the General Conference. Bishop Roberts 
served until his death in 1875, when again the episcopal 
supervision was assigned to bishops from America. In 1876 
the conference had five districts and twenty-one appoint- 
ments. In 1877 the membership reached 2,488. 

In 1884 the General Conference elected the veteran 
missionary, William Taylor, as bishop for Africa. Tay- 
lor's plan was to establish self-supporting mission stations 
in a chain across Africa. After having started the work in 
the Congo he brought a number of missionaries to Liberia. 
Soon seven stations were established along the Cavalla 
River, six along the Kru Coast, and ten in Sinoe and Grand 
Bassa Counties and on the St. Paul River. Over fifty mis- 
sionaries, the majority of them women, were taken by 
Bishop Taylor to Liberia. During the period the Mission 
Board sent out nineteen men to do district and educational 
work. When Bishop Taylor retired in 1896 his methods 
had been criticized and many casualties had been re- 
ported. But though a number of stations had closed, his 
work has in several places brought permanent results. It 
should be noted that the great membership strength of the 
Methodist Church today lies in the areas where his work 
was estabhshed. Most of the men entering the ministry 
today come from this Kru Coast area. 

After having been witliout a resident bishop for thirty 
years, Liberia received Bishop Isaiah B. Scott, an Ameri- 
can Negro elected by the General Conference of 1904. A 
period of progress followed. The membership rose from 
3,301 to 10,959 by 1916 when Bishop Scott retired. Dur- 
ing this period special emphasis was given to self-help and 
self-support, education, and evangehsm among the Grebo 
and Kru tribal groups. 

A visit by Thomas S. Donohugh, secretary of the M.E. 


Methodist Church, Ganta, Libeuia 

Mission Board, in 1923 brought about a reorganization of 
the mission work. An important decision was to begin a 
new station at Ganta in the interior. After a two weelcs' 
trek through the jungle, George W. Harley and his wife 
arrived at Ganta in 1926. The Ganta station became one 
of the largest Methodist stations in Africa; it includes the 
hospital, elementary and junior high schools, girls' and 
boys' dormitories, evangelism department, literacy work, 
nursing school, and industrial work with a fine carpenter's 
shop, where mahogany furniture is built. The Harleys 
retired in 1960. Thousands of treatments are given in the 
clinic every year; two new hospital wings were equipped 
for modem surgery with a staff of three doctors; the 
leprosarium with 700 patients and twelve out-stations was 
set up; and evangelistic work in over seventy villages was 
started. Another important project following this 1923 visit 
was the strengthening of the College of West Africa. 

The assignment of Bishop Willis J. King (1944-56) as 
resident bishop assured the work in Liberia of more sta- 
bility and expansion, as there had been no resident bishop 
since 1928. New work was begun at Gbarnga, located 120 
miles inland at an important crossroad. A significant step 
forward was taken when a Conference Board of Missions 
was organized to assume in part the responsibility for the 
new mission. Cooperation with Cuttington College was 
started with the providing of a Methodist professor on 
the staff. The Woman's Division (TMG) opened a well- 
equipped hostel for girls attending the College of West 
Africa, and has since provided a home economics teacher 
for the school. The academic standards of the school were 
raised considerably and the position of the College of 
West Africa as the leading college preparatory school in 
the country was further strengthened. 

Under Bishop Prince A. Taylor, Jr. (1956-64), much 
was done to strengthen the administration of the Annual 
Conference and to bring the Liberian Church to the point 
of self-sustenance. This has partly been brought about 
due to the foresight and vision of William V. S. Tubman, 
President of Liberia, and a dedicated layman in the 
Methodist Church. 

In 1964 the General Conference (TMG) voted an en- 
abling act which would permit Liberia to become either 
an autonomous church or a Central Conference. At 
the Annual Conference session in February 1965, the 
Liberia Annual Conference voted unanimously to estab- 
lish a Central Conference, and to elect a Liberian as 
bishop. This historic conference was held Dec. 8-12, 



Mt. Scott Church, Cape Palmas, site of 
first session of liberia central conference 

1965, at Mt. Scott Memorial Methodist Church in Cape 
Palmas, the same place where the first Liberian min- 
isters were ordained by Bishop Levi Scott in 1853. Steph- 
en Trowen Nagbe, Sr., is the first Liberian to be elected 
bishop and consecrated in Liberia. He conducted his first 
Annual Conference and service of ordination at Caldwell, 
near Monrovia, the place where Melville Cox held his 
first camp meeting 133 years before. 

Among important developments after World War II 
was cooperation with Cuttington College in theological 
training, and a mission and church were organized in 
Gbamga — the joint theological training program at Cut- 
tington is no longer in effect. 

The Church in Liberia has started to train a full-time 
indigenous ministry. Admission to Conference member- 
ship has been raised from eight to twelve years of school- 
ing. By 1962 three congregations had full-time pastors 
with college degrees. A Pastors' School has been estab- 
lished at Gbamga which takes men who have completed 
tenth grade in school and gives them two or three years 
theological training. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1949-57. 

Ivan Lee Holt, Methodists of the World. 1950. 

J. F. Hurst, History of Methodism. 1901-04. 

W. J. King, Liberia. N.d. Werner J. Wickstbom 

LIBERIA ANNUAL CONFERENCE organized in that land 
(see Liberia) was given authority by the General Con- 
ference of 1964 to become organized into a Central Con- 
ference during the quadrennium ending in 1968 provided 
that it should have a minimum of twenty ministerial 
members on the basis of one delegate for every four 
ministerial members of the Annual Conference. Pursuant 
to this requirement during the quadrennium, Liberia be- 
came a Central Conference of The United Methodist 
Church through the actions which have been outlined 
above in the general account of Liberia. 

N. B. H. 

LIBERTY CHURCH, Greene County, Georgia, U.S.A., 
cradle of Methodism of Central Georgia and one of the 
oldest Methodist churches in continuous operation. Around 

1786, John Bush erected a brush arbor as a community 
center for camp meetings in what was then called 
Crackers Neck. It became a preaching place for Method- 
ists and from this grew Liberty Chapel. In 1797, James 
Jenkins, a pioneer Methodist itinerant, served the Wash- 
ington Circuit which included Greene, Wilkes, Taliaferro, 
Lincoln, Elbert, Hart, Franklin, Madison, and Oglethorpe 
Counties. After preaching at Liberty, Jenkins reported 
in his journal that following a fiery exhortatjon, a man in 
uniform came down the aisle and fell at his feet crying 
for pardon. Others came after him, and according to 
Jenkins, this occurrence at Liberty Chapel was the origin 
of the Methodist custom of penitents coming to the altar. 
"The meeting became so noisy," he continued, "that it was 
a wonder the horses did not take fright." 

Many of the great men of early Methodist history 
were connected with Liberty. Bishop Asbuby preached 
there several times. "In Liberty there is life," he wrote 
in 1801, "and many souls have been brought to God, even 
children." Again he preached there on Christmas Day, 
1806, noting that the new chapel measured thirty by 
fifty feet. 

In December of 1808, the twenty-third session of the 
South Carolina Conference, which also served 
Georgia, met at Liberty. Bishops Asbury and McKendree 
attended, and Asbury estimated that between 2,000 and 
3,000 people were present, for one of the first winter 
camp meetings in America was held in conjunction with 
the annual conference. Lovick Pierce was ordained an 
elder, and William Capers was admitted a preacher 
on trial. Liberty continued to serve the rural area in which 
it was located, and in 1966 it was on the WTiite Plains 
Circuit in the Augusta District of the North Georgia 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 
A. M. Pierce, Georgia. 1956. 

Donald J. West 


The Act of UnifoiTuity (1662) was followed by the Con- 
venticle Acts of 1664 and 1670, whereby anyone attending 
"any unlawful assembly, conventicle or meeting under 
colour or pretence of any exercise of religion" would be 
fined or imprisoned. The Toleration Act (1689) gave 
relief to bona fide Dissenters, but did not provide for 
Methodists, who were recognized by neither Anglicans 
nor Dissenters. The only way out of the dilemma was 
for Wesley to license his itinerants as "preachers of the 
Gospel," though against their will they had to accept 
licenses in which they were described as "Dissenting 
Preachers." They were accused of "acting under a lie" 
(see Wesley's letter to Thomas Adam, July 19, 1768), 
i.e., while professing themselves members of the Church 
of England, they licensed themselves as Dissenters. To 
obtain a license a preacher had to take the oaths, make 
certain declarations, and generally comply with the Act 
of Toleration. 

As persecution set in, it became increasingly necessary 
for Methodist buildings to ha\e the protection of being 
licensed. They were registered as buildings "for the wor- 
ship of God and religious exercises as Protestant Dis- 
senters." The New Room, Bristol, was the first to be thus 
registered (October 17, 1748). The Large Minutes 
{Minutes i. 602) of 1763 lays down the proper form for 
such a license. In 1812 the Methodists played a large 



part in the events which led up to the repeal of the 
Conventicle Act. 

F. Baker, Wesley and the Church of England. 1970. 
Wesley Historical Soc. Proceedings, ,xi, 82, 103, 130. 

John C. Bowmer 

LICHFIELD PLAN was drawn up in 1794, three years 
after Wesley's death. April 1 and 2, Thomas Coke con- 
sulted at Lichfield with Alexander Mather, Thomas 
Taylor, John Pawson, Samuel Bhadburn, James 
Rogers, Henry Moore, and Adam Clarke about the 
future organization of Methodism. The plan recom- 
mended: (1) preachers be received into Full Connexion 
by being ordained deacon; (2) preachers approved by the 
Conference be ordained elders; (3) an order of super- 
intendents be instituted. 

The plan went on to suggest geographical "divisions," 
listed the personnel to be appointed superintendents 
(largely the same as the authors of the plan!), and out- 
lined the extent of their authority. The Conference that 
year "treated" the Lichfield Plan as "tending to create 
invidious distinctions among brethren and those who at- 
tended the meeting were considered as aspirants after 
honour." Thus it was rejected, though doubtless its 
authors argued that it accorded with Wesley's intentions 
when he "set apart" Coke and Mather by the laying on 
of hands to be superintendents. 

V. E. Vine 

His main Ufe work was the Bermondsey Settlement, 
which he founded in 1891 with William Fiddian 
MouLTON, and of which he remained warden until 1949. 
Lidgett's services to the borough were acknowledged 
when he was made an honorary freeman, but his influence 
extended into the life of the whole of London, especially 
in educational matters. He became an alderman on the 
London County Council in 1905, and was a member of 
the senate of London University from 1922-32. In 1931- 
32 he was vice-chancellor of the university. 

He was a member of many interdenominational organi- 
zations, and in 1913 served on a royal commission. From 
1907-18 he edited The Methodist Times, and from 1911 
was the joint editor of The Contemporary Review. In 
addition he was a distinguished theologian, his main works 
being a Fernley Lecture, The Spiritual Principle of the 
Atonement (1898); The Fatherhood of God (1902); 
The Christian Religion ( 1907). He died at Epsom, Surrey, 
on June 16, 1953. 

H. E. Davies, John Scott Lidgett. 1957. 
Minutes of the Methodist Conference, 1953. 

H. Morley Rattenbury 

LIEBNER, OTTO (1879-1946), missionary and statistician, 
was born Feb. 3, 1879, to Jewish parents in Vienna, 
Austria. After graduation from high school he attended 
the LIniversit\' in Vienna. Shortly after his graduation he 
came to New York City, was converted, and enrolled 
in the Biblical Seminary of New York. He graduated in 
1914 and was accepted by the Board of Missions of the 
M. E. Church as a missionary'. From 1919 to 1928 he 
served in South America. In 1929 he was put in charge of 
the work of the Baltic countries, Bulgaria and Jugoslavia. 
In 1933 he returned to America and served as a pastor 
at Evansville, Ind. From 1936 to 1939 he served as a 
professor of Biblical Interpretation at the Biblical Semi- 
nary in New York. The final seven years of his life were 
spent doing statistical work for the Chicago office of the 
General Board of Pensions of The Methodist Church. 

Robert Chafee 

J. ScoTT Lidgett 

Eglise Evan(;elique Methouiste 
UE LA Redemption, Liege, Belgium 

LIDGETT, JOHN SCOTT (1854-1953), British Methodist, 
once called "the greatest Methodist since John Wesley," 
was born at Lewisham, Kent, on August 10, 1854, and 
entered the Wesleyan ministry in 1876. His services to 
the church were recognized by his election to the Legal 
Hundred in 1902, and he became President of the 
Wesleyan Conference in 1908 and first president of the 
reunited Methodist Church in 1932. 

LIEGE, Belgium, The Methodist Church (French) began 
in 1925 as an annex of Herstal Church. In 1930 a 
beautiful church building was erected by H. H. Stanley, 
overlooking the Meuse River at Pont Maghin. The church 
was twice damaged by the blowing up of a bridge in 
1940 and 1944. During the Nazi occupation. Pastor Henri 
van Oest was arrested and sent to a death camp in 
Germany. He died in Siegburg on March 10, 1945. Pastors 


have been F. Cuenod, 1924-37; H. van Oest, 1938-41; 
P. Spranghers, 1944-46; A. Werners, 1947-58; J. Coviaux, 
1959-64; and L. Berchier since 1965. 


LIGHTWOOD, JAMES THOMAS (1856-1944), British 
pioneer in the study of Methodist music and hymnology, 
was bom in Leeds, the son of a Wesleyan Methodist 
minister. He was educated at Kingswood School. After 
some experience in trade, with his brother Edward in 
1879 he opened a boarding school at Lytham St. Annes, 
Lancashire. He was one of the founding members of the 
Wesley Historical Society, and in 1910 began the 
Methodist musical monthly. The Choir. In 1892 he pub- 
lished thirty-two Tunes tvith Hymns for use in Day and 
Sunday Schools, and continued to write hvTnn tunes 
throughout his Lfe; five of them were included in the 
Methodist Hymn Book (1933). Of his many books the 
following are probably the most useful: Methodist Music 
in the Eighteenth Century (1927), Stories of Methodist 
Music (1928), Samuel Wesley, Musician (1936), and 
especially the standard reference work. The Music of the 
Methodisi Hymn Book ( 1935) . 

Frank Bakeh 

LIM SI SIN (1910- ), bishop for two terms of the 

autonomous Methodist Church of Lower Burma, whose 
election was the highhght of the Conference (Oct. 5-10, 
1965), at which the Burma Annual Conference of The 
Methodist Church became the Autonomous Methodist 
Church of Lower Burma. Previous to his election, he 
had been the pastor for sixteen years of the Christ Meth- 
odist Church in Rangoon, and superintendent of the 
Chinese District of the Conference for almost the same 
period. He and his wife are the parents of seven children — 
— three daughters and four sons, one of whom is Dr. Lim 
Toh Bin, a graduate of Northwestern Medical College 
(lUinois) and now practicing medicine in Canada. Bishop 
Lim was born in China in 1910 and came to Burma 
from Amoy in 1949 as pastor of the Chinese-language 
Christ Methodist Church. 

The consecration of Bishop Lim was presided over by 
Bishop HoBART B. Amstutz. A purple stole was presented 
to Bishop Lim by Bishop Amstutz. At the same moment 
Bishop Amstutz said, "1 hereby dissolve the Burma An- 
nual Conference of The Methodist Church and declare 
the establishment of the Autonomous Methodist Church 
of the Union of Burma." 

Among the distinguished guests who attended this con- 
secration were the Roman Catholic Archbishop Bazin; 
Anglican Bishop of Rangoon, H. V. Shearbum; Rev. John 
Thet Gyi, general secretary of the Burma Christian Coun- 
cil; representatives of the Baptist Church, and the Rev. 
Vulchuka, fraternal delegate from the Upper Burma Meth- 
odist Church which became autonomous in 1964. Bishop 
Lim's two terms as bishop ended in September 1969. 

N. B. H. 

LIMA, Peru, is the capital of that nation and is one of the 
most interesting cities in the world. It is one of the oldest 
cities of the Americas and contains within it both Indian 
and Spanish colonial tradition, as well as modern buildings 

La Victoria Church, Lima 
THE oldest Evangelical church building 

and processes. In it there is the oldest university in the 
Americas — the University of San Marcos, founded in 
1551. The city's population in 1970 is given as 2,415,700. 

There are today about ten regular Methodist Sunday 
schools and preaching places in Lima, as well as the 
several institutions whose work is described below. Three 
congregations are near self-supporting. The First Meth- 
odist Church is perhaps the strongest of these. 

Colegio Mario Alvarado is a school for girls formerly 
known as Lima High School. Founded in 1906, it was 
one of the first girls' schools in Peru to offer secondary 
education. At the present time it has both elementary 
and secondary departments. It offers college preparatory, 
commercial and home economics courses. Enrollment in 
1968 was 645. 

The school is located near downtown Lima in a build- 
ing provided in 1932 by the Woman's Division of Chris- 
tian Service and added to in 1954. Funds for the build- 
ing were secured and administered through the service 
of Gertrude Hanks, who was principal for many years. 
The school is directed by Mrs. Olga Vanderghem, a 
graduate of Maria Alvarado and its first Peruvian prin- 

Escuela America de La Victoria is an elementary 
school in the La Victoria section of Lima. Begun in 1916 
as the parochial school of a Methodist church, Escuela 
America in 1966 enrolled 700 students. The director, 
Moises Huaroto, and the entire faculty were Peruvian. 

La Florida Methodist Center is a social center in Lima, 
founded in the early 1950's by Martha Vanderberg, mis- 
sionary of the Woman's Division of Christian Service. It 
was the first project of its type undertaken by any Protes- 
tant church in Peru and stimulated similar projects in 
Chincha, Miramar, Pedregal, and other places. 

By the year 1950, villages of squatters had begun to 
spring up on the hills across the Rimac River from Lima. 
Miss Vanderberg learned of the needs of families there, 
beyond the reach of churches, schools, and social services. 
She was a teacher at Colegio Maria Alvarado and re- 
cruited a student to help her conduct a small vacation 
church school. 

The interest continued, with students donating books 
for a reading room. Additional vacation schools were 
held, and Sunday classes were begun. Church services 
were added. Miss Vanderberg directed the work while 
continuing to teach, later becoming full-time director. A 
building was erected with the aid of the Board of Mis- 



sioNs in New York and was occupied in 1954. By 1959 
more than 1,300 persons were registered for various 
services of the center. 

Activities included child care, a kindergarten, club 
work, distribution of clothing and other emergency sup- 
plies, and health services. 

Panamericana Normal School is a Methodist teacher- 
training school, established in 1961. The normal school 
was started in order to help alleviate a chronic shortage 
of trained teachers in Peru, and especially to increase the 
number of Evangelicals (Protestants) qualified to teach 
in the day schools affiliated with Evangelical churches. 
Many Methodist local churches maintain day schools, 
and the thirteen Methodist schools in Peru enroll more 
than 3,500 pupils. The school hopes to train future teach- 
ers in new educational methods, stressing participation 
by the child in the learning process as opposed to a tradi- 
tional emphasis upon memorization. 

The first graduation exercise was held on Dec. 12, 
1964 — just one week after long-delayed official recogni- 
tion was given by the government. The student body is 
coeducational, and the course of study is for four years. 
Enrollment runs around fifty. 

IJarhara H. Lewis, ed., Methodist Overseas Missions. New 
York; Board of Missions, I960. Edwin H. M.aynard 

LINCOLN, England. Methodism was securely rooted in 
the county of Lincolnshire some forty years before the 
city of Lincoln itself heard John Wesley, and before 
Sarah Parrott and Dorothy Fisher became the first two 
members. It was in the year 1787 that Mrs. Fisher came 
from Gonerby to live in Lincoln, and she came in re- 
sponse to a pressing invitation from the small society at 
Sturton by Stow, where Sarah Parrott was a member. 
Two years later the first chapel was built in the city, and 
from that time the cause moved forward with vigor. By 
the end of the century there were close to a hundred mem- 
bers. By 1815 the little Waterside Chapel became too 
small, and the Bank Street building was erected; and if 
the first generation of Wesleyans was growing a little 
old by 1836, they were sufficiently enterprising to launch 
the big Wesley Chapel, and over 500 members joined 
a cause which had connectional fame. 

This chapel stood for 125 years while Methodism ex- 
panded into all parts of the city. Before "Big Wesley" 
was built, a society had started in the north in Newport, 
and two chapels preceded the present Gothic-style Bail- 
gate Chapel, erected in 1880, dominating the more ancient 
Newport Arch of Roman fame. In the south, the Wesley 
members established a society in 1864 which resulted in 
the building of Lincoln's famous Hannah Memorial 
Chapel, and still later St. Catherine's Chapel. In 1859 they 
started the Rosemary Lane Day School, but there had 
already been twenty years of educational activity on the 
Big Wesley premises. Bailgate and St. Catherine's in turn 
pioneered the fringes of the town north and south, and 
chapels were built in the new housing estates. Various 
Lincoln business firms were connected with Wesleyanism, 
such as Mawer and Collingham, drapers; Ruddocks, print- 
ers; Bainbridge, another draper; Stokes, confectioner; 
besides many influential men in industry, and a large 
number of aldermen and councillors. A number of Lin- 
coln's mayors were men from Wesley Chapel. Richard 
Watson, an early president, was brought up at Wesley. 
John Hannah entered the ministrv from here, and be- 

came the first tutor at Hoxton, the start of Wesleyan 
Methodist ministerial training. Frederick J. Jobson was a 
Lincoln man; he laid the foundation stone of the Hannah 
Memorial Chapel and himself became president. John 
Homabrook also entered the ministry from Lincolnshire 

The Wesleyan Conference met at Big Wesley on two 
occasions, in 1909 and 1925; and the large premises 
housed all kinds of civic, cultural, and social functions. 
When at last the building had to be demolished, a brass 
tablet telling of the efforts of Sarah Parrott and Dorothy 
Fisher was carefully removed, and is now located in the 
new chapel at Sturton, where Lincoln Methodism really 

Primitive Methodism began in Lincoln about the year 
1818, when William Clowes visited the city and held 
a meeting in Castle Square. In 1819 a chapel was erected 
in Mint Lane, and twenty years later the first of the Port- 
land Place causes. Primitive Methodist enterprise in Lin- 
coln, as elsewhere, reached out to other areas; and though 
it was centered in Portland Place for a long period, by 
the middle of the century societies were established at 
Rasen Lane in the north, Carholme Road in the west, and 
Newark Road in the south. One notable feature of Lincoln 
Primitive Methodism was the appointment of Mary Birks 
as the third minister in 1824; and in 1828 another woman, 
Ann Tinsley, was minister. One of Ann Tinsley's converts 
was Edward Chapman, who served the cause for half 
a century. 

To Joseph Broadberry, another lifelong member, be- 
longs the distinction of having been a working man who 
climbed to the city magisterial bench. In later years. 
Alderman C. T. Parker, who gave distinguished service to 
Lincoln Primitive Methodism, was mayor of the city three 
times. Portland Place, now named Lincoln Central Meth- 
odist Church, remains alone of the Primitive Methodist 
churches, combining the work of Hannah Memorial and 
other once flourishing chapels in the city center. 

The Reform movement of the early 1850's affected the 
Wesley and Newport societies to the extent of their losing 
some 250 members; yet in 1863 both these societies had 
fully recovered these lo.sses. The Wesleyan Reformers 
worshiped in the Com E.xchange until they bought Zion 
Chapel, where members of the Countess of Hunting- 
don's connection had recently ceased to meet. By 1864 
the Silver Street Free Methodist Chapel replaced the old 
Zion, and for almost a century its witness was as strong 
as any in the city. Elsewhere the Reformers, now known 
as the Free Methodists, built chapels in the city, which 
in their prime were greatly progressive. The United 
Methodist Free Churches Annual Assembly met in the 
Silver Street Chapel in the year 1898, when the Rev. J. C. 
Brewitt, a Lincolnshire man, was appointed secretary. 
He became president the following year. Honored names 
in the Free Methodist world in Lincoln were the Allmans, 
Crosbys, and the Meltons, besides the still more honored 
name of William C. Jackson, the last of the United 
Methodist Church presidents, and president of the Meth- 
odist Church in 1935. 

With the union of Methodism in 1932, the task of 
circuit realignment began, and the fusion of societies. 
Not until 1957, however, was a position reached in circuit 
arrangement which satisfied the many differing traditions. 
The three circuits into which the city and villages are 
divided make for administrative purposes a well-defined 



ordering, and Methodism in Lincoln today is worthily 

William Leahy 

LINCOLN, NEBRASKA, U.S.A., the capital of the state, 
with a population of 148,092 (1970), is a city surrounded 
by fertile farms. Settled in 1856 and incorporated as a city 
in 1877, Lincoln was the home of the orator, William 
Jennings Bryan, three times Democratic candidate for 
president of the United States. Bryan Memorial Hospital, 
started with a gift of Bryan's home to the Methodist 
Church in 1922, is one of Lincoln's outstanding hospitals. 
The original Bryan home, "Fairview," a museum on the 
hospital grounds, is visited by thousands each year. 

Lincoln is the seat of the University of Nebraska, 
Nebrask.\ Wesleyan University, and Union College. 
The Lincoln statue, replica of the monumental Washing- 
ton, D. C. .statue by Daniel Chester French, is located 

Methodism's mother church in Nebraska was organized 
in 1854 by William Goode, first superintendent in Ne- 
braska. A Reverend Gage was the first pastor in Nebraska 
City in nearby Otoe County. 

Salt Creek Mission, started in 1857, is now St. Paul 
Church in Lincoln. In 1866 the M. P. Church started a 
school for children here. It became the first public school 
in Lincoln. Nebraska Wesleyan University moved from 
York to Lincoln in 1887. The episcopal headquarters of 
the Nebraska Area are in Lincoln. 

Bishop DwiGHT LoDER, a native Nebraskan, was born 
in the small village of Waverly near Lincoln. He was 
elected bishop in 1964. Bishop Gerald Kennedy was 
pastor of St. Paul Church in Lincoln at the time he was 
elected to the episcopacy in 1948. 

In 1970 Lincoln had nineteen churches with a member- 
ship of 17,157. 

First Church was organized Nov. 18, 1888, in Nebraska 
Wesleyan University's "Old Main" at the call of the 
chancellor. Services were held weekly in the chapel and 
the chancellor or one of the professors provided the ser- 
mon. It was not long before the annual conference ap- 
pointed a pastor to the rapidly growing new charge. 
The congregation met in Old Main for several years and 
then erected a parsonage. Plans to build a church were 
delayed by the severe droughts and national panic of the 
nineties, when the college suffered severely. 

By 1900 two lots were purchased at the corner of 50th 
and St. Paul, University Place. Two years later men of the 
congregation built a basement, covered with a flat tin 
roof, which was first used in February 1903. Leaks and 
noise made it unsatisfactory. However, increased popula- 
tion and college enrollment gave the college priority in 
building, and the church moved back to the new audi- 
torium on the campus in 1907. 

Construction of the church attracted the town's atten- 
tion, the problem being how the great steel framework 
and large pillars could be raised. The financial drives and 
costs were greater than expected. On dedication day, 
Dec. 12, 1909, the bishop in charge took three dramatic 
collections, from three capacity congregations, to raise 
enough money for the dedication service. Although St. 
Paul, Trinity, and Grace were older, the new church took 
the name First Church. 

From the beginning the congregation had been evan- 
gelical in spirit and behavior. The new church proved 

more restrained emotionally. The basement of First 
Church was used by the Ladies Aid Society to feed the 
Student Army Training Corps of World War I. 

After the drouth-stricken thirties and war-anxious for- 
ties, a new educational building seemed imperative in the 
early fifties. Several financial campaigns resulted in a 
structure for the church school. 

Throughout its history First Church has been a focal 
point in the community, trying to meet the social and 
spiritual needs of all its members and constituents. In 
1970 First Church had 2,237 members and church prop- 
erty valued at $941,279. 

St. Paul Church, Lincoln, Nebraska 

St. Paul Church was started in 1857 when Zenos B. 
Turman was appointed to the Salt Creek Mission and 
preached probably the first sermon in Lancaster County, 
Neb., in the cabin of James Eatherton about twelve miles 
south of Lincoln. It was one of sixteen preaching places 
embracing seven counties. 

In 1867 Lincoln was made the state capital. The popu- 
lation increase led the Methodists to build a church under 
the leadership of R. S. Hawks. In this building a reception 
was held for the first Governor of the state, David Butler, 
Jan. 18, 1868. 

The first pastor assigned to Lincoln was H. T. Davis in 
the spring of 1868. He dedicated the church in June, 
when the population was about 200, with sixteen Meth- 
odists. By the end of the year the church building was 
outgrown and the congregation accepted a free lot from 
the Capital Commission and erected another church, cost- 
ing $3,000. This was located on the present church site 
and was dedicated Sept. 26, 1869. 

By 1871 the membership was 202. The next year it 
reached 300, and a parsonage was built. A wing was 
added to the church under W. B. Slaughter in 1874-77. 
Subsequently what became known as the Old Stone 
Church was erected and completed Aug. 23, 1885. It 
burned in 1899, and the present edifice was built and 
finished Nov. 17, 1901. 

During the twenty-two-year pastorate of Walter Aitken 
1920-42, the church experienced considerable growth. 
The next pastor was Gerald Kennedy, 1942-48. His pas- 
torate doubled the membership and more than doubled 
the budget. In 1945 the Second Methodist (German) 
Church and St. Paul merged. Kennedy was elected bishop 
in 1948. In 1954 a needed educational building was 

From the beginning St. Paul has tried to serve the 



spiritual needs of the community. While other churches 
have moved out to the residential sections, it has remained 
a down-town church within walking distance of hundreds 
of University students. A complete renovation of the 
sanctuary took place in 1968. In 1970 the church property 
was valued at $1,875,000, and the membership was 2,644. 

Trinity Church was formed in 1887 by the union of 
Bethel and Second M. E. Churches. Its edifice depicts its 
history and its name, for it is three buildings in one. The 
first, which houses Great Hall, Youth Center, the offices 
and some of the classrooms, was completed in 189.3. The 
second, which contains the sanctuary, more classrooms, 
and the heating plant, was dedicated in 1911. The third, 
housing most of the classrooms, the church parlor, the 
fellowship hall, and the kitchen, was erected in 1957. 

Two of Trinity's ministers were chosen to head Nebras- 
ka Wesleyan University — D. W. C. Huntington in 1891. 
and Vance Rogers in 1957. The church provides a large 
share of the support of a missionary, and within the last 
six years has given seven of its young people to full-time 
Christian service. 

With a membership of 2,384 in 1970, situated near the 
Nebraska state capitol building and in the heart of the 
older residential section of the city, Trinity ministers to 
statesmen, business leaders, and people from all walks of 

Ethel Booth, First Methodist Church of Lincoln, Nebraska. 

A Brief History of St. Paul Methodist Church. Published b\' 
the church, 1957. 
General Minutes. 
E. E. Jackman, Nebraska. 1954. 

Bartlett L. Paine, Memorial Parlor Dedication Program and 
Booklet, St. Paul Methodist Church, Lincoln, Nebraska, Dec. 
17, 1967. Tom McAnally 

Jesse A. Earl 
Paul D. Sisler 

LINCOLN CONFERENCE. (See Central West and 
Southwest Conferences.) 

LINDSEY WILSON COLLEGE, Columbia, Kentucky, was 
founded by the Louisville Conference in 1904 as a 
secondary and normal school. Junior college work was 
added in 1923, and secondary and normal offerings were 
discontinued in 1932. 

The school carries tlie name of Lindsey Wilson, the 
deceased nephew and stepson of the late Mrs. Catherine 
Wilson of Louisville, Kentucky, who contributed $6,000 
toward the erection of the administration building, the 
central building of the campus. Through the years the 
college has served youth from the Cumberland plateau 
section of Kentucky. The governing board has twenty- 
four members elected by the Kentucky and Louisville 
Annual Conferences. 

John O. Gross 

LINEBERRY, FRANK WATSON (1883-1949), American 
Methodist Protestant minister, was bom at Plymouth, 
Ind. Aug. 7, 1883. He graduated from Adrian College 
in 1908. In 1910 he married Mable Fordyce and the same 
year was admitted on trial in the Indiana M. P. Con- 
ference. He served as Conference President from 1929 
to 1939, when Methodist Union was consummated. He 

was a member of the Commission on Union. He died at 
Port Angeles, Wash., Jan. 9, 1949. 

Harold Thrasher 

LINKS, JACOB ( ? -1825), first South African Wesleyan 
minister and martyr, was a Namaqua Hottentot, who had 
some schooling at Klamiesberg mission station. He learned 
from both Dutch and English and became a schoolteacher 
and interpreter for the missionaries. In 1818 he was ac- 
cepted as the first African minister. He worked with an- 
other Namaqua, Johannes Jaager, and the English Wes- 
leyan missionary, William Thbelfall, among the bush- 
men. In 1825 all three crossed the Orange River to pioneer 
among the bushmen; but during that autumn, all were 
murdered at the instigation of their guide. 

J. Whiteside, South Africa. 1906. 

Cyril J. Davey 

Chapel, constructed in 1828, was the first building ever 
erected by members of the nascent Methodist Proti^s- 
tant Church. These included the Linthicums, Shipleys 
and Hammonds who had left Patapsco M. E. Church 
during the Mutual Rights controversy. The 27 x 33 foot 
structure of British ship ballast brick stood until 1966 at 
Annapolis and Camp Meade Roads, south of Baltimore. 
Then it was painstakingly reassembled brick by brick 
adjacent to the present third edifice of the congregation 
now called the Linthicum Heights United Methodist 
Church. By the time of its rededication. May 19, 1968, 
some original furnishings of the long disused structure 
had been reacquired and installed. 

Edwin Schell 

LINZELL, LEWIS EDWIN (1868-1927), was a M.E. mis- 
sionary in India from 1899 to the time of his death in 
1927. He was born in London, England, but migrated to 
Canada in his teens and then to the United States. He 
attended Ohio Wesleyan University and in 1896 ob- 
tained a bachelor's degree. He married a fellow student, 
Phila Keen, daughter of Methodist minister and author, 
Samuel A. Keen. Linzell joined the Cincinnati Con- 
ference, served several Ohio churches, and then in 1899 
went to India as a missionary. After a fruitful pastorate 
at Bowen Church in Bombay, and a term as superinten- 
dent of the Bombay District, he became a charter member 
of the Gujarat Annual Conference, and principal of 
the Florence B. Nicholson School of Theology. 

In 1912, and again in 1924, Linzell represented Gujarat 
Conference in the General Conference. As a speaker 
on India and Methodist missions, he proved to be un- 
usually popular. A writer of the day described him as 
"a vivacious, virile, vivid and veracious reporter and 
advocate of Missions." He died in Ohio. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

LIPPITT, CHRISTOPHER (1744-1824), officer in the Amer- 
ican Revolution, pioneer manufacturer, and Methodist 
layman, was born in Cranston, R. I., the son of Christopher 
and Catherine (Holden) Lippitt and the great-grandson 
of John Lippitt of England who settled in Rhode Island 
in 1638. 

After holding several public positions he was commis- 
sioned Lieutenant-Colonel on Jan. 18, 1776, joined the 



continental army and served in the battles of White Plains, 
Trenton and Princeton. Brevetted a Brigadier General by 
Washington, he commanded the state forces in the Battle 
of Rhode Island, Aug. 29, 1778. During the Revolution 
his brother in New York made him aware of the spiritual- 
ity and enthusiasm of the Methodists. Thereafter, Chris- 
topher Lippitt's home in Cranston became, as frequent 
visitor Francis Asbury said, "an open house for Meth- 
odists." In 1791 Jesse Lee preached there; a class was 
formed in 1794 with the General, his wife and daughter 
as members. Largely at his own expense Lippitt erected 
a chapel near his home in 1800 in which, two years later, 
Asbury and Whatcoat ordained preachers. The General 
often conducted services, frequently reading a Wesley 
sermon. He was a member of the Providence Peace 
Society. As a businessman he built the third cotton mill 
in Rhode Island. 

General Lippitt was married to Waite Harris on March 
23, 1777. They had twelve children. On June 17, 1824, 
he died in Cranston, where his house still stands. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

Ernest R. Case 

LIPSCOMB, WILLIAM CORRIE (1792-1879), American 
advocate of reform and modification in M. E. church 
government, and a prominent leader in the establishment 
of the M. P. Church, was bom Sept. 13, 1792, in King 
William County, Va., and grew up in Georgetown, D. C. 
He joined the M. E. Church and took an active role in 
church work. He attended the Convention of Methodist 
Reformers from Maryland and the District of Columbia 
in Baltimore in November 1826, and came to be an 
outstanding member of the General Convention of re- 
formers which met on Nov. 12, 1828, also in Baltimore. 
It was Lipscomb who offered the resolution calling for 
the appointment of a committee to prepare a "Constitution 
and Discipline" to be submitted to the General Convention 
in Baltimore in November 1830. Because he attended the 
convention, he was stripped of all his official positions in 
the M. E. Church. In June 1829, he was licensed to 
exhort in the M. P. Church; he was licensed to preach in 
October 1829, and was ordained a deacon in 1832. He 
was one of the founders in 1832 of the Ninth Street M. P. 
Church in Washington, then a station in the Maryland 
Conference. At the request of the quarterly conference, 
he was placed "in charge of the society" until a pastor was 
appointed in 1833. He was secretary of the Convention 
of 1830 and of the General Conference of 1834, and 
was a member of the General Conferences of 1838, 1842, 
1850 and served as President of the General Conference 
that met in May 1858, at Lynchburg, Va. Despite Presi- 
dent Lipscomb's efforts to prevent a split at this confer- 
ence, the M. P. conferences divided bitterly over the issue 
of slavery. He was a member and served as temporary 
chairman of the convention which met in Montgomery, 
Ala., on May 7, 1867. He served as a lay delegate to the 
Maryland Conference in 1840, 1844, 1845, 1850, 1853. 
1859, 1861 and 1865 and was Chairman of the Electoral 
College which met in Philadelphia in April 1858. He was 
often a contributor to The Methodist Protestant, the of- 
ficial church periodical, where he exhibited "a strong, 
logical intellect and uncompromising adherence to his 
convictions." "As a preacher he was clear, forcible, and 
tender, though his close attention to secular pursuits made 
his ministrations in later life unfrequent." One of his sons, 
A. A. Lipscomb, D.D., LL.D. (1816-1890), taught for 

many years at Vanderbilt University and sei"ved as an 
unstationed minister to the M. P. Church in Montgomery, 

William Corrie Lipscomb died on Dec. 6, 1879, and 
was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery in Washington, D. C. 

A. H. Bassett, Concise History. 1877. 

T. H. Colhouer, Sketches of the Founders. 1880. 

E. J. Drinkhouse, History of Methodist Reform. 1899. 

The Methodist Protestant, May 16, 1928. 

Ralph Habdee Rives 

this theme cannot attempt to be exhaustive nor to dis- 
tinguish finally between enduring literature and mere 
mention in print. Not even all the works of John and 
Charles Wesley would qualify for this former category, 
but certainly John Wesley's Journal and a number of the 
hymns by John and Charles and a few of their followers 
should be included. The hymns have their own reference; 
the Journal is an unequaled picture of the eighteenth 
century and of the birth and growth of a movement during 
fifty years of heroic missionary travel. With these should 
certainly be mentioned Robert Southey's Life of Wesley 
(1820), the first of the biographies to win a place in 
literature, though some of the Lives of Early Methodist 
Preachers (collected edition, 1837-38) have their own 
claims to remembrance. 

Apart from these, Methodism made its first appearance 
in English literature through numerous satirical and un- 
flattering references in the works of novelists and drama- 
tists. George Whitefield was much more target of 
caricature than the Wesleys at this stage, notably in Field- 
ing's Tom Jones (1749) and in Samuel Foote's play, 
The Minor ( 1769 ) . More general accounts of Methodist 
conversions are given in Richard Graves' Spiritual Quixote 
(1773) and Smollett's Humphrey Clinker (1771). Horace 
Walpole's Letters contain a brief description of Wesley 
as a preacher ("wondrous clean ... as evidently an actor 
as Garrick"), and Boswell's Life of Johnson includes the 
doctor's famous complaint that John Wesley could talk 
well on many subjects but was never at leisure. George 
Crabbe in The Borough describes a Methodist sermon. 

In the novels of the nineteenth century it is not always 
easy to distinguish whether Methodism is referred to or 
some other evangelical Dissenting body. Those which 
cannot be identified are therefore omitted. The Dissenting 
pastors of both Dickens and Thackeray, for instance, are 
caricatures of anonymous denomination who have had a 
long progeny in the English novel, through H. G. Wells 
and J. B. Priestley right into our own time. But among 
more definite references, Jane Austen makes Mary Craw- 
ford in Mansfield Park (1815) assign the clergyman hero 
slightingly to "some great company of Methodists," and 
Disraeli mentions Methodism not unsympathetically in 
Sybil (1845). With the Brontes, however, we are on firmer 
ground; the references are those of familiarity. G. Elsie 
Harrison has pointed out that Emily's picture in Wuther- 
ing Heights (1847) of the Rev. Jabes Branderham is 
certainly inspired by the celebrated Jabez Bunting; and 
the revival at Briarmains Chapel represents, from the 
outside, something that was well-known or remembered in 
the West Riding. Charlotte Bronte makes unmistakable 
and unflattering comments about Methodism in both 
Shirley (1849) and Villette (1853), and the former novel 
has the unforgettable saga of the clash between the church 



and chapel Sunday school processions. Mrs. Gaskell, as 
befits the wife of a Dissenting minister, is gentler, both 
in her vivid account of Wesley's friend. Parson Grimshaw 
of Haworth (Life of Charlotte Bronte, 1857), and in 
her amusing account of a Methodist proposal of marriage 
in Ruth (1853). 

But the most important presentation of Methodism in 
nineteenth-century literature is undoubtedly that of 
George Eliot in Adam Bedc (1859). Here for the first 
time in fiction Methodists are fully and sympathetically 
shown; both Seth Rede and Dinah Mohbis are drawn 
from life, and Dinah's preaching on the green and mission 
to the condemned girl are based on actual happenings in 
the life of George Eliot's remarkable Methodist aunt, 
Elizabeth T. Evans. 

Toward the end of the nineteenth century the refer- 
ences in novels become more numerous, including many 
of little literary value, now forgotten. Among the more 
memorable are those in Arnold Bennett's novels of the 
Five Towns (e.g.. The Old Wives' Tale, 1908); these are 
based on a close and critical acquaintance with respectable 
Victorian chapel going in the industrial towns. After this 
the task of distinguishing between ephemeral and endur- 
ing literature becomes difficult, and only a few pointers 
can be given. Among others, references of varying length 
and interest can be found in the works of Quiller-Couch 
(Hetty Wesley), John Buchan (Midwinter) , Sheila Kaye- 
Smith, Howard Spring (Fame is the Spur, And Another 
Thing), Joyce Gary, Robert Graves, etc. In biography, 
the unhappy reminiscenses of Peter Fletcher (The Long 
Sunday, 1958) may be added to M. K. Ashby's picture of 
a nearly vanished village Methodism in Joseph Ashby of 
Tysoe ( 1961 ) and Herbert Palmer's account of a manse 
childhood in The Mistletoe Child (1935). Early Meth- 
odism's lack of educational privilege is reflected through- 
out this summary, in the dearth of specific dramatic or 
poetic references, if we exclude, as before, the possible 
evangelical references in poems by Browning and Mase- 
field. Perhaps the most famous certain reference in drama 
is W. S. Gilbert's to the King of Barataria, who influenced 
the whole plot of The Gondoliers (1889) by becoming 
"a Wesleyan Methodist of the most bigoted and persecut- 
ing type." 


LITERATURE OF DEVOTION. (See Devotion, The Life 


LITHUANIA. (See Baltic States.) 

LI T'lEN-LU (1886- ), educator, was bom in Taian, 

Shantung province, China, and was educated at Peking 
University and Vanderbilt University, where he re- 
ceived his Ph.D. in 1916. He was successively principal of 
Peking Academy, and dean, vice-president and president 
of Cheeloo University. From 1930 until 1950, when he 
retired, he was dean of Nanking Theological Seminary. 
(See Handel Lee.) 

Dr. Li was Secretary of the Chinese delegation at the 
Washington Conference of 1922, and was awarded the 
Fourth Order of Chia-ho in recognition of his services. 
He was the author of Congressional Policy in Relation to 
Chinese Immigration. 

He is retired and living in Shanghai, but continues as 

a member of the Board of Managers of Nanking Theo- 
logical Seminary. 

China Christian Yearbook, 1936-37. 

Who's Who in Modern China, 1954. Francis P. Jones 

LITTLE, CHARLES JOSEPH (1840-1911), American clergy- 
man and college professor, was bom at Philadelphia, Pa., 
Sept. 9, 1840. The University of Pennsylvania awarded 
him the A.B. in 1861 and the A.M. in 1864. After be- 
ginning his ministry in the M. E. Church as a member 
of the P^il.\delphia Conference, he spent the academic 
year 1870-1871 in study at the University of Berlin. Dur- 
ing this period of study he met Anna Marina Schultze, 
whom he married Dec. 3, 1872. To this union four chil- 
dren, a son and three daughters, were bom. 

After continued service in the Methodist ministry fol- 
lowing his study abroad, he became professor of mathe- 
matics in Dickinson Seminary. After two years of teaching, 
he returned to the pastorate, but before a year had passed 
he was back at Dickinson College as professor of 
philosophy and history. After eleven years (1874-1885) 
in this position, he became professor of logic and history at 
Syracuse University and continued there until 1891. 

With this somewhat unusual background, Charles 
Joseph Little became professor of historical theology at 
Garrett Biblical Institute in 1891. Four years later 
he was made president of the school though this election, 
fortunately for several generations of students, did not 
mean that he ceased to teach. He continued this dual role 
of teacher and administrator until his death in 1911. 

Technically, Little was not a trained theologian but he 
was in a very real way a comprehensive scholar and 
this masterful ability served him in good stead in those 
turbulent days when faculties and church conferences 
were often involved in bitter controversy over the issues 
of science, especially evolution and the higher criticism in 
biblical studies. If he did not enjoy a good fight, he did 
not shrink from controversy. He once said to the writer, 
"I do not know much Hebrew" (as a linguist, he did 
know Greek, Latin, Italian, German and French), but 
he added defiantly, "I do know enough Hebrew so that 
these experts cannot bamboozle me." An intimate col- 
league said this about him: "He appeared to be an in- 
exhaustible fountain of information, giving the impression 
of encyclopedic knowledge available at a moments 

Delegates to the several M. E. General Conferences 
to which he was elected promptly recognized him as one 
who could state the reason for the faith that was in him 
promptly and vigorously. His leadership in American Meth- 
odism at home was recognized by British Methodism in 
an invitation to give the celebrated Feknley Lecture 
in 1900. In addition to the published Femley Lecture, we 
have Christianity and the Nineteenth Century, The Angel 
and the Flame, a volume of sermons, and Biographical and 
Literary Studies. The contents of this last volume rep- 
resent the wide range of his scholarship. There are 
essays entitled: The Apostle Paul, Hildebrand, Dante, 
Savonarola, Galileo, Ibsen, The Place of Christ in Modem 
Thought, etc. Eight of his addresses are printed in the 
memorial volume edited by his successor, Charles 
Macauley Stuart. His address on Lincoln at the cen- 
tennial of that man's birth deserves perpetuation as a 
model of character analysis and oratory at its best. 


Little served the church in the Philadelphia and 
Rock River Conferences. He died March 11, 1911. 

Horace Gbeeley Smith 

LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS, U.S.A., is the capital of and 
is situated in the center of the state on the Arkansas River. 
In 1970 the city had a population of 128,880. The city 
has registered a rapid growth in industry and new business 
in recent years. Although predominately agricultural, the 
city is also the seat of a large number of home offices for 
insurance companies and other firms. Its cultural and 
educational growth is reflected in Little Rock University, 
the Arkansas Arts Center, and various historical museums 
and sites. 

There are 17,939 members of The United Methodist 
Church in Little Rock. The A.M.E. Church and the 
C.M.E. Church also have representative bodies. 

The office of the Bishop of the Arkansas Area and 
Area Headquarters are located here. The Arkansas Meth- 
odist Children's Home is situated in the western part of 
the city. Philander Smith College, a Methodist institu- 
tion, is near the heart of the downtown area. Camp 
Aldersgate, operated by the Board of Missions of The 
United Methodist Church, lies just outside the city. 

First Church, "The Cathedral of Arkansas Methodism," 
is the mid-city church of Little Rock and houses the 
office of the Bishop of the Arkansas Area. The church 
was organized in 1831, five years before Arkansas was 
admitted as a state into the LTnion. It has occupied three 
buildings in its 135-year history; the first was a small 
brick chapel built in 1836. The ground on which the 
present church stands was purchased in 1879 and a 
stately brick structure then erected. This building was 
destroyed by fire in 1895. A new red brick building (seat- 
ing 1,000) was erected in 1899 and is still in use. In 
1951 a $500,000 educational building was completed. 
Usually general sessions of the Arkansas Area of The 
Methodist Church are held in First Church. During the 
Civil War the pastor, Richard Colbum Butler, was de- 
posed by Federal authorities and a minister of the M. E. 
Church placed in charge for a brief period. 

In 1958 all property on the block was purchased for 
future expansion, together with a large parking lot across 
the street. An activities building contains a gymnasium, 
recreation rooms. Boy Scout room, craft department, and 
other facilities for serving all ages in a weekday down- 
town program. 

Three former pastors of First Church have been elected 
to the office of bishop: H. Bascom Watts, William C. 
Martin, and Aubrey G. Walton, the latter being elected 
in 1960 when serving as pastor. With a staff of thirteen 
persons, including three ordained ministers, and a mem- 
bership of 2,646, First Church continues as a vital force 
in the city of Little Rock, and in its laity furnishes some 
of the prominent leaders in civic and business affairs in 
the state and city. Three governors of the state have 
been members of the congregation. The church also serves 
parishioners residing in every section of Little Rock, 
North Little Rock, and many in Pulaski County. 

The church has assisted in the organization of a large 
number of new Methodist congregations in the city, and 
has supported them financially and by supplying members. 

Miles Chapel was organized under the leadership of 
her first pastor, John Peyton, before the C. M. E. Church 
was born (1870). 


Miles Chapel C.M.E., Little Rock, Arkansas 

In the church's infancy it was denominationally in- 
dependent. Bishop W. H. Miles took the congregation 
into the C. M. E. Church in July 1873, and named it 
Miles Chapel. 

Miles Chapel was host to the C. M. E. General Con- 
ference of 1890. It is the oldest C. M. E. Church west of 
the Mississippi. Miles Chapel has always housed the mem- 
bers in a brick church. It has had three locations: 3rd 
and Ferry; 5th and Rector; and 5th and Bender, the 
present site. 

Pulaski Heights Church is the largest Methodist church 
in membership in the state of Arkansas. Needing a church 
in the rolling hills section of western Little Rock, Pulaski 
Heights was organized in 1912. The church grew rapidly 
and as early as 1923 it became apparent that additional 
facilities would be needed. The depression and World War 
II prevented the congregation from carrying out plans for 
a new building, but in 1948 plans were put out for bids 
for a beautiful Gothic church. The bids far exceeded all 
expectations and the Board gloomily faced the prospect 
of further delay in achieving the dream of this congrega- 
tion; then the voice of one woman stood out as she said, 
"A church is not built with dollars and cents, a church 
is built with faith! ... I move we begin construction 
immediately." Today the church stands just three blocks 
from the original building, ministering to the children, 
youth and adults in this section of the city. To the 
sanctuary have been added an educational building and a 
youth building. Church school classes meet during the 
week as well as on Sunday. Family night programs; a 
Mothers' Day Out each week, where young children are 
cared for in the church as mother has a day out; a choir 
program for all ages; a community service program called 
"opportunities for action," and many other weekday as 
well as Sunday programs make this church a vital part 
of Methodism. 

Full or part time support is given to missionaries serv- 
ing Hong Kong and Okinawa. The T. J. and Inez Raney 
lectures given each May in the church bring distinguished 
ministers to the city of Little Rock to enrich and revitalize 
the spiritual and cultural life of the community. Many 
young men have gone from this church to serve as min- 
isters and today are giving outstanding leadership to The 
United Methodist Church. 



Pulaski Heights Church has had a great past and looks 
to the future with an effective approach to programming 
related to our world today. Its 1970 membership was 

II. Jewell, Arkansas. 1892. 

Robert E. L. Bearden 

LITTLE ROCK CONFERENCE was created in 1866 by 
changing the name of the Ouachita Conference. No 
mergers, divisions, or rearrangement of conference bound- 
aries were involved. The Little Rock Conference covers 
the south half of the state of Arkansas. (See Arkansas 
for history of early Methodism in state. ) 

It was said jokingly that the name of the Ouachita Con- 
ference was changed because the preachers did not know 
how to spell it, but the real reason was the decreasing 
influence of streams in the lives of the people and the 
rising importance of cities. The first three conferences in 
Arkansas — Arkansas, Ouachita, and White River — were 
named for rivers. By 1914 all of the river names had 
disappeared. Little Rock was not only the capital city, 
it was and still is the chief metropolis in the state. Many 
conferences were and still are named for the largest city 
within their boundaries, and most of the episcopal areas 
of the church today are identified by the names of the 
cities in which the bishops reside. 

The church at Washington, ten miles west of Hope, is 
historically important. The Washington Male and Female 
Academy flourished in Washington for fifteen years before 
the Civil War, and the town itself served as the capital 
of Arkansas during the last two years of that conflict. 
Methodism was established in the vicinity of Washington 
in 1817 by William Stevenson, a local preacher from 
Missouri. Washington was the center from which Meth- 
odism first made its way into both Texas and Oklahoma. 
The Washington Church was organized in 1822, and its 
present building, a large well preserved colonial style 
edifice, was erected in 1860. The conference historical 
society has published a pamphlet on the church, and it 
has assisted the congregation with the renovation of the 
building and restoration of original fixtures. The church 
has been recommended for designation as a historical 
landmark or shrine in the denomination. 

The Methodist Children's home in Little Rock is sup- 
ported by both Arkansas Conferences. The Arkansas 
Methodist, long the official paper for Arkansas Methodism, 
is published in that city. 

When created in 1866 the Little Rock Conference had 
about fifty-one appointments and approximately 7,000 
church members. In 1970, the conference had 173 pastoral 
charges, 83,758 members, and its churches, parsonages, 
and other property were valued at more than $34,824,683. 

J. A. Anderson, Arkansas Methodism. 1936. 

S. T. Baugh & R. B. Moore, Jr., Methodism's Gateway to the 

Southwest (Pamphlet). Little Rock: Epworth Press, 1966. 

Minutes of Little Rock Conference. 

W. N. Vernon, William Stevenson, 1964. Albea Godbold 

LITTLEJOHN, JOHN (1756-1836), pioneer American 
preacher, was bom in Penrith, Cumberland County, En- 
gland, Dec. 7, 1756. Emigrating with his family to 
America about 1767, he was awakened under the ministry 
of John King in Maryland in 1774. 

Entering the conference in 1777, he traveled two years 
and then married, returning to the local ranks. After 
location he settled in Leesburg, Va., and remained there 

until 1819, when he moved to Louis\ille, Ky. Later 
Littlejohn went to Warren County and finally to Logan 
County, Ky. In 1831 he was readmitted to the Baltimore 
Conference, transferred to the Kentucky Conference, 
and was placed on the superannuate list, where he re- 
mained until his death. 

As early as 1775 Littlejohn, while traveling from An- 
napolis to Montgomery County, Md., was taken before 
a magistrate for not having a pass. He was opposed to the 
oath required by Virgini.\ and Maryland during the 
Revolutionary War, The Maryland oath was obnoxious to 
both pro-British and pro-American persons. Later he 
escaped being tarred and feathered because a magistrate 
protected him. 

Only a few American ministers were as able as Little- 
john in his day. During his brief itinerancy he was one of 
the most efficient and useful pastors. Noted for his in- 
tellectual ability, piety, and devotion to the church, thou- 
sands were converted under his eloquent preaching. 

He earned a name for himself in the national annals 
when in the War of 1812, President James Madison — 
who had to flee Washington — committed to Littlejohn 
the original Declaration of Independence and other price- 
less documents for safekeeping. 

Littlejohn died on May 13, 1836, during the General 

W. E. Arnold, Kentucky. 1935-36. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 

G. H. Jones, Guidebook. 1966. 

Journal of the General Conference, 1836. Jesse A. Earl 

LITTLETON FEMALE COLLEGE, Littleton, N. C, opened in 
January 1882, as Central Institute for Young Ladies. In 
the following month it was chartered by the General 
Assembly of North Carolina when Littleton civic leaders 
formed a corporation to operate the school "for the in- 
tellectual, moral and religious development and training 
of young ladies. " A number of substantial three-story 
frame buildings were erected on the grounds of the Col- 
lege. The charter was amended in 1888 to change the 
name of the institution to Littleton Female College. In 
1912 the "Female" was dropped from the name, although 
only women continued to be admitted. 

In 1889, James Manly Rhodes, who, with the excep- 
tion of two years, was President of the College during its 
entire history, purchased Littleton Female College from 
its stockholders and immediately began an extensive pro- 
gram of improvements. In the administration of the Col- 
lege, Rhodes was assisted by a faculty and staff note- 
worthy for their character, ability and scholarship. Little- 
ton College offered a wide variety of courses. In addition 
to the Preparatory Department, there was a Training 
School for nurses, a Practice and Observation School for 
prospective teachers, and a Business School. 

A natural result of Rhodes' affiliation with the M. E. 
Church, South, was a strong religious influence at Little- 
ton College. Special emphasis was placed on religious 
training and on the formation and growth of character. 
Bible was a required course for every student. As a result 
of the religious atmosphere which characterized the 
academic program and due to the moderate tuition fees 
charged, many daughters of itinerant Methodist ministers 
attended Littleton College. The College was enthusiasti- 
cally endorsed by resolutions passed at the annual con- 
ferences of the M. E. Church, South, and the North 



Carolina Conference of the M. P. Church. News of 
College activities frequently appeared in The Raleigh 
Christian Advocate and The North Carolina Christian 
Advocate. The Charter provided that all bequests and 
donations were to become the property of the M. E. 
Church, South. A large number of alumnae became teach- 
ers in North Carolina's public schools and in various 
colleges. Many former students entered the foreign mis- 
sion field. The editor of The Raleigh Christian Advocate 
once observed that from Littleton College were "going 
forth positive moral, mental and social influences which 
must play an important part in developing the Christian 
womanhood of the South." 

The college enrollment was impressive with more than 
200 students attending each session for many years. There 
were 274 students enrolled in 1907. Covernor Charles B. 
Aycock, North Carolina's famous educational governor, 
was a trustee of Littleton Female College; it was the only 
educational institution except the University of North 
Carolina of which he served as trustee. 

Fire destroyed the Littleton College buildings on the 
night of Jan. 22, 1919, with a loss estimated in excess of 
$50,000. Due to his advanced age and poor health, and 
the fact tliat the College was not endowed. President 
Rhodes decided not to replace the buildings and Littleton 
College closed. 

The Littleton College Memorial Association was or- 
ganized in 1927 by alumnae and friends of the former 
college who have met annually since then to keep alive 
the spirit and work of the college. At the annual meeting 
in July 1961, held at Pullen Park, Raleigh, N. C, President 
Thomas A. Collins of North Carolina Wesleyan Col- 
lege, Rocky Mount, N. C, extended an invitation to the 
members of the Association to meet in the following July 
on the grounds of the new Methodist college which serves 
the same general area as that of Littleton College. "North 
Carolina Wesleyan College is in a very real sense a 
spiritual outgrowth of Littleton College," stated President 
Collins, and noted that the flame lighted by the earlier 
institution was still very much alive. He invited the 
alumnae of Littleton College to consider themselves the 
first "alumni organization" of the new college. Annual 
reunions since 1961 have been held at North Carolina 
Wesleyan College. 

Ralph Hardee Rives, "Littleton Female College," The North 
Carolina Historical Review, XXXIX (July, 1962), 363-377; see, 
also. The Littleton College Memorial Collection, North Carolina 
Wesleyan College and in The Southern Historical Collection, 
University of North Carolina, and North Carolina Wesleyan 
College Bulletin, 1965-1966, pp. 85-86. 

Ralph Hardee Rives 

Mount, N. C, U.S.A., is an extensive collection of memo- 
rabilia of the former Littleton Female College. In 1960 
the Littleton College Memorial Association (organized in 
1927) voted to establish a Littleton College Memorial 
Collection of books to be presented to the library of the 
new North Carolina Wesleyan College at Rocky 
Mount. In addition to these resource books, material con- 
sisting of catalogues, annuals, literary magazines, literary 
society pins, diplomas, numerous photographs and clip- 
pings and various other items specifically associated with 
the history of Littleton Female College was assembled. 
This collection was presented to the North Carolina Wes- 
leyan College Library and duplicates were placed in the 

Southern Historical Collection in the library at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 

Tlie Association has also established the Vara L. Her- 
ring Scholarship at Scarritt College and the Littleton 
College Memorial Loan Fund at North Carolina Wesleyan 

The Littleton College Memorial Collection is a valuable 
assemblage of information for the researcher interested in 
the history and development of education in the late 
Victorian era and the early twentieth century. 

Ralph Hardee Rives, "Littleton Female College," The North 
Carolina Historical Review, XXXIX (July, 1962), 363-377; 
see, also. The Litdeton College Memorial Collection, North 
Carolina Wesleyan College and in the Southern Historical Col- 
lection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 

Ralph Hardee Rives 

LIVERMORE, MELVA A. (1869-1941), was a missionary 
in India appointed by the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church. She was born in Chanton 
County, Mo., April 9, 1869, and was educated in North- 
western University (B.A. ) and Columbia University 

Miss Livermore was outstanding as an educator, an 
evangelist, and a worker for the public welfare. She began 
her career as an educator in Kansas at the age of sixteen, 
by teaching in a country school. She pursued her own 
education zealously, graduating and taking teacher's train- 
ing. Going to India in 1916, she served as principal of a 
girls' boarding school in Meerut and of Ingraham Institute 
in Ghaziabad. She contributed much to the developments 
that have placed both of those institutions in the front 
ranks of church and mission schools. The former is now 
an intermediate college for girls, and the latter is one of 
India's best known and most successful vocational high 
schools and centers for extension education. 

As an evangehst, she often spent weeks touring by ox 
cart in the villages without returning to her home. Her 
associations were with the poor, the oppressed, and the 
illiterate. She established and supervised many primary 
day schools and woman's societies, wrote a life of Christ 
in simple Hindustani for newly literate villagers, and en- 
tered into the life of those humble people as one who 
delighted to serve. 

She won the admiration of all classes and was ap- 
pointed a member of the municipal board of Ghaziabad. 
She retired in 1936, but was in demand as a speaker 
about missions and people in India until her death on 
July 31, 1941. 

Journals of the Northwest India and Delhi Conferences. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

LIVERPOOL, England. Methodism was bound up with the 
rapid growth of southwest Lancashire in the nineteenth 
century, when the area changed from a county of few 
parishes and scattered population into one of the great- 
est manufacturing centers in the world. The city of Liver- 
pool grew from almost nothing at the same swift rate, 
and most of the people who built Methodism there came 
from outside. John Wesley often used the port, and the 
old Lancashire North Circuit dated from 1766; a Liver- 
pool Circuit first appears in 1771. The Liverpool North 
and Liverpool South Circuits were formed in 1826, though 
by that time Mount Pleasant Chapel had long been built 
(1789) and also Brunswick, the most famous of these 



early chapels. This was the scene of the Wesleyan Con- 
ference of 1820, at which the Liverpool Minutes were 
drawn up, to remain, with alterations made in 1885 and 
1944, the standard description of the ideal Methodist 

The advance of Methodism was interrupted by the 
controversies of 1834-37. Samuel Warren was warmly 
supported in the Liverpool South Circuit. It was in Liver- 
pool that David Rowland, a class leader, was charged 
before his leaders' meeting with "assisting with the forma- 
tion of a certain Association," and with taking part in 
public meetings to advocate its views. He and some others 
were e.xpelled from Wesleyan Methodism for their part 
in this agitation, and it was actually at a meeting in Liver- 
pool that the Wesleyan Methodist Association was 
formed and its constitution adopted. When the United 
Methodist Church was formed in 1907, there were four 
circuits in Liverpool; these were united into a single cir- 
cuit in 1929, shortly before Methodist Union in 1932. 

As for Primitue Methodism in Liverpool, William 
Clowes preached in the city in 1813, but does not seem 
to have established any regular work. When John Ride, 
another Primitive Methodist itinerant, preached there in 
1821, he was arrested by a civil officer and lodged in the 
prison; it is said that Adam Clarke, the Wesleyan Meth- 
odist preacher, intervened with the magistrates to obtain 
his release. The Tunstall Circuit was missioning Liverpool 
at this time; and through the preaching of James Bonser, 
who arrived in Liverpool in January 1822, enough prog- 
ress was made for the establishment of a separate Liver- 
pool circuit in 1823. 

For some years vigorous Welsh Methodist churches 
(see Wales) were found on Merseyside, and a circuit 
seems to have existed as far back as 1803. There was large 
nineteenth-century immigration from Wales, and so a 
strong group of societies emerged, which were for a time 
grouped in the Liverpool District but later transferred 
to the First North Wales District. A number of men en- 
tered the Wesleyan Methodist ministry from these 
churches, including the grandfather of Hugh Price 
Hughes. Little of this work now remains, however. The 
children and grandchildren of the early immigrants have 
lost the Welsh language; they attended Enghsh schools, 
married into English families, and have gradually been 
assimilated for the most part into the English rehgious 
world. The future would seem to hold little promise for 
this part of Methodist work. 

TTie most striking figure in later Liverpool Methodism 
was the Wesleyan Methodist minister Charles Garrett, 
a famous early leader of the Methodist teetotal movement. 
He became the first superintendent of the new Liverpool 
Central Mission, an offshoot of the Forward Movement, 
in 1882, the year in which he was also elected president 
of the Wesleyan Methodist Conference. He remained at 
Liverpool until his death in 1900, and made the mission 
the center of Methodist evangelism and social work in the 

Liverpool Methodism suffered badly during the air 
raids made on Merseyside during the Second World War. 
Churches were damaged or destroyed; the dispersal of 
population affected the older churches, for many people 
never returned to their old homes and did not pick up the 
threads of their old religious lives. After the war an ex- 
tensive building program had to be undertaken to restore 
damaged churches and to build new ones, and to put 
new churches on the large housing estates which were a 

feature of the reconstruction of the area. All the same, 
it may be said that Liverpool has suffered less than many 
other areas of the industrial North from the general 
religious decline of the past fifty years. Careful planning 
of the work and tlie redeployment of the ministry have 
helped to relate the church afresh to the town and sur- 
rounding country. A regular .service has been set up to 
meet all immigrants entering the port. In 1954 one of 
the first Methodist International Houses was opened for 
overseas students; this has been enlarged and two other 
hostels have been added. A former missionary is presently 
employed among the large West Indian population in the 
city. Unlike many other districts, Liverpool has been able 
to report some increase of membership in the years since 

Gilberthorpe Harrison 

LIVERPOOL MINUTES. At the British Wesleyan Method- 
ist Liverpool Conference of 1820 a decrease in the mem- 
bership of the connection was reported for the first time 
since annual returns of membership had been instituted. 
Moved by a sense of responsibility, the preachers passed 
a series of resolutions, pledging themselves to renewed 
devotion to their pastoral and preaching duties. These 
were known as the 'Liverpool Minutes,' and it was di- 
rected that they should be read in every May Synod and 
once a year in a meeting of the ministers in every circuit. 
In 1885 the 'Resolutions on Pastoral Work' were sub- 
stituted, but the bulk of the earlier document was re- 

W, L. Doughty 

required of his preachers that they set down an account 
of their "call to preach and present religious experience," 
a practice which survives in the public testimony of 
candidates for ordination. Many of these accounts were 
printed in the Arminian Magazine. As connexional editor, 
Tho.mas Jackson compiled a selection of thirty-seven of 
them under the title The Lives of Early Methodist Preach- 
ers (3 vols., 1837-38). In the third edition (6 vols., 
1865-66), he added an introductory essay and four addi- 
tional hves. A later connexional editor, John Telford, 
published a two-volume annotated selection of thirteen 
of the lives under the title Wesley's Veterans ( 1909 ) , to 
which subsequently (1912-14) he added five more vol- 
umes containing twenty-three additional lives. A table 
correlating Telford's seven-volume arrangement with 
Jackson's six is given in Proceedings of the Wesley His- 
torical Society, xxii, 102-5. 


LIVINGSTON, G. HERBERT (1916- ), American Free 

Methodist and ordained elder of the Kentucky-Tennessee 
Conference of his church, was born at Russell, Iowa, and 
married Maria Saarloos, in 1937. He was educated at 
Wessington Springs College, South Dakota (B.A.), 
Kletzing College, Oskaloosa, Iowa (A.B.), Asbury Theo- 
logical Seminary (B.D.), and Drew University 
(Ph.D.). He served as a pastor for fifteen years in Wis- 
consin, Iowa, New York and South Dakota, was dean of 
Wessington Springs College for two years and has been 
professor of Old Testament at Asbury Theological Semi- 
nary since 1953. He has participated in archaeological 



excavations in Israel and Jordan. Dr. Livingston holds 
membership in the Academy of Rehgion; Society of Bib- 
lical Literature; National Association of Professors of He- 
brew; Evangehcal Theological Society and Wesley The- 
ological Society. He is the author of Genesis and Jeremiah, 
Aldersgate Biblical Series; Psalms 73-150 in Wesleyan 
Bible Commentary; Genesis, in Beacon Bible Commen- 
tary; and Jonah and Obadiah in Wycliffe Bible Commen- 

Byhon S. Lamson 

LIVING EPISTLE, THE, a holiness magazine, was first intro- 
duced to Evangelicals in January 1869, as an indepen- 
dent piece of journalism. Reuben Yeakel, later bishop, 
and Elisha Hoffman, a song writer, were co-editors. It 
was a twenty-four page monthly during its first year, 
which was increased to thirty-two pages in the second 
year. Supported by a group of ministers and laymen as 
a private venture to teach holiness in accordance with 
the Bible and the Evangelical Discipline, it was offered 
to and accepted by the Evangelical Assocl\tion Gen- 
eral Conference in 1871. Under the auspices of the 
Publishing House at least two-thirds of its pages were 
used for family and Sunday school purposes. By 1875, 
it had lost its primary purpose and was serving the Sun- 
day schools of the church. By the end of 1907 its useful- 
ness had disappeared, even as a Sunday school paper, 
and it was discontinued. 

R. W. Albright, Evangelical Church, 1942. 

J. H. Ness, History of Publishing. 1966. John H. Ness, Jr. 

LIVINGSTONE COLLEGE, Salisbury, North Carolina. (See 
Salisbury, North Carolina. ) 

LLOYD, JOHN SELWYN BROOKE (1904- ), British 
statesman and Methodist layman, was bom on July 28, 
1904. His father and grandfather were both called John 
Wesley Lloyd, and his great-grandfather was a Methodist 
minister. He was educated at Fettes School and at Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge. In 1927 he was president of the 
Cambridge Union. His later career was divided between 
law, politics, and the army. A barrister of Gray's Inn, he 
joined the Northern Circuit in 1930, and in 1951 became 
a Master of the Bench, Gray's Inn. He served throughout 
the Second World War in the army, rising from second 
lieutenant to brigadier in 1944. He was also staff officer 
on H.Q. Second Army until the surrender of Germany. 
After the war he entered the House of Commons as M.P. 
for the Wirrall Division of <]heshire; he was minister 
of state at the Foreign OflBce from 1951 to 1954, and then 
within a period of fifteen months he was successively 
minister of supply, minister of defence, and secretary of 
state for foreign affairs, all in Conservative cabinets. He 
was foreign secretary, 1955-60, a period including the 
Suez crisis, which led to the resignation of Anthony Eden 
as prime minister. After an unusually long period at the 
Foreign Office, Lloyd was chancellor of the exchequer, 
1960-62, when he instituted his famous "wage pause" 
and set up the National Economic Development Council. 
When he left office in 1962, he was asked to prepare a 
report on the organization of the Conservative party. He 
returned to office in 1963 in Sir Alec Douglas-Home's 
government, as lord privy seal and leader of the House 

of Commons. He was made a privy councillor in 1951 
and a companion of honour in 1962. 

Peter Stephens 

American Methodism, The.) 

LOCAL PREACHERS. Early Hisfory. As early as 1738 John 
Wesley recognized the value of a layman who was 
prepared to witness publicly to his Christian experience, 
and to exhort others to a similar acceptance of saving 
faith. Such was Joseph Humphreys when Wesley first 
sponsored him, though later he turned from "exhorting" 
to the authoritative exposition of scripture, and was or- 
dained. Similarly Wesley accepted the services at Bristol 
in 1739 of John Cennick. He was also happy to use 
Thomas Maxfield as an exhorter in London, but was 
both distressed and angry when Maxfield stepped over 
the narrow line dividing exhorting from expounding — 
the latter (in Wesley's view) the prerogative of a deacon 
who had been episcopally ordained to the ministry of the 
Word of God. By 1741, however, Wesley had accepted 
Maxfield as his first "son in the gospel," i.e. a layman 
commissioned to a full time preaching ministry. Others 
speedily followed, and the term "preacher" was soon 
applied equally to exhorters and expounders, the subtle 
distinction almost forgotten. The expounders or preachers, 
however, were the forerunners of the Methodist Ministry, 
and the exhorters of the order of Methodist Local Preach- 

Wesley continued to emphasize the difference in the 
years that followed, although this left little trace in the 
official Minutes of the Methodist conferences. Those lay 
preachers whom he recognized as possessing suitable gffts 
and graces he usually called to itinerate among the Meth- 
odist societies as his Helpers, and with the development 
of defined Circuits one of these helpers in each was 
designated to oversee the others as Wesley's Assistant. 
After Wesley's death these achieved the title which he 
had resisted, that of "minister." Sometimes the itinerant 
or travelling preacher was prevented from fulfilling a 
preaching engagement, and on such occasions his place 
might be taken by a substitute — possibly a Methodist who 
had already gained some pastoral experience as a Class 
Leader, possibly a recent convert who was urged to re- 
late his Christian experience in place of a regular sermon. 

In 1747 Wesley carefully examined the situation in 
Cornwall, an area of rapidly expanding societies and in- 
sufficient itinerants. He found that of eighteen "exhorters" 
(this term was used) five were unfitted or unworthy, three 
were "much blessed in the work," and the remaining 
ten "might be helpful when there was no preacher in their 
own or the neighboring societies." These latter were the 
type of men whom he came to recognize as "local preach- 
ers," or preachers in their own locality as opposed to the 
itinerant preachers who travelled around wherever they 
were sent by Wesley. The 1747 Conference listed twenty- 
three travelling preachers and thirty-eight men who "as- 
sist us only in one place." Of these thirty-eight eleven later 
served for at least an interval as itinerants. At the 1753 
Conference sixteen local preachers were present, of whom 
four later became itinerants. 

Charles Wesley urged his brother John in 1751 to 
make the following specific regulations about the admis- 
sion of local preachers to full time service: 



"With regard to the preachers, we agree: 

1. That none shall be permitted to preach in any of 
our societies, till lie be examined both as to his grace 
and gifts, at least by the assistant, who sending word 
to us may by our answer admit him a local preacher. 

2. That such preacher be not immediately taken from 
his trade, but be exhorted to follow it with all diligence. 

3. That no person shall be received as a travelling 
preacher or be taken from his trade by either of us 
alone, but by both of us conjointly, giving him a note 
under both our hands. 

Something of this kind may well have been agreed at 
the 1752 English conference (whose minutes have not 
survived), as in fact it was at the first Irish conference, 
held that year in Limerick. If so, these regulations were 
not incorporated into the "Large Minutes," which con- 
tain only a casual reference to local preachers. In the 
Deed of Declaration of 1784 they are not mentioned 
at all. 

Although (unlike the itinerant lay preachers) the local 
lay preachers were the subject of very little legislation 
during Wesley's lifetime, they nevertheless remained an 
important part of the Methodist system. As early as the 
1760's regular preaching plans were prepared in some 
circuits to organize their activities the most usefully, 
and the larger a circuit became the more need there was 
for local preachers to supply pulpits on Sundays. With 
a few exceptions the local preachers were regarded as 
temporary substitutes who must carefully be prevented 
from aggrandizing themselves at the expense of the travel- 
ling preachers, and Wesley occasionally advised his as- 
sistants to "clip their wings." At the same time the "locals" 
were seen as potential itinerants, whose home circuit was 
both their training ground for the itinerancy and the 
more limited field of ministry to which they could return 
if for one reason or another either they or Wesley felt it 
necessary for them to leave the full time itinerancy, as 
many did: of two hundred itinerant preachers, accepted 
between 1741 and 1765, only eighty-one actually died in 
the full time work or as "supernumeraries." 

In 1780 John Crook, the founder of Methodism in the 
Isle of Man, and Wesley's assistant there, met forty-five 
local preachers serving in the island, and the "Local 
Preachers' Minute Book" recording their deliberations and 
decisions at Pell on that occasion remained in use until 
1816. Their business was conducted by the method of 
question and answer, as in Wesley's annual conference 
for the travelling preachers. Wesley's Journal for Feb. 
6, 1789 speaks about "the quarterly day for meeting the 
local preachers" as if it were a normal thing, in London 
at least. Not until 1796, however, were quarterly local 
preachers' meetings formally incorporated into the printed 
legislation as a universal feature of Methodist polity. The 
systematic training and organization of local preachers 
came much later still. 

The Local Preachers in Early Methodism, by Duncan Coomer, 
in Proc. of the W.H.S., xxv, pp. 33-42 (Burnley, 1945). 
Rupp and Davies ( eds. ) Methodist Church in Great Britain. 
Vol. 1. pp. 236-38. 

Frank Baker 

Later History. One of the causes of Methodist disunity 
in the early nineteenth century was the tension which 
developed between the local and itinerant preachers as 
the latter settled down into a normal ministry. This tension 
was largely resolved when laymen were admitted to the 
Wesleyan Methodist Conference in 1877. But even at 

Methodist Union in 1932 it was still necessary to allow 
for the possibility that in extraordinary circumstances 
laymen — who were in practice local preachers — should 
administer Holy Communion. 

From an early date women also were allowed to preach. 
Even John Wesley himself occasionally used women 
preachers. Primitive Methodism prided itself — from 
1803 — in having "no sex limitation in church work." The 
Wesleyans were much slower in recognizing that women 
lay preachers as well as men had a legitimate call and 
place in the life of the church, and did not officially 
acknowledge this until 1918. Since that date the number 
of women preachers in Methodism has steadily risen, 
and particularly since Union — this despite the shrinkage 
in total membership. In 1963 one out of every five local 
preachers in the active work was a woman. 

The systematic training of local preachers has only be- 
come general in the present century. The first written 
examinations were in 1927, and these became general 
and obligatory only after Union (1936). The Local 
Preachers' Department — which is answerable to the Con- 
ference for all matters relating to local preachers, par- 
ticularly their training and standards — came into being 
only in 1937, and the first ministerial secretary to be 
specially responsible for this work was appointed that 
year. Since then the department has steadily grown in 
size and scope, in its activities and its influence through- 
out Methodism. In other communions, where the value 
and distinctive contribution of lay preachers is becoming 
increasingly recognized, the Methodist organization with 
its Order of Local Preachers and its facilities for training 
them, is both coveted and emulated. 

In Methodism in Great Britain there are now about 
22,000 fully accredited local preachers, and about 4,000 
at various stages of their preliminary training. Three out 
of every four Sunday services are taken by local preachers. 

Annua/ Reports of the Local Preachers' Department. 
The Preacher's Handbook. 

R. F. Wearmouth, Methodism and the Working Class Move- 
ments. 1937. David N. Francis 

1858 New York City convention of local preachers. There 
persons from twelve annual conferences largely in the 
northeast organized the "Local Preachers' Association of 
the M. E. Churches of the U. S.," with provision for 
auxiliary conference and district associations. In 1859 at 
Baltimore the name was changed to "National, etc." 
The group was able to secure listing of local preachers in 
the annual conference minutes, held an annual convention, 
and also promoted historical observances such as the 1866 
Centennial, and the erection of the Embury monument at 
Ashgrove, N. Y. Following incorporation in Baltimore, 
Md., Jan. 12, 1833 for "fraternal intercourse, brotherly 
cooperation, the advancement of education, etc.," the 
Association in 1890 gained control of Ft. Wayne College 
from the North Indiana Conference, renamed it Taylor 
University and elected its trustees until the Alumni Asso- 
ciation of the school took control in 1922. 

Despite its name, the organization enhsted few sup- 
porters outside the northeast. The last known officers were 
elected for 1917-18. 

Methodist Year Book, 1919. 

Edwln Schell 



started in Britain as the General Wesleyan Methodist 
Local Preachers Mutual Aid Association in July, 1849. In 
1839 Wesleyanism celebrated its Centenary by raising 
£300,000 in a special appeal. At this time, many Wesleyan 
Methodist local preachers were receiving Poor Law 
Relief while others were living in workhouses and ending 
their days in a pauper's grave. The Wesleyan Methodist 
Conference was asked to allocate a small portion of the 
Centenary Fund to the relief of these local preachers. 
The Conference not only refused to allocate any of this 
money but also refused to give approval to the launching 
of a special appeal for this particular purpose. Two local 
preachers, Francis Pearson and Joseph H. Marsden, met 
in a Matlock village and decided to call a number of local 
preachers together for fellowship and to consider forming 
a society for the benefit of the poor and sick among their 
number. Many difficulties were placed in their way by 
official Wesleyanism; but a group of them met in Alders- 
gate Street in July 1849, and decided to launch the asso- 
ciation at a meeting in Birmingham later that year. 

Members paid an entrance fee of ten shillings and a 
subscription of twopence per week. At the end of twelve 
months 1,260 members had enrolled, and the contribu- 
tions amounted to £1,276. In the first fifteen years the 
membership doubled, and the income rose to £30,000, 
of which £22,000 was distributed to the sick and poor. 
Progiess continued; membership grew; the scope of bene- 
fits was widened; and in the 117 years of its existence 
the association has distributed almost £2,000,000 in re- 
lieving those local preachers, widows, and dependents 
"in necessitous circumstances." The help takes various 
forms: weekly allowances, sickness benefits to those very 
elderly members who were members before the National 
Insurance Act came into operation, lump-sum grants, and, 
during the last twenty years, the provision of five Eventide 
Homes at Westcliff on Sea, Woodhall Spa, Minehead, 
Grange over Sands, and Barleythorpe (Oakham). At the 
last named, nursing care is given to residents in need of 
more care and attention than can be provided in ordinary 
Eventide Homes. A sixth home at Rickmansworth (Hert- 
fordshire) was opened at the end of 1966, and here again, 
nursing care is provided. 

The association was established on a basis of mutual 
aid, but as the years passed many Methodist societies 
expressed a wish to make grants toward the association's 
work as a tribute to the services of local preachers. Today 
almost every Methodist church in Britain allocates the 
whole of one Sunday's collections, or a part of that one 
Sunday's collections, to the association as a thank-offering. 
As times and circumstances change, the association — 
honored by Royal Patronage since 1922 — has adapted 
changes in its methods and its work. When Methodist 
Union came in 1932 the doors were opened to all Meth-- 
odist local preachers, and thousands joined from the non- 
Wesleyan Methodist bodies. In 1962 the association 
agreed to make its benefits available to all Methodist local 
preachers even though they had not contributed to the 
association's funds. All this work — apart from a small 
staff at the head office — has been voluntary. Local Preach- 
ers' Mutual Aid workers never ask for or receive ex- 
penses; they give freely of their time, money, and ability 
to help their less fortunate brethren. The association has 
never taken sides in church or national controversies. It is 
a charitable organization, registered as such with the 
Registrar of Friendly Societies. There are 615 branches, 

divided into thirty-four districts. The district committee 
elects delegates to the annual aggregate meeting, which 
any member may attend, but the 350 delegates are given 
hospitality and take preaching appointments in the district 
where the aggregate is held. The honorary officers consist 
of a president, a treasurer, and two secretaries; and they, 
with the former presidents, the ten trustees, and seventy 
elected members, constitute the General Committee of 
the association, which meets in different parts of the coun- 
try nine or ten times a year. At the end of 1965 the 
association had 18,329 members: it was making weekly 
allowances to 834 local preachers, widows, and depen- 
dents; and more than 120 elderly local preachers, their 
wives, and widows were resident in the five Eventide 
Homes. During the year collections from Methodist 
churches provided £34,377. The total expenditure on 
charitable gifts, administration, and the maintenance of 
the homes was £99,674. Legacies were always placed in 
reserve, and from these the association received £20,000 
in interest and dividends in the course of the year. The 
association is completely autonomous, administered en- 
tirely by local preachers. 

Albert E. Shaw 

LOCATION is formal cessation from the traveling min- 
istry of the Methodist connection by one who thereby is 
no longer under the appointment of a bishop, but who 
does not lose his status as a local preacher. Location 
may be granted by a formal vote of an Annual Confer- 
ence when a member requests it; but an annual conference 
has a right to locate a man against his own volition if it 
feels it proper to so terminate his membership in its body. 
This sometimes comes about when a man proves to be 
unacceptable in the traveling ministry, or is so patently 
unfitted for it that a suitable appointment can no longer 
be found for him, and thus he is requested or forced to 

Many otherwise acceptable and useful men find it 
necessary to locate for personal reasons — for instance, 
family conditions, such as the invahdism of a wife, some- 
times by reason of a man's own health, or the like, and 
when he has not reached an age when he may ask for 
formal superannuation or retirement. After location, one 
takes his place in the ranks of the local preachers, and his 
membership goes into the local church where he con- 
tinues to work under the direction of his pastor or the 
district superintendent in such ways as may be possible. 
When an ordained minister locates, he does not lose his 
ordination status (except as explained below). 

Each annual conference looks to its Committee on 
Conference Relations to pass upon a request for location 
when such request comes from one of its members, or 
when a name is referred to the Committee by a district 
superintendent with his own recommendation that a man 
be located. The annual conference is sovereign in all 
matters of conference relationship, and while a man 
located against his will formerly had the right in the M. E. 
Church to appeal to a Judicial Conference (Discipline, 
1908, P. 160), the unchallenged principle that every 
organized body shall be the judge of the qualifications of 
its own members holds in The United Methodist Church 
with reference to annual conference membership. 

"When a member of an Annual Conference in good 
standing, shall demand a located relation, the Conference 
shall be obliged to grant it to him." (Journal, General 



Conference, 1840, ME.) "This is the only relation in the 
church which can be changed solely by the will of the 
person concerned," said Bishop McTyeibe. 

The Discipline (1968, P. 368) states that a man may be 
located when found "unacceptable, inefficient, or indif- 
ferent in the work of the ministry," and the conference 
may by count vote on recommendation of the Board of 
the Ministry locate such a man without his consent. In 
such instances "the authority to exercise the ministerial 
office shall be suspended" (P. 368). He has today no 
right of appeal. Disciplinary regulations outline the duties, 
obligations, and responsibilities of local preachers and 
indicate to what body they are amenable for character 
and conduct. 

Discipline, 1968. 

H. N. McTyeire, Manual of the Discipline. 1920. N. B. H. 

LOCKE, CHARLES EDWARD (1858-1940), American bish- 
op, was bom in Pittsburgh, Pa., Sept. 9, 1858. The son 
of William H. Locke, a chaplain in the Union Army, his 
ancestors were of historical colonial stock. He was edu- 
cated at Mount Union College and Allegheny Col- 
lege. He married Mina J. Woods on Dec. 27, 1882, and 
they had a son and a number of daughters. He joined the 
E.\stOhio Conference in 1881. 

After eight years in small town pastorates, Locke was 
appointed to the famous Smithfield Street Church in 
PrrrsBURGH, Pa., and thereupon began a career as a 
pastor of notable churches. For thirty years he was in 
the most famous and influential pulpits of the denomina- 
tion. Tliese appointments included Smithfield Street, 
Pittsburgh, 1888-92; First Church, Portland, Ore., 1892- 
97; Central, San Francisco, 1897-99; Delaware Avenue, 
Buffalo, N. Y., 1899-1904; Hanson Place, Brooklyn, 
1904-08, and First Church, Los Angeles, 1908-20. He 
conducted the funeral services of President William 
McKiNLEY and of Ira D. Sankey, a Methodist evangelistic 
singer connected with Dwight L. Moody. 

Elected bishop in 1920, he served in the Philippine 
Islands, 1920-24; St. Paul, Minn., 1924-32, retiring in 
May 1932. He was a delegate to the New Zealand 
Methodist Centennial and also to Australia in 1922. He 
was elected president of the California Anti-Saloon 
League in 1933, and was active in it and other civic and 
reform movements. 

Bishop Locke was the author of thirteen books, which 
were read by devout preachers with appreciation. 

He died on March 4, 1940, in Santa Monica, Calif, 
and was buried in Forest Lawn, Glendale, Calif. 

Journal of the Southern California- Arizona Conference, 1940. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Who's Who in the Clergy. Jesse A. Eabl 

LOCKHART, RICHARD ARTHUR (1893-1963), Irish min- 
ister, was bom in Belfast and educated at the Methodist 
College there. He was ordained in 1922, appointed to 
Mfantsipim School, Gold Coast (now Ghana), and three 
years later became Principal. The early development of 
that school, and the important place it took in the com- 
munity, is due more to him than to any other person. After 
fourteen years he retumed to Ireland for a short period 
of circuit work, but in 1943 by Government invitation he 
went to Kenya as Principal of Kagumo College for 
teacher-training. He spent twelve years there, living 
through the perils of the Mau Mau period. 

His influence on African education made an unrivaled 
contribution to the development of Ghana and Kenya. 
With his wife he was invited by the Government of Ghana 
to the celebrations of independence, and he was again 
invited when autonomy was granted to Ghana Methodism. 
His last ministerial appointment was at Centenary Church, 
Dublin, and he died in retirement in his native Belfast. 

Cole, Methodism in Ireland. 1960. 
F. Jeffery, Irisli Methodism. 1964. 

Frederick Jefferv 

LOCKWOOD, J. H. (1837-1916), American pioneer 
preacher in northwest Kansas, serves as an example of 
the men who built Methodism in his time and area. 
Born in Philadelphia, Pa., on March 10, 1837, he moved 
to Illinois as a youth and attended McKendree Col- 
lege. He was licensed to preach in 1858 and, except for 
three years as chaplain of the 49th Illinois regiment, 
spent the first fourteen years of his ministry in the South- 
ern Illinois Conference. 

In 1872 he came to Kansas, serving first in the Kansas 
Conference and, after it was divided, in the Northwest 
Kansas Conference. His Kansas years were spent 
largely at Salina and Beloit where he was presiding elder 
(for fifteen years) and pastor. He served as a presiding 
elder at the origin of the Northwest Kansas Conference 
and was its first delegate to the General Conference. 
There is a heavy listing in the conference journals of 
committees of which he was a member. In 1883 he was 
appointed to the Board of Trustees of Baker University 
at the same time that he became one of five ministers on 
a board of trustees to locate and charter what later be- 
came Kansas Wesleyan University. In 1884 he was 
president of the conference board of church extension, 
as well as a member of the conference camp-meeting 
committee and of the conference boundaries committee. 
The conference was small and J. H. Lockwood had the 
pioneering spirit. For six years he served as district super- 
intendent of the American Bible Society for Kansas, 
and for eight years was a member of the general mis- 
sionary committee. He became supernumerary in 1904, 
and moved to California where he died on Feb. 6, 1916. 

Minutes of the Kansas Conference, 1875-82. 

Minutes of the Northwest Kansas Conference, 1883-1904, 1916. 

W. H. Sweet, Northwest Kansas. 1920. Ina Turner Gray 

LODER, DWIGHT ELLSWORTH (1914- ), American 
college president and bishop, was bom in Waverly, Neb., 
on July 8, 1914, the son of William and Alice C. (Snyder) 
Loder. He graduated from the University of Nebraska 
with the A.B. degree in 1936. After a year of graduate 
work there in the College of Law, in which he obtained 
honors, he was diverted by a call to the ministry and 
transferred to Boston University School of Theology, 
where he received the S.T.B. degree in 1939. He was 
awarded the D.D. degree from Hamline University, 
1951, from Garrett Theological Seminary, 1955, and from 
Albion College, 1968. He received the L.H.D. from 
Willamette University, 1966, and the S.T.D. from Dickin- 
son College, 1966. He married Mildred Ethyl Shay on 
Sept. 17, 1939, and to them were bom Ruth (Mrs. James 
Burnecke) , William and David. 

Dwight E. Loder served as associate pastor of the 
First Congregational Church, Stoneham, Mass., 1937-39. 
He was ordained to the Methodist ministry in the Central 
New York Conference in 1939, and served two pastor- 




ates in Pennsylvania — North Towanda, 1939-41; and 
Blossburg, 1941-47; and then joined the Hennepin Avenue 
(Minneapolis) Church staff in 1947. There he served 
as pastor from 1950 until 1955 when he was elected to 
the presidency of Garhett Theological Seminary 
where he served until 1964, becoming a member of the 
Rock Ri\'er Conference in 1957. He was elected to the 
episcopacy by the North Central Jurisdictional Conference 
in 1964, and put in charge of the Michigan Area. 

Bishop Loder was a delegate to the North American 
Faith and Order Study Conference of the World Council 
of Churches in 1957, and participated in the World 
Methodist Council Ministerial Exchange in 1959. His 
lectureships include: Eighth annual Ministers' Convoca- 
tion of Southern California, 1956; Glide lecturer. Glide 
School of Evangelism, San Francisco, 1960; and Fondren 
lecturer. Southern Methodist Unviersity, 1965. He at- 
tended the World Methodist Convocation on Theological 
Education, 1961; and was a delegate to the General 
Conferences of The Methodist Church, 1960 and 1964; 
and of the North Central Jurisdictional Conferences, 1960 
and 1964. He was a member of the Methodist Commis- 
sion on Ecumenical Consultation, of the Commission on 
Chaplaincy, the subcommittee on theological education, 
proposed E.U.B.-Methodist merger; a member of 
Unis'ersity Senate of The Methodist Church, 1963-65; 
and a member of the North Central Jurisdictional Com- 
mission on Higher Education. He has been president of 
the Association of Methodist Theological Schools, 1960, 
and of the Chicago Theological Faculties Union, 1961. 
He received a distinguished Alumni award from Boston 
University School of Theology in 1964. He has been a 
member of the Michigan Governor's Ethical and Moral 
Panel, since 1965; and a former member of the Board of 
Directors of Asbury Hospital, of Hamline University-, 
of the Minneapolis Young Men's Christian Association, and 

since 1964 has been a trustee of Albion College and 
of Adrian College. 

WIio's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

LOEPPERT, HENRY VERNE (1893- ), American busi- 

nessman and lay leader of the Rock Rfver Conference, 
was born in Sandwich, 111., on Sept. 2, 1893, the son of 
Henry C. and Elizabeth J. (Dieterich) Loeppert. He was 
educated in Chicago, 111. and Appleton, Wis., and did 
further work at the University of Chicago, Northavestehn 
University, and in the graduate school at Harvard. On 
June 25, 1919, he married Ellen Sophia Waterman, and 
their children are H. Verne and Marilyn Elizabeth (Mrs. 
Bruce A. McLeod). 

Mr. Loeppert entered business in 1922, and thereafter 
became prominent in various business interests and cor- 
porations in and about the Chicago area. For fifty years 
he was a member of the first German Methodist Church 
of Chicago and its successor, the Armitage Avenue Meth- 
odist Church. Since 1958, he has been a member of the 
First Methodist Church, Evanston, 111. He was elected 
Rock River Conference Lay Leader, 1943-52. 

His other church interests have been the Chicago Wes- 
ley Memorial Hospital, the Church Federation of Greater 
Chicago, the Board of Publications of The Methodist 
Church, of which he was a member for twelve years; 
director of the National Mutual Church Insurance Com- 
pany of Chicago; and treasurer of the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Board of Lay Activities of The Methodist 
Church, 1944-52. He has also been a trustee of the Meth- 
odist Ministers Pension Fund; Kendall College, Evans- 
ton; and president of the Conference Board of Missions, 
1956-60. "The United Churchmen of Chicago honored him 
as Layman of the Year on April 2, 1957, and a resolution 
in his honor was passed by the Board of Publication of 
The Methodist Church on Oct. 30, 1963. In 1961, he 
resigned from his business as president of the Boyd 
Wagner Company to accept, at the urging of Bishop 
Brashares, the Executive Directorship of the Methodist 
Old Peoples Home (Chicago, 111.) of the Rock River Con- 
ference. He has been a member of the General Con- 
ference of The Methodist Church in all of its sessions 
from 1940 to 1964, with the exception of the Conference 
of 1956, when he accepted status as a delegate to the 
Jurisdictional Conference in deference to his wife who 
had been elected a delegate to the General Conference 
of that year, since she was president of the Conference 
Woman's Society of Christian Service. He was elected 
a member of the General Conference Entertainment and 
Program Committee, 1964-68. He is presently engaged 
in promoting the Methodist Community of Services, an 
expansion of the Methodist Home on Foster Avenue, 
Chicago, and the planning of a new retirement complex 
on the South Side of Chicago in connection with prop- 
erty owned by St. Mark's Church. In 1966 he was 
nominated by the Methodist Old Peoples Home board 
and honored by the mayor of the City of Chicago for 
his contribution to Senior Citizens of Chicago. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. T. Otto Nall 

minister, was bom in South Norwood, London, and edu- 
cated at the Citv of London School and Trinity College, 



Oxford. He entered the Wesleyan Methodist ministry in 
1896, training at Riclimond College, London, where he 
also served as assistant tutor, 1896-98. He was appointed 
in 1899 assistant tutor at Handsworth College, Birming- 
iL\M (see Theological Colleges); and there, apart 
from three years in circuit (1901-04), and three as a 
chaplain in the armed forces (1916-19), he spent the 
whole of his ministry until his retirement in 1940. 

An Old Testament specialist, but widely read in other 
branches of theological study, he exercised a profound 
influence on his students. He lectured in the Old Testa- 
ment from 1904 to 1916, and again from 1919 to 1925. 
From 1925 to 1940 he was principal of the college and 
tutor in systematic theology and philosophy of religion. 
He was elected president of the Wesleyan Methodist Con- 
ference in 1929, and in 1932 was chosen president of the 
Society for Old Testament Study. 

His deep concern for social justice was seen in his 
work for the Methodist Union for Social Service. He 
was present at the COPEC conference on social Christian- 
ity in 1924, when he proposed the report on The Relation 
of the Sexes. On the same general subject he published 
Ethics and the Famihj (1912), Altar, Cross and Com- 
munity (1921), Puritij and Racial Health (1920), etc. 
His more strictly Old Testament writings included Jere- 
miah and the New Covenant (1926) and Israel after the 
Exile (1928). Keenly ecumenical, he played a part in the 
Faith and Order movement. His last published work was 
an essay on Charles Wesley in A History of the Meth- 
odist Church in Great Britain (ed. Rupp and Davies, 
1965) . He died in Croydon on July 5, 1965. 

John Newton 

of the British Commonwealth of Nations, has from the 
beginning been at the center of the Methodist movement. 
John Wesley was converted in London, established his 
headquarters there, and is buried there, as are his brother 
Charles and his mother Susanna. The organized work of 
The Methodist Church and Conference has always cen- 
tered in London and most of its general offices are there 
now. Various historic shrines and places of Methodist 
work in the cit>' are as follows: 

Aldersgate Street runs north from St. Martins le Grand 
as far as Goswell Road. Number 28 on the east side is 
said to mark the probable site of the building where 
John Wesley felt his "heart strangely warmed" on May 
24, 1738. The actual room may have been in the Hall 
House which was entered from Nettleton Court (now 
built up). It is doubtful if any part of the original building 

Bunhill Fields, City Road. The Dissenters Burial 
Ground opened in 1665. Susanna Wesley was buried 
there on Aug. 1, 1742. Her son John preached the funeral 
sermon "to an immense multitude." Among others buried 
in Bunhill Fields are William Blake and his wife, John 
Bunyan, Daniel Defoe, and Isaac Watts. A memorial to 
Su-sanna Wesley erected in 1870 stands in Wesley's Chapel 

Fetter Lane. Between Ludgate Circus and the Law 
Courts, Fetter Lane runs north from Fleet Street to Hol- 
born. The first society met in the bookseller James 
Hiittdn's house at the sign of the Bible and Sun in Little 
Wild Street. About September, 1738, the meeting place 
was changed to a room in Fetter Lane where the society 
met until July 20, 1740. 

LOGAN, JACOB TAYLOR (1854-1946), American min- 
ister and ordained elder of the Pittsburgli Conference 
of the Free Methodist Church, was pastor and super- 
intendent in Pennsylvania and Editor of The Free Meth- 
odist, 1907-1923; 1927-1931. He was an evangelistic pas- 
tor, an eloquent temperance lecturer, an attractive writer. 
He had tremendous vitality and carried on a heavy speak- 
ing schedule at the age of ninety. He died at Winona 
Lake, Ind. 

Bybon S. Lamson 

LOMAS, JOHN (1798-1879), British minister, was born 
in Hull on Dec. 13, 1798, the son of Robert Lomas, a 
Wesleyan Methodist minister. He was educated at Kings- 
wood School, of which he was headmaster from 1820 
to 1823. In 1820 he was accepted for the ministry; and 
after leaving Kingswood he traveled in Bath, Man- 
chester, Bristol, Hull, and London. In 1853 he was 
elected President of the Conference by an almost un- 
animous vote. He delivered the third Fernley lecture, 
Jesus Christ: The Propitiation for our Sins. From 1861 to 
1867 he was the tutor in theology at Richmond College 
(see Theological Colleges), and held the same posi- 
tion at Headingley College from its opening in 1868 to 
1872. He never married. As a preacher he was highly 
esteemed, especially bv the more cultured of his hearers. 
He died on Aug. 20, 1879. 

G. J. Stevenson, Methodist Worthies. 1884-86. 

W. L. Doughty 

LONDON, England, the metropolis of Great Britain and 
the commanding city of the British Empire and now center 

The Foundery 

The Foundery was situated near the northeast comer 
of Finsbury Square. A dilapidated iron foundry, Wesley 
leased it in 1739 and made it into the headquarters of 
the Methodist movement until 1778. Out of this "vast 
uncouth heap of ruins" he made a chapel which would 
accommodate fifteen hundred people, a smaller meeting 
room for about three hundred people, and a book room. 
Here were the first free dispensary in London (since the 
dissolution of the monasteries), a free school (with two 
masters and sixty children), an almshouse for widows. 
Here also were the private apartments of John Wesley's 
preachers, and here his mother died. 

Kennington Common. George Whitefield preached 
near the gallows on April 29, 1739, to a congregation 
estimated at thirty thousand. John and Charles Wesley 
also preached there regularly in the open air in 1739 and 



Little Britain is to the west of Aldersgate Street (near 
where it is joined by St. Martins le Grand). No. 12 is 
the site of the house of John Bhay, the brazier. It was 
frequented by the Wesley brothers, and Charles Wesley 
was staying there at the time of his evangelical conversion. 

Marylebone, Parish Church of. Wesley's parents were 
married in the old church on Nov. 12, 1688. The church 
was rebuilt in 1741 and demolished in 1949. Charles 
Wesley is buried in the graveyard near the site of the 
church in Marylebone High Street. 

Moorfields. This was reclaimed low-lying marshland, 
laid out as a park in 1605 and later built upon. In the 
north of the district was the Foundery and nearby was 
Whitefield's first tabernacle, dating from 1741, giving the 
name to the present Tabemacle Street. Regular open- 
air services were held in Moorfields from 1739 to 1777. 
On March 2, 1777, John Wesley recorded: "There were 
thousands upon thousands; and all were still as night. 
Not only violence and rioting, but even scoffing at field- 
preachers is now over." 

Snowfields. Here stood the third building John Wesley 
acquired for worship in London. He first preached there 
on Aug. 8, 1743. Thereafter services were regularly held 
for over twenty years. It was built by Madame Ginn, 
a lady of Unitarian leanings, in 1736. 

Spitalfields. Originally this was "hospital-fields," the 
open space around St. Mary's Hospital on the north side 
of what is now Spital Square. Samuel Annesley lived in 
a house in Spital Yard, and there his daughter Susanna 
was born on Jan. 20, 1669. This house still stands. 

West Street Chapel dates from about 1680. It was 
built by French Protestant refugees, and first called La 
Tremblade. John Wesley obtained the lease of it in 1743. 
It appears on the London Plans of 1754 as "The Chapel" 
to distinguish it from the Foundery. The original building 
still stands and is at present used as a warehouse. 

Wesley's Chapel (City Road). The Mother Church of 
World Methodism is in City Road, London, opposite 
Bunhill Fields. Built to replace the old Foundery, which 
stood on a nearby site, it was known as Mr. Wesley's 
Chapel, or the "New Chapel," or more often the City 
Road Chapel. The foundation stone was laid on April 
21, 1777, and the chapel, built to Wesley's design, was 
opened by him on Nov. 1, 1778. 

Architecturally it is, in Wesley's words, "perfectly neat 
but not fine." It stands foursquare, east-west. It held 
"far more people than the Foundery." Within, it is sur- 
rounded on three sides by a large gallery — the front of 
which is decorated with the repeated motif of Wesley's 
choice, the dove surrounded by a serpent. The gallery 
was for a hundred years supported by wooden pillars 
made from the masts of King George Ill's men-of-war. 
These pillars have been preserved in the vestibule. They 
have been replaced by pillars of French jasper, gifts of 
representative Methodist churches overseas. In 1800 the 
west end of the gallery was made oval in form. The 
original mahogany pulpit still stands in the central posi- 
tion. Behind it is the communion table and mahogany 
communion rail. The Adam ceiling — in gold and white — 
was, at the time, the largest centrally unsupported ceiling 
in any building in England. 

The original windows have been replaced by a number 
of commemorative windows in stained glass, notably (in 
1892) in the apse (above the reredos), "The Adoration of 
the Magi," presented by the Wesleyan Reform Union; 
"The Apostolic Commission," presented by the LInited 
Methodist Free Churches; and "Solomon's Porch," pre- 
sented by the Primitive Methodist connection. In the 
gallery on the north side is "The Wesleys' Conversion" 
window. On the reredos, under the words "Holy Holy 
Holy," the Apostles' Creed and the two commandments 
of the Lord Jesus are inscribed on a gilt background. 

Wesley's Chapel, City Road, London, England 



The font belonged to John Fletcher's church at Madeley, 
Shropshire, and was placed in Wesley's Chapel in 1891. 
The chapel contains memorial tablets to many notable 
servants of the Church. The most famous are in the 
sanctuary, to John and Charles Wesley, John Fletcher, 
Joseph Benson, Thomas Coke, and Adam Clarke. In 
the vestibule is the bronze memorial to all the Methodists 
who gave their lives in the two world wars. 

In the graveyard behind the chapel, John Wesley is 
buried. The funeral took place at 5 a.m. on March 9, 
1791. The vault was subsequently opened for eight others; 
his sister, M.artha Hall; his preachers, Duncan Wright, 
Thomas Bradshaw, John Richakdson, John Mublin, 
Thomas Olivers, Walter Griffith; and his physician. Dr. 
John Whitehe.\d. Also buried in this graveyard are 
Peter Jaco, Jabez Bunting, Adam Clarke, and George 
Whitefield, and many other well-known early Methodist 
preachers. The burial register for the graveyard contains 
over five thousand names. 

A small vestry adjoining the chapel has been set aside 
as a prayer room to commemorate the Foundery. Here is 
the pipe organ which belonged to Charles Wesley, also 
some forms from the original "Foundery" — the lectern 
from the band room, and the pewter communion plate 
which John Wesley used. In the forecourt of the chapel 
stands the statue (by Adams-Acton) of John Wesley, 
erected at the centenary of his death by the subscriptions 
of the children of Methodism. The portico in front of the 
chapel was erected in 1815. 

Wesley's Chapel was severely damaged by fire on Dec. 
6, 1879. The restoration was carried out in keeping with 
the original style of the building. Impressions were care- 
fully taken of what remained of the ceiling, so that the 
present is a careful replica. The chapel stands in one of 
the most badly war-damaged areas of London. On the 
night of the greatest fire raid in 1940, buildings all round 
were gutted and the chapel was saved only by the wind 
changing. New buildings on the adjacent sites are now 
complete, and the surrounding district is being rebuilt. 

Although the local membership is small, the chapel 
exercises a wide ministry. There are thousands of visitors 
annually from all parts of the world. Commemorative and 
memorial services are fittingly held here, and regular wor- 
ship services are faithfully maintained. Recently, sound 
and television broadcasts have given a contemporary 
significance to this "Church of the World Parish." 

Wesley's House, 47 City Road, stands on the south side 
of the forecourt of Wesley's Chapel. John Wesley took 
up residence there on Oct. 9, 1779, and it was his London 
home for the last twelve years of his life. He died in this 
house on March 2, 1791. The house was opened as a 
museum on November 10, 1898. It has been extensively 
repaired, the most recent restoration being the entire 
building of the west wall in 1963. 

The house contains a large and valuable collection of 
John Wesley's personal possessions and other early Meth- 
odist mementos. In the study on the first floor are his 
writing desk, bookcase, and study chair (which had be- 
longed to a cock-fighting bookmaker who was converted 
through Wesley's preaching). Also his long-case clock 
(made in 1693 by Claudius de Chesne), his traveling 
robe and three-cornered hat, his shoes and buckles. A 
recent addition is the large umbrella which he left behind 
at Guisborough. His conference chair also stands in this 
room. The portrait of Wesley painted by Frank O. 
Salisbury hangs in the study. The rear room on the first 

floor was Wesley's bedroom, which contains some of the 
original furniture. Leading out of it is the small prayer 
room where, it is said, he spent an hour between 4 A.M. 
and 5 A.M. each morning. There are his kneeling stool 
and his Greek New Testament. The second floor is largely 
set out as a museum of Wesleyana. Here can be seen many 
of his personal possessions. Notable among them are his 
traveling writing desk and the bronze lantern from his 
carriage; also the famous teapot given to him by Josiah 
Wedgwood. The most remarkable exhibit is his electrical 
machine, which he designed and found so effective in the 
treatment of "melancholia." 

r 4 ij 

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FS|UE = 

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First Day Cover of United Nations stamp 
featuring Central Hall, London 

Westminster Central Hall, the administrative head- 
quarters of British Methodism, housing, as well as a vast 
worship area, the offices of the Secretary of Conference, 
the Home Mission Department, the Christian Citizen- 
ship Department, the Finance Board, the Local 
Preachers Department and the Methodist Homes for 
the Aged. It was built on the site of the old Aquarium, 
directly opposite Westminster Abbey. The architect was 
A. B. Richards, and the building is said to have consumed 
over 10,000 tons of Portland stone, 5,000 tons of cement 
and over 1,000 tons of steel. The poet and architectural 
critic, John Betjeman, has described it as "by far the best 
example in London of Viennese baroque conceived by an 
Edwardian architect." 

The idea of a Methodist equivalent of the Anglican 
Church House (also in the vicinity of Westminster 
Abbey), was the dream of Sir Robert Perks towards the 
end of the nineteenth century, though it is true that he 
conceived it as the headquarters of Wesleyan Methodism, 
rather than of Methodism as a whole. He was able to 
convert his dream into bricks and mortar by means of a 
grant of £250,000 from the "Million Guineas Fund," a 
project launched by the Wesleyan Methodist Church to 
mark the advent of the twentieth century, and a scheme 
in which Robert Perks was deeply involved. The Sub- 
scribers' Roll is displayed in the vestibule of the Hall, 
and eveiy name represents a "thank-offering of one guinea, 
neither more nor less." The Hall was officially opened on 
Oct. 3, 1912, in the presence of representatives of world 
Methodism and civic heads of many London and pro- 
vincial boroughs. A service of dedication was conducted 
by Marshall Hartley, Simpson Johnson and John 
Hornabrook. After a civic luncheon, the President of the 
Wesleyan Methodist Conference, Luke Wiseman, led 
divine worship and preached. At a great evening meeting, 
presided over by Sir Robert Perks, the speakers were 
Bishop Nuelsen of American Methodism and William 
L. Watkinson, one of the most famous Wesleyan preach- 
ers of his day. As a place of worship, Westminster Central 



Hall has been the pastorate of a distinguished series of 
ministers: John E. Wakeley (1911-1914), Dinsdale T. 
Young (1914-1938), F. Luke Wiseman (1938-1939), W. 
Edwin Sangster (1939-1955), Derrick Greaves (1955- 
1964), and Maurice Bamett from 1964. As a church, it 
has suffered from the social decay of central London and 
from the decline in popularity of preaching as such. After 
the Second World War, in 1946, the Central Hall was 
chosen to be the venue of the first meeting of the General 
Assembly of the United Nations organization. A plaque 
was fixed to the south wall in commemoration of this 
historic occasion; it was unveiled by the Prime Minister 
of the day, Clement Atlee, later Lord Atlee. The Hall 
continues to serve Methodism both as preaching center 
and administrative center: a new department is a Pastoral 
Care and Counselling unit, begun under the direction of 
the Rev. William Kyle. 

F. Baker, Methodist Pilgrim in England. 1951. 

F. C. Gill, John Wesleij. 1962. 

J. H. Martin, Wesley's London Chapels. 1946. 

G. J. Stevenson, City Road Chapel. 1872. 
E. H. Sugden, Wesley's London. 1932. 

J. Telford, Wesley's Chapel and House, 1906. 

Max Woodward 
John C. Bowmeb 

AND Newspapers, Br. ) . 

LONG, ALBERT LIMERICK (1832-1901), was a distin- 
guished American scholar and missionary representing 
Methodism in the territory of the Eastern Orthodox 
Church. He was born at Washington, Pa., on Dec. 4, 
1832, the son of Warner Long of the Pittsburgh Con- 
ference. He graduated from Allegheny College in 
1852, and that institution later conferred upon him the 
D.D. degree. In 1853 while principal of Green Academy, 
Carmichaels, Pa., he married Mary E. Rice of Meadville, 
Pa. His bride lived only a few weeks. In the shadows of 
his bereavement he heard and heeded the call to the 
Christian ministry and enrolled in the Theological Semi- 
nary at Concord, N. H. Upon graduating he was admitted 
to the Pittsburgh Conference in 1857, and at that 
session was appointed a missionary to Bulgaria. Before 
sailing he married Mrs. Persis S. Loveland of Concord, 
N. H., who became the mother of their three children. 

Methodist work was just beginning in Bulgaria when 
Albert Long arrived in 1857. In 1863 he was appointed 
Superintendent of the entire Mission to the Orthodox 
people and moved to Constantinople. He translated the 
Bible into the Bulgarian language, during which work he 
returned to America for a couple of years. Returning to 
Constantinople he established and edited a family reh- 
gious paper in Bulgarian, and translated hymns and books, 
including Pilgrim's Progress, into that language in his 
efforts to provide a Christian literature for the Bulgarian 

In July, 1872, he was invited to take the professorship 
of Natural Science in Robert's College in Constantinople, 
and after the step was approved by The Missionary So- 
ciety, he accepted. For nearly thirty years he taught and 
witnessed for his Lord in that influential institution in 
which he was loved and his scholarship was widely re- 
spected. Being in failing health, in 1901, he was granted 
a year's leave of absence by the College and started for 
America on July 8th. Reaching Liverpool, England on 

July 27th he was too weak to continue. Taken to the 
Royal Infirmary, he died on July 28, 1901 and was buried 
in St. James cemetery. Albert Long's name was on the 
rolls of The Pittsburgh Conference of the M. E. Church 
from 1857 to 1901 and his distinguished labors in a 
difficult mission field make him one of the most eminent 
contributions of that great Conference to world Meth- 

W. Guy Smeltzeb 

LONG, CHARLES ALEXANDER (1881- ), American 
preacher and missionary to Brazil, was born near Alto, 
Te.xas on Aug. 22, 1881. He graduated in 1905 from the 
University of Oklahoma, joined the Oklahoma Confer- 
ence in 1906, and was ordained deacon in 1908. After 
some years in Oklahoma, he graduated from Vanderbilt 
with a B.D. degree. While there, he married, on July 8, 
1911, Lucy York, then a student at Scabritt College. 
They sailed for Brazil, arriving in Rio de Janeiro on 
August 6. He was ordained elder by the Brazil Annual 
Conference then in session and at once appointed pastor 
and superintendent of the Instituto Central do Povo, then 
located on Rua Acre. 

During his years in Brazil, Long served as pastor, dis- 
trict superintendent, professor of theology, and dean 
(reitor) of the Instituto Granberyense, Director of the 
Seamen's Mission in Rio, Secretary of the Board of Social 
Action of the Methodist Church of Brazil; representative 
of the Church on the Commission of Cooperation in 
Latin America, and as builder of churches and parson- 
ages. In Juiz DE Fora, he built one of the handsomest 
Protestant churches in Brazil. 

He also pioneered in the far interior of the State of 
Goias, where the church owned one small lot. Long left 
five houses of worship, four residences, and several lots. 
In all his work, his wife was a consecrated, efficient 
helper, especially in connection with the Ann.a Gonzaga 
Home, near Rio de Janeiro. 

The Longs retired to the United States after forty years 
of service, in February 1952, settling in Ardmore, Okla. 
There they continued active service in church work. Mrs. 
Long died in March 1970. 

J. L. Kennedy, Metodismo no Brasil. 1928. 
Voz Missionaria, 1960 (last quarter). 

EuLA K. Long 

LONG, EULA LEE KENNEDY (1891- ), was born of 

pioneer American Methodist missionaries, in Taubate, 
State of Sao Paulo, on Sept. 25, 1891. She studied at 
mission .schools in Brazil and at Mackenzie College, Sao 
Paulo, after which she graduated from Randolph-Macon 
Woman's College in the U.S.A. Returning to Brazil, 
she met on shipboard Frank M. Long, a missionary and 
Y.M.C.A. secretary. They fell in love, were married on 
Oct. 13, 1914, and of this union, five children were born. 

In Brazil, between 1913 and 1934, Mrs. Long served 
actively, becoming secretary and president of the Meth- 
odist Women's Societies in the Rio Grande do Sul Con- 
ference and one of the founders of the Methodist women's 
official magazine, the Voz Missionaria. She was a charter 
member and organizer of the Liga Pro-Abstinencia (Wom- 
an's Christian Temperance Union) in Porto Alegre, and 
taught a course in scientific temperance to a group of 
city teachers. 

For helping her husband introduce Mothers' Day to 



Brazil in 1918, she received special honors (1954) from 
her native city, Taubate, at which time the City Council 
named a street "Kennedy," honoring both her and her 
father, J. L. Kennedy. Her most influential work was in 
the literary field — writing a Sunday column for a state 
newspaper, and writing also a number of influential books 
including her father's biography and Coracoes Felizes 
(Happy Hearts), which went into ten editions and was 
also translated into Spanish in Mexico. In recognition, 
Eula Long was named corresponding member of three 
academies of letters in Brazil. 

Returning to the United States with her family in 
1934, she lectured and taught courses on South America, 
and published articles in nationally known magazines. In 
1945, she received a second national award in poetry 
from the Edwin Markham Memorial Association; in 1959 
a citation from Randolph-Macon Woman's College for 
outstanding religious leadership; an honorary life member- 
ship in the Woman's Society of Christian Service; and 
was named Virgini.\ Mother of the Year. She is editor 
for Brazil and the Brazilian articles and personalities in 
this Encyclopedia of World Methodism. Mrs. Long lives 
in Roanoke, Va. 

Clark and Stafford, Who's Who in Methodism. 1952. 

Who's Who Among American Women. James A. Long 

LONG, FRANK MILLARD (1883-1958), American lay- 
man, secretary of the International Committee of the 
Y.M.C.A. in Brazil, was born in Comiskey, Kan., on 
Nov. 18, 1883. He early moved to Oklahoma and grad- 
uated from the State University (B.A. 1908; M.A. 1909). 

An opening for mission work came with a call to 
Instituto Granbery in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, and by a 
mutual agreement between the Methodist Church and 
the International Y.M.C.A., he was sent to organize "Y" 
work and to teach Bible, English, and athletics. He sailed 
in July, 1913. On the ship, he met Eula Lee Kennedy 
who was returning to Brazil after graduation from Ran- 
dolph-Macon Woman's College. They fell in love and 
were married on Oct. 13, 1914. 

After two years at Cranbery, Long was called to sei-ve 
the Y.M.C.A. in Recife (Pernambuco) during an emer- 
gency; from then on he continued in this organization. 
He was in Rio de Janeiro one year, and then sixteen 
years in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande). In this last, ac- 
cording to Dr. Kenneth Latourette, the success of the 
Y.M.C.A. work was "phenomenal," and Long's record 
"striking." Among other things he trained athletes for 
the continental Olympics, some of whom won first places, 
and for this he was named "Father of Athletics" in Rio 
Grande do Sul. 

He served on the board of trustees of the College, 
now Instituto Porto Alegre; and initiated the first death- 
benefit plan for Methodist preachers in that state. In 
May 1918, with Mrs. Long's help, he introduced Mothers' 
Day to Brazil, possibly a first in all South America. The 
day was later officialized by government decree. In a 
posthumous celebration in 1961, the city council of Porto 
Alegre named a public square the "Praca Frank M. 
Long," and in 1968 held special commemorations and 
issued a stamp fofio in his honor. 

Recalled to the United States in 1934, because of the 
depression. Long served in the Memphis and Roanoke 
Y.M.C.A.'s until 1942; then in Y-USO's in Dublin and 
Hampton, Va. Upon retirement in 1952, Frank Long 

and his wife spent three years in Norman, Okla., where 
they enrolled in university classes. He died in Roanoke, 
Va., on May 31, 1958, of congestive heart failure. Sur- 
vivors included his wife and four children — James, a 
geophysicist; Lewis, a psychologist; Eulalee Anderson; 
Edith Schisler, who married a second generation mis- 
sionary to Brazil; and fourteen grandchildren. A son, 
Frank Millard, Jr., was killed in the Second World War. 

J. Eabl Mobeland 

LONG, JOHN WILLIAM (1882-1956), American preach- 
er and educator, was bom in Sussex County, Del., Nov. 
3, 1882. The son of Richard Wilson Long, public school 
teacher and Methodist preacher, he attended the pubhc 
schools of Wicomico County, Del., graduating from the 
Delmar High School. He was graduated from Wesley 
Junior College, Dover, Del., in 1904, and Dickinson 
College in 1907. 

Following a series of pastorates in the Central Penn- 
sylvania Conference, the last at St. Paul's Church, State 
College, Pa., he was elected president of Williamsport 
Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport, Pa., in 1921. Under 
his leadership the institution became a Junior College in 
1929, and a four-year degree granting college, Lycoming 
College, in 1947. 

Lycoming College is his living memorial. It reflects the 
devotion of his spirit and the dedication of his hfe. His 
service to education and to the church was recognized by 
a D.D. degree conferred by Dickinson College, and a 
LL.D. from Western Maryland College. Wesley Junior 
College made him the recipient of its Wesley Award in 
recognition of a half century of sewice. 

He was married to Mildred Lee Lewis and they became 
the parents of four sons and four daughters. He retired 
in 1955 from the institution which he served as president 
for thirty-four vears, and died within the year on May 5, 

Journal, Central Pennsylvania Conference, 1956. 

D. Frederick Wertz 

LONG, JOSEPH (1800-1869), American Evangelical 
preacher and bishop, was born Oct. 2, 1800 in Berks 
County, Pa. In 1818 he was converted in Ohio where 
his family had moved. He entered the ministry of the 
Evangelical Association at the conference session held 
in New Berlin, Pa., in June 1822. On Jan. 10, 1826, he 
was married to Catherine Hoy, but his salary was very 
small, so he had to locate to earn a living for his family, 
his parents and the family of a helpless brother. 

In 1841 he returned to the itinerancy. At the General 
Conference in 1843, held in Greensburg, Ohio, he was 
elected bishop and served in this office until his death in 
Forreston, 111., June 23, 1869. 

Bishop Long was an outstanding preacher in his day. 
Many men declared they never heard his equal. He was 
witty and sometimes sarcastic. Bishop S. P. Spreng writes 
that "he was profound and overwhelmingly powerful . . . 
a son of thunder." Lacking the best of education himself. 
Long fostered educational institutions within the church, 
even applying part of his estate to the maintenance of 
Greensburg Seminary at Greensburg, Ohio. 

He was a strict disciplinarian, understanding both the 
doctrine and the law of the Church. Yet he was progres- 
sive, quietly adapting himself to changing conditions and 


ideals. He was kind and helpful in his relations with young 
ministers of the church. In him the Church had a wise 
counsellor, far-seeing and prudent, and a staunch defender 
of the fundamental doctrines of the Evangelical Church. 

R. W. Albright, Evangelical Church. 1942. 

R. m; Veh, Evangelical Bishops. 1939. Howard H. Mabtv 

Isaac Long Barn 

LONG BARN, ISAAC, located near Neffsville in the 
Landis Valley of Lancaster County, Pa., is the site of the 
meeting between Martin Boehm and Philip William 
Otterbein on Pentecost Sunday 1767, from which 
evolved the former Church of the United Brethren 
IN Christ. 

As was the custom in those days, a crowd of German 
residents of central and eastern Pennsylvania had gath- 
ered together for a "Great Meeting." The preacher for the 
occasion was Martin Boehm, a Mennonite minister from 
the southern part of Lancaster County. In his audience 
was a German Reformed pastor who had once served a 
congregation in Lancaster, but who was now located at 
York, Pa., Philip William Otterbein. 

Otterbein was so moved by the fervor of the sermon 
he heard that he rushed forward and embraced the 
preacher with the greeting Wir sind Bruder, "We are 

Although other meetings of a similar nature were con- 
ducted in this sturdy stone and wood bam and the woods 
adjacent to it, none has been as significant in the history 
of the E.U.B. Church as was this meeting in 1767. On 
June 16, 1960, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum 
Commission erected one of its historical markers near the 
Isaac Long Barn in recognition of its importance in the 
religious history of the state. 

Although it has been enlarged, the original building 
with its wooden pegs holding the timbers in place still 
stands. The land surrounding it was farmed in 1968 by 
the Jacob B. Landis family, direct descendant Mennonites 
from Isaac Long, who have been most cooperative with 
the historical agencies of the church and have always 
welcomed visitors to their premises. 

On May 14, 1967, the 200th Anniversary of the meet- 
ing of Boehm and Otterbein at the Isaac Long Barn was 
commemorated with a service that had to be conducted 
due to inclement weather in the auditorium of the Man- 
heim Township High School before an audience of 1,100. 

Bruce C. Soudebs 

LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A., with a population 
of 346,975 (1970), is situated on the Pacific Ocean and 


noted for its port and naval activities, its oil and varied 
industries, its international beauty pageants and year- 
round mild climate. Long Beach is also an important cen- 
ter for Methodism. "The Methodist Resort Association" 
was formed in 1884, sponsoring tent meetings and taber- 
nacle assemblies. Out of this came First Methodist Church 
of Long Beach, and later the Long Beach District Union to 
aid church extension. First Church was organized in 1884 
before the city was incorporated or chartered. It was 
destined to be the "mother church" of Methodism locally, 
and the host for numerous Annual Conference sessions 
across the years. 

From its founding Long Beach has looked to Methodist 
clergy and laity for significant leadership, the latter espe- 
cially having been prominent in the economic, political, 
social, cultural, and educational life of a fast growing city. 
Early Methodist names in Long Beach in 1884 were Bish- 
op Cyrus D. Foss; Presiding Elder R. W. C. Farnsworth; 
and G. W. Elwood, first pastor. Prominent names of laity 
near the turn of the century were Charles J. Walker, E. 
Vance Hill, Fell Lightburn, Dr. D. W. Cuthbert, M. H. 
LaFetra, E. E. Buffum, R. J. Craig, S. A. Stone, E. M. 
Lyman, F. D. Bishop, S. Townsend, F. W. Steams, J. W. 
Hand and C. F. Van de Water. 

While there have been several mergers and relocations 
of local churches to better serve residential needs. Long 
Beach Methodism now has thirteen local churches with a 
combined membership of 9,884. The three largest 
churches are Los Altos, Califomia Heights, and Grace. 
The Los Altos church was organized in 1954 and grew 
to 2,569 members by 1970. The former First M. E. 
Church, South is now known as Moore Memorial. The 
organizational chronology of Long Beach churches fol- 
lows: First, 1884; Moore Memorial, 1901 (formerly First 
M. E. S. and Centenary M. E. S.); Grace, 1911 (formerly 
Alamitos Park, 1903); Atlantic, 1925 (merger of Central, 
1905 and Trinity, 1913); East, 1922 (foimerly Zaferia, 
1913); Belmont Heights, 1914; North, 1930 (formerly 
Virginia Citv, 1923 and Spaulding, 1929); California 
Heights, 1930; Silverado, 1944; Los Altos, 1954; Latin 
American, 1956; Dominguez, 1959. Methodism is also 
represented in long Beach by a former E.U.B.; A.M.E.; 
C.M.E.; and Free Methodist churches. 

The Long Beach District of the Southern California- 
Arizona Conference has fifty-one local churches with 
26,546 members ( 1970 Journal) . 

Donald R. O'Connor 

LONGACRE, JAMES BARTON (1794-1869), American 
layman, who became a world famous engraver, was bom 
in Delaware County, Pa., on Aug. 11, 1794. He was ap- 
prenticed to an engraver in Phil.'^delphia and obtained 
early notice by an engraving he did of President Andrew 
Jackson. In 1831 he was employed in the illustration of 
the money which was then reproduced in certain Ameri- 
can works being published. At first in conjunction with 
James Herring, of New York, and later independently, he 
planned and published the National Portrait Gallery of 
Distinguished Americans (1834-9). Among the engrav- 
ings in this group were some sketches done by himself. 
The Portrait Gallery yet is of interest and he held in high 

Descended from Swedish ancestors, he was early trained 
in religious life, and when young became a member of old 
St. George's Chuhch at Philadelphia, filling the offices 
of class-leader, steward, and trustee for many years. He 



left St. George's with others to form the Central Church, 
Philadelphia, and served it also in the same positions until 
his death. He was one of the first trustees of Dickinson 
College, one of the first managers of the Philadelphia 
Conference Tract Society and Publishing House, and for 
thirty years was a vice-president of the American Sunday- 
School Union. 

In 1844, Longacre was appointed engraver to the 
United States mint, and from that time until his death 
designed all new coins. He was also called upon to re- 
model the coinage of Chile — which he did. 

He died in Philadelphia, Pa., on Jan. 1, 1869. 

Attiericana Encyclopedia, The. Vol. 17. New York: American 

Book-Stratford Press, Inc. 1950. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. N. B. H. 

American educator and hymnist, was born on Jan. 26, 
1870, in Pottsville, Pa. He was educated at Columbia 
University, at Drew Theological Seminary, and at the 
University of Jena in Germany, 1905-10. He received the 
Ph.D. degree from New York University in 1908. For a 
time he served in the New Y'ork Conference, but then 
went to the Iliff School of Theology in 1910, where 
he was destined to spend most of his life. Considered an 
authority on liturgy and church music, he wrote the 
Riverdale Hymn Book, published by Revell in 1912, and 
was the composer of songs, hymns, and tunes. He served 
on the Commission on Ritual and Orders of Worship of 
The Methodist Church. 1940-44, which Commission cre- 
ated the first Book of Worship of The Methodist Church, 
and in this Longacre wrote the entire section of daily 
devotions. After his retirement from lliff, Longacre re- 
turned to New York where for a time he served in a pas- 
toral way as an assistant to Ralph W. Sockman at 
Christ Church. He died on Sept. 18, 1952. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 
Minutes, Colorado Conference, 1953. N. B. H. 

American jurist, author, educator, and minister, was born 
at Augusta, Ga., Sept. 22, 1790. He graduated from Yale 
University in 1813 and followed the e.xample of his friend, 
John C. Calhoun, by studying law at Litchfield, Conn., 
In 1815 he was admitted to the bar at Augusta, Ga., and 
located at Greensboro, Ga., where he married Eliza Parke 
and became judge of the circuit court. Judge Longstreet 
was elected to the Georgia legislature in 1821. He was 
a religious skeptic, but the death of his eldest child so 
affected him that after a long struggle, he joined the 
M. E. Church in 1827. He returned to Augusta and 
resumed his law practice. There he edited The States 
Rights Sentinel, which gave him a national reputation 
when Harper and Brothers published the sketches in 
book form in 1840. 

In 1836 Longstreet became a member of the first board 
of trustees of Wesleyan College at Macon, Ga. In 1838 
at the age of forty-eight he entered the Methodist minis- 
try. Two years later he was elected president of Emory 
College at 0,\ford, Ga. One of the students, L. Q. C. 
Lamar, married Longstreet's daughter. In 1841 Yale con- 
ferred upon him the LL.D, degree. 

At the General Conference in 1844, Longstreet de- 
livered the Declaration of the Southern Delegates which 

stated that the vote against Bishop Andrew had made it 
impossible for the General Conference to continue to legis- 
late for the Methodist Church in the slaveholding states. 
He played a prominent role in the Louisville Conven- 
tion of 1845, where because of his legal experience, he 
was called upon to help draft the rules for the proceedings 
of the Convention. He was also elected to the first Gen- 
eral Conference of the M. E. Church, South, in 1846. 

During 1849 Longstreet was president of Centenary 
College which was then operated by the Methodist Con- 
ferences of Mississippi and Louisiana. From 1849 to 
1856 he was president of the University of Mississippi, 
but his political writings against the "Know-Nothing" 
movement aroused such controversy that he retired from 
public life. In 1857, however, he accepted his fourth col- 
lege presidency at the University of South Carolina. In 
1865 Longstreet settled again in Mississippi and wrote 
extensively to justify the lost cause of the South. His 
greatest companion in his old age was his (by then 
famous) son-in-law. Senator and Justice Lucius Quintus 
Cincinnatus Lamar. Longstreet died in 0.\ford, Miss., on 
July 9, 1870. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 
Thomas English, Emory Utiiversity. 1966. 
A. M. Pierce, Georgia. 1956. 
A. H. Redford, Organization of MES. 1871. 

G. G. Smith, Georgia. 1913. 

Donald J. West 

LONGVIEW, TEXAS, U.S.A., First Church is a three-mil- 
lion dollar church plant located in Longview's business 
district, with a graceful church tower joining with tall 
office buildings to make the city's skyline. 

First Church had its beginning about 1840 in a log 
meeting house, which the congregation made available 
for use by other early Protestant denominations of the 
community. The evangelistic membership steadily grew, 
progressing from the log house to a one-room frame struc- 
ture by 1860, a brick church in 1875, and a much larger 
brick building in 1900, with the addition of the church's 
first educational building in 1909. The cornerstone for 
the present-day church was laid in 1951 by Bishop 
A. Frank Smith. 

Today's modem plant is of modified Romanesque archi- 
tecture and situated on a landscaped square. The church- 
ly sanctuary, seating 724, has stained glass windows de- 
signed to give a complete, connected story of the earthly 
ministr\' of our Lord Jesus Christ. Equipment includes 
a 3-manual, 32-rank pipe organ. A prayer room, near the 
main street entrance, is open at all times. 

Complete facilities provide for the educational and 
social life of the church. The three-story Children and 
Youth Building is widely recognized throughout the 
Southwest as a model of eflRciency and beauty. Functional, 
attractive adult classrooms, a well-stocked library, chapel 
and parlor, large banquet hall, fully equipped kitchen, 
modem stafi^ offices, and an adjoining, hard-surfaced park- 
ing lot are features of this building. 

A distinctive music program characterizes First Meth- 
odist. There are eight choirs with more than 200 mem- 
bers. The Chancel Choir sings each Sunday moming, and 
presents special programs with symphonic accompaniment 
during the year. 

The School for Little Children is a highly successful 
week-day school for three- to five-year olds. Enrollment 
is presently limited to 150. 



Present church membership exceeds 2,200, and church 
school attendance averages about 700. First Methodist 
is mission-minded, and gives approximately $10,000 in 
World Service and Conference benevolences from its 
annual budget of $190,000. Two worship services are 
held. each Sunday morning and one on Sunday night. 
Wednesday night meetings frequently follow a general 
membership supper. The church staff is headed by its 
first minister, an associate minister, a director of Christian 
education, day school director, two choir directors, an 
organist, and five secretaries. First Methodist calls itself, 
"The Church at the Heart of the City with the City at 

Longview News Journal, Oct. 6, 1957. 

Derwood L. Blackwell 

LON MORRIS COLLEGE, Jacksonville, Texas, was founded 
in 1873 at Kilgore, Texas, as Alexander Institute. Two 
years later it became the property of the East Texas 
Conference of the M. E. Church, South. It moved to its 
present location in 1894, became a junior college in 
1912, and assumed its present name in 1924. The great 
growth and development occurred during the administra- 
tion of Cecil E. Peeples, who has been president since 
1935. The governing board consists of forty-one mem- 
bers elected by the Texas Conference. 

John O. Gboss 

American minister and historian, started life at Atlantic, 
Iowa, Dec. 5, 1877, but was destined to roam widely in 
the service of Methodism. He was admitted on trial in the 
California Conference of the M. E. Church in 1903. 
His California pastorates included Eighth Avenue, Oak- 
land (1906-11); First, Burlingame (1919-25); and Co- 
op Parish, Richmond (1949-59); but he also was sta- 
tioned at First, Honolulu (1915-19); and Union, Balboa, 
in the Canal Zone, Panama (1937-41). From 1925 to 
1931 he served as superintendent of the Redwood-Shasta 
District, and was a member of various boards and com- 
missions of the M. E. Church. 

Loofbourow was an outdoorsman in his youth and com- 
bined poetry with nature study while in the high Sierras, 
as did his contemporary and fellow Californian, John 
Muir. He won Phi Beta Kappa honors and a B.A. degree 
at Stanford, a B.D. degree at Boston University, and 
an honorary D.D. at the University of the Pacific. His 
publications, mostly in church history, include In Search 
of God's Gold (1950) and Steeples Among the Sage, A 
Centennial Story of Nevada's Churches (1964). He also 
wrote a two volume account. Cross in the Sunset. 

"He lived his history as he wrote it" stated the To- 
gether news edition for the San Francisco Area (UMC) 
as it announced his death on May 13, 1969. "In 1952 at 
age 75 he rode horseback nearly one hundred miles 
around the southern arm of San Francisco Bay . . . telling 
the deeds of this Conference and its people." He and 
Mrs. Loofbourow (Anna Hart Robertson) celebrated their 
golden wedding anniversary with 1,600 guests several 
years before her passing at age 93. 

Loofbourow was a helpful contributor to this Encyclo- 
pedia covering much California history for it. 

Clark and Stafford, Who's Who in Methodism. 1952. 

Leland D. Case 

LOPES, JOSE LEONEL (1868-1920), Brazilian preacher, 
was bom in Santa Barbara do Mato Dentro, state of 
Minas Gerais, on Sept. 18, 1868, the only child of staunch, 
traditionally Roman Catholic parents. As a youth in Ouro 
Preto, Minas Gerais, he heard for the first time the Gospel 
preached by Jo.\o E. Tavares. He began to inquire, 
then was convinced, converted and gave himself utterly 
to Christ. 

He was one of the first students of Granbery College, 
now Instituto. In 1897, he married Jovita de Araujo, and 
they had eight children. 

Lopes served many churches in the state of Minas 
Gerais, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Rio Grande do 
Sul. He was always a hard worker, courageous, and com- 
pelling evangelist. It was said that when the bishop 
needed a man for a difficult or remote station, the unani- 
mous recommendation always was, "Get Leonel Lopes." 

Stricken with diabetes, he was taken to the Hospital 
Samaritano in Sao Paulo. Relatixes and friends wanted to 
secure a private room for his greater comfort, but Leonel 
refused, commenting, "In a ward, I can speak of Christ 
to many others." And this he did. Though both legs had 
to be amputated, Leonel never faltered in faith or courage. 
He died on Sept. 19, 1920. 


LORD, JOHN WESLEY (1902- ), American bishop, 

was born in Paterson, N. J., on Aug. 23, 1902, the son 
of John James and Catherine (Carmichael) Lord. 

He graduated from the Montclair State Normal School, 
Montclair, N. J., in 1922. He was a teacher and principal 
in the New Jersey schools from 1922 until 1924. He 
received the B.A. degree from Dickinson College in 
1927, and the B.D. from Drew Theological Seminary 
in 1930. He matriculated for his Ph.D. at the LTniversity 
of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1930 and 1931, and did 
graduate work at Rutgers University in the field of educa- 
tion. He received a D.D. from Dickinson College in 1943 
and LL.D. in 1949; and S.T.D. from Boston University 
in 1949. 

On April 29, 1931, he was united in marriage to 
Margaret Farrington Ratcliffe. They have one daughter, 
Jean Phillips Lord (Mrs. Arnold C. Cooper). 

He was admitted on trial, and ordained deacon at the 
Newark Conference in April, 1929; admitted to full 
connection and elder in 1931. From 1927 until 1930 he 
was an assistant pastor of the Emory Methodist Church 
in Jersey City, N. J.; then pastor of the Union Community 
Church in Union, N. J., while it was under construction 
with volunteer labor, 1931-34. Subsequently he held pas- 
torates at the First Church in Arlington, N. J., 1935-38; 
and at the First Church in Westfield, N. J. 1938-48. 

At the Northeastern Jurisdictional Conference in 
session at Albany, N. Y., on June 18, 1948. he was elected 
bishop and was consecrated on June 20 in Trinity Church, 
Albany, N. Y. He was assigned to residence in the Boston 
Area and served as presiding bishop there until June 
1960, when he was assigned to the Washington Area. This 
embraces the District of Columbia, Delaware, most of 
Maryland, and a small part of West VraciNiA. 

In 1950-56 he was president of the New England Dea- 
coness Hospital; and in 1953-55 of the Massachusetts 
Council of Churches. He was a member of the Board of 
Lay Activities, Northeastern Jurisdiction. 

Bishop Lord is a Trustee of Claflin College; New 



England Deaconess Hospital, Boston; American Univer- 
sity; Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, D. C; Wes- 
ley College, Dover, Del.; Western Maryland College; 
Dickinson College; Morgan Christian Center, Morgan 
State College, Baltimore. He is Chairman of the Board 
of Governors, Wesley Theological Seminary; President 
of The Methodist Corporation, Washington, D. C; Presi- 
dent of the General Board of Pensions, and Chairman of 
the Interreligious Committee on Race, Washington, D. C. 
He is a member of the Commission on Ecumenical Af- 
fairs and General Board of Christian Social Concerns 
of The United Methodist Church; General Board of the 
National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.; 
National Council for a Responsible Firearms Policy; U.S. 
Interreligious Committee on Peace; Clergy and Laymen 
Concerned About Vietnam; and Honorary Chairman of 
The Committee of Responsibility (to save war-burned 
and war-injured Vietnamese children ) . 

Wlw's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

LORD'S SUPPER. (See Communion, The Holy.) 

graduated from Otterbein University (1880) and Yale 
Divinity School (1883). Following study at Leipzig and 
Berlin, Germany, he served as pastor in Dayton until 
1887, when he was called to be president of Lebanon 
Valley College (1887-89). 

Ill health forced him to leave the college, and he then 
turned to the work for which he became famous. In 
1890, he founded the Lorenz Publishing Company in 
Dayton, Ohio, which became widely renowned for the 
publishing of church music. As editor and head of the 
company, he not only wrote hymns and composed music 
but served many denominations by providing music publi- 
cations used by countless local churches and Sunday 
schools. In his later activities he functioned primarily as 
a lay businessman, but his contributions were always 
church oriented. His many publications of religious music 
included the editing of the Otterbein Hymnal (1890) 
and the Church Hymnal (193.5) for the United Brethren 
in Christ. He died July 10, 1942, in Dayton, Ohio. 

William Coyle, ed., Ohio Authors and Their Books. Cleveland, 

World Publishing Co., 1962. 

Religious Telescope, Vol. 108, No. 30 (July 25, 1942). 

Donald K. Gorrell 

LORE, DALLAS D. (1815-1875), American missionary 
and editor, bom in New Jersey in 1815, who joined the 
Philadelphia Conference of the M. E. Church in 1837. 
In 1840 he was nominated as a missionary to Africa, but 
circumstances prevented his entering upon the work. He 
subsequently served as a pastor in Lancaster, Pa., but 
in 1847 he went as a missionary to Buenos Aires, where 
he remained seven years. During that time he successfully 
supported the work of the mission in Buenos Aires. Upon 
his return from Buenos Aires, he was sent upon a tour of 
observation in New Me.xico with a view to the establish- 
ment of a mission in that territory. His letters back to the 
Board of Missions from Sante Fe in 1855 were not en- 
couraging, and while he was able to organize a class of 
nine persons at Socorro, and one of fourteen members at 
Peralto, and a circuit of four appointments, he did not feel 
that the work should be continued. After receiving his 
report, the Board decided to discontinue the mission. 
Lore then was elected editor of the Northern Christian 
Advocate by the General Conference of 1864, and 
re-elected in '68 and '72. He was active in calling the 
New York Methodist State Convention which met at 
Syracuse in 1870, and which determined upon the estab- 
lishment of Syracuse University. Dallas Lore died near 
Auburn, N. Y., on June 20, 1875. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Metlwdist Miss-ions. 1957. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. N. B. H. 

LORENZ, EDMUND SIMON (1854-1942). American 
United Brethren hvTnn writer, composer, and publisher 
of religious music, was born at North Lawrence, Ohio, in 
the home of a United Brethren minister, July 13, 1854. 
After graduating from high school in Toledo he taught 
German in the public schools of that city (1870-74). In 
1874 Lorenz went to work for the United Brethren 
Printing Establishment in Dayton, Ohio, where he edited 
Hymns for the Sanctuary (1874). For several years he 
alternated between his college education and serving 
churches, having joined the Miami Conference, United 
Brethren in Christ, in 1877. 

On Oct. 1, 1878 he married Florence Kuniler. He 

LORENZ, JUSTINA. (See Showers, Justina L.) 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A., a city of 2,781,- 
829, now ranks third city in the nation in population. The 
Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles was 
founded in 1781 and given its name by the Spanish gov- 
ernor of California. The Pueblo soon discarded most of 
its name and became known as the "City of the Angels" 
because of the beauty of its situation and e.vcellent climate. 

Los Angeles was incorporated in 1850. At that time its 
twenty-eight square miles held a population of 1,610. In 
1853 Bishop Edward R. Ames, presiding at the Cali- 
fornia Conference in San Francisco, appointed Adam 
Bland a "missionary" to Los Angeles. Bland's first move 
was to lease El Dorado, a saloon located on Main Street, 
near the town's Plaza, and transform it into a chapel 
where he held services and where his wife conducted a 
.school for girls. 

The "Cit\' of Angels" was anything hut that in those 
early days. The backwash of the gold rush brought un- 
savory characters to town and launched a period of gen- 
eral lawlessness. Conditions were made worse by the 
divided loyalties of the Civil War period. For a time, 
the representatives of all Protestant denominations aban- 
doned their work in this area. Bland left Los Angeles 
and became the presiding elder of the Santa Clara District 
in northern California. 

In 1866, after the Civil War was over, Adam Bland 
came back to reorganize the work he had left earlier. 
It was not until 1867 that Columbus Gillet was appointed 
pastor and thirty people attended a Quarterly Conference 
and Love Feast in Los Angeles. This was the beginning 
of an unbroken appointment of ministers to the Fort 
Street, later known as the First Methodist Church. 

In 1868 the Fort Street Church was built. It was a 
brick building on the west side of what is now called 
Broadway, between Third and Fourth Streets. When it 
became too small for its growing congregation, a larger 
frame structure was erected next door. In 1876 the Fort 
Street Church established a school for young people and 
called it "The Los Angeles Academy." This was the fore- 



runner of the University of Southern Cahfornia. Marion 
M. BovARD became pastor of the Fort Street Church in 
1878, and two years later resigned to become the first 
president of the University of Southern California, which 
opened its doors in 1880 with fifty-three students enrolled. 

The Southern Pacific ran its tracks into the city in 
1876, joining Los Angeles to the rest of the continent. 
When the Santa Fe extended its tracks into the city in 
1885, there resulted a rate war for patronage marked by 
a large influx of newcomers. Los Angeles, which had 1,610 
people in 1850, had 8,453 in 1875. The population of Los 
Angeles County during that same period rose from 3,530 
to 24,344. In September of 1876, with Bishop William 
L. Harris presiding, the Southern California Conference 
(M.E.) was organized with thirteen buildings, nine par- 
sonages, 1,257 members, twenty-seven ministers in full 
relationship, and three men on trial. 

In 1891 the Fort Street Church paid $37,500 for lots 
at Sixth and Hill Streets. On Easter Sunday, 1900, the 
new First Church was dedicated. It cost more than $73,- 
000. The report that year showed 984 members and 
forty-four probationers. 

From 1902 until 1963 the ministers of First Church 
were drawn directly from different parts of the country. 
Robert C. McIntyre, widely known for his eloquence, 
having served distinguished pastorates in Chicago and 
Denver, came in 1902. He was elected bishop in 1908. 
Ch..\rles Edward Locke, who sei"ved pastorates from 
Oregon to New York and had the distinction of conduct- 
ing the funeral service for President William McKinley, 
came in 1908. During his pastorate, in 1913, the present 
location of 8th and Hope Streets was purchased. In 1920 
he was elected bishop. That same year Elmer E. Helms 
came from Calvary Church, Philadelphia. He was the 
leader in the building of the present $1,500,000 church 
edifice at 8th and Hope, which was dedicated free of 
debt on July 8, 1923. Roy L. Smith, for twelve years 
pastor of Simpson Methodist Church, Minneapolis, 
served from 1932 to 1940 when he was appointed editor 
of the Christian Advocate. Donald H. Tippett came 
from the Be.xley Church, Columbus, Ohio, and served 
from 1940 to 1948, when he was elected bishop. Richard 
Sneed came from the Court Street Church of Rockford, 
111., in 1948 and served until 1963, carrying on a moderni- 
zation program designed to meet a changing environment 
and a changing constituency. John A. Zimmer (1963-64) 
and Don R. Boyd ( 1964- ) were the first ministers in 

more than half a century who served other churches in 
the Conference before becoming pastors of First Church, 
Los Angeles. 

Today both First and Trinity face problems arising 
from financial supporters who pass away or move to more 
desirable residential areas and take their church letters 
with them. In 1940 Trinity had 4,944 members and First 
Church, 4,934. In 1970 Trinity had 437 members and 
First Church 619. With every decrease in church mem- 
bership there has been an increase, per member, in the 
cost of property maintenance. A plan for merger of these 
two churches, set forth by a Committee representing both, 
failed to be approved by Trinity. The hope and expecta- 
tion is that both of these downtown churches, perhaps 
working together, will find avenues of service and financial 
support comparable to earlier days. 

In 1887 the Fort Street Church organized a Chinese 
Mission which operated as a Sunda\' school. Six years 
later seventy-five Chinese were enrolled with an average 

attendance of forty-five. The Church licensed the first 
Chinese local preacher in the United States. Chan Kin 
Lung later became the pastor of the local Chinese Church. 

In 1880 the Committee on Missions of the Fort Street 
Church rented a small building for eight dollars a month, 
and started a chapel for Spanish-speaking people. This 
was the forerunner of the Spanish American Institute, 
the Plaza Community Center, and the Frances DePauw 
Home and School for Mexican girls, the latter sponsored 
by the \\'oman's Home Missionary Society. 

On March 31, 1904, the Los Angeles City Missionary 
Society was organized. Most of the Methodist churches 
in Los Angeles area have received help, at one time or 
another, from what is now called the Los Angeles Mis- 
sionary and Church Extension Society. 

One section of Los Angeles which formerly had been a 
choice residential area became the home of thousands of 
foreign-born people. Properties were run-dowTi and rents 
were low. Immorality was widespread and juvenile delin- 
quency was at a high level. Only one small church, the 
Newman Methodist Church, remained to minister to the 
people. It was here, in 1917, while serving as pastor of 
NewTnan Church, that G. Bromley Oxnam got the vision 
that resulted in the All Nations Foundation. In 1936 
Oxnam was elected a bishop, the only bishop who spent 
his entire parish ministn,- in the Southern California 

Edgar J. Evans 

First A. M.E. Church in Los Angeles holds the dis- 
tinction of being the first Negro church in the city. Afri- 
can Episcopal Methodists were in Los Angeles as early 
as 1870. In 1872 the church was organized with twelve 
members in the home of a Mrs. Biddie Mason. The first 
edifice was built on a lot costing $700 at Fourth and 
Grand Avenue. The earliest pastor of First A. M.E. was 
Jesse Hamilton. In 1887, under the leadership of Jordan 
Allen, the church removed to a second site on Agusa 
Street where it remained for about a dozen years. The 
present structure was completed in 1903 on the corner 
of Eighth and Towne. Bishop Frederick D. Jordan, who 
was pastor of First A. M.E. from 1940 to 1949, was 
elected bishop in 1952. 

Grant S. Shockley 

Holman Church is the church with the highest rate of 
growth in the Southern California-Arizona Confer- 
ence over the past twenty years. The church was orga- 
nized in 1945. Seven persons met in the first regular meet- 
ing. At the first Quarterly Conference, forty-three per- 
sons were listed as charter members. Membership in 
1970 stood at 2,688. 

In the early days of Holman, before a church home 
was purchased, ser\'ices were held in a dance hall called 
Music Town; in a Seventh Day Adventist Church; and 
in a Japanese Methodist Church. A Jewish S>aiagogue 
was the first church home purchased, and Lanneau L. 
White was appointed minister in 1947. He is now the 
senior of a ministerial staff of three, and around him the 
growth of Holman has evolved. The ministerial staff is 
integrated. The predominantly Negro congregation has 
provided the example for all to see, as the two Negro and 
one Caucasian ministers guide the in-depth program of the 
church and provide leadership in the community. 

White is in charge of preaching and church administra- 
tion; Edward S. Williams is the associate minister whose 



emphasis is on membership and evangelism; Victor Hand 
was later appointed associate minister, and is officially 
the minister of education and community affairs. 

In 1958 a new sanctuary was dedicated, for which 
Holman received an award for excellence from the Archi- 
tectural Guild of America, Educational facilities are now 
under construction. 

Holman Methodist Church is nationally known for its 
relevant preaching, beautiful music, inspiring worship, 
and its warm friendliness and outreach of service to others. 
It has many firsts to its credit, and is noted for its creative 
approach to the problems of the present day church and 
the inner city. 

The Church leadership — both ministerial and lay — 
insures for Holman many years of effective Christian wit- 
ness in the immediate community, in the Conference and 
over the nation. 

E. D. Jerv'ey, Southern California and Arizona. 1960. 
Journals of tlie Southern California-Arizona Conference. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 
R. R. Wright, Encyclopedia. 1947. 

Pacific Homes is a non-profit corporation of The United 
Methodist Church (U.S.A.), operating seven retirement 
homes in Southern California, Arizona and Hawaii, 
also six convalescent hospitals. With a background of over 
fifty years of operation, it is the largest as well as one of 
the most experienced organizations in the retirement field. 
Admission is without discrimination as to race, color or 

The first of the Pacific Homes, Kingsley Manor, was 
built "in the country" between Los Angeles and Holly- 
wood and opened in January 1912, on a site formerly 
used for Methodist camp meetings. For many years it 
was known as "Pacific Home." Construction of the home 
was aided by a Mrs. Margaret Ammann's bequest to the 
German Methodist Conference. Following the merging 
of the GeiTnan Methodist and M. E. Churches a new 
corporation was formed which ultimately became the 
present Pacific Homes Corporation. Through the years 
additional homes have been built or acquired in Clare- 
mont. Pacific Beach, La Jolla, and Chula Vista in Cali- 
fornia; in Phoenix, Arizona, and in suburban Honolulu 
in Hawaii. These represent a variety of locations — the 
seashore, the desert, a small college town close to the 
mountains, an Island of the Pacific, and well known 

Today these seven retirement facilities provide a total 
capacity of 2,200, or approximately twelve percent of the 
total accommodations included in the seven score and 
more Methodist Homes in the United States. The con- 
valescent hospital facilities include 500 beds and several 
of the units also serve patients from the community at 
large. The Sparr Convalescent Hospital in Los Angeles 
serves mainly community patients. 

The concept of full life care has gained wide acceptance 
and Pacific Homes plan of organization has served as the 
pattern for many homes throughout the nation. A unique 
feature is the fact that fees are never increased during 
the tenure of a resident in the home. Fifty years operating 
experience makes it possible for costs to be projected 
quite accurately. Retirement home funds are subject to 
constant scrutiny under California laws. 

While prepaid life care is the general requirement, the 
financial arrangements are sufficiently flexible to meet the 
needs of those who can only partially prepay; and for 

those who have mainly monthly income from Social Se- 
curity, or from pension, or annuities, full monthly pay- 
ments are approved. 

Pacific Homes is also concerned that members of The 
United Methodist Church in the Southern California- 
Arizona Conference who do not have adequate funds 
to permit them to be residents of Pacific Homes, shall 
receive some assistance from the earnings of the Endow- 
ment Fund. Approximately 150 accommodations have 
been reserved for these Methodists with limited means. 

Methodist ministers and laymen compose the Corpora- 
tion, the Board of Directors, and the individual home 
Boards of Management. They give of their talents and 
many hours of their time to Pacific Homes. Dr. Edward 
P. O'Rear, General Manager since 1953, with a stafiF 
and more than 700 employees, is responsible for the man- 
agement of Pacific Homes. 

.Abbie E, Sargent 

Westwood Church, Los Angeles, California 

Westwood Community Church is the Methodist church 
most nearly related to the University of California at Los 
Angeles with its 25,000 students. The church and the 
University have grown together. When in 1926 the Uni- 
versity began to make plans to move to the Westwood 
hills, G. Bromley Oxnam, then the secretary of the Los 
Angeles Missionary and Church Extension Society, later 
a distinguished bishop of the church, arranged with Con- 
ference Church Extension support, to buy the present 
property on Wilshire Boulevard. 

By 1928 the first unit was begun with funds raised 
by the First Methodist Church of Los Angeles under the 
leadership of Elmer Ellsworth Helms. The fifteen charter 
members were enrolled by certificate of transfer from 
First and other Methodist churches. By 1940 the educa- 
tional wing, containing classrooms, parlor and a social 



hall, was added. In 1948 the administration unit was 
constructed. The beautiful Memorial Sanctuary, with its 
Glory Window, was completed by 1951. The parking 
area was increased so that the property now extends 535 
feet along the boulevard. 

With the burning of the mortgage, July 1961, the 
church became free of debt, with property valued at over 
two million dollars and an annual budget of more than a 
quarter of a million. Plans are on the drawing boards 
for a million dollar replacement and refurbishing program. 
The staff includes four ministers, four lay directors, and 
a total of thirty persons. Membership is reported in 1970 
as 2,306. 

F. Harold Esseht 

LOSEE, WILLIAM (1757-1832), Canadian preacher, was 
the first regular itinerant to be sent from the M. E. Church 
to Canada in 1790. He was bom June 30, 1757, in 
Dutchess County, N. Y. He was a Loyalist and served in 
an unofficial regiment known as the Westchester Loyalists. 
After his conversion he was received on trial by the New 
York Conference in May 1789. Immediately after the 
conference sessions he was sent to the Lake Champlain 
circuit — a most difficult appointment because the settle- 
ments were widely scattered and the people were indif- 
ferent to religion. He applied for permission from his 
presiding elder to minister to Methodists living on the 
north bank of the St. Lawrence River, and Freeborn 
Garrettson permitted Losee to proceed with this mis- 
sionary journey. 

During the winter of 1790 he crossed the St. Lawrence 
River, probably at St. Regis, and proceeded westward 
toward Kingston, visiting and preaching at Matilda, 
Augusta, Elizabethtown, Kingston, and finally Adolphus- 
town, where he remained for the rest of the winter, re- 
newing acquaintances and holding services. As a result, 
petitions asking for an ordained itinerant were prepared 
and sent with Losee to the annual meeting of the New 
York Conference, held in New York in October. The 
conference agreed that he should form a circuit in Canada. 

Returning to Upper Canada in the winter of 1791, he 
organized a circuit in the Kingston district. The first 
regular classes were established in February and March 
of that year at Hay Bay, and in Emestown and Freder- 
icksburgh respectively. Within a year plans were drawn 
for the erection of the first Methodist chapel in Upper 
Canada. This building still stands on land provided by 
Paul Huff, a member of Losee's original class. Hay Bay 
Church is one of the few shrines of Canadian Methodism. 

At the New York Conference in 1792 Losee reported 
the reception of 165 members. The conference appointed 
him to the Oswegatchie circuit, east of Kingston, but in 
1793 he was located because of ill health. Never again 
does his name appear in the Minutes of Conference. His 
creative, spirited, and fruitful ministry covered only four 

Losee was tall, active, and excitable. Although he suf- 
fered from a withered arm, he was a fearless horseman, 
who covered great distances and yet seemed to have 
sufficient physical strength to preach with fire and power. 
He could be classified as the exhorting type — fluent, pas- 
sionate, and prophetic in his bold denunciation of evil. 

There are a few random references to his subsequent 
life. After his recovery from a mental breakdown, usually 
attributed to the marriage of his beloved to his colleague. 

Darius Dunham, he entered business in New York, 
frequently serving as a lay preacher. He returned at least 
once to visit his friends in Adolphustown, and S. Stewart 
tells of hearing William Losee preach at the New York 
Conference held in Troy in 1821. 

Losee died on Oct. 16, 1832, and was buried in the 
cemetery of the M. E. Church, Hempstead, New York. 
On Jan. 30, 1834, his wife Mary died, at the age of 
eighty, and was buried beside him. In 1914 this cemetery 
was coverd with soil, after the grave markers had been 
laid flat, in order to constitute a lawn for the church. 

In 1969, as the result of the city of Hempstead taking 
a strip of land from the church yard in order to widen the 
street, it became necessary to remove the graves of some 
of those buried in this area. The graves of William and 
Mar\' Losee were among the five requiring removal. The 
Hempstead church gave the Losee grave stones to the 
Bay of Quinte Conference, The United Church of Canada, 
and they were removed to Old Hay Bay Church. There 
a cairn, in which the stones were embedded, was erected 
at the church which Losee built in 1792. 

J. Carroll, Case and His Cotemporaries. 1867-77. 
Methodist History, October 1970; January 1971. 
G. F. Playter, Canada. 1862. A. E. Kewley 

LOTHI, MEYI, son of Marashane's chief Induna in the 
Lulu Mountains of the Northern Transvaal, was converted 
in the Cape through the London Missonary Society. He 
returned in 1880, preached, taught, erected a church 
building and appealed to the Wesleyan Methodist Mis- 
sionary Society to take over his Society. The Chairman 
of the District visited the area in 1885, baptized forty- 
nine adults, forty-eight children and solemnized forty 
marriages. Lothi was blind in one eye. 

Journal of the Methodist Historical Society of South Africa. 

Vol. Ill, No. 2 (October 1958). 

Minutes of South African Conference, 1939. D. C. Veysie 

LOTT, CLIFFORD BARNETT (1919- ), American min- 

ister and son of Jesse Jackson and Savannah (Collins) 
Lott, was born in Groveton, Texas, Jan. 26, 1919. He 
obtained degrees from the following schools: B.S., North 
Texas State LTniversity, 1941; B.D., Garrett Theologi- 
cal Seminary, 1944; and D.D., Iowa Wesley'an Col- 
lege, 1964. On Dec. 27, 1941, he was married to Betty 
Louise Corson, and they are the parents of three children. 

Mr. Lott was ordained deacon by the South Iowa 
Conference in 1945 and elder in 1947. For four years 
he served an Iowa pastorate, then was director of the 
Wesley Found .\tion, Texas A. and 1. for a year before 
becoming Instructor in Bible, Simpson College, 1949-54. 
For the next ten years he was associate pastor, Grace 
Church, Des Moines, Iowa. From 1964-66, he was 
district superintendent, Burlington District. He became 
Administrative Assistant, Board of Lay Activities, 1966, 
and with the formation of The United Methodist Church, 
he was elected Associate General Secretary, Division of 
Stewardship and Finance, General Board of Laity. 

He has been trustee of Halcyon House, Hillcrest Chil- 
dren's Ser\'ices, and Iowa Wesleyan College. He served 
as Dean of the Iowa Pastor's School and a number of 
conference responsibilities. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966 

John H. Ness, Jb. 



LOUISBURG COLLEGE, Louisburg, North Carolina, be- 
gan in 1787 as Franklin Academy for men. Its first 
principal was Matthew Dickenson, graduate of Yale, who 
was the maternal uncle of Cyrus W. Field. Louisburg 
Female Academy was added in 1813, to be reorganized as 
Louisburg Female College in 1857. Operated as a Meth- 
odist institution since 1907, it became a junior college for 
women in 1915 and a coeducational junior college in 
1931. The goveniing board consists of thirty-six members 
elected by tlie North Carolina Conference. 

John O. Gross 

LOUISIANA, sometimes called the "Pelican State," is in 
the south central part of the United States. It is bounded 
on the north by Arkansas, on the east by Mississippi, 
on the south by the Gulf of Mexico, and on the west by 
Texas. It averages about 100 feet above sea level, and its 
climate is semi-tropical. Originally settled by the French, 
Louisiana was ceded to Spain in a secret treaty in 1762, 
but in 1800 it was returned to France, and Napoleon 
sold it to the United States as a part of the Louisiana 
Purchase. In 1804 Congress designated the area below the 
thirty-third parallel as Orleans Territory, and on April 
30, 1812, the territory was admitted to the Union as 

Industries in Louisiana include farming, minerals, pe- 
troleum, natural gas, salt, sand, gravel, and sulphur. In 
addition, the forests of the state produce some of the 
finest lumber, and there are extensive coastal fisheries. 
With an area of 48,523 square miles, the state has a 
population of 3,564,310 in 1970. 

Eccentric evangelist Lorenzo Dow may have been the 
first Methodist to preach in Louisiana. Learner Black- 
man, presiding elder at Natchez, 1805-07, was the first 
regular itinerant to visit Louisiana. In 1805 Elisha W. 
Bowman was appointed as "missionary to Louisiana" with 
instructions to begin at New Orleans. Unsuccessful in 
that city, he pushed on to other communities. In 1806 
he established the first Methodist circuit in Louisiana, and 
organized a congregation at Opelousas. In 1808 James 
AxLEY who endured persecution on the Catahouchee and 
Wichita Circuits, erected with his own hands the first 
Methodist church building in Louisiana. It was called 
Axley Chapel. 

At first the Louisiana work was a part of the Mississippi 
Conference. In 1836 the part of the state west of the 
Mississippi River was included in the newly created 
Arkansas Conference. In 1840 all of Louisiana was 
again in the Mississippi Conference. 

The Louisiana Conference ( MES ) was created by the 
1846 General Conference. The first session of the con- 
ference was held at Opelousas in January 1847. The 
conference included the part of Louisiana west of the 
Mississippi River and the cities of New Orleans and 
Baton Rouge on the east side. The remainder of Louisi- 
ana east of the river continued in the Mississippi Con- 
ference until 1894. Thereafter the Louisiana Conference 
covered the entire state. 

In 1869 the M. E. Church foimed a Louisiana Con- 
ference by dividing the Mississippi Mission Conference. 
This conference included both white and Negro ministers 
and churches. In 1893 the conference was divided along 
racial lines and the white work, along with that in east 
Texas, became the Gulf Mission. In 1897 it became the 
Gulf Mission Conference, and in 1904 the Gulf Confer- 

ence. When it became a full conference it also included 
the white work of the M. E. Church in Mississippi. In 
1926 tlie Gulf Conference was absorbed by the Southern 
Conference which until two years before had been the 
Southern German Conference covering Texas and Louisi- 
ana. The merger enlarged the boundaries of the Southern 
Conference to include the white work in Mississippi. 

Methodist work among German immigrants in New 
Orleans began in the 1840's. In 1860 the Louisiana Con- 
ference (MES) had four German missions in that city 
and one in Franklin. The Germans chose to align their 
churches with the Louisiana Conference (ME) when it 
was organized in 1869. They were placed in the Southern 
German Conference (ME) when it was formed in 1874. 
Never strong in Louisiana, the German work consisted of 
only two churches in New Orleans when the Southern 
German Conference was absorbed in 1924. 

At unification in 1939, the Louisiana part of the South- 
ern Conference (ME) brought eighteen preachers, four- 
teen pastoral charges, and 3,278 members into The Meth- 
odist Church. The Louisiana Conference (ME) continued 
in the Central Jurisdiction of The Methodist Church and 
temporarily in the South Central Jurisdiction of The 
United Methodist Church. 

The Methodist Protestants organized a Louisiana Con- 
ference in 1846 which merged in 1870 to form the Arkan- 
sas and Louisiana Conference. In 1884 the work was 
strong enough to justify setting off another Louisiana Con- 
ference which continued until unification in 1939 when it 
brought forty-eight preachers, thirty pastoral charges, and 
3,529 members into The Methodist Church. 

The three large Negro Methodist denominations — 
A.M.E., A.M.E. Zion, and C.M.E. — have relatively 
strong conferences in Louisiana. The C.M.E. Church 
reports about 40,000 members and the A.M.E. Church 
about 11,000 members in the state. 

The Louisiana Conference (SCJ) supports Centenary 
College at Shreveport, Glenwood Hospital at West Mon- 
roe, Methodist Hospital in New Orleans, and the Louisi- 
ana Methodist Children's Home at Rustin. The Louisiana 
Methodist is published for the conference in Little Rock 
in conjunction with the Arkansas Methodist. The confer- 
ence maintains Wesley Foundations at eight state and 
private colleges and universities. 

In 1970 the two Louisiana Conferences reported a total 
of 489 ministers, 137,521 members, and 603 churches 
valued at $75,797,535. 

R. H. Harper, Louisiana Methodism. 1949. 

C. H. Phillips, History of the C.M.E. Church. 1925. 

G. A. Singleton, The Romance of African Methodism. New 

York: Exposition Press, 1952. 

Journals of the Louisiana Conferences. J. Henry Bowdon, Sb. 

LOUISIANA CONFERENCE (A) was created by the 1846 
General Conference by dividing the Mississippi Con- 
ference. The new body was organized at Opelousas, 
Jan. 6-13, 1847. John Powell, the only presiding elder 
present, acted as president of the conference until the 
arrival of Bishop Joshua Soule. The boiuidaries of the 
conference included New Orleans and Baton Rouge 
and all of the state of Louisiana west of the Mississippi 
River. The east part of Lousiana continued in the Missis- 
sippi Conference until 1894. 

When organized the Louisiana Conference had five 
districts, fifty effective elders, forty-three pastoral charges, 
and 8,101 members, 3,329 of them colored. (See Louisi- 



ANA for early Methodist history in the state.) At its 
seventh session in Baton Rouge in 1853, the Louisiana 
Conference made history by adopting a resolution favor- 
ing lay representation in the conferences. It was one of 
the first steps made in that direction in Southern Meth- 

During its history the Louisiana Conference supported 
educational projects such as Mansfield Female College, 
Homer College, Pierce and Paine College, and other 
schools, some of which were stillborn or lived at most only 
a few years. The only permanent Methodist institution of 
higher learning established in Louisiana is Centenary 
College at Shreveport. As early as 1825 an academy 
was started at Jackson, La. By 1845 it had failed, and the 
Mississippi Conference, of which Louisiana was then a 
part, bought the property. Meantime, in 1841 the Mis- 
sissippi Conference had inaugurated Centenary College at 
Brandon Springs, Miss. Regarding Jackson, La., as a better 
location for a college, the conference proceeded to move 
Centenary into the academy property it had bought. Dur- 
ing the Civil War Centenary College was closed and its 
buildings were used as a hospital for Confederate soldiers; 
later in the conflict it was occupied by Federal troops. 
The college reopened in 1865. In 1908 Centenary was 
moved to Shreveport where it continues as one of the 
strong Methodist colleges in America. 

The New Orleans Christian Advocate was established 
in 1850 and continued publication until 1946. The paper 
was launched by a joint committee of the Alabama and 
Louisiana Conferences, and the Mississippi Conference 
soon joined in its support. In 1883 the Alabama Confer- 
ence withdrew in order to establish its own paper. The 
first editor of the New Orleans paper was Holland N. 
McTyeire, later bishop and able church historian. Four 
other editors of the publication also became bishops — 
John C. Keener, Linus Parker, Charles B. Galloway, 
and J. Lloyd Decell. In its day the New Orleans Chris- 
tian Advocate was a strong and influential church paper. 
It failed in 1946 because Mississippi Methodism withdrew 
support in order to establish its own paper. Since 1949 
the Louisiana Methodist, issued in Little Rock in con- 
junction with the Arkansas Methodist, has served Louisi- 
ana Methodism. 

The Louisiana Conference operates the Louisiana Meth- 
odist Children's Home at Ruston; the Methodist Home 
Hospital in New Orleans, an institution for unmarried 
mothers and for the adoption of their children; St. Mark's 
Community Center in New Orleans; the Dulac Indian 
Mission at Houma; and the Sager-Brown Institute at 
Baldwin. The conference supports the Methodist Hospital 
in New Orleans and the Glenwood Hospital at West Mon- 
roe. Wesley Foundations are maintained at eight private 
and state colleges and universities in Louisiana. 

At unification in 1939, the Louisiana Conference 
(MECS) brought 189 ministers, 171 pastoral charges, and 
70,787 members into The Methodist Church. In 1970 
the conference reported 398 ministers, 279 pastoral 
charges, 121, .302 members, and 456 churches valued at 

R. H. Harper, Louisiana Methodism. 1949. 

General Minutes, MECS and MC. 

Journals of the Louisiana Conference. J. Henry Bowdon, Sr. 

LOUISIANA CONFERENCE (B) traces its lineage to the 
Louisiana Conference (ME) which was organized Jan. 

18, 1869 at Wesley Chapel, New Orleans, with Bishop 
Matthew Simpson presiding. Composed of Negro and 
white ministers and churches at the outset, it was formed 
by dividing the Mississippi Mission Conference. (See 
Louisiana for early history of Methodism in the state.) 
At its organization in 1869 the conference had three dis- 
tricts which were increased to five by the end of the 
session, twenty-seven churches, forty-three charges, and 
10,662 members. In 1893 the conference was divided 
along racial lines, the white work becoming a part of the 
Gulf Mission. 

At unification in 1939, the Louisiana Conference be- 
came a part of the Central Jurisdiction. With the abolition 
of that Jurisdiction in 1968, the conference, pending 
merger, was placed in the South Central Jurisdiction of 
The United Methodist Church. 

In 1968 the conference was sponsoring a newspaper, 
the Christian Explorer which centered on Christian educa- 
tion. The conference had an interest in Culfside Assem- 
bly, Waveland, Miss, (badly hurt by the great hurricane 
of 1969), the People's Community Center in New Orleans, 
and the Lafon Protestant Home in the same city. It sup- 
ported a deaconess at the Sager Brown Home in Baldwin. 

In 1970 the Louisiana Conference (B) reported 91 
ministers, 89 charges, 16,219 members, and 147 churches 
valued at $6,021,945. 

General Minutes, MEC and MC. 

Journal of tlie Louisiana Conference, MEC and MC. 

F. E. Maseh 

LOUISIANA CONFERENCE (MP) was organized in 1846. 
Its territory included Louisiana and Texas when it began. 
George W. Johnson who had moved to Louisiana from 
Ohio two years before, took the lead in organizing the 
conference; later he served as its president. 

Because Methodist Protestantism in Louisiana and 
Arkansas was weakened by the Civil War and its after- 
math, the work in south Arkansas was linked with Louisi- 
ana about 1870 to form the Arkansas and Louisiana Con- 
ference. It was divided in 1884 to form separate Arkansas 
and Louisiana Conferences, except that a small portion of 
northern Louisiana continued as a part of the Arkansas 
Conference until unification in 1939. 

The Louisiana Conference (MP) brought forty-eight 
preachers, thirty pastoral charges, forty-four churches, and 
3,529 members into The Methodist Church in 1939. 

A. H. Bassett, Concise History. 1882. 

R. H. Harper, Louisiana Methodism. 1949. 

Discipline of the M. P. Church. F. E. Maser 

LOUISVILLE CONFERENCE (MES) was created by the 
1846 General Conference. It was organized at Hop- 
kinsville, Ky., Oct. 14, 1846 with Bishop James O. An- 
drew presiding. Its territoiy is western Kentucky, except 
the part west of the Tennessee River which is in the 
Memphis Conference. The eastern boundary of the Lou- 
isville Conference is a line running south and east from 
Louisville to the Tennessee River. When it began the 
conference had fifty-six preachers, and 14,495 white and 
2,225 colored members. 

The Louisville Conference came to unification in 1939 
with seven districts, 173 charges, 524 societies, 73,618 
members, and churches and parsonages valued at $4,831,- 
188. At that time it was merged with the Louisville Dis- 
trict of the M. E. Church and three charges of the M. P. 



Church to form the Louisville Conference of The Method- 
ist Church. The M. E. Church brought 28 charges and 
9,996 members to the merger. 

During its history the Louisville Conference has con- 
tributed leaders to the larger church. Edward Stevenson 
was the first secretary of the Missionary Society (MES). 
David Morton organized the Board of Church Extension 
(MES) and served as its corresponding secretary for six- 
teen years. Four Book Editors of the Southern Church 
were members of the Louisville Conference: A. H. Red- 
ford, John J. Ticert, Cross Alex.\nder, and Frank M. 
Thomas. While serving as secretary of the Board of Mis- 
sions, H. C. Morrison was elected bishop in 1898. Roy 
H. Short sei-ved as editor of The Upper Room and was 
elected bishop in 1948. Though not a member of the 
Louisville Conference, Bishop John M. Moore, the archi- 
tect of Methodist union, was born at Morganton within 
the bounds of the conference. 

The Louisville Conference supports jointly with the 
Kentucky Conference, Kentucky Wesleyan College at 
Owensboro, Union College at Barbourville, Lindsey 
Wilson Junior College at Columbia, and the Methodist 
Home, Inc. (for children) at Versailles. The conference 
is related to the Methodist Hospital at Henderson and 
the Methodist Evangelical Hospital in Louisville. It has 
two retirement homes, Wesley Manor at Louisville and 
Lewis Memorial Home in Franklin. 

In 1968 when the Tennessee-Kentucky Conference 
(CJ) was merged with the overlying conferences of the 
Southeastern Jurisdiction, the Louisville Conference re- 
ceived some of the ministers and churches from that 

The Louisville Conference in 1970 reported six dis- 
tricts, 290 pastoral charges, 321 ministers, 103,400 mem- 
bers, property valued at $45,178,925, and $4,283,547 
raised for all purposes during the year. 

General Minutes, MECS and MC. 

Minutes of the Louisville Conference. 

Jubilee Addresses at the Louisville Conference, 1896. 

Harry R. Short 

LOUISVILLE CONVENTION, THE, was the meeting in 
1845 in Louisville, Ky., of the delegations from the South- 
ern Conferences, who there agreed to form the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. Their assembly was in response 
to the Plan of Separation adopted the previous year 
by the General Conference of the M. E. Church, which 
had met in New York and provided for a division of the 
M. E. Church should the Southern Conferences so desire. 
The delegations of the various Southern Conferences met 
before they left New York just after adjournment of the 
General Conference and agreed to present to their own 
Annual Conferences the question as to whether or not 
they should have a conference, or convention, the next 
year in Louisville, to discuss and arrive at a final conclu- 
sion regarding their separation from the M. E. Church. 

Pursuant to this, the several Annual Conferences in- 
cluding Kentucky, Missouri, Holston, Tennessee, 
North Carolina, Memphis, Arkansas, Virginia, Missis- 
sippi, Texas, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina 
agreed to meet in such a convention, and provided funds 
to support the expenses of their delegations in traveling 
to Louisville. 

The annual conferences in the "slave holding states," 
as they frankly called themselves, proved to be one- 
minded regarding the holding of the convention in Louis- 

ville in May 1845, and the meeting there was clearly and 
completely representative of the conferences above men- 
tioned. In addition to the conferences above named, the 
Florida Conference sent two men, and the Indian Mis- 
sion Conference two. The leaders of Southern Method- 
ism were almost all present in the meeting which con- 
vened on the first day of May 1845, in the old Fourth 
Street Church in the city of Louisville. 

Bishop James O. Andrew was present and Bishop 
Joshua Soule likewise was there, but Bishop Thomas A. 
Morris, who was also present, declined to preside over 
the convention it.self, engaging only in what the Minutes 
called "religious exercises." The Convention adopted a 
resolution declaring that they, "acting under the provi- 
sional plan of separation adopted by the General Confer- 
ence of 1844, do solemnly declare the jurisdiction hither- 
to exercised over said Annual Conferences, by the General 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, entirely 
dissolved; and that said Annual Conferences shall be, and 
they hereby are constituted, a separate ecclesiastical con- 
nexion, under the provisional plan of separation aforesaid, 
and based upon the Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, comprehending the doctrines and the entire 
moral, ecclesiastical, and economical rules and regulations 
of said Discipline, except only, in .so far as verbal altera- 
tions may be necessary to a distinct organization, and to 
be known by the style and title of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South." {History of American Methodism, 
Vol. 2, p. 118.) 

The Louisville Convention was not, properly speaking, 
a General Conference, but a convention — which however, 
did make provision for a General Conference to be held 
the next year in Petersburg, Va. It also made provisions 
for mission work and publishing interests, looked toward 
the formal organization planned for the next year and 
adjourned on May 19, 1845. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. 
History of the Organization of the Methodist Church, South: 
Comprehending all the Official Proceedings of the General Con- 
ference; the Southern Annual Conferences, and the General 
Convention. (Nashville, Tennessee: Compiled and Published 
by the Editors and Publishers of the South Western Christian 
Advocate for the M. E. Church, South, by order of the Louis- 
ville Convention. WiUiani Cameron, Printer, 1845). N. B. H. 

LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY, U.S.A. The first Methodist So- 
ciety in Louisville was formed in 1806. It met first in a 
private home, then in a log schoolhouse. In 1809 a build- 
ing was erected on Market Street between Seventh and 
Eighth Streets. Francis Asbury records in his Journal 
on Oct. 22, 1812, "I preached in Louisville, Kentucky, at 
eleven o'clock, in our neat brick church 30 x 48 ft. I had 
a sickly congregation. This is a growing town, a handsome 

In 1816, a new church was built on Fourth Street near 
Jefferson. It was a large brick church with a wide gallery 
on each side. Louisville at that time was a part of the 
Ohio Conference and the conference session of that 
year was held in this church. Bishop McKendree dedi- 
cated the building before the conference convened. The 
Louisville church became a station in 1818 and Henry 
B. Bascom, later bishop, became its pastor. One hundred 
and twenty white members and thirty-seven colored were 
reported. In 1835 two other congregations were formed 
from the membership of the Fourth Street Church on 
Brook Street and on Eighth Street. 



After the division of American Methodism at the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1844, the Constitutional Convention 
which formed the M. E. Church, South, met in the 
Fourth Street Church. As the city expanded, churches 
were organized on Shelby Street and Twelfth Street, and 
in 1852, the Fourth Street Church was moved to Fifth 
and Walnut Streets, and the Eighth Street Church to 
Chestnut near Eighth. The M. E. Church organized 
Trinity Church at Third and Guthrie Streets in 1865; and 
the German Methodists, under the leadership of Jacob 
Shumaker, organized a congregation on Jackson Street in 
1844. In 1907 the Walnut Street and the Chestnut Street 
churches united to form the Methodist Temple at Sixth 
and Broadway, and following unification the Methodist 
Temple and Trinity Church merged to form Trinity 
Temple on the site of the later institution. 

The A.M.E., the A.M.E. Zion and the C.M.E. denomi- 
nations have built a strong constituency among the Negro 
population and seven congregations of the former Central 
Jurisdiction of The Methodist Church are also to be 
counted here. These however have been merged into the 
Louisville Conference in connection with the dissolu- 
tion of the Central Jurisdiction. 

With the growth of the city, Methodism has attempted 
to serve the expanding population. It now has seventy 
congregations and approximately 35,000 members within 
the metropolitan area. 

Through the years these churches have been served by 
some of the outstanding ministers of Methodism, and Lou- 
isville Methodism has given to the larger circles of the 
Church many strong leaders, both lay and clerical. 

Harry R. Short 

Fourth Avenue Church. Methodism was the first of all 
organized religions in the city and the first Methodist 
Society, dating from 1806, and has enacted its fascinating 
history in six different homes, under five distinct names. 

The first building in 1812 was a primitive sanctuary 
only 34 by 38 feet on Market Street, where Bishop 
Asbury once preached. Though he called the group a 
"sickly congregation," it grew rapidly; in 1816 a larger, 
better house was erected nearer tlie town center. Here 
for thirty-six years the Fourth Street Church was blessed 
with a gifted array of highly talented pastors, many of 
whom became widely known throughout the connection. 
Among them were three destined to be elected bishops: 
Henry B. Bascom, 1818-20; Thomas A. Morris, 1828-30; 
and Hubbard H. Kavanaugh, 1835-36. 

Other early pastors of note: William Burke, later Cin- 
cinnati's first postmaster: Charles Holhday, Marcus Lind- 
sey, William Adams, Edward Stevenson, Edmund W. 
Sehon, and John H. Linn. 

In 1845 the church was host to delegates from all the 
southern conferences to the historic Louisville Conven- 
tion, gathered to plan the establishment of the M. E. 
Church, South, as a separate denomination. 

After 1852 the congregation spent fifty-five notable 
years in a new home called the Walnut Street Church, 
again served by some of Methodism's finest preachers — 
men like Charles B. Parsons, Thomas Bottomley, H. C. 
Settle, Samuel A. Steel, Frank M. Thomas, and the 
fourth pastor to become a bishop, Henry C. Morrison. 

A great gathering of Methodist leaders from all over 
the land, north and south, came to the Church in 1876 
for the first churchwide meeting held in connection with 
the Cape May Commission plans for the restoration of 

fraternal relations between the two major divisions of the 
original M. E. Church. 

Unique and massive was the congregation's next home, 
occupied in 1907 at Sixth and Broadway. It was built 
by the Jews in 1857, but constructed in the traditional 
shape of a Christian cross! Taking back a branch which 
had left in 1835, First Church remodelled the old temple 
and took the legal name. Union M. E. Church, South, 
but was popularly called "The Methodist Temple." For 
thirty-three years "The Temple" continued faithful 
through increasing vicissitudes; yet in this period alone 
2,126 new members were received. Outstanding evangelis- 
tic pastors were U. G. Foote, J. W. Weldon, and H. H. 

In 1940 the congregation merged with the Trinity M. E. 
Church, organized in 1865 near the site where the First 
Church began. The merged congregations, now called 
Trinity Temple Church, moved into this forty-year-old 
edifice and enjoyed a great ministry. 

In order to provide a stronger evangelistic program 
for the city and a surer financial base for it.self, Trinity- 
Temple's 600-strong membership gave up its home, and 
in 1962 erected on a downtown corner an imposing struc- 
ture of eighteen floors, providing apartments for elderly 
in addition to handsome church quarters on the first three 
floors, with a roof garden and "Chapel in the Sky" at the 

Elbert B. Stone 

Parkview Church is the oldest continuous Methodist 
congregation in Louisville. One must go back to 1780 and 
the early days of the Falls of the Ohio River to discover 
that the area was crowded with flatboats of those who 
had drifted down to Kentucky from the settlements of 
Pennsylvania Dutch. A number of these people did not 
stop in Louisville but pushed on to the banks of Mill 
Creek and the wilderness trail to the Salt Licks. Among 
these families we would have found Christian and Jacob 
Shively, who purchased from the governor of Virginia a 
thousand-acre tract of land at the junction of Mill Creek 
and Man's Lick Trail. Here they built a mill and did a 
thriving business with the settlers. 

It is not known when Methodism was first brought 
into this section of Kentucky. About 1811, however, the 
Jefferson Circuit was established and in 1816 Andrew 
Monroe was appointed preacher over the Jefferson Cir- 
cuit. It was under his ministry that the Mill Creek Church 
was built. In the Jefferson County records one can find 
that Christian Shively gave one acre of ground on which 
the church was built. The deed is dated June 17, 1816, 
and is made out to Isaac Miller, Hugh Logan, Phillip 
Shively, Alexander Smoot, James W. ThoiTisberry and 
Matthew Love, who were trustees for the church to be 
erected and known by the name of Mill Creek Church. 

John Littlejohn, a pioneer Methodist preacher in 
Louisville and vicinity, whose journal is preserved in the 
archives of the Louisville Conference Historical Society, 
records on Jan. 20, 1822: "I drove from Louisville in a 
sleigh to Shively's Stone Meeting House and preached to 
a large and inspiring crowd." 

For a time the church was used by all denominations 
but about the time of the Civil War it was restored as a 
Methodist building and it has continued with a regular 
pastor and congregation until the present time. 

A change in the residents of the community reduced 
the membership and attendance about the middle of the 



eighties, but a small and faithful few continued having 
regular services until a turn of the tide of residents 
brought new members and interest in the church. 

In 1920 this church was the first appointment of Roy 
H. Short (later bishop), then in his teens. When he 
appeared for his first service, the Sunday school superin- 
tendent inquired if he might show him to the youth class. 
The reply was: "I'm your new minister." 

The church was moved in 1945 to a location on Stowers 
Lane, and it was moved again in 1965, due to construction 
of a highway, to its present location at 2020 Garrs Lane. 
The church which has been knov\ai as Parkview since 
1945 is a thriving suburban church that is growing in 
the service of Christ, through its work in the community of 

John C. Brinson 

Qoinn Chapel A.M.E. Church. In 1833 Bishop Morris 
Brown transferred William P.-vul Quinn to the Ohio 
Annual Conference of the A.M.E. Church and assigned 
him to the Pittsburgh Circuit as a missionary. In the 
course of his travels he organized a congregation of Afri- 
can Methodists at Louisville about 1838. Between 1838 
and 1844 another A.M.E. itinerant, George Johnson, "put 
up a little frame building on the lot they bought in the 
city." Quinn refers to this in the famous missionary report 
that he made to the General Conference of 1844; 

Also the church erected in the city of Louisville, Kentucky i.s 
in a flourishing condition. I am fully persuaded (that) this 
mission, if faithfully conducted, will at no distant period, ac- 
complish wonders for our people settled in these western states 
in their moral and religious elevation. 

Including its founder, Quinn, for whom it was later 
named, this church has had as its pastors five men who 
eventually became bishops: William P. Quinn (1844), 
Reverdy C. Ransom (1924), Noah W. Williams 
(1932), Frank M. Reid (1940) and Ernest L. Hick- 
man (1956). 

Grant S. Shockley 

Sf. Paul Church, Bardstown Road at Douglass Boule- 
vard, began its life as an outpost Sunday school early in 
1915. This was a missionary enterprise of the Highland 
Methodist Church, and Professor Henry A. Smith was 
assigned to lead this endeavor. He became its first Sunday 
school superintendent and held that office until his death, 
forty-three years later. 

In 1921, the present church lot on the corner of Bards- 
town Road and Douglass Boulevard was bought. M. L. 
Dyer was then pastor of the church. The building was 
moved from Woodboume Avenue and placed over a 
basement, on the present lot, in 1923. The name was 
changed from Woodboume Avenue to St. Paul. This 
structure was used until the present sanctuary was built 
in 1931, during the pastorate of J. C. Rawlings. 

In 1941, Roy H. Short (now bishop) came to be the 
pastor of St. Paul Church, from which pulpit he went to 
the editorship of The Upper Room in 1944. Howard W. 
Wliitaker, of the Kentucky Conference, was appointed 
pastor of St. Paul in 1944. Under Jiis ministry the church 
school plant, including the chapel, was erected in 1949. 

In July, 1949, Bishop William T. Watkins appointed 
Ted Hightower as minister of St. Paul, effective Septem- 
ber 1. He was installed as the executive minister on Sept. 
3, 1949 and remained in the position until June 1, 1966. 

St. Paul Church has had a steady and highly useful 
history. Following the consolidation of its own position 
and buildings in 1949, St. Paul launched its first mission- 
ary offensive. In 1950 funds were raised for the building 
of St. Paul in Camaguey Cuba, on the campus of Pinson 
College. In 1951, the Rev. and Mrs. Victor L. Rankin 
went to this church as missionary pastor and completed 
its building. The Rankins were supported by St. Paul. 

From this beginning, several other churches were estab- 
lished in Cuba, parsonages were built, school buildings 
were erected, and our largest missionary endeavors were 
centered there until the Castro Revolution necessitated 
the withdrawal of our missionaries. 

The Woman's Society supports Dr. Mildred Shepherd 
in India. A medical jeep has been purchased for work 
in the Philippines. Both interest and money have gone to 
P,\kistan, the Congo, Scarbitt College, American In- 
dian work, and many other causes, as well. "St. Paul In 
India," located at Bidar, has now been completed and 
paid for and is one of the largest Methodist churches in 
that section of India. 

At home, St. Paul Church has been a sponsoring church, 
establishing four suburban churches, some of which are 
now, after twelve years, almost as large as the parent 
church. They are Christ Church, Buechel, St. Mark and 
Walker Memorial, all in Louisville. 

In 1962, the church purchased property at 2006 Doug- 
lass Boulevard, adjoining the original church property. 
This is a three-story apartment building which has been 
renovated as "Fellowship House" and put into service for 
the young people and multiple uses of the church. The 
Deaf-Oral School meets in this building. 

In 1963 a generous gift of $100,000 made possible the 
installation of stained glass windows in the sanctuary, and 
twenty-two outside windows of St. Paul church. This re- 
markable fenestration carries a continuous iconography of 
biblical and church history, beginning with the Creation 
at one end of the sanctuary and closing with the building 
of the Church Center for The United Nations in New 
York, at the other end. It also has the headstone for a 
large renovation program which is now being completed 
with the installation of a new pipe organ at a cost of 
more than $75,000. This organ is being dedicated in honor 
of Ted Hightower. 

A Brief History of Fourth Avenue Methodist Church, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, 1888-1968. 

W. F. Lloyd, History of Methodism in Louisville. 1901. 
W. I. Munday, Louisville Methodism Yesterday, Today and 
Tomrrow. 1949. 

D. A. Payne, History (AME). 1891. 
J. C. Rawlings, History of Louisville Methodism. 1927. 
A. H. Redford, Kentucky. 1868-70. 
R. R. Wright, Enctjclopedia. 1947. Walter B. White, Jr. 

LOVE, EDGAR AMOS ( 1891- ) , American bishop, was 

born in Harrisonburg, Va., Sept. 10, 1891, the son of 
Julius C. and Susie Carr Love. His early educational 
training was received in the public schools of Vibginia and 
Maryland. In 1909 he was graduated from the Academy 
of Mobg.\n College and in 1913 he received the B.A. 
degree. Cum Laude, from Howard University. 

The B.D. degree was awarded him by Howard Univer- 
sity School of Religion in 1916, and the S.T.B. from 
Boston University School of Theology in 1918. For 
two sessions he did graduate work at the University of 


Chicago. He was awarded the D.D. by Morgan College 
in 1935; by Gammon Theological Seminary in 1946, 
and by Boston University in 1956. 

His marriage to Virginia Louise Ross, of Staunton, Va., 
took place on June 16, 1923. They have one son, Jon 
Edgar Love. 

Admitted on trial in the Washington Conference 
(ME) in 1916, he received full connection as elder in 

1918. His pastorates include: Grace Church, Fairmount 
Heights, Md., 1916; John Wesley Church, Washington, 
Pa., 1921-25; Asburv Church, Annapolis, Md., 1925-28; 
Simpson Church, Wheeling, W. Va., 1928-31; and John 
Wesley Church, Baltimore, Md., 1931-33. 

His pastoral work was interrupted in 1917 when he 
began his service as chaplain in the United States Army, 
with the 368th Infantry and the 809th Pioneer Infantry, 
sei'ving a total of two years and three months, fourteen 
months of which was overseas. After his Army service 
he became a member of the American Legion and at- 
tended, as a delegate from the State of Maryland, the 
first American Legion Convention, Minneapolis, Minn, in 

1919. Years after when he had become a bishop, he 
and Wunderuch of Germany discovered that 
they had been in the directly opposing aimies of one of 
the late battles of the World War. The daily papers 
where the Council of Bishops was meeting photo- 
graphed Bishops Wunderlich and Love standing together 
and featured this story. 

From 1919-21 he was an instructor at Morgan College. 

He became superintendent of the Washington District 
in 1933 and served in this capacity until 1940, when he 
became the Superintendent of Negro work. Board of 
Missions and Church E.xtension, of The Methodist Church, 
New York City, a position in which he sei'ved until 1952, 
when he was elected bishop and assigned to the Balti- 
more Area, Central Jurisdiction, of The Methodist Church. 

He served as Secretary of the College of Bishops and 
President respectively. Central Jurisdiction, and at various 
times served in other important capacities. After 1940 
he was a member of the Board of Temperance and the 
Board of Missions of The Methodist Church. During his 
active service he held membership in the following: the 
Methodist Commission on Chaplains; the General Com- 
mission on Chaplains; the National Council of the 
Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.; the Y.M.C.A. (Balti- 
more, Md.); The International Frontiers Club of America 
— Baltimore Chapter; the National Association for Ad- 
vancement of Colored People, Baltimore Branch; 33° 
Mason, Southern Jurisdiction; Methodist Feder.\tion 
FOR Social Action; the Southern Conference Educa- 
tional Fund. 

He has served as trustee of the following: Morgan 
College Corporation, Baltimore, Md.; Bennett College; 
and of Gulfside Assembly, Waveland, Miss. He was presi- 
dent of the Fraternal Council of Churches, Inc., and in 
October and November, 1954, visited Methodist work in 
Malaya on invitation of the Malayan Board of Evangel- 
ism. By appointment of Governor Ritchie, he served at one 
time as a member of the Maryland Interracial Commis- 
sion. He was appointed by Mayor McKeldin of Baltimore, 
to the Police Advisory Committee, and by Governor J. 
Millard Tawes of the Committee to Study the Penal In- 
stitutions of the State of Maryland. 

One of the outstanding sermons of his career was de- 
livered in 1959 in connection with the 175th Anniversarv 

of Methodism. In it he made a stirring appeal to an 
audience of young ministers — all of whom were under 
thirty-five — not to conform to the status quo, but to have 
the courage to push forward to new horizons of their 
own. He reminded them that the founders of Methodism 
were, like themselves, young men. Following retirement 
at the Jurisdictional Conference of the Central Jurisdic- 
tion in 1964, he continues to reside in Baltimore. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. 

Mary French Caldwell 

LOVE FEAST or AGAPE. The oldest known document on 
the orders of the church is the Didache and it is here that 
the primitive Christians spelled out the first regulations 
for the Agape. Several things seem to be established from 
examination of this document: (1) The Agape was not 
the Eucharist, or Communion, though it did prescribe 
prayers of thanksgiving before and after the celebration 
of The Lord's Supper; (2) It was conducted in the 
absence of a settled ministry by the laymen who belonged 
to the little bands of gathered Christians; it obviously 
was the Christian carryover of the Jewish customs 
observed by families when a blessing was said before the 
meal, and a thanksgiving following the meal. 

The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Coptic Chris- 
tians are credited by most scholars for continuing the 
practice of the Love Feast during the remaining centuries 
until the German pietists revived the custom in Europe 
in the late 1600's. John Wesley met the Agape for the 
first time in 1737 when he was in Savannah, Ga., and 
attended a Moravian Love Feast. (Wesley's Journal, 
Aug. 8, 1737). Frank Baker indicates in Methodism and 
the Love Feast that shortly after Wesley's heartwarming 
at Aldersgate in 1738, the Fetter Lane Religious So- 
ciety, to which he then belonged, listed among its rules 
the fixing of regular times for observance of the Love 
Feast. At this point the feasts began at 7 o'clock and ended 
at 10:00 — but one record shows a Fetter Lane Love Feast 
starting at 9:00 p.m. and ending at 3:00 a.m.! Wesley 
records in his Journal for Dec. 31, 1738 that he, his 
brother Charles, Whitefield, and others attended such 
a feast at Fetter Lane and that "about three in the morn- 
ing . . . the power of God came mightily upon us." 

As Methodism grew in America and established itself 
as a church in 1784, the Love Feast was an integral part 
of its pattern. The Love Feast and the Lord's Supper 
were immediately identified as the proper places to receive 
offerings for the poor. By 1789 the Discipline not only 
listed as a required duty for the preachers the regular 
watch night .services, the prayer services, but also the 
Love Feast. To strengthen the evidence of the role of 
the Love Feast, the clear directions of Wesley contained 
in his A Plain Account of Christian Perfection were in- 
cluded in the Disciplines of 1792, 1794, 1796, and 1797. 
They also ruled, "Suffer no Love Feast to last above one 
hour and a half." 

The Discipline of 1852 shows a liberalizing trend in 
the matter of who could attend the Love Feast. In Section 
III of that Discipline, question 5 reads, "How often shall 
we permit strangers to be present at our Love Feasts?" 
The answer, "Let them be admitted with utmost caution; 
and the same person on no account above twice or thrice, 
unless he become a member." 

Patterned on the agape of New Testament and apostolic 
times, the Love Feast became an important devotion 



among Methodists in the days of John Wesley, and has 
been observed on occasions by Methodists ever since. 

When possible, worshipers were to be seated in a circle 
or around a table. Bread was broken into small portions, 
or a common loaf passed from hand to hand. Tradition- 
ally a loving cup with two handles was provided for water. 
The usual order for a modern observance might run: 

A Prelude 

A Hymn of Praise 

The Scripture, St. John 6:26-35 

Voluntary Prayers and the Lord's Prayer 

An Address 

A Hymn of Christian Fellowship 

The Passing of Bread with Blessing 

The Passing of tlie Cup wit;h Blessing 

A Thanksgiving in unison 

An offering for the poor 


A Hymn of Thanksgiving 

A Blessing 

A Posdude 

In both British and American Methodism there have 
been attempts to revive interest in observance of the Love 
Feast. American Methodists have included the form for 
observance in their official Book of Worship and many 
Annual Conferences set a time in their programs for a 
Conference Love Feast. The Discipline has continued all 
through the years to list as a duty of the pastor, "To hold 
or appoint prayer meetings, love feasts, and watch-night 
meetings, wherever advisable." (Discipline 1964, Par. 
352.8) In honesty it must be reported that more often 
than not. Twentieth Century Methodists are probably un- 
aware of the Love Feast, but there is a great value in 
this tradition that many churchmen seek to revive. (See 
also Worship. ) 

F. Baker, Methodism and the Love Feast. 1957. 

Discipline, 1784, 1797, 1853. Emouy S. Bucke 

LOVELY LANE CHAPEL, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. The 
historic building in which the M. E. Church in America 
was organized in 1784, was the second Methodist Church 
built in Baltimore, but Francis Asbury loved it, and 
had a great hand in its building. It was built in 1774 with 
two of Asbury's converts, William Moore and Philip 
Rogers, playing a key part in erecting it. When Francis 
Asbury laid the foundation for the building he wrote in 
his Journal, "Who could have expected that two men, 
once among the chief of sinners, would ever have thus 
engaged in so great an undertaking for the cause of the 
blessed Jesus?" Further mention of the building is .seen 
in Asbury's Journal earlier in the year. Asbury himself 
proved anxious to be sent to Baltimore that he might 
be pastor of Lovely Lane, where the people were eager 
that he might come and serve with them. Thomas Ran- 
kin, however, then Wesley's superintendent, insisted on 
sending him to Philadelphia. Finally, however, late in 
February, 1775, Rankin agreed that Asbury might go and 
become pastor in Baltimore, and especially at Lovely 

When the epochal meeting took place between Coke 
and Asbury late in 1784, and they decided to call a 
conference of the preachers to consider Wesley's instruct- 
ing Coke that he come to America and ordain Asbury (and 
the furnishing of the American Methodists with a Sunday 

Service), it is not strange that Asbury wanted Lovely Lane 
in Baltimore to be the meeting place. 

The chapel was down by the harbor (inner harbor 
now) of old Baltimore town, and was a small rectangular 
brick building. For many years, and even today, the site 
upon which Lovely Lane stood was occupied by the Mer- 
chants Club (206 East Redwood Street), upon which a 
bronze tablet reads, "Upon this site stood from 1774 to 
1786, the Lovely Lane Meeting House, in which was 
organized December, 1784, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in the United States of Ajiierica." In Lovely Lane, 
of course. Coke was taken as bishop, and Asbury con- 
secrated as one, and the Church organized. The successor 
to Lovely Lane in Baltimore was the first Light Street 
Church at Light Street and Wine Alley, begun in August, 
1785, and dedicated by Asbury on May 21, 1786. 

Within recent years the First Methodist Church in 
Baltimore, as it was long known, standing at the corner 
of St. Paul Avenue and 22nd Street, decided to adopt the 
name "Lovely Lane," and henceforth will be known under 
that title. This Church today carries on a full-time, aggres- 
sive ministry, as befits a large and influential city church. 
In connection with the present Lovely Lane is the Meth- 
odist Museum, and offices of the Methodist Historical 
Society of Maryland. 

E. S. Bucke, History of American Methodism. 1964. N. B. H. 

LOVERN, JAMES CHESS ( 1909- ) , American minister, 

was born in Morgan County, Ga., Aug. 21, 1909. He 
received the B.A. and B.D. degrees from Southern 
Methodist University, and the D.D. from Southwest- 
ern University. Admitted on trial in the Southwest 
Te.\as Conference in 1935, he served pastorates in San 
Angelo, La Feria, Edinburg, and Harlingen before going 
to Laurel Heights Church, San Antonio, 1949-54. Trans- 
ferring to the Northwest Texas Conference, he served 
the 5,000-member First Church, Lubbock, 1954-64, and 
then succeeded Bishop W. McFerhin Stowe at St. Luke's 
Church, Oklahoma City, Okla. He has been a member 
of the General Board of Missions since 1964, and has 
been elected to and served five times in the General and 
Jurisdictional Conferences. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

LOVETT, WILLIAM (1800-1877), British Methodist, was 
born in Newlyn, Cornwall. He was one of the leaders 
of the Chartist Movement in 1838, became secretary 
of the convention, which it was hoped might prepare the 
way for Parliamentary reform, and edited a newspaper 
Chartism, a New Organ of the People. He suffered im- 
prisonment for criticizing police action against demonstra- 
tors, but he had no sympathy with O'Connor and 
Stephens, the "Physical Force Chartists." Lovett's moder- 
ate policy estranged him from other Chartists, and he 
was not involved in the fiasco of the monster petition of 
1848. In 1846 he transferred his allegiance to the anti- 
slavery movement, retired from acti\'e politics, and spent 
his last years in teaching. 

William Lovett, Life and Struggles. London, 1876. 

John Kent 

LOWE, THOMAS G. (1815-1869), American minister, was 
born between the towns of Halifax and Enfield, N. C, 
near the historic Hayward's Chapel Methodist Church, on 



Aug. 10, 1815. He received his early education in the 
"old field schools" of the day, and became a local preacher 
for the M. E. Church before he was twenty-one years old. 
Although he never entered the annual conference, he 
preached and had stated appointments in many areas of 
eastern North Carolina and VmciNiA. He was frequent- 
ly called upon "to deliver funeral discourses and Masonic 
addresses, in both of which he very greatly excelled." 
His sermons always attracted large audiences. In 
a eulogy to Lowe presented in 1882, Theodore B. Kings- 
bury obsewed that Lowe's name "should be added to 
that roll of illustrious American preachers who were 
eminent for a rich, glowing, and inspiring eloquence." 
Lowe never wrote out his seimons, made an outline, or 
used notes, feeling that he lost all inspiration and fervor 
when he resorted to a pen. HLs seiTnons, which usually 
lasted thirty to forty minutes, were mentally organized 
while he was working or fishing and he would memorize 
the language he wished to use. His "finest oratory," how- 
ever, was usually heard when there had been no previous 
preparation and he spoke extemporaneously. He spoke 
with a clear, musical voice and always used pure, correct 
English, He had "a splendid imagination but under the 
control of reason and taste and allied to wisdom and dis- 
cretion. He was a very sound piece of American timber." 
He "spoke fine poetry, although presented in the garb of 
prose." Once, he spoke at the John Street Church in 
New York City and afterward was invited to preach there 
for the then unheard of salary of $12,000 a year. He 
chose, however, not to leave his home and labors in North 

Lowe married Maria J. Wade of New Bern, N. C, in 
August, 1842, and to this union two daughters were bom. 

He died on Feb. 13, 1869. 

W. C. Allen, History of Halifax County. Boston, 1918. 
Theodore B. Kingsbury, An Oration on the Life and Character 
of the Late Rev. Thomas G. Lowe, Delivered at Hayward's 
Church, Halifax County, on June 24th, 1882. 

Ralph Hardee RrvES 

LOWE, TITUS (1877-1959), American bishop, was bom 
in Bilston, England, Dec. 17, 1877, and came to the 
United States at the age of fourteen. The Lowe family 
settled near Pittsburgh, Pa., and Titus, the youngest of 
six children, worked in a steel mill as a boy. 

He was educated at Ohio Wesleyan (A.B,, 1900; 
A,M., 1908) and Western Theological Seminary (B.D., 
1902), and received honorary degrees from Ohio Wesley- 
an, Nebraska Wesleyan, and the College of Puget 
Sound. He married Anna B. Creed on Oct. 18, 1901; she 
died April 4, 1911, and he married Edith E. Egloff on 
Jan. 6, 1913. She died after Bishop Lowe retired, and 
in 1957 he married Ellen Louise Stoy. 

Titus Lowe joined the Pittsburgh Conference in 
1900, His pastorates were: Fourth Street, Braddock, Pa., 
1900-03; Thoburn Church, Calcutta, India, 1903-08; 
South Fork, Pa., 1908-09; First Church, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 
1909-13; First Church, Omaha, Neb., 1913-21; Y.M.C.A. 
Lecturer in France, 1917-18; and Corresponding Secretary 
of the Board of Foreign Missions of the M. E. Church in 

He was elected bishop in 1924, and was assigned to 
Singapore, 1924-28; Portland, Ore., 1928-39; and to 
Indiana, 1939-48. In 1942, Bishop Lowe organized the 
School of the Prophets while serving the Indiana Area. 

It was a week-long annual refresher training program for 
the state's 1,000 Methodist pastors and was still conducted 
at DePauw University when Bishop Lowe died. 

A big athletic man, Bishop Lowe was a college football 
player in his youth and later an avid golfer. His greatest 
relaxation was found in playing the piano, and it was his 
familiarity with church music that caused his church to 
put him on the Hymnal Commission of 1930-34. 

A week after retirement. Bishop Lowe was appointed 
director of Methodist Overseas Relief, and he served 
in this capacity, 1948-52. 

He died at Indianapolis, Ind., on Nov. 27, 1959. His 
funeral was conducted on November 30 by Bi.shops 
Rich.\rd C. Raines and J. Ralph M.\gee. The remains 
were cremated. 

Who's Who in the Clergy. 

World Outlook, January 1960. Jesse A. Earl 

LOWELL, LEROY M. (1894- ), an ordained elder of 

the Southern Michigan Conference of the Free Method- 
ist Church, was bom at Cortland, N. Y. He received 
the A.B. degree (Magna Cum Laude) at Greenville 
College, 1923, and the A.M. degree from the Winona 
Lake School of Theology, 1933; Seattle Pacific Col- 
lege conferred the Litt.D. in 1943. He was pastor of 
Free Methodist churches in California, Kansas and 
Michigan. Dr. Lowell served as president of Spring Ar- 
bor (Michigan) Junior College, 1935-44 and 1955-57, He 
was the first speaker of the denomination's Light and Life 
Hour broadcast. He is author of Building the House 
Beautiful. He was editor of denominational youth papers, 
1941-56, Dr, and Mrs, Lowell live near Lakeland, Fla, 
since retiring, 

Byron S, Lamson 

LOWES, MATTHEW (1721-1795), British Methodist, was 
born in Whitfield, Northumberland. As a young man he 
was deeply influenced by Charles Wesley's sermon, 
"Awake, thou that sleepest!" published in 1742, and a 
visit of Christopher Hopper to his home about 1748 led 



to his conversion. John Wesley confirmed the urging of 
his friends that he should become an itinerant preacher, 
but he remained a local preacher until he could dis- 
charge his father's debts. His first appointment was to the 
Leeds circuit in 1751. The arduous work of the itinerancy 
proved too much for his indifferent health, and after in- 
tervals of serving as a "half-itinerant" in 1771, Wesley re- 
gretfully accepted his resignation because of his "asthmatic 
complaint. " He remained in Newcastle as a supernumer- 
ary, whence he made occasional preaching expeditions as 
his health permitted. 

On his preaching rounds Matthew Lowes had some- 
times sold a family remedy, "Lowes' Balsam." This method 
of supplementing his meager income to support a large 
family was stopped when the 1768 conference strongly 
urged itinerant preachers not to engage in trade, an ex- 
hortation followed up in 1779 by a specific prohibition. 
After his retirement, however, the position was different, 
and in November 1771, John Wesley wrote to Lowes: 
"Certainly there is no objection to your making balsam 
while you are not considered as a travelling preacher." 
Lowes' Balsam apparently provided sustenance for Lowes 
and his family until his wife's death in 1793 and his own 
on Feb. 8, 1795. The recipe has continued to serve the 
farming community since, passing into the hands of a 
Methodist chemist in Alston, George Thompson, who sold 
the preparation as "Lowes' Veterinary Oil." At a change 
of ownership on Thompson's death in 1890, it became 
"Laws' Oil," and is still manufactured by a firm of Carli.sle 

Arminian Magazine, 1795. 
Methodist Magazine, March 1947. 

Frank Baker 

LOWRY, HIRAM HARRISON (1843-1924), American mis- 
sionary, church builder and educator, was born in Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, May 29, 1843. He served in the 97th Ohio 
Infantry, 1862-63. In 1867 he graduated from Ohio Wes- 
leyan, married Parthenia Nicholson, and went to Foo- 
chow, China. He was the first Methodist missionary to 
cross the Pacific in a steamship. 

In 1869, the Wheelers and Lowrys were sent to Peking 
to open a mission there. In 1873, when Wheeler had to 
return to the United States because of ill health, Lowry 
became superintendent of the mission, a position in which 
he continued until 1893. When Peking University was 
opened in 1894, he was named its president and con- 
tinued until 1918, when it was reorganized to become a 
union institution and renamed Yenching University. He 
died in Peking on Jan. 13, 1924. 

He was an able, broad-minded, unselfish and diligent 
administrator, and the North China Annual Conference 
often recognized its debt to this pioneer missionary. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1957. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

W. N. Lacy, China. 1948. 

Who's Who in America, 1918-19. Francis P. Jones 

ican minister, teacher and New Testament scholar, was 
bom in Brownsville, Pa., on Oct. 19, 1871. His family in- 
heritance was German and English. His early religious life 
was in the Protestant Episcopal Church of his mother. 
But Methodism early appealed to him and he turned 
toward her strong educational stress. He received a M.A. 
degree for public school teaching from California Normal 

School, California, Pa., in 1890. He received his A.B. 
degree from Allegheny College in 1898, and was re- 
ceived into the Pittsburgh Conference and fully or- 
dained in 1902. 

He served Methodist Churches in Vanderbilt, Pa., and 
Braddock, Pa., and then decided on further education and 
entered Boston University. 

He was married to Lida Vance Moore on Sept. 15, 1903. 
One son, William Robert Lowstuter, and three grandsons 

He received the S.T.B. degree from Boston University 
in 1908, the Ph.D. in 1911, and the D.D. from Allegheny 
in 1915. Elected the Jacob Sleeper Fellow from Boston 
LTniversity, he spent two years of study in Berlin and 
Marburg, Germany. 

From 1911 to 1918 he taught at the Iliff School of 
Theology, and from 1918 until his retirement in 1941 
at the Boston University School of Theology. 

He died at St. Petersburg, Fla., in 1958. After Mrs. 
Lowstuter's death he married a friend of many years, 
Mrs. Anna Taylor, who died in 1965. 

Lowstuter's love of the parish ministry never left him, 
and there is a Memorial Room in his honor in the United 
Church of Norfolk, Mass., where he served many years. 
He had a superb ability in the classroom to unite the 
study of the New Testament text to the living church. 
He was an able lecturer, but most of all he was a teacher 
of ministers! No man ever had a higher respect for his 
calling. "My students are my books," he would say, and 
this was his standard for faculty efficiency at the profes- 
sional level. Few men, if any, ever trained more men for 
the schools and churches of American Methodism. 

Walter G. Muelder 

LOYNE, SOPHIA D. (1845-1917), was the wife of an 
American clergyman, and a pioneer in founding institu- 
tions to help the needy. She was born in Yorkshire, En- 
gland, a daughter of James and Hannah Drinkwater, and 
came to the United States during the period of the Civil 
War. She married William A. Loyne in October 1870, 
while he was a local preacher in St. John's Church, Dover, 
N. H. She had five children, four of whom survived her. 

After her husband went into the traveling ministry and 
during her residence in Portsmouth, N. H., Mrs. Loyne 
became interested in the poor of the city, the needy 
sailors, and the aged people. She then helped found a 
home for the aged, the first institution of its kind in that 
state. Also through her prayers and influence came into 
existence the Manchester (N.H.) Children's Home and 
Dispensary and the Mercy Home for the Care of Girls. 
During residence in Colebrook, N. H., her heart bled for 
the neglected lumbeirnen of the North Country, and from 
her small beginnings the work grew rapidly until it was a 
nation-wide service of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union. At the head of this movement, first as State Super- 
intendent of the Department of Lumbermen and then as 
National Superintendent of the Department of Lumber- 
men and Miners, Mrs. Loyne held both offices throughout 
the rest of her life. 

This work embraced over four million men and many 
thousands of famibes, and was one of the largest depart- 
ments of Christian activity to be found anywhere in the 
world in those days. While living in Woodsxalle, N. H., she 
felt moved to aid the woodmen and the railroad men, and 
through that interest the Woodsville Cottage Hospital was 


born, designed to alleviate the sufferings not only of 
woodsmen and railroad men but of a multitude that con- 
tinue to this day to need its services. The city of Laconia, 
N. H., owes to Mrs. Loyne, as much as to any one else, 
the founding of Laconia's Home for Old People. At Mrs. 
Loyne's death on July 14, 1917, more than ordinary loss 
was felt. 

Journal of the New Hampshire Conference, 1918. 

William J. Davis 

LO YUN-YEN (R. Y. Lo) (1890- ), writer and public 

official, was born in Kiukiang, Kiangsi province, China. 
He was educated in WiUiam Nast College (see article on 
Carl F. Kupfeb ) , Baldwin-Wallace College and 
Syracuse University, where he was awarded a Ph.D. for 
his thesis. The Social Teaching of Confucius. On his 
return to China he became editor of The Chinese Christian 
Advocate and The Young People's Friend. He was also 
active in public affairs and was for many years a member 
of the Legislative Yuan. He was a delegate to the Jeru- 
salem Conference of the International Missionary 
Council in 1928 and to the Methodist General Confer- 
ences of 1928 and 1940. 

Besides several books on the opium problem, he was 
author of: The Chinese Revolution from the Inside 
(1930); What is Democracy? (1924); and Christianity 
and New China (1922). As far as is presently known, he 
is still living in Communist China, but nothing has been 
heard from him since about 1950. 

China Christian Yearbook, 19.36-37. 

Wlw's Who in China, 1950. 

Who's Who in Modern China, 1954. Francis P. Jonks 

LUBBOCK, TEXAS, U.S.A. (1970 population 146,379). 
Methodism was first organized in Lubbock on March 3, 
1892, by R. M. Morris, with wor.ship on one Sunday a 
month. The first church building, a frame structure, was 
completed in 1905 and cost $1,500. Services were then 
held twice a month. 

A modern nine-story hospital was opened in August 
1954, near Texas Technological College. It was valued at 
$3,581,197 and was acquired by the Northwest Texas 
Conference about si.x months later and named Methodist 
Hospital. Recent improvements include a $200,000 coro- 
nary care unit which is one of the largest and most com- 
pletely equipped units of its type in existence. A school 
of nursing and a nurse's dormitory are an important ad- 
junct to the hospital. 

There are presently twelve United Methodist churches 
in Lubbock, including Mount Vernon (Negro) and La 
Trinidad (Spanish). Also, there is Bethel, a church of 
the A.M.E. Church, and one of the C.M.E. Church. 

Lubbock's twelve United Methodist churches are valued 
at $7,637,444 and reported 14,538 members in 1970, First 
Church, described below, is the largest and oldest with 
5,960 members. A disastrous tornado struck Lubbock on 
May 11, 1970, destroying Wesley Church, a frame build- 
ing whose congregation numbered 120, blowing away the 
roof of St. John's, and damaging the windows of First 

First Church, sometimes called "The Cathedral of the 
West, " is of contemporaiy Gothic design based on the 
English Gothic style of architecture. The buildings, in- 
cluding the educational building, have a present valuation 
of approximately $2,700,000. 


The church was first organized on March 3, 1892, with 
sei-vices in the courthouse, and twelve charter members. 
At last reporting in 1970 the membership was 5,960 and 
the church school enrollment exceeded 3,000. The church 
claims the second largest church school average atten- 
dance in Methodism. 

In 1900 a church and parsonage were built by volun- 
teer labor. The church was destroyed by fire in February, 
1917. The church built at Broadway and Avenue M (loca- 
tion of present building) was dedicated on Oct. 17, 1920. 
The present building was opened on March 6, 1955. 

The impressive stained glass in the windows in the 
sanctuary was imported from England. The magnificent 
Rose Window is twenty-six and one-half feet in diameter, 
one of the four largest rose windows in the world. It 
depicts in part "The Creation." The windows at the lower 
level are of famous Methodist leaders of the early days, 
and leading Biblical characters. The window at the rear of 
the sanctuary adumbrates "Worship," with appropriate 
symbols. The art glass windows in the chapel were 
brought over from the old sanctuary. Of symbolic interest 
in the church is a wood .sculpturing of "The Last Supper" 
(made of solid quartered white Appalachian oak) — an 
exact replica of Leonardo da Vinci's painting and set in 
the altar at the head of the chancel. There have been 
twenty-three pastors since the organization of the church. 
The Avalanche Journal, Lubbock, Texas: March 6, 1955. 

St. Luke's Church is said to be the fastest growing 
church in the Northwest Texas Conference. The church 
began on Aug. 7, 1955, with the Village Theatre as a 
meeting place. Only fifty-four people were present for 
the first worship service and charter membership was 
closed in November 1955, with 187 members. Leo K. 
Gee, just graduated from Perkins School of Theology, 
was the new pastor of this new church. The community 
was growing rapidly and the church was able to keep 
step with it. In 1970 St. Luke's reported 2,250 meml)ers 
and it continues its growth. 

The completion of the first unit of building was on 
April 3, 1957. Since then there have been three addi- 
tional building programs. St. Luke's rates among the high- 
est of the churches paying into World Service. One of the 
most important aspects of the church is the Ministry to 
Children and Youth. The Church School is large and well 
staffed by dedicated laymen. There are presently a senior 
pastor and three associate ministers serving St. Luke's. 

J. O. Haymes 



LUCCOCK, HALFORD EDWARD (1885-1960), American 
minister, author, and educator, was bom in Pittsburgh, 
Pa., March 11, 1885, the son of Naphtali and Etta An- 
derson LuccocK. Luccock's high school years in St. Louis 
Mo., included the one athletic feat of his life, a mile run 
in which he defeated T. S. Eliot — who later became the 
renowned poet. 

On June 17, 1914, Luccock married Mary Louise 
Whitehead. They had two children, and their son Robert 
became professor of preaching at Boston University 
School of Theology. Luccock entered the old New 
York E.\st Conference on trial in 1908, was ordained a 
DEACON in 1909, and was ordained an elder and taken 
into full connection in 1910. He served pastorates in New 
York and Connecticut until 1913 when he became an 
instructor at Hartford School of Missions. From 1916 to 
1918 he was registrar and instructor at Drew Theologi- 
cal Seminary. He was editorial secretary of the Board of 
Foreign Missions from 1918 to 1924, and contributing 
editor of The Christian Advocate (New York) from 1924 
to 1928. 

In 1928 Luccock became professor of preaching at Yale 
Divinity School where he did his major work of teaching, 
preaching, and writing, and befriending generations of 
students until his retirement in 1953. He completed 
twenty-six books and a mountain of journalistic writing. 
His son estimated that his father spent the equivalent of 
eight years in the itinerant travels of preaching from coast 
to coast. 

Luccock became famous for his dry humor. Until his 
death he contributed a column to The Christian Century 
called "Simeon Stylites." 

It was said that Luccock broke every rule of preaching, 
but he had his own style and thrilled and inspired count- 
less numbers of people. He was considered one of the 
great authorities on preaching. He was a warm human 
being, and wherever he traveled made an effort to contact 
his former pupils. He maintained an interest in the affairs 
of the New York East Conference, and in 1926 he col- 
laborated with Paul Hutchinson in writing a popular his- 
tory of American Methodism. In 1953 he delivered the 
famous Beecher Lectures at Yale. 

Luccock received honorary degrees from Syracuse, 
Wesleyan, Vermont, Yale and Northwestern univer- 
sities, and a Litt.D. from Allegheny College. He died 
in his sleep of terminal cancer at Hamden, Conn., Nov. 5, 

Christian Century, Dec. 14, 1960. 
C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities, 1945. 
Journal of the New York East Conference, 1961. 
Who's Who in Methodism, 1952. 

Donald J. West 

LUCCOCK, NAPHTALI (1853-1916), American bishop, 
was bom at Kimbolton, Ohio, Sept. 28, 1853. He grad- 
uated from Ohio Wesleyan (A.B., 1874; A.M., 1877) 
and the University of Pittsburgh (Ph.D., 1886). He was a 
life-long student, with a keen and discriminating apprecia- 
tion of the best in literature, history and science. 

Entering the Pittsburgh Conference in 1874, he gave 
several years to the pastorate and then became professor 
of Greek at Allegheny College, 1885-88. He was then 
pastor of First Church, Erie, Pa., 1888-93; Smithfield 
Street, Pittsburgh, 1893-97; Union Church, St. Louis, 
Mo., 1897-1909; Hyde Park Church, Kansas City, a 
new church which he organized, 1909-12. In 1910 he was 

fraternal delegate to the General Conference of the 
M. E. Church, South. 

Elected bishop in 1912, Luccock was assigned to 
Helena, Mont. With cheerful diligence and unswerving 
devotion, he took up the task but his health soon failed. 
Exposure because of a delayed train brought on pneu- 
monia, the occasion of final collapse, and he died in 
LaCrosse, Wis., April 1, 1916, and was buried in Belle- 
fontaine, St. Louis, Mo. 

He had married Etta Anderson on Sept. 27, 1876. She 
and a son died before the bishop did. Two daughters and 
one son suwived their father. The son, Halford E. Luc- 
cock, became a gifted preacher, a distinguished writer, 
and a noted professor of preaching at Yale for more than 
a quarter of a century. 

Among the books written by Naphtali Luccock were. 
Christian Citizenship, Living Words from the Pulpit, and 
Sermons, Royalty of Jesus. 

Bishop F. J. McConnell said, "Bishop Luccock, in his 
own way made a most helpful contribution to the inner 
workings of the Board of Bishops during the brief time 
that he lived after his election . . . He had the power to 
use an intellectual surgical needle, with humor for an 
anesthetic, so that the puncturing was all over before the 
patient knew what had happened." 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 
F. J. McConnell, Autobiography. 1952. 
Pittsburgh Christian Advocate, April 6, 1916. Jesse A. Earl 

LUCKNOW, India, has long been regarded as the capital 
city of that part of Indian Methodism which was founded 
by American Methodist missionary enterprise. 

Lucknow had earlier been the capital of the Muslim 
kingdom of Oudh, and chief rival to Delhi as the center 
of Indian Islamic culture. The Urdu language, derived 
largely from Arabic and Persian, still spoken by Muslims 
in this part of India, was the official court language of 
the Moghala. 

Two hundred miles southeast of Lucknow is the Hindu 
holy city of Varanasi ( Benares ) , so that the area was both 
a Muslim and a Hindu stronghold. Those who founded a 
Methodist mission center in Lucknow in the mid-nine- 
teenth century thus faced formidable opposition. Yet in 
planning the mission to India, the Board of Missions 
and William Butler considered Lucknow the most stra- 
tegic center. 

The Butlers arrived in Lucknow on Nov. 29, 1856, a 
time of immense importance for both the political and 
the religious history of India. In that year, Oudh came 
under British rule. Many of the complex causes of the 
Indian Mutiny (now sometimes called the "first war of 
independence"), which broke out in May 1857, were 
already in fermentation both in Lucknow itself, and 
throughout North India. Lord DaUiousie's social reforms, 
which included the abolition of "suttee" or the suicide of 
widows, were exciting suspicion that the aim of British 
rule was to subvert Indian faiths and traditional religious 

Within a few months of the Butlers' arrival, North 
India was aflame, and Lucknow itself besieged. But before 
that the Butlers had been cordially received, and enter- 
tained in the Residency for a week. However, they were 
advised against establishing a mission in Lucknow at that 
time, and found themselves unable to buy or rent prop- 
erty there. They therefore established their first center at 



Bareilly. Soon after the Mutiny, the Commissioner wrote 
to Butler advising the immediate opening in Lucknow of 
the proposed mission. Property was quickly found and 
purchased. The Commissioner and his friends contributed 
two thousand rupees for repairs and supervised the work. 
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Pierce were the first missionaries to be 
appointed to Lucknow. Pierce and Joel Janvier began 
immediately an active program, including bazaar preach- 
ing, three primary schools, an English weekly service for 
British soldiers, and class meetings in English and Urdu. 
The following June Hossin Beg, his wife and their daugh- 
ters were baptized as the first Methodist converts from a 
non-Christian religion in Lucknow. 

Since 1936, Lucknow has been the official residence of 
a Methodist bishop. 

British Methodist work in Lucknow began in 1864 when 
Daniel Pearson, a Wesleyan minister, visited the city. He 
was told that the American missionaries were prepared to 
hand over a congregation of two hundred Europeans, in 
order to concentrate on work among Indians. Joseph 
Broadbent was stationed in Lucknow from 1866 to 1873, 
for military and English work. In 1879, the Lucknow and 
Benares (later Varanasi and Lucknow) district was set up, 
with a total of only sixty-one full members, divided be- 
tween congregations in Lucknow and Faizabad. By 1968 
the district had thirty-two places of worship, 1,966 full 
members and a community of 4,819. It had three secon- 
dary schools with 2,398 students, and one teachers' train- 
ing college with fifty-six students. (See also Lucknow 
Annual Conference.) 

J. Waskom Pickett 
D. B. Childe 

Nur-Manzil Psychiatric Institute, located at Lai Bagh, 
Lucknow, was founded in 1955 by E. Stanley Jones, a 
missionary of the Board of Missions of the Methodist 
Church. Jones began his missionary career in 1907 at 
Lucknow. His experience as an evangelist and counselor, 
combined with his Bible study, led him to regard psychia- 
try as a field of knowledge that could contribute substan- 
tially to the welfare of people. He was troubled by the 
signs of hostility between certain psychiatrists and church- 
men, and sought to bring into a practical synthesis or 
working partnership the insights and therapies of psychia- 
try and Christian discipleship. Patients now treated come 
from a wide range of creedal and racial communities in 
India and other countries of Asia. The superintendent is 
now James Stringham. 

B. T. Badley, Southern Asia. 1931. 

J. N. HoUister, Southern Asia. 1956. 

A. D. Hunt, ed.. Seventy Years on the Lucknow and Banaras 

District of the Methodist Church, 1880-1950. Mysore City: 

Wesley Press, n.d. J. Waskom Pickett 

LUCKNOW CHRISTIAN COLLEGE. In 1866, the centennial 
year of American Methodism, two members of the India 
Conference discussed until late at night the opening of a 
college by the conference as a worthy recognition of this 
special anniversary. The suggestion was approved, and 
by 1868 an endowment fund of 10,000 rupees had been 
received. The school was opened on Feb. 1, 1877, with 
Henry Mansell as principal, in a small house on the 
mission compound. 

The following year, B. H. Badley became principal. 
Fifteen of the nineteen years of his service in India were 
given in Lucknow, largely in developing the Christian 

College. He saw the school become the Centennial High 
School in 1882, and then raised to college grade when 
affiliated, on July 2, 1888, with the Calcutta University 
under the name of the Lucknow Christian College. In 
response to appeals to the government, Badley secured a 
desirable triangular plot of land just across from the high 
school building, on which the new building was erected. 
The foundation stone was laid by Bishop James M. Tho- 
burn on Aug. 6, 1891, and it was formally opened on Oct. 
31, 1892. Badley did not live to see the fulfillment of his 

More than literary education was provided, for as early 
as 1892, the business department was opened and for two 
generations trained men in various commercial subjects. 
Then it had to be closed for financial reasons. In 1920- 
22, the complete reorganization of the institution was 
effected, involving the separation of the college, high 
school, and school of commerce. The organization of the 
Lucknow University by the government in 1920 reserved 
to that institution the right to confer the B.A. and B.Sc. 
degrees; leaving other institutions the "Intermediate Col- 
lege" level of only two years beyond high school. In 1946, 
degree classes were restored. 

The College of Arts, Science, and Commerce is the 
largest and main unit of the institution. The most impor- 
tant service the college renders as a four-year institution 
is in science, with more than two-thirds of the students 
in this department. The Teacher Training College was 
opened in 1952, the first nongovernment training college 
in the state. This was a two-year course leading to the 
certificate of teaching, but when this was abolished by the 
government, the college was upgraded for the Licentiate 
Teaching Diploma. It is among the leading teacher- 
training colleges of the state. The College of Physical Edu- 
cation is recognized as a pioneering institution in its field. 
In 1955, a one-year course for graduates, leading to the 
Diploma in Physical Education, was added under the 
Lucknow University. This was the first university diploma 
in physical education to be given in the state. 

The first Indian principal, appointed in 1921, was one 
of its own alumni, J. R. Chitambar, who left the position 
in 1930 when he was elected a bishop of the M. E. 
Church. One of the buildings in the later years of an ex- 
tensive building program is the Bishop Chitambar Memo- 
rial Chapel. The second Indian principal, C. M. Thacore, 
has been at the helm since 1949, and is responsible for 
much of the expansion of the present time. 

John N. Hollisteh 

LUCKNOW CONFERENCE, in India, whose area begins 
about 300 miles from Calcutta and extends on both sides 
of the Ganges River for over 300 miles. Methodist work 
was opened there in 1858. Portions of the conference have 
been included at various times in the North India, 
Northwest India, and Bengal Annual Conferences. The 
Lucknow Conference was organized in February 1921, by 
Bishop Frank W. Warne. There are five districts in the 
conference. The Arrah-Buxar District has ten circuits. 
Buxar is a town of 35,000 inhabitants where there is a 
church of 882 members, which is largely self-supporting. 
The Buxar Brides' School is also located there. 

The Ballia District has a church in Balha, and there 
are reported to be 3,917 members in the district. The 
Gonda District, where work began in 1865, has about 
1,583 Methodists in eight circuits. These center in Gonda, 



a town of about 46,000, seventy-three miles east of Luck- 
now on the North-Eastern Railway. It is in the midst of 
an agricultural area. There is a partially self-supporting 
church in the town with a membership of 579, a consid- 
erable number of whom are students and teachers at the 
Chambers Memorial Girls' School there, which is largely 
supported by the Woman's Division of Christian Service. 

The Kanpur District includes six civil districts. There 
are approximately 7,732 Methodists and thirteen circuits 
on this district. 

Allahabad, where there is a church with almost 1,000 
members, is largely self-supporting, and there is also a 
Methodist Primary School supported by the Woman's 
Division of Christian Service with an enrollment of 326 
boys and 58 girls. The Allahabad Agricultural Insti- 
tute is across the Ganges River. 

Kanpur, head of the district by that name, is a city of 
895,106, situated on the right bank of the Ganges River, 
fifty miles southwest of Lucknow, and is the largest city 
in Uttar Pradesh. There are two self-supporting churches 
in Kanpur. There are several other centers where church 
groups are organized. Kanpur also has the Methodist High 
School supported by the Woman's Division of Christian 
Service, and the Hudson Memorial Girls' School, sup- 
ported by this same division. 

In the Lucknow District there are 2,951 members in 
six circuits. The Lucknow Conference in its five districts 
reports 23,211 members, including those of baptized chil- 
dren. The bishop of the Area lives in Lucknow. 

Discipline, UMC, 1968. P. 1901. 

Project Handbook Overseas Missions. 1969. N. B. H. 

liam Butler faced a problem; orphan boys had been 
gathered together in Bareilly, but he knew that not only 
food but employment was necessary. He felt there was 
no other means within reach but printing. And for this, 
J. W. Waugh's experience as a practical printer seemed 
providential — the very help needed for the enterprise, and 
for the printing of hymns, tracts, and catechism. Funds 
were made available by seven missionaries who gave $100 
each as loans for two years, and the press was set up in 
Bareilly. It was at first called the India Book Concern. 

In 1866, the press was moved to Lucknow and set in 
a small room near the home of the superintendent. The 
staff consisted of six men, with only one hand-press. Chris- 
tian literature was made available, however, and for more 
than a century the Lucknow Publishing House, as it came 
later to be known, has made its impact on Christian teach- 
ing through its publications. From its humble beginnings 
the publishing house now occupies its own building with 
rooms for all departments, as well as a large book-sales 
room. Modern facilities, including an offset press, have 
been added to the equipment in recent years and litera- 
ture can be produced in all the languages of India, but 
especially in English, Urdu, and Hindi. 

From the beginning, the agents (managers) of the 
publishing house have been missionaries, only a few of 
whom had practical training for the work. William W. 
Bell, with both technical and business ability, was 
appointed agent in 1954, and brought the publishing 
house to a state of production and financial stability not 
exceeded in all its previous years of service. In recent 

Lucknow Publishing House 



years, the Boabd of Missions has departed from its old 
practice of making no appropriation for publishing, and 
has given grants to help meet the need of making litera- 
ture available, not only for the Christian community, but 
for others who ask for good literature. 

James Thobubn felt the need of some communication 
with the public and started The Witness with the help of 
James Messmore. It was published first in May 1871, 
every two weeks, but the following year it became a week- 
ly. It was aided at first by special subscription but very 
soon became self-supporting. In more recent years it has 
been subsidized by the pubhshing house. Now called The 
Indian Witness, it has a full-time editor, trained in Jour- 
nalism. The Kaukab-i-Hind (Star of India), a bi-weekly in 
Roman Urdu, meets a need felt by many village pastors 
and leaders. 

John N. Hollister 

LUGG, THOMAS BRANSFORD (1889-1967), American 
church executive, was bom in Salem, Wis., Dec. 11, 1889. 
His education was received at Northwestern University 
and Garrett Biblical Institute. Joining the Illinois 
Conference in 1915, he served pastoral charges until 
1932. He was a chaplain in World War I. His administra- 
tive ability was recognized, and he became superinten- 
dent of the Quincy and Jacksonville districts of the con- 
ference. He served the Methodist Church as a whole in 
the position of Executive Secretary and Treasurer of the 
World Service and Finance Commission for sixteen 
years, from 1944-1960. As treasurer of The Methodist 
Church, he brought to bear in the councils of the church, 
a quiet sincere sagacity and administrative ability which 
had marked effect. A leader of the Southern section of 
the church said that one of the finest things about the 
unification of American Methodism in 1939 was "getting 
to know and work with Tom Lugg." 

He died in Evanston, 111., on Sept. I, 1967. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. 

Henry G. Nylin 

LUKE, BENJAMIN R. ( ? -1918), an orphan boy from an 
upper-caste family, came to the orphanage run indepen- 
dently by Louisa H. Anstey, a former missionary of the 
London Missionary Society, at Kolar, in Mysore State. 
When Miss Anstey made over her mission to the M. E. 
Church in 1890, and it became an institution of the South 
India Conference, Benjamin Luke and his wife joined 
the Methodist Church. He went to help C. B. Ward in 
pioneer work at Sironcha in the Central Provinces. In 
1889, he was appointed preacher-in-charge. His circuit 
became larger in area than many annual conferences now 
are. The work prospered. In 1917, he became district 
superintendent. Under his leadership, church membership 
and local support gained rapidly. The failure of the rains 
the next year brought the threat of famine. Cholera broke 
out and was quickly followed by the arrival of the influ- 
enza epidemic that was then sweeping the world. It over- 
took Luke while he was on tour. He died Oct. 21, 1918, 
and his body was brought home and buried in Sironcha. 
Mrs. Luke remained in Sironcha until 1930, actively 
working as an evangelist. Their only son, J. R. Luke, has 
served as pastor of large churches and as district superin- 
tendent. A daughter. Dr. Jaya Luke, has been in charge 
of medical work since 1925, mostly at Sironcha. Another 

daughter, Ada Luke became the first Indian principal of 
the co-educational Methodist High School of Bidar. 

B. T. Badley, Southern Asia. 1931. 

J. N. Hollister, Southern Asia. 1956. J. Waskom Pickett 

LUKE, CHARLES MANLEY (1857-1946), New Zealand 
Methodist layman, was born in St. Ives, Cornwall, En- 
gland, and brought up in nearby Penzance. He came to 
New Zealand and soon won a place in the business life 
of Welhngton. He possessed great gifts as a platform 
speaker and local preacher. He served for many years 
as chairman of the hospital board, and became mayor of 
the city. He was a member of the executive of two exhibi- 
tions and a member of the royal commission to consider 
the federation of New Zealand with the Australian states. 
He served for many years on the Legislative Council, 
where he was a strong advocate of temperance reform. 
Twice president of the Primitive Methodist Conference, 
he was also vice-president of the Union Committee in 

Archer O. Harris 

LUKE, JOHN PEARCE (1858-1931), New Zealand layman, 
was the son of Samuel Luke, who emigrated with his 
family from Cornwall in 1874. Settling in Wellington, 
Samuel Luke founded Luke's Foundry, an engineering 
firm. His son John became a prominent citizen, serving on 
the City Council continuously from 1898 to 1921. For the 
last eight years of that period he was mayor. He was a 
member of Parliament from 1908 to 1911, and again from 
1918 to 1928. He was knighted in 1921. He and his 
brother Charles were actively connected with the Trinity 
Methodist Church, Newtown, Wellington. 

Who's Who in New Zealand. 3rd Ed. (The Rangatira Press, 
Wellington, 1932). Colin D. Clark 

LUMB, MATTHEW (1761-1847), was a British missionary 
pioneer to the West Indies. He was born near Halifax, 
Yorkshire, in October 1761, and was brought up as an 
Independent. But he became a Methodist local preach- 
er in 1780 and an itinerant in 1783, being appointed to 
Barnard Castle. In 1788 he offered as a missionary and 
was stationed in Antigua, then moved to St. Vincent in 
1789. Here the law forbade unlicensed preaching, with 
fines rising from £18 for a first offense to death for a 
third. Lumb was imprisoned; and when Negroes rioted 
against the injustice, he preached through his cell win- 
dow. Thomas Coke brought his case to the Privy Council 
and gained repeal of the laws. On his release Lumb went 
to Barbados. He died, after later ministering in England 
for thirty-three years, on March 2, 1847. 

T. Coke, West Indies. 1808-11. 
P. Duncan, Jamaica. 1849. 

Findlay and Holdsworth, Wesleyan Meth. Miss. Sac. 1921. 

Cyril J. Davey 

NESS METHODIST CHURCH was organized as the Lumber 
Mission Conference of the Hobness Methodist Church by 
several M. E. Church, South, ministers of North Caro- 
lina who became interested in their local situation. They 
organized Oct. 26, 1900, at Union Chapel Church, Robe- 



son County, N. C, with a special emphasis on home 
missions and scriptural holiness. 

Doctrinally, tlie church is Wesleyan with an emphasis 
on the universality of the atonement, the witness of the 
spirit, and holiness. They retain the class meeting struc- 
ture and re(juire a probationary period of six months for 
prospective members. 

A bishop presides over the six congregations and 1,000 
members in their annual conference meeting. Ministers 
are not itinerant and, hence, have no time limit on the 
length of their pastorate. The Yearbook of American 
Churches of 1968 lists Bishop M. L. Lowry of Pembroke, 
N. C. as the bishop. 

Cetisus of Religious Bodies, 1936. 

Yearbook of American Churches, 1968. J. Gordon Melton 

Robert F. Lundy 

LUNDY, ROBERT FIELDEN (1920- ), American mis- 

sionary and bishop, is the son of Clyde E. and Elizabeth 
(Teilman) Lundy. He was bom at Stilesboro, Ga., on 
March 29, 1920. He is a graduate of Emory and Henry 
College, and Candler School of Theology, Emory 
University, and holds the honorary D.D. degree from 
Emoiy and Henry. 

He married Elizabeth Hall of Pulaski, Va., on June 15, 
1944, and they have three children. 

From 1944 to 1948, Robert Lundy was pastor of First 
Church of Oak Ridge, Tenn., and during one year at 
Yale he was pastor of East Pearl Street Church in New 
Haven, Conn. 

Going to Malaysia in 1950 as a missionary, he served 
in a variety of capacities. His pastorates included Klang, 
Kuala Lumpur, Kuantan, Ipoh, Barker Road and Wesley 
Churches in Singapore. While pastor of the Kuantan 
Church he organized and served the Eastern Malaya Dis- 
trict. For four years he was district superintendent of the 
Perak District. In addition to his other work, Lundy was 
editor of The Methodist Message, the official organ for 
Southeast Asia, and served as Methodist News Correspon- 
dent for Malaysia. He served for a term as President of 
the Council of Churches of Malaysia and Singapore. 

He was elected bishop in 1964 to head the work in 
the Singapore area for a four year term. At that time the 
Singapore area of The Methodist Church had four annual 
conferences with diverse languages. After serving his terms 
as bishop, R. F. Lundy resumed his place in the autono- 
mous church recently organized in Malaysia. 

Going simultaneously to Southeast Asia with Bishop 
Lundy were his brother, John Thomas Lundy, later Field 
Treasurer for Singapore and a cousin. Dr. Gunnar Teil- 
mann, a leading minister in Malaysia. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church, 1966. 

Clyde E. Lundy 

LUNN, HENRY SIMPSON (1859-1939), British, medical 
missionary and railway and shipping agent, was bom on 
July 30, 1859, at Horncastle, Lincolnshire, and entered 
the Wesleyan ministry in 1881. After training as a min- 
ister, he qualified as a medical doctor with a view to ser- 
vice overseas; and in 1887 he went to India, but returned 
the following year because of ill health. Service at the 
West London Mission was interrupted in 1890 by con- 
troversy with the Mission House over missionary methods 
in India, and this led to Lunn's resignation from the min- 
istry in 1893 and the resumption of his business career. 
He became involved in Liberal politics and discussions of 
church unity, and was kiiighted in 1910. His publications 
include The Love of Jesus, The Secret of the Saints, and 
Reunion and Lambeth. He edited Review of the Churches 
from 1892-96, 1920-30. He died on Feb. 16, 1939. 

H. S. Lunn, Chapters from My Life. London, 1918. 

, Nearing Harbour. London, 1934. 

H. Mobley Rattenbury 

LUTON INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE in England, was founded 
in 1957. Its charter laid down the following principles: 
to make the Christian faith relevant in the realms of 
industry and commerce; to give practical training in in- 
dustrial mission; and to give training in leadership and 
corporate responsibility. The College was founded through 
the initiative of a Methodist minister, William Gowland, 
who left the Albert Hall, Manchester, in 1954, to make 
his headquarters in Luton, Bedfordshire, a car manufactur- 
ing town in the south of England. The Conference sta- 
tioned him in charge of a church called Chapel Street, 
built to seat 2,000, and then on the point of closure. 
Gowland developed the premises as a community-center, 
the Luton Industrial Mission, and was soon acting as 
industrial chaplain in eight factories. He started the Col- 
lege itself in the Chapel in 1957, and during the first ten 
years 6,000 students attended short courses. The main 
aim was to train laymen but theological students also 
attended. In September 1959, the College became a divi- 
sion of the Methodist Home Mission Department. The 
British Methodist Church now has about two hundred 
ministers who serve as industrial chaplains; they all re- 
ceive an induction course before they start, and are invited 
back every third year for retraining. An annual study 
conference for the chaplains is part of their three-tier 
training. The College is ecumenical in terms of staff and 
students. It was the first industrial college of its kind in 
the world. One important emphasis of industrial chap- 
laincy in British Methodism has been that chaplains should 
only be appointed where both management and trade 
unions are in agreement: no ecumenical work is possible 
within industry where the unions in particular oppose the 



Lydia Patterson Institute, El Paso, Texas 

coining of the chaplain. There has been a tendency in 
Britain for chaplains to be set up through management 
alone. A second emphasis has been on the need for con- 
tinuity in the chaplain's work: men should not be sent 
and then taken away again within two or three years. 

William Gowland 
Frank Baker 

LYCETT, FRANCIS (1803-1880), British businessman and 
benefactor of the church, was bom at Worcester, the son 
of a glovemaker, and was converted in his youth. In 
1832, following a slump in his father's business, he be- 
came manager of a glove firm in London and prospered. 
From 1866-67 he was sherifiF of London and Middlesex, 
and was awarded a knighthood in 1867. He refused the 
honor of meeting Emperor Napoleon III because the 
meeting was to have been on a Sunday. 

Lycett was generous in support of the Wesleyan Theo- 
logical Institution, the Leys School, Cambridge, home 
and overseas missions, and the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. With Gebvase Smith he was largely 
responsible for the Metropolitan Chapel Building Fund, 
launched in 1860, and personally promised £50,000 for 
the building of fifty chapels in twenty years, provided an 
equal sum was raised in the provinces. He died on Oct. 
29, 1880. 

G. J. Stevenson, Methodist Worthies. 1885. 

H. MoRLEY Rattenbury 

LYCOMING COLLEGE, Wilhamsport, Pennsylvania, was 
established in 1812 as Williamsport Academy. It became 
Williamsport-Dickinson Seminary in 1848, Williamsport 
Dickinson Junior College in 1929, and Lycoming College 
in 1948. The college is the property of the Preachers' 
Aid Society of the Central Pennsylvania Conference. 
Lycoming is the Indian name for the region around 
Williamsport. The college offers the B.A. degree. The 
governing board has thirty members elected by the 
Preachers' Aid Society of the Central Pennsylvania Con- 

John O. Gross 

LYDIA PATTERSON INSTITUTE, El Paso, Texas, originally 
a school for Mexican boys, now coeducational, was made 
possible by a gift of $75,000 on Dec. 4, 1913, by an 
El Paso attorney, Millard Patterson, who was not a Meth- 
odist. Patterson stipulated that the money was "to be 
used under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South for the education and religious training 
of boys and young men to preach the gospel in Mexico." 
The school was named Lydia Patterson in memory of 
Patterson's wife who was for many years a member of 
Trinity Church, El Paso. The original gift was used to 
erect a building to house the school. From the beginning 
the institute received support as a missionary project, and 
today it is related to the National Division of the General 
Board of Missions while at the same time it enjoys a 
special relationship to the South Central Jurisdiction 
whose annual conferences accepted quotas and raised 
some $750,000 for its building program in the 1960's. 
The institute has a special English department, an inter- 
mediate school, a high school, a preministerial department, 
and a night school for adults. Young men preparing for the 
ministry may live in the institute's dormitories while at- 
tending college in El Paso. The institute is closely af- 
filiated with the Rio Grande Conference, many of whose 
ministers are among its alumni. Lydia Patterson Institute 
is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools and by the University Senate. It is managed by 
a board of trustees elected by the South Central Jurisdic- 
tional Conference. In the main its support is derived from 
tuition, individual donations, and advance specials from 
the churches of the South Central Jurisdiction. In 1969 
the institute reported 25 teachers, 582 regular students, 
a library of 10,200 volumes, a plant valued at $1,600,000, 
an annual budget of $262,000, and an endowment of 

Bulletins of Lydia Patterson Institute. 

1970 Yearbook, General Board of Education. 

Project Handbook Section of Home Fields (National Division, 

Board of Missions of The Methodist Church). N. B. H. 

LYNCH, JAMES (1775-1858), Irish preacher and mis- 
sionary pioneer in Ceyxon and India, under the British 
Wesleyans, was bom in Londonderry, in the north of 



Iheland, and grew up as a Roman Catholic. He was con- 
verted under Methodist preaching 1802 and entered the 
ministry in 1808. 

In 1812 he was one of the volunteers who joined 
Thom.\s Coke's missionary venture to the East. When 
Coke died on this jouniey, James Lynch was one of those 
with qualities of leadership to take over the difficult 
situation that ensued. The strategic stations the little 
company of six young preachers established in Ceylon 
have remained important centers of witness through all 
the years since. Not being good at languages. Lynch him- 
self ministered mainly to British civil and military per- 

Once the work was firmly begun in Ceylon, the chance 
came to fulfill something of Coke's original plan. In 1817 
James Lynch became a pioneer missionary to Madras, 
and was welcomed by a group of serious-minded people 
who met for Bible study in Royapettah. He built the 
first chapel there in 1817, and continued a ministry mainly 
amongst Europeans until a breakdown in health necessi- 
tated his return to Ireland in 1825. 

In Ireland he threw himself again into circuit work, 
mainly in the north. Increasing physical weakness led to 
his retirement from active ministerial life in 1842. Most 
of his closing years as a supernumerary were spent in 
England, at London and Leeds, and he died March 21, 

A junior colleague on one occasion was William But- 
ler whose missionary zeal was so kindled by James 
Lynch, that in later years he was the founder of Amer- 
ican Methodism's missions in India and Mexico. 

C. H. Crookshank, Methodism in Ireland. 1885-88. 
Findlay and Holdsworth, Wesleyan Meth. Miss. Soc. 1921. 
W. M. Harvard, Ceylon and India. 1823. Cyril J. Davey 

Frederick Jeffrey 

LYNCH, JAMES D. (1839-1872), American Negro min- 
ister and politician, was bom on Jan. 8, 1839 in Balti- 
more, Md. His father was a free man who had purchased 
James' mother from slavery. After he graduated from the 
Kimball Union Academy in New Hampshire in 1857, 
Lynch became a Presbyterian minister until 1859 when 
he joined the A. M. E. Church. He served parishes in 
Illinois and Indiana before his transfer to the Baltimore 
Conference in 1860. 

In May 1863, Lynch became a missionary to former 
slaves in South Carolina under the auspices of his 
church and the National Freedmen's Relief Association. 
Two years later he and four other preachers, with Bishop 
Daniel A. Payne, formed the South Carolina Conference 
of the A.M.E. Church. Returning to Philadelphia in 
February 1866, Lynch became editor of The Christian 
Recorder, the official A. M. E. paper. In June 1867, he 
resigned that post to join the M. E. Church, convinced 
that it was, he wrote, "God's chosen power to lift up my 
race from degradation." Immediately Lynch went to 
Mississippi where he helped to organize a new conference 
for the M. E. Church in 1869. 

A popular orator and respected spokesman for black 
Mississippians, Lynch pleaded so effectively for racial 
harmony that he maintained the respect of his white eccle- 
siastical and political opponents. In 1868 and 1872 he 
was a delegate to the Republican National Convention. 
Educational work with the Freedmen's Bureau and elec- 
tion in 1870 as Secretary of State for Mississippi involved 

him further in politics. He continued, however, as a pre- 
siding elder in the Mississippi Conference and served 
as one of the first Negro delegates in a M. E. General 
Conference in 1868, and again in 1872. From 1868 until 
his death Lynch published the Colored Citizen's Monthly 
"to defend the interests of the Negro, the Republican 
Party and the M. E. Church." His death from pneumonia 
on Dec. 18, 1872 in Jackson, Miss., cut short a brilliant 
career of racial, political and ecclesiastical leadership. 

James M. McPherson, ed. The Negro's Civil War. How Ameri- 
can Negroes Felt and Acted During the War For the Union. 
New York: Pantheon Books, 1965. 

Ralph E. Morrow. Northern Methodism and Reconstruction. 
East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press, 1956. 
Alexander W. Wayman. Cyclopedia of African Methodism. 
Baltimore: Methodist Episcopal Book Depository, 1882. 
Vernon L. Wharton. The Negro in Mississippi, 1865-1890. 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina 
Press, 1947. William B. Gravely 

LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA, U.S.A., on the James River in 
the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains with a popula- 
tion of 53,134 is a shipping and trading center for a rich 
agricultural region. Founded by John Lynch in 1757, 
Lynchburg was incorporated as a town in 1805 and city 
in 1852. During the Civil War the Confederates held 
Lynchburg to the end as one of their vital supply bases. 
Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House twenty miles 
east of the city. 

Three schools are located here: Randolph-Macon 
Woman's College, Lynchburg College, and Virginia 
Theological Seminary. Sweet Briar College is twelve 
miles away. 

Bishop Francis Asbury frequently visited Lynchburg 
and held several conferences there. Both Bishops Asbury 
and Whatcoat preached and celebrated holy communion 
in the city in 1805. 

In 1811 Lynchburg was mentioned in the Minutes, 
with John Weaver as pastor who reported 207 members 
for the circuit. At the division of the M. E. Church in 
1845, the society of course adhered to the M. E. Church, 
South. After the Civil War the M. E. Church organized 
a society of colored members before 1876. That year 
Lynchburg had three Southern Methodist Churches: Cen- 
tenary with 402 members; Court Street, 388; City Mis- 
sion, 108; and the M. E. Church (colored) had 617 

Memorial Church was organized in 1883 with eighty- 
nine charter members who transferred from Court Street, 
among whom were C. V. Winfree and John Bell Winfree, 
leaders of church and civic life. 

Randolph-Macon Woman's College, chartered in 
1891, opened its doors in 1893 with William Waugh 
Smith as founder and first president. 

In 1900 there were six M. E. Church, South, congrega- 
tions: Court Street, Centenary, Memorial, Trinity, Cabell 
Street, and Southview. 

The unification of Methodism in 1939 brought two 
former M. P. churches (First Church and Park View) 
into the Virginia Conference (SEJ). Jackson Street 
Church, organized in 1866 as a Negro M. E. Church, 
became a part of the Washington Conference (CJ). 

Chestnut Hill Church was organized in 1951 in a 
building purchased from the Congregational-Christian 
Church with a small group of the original members re- 
maining as charter members. 



In 1965, a group of dissenting Methodists, reacting 
against the position of The Methodist Church on civil 
rights, withdrew and organized the First Southern Meth- 
odist Church as a "segregated church without bishops." 

Other Methodist bodies in Lynchburg in 1965 were: 
the C. M. E., organized in 1872 (membership, 160); 
and the Wesleyan Methodist Church, organized in 1929 
(membership, 56). 

Lynchburg has been the host to many history-making 
sessions of both the Virginia Conference and the Washing- 
ton Conference. 

In 1970 Lynchburg reported thirteen United Methodist 
Churches — Fort Hill with 1,454 members and Centenary 
with 1,114 members being the larger. Court Street had 
910 and the Lynchburg District 23,529. 

Collier's Encyclopedia ( Crowell-CoUier Publishing Company, 

Roberta D. Cornelias, The History of Randolph-Macon Wom- 
an's College. Chapel Hill, N. C: University of North Carolina 
Press, 1951. 

General Minutes (U.M.C.), 1970. 

Alfred A. Kem, Court Street Methodist Church, 1851-1951 
( Richmond, Va. : Dietz Press, 1951). 
Minutes, Lynchburg District Conference, 1891-1965. 
Minutes, North Carolina-Virginia Annual Conference (CJ), 

Minutes, The District Stewards, Lvnchburg District, 1853- 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Thomas J. Hawkins 

LYNCHBURG COLLEGE, Lynchburg, Virginia, U.S.A., 
also called "Lynchburg Military College," the first Meth- 
odist Protestant College in the American South, devel- 
oped from the tense political situation of the mid-18.50's 
and was destined to close soon after the outbreak of the 
War Between the States. Due to the slavery issue, the 
entire faculty at Madison College, Uniontown, Pa., 
resigned at the commencement of 1855 and announced 
that a new M. P. college would open that fall. Lynchburg 
was chosen as the site for this college not only because 
it was centrally located and in Virginia but because of 
its healthy climate and easy accessibility. Lynchburg Col- 
lege opened on Oct. 1, 1855, with a faculty of five and 
eighty-one students. It was enthusiastically endorsed by 
local citizens who raised $20,000 toward its expenses. 
The college was incorporated by an Act of the Virginia 
Assembly passed on Dec. 17, 1855, and the forty trustees 
were empowered "to confer hterary degrees and distinc- 
tions upon such persons as in their opinion shall merit 
the same." Among the tnistees was William Henhy 
Wills of North Carolina. 

During the first term of the college there were 108 
students and in March, 1857, there were 135 students 
from Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina, Maryland 
and Virginia. Samuel K. Cox was president of Lynchburg 
College until 1858, when Robert L. Brockett accepted the 
office. In 1860 Robert Boyd Thomson became president. 
The college adopted a military system of training, at first 
conducted on a voluntary basis but, after 1860, compul- 
sory for all students over the age of fourteen. Uniforms 
were worn by the cadets who drilled in regular military 

The General Conference of the M. P. Church which 
met in Lynchburg in 1858 focused denominational atten- 
tion on the new school. Lynchburg College was forced 
to close in 1861 when most of the faculty and students 

enlisted in the Confederate Army. During the War Be- 
tween the States the buildings were used as a hospital 
by the Confederate government and, after the war, as 
barracks by the Federal army. Due to the financial diffi- 
culties following the war, Lynchburg College was never 

Acts of the Virginia Assembly, 1855-56. 
A. H. Bassett, Concise History. 1870. 

J. T. Oakey, "The Story of the Old Lynchburg College," ms. 
copy in Jones Memorial Library, Lynchburg, Va., dated 1936. 

Ralph Hardee Rives 

c. 1861), Lynchburg, Va., U.S.A., known also as "Lynch- 
burg Female Seminary," was established and operated 
by the faculty of the Lynchburg Methodist Protestant 
College. The Institute was opened on Feb. 1, 1858, with 
Samuel K. Cox, President of Lynchburg College, as presi- 
dent. Both the College and the Institute were forced to 
close when their joint faculty resigned in 1861 to join 
the Army of the Confederate States of America. Neither 
school was ever reopened. 

J. T. Oakey, "The Story of the Old Lynchburg College," manu- 
script copy in tlie Jones Memorial Library, Lynchburg, Virginia, 
dated 1936. Ralph Hardee Rives 

LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A., with a population 
(1970) of 87,817, located eleven miles northeast of Bos- 
ton, was first settled in 1629. Primarily known as a shoe 
manufacturing center, the city's industry today includes 
two large General Electric plants. Here Virginia-born 
Jesse Lee, "Apostle of Methodism to New England," 
preached in December 1790, at the comer of present 
Market and Essex Streets in the home of Benjamin John- 
son. On Feb. 20, 1791 with eight members, Lee organized 
the first Methodist Church in Massachusetts in the John- 
son bam. The following June a building was erected; 
here Bishop Asbury conducted the first Methodist con- 
ference in New England, Aug. 3, 1792. 

On March 3, 1968, the third stmcture built of red brick 
in 1879 at the original location on City Hall Square was 
vacated; the property was sold and the building de- 
molished. The historic First Church congregation, now 
relocated and united with St. Paul's, claims to have estab- 
lished the first Methodist Sunday school in New England 
in 1816; organized the first Methodist Missionary Society 
in the United States, Feb. 21, 1819; released William 
Butler, pastor in 1856, to become the first native New 
England Methodist missionary and the father of Methodist 
missions in India and Mexico. Four ministers of this 
church became bishops: Soule, Hedding, Mallalieu, 
and Grose. The Paul Revere bell from the tower of First 
Church, to which Longfellow referred in his poem, "Bells 
of Lynn," has been re-hung in St. Paul's Church. 

At the present time besides the merged congregations 
of First Church-St. Paul's, there are eight other Methodist 
churches in Lynn, the first four of which are offshoots 
of "the church on the Common": Boston Street, South 
Street, Maple Street, Trinity, Broadway, Lakeshore Park, 
Lakeside and St. Luke's. All the Methodist churches in 
the city have an aggregate membership of 3,977 persons 
(1970). In order to meet the complex problems of the 
changing city of Lynn three churches in the west sec- 
tion — Boston Street, South Street, and Trinity — though 
retaining their original identity have pooled their resources 


in "a group ministry" for effective Christian action. More 
mergers will undoubtedly be consummated in the near 

Encyclopedia Americana (International edition). Vol. 17 
Minutes, New England Annual Conference. 
165th Anniversary Book, First Methodist Church, Lynn, Mass. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Ernest R. Case 

LYONS, ERNEST SAAAUEL (1868-1948), American mis- 
sionary to the Philippines and leader — in his later years 
— of the C.\LiFORNi.\ Oriental Mission, was born at 
Howell, Mich., on May 12, 1868. Lyons was educated 
at Puget Sound Business College and the Garhett Bib- 
lical Institute, from which he received the B.D. in 
1899, and the D.D. in 1925. He obtained a law degree 
from Washington State College in 1893. In the Philippines 
itself he took the bar examination in 1913 so that he 
could take care of the increasing legal business having to 
do with Methodist properties in the Philippines at that 
time. He married Harriet Elenor Ewers on Dec. 4, 1900, 
and to them were born five children. 

He was received into the Rock River Conference 
in 1899 and ordained elder in 1901. After student pas- 
torates in the United States, he went overseas as head- 
master of the Anglo-Chinese School, Singapore, in 1899. 
He was appointed Field Missionary to the Philippines in 
1903; district superintendent of the Northern District 

(Philippines) in 1905; superintendent, Manila District, 
1912; and pastor of the Students' Church in Manila in 
1914. He left Manila with Mrs. Lyons on March 21, 
1937, with an official tribute paid to them in these 
words, "These two veteran missionaries have had a re- 
markable service in the Philippines and have seen in 
their thirty-four years of residence here a most phenom- 
enal growth of the evangelical Christian movement and 
especially of the Methodist Episcopal Church, whose mis- 
sionaries they are." 

After Lyons and his wife had come back to California, 
he was called back into active service to be superintendent 
of the California Oriental Mission. It was through his 
work that the mission became organized as a Provisional 
Conference in 1945, after which time he again retired. 
He was a member of the American Bar Association, a 
life member of the Royal Asiatic Society, Straits Branch. 
One of the most versatile men in his activities and one of 
great usefulness to the church, Ernest S. Lyons left an 
enduring memory with those who knew and worked with 
him in the Phihppines and in California. He died in 1948. 

Mrs. Harriet Elenor Lyons died in Los Angeles on 
Oct. 4, 1966. 

Journal of the California Oriental Provisional Conference, 1949. 
The Methodist Bulletin, M. E. Church in the Philippines, No. 
5, May 1937. 
World Outlook, January 1967. N. B. H. 

McANALLY, DAVID RICE (1810-1895), American church 
editor, was bom in Granger County, Term., Feb. 17, 
1810, the son of Charles and EUzabeth (Moore) McAnal- 
ly. He was twice married, first to Marie Thompson, and 
later to Julia Reeves. 

Admitted on trial in the Holston Conference in 
1829, he served various charges in Tennessee, North 
Carolina, and Virginia during the next fourteen years. 
Taking the presidency of East Tennessee Female Institute 
at Knoxville in 1843, he held that post until 1851 when 
he was elected editor of the St. Louis Christian Advocate. 
Except for brief periods, he continued in that position 
until his death in 1895. 

McAnally was an eflFective editor. In presenting the 
news he sought to keep his readers informed on the march 
of events, and in his editorials he tried to ground them in 
sound doctrine. As the Civil War approached he was 
frankly pro-Southern, upholding states' rights and defend- 
ing (without praising) the institution of slavery. In 1862 
he was arrested, his paper was suppressed for treasonable 
and subversive statements, and for some weeks he was 
held in Myrtle Street Military Prison in St. Louis. 
Throughout his editorship he was recognized both in his 
own denomination and in the M. E. Church as a strong 
voice speaking in and for Missouri and Missouri Meth- 

In 1852 McAnally was chairman of the convention 
which founded Central Methodist College and he 
cooperated with other Missouri Methodist leaders in rais- 
ing an endowment for it. While in Tennessee he was 
interested in the common school system and joined Horace 
Mann and others in an effort to improve it. He was a 
delegate to five General Conferences of the M. E. 
Church, South, 1854, '58, '66, 70, and '82, leading his 
delegation to the last three. 

McAnally wrote several books, including Life and Times 
of Rev. William Patton (1858), Life and Times of Rev. 
Samuel Patton (1859), Life and Labors of Bishop E. M. 
Marvin (1878), and History of Methodism in Missouri 
(1881). His primary interest was in the church, and most 
of what he wrote dealt with it, but some chapters in his 
works were devoted to an interpretation of the life and 
thought of the times. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 
M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 
F. C. Tucker, Missouri. 1966. 

Albea Godbold 

McARTHUR, ALEXANDER (1814-1909), British Wesleyan 
Methodist industrialist and politician in Australia and 
Britain, was bom in Ireland on March 10, 1814. In 
1841 he went to Australia for his health. His brother, 
William McArthur, encouraged him to set up as an 
export merchant, and during the gold rush the business 
prospered. He became a member of the Sydney Legis- 
lative Assembly and, later, of the Legislative Council. In 

1863 he returned to England, and became M.P. for 
Leicester from 1874-92. In 1883, he gave £5,000 toward 
a new fund for building chapels in London. He died on 
Aug. 1, 1909. 

H. MORLEY Rattenbuby 

McARTHUR, WILLIAM (1809-1887), British Wesleyan 
Methodist, merchant, alderman, and politician, was bom 
in County Donegal in Ireland on July 6, 1809. He be- 
came manager of a woolen drapery business which pros- 
pered when his brother Alexander McArthur went to 
Australia. Already an alderman of Londonderry, in 
1857 he moved to London, and in 1867 became sheriff 
of London and Middlesex, in 1872 an alderman, and in 
1880 lord mayor. From 1868-85 he was Liberal M.P. for 
Lambeth and was a leading advocate of the annexation of 
Fiji to the British crown. He was knighted in 1882. A 
Sunday school teacher for forty years, he supported the 
church in many ways, giving £10,000 in 1883 to a new 
fund for building fifty chapels in London and, with his 
brother, £3,000 toward the building of Wesley College, 
Belfast, whose foundation stone he laid in 1865. In 
1881, as lord mayor, he entertained the first Ecumenical 
Methodist Conference at a reception at the Mansion 
House, London. He died on Nov. 16, 1887, in London. 

T. McCullagh, Sir William McArthur. London, 1891. 
G. J. Stevenson, Methodist Worthies, iv. 1885. 

H. MoRLEY Rattenbuby 

M'AULAY, ALEXANDER (1818-1890), British Wesleyan 
evangelist and missionary, was bom in Glasgow on March 
7, 1818, and, though his father had been baptized by 
John Wesley, had a Presbyterian upbringing. He and his 
brother Samuel were both converted at a mission prayer 
meeting in 1835, and both entered the Wesleyan minis- 
try, Alexander in 1840. He became known as an anti- 
Socialist, but also as a leader of a forward movement and 
evangelist. As secretary of the Metropolitan Chapel Build- 
ing Fund, he was responsible for the erection of several 
chapels, and in 1876 he succeeded Charles Prest as 
general secretary of the Home Mission Department. 
In 1867 he was elected to the Legal Hundred, and in 
1876 became president of the Conference. After his re- 
tirement he fulfilled a lifelong ambition to preach the 
gospel overseas, traveling at his own expense to the 
West Indies and Africa. He died on Jan. 1, 1890, at 
Somerset East, Cape of Good Hope. 

G. J. Stevenson, Methodist Worthies, iii. 1885. 

H. MoHLEY Rattenbuby 

McBRIER, EDWIN MERTON (1865-1956), American mer- 
cantile executive, churchman and philanthropist, was bom 
July 16, 1865, on his father's farm near Russell, N. Y. 
As a young man of twenty-two, he taught day school 



and at the same time taught a Sunday school teachers' 
Bible class in the local Methodist church. In 1887, he 
opened a variety store in Lockport, N. Y., over the door 
of which read "Woolworth & McBrier." The "Morning 
Watch" movement stimulated him to systematic Bible 
study and prayer, and in late 1889 he sold his business 
and went to China as a missionary under the China In- 
land Mission, intending to spend his hfe in this calling. 
The fatal illness of his brother, with whom he had been 
in partnership, impelled him to return to the States, to 
save his business. 

In 1894, McBrier opened a five and ten store for S. H. 
Knox and Company in Detroit. During this period, he 
taught the Bible class in the Woodward Avenue Methodist 
Church. In January 1912, five chains of five and ten 
stores merged to form the F. W. Woolworth Company. 
Six of the principal executives, including E. M. McBrier, 
F. W. Woolworth, F. M. Woolworth and S. H. Knox, 
had one parent or the other who was a McBrier. E. M. 
McBrier continued to rise in responsibility, becoming 
buyer of merchandise for the merged stores, and retiring 
on Aug. 1, 1921. 

In 1912, the McBrier family had moved to Montclair, 
N. J., and in 1914, McBrier was elected a member of the 
Executive Committee of the Board of Foreign Missions 
of the M. E. Church. In Montclair, he cultivated the 
intimate friendship of John R. Mott and other Y.W.C.A. 
leaders. He continued on the Board of Missions until 
1949. In 1917, he became treasurer of the United Board 
of Christian Colleges in China, and continued in this 
capacity until 1949, during which period he hired his own 
secretary and rented his own ofiRce space, serving with no 

He was a member of the Board of Directors and the 
Board of Trustees of the Montclair Y.M.C.A. from 1916 
to 1948, and led the campaign to liquidate the indebted- 
ness of the Methodist Home for the Aged in Ocean 
Grove, N. J. Among the many honors accorded him for 
his leadership and benevolence, were the "Order of the 
Jade" tendered by the Republic of China in 1940, a cita- 
tion by Syracuse University in 1944 (on whose Board 
he served from 1923 to 1944), and a citation by St. 
Lawrence University in 1949. His service from his re- 
tirement to his death accounted for thirty-three years of 
unremunerated leadership for missions and the Church. 

He died in 1956 and is survived by two daughters. He 
is interred in Montclair, New Jersey. 

Bible Studies of Edwin Merton McBrier from 1887 to 1952. 
Private Printing, 1952. 

E. M. McBrier, Some Reminiscences. Private Printing, 1955. 
Gordon E. Michalson 

McCABE, CHARLES C. (1836-1906), "Chaplain-Bishop" 
of American Methodism, was bom Oct. 11, 1836, at 
Athens, Ohio, a grandson of Robert McCabe, class leader 
and adviser of John Stewart, pioneer American Meth- 
odist missionary to the Delaware and Wyandott Indians 
of Ohio. In 1847 McCabe's family moved to Chillicothe, 
Ohio, and, from thence, to Burlington, Iowa, in 1850. 
For a short time he farmed at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and 
clerked in a Cedar Rapids store. He was converted at 
the age of eight, under the ministry of Jacob Young; 
later, in 1850, after his removal to Iowa, he went to the 
altar at a watch night service conducted by Levin B. 
Dennis in Burlington's Old Zion Church, afterward ex- 

Charles C. McCabe 

plaining: "I was born in Ohio, and bom again in Burling- 
ton." He joined Old Zion in 1851. 

McCabe attended school at Athens, Ohio, and at 
Burlington, Iowa, before entering preparatory school at 
Ohio Wesleyan University (1854). For two years he 
was high school principal in Ironton, Ohio. He married 
Rebecca Peters on July 5, 1860. Also, in 1860, having 
been previously a local preacher, he was ordained deacon, 
was admitted to the Ohio Conference of the M. E. 
Church, and was assigned to Putnam (now in Zaneville), 

In 1862, the Civil War having broken out, he became 
Chaplain of the 122nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry and, be- 
ing captured June 16, 1863, spent four months in Libby 
Prison, Richmond, Va.; later, he went into the Christian 
Commission movement to obtain assistance for wounded 
soldiers. His singing, in this position, popularized the 
"Battle Hymn of the Republic," while his addresses crys- 
talized into his lecture, "The Bright Side of Life in Libby 

In 1865 McCabe became pastor at Portsmouth, Ohio, 
building a church there, and served as Conference Cen- 
tenary and Educational Agent (1866). He was financial 
agent of Ohio Wesleyan University (1867), before being 
called to Philadelphia in 1868 as assistant to A. J. 
Kynett in the Methodist Extension Society, where he 
continued as a secretary for sixteen years. His battle cry 
in promoting church extension, "we're building two a day," 
became famous throughout the church. 

McCabe transferred to the New York Conference 
in 1870. This "apostle of optimism" was elected Corre- 
sponding Secretary of the Missionary Society by the Gen- 
eral Conference in 1884 and soon began sounding the 
slogan, "a miHion for missions." "Chaplain" McCabe was 
elected to the Methodist episcopacy in 1896. This mis- 
sionary promoter, evangelist, and gospel singer, known 
to many as the "Methodist missionary millionaire," be- 
came Chancellor of American Unfversity, Washington, 
D. C, in December 1902. He died Dec. 19, 1906, in 
New York City and was buried in Rose Hill Cemetery, 
Chicago, 111. 


Bishop McCabe's writings include Final Report on Salt 
Lake City Church (pamphlet, 1880); A Glance Back- 
wards (pamphlet, 1886); The Open Door in Latin Coun- 
tries (First General Missionary Convention Address, 
Cleveland, 1903); The American University — Taking 
Our Bearings (pamphlet, 1903); Shouting (pamphlet 
about Christian rapture, n.d.); and "Dream of Ingersoll- 
ville" (an allegory). He edited Winnowed Hymns, assisted 
by D. F. McFarlane. 

Burlington Hawk-Eye, Sept. 5, 1907. 

Chri^ian Advocate, Dec. 27, 1906. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

The Epworth Herald, Dec. 29, 1906. 

J. B. Finley, WyandoU Mission. 1840. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Northwestern Christian Advocate, Jan. 2, 1907. 

Zion's Herald, Dec. 26, 1906. Martin L. Gheeu 

MeCAINE, ALEXANDER (1768-1856), American preach- 
er and one of the founders of the Methodist Protestant 
Church, was bom in Dublin, Ireland, of Roman Cath- 
olic parents and designed for the priesthood. When he 
was about twenty years of age he came to Charleston, 
S. C, where he was converted under the ministry of 
William Hammett, who led one of the earliest seces- 
sions from the M. E. Church. 

McCaine began preaching in Charleston and attracted 
the favorable attention of Bishop Francis Asbury, who 
took him as a traveling companion. He joined the Con- 
ference in 1797 and served circuits in the Carolinas and 
Virginia. He located in 1806 to educate his children, but 
after the death of his wife in 1815 and at the solicitation 
of Asbury he re-entered the active ministry. Although he 
was not a member of the General Conference, he was 
elected secretary of that body in 1820. He again with- 
drew in 1821 and became the head of a boys' school in 

He was appointed by Asbury to prepare a commentary 
on the Bible but did not complete the work. In 1827 he 
wrote a book under the title of The History and Mystery 
of Methodist Episcopacy, in which he opposed episcopacy 
and espoused the cause of the Reformers, whose agitation 
led to the formation of the M. P. Church. John Emory, 
the BOOK AGENT in New York, published a reply, A De- 
fense of Our Fathers, which called forth from McCaine a 
rebuttal entitled, A Defense of the Truth, which was pub- 
lished in 1829. In 1850 he published a book under the 
title of Letters on the Organization and Early History of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Among his other writ- 
ings were a series of thirty-six letters in the Pittsburgh 
Christian Advocate, and forty letters in the Boston Olive 
Branch, which appeared also in book form. In all of these 
he upheld the principles of the Reformers. He also wrote 
in defense of slavery and published in 1842 a work called 
Slavery Defended Against the Attacks of the Abolitionists. 
He contributed numerous articles to the Western Recorder 
on the same theme. 

McCaine was active in the M. P. Church to the end of 
his life. He was a member of the General Conventions at 
Baltimore in 1827 and 1828 and of the General Confer- 
ence of 1830, and a member of the committee which pre- 
pared the Constitution and the Discipline of the new 
denomination. He was also a delegate to the General 
Conferences of 1842 and 1854. 

He worked mainly in the South and died in the home 


of his daughter, Mrs. James Brett, in Augusta, Ga., on 
June 1, 1856. 

F. Asbury, Journal and Letters. 1958. 

T. H. Colhouer, Sketches of the Founders. 1880. 

Dictionary of American Biography. 

E. J. Drinkhouse, History of Methodist Reform. 1899. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Elmer T. Clark 

McCALLUM, DUNCAN ( ? -1834), was John Wesley's 
apostle-general in Scotland, commissioned to convert the 
heathen there. Self-taught, he mastered four languages 
and extensive scientific knowledge. McCaUum preached in 
Erse and English. He commenced as an itinerant in 1775 
and labored indefatigably until 1829, becoming then 
supernumerary. He traveled forty years in Scottish cir- 
cuits, serving long, broken terms at Aberdeen, Inverness, 
Edinburgh, and Dumfries, and eleven years around New- 
castle, Shields, and Moiphet. He was named in the Deed 
OF Declaration. Wesley ordained him deacon and 
ELDER in August 1787. A celebrated preacher, disciplinar- 
ian, and frequently chaiiman of the district, he experi- 
enced hardship among Calvinistic and unresponsive fel- 
low countrymen. He died July 21, 1834. 

City Road Magazine. London, 1875. 
L. Tyerman, John Wesley. 1870-71. 

George Lawton 

McCLEARY, PAUL (1930- ), missionary to Bolivl\, 

was bom in Illinois, received his A.B. degree from 
Olivet Nazarene College, attended the University of II- 
hnois, and earned a B.D. degree from Garrett Theolog- 
ical Seminary. He married Rachel Timm, a science 
teacher, and they have four children. Since he began work 
in Bolivia in 1957, he has served as j>astor in Cochabamba, 
both of the Union Church (English-speaking) and the 
Spanish-speaking Methodist church, and of the Methodist 
church in Santa Cruz. He was superintendent of the 
Central District. In 1962 he was appointed executive 
secretary of the annual conference. 

Natalie Barber 

McClelland, clarence PAUL (1883- ), American 

college president, was bom at Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., on 
Jan. 18, 1883. He was educated at Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, Drew Theological Seminary, and Syracuse Uni- 
\'ERSiTY. He joined the New York Conference in 1908, 
serving churches until 1917. From then until 1925 he 
was president of Drew Seminary for Young Women. 

Transferring to the Illinois Conference, he became 
president of Illinois Woman's College, later named Mac- 
Murray College, in Jacksonville, 111. During his twenty- 
six-year term, until retirement in 1952, the college was 
greatly expanded in every way. The religious emphasis 
of his administration was exemplified by the new Annie 
Merner college chapel, erected in 1949. 

Dr. McClelland served as a director of the Association 
of American Colleges, and as a member of the National 
Council of the Y.M.C.A. He is the author of Question 
Marks and Exclamation Points. Upon retirement he and 
Mrs. McClelland continued to live in Jacksonville, 111. 

C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

Who's Who in Methodism, 1952. Henry G. Nylin 



John McClintock 

M'CLINTOCK, JOHN, JR. (1814-1870), American clergy- 
man, educator, editor, was bom in Philadelphia, Pa., 
on Oct. 27, 1814, the son of John and Martha (M'Mackin) 
M'Clintock, both born in County Tyrone, Ireland. He 
was educated in the Grammar School of the University of 
Pennsylvania. At fourteen he started clerking in his father's 
retail dry goods store; at si.xteen he became a bookkeeper 
in the Methodist Book Concern in New York City. 
While here he was soundly converted and considered en- 
tering the ministry. He entered the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1832, completing the required course with honors 
in three years. During his last year at the University he 
preached regularly. In April 1835, he was admitted on 
trial in the Philadelphia Conference of the M. E. 
Church and appointed to Jersey City, N. J. Never phys- 
ically strong, his health broke in 1836 and he gave up the 

With the help of friends he turned to education, be- 
coming assistant professor of mathematics at Dickinson 
College, and two years later (1837) full professor. Here 
he remained for twelve years, transferring in 1840 to the 
chair of classical languages. He published A First Book 
in Latin (1846), and with George R. Crooks, A First 
Book of Greek (1848). "Second Books" in both subjects 
appeared a few years later. These are noteworthy in tha^ 
they started a method of teaching the classical languages 
which is still used. 

Improving health enabled him to preach more fre- 
quently and on April 19, 1840, he was ordained an elder 
by Bishop Elijah Hedding. 

In 1848 the General Conference elected him editor 
of The Methodist Quarterhj Review and he resigned his 
professorship to accept. During his eight-year term the 
Review became a scholarly exponent of the best Christian 
thought, and for the first time, self-supporting. His analyti- 
cal essays on the positivist philosophy of Auguste Comte, 
and his detection of its errors attracted the French philos- 
opher's notice and led to a correspondence between them. 

He declined the presidencies of two universities to 
which he was elected, Wesleyan (1851), and Troy 

In 1853, with James Strong, he began the Cyclopaedia 

of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, a 
work in twelve volumes, still authoritative in many fields, 
which took much of his time for the rest of his life. Other 
publications included The Temporal Power of The Pope, 
(1855); a volume of sermons; a translation of A History 
Of The Council Of Trent, from the French of L. F. 
Bungener (1855); and from the German, with Charles E. 
Blumenthal, The Life of Christ, by August Neander. 

In 1856, resigning from the Review he accompanied 
Bishop Matthew Simpson as a delegate to the British 
Wesleyan Conference and the Conference of the Evan- 
gelical Alliance at Berlin. On his return he became pastor 
of St. Paul's M. E. Church, New York City. This appoint- 
ment expiring by limitation in 1860, he was appointed 
pastor of the American Chapel, Paris, France. 

During the Civil War he was a most effective repre- 
sentative of the Northern interests through his speeches, 
writings, and personal contacts, removing apprehensions 
abroad, and through The Methodist, of which he was 
corresponding editor, giving correct information at home. 
In 1864 he returned to the pastorate of St. Paul's from 
which ill health forced his resignation. 

As chairman of the General Conference Centenary 
Committee (1864-1868), he kept busy planning the cele- 
bration of the Centennial of American Methodism 
(1866). Daniel Drew, financier and philanthropist of 
New York City, desired to found a "Biblical and Theolog- 
ical School" in connection with this event, and in accor- 
dance with his wishes M'Clintock became the first presi- 
dent of Drew Theological Seminary, now part of 
Drew University, in 1867. Less than three years later 
(March 4, 1870), he died and is buried in Madison. 

In 1837 he married Caroline A. Wakeman, to whom 
was bom one son, Emory. In October 1851, he married 
Catherine W. Emory, widow of his friend, Robert 
Emory. The University of Pennsylvania honored him with 
a D.D. (1848), and Rutgers University conferred the 
LL.D. on him in 1866. 

American Annual Encyclopaedia. D. Appleton & Co., 1870. 
George R. Crooks, Life and Letters of the Rev. John M'Clin- 
tock, D.D., LL.D., Late President of Drew Theological Semi- 
nary. New York: Nelson & Phillips, 1876. 
Dictionary of American Biography. 
Minutes of the Newark Conference. William M. Twiddy 

McCOLL, DUNCAN (1754-1830), Canadian preacher, 
the apostle of Methodism in southwestem New Bmns- 
wick, was bom in Argyllshire, Scotland. His parents 
belonged to the Scotch Episcopal Church, which he later 
left to become "a hearty and zealous Wesleyan." At an 
early age he enhsted as pay sergeant in the British army. 
In 1778 his regiment was ordered to Halifax, and at the 
battle of Penobscot Bay he was under fire for the first 

His military experiences caused him to think deeply 
about religion, to set aside a day for prayer, and to slip 
away with his Bible to a quiet retreat in the woods. While 
in Bermuda in the winter of 1784 he met a Methodist 
woman from Philadelphia, who told him about Meth- 
odism. She later became his wife and a help to his min- 

When his regiment was disbanded in the spring of 1784, 
he settled at St. Andrews, New Brunswick, and during 
the next year he entered business at St. Stephen. Because 
the people were without a place of worship, he opened his 



home for service. So many were drawn to his services that 
the magistrate threatened to suppress them, and in conse- 
quence McCoU was certain that it was his duty to preach. 

At this stage he gave up his business, formed a Meth- 
odist society, and devoted his time to preaching. It was 
not easy, nor did he have full cooperation. "I had also to 
provide a house, seats, and a fire for people in the winter, 
for no one took it into his head to help me," he wrote. 
In 1790, however, he induced his supporters to build a 

William Black met Duncan McColl in 1792 and 
encouraged him to become a Methodist itinerant. He 
helped to found societies in Fredericton and in other 
parts of the St. John valley. Ordained in 1795 by Asbury, 
McColl returned to St. Stephen where he remained the 
rest of his career. 

For thirty-five years of his ministry, Duncan McColl 
labored hard to win souls to Christ and to form Methodist 
societies. He had to endure many hardships, provocations, 
and discouragements and the numerical results were not 
great. Nevertheless he left a deep impression on the reli- 
gious life of the region. 

In 1829 he became superannuated, but was unable to 
assist his successor greatly. He finished his diary Dec. 5, 
1830, and on December 17 he died. He was buried in the 
St. Stephen and MiUtown Protestant Cemetery where, 
in 1885, a substantial monument was erected in his honor. 

Duncan McColl was a brave soldier. Loyalist, settler, 
and preacher of Jesus Christ. He symbolized the fact that 
the strength of the Methodist movement in the Loyalist 
period depended on the spontaneous response of con- 
verted and deeply concerned persons to the profound 
religious needs of the new communities. As a lay preacher 
he emerged to meet the challenge of spiritual destitution 
on the frontier. He introduced Methodism to New Bruns- 
wick and, to his distinguished colleague Matthew Richey, 
"he was second to none of the earlier Provincial itinerants 
in mental power." 

The Autobiography of a Wesleyan Methodist Missionary. 

Montreal: E. Pickup, 1856. 

British North American Wesleyan Methodist Magazine, 1841- 


G. S. French, Parsons and Politics. 1962. 

T. W. Smith, Eastern British America. 1877-90. A. E. Kewley 

MeCOMBS, VERNON MONROE (1875-1951), American 
missionary and eventually leader in Spanish-American 
missions in the far west, was bom at Parkers Prairie, 
Minn., in July, 1875. Licensed to preach in 1902, he at- 
tended St. Cloud Teachers College and taught for a short 
time. Later he graduated with the B.A. degree from Ham- 
line University, 1903, and then from Drew Theologi- 
cal Seminary, 1906. In the same year he received the 
M.A. degree from New York University. In 1906 also he 
married Eva M. White, and he and his young wife, both 
Student Volunteers, sailed for the mission field in Peru, 
where he engaged for a time in teaching. Later he was 
appointed as superintendent of North Andes Mission, 
covering Peru and Ecuador. After a few years of work, 
he broke in health and had to return to America. A physi- 
cian in New York advised him to go to the Southwest for 
rest, and thus he went to southern California. 

As early as 1879 the Southern California Confer- 
ence had interested itself in mission work among the 
Mexicans. The first Sunday that McCombs was in Los 

Angeles he made his way to the Mexican Sunday school 
on Bloom Street. There he found one teacher struggling 
with a small class. The visitor was invited to speak to them 
and this he did in perfect Spanish. This was his introduc- 
tion to new work, for that same year he was named super- 
intendent of Spanish work in Los Angeles. By his deep 
interest in and love for the Mexicans, he gathered about 
him a growing number of them, and by Conference time 
the work was so well established that in 1912 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of Spanish and Portuguese work 
and later, after some years, he was appointed superin- 
tendent of the Latin American Mission. 

To secure help for the expanding work, he had to 
secure two ministers from Mexico, and the new impact 
on the Mexican population soon made it necessary to 
move from the Bloom Street building to an adequately 
planned church on the old Plaza, the center of the Spanish 
speaking community. In a comparatively short time, a 
long-time hoped for school for young Mexicans was 
started. Earlier in the century, the Woman's Home 
Missionary Society of the Conference had established 
a school for Mexican girls in Hollywood. In 1909 a group 
of interested Methodists had organized and incorporated 
The Spanish American Training School for Boys, but little 
happened until McCombs revived the project, and since 
in southern California he had been fortunate in meeting 
former friends from his Hamline student days, many of 
whom had prospered, he readily found cooperators. 

Ten acres of land was secured on Fifueroa Street on 
the outskirts of Gardena, and here in October 1913, the 
school became a reality in newly erected buildings. Its 
aim was "to educate and give industrial and spiritual 
training to Mexican boys." Today the school is known as 
the Spanish American Institute. 

The phght of the Mexican people demanded that well 
planned social work should go hand in hand with the 
religious activities, and this resulted in the organization 
of the Plaza Community Center. This actually began in 
the Bloom Street quarter, and in a way was the fore- 
runner for the Goodwill Industries, for bags were given 
out to interested people to be filled with cast-offs. This 
gave employment to a few needy people. However, that 
method was changed with the coming of the better 
equipped Goodwill. The center developed an Employ- 
ment Office, a Medical, and a Legal Clinic, a Dental 
Clinic and a General Welfare Office. The Center has fol- 
lowed the Mexicans as they moved from the Plaza area 
to other homes on the East side of the city. The work, 
however, is the same. Today several of the leaders in 
both church and social service have come from the Gar- 
dena School and from the influence of the Plaza Church 
and the Community Center. Both the Superintendent of 
the School and of the Center are Mexicans today. These 
institutions are living and growing memorials to the love, 
devotion, and tireless labors of Vernon Monroe McCombs, 
who died in Los Angeles, Calif., on March 15, 1951, and 
is buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery, Glendale, Calif. 

E. D. Jervey, Southern California and Arizona. 1960. 
Journals of the Soutliem California Conference, ME, 1911, 
1912, 1920, and of the Southern California-Arizona Confer- 
ence, TMC, 1951. John Gabrielson 

McCONNELL, CHARLES MELVIN (1886-1957), an Amer- 
ican clergyman and educator, son of Israel and Nancy 
Jane (Chalfant) McConnell and brother of Bishop 



Francis J. McConnell, was bom on Jan. 16, 1886. He 
was educated at Ohio Wesleyan (B.A., 1907) and Bos- 
ton Univehsity School of Theology (S.T.B., 1910). 
Cornell College honored him with the D.D. in 1941. 
In the North-East Ohio Conference, he was received 
on trial in 1909 and in full connection, 1911. His ap- 
pointments were as follows: Middlefield, 1910-12; Berea, 
1913; Lakeville-Newkiik, 1914-20; Board of Sunday 
Schools, 1921-23; representative of the General Board of 
Home Missions and Church Extension, 1924-25; professor, 
Boston University School of Theology, 1926-54. 

He married Grace Dimmick in 1911 and to them were 
bom four daughters. Mrs. McConnell died in 1949. In 
1953 McConnell married Mrs. Margaret Brown and they 
made their home in Deering, N. H., where he died, Sept. 
6, 1957. Burial was in Delaware, Ohio. 

His career included teaching at Andover-Newton The- 
ological School, staff membership with the Interseminary 
Commission for Training for the Rural Ministry, and 
activities as a founder of the Methodist Rural Fellow.ship. 
The Metfwdist Rural Fellowship Bulletin (Winter, 1957) 
was dedicated to "Pat" McConnell and carries wonderful 
tributes to him. He had an unerring sense of the values 
of rural life and of the need to nourish, to consei"ve, and 
to enhance them. In both Methodist and in ecumenical 
circles he played a leading role in giving spiritual depth 
and practical expression to the great movement for rural 

Journal of the New Hampshire Conference, 1958. 

William J. Davis 

McCONNELL, DOROTHY (1900- ), American editor 
and author, was born at Ipswich, Mass., Sept. 18, 1900, 
daughter of Francis John and Eva (Thomas) McCon- 

She received the A.B. degree from Ohio Wesleyan 
University in 1920, and the M.A. degree in 1922 from 
Columbia University. 

She was a social worker, 1922-26, and an editor, 1926- 
32. From 1940 to 1966 she was editor of World Outlook, 
periodical of the Board of Missions of The Methodist 
Church, New York, New York. 

Miss McConnell has served as a member of the Board 
of Higher Education in Asia, on the executive committee 
of the World Methodist Council, on the national board 
of the Y.W.C.A., committee member of the National 
Council of The Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., 
and of the World Council of Churches. 

She is the author of Friends of Nippon, Sugar is Sweet, 
Focus on Latin America, Pattern of Things to Come, 
Contemporary Man and the United Nations, and co- 
author of Sharing The Gift. She continues to reside in 
New York. 

Who's Who in the Methodist Church, 1966. J. Marvin Rast 

McCONNELL, FRANCIS JOHN (1871-1953), American 
bishop, was bom on a farm about five miles from Trinway, 
Ohio, on Aug. 18, 1871, tlie son of I. H. and Nancy J. 
(Chalfant) McConnell. His father and one of his brothers 
were Methodist preachers. He was educated at Ohio 
Wesleyan (A.B., 1894) and Boston University (S.T.B., 
1897; Ph.D., 1899). Eleven institutions, including Har- 
vard, Yale, Boston, and Ohio Wesleyan Universities, 
awarded him honorary degrees. On March 11, 1897, he 

Francis J. McConnell 

married Eva Thomas, and they had two sons and one 

McConnell joined the New England Conference in 
1894. He had four appointments in Massachusetts — 
West Chelmsford, 1894-97; Newton Upper Falls, 1897- 
99; Ipswich, 1899-02; and Harvard Street, Cambridge, 
1902-03 — and was pastor of New York Avenue Church, 
Brookly'N, 1903-09. He served as president of DePauw 
University, 1909-12, and was elected bishop in the lat- 
ter year. His episcopal residence was in Denver, Colo., 
1912-20; Pittsburgh, Pa., 1920-28; and New York, 1928- 
44. He retired in 1944. 

He was president of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, 1929, and was presi- 
dent of the Religious Education Association in 1916. He 
was a leader in the Methodist Federation for Soclal 
Action from its founding in 1912 to his retirement in 

Bishop McConnell and Edgar S. Brightman were recog- 
nized as the two most famous students of Borden P. 
BowNE, the personalist philosopher of Boston University. 
Bowne once told McCoimell that if he planned to enter 
the ministry, he should pursue the study of philosophy 
long enough to earn the Ph.D. degree, and then concen- 
trate on economics and political theory. Later McConnell 
said that he could work any problem in mathematics ever 
given him, but still he might make a mistake "in the 
additions and subtractions." 

A great preacher, more intellectual than emotional, 
McConnell was one of the eleven American Methodists 
who up to his time deUvered the Lyman Beecher lectures 
at Yale (1930). In 1931 he was the Barrows lecturer in 
India. He served as visiting professor at Columbia Uni- 
versity, 1932-33, at Drew and Garrett Seminaries in 
1934, and at Yale in 1946. His sermons were simpler than 
his lectures. 



While president of DePauw, McConnell attended more 
to the spiritual development of the students than to the 
finances of the institution. He astounded church people 
by urging the Indiana legislature to appropriate more 
money for state schools because, he said, it would result 
in more money being given to DePauw. 

During McConnell's episcopal residence in Denver, the 
area included Mexico, a nation then undergoing revolu- 
tion. In administering the area, he traveled an average 
of 42,000 miles a year. 

McConnell received both praise and condemnation for 
serving as chairman of the Interchurch World Movement 
Committee to investigate and report on the Pittsburgh 
steel strike in 1919. A strong champion of human rights 
on moral and religious grounds, he disregarded the pres- 
sure brought to bear on him to repudiate the committee's 
report. In the end the report proved helpful in eliminating 
the twelve-hour day in the steel mills, and some of the 
industrialists later became McConnell's friends. After the 
steel strike McConnell was recognized as an ecclesiastical 
leader of the first rank. 

In a debate with Clarence Darrow, the famous agnostic 
lawyer. Bishop McConnell granted so many of the at- 
torney's contentions that it surprised Darrow. Then in a 
masterful way McConnell showed that there is intelli- 
gence in the universe. Taking Darrow's premises and lead- 
ing the man into what for him was a new field of thought, 
McConnell presented impressive and all but unanswerable 
arguments in favor of theism. 

In writing a 1,000-word weekly article for The Church 
School Journal for thirty years. Bishop McConnell pub- 
lished about 3,500,000 words. In addition, he produced 
twenty-four books. Some of them were: 7s God Limited? 
1924; The Christlike God, 1927; Borden Parker Bowne, 
1929; The Prophetic Ministry, 1930; John Wesley, 1939; 
and By the Way, 1952, which was his autobiography. 

As was the case with John Wesley, Bishop McConnell 
met the needs of the people at the place of their greatest 
need. He was one of the foremost American prophets of 
neighborly concern during his generation. In intellect, in 
religious insight, and in world-wide sympathy, he stood 
forth as a scholarly seer, a practical theologian, and a 
prophet of the social gospel. He died at his home in 
Lucasville, Ohio, on his eighty-second birthday, Aug. 18, 
1953, and was buried there. Bishop Frederick B. New- 
ell of New York officiated at the funeral, and two master- 
ful addresses by Bishop Herbert Welch, then past 
ninety, and Harris F. Ball, were read by sponsors, with 
Bishop U. V. W. Darlington among those in attendance. 

Eva Thomas McConnell (July 23, 1871-Feb. 19, 1968). 
the wife of Bishop McConnell, was a remarkable woman 
in her own right and enjoyed wide esteem over the 
whole church. For some years she was vice-president of 
the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the M. E. 
Church and traveled widely with her husband. Speaking 
at a final dinner given in his honor by the New York 
Area on his retirement. Bishop McConnell said that his 
wife had asked him a few days before just what was 
meant by a "realist." The bishop said, "I'm not sure I 
know, but if there ever was one, she is." She died at 
Lucasville, Ohio, in her ninety-seventh year. 

Homer J. Chalfant, "The Golden Links." Ms., 1962. 
The Christian Advocate, Sept. 3, 1953. 

F. J. McConnell, By the Way. 1952. Albea Godbold 

N. B. H. 

Mccormick, THOMAS (I792-I883), a charter member 
of historic St. John's Church, Baltimore, Md., was one 
of eleven preachers in Baltimore who were expelled 
from the M. E. Church because of their advocacy of re- 
form in the church government. He was bom in Loudoun 
County, Va., on Jan. 5, 1792, but following the death of 
his mother he was reared by his uncle, Thomas Moore, 
in Montgomery County, Md., and brought up in a Quaker 
atmosphere. He visited Methodist churches, however, and 
in 1811 joined the M. E. Church. He was bcensed to ex- 
hort in 1816 and in the following year was licensed to 
preach. On April 21, 1822, he was ordained deacon by 
Bishop McKendree. McCormick served as a pallbearer 
at Bishop Francis Asbury-'s funeral in 1816. He attended 
the General Conferences of 1816 and 1820. An early 
advocate of ecclesiastical reform, McCormick joined the 
first Union or Reform Society in Baltimore, and follow- 
ing the establishment of the Associated Methodist Church, 
later known as the Methodist Protestant Church, he 
was ordained an elder by Nicholas Snethen on April 
5, 1829. Following a long and active career in the M. P. 
Church, he was elected as a supernumerary member of 
the Mahyxand Conference (MP) in 1869. He later 
served as a member of the famous Union Convention of 
1877 in which the two branches of the M. P. Church 

He died on Feb. 20, 1883, and was buried in Mount 
Olivet Cemetery in Baltimore. 

A. H. Bassett, Concise History. 1887. 

T. H. Colhouer, Sketches of the Founders. 1880. 

E. J. Drinkhouse, History of Methodist Reform. 1899. 

Ralph Hardee Rives 

James H. McCoy 

McCOY, JAMES HENRY (1868-1919), American bishop, 
was bom in Blount County, Ala., on Aug. 6, 1868. He 
received the degrees of B.A., M.A. and D.D. from South- 
em University, Greensboro, Ala., now Birmingham 
Southern College. He joined the North Alabama Con- 
ference in 1889, and served the Ensley Circuit and 
churches in New Decatur, Dadeville, Alexander City, 
Birmingham, Tuscaloosa and Huntsville. 

He was editor of the Alabama Christian Advocate for 
one year and was president of Birmingham College from 
1906-1910. He was elected bishop of the M. E. Church, 
South, by the Gen'eral Conference in 1910. He sei-ved 



as president of the Epworth League Board and trustee 
of various institutions of learning. He died March 22, 

Bishop McCoy u'as a man of singularly modest de- 
meanor. His strength was in his sincerity and the utter 
trust his brethren of North Alabama had come to repose 
in him. He did not live to become widely known over the 
whole church, dying in an untimely way when he was 
only fifty-one years of age. He presided only once back in 
and over his own home conference held in Anniston, Ala., 
in 1913. "From his election to the episcopacy until his 
death," says Lazenby, "his name was carried at the head 
of the clerical roll of the Conference as an honorary mem- 

M. E. Lazenby, Alabama and West Florida. 1960. 

Who Was Who in America. Elmeb T. Clark 

McCOY, LEWISTINE M. (1918- ), American mission- 

ary to Chin'.\ and Brazil, and now Executive Secretary 
for Brazil, Mexico, Panama and Costa Rica of the 
Board of Missions of The United Methodist Church. 
He was born on March 9, 1918 in Lexington, Ky., and 
graduated from Kentl'cky Wesleyan College in 1940. 
In 1943 he married Jessie Marion Wall of North Caro- 
Li.VA, a graduate of Duke University. They have five 

After receiving his B.D. in 1944 from the Divinity 
School at Duke University, McCoy joined the Kentucky 
Conference. For a year he taught Bible and Religion at 
Kentucky Wesleyan; then, planning to go to China as a 
missionary, he spent a year at Yale studying the Chinese 
language and culture. The McCoys sailed for China, and 
arrived in Shangahi on Dec. 31, 1946. He was ordained 
elder in the East China Conference, served as co-pastor 
at Huchow Institutional Church and as Relief Adminis- 
trator until forced to leave China because of the Com- 
munist take-over. The McCoys moved to Hong Kong, 
and there he opened the first American Methodist office; 
helped some 400 missionaries to leave China, and find 
iither work; served as treasurer of Church World Service, 
of the American Mission to Lepers, the United Board of 
Christian Colleges, and some Brethren and Mennonite 

In 1951 he came back to the United States on furlough 
and in 1952 was appointed to Brazil. During the ne.xt 
ten years there, McCoy served as church pastor, treasurer 
for the old Division of World Missions, and for the Wom- 
an's Division of Christian Service. He was president of 
the Social Security Department of the Methodist Church 
of Brazil and of its Judicial Council; as president of the 
Board of Directors of the Interdenominational Language 
School in Campinas (Sao Paulo), and a member of other 
church Boards. He was twice elected delegate to the Gen- 
eral Conference of the Methodist Church of Brazil. In 
1961 he was named delegate from Brazil to the Second 
Latin-American Protestant Conference in Lima, Peru; 
and in 1962, was made Executive Secretary of the first 
Latin American Methodist Consultation, held in Buenos 
Aires. In 1958 Kentucky Wesleyan awarded him the 
honorary title of D.D. 

McCoy was called to New York in 1963 to be the 
Executive Secretary of the Joint Commission on Mission- 
ary Personnel. In September 1965, he was elected Execu- 
tive Secretary for Brazil, Mexico, Panama and Costa Rica 
in the Division of World Missions. He also serves on the 

Administrative Committee of the Latin America Depart- 
ment of the Division of Overseas Ministries of the Na- 
tional Council of Churches, and is Chairman of the 
Supporting Committee on Brazil within that department. 
Recently, he was elected to the Board of Trustees of 
Santiago College, Chile. 

Minutes of the East China Conference, 1946-49. 
Minutes of the Third Annual Conference in Brazil, 1952. 
Who's Who in the Methodist Church, 1966. Eula K. Long 

M'CULLAGH, THOMAS (1822-1908), British Wesleyan 
Methodist, was born at New Inn, Galway, Ireland, on 
Feb. 17, 1822. He was brought up in the Estabhshed 
Church of Ireland, but became a Methodist in Kilkenny 
in 1839. He was employed by the Ordnance Survey; and 
in 1841 his work took him to Yorkshire, where his in- 
creasing devotion to Methodism led him into the Wes- 
leyan ministry in 1845. He soon became a preacher 
known all over the country and was a respected superin- 
tendent and chairman. In 1875 he was elected to the 
Legal Hundred, and the presidency of the Conference 
followed in 1883. His literary work appeared mostly in 
journals, and revealed his considerable interest in Meth- 
odist history. He died on Nov. 11, 1908. 

Minutes of the Wesleyan Conference, 1909. 
G. J. Stevenson, Methodist Worthies, iv. 1885. 

H. Mobley Rattenbuhy 

Mcculloch, Joseph FLAVIUS (1856-1934), American 
educator, minister, and editor, was born in Guilford 
County, N. C, Jan. 24, 1856. He received his education 
at Adrian College, Johns Hopkins University, and Clark 
University. He served on the faculty of Adrian College 
and the University of Michigan, and later returned as 
President of Adrian College. 

McCulloch had one supreme purpose in his life, and 
that was to see the establishment in North Carolina 
of a college for members of the M. P. Church. He worked 
toward that goal for forty years. 

In 1893 McCulloch moved to Greensboro, N. C, and 
established a church paper. Our Church Record, which 
first appeared in 1894. It was later called the Methodist 
Protestant Herald. His reason for starting the paper was 
to create sentiment for the building of a M. P. college in 
North Carohna. He saw his dream realized when the 
cornerstone of Roberts Hall, the first building on the 
campus of High Point College, was laid in 1924. 
The boy's dormitory was named McCulloch Hall in recog- 
nition of McCulloch's patient crusade. 

A quiet, determined man who was so engrossed in his 
work and purpose that he allowed few people to get to 
know him well, McCulloch was respected as a man of 
deep conviction and high ideals. 

He died in Greensboro, N. C, Oct. 1, 1934. 

J. Elwood Carroll, History of the North Carolina Conference 
of the Methodist Protestant Church. Greensboro, 1939. 
Minutes of the North Carolina Conference, MP, 1934. 

J. C. Madison 

Mcculloch, mary Elizabeth barrow (i858-i924), 

outstanding leader in the woman's work of the M. P. 
Church, was born near Oberhn, Ohio, on April 9, 1858. 
She attended school at Blissfield, Mich., and at Adrl\n 
College where she and her husband-to-be, Joseph F. 



McCulloch, graduated in 1883. They were married in 
September of that year. Mrs. McCulloch took an active 
role in supporting the work of her husband while he 
served as President of Adrian College, and as minister 
in churches in Fairmont, W. Va., and Greensboro, N. C. 
She did pioneer work in organizing, expanding, e.xtending 
and strengthening the North Carolina Branch of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the M. P. 
Church. The women of this organization paid the follow- 
ing tribute to her: "To Mrs. McCulloch 's far-sighted lead- 
ership, her quiet suggestion and her spirit of hopefulness 
we owe much that we have gained. For nearly twenty 
years she led us, always forward, steadily upward, push- 
ing toward the great objective with that active faith that 
must achieve even if conditions were unfavorable." She 
served (1902-1920) as the editor of The Woman's Mis- 
sionary Record, a M. P. paper aimed toward creating a 
missionary spirit by letting its readers know the need and 
work being accompLshed in the mission field. She died 
in November 1924, and was buried in the cemetery at 
Tabernacle Church, Greensboro, N. C. 

J. Elwood Carroll, History of the North Carolina Conference 
of the Methodist Protestant Church. Greensboro, 1939. 
Mrs. E. C, Chandler, WFMS of the MP. 1920. 
Journal of the North Carolina Conference, MP, 1924. 

Ralph Hardee RrvES 

McCULLOH, GERALD OTHO (1912- ), American 
minister and church official, was bom at Auburn, Kan., 
Sept. 10, 1912, son of Otho John and Eva (Skaggs) 

He was graduated with the A.B. degree from Baker 
Untversity in 1932, and by that University he was 
awarded the D.D. degree in 1954. He received the M.A. 
degree from Boston University in 1934 and the S.T.B. 
there in 1935. In 1938 he received the Ph.D. degree from 
the University of Edinburgh (Scotland). He was awarded 
the D.D. degree by Hamline University, and the L.H.D. 
by Ohio Northern University. 

Admitted on trial into the Kansas Conference, M. E. 
Church, and ordained deacon in 1934, he was received 
in full connection and ordained elder in 1936. 

He was professor of philosophy in Hamline University, 
1938-42; minister, Hamhne Church, St. Paul, Minn., 
1942-46; professor, systematic theology, Garrett Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1946-53. Since 1953 he has been 
director of the Department of Ministerial Education of the 
General Board of Education of The Methodist Church, 
known now as the Department of the Ministry, in which 
he continues at Nashville, Term. 

He was a delegate to the World Methodist Con- 
ference, 1951, 1956, 1961, 1966; to the World Confer- 
ence on Christian Education, Tokyo, Japan, 1958; and 
to the World Council of Churches, New Delhi, India, 
1961, and Uppsala, Sweden, 1968. Since 1956 he has 
been a member of the department of ministry, and since 
1962 of the triennial assembly and the General Board of 
the National Council of Chltrches. 

Since 1953 he has been a trustee of Gammon The- 
ological Seminary; and since 1957 he has been a trustee 
of the Interdenominational Theological Center, Atlanta, 
Ga., and of St. Paul School of Theology'. He is also 
a trustee of Hamline University. He is a member of the 
American Society for Church History and of the American 
Philosophical Association. 

On June 8, 1939 he was married to Evelyn Belle Butler, 
and they have two children. 

Who's Who in the Methodist Church, 1966. J. Marvin Rast 

McCULLOUGH, WILLIAM (1759-1840), American layman, 
who named Asbury, N. J., was bom near Bloomsbury, 
Warren Co., N. J., on Dec. 18, 1759, the son of Benjamin 
and Hannah Cook McCullough. Both father and son 
served in the Revolutionary Army, the former as a cap- 
tain, and the latter, seventeen years old when he enlisted 
in 1776, as a private, later becoming brigade quarter- 

In 1784, Wilham settled in Hall's Mills, N. J. In 1793 
he became a lieutenant colonel of the Sussex County 
Militia, and thereafter was called "Colonel." He was a 
member of the New Jersey State Assembly, 1793-1799, 
the State Council, 1801-1803, and Countv Judge, 1803- 

McCullough was converted and joined a Methodist 
society in 1786 under the preaching of John McClaskey 
and EzEKiEL Cooper. His mansion on a bluff overlooking 
the Musconetcong River was a place of entertainment 
and preaching for the preachers, and there he welcomed 
Bishop Asbury in 1789. The meeting house at Hall's Mills 
was erected in 1796, and Asbury laid the cornerstone on 
August 9. Colonel McCullough named both the church 
and the town for the bishop; Hall's Mills was the first 
community in America to be called Asbury, and the same 
was true of the church. He had the Warren County com- 
munity of Mansfield renamed Washington, in honor of 
George Washington. He aided in the establishment of 
a Methodist society there and gave the property on which 
the First Methodist Church was erected in 1825. 

McCullough died on Feb. 9, 1840, and was buried in 
the cemetery at Asbury, N. J. 

V. B. Hampton, Newark Conference. 1957. 

History of Asbury Church, n.d. Vernon B. Hampton 

McCUSKEY, ROY (1883- ), American pastor, district 

superintendent, and college president, was bom four 
miles from Cameron, W. Va., on June 19, 1883. 

He entered the West Virginu Conference of the 
M. E. Church and after serving a number of appoint- 
ments became President of West Virginl\ Wesleyan 
College, 1931-41. Then he served St. Paul's, Parkersburg 
from 1941 until his retirement in 1949. 

He was a delegate to the Gener.\l Conferences of 
1924, 1932, 1936, and 1940. 

Roy McCuskey did more than any man to save the 
college during the depression of the early thirties. After 
unification, he kept the institution in Buckhannon, W. Va., 
where it is said to have the most beautiful campus in 
America. Under McCuskey one-half the members of the 
West Virginia M. E. Conference were then trained at 
Wesleyan. Dr. McCuskey resides in Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Methodist Ministers of the West Virginia Conference. 

Roy McCuskey, All Things M'ork Together for Good to Them 

That Love God. Jesse A. Earl 

McCUTCHAN, ROBERT GUY (1877-1958), American mu- 
sician, hymnologist and editor of The Metliodist Hymnal 
(U.S.A.) of 1935, was bom Sept. 13, 1877, at Mt. Ayr, 



Iowa. He graduated from Simpson College, Iowa, Bache- 
lor of Music, 1904, and Doctor of Music in 1927. He be- 
gan teaching music in Baker University, Kansas, 1904, 
but in 1911 became dean of the School of Music of De- 
Pauw University Indiana. In 1939 McCutchan went to 
Claremont, Calif., becoming a lecturer in the Claremont 
Graduate School in 1940 and there he remained until his 
death in 1958. 

His first wife was Carrie Bums Sharp whom he mar- 
ried on Nov. 23, 1904 (deceased 1941), and they had one 
son, Robert John. He married again on Dec. 11, 1944, 
Helen Laura Cowles. 

A skilled choral conductor, Robert McCutchan devel- 
oped wide interest in congregational singing throughout 
the country and lectured on church music to church 
groups and at colleges and universities. He made a prac- 
tice of collecting church hymnals, commentaries, and early 
American writings on religious music beginning with the 
seventeenth century. He left 3,000 such items to Clare- 
mont College in 1957. This collection is considered to be 
the finest of its field in the west. 

McCutchan once observed: "Hymns have always filled 
the common need of human beings to praise God, give 
thanks, meditate or speak in penitence. When you want 
to discover the essential spirit of Christianity, turn to a 
hymn." He edited The Methodist Hymnal of 1935 and 
wrote Our Hymnody, 1937 — an annotated enlargement of 
this h>Tnnal. He also wrote Hymns in the Lives of Men, 
1945; Music in our Churches, 1925, and Music in Wor- 
ship, 1927. In 1957 he wrote his last book, Hymn Tunes: 
Their Sources and Significance. He died on May 15, 1958, 
at Pilgrim Place, Claremont, Calif., and was buried in 
Greencastle, Ind. 

Pomona Progress Bulletin, The. Pomona, California: May 15, 


Who's W/jo in Methodism. Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 

1952. Jesse A. Eabl 

ish Methodist, was born at Leeds, Feb. 25, 1842, the 
son of George Browne Macdonald, a Wesleyan Meth- 
odist minister, and grandson of James Macdonald, one of 
John Wesley's preachers. Frederic was educated at St. 
Peter's Collegiate School, London, and at Owens Col- 
lege, Manchester, the earliest form of what was to become 
the present Manchester University. He entered the Wes- 
leyan Methodist ministry in 1862, and served as circuit 
minister, theological tutor at Handsworth College, Bir- 
mingham (from 1881), and secretary of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Missionary Society (from 1891). He was 
a fraternal delegate to the Gener.\l Conference of the 
M. E. Church at Cincinnati in 1880 and was elected 
president of the Wesleyan Conference in 1899. He super- 
annuated in 1914, and died in Bournemouth, Oct. 16, 
1928. He was most famous as one of the preachers of his 
time; he also wrote biographies of William Morley 
Pu.NSHON and John W. Fletcher of Madeley. 

Macdonald came from a remarkable family. His sisters 
Georgiana and Agnes married respectively the painters 
Sir Edward Bume-Jones and Sir Edward Poynter; and 
Alice and Louisa became the respective mothers of 
Rudyard Kipling, poet and novelist, and Earl Stanley 
Baldwin of Bewdley, Conservative leader and prime min- 
ister. One result of this relationship, we are told, was that 

Kipling sometimes made suggestions about the phrasing 
of Baldwin's speeches. 

Methodist Recorder (1899). Wesleyan Methodist Minutes, 
1929. John Newton 

McDonald, WILLIAM (I82O-I9OI), American holiness 
minister, writer, and editor, was bom March 1, 1820, at 
Belmont, Maine. He was converted and received his call 
to the ministry in 1838 and was licensed to preach in 
1840. In 1843 he joined the Maine Conference of the 
M. E. Church. During his sixty-one years of active service 
he was pastor of charges in Maine, Wisconsin, Provi- 
dence, New York East, and New England Confer- 
ences, some twenty-six charges in all. 

McDonald stated that he experienced entire Sancti- 
FiCATiON in 1857 at the Kennebunk (Maine) Camp- 
meeting, and as the holiness movement progressed he 
came quickly to the front. He was one of the founders of 
the National Campmeeting Association for the Promo- 
tion of Holiness and served as vice-president for sixteen 
years and president for twelve. He was the first editor of 
the Advocate of Bible Holiness, the Association's national 
periodical, and later edited the Christian Witness. 

He wrote numerous books in a variety of fields. His 
most popular were his holiness books. The Nciv Testa- 
ment Standard of Piety and The Scriptural Way of Holi- 
ness. He wrote a history of Methodism in Providence, 
R. 1., where he had organized the Trinity Church. While 
he lay dying, his last book. Young Peoples' Wesley, was at 
the press. He passed away Sept. 11, 1901. 

Zions Herald, Sept. 11, 18, 1901. 

J. Gordon Melton 

MacDONELL, GEORGE NOWLAND (1879-1953), an 

American missionary to Cuba and Mexico, was born in 
Savannah, Ga., the son of George N. and Margaret Walker 
MacDonell. He was graduated from Emory College, Ox- 
ford, Ga., in 1893, then studied theology for three years 
at Vanderbilt University. He was first appointed for 
work in China, and studied the language and customs 
of the Chinese people. Although his reservation had been 
made to sail from San Francisco, Bishop Warren A. 
Candler, in charge of both China and Cuba, recognizing 
the strategic need for workers to go immediately to Cuba, 
canceled the trip to China and ordered MacDonell to 
go to Cuba. 

Accordingly, he arrived in Havana on Dec. 31, 1898, 
and the following day the Spanish flag went down and 
the United States flag went up. The day marked the end 
of the era of Spanish colonization in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. Since there were many American soldiers stationed 
at Camp Columbia, in Havana, for some months after the 
end of the War with Spain, he assisted chaplains while 
studying Spanish. 

There was then raging an epidemic of yellow fever 
with a heavy death toll, which MacDonell noted in his 
diary. He and his room-mate, Thaddeus E. Leland, came 
down with the dread disease, and both were nursed back 
to health by Mabel Kenerly Thrower, a teacher in the 
Colegio Central of which Leland was principal. While the 
two men were still sick, they were visited by Major W. C. 
Gorgas, head of the Army department of sanitation, and 
Dr. Carlos J. Finlay, Cuban physician who first advanced 
the theory that the disease was transmitted by the mos- 



quito. They formed a lasting friendship. As associates, 
MacDonell soon had Hubert W. Baker and H. W. Penny. 

He was married in 1900 by Bishop Candler to Mabel 
K. Thrower, and their first child, George MacDonell, Jr., 
was bom in Havana. Two other sons, Thomas and Robert, 
and a daughter, Margaret, were bom after they left Cuba. 

Recognizing the need for medical missions, he asked 
for leave of absence to study medicine and graduated 
from Adanta Medical College, now a part of Emory 
University. On finishing his medical course he engaged 
in practice as surgeon at the Minas Viejas, near Villaldama, 
and later conducted the American hospital in Monterrey, 
Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 

After ten years in Mexico, he retired from that field 
due to severe revolutionary conditions which forced Amer- 
ican citizens to be recalled to the U.S. He moved to 
Miami, Fla., where he became head of the city health 
department. He was awarded the Carlos J. Finlay medal 
by the Cuban government for his continued interest in 
Cuba, and his research with Finlay on the transmission 
of yellow fever by the mosquito. 

His widow continued the missionary zeal of her partner 
and for many years was vitally interested in the missionary 
work of The Methodist Church. She passed away in 
Miami, on Feb. 23, 1968. 

S. A. Neblett, Metlwdism in Cuba. 1966. Garfield Evans 

MacDONELL, ROBERT WALKER (1857-1888), pioneer 
missionarv' to Mexico of the M. E. Church, South, was 
bom in Savannah, Ga., on Oct. 11, 1857, the son of 
George G. N. MacDonell. His primary education was 
in the public schools of Savannah and then he attended 
Emory College at 0.xford, Ga., graduating in 1877. He 
was converted in a camp meeting near Springfield in 
October 1872, and received into the church in November 
of that year. Having finished college, he taught school for 
a time and was then licensed to preach in 1877 and 
admitted to the South Georgi.\ Conference on trial. For 
a time he served a circuit in South Georgia. He felt the 
call to the mission field in 1880, and Bishop George F. 
Pierce presented his name to the Board of Missions 
for that work. He was accepted in May 1880, but was 
permitted by the Board of Missions to remain in Georgia 
for the rest of that year, serving at Savannah in place of 
a pastor who had been injured in a railroad accident. He 
was ordained de.\con and elder in December 1880, by 
Bishop Pierce. On December 28 of that year, he was 
united in marriage with Fachie Williams, the daughter of 
W. D. M. Williams, president of the State Institute for 
the Blind. They traveled to Mexico early the next year. 

He served in several places in Mexico — for a time as 
superintendent of the District of Leon and in April 1884, 
was transferred to the American Church in El Paso. He 
maintained his interest in and contact with the Mexican 
believers during this time, however. In 1885, he was 
charged with opening a new mission in the city of Du- 
rango, capital of the state of the same name. He 
was well-received and soon a school was opened with the 
cooperation of Catherine McFarren, a Presbyterian. He 
obtained the right to be known as the "Apostle of Meth- 
odism" in the state of Durango. His influence widened 
and he was respected throughout the area. 

At a conference in San Antonio in 1885, the missions 
in the far-reaching territories of the area were formed into 
an Annual Conference and MacDonell was named secre- 

tar\' of this body. This organization was the forerunner 
of the Rio Grande Conference of the present. At times, 
the district superintendent did not arrive when scheduled 
for conferences and other meetings and MacDonell pre- 
sided in his absence. In 1886, at the Annual Conference 
in Monterrey, H. C. Hernandez was named assistant to 
MacDonell and his help proved most valuable in main- 
taining the work established at Nombre de Dios and San 
Juan del Rio as well as in the capital. At the following 
session of the Annual Conference in 1887, a new District 
was formed of the work in Dui"ango, Chihuahua, Sonora 
and Sinaloa in Mexico and of the American territories 
of New Mexico, Arizona and the mission at El Paso. 
MacDonell was named District Superintendent. He died 
at Nombre de Dios on Dec. 21, 1888, after a hard ride on 
horseback to keep a preaching engagement. 

McDOUGALL, GEORGE MILLWARD (1821-1876), Cana- 
dian Methodist missionary, was bom in Kingston, Upper 
Canada, Ontario, on Sept. 9, 1821. Educated at Victoria 
College, he was received on trial in 1850. As a proba- 
tioner he worked with William Case at Alderville and 
subsequently ser\'ed at the Garden River and Rama mis- 
sions. Ordained in 1854, he was appointed in 1860 as 
chairman of the Hudson's Bay and Rocky Mountains dis- 
trict and missionary at Rossville, Manitoba. 

After a 1,200-mile exploratory trip to Fort Edmonton 
in 1862 with his son John and Thomas Woolsey, he 
established a new mission about eighty miles east of Ed- 
monton. Here he worked with Woolsey, H. B. Stein- 
HAUER, and John as a lay assistant. In 1867-68 he visited 
eastern Canada to raise money to recruit men for his 
field. George and Egerton Ryerson Young and Peter 
Campbell responded to his appeal. 

Following a great smallpox epidemic in 1871, during 
which he lost two children and many of his Indian 
charges, he established a permanent mission at Edmonton, 
a post first occupied by R. T. Rundle in 1840. Two years 
later he opened a new mission on the Bow River to the 
Stoney and Blackfoot Indians. In 1874-75 he returned to 
the east and to Britain. His mission was exceptionally suc- 
cessful in arousing enthusiasm for the Indian missions and 
in persuading the federal government to improve the con- 
dition of the Northwest. 

Upon his return to the west, McDougall was asked by 
Lieutenant-Govemor Morris of Manitoba to pacify the 
westem Indians. They accepted his advice and did not 
block the work of surveyors and other federal officials. 

While he was engaged in January 1876, in putting up 
new buildings at Morleyville on the Bow River, McDoug- 
all perished on the plains. He was buried at the mission 

George McDougall was the efi^ective founder of Meth- 
odist and indeed Protestant Christianity in Alberta. To 
Principal Grant of the Queen's University, he was "one of 
our simple great ones." Governor Laird acclaimed him as 
"one of the most devoted and intelligent advisers the 
Indians ever had." 

J. McDougall, George Millicard McDougall, Pioneer, Patriot 
and Missionary. Toronto: Briggs, 1888. 
J. McLean, The Hero of the Saskatchewan. Barrie, 1891. 
I E. Nix, Mission Among the Buffalo. Toronto: Ryerson, 1960. 

J. E. Nix 
F. \V. Armstrong 



McDOUGALL, JOHN (1842-1917), Canadian Methodist 
missionary to the Indians, was bom at Owen Sound, On- 
tario, Dec. 27, 1842, and was married in 1864 to Abigail, 
daughter of Henry B. Steinhaueb, and after her death in 
1871 to EUzabeth, daughter of S. C. Boyd. His parents 
were the George M. McDouc.\lls, also missionaries to 
the Canadian Indians. His education was acquired in mis- 
sion and village schools in Ontario, and two sessions at 
VicTORi.\ College, Cobourg. He left college to accom- 
pany his father to his mission station in Manitoba, where 
young John taught school. Moving with his father's family 
to Victoria Mission, near Fort Edmonton, he continued as 
his father's lay assistant and interpreter, being stationed 
at Pigeon Lake as a lay supply. He was ordained July 
30, 1872, at the missionary conference held at Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. In 1873 he began a new mission to the Stoney 
and Blackfoot Indians at Morleyville, then in unsettled 
territory. On the death of his father in 1876, he became 
chairman of the Saskatchewan district in the Methodist 
Church, a position he held until 1896. 

He served as president of the Manitoba and North 
West Conference in 1893 and of the Alberta Conference 
in 1906, and as delegate to General Conference in 1886, 
1890, and 1894. He was granted the doctorate of divinity 
by Victoria College, Toronto. After retirement in 1906, 
he was appointed by the Canadian government as com- 
missioner to the Doukhobors and Indian commissioner for 
British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. 

Between 1888 and 1912 he wrote a biography of his 
father, a series of six volumes of personal memoirs, a 
novel, and many newspaper and magazine articles on the 

An ardent Canadian nationalist, he advised the Indians 
at the signing of Treaties 6 and 7 with the federal gov- 
ernment and acted as guide, scout, and chaplain during 
the Northwest Rebellion in 1885. His missionary career 
had spanned the transition of the Canadian West from a 
Hudson's Bay fur-trading empire to a peaceful agricultural 
settlement, and the Indians' transition from nomads depen- 
dent on the buffalo to a new life on the reserves. He died 
in Calgary on Jan. 15, 1917. 

J. McDougall, On Western Trails in the Early Seventies. 
Toronto: Briggs, 1911. 

, In the Days of the Red River Rebellion. 

Toronto: Briggs, 1903. 

John Maclean, McDougall of Alberta. Toronto: Ryerson, 1927. 

J. E. Nix 

McDowell, WILLIAM FRASER (1858-1937), American 
bishop, was bom at Millersburg, Ohio, Feb. 4, 1858, the 
son of David A. and Rebecca (Fraser) McDowell. His 
father, a devoted layman, was a member of the 1904 
General Conference. Young McDowell was educated 
at Ohio Wesleyan University (A.B., 1879, and Ph.D., 
1893), and Boston University (S.T.B., 1882). Ameri- 
can, Denver, Northwestern, Ohio Wesleyan, Vermont, 
and Wesleyan Universities conferred honorary degrees 
on him — D.D., LL.D., and L.H.D. He married Clotilda 
Lyon, Galion, Ohio, the daughter of a Methodist minis- 
ter, Sept. 20, 1882. They had one daughter, Olive, who 
died while still a young woman. Mrs. McDowell, presi- 
dent of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
(ME), 1908-21, died Dec. 27, 1930. 

McDowell was admitted to the North Ohio Confer- 
ence in 1882, and was ordained deacon in 1883 and 
ELDER in 1886. He ser\'ed three charges in the conference: 

Lodi, 1882-83; Oberlin, 1883-85; and TiflBn, 1885-90. In 
the latter year he was named Chancellor of the University 
of Denver, serving nine years. While in that position he 
delivered the first series of university extension lectures 
ever given in the state, using the subject, "Some Studies 
in the French Revolution." Also, while in Denver he 
served on the state board of charities and correction. 

In 1899 McDowell became Corresponding Secretary of 
the Board of Education (ME). In 1900 he was a dele- 
gate to the General Conference from the Colorado 
Conference, and in 1904 he led the North Ohio Confer- 
ence delegation to the General Conference. At that time 
he was elected bishop and served in Chicago, 1904-16; 
and in Washington, D. C, 1916-32, retiring in the latter 
year. In 1910-11 he made episcopal visits to India, China, 
Japan, and the Philippines. 

Widely recognized as a great preacher, McDowell was 
invited to deliver the prestigious Lyman Beecher Lectures 
on Preaching at Yale Divinity School in 1917. He gave 
the following lectures at educational institutions: Cole, 
Vanderbilt, 1910; Mendenhall, DePauw, 1922; Merrick, 
Ohio Wesleyan, 1926; Earl, Pacific School of Religion, 
1926; Alumni, Gammon, 1927; Wilkin, Wesley Founda- 
tion, Illinois, 1928; and Drew at Drew, 1933. When in 
his eightieth year, just two months before his death, 
McDowell delivered a series of lectures at Boston 
University which were later published under the title. 
In All His Offices. Commenting on the man and the occa- 
sion. President Daniel L. Marsh said, "After eleven years, 
I do not recall that I ever witnessed anything quite com- 
parable to that week at Boston University. Bishop Mc- 
Dowell had the spirit of a patriarch and the bearing of a 
kindly king. Students wept unashamed. After each lecture, 
students gathered and talked in a reverent and subdued 
manner about the things the great bishop had said." Bish- 
op Edwin H. Hughes said McDowell was the "most dis- 
tinctive in manner and speech" of all the bishops, and 
added, "He specialized in the devotional Ufe. His prayers 
swung us into God's orbit. His benedictions became equal 
to a complete service." Others declared that there was 
hardly a speaker on the American platform in McDowell's 
day who could equal him in the power to sway an 

McDowell was dedicated to the cause of the imion of 
American Methodism and he gave much time and energy 
to it. He sei'ved on his own denomination's commission on 
union from 1916 until his death in 1937. After the death 
of Bishop Earl Cranston in 1932, McDowell was chair- 
man of the commission. In referring to McDowell's con- 
tribution. Bishop John M. Moore called him "that prince 
of men, that master of assembhes, that apostle of union, 
that untiring toiler in the creation of an acceptable and 
adequate plan of union." Edwin H. Hughes declared that 
at a meeting of the joint commission in Louisville, Bish- 
op McDowell "lay in agonized wakefulness until five 
o'clock in the morning" praying and pondering a solution 
to the race issue in relation to Methodist union. When the 
Plan of Union was completed. Bishop McDowell consid- 
ered it a high privilege to present it to the 1936 General 
Conference for adoption. 

Tall and dignified in bearing, McDowell was impressive 
in appearance. He looked the part of a church leader, and 
he always brought statesmanlike quahties to bear on 
ecclesiastical problems. He was at home in any company; 
in conversation his wit was brilliant. Withal he was hum- 
ble. He said, "When I hear men talk about the bishop 



being the 'chief minister,' and 'chief pastor,' I always think 
not of the word 'chief but of being chief 'ministeT,' chief 
'pastor' to my brethren." 

Between 1910 and 1933 Bishop McDowell wrote eight 
books: In the School of Christ, A Man's Religion, Good 
Ministers of Jesus Christ (Yale Lectures), This Mind, 
Making a Personal Faith, That I May Save Some, Them 
He Also Called, and Father and Brethren. 

On Sunday April 25, 1937, Bishop McDowell preached 
at Morganton, N. C, and died the next day in Washing- 
ton, D. C. A funeral service was held at Foundry Church 
with Bishops McConnell and Hughes as the principal 
speakers. There was a second service in the chapel at 
Ohio Wesleyan University with President Edmund D. 
SoPER in charge. Burial was in Delaware, Ohio. A hand- 
somely carved pulpit was later installed in the historic 
Foundry Church in memory of Bishop McDowell. 

Christian Advocate, Jan. 16, 1941. 

E. H. Hughes, / Was Made a Minister. 1943. 

F, D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

W. F. McDowell, In All His Offices. Jesse A. Earl 

Albea Godbold 

McFARLAND, JOHN THOMAS (1851-1913), American 
minister, educator and editor, was bom at Mt. Vernon, 
Ind., on Jan. 2, 1851. His family moved to Iowa in 1853 
and he soon enrolled in the preparatory department of 
Iowa Wesleyan University, where he remained until 
his senior college year. After a year at the Boston Univer- 
sity School of Theology, he served as student pastor in 
the Iowa Conference (ME) before returning to Boston 
University, from which he was graduated in 1878. Ac- 
cepted into the Iowa Conference, he served a year at 
Eddyville and in 1879 filled the combined position of 
the University charge, Mount Pleasant, and adjunct pro- 
fessor of natural science at Iowa Wesleyan. In 1880 he 
was transferred to the Central Illinois Conference for 
a year each at Elmwood and Peoria. Returning to Iowa 
Wesleyan in 1882 as Vice President and Professor of 
Belles Letters and History, he was elected President in 
1884. His dynamic leadership until 1891 increased the 
endowment fund, raised the enrollment, expanded the 
science and music curricula, developed the museum and 
laboratories, and initiated work on the Hall of Science 
and Chapel. He attracted attention in national educa- 
tional circles and served as a delegate to the 1888 Gen- 
eral Conference and the 1891 Ecumenic.\l Method- 
ist Conference. 

In 1891 he returned to pastoral work in the Illinois 
Conference; in 1895 in the New York East Confer- 
ence at the New York Avenue Church, Brooklyn, and in 
the Kansas Conference at First Church, Topek.^, 1899- 
1904. In 1905 he became Corresponding Secretary of the 
Sunday School Union and Tract Society, and in 1909 
Editor of the Sunday School Publications. To the task of 
editing multiple materials for a vast circulation change, 
he brought learning, insight and flexibility in spite of 
criticism from ultra conservative areas of the church. He 
died at Maplewood, N. J. on Dec. 22, 1913. During his 
career he received an honorary D.D. from the Univer- 
sity of the Pacific in 1885, an LL.D. from Simpson in 
1903 and an L.H.D. from Iowa Wesleyan in 1905. 

General Minutes, 1880-1914. 

Minutes of tlie Iowa Conference, 1873-1891. 

The Methodist Yearbook, 1915. Louis A. Haselmayer 

McFERRIN, JAMES (1784-1840), American pioneer 
preacher, was bom in Washington County, Va., March 
25, 1784, of Irish Presbyterian ancestry. He was brought 
up as a farmer. At age twenty he married, settling in 
Rutherford County, Tenn. 

James McFerrin was a captain in the War of 1812 
under General Andrew Jackson; and subsequently suffered 
great privations in the campaign against the Creek 
Indians. He was elected Colonel and for several years led 
the best-trained regiment of state troops. 

In 1820 he was converted and immediately began to 
preach. He was admitted to the Tennessee Conference 
Nov. 25, 1823. His ministry was in Alabama after 1828, 
and in western Tennessee after 1834. He filled a number 
of prominent appointments and traveled extensively. He 
reported the following in 1839: "Since I joined the Con- 
ference, I have preached 2,080 times, baptized 573 adults 
and 813 infants, and have taken into society 3,965 mem- 
bers." As a preacher he was somewhat peculiar in his 
manner, but possessed an indescribable influence over the 
multitude. He had three sons who entered the ministry. 
One was John Berry McFerrin, able Southern leader. 
James McFerrin died in Tipton County, Tenn., Sept. 4, 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. Jesse A. Earl 

John B. McFerrin 

McFERRIN, JOHN BERRY (1807-1887), American preach- 
er, editor, and administrator, was born June 15, 1807 in 
Rutherford Count\', Tenn. His father, James McFerrin, 
was a Methodist preacher who, before his con\ersion, 
had been a famier and soldier, having served as an officer 
with General Andrew Jackson in the Creek Indian war. 

John McFerrin was converted in 1820, and the next 
year at the age of fourteen he was called on more and 
more frequently to deliver prayer during meetings. At 
sixteen he was appointed a class leader, gaining from 
this experience what he called the best theological training 
ever organized by the Methodists. 

At Cambridge, Aik., Oct. 8, 1825, McFerrin was pub- 
licly examined, licensed to preach, and recommended for 
admission on trial as a traveling preacher in the Tennes- 
see Conference. He was assigned to Franklin Circuit, 
and delivered his first seimon at Tuscumbia, Ala., as 


northern Alabama was then a part of the Tennessee Con- 

After his ordination as deacon by Bishop Joshua Soule, 
McFerrin was sent as a missionary to the Cherokee Indians 
— a highly responsible assignment to be laid on the shoul- 
ders of a young man not yet twenty years old. He 
preached and conducted a school for the Indian children 
until 1829, when he was ordained by Bishop Roberts and 
assigned to the Limestone Circuit in north Alabama. He 
was only twenty-four when he was appointed to Hunts- 
ville (Ala.) Station. From there he went to Nashville, 

Despite his protests about being unready for its respon- 
sibilities, McFerrin was appointed presiding elder for the 
Florence (Ala.) District in 1836. In 1837 he was named 
presiding elder of the Cumberland District in TEN>fESSEE. 

McFerrin was transferred from the pastorate to the 
editorial field in 1840, when he was asked to edit the 
Christian Advocate. What was intended as a temporary 
assignment lasted for eighteen years. 

When the split between the Northern and Southern 
Methodists occurred in 1844, McFerrin supported the 
position of the South, and provided strong guidance in the 
organization of the General Conference of the M. E. 
Church, South. 

Its General Conference in 1858 elected McFerrin Book 
Agent, a post he served effectively. 

With the outbreak of the War Between the States, he 
was placed in charge of all Methodist missionary work in 
the Army of Tennessee (C. S. A.), frequently preaching 
to the troops. 

In 1866 at the General Conference held in New Or- 
leans, which practically reorganized the M. E. Church, 
South following the war, he was elected Secretary of Do- 
mestic Missions. When this post was combined with that of 
Secretary of Foreign Missions in 1870, McFerrin won the 
election to head the work of the Missions board. 

For eight years he was Secretary of the Board of 
Missions, until he was returned to the post of Book Agent 
at a time when the department was in grave financial dif- 
ficulties. His experienced management enabled the depart- 
ment to regain its former strength and extend its influence. 

An honor that stood out for McFerrin was his election 
as a delegate to the 1881 Ecumenical Methodist Con- 
ference in London. He also attended the important 
Centennial of American Methodism held in 1884 at 
Baltimore, Md. 

So beloved was McFerrin that even in 1886, when his 
hearing and sight had failed very much, he was named 
overwhelmingly as the leader of the Tennessee delegation 
to the General Conference, where he was again elected 
as Book Agent. 

This big, sharp-featured man with prodigious memory 
and rapier-like wit sat in more General Conferences and 
occupied connectional offices longer than any man of his 
day. He was widely known for his ability as a rough-and- 
tumble debater, and rarely was he defeated. 

Although he was best known for his work as an admin- 
istrator, McFerrin excelled as a preacher. His distinctive, 
somewhat nasal voice and simple, direct style created a 
deep impression on his listeners. 

One example of the effect McFerrin's preaching had on 
people is seen in the fact that when U.S. President James 
Knox Polk was dying, he sent for J. B. McFerrin. Polk 
had never before united with a church, but had been 
Methodist in sentiment since hearing McFerrin preach at 


a camp meeting in 1833. At the request of the dying 
ex-President, McFerrin baptized him and received him 
into the church. When Polk died June 15, 1849, McFerrin 
delivered the sermon at the funeral. 

John B. McFerrin died on May 10, 1887, and was 
buried in Nashville, Tenn. 

O. P. Fitzgerald, John B. McFerrin, A Biography. Nashville: 
Publishing House of the M. E. Church, South, 1888. 
Minutes of the Tennessee Conference, 1887. 
J. P. Pilkington, Methodist Publishing House. 1968. 

H. D. Watts 

MacGEARY, JOHN SAMUEL (1853-1931), a missionary 
bishop of the Free Methodist Church, was bom near 
Pittsburgh, Pa. In early life he taught in rural schools. 
Converted when about twenty-two years of age, he joined 
the M. E. Church, and later the Free Methodist Church. 
Called to the ministry, he was admitted to the Genesee 
Conference in 1876. He was a charter member of the 
Pittsburgh Conference, 1883, where he served as pastor 
and superintendent, and also a charter member of the 
Oil City Conference of 1899. He served as field secre- 
tary for Greenville College for several years. In 1911 
he was elected the first (and only) missionary bishop of 
the Free Methodist Church. He travelled in India, China, 
Japan and Africa. He was General Missionary Secretary, 
1915-19; pastor and district elder of the California Con- 
ference until his death at Oakland, Calif., Jan. 20, 1931. 
He was the author of: Outline History of Free Methodist 
Church. He was Corresponding Editor of The Free Meth- 
odist for twenty-two years. John S. MacGeary was a 
progressive thinker, aggressive church builder, and out- 
standing pulpiteer. 

Byron S. Lamson 

McGEHEE, EDWARD (1786-1880), prominent American 
layman of early Mississippi and Louisiana, was born in 
November 1786 in Georgia, but went into Mississippi and 
settled in Wilkinson County when he was quite a young 
man. He became wealthy and was a benefactor of the 
Colonization Society and the American Bible Society, 
and estabhshed an academy near his home. He gave large- 
ly to Centenary College when that was founded. 

He came to New Orleans with Mark Moore and Wil- 
liam Winans in 1819, and helped to secure a preaching 
place for these Methodist ministers in the loft of a flour 
inspector's office. Later on he gave some $40,000 for the 
church which was first known as Poydras Street, and later 
Carondelet Street. The official title of the latter church 
was in time fixed as "The McGehee M. E. Chmch, South." 

Judge McGehee, as he became, served in the Missis- 
sissippi legislature and was, it is said, offered the place of 
Secretary of the United States Treasury by Zachary 
Taylor, then President. McGehee, however, declined to so 
serve. His handsome residence, Bowling Green, near 
Woodville, Miss., was bunied during the Civil War. He 
helped to build the first railroad and first cotton factory in 
the deep South, and is said to have invented the cattle 
guards which kept cattle from attempting to go upon the 
railroad trestles and bridges of that day. He was the last 
survivor of a family of thirteen children, his brothers 
Abner, Abram, John, and William becoming planters in 
Mississippi and Louisiana. 

Judge McGehee died on Oct 1, 1880. A memorial ser- 
mon was delivered by Bishop John C. Keener at the 



Carondelet Street Church on October 31 of that year. 
Although one son, Micajah, died in an untimely way, the 
Judge was survived by seven children and many grand- 

N. B. H. 

McGOVERN, GEORGE STANLEY (1922- ), United 
States senator and member of the World Methodist 
CouNcn-, was bom in Avon, S. D., on July 19, 1922, the 
son of Joseph C. and Frances (McLean) McGovern. He 
was educated at Dakota Wesleyan University and 
NoRTirwESTERN UNIVERSITY, from which he received the 
M.A. degree in 1949 and the Ph.D. in 1953. His wife 
was Eleanor Stegeberg, whom he married on Oct. 31, 
1943, and they have five children. 

For a time Senator McGovem taught history and politi- 
cal science at Dakota Wesleyan University, but in 1956 
he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from 
the First District of his state. He was the Food-for-Peace 
Director in the Kennedy Administration, 1960-62; and was 
elected a member of the U.S. Senate from South Dakota 
in 1963. He served as a pilot of the U.S. Air Force in the 
second World War, and was decorated with the Distin- 
guished Flying Cross. He is the author of The Colorado 
Coal Strike, 1913-14, 1953; War Against Want, 1965. He 
was a candidate for nomination as the Democratic nomi- 
nee for the Presidency of the United States at the 1968 
Democratic Convention, and that same summer served as 
a delegate to the World Council of Churches meeting 
at Uppsala, Sweden. In 1972 he was the Democratic 
candidate for the Presidency but was defeated by Richard 

Who's Who in America, Vol. 34. 

Who's Who in the Methodist Church, 1966. N. B. H. 

MclNTYRE, ROBERT (1851-1914), American bishop, was 
bom in Selkirk, Scotland, of solid Presbyterian parents, 
on Nov. 20, 1851. His father was a weaver and brought 
his family to Philadelphia in America in 1858. His moth- 
er died not long after this move, and the father married 
again, but died, leaving the support of the family to 
Robert who was then seventeen. The future bishop learned 
the trade of bricklayer and, at the age of twenty, moved 
the family to Chicago where the great fire just at that 
time made his services much in demand. Mclntyre never 
forgot his laboring days, and kept a trowel hung in his 
office the rest of his life as a reminder. 

Becoming a book salesman, he was converted in a reviv- 
al meeting in St. Louis and decided for the ministry. He 
was received into the Illinois Conference in 1878, and 
his unusual preaching ability opened to him some of the 
largest churches in the Conference. Leaving the Illinois 
Conference, he became pastor of Trinity Church in Den- 
ver, St. James in Chicago, and finally the great First 
Church, Los Angeles, which almost doubled its member- 
ship in the six years of his ministry. He always drew great 
congregations to his churches and was Lkewise a popular 
lecturer. He had an unusual gift for painting word pic- 
tures, some of them becoming famous, and his early back- 
ground made him sympathetic to social problems and kept 
him in touch with common people. He was judged by 
many to be the greatest Methodist preacher of his day. 

He attended Vanderbilt UNrvERsrTY for one year and 
was given the D.D. degree by the University of Denver 
in 1896. In 1908 he was elected to the episcopacy of the 

M. E. Church, but served only a few months more than 
six years. While on his official journeys, he was taken 
acutely ill in Chicago and died there on Aug. 30, 1914. 
He lies buried in Inglewood, Los Angeles. 

The following incident is told of Robert Mclntyre, in- 
dicative of his character: Once when Bishop Warren was 
presiding over the Southern California Conference, a 
minister guilty of a very serious indiscretion was required 
to stand before the brethren to be reprimanded by the 
Bishop. There he stood alone in humiliation before the bar 
of the Conference, while Bishop Warren with trembling 
voice visited the rebuke upon him. Unexpectedly, a 
brother minister arose, went forward and took his stand 
close beside the offending brother as if he would share 
with him his shame. As a result of the unpremeditated. 
Christlike deed, the Bishop and the entire Conference 
were in an instant weeping. Such a man was Robert Mc- 
lntyre. "When he came to Los Angeles he was known as 
Robert Mclntyre, the orator; when he left he was known 
as Robert Mclntyre, the saint." 

Journals of the Illinois and Central Illinois Conferences, 1914. 
F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Richard D. Leonard 

McKAY, ORVILLE HERBERT ( 1913- ) , American minis- 
ter and seminary president, was born at Croswell, Mich., 
on Oct. 9, 1913. His parents were Herbert Washington 
and Iva M. (Perry) McKay. He was educated at Asbury 
College, receiving the A.B. in 1934; at Drew Univer- 
sity, B.D., 1937, and the Ph.D., 1941; and did post- 
graduate work at Oxford, England, in the summer of 
1949. Adrian College awarded him the D.D. degree in 
1962. He was awarded an S.T.D. by MacMurray College 
in 1965, and LL.D. by McKendree College in 1966. 
His wife was Mabel Coppock, whom he married on Aug. 
19, 1935, and they had three children. 

Dr. McKay joined the Detroit Conference and was 
ordained deaco.v in 1936 and came into full connection 
and was ordained elder in 1938. He served as associate 
minister at the Nardin Park Church, Detroit, 1941-43, and 
1946-47; was the minister of First Church, Highland Park, 
Mich., 1947-51; First Church, Midland, Mich., 1951-65, 
in which year he was elected president of Garrett Theo- 
logical Seminary at Evanston, 111. He has been the 
chairman of the Board of Hospitals and Homes of the 
Detroit Conference; the chairman of the Board of the 
Ministry of that Conference and a member of its Com- 
mission on Ecumenical Affairs, and on that of The Meth- 
odist Church since 1965; and The General Board of 
Education of the Church. He was a delegate to the 
North Central Jurisdictional Conference, 1956, '60, 
'68; and to the General Conference of 1960 and '64, 
'66 and '68. He was chaplain of the U.S. Army Air Force, 

Who's Who in the Methodist Church, 1966. 

N. B. H. 

McKAY, WILLIAM JOHN (1847-1921), American preach- 
er, born at Belfast, Ireland, May 29, 1847. At five years of 
age he came to the United States where he lived in Port 
Washington, Horicon and near DeSoto, in Wisconsin. 
At seventeen years of age, he enlisted in the Fourth 
Wisconsin Infantry and served during the last year of the 
Civil War. He was converted and at once felt the call to 
preach, in answer to which he joined the West Wiscon- 



SIN CoNFEBENCE in 1870. His appointments included Mt. 
Sterling, LaCrosse, Eau Claire and Madison and he was 
also presiding elder of the Eau Claire and Madison Dis- 
tricts. He was a member of the General Conferences 
of the M. E. Church in 1884, 1888 and 1896. 

La\vhence College of Appleton, Wisconsin conferred 
upon him the honorary D.D. degree in 1895. Besides his 
Conference activities, he was very active in the affairs of 
the Grand Army of the Republic and was for many years 
Commander of the G.A.R. Post in Madison, Wis. He was 
a man of great effectiveness in prayer and one who made 
a deep impress on his Conference. 

Yearbook of the West Wisconsin Conference, 1922. 

John W. Harris 

McKECHNIE, COLIN CAMPBELL (1821-1896), British 
Primitive NIethodist, was bom at Paisley, Scotland. He 
began his ministry in the Primitive Methodist Church in 
Ripon, in Yorkshire, and continued his years of circuit 
ministry in the Sunderland district until 1870. During this 
period he inaugurated the Sunderland Ministerial Associa- 
tion for the stimulation of ministerial studies, and this 
movement spread throughout Primitive Methodism. In 
1855 he became the editor of the Christian Ambassador 
(founded in 1854, the forerunner of the Primitive Method- 
ist Quarterhj Review), and continued in the post until 
his death. He was general connexional editor from 1876 
to 1887. Deeply interested in ministerial education, he 
was the first secretary of the Sunderland Theological 
Institution founded in 1868, the earliest Primitive Meth- 
odist experiment with a theological college, later super- 
seded by Hartley College at Manchester. In 1880 he was 
elected President of the Primitive Methodist Conference. 
He was also responsible, in 1892, for the revision of 
William Antliff's Life of the Venerable Hugh Bourne. 
He died in September, 1896. 

John T. Wilkinson 

William McKendree 

McKENDREE, WILLIAM (1757-1835), the first native 
American bishop, was bom on July 6, 1757, in King Wil- 
liam County, Va., the son of John and Mary McKendree. 

He served in the Revolutionary War and was present at 
the surrender of Comwalhs at Yorktown. 

He was reared in the Anglican faith but joined a Meth- 
odist society when he was about nineteen years old. Ten 
years later he was converted under the preaching of John 
Easter. He was received on trial in the Virginia Con- 
ference in 1788 and appointed with Philip Cox to the 
Mecklenburg Circuit. His succeeding annual appointments 
until 1794 were the Cumberland, Portsmouth, Amelia, 
Greenville, and Norfolk Circuits. 

For four years his presiding elder was James O'Kelly, 
who became disaffected and withdrew to form a separate 
body called the Republican Methodist Church. When 
the General Conference in 1792 refused to adopt 
O'Kelly's resolution providing for an appeal by any 
preacher who was dissatisfied with his appointment, Mc- 
Kendree went with him for a brief period and declined to 
take a circuit for one year. Then he traveled briefly with 
Bishop AsBURY and became convinced that O'Kelly was 
in error, and again took his place in the Conference. In 
1795 he served the Bedford Circuit and the following year 
he became a presiding elder, a post which he filled for 
eleven years until he was elected bishop. 

In 1801 he was sent to the Kentucky District of the 
vast Western Conference, which covered Ohio, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Western Virginia and part of Illi- 
nois. He later served two years on the Cumberland Dis- 
trict. Thus be became identified with the western area. 

In 1808 he was asked to preach before the General 
Conference, although unknown to most of its members. 
So powerful was his deliverance that Asbury predicted 
his election as bishop, a prophecy which was fulfilled a 
few days later. 

As a bishop he introduced some new features which did 
not meet with Asbury 's wholehearted approval. One of 
these was consultation with the presiding elders in making 
the appointments, from which emerged the "cabinet," 
which persisted in the Church. Another was a formal 
report to the General Conference, which gave rise to the 
Episcopal Address at all succeeding conferences. Mc- 
Kendree usually traveled with Asbury and the latter made 
the appointments, but at the Tennessee Conference in 
1815, the aging bishop said, "My eyes fail. I will resign 
the stations to Bishop McKendree — I will take away my 
feet." McKendree was then practically alone in the epis- 
copacy, for Asbury did not hold another conference and 
died the following March. 

McKendree did not have much formal education but he 
became a great preacher and ecclesiastical statesman. In 
1820 he opposed vigorously a movement in the General 
Conference to limit the power of the bishops in assigning 
the preachers to their charges. 

Because of physical infirmities he was largely relieved 
of his work after 1820 but he continued to travel over 
the connexion and assist in the superintendency until his 
death. In 1830 he gave 480 acres of land to the Lebanon 
Seminary in Ilfinois, and its name was changed to Mc- 
Kendree College. 

He died at the home of his brother. Dr. James McKen- 
dree, in Sumner County, Term., on March 5, 1835. He was 
buried nearby, but his body was later transferred to the 
campus of Vanderbilt University at Nashville. 

J. M. Buckley, Constitutional and Parliamentary History. 1912. 
Dictionary of American Biography. 
R. Paine, William M'Kendree. 1869. 


M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. 

W. B. Sprague, Annals of the Pulpit. 1861. 

T. O. Summers, Biographical Sketches. 1858. 

J. J. Tigert, Constitutional History. 1894. Elmer T. Clark 

McKendree Chapel 

McKENOREE CHAPEL, three miles east of Jackson, Missou- 
ri, was designated as a Methodist Historic Shbine by the 
1960 General Conference. Built in 1819, it is the 
oldest Methodist and the oldest Protestant church build- 
ing west of the Mississippi River. 

In 1801, William Williams, a Methodist layman, moved 
from Kentucky to Missouri and soon set aside two acres 
of his farm to be used for camp meetings. The site was 
first used for that purpose probably in 1806. A Methodist 
class or congregation was organized there in 1809. Wil- 
liams sei"ved as class leader from the beginning until his 
death in 1838. Bishop William McKendree attended a 
camp meeting there in 1818, and the chapel which was 
begun that year was named for him. The Missouri Con- 
ference met in the chapel in 1819, its first session west of 
the River. Also, the conference convened in the chapel 
in 1821, 1826, and 1831, an indication that McKendree 
was an important church with an adequate building for 
that period. 

When the M. E. Church divided over slavery in 1844, 
a majority of the McKendree Chapel members voted to 
adhere South, but the pastor on the charge. Nelson Henry, 
strongly favoring the Church North, managed to align the 
chapel with that body. As time passed the Church North 
grew weaker in the region and the chapel regularly re- 
ceived missionary aid. About 1890 it ceased to exist as an 
organized church. However, the building was not for- 
gotten. In September 1910, the St. Louis Conference 
(MES) met in Jackson and took occasion to go out in a 
body and hold a special session in the old chapel. In 1916, 
the same conference met in Cape Girardeau and went out 
to conduct a service at McKendree Chapel commemorat- 
ing the organization of the Missouri Conference in 1816. 

In 1925, William Stewart was appointed pastor at New 
McKendree Church, Jackson. Finding Old McKendree in 
desolation and disrepair, he led a movement for its restora- 
tion. He aroused the interest of the St. Louis Conference 
(ME), and in 1926 that body voted to deed a one-half 
interest in the chapel to the M. E. Church, South with 
the request that it appoint one-half of the trustees and 
share in the upkeep of the property. Laymen donated 
money and physical labor to clean up the grounds and 
repair and restore the chapel. A right of way from the 
pubLc road to the chapel was purchased. In time a steel 
canopy was built over the chapel, and later still a home 


for a curator was erected on the grounds. Since 1933 an 
annual service of commemoration featuring an outstanding 
speaker has been conducted at the chapel with several 
hundred people attending. 

Singularly, Old McKendree Chapel might not have sur- 
vived had not Nelson Henry managed to keep it in the 
hands of the minority of members who adhered North in 
1845. Also, it is significant that the new deed for the 
chapel dated July 22, 1927, providing that thereafter half 
the trustees would be members of the Church South, be- 
came a point of reunion of the two churches formed by 
the division of the M. E. Church in 1844. 

William Stewart, Mindful of Man. Cape Girardeau, Mo.: 
Missouri Litho and Printing Co., 1964. 

Frank C. Tucker, Old McKendree Chapel. Cape Girardeau, 
Mo.: Missouri Litho and Printing Co., 1959. Albea Godbold 

McKendree college, Lebanon, Illinois, was opened in 
1828 as Lebanon Seminary with Edward R. Ames, later 
a bishop, as the principal, and with a Miss McMurphy as 
the other teacher. In 1830, the name was changed to 
McKendree College in honor of Bishop William Mc- 
Kendree. He later deeded 480 acres of rich Shiloh Valley 
land to the college. 

The legislature of the State of Illinois granted a charter 
to McKendree College on Feb. 9, 1835. A second charter, 
more detailed, under which the college still operates, was 
approved by the state legislature on Jan. 26. 1839. The 
first three members of the faculty were graduates of Wes- 
leyan University. Peter Cartwright was an active sup- 
porter of the college and served as chairman of its board 
of trustees. Peter Akers, an able preacher of the Illi- 
nois Conference, was its first president, and was recalled 
to the office on two later occasions. 

The institution has limited accreditation by the Univer- 
sity Senate of The United Methodist Church. It offers 
the B.A. and B.S. degrees. The governing board has thirty- 
six members, a majority of whom must be active members 
of The United Methodist Church: twelve elected by the 
Southern Illinois Conference, twenty-four elected by the 
board but confirmed by the Southern Illinois Conference. 

John O, Gross 

McKENNA, DAVID L. (1929- ), American Free 
Methodist educator and ordained elder in the Pacific 
Northwest Conference, was bom at Detroit, Mich. He 
was educated as follows: A. A., Spring Arbor (Junior) 
College, 1949; B.A., Western Michigan University, 1951; 
B.D., AsBiTRY Theological Seminary, 1953; M.A., Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1955; Ph.D., University of Michigan, 
1958. He married Janet Ruth Voorheis in 1950. His service 
includes: pastor, Vicksburg, Mich., 1950-51; Dean of Men; 
Academic Dean; Vice-president, Spring Arbor (Junior) 
College, 1953-60; Assistant Professor of higher education, 
Ohio State University, 1960-61; President, Spring Arbor 
College, 1961-68; President, Seattle Pacific College 
since 1968. He has been a member. Board of Administra- 
tion, Pacific Northwest Conference; president. Association 
of Free Methodist Colleges and Secondary Schools; mem- 
ber of denominational Board of Administration; member 
of Resolution and Education Committees, National As- 
sociation of Evangehcals. He holds membership in Phi 
Kappa Phi, Association of Higher Education, and Phi 
Delta Kappa. His community interests include United 



Community Service, Jackson, Mich.; Michigan Commis- 
sion on College Accreditation; MetropoHtan (Detroit) 
YMCA Board of Directors; Seattle Chamber of Commerce, 
Education Committee; Seattle Rotary Club. He is the 
author of Concept of the Christian College, 1963; editor 
The Urban Crisis, 1969; contributing editor, United Evan- 
gelical Action, and articles in The Free Methodist and 
Christianity Today. 

Byron S. Lamson 

1881), American preacher and educator, was born on 
April 26, 1806 in Burke County, N. C, He founded a 
school at Columbia, Tenn., in 1831 and was admitted to 
the Tennessee Conference in 1836. He transferred at 
once to the Ark.-vns.'^s Conference and his first appoint- 
ent was to the Choctaw Indians in what was later Indian 
Territory. In 1839 he was appointed to a circuit extending 
from western Arkansas to Preston Bend, near Denison on 
Red River in the Republic of Texas. In 1841 he started 
a small school in a log house with si.\teen children, the 
beginning of McKenzie College located near Clarksville, 
Texas. In a few years the school became the most pros- 
perous and vigorous institution in the southwest, if not 
west of the Mississippi River, during the period up to the 
Civil War. McKenzie continued to preach on request and 
officiated at many weddings, funerals, and church dedica- 
tions, but his major work was conducting the school. 
Originally the school was chiefly a preparatory one but 
in 1845 a "female department" and a "collegiate depart- 
ment" were added. In 1848 the first A.B. degree was con- 
ferred. By 1846 there were sixty-three students and in 
1848 eighty-six were reported in the college, with even 
more in the preparatory department. By 1859-60 there 
were 405 students taught by nine faculty members. The 
war years cut enrollment, and severe economic conditions, 
plus McKenzie's advancing age, resulted in the closing 
of the school in 1868. A total of about 3,300 students 
attended the school, and McKenzie reported that about 
2,200 of these "made public profession of religion" while 
there. Many of the later leaders in the area and the state 
attended the college. In 1853 four large new buildings, 
erected at a cost of $30,000 provided almost unrivaled 
facilities among nineteenth century schools, at least in the 
South and the Southwest. In 1878 McKenzie was awarded 
an honorary D.D. degree by Emory College (now Uni- 
versity). He died on June 20, 1881. 

"McKenzie College" by John D. Osburn in Southwestern His- 
torical Quarterly (April, 1960). 
M. Phelan, Texas. 1924. Walter N. Vernon 

MACKENZIE, PETER (1824-1895), British Wesleyan 
Methodist evangelist and humorist, was bom at Glenshee, 
Perthshire, Scotland, Nov. 11, 1824, but migrated to 
England to become a pitman in Haswell Colliery, Dur- 
ham. He was converted in 1849. He entered the Wesleyan 
ministry in 1859 and, after many successful years in a 
number of circuits, was in 1886 relieved of circuit work 
for work in the connection at large. In great demand as a 
preacher because of his racy, humorous style, he is de- 
scribed on his epitaph at Dewsbury, Yorkshire, as "the 
Greatheart of Methodism." He died on Nov. 21, 1895. 

J. Dawson, Peter Mackenzie, 1896. 
D. T. Young, Peter Mackenzie. 1904. 

H. Morley Rattenbury 

McKINLEY, WILLIAM (1843-1901), the twenty-fourth 
President of the United States of America and a staunch 
Methodist, was born in Miles, Ohio on Jan. 29, 1843. At 
the age of ten he was baptized and received into member- 
ship in the M. E. Church by the Rev. Aaron D. Morton. 
During the American Civil War he served with distinction 
in the Northern Army, rising from a private to the rank of 
major. Following the war he studied law and in 1867 
opened an office in Canton, Ohio. Here he met and in 
1871 married Ida Saxton. They had two children who died 
in infancy. While in Canton, McKinley was active in the 
local M. E. Church and for a time served as superinten- 
dent of the church school. The pew he occupied in First 
Church, Canton, is specially marked by an appropriate 
metal plate. 

In 1876 McKinley was elected to the Congress of the 
United States as a representative from Ohio. Defeated in 
1882, he was re-elected in 1884. All together he served 
six two-year terms between 1876 and 1890. As a congress- 
man he was known for his advocacy of a higli protective 
tariff. In 1890 he sponsored a tariff bill bearing his name 
which became law. While a congressman McKinley arid 
his wife attended the Foundry M. E. Church in Wash- 
ington, D. C. In 1891 he ran for governor of Ohio and 
was elected. 

In 1896 McKinley was nominated by the Republican 
Party for the office of President of the United States. In 
the election he defeated his Democratic opponent, William 
Jennings Bryan, and was inaugurated on March 4, 1897. 
In 1900 he was re-elected. During his first administration 
the United States engaged in a brief war with Spain. As 
a result of this war the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto 
Rico were ceded to the United States and the island of 
Cuba became an independent country. While President, 
McKinley attended the Metropolitan M. E. Church, the 
national Methodist church which had been erected during 
the administration of Ulysses S. Grant by contributions 
from Methodists throughout the country. His pastors dur- 
ing this time were Hugh M. Johnston and Frank M. 

Included among his private papers is a signed statement 
declaring: "My belief embraces the Divinity of Christ and 
a recognition of Christianity as the mightiest factor in the 
world's civilization." In Buffalo, N. Y., on Sept. 6, 1901, 
William McKinley was shot by Leon Czolgosz. Eight days 
later he died. He is buried in Canton, Ohio. 
Dictionary of American Biography. 
Hampton, Religious Backgrounds of the White House. 
Kane, Facts About the Presidents. 
Leech, In the Days of McKinley. H. Alden Welch 

McKINNEY, JOHN WESLEY ( ? -1946), sixteenth bish- 
op of the C.M.E. CiaiRCH, was born in Texas. He re- 
ceived his education at Prairie View Normal School and 
Austin College. He began preaching in 1883 and served as 
a local preacher for several years before entering the itin- 
erant ministry. McKinney served as pastor, presiding elder, 
and Secretary of Church Extension before being elected 
to the office of bishop by the General Conference in 1922. 
He and Bishop Robert Turner Brown led in the estab- 
lishment of a church in Trinidad, West Indies. Bishop 
McKinney was noted as a man of conviction and high 
moral standards. He retired in 1942 and died on Aug. 28, 

Harris and Patterson, C.M.E. Church. 1965. 
The Mirror, General Conference, CME, 1958. Ralph G. Gay 



MACKINNON, SALLIE LOU (1889-1973), American mis- 
sionary and Mission Board executive, was born at Maxton, 
N. C, on Oct. 27, 1889, the daughter of Alexander James 
and Virginia Lee Mackinnon. 

She graduated from Randolph-Macon Woman's Col- 
lege, 1911, and at Scarritt Biblical Institute (then in 
Kansas City, Mo. ) . She volunteered and was sent to 
China, where she served as a missionary under the Board 
OF Missions of the M. E. Church, South, for ten or twelve 
years. She then became the executive secretary of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the M. E. 
Church, South, whose headquarters then were in Nash- 
ville, Tenn. After the unification of Methodism in 1939- 
40, she went to New York City where she served as 
executive secretary for China, Africa and Europe under 
the Woman's Division of Christian Service of The Meth- 
odist Church. Later with the changing situation in China, 
she remained in charge of Africa and Europe for the 
Woman's Division. She retired in 1956, and after living 
in Nashville, Tenn., for several years, took up her resi- 
dence in the Brooks Howell Home in Asheville, N. C, 
in 1964. In her tenure as executive secretary, she sei-ved 
on many important committees and was quite influential 
in interdenominational and international mission groups 
in their wider plans and moves. 

She died in Asheville on March 16, 1973. 

The Methodist Woman, Vol. 15, No. 6, February 1955. 

N. B. H. 

Mcknight, GEORGE (? -I8I3 or I8I4), American pio- 
neer layman, at whose home on the Yadkin River in 
North Carolina, the three important frontier confer- 
ences of 1789, 1790, and 1791 were held, was one of 
the earliest settlers on the Yadkin River. His land grant is 
dated 1762, and there is evidence that he had occupied 
the land near the mouth of Linville Creek, where the 
Great Wagon Road from Pennsylvania crossed, at least 
as early as 1758. 

In the years before the Revolutionary War he was con- 
nected with the Moravians of the Wachovia settlement, 
and opened his house to them for preaching in English. 
Sometime about 1783 a Methodist society was organized 
in his community, and in 1786 Bishop Francis Asbuby 
found a living society there, and a chapel at McKnight's. 
Located just below where the Yadkin turns south, the 
place was admirably located for gathering the preachers 
from all directions, and Asbury took full advantage of it. 

The 1789 Conference was attended by the preachers 
from the Holston country of East Tennessee, who crossed 
the mountains by way of the Flower Gap. "We had 
weighty matters for consideration before us," wrote 
Asbury. The most important such matter was the launch- 
ing of the Anninian Magazine, which the Book Steward, 
John Dickins, edited and pubhshed at Philadelphia. The 
preface to the first volume was signed by Asbury and 
Thomas Coke at "North Carolina, April 10, 1789." 

After the 1791 Conference the growing Methodism on 
the Holston side of the mountains made conferences there 
desirable, and McKnight's faded into the background. 

The home and chapel of McKnight were located about 
where the present U. S. Highway 158 crosses the first 
branch east of the Yadkin River just south of the Inter- 
state 40. It is now in Forsyth County, but at the time 
of George McKnight it was in Rowan County, almost on 
the Surry County line. McKnight died at the home of a 
son-in-law in Surry County in 1813 or 1814. 

In 1808 and 1809 the society there, led by McKnight's 
sons and sons-in-law, built a new church by the name of 
Mt. Pleasant, some two miles to the south. This, in turn, 
gave way to a church and school at Clemmonsville, a mile 
east of the original site. The old Mt. Pleasant, however, 
has been restored and stands as a shrine in Tangelwood 
Park, a public park donated by some of the Reynolds 
family of that section. 

W. L. Grissom, North Carolina. 1905. 

Moravian Records. 

Rowan and Iredell Counties (North Carolina), Records. 

Homer M. Keever 
Louise L. Queen 

McLaughlin, JOHN RUSSELL (1905- ), American 

minister, and general secretary of the Commission on 
Chaplains, was bom at Blue Mound, Kan., May 24, 1905, 
son of William and Mattie (King) McLaughlin. 

He received the A.B. degree from Baker University 
in 1930, and was awarded the D.D. degree by Baker in 
1952. From Drew University he received the B.D. de- 
gree in 1932 and the M.A. degree in 1934. He pursued 
postgraduate study at Columbia University, 1934-35; at 
Garrett Theological Seminary, 1938-40; and at New 
York University, 1946-48. 

He was admitted on trial into the Newark Confer- 
ence, M. E. Church, and was ordained deacon in 1933. 
He was received into full connection and ordained elder 
in 1935. 

His pastorates were: Baldwin, Kan., 1926-28; Edwards- 
ville, Kan., 1929; Woodrow, Staten Island, N. Y., 1932-35; 
Jersey City, N. J., 1935-41; Leonia, N. J., 1941-49. He 
was superintendent of North District, Newark Conference, 
1949-55. From 1956 for more than two quadrennia he was 
general secretary. Commission on Chaplains, Washington, 
D. C. He served to become chaplain-major in the U.S. 
AiTny Air Force. 

He married Ada Frances Richard on June 10, 1928, and 
they had two children. She died in Berchtesgaden, Ger- 
many, in 1961. 

He was married to lona S. Henry on June 15, 1963. 
They continue to reside in Washington, D. C. 

Who's Who in the Methodist Church, 1966. J. Marvin Rast 

McLaughlin, william Patterson (1849-1921), mis- 
sionary pastor in Argentina, was bom in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. He was graduated from Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity and Boston University School of Theology and 
entered the Ohio Annual Conference. After eleven 
years of service in several churches, McLaughlin and his 
wife, the former Rebecca Long, accepted an appointment 
in New Orleans, La., where he organized a missionary 
district among French- and Italian-speaking people. After 
seven years he accepted the call to South America. 

Arriving at Christmas 1892, he served as pastor of First 
Methodist Church, Buenos Aires for twenty-nine years, 
until his death in February 1921. His pastorate was dis- 
tinguished by a widening influence and deepened rela- 
tionships which left enduring marks. His social insights 
were particularly effective during the years of the First 
World War. "He went about doing good," are words on a 
marble monument erected to his memory. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1957. Hubert R. Hudson 




MACLAY, CHARLES (1821-1890), American businessman 
and Methodist benefactor, joined the Baltimore Con- 
FEBENCE but in 1851 transferred to the California. In 
1859 he asked for location on medical advice. He pros- 
pered in business, and was one of the chief financial 
supporters of the church. He served in both the State 
Assembly and Senate from Santa Clara County. His in- 
terest in an educated ministry led him to be active in sup- 
porting the University of the Pacific. Later he en- 
dowed the Maclay College of Theology in connection 
with the University of Southern California. 

The collapse of the land boom in that part of the state 
brought a series of financial crises. Finally the endowment 
and the university were lost to the church. But Maclay 's 
loyalty to Methodism never wavered. He was one of 
California's distinguished laymen. 

C. V. Anthony, Fifty Years. 1901. 

H. H. Bancroft, Chronicles of the Builders, II, p. 307. 

E. D. Jervey, Southern California and Arizona. 1960. 

Leon L. Loofboubow 

Robert S. Maclay 

MACLAY, ROBERT SAMUEL (1824-1907), pioneer mis- 
sionary of the M. E. Church in China, Japan and Korea, 
was born in Concord, Pa., on Feb. 7, 1824. After grad- 
uation from Dickinson College in 1845, he was ordained 
and sailed for China in 1847. His fiancee, Henrietta Caro- 
line Sperry, followed him two years later, and they were 
married in Hong Kong in 1850. He was appointed super- 
intendent and treasurer of the mission and continued until 

His first plan for developing Methodist work in China 
was to move steadily westward, from Fukien to Kiangsi, 
and then to West China and possibly to Tibet. In further- 
ance of this plan he sent Virgil Hart and Elbert Todd 
from Foochow to Kiukiang on the Yangtze River in 1867. 
But, by the following year, he was ready to sidetrack 
further westward advance for a time, in favor of estab- 
lishing work in North China. In 1869, Lucius N. Wbeeler 
and Hiram H. Lowry were sent to Peking to begin work 

In 1861, Maclay published his interesting book, Life 
Among the Chinese, and in 1871 he collaborated with 

C. C. Baldwin in a massive dictionary of the Chinese 
language in the dialect of Foochow. 

By this time his tliought was reaching out even beyond 
the bounds of China. On Dec. 16, 1870, he wrote to the 
missionary society, urging that work be established in 
Japan. The following year he returned to America — his 
second furlough in twenty-three years — and while away 
the bishops transferred him to Japan to found the mission 
he had advocated. 

He arrived in Japan in 1873, and was superintendent 
of that mission until 1888, serving also in Tokyo as presi- 
dent of Ei Wa Gakko, a college which embraced the 
Anglo-Chinese Academy and the Philander Smith Biblical 
Institute. He was delegate from Japan to the Ecumen- 
ical Methodist Conference in London in 1881. While 
there he made a strong plea for the closest possible co- 
operation of the various Methodist mission boards 
throughout the world. 

His continuing statesmanlike concern for the whole 
East Asia area showed itself in a visit to his old home in 
Foochow in 1881, when he helped to establish the Anglo- 
Chinese College; and also in a visit to the king of Korea 
in 1884, when he obtained permission for the establish- 
ment of Methodist work in that country. 

In 1888, he was ministerial delegate from Japan to 
the General Conference of the M. E. Church held in 
New York. After the Conference he resigned from mission 
work and became dean of the newly opened Maclay 
College of Theology in San Fernando, Calif., a post which 
he held from 1888 to 1893, when he retired. 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1957. 

W. N. Lacy, China. 1948. 

Who's Who in America, 1906-07. Francis P. Jones 

McLEAN, JOHN (1775-1861), Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, who among other things is 
remembered for his thirty-one-year tenure on that Court. 
He was the first Ohioan to become a Justice of the highest 
court in the land. 

A native of Morris County, N. J., bom March 11, 1775, 
he settled with his family in what became Warren County 
in southwestern Ohio. He worked on the family farm until 
he was eighteen, then went to Cincinnati to work in the 
Hamilton County Clerk of Court's office and to read law. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1807, and began his prac- 
tice in Lebanon, county seat of Warren County. 

Almost immediately he began his long political career, 
first as U.S. Congressman in 1812, re-elected in 1814. In 
1815 he was elected to the Ohio Supreme Court bench. 
In 1822, President Monroe named him Commissioner of 
the General Land Office. The next year be became Post- 
master General. Although he disagreed with President 
Andrew Jackson, Jackson appointed him to the U.S. Su- 
preme Court. 

Justice McLean dissented from Chief Justice Roger 
Taney in the Dred Scott case, holding that slavery "had 
its origin in power, was contrary to right and upheld 
only by local law." 

His peers described him as "conscientious, thorough, 
inherently just. . . . inclined to reject the opinion of 

For many years he was a communicant member of the 
M. E. Church, and one historian said of him, "His private 
life was in perfect harmony wdth his profession." He once 
was president of the American Sunday School Union. 



Despite his lack of formal higher education, four col- 
leges conferred upon Justice McLean the honorary LL.D. 
degree. Harvard was one and Wesleyan University 
in Connecticut another. 

A tall and commanding figure, Justice McLean was a 
man of simple habits; his manners were genial and cour- 
teous, and he was distinguished by his intellectual versatil- 
ity. It was said that he was as regular in attending class 
meeting as Chief Justice Taney was in attending mass. 

Few men in pohtical life enjoyed such broad support. 
In 1836 the Whigs favored him for presidential nomina- 
tion; he was considered a possible nominee of the Liberty 
party in 1848, and later the same year at the Free Soil 
Convention. In 1856 the Ohio delegation favored him for 
the presidential nomination at the first national Repub- 
lican convention. He was of great help in acting as 
mediator in the suit the Southern Church (MES) brought 
against the Northern (ME) to obtain its share of the 
Book Concern's worth after the Northern Church had 
repudiated the Plan of Separation which in 1844 had 
been agreed upon. However when the suit of the South 
finally came before the Supreme Court, Justice McLean 
excused himself because he was a Methodist, and let his 
fellow justices decide the issue — as they did for the South. 

He also entered the field of Methodist biography, 
writing a life of Philip Catch and of John Collins. 

Justice McLean died April 4, 1861. The next day the 
Ohio State Journal, Columbus morning newspaper, said: 
"Justice McLean was a profound jurist, a citizen justly 
esteemed for his excellent social qualities, and an 
exemplary Christian." 

Dictionary of American Biograpliy. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. John F. Young 

MACLEAN, JOHN (1851-1928), Canadian Methodist mis- 
sionary to the Indians and historian, was bom in Kil- 
marnock, Scotland, Oct. 30, 1851, and was educated 
at the Burgh Academy, Dumbarton. In 1873 he emigrated 
to Canada. He attended Victoria University (B.A., 
1882; M.A., 1887) and Illinois Wesleyan University 
(Ph.D., 1888). 

Received on trial in 1875, he was ordained in the 
Methodist Church in 1880. From 1880 to 1889 he was 
a missionary to the Blood Indians near Fort Macleod, in 
what is now Alberta. During this period he was also a 
public-school inspector. Subsequently he had pastorates 
at Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan; Port Arthur, Ontario; Nee- 
pawa and Winnipeg, in Manitoba; in the last of which 
he founded the Maclean Mission. In 1895 he was presi- 
dent of the Manitoba Conference, and from 1902 to 1906 
he was editor of The Wesleyan. For many years he was 
the historian of the Manitoba Conference, and from 1918 
to 1922 he was archivist of the Methodist Church. 

Maclean's interests were extensive. He was a member 
of the Canadian Institute, the American Folklore Society, 
and the Manitoba Historical Society. Widely regarded 
as an authority on the Western Indians, he wrote numer- 
ous ethnological pamphlets and a variety of books. These 
included Canadian Savage Folk (1896), James Evans 
(1890), and McDougall of Alberta (1927). He did much 
to interpret and to preserve the culture of the Western 
tribes and to strengthen Methodism in the prairie prov- 

G. H. Cornish, Cyclopaedia of Methodism in Canada. 1881. 
L. E. Horning and L. J. Burpee, A Bibliography of Canadian 

Fiction. Toronto: Victoria University Library, 1904. 
W. S. Wallace, ed., Macmillan Dictionary of Canadian Biog- 
raphy. London: Macmillan, 1963. J. E. Nix 

F. W. Armstrong 

McLEAN, JOHN H. (1838-1925), American clergyman 
and educator, was bom in Hinds County, Miss. He at- 
tended (and taught for two years at) McKenzie College, 
Clarksville, Texas, and entered East Texas Conference 
in 1860; went into Trinity (later named North Texas) 
Conference when organized in 1867. He served leading 
churches and districts; was head of Paris Female Col- 
lege, 1869-71; vice-regent of Southwestern University 
at Georgetown, Texas, 1880-91; and regent, 1891-97. 
He was manager of Texas Methodist Orphanage, 1908- 
12; and a member of the Ecumenical NIethodist Con- 
ference in Washington, 1891, and in New York in 

Walter N. Vernon 

McMAHAN CHAPEL, organized in 1833, is the oldest 
Methodist church and the oldest continuing Protestant 
congregation in the state of Texas. The chapel is located 
on Spur 35 two miles south of Route 21 some twelve 
miles east of San Augustine. There in what was then the 
San Augustine Municipality of the Mexican Government, 
Samuel D. McMahan (d. 1854) who came from Tennes- 
see, settled in 1831. 

At the Mississippi Conference in Vicksburg, Novem- 
ber 1832, James P. Stevenson was appointed to the Sabine 
Circuit in Louisiana, a few miles east of where McMahan 
had settled. In the spring of 1833 at Nachitoches, La., 
Stevenson met some Texans who asked him to come across 
the line and preach to them, even though Protestant 
services were forbidden in Mexican territory. Assured by 
the laymen of protection from prosecution, Stevenson 
went over and held a two-day meeting in a private home 
near what is now Milam, Texas. McMahan attended the 
services and invited Stevenson to come and preach at 
his home also. Stevenson did so, returning several times 
during the year to hold services. The people requested 
Stevenson to organize a church, but he, knowing that 
organizing a Methodist church would be against the law, 
formed instead in September 1833, a "religious society" 
of forty-eight members and named McMahan the "class 
leader." Such was the beginning of McMahan Chapel. 
Then in July 1834, Henry Stephenson, successor of J. P. 
Stevenson on the Sabine Circuit, formally organized a 
Methodist society in McMahan's home, and it was soon 
called McMahan Chapel. 

Following the Texas War of Independence in 1836, 
the McMahan congregation grew rapidly, and there was 
need for a church building. In December 1838, the Mis- 
sissippi Conference appointed Littleton Fo\vler as pre- 
siding elder of the Texas Mission District. Fowler built a 
home near Samuel McMahan's place and made it his 
headquarters. Also, in 1839 Fowler assisted with the 
building of a log chapel forty by thirty feet for the 
McMahan congregation. 

The McMahan log structure was replaced by a frame 
church in 1872, and another of similar material was 
erected in 1900. The present brick edifice, valued at 
$49,500, was built in 1949 and was dedicated in 1956 by 
Bishop A. Frank Smith. 

The 1970 General Conference designated Mc- 
Mahan Chapel as one of the first three official United 


Methodist Landmarks because of its historic significance. 
A cemetery containing the graves of Samuel D. Mc- 
Mahan, Littleton Fowler, and other early Methodist lead- 
ers in Texas, adjoins McMahan Chapel. The chapel is the 
head of a four-point work with the pastor residing in a 
brick parsonage beside the church. In 1969 McMahan 
Chapel reported twenty-nine members. 

Texas Christian Advocate, Sept. 18, 1880. 

Walter N. Vernon, "McMahan's Chapel: Landmark in Texas," 

in Methodist History, October 1970. 

Walter Prescott Webb, ed.. The Handbook of Texas. Austin, 


C. A. West, McMahan's Methodist Chapel. Pamphlet, n.p., n.d. 

Henderson Yokum, History of Texas. II, 221. New York: 

Redfield, 1856. Albea Godbold 

McMillan, ETHEL (?-1954), a New Zealand Methodist 
missionary sister, was bom in Victoria, Australia. After 
qualifying as a midwife, in 1915 she became a missionary 
nursing sister under the Methodist Church of Australasia, 
on the island of Choiseul in the Western Solomons. When 
the New Zealand Conference took over the Solomon Is- 
lands field in 1922, she continued to work on Choiseul 
for a further twenty years. For a good part of that time 
she was the only European worker on the island. Hun- 
dreds of oiphans owe their lives to her unremitting care, 
and through her influence, hygienic and domestic con- 
ditions were revolutionized in many of the villages. She 
retired in Melbourne, where she died on Jan. 19, 1954. 

Arthur H. Scrivin 

M'MULLEN, JAMES (17P-1804), British Methodist pio- 
neer missionary to Gibraltar, entered the Wesleyan 
ministry in Ireland in 1788 and answered an appeal to 
go to Gibraltar in 1804. The society consisted of about 
twenty members, both soldiers and civilians. Yellow fever 
was raging on his arrival, and his wife died almost im- 
mediately. He himself visited the sick and preached, 
but died on Oct. 17, 1804, only a week or so after land- 
ing, the first Wesleyan missionary martyr of the European 

Findlay and Holdsworth, Wesleyan Meth. Miss. Soc. 1921-24. 
W. Moister, Wesleyan Missionaries. 1878. Cyril J. Davey 

McMULLEN, WALLACE (1819-1899), Irish minister, was 
born in Ards, County Down, in the north of Ireland, 
and entered the ministry in 1841. He soon showed admin- 
istrative gifts, and in 1859 he began his connection with 
Home Mission affairs as Assistant Secretary of the Con- 
tingent Fund. His connection with this work lasted until 
he died, and for the last twenty years of his life he was 
the General Secretary of the Home Mission Fund. This 
was the department through which the whole organization 
and finance of the Irish Methodist Church was guided. 
He advocated and helped carry through the plan for lay 
representation in the Irish Conference in 1877. Much of 
the work for Methodist Union in Ireland in 1878 was his 
responsibility, and he helped to consolidate united Irish 
Methodism by his constructive financial genius. As a mem- 
ber of the Legal Hundred, he was four times called to 
the highest ofiBce in the Church in Ireland, Vice-President 
of the Conference, in 1874, 1878, 1888 and 1895. 

Frederick Jeffery 


MacMURRAY COLLEGE, Jacksonville, Illinois, was char- 
tered as Illinois Conference Female College in 1846. The 
name was changed to Illinois Woman's College in 1899, 
and in 1930 to MacMurray College for Women in honor 
of the late James E. MacMurray, former Senator from 
Illinois, whose devotion to the college was reflected by 
his large gifts. The college is related to the Central 
Illinois Conference. A coordinate college for men was 
established in 1955. Degrees offered are the B.A., M.Ed. 
(Education), and M.S. The governing board has thirty- 
three members; it is self-perpetuating. 

John O. Gross 

McMURRY, WILLIAM FLETCHER (1864-1934), American 
bishop, was the son of a Methodist preacher, William 
Wesley McMurry, and was born in Shelby County, Mo., 
June 29, 1864. His father was a very influential leader in 
Missouri Methodism and sent his son to St. Charles 
College (1880-1882) and to Central College at Fay- 
ette (1882-1885). A few years after he left Central Col- 
lege he was married to Frances Byrd Davis, Oct. 9, 1888, 
and they had three children. He was ordained in the 
M. E. Church, South, in 1886. He held several pastorates 
between 1886 and 1897 and was a presiding elder from 
1897 to 1902. He then became pastor of Centenary 
Church in St. Louis and served in that important down- 
town church until 1906. These were the World Fair years 
in St. Louis and his pastorate at Centenary was one of the 
most successful evangelistic pastorates in the long history 
of Missouri Methodism. In 1906 he was elected Secretary 
of the Board of Church Extension of his denomination 
and served until 1918, when he was elected a bishop at 
the General Conference in Atlanta. 

His first assignment as bishop took him to the Orient, 
and then in subsequent years he served several Episcopal 
areas in Southern Methodism. For years he was President 
of the Board of Finance of the M. E. Church, South, was 
a member of the Joint Commission on Unification of 
American Methodism, and he was twice a delegate to 
the Ecumenical Methodist Conference, in 1901 and 
1921. In addition to his work as bishop he served as 
President of Central College from 1924 to 1930. 

He presided over a great meeting of his Episcopal 
Area, including the Baltimore, the Kentucky and the 
West Virginia Conferences, at Staunton, Va., on Jan. 
9, 1934. He returned home with an attack of influenza, 
was taken to Barnes Hospital in St. Louis and died there 
of a heart attack on the morning of Jan. 19, and he was 
buried at Shelbyville, Mo., in his native county. 

Bishop McMurry, measured by any standard, was a 
big man. He was as able an administrator as Methodism 
in the United States ever produced, and he would have 
gone to the top in any field of endeavor. He was an in- 
defatigable worker, and he demanded of all who served 
under him the same kind of devoted and energetic work. 
Because the tasks committed to him by his church re- 
quired such drives and strength, he seemed at times to be 

I. L. Holt, Missouri Bishops. 1953. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

Ivan Lee Holt 

McMURRY COLLEGE, Abilene, Texas, was estabLshed in 
1920 and named for Bishop William F. McMurry who 



presided over the conference that ordered the founding. 
Its founder was James W. Hunt, a minister of the North- 
west Texas Conference. 

McMurry is the legal and spiritual successor of four 
educational institutions of West Texas and New Mexico: 
Stamford College, Clarendon College, Seth Ward Col- 
lege, and Western College of Artesia. McMurry College 
received the first endowed lectureship given by Mr. and 
Mrs. J. M. Willson of Floydada, Texas. Willson lecture- 
ships have been given by them to thirty educational in- 
stitutions. Degrees offered are the B.A. and B.S. The 
governing board has sixty trustees elected by the North- 
west Texas and New Mexico Annual Conferences. 

John O. Gross 

MACNAUGHTON, NORMAN (1880-1951), American 
preacher, lecturer and teacher, was bom March 3, 1880 
in Glengarry, Ontario, Canada, the son of Alexander and 
Sarah (McDonald) MacNaughton. He earned his A.B., 
B.Th., and B.D. degrees at McMaster University, Toronto, 
Canada, and received the M.A. degree at Yale in 1912. 
Further graduate work was taken at the University of 
Chicago, 1925-1929. Adrian College conferred upon 
him the degree of LL.D. in 1945. 

He married Kathleen Mabel Chalk on Sept. 20, 1910, 
in Toronto, Canada. He served congregations in New 
Westminster, British Columbia; Southfield, Chicago, 111.; 
and Tecumseh, Mich. He joined the Adrian College facul- 
ty in 1930, where he held the Chair of Christian Philos- 
ophy for twenty years until his retirement in 1950. He 
was in constant demand as a speaker for various special 
occasions. As a teacher of college students he had few 
superiors. The Michigan Christian Advocate said, "Over 
a period of years his wit, wisdom, and common sense 
had been a source of inspiration. Dr. MacNaughton was 
both humble and great in spirit." His conference relation- 
ship was with the Illinois and Michigan Conferences 
of the M. p. Church, and then into the Detroit Con- 
ference of The Methodist Church at the time of union 
in 1939. His death occurred July 12, 1951, and he was 
buried in Adrian. 

Detroit Conference Journal, 1952. 

Daily Telegram, Adrian, Mich., July 12, 1951. 

Michigan Christian Advocate, July 26, 1951. 

Who's Who in Methodism, 1952. Frank W. Stephenson 

MACON, GEORGIA, U.S.A. In 1803, white settlers in 
Georgia purchased a tract of land from the Creek Indians. 
At the top of the hill on the east side of the Ocmulgee 
River, Fort Hawkins was built, and on the west side, 
the streets for Macon were laid out. Circuit riders from 
adjoining territory came to the settlement to preach 
and hold revivals. 

The first Methodist Society was organized in the home 
of R. R. Evans in 1826. On Dec. 23, 1826, Governor G. M. 
Thorpe signed a bill passed by the Georgia Legislature, 
authorizing the Commission appointed to plan the town 
of Macon, "to lay off a suitable piece of ground for the 
Methodist Episcopal Church." The granite marker on 
this building site (which is Mulberry Street Methodist 
Church) says, "No building has ever stood on this spot 
except a Methodist Church dedicated to the worship 
and service of Almighty God." The first building was 
erected in 1828. 

First Macon appointments read: 1827, South Caro- 

lina Conference, Milledgeville District, Macon and 
Clinton, Thos. Darly, P.C. In 1828 the circuit was re- 
arranged to read — South Carolina Conference, Milledge- 
ville District, Milledgeville and Macon, Samuel K. Hodges, 
sup., Charles Hardy. In 1829 Macon was made a station 
with Ignatius A. Few, preacher-in-charge. At the end of 
that first year as a station the membership was 120 white 
and 36 colored. 

In 1828 the General Conference authorized the 
South Carolina Conference to be divided, and in January 
1829, the division was made at the Savannah River, with 
the Carolinas in one conference, and Georgia with 
Florida in the other. The Georgia Conference was 
organized in Macon in January 1830. 

Wesleyan College, under the name of Georgia Fe- 
male College, received its charter from the Legislature of 
the State of Georgia on Dec. 23, 1836; began construction 
in 1837; faculty elected in 1838; opened its doors Jan. 7, 
1839, and issued the world's first college degrees for wom- 
en, July 16, 1840, George F. Pierce, President. Today 
Wesleyan College is located on a 240-acre campus and 
is supported by South Georgia, North Georgia, and 
Florida Conferences and the Board of Education 
of The United Methodist Church. 

Additional Methodist churches have been organized in 
Macon, beginning with Vineville, 1849, followed by First 
Street, East Macon, South Macon, and then Centenary. 
Today there are twenty-six congregations with 14,710 
members out of a population of 118,764 people. The 
A.M.E., A.M.E. ZiON, and C.M.E. Churches are repre- 
sented in congregations numbering more than 1,000 mem- 
bers. Macon is the strongest Methodist center in South 

King Vivion 

Mulberry Street Church, Macon, located in the heart 
of Georgia, in 1826 had a population of about 800 people 
and this was the third year of the community's life. There 
were stores, a school, a Masonic lodge haU, a hotel, but 
no church building. Occasional religious services were 
held in a temporary court house located on Mulberry 

The first regular services of Christian worship began 
in Macon when a Methodist society was organized in 
1826 with seventeen members. Named the "Macon 
Methodist Episcopal Church," the congregation was a part 
of the South Carolina Conference. 

By special act of the Georgia Legislature a tract of 
land was granted the young congregation at the comer of 
Mulberry and First Streets adjacent to, but outside, the 
city limits. On this site the first building for Christian 
worship in the City of Macon was erected in 1828. The 
church has remained on this site during all its life. In the 
first simple frame structure built there the Georgia Con- 
ference, including the churches in Georgia which had 
formerly been a part of the South Carolina Conference, 
was organized. Because of this historic event Mulberry 
Street Church has been known as the "Mother Church of 
Georgia Methodism." In the year 1847 the name of the 
church was changed from "Macon Church" to "Mulberry 
Street Church." 

In 1850 a second and larger church building, this one 
of brick construction and more handsome than the first, 
was erected. As the congregation grew there was a need 
for still further expansion, and in 1882 the third sane- 



tuary building was constructed. The walls of this building 
are still in use. 

By the time Mulberry Street Church was ready to 
celebrate its centennial it had "mothered" eight congrega- 
tions in the growing city of Macon. At the time of the 
centennial a new expansion program was begun, and in 
1929 a large educational building and a remodelled sanc- 
tuary were completed at a cost of $250,000. 

The economic depression of the 1930's found the church 
in serious financial difficulties with a large debt. In 1937 
a legal agreement was reached with holders of bonds on 
the church's debt by which only a portion of the indebted- 
ness was to be paid. But the moral obligation to pay 100 
percent of the value of the bonds was never forgotten by 
the church, and in 1945 this was done. The dedication of 
the educational building followed. In the early 1950s 
plans were made and funds raised for a new activities 
building, a chapel, a new organ, and the renovation of 
the sanctuary. Before the end of that decade the task 
was completed at a cost of more than $400,000, and in 
1960 the Stevens-Taylor Chapel was dedicated. 

On an April morning in 1965 a disastrous fire destroyed 
all but the walls of Mulberry's sanctuary. With courage 
and devotion the congregation made plans for rebuilding. 
The new construction was done within the same walls 
of the old sanctuary and was completed in 1968 at a cost 
of $560,000. 

Through the years the Mulberry congregation has 
sought to set a pace for the churches which it has spon- 
sored in evangelism, missions, education, social concerns, 
and stewardship. At a time when the growth of cities 
and suburban churches has weakened many congregations 
in the downtown areas. Mulberry has maintained a vigor- 
ous strength and leadership. 

In 1970 it reported 2,091 members, property valued 
at $2,469,458, and $134,940 raised for all purposes. 

Frank L. Robertson 

Swiff Creek Church, situated in Bibb County, near 
Macon, is an old country church which was founded in 
1867. It was organized by William Capers Bass of Wes- 
leyan College as Swift Creek Mission. When first entered 
in the minutes of the South Georgia Conference, 120 
white and two colored members were reported. A cen- 
tury later the membership is approximately double that 
number, this still being a rural community. 

The men of the community built the Swift Creek 
church on a lot of three and one-half acres deeded by 
Mrs. Elisha Davis to the first trustees, William Hanover 
Donnan, James Duke and Lunce Riggins, Nov. 5, 1868. 
The original building is still the sanctuary. Wings have 
been added and extensive improvements made. 

For ninety years Swaft Creek was on a circuit with one 
pastor serving several churches. By 1933 the depression 
had nearly depopulated the community, the membership 
had dwindled to six active members and the church was 
closed. In 1936 it was reopened with twenty-five members. 
Membership and attendance steadily increased. In 1957 
a parsonage was bought and it became a station with a 
full-time pastor. 

WiLMUTH Donnan 

R. F. Burden, Historical Sketch of Vineville Methodist Church. 

J. W. W. Daniel, The 150th Anriiversary, Mulberry St. Church. 

Macon: J. W. Burke Co., 1951. 

Bessie L. Hart, Pastors of Mulberry. Macon: Southern Press, 



Methodism in Macon, Georgia from 1826 to 1903, 75th An- 
niversary of Macon Metliodism. 
Minutes of the Awiual Conferences, 177.3-1839. 
O. A. Park, The Centennial Celebration— 1826-1926. Macon: 
J. W. Burke Co., 1926. 
G. G. Smith, Georgia and Florida. 1877. 

can evangelist, pastor and educator, was bom at Oxley, 
Mo., on July 6, 1889, the son of William Garland and 
Edna (Greer) McPheeters. Educated at Marvin College, 
Missouri, he later taught Latin and Greek and studied 
at Meridian College, Mississippi, 1910-11, and was at 
Southern Methodist University for one year, 1916. 
Honorary degrees were later conferred upon him. He 
married Ethel Chilton on Jan. 28, 1914, and they had 
two children, Chilton Claudius and Virginia Wave. 

Licensed to preach in 1908, he held summer revivals 
and then was received on trial in the St. Louis Con- 
ference (MES). He was ordained deacon and elder and 
went into full connection in 1921. His appointments were: 
Oran, 1909-10; evangelist, 1912-16; Williamsville, 1917; 
Mellow Memorial, St. Louis, 1918; Summersville, 1919- 
21; Missoula, Mont., 1921-23; University Church, Tucson, 
Ariz., 1923-30; Glide Memorial, San Francisco, 1930- 
48. He became president of Asbury Theological Semi- 
nary, 1942-62 (1942-48 serving both Glide Memorial 
and the seminary), and he retired in 1962. 

In 1918 an authoritative medical report indicated that 
he had tuberculosis and would never be able to preach 
but might find it possible to do light work in five years. 
By faith, prayer and following his physician's directions 
(he slept on an open porch for three years), he was 
preaching twice on Sunday within one year. During his 
pastorate at Missoula, the membership doubled in two 

He was the founder and builder of Glide Memorial 
Institutional Church in San Francisco, then called the 
most pagan city in America. When Glide Church pur- 
chased the Califomian Hotel, McPheeters did away with 
the bar, and within one month the hotel's average rate of 
occupancy became the highest in the city. 

A leader of the holiness movement, McPheeters re- 
stored the academic accreditation of Asbury Theological 
Seminary; paid off its debt; and increased the armual en- 
rollment from sixty to 250 students. He was also founder 
and president of the Redwoods Camp Meeting near Santa 
Cruz, Calif. From 1942 to 1962 he was editor of The 
Herald, successor of The Pentecostal Herald, edited by 
H. C. Morrison. After retirement McPheeters continued 
to edit The Herald. He wrote eleven books and was a 
delegate to the Uniting Conference in 1939, the Juris- 
dictional Conference in 1940, and the Ecumenical 
Methodist Conference, 1947. 

The Asbury Seminarian, Spring-Summer, 1962. 

Who's Who in Methodism, 1952. Jesse A. Earl 

Mcpherson, harry W. (I879-I957), American educa- 
tion executive, was born in rural Cumberland County, 
III. His college education was at Illinois Wesleyan 
University, and his theological training at Boston Uni- 
versity. Joining the Illinois Conference in 1904, he 
served churches until 1932, with a term as superintendent 
of the Springfield District, 1923-25. His social and ecu- 
menical outlook led him to be one of the founders of the 
Illinois Council of Churches. 



As president of Illinois Wesleyan during the difficult 
depression years, 1932-36, he saved it from financial losses 
by his firm and wise administration. His plan of accepting 
farm produce as tuition kept many students in college, and 
gave Wesleyan much good publicity. The larger church 
called him in 1936 as Executive Secretary of its Bo.\bd 
OF Education, and gave him charge of the Division of 
Educational Institutions. He was continued in this position 
in The Methodist Church from 1940 to 1948, in which 
position he served with distinction. 

C. T. Howell, Prominent Personalities. 1945. 

Journal of the Illinois Conference, 1958. 

Elmo Scott Watson, The Illinois Wesleyan Story, 1850-1950. 

Bloomington, 1950. Henby C. Nylin 

McQUIGG, JAMES, Irish preacher and scholar, had an 
outstanding knowledge of the Irish language and was one 
of three General Missionaries along with Charles 
and Gideon Ouseley appointed in 1799. Owing to the 
hardships he had to endure, he broke down in health 
and had to return to circuit work. Here also his evange- 
listic success led to the formation of many new Societies. 
Trinity College, Dublin, offered him a Readership in 
Irish, but he refused this attractive academic post, choos- 
ing to remain a Methodist preacher. In 1815, after twenty- 
six years as a preacher, he was expelled by the Conference 
on the grounds of immorality, despite his strong denial 
of the charge. He continued the work he had begun of 
editing the Bible in Irish for the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. Not until after his death, a few years 
later, was his innocence proved and his name cleared by 
the confession of the guilty party. 

C. H. Crookshank, Methodism in Ireland. 1885-88. 

R. H. Gallagher, Pioneer Preachers (Irish). 1965. 

F. Jeffery, Irish Methodism. 1964. Fredebick Jeffery 

MacROSSIE, ALLAN (1861-1940), American pastor, dis- 
trict superintendent, educator, was bom of Scotch parent- 
age at Kingston, Ontario, Canada, the son of William 
and Althea (Hershey) MacRossie, both devout Method- 
ists. He married Edith M. Weston on Oct. 18, 1888, and 
they had two sons, William and Allan, Jr. 

Educated at Queens University, Kingston, Ontario 
(A.B.) and Drew Theological Semin.\by, B.D., 1887, 
and later the D.D., he entered the New York East Con- 
ference in 1888. His appointments were: Corona, N. Y., 
1888-91; South Park, Hartford, Conn., 1891-93; Mamar- 
oneck, N. Y., 1893-94; Grace, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1894-99; 
Sand Street, Brooklyn, 1900-01; St. James, New York, 
1901-11; Superintendent, New York District, 1911-17; 
St. Andrew's, New York, 1917-21; Commissioner, War 
Council, American Red Cross, 1917-18; then he became 
educational director. General Conference Commission on 
Courses of Study, 1921-39, and proved a commanding 
leader in the field of ministerial training. 

A member of the Board of Home Missions, Board of 
Foreign Missions, and Commission on Conservation and 
Advance, he was also a trustee of Drew and Drew Semi- 
nary for Young Women. MacRossie was a manager of 
the New York Federation of Churches, the New York 
Deaconess Home, and the Methodist Hospital in Brooklyn. 
Several times he was a delegate and reserve delegate to 
the General Conference. 

MacRossie's excellent training in Biblical perspective 
at Queens University and Drew Seminary prepared him 

in the beginning for the so-called higher criticism which 
was then starting to stir theological circles and causing 
confusion and bitterness. Young MacRossie found his 
way between "the stagnation of reactionaryism and the 
over-rashness of radicalism." As pastor and district super- 
intendent he was an inspiring counsellor. 

A dynamic executive, he completely revolutionized the 
method of training young ministers in the Conference 
Course, establishing virtually a system of adult education 
through correspondence. He developed what might be 
called a college of preachers which met once a year at 
Evanston, 111., to listen to religious leaders from the most 
important pulpits and theological schools. The ministers 
in the Conference Course constituted what was sometimes 
called the largest theological school in the world. 

Bishop McConnell said in his memoir of MacRossie 
in 1940: 

He had to be on his guard constantly against otlier ad- 
ministrative agencies which would, if they could, have taken 
over his commission as a secondary part of some other organi- 
zation. He had need of all his Scotch sturdiness before he 
came to the end. During the past two decades, the influence 
of Dr. MacRossie has played more directly upon the majority 
of younger ministers than that of any other educational official 
during his time. Dr. MacRossie was a marvel of industry, of 
presistent persistence in working toward an end, of shrewdness 
of discernment as to men's capabilities and peculiarities, of 
loyalty to his friends and his ideals. 

He died on March 2, 1940, and his funeral was con- 
ducted in Christ Church Methodist, New York City, on 
March 5. Bishops E. H. Hughes and F. J. McConnell de- 
livered the addresses. Burial was in Kingston, Ontario. 
He was survived by his wife and two sons. 

Alumni Record, Drew Theological Seminary, 1867-1925. 

F. J. McConnell, By the Way. 1952. 

E. H. Hughes, I Was Made a Minister. 1943. 

New York Conference Journal, 1940. 

C. F. Price, Who's Who in American Methodism. 1916. 

Jesse A. Earl 

H. N. McTyeire 

McTYEIRE, HOLLAND NIMMONS (1824-1889), American 
bishop, editor, educator, and the great figure in Southern 
Methodism during the crucial years following the Civil 
War, was bom in Barnwell County, S. C, on July 28, 



1824. He was educated at the old Cokesburv School 
in his native state and at Randolph-Macon College 
in Virginia, remaining there as a tutor one year after his 
graduation. In 1845 he was admitted on trial to the Vra- 
GiM.\ Conference of the M. E. Church, South, and 
appointed to Williamsburg. Two years later, he became 
pastor of St. Francis Street Church in Mobile, Ala. He 
was sent to New Orleans in 1849 and in 1851 he 
founded the New Orleans Christian Advocate. He be- 
came editor of the central organ of his Church, the 
Christian Advocate at Nashville, Tenn., in 1858 and con- 
tinued in that influential position for four years, becoming 
an intense Southern protagonist as the Civil War came 
on. He attacked abolitionists. Republicans, and the North 
generally until 1862 when Nashville was taken over by 
the Union Army and the Methodist Publishing House 
property occupied. McTyeire bitterly criticized the with- 
drawal from Nashville under General Joseph Johnston 
and wrote: "The tameness of surrender, without a blow, 
must have made the bones of Andrew Jackson turn in his 
grave at the Hermitage." 

The McTyeires refugeed in southern Alabama at a 
cabin built in the woods near Mobile. The effectiveness 
of the Northern blockade was such that McTyeire could 
buy no shoes for his wife in all Mobile. 

Later McTyeire was appointed pastor in Montgomery, 
Ala., where he served until the General Conference 
of 1866. There was some question just after the war 
among the Southern bishops of abandoning the Church's 
status as an independent organization, but they asked 
McTyeire to draft an address which would summon the 
annual conferences to elect delegates to a General Con- 
ference to decide on these matters. He did so and in this 
General Conference, the first the South had had in eight 
years, McTyeire took the lead, being the champion of 
lay representation and for an increase in the pastoral time 
limit from two years to four. He also championed plans 
for organizing the Colored Methodist Episcopal 
Church and took the lead in calling for the reestablish- 
ment of the missionary program of the Church, and for 
rehabilitating the Publishing House in Nashville. 

He was elected bishop by this conference and at this 
critical time when he was forty-two years of age. As 
Bishop SouLE died in 1867, this threw great responsibility 
on him as one of the new bishops. He lived in Nashville, 
but conducted 125 annual conferences, an average of five 
and one-half for each year he served as bishop. 

McTyeire was the virtual founder of Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity in Nashville in 1872. He secured from ComeUus 
Vanderbilt the original gift of $500,000, which was later 
increased to $1,000,000 and which has been added to by 
other members of the family in later years. Vanderbilt 
provided that Bishop McTyeire should be president of 
the Board of Trustees with full veto power. 

In his later years he lived on the grounds of the Uni- 
versity. He died there on Feb. 15, 1889, and is buried 
on the campus. 

McTyeire 's greatest literary contribution was his His- 
tory of Methodism. He also wrote a work called Duties 
of Christian Masters, dealing with the question of slavery. 
He was the foremost authority on Church law and pub- 
lished A Manual of the Discipline and A Catechism on 
Church Government. He was one of the strongest bishops 
of the Church in an era of strong bishops. Bishop Atticus 
Haygood wrote of him: "He was no mere ecclesiastic. He 

was in his Church, its first statesman, as well as chief 

G. Alexander, History of the M. E. Church, South. 1894. 

C. T. Carter, Tennessee Conference. 1948. 

Dictionary of National Biography. 

Journal of the General Conference, 1890. 

J. J. Tigert, Holland Nimmons McTyeire. 1955. 

Elmeh T. Clark 

MACY, VICTOR W. (1910- ), American Free Meth- 

odist ordained elder of the Southern California Con- 
ference of his Church and a mission executive, was bom 
at Los Angeles, Calif. He was educated at Seattle 
Pacific College, B.A., D.D.; Biblical Seminary in New 
York, S.T.B., and S.T.M. He married Susan B. Blain in 
1936, and became a missionary, under appointment of the 
General Missionary Board for Mozambique, Africa, 1936- 
60. He has been Area Secretary for Africa since 1960. 
His foreign travels include Africa, Asia and Latin Amer- 
ica areas. 

Dr. Macy has speciahzed in production of mission films, 
developing near-professional levels in color-sound filming. 
His sound-color films are: Africa Fellowship; Beauty for 
Ashes; Cheeza; High Calling; Missionaries are Human; 
Ziuko; African Harvest; Eastern Harvest; Four Seasons; 
The Mountains Sing; World Parish; Conquerors for Christ; 
World Fellowship; Beautiful Feet; and a film for Seattle 
Pacific College. He is the author of History of Free Meth- 
odist Mission in Portuguese East Africa. He resides in 
Bukavu, Congo. 

Byron S. Lamson 

MADAN, MARTIN (1726-1790), Anglican Evangelical, 
was the elder brother of Spencer Madan, Bishop of Peter- 
borough, and cousin to William Cowper, the poet. Edu- 
cated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, 
Madan was called to the bar in 1748. Shortly afterward 
he was converted under John Wesley's preaching and 
was ordained in the Church of England. In 1750 he was 
appointed chaplain of the Lock Hospital in London, a post 
which he held for thirty years. He itinerated for the 
Countess of Huntingdon from 1757. He also associated 
with the Methodists and attended the Conference of 1762. 

GentlerrMn's Magazine, 1790, part i, 478. 

Gospel Magazine, iv, 196. A. Skevington Wood 

ference of India which was named for and covers a cen- 
tral and the second largest state of India. Bhopal is its 
capital, and the state is located between the Narbada and 
Godavari Rivers, and touches the states of the Deccan, 
as well as of the northern part of the country. It is rich 
in minerals and has extensive forests. Hinduism is the 
predominant rehgion and Hindi the chief language. There 
are many tribal languages and dialects. The state covers 
an area of 171,217 square miles and has a population of 
about 32,000,000. 

The Madhya Pradesh Conference was organized in 1913 
out of what had been the Central Provinces Mission Con- 
ference. The name was changed after independence to 
Madhya Pradesh Annual Conference, which has the same 

The conference has four districts, namely Balaghat, 



Bastar, Jabalpur, and Khandwa. Of these the largest is the 
one centered in Jabalpur, a city of 295,375, and perhaps 
the most centrally located city in India, with a healthful 
climate and high altitude. It is about 616 miles from 
Bombay and 733 miles from Calcutta. Jabalpur contains 
two Methodist churches and the Leonard Theological 
College. The conference supports a membership of 15,901 
(1968) served by approximately thirty-two ordained and 
fifty supply pastors. 


Barbara H. Lewis, Methodist Overseas Missions. 1960. 

Project Handbook Overseas Missions, The United Methodist 

Church. New York: Board of Missions, 1969. N. B. H. 

MADISON, WISCONSIN, U.S.A., the state capital, popu- 
lation of 170,073, was planned as a community by Steven 
Mason and James Doty in 1836 and was named for Presi- 
dent James Madison. Incorporated as a city in 1856, it is 
the seat of the University of Wisconsin (chartered in 
1848) and of Edgewood College. 

Methodist services were first held in Madison in Novem- 
ber 1837, "in the Barroom of the American House, then 
owned by James Morrison." Salmon Stebbins, a presiding 
elder, preached that night, and then received an offering 
totaling $11. During 1838, a Mr. Pillsbury preached in 
Madison about once a month. Salmon Stebbins also is 
reported to have stopped by occasionally that year, as 
presiding elder. 

The first Methodist building was begun in 1849, and 
completed in 1853. The second building, on the present 
site at Wisconsin and Dayton, was built in 1876. Madison 
first appears in the minutes in 1843, with Thomas L. Ben- 
nett as pastor. In 1845 the church had only forty-six 
members. By 1876 the Madison M. E. Church reported 
230 members and church property appraised at $43,590. 
Then the German Methodist Church had sixty-five mem- 
bers and property worth $4,500. 

During the 1890's the membership grew rapidly to 
about 400. As early as 1908 the church employed an as- 
sistant pastor to work with the University students, and 
in 1912 a Wesley Foundation was started near the 
campus. A few years later First Church sponsored the 
forming of a mission in the city's Italian district, and this 
was merged with a neighborhood church in the early 
1960's. In 1919, First Church started Methodist Hospital, 
which today is a modern 150-bed institution. 

The greatest period of expansion into the growing 
suburban areas came after World War II, when new 
congregations were established in each new major de- 
velopment in the city. 

Madison also has two Wesleyan Methodist churches, 
a Free Methodist Church, and an A.M.E. Church. 

Madison had eleven United Methodist churches in 
1970 with a combined membership of 7,481 and property 
appraised at $3,549,862. First Church with 2,302 mem- 
bers had property worth $1,292,739. 

General Minutes 

History of First Methodist Church, Madison, Wisconsin. 1937. 

Jesse A. Earl 
J. Ellsworth Kalas 

MADISON COLLEGE, Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the third 
college established in the United States under the auspices 
of the M. E. Church. It was a project of the Pittsburgh 
Conference launched at the initial session of that Con- 

ference in 1825. It opened for students and was chartered 
by the Legislature of Pennsvxvania in 1827. The first 
President was Henry B. Bascom, later a bishop of the 
M. E. Church, South. Bascom had been Chaplain of 
Congress in 1823 and named the College for President 
James Madison. 

Madison only continued as a M. E. College for five 
years, until 1832, at which time the patronage of the 
Pittsburgh Conference was transferred to Allegheny 
College at Meadville, Pa., and the faculty and students 
of Madison were transferred to Allegheny. Since the 
first Methodist college, Cokesbury, had been discontinued 
after the fire that destroyed it in 1795; and since the 
second college, Augusta, established under the patronage 
of Ohio and Kentucky Conferences in 1822, was aban- 
doned in the 1840s, this continuity of Madison in and via 
Allegheny gives to Allegheny College the claim to be the 
oldest Methodist college in the United States. 

The Madison College buildings in Uniontown were 
occupied for a time in the 1830s as a Cumberland Presby- 
terian college, and then they went under the control of 
the M. P. Church. At the meeting of the General Con- 
ference of that church in 1850, George Brown reported 
that the trustees of Madison College had offered the 
institution to the conference. Since the location was at 
a central point between the northern and southern con- 
ferences of the M. P. Church, the offer was accepted. 

A Board of Trustees was appointed and Madison Col- 
lege commenced operations again in the summer of 1851. 
In 1853, the North Carolina Conference of the M. P. 
Church recommended Madison College "as the most suit- 
able place at which the sons of Methodist Protestants 
may be educated." In 1854, John Speight was appointed 
to act as agent for the North Carolina Conference and 
solicit funds for the college. R. H. Ball, Francis Waters, 
and Samuel K. Cox each served as President of Madison 
College for short periods of time. However, since the 
various presidents, faculty members, commissioners and 
trustees of the college were largely selected from the 
southern conferences of the M. P. Church, some tension 
was created. As a result of the controversial political 
atmosphere of the period, the faculty and president re- 
signed at the commencement of 1855 and announced that 
a new M. P. college would open in Lynchburg, Va., in 
September of that year. Eighty-five students also with- 
drew from Madison College to enroll at Lynchburg Col- 
lege. Brown, who had served as President of the Board 
of Trustees, became President of Madison College that 
fall, and remained in that position until 1857 when, due 
to indebtedness, small enrollment, lack of financial sup- 
port and endowment, the trustees decided to close the 

A. H. Bassetl, Concise History. 1877. 
Minutes of the Pittsburgh Conference, ME, 1876. 
Our Church Record, June 23, Sept. 29, 1898. 
W. G. Smeltzer, Headwaters of the Ohio. 1951. 

Ralph Hardee RrvES 
W. Guy Smeltzer 

MAGARET, ERNST CARL (1845-1924), German-Ameri- 
can minister and hymn writer, was bom at Anklam, 
Pomerania, Germany on July 6, 1845. Educated in the 
classical Gymnasia at Anklam and Greifswald, he emi- 
grated to America in 1864 and became a teacher at 
Central Wesleyan College, Warrenton, Mo. In 1869 



he was admitted to the Southwest German Annual Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church. From 1868-1883 he ser\ed 
various churches in Iowa and Illinois. From 1883-1884 
he was a professor at the Mount Ple.-^sant German 
College. He then served important German churches in 
Burlington, Iowa; Warsaw, Pekin and Belleville, Illinois; 
and in St. Louis until his retirement in 1917. 

He was noted for his writings, particularly poetry, 
and the editorship of the ]uhildunisbuch der St. Lottis 
Dcutschrn Konjercnz. His greatest achievement was in 
the translation and composition of original hymns for 
everv important Gennan Methodist hvmnal: Deutacfies- 
Cesang-und Mclodienhuch (1888); Die Terlc (1894); 
Lobe din Herrn! (1895) and Die Pilgerkliinge (1907). 
He edited himself Die Kliene Fahne (1895) which con- 
tained fifty-six translations and twenty-one originals. He 
died in Omaha, Neb., on July 3, 1924. 

juhildumsbuch der St. Louis Deutschen Konferenz; Minutes 
of the St. Louis Gennan Conference 1924; Hymnals and 
Memorabilia in Z. F. Meyer Collection of German-American 
Methodism (Iowa Wesleyan). Louis A. Haselmayer 

MAGATA, DAVID, was born in the Magaliesberg, was 
captured by the Matabele and became a personal at- 
tendant of Mzilikazi. He escaped when Mzilikazi was 
attacked by the Boers and went to Thaba 'Nchu Wesleyan 
Mission. Converted he returned to the Magaliesberg to 
find his family had disappeared. He settled in Potchef- 
stroom and preached every morning on the market square 
to the Bantu and colored people. Some whites laid a 
charge of disturbing the peace against him. The local 
magistrate ordered a public lashing and banished him from 
the Republic. After receiving his lashing, Magata went 
to Natal and then to Sekukuniland. On the border he 
met Commandant Paul Kruger who listened to his story 
syTnpathetically and gave him written permission to re- 
turn to Potchefstroom. He was to be allowed to preach 
and no one was to interfere with him. Blencowe appointed 
Magata as a lay agent of the Wesleyan Missionary So- 
ciety at an annual salary of £12. 

Journal of the Methodist Historical Society of South Africa. 

Vol. Ill, No. 2 (October 1958). 

Minutes of the South African Conference, 1939. 

D. C. Veysie 

MAGAZINES. American Methodism. The general story 
of the publication of magazines and newspapers in Amer- 
ican Methodism will be found in the account of the 
Methodist Publishing House and the Book Concern 
which it succeeded. Certain distinctive and significant 
magazines which have been and may now be published 
as official organs of the Church will be found listed under 
their own names, as Arminian Magazine, Methodist Re- 
view, Southern Quarterly Review, Religion In Life, etc. 
British Methodism. Wesleyan Methodism. The first 
Magazine of Methodism, The Arminian Magazine (q.v.) 
was started by John Wesley in 1778 and continued under 
various titles until 1969 (vide Methodist Magazine). The 
nineteenth-century controversies within the Connexion, 
together with the growing literacy of the people, created 
a great demand for more reading matter, and the number 
of Methodist magazines and newspapers multiplied. The 
Watchman (see below). The Illuminator (1835-36), and 
The Wesleyan Vindicator (1850-52) defended the official 
Wesleyan policy and polity against left-wing reformers. 

Learned comment on events and current Lterature was 
catered for in The London Quarterly Review (1853- 
1932), later to be amalgamated with The llolhorn Quar- 
terly (see below) to form The London Quarterly and 
Holborn Review ( 1932-68 ) and now allied with The 
Church Quarterly Review to form the present Church 

Local preachers were served by The Preachers Maga- 
zine (1890-1927) and The Preachers and Class Leaders 
Magazine (1928-54) which has now been superseded by 
The Preachers Quarterly. An earlier publication, The 
Methodist Pulpit (1871-73), simply reproduced sermons 
by well-known preachers. 

For Sunday school teachers there were The Wesleyan 
Sunday School Magazine (1857-89), The Methodist Sun- 
day School Magazine (1890-1901), The Teacher and 
Preacher (1909-13) and The Teachers Magazine (1930- 

Many magazines for children and young people were 
issued: The Child's Magazine (1824-45), Early Days 
(1846-1916), The Kiddies Magazine (1917-57), Our Boys 
and Girls (1887-1905), Youth's Instructor (1817-55), 
and The Guild (1897-1901). The Choir (1910-64) ca- 
tered for musicians, and was superseded by a general 
magazine on the arts. Mosaic (1965-67). The Church 
Record, under various similar titles (1892-1957) pro- 
vided an inset for local church magazines. Magazines 
for home reading included The Cottager's Friend, later 
entitled The Chrisiian Miscellany and Family Visitor 
(1846-1900), The Wesleyan Tract Reporter (1841-49), 
The City Road Magazine (1871-76), The Methodist 
Messenger (1871-72), The Kings Highway (1872-1927, 
"A Journal of Scriptural Holiness"), Experience (1881- 
1927), The Monthly Greeting (1890-92), Hope (1909- 
11) and Home and Empire Magazine (1924). Special 
interests were met in The Methodist Temperance Maga- 
zine (1868-1906), The Wesley Naturalist (1887-89), 
The Journal of the Wcdey Bible Union (1914-27). 

The Methodist New Connexion. The first real rival 
to The Methodist Magazine was one of the same title, 
started by the Methodist New Connexion in 1798, but 
in 1812 the title was changed to The New Methodist 
Magazine and in 1833 to The Methodist New Connexion 
Magazine. Thus it continued until 1907. The Methodist 
Monitor had appeared in 1796-97 as an organ for dis- 
seminating the views of the Kilhamites who, under the 
leadership of Alexander Kilham and William Thom, 
separated from the Wesleyans in 1796 to form the Meth- 
odist New Connexion. This connexion also published 
The Sunday Scholars Magazine (1850-98) and Young 
People (1899-1907). 

The Reform Movements. The Reform Movements pro- 
duced an abundance of literature. The Tent Methodist 
Magazine (1823), The Wesleyan Protestant Methodist 
Magazine (1829-34), The Wesleyan Association Magazine 
(1828-57), The Watchman's Lantern (1834-35), The 
Wesley Banner (1849-54) (q.v.), The Wesleyan Review 
and Evangelical Record (1850-51), The Wesleyan Re- 
former (1851-52), all expressed the thought and traced 
the development of the reform agitation witliin Meth- 
odism during the first half of the nineteenth century, but 
when the United Methodist Free Churches was fonned 
in 1857, The United Methodist Free Churches Magazine 
held the field until 1907— from 1892 to 1907 the title 
was The Methodist Monthly. Other magazines of this body 
were The Sunday School Hive (1849-91), Welcome 



Words (1867-91), and The Brooklet (1885-94). The Wes- 
leyan Methodist Penny Magazine ran from 1853 to 1857. 
Those who did not enter the United Methodist Free 
Churches formed The Wesleyan Reform Union, and as 
such exist to this day. They pubhshed The Wesleyan Re- 
form Union Magazine (1861-65), which in 1866 assumed 
the title Christian Words which it still carries. 

The Bible Christians. This small Connexion published 
The Bible Christian Magazine (1822-1907) and a Young 
People's Magazine which began about 1825 and ran, 
imder various titles, until 1907. 

The United Methodist Church. This body published 
The United Methodist Magazine (1907-32), Young Peo- 
ple (1907) and Pleasant Hour (1908-12). 

The Primitive Methodist Church. This, the largest non- 
Wesleyan body, published its own magazine from 1819 to 
1932. From 1819 to 1899 its title was The Primitive 
Methodist Magazine, and from 1900 to 1932 The Alders- 
gate and Primitive Methodist Magazine. Of high quality, 
especially under the editorship of A. S. Peake, was The 
Holborn Review (1910-32), previously known as The 
Christian Ambassador (1863-77) and The Primitive Meth- 
odist Quarterly Review (1878-1915). Teachers and 
preachers were catered for by The Primitive Methodist 
Preachers Magazine (1832-?) and later by adapting the 
Wesleyan periodical of the same title, The Teachers Assis- 
tant (1873-95), The Sunday School Journal and Preachers 
Magazine (1896-1907), The Teacher and Preacher (1908- 
13), The Primitive Methodist Sunday School Magazine 
(1914-32). Young people were provided for in Spring- 
time (1886-1929), Joyful Tidings (1892-1903), Advance 
(1923-32), and The Child's Friend (1865-1914). 

Interdenominational. A magazine intended to serve all 
branches of Methodism, The Methodist Quarterly, ran 
from 1867 to 1872. It claimed to be "independent and 
unsectional," sympathetic to liberal tendencies in Church 
polity and without bigotry. It believed that the days of 
controversy over ecclesiastical polity were past. Of shorter 
duration were The Methodist World (1870) and a Meth- 
odist Times which ran from 1867 to 1869 and is not to 
be confused with a newspaper of the same title which 
ran from 1885 to 1932 (see below). 

Newspapers in British Methodism. The first Methodist 
newspaper to appear was The Watchman (1834-85) 
(q.v.), intended to defend Wesleyan policy and polity 
against the attacks of left-wing reformers (as Protestant 
Methodists, The Warrenite Controversy and The Fly 
Sheets agitation). Although it was not an official Con- 
ference publication, it exerted a strong influence on Wes- 
leyan Methodists. Conservative in tone, it reported and 
commented on ecclesiastical and political events. The 
newspaper of the Wesleyan Reformers was The Wesleyan 
Times (1849-52), but there were others of short-lived 
duration — The Wesleyan Chronicle (1840), The Wes- 
leyan and Christian Record (1841), and The Wesleyan 
(1843-48). In 1861 The Methodist Recorder (q.v.) ap- 
peared, and is still in circulation. In 1885 a new publica- 
tion, representing more liberal tendencies, was started 
under the editorship of Hugh Price Hughes — The Meth- 
odist Times (1885-1932). The Primitre Methodists 
had The Primitive Methodist (1868-1905) which incorpo- 
rated The Primitive Methodist World (1883-1908), and, 
in turn, became The Primitive Methodist Leader ( 1905- 
25) and The Methodist Leader (1926-32). With the con- 
summation of Methodist Union this newspaper amalga- 
mated with The Methodist Times to become The Meth- 

odist Times and Leader (1932-37) and in 1937 this was 
incorporated with The Methodist Recorder. Other news- 
papers representing the smaller denominations were The 
United Methodist (1903-1932) and The Free Methodist 
(1886-1907). The Methodist (1874-84) endeavored to 
serve all branches of Methodism and was of wide culture, 
politically liberal and was the predecessor of The Meth- 
odist Times which it commended in its last issue. The 
Wesleyan Methodist (1923-24) promulgated the views 
of a party within Wesleyan Methodism which protested 
against Methodist Union. 

The Joyful News was a lively weekly journal with an 
emphasis on evangelism. The first issue, edited by Thomas 
Champness, appeared in February 1883. It greatly ex- 
tended its influence under Samuel Chadwick, Principal 
of Cliff College. As the magazine of this college, it 
continued under its original title until 1962, when it ap- 
peared as Advance (not to be confused with an earlier 
magazine of this title). In 1964 it was succeeded by 
The Cliff Witness. 

John C. Bowmer 

J. Ralph Magee 

MAGEE, JUNIUS RALPH (1880-1970), American bish- 
op, was born in Maquoketa, Iowa, June 3, 1880, the son 
of John Calvin and Jane Amelia (Cole) Magee. He re- 
ceived his early educational training in his native state. 
He graduated from the Iowa State Teachers College in 
1901 with the B.D. degree. In 1904 he received the Ph.B. 
degree from Morningside College and the LL.D. de- 
gree there in 1931. He graduated at Boston University 
School of Theology in 1910, receiving the S.T.B., 
and the D.D. in 1947. He held a number of other honorary 

He was ordained and served as a deacon in 1904 and 
as elder in 1906. His pastorates were: Rustin Avenue 
Church, Sioux City, la., 1902-04; Paulina, la., 1904-07; 
Falmouth, Mass., 1907-11; First Church, Taunton, Mass., 
1911-14; Daniel Dorchester Memorial, Boston, 1914-19; 
St. Mark's Church, Brookline, Mass., 1919-21; and First 
Church, Seattle, Wash., 1921-29. 

He became superintendent of the Seattle District, 



serving in this capacity until 1932, when he was elected 
and consecrated bishop. He was resident bishop of the 
St. Paul (Minn.) Area from 1932 until 1939; pre.sident 
of Ha.viline U.MvERSiTY, St. Paul, 1933-34; resident bish- 
op of the Des Moines Area, 1939-44, and resident bishop 
of the Chicago Area from 1944 until 1952, when he re- 
tired. He was director of the Crusade for Christ, 1944- 
48 and president of the Council of Bishops, 1950-51. 

Bishop Magee was married to Harriet A. Keeler on 
Sept. 10, 1902. Their children are J. Homer Magee, Asso- 
ciate Secretary of the Council on World Service and 
Finance; and Dorothy J. Magee of the American Hospital 
Supply Corporation. Mrs. Magee died on Oct. 31, 1943. 

In 1944 a portrait of Bishop Magee was presented by 
Iowa Methodists to the Iowa State Department of His- 
tory and Archives. Bishop Magee was the first native 
lowan ever to be made a bishop and to serve in Iowa 
as such from any denomination. 

Bishop Magee served in an official capacity in a num- 
ber of important church-wide organizations. He was 
named by B. C. Forbes in the Hearst Newspapers, as one 
of the sixteen most influential persons in Seattle. 

He was the chairman of the committee to combine the 
Puget Sound Conference and Columbia River Conference 
into what is now the Pacific Northwest Conference, 
and presided at the Northwest German Conference when 
it was integrated into nine other conferences. This meant 
considerable work with pension funds, equalization in re 
ages of members, etc. 

He served as trustee of the following organizations: 
Chamber of Commerce, Seattle, 1925-32; University of 
Puget Sound; Simpson College; Cornell College; 
McKendree College; Iowa Methodist Hospital; Hamline 
University; Northwestern University; Greater Chicago 
Federation of Churches; Garrett Theological Semi- 
nary; Kendall College; Illinois Wesleyan Univer- 
sity; Wesley Foundation, University of Illinois; Wesley 
Memorial Hospital, Chicago; and the Lake Bluff, Illinois, 
Children's Home. 

He died Dec. 19, 1970, in Morton Grove, 111. 

Who's Who in The Methodist Church. 1966. 

Mary French Caldwell 

MAGIC METHODISTS, a nickname given to the followers 
of James Cravvfoot in addition to the more widely ac- 
cepted title of Forest Methodists. 

John T. Wilkinson 

MAHABANE, EZEKIEL EGBERT (1900- ), South Afri- 
can minister, was born at Thaba 'Nchu, Orange Free 
State (brother of Z. R. Mahabane), on Feb. 21, 1900. 
He received primary education at Besonvale Practising 
School and high school education at Morija in Basutoland 
(now Lesotho). He then trained as a teacher at Lovedale 
Missionary Institution and thereafter entered the Method- 
ist ministry in 1925. After theological training at Wesley 
House, Fort Hare, he travelled in the following circuits: 
Douglas, Kilnerton, Pretoria, Randfontein, Vereeniging 
and Johannesburg. In 1962 he became the first African 
Superintendent of the Witwatersrand (African) Mission. 
Offices held: General Secretary of the Temperance and 
Social Welfare Department of the Methodist Church 
1939-56; General Missionary Secretary 1957-62; Minis- 
terial General Officer of the Missionary Department 1963 
to present time; Vice-President of the Christian Council 
of South Africa 1960-61; President of the Witwatersrand 

E. E. Mahabane 

Christian Council 1965 to present time. He represented 
the Methodist Church of South Africa at the 1956 World 
Methodist Conference at Lake Junaluska, and at the 
Third Assembly of the World Council of CHtmcHEs at 
New Delhi in 1961. He is a member of the World Council 
of Churches Central Committee. 

S. P. Freeland 

African minister, was bom on Aug. 15, 1881 at Thaba 
'Nchu, Orange Free State. His parents were converted 
from heathenism when he was ten years old and his father 
began to preach immediately. Zaccheus was a herd boy 
until he went to school. He trained for the teaching pro- 
fession at Morija, Basutoland, but after two years' teach- 
ing became a court interpreter. Accepted for the ministry 
in 1908, he was trained at Lesseyton, Queenstown and 
served in the following circuits: Cape Town, Vrede, Kim- 
berley, Winburg, Kroonstad, Brandfort. He became the 
first African official member of the Methodist Conference 
in South Africa when he was appointed Secretary of 
the Board of Examiners (1935-40), and served as a mem- 
ber of the Revision, Church Union and Sessional Com- 
mittees. He also became the first African President of the 
Triennial Convention of the Young Men's Guild, held a 
number of positions on national bodies, and attended 
gatherings in Belgium (1926), Accra (1957) and Ibadan, 
Nigeria (1958). He retired from active work at the end 
of 1957, but continues to preach and undertake supply 

S. P. Freeland 

MAHIN, MILTON (1824-1916), pioneer American clergy- 
man, was bom in Green Co., Ohio, on Oct. 22, 1824. He 
moved to Indiana and was admitted on trial in the North 
Indiana Conference in 1841. He married Eliza Dorsey, 
Oct. 31, 1843. Milton Mahin had an enviable and unique 
record in that the Conference Minutes show that he 
served a total of seventy-five years as pastor and presiding 
elder. He was elected to the General Conference in 
1868. He died Oct. 7, 1916. 

Harold Thrasher 


MAHON, ROBERT HENRY (1840-1929), American min- 
ister, was born in Crockett County, Tenn., on Oct. 22, 
1840, the son of Jackson H. Mahon, a Methodist minister. 
He was received on trial in the Memphis Conference 
in 1860, and appointed junior pastor with his uncle, 
Robert Bums, to the Trenton Circuit. After two years 
he was sent to Paris, Tenn. He served also as pastor at 
Grenada, Miss., at Mayfield, Ky.; Broadway, in Paducah, 
Ky.; First and Central Churches, Memphis; and at 
Brownsville, Dyersburg and Union City, Tenn.; presiding 
elder of Memphis, Dyersburg and Brownsville Districts. 
Seven times he was a delegate to the General Con- 
ference and two other times alternate; several times he 
received a considerable vote for bishop. He published a 
book. The Token of the Covenant or The Meaning of 
Baptism. R. H. Mahon was one of the outstanding scholars 
and ecclesiastical statesmen of his conference, and was 
well-known as interpreter of the Scriptures. 

In 1864 he was married to Annie Vaulx Blakemore of 
Trenton, Tenn., who died in 1876; in 1878 he was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Sue Hobson Senter of Nashville, Tenn.; she 
died in 1912. This same year he took the supernumerary 
relation after fifty-two years of active ministry. There- 
after he lived in the home of his daughter, Mrs. Ruth 
Hay of Brownsville, Tenn. He died May 28, 1929. He 
taught a ladies' Bible class regularly during his years of 

While pastor of First Church, Memphis, he secured the 
appointment of John R. Pepper as Sunday school super- 
intendent, a world figure in Sunday school work. 

F. H. Peeples 

Idabelle Lewis Main 

MAIN, IDABELLE LEWIS (1887- ), missionary edu- 

cator in China and Brazil, was bom in Iowa and studied 
at Morningside College and Columbia University. Her 
first teaching was at Tientsin, in the Keen School for Girls. 
She also taught English in Nankai University, where for 
one semester she had Chou En-lai in her class. 

In 1924, she was appointed assistant secretary of Meth- 
odist education for all China, and assisted in editing The 

China Christian Educational Review. In 1926, she be- 
came president of Hwanan College in Foochow, but 
resigned in 1929 to make way for a Chinese president, 
and in the following year she returned to Shanghai as a 
secretary of die China Christian Educational Association. 
In 1932, she was married to W. A. Main, treasurer of 
the China missions of the M. E. Church. They remained 
in China until 1941, editing The China Christian Educa- 
tional Review and The China Christian Advocate. In 1941 
they retired and lived in America, but after Mr. Main's 
death in 1945, she returned to Hwanan College where she 
taught until the Communist occupation in 1949. In 1950 
she was appointed to Colegio Bennett in Rio de Janeiro, 
and taught there for five years. She is now retired and 
living in Robincroft Home, Pasadena, Calif. 

Francis P. Jones 

MAINE is the extreme northeastern state of the Union. 
It is bounded on the east, north, and west by Canada, 
on the southwest by New H.\mpshire, and on the south- 
east by the Atlantic Ocean. The forty-fifth parallel di- 
vides the state into almost equal northern and southern 
sections. The extreme north is free of killing frost about 
diree and one-half months of the year, and most of the 
state is spared for about four and one-third months. The 
largest of the New England states, Maine's area is 33,215 
square miles, and its population is about 977,260. 

The Province of Maine was granted to Ferdinando 
Gorges and John Mason in 1622. Gorges became the sole 
owner; after his death the Colony of Massachusetts Bay 
gradually encroached, and finally in 1677 bought the 
province from Gorges' heirs for 1,250 pounds. Maine 
continued as a part of Massachusetts until it was admitted 
to the Union as a state in 1820. 

Methodism entered Maine when Jesse Lee was ap- 
pointed to the Province of Maine and Lynn, Mass., at 
the session of the New England Conference in Lynn 
in August 1793. On September 10, of that year, Lee 
delivered the first Methodist sermon in Maine at Saco. 
He soon visited eighteen towns in the province. In 1794 
Lee was named presiding elder, and his district included 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. On Novem- 
ber 13 that vear, Lee preached at Monmouth, Maine, 
and found that a man named Wagner had formed a class 
of fifteen members there;' it was the first Methodist class 
to be organized in Maine. During the conference year 
1794-95, Lee dedicated a Methodist meetinghouse at 
(East) Readfield, the first one to be erected in Maine. 
The next year a chapel was dedicated at Monmouth. 

In 1798 Bishop Asbury conducted the New England 
Conference at (East) Readfield. At the 1799 session of 
the same conference in New York City, Joshua Soule 
was admitted on trial; he was the first native of Maine 
to become a member of the New England Conference. 
Asbury appointed Soule a presiding elder in 1804. As a 
member of the 1808 General Conference, Soule drafted 
the plan for a delegated General Conference, one of the 
most important pieces of legislation ever adopted by the 
supreme law-making body of Methodism (see Restric- 
tive Rules). Elected bishop in 1824, Soule was a domi- 
nant figure in the office for more than two-score years. He 
adhered South after the division in 1844. Two other 
bishops were born in Maine, Davis W. Clark and Edgar 
Blake, elected in 1864 and 1920, respectively. All three 



men were serving m other states and conferences when 
elevated to the episcopacy. 

For several years Maine formed one district in the New 
England Conference, and in time it grew to tliree districts. 
The Maine Conference was created by the 1824 Gen- 
eral Conference, and was organized in 1825. In 1848 
the Maine Conference was divided to forni the East 
Maine Conference. After seventy-five years the two con- 
ferences were merged to form again the Maine Confer- 
ence covering Maine and part of New Hampshire. 

As soon as tlie Maine Conference was organized it 
became affiliated with a school called the Maine Wesleyan 
Seminan,- which had opened at Kent's Hill in February 
of that year. The institution had difficulties, but it kept 
going and in time was named the Maine Wesleyan Semi- 
nary and Female College. The conference board of educa- 
tion declared in 1880 that Maine Wesleyan was the lead- 
ing institution of learning in the state and said that many 
young men were going directly from the school into the 
ranks of the itineracy. In 1900 the same board said there 
were few churches in the conference which had not felt 
the uplifting influence of the college. About 1910 Maine 
Wesleyan became a secondary school and was called 
Kents Hill School. Under that name it is today an 
accredited Methodist secondary school with an endow- 
ment of some $750,000, a plant worth $1,000,000, and 
about 300 students. 

The Maine Wesleyan Journal was published from 1832 
to 1841, and was then merged with Zion's Herald. 

In 1970 the Maine Conference reported three districts, 
134 pastoral charges, 142 ministers, 33,257 members, and 
property valued at $16,366,666. 

Allen & Pillsbury, Methodism in Maine. 1887. 

General Minutes, MEC and MC. 

Minutes of tlie Maine Conference. Alfred G. Hempstead 

MAINE CAMP MEETINGS. The first camp meeting in 
Maine is believed to have been held at Buxton in 1806. 
About twenty preachers, traveling and local, were present. 
Bishop AsBURY preached on Saturday and Sunday to a 
crowd estimated to be 5,000. Two years previously Asbury 
was in Buxton for a session of the New England Con- 
ference. At that time he preached and ordained ministers 
in a grove, using a hay cart for a pulpit. 

From this beginning at Buxton, camp meetings spread 
throughout the State, becoming a powerful influence in 
the life of Methodism. Evangelism was the prime purpose; 
however, not only were souls converted but also for sev- 
eral generations many preachers in the Conference were 
men converted at camp meetings. Here, too, the moral 
reform movements, especially the abolition of slavery and 
the temperance cause, were powerfully presented. 

In the earlier development of the camp meeting, not 
much equipment was required — a speaker's stand, plank 
seats for the congregation, straw for mattresses, a place 
for tents and perhaps some sort of fence with a gate. As 
time went on, refinements were added, such as a "taber- 
nacle," a boarding house for meals, and cottages built by 
individuals or by local churches on ground rented from 
the local camp meeting association. 

There are known to have been forty or more locations 
in Maine where, for a longer or shorter time, camp meet- 
ings were held. Some changed from one site to another. 
The greatest crowds on record were those at Littleton. 
"Some of the Presiding Elders," wrote A. A. Callaghan, 

"reported great crowds, one reported an attendance of 
15,000 and said that if anyone had any suggestion as to 
how the situation could be handled he would be glad to 

East Livermore Camp Meeting was established in 1847; 
one of the organizers was a man who came to be known 
as Camp Meeting John Allen. He was converted in 1825 
at the camp meeting at Industry. He used to take his 
granddaughter to the camp meeting at Strong, a few 
miles from her home at Fairbanks, where she often sang 
as a girl. Later she was kno\\Ti in world opera as Madame 
Nordica. Camp Meeting John Allen fittingly preached his 
last sennon at the age of ninety-three at the East Liver- 
more Camp Meeting, and the next morning went "home 
to glory." The East Livermore Camp Meeting is still 
active, though for several years has not been under Meth- 
odist auspices. 

Two outstanding camp meetings deserving particular 
mention are Old Orchard and Northport. The former, 
which ran from 1872 to 1934, at one time attracted na- 
tional attention. The Northport Camp Meeting, which 
served the churches up and down the Penobscot River, 
had a landing for tlie Bangor-Boston steamships which 
was an added convenience and attraction. The association 
sponsoring this camp disbanded in the 1920's. Many of 
the cottages were privately owned; the others were ac- 
quired by individuals, and the place became a summer 

At present only two camp meetings continue to hold 
services and to preserve their organizations. The Empire 
Grove Camp Meeting at East Poland draws considerable 
support from the Portland District, holds a week of ser- 
vices and a Church Vacation School. The cottagers who 
spend the summer on the grounds for the most part have 
Methodist membership or traditions. Several Conference 
ministers own cottages, and one retired minister "winter- 
ized" his cottage and lives there the year round. 

The other camp meeting still in operation is at Jack- 
sonville located in Washington County on the Bangor 
District. It has a week of services and a youth program 
for those who cannot get to the Methodist Camp at 
Winthrop. For several years there has also been a camp 
for underprivileged youth. 

As the camp meetings gradually disappeared, especially 
from about 1910 to 1918, the work with adults in the 
field of evangelism of the revival type has declined al- 
most to the vanishing point. Beginning with about 1920, 
several Epworth League Institutes were held across the 
state in preparatory schools and teacher's colleges. After 
much experiment and with the increased availability of 
automobile transportation for delegates, it seemed wise 
to establish only one organization and to secure a desirable 
camp site for the newer approach to youth work. Such 
a camp with a dozen buildings and a waterfront was 
purchased on a lake in Winthrop in 1948. There a series 
of different age groups of children and youth attend 
camps of one or two weeks duration from mid-June until 
September, followed by a camp for the Conference Lay 
Activities. Many young adults as well as youth who are 
active members of local churches, and several young min- 
isters in the Conference, answered the challenge of Christ 
at the recent Methodist Camp and this seems to have 
taken over some of the function of the camp meeting of 
former times. 

A. A. Callaghan, "Camp Meetings in Maine," Maine Con- 
ference Year Book, 1951, pp. 59-63. Alfred G. Hempstead 


MAINE CONFERENCE (ME) was created by the 1824 
General Conference. Its territory at the beginning 
was Maine and the part of New HAMPSHraE east of the 
White Hills and north of Ossipie Lake. The Maine Con- 
ference was carved out of the New England Confer- 
ence. The new conference was organized at Gardiner, 
Maine, July 6, 1825, with Bishop Enoch George presid- 
ing. It began with three districts, thirty-two charges, 
forty-two preachers, and 6,960 members. (See Maine 
for beginning of Methodism in the state. ) 

By 1840 the membership of the Maine Conference had 
trebled, and in 1843 it reported 27,400 members, the 
high water mark in membership for a century. In the next 
three years the net loss was nearly 7,000 members. The 
total membership in 1847 was 20,448. 

In 1848 the Maine Conference was divided to form, 
the East Maine Conference. The division left 10,773 
members in the Maine Conference. 

From the beginning the Maine Conference supported 
a school at Kent's Hill called the Maine Wesleyan Semi- 
nary (see Rent's Hill School). Also, the conference 
supported the Boston School of Theology, and it had 
close ties with Wesleyan University in Connecticut 
as long as that institution was related to the church. The 
conference owns and operates a 180-acre Camp and Con- 
ference Center at Winthrop. Instead of maintaining Wes- 
ley Foundations, in more recent years the conference 
has supported an ecumenical ministry on college cam- 
puses. In 1968 the conference estabhshed the Methodist 
Conference Home, Inc. at Rockland, Maine. 

The 1920 General Conference adopted an enabling 
act permitting the Maine and East Maine Conferences 
to merge during the quadrennium if both should so vote. 
The Maine Conference rejected the merger in 1921, but 
in 1922 both conferences voted for it, and it was consum- 
mated in 1923. The first session of the enlarged Maine 
Conference was held at Bangor, April 18-23, 1923. At 
that time the conference had four districts, 271 charges, 
and 23,234 members. By 1930 the conference member- 
ship had declined to 21,880, but thereafter it increased. 
In 1935 there were 25,908 members, and in 1945 the 
total was 28,425. 

In 1966 Margaret K. Henrichsen was appointed 
superintendent of the Bangor District, the first woman 
district superintendent in Methodism. 

In 1970 the Maine Conference reported three districts, 
Augusta, Bangor, and Portland, 134 charges, 142 min- 
isters, 33,257 members, property valued at $16,366,666 
and $2,067,918 raised for all purposes during the year. 

Allen & Pillsbury, Methodism in Maine. 1887. 

General Minutes, MEG and MC. 

Minutes of the Maine Conference. Alfred G. Hempstead 

MAITLAND, New South Wales, Australia, was originally 
known as the Hunter River Circuit and included the 
settlement at Newcastle. Samuel Leigh visited the penal 
establishment at Newcastle in 1821. A second visit was 
made later. Joseph Orton passed through Newcastle in 
August 1839, sailing up the Hunter River to Morpeth 
and travelling across country to Maidand. Here he found 
a Methodist Society and a chapel in course of construc- 
tion, due largely to the labors of a local preacher from 
Ireland named Jeremiah Jedsam. Later the same year, 
Nathaniel Turner preached and met members of the 
Society during a brief visit. The first missionary stationed 

at Maitland, Jonothan Innes, arrived the following year 
(1840); the circuit then extended from Newcastle to 
Singleton. For several years previously, meetings for 
Christian fellowship had been held in Newcastle, led by 
William Lightbody, later employed by the Wesleyan 
Conference as a local preacher and school teacher. In 
1854 Rev. W. Cumow resided in Newcastle for a short 
period. In 1856 it was separated from the Maitland Cir- 
cuit, with William Clarke as the first minister. Singleton 
Circuit was created the same year. The mother-circuit. 
Hunger River, was in 1855 renamed Maitland. 

J. Colwell, Illustrated History. 1904. 

"Glory Be," Brochure of Centenary of Newcastle Methodism, 

1945. Australian Editorial CoMMrrrEE 

MALAYSIA is a constitutional monarchy comprised of 
the nine Sultanates and two British Straits Settlements 
of the former Federation of Malaya (Malay Peninsula), 
together with the former British Colonies of Sar.\wak 
and Sabah (North Borneo) situated on the Island of 
Borneo. Singapore (city and island) had been a constit- 
uent element of Malaysia when it was established in 1963, 
but it withdrew in 1965, because of racial and political 
tensions, to become an independent country. Both Ma- 
laysia and Singapore are members of the United Nations 
and the British Commonwealth. 

The area of present Malaysia is approximately 138,000 
square miles, of which 78,000 stands in the elements on 
Borneo ( Sarawak and Sabah ) . The population is about 
8,350,000, of which 1,250,000 hve in Sarawak and Sabah. 
In the population, Malays predominate in all sections 
except Singapore, where Chinese are at least seventy-five 
percent. There are sizeable groups of Tamils from India, 
as well as Indonesians. The capital is Kuala Lumpur 
(300,000 people), twenty-five miles inland from Port 
Swettenham on the Straits of Malacca. 

The aborigines of Malaya were never left alone. Varied 
peoples came from far to trade and settle, bringing their 
gods and their cultures with them. A hardy group of the 
Singh clan of northwest India, forced from their homes, 
settled on the island at the southern tip, building a town 
which they called "Lion City" — Singapore. Others from 
South India and Ceylon, speaking Tamil, came in such 
numbers as to form an enclave with Hinduism and its 
culture. The teachings of Buddha entered by way of a 
strong dynasty out of Siam (Thailand). China seems 
always to have been overpopulated, and thousands have 
poured into Malaya, revering Confucius — sturdy peasants, 
astute businessmen, wise legislators. Early Arab traders 
dominated the eastern seas, Islam appearing in their com- 
munities in every port city. 

Catholic Christianity arrived with the ships of Portu- 
gal, Spain and France, soon to be followed by the 
Protestantism of the Dutch and British. Portugal proved 
unable to maintain any sizeable area. Spanish influence 
centered in the Philippines. France consolidated what 
became French Indo-China — now Viet Nam, Laos and 
Cambodia. The Dutch achieved an island empire of over 
1,500 miles from Sumatra to Celebes — now Indonesia. 
Britain's foothold was the cosmopolitan focal center, Singa- 
pore, and the supporting peninsula, producing great quan- 
tities of rubber and tin. Singapore and environs became 
a Crown Colony, while Protectorates were established 
for the Peninsula Sultanates. 

After Pearl Harbor and the decimation of all AlHed 


Tamil Church, Kuala Lampur 

naval units between India and Australia, early in World 
War II, Japanese forces swarmed down the coast and 
along the NIalay Peninsula. Singapore fell without a siege, 
its strong defenses having been constructed against sea- 
attack, and requiring supporting naval power. After the 
ultimate defeat of Japan, British sovereignty was re- 
stored, the Federation of Malaya was established and 
independence achieved. A wearisome and costly struggle 
against Communist infiltration and sabotage has practically 
eliminated that menace from the Peninsula. 

The British-protected Sultanates and Settlements of 
the Malay Peninsula, together with the separate city- 
island, Singapore, were constituted a limited monarchy 
in August 1957, becoming a member of the United Na- 
tions. In September 1963, following two years of negotia- 
tions, this Federation in turn became the sovereign state, 
Malaysia, including the former colonies, Sarawak 
and Sabah (North Borneo), located on the northwest 
coast of Borneo. Malaysia was duly admitted to member- 
ship in the United Nations, occupying the seat of the 
former Federation of Malaya. Indonesia, under Sukarno, 
had consistently challenged the procedure, entering upon 
forceful attack. Numerous military invasions of the Borneo 
elements were repulsed by the Malaysia armed forces, 
aided by some British troops. The Philippines also entered 
a legal claim to the Borneo territories. 

Early in 1966 a military coup occurred in Indonesia, 
toppling the Sukarno regime. Lieut. Gen. Suharto assumed 
leadership of the new military junta, designating the 
experienced Adam Malik as Foreign Minister to succeed 
Dr. Subandrio who was arrested on charges of treason. 


Sukarno was retained as a figurehead of government, 
stripped of all essential powers. The Indonesia Provisional 
People's Consultative Congress unanimously approved 
overthrow of the Sukarno regime, and ordered the com- 
plete realignment of the foreign policy. After careful 
negotiations, on Aug. 11, 1966, Abdul Razak, Malaysia 
Vice-President, and Adam Malik, Indonesia Foreign Min- 
ister, signed a formal accord and treaty, declaring the 
cessation of hostilities between the two countries. The 
accord also provided for the restoration of normal diplo- 
matic relations, and pledged to the citizens of Sabah and 
Sarawak (North Borneo) the right to a plebiscite to deter- 
mine their future status as between Indonesia and Ma- 
laysia. The restoration of normal trade and cultural re- 
lations is implicit in the accord. 

On Feb. 7, 1885, William F. Oldham (later bishop) 
arrived at Singapore with James M. Thoburn (later 
bishop), to establish work under appointment of the 
South India Annual Conference of the M. E. Church. 
Witliin a month Oldham had organized a church and 
quarterly conference, including English, Eurasians, Tamils 
and Chinese in membership. The Municipality granted 
land, and the first church building was erected that year. 
The Chinese colony provided several thousand dollars 
for a school. The Tamils developed their own church and 
school. In 1887 the Woman's Foreign Missionary Soci- 
ety appointed Sophia Blackmore of Australia, under sup- 
port of the Minneapolis Branch. She arrived July 18 
and promptly opened a school for Tamil girls. Miss Black- 
more gave forty years of service in Malaya. 

The Malaya work passed to the Bengal Conference 



at its organization in 1887. In 1889 the work became the 
Malaya Mission, and the Malaysia Mission Conference in 
1894. Annual Conference status was gained in 1902. The 
extensive growth of work among the Chinese prompted 
separate organization for that element, as the Malaysia 
Mission Conference 1936, Provisional Annual Conference 
1940, and Malaysia Chinese Annual Conference, 1948. 

Among the early missionaries in Malaya, William G. 
Shellabear should be named. English by birth, an officer 
in the Royal Engineers, ordered to Singapore, he met 
Oldham. Catching the gleam of missionars- service, Shell- 
abear went back to England, resigned his commission, 
married, and returned to the new line of dut>' among the 
Malays. A bom linguist, he acquired several dialects as 
well as the basic language, translated and printed much 
literature in Malay tongue, as he studied, loved and 
served that fascinating people. Unable to remain on the 
equator in the later years, Shellabear came to America. 
He taught oriental languages at Drew Theological 
Semlmary, and also at Kennedy School of Missions, Hart- 
ford, Conn., until his death. "He was a distinguished 
linguist and scholar, an authority on the Malays and their 
language, a wise and devoted missionary, and a sincere 

The Methodist Church has grown steadily on the Penin- 
sula, with over eighty churches and about 12,000 mem- 
bers. The chief centers are the capital, Kuala Lumpur, 
and Klang, Malacca, Seremban, Raub, Ipoh, Sitiawan, 
Telok Anson, Penang, Taiping. The schools, however, 
with registration of many thousands, constitute the dis- 
tinguishing mark of the Mission. Statements concerning 
Methodist work in Singapore, and Sarawak-Sabah, will 
be found in separate articles under those titles. 

Methodist Church of Malaysia and Singapore. In re- 
sponse to the felt need of an autonomous Methodist 
Church in Malaysia, and pursuant to permission given by 
the Gener.'Vl Conference of The United Methodist 
Church in 1968 to effect the same, such a Church, de- 
nominated the Methodist Church of Malaysia and Singa- 
pore, was officially constituted on Aug. 9, 1968. Upon 
that same day, the first national of that land to be elected 
a bishop. Dr. Yap Kim Hao, was by ballot elected as the 
first bishop of the new autonomous Church. 

The Malaysia Chinese Annual Conference, the Singa- 
pore-Malaya Annual Conference, and the Tamil Provi- 
sional Annual Conference in West Malaysia and Singa- 
pore, and the Sarawak Annual Conference and the Sara- 
wak Iban Provisional Annual Conference in East Malaysia 
comprise the new Church. In its structuie it has been 
provided that there shall be a president for each annual 
conference who will be the administrative head. Not all 
such presidents will receive remuneration, but will serve 
in other capacities in the Church. The bishop is looked 
to as the spiritual leader of the whole Church and his 
voice is to be the voice of the Church. He makes appoint- 
ments in each annual conference with the help of an 
advisory board, and will ordain those who seek ordina- 
tion as DEACON or elder when proper authorization is 

The early life of the new Church is being guided by 
eight ministers and eight laymen foiming the Executive 
Council of its General Conference. These will share with 
Bishop Yap the important task of fashioning policies and 
procedures, and of establishing the guidelines by which 
the autonomous Church will function under the new 
Discipline. "New Life for the New Church" has become 

the theme for this autonomous Methodist Church as it 
"faces with vitality and a new commitment the opportu- 
nities for effective witness and mission in newly developed 

W. C. Barclay, History of Missions. 1957. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Barbara H. Lewis, Methodist Overseas Missions. 1960. 

National Geographic, September 1961. 

World Methodist Council Handbook of Information, 1966-71. 

World Parish, Vol. VIII, No. 6, March 1969. 

Abthuh Bruce Moss 
N. B. H. 

MALDEN, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A. Centre Church, lo- 
cated five miles north of Boston, was organized in 1821, 
largely through the work of shoemaker James Howard 
in whose home a class was formed. Prior to tliis time the 
Methodist influence had been at work through the preach- 
ing of George Whitefield (in 1740 and 1770) and 
Jesse Lee (1790). Although a class was formed on Cross 
Street at the time of Lee's preaching, no permanent re- 
sults followed. 

The Maiden congregation, outgrowing two earlier 
buildings, each one at different sites (one erected in 
1826, the other in 1856), constructed the present large, 
red brick edifice on Washington and Pleasant Streets in 
1874. A three-story brick building was added in 1911. 

The congregation numbering in 1970, 1,071 members 
has been influential in civic, educational and philan- 
thropic circles. Four pastors of this church have become 
bishops: Erastus O. Haven, Gilbert Haven, Jr., Edwin 
Holt Hughes, and Lauress J. Birney. Another pastor, 
Lucms BuGBEE, became the editor of Methodist church 
school publications. From this church eighteen men have 
gone into the ministry. 

Centre Methodist Chvirch's 125th anniversary, 1946 (pam- 
Minutes of the New England Conference. Ernest R. Case 

MALLALIEU, WILLARD FRANCIS (1828-1911), American 
bishop, was born at Sutton. Mass., Dec. 11, 1828, and 
was educated at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. 

He joined the New England Conference of the M. E. 
Church in 1858 and was pastor at Grafton, Mount Belling- 
ham, Chelsea, Lynn, Monument Square, Charleston; 
Bromfield Street, Boston; Walnut Street, Chelsea; Trinity 
in Worcester; Broadway in South Boston; and presiding 
elder of the Boston District. He was a member of the 
General Conferences of 1872, 1880, and 1884. At the 
last he was elected bishop. He served for nine years as 
bishop in New Orleans, four years in Buffalo, N. Y., 
eight in Boston. He retired in 1904. 

Bishop Mallalieu received honorary degrees from East 
Tennessee Wesleyan University and New Orleans Uni- 
versity. He was the author of the Why, When and How of 
Revivals, The Fullness of the Blessing of the Gospel of 
Christ, and Word^ of Cheer and Comfort. He died on 
Aug. 1, 1911 at Auburndale, Mass., and was buried in 
Bay View. 

F. D. Leete, Methodist Bishops. 1948. 

Journal of the General Conference, 1912. 

Wha's Who in America. Elmer T. Clark 

MALLINSON, WILLIAM (1854-1936), British layman and 
philanthropist, was bom at V^itechapel, London, July 



6, 1854. He was a timber merchant and prospered in 
business. Brought up a member of the United Method- 
ist Free Churches, be became treasurer of the London 
Church Extension and Mission Committee in 1893 and 
held office for forty years. During this period the United 
Methodist Free Churches — and after 1907 the United 
Methodist Church — built under his leadership in Lon- 
don thirty chapels and thirteen schools. He endowed the 
Mallinson Trust for the benefit of London churches, and 
carried through a scheme for the extinction of all debt on 
United Methodist chapels in London and the home coun- 
ties, the amount totaling £66,000. He held other con- 
nectional offices, was a magistrate, and was created a 
baronet in May, 1935. He died on May 5, 1936, at 
\\'althamstow, London. 

H. Smith, J. E. Swallow, and W. Treffry, The Story of the 
United Methodist Church. London, 1933. 

OLrVER A. Beckerlegge 

MALTBY, WILLIAM RUSSELL (1866-1951), British Meth- 
odist, was bom at Selby, Yorkshire, on Dec. 5, 1866. A 
Wesleyan Methodist minister's son, he qualified as a 
solicitor in 1892, but in 1893 entered the Wesleyan min- 
istry. He was warden of the Wesley De.\coness Order 
from 1920-40. He was President of the Wesleyan Con- 
ference in 1926. In 1928 he gave the Burwash Memorial 
Lecture, on The Significance of Jesus. He delivered the 
first Cato Lecture in Australia in 1935, Christ and His 
Cross. He strongly supported proposals to admit women 
to the Methodist ministry. 

John Kent 

MALVERN, ARKANSAS, U.S.A. Rockport Church is one 

of the earliest churches organized west of the Mississippi 
River, established in 1816 by John Henry. The first 
Rockport Church was built of logs and heated by a large 
stone fireplace with split log benches for seats and a split 
log table. It was situated on the Ouachita River on the 
north side of the Military Road, which was then the 
Southwest Indian Trail. One of the first bridges across 
the Ouachita River was built at this point about two 
miles northwest of Malvern. 

One of the earliest settlers was Christian Fenter, and 
most of the preachers in early days stayed in his home 
when they preached or traveled by. The township in 
which Rockport is located is named after him. 

In 1877 the Rockport Methodists decided to move their 
church building to Malvern, because the railroad had 
come through that place in 1871, and most of the mem- 
bers at Rockport moved into Malvern. At Malvern itself 
a new church building was erected in 1888. During the 
time the building was going on in Malvern, the Methodists 
who remained at Rockport reassembled and held services 
in the public school building at Rockport. When the con- 
gregation at Malvern did build their new church, the 
church at Rockport bought back their old church building 
for $50, moved it back to Rockport where it stands today. 

During the Centennial celebration of Arkansas in 
1936, which was also the centennial of the Rockport 
Church having been established as a preaching circuit, 
the church received a visit from President Franklin D. 
Roosevelt and his wife. The President delivered an ad- 
dress to several thousand people from the porch of this 
old church, and the sermon for the occasion was preached 
by Bishop John M. Moore of Dallas, Texas. 

Rockport Church has been remodeled and repaired 
many times and is today a neat frame building sitting at 
the intersection of two well-traveled, paved highways. 
The people in that section consider it a monument to the 
religious devotion and endeavors of their pioneer an- 

Mrs. Bennie Finch, History of Malvern Methodist Church. N.d. 
Malvern Daily Record, 25th Anniversary Edition, 1942; 50th 
Anniversary Edition, 1967. Ray N. Boyle 

MANCHESTER, ARKANSAS, U.S.A. The first Methodist 
church east of the Ouachita River was organized in 1837 
by Jacob Custer. It was located on one acre of land given 
by George S. Wimberley. The chartered members of this 
church included the following: Thomas C. and Jamima 
Hudson, Nathan and Nancy Strong, Miss Tennessee Hud- 
son, Miss Mariah Strong, and one colored member, Laney. 
Later came the Joneses, the Bullocks, the Littlejohns, 
and the Sims. The Manchester Chuch was the strongest 
church in the south Arkansas area during the days of its 
prosperity. Preaching was held in homes of the members 
until a log cabin of one room was built in 1844. It was 
named the Manchester M. E. Church. 

About 1850 the Princeton Circuit was set off, embrac- 
ing nearly all the territory between the Ouachita River 
on the west, Saline on the east, Camden on the south. 
Hot Springs on the north, of which Manchester was the 
principal church. In 1863 the Manchester Church, due to 
the problem of slavery, changed its name to the Man- 
chester M. E. Church, South, which it remained until 
unification in 1939. 

In 1888 Manchester Church was divided due to a 
growing community called Dalark. At this time the Man- 
chester M. E. Church, South moved from the one-room 
log building to its present location, which was given by 
Mr. and Mrs. W. F. McCaskell, and two sons, Joe and 
Charlie Neal. This deed is recorded in the Circuit Court 
Clerk's office in Arkadelphia, Ark., Sept. 20, 1910. 

In 1910 and 1911, under the capable leadership of 
J. H. McKelvy, the first part of the present building was 
constructed. It continued in use till 1938 under the capa- 
ble leadership of A. J. Bearden. The present sanctuary 
was added to the old part of the original church. The 
original church was made into class rooms for the church 
school. At this time it was placed on the Dalark Charge. 
In 1970 Manchester had a membership of 74 with an 
average attendance of seventy at its morning service. 

J. J. McKnight 

George Roberts, assistant to Jesse Lee, organized a 
Methodist Society in Manchester in the home of Thomas 
Spencer. Four years later Bishop Asbury found a neat 
house of worship on Spencer Street. In 1821 a larger 
church was built at the Center, which was used for thirty 

Three preaching points developed: one in the north 
section which started its first Sunday school in 1826 and 
developed into a separate church in 1851. This is today 
known as St. Paul's in Manchester. One developed in 
Buckland's Comers and flared up in a revival, but never 
managed to become an enduring church. The Center 
congregation moved to the south and built its church in 
1854 and this last was destined to endure and to become 
known today as South Methodist Church. 



South Church, Manchester, Connecticut 

South Church today has an elegantly appointed sanc- 
tuary and the largest membership of any church in the 
New England Southern Conference. The style of 
the church is Tudor Gothic and is of local grey field 
stone with trimmings of grey case stone and with English 
cathedral glass windows leaded in small panes. The build- 
ing is now covered with ivy. A square tower, sixty-seven 
feet high and surmounted by turreted battlements, is 
placed at the southwest corner of the main building and 
contains a bell from the first Methodist church in Man- 
chester and a memorial set of chime bells ranging in size 
from 275 to 2,000 pounds. Because of its unique design 
and setting the South Church has long been a familiar 
and famous landmark of Manchester, Conn. 

Throughout the interior, there are carved oak antique 
decorations. Julian S. Wadsworth, a former pastor and 
wood carving enthusiast, carved the Twelve Apostles in 
oak to form panels in the reredos screen. Guido Mayr 
of Oberammergau, who portrayed the part of Judas in 
the "Passion Play," carved a bas-relief of the famous 
Leonardo da Vinci painting of "The Lord's Supper" across 
the top of the screen. Other wood carvings decorate the 
pulpit and lectern and depict the Uves of Christ and His 

The lectern itself is bronze and represents an eagle 
standing on a globe, a symbol of St. John in his capacity 
as an Evangelist where "He soared in the Spirit and saw 

The Pulpit has five carved oak panels representing 
Biblical references to Christ and His Church. The central 
panel, carved by Wesley B. Porter, a former member of 
South Church, symbohzes Christ — The Rose of Sharon 
and the Cross forming what is knovin as the "Rose-Croix." 
At the base of this panel is the inscription, "As a Lily 
Among Thorns," taken from the Song of Solomon. 

The music of South Church has been emphasized for 
many years with vocal choirs of all ages and a rhythm 
choir which interprets ideas through rhythmic motion. 
The large window in the sanctuary, facing east has been 
given the name of "Creation," for here in the ivy-covered 
panes, the birds nest year after year and raise their young. 

The baptismal font made of Carrara Italian marble is 

located in the west arm of the cruciform building. The 
handcarved antique silver lamp which hangs above the 
font came from one of the ancient churches of Jerusalem 
and was presented by Mrs. Mattie Case. 

Across the street from the Church proper are ten acres 
of land known as the "South Church Campus," where two 
Cheney mansions are located. Today, these two mansions 
provide class space for all the church school below junior 
high school age, a church parlor for group meetings 
and a hundred-car parking lot. 

From the original membership of six, the church has 
now grovim to 2,397 members, making South Church 
the largest as well as the most influential church in the 
New England Southern Conference. 

Almond, Methodism in Manchester. N.d. 

Hibbard, History of the North Methodist Church of Man- 
chester, Conn. 
R. C. Miller, New England Southern Conference. 1898. 

Harvey K. Mousley 

MANCHESTER, England. Manchester's growth into one 
of the greatest industrial and commercial centers of mod- 
em England dates from the industrial revolution of the 
eighteenth century. 

John Wesley visited Manchester on three occasions 
before his evangelical conversion to see his friend John 
Clayton. George Whitefield paid the first of seven 
visits there in December 1738; and Benjamin Ingham 
preached in Long Millgate in May 1742. The first Meth- 
odist sermon was delivered by John Nelson at Man- 
chester Cross in either 1742 or 1743; but not until 
Charles Wesley's visit in January 1747 was a society 
formed. John Bennet, who had already pioneered Meth- 
odism in the surrounding villages, added the society to 
his round in March of that year; and John Wesley came 
in May 1747, when he preached at Salford Cross. This 
new society had several homes, including a garret by the 
river Irwell and a Baptist chapel in Shudehill, before a 
chapel was begun in Birchin Lane in 1750. Completed 
in 1751, it was, with Liverpool, the first Methodist chapel 
in Lancashire. 

In 1752 Manchester became the head of a circuit cover- 
ing much of Lancashire and Cheshire. The following year, 
despite the defection of John Bennet, there were 250 
members, and the chapel had to be enlarged. In 1765 
the Conference met in Manchester for the first time, a 
sign of the town's growing connectional importance. In 
1781 Birchin Lane was replaced by the Oldham Street 
Chapel, which was "about the size of that in London." 
For some years later after 1788 there was a close link 
with the nearby St. James' Church, and the Oldham Street 
congregation attended services there in a body. The Wes- 
leyans also played a part in setting up interdenominational 
Sunday schools in Manchester in 1786. 

After 1751 John Wesley usually visited Manchester 
every year. On Easter Day, 1790, his last visit, he de- 
scribed 1,600 communicants at Oldham Street. The mem- 
bership grew with the rapid rise in the town's population 
— in 1799 there were 2,225 members in Manchester and 
Salford. More chapels were built: Gravel Lane, Salford, 
1791; Great Bridgewater Street, 1801; Swan Street, 1808 
(closed, 1826); Chancery Lane, 1817; Grosvenor Street, 
1820. In 1826 four large chapels were built: Irwell Street, 
Salford; Ancoats; Oxford Road; and Oldham Road, Wes- 



In 1824 a second VVesleyan circuit was formed, with 
Grosvenor Street at its head. For some years this was 
the wealthiest chapel and circuit in the British con- 
nection, as may be seen from its contributions in The 
Centenary Fund, 1839. Despite the Warrenite secession 
of 1834-35 (see below), Wesleyan Methodist member- 
ship reached 10,000 in Manchester in 1883. The second 
VVesleyan theological college, Didsbury, was built there 
in 1842. In 1886, when the central area was beginning to 
lose ground, the first Wesleyan Central Mission was begun 
in Manchester under Samuel Collier. The failing Old- 
ham Street Chapel, now surrounded by warehouses, was 
closed in 1883, and the Central Hall was erected on the 
same site. 

Collier built up what he called "the largest congrega- 
tion in the world," which met for more than twenty years 
in the famous Free Trade Hall until the Albert Hall was 
built in 1910 as its permanent home. This is still the 
preaching center of the mission. The first General Chapel 
Committee met in Manchester in 1790; from this grew 
the Wesleyan Methodist Department for Chapel Af- 
fairs, which was established in Manchester in 1855. 
It remains the only British Methodist departmental head- 
quarters outside London. 

The Methodist New Connexion started in the city 
in 1797, when a secession took place, mainly in Salford. 
Manchester formed one of the first seven Methodist New 
Connexion circuits. Mount Zion Chapel, Nicholas Croft, 
was built in 1800, but had to be relinquished in 1808 for 
a smaller building in Oldham Street. The cause made little 
progress until 1835, when a new chapel was opened in 
Peter Street. The Methodist New Connexion Book Room 
was in the city from 1827-44, and the Jubilee Conference 
of the denomination was held there in 1846. Salem Chap- 
el, Strangeways, was opened in 1851 and the following 
year became the head of a Manchester North Circuit. 
Apart from strong churches at Pendleton and Newton 
Heath, the New Connexion made slow progress; in 1906 
the total membership of the two circuits was fourteen 

On the other hand, the secession of 1834-35 under 
Samuel Warren was much more serious, as Warren 
was then superintendent of the Wesleyan Oldham Street 
Circuit. About a thousand members left the four Man- 
chester circuits and formed the Wesleyan Methodist As- 
sociation. Their chapels were often built as close as pos- 
sible to those of their Wesleyan rivals. Sunday school 
teachers seem to have played an important part in the 
division. Membership fell slightly after the initial excite- 
ment, but in 1851 there were eleven Association chapels 
in the Manchester registration district, compared with 
eighteen Wesleyan, five Methodist New Connexion, and 
two Primitive Methodist chapels. These Association 
chapels entered union with the Wesleyan Reformers in 
1857, and membership then increased. In 1876 the re- 
sulting United Methodist Free Churches opened their 
ministerial training college in Manchester at Victoria Park. 

As for Primitive Methodism, evangelism probably 
reached Manchester late in 1819. By October 1820 there 
were 130 members, and in 1821 Manchester was con- 
stituted a separate circuit. The first chapel was in Jersey 
Street, Ancoats, opened in 1823, followed by one in the 
Oxford Road, and in King Street, Salford. The main ex- 
pansion came between 1850 and 1900, when several 
large chapels were built, including Great Western Street, 
in Moss Side, and Higher Ardwick. The Primitive Meth- 

odist theological college. Hartley, was set up in Man- 
chester in 1868, not far from Great Western Street. In 
1932 there were twelve Primitive Methodist circuits in 
the city area, with thirty-eight churches. These circuits, 
together with the Wesleyan circuits, joined the six United 
Methodist Church circuits (formed in the union of 
1907) in 1932. The strength of the Wesleyans was ap- 
proximately equal to that of the other two bodies com- 

Despite the decline in religious observance in England 
and the fall of Manchester's population, it was more than 
twenty years before the rationalization of the city's circuits 
neared completion. Membership has fallen steadily since 
1932; and although the number of chapels has been re- 
duced from about one hundred in 1932 to about fifty-six 
in 1965, some overlapping remains. Other changes in- 
cluded the removal of Didsbury College to Bristol in 
1945 and the closure of Victoria Park College in 1932, 
when it was amalgamated with Hartley to become Hart- 
ley Victoria College. The Central Hall in Oldham 
Street was damaged by bombs in the Second World War, 
but reopened in 1954. The offices of the Chapel Affairs 
Department remain in the building. 

E. A. Rose 

MANCHESTER, NEW HAMPSHIRE, U.S.A., is situated on 
the east bank of the Merrimack River and on the Boston 
and Maine Railroad in the south central portion of the 
state. Its territory was traversed by the early pioneers 
of Methodism, although because of its connection with 
older appointments, the name appears first in the con- 
ference minutes in 1819. Services were occasionally held 
at the Town House by Reuben Peaslee of Hampstead, 
and later by John Haskell, a member of the Legislature, 
both local preachers. Orlando Hines, here a few years 
on a part-time basis, was the first Methodist to administer 
the ordinance of baptism in this town, having baptized 
Mrs. Edna Procter and Miss Rhoda Hall by immersion 
about 1827. Made a part of the Poplin Circuit, embracing 
Popkin, Chester, Sandown, and Manchester in 1828, it 
was the scene of a great revival a year later, with meet- 
ings conducted by John Brodhead and Caleb Lamb, 
preachers on the circuit. Eiglity were converted, among 
them James M. Young and James McCaine, who entered 
the Methodist ministry. 

On Sept. 29, 1829 the first Methodist society was 
organized in the kitchen of Israel Morrill on Huse Road 
with eighty members. A church commenced at the Cen- 
ter was completed the following year at a cost of $1,800. 
This building was used for ten years. On Dec. 16, 1839, 
a new church society was organized and building erected 
on the comer of Hanover and Chestnut Streets. This was 
soon removed to the corner of Pine and Merrimac Streets 
and was transferred later to another denomination. In 
1842 a brick church on Elm Street was built at a cost 
of $16,000 when John Jones was pastor. The lower part 
of this Elm Street Church was occupied by stores. In 
1856 a third society was organized as the North Elm 
Street Church, which first met in a hall up the street. 
It continued in existence until 1862, when it was united 
with the old church and Bishop Osmon C. Baker named 
the new organization St. Paul's and appointed James 
Monroe Buckley as pastor. In 1875 a society known as 
The Tabernacle was organized and held services in 
Smythe's Hall. It continued six years, but gradually grow- 



ing weaker it finally favored re-uniting with St. Paul's 
to help build a new church. 

At the north end a new society was organized in 1886 
called The People's Church. W. A. Loyne was appointed 
pastor. The City Hall, the Y.M.C.A. parlor, and homes 
were, the scenes of services, until a lot at the comer of 
Pine and Penacook Streets was secured and a chapel 
built. Later the name was changed to St. James' Church 
and during M. V. B. Knox's pastorate, 1891-92, a fine new 
church was built. This was merged with St. Paul's during 
the pastorate of Franklin P. Frye, Oct. 1, 1951. 

Feehng itself no longer at the center due to popula- 
tion shifts, Center Church considered the need for mov- 
ing. While J. W. Bean was pastor, 1885-87, a lot was 
bought on Valley and Jewett Streets and a house built, 
later to be used as a parsonage though at first this was 
used for chapel services. When Claudius Byrne became 
pastor, the Center Church was moved to a location next 
to the parsonage, raised, and a story built beneath it 
for a vestry and the house finished for a parsonage. Here 
the membership remained until 1920, when with Cen- 
tenary aid they erected a splendid modem plant, now 
known as First Church. New pews, a new chancel, and 
a change of the choir loft was made during the pastorate 
of Ray H. Cowen in 1953-54, at a cost of $14,200. In 
1960, $12,400 was spent on redecorating the sanctuary, 
installing new light fixtures, covering the floor with tile 
and laying asphalt driveways to church and parsonage. 

From 1891-1911 some work was carried on in a chapel 
at Massabosic Lake, which for a time was a Methodist 
Church served by the pastor at First Church, but because 
of lack of growth the work was given up. In 1888, Louis 
N. Beaudrey, a French missionary, began work in Man- 
chester among French people. This subsequently was car- 
ried on by Thomas A. Dorion in 1889, and by Emile J. 
Palisoul for many years. In October 1895, a church society 
was organized on the west side with sixteen members. This 
was called Trinity Church. The following year there were 
thirty-nine members, a congregational average atten- 
dance of 150 and a Sunday school of sixty students. With 
the purchase of a schoolhouse on School Street and much 
sacrifice, a desirable house of worship was made in 1897. 
This served nobly until with the gradual weakening a 
merger was effected with St. James Church in 1940. 

The 1970 statistical report gives: Manchester, First, 
644 members, 359 church school members, and property 
valued at $403,175. St. Pauls, 444 members, 147 church 
school, and $301,000 property values. 

Cole and Baketel, New Hampshire Conference. 1929. 

Journals of the New Hampshire Conference. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. William J. Davis 

MANEFIELD, ALBERT GEORGE (1896-1963), Australian 
minister, was born at Wallsend, New South Wales, Aus- 
tralia. He was accepted as a candidate for the ministry 
in 1919, trained at Leigh College, and ordained in 1925. 

Prior to appointment as Assistant Home Mission Secre- 
tary in 1934, he ministered in the Far West and North 
West Missions of New South Wales. He was appointed 
Home Mission Secretary in 1940 and became General 
Superintendent in 1949, which position he held until 
retirement in 1962. 

He was elected President of the New South Wales 
Conference in 1954. It is recognized that his work and 
vision made possible the Methodist Nursing Service in the 
Far West of New South Wales. He was responsible for 

the establishment of the Deaconess Order in New South 

He was an able administrator, a competent preacher 
and a significant leader. He was the Convenor of the 
Federal Home Missions Council and the Canberra Con- 
sultative Council in the Australian Capital Territory. 

Australian Editorial Committee 

MANGUNGU, Northland, New Zealand, situated on the 
Hokianga River, was the site of the re-estabhshment of 
the Wesleyan mission following the forced withdrawal 
from Wesleydale, and the return of the missionaries to 
New South Wales in January, 1827. 

The mission party, led by John Hobbs arrived at the 
Hokianga Heads on the "Governor Macquarie" on Oct. 
31, 1827. They settled temporarily at Horeke under the 
protection of the great chief, Patuone. Shortly afterward, 
land was secured but not occupied at Te Toke. 

Final choice fell on Mangungu, where an area of 850 
acres was purchased. The missionaries moved in on March 
28, 1828, and established a base from which the work 
spread throughout the whole country. It continued to 
be of importance until the late 1850's, when as a result 
of population movements, it was largely abandoned in 
favor of Waima. 

C. H. Laws, First Years at Hokianga. Wesley Historical 
Society, New Zealand, 1945. L. R. M. Gilmobe 

MANHATTAN, KANSAS, U.S.A., First Church, is a large 
church serving not only the community but the Kansas 
State University of Manhattan. It records for itself an 
interesting and colorful past. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill 
of 1854, with its doctrine of "Popular Sovereignty," which 
left the slavery question up to the settlers, created a rush 
of emigrants hurrying to settle the West and taking one 
side or the other of the slavery issue. The groups that 
came to the junction of the Blue and Kansas Rivers were 
predominantly Northern Methodists, and were there to 
keep Kansas a free state. Isaac T. Goodnow, professor 
at the Providence Seminary at East Greenwich, R. I., 
was the leader, along with his wife's brother, Joseph 
Denison. Denison was to be the first regular minister 
of the M. E. Church in Manhattan. 

These folk came to Kansas in 1855, built a church, 
established Bluemont Central College (which later be- 
came Kansas State University), and helped to make 
Kansas a free state. Charles H. Lovejoy held the first 
Methodist church services on March 25, 1855. The 
Church was really first established on the Hartford, a 
steamboat bringing a group of ardent free-staters from 
Cincinnati, Ohio, to Kansas. This group was organized 
under the leadership of Judge John Pipher on April 30, 
1855. On its return the Hartford burned, but the bell, 
known as the "Hartford Bell" is still a museum piece in 
Manhattan First Church. The name "Manhattan" was 
chosen because money was given to the settlers by donors 
from the island of Manhattan, New York City, with the 
understanding that this would be the name. Nearby is 
the famous "Beecher Bible and Rifle Church" at 

Bluemont Central College, chartered in 1858 under 
the auspices of the Kansas-Nebraska Conference of the 
M. E. Church, began classes in 1859. Washington Marlatt 
was its promoter and first president. He was joined by 



Isaac T. Goodnow and Joseph Denison in the establish- 
ment of the Kansas State Agricultural College. This re- 
ceived the first land grant provided for Kansas under the 
Morrill Act. Bluemont Central College was turned over 
to the State, and eventually became Kansas State Univer- 

The University has several buildings named after former 
Methodist ministers, including Goodnow, Washington 
Marlatt, and Joseph Deni.son. First Church in 1970 had 
2,635 members, and property valued at $947,000. 

General Minutes, UMC. Kenneth R. Hemphill 

Mary Johnston Hospital, Manila 

MANILA, Philippines. The city of Manila, on Luzon Is- 
land in the Republic of the Philippines, is the cultural, 
commercial, industrial, educational, and religious center 
of this relatively new nation. It is the governmental capi- 
tal, though Quezon City, a former suburb of Manila, is 
technically the governmental capital of the Republic. 
Manila's population is approximately one-twentieth of 
the 3.5,000,000 people on the whole archipelago. 

Manila was the first city in the Philippines entered 
by Methodist missionaries in 1899, and it has continued to 
be the "headquarters city" for Methodism and its principal 
institutions since that time. There are thirty-five Meth- 
odist churches in Manila and its immediate environs. The 
two largest Methodist churches in the Islands are in the 
heart of Manila, and there are two English-speaking 

Harris Memorial School, Manila 

Serving the entire archipelago are the following special- 
ized institutions founded by Methodist missionaries, and 
now largely operated by Filipino pastors, teachers, and 
technical personnel: the Harris Memorial School, 
training young women from all east and southeast Asia 
as deaconesses and kindergarten teachers; Mary Johnston 
Hospital, which was destroyed by fire during World War 
II, and later rebuilt with American and Filipino funds; 
the Mary Johnston School of Nursing; Eveland Hall, a 
residence for graduate nurses; Methodist Social Center, 
including Hugh Wilson Hall, a college girls' dormitory, 
and pre-school and kindergarten classes, and a dental 
clinic; and the Methodist Book Room, providing educa- 
tional and religious reading materials for Methodists and 
the general public. In cooperation with other Protestant 
groups in the Philippines, Methodists are engaged in the 
support and administration of these institutions in Manila: 
Philippine Christian College; Protestant Chapel and Fel- 
lowship Hall at the University of the Philippines; the 
Sampaloc University Center; and the activities of the 
National Council of Churches of the Philippines. 

Mary Johnston Hospital began with the dream of Dr. 
Rebecca Parish when she volunteered to go to Vlanila in 
1906 to put her life into the task of saving babies, chil- 
dren, mothers, and to help bring health to the Philippines. 
By December 10 of that year she had opened Despensaria 
Betania and the project was undeiway. 

D. S. B. Johnston of St. Paul, Minn., gave $12,500 for 
a hospital to be a memorial for his wife. Located on a sea 
beach in Manila the hospital was inaugurated on Aug. 
18, 1908, with rooms and wards for thirty-five patients. 
There were three missionaries on the staff, which was 
headed by Dr. Rebecca Parish, and eleven nursing 

In 1911, the hospital burned but it was repaired and 
a third floor for nurses' dormitory was added. In 1913, 
the Philippine government gave funds for an additional 
building to house the maternity ward, dispensary and 
milk station. 

At the outbreak of World War II, the hospital became 
an emergency hospital where the wounded from air raids 
were hospitalized. The Imperial Japanese Army allowed 
work to continue under the supervision of the Filipino 
staff. The hospital bunied on Feb. 5, 1945, during the 
liberation of Manila. 

On Sept. 3, 1949, the cornerstone of the new building 
was laid. On Aug. 26, 1950, the new building was in- 
augurated with President Elpidio Quirino as the main 
speaker. The new 137-bed hospital was designed to serve 
as a general hospital, accommodating men, women, and 
children. As in the past, crowds still throng to the hospital, 
seeking health, hope and happiness. After the war until 
his death in 1964 the administrator of the hospital was 
Dr. GuMERSiNDO Garcia, Sr. 

Project Handbook Overseas Missions, UMC, 1969. 

W. W. Reid 
Byron W. Clark 

MANLEY'S CHAPEL, located in Henry County, Tenn., 
U.S.A., was the first church in the territory now embraced 
by the Memphis Conference of The United Methodist 
Church. In 1820 a local Methodist preacher, John Man- 
ley, organized the church and the first pastor was Ben- 
jamin Peeples, who had been sent by the Kentucky 
Conference to organize Methodist work in the territory. 
The original log church was built in 1821, but was soon 
replaced by a larger log building, as Manley's Chapel 
became the head church and center of the Sandy River 

In 1823 the Manleys donated land and John Manley, 
in conjunction with Richard and Hamlin Manley, William 
and Abraham Walters, T. F. Lilley, Johanan and Robert 
Smith, James and John Randle, Henry Wall, Joel, John 
and W. T. Hagler, the Moodys, the Lowrys and a few 



Others organized a camp ground around the church. The 
annual camp meetings became a vital part of Manley's 
Chapel and were held every year but one until 1912. 

The old log church was replaced by a frame structure 
in 1857, when W. H. Gillespie was pastor, and in 1934, 
when the site of Manley's Chapel had become inaccessible 
to automobiles, a church built largely of materials salvaged 
from the old building was constructed on a location do- 
nated by Melvin Carter. On this site about seven miles 
from Paris, Tenn., on Reynoldsburg Road, a new brick 
church was erected and dedicated on Nov. 2, 1958. 

Journals of Memphis Conference. Mary Sue Nelson 

MANNING, CHARLES (1714-1799), British Anglican, was 
the son of a Norwich painter. He graduated from Caius 
College, Cambridge, and from 1738 to 1757 was rector 
of Hayes, Middlesex. He supported the Wesleys and 
attended the Conferences of 1747 and 1748. He is said 
to have officiated at John Wesley's wedding in 1751, but 
there is no entry in the parish register to confirm this 

A. Skevincton Wood 

MANSELL, HENRY (1833-1911), pioneer M. E. mission- 
ary in India, was a graduate of Allegheny College. 
He then married Annie Benschoff, and they arrived in 
India in 1863. He founded a boys' school at Pauri, Garh- 
wal, out of which has grown the Messmore College, 
named for James Messmore, one of his colleagues who 
was associated with the institution for many years. 

Mansell was the first principal of the Centennial School 
at LucKNOw, forerunner of Lucknow Christian Col- 
lege. He was principal of Bareilly Theological Seminary, 
1884-85, and of Philander Smith College at Naini Tal. 

Mansell acquired a mastery of Hindu and Urdu; and 
in addition to preaching often in these languages, he 
wrote many articles and a number of books, including 
commentaries on the Old Testament prophecies, as well 
as adaptations and translations of English language com- 

His children became the first second-generation M.E. 
missionaries in India. A daughter, Hattie, was sent to 
India by the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society and, 
after brief service in Moradabad, joined Isabella Tho- 
BURN as a professor in the Woman's College at Lucknow. 
She later married David C. Monroe, and their son, Harry 
Monroe, served as a missionary in India. A son, William 
Mansell, became principal of Lucknow Christian College 
during the furlough of the founder, and later was principal 
of the Bareilly Theological Seminary. 

J. Waskom Pickett 

leyan Missionary Society. He had a first-class flair for 
journalism and co-edited the Australian Magazine which 
showed interest in secular matters. It was successful but 
its policy disturbed the Wesleyan Committee in England 
who prohibited its pubUcation. 

In July 1823, he was appointed to Van Diemen's land 
and in Hobart Town presided at the first business meet- 
ing of the Hobart Town Society on Aug. 11, 1823. In 
1824 Lieutenant-Governor Arthur desired to form a native 
establishment for the education and civilization of the 
aborigines. Mansfield was keen to establish a training 
school for young men in tliis missionary enterprise. Noth- 
ing concrete seems to have developed. 

The Lieutenant-Governor assisted in the building of a 
chapel and asked that a chaplain be nominated for Mac- 
quarie Harbour. Again the London committee rejected 
local suggestions. Mansfield was transferred to Sydney 
in June 1825. He became the District Secretary. The 
London committee was unsympathetic toward suggestions 
from Mansfield, and he was disciplined for preaching 
during church hours and administering Holy Communion. 
In 1838 the committee refused to increase or consider 
New South Wales requests for increased living allow- 
ances. Mansfield, incensed at their parsimony, resigned 
in October 1828. He wrote, "I formally resign but am 
virtually expelled. I do not resign the Ministerial office 
but simply that of a Wesleyan missionary. As a local 
preacher I hope that I may still be useful to the cause of 

His resignation and slight obstinacy was a serious 
loss to the connexion. He became joint-editor with Robert 
Howe of The Sydney Gazette in January 1829. A month 
later Howe was drowned and Mansfield became sole 
editor. He was editorially involved in political concerns 
and supported Governor Darling. In 1831 he printed the 
first issue of the Government Gazette and for eight years 
contributed to The Colonist. Keenly interested in educa- 
tion, he became the Secretary of the Protestant committee 
opposed to Governor Burke's "Irish system of National 

In 1836 he was director and secretary of the Australian 
Gaslight Company, secretary of the Sydney Floating 
Bridge Company and Royal Exchange Company. In 1841 
he was appointed Editor of The Sydney Morning Herald 
of left-wing politics. 

Deeply attached to the church, he felt it an honor to 
hold the position of first secretary to the Baptist Church 
in New South Wales. 

He died at Parramatta on Sept. 1, 1880, remembered 
as a man of courage, a lavonan wiio never lost his mis- 
sionary vision, a man of rare ability who sei-ved God 
and man. 

S. G. Clavchton 

MANSFIELD, RALPH (1799-1880), early missionary to 
Australia, was born at Liverpool, England on March 
12, 1799, the son of Ralph and Ann Mansfield. He was 
ordained in 1820, designated as a missionary to New 
South Wales, and received into full connexion at the 
Conference of 1823. After an eventful voyage in the 
Surry, anchor was cast at Hobart Town where he "was 
graciously received by His Honour, Lieutenant-Governor 
Sorrell with permission to preach and with a guard of 
constables to prevent disturbances." Arriving in Sy'dney, 
he was appointed Secretary of the auxihary of the Wes- 

MANSO, JUANA (1819-1875), was an Argentine educa- 
tor and writer. In 1836 she went into exile in Montevideo, 
Uruguay, because of political persecution by partisans 
of the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas. When 
Rosas partisans dominated that city also, her family fled 
to Brazil. There Miss Manso married a Brazilian musi- 
cian, Francisco Paula de Noronha, whom she accompanied 
to the United States. There he deserted her. Probably 
sometime during her stay in the L^nited States she became 
a Methodist. Shortly after Rosas had fallen, she returned 



to Buenos Aires (in 1854) and became active in the 
Methodist church there. 

The great Argentine educator, President Domingo F. 
Sarmiento, charged her with organizing pubHc hbraries. 
She was one of the very few persons who joined Sarmiento 
in his revolutionary ideas on public education. She was 
founder of the government publication, Los Anales de la 
Educacion Comun (Annals of Common Education). She 
wrote books on pedagogy, but also wrote in tlie fields of 
history and sociology and was the author of novels and 

One of Miss Manso's novels. La hija del comendador 
(The Commander's Daughter), was a cry against slavery 
— obviously written under the influence of Harriet Bee- 
cher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, published two years 
before. Miss Manso was concerned with social problems 
and the advancement of young women. Already, during 
her stay in Montevideo, she had founded the Young 
Ladies' Atheneum, and in Buenos Aires she started one of 
the first women's magazines in the country. Album de 
Seiioritas ( Young Ladies' Album ) . 

Her life in the United States stirred in Miss Manso 
a desire to establish Sunday schools in her mother coun- 
try'. In 1870 she published in Argentina a booklet de- 
scribing Sunday schools in North America. 

Miss Manso confronted many hardships and persecu- 
tions because of her Protestant profession, extending even 
to her death bed. She was buried in the British (Protes- 
tant ) Cemetery in Buenos Aires, but in 1920 her remains 
were transferred to the National Mausoleum of the Teach- 
ing Profession. 

£/ Estandarte Evangelico de Sud America, 75th anniversary 
edition, 1911. Ismael A. \'ago 

MANTRIPP, JOSEPH CLOSS (1867-1943), British Meth- 
odist, was born at Lowestoft in 1867. He entered the 
Primitive Methodist ministry in 1891. He became secre- 
tary of the Derby Conference in 1913, and from 1926 
to 1931 served as Connexion al Editor. After Meth- 
odist Union in 1932 he was deputy editor. His publica- 
tions included The Faith of a Chrisiian (Hartley Lec- 
ture, 1931) and, later. The Devotional Use of the Meth- 
odist Hymn Book and The Great Good News. He was a 
valued member of the Methodist Union Committee, and 
high tribute was paid to his editorial work as a member 
of the Methodist Hymn-Book Committee. He died on 
Feb. 3. 1943. 

John T. Wilkinson 

MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL, west of Covington, Newton 
County, Georgia, was a forerunner of Emory Univer- 
sity in Atlanta, and of Emory College (later called 
Emory-at-Oxford and now again Emory College). The 
Manual Labor School was established in 1834 but was 
absorbed by Emory College in 1840. Emory College was 
named in memory of Bishop James O. Andrew's epis- 
copal classmate. Bishop John Emory, who was killed in 
a carriage accident in 1835. Manual labor was a part of 
the college (chartered Dec. 19, 1836) program but was 
doomed to failure. One year after absorption of the Man- 
ual Labor School, the system was dropped. 

Because the latter school was not as successful as it 
had been hoped, the 1836 General Conference noted 
that Randolph-Macon College in Virginia was too 

distant for Georgia youth who might want an education 
under Methodist auspices. So the Conference acted on 
Ignatius Few's suggestion to establish a Methodist col- 
lege in Georgia. Samuel Bryan and Thomas Benning were 
appointed agents to raise $100,000 for it. Few was chair- 
man, and then became the college's first president. It is 
significant that he was also the prime mover in plans for 
the Manual School. 

Few inspected land purchased by the Manual Labor 
School lying one to three miles north-northwest of Coving- 
ton. The college and the 330 acres of that land laid out 
for the college town of Oxford are both named for "the 
seat of learning of John and Charles Wesley." 

E. J. Hammond, M. E. Church in Georgia. 1935. 

Ouida Wade Roton 

MAORI KING MOVEMENT. In 1858 a confederation of 
powerful inland tribes in the Waikato area of the North 
Island of New Zealand "elected" an aged chief, Potatau 
Te Wherowhero, as the first Maori king. The purpose 
was threefold: to oppose further sales of land to European 
settlers; to secure law and order among warring tribes, 
in which it was felt that the European administration 
had failed; and to seek to recapture the dwindling pres- 
tige of the Maori people. 

Through the interxening years "the king movement" 
has lost much of its early political significance, and remains 
as a cultural and spiritual link between all the Maori 
tribes of New Zealand. The Movement's headquarters is 
the Turangawaewae Pa, at Ngaruawahia, and the present 
leader is Queen Te Ata-i-rangi-kaahu, sixth in line of 
direct descent from the first Maori king. Ngatete Kerai 
Kukutai, a New Zealand minister, was a respected friend 
and adviser of the Movement. 

M. P. K. Sorenson, "The Maori King Movement," Studies of 
a Small Democracy, ed. by R. Chapman and K. Sinclair. 
Pauls Book Arcade for the University of Auckland, 1963. 

L. R. M. Gilmore 

MARIETTA, GEORGIA, U.S.A., First Church, was orga- 
nized in 1833 in the home of George W. Winters with 
thirty-seven charter members, John P. Dickinson serving 
as pastor. Shortly thereafter a building was erected on 
Husk Street at Whidock Avenue. 

LInder the pastorate of Charles R. Jewett in 1848 a 
new sanctuary was dedicated on Atlanta Street at Waverly 
Way. Here the first Sunday school was organized. The 
first railroad in Cobb County began operations Sept. 
15, 1845, from Marietta to "Marthasville"— renamed "At- 
lanta" two years later. Marietta was directly in the path 
of Sherman's march-to-the-sea and was all but destroyed 
by the ravages of that terrible conflict. Although the par- 
sonage was bumed, the church building was spared and 
is still standing. 

In June 1878 the first Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society in Southern Methodism was organized by this 
congregation. Some years later it merged with the Wom- 
an's Home Missionary Society and, after unification in 
1939, became known as the Woman's Society of Chris- 
tian Service. 

At the turn of the century a new building on Atlanta 
and Anderson Streets was built during the pastorate of 
J. W. Quillian and dedicated by W. W. Wadsworth. This 
plant, with subsequent additions, served admirably for 
some sixty years. During World War I, sixty-three of its 



members entered the armed services and during World 
War II a service flag with seventy-seven stars was proudly 
displayed. At the Atlanta Street location the member- 
ship grew from 455 in 1896 to 2,115 as reported in 1965. 
Numerically it had then become the fifth largest in the 
North Georgia Conference and had long since out- 
grown its physical capacity. 

In September 1909. Dr. Fred P. Manget, with a M.D. 
degree from Emory, returned to Marietta and married 
Louise Anderson, daughter of W. D. Anderson, a beloved 
former pastor of this church. This dedicated young couple 
left immediately for the Orient, founded, and for almost 
four decades operated the Huchow General Hospital, one 
of Methodism's great missionary outposts. 

In the early 1960's a movement was started for a com- 
plete new church facility. Prevailing sentiment was that 
it should continue as a "downtowai" church. During the' 
pastorate of Gordon Thompson (1957-61), enough money 
was raised to buy several acres within two blocks of the 
Public Square, and to have left a substantial start on a 
building fund. It is interesting to note that this tract of 
land included the site of the original church built in 

Under the able leadership of Charles B. Cockran the 
building program was brought to a successful conclusion. 
On Jan. 16, 1966, Bishop J. Ow'En Smith with District 
Superintendent W. Candler Budd consecrated the present 
plant — said to be one of the finest in Georgia Methodism. 
A church school of thirty-two class rooms, a fellowship 
hall, administrative offices, library, parlor, and chapel are 
all air conditioned and tastefully decorated. The sanctuary 
seats 1,046. Membership in 1970 was 2,103. 

George D. Anderson, Jr., The M. E. Church, South, of Mari- 
etta, Georgia. Marietta: Brumby Press, Inc., 1933. 
Journal of the North Georgia Conference. 

S. B. G. Temple, The First Hundred Years. Atlanta: Walter 
R. Brown Pub. Co., 1935. Guy Northcutt 

MARIETTA, OHIO, U.S.A., an old historic city situated 
at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers, 
was the first organized settlement in the Northwest Ter- 
ritory. Methodism began in the new settlement in 1799, 
when Robert Manley crossed the Ohio River and orga- 
nized classes. "He was welcomed to the log cabin of 
Robert McCabe, a shoe-maker-settler, who with his wife 
and two other couples professed faith in Christ and were 
constituted the first regular Methodist Church in Ohio." 
A circuit was organized before the close of the year. 

It was with difficulty that Methodism gained a foothold 
in Marietta. In 1805 Jacob Young, one of the famous 
frontier preachers, held a successful camp meeting. A 
number of persoirs were converted and a class was formed 
under the leadership of Jones Johnson, who had been a 
follower of Thomas Paine before his conversion. This 
class marks the beginning of real growth of Methodism 
in Marietta. 

In 1806, during the pastorate of the famous Peter 
Cartwright, a camp meeting was held and a number 
of influential persons converted. Marietta was at that 
time a part of the Marietta and Kanawha circuit which 
extended along the Ohio River for 150 miles and far 
into (West) Virginia. In 1808 the Marietta Circuit was 
formed. In 1816 John Stew.\ht, a dissipated black 
man, was converted and went out as a missionary to the 
Indians, thus inaugurating the great missionary move- 
ment of American Methodism. 

For the ten years after their first organization, the 
Methodists worshiped in private homes and schoolhouses. 
In 1815 a church building was erected. It was twice en- 
larged before the erection of the Centenary church in 
1839. In this new brick structure the society prospered 
greatly. In a revival held in 1842 there were 187 new 
members brought into the membership. The greatest 
revival in its history swept the church in 1856 when 210 
persons were converted. In 1859 Whitney Chapel was 
formed, mainly from the membership of the Centenary 
Church. Two bishops, David H. Moore and Earl 
Cranston, were among the pastors of this church. In 

1875 Whitney Chapel and Centenary Church were con- 
solidated to form the First M. E. Church in Marietta. 
First Church today is still located on the site of the newly 
formed church and has a membership of 1,383. 

Crawford Chapel was erected on tlie Fort HaiTnar side 
of the Muskingum River in 1833. Tliis church and Cen- 
tenary were a circuit until 1848 when both became sta- 
tions. In 1895 Crawford Chapel was rebuilt and became 
the Gilman Avenue M. E. Chuich. It has sent two mis- 
sionaries to the foreign field — Miss Carrie Jewell to 
China, and Miss Esther Devine to India. The Gilman 
Church today has a membership of 429. 

The German Methodist Church was founded in 1839. 
Many of the early settlers in Marietta came from the 
northern part of Germany. A number were converted and 
joined the English Methodist church and organized a 
class within the church. In June 1839, a mission was 
organized for the German Methodists when Carl Best 
was sent to Marietta. The first German Methodist church 
building was purchased from the English church in 1840, 
services being held in private homes before this. The 
congregation continued to worship in this building until 

1876 when they relocated and built a new building. The 
name was changed to Trinity Church during the first 
World War in 1918. In 1933 the Central Geiman Con- 
ference was disbanded and Trinity Church became a part 
of the Zanesville District of the Ohio Conference. 

Other churches in Marietta include the Norwood 
Church which has 568 members, the John Stewart 
Memorial Methodist Church with eight members (this 
is a Negro church which carries the name of Methodism's 
first missionary to the Indians); there is also a Wesleyan 
Methodist Church in Marietta. 

J. M. Versteeg, Ohio Area. 1962. 

Floyd W. Powell 

MARION, OHIO, U.S.A. Epworth Church, the "mother 
church" of Methodism in Marion County, Ohio, traces 
its history back to 1820 when a sturd> group of eight 
devout pioneers organized the first Methodist class. The 
first building was erected in 1831, and, becoming speediK' 
outgrown, was replaced in 1845 by a new building known 
as Centenary M. E. Church. The closeness of the railroad 
made this location undesirable, and in 1854 the congrega- 
tion moved to another site where it remained for thiity- 
fi\e years. In 1890, when the membership liad grown to 
over 600, the present building was erected, which at that 
time was one of the largest and best church buildings 
in Ohio. 

Four great revivals have made Epworth what it is 
today: 1854-55. 1869-70, 1893, and 1896. Literally hun- 
dreds of members were received into the church, making 
Epworth the largest church then in the conference. The 
longest pastorate was that of Jesse Swank, who endeared 



himself to the entire city. He served from 1915-25. 
Two former pastors became college presidents; Albert E. 
Smith, President of Ohio Northern University for twen- 
ty-five years, and John L. Hillman, President of Simpson 
College. Among the many outstanding laymen who have 
served Epworth, mention should be made of John H. Clark 
(1872-1960), for over fifty years a trustee of Ohio North- 
ern University, a delegate to four General Conferences, 
a member of the General Bo.\rd of Missions, and of the 
Book Committee. He taught a Sunday school class for 
young men wliich grew to be one of the largest in the 
state. The membership of Epworth in 1970 was 2,013. 

John F. Young 

MARKEY, M. BELLE (1875-1961), American missionary 
to Cuba and Mexico, was bom at MacClenny, Fla., 
Dec. 8, 1875. Her education was at Polytechnic College, 
Fort Worth, Texas, Scarritt College and George Pea- 
body College, Nashville, Tenn. After finishing college she 
taught for two years at Clarendon College, Clarendon, 

In 1902 she was accepted by the Board of Missions 
(MES) and arrived in Cuba the same year. She was ap- 
pointed teacher at Irene Toland School, Matanzas, where 
she remained until 1920 when she was transferred to 
Colegio Buenavista, Marianao. In 1926 she was trans- 
ferred to the Centro Cristiano at Chihuahua, Mexico. 
After forty-one years of service she retired in 1943. 

On a visit to Mexico in 1944 she decided to remain for 
another year as a helper in Chihuahua. Although retired 
and while living in California she assumed positions of 
responsibility as a leader and teacher in the local churches. 
She passed to her reward Feb. 1, 1961 at Pasadena, Calif. 

Her work was always characterized by a faithful sense 
of duty and carefulness in all details. 

Garfield Evans 

MARKHAM, EDWIN (1852-1940), American poet, author 
of "The Man with the Hoe," was a teacher by profession. 
He was born in Oregon, but in early life moved to a 
California farm. Here he developed his love of nature, 
and in an ungraded school had a teacher who introduced 
him to the world of poetry. After graduating from the 
San Jose Normal School lie taught in Coloma, Calif., 
famous as the site of the discovery of gold. Placer mining 
had given out, but he, as he said, discovered spiritual gold 
through the visits of the Methodist presiding elder. It 
was in Coloma that he saw in a magazine a reproduction 
of Millet's picture and wrote the opening lines of his 
great poem. For a time he was licensed as a local preach- 
er. His last teaching was as principal of an Oakland, 
Calif, school. Here he saw the original Millet canvas, 
and finished his poem. 

"The Man with the Hoe" immediately caused nation- 
wide — almost worldwide — controversy. His other best- 
known poem was "Lincoln, Man of the People." He con- 
tinued to write and lecture until over eighty years of age. 

He was the poet of the social awakening that stirred 
the church in the early years of the twentieth century. 
By pen and voice he did much to aid reform movements, 
as in legislation to prohibit child labor. He was the poet 
of social reform. 

A large man physically, with rugged features crowned 

with ample white hair and beard, he was to the last an 
impassioned pleader for "Bread, Beauty, Brotherhood." 

William L. Stidger, Edwin Markham. Nashville: Abingdon 

Press, 1933. 

Who's Who in America. Leon L. Loofbouhow 

MARKSMAN, PETER ( ? -1892), a Chippewa Indian mis- 
sionary in the nineteenth century in Wisconsin and Mich- 
igan, was a member of the Michigan Conference. He 
grew up among the Chippewa, his father a medicine 
man, his mother a nominal Roman Cathohc. Although 
little is known about his early life and conversion, he 
was brought into Methodist circles in 1833 by the Indian 
missionary John Sunday and John Clark, who in the 
1830's was organizing work among the Indians, and was 
trained in mission work by Alfred Brunson. 

In 1835 he was sent by Clark to establish a mission 
at Lac Court Oreille in northwest Wisconsin. He ac- 
companied Brunson on a project among the Sioux. From 
1840 on he served under appointment in various mis- 
sions in the Michigan and Detroit Conferences. He 
was ordained deacon in the Michigan Conference in 1842 
and ELDER in 1862. In 1844 he married a French-Indian 
woman, Hannah Morien. He served at various times at 
Sault Ste. Marie, Fond du Lac, Janesville, Kazier, Grand 
River, Pesahgening, Saginaw Bay, Iroquois Point, and 
Sugar Island. 

One of the most successful enterprises was work with 
Indians at Kewawenon mission, a Methodist station at 
the head of Keweenaw Bay on Lake Superior. Between 
1843 and 1847, owing to a mysterious lapse in his life, 
he was expelled from Michigan Conference, but restored, 
first on trial, then in 1850 into full connection. In his later 
years he was highly regarded as an able senior missionary 
for Indian work, and was recognized in a full obituary in 
the Conference Minutes when he died. May 28, 1892 

R. A. Brunger, "Peter Marksman — Cliippewa Indian Mission- 
ary," Michigan Christian Advocate, March 3 and 10, 1966. 
Frederick A. Norwood, "Peter Marksman, Chippewa Mission- 
ary," Adult Student, August 1959. Frederick A. Norwood 

MARKWOOD, JACOB (1815-1873), American United 
Brethren bishop, son of John and Margaret (Durst) Mark- 
wood, was born Dec. 26, 1815, near Charleston, W. Va., 
and died Jan. 22, 1873, at Luray, Va. He attended public 
school about one year, but devoted his life to study, read- 
ing copiously, becoming scholarly in languages, logic, 
metaphysics, medicine, and the Bible. He married Arbe- 
line Rodeffer on Sept. 3, 1837. 

Converted at seventeen, he joined "Old Stone Church," 
a congregation of the United Brethren in Christ in 
Green Springs, Va. He was licensed to preach and re- 
ceived into the Virginia Annual Conference in 1837, or- 
dained in 1841, and elected presiding elder in 1843, hold- 
ing that office until he was elected bishop by the General 
Conference of 1861. Re-elected bishop in 1865, his ill- 
health prevented re-election in 1869. He was a member of 
every General Conference from 1841 to 1869. From 1855- 
1861, he was a member of the denomination's Board of 
Missions and was sometime Trustee of Mt. Pleasant Col- 
lege and Otterbein Unfs'ersity. 

Weak in health, he threw himself without reserve into 
the work of the Church and the causes he espoused. He 


was strongly opposed to slavery and this opposition made 
him persona non grata in his home state of Virginia dur- 
ing the Civil War. An example of a man who burnt him- 
self out for his Lord, he died with the conviction that the 
Lord had no more work for him to do. 

A. W. Drury, History of the U.B. 1924. 
Koontz and Roush, The Bishops. 1950. 
H. A. Thompson, Our Bishops. 1889. Howabd H. Smith 

MARLATT, WASHINGTON (1829-1909), American pio- 
neer preacher of the western prairies, was born June 
28, 1829, in Wayne County, Ind. He graduated at Asbury 
University (now DePauw) at Greencastle, Ind., in 1853. 
He studied theology at this university, was licensed to 
preach, and went to Manhattan, Kan., in 1856. It is said 
that he came the entire distance on foot and alone. 

Marlatt was present at the first Methodist Conference 
held at Lawrence, Kansas Territory, in November 1856. 
He was admitted on probation to the Kansas-Nebraska 
Conference at Nebraska City in April, 1857. He became 
a circuit preacher and was assigned to the Wabaunsee 
Circuit, which included that county, Davis County (later 
Geary County) and all of the territory west to Pike's Peak 
in Colorado. His salary was $100 per year. He traveled 
over his circuit on horseback. When Bluemont Central 
College (now Kansas State University) was organized 
at Manhattan in 1859, Marlatt became the first principal. 
A building on the campus is named for him. Marlatt 
was instrumental in obtaining much of the land for the 
first college. He died in Manhattan, Kan., on Sept. 27, 
1909, and is buried there. 

Kenneth R. Hemphill 

MARRIAGE. As the foundation of both Church and State 
rests upon the family, and the family on marriage, it is 
easy to understand that the marriage relation everywhere 
should be regarded with the highest respect. In almost 
all tribes and nations marriage has been considered as a 
religious rite, and its celebration is universally accompa- 
nied by a social sanction and public observance which 
even among the most primitive peoples may be termed 
religious. Among the Hebrews this was especially true. 
In the first book of the Hebrew Scriptures, outlining this 
relation of man and woman, it is written: "For this cause 
shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall 
cleave to his wife; and they shall become one flesh" 
(Genesis 2:24). This passage the Lord not only referred 
to, but sealed unto His people by adding to it, "WTiat 
therefore God hath joined together, let not man put 
asunder." By the creation of man and woman together in 
Eden; by the laws written (Levitical code) and unwritten 
which guard this estate; by the family relationships of our 
Lord and His Apostles; by His teaching respecting the 
matrimonial tie — the divine seal has been set on the 
marriage institution. With the growth of the priesthood 
this class always took over the celebration of this Rite. 

Matrimony was raised to the dignity of a Sacr.\ment 
by the Roman Church during medieval times, and is still 
so regarded by that Church. That marriage itself is a 
Sacrament was denied by the Reformers. In following 
the Church of England's teaching in this regard, Meth- 
odism in its Article on Religion XVI, after explaining 
the two Sacraments ordained of God (Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper) this Article goes on to name matrimony 
as an "allowable estate." However, marriage has been re- 

garded among all Christian people as something more than 
a mere "allowable estate," and "it is not too much to say 
that after the convenanting together of man and woman 
in the sight of God and their solemn promise each to the 
other, the pronouncing them man and wife together in 
the Name of the Fadier, and of the Son and of the Holy 
Ghost approximates a sacramental act, in the old English 
sense of a 'making sacred'." Bishop R. J. Cooke put it: 
"The solemnization of matrimony is a religious service, 
and levity or lightness of a manner of any description on 
the part of the minister should receive a severe rebuke." 

Until those comparatively recent times when the 
Church and State became separate — certainly in America 
— the whole matter of marriage was left entireh' in the 
hands of the Church, or its ministry. However, eventually 
the civil power took over and began to regulate the mat- 
ter of marriage, since marriage is as necessary to its own 
existence as it is to the life of the Church. The relation 
of Church and State has nowhere come into stranger com- 
plexity than in the "concurrent" jurisdiction which they 
dius have over the marriage state. In the view of the 
State, the minister is empowered to authorize and execute 
a special type of contract between man and woman when 
they marry each other; and ministers are forbidden to 
marry persons unless, or until, they procure a civil license. 

The Methodist Church for a time followed rather strict- 
ly the age-old Christian teaching which warned Christians 
against being united in marriage with unbelievers or ir- 
religious persons. This was because of the influence which 
a married partner exercises over the whole of hfe. The 
following rules are found in early Methodist Disciplines: 
"Many of our members have been married with una- 
wakened persons. This has produced bad effects; they 
have been either hindered for life or have turned back to 
perdition. To discourage such marriages, 1. Let every 
preacher publicly enforce the apostle's caution, 'Be ye not 
unequally yoked together with unbehevers," II Cor. vi.l4. 
2. Let all be exhorted to take no step in so weighty a mat- 
ter without advising with the more serious of their breth- 
ren. In general women ought not to many without the 
consent of their parents. Yet there may be exceptions. For 
if, 1, a woman believes it to be her duty to marry; if, 2, 
her parents absolutely refuse to let her marry any Chris- 
tian; then she may, nay, ought to marry without their 
consent. Yet even then a Methodist preacher ought not 
to be married to her. We do not prohibit our people from 
marrying persons who are not of our church, provided 
such persons have the form and are seeking the power of 
godliness; but we are determined to discourage their 
marrying persons who do not come up to this description." 
{Discipline, M. E. Church, 1864, p. 35.) 

These regulations were in time dropped from the Dis- 
cipUne, though the danger that prompted them is still 
felt by many a good pastor and parent. 

Methodism has never raised any question conceniing 
the ceremony or rite by which sincere persons marry each 
other. However, a "civil marriage," in the view of the 
Roman Catholic Church is no Christian or Sacramental 
marriage at all, since it is not celebrated by one of her 
priests, though it is an honorably binding social engage- 
ment. This standpoint, however, is not adopted by Protes- 
tants, and any properly licensed marriage, whether sol- 
emnized by a Justice of the Peace or a minister, is taken 
as fully valid spiritually in our connection. 

Early American Methodist Disciplines, until as late as 
1844, directed that the Banns or "ecclesiastical License" 


for any proposed marriage should be proclaimed in Meth- 
odist churches, as they were in the Church of England. 
But the power of the State to regulate and license the 
proposed relation of the parties soon superseded the 
Church's attempt to do so. At present properly ordained 
ministers who are empowered to solemnize matrimony 
are simply directed to see that the parties are "qualified 
according to Law." 

Who May Celebrate. As marriage in view of the 
church has always been a religious rite or observance, its 
conduct has always been in the hands of the priestly 
class. In the Middle Ages, when marriage became a 
sacrament, the priest or bishop had charge of this mat- 
ter, especially since he joined to it the service of the Mass. 
In the English Prayer Book, from which we borrowed 
our office, the officiating minister is commonly termed 
"the Priest," though there are places where he is termed 
"the Minister." 

When the M. E. Church organized in 1784, the cele- 
bration of matrimony in the Sunday Service and Discipline 
was committed to de.acons as well as to elders, Within 
recent years, however, "supply" preachers, even though 
they may not be ordained, have been allowed to marry 
couples, but this must only be within their own pastoral 
charge. When a minister becomes fully ordained, he is 
entitled to conduct all rites of the church wherever he is. 

The Position in Britain. Originally the only way in 
which it was possible legally to be married in England 
was in the Established Church, though Scottish law made 
some provision for "common law" marriages. This strict- 
ness was felt to be a disability and hardship by Noncon- 
formists, particularly by Quakers, who professed conscien- 
tious scruple at going to the Parish Church, yet who found 
that their own ceremonies were not recognized by the law. 
Early Methodists as a matter of course were married in 
the Church of England, and this custom still continues 
to some extent, particularly in rural areas. During the 
last century legislation was passed for the relief of Non- 
conformity, to make provision for weddings in churches 
other than the Church of England, and also for purely 
civil ceremonies at which the law forbids prayers to be 
said. British Methodist marriages proceed under these 
Marriage Acts. The legal marriage consists in the presence 
in the legally registered building of the couple, duly quali- 
fied by Registrar's Certificate and by residence, who shall 
make the declarations required by law in the presence 
of the Authorized Responsible Person recognized for that 
building by the Registrar-General, and in the presence of 
two witnesses. The declaration is one of "no lawful im- 
pediment," and of consent to the marriage, and the Au- 
thorized Responsible Person must write up the record in 
the official marriage registers, which he and the witnesses 
must sign. The law takes no cognizance of what religious 
ceremonies may be performed, nor does it require that the 
Authorized Responsible Person be an ordained minister. 
It is, however, the almost universal custom for the local 
Trustees of the Church to nominate the minister to the 
Registrar-General as the Authorized Responsible Person. 
Thus at the normal Methodist wedding the minister stands 
in a distinct dual capacity, both as a public legal official 
performing a civil ceremony, and as a minister performing 
a Christian marriage at the same time. Yet he does not 
perform the legally-binding ceremony because he is an 
ordained minister, but because he is the Authorized Re- 
sponsible Person under the Marriage Acts. A visiting 
minister who is not the Authorized Person can and often 


does come to take the rehgious service, but the Authorized 
Person (or a public Registrar), who does not as such 
have anything to say, must be present to hear the legal 
declarations, and make and sign the entry in the Registers. 

Who May Be Married. From ancient times there have 
been certain degrees of blood kin which prevent the 
marriage relation, and in time the medieval church de- 
veloped a body of canon law which set forth prescribed 
conditions preventing matrimony, or in case an actual 
ceremony was had, declaring that the marriage was in- 
valid. The general principle of "forbidden degrees of 
consanguinuity" followed the law of Leviticus, but ex- 
tended by the sacramental principle that the man and 
his wife are "one flesh," with the effect that relations by 
marriage as well as blood relations are included within 
the "forbidden degrees." In particular, it was against the 
canon law to marry one's deceased husband's brother 
(one's "brother"), or one's deceased wife's sister (one's 
"sister"). The effect of this was to create a very various 
complication of technical impediments to marriage, which 
could if necessary be dispensed with by the ecclesiastical 
courts, or which could give rise to proceedings for nullity. 
So while there was technically no divorce there were 
ways of dissolving marriages in cases of pressing neces- 
sity. Methodists, with Protestants in general, do not pro- 
ceed in this way, but follow the civil law. They feel that 
since the granting of a license now is in the hands of the 
State, that power can be looked to to follow its own laws, 
and will refuse a marriage license to persons who cannot 
be properly qualified. Furthermore, as is well known, the 
qualifications that the State does make for marriage and 
annulment, rest heavily upon the laws and customs the 
Christian Church has long inculcated. 

Divorce. Persons who have been divorced present a 
special problem when they come and ask to be married 
again by their own minister. The traditional Christian 
standard from ancient time has been to forbid a second 
Church marriage to a person who has been party to a 
divorce, whether "innocent" or "guilty," on the ground 
that the sacramental union is in principle indissoluble 
(Mark x:2-9). Divorce is indeed allowable on the ground 
of adultery (Matthew xix:9), but it is only a legal per- 
mission to live apart, and does not bring the right to re- 
marry, as the marriage still in principle exists (Mark 
x: 11-12). However, in the modern period the Protestant 
Churches have tended to modify this discipline by ac- 
commodating it to the mores and laws of the civic com- 
munity. They have in general been reluctant to call in 
question the validity of a divorce pronounced by the law 
of the state. The M. E. Church for many years forbade 
its ministers to marry any couple where a divorce was 
involved, unless this divorce was for adultery — "the one 
scriptural cause," as the M. E. Church, South (which 
had the same regulation) termed it in its Discipline. How- 
ever, of recent years The Methodist Church recognized 
the fact that causes other than adultery may break a mar- 
riage, and present regulations in the Book of Discipline 
so indicate. "Divorce is not the answer to the problems 
that caused it. It is symptomatic of deeper difficulties," 
— so states the 1964 Discipline in its paragraph 1821 
dealing with the Christian family. Present regulations 
provide that "a minister may solemnize the marriage of 
a divorced person only when he has satisfied himself by 
careful counseling that (a) the divorced person is suf- 
ficiently aware of the factors leading to the failure of the 
previous marriage, (b) the divorced person is sincerely 



preparing to make the proposed marriage truly Christian, 
and (c) sufficient time has elapsed for adequate prepara- 
tion and counseling. The usual minister endeavors to de- 
cide upon each case on its own merits when there is a 
divorce involved, sometimes refusing to perform the cere- 
mony, sometimes judging that it is right and proper for 
him to do so after he has looked into the entire situation. 

British Methodism. Cases where divorced persons seri- 
ously apply for marriage in a Methodist Church are not 
in general very numerous, for a common feeling is that a 
civil marriage is the appropriate step in such cases. This 
is probably the least unsatisfactory solution to a painful 
and compromised business, for the unfortunate in life are 
not forbidden to marry, but the Church is not asked 
publicly to compromise the admitted Christian ideal of 
hfe-long and indissoluble marriage. There is also the 
somewhat invidious problem that the Church of England, 
which nominally comprises the bulk of the nation, in 
general adheres to the traditional strict standard, and 
refuses to marry divorced persons. Thus some who are in 
fact not Methodist people may at times come making 
enquiry whether some other Church is more accommodat- 
ing. The rule is that if a minister is approached to marry 
a divorced person he shall communicate the matter to the 
Chairman of the District. If there is any doubt he shall 
consult with his colleagues in the Circuit, and if there is 
still doubt the Chairman shall call together a special ad- 
visory committee to consider the case. A reasonable inter- 
pretation of this procedure is that if there is some person 
of Christian integrity, well known, who has been the 
victim of wrongdoing by an erring partner, and who 
wishes for a second marriage in Church, he or she should 
not be refused by the Church. But other people, less 
known to us, and of whose understanding of Christ's 
marriage law we are less sure, ought not to be encouraged 
to come for Church weddings, particularly in cases where 
the divorced party has been guilty of the matrimonial 
offense. There must be special reason for confidence that 
the person in question has come to a real change of mind 
and life. There is on the one hand the possibility of the 
forgiveness and restoration of sinners, but the Church must 
be on guard against adjusting her standards to the con- 
ventional mores of society, or using her services to give 
an air of respectability to impenitent sinners against the 
Christian marriage law of a life-long union. The Church 
ought to give full moral support to the minister who 
undertakes the invidious and painful task of upholding 
the Church's standards in personal pastoral contact. Thus 
the Standing Orders rightly guarantee the position of a 
minister who has conscientious scruples against marrying 
divorced persons. 

The Marriage Rite. The rite of matrimony as found 
in the Methodist Discipline and sent over to American 
Methodism by John Wesley himself is an abridgment of 
the Form of Solemnization of Matrimony in the English 
Prayer Book. It is a beautiful office, skillfully put together, 
so as to join devotion and liturgical excellence with a 
stately and yet gracious service. John Wesley did not 
change the matrimonial office of the Prayer Book in any 
way, except to leave out the "wedding" — commonly called 
the "ring ceremony." In omitting the ring, and all men- 
tion of it in the wedding prayer, Wesley followed the 
Puritan idea, as the Puritans objected bitterly to the 
wedding ring, which to them savored of the old un- 
reformed ritual. 

In American Methodism, however, in the middle of the 

nineteenth century, the M. E. Churches both put back 
the ring ceremony, and at present there is a provision 
for a double ring where the parties each desire to give 
the other such a token. The word "wed" in old English 
meant a pledge, or something given in pledge, and "with 
this ring I thee wed" meant that with this ring I thee 
pledge. John Wesley sent to American Methodism a 
marriage service, without a wedding! 

In the revision of the marriage rite through the years, 
not too many changes have been made, though since 1940 
the challenge to the parties ("If either of you know any 
reason why ye may not be lawfully joined together, ye 
do now confess it") has been omitted, since it is said the 
parties have already responded to that question before the 
clerk of the court in order to obtain their license, and 
satisfied him that they are ready to be married, and there- 
fore, the Church need not stop to challenge them. The 
omission of this challenge, however, has been to the 
distaste of some, who feel that it not only belongs in the 
formal wedding drama, but that the church or minister 
ought not to pronounce a man and woman husband and 
wife in the name of the Holy Trinity unless and until he 
has publicly asked them himself, if they know any reason 
why they may not be lawfully joined. 

A recent revision of the Ritual has clarified certain 
of the rubrics at the beginning of the wedding service, 
but no other great change has been made. The British 
Methodist marriage service has been less revised away 
from the Anglican original, and has never been without 
"the giving and receiving of a ring," though the conti- 
nental custom of the bride also giving a ring to the bride- 
groom is uncommon. (See also Ethical Traditions, 
British. ) 


N. B. Harmon, Rites and Ritual. 1926. N. B. H. 

MARRIAGE OF MINISTERS. (See Articles of Religion, 
Article XXI.) 

MARRIOTT, WILLIAM (1753-1815), one of John Wes- 
ley's executors, was born in London on Dec. 16, 1753. 
Both his parents were among the earliest members of 
Wesley's society at the Foundeby. He was educated first 
at the school which Wesley started there, and then at 
Madeley by John Fletcher. Marriott entered his father's 
business as a baker but later became a wealthy stock- 
broker. In 1801 he was nominated as sheriff of London 
but declined the office. He was a generous philanthropist 
and a treasurer of the Stranger's Friend Society. He 
died in London on July 15, 1815. 

L. F. Church, More About the Early Methodist People. 1949. 
G. J. Stevenson, City Road Chapel. 1872. G. Ernest Long 

MARSH, CHARLES FRANKLIN (1903- ), American 

college president, was bom at Antigo, Wis., Aug. 18, 1903, 
son of Charles O. and Mae (Bamett) Marsh. He was 
graduated from L.4\vrence College, A.B., 1925; Uni- 
versity of Illinois, M.A., 1926; Ph.D., 1928. 

He was an examiner with the U.S. Civil Service Com- 
mission the summers of 1929-30; a member of the faculty 
of the College of William and Mary, 1930-58; chancellor, 
professor of economics and business administration, 1941- 
54; dean of the faculty, 1952-58. In 1958 he became 



president of Wofford College, Spartanburg, S. C, 
serving in that capacity until retirement in 1968. 

He has been active in educational, church, and civic 
affairs, serving as a member of the University Senate, 
on the Commission on Church Union, Commission on 
Ecumenical Affairs, and Consultation on Church 
Union. Also he was deputy administrator of the NRA, 
1935-36, principal economist (Federal) Board of Investi- 
gation and Research, and was active in various councils 
of the Commonwealth of Virginia, being chairman of the 
Williamsburg Postwar Planning Commission, a member 
of the City Council, and president of the Williamsburg 
Chamber of Commerce. He has been president of the 
Council for Spartanburg County and chairman of the 
commission for long range planning of the City of Spartan- 
burg. He has served as member of the American Eco- 
nomics Association, of state and regional education as- 
sociations, as president of Phi Beta Kappa. 

In The Methodist Church he has been a delegate to 
the Jurisdictional Conference, 1960, and to the Gen- 
eral and Jurisdictional Conferences of 1964 and 1968. 

He is author of various books and publications in the 
line of his own interests. Also he wrote "Contributions of 
Wofford College to Methodism," Methodist History, 1965. 

He was married to Chloro Nancy Thurman, Sept. 8, 
1928, and they have two children. 

Who's Who in the Methodist Church, 1966. 

J. Marvin Rast 

MARSH, DANIEL L. (1880-1968), American minister, 
church leader, and university president and chancellor, 
was bom in West Newton, Pa., on April 12, 1880. He 
was the son of George W. and Mary (Lash) Marsh. He 
received the A.B. degree from Northwestern Univer- 
sity in 1906, the A.M. in 1907, and S.T.B. from Boston 
University in 1908. Thereafter he studied at Garrett 
BiHLiCAL Institute, the University of Chicago, Univer- 
sity of Pittsburgh, University of Geneva and at Oxford 
University. He received the Ph.D. from the University 
of Bologna in Italy in 1931, and was the recipient of 
numerous honorary degrees. 

On Aug. 22, 1906, he married Harriet Truxell, who 
died on July 15, 1937. Their children are Mary (Mrs. 
Ronald W. Ober); Marjorie (Mrs. Paul N. Otto); Made- 
line (Mrs. Harold DeWolf — wife of the Dean of West- 
minster Theological Seminary in Washington); and Har- 
riett (Mrs. Robert H. Murray). He married Mrs. Arline 
Woodford McCormick on Nov. 24, 1938, and their 
adopted daughter Nancy Arline is Mrs. Mason N. Hart- 

Marsh served pastorates in the Pittshurgh Confer- 
ence for a time and then became president of Boston 
University in 1925, where he served until 1951, when 
he became chancellor for life. He was a member of the 
General Conference of the M. E. Church in 1916, '20, 
'24, '28, '32, '36; a member of the Uniting Conference of 
The Methodist Church in 1939, and of the General Con- 
ference of The Methodist Church in 1940, '44, '48. He 
was a member of the Board of Education from 1929 
to 1952, and belonged to various scientific and honorary 
groups. He was the author of numerous books including 
The House of Seven Pillars; Life's Most Arresting Ques- 
tion (1950); The True Church (1958); Religion in Edu- 
cation in a Time of Change (1962). He died May 20, 
1968, and a funeral service was held for him in the Marsh 

Chapel at Boston University on May 25. At his death 
Time magazine commented: "There was no argument 
about the near miracle he worked at Boston University 
where he took a moldering collection of brownstones for 
9,600 students in 1926 and built a multiversity that today 
boasts 23,000 students and thirteen graduate schools." 

New York Times, May 23, 1968. 

Who's Who in America. N. B. H. 

MARSHALL, CHARLES KIMBALL (1811-1891), distin- 
guished American minister and leader of Southern Meth- 
odism, was born in Durham, Maine, of French Huguenot 
ancestry. His parents removed to Boston for several 
years where he was educated. Then later they moved to 
New Orleans, La., where he carried on his studies, and 
also began to hold religious meetings. In May 1832, he 
was licensed to preach by the Methodist Conference 
at New Orleans. In that year he went to Natchez, Miss., 
to fill a vacated pulpit, and there became a member of the 
Mississippi Conference. Always handsome and eloquent, 
the young minister found himself famous at once and m 
demand for the best pulpits. Later he served in Baton 
Rouge, La., and in Jackson and Vicksburg, Miss. He 
was known throughout the south and the nation as the 
"silver tongued orator" of Methodism. 

In 1836 he married Miss Amanda Maria Vick, daughter 
of Newitt and Elizabeth Clarke Vick. Newitt Vick was 
the foimder of Vicksburg, and in this town Marshall and 
his wife made their home. Sargeant S. Prentiss, also a 
native of Maine, lived in Vicksburg, and he and Marshall 
became fast friends. Both known as great orators, they 
each ranked high in popular esteem throughout the nation. 

Marshall continued his Methodist ministerial work with 
zeal and energy to the end of his life. Much of his time 
was spent in helping those in distress and danger. He 
went through thirteen yellow fever epidemics, ministering 
night and day to the ill and dying — especially in the 
dreadful one of 1878 in which Bishop Charles B. Gallo- 
way came so near death when he was pastor at Vicksburg. 

During the War Between the States, 1861-65, C. K. 
Marshall devoted his time and strength and finances to 
aiding the sick and wounded on the field. To him the 
Confederate government was greatly indebted for a system 
he provided, or planned for, of depots and hospitals, and 
its factory for making wooden legs, the model for which 
he drew up. 

In 1880, Marshall gave especial attention to the Negro 
problem, and the future of the colored race in relation to 
the southern states. He wrote many pamphlets on the 
subject. He never refused to join in aggressively upon 
the issues of any day and time. 

After an attack of pneumonia, he died at his home in 
Vicksburg, on Jan. 14, 1891. Bishop Charles B. Galloway, 
a close friend, conducted the funeral services. 

Dunbar Roland, Mississippi. Atlanta, 1907. 

Mrs. N. Vick Robbins 

MARSHALL, WILLIAM (1811-1846), was born in England 
and joined the Methodist ministry in 1838. From June, 
1839, to May, 1842, he served on the Western Shore 
mission, which stretched for almost two hundred miles 
along the south coast of Newfoundland. During the first 
year he visited fifty-two coves and harbors, in some of 
which the people had not seen a minister before. In that 



year he baptized 150 children. In his second year on the 
mission he visited sixty places by boat. In June, 1842, 
he was appointed to the Green Bay mission with Twilbn- 
gate as his headquarters. On this mission also, he travelled 
extensively. By his devotion and zealous labors he laid the 
foundation on which Methodism was built in the northern 
part of Newfoundland. Not surprisingly, he died at the 
early age of thirty-five. 

W. Wilson, Newfoundland and Its Missionaries. Cambridge, 
Mass.: Dakin & Metcalf, 1866. X. Winsor 

MARSHALL SCHOLARSHIPS are offered, under the will 
of the late Miss Marshall of Glasgow, to ordained min- 
isters of the Methodist Church of Great Britain who have 
completed not more than ten years of their ministry 
after ordination. The Major Scholarship is of the value of 
£20, and the Minor Scholarship is of £5. The Minor 
Scholarship is open only to those candidates who at the 
time of the examination possess no university degree; 
the Major Scholarship is open to all candidates without 
restriction. The scholarships are awarded on the results of 
an examination held each year in May. The papers are 
set on the language and exegesis of the New Testament, 
and on the history and criticism of the New Testament. 
The examination is concerned primarily with translation, 
grammar, and interpretation, but candidates are expected 
to show a general grasp of the critical questions involved. 

W. F. Flemincton 

L. R. Marston 

MARSTON, LESLIE RAY (1894- ), American ordained 

elder of the Central Illinois Conference and bishop-emer- 
itus of the Free Methodist Chlibch, was bom at Maple 
Ridge, Mich. He received the A.B. degree from Green- 
ville College, 1916; the A.M. degree from the Univer- 
sity of Illinois in 1917; and the Ph.D. degree from the 
University of Iowa, 1925. Houghton College conferred the 
LL.D. degree in 1939, and Greenville College the D.D. in 

Dr. Marston is the autlior of The Emotions of Young 

Children, 1925; From Chaos to Character, 1935; Youth 
Speaks, 1939; and A Living Witness, 1960. He was Execu- 
tive Secretary' for the National Research Council's Com- 
mittee on Child Development, 1926-28. He served as a 
member of the 1930 White House Conference on Child 
and Health Protection. He was president of the National 
Association of Evangelicals, 1944-46, and chairman of its 
World Relief Commission, 1950-59. He is a fellow of the 
America Association for Advancement of Science and the 
Society for Research in Child Development. As Dean 
and President of Greenville College, he served the institu- 
tion a total of fifteen years. Bishop and Mrs. Marston make 
their residence at Greenville, 111. 

Byron S. Lamson 


Oak Bluffs, Mass., U.S.A. For many years this Associa- 
tion sponsored an annual camp meeting which became 
an institution on this island off the Massachusetts coast. 
The first of these camp meetings was held in 1835 in 
what was then called the Wesleyan Grove. Only a few 
hundred people were in attendance. By 1851 the con- 
gregation on the Sabbath of camp-meeting week num- 
bered between 3,500 and 4,000; in 1858 there were some 
12,000 Sabbath worshipers. 

A feature of the camp ground was the appearance of 
small family tents which sprang up around the large 
church tents, and which were occupied year after year by 
certain families who made a habit of attending, and whose 
social life was largely dominated by camp-meeting occa- 
sions. In 1846 there were thirteen church tents and one 
family tent; b>- 1860 the number had increased to over 
500 tents of all kinds. Gradually the family tents were 
replaced by cottages, which many of the families occupied 
for the entire summer. Cottage City, now Oak Bluffs, grew 
up around the camp grounds. In 1869 there were more 
than 30,000 visitors, many of them attracted by the Grand 
Illumination. This event traditionally climaxed the summer 
season, when parks, avenues, cottages and the camp 
grounds were decorated with Japanese lantenis. Elaborate 
fireworks were displayed at Ocean Park, in Oak Bluffs. 

The camp-meeting program changed gradually from a 
type of revival service, but its religious usefulness did not 
diminish. In 1878 Trinity Church was built, and in 1879 
the present steel Tabernacle was erected, to take the place 
of the large canvas circus tent, seating 4,000 people, 
which had been in use during the preceding years. Grace 
Chapel, in back of Trinity Church, was constructed in 

During the summer services are held every Sunday 
morning in the Tabernacle, with a "Commimity Sing" 
every Wednesday evening. The delightful custom of "II- 
limiination" is still observed on the camp grounds and 
surrounding cottages one night a year, in August. 

The unique character of the camp grounds, a heritage 
from quite a different day, has been wonderfully pre- 
served by the many generations of cottage owiers. To 
keep the outward appearance of serenity and charm, and 
at the same time to enjoy the modem conveniences of a 
mechanized age is the desire of those who have chosen 
this place for a summer retreat. 

Joseph C. Allen, Tales and Trails of Martha's Vineyard. Boston: 
Little, Brown & Co., 1938. 

Charles Edward Banks, The History of Martha's Vineyard. 
Boston: George H. Dean, 1911. 



Henry Beetle Hough, Martha's Vineyard, Summer Resort, 
1835-1935. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle Publishing Co., 1936. 
A. K. Lobek, Brief History of Martha's Vineyard Camp- 
Meeting Association. Oak Bluffs, Mass.: 1956. 
R. C. Miller, New England Southern Conference. 1897. 
Hebron Vincent, A History of the Wesleyan Grove, Martha's 
Vineyard Camp Meeting. Vol. 1, 18.3.5-1858, Boston; George 
C. Rand and Avery, 1858; Vol. 2, 1859-1870, Boston: Lee 
& Shepard, 1870. 
Vineyard Gazette, various numbers. Mabel E. Waring 

MARTIN, ISAAC PATTON (1867-1960), American preach- 
er and historian, was born near Strawberry Plains, Tenn., 
on Dec. 11, 1867. He joined the Holston Conference 
on trial in 1889, and was sent as a supply pastor to 
Lebanon, Ore., for one year. He then returned to Holston, 
where he spent the rest of his life. 

His appointments there in order were Louisville, Mary- 
ville, Pocahontas, Tazewell, Lebanon, Sweetwater, Morris- 
town, Knoxville district. Church Street Church in Knox- 
ville. Big Stone Gap district, Abingdon district, confer- 
ence educational secretary, Morristown district, Knoxville 
district. Fountain City Church in Kno.\ville, agent for 
Emory and Henry College. He retired in 1940. 

On Jan. 1, 1890, he married Bettie Lee Trent and they 
had four children. He received the honorary D.D. degree 
from Emory and Henry College in 1911. 

Martin was a delegate to seven General Conferences 
(MES), including the Uniting Conference in 1939, and 
also to the Ecumenical Methodist Conferences in 
1911 and 1931. He was co-author with John Stewart 
French of legislation creating the Judicial Council 
of first the M. E. Church, South, and then The Methodist 

Martin was the historian of the Holston Conference 
and wrote History of Methodism in The Holston Con- 
ference, (2 vols., 1944) and a biography of Bishop E. E. 
Hoss (1942). He died at Knoxville on March 9, 1960, and 
was buried in the conference cemetery at Emory, Va. 

Journal of the Holston Conference, 1960. 

Who's Who in Methodism, 1952. Elmer T. Clark 

J. S. Martin 

MARTIN, JOHN S. (1815-1888), American minister and 
Conference Secretary, was bom at Alexandria, Va., Sept. 
7, 1815. At the thorough school of Benjamin Hallowell 


he obtained a scholastic training which served as a suf- 
ficient basis for continuous study during the years of his 
ministry. He was converted at the age of sixteen, licensed 
to preach at the age of nineteen, and received into the 
Baltimore Conference in 1835. Recognizing his ability, 
his bretliren sent him to General Conference in 1856 at 
Indianapolis, and in 1860 at Buffalo. Adhering to the 
South at the division of the Baltimore Conference, he 
became a commanding figure at every General Conference 
of the M. E. Church, South, from 1866 on. In 1882 and 
1886 he was secretary of the General Conference. At the 
Methodist Centenary held in Baltimore in 1884 he 
was elected secretary by acclamation of all parties. He 
was systematic in his methods and a fine organizer, a faith- 
ful pastor and to the last a constant student. His intimate 
acquaintance with the Scriptures and his fine memory 
gave accuracy and beauty to his apt and frequent quota- 
tions. His burning zeal often swept the assemblies and 
brought multitudes to repentance and salvation. No place 
was too exalted, none too humble for him willingly and 
gladly to serve. He was appointed to his last charge at 
Saint Paul's in Baltimore, and although in his seventy-third 
year entered upon his work with an enthusiasm and ac- 
tivity that seemed to renew his youth. J. E. Aimstrong 
said, "He preached to crowded houses as if his tongue 
had been touched with a live coal from off the Altar." 
He died July 8, 1888. 

J. E. Armstrong, Old Baltimore Confereixce. 1907. 

W. W. McIntyre 

MARTIN, JOHN THOMAS (1816-1897), American cap- 
italist, philanthropist, and churchman, was bom in Balti- 
more, Md., on Oct. 2, 1816. He was the son of John 
and Maria (McConkey) Martin. His ancestors were na- 
tives of England. They settled in Maryland in 1633. The 
house built by Thomas Martin in the 1600's at Island 
Creek Neck, Talbot County was in the possession of the 
family until 1866. 

John Martin received his education at St. Mary's School 
in Baltimore and then entered the mercantile house of 
Birckett & Pearce. At the age of sixteen he joined the 
Light Street M. E. Church in Baltimore. 

In 1835, he moved to St. Louis, Mo., where, with his 
brother, he built up a large clothing business. He associ- 
ated himself with the Fourth Street Church in St. Louis 
and served for fourteen years as its recording steward 
and secretary of the Sabbath school. 

In 1844, Martin went to New York City to start a 
manufacturing branch of the company. He settled in 
Brooklyn and became a member of the Pacific Street 
Methodist Church. He later served as president of its 
Board of Trustees for many years, and was instrumental 
in securing a larger building for the congregation when 
the former one became too small. 

Ill health forced his retirement for a time, but in 1862, 
he returned to business and became the main supplier 
of clothing to the Federal government during the Civil 
War. It is reported that he sold over $50,000,000 worth 
of clothing to the government, and that there were times 
when the govemment owed him from $8,000,000 to 
$13,000,000. His success in business enabled him to buy 
up large tracts of water front property and to invest 
heavily in banks and railroads. Martin was one of the 
founders, and first treasurer, of the Brooklyn Polytechnic 



Institute, a member of the Brooklyn Historical Society 
and a Director of the Mercantile Library. 

In 1866, the centennial year of American Methodism, 
Martin gave $25,000 for the erection of a building at the 
Theological Seminary at Bremen, Germany. The school 
was under the direction of Ludwig S. Jacoby, an Amer- 
ican sent out by the Mission Board and supported by the 
German missions in America, whom Martin had gotten 
to know years before in St. Louis. Before the building 
was erected in Bremen, it was decided to move the school 
to Frankfurt-on-Main. At Frankfurt a building was 
erected with Martin's money, and, in honor of his gift 
the name of the school was changed to "Martin Missions 
Anstalt." It is today the Pbedigerseminar der Metho- 
disten Kirche, or Theological Seminary at Frankfurt. 

In the later years of his life, iVlartin lost his interest 
in Brooklyn Methodism. This was due to the fact that his 
church, Pacific Street, found itself caught in urban change. 
Differences of opinion arose as to the best methods of 
maintaining the church. Martin apparently did not agree 
with the decisions which were made and, for nearly 
twenty years prior to his death, attended the "Church of 
Pilgrims." On April 10, 1897, John Thomas Martin died 
in New York City. 

Christian Advocate, May 27, 1897. 

New York Times, April 12 and 15, 1897. 

M. Simpson, Cyclopaedia. 1878. C. Wesley Christman, Jr. 

MARTIN, JOSEPH C. (1865-1939), fourteenth of 
the C. M. E. Church, was born in Gibson County, Tenn., 
on Feb. 8, 1865. He attended Howe Institute in Memphis, 
Tenn., and Roger Williams University in Nashville, 
Tenn. Martin began preaching in 1887 and was pastor 
of churches in Tennessee, Washington, D. C, and 
South Carolina. In 1912, he was elected publishing 
agent and as such became noted as an organizer and 
financier. At the General Conference in 1922, he was 
elected to the office of bishop. He gained a reputation 
for his organizational and financial leadership. Bishop 
Martin died on Feb. 6, 1939. 

Harris and Patterson, C.M.E. Church. 1965. 

The Mirror, General Conference, CME, 1958. Ralph G. Gay 

MARTIN, PAUL ELLIOTT (1897- ), American bishop, 

was bom on Dec. 31, 1897, at Blossom, Texas, the son 
of Charles E. and Willie (Black) Martin. He received the 
following degrees; Southern Methodist University, 
A.B., 1919; LL.D