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Contracts Department 

News of Special Interest to Contractors, Engineers, Manufacturers and 

Dealers in Building Supplies. 

Information for insertion in these columns is invited from Architects, Contractors, Engiocers, etc. 

Waterworks, Sewerage and 

I Roadways 

1 raaby, B.C. 
I'fnileis aiUlros-seiJ to C. 'I'. Saunders, 
M.C, will oe re<:eived umtil .lanuary 9tli 
jr construction of waterworks system for 
I. L. 1K6. Tenders to quote lump sum of 
ItorDatively sejiarate tenders as follows: 
1) Price of valves and other littiugs. (2) 
iqiply of appro-ximately ;il,UOO feet of 
4, (), 8 a;iil 10-inch pipe; laying of pipe and 
littings. Plans, etc., at engineer's office, 
Miniicipal Hull, Edmonds, and at Messrs. 
Kilmer ii Holland's office, 524 Pender 
>lreet, Vancouver. 

Fergus, Ont. 

'I'ne by-law to issue debentures for per- 
manent sidewalks was carried. 

Goderich, Ont. 

The bylaw to raise $26,000 by de- 
bentures for the building of a storm sewer 

was carried. 

Harriston, Ont. 

The by-law for a muincipal waterworks 
was carried. 

Meaford, Ont. 

The by-law to raise $10,000 for street 
rejiairs was defeated. 

North Vancouver, B.C. 

It is stated that a sum of approximately 
.tlO,000 will be expended by the city dur- 
ing the coming season in the purchase of 
last iron pil>e, this to be in future exten- 

Pembroke, Ont. 

'I he time for receiving tenders for sup- 
ply of riveted or lapwelded steel piping 
fur waterworks here has been extended to 
.l;i unary 16th; also that for delivery of 
cast iron water main. A. E. Fortier, town 
1 lerk, this town; T. Aird Murray, consult- 
ing engineer, Toronto; A. E. Dunlop, chair- Water Committee. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 

The by-l;iw to expend $180,000 for a 
new water main to increase the pressure 
and supply was carried. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The storm overflow sewer by-law was 
carried; also the good roads by-law. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Tenders will be received by the city 
clerk, Vancouver, B.C., for a road roller, 
h'or further j)articulars see advertisement 
ill "Tenders and for Sale Department" of 
this issue. 

Victoria, B.C. 

In the by-law which provides an ex- 
penditure of 1,500,000 on the Sooke Lake 
(■loject and which will be submitted to the 
ratopavers on .January 12th, a clause was 
iiisertod making it compulsory to have the 
V. !irl< ilone by contract. 

Now Westminster, B.C. 

The contract for paving and re-grading 
the Columbia street extension from Fourth 

street to Leopold place, will be done by the 
Has.sam Paving Company. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The city council awarded the contract 
for the two lifts for the waterworks to 
D. Uound & Sons, of Cleveland, Ohio. They 
arc two ton lifts and the price is $183 
each. The tender to the (icneral Supply 
Company was second lowest, $204 each. 

Victoria, B.C. 

The contract with the Worswick Paving 
Company for the paving of Langley streert, 
between Vates street and liastion street, 
has been signed by the city and work will 
commence at once. 

Railroads, Bridges and Wharves 

Charlottetown, P.E.I. 

Tenders are being called by department 
ol public works until January 6th for re- 
buidling Sutherland's bridge at Montague; 
also Poole's mill dam bridge; also Payn- 
ter's bridge. L. B. McMillan secretary. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

One of the uebenture by-laws to be 
voted on by the ratei)ayers on January 
22nd includes $167,000 for another bridge 
over the Saskatchewan. 

I'redericton, N.B 

The Pinder mill bridge, in Southampton, 
i (irii county, is to be rebuilt, and the pro- 
vincial dcpart'"9nt of public works is call- 
ing for tenders for the work. 

Montreal, Que. 

Capitalized at thirty million dollars, the 
Montreal Central Terminal Company pro- 
poses to tunnel the St. Lawrence and erect 
a central terminal station for all the rail- 
way lines entering Montreal with the ex- 
ception of the C.P.R. Their plan, which 
includes the abolition of all level crossings, 
has been laid before the Board of Cimtrol 

Owen Sound, Ont. 

The by-laws to rebuild two bridges 
were carried. 

Port Burwell, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to R. C. Desrochers, 
Department of Public WorKs, Ottawa, will 
be received until January 30th for con- 
struction of breakwater here. Plans, etc., 
at above Department and at the offices of 
district engineers, Toronto, London, and 
on application to local postma-^ter. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The bylaw to improve Ashbridge's Bay 

was carried. 

Public Buildings, Churches 
Schools, etc. 

Brantford, Ont. 

Bv-laws to dispose of the fir« hall and 
old "Waterous property sites on Dalhonsie 
street, on which the proposed new Oov- 

erument builJioga were to b« erected 
were defeated. 

Calgary, Alta. 

The present mte of Kuux 'hurch. 
Seventh avenue and Centre htrci-t, u*» 
been sold. The eongregation i* now .»a- 
sidering the erection of a church un Sixth 
avenue and Second street. K!>ti.'nat<-d n 
penditure, $1U0,000. 

The present srt« ot the 1' irct itapiut 
church on First street west and Sevemtk 
avenue has been sold. Plans are to be 
prepared immediately for a new ebureb 
for which a site on southwest corner of 
Thirteenth avenue and Fourth street west 
has been purchased. The deal was put 
through by J. K. Lee, of this city. 

Collingwood, Ont. 

Tlic by law for new weet end public 
school and town fire ball with op-to-<Ute 
equipment was carried. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Debenture by-laws totalling $4Stfi90 
will be voted by the ratepayers on Jano- 
aiy 22nd. They include $175,000 for a 
stock pavilion at the oxbibitioa ground- 
and $90,000 for the purchase of indnstria 

Fergus, Ont. 

Tenilers addressed to R. C. Desrochers, 
secretary, will be received until January 
18th for postoffice fittings. Plans, etc., on 
application to Vim. Mahoney, architect. 
Uuelpb, and at the Department of Publi' 

I'oldens, Ont. 

Tenders addreased to C. W. Budd, secre- 
tary, will be received until January Mitik 
fur erection of brick church here. Plana, 
etc., with Wm. PtilUn, ehainnan, or with 
the above. Advertisement io "Contract 

Ouelph, Ont. 

.\t a joint meeting of : 
I'oard and council it was <i' 
uu architect draw up plans re,; 
additional accommo<lation requi' 
fair. Several proposals were 
but no action was taken. A n ' 
be held on or about January 15ti.. 

Ooderlch, Ont. 

The referendum towards bttildin;; now 
municipal buildings was carried. 

Hamilton. Ont. 

The by law for hospital site aad Ckil I 
rcn 8 Detention Home were carried. 

Hillsboro, NJ. . 

Tenders addressed to Jordaa Sieerr- 
chairman of building eommittee, wUi b' 
received until January 6th for rontsru< 
tion of the First |lilU)..^r.i l!-,i.t ,• , hiir. ■ 
Plans, etc., at otV 
of H. MoU. arc!, 

Kamloops, B.O. 

Plans are being prepared for the errc 
tion of new hcspital here >'<- Mr Birds, 


architect. Noted in issue of December 21. 

KingsmiU, Ont. 

The by-law for a library was carriecL ". 

Montreal, Que. 

Messrs. Bullen, Day, Evans and others, 
of Mount Royal Vale, were appointed a 
committee to report on the erection of a 
new Anglican church here. 

Application is being made to the Que- 
bec legislature by the churchwardens of 
St. Mathias' Church, Westmount, for an 
act authorizing them to borrow money 
upon the security of the church for the 
legislature by the erection of church and 
other buildings for the ecclesiastical and 
parochial uses of the parish. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

It is understood that negotiations are 
about completed whereby the English- 
speaking Lutheran church congregation in 
this city has purchased a site on Lisgar 
street near O'connor on which it will erect 
a church in the very near future. Rev. Mr. 
Bieber is minister. 
Owen Sound, Ont. 

The by-law to erect a Carnegie library 
was carried. 

Quebec, Que. 

The Nickel Theatre on St. Ann street 
was damaged to the extent of about $25,- 
000 -on the 25th ulto. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

The by-law for schools was carried. 

Sherbrooke, Que. 

We are informed that the contracts for 
erection of monastery at Sherbrooke have 
not been awarded. Materials, stone and 
brick; estimated cost of building, $75,- 
000. Architect, P. Girard. 

South Vancouver, B.C. 

A new church will be erected shortly in 
St. Mary's parish. 

Plans have been completed by Engineer 
Harvey for the Emergency Hospital on 
corner of Thirty-sixth avenue and Prince 
Edward street. Plans are yet to be ap- 
proved by council. 

St. John, N.B. 

Mrs. J. C. Jordan has given to the pro- 
vince her summer home at River Glade as 
n sanitarium. It is understood that Mrs. 
Jordan proposes to build a large hall and 
library also. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The Western Hospital by-law was car- 

Building permits were issued to Board 
of Education for 2-storey brick addition 
to school on Avenue road, $40,000; Metho- 
dist Qhureh, 2-storey stone Sundav School 
on St. Clair avenue, $30,000. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Tenders addressed to Wm. McQueen, 
city clerk, were received until December 
30th for construction of isolation hospital 
near Barnet, including heating. Plans, etc., 
at office of Messrs. Dalton & Eveleigh, 
architects, 615 Hastings street west. Ten- 
ders to furnish figures on cement founda- 
tion and stone foundation. Owing to the 
tenders called before being too high, new 
plans have been prepared. 

Victoria, B.C. 

The council finally decided to submit the 
theatre bv-law to the ratepayers on Janu- 
ary 13th." 

Tenders are invited by the department 
of public works for the erection of a small 
one-room schoolhouse at Oyama, in the 


Okanagan district, tenders to be received 
on or before the 20th January. 

The ratepayers will vote on the erection 
of a new theatre here at an estimated ex- 
penditure of about $100,000. A company 
headed by Mr. Simon Leiser represents 
the company interested, and Alderman 
Mabie is on the committee appointed by 
the city council to look after the city's 

Weston, Ont. 

The high school by-law asking permis- 
sion to purchase a site for a new high 
school was defeated. The by-law for an 
addition to the public school was carried. 

Whitby, Ont. 

The ratepayers voted down the proposal 
to expend $25,000 on new collegiate. 

Windsor, Ont. 

The by-law to provide $6,000 for new 
fire hall in west end of the city was de- 

Winnjueg, Man. 

The board of control decided to adver- 
tise the programme for competitive plans 
for an infectious disease hospital to cost 
$200,000, despite the fact that only $75,000 
of the money is as yet available. The ad- 
vertisement is to be conditional upon the 
jTOcuring of the rest of the money needed. 
Special legislation to carry on the work 
will be asked from the government this 
winter, and it is probable that authority 
will be given to place the additional 
amount in next year's general tax levy. 

Brockvllle, Ont. 

F. Clow was given the contract for the 
repairs to the Victoria building, necessi- 
tated by the recent explosion. Five bulk 
tenders were received. 


Cobalt, Ont. 

The residence formerly occupied by Mr. 
Robbins was destroyed by fire on the 
27th ulto. Loss, about $4,000. 

Nelson, B.C. 

Alex. Carrie is advertising for tenders 
for quarrying rock on the lots on Victoria 
street, where Edward Kerr proposes to 
build a modern apartment house. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

M. C. Edey is preparing plans for tene- 
ments for B. Barwick and Mrs. Barrett. 

Business Buildings, and Indus- 
trial Plants 

Aurora, Ont. 

Tenders are being called until January 
6th for erection of two-store}' and base- 
ment factory for J. Fleury 's Sons. O. E. 
Tench, architect, Newmarket. For further 
information see "Tenders and For Sale 
Department," this issue. 

Cal:ary, Alta. 

Dr. Lindsay is reported to have pur- 
cliased the Knox church site on Seventh 
avenue on which he will erect a large 
business block. 

Chatham, Ont. 

The by-law to grant the Western Bridge 
& Equipment Company a site for an en 
larged factory was carried. 

Dresden, Ont. 

The heaviest losers in the fire which 
occurred here on the 25th ulto. were C. B. 

Watson, owner of buildings, and R. Aiken. 
Estimated loss, about $100,000. 

Edmonds, B.C. 

The B.C.E.R. Company will erect in the 
near future a new station similar to the 
one at Chilliwack. A Purvis, mgr., Mr. 
B. G. Walker, president of the Board of 

Elora, Ont. 

The by-law to exempt the Bissell foun- 
dry from taxation for ten years was de- 

Fort Frances, Ont. 

The by-law for the assessment of the 
Shevlin Clarke Lumber Company carried. 

Glace Bay, N.S. 

The building owned by the Harris Abat- 
toir Co. was destroyed by fire. 

Hamilton, Ton. 

It is reported that 1,500 acres of land 
on the Grand river, between Dunnville and 
Port Maitland, are being purchased for the 
United States Steel Corporation. 

IbervIUe, Que. 

The Norcroos Bros.' stone-dressing plant 
was destroyed by fire on the 2t7h ulto. 
Loss, about $30,000. Mr. Perry manager. 

Latchford, Ont. 

Loss by fire on the 24th ulto. to the ex- 
tent of about $100,000 was sustained by 
Latchford Hardware Company, A. Ab- 
dalah, P. Curtis, and others. 

Masson, Que. 

It is stated that Senator W. C. Ed- 
wards is rebuilding on a larger scale the 
large flour mill recently destroyed by fire. 
E. A. Barry, of Montreal, is in charge. 

Moose Jaw, Sask. 

The Western Manufacturing Company, 
of Regina, are stated to have purchased 
the plant of the Saskatchewan Sash & Door 
Company, here, which they will replace 
by a large and up4o-date plant. 

Montreal, Que. 

The building occupied by the Anglo- 
Canadian Leather Co. was damaged to the 
extent of about $200,000 on the 27th ulto. 

The building occupied by Freeman's 
Company has been purchased and it is 
understood that this will be replaced by a 
modern ten-storey office building. 

North Battleford, Man. 

0. B. Ramsay and J. Roberts have pur- 
chased the Grand Central Hotel, which they 
propose renovating at once. An addition 
will probably be built in the spring. 

Orillia, Ont. 

The by-law granting certain privileges 
to the Canada Refining & Smelting Co. 
was carried; that for loan of $12,000 to 
the National Hardware Company, defeat- 

Ottawa, Ont. 

M. C. Edey is preparing plans for a 
three-storey commercial building on Glad- 
stone avenue near Bank, for H. Levin. 

A permit has been issued to the Ottawa 
Electric Railway Company for a concrete 
addition to its power house on Middle 
street, $7,000. 

Owen Sound, Ont. 

The planing mill now operated in Chats- 
worth will be operated in the future in 
Owen Sound. Those interested are W. 
fiumstead, of Owen Sound; Wm. Arthur, 
Woodford; Dr. .T. Airth, Chatsworth, and 
former Manager Galbraith, Chatsworth. 


Peterborough, Ont. 

I^H MeBsrB. J. J. Turner & Sous will enlarge 
Hbelr factory hero. .lolin Beleher, C.K., 
^Ks henn instructed to prepare plana. 
^Brhe by law to authorize a loan of $12,- 
^roO anil exemption to the Bonner Worth 
Company was carried, but possibly not 
lar gB enough to meet the requirempnts of 
IH^ tbree-ilfthg. 

^^etrolea, Ont. 

The t)y-law to give exemption to a can 

iiinff fac'tory was Varrip<1. 

Princeton, B.C. 

«C. R. Brings, is secretary lor tlie British 
ilumbia I'ortland Cement Gomi>any, Ltd., 
incouver, for whom a cement plant and 
jrago house is boinR erected here. Size, 
ound floor, .'50x450. Address of Secre- 
retary, Room 11, Davis Chambers, fil5 
Hastings West, Vancouver. 

Strathcona, Alta. 

The warehouses and workships of the 
D'Brion Company, until recently the 
O'Brien-Dale Lumber Company, will be en- 
l.-irged. The transfer of this business to 
tlie Pigeon Lake Lumber Co., of which P. 
.1. Mullen, lately of Millet, will take place 

Stettler, Alta. 

Stettler iron works, owned and occupied 
by John Fiuchman, were badly damaged 
(in the 2fith ulto. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 

The by-law to make a fixed assessment 
on the kinlelth Paper Mills and Warren 
Kros. knitting factory was defeated. 

St John, N.B. 

.(oseph E. Clarkson, manager of the Ed- 
ward Partington Pulp & Paper Company, 
lias left for England. It is expected on his 
irf,\irn an announcement will be made re- 
specting the project for the ere<-tion of an 
up-to-date mill. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The St. Nicholas' Home for Boys on 
Lombard street has been sold. It is stated a factory will be erected on the .site. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Permits were issued for six-storey busi- 
ness block, Seymour street, to T. A. Fee, 
!fll'>,000; also to Smith, Davidson & 
Wright, for 4-storey warehouse, .$7."),000. 

Plans have been submitted by Messrs. 
Smith, Davidson & Wright for the erec- 
tion of a four-storey warehouse at the 
corner of Homer and Davie streets. It 
will be 80 by 100 feet and will cost $80,000. 

The Merchants Bank of Canada has 
purchased the corner of Granville and 
Pender streets, where a large business 
building of about eight storeys will be 
erected. Mr. Geo. S. Harrison, manager 
of the Vancouver branch. 

W. M. Dodd & Co., Canadian Bank of 
Commerce Ohambois, Hasting street, are 
the architects for the new 10 storey fire- 
proof hotel to be erected on the corner of 
liobson and Hornby streets for Passlin 
building syndicate. Dominion Trust build- 
ing. The latter will erect at once, it is 
stated, at a cost of .$35,000, a four-storey 
brick and stone building on Richards 
street. Contractors, S. Hovick & Co., Van- 
couver; architects, W. M. Dodd & Co. 

Victoria, B.C. 

The Standard Laundry Company will 
erect an extensive addition to its View 
street building, $9,000. 

Tenders were called until December 
27th for concrete foundation, etc., for a 
building bv 8. Maclure, 19 Green block. 


Whitby, Out. 

The proposal to accept $4,150 a year 
from the Bell Company for a 5-vear ex- 
tension of their franchise was defeated. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

It is rumored that options were seenred 
on two Main street sitett for the projected 
hotel by the Ritz-Carlton Syndicate of 
New York. 

The Donald Fraser building, here, was 
destroyed by fire on the 26tb ulto. Total 
loss, about $150,000. Owner, Kt. Hon. A. 
,1. Balfour. Damage to the extent of al>oat 
$20,000 was also done t<) the Overland 
Furniture Co.'s plant. 

Brantford, Ont. 

E. G. M. Cape, Montreal Que., has charge 
of the erection of the extension to Water- 
ous Engine Works, here. Estimated cost, 

Cbarlottetown, F.I..L 

The contract for erection of branch for 
Royal Bank of Canada has been awarded 
to H. & S. Lowe, this city, $20,000. Ken- 
neth G. Rea, architeet, .Montreal, Que. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Pedlar People, of this city, have been 
awarded the contract for metal lath and 
furring for the Rosenthal building. C. 
E. Deakin, general contractor. A. L. 
Weeks, architect. 

The Linden British Refrigeration Co. 
has been awarded the contract for the cork 
boarding and refrigeration installations for 
the George Matthews building. W. E. 
Noffke, architect. 

Port Arthur, Ont. 

R. Hamcr has been awarded the contract 
by the Dominion government for the con- 
struction of a fish hatchery in the month of 
the Current river, here, $5,000. 


Power Plants, Electricity and 

BowmanvlUe, Ont. 

The plebiscite in favor of the electric 
light being managed by commissioners car- 

The by-law to grant a franchise to the 
Seymour Power & Electric Company, 
Limited, was carried. 

Brockville, Ont. 

The by law to amalgamate the Light 
and Water Commissi oners carried. 

Elko, B.C. 

The B.C. Electric Company wnll apply 
for the right to use five hundred second 
feet of water from the Elk river near Elko. 
There is a head of 175 feet, and that vol- 
ume of water will produce a large current 
for use in the near future. 

Fergus, Ont. 

The People's Railway by-law to invest 
$20,000 in a preferred stock at 6 per cent, 
for the town carried. The by-law to grant 
the People's Railway a franchi«<' •'>t....1 

Onelpb, Ont. 

Ouelph voted for the by-law to exteuJ 
the radial railway into St. Patrick's 

liespeler, Ont. 

The bv-law to raise $4,000 for the ex 
tension "of the electric light for «treet 
lighting was carried. 

Kingston, Ont. „ v. • 

The by-laws for electric Ufht improve 

inents and for the ezteuion of Rarri« St. 
were carried. 

lastowal, Ont. 

The by-law to niia« $SfiOO to complete 
the electric light ■jrttem was earri«d. 

NUgara Falls, Ont. 

Stamford Township rateparars T«t«4 
down the by-law to grant tb« Niann 
Falls, Welland and DuoaviUe Bailway riffkt 

of way through the township. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Morriaburg k Ottawa Railway and 
the Ottawa Electric Railway are in Mg»- 
tiation to co-operate. The proposal is for 
the Morrisburg k Ottawa to enter the 
city in Ottawa Eaat and the city atrMt 
railway extend its line to m«et it at a 
station there. 

St. John, N3. 

The Maine * New Bruoawiek Elaetrieal 
Power Company is making arrmagosMnta 
to bnild a power line from ita plant at 
Aroonstook Falls to Limestone, Van Bnrea 
and St. Leonards, running near 'Srand 
Falls. The object is to sell electrical power 
for lights and mntors in the towns reaebad, 
also to furninh electrical power for the 
construction work during the eetablisb 
raent of a |>ower plant on the St. John 
river at Grand Falls, whicn, it is OBder- 
stood, will soon be built by a company 
which has recently gained control of it. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The street railway eztenaion by-law was 

Waterloo, Ont. 

Waterloo voted to raise $40/)00 for ••1<'' 
trie light purposes. 

The by-law to raise $40,000 for elertrir 
light purposes ws- .•»•■••;<-! 

Victoria, B.O. 

The council have decided to ask the rate- 
payers to vote on the undergronnd tele- 
phone and electric lighting by-lawa oa the 
12th of .Tanuary. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Tenders addre.i.ied to ebairman, board of 
control, will be received until January 
12th for manufacture, delivery and cre« 
tion of one stop log winch at Point dn 
Bois. Specification, etc., with power engi- 
neers, Carnegie Library. 


Bradwardine, Man. 

In the recent fire the Bank of Hamil 
ton's branch here was burned. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

On First street, the bnildlng* projected 
within the coming vear are: Ada»« 
Bros., wholeaale saddlery bnildinv. tvc 
Hforeys, $75,000, norr"^-^^' — — '' -»< 
and .-Ythabasea; R. I 

l>arlmental store block. : !«? 

corner First and Elixabetb: Crafts, l*e * 
Oallinger, northwest comer of Pirat and 
Peace, five-storey block, ab««t $7SJI0O; aa 
Edmonton syndicate, tea sterty bloek o^ 
l>osite King Edward Hotel. 

On Jasper arenue the block* that are 
projected are the Masoni- i-oraer 

Sixth and Jasper, flve-f -. Me- 

Lean, reported building on in< n-raer of 
Eighth and Jasper, aix storeys; P. M* 
Naughton, apartmaat bloek, southwest eor 
ner Ninth aad Janer, «S5,000: Hagk Me 
Donald, busineas block, corner Poarth aad 

(Continued on page Sll 

Tenders and For Sale Department 


Sealed tenders are asked (for all and part) 
for Brick Church, Poldens. Tenders open till 
JANUARY 14TH, 1911. For plans, etc., see 
Will. Pullin (chairman), or 0. W. Budd (secre- 
tary), Foldens, Ont. Bell phone service 49, ring 
14, Ingersoll. Lowest tender not necessarily 

52-2 Foldens, Ont. 


Wanted — Large American firm manufacturing 
waterproofing compounds, wants to secure Can- 
adian representatives with good connection. Pro- 
duct is now widely used in United States and 
is an absolutely reliable and economical water- 
proofer of concrete and cement mortar. For 
full information write Box 178, CONTRACT 
RECORD, Toronto. 52-1 

To Machinery 

For 15 years we have handled both new and 
second-hand Machinery and Contractors' Equip- 
ment, and the name, Willis Shaw, is familiar 
to users of Machinery all over the United States. 

We issue a printed list of our offerings with 
prices, sizes, etc. This we will cheerfully mail 
on request. We submit it with the assurance 
that we have investigated, inspected, or have 
reliable reports on every item in it. 

We know how, and do protect the interests 
of our customers. Confer with us and get 
prompt service. Large Chicago stock to select 


171 La Salle St., Chicago III. 

Time Extension 

The Town of Pembroke, Ontario 

Tenders for 

Cast Iron Water Main 

Tenders are required by the 16TH JANUARY 
for the delivery of Cast Iron Water Main. 

Prices to include for 16-inch diameter cast 
iron hub and spigot joints. Approximate length 
5,900 feet. At least in 12-feet lengths, exclusive 
of socket. Pipes to be in accordance with the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers standard 
specifications for cast iron pipe and special 
castings. Class D. Tenders to specify price 
per foot and include delivery f.o.b. cars Pem- 

Tenders to be sent in to Mr. E. A. Dunlop 
(Chairman of Water Committee, Pembroke). 

The right is reserved to reject any or all 
tenders. Any tender will only be accepted on 
condition of entrance into a bond as to speci- 
fication of quality and time limit for delivery. 

Tenders to specify earliest possible delivery 
with limit period for completion of delivery 
By Order, 


Town Clerk, Pembroke. 

Consultini Engineer, Toronto. 52-52 

To Building Contractors 

Tenders are invited for the erection in Aurora, 
Ont., of a large two-storey and basement fac- 
tory building, for J. Fleury's Sons. 

Tenders in bulk or separately for e.\cavating, 
concrete work and brickwork; carpentry, paint- 
ing, gravel roofing and galvanized iron work. 
Prompt tenders are required. 

The plans and specifications will be ready 
Friday, December 30th, and may be seen at 
the offices of J. Fleury's Sons, Aurora, and also 
at the Architect's office, Queen Street, New- 

1"! Architect. 

Extension of Time 

City of Regina 

Tenders for Power Plant 

Tenders are asked for by the City of Regina 
for the supply and installation of any or all of 
the following, together with the necessary con- 
nections ready for operation : 

1 1500 k.w. Steam Turbine Generating Unit. 

1 500 k.w. D.C. Generating Unit. 

2 500 Horse Power Boilers. 
1 Economizer. 

1 Hand Power Travelling Crane. 
1 Coal and Ash Conveyer. 

Tenders will be received for the above until 
noon, TUESDAY, JANUARY 31, 1911. Speci- 
fications and all information will be furnished 
on application to the undersigned or to E. W. 
Bull, City Electrician. 

(Signed) A. J. McPHERSON, 
51-2 City Commissioner. 

Time Extension 

The Town of Pembroke, Ontario 

Tenders Required for 

Steel Tubes for 
Intake Pipe 

Tenders are required by the 16TH JANUAKY 
for either rivetted or lapwelded Steel Piping. 

Prices to include for 18 inch diameter steel 
piping 14 inch thick — approximate length 6,000 
feet — cast Steel Flanges — Wood or other ap- 
proved Gaskets — Approximate number fifteen 
Flexible Joints, Cast Iron Double Flanged Ball 
and Socket Joints. 

Prices to include delivery f.o.b. cars Pem- 

Tenders to specify price per foot for piping, 
including flanges, bolts and gaskets complete. 
For Flexible Joints, price per joint is to be spe- 
cified. Tenders to specify earliest possible de- 
livery with limit period for completion up to 
end of February, 1911. 

Tenders to be sent in to Mr. E. A. Dunlop 
(Chairman of Water Committee, Pembroke). 

The right is reserved to reject any or all 
tenders. Any tender will only be accepted on 
condition of entrance into a bond as to speci- 
fication of quality and time limit for delivery. 

By order, 


Consulting Engineer, Town Clerk, 

Toronto. Pembroke. 



A i-vi rtisements under this heading one cent ai»-or 
per insertion. Box JVo. ten cents extra 

Agents Wanted 

Agents wanted in all parts of Canada to 
handle wood preserving for Poles, Cross-Arms, 
Railroad Ties and Construction Timber. For 
particulars write W. D. Ward. Tribune Build- 
ing, New York. 1-2 

Wire cables for holding shaft timbers 
are used at the Fremont mine near Ama- 
dor City, Cal. The shaft has two com- 
partments, dips at an angle of 52 de- 
grees, and is 6.50 feet deep with a 50- 
pound sump. In sinking this shaft some 
heavy ground that caved badly was en- 
countered; the "Engineering and Mining 
Journal" states that it was impossible 
to get a bearing for the wall plates or 
caps, and the more the ground was trim- 
med away to secure a bearing for these 
timbers the worse it caved, until a large 
cavern was formed above the shaft. In 
order to timber the shaft through this 
ground, the expedient of securing the 
timbers in place with old hoisting cable 
was tried and proved quite successful. The 
sets in the caving zone were tied with the 
cable to those aibove which had firm bear- 
ings in the wall rock. This hanging of 
the timbers was continued until firm 
ground that would give sufficient bearing 
for the timbers was again encountered. 
Stringers were then placed over the sus- 
pended shaft sets and uj)on them a crib- 
bing built up in the opening. 

A concrete telegraph pole of the Sieg- 
wart type was recently tested at the fac- 
tory in Lucerne in order to determine its 
resistance to bending, the load -being ap- 
plied at a distance of 4 inches from the 
top in order to secure loading similar to 
that to which the pole is subjected in 
practice. The pole was 26.24 feet long 
and its lower end was embedded hori- 
zontally for 4 feet in a masonry wall. The 
pole was hollow, about 10 inches in ex- 
ternal diameter at the lower end ar.d 
about 7Vi inches at the upper end. The 
annular wall was 1.2 inch thick, reinforced 
with 32 %-inch round rods at the base, 
and wrapped with steel wire of small side. 
The deflection was measured by a scale 
at the end. According to "Beton und 
Eisen," the pull required to stress the 
steel to the permissible 14.200 pounds per 
square inch was computed as 409 pounds. 
The load was applied in increments of 
either 110 or 220 pounds, until it reached 
550 pounds, when the deflection at the end 
was 2.2 inches. The load was then re- 
leased to and the set found to be 0.16 
inch. It was again applied and raised to 
1320 paunds, at which the deflection was 
9.5 inches. Upon release the set was 1.9 
inch. After raising the load to 1694 lbs., 
where the deflection was 17.9, and again 
releasing,- the set amounted to 8.3 inches. 
The pole was finally broken under a load 
of 1958 pounds, failure occurring at the 
base. The first small cracks were noted on 
the tension side under a load of 1210 lbs., 
when the stress in the concrete was com- 
puted as 1970 pounds per square inch and 
in the steel 43,700 pounds. 






(Coiitiuued from page 31) 

_iBper, $55,000; Jackson Bros., threo- 
»torey8, on VVra. Sugarman property; 
Northern Investment aRency, busineBR 
block on Kelly anil Moore property; J. B. 
Mercer, flvestorey hotel, on Grand Central 
property, $100,000. This list does not in- 
"ludo the proposed drill hall at $50,000, and 
,be land titles office, which the provincial 
ivernment will probably undertake with- 
the next year. 

lontreal, Que. 

Tenders addressed to David Soath, sec- 
retary-treasurer Harbor Commissioners of 
ontreal, will be received until .January 
Ith for supply of concrete and macadam- 
ling stone. Specifications upon applica- 
Ion to P. W. Cowie, chief engineer. 

'ort Hastings, N.S. 
Tenders adilressed to H. C. Dosrochers, 
secretary, department of [lublic works, Ot- 
tawa, will bo received until January 11th 
for drcdf;ing here. 

Ince Rupert, B.C. 

Tenders will be received until March 
2nd for $40,000, 20 year, 4Vj per cent, 
telephone debentures; also $79,560 5 per 
cent, local improvement debentures. Er- 
nest A. Woods, city clerk. 

Reglna, Sask. 

The city council has decided to place 
an order with the Ottawa Car Company 
for four single and two double truck cars 
for the new municii)al street railway un- 
der construction, to be delivered on or 
about July 5th, 1911. 

Three Rivers, Que. 

At a meeting between the promoters of 
the St. Maurice Valley Cotton Company 
and the city council of Three Rivers, it is 
expected that arrangements will be com- 
pleted to build the new mills in Three 
Rivers. The organization involves a capi- 
tal of three million dollars. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Permit was issued to Messrs. Ambrose 
Kent & Sons for addition to new lO-storey 
office building corner of Yongo & Richmond 
streets, $50,000. 

Recent building permits include: Bobt. 
Fasken, 2 pair semi-detached brick dwell- 
ings, on Margueretta, $10,000; Consum- 
ers' Cras Company, 1 storey brick governor 
house, on Eastern avenue, $14,000; W. II. 
Wright, 3 pair semi-detached 2 storey brick 
dwellings, Symington, $12,000; C. Coulter, 
2 pair semi-detached, 2-sitorey brick dwell- 
ings, south-east corner Ilarbord and Jer- 
sey, $8,000; H. Freeman, 1 pair semi-de- 
tached 2y.-8torey brick dwellings, on 
Perth, $4,600; W. J. Bolus Co., 3-storey 
brick warehouse, on Victoria, $14,000; C. 
Oarfunkel, 4 attached 3-storey brick stores 
and dwellings, on Roncesvalles, $14,000; 
T. Reid, 1 pair semi-detached 2-storey and 
attic brick dwellings, on DufTerin, $6,000; 
Mrs. A. M. Baird, 4 attached 2-storoy brick 
and rough cast dwellings on Margueretta, 
$6,000; C. E. liailey, 2-9toroy brick dwell- 
ing on Whitney avenue, $8,000; Whalen & 
Manuel, 1 pair semi-detached, 2V2-storey 
brick dwellings, on Edna, $5,000; Jos. 
Yates, 2-storev brick dwelling on 12 Dnl- 
ton, $4,500; Hnrvev Printing Co., 2-storey 
brick factorv, Richmond, $8,000; A. Tate, 
3 attached 'i-storcv roughcast dwellings, 
Westmoreland, $5,000; O. Brady & Son, 
2 detached 2-storey and attic brick dwell- 
ings, on Woodlawn, $8,800; C. Banckham, 
1 pair semidetached 2-storey brick stores 
and dwellings, on Margueretta, $.1,000; 

Walter Hudson, 2 detached 2-iitorcy anu 
attic brick dwellings, on Millicent, $5,000; 
C. P. R. Co., 1 -storey brick freight nhed, 
on West Toronto srtation (grounds, tlOj-^OO;. 
C. E. Walton, 1 pair semidetached 2»tor- 
ey and abtic brick dwellingi, on 118-120 
Winchester, $4^500; The NoreroSH BroB., 
l-storey galvanized iron stone mill, on ."J.^S- 
367 Logan avenue, $5,000; Frank Merrill, 
3-storey brick addition to factory, on I.,om- 
bard street, $4,.500; T. J. Allen, 3 attached 
2 storey brick dwellings, on Kitchie ave- 
nue, $6,000; Mary S. Thompson, 3 attached 
2-8torey brick dwellings, on Clinton, $9,- 
000; Lake Simcoe Ice Co., l-»torey gal- 
vanized iron ice house, on George street, 
$3,500; Marg. Wright, 2-Btorey and attic 
brick dwelling, on Westminster avenue, 
$3,500; J. Wanless & Son, S-storey brick 
addition to office and apartments, corner 
Hayter and Yonge, $5,000; 8. S. Prusky, 
3-storey brick apartments, on William St., 
$9,000; S. J. Sharp, 1 pair semi-detached 
2-storey brick dwellings, on Palmerston 
Garilens, $4,000; C. A. Boone, l-irtorey ibrick 
storage warehouse, on 165 Richmond St. 
west, $4,500. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Rwent building permits include: A. 
Munn, 1330 Odium drive, $2,500; A. E. 
Williams, 3026 Woodland drive, $3,.500; J. 
0. Laidlaw, 166 Eleventh avenue west, $2,- 
700; McCoU & Saunders, 1957 Third ave- 
nue east, $2,500; Sam Kee, Hastings St., 

Victoria, B.C. 

Following are the bids which have been 
received by the city for supplying the new 
equipment for the fire department author- 
ized under the recent by law: Two fire en- 
gines, Waterous Engine Company, $9,000; 
Aherns, Fox Fire Engine Company, $15,- 
000. Motor hose wagons and motor com- 
bination chemical engine and hose wagon, 
Pindlay, Durham & Brodie, $5,925; Woods 
Motor & Taxicab Company, combination, 
$6,700, hose wagons, $6,.5.50. Hose: Van- 
couver Rubber Company, 95c. to $1.25 per 
foot, according to quality; Goodyear Rub- 
ber Companv, $1 to $1.25 per foot; Can- 
adian Rubber Company, 90c. to $1.10 per 
foot; Dunlop Tire 4 Rubber Company, fl 
to $1.30 per foot. The W. E. Seagraves 
Company put in a lump tender for aerial 
truck, hose wagons and combination chemi- 
cal engine and hose wagon of $19,983. 

^iiMi >>,ii ('. PapiaMv-Ooartiir*, advueaU*, 
all of MoDtfMl, <}iw. 

Montreal Paper Compaar, lioUtod, Port- 
neui, Que., capital $l6ojOOO, laeorfonUd. 
Incorporators: Thoma* B. Biabop, O. W. 
Biabop, both of Notre Dame de Portaeaf. 

Henrv c^.ffi.-v T.iriiit.-.l Toroato, Oat^ 
capital' - ••<1 t« apw ata 

sand an : laeofporatora : 

H. Gaffney, builder; h. W. KieM, barriat«r- 
at'law, both of Toronto. 

Oaaey-Sbaw Lnmber Compaay, lAmiUd, 
ineorporated, Hodbury Ont., capital $S0, 
000. Tncorporatoni, fc. L. Casey, Chirajfo. 

III., lumberman; Charles MeCrea and 
George J. Valin, barri«t«r»-at-taw, both of 


National Bridge Companv of Caaada. 

Limited, Montreal, Que., rapital *].(»K>,(niO. 

Incorporatoni: K. R. Parkins, <'. <>. Green 

shields, advocates, both of -Montreal, Que. 
Canadian Rortary Ma<-h"- r..mi.»nr 

Limited, Montreal, Que. < 

incorporated. Incorporator* 

(t. B. MacCallnm, barrister*, l«.lb of Moat 

The Elder Ebano Asphalt Compaay, 

Limited, Montreal, Que., iaeorporafed. 

capital $40,000. R. Bmnet, i-ontraetor, J. 

0. Cartwright, offlee manager, both of 



Cal:rary, Alta. , . , « • 

The tenders for overhead material, feeil- 
ers etc., in connection with the street rail- 
way here were as follows: The Northwest 
Electric Company, Calgary, $3,672.89; the 
Northern Electric Company, Calgary, »!.• 
,526 69; the Canadian General Electric Co., 
Calgary, $4,275.40; Dawson & Company, 
$120; the Canadian West v.-ompany, t al- 
«ary $208..">0; Corinan, Clancy & Cnndlej-. 
Calgary, $3,089.70: Canadian Equipment * 
Supply Company, Calgary. $107^0; J. W. 
Canipi'ell (agent Phillips Wire Company), 
Calgary, $4,155.00. 

New Companies 

Robert W. Hunt & Co.. Ltd., Montreal, 
capital $50,000. incorporated to carry on 
the business in all its branches of civil, 
mechanical, mining and electric engineers 
etc Incorporators. J. W'. Moffat, civil and 
mining engineer: T. C. Irving, jr., civil 
engineer, both of Toronto, Ont. 

J. H. McComb, Limited, Montreal, Que., 
cai>it«l $50,000, incorporated to mnnufac-, etc., roofing, flooring, paints, etc. In- 
corporators: S. W. Jacobs, K.C., A. R. Hall 

Business Notes 

John Marshall, builder, Toronto, U 
stated to have assigned. 

Martin A Tremblay, plumbera, Mont- 
real, are stated to have aaaigned. 

Borthiaume k Campbeau, plumbera, 
Montreal, are stated to have diwolved. 

Moreney, Cote k Co.. hardware mer- 
chants, Montreal, are atated to kave aa- 

A mile long boulevard ia sagKCeted by 
Alderman Pmdholme, of Montreal, for 
Mount Royal Ward. 

Central Const ruetion Co., Ltd., Toronto, 
Ont. Petition is atAted to have been Hod 
for winding-up order. 

The B.C. Oa/.ette gives notice of the in- 
corporation of the following companlea: 
Western Engine k Supply Company Liniit 
ed. capital, $25,000; Vancouver Sand * 
Gravel Co.. Ltd.. capital $20,000; V 
Columbia Building Trust Company, 
ed; Koksilah Lumber Company. Ltmi:.-!, 
capital. $35,000. 

Tenders are now receivable for the elear- 
ing of the right of way and snbseqwent 
construction of the first section of the 
Transcontinental line on Vaneouver Tilaad. 
Although no official annonncement is made 
it is nn<ler»tood to be the intention of the 
railway authorities to open tender* and 
awaril' the eontraft for ©onstmcUon of 
this section about New Year. It U fur- 
ther expected that despite the fs* • 
the company's agreement with tv 
ernment does not neeeaaitate such r»f. .. 
tion in procedure, the entire island «*<■ 
tion of the new tranaeontinental rt«ad — 
from Victoria to Albeml— will be under 
contract before the cloae of 1»11. Md 
construction of that division eiving aree«a 
to the Parific seaboard will be completiHl 
within three vears from date. There i* 
every reaso»-to believe that even before 
the first link in the Canadian Northern Pa- 
cific system on Vancouver Island is torn- 
,- - - -unon of powers will have 

i ind steps will have baea 

t.,.,. i, ; ., further extensioa of tk« 

metals northward by way of CampbcU rivw 
to a point north of the termlana, ■oat 
probably at Quatsrlno Sound. 



Canadian Railway Development 

Good Progres* Being Made By Contractors in Var- 
ious Sections — Remarkable Growth of C. N. R. 

The Grand 'rrunk Pacific Railway is perfecting plans for an 
early start on construction operations for its line to Grand 
Prairie. Engineers who have made preliminary examination of 
the country state that fewer engineering obstacles will be met 
with than on any other possible route, and that the territory 
to be opened up is most suitable for agriculture and stock 
raising. It is understood that the railway company has ap 
preached the Provincial Government seeking a bond guarantee 
for this road. 

OfiBcial statement has been made that if nothing unforeseen 
happens the National Transcontinental Railway will be com- 
pleted from Winnipeg to Moneton by the end of next year, 
with the exception of the connecting link of the Quebec bridge. 
Pending the completion of the bridge a car ferry service will 
be operated across the St. Lawrence. 

T. C. R-oss, of Victoria, B.C., is making good progress with 
his contract for clearing the right of way for the first five 
miles of the Cowichan Lake extension of the Esquimau & Na- 
naimo Railway, H. J. Cambie, chief engineer, Victoria, B.C. 
About 50 men are employed and the work will be completed 
early next year. 

It is now believed that the grading of the last 30-mile sec- 
tion of the Alberni branch of the Esquimau & Nanaimo Rail- 
way, from the Little Qualicum river to Alberni, will be com- 
pleted this month. The line will probably be in shape for 
tracklaying in February, and will be opened for traffic be- 
tween Nanaimo and Alberni not later than April. Janso & 
McDonnel have the grading cimtraet. 

For 2,2.54 miles of the C.P.R. system the trains are handled 
entirely by telex)hone. It is expected that about 2,000 miles 
more of tlio line will be equipped during 1911. For the work 
two new copper wires are erected, each weighing 210 pounds 
per mile, and in the stations the very best apparatus to be 
obtained is installed. On all secitions whwe there are telephone 
train-despatching circuits, every train, whether pasenger or 
freight, is equipped with a telephone set and a jointed pole, 
by which, in case of necessity, teleiphonic communication with 
the train despatcher for the district can be established almost 
immediately, and in the event of a train being stalled between 
stations, a great deal of delay in obtaining assistance is avoid- 
ed. These train telephone sets are also used to a great extent 
by freight trains at sidings where there is no regular tele- 
graph operator and frequently many hours delay to a freight 
train are saved. It is intended to have the whole line equippe<l 
ultimately with this sysitem. 

Contractors for several divisions of the National Transconti- 
nental Railway report good progress on the work 
this winter. According to their estimates the coming year 
will see all the work except ballasting on some sections com- 
pleted from Winnipeg to Moneton. Several of the divisions will 
be ready for operation and the whole should be taken over by 
the fall of 1912. 

Messrs. .Janse & MacDonell, contractors for the Alberni 
branch of the E. & N. Railway, which is operated by the C. 
P. R. on Vancouver Island, report that the last thirteen mile* 
of roadbed from Quellicum river to Alberni will be com- 
pleted by the end of January, that track laying will be 
started in February and tha.t the whole line from Nanoimo 
to Alberni will be open for traffic by April. 

The new yards. of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Calgary 
are now prncticallj completed. Sixteen miles of new track 
have been laid and the new buildings comprise a 20-stall 

round-house, a 40,000-gallon water tank, a 2,000-ton ice- 
house, and a new shed for outgoing freight, the old shed 
being given over to the incoming freight. A new wing is 
being added to the east side of the main station house. 

The roadbed of the Canadian Pacific between Winnipeg and 
Portage la Prairie, .5.5 miles, is now entirely double tracked 
Work on this section of the road had been going on for 
some months, and unusually good progress was made. There 
has also been considerable grading work done between Portage 
la Prairie and Brandon, 78 miles, where it is expected that 
a double track will he luid hv Novembpr, 1911. 

Remarkable Growth of the Canadian Northern 

Some interesting figures of the remarkable gruwtli of the 
Canadian Northern in the past fourteen years were recently 
given out by Mr. T>. B. Hanna, third vice-president and gen- 
eral manager. In 1896, said Mr. Hanna, the company operated 
only 100 miles of track. To-day the length of track under 
operation and in course of construction is 7,13:" miles. This 
estimate does not include the British Columbia section of some 
600 miles, or the gap of 600 miles still to be constructed between 
Sudbury and Port Arthur. But it does include all of the lines 
in Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. It is hoped that by the 
end of 1914 all the gaps will be filled in and that the system 
will then be a full fledged transcontinental with 10,000 miles 
of line in operation. 

The pay roll has grown from $6.50 per month in 1897 to over 
$1,000,000 a month in 1910, and a gross revenue of $60,000 in 
1897, to over $18,000,000 this year. In 1896 the staff included 
13 men and a boy. To-day the employees of the railway and its 
allied industries number 48,400. At the present time there are 
.53.5 cities, towns and towns in embryo on the Canadian Nor- 
thern Railway. Sixty of these towns have a population of over 
■500, and 85 places have been given transportation facilities 
within the past four months. The progress of the West may 
be further judged from the fact that in Alberta alone 20,000 
acres of land are settled upon daily, and that every school dsiy 
sees a new school house opened. 

A Christmas Dinner at Montreal 

The various constructional interests connected with the erec- 
tion of the new Windsor street station at Montreal participated 
in a most enjoyable function recently when they held a Christ- 
mas dinner at the St. Regis Hotel. 

Mr. W. S. Painter, chief architect for the C.P.R., w)io was in 
the chair, proposed the toast of "The King." The other toasts 
and speakers were as follows: "The Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company," .T. R. Meadowcroft, F. L. Ellingwood; "The Archi- 
tect," C. E. Deakin, W. S. Painter; "The Contractors," F. L. 
Ellingwood, C. E. Deakin and .T. R. Meadowcroft; "The Steel 
Contractors," W. R. IHick worth, E. W. Brown; "Canada and 
Canadians," .J. L. Thomas, Col. Evans and A. Boyer; "The 
Building Trade Merchants," 6. B. Mitchell, D. L. Chadwick 
and Alderman Rutherford, of Westniount; "Our American Cou- 
sins," Col. Evans, F. L. Ellingwood and C. L. Weisner; "The 
Architectural and Contracting Staffs," G. McNight, .1. h. 
Thomas, G. B. Mitchell and H. S. Brightly; "The Inspecting 
Engineers," C. L. AVeisner, W. R. Duckworth and F. W. R. 

The list of guests included : W. S. Painter, M. D. Barclay, F. 
Bell, C. Birmingham, A. Boyer, H. S. Brightly, E. W. Brown, 

D. L. Chadwick, A. Cherry, L. C. Content, II. P. Couillard, F. 
AV. R. Cunningham, C. E. Deakin, F. Dufresno, W. R. Duckworth, 
Col. W. H. Evans, F. L. Ellingwood, F. O. Farey, H. Jenner- 
Fust, E. H. Kelly, E. C. Love, G. McNight, W. H. Madigan, 
G. B. Mitchell, .1. R. Meadowcroft, W. J. Nicholson, M. Pope, 

E. T. Ramsay, C. B. Rittenhouse, W. R\itherford, G. W. Smith, 
J. L. Thomas, W. Tufts, Chas. Warnock, C. L. Weisner. 



Contractors and Builders Supplies 

Crushed Stone 

For Concrete Fireproof Construction, Roadwork and Sidewalk* 

Rubble, Portland Cement 

CRUSHED GRANITE for Floors and Sidewalks 


Crescent Fire Brick 

We are exclusive Distributing: Ag^ents for this high grade, hand- 
made fire brick. Large stock always on hand. 

Don't forget our Prompt Delivery Service. 

The Rogers Supply Co. 

Head Office: 28 King Street West 


Phone Main 4155 






Admirably suited for olectric drive 





Here Is the first Smith Mixer. It 
was brilt in 1 900 and is still working 
steadily and turning out high class 
concrete. It is one of an army of 
over 4,000, which are without excep- 
tion giving satisfaction. Not one 
failure out of 4,000 machines is an 
unequalled record. 

This illustr 
Mixer, mou 
and Boiler, 
cause it is fc 
portant con( 

Ask any usi 
Smith. Ask 
why they S] 

The Smith Mixer 


Montreal, 318 St. James St. 
Toronto, 73 Victoria St. 
Cobalt, opp. Right of Way Mine 



tandard Smith 
ck with Engine 
liar to you be- 
majority of im- 
cts in Canada. 

thinks about the 
s and Engineers 
rnith -There are 

This is one of the latest Smith pro- 
ducts — a hand-mixer that meets a cer- 
tain demand for small concrete jobs 
We can't tell you how it operates here, 
but will be glad to send you full 

Our Concrete Mixing Equipment also includes: 
Chicago Concrete Mixers, Concrete Hoists, 
Concrete Buckets and Skips, Concrete 
Barrows, Carts and Cars, Etc., Etc 

es Better, Mixes Faster, Mixes Cheaper and 
s the Work Better than any Other Mixer Made 


Winnipeg, 259-261 Stanley St 
Calgary, Crown Block. 
Vancouver, Mercantile Bldg. 



Products handled by us: 



Cement Making.. . 

Crushing £ 


Refrigerating .... I 

Mining g 


Brewing y 


Steam and 

Cranes and 







E E 
L L 
E E 
C C 
T T 
R R 
I I 
C C 


S Turbines 
T — 

^ High 

A Speed 

M Engines 

Quartzlite ^ 


Complete Plants and Macliiut ry 

Foundries and 
Chemical Works 

Moulding Machines 






Canada Ford Company 

485 St. James St. 

Wire Rope 

any size 

for all purposes 

Every "Hepburn" Derrick, when it leaves our works, is equipped with an ample 
length of first quality wire rope. 

But one Derrick will outlive many 
a rope. Our Wire Rope is 

Strong, Flexible 


Thoroughly Tested 

When your old rope is worn, when 
you need wire rope ot any size, in 
any quantity or for any purpose, you 
cannot do better than send direct to 
us for it. 

Let us send you Quotations 

JOHN T. HEPBURN, 18-40 Van Home Street, Toronto, Canada 



6ntract Record 

^^^^ A Wt«l<^ Juuru.l <4 

Building. Cnntraclinj. Enjjineerinj. Public Work* 

Municipal Progress. Advance Information 



HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnip«g. Preiident 
THOMAS 8. YOUNG, General Manager. 


Confederation Life Building, TORONTO 
Telephone Main 2362 

K W. SCHERBARTH, Representative 

MONTREAL Telephone Main 2299 B34 Board of Trade 
CHAS. C. MASON, Representative 

WINNIPEG - Telephone 224 - 404 Travellers' Bldg 
D. W. B. SPRY, Representative 

VANCOUVER - Tel. 2010 - 26 Crowe A Wilson Chambers 
J. V. McNAULTY, Representative 

CHICAGO 4059 Perry Street 

E J. MACINTYRE, Representative 

LONDON, EN6. .... 3 Recent St., 8.W. 

W. A. MOUNTSTEPHEN, Representative 


Canada and Great Britain, $2.00 U.S. and Foreign, $2.(50 

■"• Vol. 25 

I Are Civ 
Amorif,' 8 
\vork.s. thei 
sary liardsl 

January 4, 1911 

No. I 

Are Civil Engineers Unfair to Contractors? 

Amorif,' some civil engiiipprs in charfrc of |>nblif 
works, there is a fjrowinpr tendeney to place iinneees- 
sary liardships in the way of eontractorR, complains 
Steam Shovel and Dredge. Fre(|nent1y exactions are 
demanded that mean financial rnin for the .-"ontractor. 
Specifications, loosely drawn, are taken advantage of to 
force contractors to do work which in justice and fair- 
ness they should not be expected to do, 

There are some civil engineers, most of them but 
recently graduated from some technical college, who 
.<eem to think it is necessary for them to put a few 
I'fthtractors out of business, in order to establish a 
reputation for themselves. Reputations built upby 
such methods are neither creditable nor are they like- 
ly to be lasting. Engineers with practical experience 
know this and they endeavor to be reasonable. 

It is only recently that a case of this kind was 
brought to our attention on a railroad job in the north- 
west. The contractor who was doing the _work was 
being discriminated against by young engineers and 
»^very day he was losing heavily on the work. When 
it appeared that he would be forced into bankruptcy, 
he requested the chief engineer of the railroad to take 
a trip over the line and learn the actual conditions. 

We could, if we chose, cite dozens of such cases and 
we insist that it is time to call a halt on such tactics. 
Engineers who have had yenrs of experience in con- 
struction work understand that questions arising under 
the specifications must be dealt with in a common- 
sense wav. Thev have no desire to see contractors 
ruined, though at the same time they protect the inter- 
ests thev represent. 

The fault often lies in specifications, which are not 
properly drawn, ond in the interpretation of which it 

requires men of experience and common senae. It w 
an easy matter to prepare certain plan* on pap«T and 
draw up certain specificationB. At the aame time every- 
one knows that it is one thing to do work on paper 
and another thing to do it in actual operation. Th'* 
ciintractor when he bids on the work, inust in the verv 
nature of things take some chance. He should be jfiven 
••very opportunity to make a reawjnable profit, instead 
of hcinir harnssed nrwl t'-rhnps ']'''•"" '"t" l>HnVriipti-v 

Some Contractors' Shortcomings 

Some contractors and builders have gained for 
themselves an unenviable reputation for honesty by 
their disregard for promptness in settling their ma- 
terial accounts. It might be added, though it is sad 
to relate, that there is some gronnd for this reputation. 
and that at least a few contractors have gained it by 
just cause from their actions. The policy of anmf 
builders is to get as much time on a qnantity of ma- 
terial as they can. which is not a blamable method of 
doing business except that they will sometimes take 
advantage of the good graces of the material dealer to 
impose upon him. This lessens their standing, and 
decreases their credit to a con.siderablo exti-nt. and 
makes it harder for the man who is willing to do the 
right thing to obtain credit, writes Warfield Webb in 
the National Builder. 

There is reason why every contractor or bnilder 
should, be entitled to a certain amount of credit in his 
transactions with the material man. He takes most of 
his work on time payments, to he collected as the work 
progresses, and this "simply enables him. in a large num- 
ber of instances, to make his weekly payroll, and to 
meet such other contingencies as will arise. To pay for 
his materials until the contract has been completed, m 
a large number of eases, is naturally a difficult thing to 
do Most material dealers and supply men understand 
and appreciate this fact, hut they are still entitled to 
consideration, and they are placed in an awkward posi- 
tion at times to meet their requirements when the con- 
tractors arc neglifl-cnt nbout m.ikine their payments as 
promptly as possible. 

You mav give him a mechanics lien, so as to proteet 
him.self against possible loss. This is merely a s_if. 
guard, and not a payment on his account 'iou 
mav go farther and give him your notes, and be ["»>• 
di.scoimt them at his bnnk. Tf von fail to meet them 
when thev are due it will place him in an embarras^-r- 
position, "and will injure both his and yonr own c- 
and standing. It is not a matter of sentiment. _ 
either the material man or for vonrself. and is one that 
should be taken more to heart by the large majority of 
contractors. Tn order that the relations of the various 
interests in the buildine world become more pleasant^ 
each should seek to do his duty, plain and simpl" It 
costs no more, and the returns are far more 
and the outcome is of such value as to becom. 
timable asset to each party. 

The question of credits today is one of a complex 
nature. It has grown to such an extent that thw w 
scarcelv a transaction of any note that does n 
at some credit, and that is one of the ^ 

that make for a much more wonderful and r^|>!. 
.rrowth to the business interests of our country. \N hat 
Ts then desired is not an abuse of this system, hut a 
more careful understanding and aonreciation of tho 
obligations of each party is of the highest '"'«>«'^«";;^ 
to each. Tn order that we may enlarce the s^ope of our 
nndertflkines we must have credit, and this will »«• 



found to be the most notable feature in connection 
with our business career, provided we do not seek 
to make of it an unjust profit to ourselves. 

In making a bid on any contract we must be able 
to know that our credit is sufficient to enable us to 
secure the required supplies as early as we desire 
them, so that there will be no errors in making a 
contract to do certain work. Our help can be ob- 
tained readily enough, because we understand that 
this will be cash, and that the payment of our help 
is to be met each week. Not so with our materials. 
We hope to get them promptly, and still we sometimes 
wish to ask unreasonable conditions of the material 
man in extending to us unlimited credit for the same. 
Do we realize that there is an injustice in this method 
of conducting our business? The material man is un- 
der no obligation to us, and we should hesitate in ask- 
ing him to give us privileges that we are loth to ask 
of others, or to have others ask of us. 


Enthusiasm is the greatest business asset in the 
world. It beats money, and power, and influence. 
Single-handed, the enthusiast convinces and dominates 
where the wealth accumulated by a small army of 
workers would scarcely raise a tremor of interest. 
Enthusiasm tramples over prejudice and opposition, 
spurns inaction, storms the citadel of its object, and, 
like an avalanche, overwhelms and engulfs all ob- 
stacles. Enthusiasm is nothing more or less than faith 
in action. Faith and initiative, rightly combined, re- 
move mountainous barriers and achieve the unheard 
of and miraculous. Set the germ of enthusiasm afloat 
in your shop; carry it in your attitude and manner; 
it sprends like contagion and influences every fibre of 
your industry before you realize it; it begets and in- 
spires effects you did not dream of; it means increase 
in production and decrease in costs; it means joy 
and pleasure and satisfaction to your workers; it 
means life, real and virile; it means spontaneous bed- 
rock results — the vital things that pay dividends. — Se- 

Condition of Structural Iron After Long Service 

For some years past certain government authorities 
in Germany have taken advantage of the occasions 
when an old iron bridge was being replaced by a new 
structure, by cutting samples from the metal of the old 
bridge and testing it to see whether the metal had lost 
strength by its continued service. Half-a-dozen or 
more such tests have been made, and uniformly the re- 
sult has been very satisfying, giving practical certainty 
that a service of from 20 to 50 years wrought no injury 
to the metal. 

The usual course of procedure was to cut two series 
of tensile-test samples out of floor beams, one set out of 
the middle part of the flange and one set out of the end 
of the flange; the latter metal, having been subject to 
only negligible stresses, would probably represent the 
original character of the material fairly well, while 
the pieces from mid-length of the ange would contain 
the effect of frequent repetitions of a moderate working 
stress. In testing these samples, the usual quantities 
were measured: elastic limit, ultimate strength, ulti- 
mate elongation and reduction of area at fractured sec- 
tion. In every case the results of the two sets of 
samples (end and middle) were as close as the un- 
avoidable variations in material and in test-manipula- 

tion permit. Some tests, indeed, showed better results 
(higher strength and greater elongation) for the much- 
stressed (middle) samples than for the end samples, 
though not sufficiently better to be outside the range of 
unavoidable variation. Moreover, the results were nor- 
mal for new iron, thus eliminating the possibility that 
both sets of samples might have undergone serious but 
equal change. 

Some further tests were made during the past year, 
and the results were of the same character. A terse 
statement on the subject is made in the annual report 
of the Prussian Royal Testing Laboratory. We quote 
the passage as follows : 

Tensile tes1;s of test bars taken from luidspan and ends of 
chords and floorbeams of old wrought iron bridges (which had 
been renewed), "showed almost exactly equal ultimate 
strengths and elonjiations " for the correspondinj; pieces which 
had been under different stress. Comparative tests on annealed 
test-bars showed only slight decrease in strength. The results 
warrant the conclusion that "the mechanical qualities of the 
iron were not injuriously affected by the service of approxi- 
mately fifty years." 

In this, says "Engineering News," it is not 
stated whether the test-pieces were from railway or 
from highway bridges, though the former seems prob- 
able. Previously reported tests included railway 
bridges, at any rate. We thus have quite definite rea- 
sons for abandoning doubts wliich may have existed, 
on the question whether .structural iron is slowly weak- 
ened by the innumerable repetitions of stress during 
service. Further, while the tests were all made on iron 
bridge material, our present knowledge of the relative 
behavior of iron and steel gives every rea.son to believe 
that the statement holds equally for bridge steel. 

A water-main subway will be constructed under the 
Manchester ship canal to contain the third instalment 
of the aqueduct from Lake Thirlmere to Manchester. 
The subway will be at a depth of 60 feet below the water 
level in the canal and will be circular in cross-section, 
141/^ feet in diameter and lined with segmental plates 
1 1-8 inches thick with flanges 6 inches deep. The ver- 
tical shafts at the ends of the subway will be 600 feet 
ajiart and also lined with cast iron. It is proposed to 
carry the three large mains through the subway on 
cast iron chairs. 

Heat transfer through the walls of a pipe at any 
point is stated, by Mr. W. Musselt, in the "Zeitschrift.'' 
of the Society of German Engineers, to be independent 
of the velocity, density and specific heat of the fluid in 
the pipe, but is directly proportional to the coefficient 
of heat conduction and inversely proportional to the 
diameter of the pipe. 

Concrete telegraph poles 171/2 feet high above the 
roof have been erected on one of the buildings of the 
LTnited States Aluminum Company, at Niagara Falls, 
N.Y. They are 16 inches square at the base. 10 inches 
square at the top and are reinforced with eight i/^-inch 
bars bound with Vt-inch hoops 18 inches centre to centre. 
At a height of 5i/2 feet above the roof and 4 feet above 
the parapet they are braced' by three stmts, two paral- 
lel to the building wall and one backward, all of them 
anchored to the roof b.v four %-inch bolts 2 feet long. 
The struts are 12 inches square reinforced with four 
i^-inch bars and 5-16-inch hoops 18 inches on centres. > 

L" ■■ '" 




Hainforced Concrete Arch Bridge at Ooaticook, Que. — Completed Structure Before iiemoval of Centering 

A Notewortlny ReioiForcedl Concrete Arch 

Possibilities of this Class of Construction Exemplified at Coaticook, 
Que. — Details of Design and Erection — An Expeditious Contract 

Contractors: — Heluier and VVinstanley 

''river, at the bridyc site, p.asses through a rocky 
gorge, the rock extending across the river bed and up 
the bank to a ground surface on each side. The south- 
ern bank of the river is nineteen feet higher than the 
northern bank, whicli necessitates a down grade on one 
side and an up-grade on the other. While this docs not 
affect the str(!ngth of the structure in any way it de- 
tracts to some extent from its general appearance. 

The total lengtli of the bridge from end to end of 
the wing walls is 170 feet, clear span 100 feet, total 
rise from springing line 16 ft. 6 in. The bed of the 
river at the centre is 7 ft. 6 in. below the springing 
line. The thickness of the arch ring at crown is 2-1 in. 
The height of the bridge from springing line to top 
of spandrel walls is 21 ft. and the total width of the 

bridge, 19 ft. The spandrel walls are W in. in thickness 
at the top and constructed with a batter of 1 in. to 1 ft. 
on the inside, with an expansion joint at centre. Span- 
drel walls are supported by buttresses at the ends, the 
centre and at intermediate points, and the walls are 
surmounted by a concrete railing 3 1-2 in. in height. 

The roadway is bailt up to grade with sand, stirfaced 
with gravel. The material used in the construction was 
rock concrete, reinforced with twisted steel bars. The 
concrete was composed of cement, sand and broken 
field stone in the following proportions: One of ce- 
ment, two and a half of .sand and four of stone. In- 
ternational cement from Hull, Que., was used. The 
steel varied in size from one-half in. to three-quarter in.. 
and 30 tons were used in this structure. The exca- 

RjlQforcel Cjacrete Biidgj, Co&tieoolc, Que. -KaUo work Completed. Concreting in ProgtvM 



vation of the rock for the two seats was beguu ou Sep- 
tember 19th, and the grading, which was about 1,400 
yards, was completed on October 25th. 

The arch centres were struck on the 29th of Novem- 
ber, careful readings being taken on different parts of 
the bridge during the progess of the work. Although 
the readings were taken to 1-1000 of a foot, no varia- 
tions appeared in the readings taken before and after 

the removal of the arch centres. The total cost of the 
work, including all expenses, was in the neighborhood 
of .$6,000. 

Those directly in charge of the work were: E. V. 
Norton, mayor; Thos. McCurdy, M.D., chairman bridge 
committee; Magwood & Walker, Cornwall, Ont., civil 
engineers; S. A. Meade, Q.L.S., inspector; Ilelmer & 
Winstanley, Morrisburg, Ont. , general contractors. 

Filtratioim Plant at Portsmoiuitlij, Esiglainid 

Economical Disposition of Space — Arrangement of Reservoirs and Filter 
Beds — Saving in Excavation Effected — Other Features of {'the Work 

As an addition to the water supply of the Borough 
of Portsmouth, England, there has recently been con- 
structed a series of filter beds and reservoirs, which, 
while not being distinctly novel in general design, are 
so economically located as to be worth description. The 
works are described in a recent issue of London Engi- 
neering," from which the following account has been 
abstracted : 

The water supply of the borough is pumped from 
adjacent chalk springs through three mains 20, 24 and 
36 inches, respectively, and has up to recently been de- 
livered to the houses after receiving only the purifica- 
tion which it could get in two sedimentation reser- 
voirs. On account of the discoloration which occurs 
in wet weather after a period of drought, it was de- 
cided to install slow sand filters between the springs 
and the reservoirs, and to build two new reservoirs to 
take care of the filtered water. As a part of the new- 
work, covers were added to the old reservoirs. The old 
reservoirs were located on the side of a hill, partly in 
fill and partly in cut, and the new works were placed 
immediately alongside. This necessitated the upper 
end of the filters being put into the side hill and re- 
quired that their lower end be some distance above the 
surface of the ground. In order to economize space, 
it was decided to place the new reservoirs partly un- 
der the filter beds. This not only reduced the area 
required for the total plant, but also materially re- 

duced the amount of excavation and fill necessary. 

Pig. 2 shows a section through the plant from the 
high point or upper end of the filter to the low point 
or lower end of the new reservoir. It will be seen that 
the north ends of both the filter beds and of the new 
reservoirs are formed in the steps cut out of the hill- 
side, which is of solid chalk. At the north end the 
filters rest directly upon this chalk foundation, but at 
their south end they rest on the arched roofs of the 
reservoirs. These arched roofs are of concrete resting 
in turn on brick walls running north and south in the 
resevoirs and spaced about every 16 feet. To save 
weight and material the brick walls are arched. The 
divisions between the adjacent filter beds and also be- 
tween the adjacent reservoirs are made by heavy con- 
crete walls, laid up inside of a brick facing, afterward 
covered with a 1-in. cement coating. The bricks were 
used here because it was thought they would give a 
better line than timber forms and because also they 
make a better base to which to apply cement grout. 

Those parts of the new reservoirs which are outside 
of the filter beds and all of the old reservoirs, are 
covered with a reinforeed-concrete roof resting on con- 
crete columns. 

The seven filter beds are each about half an- acre in 
superficial area, and each contains 3 feet of sand over 
9 inches of gravel carried on a loosely-laid brick bot- 
tom. The raw water enters at the north end of each 

r= ^ :^..Zt-.^^_ 

,:36 Ftunpuuf Mauv 


t^ OraivUjt RoaJS wwf J6 I*um^vufMtuJi 

Fig. 1 — Plan of the Filters aud Roman Reservoirs at Portsmouth, England 




--••- uo 

loe t 



D<>XKur\'L\M iOOPt. ahovfO.b 

Cge ■>oc>t Jff--T7 nnH ' ■^ 

KiK- 2— I'lttUBveioe Section TLioUgli Killei-i. uud New Keneivoii 

bed and after piissiiif,' through the sand runs into a 
collecting trougli in the middle of each bed out into the 
.'iO-incli main and thence into the reservoirs. The total 
filtering capacity of the plant is 12,000,000 imp. gals, a 
day. Each of the two new reservoirs measures 360 by 
160 feet and contains 13 feet 6 inches depth when full. 

Cutting Steel Sheeting with Oxy-Acetylene 

In excavating the foundations for the chimney of the 
iiew sewage pumping station at Baltimore, Md., the 
conditions were found to he such that it was neccs.sary 
to widen the footings. This was done, according to 
the last annual report of Mr. Calvin \V. Ilendrick, 
chief engineer of the Sewerage Commission, without in- 
creasing the size of the excavation at the surface, by 
driving United States steel sheet-piling at a consider- 
able angle in the lower part of the excavation. The 

blowpipe was therefore first used to heat the sheeting 
to redness, after which the acetylene blowpipe wu ap- 
plied to cut it off. This was done very quickly, al- 
though the thickness at the bulbs was considerably 
over 1 inch. The oil blowpipe was naed only in order 
to expedite the work, as it was found possible to cut 
tiirough the bulbs by means of the oxy-acetylene blow- 
pipe alone. 

Close-jointed granite block pavement was experi- 
mented with at Boston, Mass., during 1909, and in the 
last annual report of the street department of that 
city, from which these notes are taken, Mr. Guy C. 
Emerson, at that time superintendent, expresses the 
hope that this method of construction may be adopted 
as a standard for the future. Since the general use of 
concrete as a base it has seemed to him that the con- 
ventional block in Boston, with its depth of 8 inches, 
contained an excessive amount of granite and the depth 


h.-nTTTmiiiiiiiiL.Wiy. iimiiiiin niiiii.iiii iiiii|T-riTmTTiT | 

■55wC^Hr5?S!iS?^^S5HJ^-jjf. -■ I. V- . "•' ; • % 

Fig. 3— Details of Reservoir Walls with Filters Above 


upper ends of this slieeting projected inside of the 
designed lines of the foundation masonry, and, as it 
was embedded in the masonry, it was necessary to 
cut them off. It was impossible to get behind the 
sheeting at the proper elevation, and it therefor could 
not be cut of? with hack-saws, and cutting it with cape- 
chisels would have been very tedious and expensive. 
There were two methods open, however, eitiier of which 
would accomplish the work quickly and at a reasonable 
cost, these methods being the use of cither an electric 
arc or an ox.v-acetylene blowpipe; the latter being by all 
means tlie cheapest and most satisfactory, the work 
was done by this method. The gases used were gener- 
ated on the spot, the oxygen being obtained by the dis- 
tillation of potassium chlorate, and the acetylene from 
calcium carbide and water. On account of the small 
size of the apparatus used and the thickness of the 
■heeting at the bulbs forming the joints between the 
several sections, it was found that the heat was con- 
ducted away so rapidly from the bulbs as to make the 
process of cutting through them very slow; a crude oil 

rendered it impracticable to prepare the vertical faces 
in such a manner as to lay with a close joint. A block 
of approximately 5-iuch depth, with the same wearing 
surface, has been laid to cover 12,000 square yards on 
Massachusetts avenue with a maximum joint of Vi;-incb. 
This, Mr. Emerson states, has given a very satixfactoiy 
pavement, of greater smoothness than the previous 
standard. It is anticipated that the close joints will 
obviate the rounded corners now so common and also 
prevent to a great extent the noise from granite bloeka. 
It is also believed that a softer <|uality of granite may 
be used than formerly, offering a more gritty surface 
and better foothold for horses than the hard granite. 

A shortage of bailding suppli<>s is reported from Calgary, 
where operations are stated to have been delayed, owing to 
the impossibility of getting material qaickly SDOO^ A not- 
able shortage of brick is reported. Tbe permits to dato total 
fire millions. Tbe great4^t optimism is preralent. BniM- 
ing Inspector Harrison looks for an expenditure of 10 million 
dollars on building work daring 1911. 




Cost of Cojacrete Coimsitriuictioini 

Intimate Practical Knowledge of Work and Materials essential to In- 
telligent Bidding— The Cube System of Estimating — Records of Cost 

By Charles L. Shepley 

As practically all concrete bids are now let on a com- 
petitive basis, it is highly important for the estimator 
to approach the problem of cost with a thorough know- 
ledge of the actual mode of construction and a general 
knowledge of material and labor costs. 

As an average problem, let us assume that the reader 
wishes to estimate the cost of a re-inforced concrete 
building, and is well able to estimate carefully the cost 
of the brick work, stone work, mill work, glass, and in 
fact everything but the concrete work. The plans show 
the structural frame- work of concrete, the thickness of 
the floor slabs, and the size of the beams and columns, 
also the number and size of reinforcing rods, so that the 
amount and size of all the ingredients are clearly laid 
out and the problem is to gather together the units in 
a suitable way, in order to apply the units of cost. The 
frames which support the concrete work are customar- 
ily estimated at a price per square foot of superficial 
area, varying from 7 to 15 cents per square foot accord- 
ing to tahe intricacy or strength of construction. So 
the reader's first step is to itemize the number of 
square feet of area under the slabs, and on the sides of 
the beams and their soffits, upon which we will say a 
price of 10 cents per square foot of surface, which 
would ordinarily cover a plain, symmetrically arranged 
beam construction. 

The square feet of area on the outside of the columns 
is next itemized, and a unit price applied to this, say 
11 cents per square foot for a square column of ordinary 
length. The next step is to estimate carefully the cubic 
yardage of concrete in all slate, beams and columns, 
which is customarily all lumped under one item of cubic 
yard of concrete and priced at, say, $7 per cubic yard. 
This, of course, applies only to the raw structural con- 
crete and not to any cement finish, which is usually 
priced by the square yard, varying from 30 cents to 
$1.25 per square yard according to the mixture and 
thickness of the cement finish specified. For one inch 
of cement finish, mixed in the proportion of one part of 
cement to two parts of sand, a customary price is 60 
cents per square yard. 

Cheaper to Do Bending at Mill. 

When round columns are used and met-al forms are 
resorted to, these may usually be bought and erected 
for about 10 cents per square foot of the surface area 
of the columns. Corrugated iron forms for the under 
side of slabs may be placed at a cost of about 3 cents per 
square foot of area, and when this type of forms is 
used, the wooden posts and braces supporting the slab 
may be priced considerably lower, owing to the fact 
that much less lumber is needed, as the corrugated 
sheet iron will span a considerable distance between 
supports, making it unnecessary to have a solid plank 
floor. Forms of this type may be erected at 8 cents per 
square foot for large works. The reinforcing used in 
the concrete is usually priced by adding to its cost de- 
livered to the work, a price per ton for its erection. The 
judgment of the estimator must here be fortified by 
experience with jobs of a type similar to that proposed. 

as various works reinforced with round rods will vary 
in the cost of erection from $4 to $20 per ton, while 
patented rods have been used with as great a variance 
in cost. The amount of beudmg and tying to be done 
greatly influences this cost, and many of the modern 
works are having every unit of the reinforcing delivered 
to the job bent, ready to be placed. When this is done 
the bending can usually be done much cheaper at the 
mill than in the field. 

As a specific example of the vai-iance in cost for 
bending rods, an accurate cost sheet was recently kept 
on a very large piece of work, and it was developed that 
the total tonnage of steel bent for the girders above the 
second floor cost $10.74 per ton, while another class of 
rods bent for girders cost only $5.87 for bending. From 
these facts it will be seen that it is impossible to place 
a &x&Jl price for bending rods on a toimage basis. Ex- 
perien./e in similar cases of work can be the only guide 
which will keep the estimator within safe limits. An 
ordinary job in which round rods are used in plain work, 
and where there is a large repetition of panels of similar 
size can be placed at $1 per ton, ready for the concrete 
to be poured. No set price will cover any one type, 
however, as many conditions govern the cost of the re- 
inforcing, and experience is the only teacher that will 
make you a good guesser. 

Keep All Cost Data. 

A common practice now used by many firms which 
furnish the reinforcing for a job, compete, is to dehver 
all of the reinforcing steel to the work, all fabricated 
and ready for erection. The columns are delivered all 
built up, with spirals coiled and spaced, the be'am rods 
bent and designed and held in position by spacens, ready 
to be placed in the beam boxes, and all straight rods cut 
to exact lengths. When the steel comes in this form, the 
cost of erection is greatly reduced, and it can sometimes 
be placed as low as $6 per ton. Competition has now 
become so active that the contractor of to-day seldom 
bothers to estimate carefully the total steel tonnage, but 
relies largely on bids sent to him giving a lump sum 
price for all the reinforcing delivered to the work, and 
it remains only for him to place a price on the erection 
of the wall. 

Owing to many designs proposed for a single work 
involving various amounts of concrete, steel and forms, 
it becomes necessary to summarize the amounts for 
each design and price each in accordance with your 
judgment of the amount of work involved in order to 
arrive at a conclusion as to which is the cheapest of the 
proposed schemes. The only safe way to price a rein- 
forced concrete job is from the costs learned in actual 
work, and it is highly important for the beginntr in this 
field of engineering constsuction to keep a secord of 
every available scrap of information on re'iable cost 
data, as this habit will place firmlv in his mind a remem- 
brance of the cost of similar work previously done along 
the same lines. It is also advisable to obtain a cubic 
foot price on various jobs as an aid to giving a prospec- 
tive buyer a rough approximate cost on certain types of 



structures. This so-called system of cubing is perhapfl 
the most definite and reliable of any method of getting 
a roui^h, approximate cnst. 

Estimate Cost by Cube System. 

Several mctho<k iiio used U> detcnnine the cubical 
units, depending upon the shape and size of the pro- 
po Rebuilding. One method is to multiply the square 
feet in the plan of the building by the height from half- 
way the depth of the foundations below the ground level, 
half-wav to the roof, .\nother system use« the height 
from the bottom of the foimdationp and another obtains 
the actual cubical contents. Any of these systemB may 
be used fio long as the same one is adhered to in every 
case. It is advisable for one to obtain the actual cost 
per cubic foot on every reinforced concrete building 
erected by him. Tt will then be possible for him, guid- 
ed by his knowledge of the conditions under which each 
structxire was erected, to determine fairly accurately the 
cost per cubic foot which should be applied to any 
proposed now structure. Of course, even long experience 
will afford no safeguard against unusiial constniction in 
the interior of a building, so that a cubic foot price can 
be applied only to plain buildings of ordinary' character 
and comparisons are reliable only between buildings of 
similar description and for similar uses. Tt is also highly 
important that one should keep accurate cost data on 
every piece of work undertaken, as these will serve as 
guides in pricing other work of a similar nature. 

Aft an example of this, let us cite two or three cost 
sheets covering various kinds of work in which cement 
was used, and see what conclusions may be drawn from 
the costs obtained upon each piece of work per unit of 
quantity or area. 

For intitanco, the cost of a retaining wall built dur- 
ing the winter months and under extremely severe con- 
ditions of construction, appeans on the cost sheets as 

follows : 

foreman laborer, .3.') $ 

laborer, 25 

laborer, 22!^ 

laborer, 20 .... 

laborer, . 17^<; 2,061.1.5 

369 Ins. 

197 " 

134 " 

1.^31 " 

11778 " 

703 " 

84 " 

244 " 

36 " 

1055 " 

240 " 



teams, 47% 

blacksmith, 32% 
carpenter, 50 . . 
carpenter, 47 % 



carpenter, 45 474.75 

foreman K. P. G., 46 
engineer, 40 


Less received for hauling dirt 


$3,768. Vo 

1114X tbls. Cement at $1.15 $1,281.39 

121 sacks lost at .10 12.10 

962 cu. yds. crushed rock 

43630 bis, coal 109.08 

3 days train service hauling dirt, $40. . . 120.00 

Switching dirt 21.76 

12 bolts and washers 1-92 

11 rolls tar paper 6.50 


1118 ydi. concrete at 93,779.07 . $8.88 per en. yd. for 
It will be men by the above thai, th* oonerate for this 
particular retaining wall cr>»>t exa/rtly $6.05 per enbic 
^ard, without the contractr^r's |>r<>fit, and we might ■•- 
Hunie that should a similar piece of work again occur it 
would l>e safe for one to place a cost of $6.65 per cubic 
yard upon the new yardage to be estimated. This would 

Becords of Plasteriog Oogt. 
As another example, we take the co«t sheet cover- 
ing the material and labor required in plaatering with 
cement plaster the exterior of a large building, the ex- 
terior walls having been cooBtnicted of hollow tile, upon 
which the cement plaster waa directly applied. 
Actual ccmt of labor and material : 
32 hr«. lat^r, fiO .$ W.JO 

4 bdl«., metal lath St. 00 

600 hr». plasterer, 68 878.00 

200 sacks Portland cement 110 00 

600 hr». plaster helper, 30 160 00 

36 bbls. brown lime, 66 22 76 

14 single loads sand, 60 . 7.00 

Drayage 25 . 00 


Total cost 6.768.94 

Total cubic yards 1118 

1118 vds., concrete at $6,768.94 = $6.06 percn. yd. cost. 


1066.6 yds. at 733.96 ^ a9.4c. p<«r iq. yd. 

In this work there were lO.Sfi.R square yardu, and the 
actual cost of fiO.4 cents per square yard. The mtxt-ure 
used was: 7 parts sand. 2 parts brown lime. 2 parte 
Portland cement. 

The above cost sheet gives the estimator, (tgurinir 
upon similar work, accurate data upon which to bfl»e 
the cost of plastering on hollow tile under fairlv mmflar 

Tt is eramples such as the above that are of real 
service to anyone in the contracting hueinesa, and the 
benefits gained from keeping accurate cost data on each 
job cannot be valued too highly. There are hundred* of 
contractors who now operate on large and small teale 
who do not know the actual cost of an individual piece 
of work constructed under their care. They know the 
nrice at which they are warded the contract, and they 
know the cost of the totfll work, but bevond that they 
have no knowledge of the actual cost of the various tmit* 
that go to make up the job. Thev may price conoreto 
at $7 per cubic yard when the actual cost is onlv $U per 
cubic yard, and in so doing are pstimaHne a profit wh'ch 
IS too large to be warranted tmder the close competitive 
figures now taken. If a contractor kent actual cost, data 
he would know before considering work, that the con- 
crete would cost onlv. apnroxtmatelr. $."! per ciihic vard. 
and if satisfied with a profit of ten per cent., would 
price it at S-"! HO ritber than af $7. which would on a 
lar<Te piece of work net yreatlv to hi* advantage in put- 
ting in a competitive b'd 

Adaptable to Many Condition.'. 
Not many years ago one wotild look incredulotia if 
told that some 10.000 cubic vards of stone had been 
molded into a mammoth building seating some l.'J.OOO 
people, and that this work was accomplished in the 
short, period of 70 working day*. Yet this feat was 
undertaken and completed aboijt a year ajpo in the build- 
ing of the Afinnesota State Fair grandstand Poncwte 
forges steadily ahead bv virtue of its adapt nbilitr to wo 
many requirements. Tn the minds of manv engineew. 
concrete is the logical solution of nearly ererr problem 
requiring speedy erection . great strengtlj. duTabHitT and 
low cost.-- Concrete. 



Combiiniadl Cuarb aindl Giuiftter Coimstriuictioini 

Importance of Good Materials properly proportioned — The Introduction 
of Steel Forms in Street Concrete Work — Value of Standard Specifications 

By An Engineer 

There are few branches of concrete work in which 
\iie contractor will welcome improved methods more than 
in the construction of combined curb and gutter. When 
this work began to be undertaken a few years ago it was 
quickly realized what a desirable feature of street work 
it was and how much better it looked than the ordinarv 
straight curb. Since then the spread of tliis construc- 
tion has been very rapid. Real estate people are quick 
to .see that a street improved with a fine appearing curb 
and gutter makes property much more saleable and con- 
tractors in all progressive communities are having diffi- 
culty to lay combined curb and glitter fast enough to 
meet the demand. 

Contractors, however, do not all yearn for this kind 

\mL , 





^^^mTfTI^ *'^.^idi 


i ' A^j^^B^B 

... ^\ 


' '^ ' ' I 


Metal Curb and Gutter Forms in operation, showing 
the manner in which they are used 

of work as they find it slow and expensive. In fact, 
under the methods generally in vogue a good round 
price must be charged in order to leave any profit in it 
for the builder. Furthermore it is only fair to admit 
that a great many contractors have gone into this line 
of work without realizing some of the important condi- 
tions which must be fulfilled if the work is to last and 
give satisfaction. 

It ie unnecessary here to point out the importance 
of goo<l materials properly proportioned. If the con- 
tractor has not already learned this lesson, it is too late 
to change him now, and if he is inclined to believe that 
it is better to skimp a little here and there for temporary 
profit rather than to build up a reputation for firsfc- 
class workmanship and materials, these points are not 
intended for him. 

In pointing out the development of the past year in 
concrete work it is diffictilt to put ob£'s finger upon the 
most important changes or improvements that have 
been made, but I think it would be fair to enumerate as 

one of the most important the introduction of steel 
forms to take the place of wooden molds in certain forms 
of street concrete work. This is particularly the case 
with combined curb and gutter work, and the steel 
forms which have been put on the market for this pur- 
pose are deserving of careful attention. There are now 
for sale a number of different devices for curb and gut- 
ter work, but I prefer to describe for the purpose of this 
article the system of steel forms devised by the Hotch- 
kiss Company and uniform with the so-called Hotchkiss 
system. The steel forms for sidewalk construction 
which are put out by the Hotchkiss Company are widely 
known and it will therefore perhaps be easier to describe 
this particular system of steel curb and gutter forme to 
illustrate this development. 

The principle of the operation of these forms is the 
use of pressed steel channels for front and back molds, 
and in between these channels division plates or tem- 
plates shaped to a cross-section of the desired curb and 
gutter. These division plates have tongues which pro- 
ject through slots in the steel channels and lock on the 
outside by mean,s of lugs. When put together these 
channels and templates make a rigid stnicture vvhich is 
self-sustaining and self-bracing. A glance at the cut will 
give a good idea of the method of setting up and oper- 
ating the forms. 

In witnessing an extensive piece of work done with 
these forms recently I noted that the contractor had 
hit upon a clever scheme of levelling his forms, which 
may be of interest to the reader. Instead of setting un 
the forms in sections and then raising or lowering each 
section to conform to his line, he simply drove into the 
ground at the bottom of his excavation at intervals a 
series of graded stakes and then set his forms up on to]) 
of these stakes. 

Before witnessing the piece of work above described. 
I was inclined to fear that the work would not stand nji 
properly if the forms were removed from it immediately. 
The curb in question was 12 inches high and it looked 
as if this would make a wall that would in part sag or 
fall down if the forms were not retained on it long 
enousrh to permit an initial set. I was agreeably sur- 
prised, however, to find that when the forms were re- 
moved no trouble of this kind w'hatsoever appeared. The 
manufacturers had taken the precaution of giving the 
back of the curb a batter of 1 on 12, and this was suffi- 
cient fo avoid the dancrer. 

I was pleased to note in the iob in nuestion that the 
cnntract/or mixed h's concrete stiff. It is a fad of mine 
that the secret of good sidewalk work is less water and 
more tamping, and th's is equally true of curb and ?ut.- 
ter work. T noted also that the contractor in nuestion 
nut on his ton co.qf stiff enoucrh so that ho could tamn 
it and therebv not onlv make an excellent bond with 
the bftse, but also flush iust enourrh moisture to the 
surface for finishincr immediatelv. This is an excellent 
noint for all sidewalk and curb and gutter contractors. 
If you will put in a stiff top coat and then tamn it vou 
can easily strike off the surface and finish it immediately. 



I have Been many pieces of work ruined because too 
much water was used in the concrete and when the 
walk was ready for finishing the finiBherB had to ntand 
around and wait for some time before they could do 
their work, and they would frequently H])rinkle dry ce- 
ment on the surfwe in order to dry it out Kuflficienfc for 
using the float. This reprehensible practice is now pret>- 
ty generally for})idd€n in municipal Bpecificaton« and it 
should never be resorted to if you desire a good job. 

One thing in the use of the above mentioned forme 
that pleased me particularly was the ea«e and rapidity 
with which they could be taken down and then set up 
further on. The contractor whose work I was observing 
did not have a very extensive equipment of forms, but 
imed the same forms over six or eight times during the 
day, and I sliould, at a rough gue«R, estimate that his 
30 ruiming feet of forms would easily take the place of 
200 running feet of woo<l forms and could be sei up in a 
small fraction of the time. 

I was much interested in observing the method of 
finishing used. The contractor in question did not per- 
mit the use of a steel trowel on his work, but insisted on 
the use of a wooden float which was applied as soon as 
the surface had been stnick ofF with a piece of angle- 
iron operated by two men with a sawing motion. This 
latter device is simple, but it is very effective and it is 
sur()rising that it is not more generally used. 

I mentoned above the use of the wooden float and it 
is worth while laying some emphasis upon this matter. 
Many a job that was otherwise good litis l>een ruined by 
too much trowelling. The working over of the mat^-rial 
has a tendency to force to the surface an undue propor- 
tion of the fine particles of cement and thereby not only 
rob the aggregate immediately below of its proper bind- 
ing elements, bvit also to make a thin hard coat on top 
which aft<>r a time cracks and scales off. This is true 
botli of sidewalk and of curb and gutter work. If on the 
other hand you will use a wooden float and not overdo 
the matter you will see it is possible to follow this >ip by 
brushing the surface off lightly with a dampened brush 
and give your work a finish, which is not only hand- 
some, but which also is very practical. In preventing 
Klij)j)ing it i«< much more effective than any stippling or 

One other point in connection with curb and gutter 
work appeals to me strongly, and that is the question of 
standard s])ecificat.ions. To a certain ext«nt this is a 
point which largely concerns the city engineer or the 
board of public works but the contractor also is in a 
position to be of influence in this matter. Nothing is 
more important for the good appearance of the streets 
of a city than uniformity in the dimensionB of its curb 
and gutter work. Nothing is so well calculated to give 
a bad impression to the visitor than to see such work 
done in different sizes and proportions throughout a city. 
Of cotn-se, t is perefectly feasible for a city to adopt 
specifications of its own and insist that these be followed 
out on all work in the city, but in many cities this has 
not been done and there are frequent opporf,unities for 
the contractor himself to recommend to the property- 
holder dimensions and specifications for this work. It 
may not therefore be out of place to call your att^nfcioji 
to the fact that a large number of the progressive miini- 
cipnlities of the country have adopted as a standard siz.e 
of curb and gutter the following dimensions : Height of 
curb 12 inches, thickness of curb 6 inches, height of 
face of curb (SY, inches, gutt«r 18 inches with a dip of 

l]/2 int'hes, thickness of gutter at front 7 inehai, eurv« 
on edge of curb and at junction of curb Bod gutter IJ/j 
incheii radius. Such a curb and gutter m thin will b« 
found to give general Batisfartion everywhere. It is not 
necessary to point out here that the curb and gutt«r 
should be divided into entirely separate block* from 6 
feet to 8 feet long by expansion joint* and it may \if 
note<l that steel fomw «uch as thcwe above described, 
or in fact any regular templates, make these joints with- 
out ftdditional expense. — Cetnent Era. 

A Form of Cantilever Scaffold used by Builders 

In the constriKtion of niodi-rii buihiiiigx of gn-at 
height, many expedients are often necessary in order to 
facilitate the execution of the work. Attention is di- 
rected to a style of cantilever scaffold, which is lUM-d 
about the line of iron columns extending around the 
outer edge of a structure, the position of the HcafTuld 
being such that one end nf it projects beyond the 

A study of this scaflTold shows that it is prevented 

from tilting by means of a cross piece and upright. 
The planks are support e<I on masons' horses and used 
for supporting the workman while he i>aints and ce- 
ments the outside faces of the front columns, channels 
and I-beams. The picture shows a mortar box placed 
near an outer column, while the workman u|>on the 
.scaffold is enclosing in cement nn iron colinnn at one 
of the floor levels of a steel skeleton-frame building. 
The position of the scaffold is such that the w^'V-"'"-! 
is able to reach to the level of the floor above 
The planking used for this scaffold is 2 x 8 i 
dimensions, the cross pieces u|>on which the \v 
is shown standing being 10 feet in length, while the 
planking running at right angles thereto is 16 feet in 
length. The strut \ is driven tight under the bottom 
flange of the l-b<>ani to keep the plwiks u|>on which 
the workman stands from tipping up. while the cross 
])iece B is a 2 X 4. The simplicity and rapidity of the 
construction of a scaffold of this nature render it ex- 
tremely useful in of th«; kind mentioned. 


'J^ HE CON T Ji A C T R E C O E D 

©tes ©e Elactrice 

Various Uses and Advantages — Mechanical Equipment — Protection of 
Motor by means of Automatic Magnet Switch Control — Operating Costs* 

During the past six years great strides have been made in 
the application of electricity to power operated shovels. At 
present a number of them are being successfully used in grad- 
ing operations, gravel pits, atone quarries, brick and tile yards, 
cement plants and in placer ore mines. These shovels are fully 
equal in power and capacity to steam shovels and may be 
built for any service desired. 

Equipment. — The mechanical equipment of an electrically 
operated shovel, i.e., the dipper, boom, car and trucks, is built 
along the familiar lines of the steam shovel. The power equip- 
ment consists of a motor of from 50 to 200 h.p. to operate the 
hoist, and two motors of from 25 to 80 h.p. to swing the boom 
and operate the thrust. The hoist and swing motors are located 
in the car, and are geared to the drums through suitable re- 
ducing gears. The thrust motor is mounted directly on the 
boom, and communicates its motion to the bucket staff through 

Mjitff Coni'Tller 















Mil VI 



Connections loi Klectrical Control of hleam Miuvfls 

reducing gears connected to a pinion engaging a rack on the 
staff. The motors are of the crane or mill tj'pe, with high 
torque charaeteristic, and may- be for either direct or alter- 
nating current. They are reversing and are under perfect con- 
trol. When desired the controllers may be connected to the 
ordinary hand lever used on steam shovels, so that a steam 
shovel engineer can operate the electric shovel without any 
trouble. Data in regard to the sizes, capacities and motors 
required are given in Table I. 

The power is ordinarily taken from trolley wires, or from a 
transformer located near the cut, the feed cables from the 
power circuit to the ear being wound on a retractile reel in 
the cab and drawn in or paid out as the cut advances. The 
wiring in the car is enclosed in conduit, and is well protected 
from moisture and mechanical injury. 

The chief objection in the past to electrically operated 
shovels has been the possibility of damage to the hoist motor 
when stalled, due to the bucket digging in too deep, or striking 
a rock or other obstruction in the bank. The heavy current 
taken at such times was liable to cause a burn-out, while if 
the motor was properly protected by fuses or circuit-breakers, 
their continual opening caused annoying interruptions of ser- 
vice. This difficulty has been overcome by the use of automatic 
magnet switch control, which protects the motor against such 

*A paper by W. H. Patterson in the Electric Journal 

overloads by cutting resistance into the circuit when the current 
exceeds a certain value. 

The accompanying diagram shows the connections for such a 
method of control. The master controller has two running posi- 
tions in either direction. The first position connects the motor 
to the line with all the armature resistance in series, the second 
position energizes magnet switches VI, VII and VIII through 
the accelerating relay IX. These switches short-circuit the re- 
sistance in sections, each successive step being delayed until 
the current in the accelerating relay falls below a fixed value. 
The various positions are interlocked, so that it is impossible 
for the switches to close in wrong order. The master controller 
can be thrown from full speed forward to full speed reverse, 
without damage to the motor, as the starting switches for either 
direction cannot close until all the control switches are opened 
and full armature resistance has been connected into the circuit. 
The reversal is thus made in the least possible time consistent 
with the safety of the motor. 

In case of an overload on the motor, safety relay X opens, 
breaking the control circuit of switches VI, VII and VIII, and 
cutting all the armature resistance into the circuit. The motor 
will then exert its full starting torque continuously until the 
overload is removed, when the resistance will be automatically 
short-circuited again. This feature of the control is especially 
valuable for shovel work, as frequently a stone or log may be 
dislodged by a steady pull when it cannot be moved by a sudden 
jerk. If the overload current exceeds the value for which the 
overload relay XI is set, the line switch V opens, disconnecting 
the motor from the line. On moving the master controller to the 
off position, magnet switch V is reset, and the motor may be 
started again in the usual way. 

Weight Size 

of Shovels, of Dipper, Hp. of Motors 

Tons. Cu. Yds. Hoist. Thrust. Swing. 

30 1 50 30 30 

35 1% 50 30 30 

35 1% 60 30 30 

35 IVi 75 35 35 

42 1% 75 30 30 

65 2 100 35 35 

95 3% 150 50 50 

100 4 200 80 80 

Where a more flexible control is desired a five point master 
controller is used. In this case, each of the switches which cut 
out aramture resistance is controlled by a separate point on the 
master controller. The amount of resistance in the circuit is, 
therefore, under the constant control of the operator. At the 
same time the controller can be thrown immediately to the full 
speed position, and the motor will be automatically brought up 
to speed as rapidly as the accelerating relay will allow. 

The motor driving the thrust may be operated either by a 
drum controller or by automatic magnet control. The motor 
and its controller must be of soich a design that the motor will 
be able to develop a heavy torque for short intervals of time 
while standing still, or rotating very slowly. Its duty is to jam 
the dipper against the bank and hold it there while the hoist 
operates. As soon as the dipper strikes the bank the thrust 
motor ceases to revolve, except very slowly, but must still exert 
full torque in order to keep the dipper against the face of the 
cut. Its characteristics should, therefore, be such that it may 





oe stalled frequently for a minute or more at a time and still 
keep (icvolopinj; full-load torque without injury. 

The motor driving the swinging boom may bu operattij by 
band coatrol if provided -with a magnetic brake to stop the 
motor quickly and keep the circuit-breaker from opening if 
the motor is reversed quickly; or may be operated by automatic 
control without a brake. The operator can place the bucket 
with greater precision and ease with the automatic control on 
account of the rapidity with which the magnet accelerates the 
motor. The controller panels and switches are placed in the 
rear of the car, while the faster switches or drum type control- 
lers are placed in the front within easy reach of the operator. 
This makes a very compact and accessible equipment. 

Operating Costs.— Wbille the initial of electric shovels is 
more than that of steam shovels, their operating cost i» much 
less. They can ordinarily be operated by a smaller number of 
men; the hauling of coal and water is dispensed with; their 
poTver economy is greatly superior to that of the steam shovels, 
and thoy can be handled with greater precision and rapidity. In 
addition the eleetric shovel is comparatively noiseless in opera- 
tion, which is a great advantage for city use. 

Some interesting data in regard to the cost of operation of 
electric shovels has been obtained by the Vulcan Steam Shovel 
Co., of Toledo, O. One of these shovels, has been operated by 
the Milwaukee Electric R. & Light Co. for several years, at a 
consumption of approximately 100 kw-hrs. per ten-hour day. It 
is used for loading gravel at a gravel bank and is operated by 
two men, who load from 300 to 400 cu. yds. of gravel per day. 
The average daily expenses of operating this shovel are: 

One engineer $2.00 

One craneman 1.75 

Electric power at 1.5c. per kw-hr 1.50 

Oil, waste, repairs, etc .75 

Total $6.00 

The Chautauqua Traction Co., of Jamestown, New York, has 
been operating a shovel equipped with a 75-h.p. hoist motor, 
since 1907. This shovel is used in loading a mixture of gravel, 
sticky clay and sand, which is very hard to dig, and is operated 
by two men on the shovel and two pitmen. The current con- 
sumption on a special test averaged H)3 kw-hrs. per 8-hour day, 
and 534 cu. yds. of material were loaded in an average day. The 
The total expenses per day, including the pitmen, were $8.80, or 
approximately 1% cents per cu. yd. The maximum capacity of 
this shovel is about 1,000 cu. yds. per 8 hours. If operated at 
this capacity, the power consumption would be increased in 
proportion to the output, but the labor charges would be the 
same as figured dn the above statement. This would bring the 
cost of sliovoling down to about 1 cent per cu. yd. 

Perhaps the most promising field for electric shovels is in con- 
nection with electric traction lines, where electric power is usu- 
ally available at a very low rate. For this service they are 
mounted on standard gauge trucks equipped with air brakes, and 
may be hauled on the regular tracks, or may be equipped with a 
trolley and made self-propelling, the maximum speed being about 
5 miles per hour. Gre*t economy can also be effected by the 
use of electric shovels in any territory where coal is hard to 
procure and water power is conii>aratively cheap, as experience 
has shown that with current at 2 cents per kw-hour, or less, 
their cost of operation is only about half that of steam shovels. 
And as part of this saving is obtained by decreased labor costs, 
and the cost for power is only about one^hird the total cost of 
operating the shovel, local circumstances may determine a sav- 
ing at considerably higher power rates. 

A Concrete-Protected Water Tank 

licfore the National Auoeiation of Cement U>«r», Mr. Emtl 
G. Perrot (Philadelphia) read a paper entitled, "An loeident 
of Value of Concrete in Seducing the CSost of Imraraoce." Mr. 
Perrot 'g firm had oceaeion recently to boild, in the city of 
Camden, SJ., an elevated water tank reating upon a tall 
structural steel tower. Tbia tank w«a in the heart of the tity 
immediately adjacent to two buitineii* properties, the owner* of 
which were somewhat fearful of the diaaatrous effect which 
might follow an adjacent fire and the posiible eollapae of the 
tower. It was found that the insoranee rates on Uiia atme- 
ture, with its unprotected steel column legs, wonld amount to 
about $500 per annum. It was figured, however, that each of 
the columns and horizontal members of the tower eonJd be 
encased in concrete at a total espenae of $4,000. Thia trt- 
proofing was thereupon done. It will be not«d that the $4,000 
cost of fireprooflng means an annual expense of $240 at a 9 per 
cent, interest rate, whereas the insurance of the tower wonU 
have cost $500. In addition, it is probable that the tower ia so 
fireproof that a fire in one of the adjacent buildinga would not 
harm it, although, if it had been left unprotected, th« dam- 
age to the surrounding ■tmetures might have been rery grant. 
The total cost of the tower, with its fireprooflng was apont 

The Pacific Coast Construction Company has compromised 
with the city of Victoria, B.C., for the sum of $2,900 in pay- 
ment of extras incurred on sidewalk construction. The amount 
claimed originally and which the city declined to pay was 


Mill Building vs. Reinforced Concrete 

At the annual convention of the National Aasocintion of 
Cement Users held in New York December 14-20, Mr. J. P. 
Perry (New York City) read an interesting paper entitled, 
"Comparative Cost of Maintenance of Various Type* of Build- 
ing Construction." He assumed, in the first place, a building 
with an original cost of approximately $100,000, and on this 
basis figured out the relative annual costs of the two types of 
buildings. It is probable that the firnt cost of the concrete 
building would be some 10 per cent, greater than that of the 
mill building. In the maintenance, faowerer, the concrete 
building would save money on account of the minimam amoont 
of vibration, the ease with which it can be lighted, the reduc- 
tion in its insurance and its freedom from vermin. The ordin- 
ary concrete building has a window percentage of the outside 
wall of from 70 to 80, whereas the ordinary mill boilJing has 
only 30 to 40 per cent. This additional window space affords 
a much lighter interior and thereby allows the workmen to do 
much more work. Of late, the insurance rate* on concrete 
buildings and on their contents have been mnch lower thmn 
similar rates on mill buildings. In regard to vibration, it ha* 
been the experience of owners of concrete bnildings that a 
considerable saving has been noted each year on account of the 
better condition of the machinery due to the stability and lack 
of vibration in the concrete building. One owner, for in- 
stance, who has similar machinery in « concrete and a miD 
building, has noted that the maintenance of maehinery ia the 
vibrating mill building amount to some $5,000 a year more 
than in the non-vibrating concrete building. Finally, in any 
building with perishable contents the loss from Tannin is ap- 
preciable, and this loss, it is quite probable, can be avoided in 
concrete structures where the vermin find it hard to aziat. 

Assessing to each of these above items an approxiaiat* baaed 
on letters which he had written to some S5 arehiteets and 
owners, Mr. Perry finds that the annual charge* »a the two 
buildings, capitalizing the first cost at 9 per cent., wo«M 
amount to $11,000 in the ease of the mill bnUdiag aad $9j000 
in the case of the concrete building. 

In the diseusaion, Mr. W. H. Ham (Boatoa), said that la a 
specific case he bad observed that in th* samnMr the t«aip«ra- 
ture in a concrete building was some 10 d*gr*es lower tlMa ia 
an adjacent mill building and ia the wiater soaa 10 At f imm 
higher. While the difference in temperature in th* wiatar 
probably made sm.ill difference, as the building was heated 



from waste steam, the lower temperature in the summer cer- 
tainly added considerably to the cajjacity of the workmen. Mr. 
Walter F. Ballinger (Philadelphia) stated that in his observa- 
tion this lowering of summer temperature and raising of win- 
ter temperature was not true for concrete buildings, but it was 
noted afterward by another speaker that once the building 
was heated in winter the amount of heating necessary to 
maintain an even temperature was considerably less than in a 
wooden building. Mr. Ham further noted that the companion 
of mill buildings with concrete buildings should take account 
of the fact that mill buildings are generally designed for light 
loads, say, 60 lbs. per square foot, whereas in most cities the 

lowest load for which the regulations allow a concrete build- 
ing to be designed is I'M pounds per square foot, lie also 
noted that concrete buildings can have longer floor spans than 
mill buildings, which sometimes brings about a saving in the 
di.<*position of the machinery. Mr. ]>, C. Watson said that in 
his experience Mr. Perry's assumption that a concrete building 
would cost 10 per cent, more than a mill building 
did not always hold. He had found that for loads under 200 
pounds per square foot the mill construction was cheaper, but 
for loads above that amount the reinforced concrete was as 
cheap or cheaper than the mill construction. 

PressTuiire Valve for Comitrol ©f Water Flow 

Gives Perfect Control — Operated from Any Distance — Ideal Shape 
for Cheap Manufacture — Model Operating at Niagara Falls 

The accompanying sketches illustrate the construction and 
plan of operation of a new pressure valve now being tried out by 
the Ontario Power Company's works, Niagara Falls, Ont. The 
valve is the invention of Mr. E. D. Johnson, hydraulic engineer, 
of the Ontario Power Company. The English patents have been 
taken out by Mr. Johnson in partnership with Mr. Boving, of 
the Jens Orten-Boving Company, which company will exploit 
the valve in Europe and Canada. For the United States the 
inventor intends to retain the patents in his own name. The 
model now in operation at Niagara Falls is working with entire 
satisfaction and its combination of simplicity and efficiency is 
calling forth warm expressions of praise from the engineers who 
have witnessed the demonstration. The descriptive matter 
which accompanies the cuts will, it is believed, be found amply 
sufficient to explain the operation of the valve. 

A number of the advantages which may, we believe, be justly 


Indicator may be attached to control valve to exclude 
possibility of main valve creeping from any desired opening. 

If water is free to flow when main valve is open cham- 
ber "C" may be omitted by merging it into chamber "D." 
Its presence is desirable as an efficient factor of safety. 

The valve "V" in the position shown reduces the pres- 
sure in the annular chamber "C" to atmospheric and main 
valve closes due to full pressure transmitted into cnamber 
"D. " Eeversing the control valve, reverses the pressure 
and main valve opens. 

claimed for this valve are given below. The advantages are 
apparently equally applicable to all sizes and to all pressures. 

Ist. All cross sections are circular, which is the ideal shape for 
cheap manufacture and minimum material to take care of 

2nd. Perfect coatrol, doing away with motor drive and mul- 

tiplicity of gearing necessary to move a large gate valve. 

3rd. Balanced pressures, avoiding any tendency to wear or 
cut. That is, the water pressure does not affect the sliding fric- 

4. The venturi outlet recovers the head due to the increased 
velocity at the neck of the valve and the smooth flow makes the 
loss of pressure about 10 per cent, as much as in the ordinary 

5th. Applicability to remote control. It is quite as safe to 
operate this valve from a point a mile away as along side of it. 

Operation, Flow from "A" to "B" — The operation of 
the valve is due to difference of pressures caused by cTianges 
in velocity of the water in the valve case (venturi effect). 

Opening Effort — The start to open is due to the static 
pressure on the submerged surface of the plunger above the 
valve seat. 

Closing Effort — The closing effort equals the static pres- 
sure inside the movable plunger. 

To Open Valve — With the connections shown in solid lines 
and flow from "A" to "B" with or without pitometer 
tubes P1-P2. To open valve: v^lose control valve VI and 
open V2. 

Operation, Flow from "B" to "A"— With the flow from 
"B" to "A" pitometer tubes or additional connections 
shown in broken lines are used. Opening and closing efforts — 
same as above. 

To Open Valve — Open VI whilst remaining valves are 

To Close Valve — Open V3 or V2 whilst remaining valves 
are closed. 

Opening Without Connection "R"- — With the flow from 
"B" to "A" and connections shown in solid lines valve 
may also be opened without connection "R" to down- 
stream end of valve case by closing A'2, as sufficient water 
will leak through packing of plunger to allow valve to open. 

Closing Without Connection "R" — Under above conditions 
valve may be closed by opening V2 and using pitometer 
tube "P2" thereby obtaining the dynamic effect of the 
water. Or valve may be closed by opening -'VS" and using 
connection shown in broken lines without using pitometers. 

This may be accomplished in many ways by electrically actuat- 
ing the small control valve. 

6th. This valve requires no by-pass to equalize the pressure on 
both sides of the gate previous to opening. 



Selecfciomi aod Maintenance of Pavements 

Noise, Sanitariness and Durability as Elements of Choice When to Re- 
lay Asphalt Pavements Organization of Repair Force Cost of Repairs 

Under the title "The Htreet I'aveinent Problem in the Hor- 
ough of Manhattan," Mr. George W. Tillson, Chief Engineer 
of Highways of that borough, presented some interesting facts 
and ideas before the Municipal Engineers of the city of New 
York at a recent meeting of that society. Much of this applied 
largely to local conditions only; but we quote below certain 
portions which were of value to municipal engineers generally. 

Choice of Pavement. 

l''ii»t stating that Manhattan has adopted stone block, asphalt 
block, sheet a.splialt and wood block as its standard pavements, 
he discusses the matter of selecting one of those for a given 
street, as follows: 

For heavy traffic streets wliere the pavement is in constant 
nse under all weather conditions and where the question of 
noise is not important, a well-laid granite pavement will be 
most satisfactory. But mippose, for instance, that such a street 
passes a hos])ital and it is necessary to reiluce the noise to a 
minimum, then a change must be made. TTnder such conditions, 
■where the grade is less than 2 per cent., the author would 
always recommend wood block. On steeper grades asphalt, 
sheet or block, to about 5 per cent., when a return must be 
made to granite. The problem then is to use this material 
in such a way that it will produce the least possible noise 
under tradic. it is a well known fact that American stone pave- 
ments are inferior to Euro()can more on account of the char- 
acter and shape of the blocks themselves than the material. If, 
then, the blocks are so dressed that when laid the surface of 
the pavement shall be smooth and the joints between the blocks 
so small that it is practicable to fill them with a bituminous 
compound, the noise element will be eliminated to as great an 
extent as possible. 

if, on the contrary, the traffic on :i street be heavy, the ques- 
tion of noise on its entire length all-important and the grades 
below 2 per cent., the material to iie used is undoubtedly wood 

On light traffic, business or residential streets, either asphait 
or "wood can be used according to local wishes within grade 
limitations. It must be remembered, however, that on streets 
not in continuous use grade restrictions need not be so strictly 
adhered to, as on the comparatively few days when smooth 
pavements arc unduly slippery they can be avoided to a great 
extent. To sum up briefly, then, the principles governing the 
selection of materials for different streets, one would say, first, 
for heavy traffic wholesale streets, granite block; second, for 
heavy traffic streets where noise must be eliminated where i)Os- 
sible, wood block, asphalt-block, or improved granite, according 
to grades; third, for light traffic, or residential streets, asphalt 
or wood, according to local desires. 

The above conclusions have been reached by taking into ac- 
count the effect of using materials that do not contain all the 
requisites previously stated so as to produce the best results. 
For instance, granite is durable, fairly smooth when well laid, 
but 80 noisy as to prohibit its use on certain streets. Wood 
block is smooth, durable and almost noiseless, but slippery 
under certain conditions. Asi>halt is smooth, less slippery than 
wood block and also less durable than either wood block or 
granite. With well-laid granite there is not much difference in 
the sanitariness of either of the above kinds. 

It has been considered that a smooth pjnement should always 
be laid whenever conditions are such as to permit it. 

It will be noticed that up to the present time no mention has 
been made of the cost of the different kinds of pavement. The 
reason for this is that the author believes that in the borough 

of Manhattan the pavement bc»t Bd»v'"'* ' *' - •tract 

«hould be used irrenpective of itt eo«t. 

In deciding speeiflcally upon the matmai r..r any partiralar 
street the question of coiit Honiatimes comes up and majr be aa 
important factor in reaching a decision; then the flntt coat and 
frei|uently that of repair* must be taken into coniiiieratioD. 
Interruptions to traffic are very objectionable and aboaU b« 
reduced to a minimum. Btreetx are in u»e »t all iimm aati 
under all weather conditions. If a pavement be put in good 
condition and then weather conditiooH ariie ao that it ia not 
posaible to make repairs for three muntbs, for inataocc, aad 
in the meantime it becomes bad and in a general iitat« of dis- 
repair, it can safely bo admitted that it has not keen coaatmetad 
of pro]>er material. This last principle is im(iortant in making 
the decision. From all rejKirts it is probable that the pave- 
ments of the cities of London and Liverpool are kept in b<-tter 
condition than those of any other large city. It would b« of 
the greatest importance to know whether this ia doe to a OMre 
intelligent selection of material, better constnirtion, or a more 
uniform and systematic method of making repairs. It is very 
likely due to all three, and a study of this would undonbtedly 
be of great value to American cities. 

The damage to pavements is the actual wear and tmir of 
street traffic and by extraneous causes. The first is pruvideil 
for by repaving certain streets and repairing others. The se- 
lection of the streets to be repaveil and the material to be used 
is a work requiring great care, judgment, and a complete 
knowledge of the requirements of e^ch street. In order to do 
this intelligently and systematically a traffic census should Ik- 
taken of all the business streets so that the engineer would 
have positive and s|ieciflc instead of general knowledge of the 
existing conditions. Many claims are made of the ne«da of 
certain streets by interested parties which are entirely without 
foundation, and the engineer often requires positive facta to 
refute them. 

When to Belay Asphalt. 
An asphalt pavement in bad condition is generally fall of 
holes with the asphalt worn down to the foundation. By 
patching the holes it can be put in good repair till after a 
certain time more holes occur and they most again be patched 
up. The frequency of this work and the cost of same will 
determine when the pavement should be entirely reUid. The 
entire ex)>ense of maintaining a pavement, no matter how its 
initial cost has been met, consists of this initial cost, the in 
terest on same, the cost of repairs, and the establishment of a 
sinking fund that will be sufficient to replace it when it becoraea 
worn out. 
Putting this into the form of a formula it will be 
A • I-|- — = annual ezpenae, 
when N=dife of pavement, 

C==icost |>er square yard, 
I=vate of interest, 
R=total cost of repairs, 

.\:=sinking fund to be ; . ,'. 

C at end of N 
It follows, then, that an exact account should be kept of tb« 
cost of repairing each street each year, as it often kappcaa 
that a large amount of repairs made one year on aooM Mraata 
will materially reiluce the cost in succeeding years; wkUe ea 
others the same amount of work must be done uatil they are 
repavcd. In other words, the entire hiatory of each atreei 


should be accurately kept. Applying the figures previously is a different proposition, as probably no American city spends 

decided upon to this formula, the annual expense of main- enough to keep its streets in good condition. In speaking of 

taining an asphalt pavement is twenty-five cents. Consequently this an official of a neighboring city said to the author: " We 

when the annual coat of repairs on any particular street spend all the money we can get, but it is not enough for our 

reaches this amount the question of its repaying should be purpose." It will be seen, then, of what little value such iu- 

carefruUy considered. This is an average result, but knowing I'ormation is. 

the age of a particular pavement and its repair cost,, by the 

application of the formula it can be determined positively 

whether, from a financial standpoint, it should be repaved or UsC 01 Binding Materials 

not. This would seem to demonstrate not only that it can be jjjg principal objective points iu the scieuc© and art of 

accurately and scientifically determined when an asphalt pave- highway engineering at the present time are, first, the econo- 

ment should be relaid, but that this is difficult to determine in ^^^^^.^^ construction of roads which wiU withstand the disin- 

any other way. Where a city charter requires that repaying tggrating effect of excessive motor car traffic and excessive 

shall be paid by special assessment and repairs out of the jj^^.^^ ^^.^^^.^ vehicle traffic, and second, the elimination of 

budget account, this determination is important. ^j^^ noxious dust. 

Asphalt Repair Methods in Manhattan. Xhe standard method used during 1909 on the state high- 

This work consists of keeping in repair all of the asphalt way system of Rhode Island in the endeavor to accomplisli 

paved streets, sheet and block, both under and out of guaran- the above results was the construction of bituminous pave- 

tee, a total, as has been previously stated, of 305 miles. ments by the hand mixing method using as a binder in the 

The out-of-guarantoe, or maintenance streets, as they are mix 60 per cent. Texaco asphalt, grades No. 55 Special and 

called, are repaired by contract and paid for per square yard J, and 50 per cent. Providence coal gas tar, and a flush coat 

of pavement laid. of Texaco asphalt or Providence tar. The present practice 

In order to facilitate the entire work the borough is divided is the result of experimental work conducted during 1906, 

into six inspection districts. These sections are divided into 1907 and 1908 with various bituminous materials used in 

divisions, generally six, each division being in charge of an different methods of construction. It has been demonstrated 

inspector and each section being in charge of a chief inspector. that, under average conditions, if the traffic consists of 90 

The division inspectors report to the chief inspector, who in to 95 per cent, of motor cars, the flush coat is not a necessity, 

turn reports to the assistant engineer in charge. Experimental work with the American Tar compan.y's tar 

The division inspectors patrol their divisions daily, making coating machine showed that the machine was economical in 

notes of all defects in the pavement from whatever cause, operation and satisfactory in the results produced, the 

whether by wear and tear, fire, plumbers, corporations, water superior quality of the mix as compared with the results of 

department or builders. These are all located and recorded hand mixing being especially apparent during the cold 

on a prepared blank which is forwarded to the main office. periods of the working day after the first of October. 

The clerk in charge of this branch sends to each contractor a The following problems, some of which are of paramount 

copy of the list when the same refers to a guaranteed pave- importance, especially to those who are using the mixing 

ment. The maintenance streets are looked after directly by method, should be carefully considered : 

the engineer in charge. The relative merits of three methods of paying for bitu- 

In addition to the above, on Friday of each week the chief niinous macadam construction: first, materials and labor 
inspectors report to the engineer all streets iu their respective j^^^^ ^^^^ f^^ directly by the party of the first part ; second, 
districts that are in disrepair. These lists are also sent to the ^^^^ g^^^ra labor involved in the construction of a bituminous 
contractors and each one is expected to repair all the streets pavement being paid for under the extra work clause corn- 
on his list before the end of that week. This plan has been ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ siJecifications, while the bituminous material 
in effect for about three years and has produced admirable -^ purchased directly from the producer by the party of the 
results. The author believes it is impossible to keep the ^^^^ ^^^^_ ^^^.^^^ ^j^^ pavement being constructed for a con- 
streets in good condition without a competent and systematic ^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^_ 

P ■ minous material is furnished in accordance with rigid speci- 

In compiling statistics of the repairs to asphalt pavements fications 
in different cities the unit has generally been the cost per 

square yard. This, while somewhat satisfactory, is not entirely ^he economics and relative advantages of hand mixing 

so, as the cost of doing the same work varies considerably. If, ^"'^ machine mixing. 

however, the percentage of the maintained pavement actually The economics and merits of heated stone used with tars, 

removed be given, an exact comparison can be made. The fol- asphalts, soil at ordinary temperatures, and with asphaltic 

lowing figures have been made up by both plans and relate compounds. 

to the repairs of sheet asphalt pavements out of guarantee in The relative merits of the mixing and penetration methods 

the borough of Manhattan during the last five years, the fig- ^f constructing bituminous macadam pavements. 

ures for 1910 being estimated: mi j i ^ r -r- i- . ., i • i 

„ Ihe development of specifications covering the chemical 

_ , ^ . , and physical properties of bituminous binders through the 

Percentage Cost per per sq. yd. ,., , . , ^, , ,,. 

, . , i ,1 medium of an exhaustive study of the character of the various 

of pavement sq. yd. actually , ^ ' ,. , 

removed. in cents. repaired. component elements, the effect of each on the adaptability of 

,Q„j. go 04 »T 40 the material for use as a binder under given conditions, and 

innj 10 20 1 11 ^^^ requisite maximum and minimum percentages of each con- 

inna 15 17 7 1 18 stituent. Results will be accomplished more expeditiously by 

igng j2 11 7 98 * national organization investigating the problem in each 

IQIQ j3 11 3 87 country in which a large amount of bituminous work is being 

It would seem from the above figures that the limit of the ^o"® *^''" through the medium of an international body. 

reduction had about been reached. The restriction of the term "bituminous macadam pave- 

It seems impossible to obtain reliable figures as to the cost ment" to designate macadam roads built with a bituminous 

of keeping streets in repair. The amount of money spent in binder in which the bituminous material forms a bond be- 

the different cities for such purpose can be learned, but that tween the surfaces of the stones composing the No. 2 course. 



while the term "bituminous surface" can be used to desig- 
nate the 8urfa<!o of a road or stroot, which is covered with a 
thin coat of bituminous material. 

Use of Concrete Piles at Prince Rupert 

Concrete piles are beiiiff used in the Government wharf at 
Prince Rupert, B.C. The Westholme Company have the eon- 
tract. From details furnished by them we learn that each pile 
is sixteen inche.i square. The centre is perforated by a steel 
pipe which runs right through. This is for extracting all the 
matter between the bottom of the pile and the solid rock. Round 
the tube are placed four reinforcement girders which play the 
part of grapplers. In order to render them immovable they 
are circled by stays at intervals of five feet. Outside these 
steel ribs is placed a closely latticed networlt of wire to give 
the concrete a groundwork. A huge derrick is now in readi- 
ness to place the piles in position, a task that will entail a 
considerable amount of power as the average weight of the 
piles is about sixteen and a half tons. The main piles will be 
supplemented on either side with other piles placed at a tang- 
ent, thus forming a support. 

The test borings for liiie piers of the protected bridge across 
the Second Narrows at Vancouver are about complnted and 
plans will shortly be prepared as a preliminary to taking ten- 
ders for the piers and abutments. According to President Mc- 
Naught, of the Burrard Tnlet Tunnel & Bridge Company, de- 
tailed plans and specifications for the superstructure of the 
bridge are practically finished, the type of bascule alone being 
undetermined. The plans show the longest span of the bridge 
to be 4.50 feet, and that extends over the greater portion of the 
deep water channel not covered by the 1.50-foot draw span. Ac- 
cording to information received by Mr. McNaught from Con- 
tractor Owens, who has charge of the test boring, there is 
every indication that good bottom for the piers can be secured 
without going to any great depth along the north shore. Test 
borings made over a year ago showed that there is solid rock 
foundation available with very little excavation from mid- 
channel to the south shore. 

The C. P. R. subway at the head of the St. Lawrence 
Boulevard, Montreal, is now practically completed. The sub- 
way is 900 foot long, and at its deepest point dips 15 feet 
below the level of the street, it is 60 foet wide and in the ex- 
cavation work, 20,000 cubic yards of earth and 7,000 cubic 
yards of stone were removed. On either side are 17/^-foot 
sidewalks, loavinp; apace in the middle for two car tracks 
and two traffic roadways. A nice finish is given to the work 
by a heavy concrete balastrade. This runs the whole length 
of the retaining walls, and is made of reinforood concrete. 
Altogether, in the walls and balastrade about .3,000 cubic 
yards of concrete wore used. The bridge over the subway 
is built of steel and has an entirely fireproof roadway. It is 
65 feet wide and 156 feet long and carries four tracks. 




Excellent Building conditions have been prevailing at 
gary, Alta. A number of structures were started during the 
Christmas season. The best buildincr wentlier experienced at 
this season for years is reported. 

City Building Inspector Snook, of Toronto, has been ap- 
pointed a .Justice of the Peace by the Ontario Oovernment. 
One is not likely to forget his appointment as his initials are 
also ,T.P. Rather an odd combination^T. P. Snook, J. P. 

Building permits issued at Winnipeg up to th« end of 
November totalled $14,1.%,200, as compared with $3,102,000 
for the corresponding period of last year Last month per- 
mits totalled $371,200, as against $291,800 for November 

? ^ T 


Information lor this ThfmtimimH ia 
ArchitecU, F.nginetf. Centracton aad BvikUn. Said is 
the parti'rulara of rrcent c<um in whUk yea ««« |»lii«»l«< 
Ifivincf the main farta taraely. 

Onus of Bisk In Dangerous Employment.— Hiint«r ti. Ham- 
ilton Bridge Company. This was an action to ntortt tmmagm 
for the death of one Tlunter alleged to have b««a eaoMd Ity tka 
negligence of one or both of the defendant compaoiM, tha Ham- 
ilton Bridge Works Company and the Hamilton 8t«el Compaay. 
The Court found that the plaintiff failed: 

(1) Because there was no evidence npon whieb the jarj eeald 
And an obligation on the part of the bridge company to •mfHof 
a "look out man." 

(2) Because there was no eridenee that the failure to •■• 
ploy a "look out man" caused tha accident. 

(3) Because, npon the nndlspoted facts, tb« oalj propar 
inference was that knowing the dangerous natnre of tka am- 
ployment the deceased voluntarily undertook the risk. 

(4) Because upon the undisputed facts tha aeeldaat waa 
solely caused by negligence of the deceased himself. Tbe maa 
was in a position of safety so long as he did not place himaelf 
in the way of the moving cranes — be knew his peril and it was 
his duty not to forget the passing cranes, and so place himself 
in a position where death was almost certain. Forgetting may 
not be negligence in some cirenmstanees, bnt where a man vol- 
untarily places himself in a position calling for the exercise of 
extreme care in some particular respect — he mnst not forgot 
or it is his own negligence that eansea the accident. 

The action was dismissed without costs. 

Contract as to Party Wall.— Sterling Bank vs. Boas, Divisioaal 
Court of Ontario. 

Plaintiffs and defendants owned a party wall. By a sorrey 
of the town it was found to encroach 20 inches on the public 
street. The survey permitted then existing bniMiags to reoaia 
until they were rebuilt, etc. Defendant's building baring boea 
destroyed by fire she desired to rebnild, and the towa eovaeQ 
required her to conform to the statnte. Defendant ilsaiiaJ to 
remove 20 inches of the party wall standing on tha highway ia 
front of her new premises so as to enable her to extoad the front 
of her new building across the full width of her lot. Plaiatiflh 
asked for injunction to ro^tr-iin .l.if.^n.Linf fmm ;ni.,rf«pi||g with 
said wall. 

Mr. Justice Middleton ru'i<i tnat mr w.iii m question eoasti- 
tuted an integral part of each building and eonld be maintaiaod 
so long as either building is entitled to remain upon the U(k- 
way. Injunction granted plaintiffs with $80 eosta. 

Divisional Court dismissed defendant's appeal from above 
judgment with costs. 

Liability of Mnnlcipality.— Gamble vs. Towaskipe of 
V'anghan and Markham Divisional Conrt of Ontario. PlaiatUF 
brought action to recover (3,000 for damages caused by aa 
explosion of dynamite used by a contractor for the Towaahip 
of Vaughan in a gravel pit adjoining the plaintiff's hooaa. At 
the trial, judgment was given for (ATO and eoats. The Divi- 
sional Court dismissed both defendants' appeab with eoata, slao 
plaintiff's cross appeal to increase the amoaat of damafw. 

Mr. Kenneth Chestnut, C.E., spent Christmas at Us >»■■ at 
Fredericton, N.B. Mr. Cheatant has beea ia eharga tt aaae 
son miles of track on the O.T.P. Railway as chief 
engineer, with headquarters at Gdmoaton. He is to bo 
ferred shortly to the Rocky Mountain division of the c«ad. 

The building permits issued at Montreal daring 1010 totallod 
nearly $16,000,000, double the amonat expended dariag 100$. 



Canadian City Engineers 

Georges Janin, Montreal, Que. 

Mr. Georges Janin, who has been apointed general municipal 
engineer for the city of Montreal, was born at Poicters, France, 
in 1853, and came to Canada in 1892. With an extended know- 
ledge of municipal engineering work he quickly acquired a 
wide reputation in his new sphere. One of Mr. Janin 'a earliest 
interests was the protection of running waters from sewage pol- 
lution. In his oflRcial reports he emphasized the necessity for 
introducing the system followed in Europe and the United 
States. Mr. Janin outlined his views on this subject at a con- 
ference held in Montreal in 1896, and received the support of 
the Provincial Board of Health. The St. Laurent College sub- 
sequently authorized Mr. Janin to undertake a sewage 
farm enterprise, and after his first experiment the city of 
Montreal entrusted to him a similar enterprise to utilize the 
sewage of St. Denis' ward. 

In 1898 Mr. Janin entered the service of the city of acting 
superintendent of the aqueduct system, during the illness of 
the superintendent at that time. He was afterwards appointed 
assistant superintendent, finally assuming the direction of the 
Water Department, a post which he has continued to occupy 
since. The Provincial Board of Health also recognized his 

City Engineer Janin of Monueal 

i'.\perience by appointing him consulting engineer to their Board. 
Mr. Janin has been identified closely with practically all the 
important works carried out in Montreal in recent years. Of 
these perhaps the present extensions to the waterworks are the 
most noteworthy. Citj- Enginer Janin is progressive and thor- 
ough and the creation of his ofiice is expected to mark the open- 
ing of a new era in civic improvement at Montreal. 

Personal News and Notes 

The annual banquet of the Montreal Builders' Exchange was 
held at the Windsor Hotel on Wednesday, Dec. 18. 

Peter Lyall, head of the Montreal contracting firm of Peter 
Lyall & Son, has been elected a director of the Sterling Bank 
of Canada. 

Charles Sharpe, contractor, leaves Winnipeg shortly for Proc- 
tor, on the Kootenay lakes, British Columbia, where he is erect- 
ing a large tourist hotel for the C.P.R. 

The Undergraduate Society of the Department of Applied 
Science at McGill University, Montreal, was addressed last 

Monday by Dr. James Douglas, New York City, past presi- 
dent of the American Institute of Engineers, and Mr. .Tamos 
White, Secretary of the Commission of Conservation. 

Mr. W. Stewart, of the firm of Foley, Welsh & Stewart, who 
left recently for Scotland, is stated to be planning to bring 
5,000 laborers back with hira to build the section of the G.T.P. 
through the mountains, for which his firm has the contract. 
There is little labor available on the Pacific coast and the im- 
portation of Asiatic labor will not be sanctioned by the Gov- 

Mr. F. W. Ellingwood has been appointed superintendent of 
construction for the C.P.R. terminals with headquarters at the 
Windsor street station, Montreal. Mr. Ellingwood, who was 
formerly connected with the Pennsylvania Railway in connec- 
tion with its big terminal scheme in New York, will have 
charge of the construction of the Windsor street station, an<l 
also, it is understood, of the terminal scheme of the company 
at the Place Viger station. 

According to a dispatch from Ottawa, a diflference of opin- 
ion is stated to have developed among the commissioners of the 
Quebec bridge over the awarding of the contract for the struc- 
ture. Two of the commissioners are understood to favor the 
acceptance of the Canadian tender, which is made by the Can- 
adian Bridge Company of Walkerville, and the Dominion Bridge 
Company, of Lachine, working in combination. One of the 
commissioners is said to favor the acceptance of the tender 
made by the British company. It is expected that a settle- 
ment will be reached very shortly. 

We have received from Messrs. W. & L. E. Gurley Troy, N.Y., 
manufacturers of civil engineers' and surveyors' instruments, a 
copy of the 45th edition of their manual. This manual will be 
found indispensable to the profession. It is primarily a book of 
instruction in the adjustment and use of field instruments. It 
is comprehensive but, at the same time, concisely arranged. The 
object kept in view by the compilers was simplicity and the 
avoidance of such maitter as should be discussed in technical 

The B. Greening Wire Company, Hamilton, Ont., have favored 
us with a good plain office calendar for 1911. The calendar shows 
an excellent view of the company's extensive plant, where wire 
work of every description is manufactured. Photos of four 
generations of the Greening family are shown, the first being 
Nathaniel Greening (1799) and the last the present managing 
director, Mr. H. B. Greening. The eastern depot of this firm is 
422 St. Paul street, Montreal, Que. 

According to a despatch from Montreal, the National Bridge 
Company has just been incorporated, with a capital of 

Mr. J. E. Scliwitzer, assistant chief engineer of western lines, 
has been appointed chief engineer of the C.P.R. with head- 
quarters in Montreal. 

The steel construction at the Windsor station extensions, 
Montreal, has now reached the sixth storey and the masons have 
started work placing the granite facing stones in position. 

Convention of the Can. Soc. C.E. 

Arrangements for the above meeting at Winnipeg (January 
24 to 27), are now maturing and the programme will be issued 
early in the new year. 

The meetings will be held at the Alexandra Hotel, which will 
be the headquarters of the executive during the session. 

Eastern members will leave Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto on 
a special train on Saturday, .Tanuary 21, and will return by a 
train expected to reach Montreal at midday, on Sunday 29th, 
while special arrangements are being made for western mem- 
bers. Arrangements for excursions include visits to the city 
power plant at Point Tin Bois, St. Andrews locks and the Grand 
Trunk Pacific shops. 




Contracts Department 

News of Special Interest to Ck)ntractors, Engineers, Manufacturers and 

Dealers in Building Supplies. 

Information for insertion in these columns is invited from Architects, Contractors, Eng^ineers, etc. 

Waterworks, Sewerage and 

Goderich, Ont. 

Tin; byhivv [irovidiiiK i'or the expenditure 
oi: $l(),6oO on an extension of the town's 
sewer system was parried. 

iLethhridge, Alta. 

We are informed that preliminary lines 
and estimates of cost have been made in 
regard to the proposed gravity water line 
from Belly river, length, 43 miles. Esti- 
n.ated cost, .$880,000. C. M. Arnold, city 

Moncton, N.B. 

'J'he report of Engineer Cbipman endorses 
that of Kngineer Edingtou submitted eight 
I years ago, and favors the McNutt brook as 
[ a source of water supply, with a recom- 
' niendation that a reservoir be constructed 
'. about 3V1> miles from Moncton. Estimated 
exijcnditure about $230,000. The water 
^.ind light I'oinmiltee will secure legislative 
' autliority for the issuing of bonds for that 
\ amount. 

Montreal, Que. 

A by-law is bedng drafted for presenta- 
tion to the Council this week for the loan 
"of $2,000,000 for the city's new filtration 
plant. As soon as it is passed the Council 
will call for plans and specifications. Mes- 
srs. Hering and Fuller of New York have 
submitted a tender for getting out the 

Tlic City Surveyor in his reports recom- 
mends that all the streets running north 
and south should be asphalted, new pave- 
niouts laid on Sherbrooke street and St. 
.\ntoine street. It is the intention, we un- 
derstand, to ask for tenders for public 
works in January instead of May or .Tune. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Works to cost the city in the neighbor- 
hood of .')i7")0,000 will be undertaken .this 
year by the Ottawa municipal engineering 
department. The chief work will be the 
we.stern drainage system, which will cost 
,$::00,000. Tlien there will be the drainage 
of the Dow's lake district, which will cost 
considerably over $100,000. 

Pembroke, Ont. 

I'emliroke has adopted a by-law for the 
raising by <le.benture of the sum of $6.'),000 
to extend the intake pipe of the water- 
works system. 

Simcoe, Ont. 

Willis Chipman, C.E., of Toronto, is pre- 
p!;ring plans for the proposed sewage dis- 
posal i)lanit to cost $.50,000 to $60,000. Work 
will likely be done in 1911. W. C. McCall, 
town clerk. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 

.■\. Milne, C.E,, St. Catharines. Ont., is in 
cliarge of the waterworks extension lately 
authorized by the ratepayers. 24,0000 feet 
uf 24 inch, 30 inch and 3(5 inch pipe will bo 
required; pipe, specials and valves, the ma- 
terials. Tenders had not been called un- 
der date of last information. 

Toronto, Out. 

Tenders are being called by the Board of 
Control until February 7th for main drain- 
age of which description will be found in 
the ofHcial tender in "Tenders and For 
Sale Department" of this issue. O. K. 
Ueary, chairman. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The city engineer was instructed to pre- 
l-are specifications for pumps for two new 
veils which the city will sink in a sbort 

Tenders are being called until February 
fith for manufacture, etc., of two pumping 
plants, etc. For further information see 
"Tenders and For Sale Department," of 
this issue. 

Tenders addressed to chairman, Board 
oi' C'onrtrol, will be received until .January 
13th, for construotion of watp>r mains on 
Williiam avenue, lyorette avenue, and on 
Helen street. M. Porterson, secretary. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The contract for the construction and 
erection of the l.i-ton and 10-ton overhead 
traveling cranes for the main and high le- 
vel |>umping stations has been awarded to 
.lohn T. Hepburn, crane builder, Toronto. 

Railroads, Bridges and Wharves 

Belleville, Ont. 

The Dominion Bailway Commissioners 
have jiasseil an order in regard to 
the requirements of constrnetion 
of C.N.K. bridge across River Moira that 
five [liers be used. Dredging of the rocky 
shoal at the point where the bridge is to 
be constructed has been recommended by 
Public Works engineer. Noted previnuslv 

Fredericton, N.B. 

Tenders fur Wilmot's low water 
will be received until .January 16th at the 
Department of Publie Works. 

London, Ont. 

The plebiscite un .|iu->iion of guarantee- 
ing the bonds of North Midland Kailway 
was carried. That for construction of 
bridge over the Thames was defeated. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

.1. I). Mac Arthur has been in the city 
iiivestig.'iting his chances for securing the 
contract for the construction of the Hud- 
son Hay Kailway. He is said to have infi 
mated that in case he is unable to get at 
least a slice of this contract, he will pro- 
ceeil to soil out the expensive plant acquir- 
ed in the construction of the National 

A. temiHirary arrangement has been 
reached between the G.T.R. and C.P.R., by 
which the former may run their tracks 
along O.P.U. property under the Welling- 
ton stree^t viaduct until such time as a 
permanent arrangement can be reached be- 
tween the two companies, thus avoiding 
the closing up of .1. R. Booth's mills, which 
would have been caused until such time a.s 
an agreement could bo reached since the 
logs, etc., going to the mills passed over 

the tracks of the O.T.B. TbeM to 
eiODSed Wellington street on the leT«t, 
The tracks were ordered removed sod the 
n T.K. to pass DDder the viadoet. 

Begin*, Saak. 

The Kailway Commission has approrad 
the cHy's plans for the Broad street sab- 
way was the news received here. Tb« 
jilans provide for a subway aoder 10 tracks, 
the whole to cost (280,000. The civic es- 
timates for the year fyled at the eooaeii 
meeting last night provide for an expeadi- 
ture of $40,000 next year, and it is pos- 
sible that more than that amooot wiU b* 
spent if the work progresses favorably. 
See "Miscellaneoas" for farther estiowtes. 

St. John, N.B. 

Wm. Murdoch is authority for the stat*- 
ment that there is talk of constractiag a 
new bridge, but nothing definite yet. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Contract has been awarded to Mmrb. 
T. B. Hinds and D. A. Deeks, by th« 1^ 
ronto Construction Company for the f»- 
maining 38 miles to Bethany, on the C.P. 
h line from Victoria Harbor to tidewater 
at Montreal. 

Public Buildings, Churches 
Schools, etc. 

Biacebridge, Ont. 

Queen °s Hotel was destroyed by fir* «■ 
the :!1 • • K.timsted loss about $1H, 

Brantford, Ont. 

The vote on the question of a post of- 
fice site is taken to mean that the govern- 
ment should secure its own site. The gov- 
•'rnment had promised a tl.SO.OOO poet of- 
■ -e if the city would provide a site. 

.Architect Green, of Buffalo, X.Y., bas 
been in consultation with the Hospital 
Board and Ladies' Auxiliary in regard to 
plans for hospital improvemesta. 

Calgary, Alta. 

The permit for the Mount Royal (Cal- 
gary) College was granted. The specil- 
cations call for a $4.'t,000 building. 

Cardston, Alt*. 

The Board of Trade are interested ia 
the establishment of a hospital. E. N. 
Marker has given a site. 

Ouelph. Ont. 

The Honiewood Sanitarium here was de- 
slroyeil by fire on the Ath iost. Lioes aboat 
$*r>.'0OU. Dr. Hobbs is interested. 

The campaign for raising $50,000 for 
V.M.C.A. building fund has beea laaach- 
ed. It is stated that the site haa beea se- 
lected on Quebec street oppo^te tbe Car- 
negie library. 

Oranby, Qna. 

The College of St. Joaeph was deatre7«4 
by fire on the 5th iast. Bstiaiated Tow 
about 1*5,000. 

London. Ont. 

The bylaw for a aew Olty Hall waa 




Lunenburg, N. S. 

Tenders addressed to K. C. Desrochers, 
secretary, Department of Public Works, 
will be receive diintil January 18th for 
electric light fixtures for Public Build- 
ing here. Plans, etc., on application to 
the local caretaker, district engineer, Hali- 
fax, and at the above department. 

Montreal, Que. 

Sir Liimer G-ouin received a deputation 
recently from the Council of the Bar, ask- 
ing for alterations and additions to the 
Court House Library. It is suggested 
that a gallery be constructed round the 
library to accommodate additional books. 
. The Premier approved of the plans sub- 
mitted and promised to submit tliera to 
the Department of Public Works. 

Details have now been settled for the 
opening of a Juvenile Court in Montreal. 
A Detention Home is to be procured be- 
fore the opening of the court. It is un- 
derstood that this will be a temporary 
arrangement and that after a year's ex- 
perience a special building will be erected. 

It is stated that the Montreal Musical 
Society, represented by Lieut. -Col. Mei- 
ghen and Mr. Harry Higgins, president 
Hotel Eitz Company, have been confer- 
ring together regarding the erection of a 
modern opera house. 

Mount Forest, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to B. C. Desroehers, 
.secretary Department of Public Works, 
will be received until January 30th for 
construction of public building here. Plans, 
etc., on application to local postmaster 
and at the offices of Thos. Hastings, clerk 
of works, postal station F, Yonge street, 
Toronto, and at the above Derpartment. 

Odessa, Ont. 

The Methodist Church here was destroy- 
eil by fire on .January 6th. Ijoss $20,00(1. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The plans for the new departmental 
building to be built by the Dominion gov- 
i^rument in Mackenzie avenue are near- 
ing comjdetion and it is expected that 
tenders will be called for in a few weeks. 
D. Ewart ,arehitect. 

Tenders addressed to D. T. Klilerkin, 
secretary. Eastern Ontario Live Stock and 
Poultry Show were called until January 
Dth for several trades in connection with 
tlie Howii'k Pavilion alterations. 

Pembroke, Ont. 

The People 's Theatre was destroyed by 
fire on the 4tli inst. Estimated loss on 
building, $10,000. .lames Stewart owner. 

Port -Arthur, Ont. 

N. G. Neill, Industrial Commissioner, in- 
forms us that the ratepayers authorized 
the expenditure of $12,000 for additions 
to present City Hall. 

P.ainy River, Ont. 

The money by-law for completing the 
fire hall .and purchase of new hose were 

Saskatoon, Sask. 

Plans were accepted for the erection of 
Emmanuel Divinity College, and instruc- 
tions given to the architects. Brown & 
\allance, Montreal, to call for tenders. 

Slierbrooke, Que. 

The ruling of the court holds that the 
school building in the Township of West- 
bury is unfit for occupation and that a 

new school should be erected in that dis- 

SI. Thomas, Ont. 

W. R. Darrach, St. Thomas, is the ar- 
chitect in charge of the alterations pro- 
posed for Alma College. Further particu- 
lars not ready for publication at present. 
Toronto, Ont. 

The first draft of plans are prepared for 
the new Students' Club Building in con- 
nection with the University of Toronto. 
Estimated cost about $300,000. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The exact location of the University of 
British Columbia has been selected -by the 
provincial government. The site chosen 
consists of 175 acres almost on the crown 
of Point Grey and overlooking the sea on 
three sides. A plan showing the land se- 
lected is being prepared by the surveyor- 

Victoria, B.C. 

The report of the fire wardens for the 
purchase of two sites for fire halls was 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The Board of Control invites the archi- 
tects resident in this city and registered 
in the Province of Manitoba, etc., to sub- 
mit designs for a contagious hospital. 
Particulars to be had from M. Peterson, 
secretary. Board of Control. Applications 
must be in by January 2.5th. 

Samuel Hooper, provincial architect, is 
preparing plans for new government build- 
ings to cost over $5,000,000, according to 
estimates. These buildings include new 
legislative buildings, a new agricultural 
college and a new asylum at Brandon to 
replace that destroyed by fire about a 
month ago. 

Chatham, N.B. 

The contract for erection of Salvation 
-•Vrmy headquarters has been awarded to 
John McDonald & Co. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The contract for erection of new isola- 
tion hospital was awarded under modifica- 
eation of original plans, to Wm. O'Dell, 
$49,986. The lowest tender on first plans- 
was about the same, but included heating. 
Other tenders were U. G. Patterson, $56 - 
465 C. F. Perry. $63,000. Heating, Mur- 
ray Bros, $3,200. The contract time has 
been extended from five to six months. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Dunn Bros., of Winnipeg, were awarded 
the contract for the steel work on the 
police sub-stations, at ,$7, '01. 


Montreal, Que. 

Building permit was issued to W. H. 
Creed for construction of apartment house 
on Cote des Neiges road, $90,000 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Thomas Deane has purchased five lots 
on Goulbourne avenue on which he will 
erect residences. 

Nimmo and Soper will build five or six 
fine residences in tlie spring, to cost around 
$6,000 each. 

Toronto, Ont. 

A permit has been issued to Mr. T. P. 
Stewart for apartment house, Oriole road' 
$30,000. ' 

Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

Belleville, Ont. 

The factory now operated by Mr. Dea- 
<on was destroyed by fire on January 7th. 
Estimated loss on building, $1,5,000. 

Calgary, Alta. 

The C.P.R., it is stated, have put in 
their estimates for the next year a request 
for an appropriation to complete the west 
wing of the station. 

Chatham, Ont. 

Under date of last information the con- 
tracts for construction of plant for West- 
ern Bridge & Equipment Co. had not been 
awarded. The building will be of steel 
frame and fireproof; size, ground floor, 82 
X 196. Estimated cost of building, $10,- 
000; of equipment, $10,000. Engineer, A. 
W. Connor, Toronto street, Toronto. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Fire destroyed the two storey frame 
building on First street occupied by the 
A Carruthers Fur Co., on the 31st ult. 
Loss estimated at $5,000. 

Fort Prances, Ont. 

Work has commenced on the new mills 
for the Shevlin-Clark Company, and it is 
expected they will be finished by June 1. 

Gilbert Plains, Man. 

The large brick store owner by Fred Da- 
vis has been recently destroyed by fire. 
Loss about $7,000. 

rijerville. Que. 

We understand that the Norcross Bros. 
Co., contractors and importers, whose pre- 
mises were destroyed by fire on December 
26th last, will commence rebuilding almost 

Islington, Out. 

The by-law granting site to a carpet fac- 
tory was carried. 

liacombe, Alta. 

The Victoria Hotel, Kasha & Curtice's 
implement warehouse, and other buildings 
were destroyed by fire on the 3rd inst 
Estimated loss, about $75,000. • 

Lake Megantic, Que. 

Tlie largest business block liere was de- 
stroyed by fire on the 4th inst. Loss, about 

London, Ont. 

The McClary Manufacturing Company 
has taken option on about 24 acres of 
bind between Trafalgar street and the 
Thames river as the site for further exten- 
sions. Other additions are under consid- 

Montreal, Que. 

Tenders are being invited by Messrs. Pe- 
den & McLaren, architects, Montreal, for 
some alterations in the Bank of Montreal, 
consisting of construction and moving of 
certain offices, and alterations in connec- 
tion with the teller's cages. 

Mr. H. Higgins, president of the Kitz 
Hotel Company, has announced that ar- 
rangements for erection of the hotel to be 
built on Sherbrooke street have been con- 
cluded. Mr. Wetmore, architect; Mr. Max- 
well, Montreal, associate architect. 

The Canada Rubber Company have 
taken out a permit to erect a factory cost- 
ing $250,000 on Monarch street. 

Mr. Wilder has purchased another large 
block of land on Bleury street, Montreal 
and intends erecting a ten-storey building 
there as soon as plans can be completed. 




New Westminster, B.C. 

Galliraitli & Sons will erect a large saw- 
mill and factory on Lulu Island, and havo 
applied to tlio' city for a 25-ycar lease. 
The mill will be three storeys, 40 x 225 x 
60 feet, it may ho necessary to submit 
the proposition to the ratepayers. 

North Hatley, Que. 

Messrs. Reed, McRae, McNcrny and 

Robinson, all of this place, and a recently 

lormed company, will erect a large sash 

id door mill and will operate the same. 

!on8truction will begin nt once. Cost 

ibout $2.5,000. 

Owen Sound, Ont. 

The Bell Telephone Company will erect 
new exchange on Ninth street east, two 
itoreys in height, with basement of con- 
rete construetaon. Cost of plunit and equip- 
ment, about $23,000. Total cost, includ- 
ig site and unilerirronnd conduits, about 

Pentlcton, B.C. 

A proposition is being entertained by 
local capitalists and others to build a large 
tourist hotel here at a cost of about $100,- 



Quebec, Que. 

Press reports state that tenders for de- 
molition of the old Champlain Market will 
fee called this weeh. When this is fin- 
i«hed tenders for construction of Trans- 
crntinental Depot will be called. Ksti- 
mated cost, $,^)00,000. Noted previously. 

Mr. Arthur K. Hcott, honorary treasurer 
,f the Quebec Board of Trade, has pur- 
lased the property forming the southeast 
orner of Mountain Hill and Notre Dame 
street, Lower Town. Mr. Scott, wo un- 
derstand, intends increasing the height of 
the building and fitting the same up as a 
modern office building. 

Price Brothers contemplate the erection 
[of new pulp and paper mills at Riviere <lu 
[Sable with the opening of spring. About 
(14,000 h.p. will be develoiied and a vil 
'lage established to accommodale in the 
neighborhood of 4,000 people. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 

Messrs. Howanl and (Uuff, representing 
the Steel & Radiation Co., Ltd., havo sign- 
ed an agreement with the city council to 
elect a new factory on a site near the new 
Welland Canal, next to .Tenckes' machine 


8t. John's, Que. 

S. M. Green, Springlield, Mass., is the 
architect in charge of the erection of fac- 
tory and power plant for the Cluett Pea- 
toody Company, headcpiarters, Troy, N.Y. 
Sizze, 200 x 86; number of iloors, five. If. 
G'. Clark, engineer in charge. Information 
sent under recen't date did not state whe- 
ther contracts were awarded. Noted in 
issue of December 14. 

Sydney, N.S. 

The following building permits have 
been issued: To V. L. Dixon for the erec- 
tion of a shed for brick storage for the 

: Dominion Steel Corporation, $4,000; to S. 

^H. Stevenson for the reconstructiion of the 
Alfonso Hotel, $.1,000. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Permit was issued to C. P. R. for 2-storey 
,. brick station, West Toronto, $20,000. 

Tbree Elvers, Que. 

Application has been made to the town 
by Messrs. Creenshields, .laques. Bureau 
and Craig, for exemption of taxes for 20 
years and eight-inch water mains on the 


streets surrounding the proposed property 
of the St. Maurice Valley Cotton Company, 
who propose to erect a million dollar build- 
ing devoted to cotton spinning. 

Plans are being prepared by Mr. T. 
Pringle, of Montreal, for the erection of 
a 100-ton pulp and paper mill here for 
the Wayagamite f.'oiivpany. Mr. C. H. 
Vi hitehead is in charge of affairs at Tbree 
Elvers. Work will be commenced in the 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The Eastern Townships Bank, is .stated 
to have purchased a site here suitable for 
the erection of a branch bank. Mr. J. 
-McKinnon. general manager, head office, 
Sherbrooke, Que. 

Newspapers reports state that Mr. C. II. 
Lilly, president of the C. H. Lilly Company 
rf Seattle, wholesale miller, grain and seed 
dealers, will establish a branch here and 
possibly erect in the near future a mill- 
ing plant. 

Plans were presented for large ware 
house, corner of Homer and Drake streets, 
to be built for VV. D. Morison, $6.'5,nOO. 
Contracts have been let. 

Victoria, B.C. 

Tenders were invited tOr a brick office 
building on Broad street until January I'l 
for P. B. Brown. H. S. Griffith, architect, 
1006 Government street. 

Mr. James K. Wilder has purchased lot 
176 St. Lawrence Ward, with buildings, at 
the corner of Sherbrooke and Bleury 
streets, Montreal, for the sum of $.50,000. 
He will probably erect an eight-storey 
building there. 

Vlrden, Man. 

The block owned by W. C. Wainwright 
was destroyed by fire on the 4+h inst. Es 
timated loss about $10,000. 

Welland, Ont. 

The work of tearing down the buildings, 
preparatory to the erection of Mr. John 
Goodwin's new block will commence about 
the 15th inst. 

Windsor Mills, Que. 

The Chatc.iu Windsor was burned to the 
ground on .Linu.iry .^th. Lku-.-. ioo.nnii 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Mr. Patterson, chairman of the tele- 
phone commission, has announced ths't 
early in the spring work will be com- 
menced on the extension of the Main Ex- 
change building on Portage avenue east. 
This will take the form of an addition to 
the building from the ground up, anil 
when completed will be used as the quar- 
ters of the commercial staff. 

The following building permits have 
been issued recently: Permit for a steam 
turbine power station to be erected by 
the Winnipeg Electric Railway Company 
on Mill street, $72,000. The ' Crane-Ord- 
V ay Company, Limited, will spend $;t3,l.'>0 
for additions and alterations to its ware- 
house on the east side of Lombard street. 


Montreal, Que. 

The Queen 's Hotel Comjiany will com- 
mence work on a seven-storey annex on 
St. James street, to cost $100,000. Saio & 
Archibald are the architects, and the con- 
tract has been awarde<l to Mr. Peter Lyall. 
Work to be finished by July Ist. 

The contract for the building of the two 
extra storeys on the extension of the Place 
Viger Station of the Canadian Parific Rail- 
way has been let to Stewart & Co.. and 

the construction work will be eoameacad 

in a few days. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Taylor tc Lackey have be«a award""' •'■'• 
contract for the i-arpenteriog work 
Slinn-Shouldis baki-rv. J. Mather, 

The steel for the Canada Foundry Com- 
pany for the Blackburn boilding has ar- 
rived. An effort is to be made to have 
this first section of the building •■oiralat- 
ed by Jnly Ist. Holbrooke t HuthaiUad, 
general contractors. 

Qnebee, Que. 

Simoneau & Dion, of Sherbrooke, have 
been awarded a $200,000 contract for an 
office building for the Quebec Railway, 
Heat k Power Company, at Qnebee. Tb« 
building munt be completed by November 

Saskatoon, Sask. 

The contract for erection of King 
(Jeorge Hotel here has been let to Carter, 
Halls and Aldinger of Winnipeg. $246,000. 
Total cost, about $400,000. The Saska- 
toon Inveatment and Trust Company are 

Power Plants, Electricity and 

Arthur, Ont. 

The by-law to take $30,000 stoek in the 
People's Railway carried. 

In West Garafraxa township the by-law 
to take $40,000 stock in the People's Rail 
way was defeated by a small majority. 

In Dundalk the bylaw to aid the P<-o 
pie's Railway was defeated by M majority. 

Cornwall, Ont. 

Messrs. Moloney and 1'. F. Campbell are 
reported to be I'onsidering plans for baild- 
ing a proposed electric railway Jwtwe**! 
Hawkesbury and Cornwall. 

Dundaa, Ont. 

The Hydro- Klectrie by-lsw was carried. 

Edmundston, NJB. 

The town clerk of Kdrauntoa publishes 
notice of application to the legislatare for 
authority for the town to issue bonds for 
$40,000 to establish an electric light and 
power plant, and to bnild and maintain a 
dam at the second falls at '' '" " ' " 
this purpose. 

Lunenburg, N.S. 

See Public Buildings. 

Owen Bound, Ont. 

See Public Buildings. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

.\n application will come up at the next 
meeting of the city conneil to give per- 
mission to the Morrixburg and Ottawa 
Electric Railway to come into the city 
.along Main street. Ottaws Kajit, eoDDeet- 
ing with the Ottawa Street Railway 

The White Way will be extended along 
Bank street and Rideau street. It is ex- 
pected that 40 ornamental poles will be 
needed for Rideau street and along Bank 
street. There is also a move to have the 
ornamental lights along Wellington street. 

Tenders addressed to Cbairmaa, M«ai- 
cipal Electric Department, will be received 
until January 13th for 150 ornamental 
posts and also 150 McBeth Evans alba 14- 

( continued on paf^ 90) 


Tenders and For Sale Department 

Steam Shovels 

We own and have for sale near Niagara Falls, 
2 Vulcan 75-ton, 2^ -yard steam shovels, late 
model with new extra large boilers and in ex- 
cellent condition ; also one 70- ton. These will 
stand most rigid inspection and we are offering 
them at unusually low prices. Confer with lis. 


171 La Salle St., 

Chicago, 111. 

Toronto Main Drainage 

Sealed Tenders addressed to the Chairman 
of the Board of Control, City Hall, Toronto, 
Canada, endorsed "Tender for Section No. 1, 
Low Level Interceptor," or "Tender for Lay- 
ing Reinforced Concrete Over-flow Pipe from 
Sewage Tanks," etc., as the case may be, for 
the construction of the several sections of Low 
Level Interceptor and other works, as men- 
tioned below, will be received by registered 
post only, until noon of TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 
7TH, 1911. 

The following is an approximate description 
of the various works: — 

1. Low Level Interceptor, Section No 1, Egg 

shape, 2 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. 4,566 lin- 
ear feet. 

2. Low Level Interceptor. Section No. 2, Egg 

shape, 3 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 9 in., 2,475 linear 

3. Low Level Interceptor, Section No. 3, Egg 

shape, 3 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 3 in., 2,295 linear 
feet; Circular, 4 ft. 6 in. diametef, 1,023 
linear feet. (Total length Section No. 3, 
3,318 linear feet). 

4. Laying reinforced concrete overflow pipe 

from sewage tanks, 292 linear feet of 60- 
inch circular pipe in lengths of about 24 

5. Cast Iron Penstocks for Low Level Inter- 


Tenderers shall submit with their tender the 
names of two personal sureties approved by the 
City Treasurer, or in lieu of said personal sure-' 
ties the bond of a Guarantee Company, approved 
as aforesaid. 

Specifications may be obtained from, and or- 
iginal drawings will be on file and can be seen 
at the Main Drainage Department, City En- 
gineer's Office, on and after January 9th, 1911. 

For the convenience of Contractors, sets of 
blue prints have been prepared and will be is- 
sued to contractors, upon application to the 
City Engineer and upon receipt of deposits as 
follows: For items 1, 2 and 3 combined, $5.00; 
for item 4, $2.00, and for item 5, $2.00. De- 
posits should be made by cheque payable to the 
City Treasurer. The deposits will be refunded 
upon return of blue prints in good condition 
within thirty days of receiving tenders. 

The usual conditions relating to tenders as 
prescribed by City By-law must be strictly com- 
plied with or the tender will not be entertained. 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 

G. R. GEARY (Mayor), 
Chairman, Board of Control. 

City Hall, Toronto, 

January 3rd, 1911. 2-4 


Adverttsetnents under this heading one cent a^vord 
Per insertion. Box No, ten cents extra 

Agents Wanted 

Agents wanted in all parts of Canada to 
handle wood preserving for Poles, Cross-Arms, 
Railroad Ties and Construction Timber. For 
particulars write W. D. Ward, Tribune Build- 
ing, New York. 1-2 


Sealed tenders arc asked (for all and part) 
for Brick Church, Foldens. Tenders open till 
JANUARY 14TH, 1911. For plans, etc., see 
Wm. Pullin (chairman), or 0. W. Budd (secre- 
tary), Foldens, Ont. Bell phone service 49, ring 
14, Ingersoll. Lowest tender not necessarily 

52-2 Foldens, Ont. 

City of Winnipeg 
Tenders for 

Pumping Machinery 

Sealed tenders addressed to the Chairman, 
Board of Control, Winnipeg, Canada, will be 
received at the office of the undersigned up to 11 
a.m., on MONDAY, FEBRUARY 6TH, 1911, for 
the manufacture, delivery and erection complete 
of Two Pumping Plants each of a capacity of 
one million imperial gallons per 24 hours. Speci- 
fications and forms of tender, together with con- 
ditions governing tenders as prescribed by by- 
law, may be obtained at the office of the City 
Engineer, 223 James Avenue, Winnipeg. The 
city reserves the right to reject any or all ten- 
ders, or to accept any bid which appears ad- 
vantageous to the city's interest. 


Board of Control Office, 

Winnipeg, Jan. 6th, 1911. 2-3 

Extension of Time 

City of Regina 

Tenders for Power Plant 

Tenders are asked for by the City of Regina 
for the supply and installation of any or all of 
the following, together with the necessary con 
nections ready for operation: 

1 1500 k.w. Steam Turbine Generating Unit. 

1 500 k.w. D.C. Generating Unit. 

2 500 Horse Power Boilers. 
1 Economizer. 

1 Hand Power Travelling Crane. 
1 Coal and Ash Conveyer. 

Tenders will be received for the above until 
noon, TUESDAY, JANUARY 31, 1911. Speci- 
fications and all information will be furnished 
on application to the undersigned or to E. W. 
Bull, City Electrician. 

(Signed) A. J. McPHERSON, 
51-2 City Commissioner. 

Positions Wanted 

Advertisements under this heading^ one cent a ivord 
per insertion. Box No. ten cents extra 

MAN.- — 14 years' experience, capable of hand- 
ling large projects as well as ordinary commis- 
sions, managing an office and interviewing 
clients. Four years' private practice. At lib- 
erty May 1st. Vancouver, Victoria or other 
Pacific coast cities preferred. Address LOUIS 
R. CHRISTIE, 2542 North Spaulding Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. 2-3 

Positions Vacant 

Advertisetnents under this keadinj^ two cents a 
word per insertion 

WANTED IMMEDIATELY. — Competent archi- 
tectural draftsman. Must be first-class on de- 
sign, working drawings, details, and perspectives 
rendered in colors, and be capable of taking 
charge of office in western city. State salary 
expected; send samples of work. Only first- 
class men need apply. Address Box 187 ''Con- 
tract Record." Toronto. 2-3 

An Experimental Bead at Ithaca, K.T. 

An experimental road was constructed 
during 1909 and 1910 by the co-operation 
of the U. S. Office of Public Koads and 
the Sibley College of Civil Engineering at 
Cornell University. The general plan of 
these tests is much the same as that of the 
Ohio State Highway Commission at Col- 
umbus, Ohio. 

The Ithaca road is described in the Oc- 
tober number of the "Cornell Civil En- 
gineer" by Mr. Charles 11. Hoyt, U. S. 
Superintendent of Public Road Construc- 
tion. It is built in widths of 16 feet in 
15 sections as flolows: 

Section 1 — Coal-gas tar, penetration me- 
thod, 300 feet; Section 2— Coal-gas tar, 
mixing method, 300 feet; Section 3 — Pav- 
ing brick grouted with cement, macadam 
foundation, 306 feet; Section 4 — Semi-as- 
phaltic oil, mixing method, 275 feet; Sec- 
tion 5 — Refined a.sphaltic oil, penetration 
method, 300 feet; Section 6 — Refined semi- 
asphaltic oil, penetration method, 300 feei; 
Section 7 — Kentucliy rock asphalt, 300 
feet; Seotion 8 — Refined ■water-gas tar, 
penetration method, 300 feet; Section 9 — 
Refined semi-asphaltic oil, penetration 
method, 300 feet; Section 10 — Open-hearth 
.slag water-gas tar, penetration method, 
100 feet; Seotion 11 — Open-hearth slag, 
200 feet; Section 12— Semi-asphaltic oil, 
mixing method, 260 feet; Section 13 — Cin- 
der concrete, 35 feet; Section ■ 14— Lime- 
stone concrete asphalt paint coat, 30 feet; 
Section 1.5 — Limestone concrete, 500 feet. 

The work was interrupted by the com- 
ing of winter, and in the following spring 
a legal question, involving the right of 
way, delayed the work until this last fall, 
when it was again resumed. It is, there- 
fore, too early to draw any conclusions as 
to the respective wearing properties of 
the various materials. It would appear, 
from descriptions on the two experiments, 
that the Ithaca road does not have nearly 
as much traffic as the Columbus one. 

Nap. Leblanc, lumber merchant, St. 
Pierre de Wakefield Que., is stated to have 
sold assets. 

Miramiehi Pulp & Paper Company, 
Limited, manufacturers of pulp, are stated 
to be in liquidation. 

The manse and building board of the 
Presbyterian Church has authorized loans 
for the boiilding of churches at Dayton, 
Alta., Netherhale, Sask., Bowell, Alta., 
Grassy Lake, Alta., and Kinsela, Sask. 
Manses will be erected at Woldon, Moss 
Lake, and Eyebrow in Saskatchewan; at 
Creston, C.B., and at Whitewater. Per- 
mission has laeen granted to the congre- 
gation at Ochre to float a loan for the 
purpose of erecting a church building and 



Power Plants, Electricity and 

(Continued from pag<i 29) 

Tnch riobcs and 600 McBcth Evans alba 
12-incb globes. J. E. Brown, electncal sup- 

Applieation for a charter will bo made 
|,v the Imperial Traction Company to build 
nroposed railways, telcj,'raph and tclephono 
nes to connect Hamilton, Ouclph, Strat- 
iTd St Marys, London, ln(,'ersoll, Wood- 
lock and Brantford, and bael< to Tlamil- 
in with branches to Niagara Falls and to 
ir'nia It is reported tliat construction 
11 heL'in in the spring on proposed net- 
orl< of lines. nead(|uarters, Hamilton; 
ipital, $6,000,000; directors: L. B. How- 
lid, of Toronto; Roger Millar, of InKer- 
(11; aoo. M. Keid, of London, and S. W. 
ly, of Listowol. 

"enticton, B.C. 

Tlie bv law to raise $71,000 for the in- 
lallatioii. of electric Ii>;ht service was car- 

Prescott, Ont 

The Alniiiinium Company of America 
l^ave purchased S.-^OO acres of land, includ- 
IH)« Barnliart's Island, in St. Lawrence ri- 
I^Kr They propose, it is stated, installing a 
I^Blant capable of developing 300,000 h.p. 



Messrs. Morrow & Beattie, Peterborough, 
Ont., $51,220, providing it is satisfactory to 
the Board of Control, City Attorney and 
Engineer. Boss & Uolgate, Montreal, will 
supervise the construction of plant until 
complete. The above contract does not 
include the hydraulic and electrical ma- 
chinery. Work will be commenced at once, 
it is stated. Total cost of development, 

Victoria, B.C. 

Tlio tender of Messrs. Hawkins & Hay- 
Hard for the supply of the following num- of articles, at the following prices, was 
recommended for acceptance by Electric 
Light Committee 2.';0 lamps at $127 per 
hundred; one gross of 14-in. globes at $270; 
two gross of 12-in. globes at $162. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The board of control has recommended 
for acceptance the tender of Sicmans 
Bros. Dynamo Works, Toronto, for supply 
of motor generators, $16,410. 


' 'Mj; iDiTcaxe of wat«r aopply 

1(0,000; city's share of pare- 

,1); Broad street nubway. $*.*;.- 



>ort Arthur, Ont. 

We are informeil that tlie ratepayers 
„i,thorizod the expenditure of $15,000 for 
improvement to street lighting. N. U. 
" eill, industrial commissioner. 

legina, Sask. 4 , , ^ 

Tenders addressed to 8. P. Porter, deputy 
Minister of Railways, will bo received un- 
til January for supply of telephone 
poles. Particulars obtained on application 
' •) the above. 

Bids will be received January 17th by 

1 J McPherson, City Commissioner, for 
burnishing and installing the followings:— 
k 1.500 k.w. steam turbine generating unit. 
(A 1 100 k.w. steam turbine genorat- 
ling ukit; 500 k.w. d.c. generating unit; 500 
'h p boiler, economizer; hand-power travel- 
ling crane, and a coal and ash conveyor. 
iTS W. Bull, City Electrician. 

Strathroy, Ont. 

Tlie by-law to raise $6,000 for improve- 
rwents to the electric light and waterworks 
[systems carried. 

I Thorold, Ont. 

Local improvement and two power by- 
flaws vere carried. 

f Winnipeg, Man. 

See I'iil)lic Buildings. 

The sum of $80,000 was recommended 
for the construction of power conduits on 
the main citv thoroughfares, viz.: On Maiu 
street from lliggins avenue to Graham 
street, on Portage avenue from Main to 
Carlton; on Notre Dame from Portage to 
King, and on MeDermot avenue from 
Main to King. 


Begina, Sask. 

The City Council decided to place an or- 
der with the Ottawa Car Company for four 
single and two double-truck cars for the 
new municipal street railway, under con- 
struction. Delivery July 5th, 1911. 

Sherbrooke, Que. 

The contract for development of tlie 
Drop Off power here has been awarded to 

Montreal, Que. . 

Tenders are to bo invited by the Kichi- 
lieu & Ontario Navigation Company for 
two large ferries for the Bourcherville t 
Longueil services from Montreal. 

City Attorney Ethier has completed a 
draft of contemplated bylaws showing 
what loans the city may float during the 
current year, as follows Four and a half 
millions for various public works. Five 
millions in order to construct underground 
conduits. One and a half millions to in- 
stal a filtration plant. One million to be 
used as a working capital. Two millions 
to be (borrowed in order to instal an elec- 
tric municipal lighting plant. These await 
approval of Council. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to the Secretary of 
the Militia Council will be received until 
January 20th for supply of target frames. 

The permits taken out recently include: 
W. A. Gardner, dwelling, Heney street, $3,- 
500; J. W. Fcatherston, dwelling. Bay 
street, $3,000; Gordon Rogers and E. K. 
McNeill, oce building. Queen street, Geo. 
Tomlinson, builder, solid brick construc- 
tion, $10^00; W. Hunt, shop and dwelling. 
Division street, $3,000; Ottawa Electric 
Railway, addition and power house. Middle 
street, $7,000; O. K. McDonald, dwelling, 
Arlington avenue, $3,000; William Coats, 
dwelling, Clarey avenue, $3,600. 

Port Arthur, Ont. 

Wo are informed that the ratepayers 
have authorized the expenditure of $20,- 
000 for fire alarm system. N. G. Neill. 
industrial commissioner. 

Begina, Sask. 

rhe City Commissioner recommends that 
the follow"ing programme of work be com- 
pleted this year ponding the confirmation 
of the new assessment roll: — Extension to 
power plant, $100,000; fire hall equipment, 
$7,185; sower and water extensions, $20, 
000; increase of water works supply. $10,- 
000; city's share of pavements, $30,000; 
trunk sewer and disposal works, $51,800; 
Broad street subway, $40,000. After the 
confirmation of the assesment roll he re- 
commends that the following work be done 
— Trunk sewers — Extension east to Toron- 
to street. $25,000; completion of disposal 
^vorks, $51,700: Wascana Valley trnnk sew- 
er, $90,000; total, $166,700. Sewer and Wa 
terworks Extensions (inehiding damage 


— !■' 
lupiitr, r 


Toronto, Ont, 

Recent building permits iDclnde: W. 
Burton, 3 attached 2-»ty. brick dweUiflga, 
..n Symington, $6,000; McCaualaad & 
Black, 3 att. 2sty. brick dwellingt, 84, 26 
and 28 Shirley, $6,000; J. M. Lowes Com- 
pany, 3-»ty. brick warehonie, »2 Sber- 
bourne street, $l6/)00; E. B. Smith EaUU. 
alterations to store, rA Yonge, »4,50<^ M. 
Hawlinson, 3»ty. brick stable, on St. Nich 
olas, $Ht,000; Mrs. W. H. Barker, pair 
semi-detached 2»ty. brick dwelling!, 456 H 
Margueretta, $4,000; H. J. Oee, 3 pair aemi- 
d( taacbed 2Kty. brick dwellings, Palmer- 
ston (Jardcns, $12,000; F. B. Allan, 2-aty. 
brick factory, on Ix>gan, $7,000; Toronto 
Feed 4 Produce Company, 2»ty. brick 
warehouse, on 106 Vine atreet, $8,000; J. 
1. Farrell, 2 detached 2H-tty. brick dwell 
inga, 161 3 Campbell a venae, $4,600; T. I'. 
Stewart, 2-sty. brick apartments, on ea»t 
side Oriole, $30,000; A. W. Pike, 3 deUch 
e(' 2-8ty. brick dwellings, on south side of 
Uewson, $7,.500. 

Victoria, B.C. 

The tender* ree«iTed for motor apparatus 
for fire purposes were recommended aa fol- 
lows: One Seagrave combination hose and 
chemical wagon, as per specifications, for 
the Hum of $6,725. One Seagrave ho»e wa^ 
gon, as i»er specifications, $6,334. Both of 
these machines are motor propelled. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Permits were granted recently aa fol- 
lows: Dr. Mc Alpine, Point Orey road, $2.5,- 
000; C. E. Strong, 1552 Twelfth avenue 
east, three houses, $6,000; Baker ft Hay, 
12 Hamilton street, warehouse, $18,000; 
R Brant, 556 Eighth avenue east, $S/X)0; 
Findlav 4 Anderson, 1456 Eighth avenue 
east, $3,000; L. Elliott. 1350 Walnut atreet, 
$.1,500; William Mitchell, 1222 Twelfth 
avenue east, $2,550. 

The following tenders for the new hoapi- 
tal boat were received and referred to the 
chairman and medical health officer: Hof 
far Motor Boat Company, Campbell engine. 
$1,786; Page Gasoline Engine and Supply 
Company, Campbell engine. $4,786; N. O. 
Ross, boat to be remodelled, $4,900. 

New Companies 

Internationa Contracting Company, lim- 
ited, Winnipeg, Man., incorporated, capi- 
al, $.50,000,000. Incorporators, B. Lu^h 
Miller and h. W. Peters, financial broker*, 
8 H. Green and E. R. Chapman, barris- 
t,:rs, all of Winnipeg. Besides contracting, 
lumbering, manufacturing, oil refining aa-l 
shipbuilding, the company i* empowered 
to acquire the carbon oil works. 

Revnolds Company, Limited Montrea'. 
Que..' capital, $20,000. Incorporators, Per- 
cy C. Ryan advocate; Romeo Houle real 
estate agent: Agenor H. Tann-r and Bi->- 
sel T. Stackhouse, advocates, and EdouaM 
Rodier, manager, all of Moat'eal. The 
company to engage in cto'tr ..-tjon, eto 

Mahonev' Building Company, Umi'e •. 
incorporated, Guelph, Ont.. capital, tfC.- 
000. Incorporators, J. .T. Mahonev, r>»a»- 
terer. W. A. Mahonev, architect, and H. 
Mahonev, plumber, all of Guelph. 

The Insufance Brokerage 4 Contra -Leu 
Company, Limited, incorjwrated, TorontJ. 
Ont., capiul, $.'>0.000. Incorporator*. M. 
r. Van der Voort, barrister, and J. Le-» 
Galloway, accountant, both of Toronto, 


Tests of Reinforced Concrete Columns 

By H. Burchartz, Gross-Lichterfelde. 

Extensivo tests have been made in the Royal Testing La'.oi 
atory at Gross-Lielitcrfelde on reinforced concrete columns in 
order to determine tlie influence on tlio strength of the rein- 
forcement in general and especially of the kind of cross-rein- 
forcement (bands and hoops). Professor Rudelofif lias recently 
reported on the results of these tests in the fifth volume of the 
imblieations of the German committee on reinforced concrete. 

In the following paragraphs is given a brief summary of tlie 
results of the tests. 

The tests were made in two series. In the first series 13 
columns of 2-m (78 inches) length were tested. Eleven col- 
umns hajd a 30-cm (12-inch) square section and two columns an 
octagonal section. The longitudinal reinforcement consisted 
in all cases of four round steel bars of 16-mm (%-inch) diam- 
eter. The cross-reinforcement was of various types, made with 
wire 7 mm. (about i/i-ineh) thick. 'I'he concrete was gauged 
with a large percentage of water so as to obtain a soft con- 

The tests demonstrated the well-known fact that the influ- 
ence of the reinforcement is much less than that due to the 
care in tamping. Besides this fact the surprising result was 
found that all columns when tested broke at the end last tamp- 
ed whether this end was placed in the top or bottom of the 
testing machine. 

Some specimens gave very anomalous results and these devi- 
ations appear to have been caused partly by the columns being 
made in the open air, partly in moist and partly in dry weather. 

On account of this result of series 1 it was found necessary 
to undertake further tests, series 2. The columns for this series 
were made in a closed room kept as uniformly warm and moist 
as possible. Their length was only 90 cm (about 35 inches). 
Of the seven kinds of columns tested five had square sections 
with four 16-mm (^-inch) round longitudinal bars each; two 
had octagonal sections with eight 8-mni (^-le-inch) or 11-nim 
(7-16-'inch) longitudinal bars each. The cross-reinforcement of 
spiral steel bars and partly of rings made with 6-mm (14-inch) 
rods; whereas the square columns were reinforced with various 
kinds of bands of 7-mm. wire. 

The results of the second series show :\ greater uniformity 
than those of the first one. For instance, the columns without 
reinforcement showed by far the greatest increase in cross-sec- 
tion and the least resistance. The two octagonal columns rein- 
forced with steel rings carried the largest loads up to the be- 
ginning of the formation of cracks and up to fracture. 

As in the first series it was observed in the second with nearly 
all columns that failure began at the end last tamped. In 
ord«r to learn the reason for failure at this point another col- 
umn was tamped and immediately after tamping samples of 
the concrete were taken from various parts of the column 
and examined for content of water, content of cement and 
weight per volume. This examination showed that the content 
of water and also of cement increased from the bottom to the 
top, although to a slight extent only, but that the weight per 
volume was without doubt greatest at the bottom and less 
at the top of the column. The top, which naturally was sub- 
jected to loss tamping and was consequently less dense than 
the other parts of the columns, showed the least resistance. 

Cost of a "Rattler" Brick Testing Outfit 

For several years p.nst the vitrified blocks used by the city 
engineer's department of Baltimore, Md., have been tested for 
abrasion by the Highways Division of the Maryland Geological 
Survey. Last year, however, the city decided to install a rat- 
tler at the city yard for the' department's use. The rattler is 
the standard TCational Brick Manufacturers' Association ma- 
chine, 28 inches in diameter, 20 inches long within heads. The 
barrel is a regular polygon of 14 sides and contains about 12,018 
cubic inches. It was manufactured bv Olsen Bros., Philadel- 

phia, Pa. The machine is driven by a 5 h.p. Westinghousc 
Type A, single phase electric motor, making 1,710 revolutions 
per minute. The speed was geared down at the rattler end 
of the belt to produce 30 revolutions per minute. The speed 
in operation runs from 1,7!>0 to 1,801 revolutions per hour and 
is very satisfactory in that respect. The first test of vitrified 
block with the outfit was made August 31st, 1909. The cost of 
the outfit and the expenditures during the year ending December 
31st, 1909, were: 

One vitrified block rattler with beJt .'|ilB2.30 

One ."5 h.p. motor 150.00 

Cast steel shot 12.00 

Freight and drayage 10.20 

Building foundations and remodelling shed.. 53.32 

One set scales 8.70 

New cast-iron shot 10.20 

One new pulley 5.20 

One revolution counter 4.00 

Electric installation 37.64 

Electric Co.'s electric connection 3.73 

Electric current 5.69 

Total $493.18 

Strengthening Old Wrought-Iron Trestle with 

A most important use of concrete in engineering structures 
is the method which lias been adopted for the strengthening 
of the old wrought-iron trestle approaches to the Danville, Illi- 
nois, railroad bridge, and the St. Charles bridge. These struc- 
tures, which were built many years ago, were constructed of 
Phoenix columns, with diagonal tie rods. With the great in- 
crease, says the "Scientific American," that has come of late 
years in the weight of trains, it has become necessary either 
to strengthen these trestles or remove them altogether. The 
former course was followed; and the method adopted was to 
inicase the columns in concrete. Tests of the strength of these 
reinforced compression members show that the addition of the 
concrete has raised their strength fully 50 per cent. 

A vibrator for compacting concrete roadways instead of the 
usual tamping methods was employed in building the Hunger 
Bmilevanl at Dallas, Tex., by Mr. R. C. Stubbs, of that city, 
who has secured a patent for his device. The subgrade, accord- 
ing to "Good Roads," was prejiared in the usual manner and 
finished with its surface 5 inches below the grade established 
for the pavement surface. A 1:3:6 concrete, mixed in an Austin 
cube mixer, was then spread to the full depth of 5 inches and 
struck to the proper grade. A coating of medium sized broken 
stone was then placed upon the surface and boards or plat- 
forms laid over the pavement. Upon these the vibrator was 
operated, the planking being moved forward when one section 
had been consolidated. The vibrator consists of a motor-driven 
mechanism mounted upon a hand truck, through which the vi- 
brations set up are transmitted to the planking and thence to 
the concrete ibelow. The operation serves not only to consoli- 
date the concrete itself, but also to embed the stones in the 
upper portion of the concrete. The machine has a rated capa- 
city of 1,000 square yards of pavement per nine-hour day. The 
advantages of this method of consolidating concrete pavements, 
as set forth by its inventor, are that a greater density and 
more even texture in the concrete are obtained than is possible 
by ordinary tamping. The rapid succession of comparatively 
light blows delivered by the vibrator, in conjunction with the 
weight of the apparatus, are more effective, it is claimed, than 
tamping, since the air and water are driven out and the result- 
ing mixture is practically without voids. Another advantage 
is said to be that all parts of the pavement may be made equally 
dense; the combination depending upon a mechanical process 
capable of exact regulation. 



Contractors and Builders Supplies 

Crushed Stone 

For Concrete Fireproof Construction, Roadwork and Sidewalks 

Rubble, Portland Cement 

CRUSHED GRANITE for Floors and Sidewalks 


Crescent Fire Brick 

We are exclusive Distributing Agents for this high grade, hand- 
made fire brick. Large stock always on hand. 

Don't forget our Prompt Delivery Service. 

The Rogers Supply Co. - Toronto 

Head Office: 28 King Street West Phone Main 4155 











Here Is the first Smith Mixer. It 
was brilt in 1900 and is still working 
steadily and turning out high class 
concrete. It is one of an army of 
over 4,000, which are without excep- 
tion giving satisfaction. Not one 
failure out of 4,000 machines is an 
unequalled record. 

This illustral 
Mixer, moun 
and Boiler, 
cause it is fou 
portant concr 

Ask any uset 
Smith. Asktl 
why they spe 

The Smith Mixer, 


Montreal, 318 St. James St. 
Toronto, 73 Victoria St. 
Cobalt, opp. Right of Way Mine 



rd Smith 
with Engine 
o you be- 

H' )rity of im- 
n Canada. 

nks about the 
ind Engineers 
th — There are 


This is one of the latest Smith pro- 
ducts — a hand-mixer that meets a cer- 
tain demand for small concrete jobs. 
We can't tell you how it operates here, 
but will be glad to send you full 

Our Concrete Mixing Equipment also includes: 
Chicago Concrete Mixers, Concrete Hoists, 
Concrete Buckets and Skips, Concrete 
Barrows, Carts and Cars, Etc., Etc. 

s Dcttcr, Mixes Faster, Mixes Cheaper and 
the Work Better than any Other Mixer Made 


Winnipeg, 259-261 Stanley St 
Calgary, Crown Block. 
Vancouver, Mercantile Bldg. 



Glidden Concrete Floor Dressing 

ior the maintenance of concrete floors ; protecting them 
against abrasion and wear. 

Notice the surface of a concrete floor. The grating action of 
the toot with this rough surface constantly loosens dust partic- 
les of concrete. This condition is detrimental to both floors 
and contents of room. Reinforces soft disintegrated floors. 

Glidden Concrete Floor Dressing 

will absolutely preserve the floors and prevent dust formation. 
Reduces vibration and produces a soft easy tread. 

Write for booklet containing specifications and description oj 
the many Glidden Concrete Finishes — including the above 

The Glidden Varnish Co. 



Branches and Warehoute* 
Atlanta Boston Chicago New York St. Louis 


Wire Rope 

any size 

for all purposes 

Every "Hepburn" Derrick, when it leaves our works, is equipped with an ample 
lenglh of first quality wire rope. 

But one Derrick will outlive many 
a rope. Our Wire Rope is 

Strong, Flexible 


Thoroughly Tested 

When your old rope is worn, when 
you need wire rope ot any size, in 
any quantity or for any purpose, you 
cannot do better than send direct to 
us for it. 

Let us send you Quotations 

JOHN T. HEPBURN, 18-40 Van Home Street, Toronto, Canada 




(ontract Record 

Buildinj;. Contracting. EnjineerinjJ, Public Works 

Municipal Prcgremi. Advance Information 

Pdblishbd Kach Wednbsday by 

HUGH G. Maclean, limited 

HUGH O. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President 
THOMAS 8. YOUNG, General Manager. 


- 220 King .Street West, TORONTO 
Telephone Main 2362 

MONTREAL Telephone Main 2299 B34 Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone 224 - 404 Travellers' Bldg 
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CHICAGO 4069 Perry Street 

LONDON, ENG. .... 8 Regent St., S.W. 

Canada and Great Britain, $2.00 U.S. and Foreign, $2.60 

Vol. 25 

January ii, 191 1 

No. ■^ 

New Offices of the Contract Record 

For tilt' i)ast t;ightecii ycfirs tlie Toronto offices of the 
"Contract Record" have l)eeii located in the (Confedera- 
tion Life Building. From time to time additional ac- 
commodation was secured to meet the growth of the 
business. This being no longer possible, we have now 

.New llfH(i(jiiai ifiK ul ilu- I oiititict Keooiil 
at 220 King Street West, Toronto 


removed to the new building illustrated above at 220 
King street west, where a most cordial welcome will be 
extended to our friends and everyone interest in engin- 
eering and contracting. May the reader consider this 
a personal invitation to visit us iu our new home. 
With the greater facilities and better equipment of 

our iicTV building, coupled with an efficient organiza- 
tion, the "Contract Record" will not only maintain it* 
present strong position, bat will forge ahead to a much 
higher standard of eflSciency and usefulnem. Watch 
its development during 1911! 

Conditions in Transcontinental Railroad Camps 

Last Sepleniber, the Xorwcgian consul at .M'lrifrf-al. 
Mr. Jaeobson, sent his countrymen a warning .itr-'iinst 
coming to Canatla to engage in railroad construction, 
stating that the contractors in this country were both 
inhuman and unfair. 

According to official statistics, some 35.000 men are 
employed on Canadian railroad construction, and with 
the rapid developments of the field and the ever-grow- 
ing demand for labor, it is most desirable in the interestn 
of the country at large and the contractors in particular 
that .statements like those made by Mr. Jaeobson should 
be discussed fairly. 

The nuitter is recalled by a letter written by one. 
Gubrandscn, publishtnl in the Montreal Star of recent 
date. Mr. Gubranden. having worked for seven years 
on the railroads of eastern Canada, both on construction 
and as a sub-contractor, has some claim to authority. His 
comjjlaints, in the present case, are laid exclusively 
against the N.T.R. Much of this construction, he .says. 
is carried on in the wilderness and the labor conditions 
should be supervised by the government. Not only are 
the sanitary conditions of living bad. but the camps 
themselves are badly constructed and unhealthy, besides 
being inade(|uately protected against damp and cold. 
Tn addition to this, they are congested and stuffy, and 
altogether make excellent breeding places for innumer- 
able diseases. 

.As for the system of medical inspection, according to 
this writer it is often a farce. In ca.scs of emergency 
instruments and appliances are seldom available. At 
one camp where Gubrandsen remained for nine months 
the only medical appliance kept at the contractor's 
office was a case containing one roll of absorbent cotton 
—no carbolic acid or salve of any kind. 

A particular grievance is that connected with fhc sys- 
tem of payment. It is claimed that laborers have to 
sacrifice ten cents on the dollar in order to cash the 
orders and chef|iies for their wages. 

All kinds of advantage, it would appear, arc taken by 
the contractor over those who take subcontracts for sec 
tions of the track. The contractor supplies the stores, 
food and equipment and charges pretty much as he likes 
for them. Tn this connection Mr. Gubrand.sen writes: 

"In order to show what the con t raptors timially par the «ii*> 
contractors for the work in the castcrti part of the National 
Transcontiiiontjil Railw.ny, I jfivc the following price*: 

"Mininp of stock is paid at the rate of from 95 cents up to 
•H per cubic yards. The contractor generanr receives t\J50 
or more. 

"As regards prices of supplies, there is an item for two kortM 
about $7 a day. AH the working days in the week bare to be 
paid for, whether the horses are used or not. 

"On dynamite and powder the contractors charge a prollt of 
about 100 per cent, of the original price, and on clothes the 
increase is about the same. I am prepared at any time to gire 
detailed n -omfs fmm various mnlr.ictors nrovinc this state- 

The manner in which the interests m trio v .- .>f 

accidents and explosions are neglected is dis- . - i it 
some length. Many deaths occur and little or no effort 
is made to locate the relatives. The system employed 
by the contractors is claimed to be primitive and Uif 



books in which the labor is entered up are of little value. 
The foregoing is only the gist of the letter, but the 
statements are reproduced impartially. We cannot but 
think that if such letters as these appear in the public 
press and remain unconfuted, the effect will be inimical 
to the interests of those connected with railroad con- 
struction. Indeed, it may help to develop a situation 
that will be a menace to the progress of our most im- 
portant national enterprise. Without the personal 
knowledge of the conditions that would enable us to 
speak with authority, we cannot adduce any weighty 
arguments in favor of the contractor. The contractor 
himself is able to make the most abiding impression, and 
it will certainly be advantageous to hear from him at 
this time. 

Skilled Labor for Concrete Work 

The fallacy that concrete can be properly mi.xed and 
placed by any kind of labor under any kind of supervi- 
sion is fast disappearing. A very pertinent clause re- 
lating to this subject appeared in the specitications for 
concrete work on a large contract recently placed with 
the Aberthaw Construction Company, of Boston, Mass. 
This clause is as follows : 

All reinforced concrete must be constructed by labor- 
ers skilled in this special field and under the supervision 
of an expert in reinforced concrete construction. The 
loads and stresses in the proposed construction are high 
and while the design has been carefully prepared with 
due consideration of safety factors and accurate loca- 
tions for steel, much depends on the manner in which 
the work is executed, and the engineer will not jeopar- 
dize the work by permitting incompetent workman- 

Specifications as they Affect the Contractor 

A paper entitled "Specifications from a Contractor's 
Point of View" was read a short time ago by James 
Parkinson, a contractor, before the Liverpool Archi- 
tectural Society. Some of the points made in the follow- 
ing extract will doubtless appeal to quite a few of our 
readers : 

A specification is always preceded by a number of conditions, 
pains and penalties, making the contractor responsible for every 
conceivable act or damage to property or life. With the ma- 
jority of these conditions I agree, as it tends to make the care- 
less contractor more careful regarding the scaffolding, etc. There 
are some clauses, I think, which require leaving out and others 
inserted in their place. First is that of the architect appointing 
himself the arbitrator as to the full meaning of the specification 
and drawings, which is binding on all parties without appeal. 
This, to my mind, is not fair between man and man, and de- 

Forthcoming Conventions 

Jan. 24-27. at Winnipeg; Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers. — Secretary, C. H. McLeod, 413 Dor- 
chester street, Montreal. 

Feb. 15-16 at Winnipeg; Canadian National Associa- 
tion of Builders.— Secretary, J. H. Lauer, Builders' 
Exchange, Montreal. 

March 6-11 at Toronto; Canadian Cement and Concrete 
Association (convention and exhibition). — -Secre- 
tary, Wm. Snaith, 57 Adelaide east, Toronto. 

prives one of their rights to sue, and is contrary to common 

Second, a clause reading: "No compensation will be made 
to the contractor for any losses or increased outlay they may 
incur arising from errors in the said drawings and specifica- 
tion." Also another on the same: "If any portion of the work, 
reasonably and obviously to be inferred as necessary, shall not 
be expressly described, either in the quantities or on the draw- 
ings, the contractor shall execute the same in a satisfactory 
manner without any extra charge on the amount of estimate." 

I think enough responsibility is placed on the contractor in 
being responsible for damage to property and life without being 
made responsible for the architect's and surveyor's mistakes 
and omissions in the drawings and quantities, with which he 
has had nothing whatever to do, except to have a casual glance 
at the drawings. I think every one should bear their own 
mistakes without trying to saddle others with them, and these 
ilauses should be removed. 

In place of the above conditions a clause should be inserted 
regarding the final payment. As a rule, we are kept an unrea- 
sonably long time for the settlement. I would recommend a 
clause something like the fellowing: "The accounts to be gone 
into and the final certificate granted within two months after 
the account is rendered, or 5 per cent, interest paid on the bal- 
ance." I have been kept six to nine months when there was 
no reason why it should not be certified in a week or two. . . . 

Another matter I wish to bring before your notice is the 
fact, no matter what sort of a job is expected on completion, 
the specification never varies; the best is always specified. 

Now it is an undisputed fact that Mother Nature does not 
produce everything of the best quality; she alwajs varies what 
she produces, which we, in our wisdom, divide and classify into 
grades orr qualities. No matter what department of nature 
we look into, whether the mineral, vegetable or animal kingdom, 
there is always good, middling and indifferent, and each have 
their separate value on the market, according to the grade or 
quality. . . . 

I have often heard the remark passed when an architect has 
found that his specification has not been adhered to and cheaper 
material substituted in place of that specified, "Have we got 
value for our money?" Now, to be fair to all concerned, that 
is not the question, "have I got value for money " The ques- 
tion is, "Have I got what was specified?" If not, you should 
insist on having it, otherwise it is not fair to those Who ten- 
dered to faithfully carry it out. 

An Ottawa alderman declared last week that when 
the city engineer wanted to obtain the contract for small 
blocks of pavement he tendered low and when he did 
not want to take contracts for large blocks of pavement 
he tendered high. While we entertain nothing but the 
most friendly disposition toward City Engineer Ker, we 
can quite understand that if there is any truth in the 
worthy (or unworthy) alderman's statement, it is rea- 
sona'ble to ask whether such a system offers any induce- 
ment to private companies to put in low tenders. Ottawa 
is the proud posse.ssor of a civic asphalt plant. The 
aforementioned alderman claims that this asphalt plant 
is not the protection to the city that it .should be. He 
contends that something more is required of such a 
plant than an apparently good financial .showing and 
that the plant should be extended so that the city engi- 
ner could bid with equal heart on all paving work. Then i 
he says it would be a real guarantee of reasonable 

At Vancouver, B.C., 25 miles of water mains were 
laid in the city during 1910, according to the annual re- 
port of the waterworks engineer. The total number of 
water services put in was 3,065. 

The contract record 


" Haimdlliinig Coimcrete During Cold Weather 

Satisfactory Mezisures for Counteracting Action of Freezing Additional 
Equipment Not Necessarily Expensive- Details of Various Methods Employed 

Hy J. H. Chubb 

Laboratory results, together with those obtained in 
everyday {jractiec, show the folly of attempting to carry 
on concrete construction during the winter months 
without taking j)roi)er precautions to counteract the 
action of freezing. A given amount of heat expended in 
heating materials and protecting the work from freez- 
ing immediately after placing will be infinitely more 
eflfective than an ecjuipvahmt amount of heat expended 
in attempting to hasten the liardcjiiing of concrete that 
has been mixed with cold material and subjected during 
the next few days to unfavorable conditions. 

A ease is reported where it was possible to remove the 
forms from an u{>per floor concreted during favorable 
weather conditions late in April 'before those of the 
floor directly beneath, which was constructed during 
cold weather in February ; yet the lower floor was sub- 
jected to the same favorable weather conditions which 
influenced the hardening of the upper one, and was, in 
addition, nearly two months older. During the con- 
struction of an 8-storey reinforced concrete building, 
where the work progres.sed at the rate of about two 
storeys in three weeks, it was found neces.sary to use 
eight sets of floor forms. While they were concreting 
the lower three or four storeys, the temperature was 
close to, but rarely went below freezing, and the con- 
tractors did not consider it necessary to heat materials 
or protect the work. During the concreting of the 
fourth storey the weather turned exceptionally cold. 
This was housed in with canvas, heated with sala- 
manders and the water used for mixing concrete heated. 
An examination of the work showed that the concrete 
in the upper floors when but a week or ten days old, was 
stronger and better than that in the lower floors, which 
were many weeks older. Had the contractor taken the 
precautions at the beginning that were taken later on, 
only about half as much lumber would have been re- 
quired for forms, and the extra cost of handling the 
work woiild have been but a fraction of that for these 
additional forms. 

As the example of the benefit to be derived from the 
proper handling of winter work the experience of a eon- 
tractor during the construction of a reinforced concrete 
'bridge will answer. The bridge consisted of three 3- 
centered arches having a clear span of 110 feet each. 
While the ai-ches proper were being concreted the wea- 
ther turned quite cold, from 12 to 15 inches of ice form- 
ing on the river. Nineteen days after the centre span 
was concreted a warm rain set in, resulting in a flood 
which carried away the false work and centering for 
this span, but did' not result in any damage to the 
bridge. The materials for the concrete were thoroughly 
heated, being delivered to the mixer at an average tem- 
perature somewhat above blood heat, aiul as soon as the 
concrete was deposited it was protected with a covering 
of tar paper and boards. The proper handling of the 
work in this case probably prevented the total destruc- 
tion of the middle span when the form.s were aeeident- 
ally removed long before the intended time. 

These and numeorus other examples in every day 
practice clearly illustrate that winter work cannot and 
shoidd not be handled in the same manner as summer 

The proper precautions necessary to insure satisfac- 
tory results with concrete during freezing weather de- 
pend very much upon the class of conntrnction, large 
plan mass work such as retaining walls and abutments, 
not requiring the same care and protection as thin walls, 
columns, beams and floor slabs. Elaborate and expen- 
sive plants for heating the materials and protecting the 
work have been constructed and successfully used on 
important work, but the additional equipment con- 
sidered necessary for winter work is really compara- 
tively limited, consisting simply of a sufficient amount 
of canvas for housing in or covering the work, aalanuui- 
ders or some other form of heaters for maintaining a 
temperature above the freezing point and some provi- 
sion for heating materials. 

Half cylinders of sheet steel set directly upon the 
ground in the form of an arch, make a simple form of 
sand heater, as also do lengths of metal culvert pipe 
closed at one end and provided with a short piece of 
smaller pipe for a flue. Sand and stone may be heated 
by piling directly upon pipe coils supplied with steam 
or by covering with tarpaulins and applying the steam 
directly to the material to be heated. Where the ma- 
terials are delivered in cars excellent results can be 
obtained by this latter method. For heating water the 
common practice of relying upon a steam pipe placed in 
an ordinary barrel is not to be recommended, the water 
is generally used too fast to permit of its being properly 
heated by this method. A suitable tank should be pro- 
vided, the water being heated by means of a coil sup- 
plied with steam from the boiler supplying the mixer 
engine or from one erected for this purpose. The size 
of the tank will, of course, depend upon the amount of 
water needed and the time required for heating it. 

Satisfactory Methods. 

Work can be successfully carried on during freezing 
weather by either one or both of two methods; heating 
the concrete materials and then protecting the worit 
until it has had a chance to harden, or for temperatures 
but little below freezing by lowering the freezing point 
of the concrete. This latter method is probably the 
simplest and cheapest but not the best, and consists of 
adding some sub.stances to the concrete that will reduce 
its freezing point. Anly those substances that have no 
effect on the strength and durability of the concrete can 
be used. Ordinarily salt is most commonly used for ttiia 
purpose and experiments indicate that while the addi- 
tion of a limited amount of salt retards the hardening 
somewhat and lowers the initial strength, the ultimate 
strength of the concrete is not affected by its use. Even 
when salt is used it is important that the aggregate be 
free fmm frost as it is imp<»srble to properly mix such 
materials. Approximately one per cent, by weight of 
salt to the weight of the water is required for each de- 
gree F. below freezing, but more than ten per cent, of 
salt should not be considered safe and this amount is 
not effective for temperatures lower than 22 degrees F. 
Calcium chloride has been used in place of salt for the 
same purpose and apparently gives very good results. 
In one case where commercial muriatic acid wa« nMd 



to prevent freezing, a small aimount of acid being added 
to the mixing water, the results obtained were not en- 
tirely satisfactory, and the present unsatisfactory con- 
dition of the concrete both as to color and strength, is 
undoubtedly due to the use of the acid. At any rate, the 
use of acid in this connection is not to be encouraged. 

To insure satisfactory results during cold weather the 
material should be heated and the work protected until 
it has attained sufficient s'trength to withstand the ac- 
tion of frost, either the water, sand and water, or sand, 
stone and water should be heated. Heating the ma- 
terials accelerates the rate of hardening, lengths the 
time before the eoncrete becomes cold enough to freeze 
and in temperatures but little below freezing will in- 
sure the hardening of the concrete before it can be 
damaged by freezing. 

For heavy mass work, thick walls, abutments, etc., 
it is not necessary to heat the sand if it is dry and free 
from lumps of frozen matter. The water, however, 
should be heated, and if the concrete goes into place 
unchilled it will harden quite rapidly, as mass work 
retains its initial heat for a long time and additional 
heat is generated during the process of hardening. If 
the forms are tight and made of heavy material it will 
be necessary to protect the top or exposed surface of 
the work. This may be accomplished by covering with 
tarpaulin and applying a jet of steam, or by covering 
with boards, building paper or some other suitable ma- 
terial and applying a thick blanket of straw or manure. 
A thickness of from 10 to 12 inches of manure laid on 
paper or canvas will, if kept dry, protect work from 
freezing for days at a temperature as low as 10 degrees 
F. Manure should not be placed directly upon the con- 
crete, however, as it is very apt to discolor the work 
and io some cases is thought to have caused a slight 
disintegration of the surface coming in contact with it. 

As an additional precaution for keeping the work 
from freezing through the forms, a covering of build- 
ing paper furred an inch or two from the forms has 
been found to be effective. Actual tests in practice 
have shown a difference in temperature of 15 degrees 
between the outside air and the space between the 
paper and the forms. 

Careful Inspection Necessary. 

Careful inspection of winter work is necessary before 
removing the forms and it must be remembered in this 
connection that frozen concrete, which, upon thawing, 
has but little strength, closely resembles thoroughly 
hardened concrete in appearance, and when broken 
frequently shows a fracture through the aggregate. 

To prohibit placing of concrete when the temperature 
is near or below freezing, as is frequently done in speci- 
fications, causes unnecessary delays and imposes an 
unjust hardship upon the contractor. If concrete work 
it properly handled it may be successfully carried on 
irrespective of weather conditions. The cold weather 
clause in specifications, instead of prohibiting, should 
be so written as to permit of construction during freez- 
ing weather, provided proper precautions, which should 
be specified, are taken. 

While winter work will entail some additional ex- 
pense, depending upon the class of construction, there 
are also advantages to be obtained at this time of the 
year which compensate for this additional cost. Labor 
is very apt to be cheaper and more plentiful and the 
same is true to some extent of the materials of construc- 
tion, deliveries of which are more prompt. This is a 
consideration of much importance, as those will affirm 
who have had work held up for weeks and the cost in- 

creased due to the delays in obtaining materials during 
the busy building season. 

Where conditions and importance of the work will 
warrant this slight extra expense, eoncrete construc- 
tion may be carried on during the severest winter wea- 
ther with the a.ssnrance that it will be entirely satisfac;- 
tory, providing proper precautions are taken in placing 
and protecting the work. 

Membrane Method of Waterproofing 

The subject of adequately protecting not only the 
rooms, areas, cellars and necessary pits occurring below 
water line in modern structures, but the structural 
members and elements themselves, from water and 
moisture, is receiving an increasing amount of attention 
from architects and engineers. It is also pretty gener- 
ally realized that the danger from stray electric cur- 
rents or other destructive agencies is real, and one that 
demands protective measures on the part of the de- 
signer. As a result, the practice of waterproofing with 
an insulating membrane the footings of columns and 
walls supporting and constituting a part of important 
structures is becoming the rule, whereas it was but re- 
cently the exception. 

The change is in the direction of better construction 
and more permanent buildings, and therefore one to be 
commended, says the American Architect. In under- 
taking it the architect is confronted with the problem 
of materials and means, and upon his selections will 
depend largely the results obtained. The methods most 
commonly employed, from which it may perhaps be 


Water |?roofing~\ | || :Ba&eTntjl cor line. 

Older membrane method, leaving base of columns and 

footings submerged and exposed to possible 

injury from electrolysis, etc. 

inferred that .satisfactory waterproofing has been 
secured, at rea.sonable cost, seem to be those of using 
felt in a number of layers, stuck or cemented together 
with a cementing material possessing certain essential 
properties. The requirements of the felt are that it 
must be tough and durable, and at the .same time soft 
and pliable. The cementing material must be of such a 
nature that it will absolutely repel water and moisture 
and be unaffected by it. It must also remain elastic 
and to a certain degree pliable in the coldest tempera- 
ture, and yet be sufficiently firm not to soften and run 
when exposed to the heat of the sun in summer. 

Manifestly such materials as are here described are 
not easy to manufacture or readily obtainable from a 
great many sources. It is of greatest importance, how- 



(iver, that materials designed for the purpose of water 
proofing possess the properties indicated, and it there- 
fore becomes incumbent upon those to whom the re- 
sponsiblity of making selection falls to test and examine 
the nature of the various materials available with ex- 
treme care. In this, as in all departments of building, 

Waferbroof in^~^ 

■:'i:^..,~.-.~t- ' -=v--- 



>■ «■».. «:..■,-■- n....'.T 

Manner of applying meuibraue method of waterproofing now 
more generally employed 

the success or failure of the entire undertaking de- 
I)ends in great measure upon a wise and proper selec- 
tion of materials. 

Cutting Structural Steelwork with the Oxy- 
Acetylene Flame 

Nearly all of the steel superstructure of the Gillender 
building. New York, was taken apart by cutting out 
the rivets. The lower sections of VI of the columns 
were not, however, removed by the subcontractor who 
handled the remainder of the structural steel work, and 
in order to provide clearance as quickly as possible for 
the installation of the pneumatic caisson foundation 
equipment, it was decided to cut off the upi)er portions 
of these columns about 40 feet long at a point just 
'below the level of the street, so that the temporary 
working platform from which caisson operations were 
conducted and on which the main hoisting engines 
were located, could be installed before the lower por- 
tions of the columns and the grillages and girders on 
which they were seated were removed. The lengths and 
weights of columns also made them difficult to handle, 
so that this arrangement promoted the convenience as 
well as the raj)idity of the work. The columns were cut 
off and some other similar work was rapidly and satis- 
factorily done by an oxidizing flame operated by the 
O.xy-Acetylene Appliance Company, New York. 

Each of the columns had a 13x24-iiich closed rect- 
anglar cross-section of about 130 sq. in. made up with 
a centre web composed of two 18x%-in. plates and four 
3i/.x5x3y2X%-i'i. flange Z-bars and two paii-s of 24x 
%-in. outside cover plates. The working platforms 
were built aroinid the eolunuis just below street level 
and on them a torch was operated with which a hori- 
zontal cut was made through the column. 

If the columns had been a solid steel member a single 
continuous cut could have been made with the flame, 
but as it was made up of a number of laminations or 
superimposed plates and bars, the joins between the 

units of material formed a serioiu obstmctioti to the 
cutting and made it necessary to cat off sections of the 
outside plates about 12 in. higii vertically, exposinir 
the outer surface of the inner cover plates, then cat off 
somewhat narrower sections of them, then cat the Z- 
bars and then the centre web plates from both side* to 
the centre, thus involving five cuts through the plate* 
and four through the Z-bars on each side of the colamn, 
making 18 cuts in all, in addition to cutting the heads 
from sixteen %-in- rivets, which were backed out after- 
wards. When the column was cut through, excepting 
the last cut in the centre web plate, the upper end of 
it was attached to the hoisting tackle of a derrick boom 
and a light strain taken to prevent it from falling when 
the last of the metal cut away. 

Besides cutting off the 12 columns the acetylene flame 
was used for cutting four 12-in. I-beams, eight 20-in. I- 
beams, two plate girders 32 in. deep, and for cutting 
holes ni eight underpinning piles and also for cutting 
them in tA\o in the middle. The underpinning piles 
were the regular 16-in. steel pipes, filled with concrete 
and were about 70 feet long. It was necessary to re- 
move them to secure clearance for sinking the wall 
caissons, and it was found impo.ssible to pull them by 
eccentric connections to the upper end, therefore the 
acetylene flame was used to cut two 2>/_.xl4-inch. holes 
to opposite sides of the »liell near the 'top. The con- 
(irete between them was removed and heavy steel bars 
were inserted in the holes and jacks were set under the 
ends of the bars and operated to start the piles, after 
which they were easily pulled with the derrick tackles. 
Owing to the great length of the piles it was necessary 
to cut them in two for transportation, and this was 
easily acconii)lished by making a transverse cut with 
the acetylene flame through the 6-in. outside sleeve 
coupling. As soon as the coupling was cut the concrete 
broke and the pile separated into two parts. All of the 
above work was done by one torchman and helper 
working one week and an additional torchman work- 
ing one-half week. The average speed of catting with 
this flame is one 24xi/2-in. plate in 1 minute, but on 
heavy solid steel a speed as great as a \y»\\^/n-\r\. sec- 
tion in 1 minute has i>een attained. 

This work was done with a portable plant including 
three acetylene safety cylinder like those used for car 
lighting apparatus and other purposes. Each cylinder 
was 12 in. in diameter and 26 in. long and contained 
225 cubic feet of acetylene gas at atmospheric pressure, 
condensed to a pressure of 150 lbs. per .square inch. 
These cylinders are two-thirds filled with an asbestos- 
like porous substance called acetone, which is a by- 
product of wood alcohol and has a capacity for absorb- 
ing 25 times its own volume of acetylene gas at atmos- 
pheric pressure. When the cylinders are charged with 
gas up to a pressure of 200 lbs. they can be exposed to 
heavy impact or great heat without danger of explosion, 
but when the valve is opened acetylene gas is delivered 
at a pressure here regulated to 150 lbs. This gas is 
mixed with pure oxygen at a pressure of 300 lbs., de- 
livered from a cylinder of 100 cubic feet capacity. The 
mixture, proportioned 1.2S oxygen to 1 acetylene, is 
delivered through the nozzle of a special torch and 
makes a very .slender flame developing 6,300 degrees of 
heat. The aperture in the nozzle varies wirti the thick- 
ness of the metal to be cut and for this work had a 
medium size of about 1 64-in. diameter. The flame is 
applied to the cutting line and when its temperature 
is raised to a cherry red a pure oxygen jet is applied 
at the same point through an auxiliary independent 
nozzle and rapidly oxidizes the metal, making a smooth 



deep cut about Yg in. wide. The torches are made of 
brass pipes and fittings and are very light and con- 
venient and are fitted with five sizes of nozzles pro- 

vided for a considerable variety of work and enabling 
very complicated cuts to be made. — En<rinecriii'_'- 


t© Treat Theim 

The Practical Part in Reconstructing Defective Walls and Similar 
Structures — An Example from Experience in the Caise of a Party Wall 

It goes witliout saying that the experience of a prac- 
tical builder, covering a period embraced within the 
past 35 years, would be an extensive and varied one 
and ex'hibit many peculiar phases calling for the dis- 
play of ingenuity and originality. Among these prob- 
ably there is none more interesting than what might be 
technically termed "unsafe buildings and walls," and 
it is of these that the writer purposes to treat in the 
comments wihich follow. 

Of "unsafe^s" there are many kinds, all of which are 
worthy of consideration by the architect, the building 
contractor, the engineer and the excavator. In fact, it 

Fig. 1. — A common case of bulging wall 

is too often obligatory in these days, when old build- 
ings and walls are being demolished to make way for 
modern structures, that all persons interested or con- 
nected with the work should possess a knowledge of 
how to proceed when such "unsafes" are either evi- 
dent or develop as the work progresses. 

How do walls become unsafe? From experience we 
find that buildings and walls become dangerous and un- 
safe from many causes, among which mention may be 
made of the following: By bad judgment or haste in 
building; the natural decay of the constituent ma- 
terials; by exposure to climatic changes and chemical 
action; by constant usage, wear and tear, as well as 
abuse, such as by overloading, neglect, lack of repairs, 
fires, etc. 

Let us, however, first take up the most frequent eases 
and suggest how they should be remedied. Referring 
to Fig. 1 of the accompanying sketches the reader will 
observe a very common "unsafe." It represents a 24- 
in. stone retaining wall supporting a bank of filled-in 
clay or earth, which presumably is the substratum of a 
street or yard. Having been recently built and known 
as what might be termed a "green wall," it has suc- 
cumbed to the literal pressure of the filled-iu material. 
The ends of the wall being held fast by the right- 
angled or square returns cannot yield to this pressure, 
but the unsupported stretch of wall, say it be 25 feet, 
50 feet, or 10(3 feet in length, must give way, so that 

the wall becomes out of plumb, bulged and unsafe, as 
represented in the picture. 

This is one of the most common cases of "unsafes" 
and is caused by filling in the clay or earth before the 
mortar in the wall has "set" or hardened and before 
the wall has oTstained its full bond. It is prevalent in 

Pig. 2. — Section showing another cause of "unsafe" walls 

yards which follow street grades and dip or slope, as 
represented in Fig. 2. It is a bone of contention be- 
tween owners not alone on account of the matter of 
trespass, by reason of overhanging or being out of 
plumb, but also because of its being "party," as these 
the owner must himself preserve its integrity and ar- 

-Method of shoring and buttressing a 
retaining wall. 


range with his neighbor in the matter of injury or tres- 
pass. Now as to the remedy. When this condition be- 
comes manifest on front retaining walls it is a very 
simple matter to shore or buttress such a wall with one 
owner to contribute to the expense of building a retain- 




iiig wall to support his neighbor's bank unless it is 
"party" or by mutual agreement to the benefit of both. 

Now as to party walls. Let us take a case which 
actually came within the experience of the writer. In 
demolisibng a house built about 25 years ago, it was 
found that the east and west party 12-in. brick walls 
were about 8 in. out of plumb, leaning toward the east, 
as indicated in Fig. 4 of the drawings. It was the in- 
tention of the owner to rebuild the house, replacing an 
old-fashioned high-stoop, four-storey brown stone 
dwelling with a modern, basement dwelling, but what 
to to with the defective walls was the <)uestion. They 
were not necessarily unsafe, yet were defective in being 
warped and out of pliunb. 

After careful consideration it was decided to line up 
bhe west wall with brickwork, carrying it up plumb 



4. — Showing how the perpendicularity of the interior 
walls of a building out of plumb was maintained. 


until it practically merged with the old wall and an- 
choring it to the latter with L-anchors and then fur out 
the old east wall with diminishing wood studding, thus 
preserving the perpendicularity of the interior walls. 

It will be observed that this method maintained the 
integrity of the party walls without disturbing the ten- 
ants in the east and west dwellings ad.ioining. 

Great indeed is the value of brick work, for it must 
bo remembered that a brick wall })roperly anchored 
and tied, although out of plumb and solid in the mass, 
is not virtually unsafe unless both walls have passed 
outside the line of gravity. They will stand if kept 
exempt from jar and shock and the foundations secure 
from settling or slipping. 

The matter of over-loading in the centre of the span 
between walls will, as has frequently been found, cause 
the walls to draw in or buckle. This can only be re- 

medied by shoring with girders and post* set, if pos- 
sible, intermediate between the walls. 

Exterior and isolated walls and piers of buildings, if 
out of plumb, bulged, from unequal settlement, disin- 
tegrated by fire — or from any cause, in fact — most be 
braced, shored or needled. Broken or fractured oralis 
of brick, concrete or stone must be rebnilt. In the ease 
of the latter, if of nibble work, danger is never im- 
minent; if of cobblestones of "nigger heads" it is dan- 
gerous, probably for the reason that the contraction of 
the mortar allows the stones to become loose and drop 
out by reason of their roundness and lack of bond. 

Let us sum up the 8ubje<'t, by noting what is unsafe 
in timber. Of course its natural diseases, knots, shakes, 
dry rot, subsidence, etc., under strains are included in 
this eategory. Similarly, too, with iron, cast or 
wrought, and steel. Cast iron is brittle, hence in recent 
modem practice its comparative disuse, except, per- 
haps, for columns and lintels. Steel and wrought iron 
must, in spite of their wonderful capabilities, be pro- 
tected and kept safe by coatings of paint, cement, con- 
crete, etc. 

And so it goes; the best part of a builder's practice 
is not always the actual construction, for he must not 
alone be experienced in this, but also be so well versed 
in a knowledge of the action of the materials used in 
the construction of buildings that he may know how to 
act and proceed when any kind of an unsafe wall, part 
of or even an entire building is brought to his attention 
for advisement. 

Deterioration of Concrete by Oil 

Engine breakdowns have been caused many times by 
the deterioration of concrete by oil, according to the 
report of Chief Engineer Michael Longridgc. of the 
British Engine. Boiler & Electrical Insurance Company. 
Formerly most of the oil fed on the moving parts of an 
engine found its way over or through the engine foun- 
dations, he said, and softened the cement of the mortar 
or concrete. Eventually the foundations settled 
through the mortar shifting its place. This set up such 
strains in the bedplates that the latter finally cracked. 
Mr. Longridgc recommends, in the case of concrete 
foundations, covering the concrete with strong cast-iron 
plates, with raised facings to receive the planed feet of 
the engine bed and raised edges to retain the oil and 
water. Where this is impracticable on account of its 
cost, he recommends the use of much broader bearing 
surfaces than are usual on the bottom of bedplates, or 
the use of more holding-down bolts with a pair of large 
accurately machined folding wedges between the bed 
plate and concrete at each bolt. 

A smoke preventer, known as the "Torpedo" appara- 
tus is described in London Iron and Coal Trades Re- 
view. This device is a hollow conical structure of spe- 
cial perforated fire-brick blacks supported in the com- 
bustion chamber just back of the bridge wall and in the 
direct track of the gases from the grate. Air is admitted 
from a pipe passing through the ash pit. The fire-brick 
blocks become red hot and the heated air readily com- 
bines with the unburned carbon and hydrocarbons. 

In connection with the British Antarctic expedition. 
which left England last June in charge of Captain Scott. 
it is interesting to learn that the living huts and obser- 
vatory for the expedition have been lined with two lay- 
ers of Cabot's double-ply quilt. The houses must be as 
absolutely eoldproof as possible and yet most be light in 
weight for ease in handling. 





Description of Special Apparatus and Appliances used in Conveying 
and Distributing Material — Rapid Work and Reduced Labor 

For handling and distributing concrete and deliver- 
ing it into place in the forms, various arrangements of 
Wheelbarrows, tracks, cars and elevators are used, while 
conveyors have been used in some cases. A method 
of an entirely different character is that of raising the 
concrete to an elevated point and then distributing it 
to the forms by inclined chutes, through which the con- 
crete slides by gravity. This method has been em- 
ployed on a number of works of varying character, and 
has been made a specialty by the Concrete Appliances 
Company, of St. Louis, Mo. While the method is used 
by other firms, this company has developed and patent- 
ed special apparatus and appliances for the conveying 
and distributing of concrete by gravity. The accom- 
panying details are by courtesy of Engineering News. 

A typical arrangement of the plant on this company's 
system is shovra in Fig. 1, but the booms are now set at 
an incline, to reduce the thrust on the tower. The ele- 
vator tower (rectangular or triangular in plan) is 
erected on a convenient part of the site. The concrete 
from the mixer is delivered directly into the automatic 
dumping skip, and at the top of the tower it is dis- 
charged into a hopper. From the bottom gate of this 
hopper it is discharged as required into a swiveling pan, 
and flows from this through a chute, or an elbow to re- 
ceiving pans on the upper ends of the inclined conveyor 
pipes. These pipes are supported by booms, Which also 
carry hoisting trolleys for handling the forms, etc. The 


pipe may end in a vertical drop spout for filling column 
and wall forms, or it may have a swiveling adjustable 
inclined spout for distributing the concrete over a wide 
area such as a floor surface. By this flexible piping sys- 
tem the concrete can be delivered close to or at a dis- 
tance from the elevator tower, and it is stated that it 
can be delivered in this way to a distance of 500 feet. 
For long distances, the pipes may be suspended from 
overhead cables and supported by intermediate towers. 
The various arrangements metnioned are shown in Pig. 
1, but for each job they are modified or adapted to suit 
the plan of the site and other conditions. 

Means are provided for conveniently raising the hop- 
per and pipes as the work progresses. Four vertical 
timibers (A), fitted against the posts of the tower and 
connected by the upper and lower trolley track (B) and 
(C), form a skeleton mast. This carries the boom and 
its guys, so that the mast and boom form a complete 
unit which can be raised by block and tackle as the 
height of the tower is increased. On some of the earlier 
work the boom step and guy were carried by trolleys, so 
that they could be moved to any side of the mast or 
tower. The moving was found to be inconvenient, how- 
ever, and two booms are now fitted on opposite sides. 
The cage carrying the main hopper and receiving pan 
can also be raised by tackle. For buildings of small 
area, no booms are required. 

There appears to be no trouble in the way of separa- 
tion or segregation of the materials as the concrete 
slides down the pipe chutes. In fact, it is claimed that 
the churning motion in the pipes serve to agitate and 
mix the concrete during its travel; with his agitation 
and the speed of movement there is no opportunity for 
the concrete to be at rest and begin to set._ 

Among the advantages claimed are rapidity of work 


(This cut represents one of the earlier designs, 
and some modifications in detail have been in-. 
troduced. The booms are now usually set at 
an aogle, in order to reduce the thrust on the 
tovver. Instead of fitting the bonm with trolleys 
for moving it around the mast or tower, two 
booms with fitted heels are now used (placed on 
opposite sides of the tower) as being more con- 
venient. These changes do not affect the geoerr.l 
principles oC <>Derallon.) 

Fig. 1— Typical Arrangement of Plant for Distributing Concrete to the Forms by Gravity Pipe Chutes 



and a refluetion in the amount of labor required. The 
force for ordinary work will include two men at the 
material bins, one at the mixer, one at the hoist, one at 
the cage at the top of the tower, and two men handling 
the end of the discharge pipe (for each additional pipe 
there will be two more men). It is said that with this 
force of seven men, from 35 to 40 cubic yards of con- 
crete per hour can be mixed and deposited in place. It 
is stated further that ten men under this system can 
l)laco nearly twice as much concrete per hour as 35 men 
working with wheelbarrows or carts. The cost of de- 
livering concrete in place by this system is given as 25 
to 50 cents per cubic yard, as compared with 40 to 75 
cents by wheeled carts and 60 cents to $1 by wheel- 

It is to be noted also, that each batch of concrete can 
be deposited in place at one operation, instead of by 
separate wheelbarrow loads. The delays usually in- 
volved in such work by the wheelbarrow men waiting 
their turns at the mixer, the elevator or the dumping 
point are eliminated by this direct handling and distri- 
bution of the concrete. Other advantages are that large 
quantities can be handled quickly, the concrete in place 
is dense and homogeneous, the floor space is left unob- 
structed for the use of carpenters and other workmen, 
and damages to floors, etc., by wheeling over them, is 
avoided. The method is applicable to concrete and rein- 
forced-concreie structures of all kinds. 

In erecting a concrete building in Chicago, the Fal- 
kenau Construction Company used a main chute 10x18 
inches, with auxiliary movable section in 13-foot 
lengths. All these were open troughs, and the main 
chute extended from an elevator tower. The company 
states that the minimum and maximum angles of the 
chutes were about 8 degrees and 25 degrees respectively. 
So far from the travel of the concrete in the chutes hav- 
ing any tendency to cause segregation, it appeared 
rather to mix the concrete more thoj-onghly. 

The distril)ution of concrete by si)onting was used in 
building the new plant of the American Sheet & Tin 

I Plate Company, at Gary, Ind. This case is of interest 
and differs from the other works mentioned in that a 
portable mixing and elevating plant was used. We are 
informed by Mr. John M. Davidson, resident civil engi- 
neer of the comjjany, that the plant used for this pur- 
pose by the contractors consisted essentially of a P/^- 
yard mixer mounted on a flat car and dumping into a 
bucket which was raised by an electric hoist to a height 
of about 70 feet. The bucket was then dumped auto- 
matically, the concrete falling into a hopper and |)as8ing 
thence along a steel-lined trough to an 8-inch swinging 
discharge pipe which permitted the depositing of con- 
crete by gravity through the pipe within a radius of 
50 feet. On account of the size of the foundations it 
was necessary in most cases to use a steel-lined trough 
at the discharge end of the spout in order to convey the 

1 concrete to all parts of the form. 
The concrete was mixed very wet, as was the practice 
with other concrete on this work. No trouble was ex- 
I)erienccd from segregation of the concrete, but this was 
considered due in part to the fact that the concrete was 
spread by hoes to all parts of the form. It is believed 

Bthat there would have been trouble of this kind if the 
concrete had laid where it fell, and if the forms had 
been narrow, but that such segregation would have oc- 
curred when the concrete was falling from the dis- 
charge pipe or si>out rather than during its travel in 
tlie trough. The angle of slope of the spout varied from 
25 to 50 degrees from the horizontal, as a rule the 
angle was about 35 degrees. Choking occurred occa- 


sionally at the flatter glopeu, and UHually at the flared 
end of the spout prpe which received the concrete dJM- 
charged from the upper trough. While very good re- 
sults were obtained with this portable arrangement, the 
time required t« shift the machine detracted from it« 
irflficiency. It is considered that the most «ati.sfactory 
work with the spouting process would be in cases wiiere 
a great volume of concrete is placed from one position. 
A very similar method has been used in building the 
retaining walls for the approaches to the Detroit river 
tunnel. In building the approaches to the I^a s 
street tunnel under the Chicago river, the work is .i : 
in open cut for the length of one block at each end of 
the work. Here the concrete mixer is placed at the 
edge of the cut (travelling along as the work pro- 
gresses) and dumps the concrete directly into the head 
of a sheet iron pipe, the lower end of which has a mov- 
able section for delivering the concrete at any point 
within its reach. This method is u.sed for the arches as 
well as for the walls. 


Difficult Sewer Construction 

In another column are given the methods employed 
for constructing sewers in wet trenches and opinions 
held concerning them by engineers in a number of 
cities. In criticism of these methods the Municipal En- 
gineer has the following to say: 

In our opinion the supporting of the pipe in such a 
way that it must act as a beam is more or less unsafe, 
where— a.s is likely to be the case— the back filling untler 
the pipe is not .so thoroughly compacted as to slightly 
lift the pipe from its bearing on the collars or wedges. 
It is true that good pipe has considerable strength to 
support loads as a beam; but on the other hand there 
have been a numl)er of instances when it has been broken 
by the superimposed weight, and when so broken it Is 
apt to collapse entirely. Allowing the pipe to rest 
upon its bell also seems to us Possibly no part 
of an ordinary sewer pipe is more easily broken than 
the connection between the body and the bell, and there 
would, therefore, seem to be a possibility of the emsh- 
ing of the under side of the bell and pos.sibIy a cracking 
of the body of the pipe by any considerable weight 
which may come upon it. Moreover, if the weight is 
supported by the bells alone, we have pipes subjected to 
even more beam stress than when supported by collars 
at each end. 

One other possible danger in connection with the prac- 
tices described by most of the engineers quoted is that 
of the plank or other timber decaying and allowing the 
pipe to settle. As all of these metho<ls are employed 
only in wet trenches it might .seem that the timber wouKl 
always be submerged and|uently would not decay. 
Wo presume that in the majority of cases the ground 
water continues to stand alwve the level of the plank 
and this would probably be the case. Sewer trenches 
are known to effect more or less drainage of the soil, 
but it does not seem probable that such drainage would 
extend below the bottom of the sewer, imless there were 
a sub-drain, in which case it is not probable that the 
plank would be used. Even should it decay it would 
probably lose its supporting power and crumble .so .slow- 
ly that the earth would gradually work in and take its 
place, or else would have become so compacted around 
the pipe that it would support it even when the wood 
had lost all its strength. 

Probably the best practice is either the bedding of the 
pipe in a somewhat lean concrete placed tinder and part 
way up it: or. if this is considered too expensive, the 
placing upon the platform of a l>e«l of gravel, cinders or 



other porous material, as is done in New Orleans; this 
bed being so thick that the body of the pipe is supported 
without permitting the bell to rest upon the plank. 
Where there is no danger of the quicksand or other wet 
material rising bodily in the trench, but it is merely a 
ease of soft material, any possible danger from decaying 
of the wood may be avoided by substituting for it burlap 
or bagging laid upon the soft material and covered with 
the gravel or other good bedding material ; and the bur- 
lap serving to keep the gravel from mixing with the 
muck or other soft material below it. 

There are, fortuntely, indications that engineers are 
coming to realize that it is not extravagant to spend a 
little more money in constructing a sewer under difificult 
conditions. Too many engineers and superintendents, 
however, still seem to feel that, having obtained a good 
sewer pipe, the work of laying it should be done as 
cheaply as possible, no matter what conditions may be 
encountered. A sewer is as important to the safety of 
the citizens as the foundation of a building, and a 
failure in the former is much less liable to 
detection. Good engineering, therefore, requires that 
as much thought, care and expense be given to the pro- 
per and safe construction of sewers as of any other muni- 
cipal structure or utility. Moreover, the increasing num- 
ber of purification and pumping plants and the increas- 
ing extent of articulation in sewer systems call for great- 
er care in excluding ground water and make even con- 
siderable expense in securing this an ultimate economy. 

An unusual wood floor has been discovered in a small 
building in Derbyshire, England. It was carried by 
beams supported entirely by exterior walls without 
intermediate columns for piers. The width of the floor 
was about three-fourths of its length and was carried 
on two longitudinal and two transverse lieams, all of 
them spaced nearly equidistantly and none of them long 
enough to reach across from supporting wall to sup- 
porting wall. Each beam reached about two-thirds of 
the way across the building and was framed at one 
end into the middle of a beam at right angles to it, the 
other being supported on the wall. The four beams 
were thus framed together at their middle points, form- 
ing a rectangle concentric with the outer walls of the 
building and with each of its sides about one-third 
the length of the parallel side of the building. The 
beams were mortised and tennoned together at their 
intersections and were covered with diagonal flooring 
boards. Another unusual wooden floor 60 feet square 
is said to have been constructed in Amsterdam with- 
out any beams or girders whatever, except on the ex- 
terior walls, where the corners were tied together with 
iron straps. The floor was really a solid wooden dome 
4 1-2 inches thick with a rise of only 2 1-2 inches at 
the centre. It was made of three crossed courses of 
1 1-2 inch boards "grooved and fingered" together. 
The first courses were laid diagonally at right angles 
to each other and the third course was laid trans- 
versely, all three courses being nailed together. 

Reinforced concrete pipe for waterworks has been 
used for the first time in Scotland in connection with 
the Loch Bradan water scheme, for supplying the 
boroughs of Troon and Prestwick and a large part of 
the county of Ayr. According to the Surveyor, the pipe 
is 18 in. in diameter and is laid at a gradient of 1 in 400. 
The concrete tubes are laid chiefly in cut and cover, al- 
though at one place duplicate lines of pipe extend 
through 100 yards of tunnel. 

Road Foundations of Cinders, Logs, Plank and 


The improved roads of this country having foundations of 
material such as gravel, cinders, broken field stone, brickbats, 
etc., comprise only a small percentage of our total mileage of 
improved roads. Broken stone, brickbats, gravel and materials 
scarified from old pavements or roads are the most common 
in brick and bituminous construction, as well as for regular 
materials employed for such foundations, and are sometimes used 
in brick and bituminous construction, as well as for regular 
macadam surfacing. The thickness usually varies from 4 to 12 
inches of such material well rolled and it should be filled as much 
as practicable with sand or other suitable material. Unless 
the subsoil is very porous and well drained, it is essential that 
this class of foundation liave an impervious wearing surface. 
This is especially true of the regions where a cold winter cli- 
mate prevails, as they would then also be subject to the disin- 
tegrating action of water and frost. 

Other miscellaneous foundations consist of logs, forming a 
corduroy road, or of planks. The latter are more common, as they 
can usually be built at a less cost and give greater satisfac- 
tion. Such foundations should only be used when they are 
necessarily kept wet all the time, as is the case in localities 
which have to be protected by levees and have water practi- 
cally at the surface of the ground continuously. It is not prac- 
ticable to build any considerable length of corduroy foundation 
on account of its cost being so much greater than one of plank. 
A corduroy foundation is made by placing logs in the ground 
longitudinally with the road and about 3 feet apart, to act as 
stringers, the upper surface of these logs to be as nearly level 
as possible crosswise of the road. Logs are then placed across 
and as close together as possible and spiked to the stringers. 

A plank foundation should be built by having 3-inch by 6- 
inch stringers placed longitudinally with the road and about 3 
feet apart. These stringers should be sunk in the ground so 
that their upper surfaces are level and even with the ground 
in the same cross section. One-inch boards should then be laid 
across the stringers at an angle and spiked to them, on top of 
which another layer of 1-inch boards should be laid across at 
the reverse angle and all spiked together. This foundation is 
then ready to receive the surfacing material, the thickness of 
which will vary according to the usual governing conditions. 

All kinds of slag from iron and steel furnaces and ore smelters 
have been successfully used in building the foundations for 

The slag is usually taken in the crucible or pots in its molten 
state on a tramway from the furnace plant to where it is dump- 
ed. There it accumulates in great piles and is allowed to cool, 
when it becomes practically a hill or ledge of stone. These 
dumps are then quarried similarly as is stone, or powerful 
steam shovels are used to excavate them, and the slag is thus 
broken into suitable fragments to be used in the foundation of 
roads, or by being run through a regular rock crusher all sizes 
desired may be obtained. 

The aoid slags will only form a physical bond when consoli- 
dated by a roller, but the basic slags not only form a physical 
bond, but a chemical reaction takes place in them when sub- 
jected to the conditions which usually exist in the foundation 
of roads, and results in the cementing together of all of the 
pieces, thus forming a sort of concrete foundation. Therefore, 
such material forms an excellent foundation when due care is 
used in its construction. The results obtained have been so 
satisfactory that slag is being used for the whole depth of the 
road surfacing material, including the foundation, and in some ; 
cases experiments have been made with other materials to bind 
the slag surface. After more experimental work has been done 
in this line, it seems probable that such construction will be 
successful and economical in some localities. 

•From a report by Vernon M. Pierce. Chief Engrineer U.S. 

Office Public Roads, presented at the Second International Road Congress at 




ewers im Wet Trenches 

Practical Notes from the Experience of Numerous Engineers ~ The Plank 
and Wedge Method -Piles and Timber Foundations Toronto's Practice 


The American Society of Municipal Improvementg, through 
its Clearing House of Municipal Information, has recently col- 
lected some information concerning methods employed in various 
cities in laying sewers in wet trenches. This was in Tesponse 
I to a request for information concerning the ladvisability of 
I laying sewer pipe upon plank and holding the same to line 
, and grade by wooden wedges, placed back of each bell. 

In New England, no engineers reported having used this 
method. The city engiineer of Beverly, Mass., has employed 
iron pipe for wet trenches, the particular trench in question 
being in very wet, running sand. The pipes were blocked up 
at the bell ends until an inch or so above grade. The joints 
were then calked by oakum, followed by lead wool, after 
which two men using a piece of 6'inch x 6inch timber as a 
rammer drove the pipe to grade. No other method was re- 
ported from New England, aside from the common practice 
there of first laying an underdrain surrounded by crushed 
stone or gravel, thereby draining off the water from the trench 
and permitting the laying of sewers directly above it on com- 
paratively dry ground. 


Flank and Wedge. 
In the Central States a number of engineers reported having 
used the plank and wedge method. From New York one en- 
gineer reports that "In -wet quicksand this is about the only 
plan I have found at all practical, but a trough or cradle was 
[often necessary instead of simply a plank. Without such a 
foundation the pipes will not be apt to stay in place at all." 
Mr. E. B. Cod wise, of Kingston, N. Y., states: "I have had 
18-inch to 24inch pipe sowers laid on a timber and plank 
foundation held in place by wooden wedges. Some such sewers 
were built 15 to 18 years ago and I have never heard of any 
trouble from them." From Elizabeth, N.J., Mr. \V. H. Luster 

I reports having laid 500 feet of sewer pipe in this way without 
having experienced any trouble. Among the Pennsylvania re- 
ports, Mr. B. E. Briggs, of Erie, states that in bad trenches of 
running sand he prefers to lay the pipe on plank, but block 
it up with dry earth; two pieces of 2-foot x 6-foot or 2-foot 
X 8-foot laid lengtliwise of the trench being used. Mr. B. K. 
Finch, of WilUes-liarre, has used the plank, but in place of 
wedges employs collars or blocks of wood having an arc of a 
circle sawed in the top to fit the pipe, which collars are placed 
under the pipe resting upon the plank. Mr. Harry T. Barker, 
of New Brighton, Pa., reports this method having been used 
very satisfactorily and states: "The plank ought to outlive the 
usefulness of the sewer whicli rests upon it." Still another 
states that his experience warrants him in reconunending this 
plan, without giving details. In Wilmington, Del., practically 
this plan has been follow^ed, and is reported by Mr. A. J. 
Taylor, chief engineer of the Sewer Department, to have 
;iven very satisfactory results so far as known. Mr. llatton 
,of that city writes somewhat at length cojicerning this method 
as follows: "1 have supported miles and miles of sewer pipe 
in wet trenches upon timber foundation, laying a 2-inch plank 
on its flat side upon the sub-grade, and upon the top of this 
■J)lank placing two cradle blocks under each length of pipe, if 
it to be 2 feet or 2Vj feet in length, and three cradle blocks if it 
'fee in 3-foot lengths. These cradle blocks are usually made of 
;-inch or 4-inch timber cut out to fit the external radius of 
the sewer pipe and toe-nailed to the plank on the bottom. In 
laying pipes under these conditions I am careful to have the 
bottom plank placed to precise line and grade, and then, the 
blocks being all of the same pattern and the pipes of uniform 

thickness, it is an easy problem to lay tham sU to • trs« lis* 
and grade. 

"I would not recommend the dm of wodgM nnder the pipM 
because the stability of these wedges would depend entirelj 
upon the manner in which they were placed by tlie pipe-layer, 
who is usually working under most advene eonditions, it being 
possible for the position of the wedges to be changed without 
the knowledge of the inspector; but if the cradle blocks are all 
made uniform the pipe layer cannot possibly make any mis- 
take, as the inspector can readily see whether these blocks are 
placed under each pipe and toe-oailed to the foundation plaak." 
Incidentally, Mr. Uatton states that he has recently done a 
considerable amount of work in wet trenches using for joint- 
ing material a mixture of cement with soft pine tar in the 
proportion of two cement to one tar, the mixture being worked 
up to the consistency of putty and inserted in the joint in this 

A nuutber of engineers from the Central States report other 
methods of handling sewers in wet trenches. City Engineer 
Allen, of Syracuse, reports that bis plan is to "Excavate froas 
6 to 12 inches below grade and fill in with bank sand and 
gravel; also fill around and over the pipe to six inches above 
the top with the same material. Joints are made with a special 
gasket and Portland cement." Ue has considered the plank 
and wedge method, but fears that it would not be saccessful 
in maintaining the sewers at grade and the pipe or bell would 
be crushed with the load. Mr. Theo. 8, Oxholm, of Kichmond 
Borough, N.Y., has used a foundation plank where the bot- 
tom persisted in squeezing up from the flowing sand, the plank 
being fastened to the sheeting to hold it in place. Wedges 
were not used, however. In Bronx Borough, N.Y., the plank 
foundation method has been used, but preference is given to • 
concrete bed "as the support is more uniform and there is leas 
liability to breaking from unequal bearing." Professor H. N. 
Ogden, of Ithaca, N.Y., has laid pipe in V-shaped wooden 
troughs wdth concrete placed around and under the pipe. Ue 
believes the plank and trough method would be usefnl in many 
eases. Mr. Walter Greenalch, Commissioner of Public Works 
of Albany, N.Y., reports that in that city it has been the gaa- 
eral practice, in the case of wet trenches, to lay sewer pipe on 
a concrete bed. His objection to the use of plank is that a 
much longer length of trench must be kept open while the 
plank and sewer pipe are being laid, whereas with concrete it 
is necessary to open the trench for only a few lengths at a 
time. Mr. B. A. McClanathan, city engineer of Niagara ¥M», 
states that he has laid an 18'inch tile sewer in a 12-foot cnt 
with three feet of quicksand at the bottom; in which case be 
"used planks of various lengths, usually not over 4 to 6 feet, 
being unable to bottom more than that length ahead of the 
work; wedging up the pipe temporarily just enoogh to hold 
and immediately bedding it and covering it to a thickness of 2 
inches with gravel concrete. Six months after this sewer was 
finished I examined it and the greatest settlement found at any 
one point was about 1^ inchea out of grade. The quicksand in 
this trench was very soft, so much so that I excavated a good 
part of it by attaching a hose to the hydrant, stirring ap the 
sand ahead of the work and working it back throngh the 
pipe, afterwards scraping it out from the sewer outlet." The 
same engineer also built a 48-inch brick sewer in quicksand 
by using a plank cradle formed of three planks 10 inches wide 
and 10 feet long, laid to break joints. There was no appreeiable 
settlement in this sewer. 

Mr. Edward S. Rankin, engineer of sawen of Newark, SJ^ 



reports having used the plank and cradle method, a cradle 
being placed under each end of each pipe. He believes, how- 
ever, that there is danger of the pipe cracking with this style 
of construction unless very great care is taken in back filling 
around the pipe; also that they obtained as good results with- 
out this blocking up. The city of Plainfield, N.J., has formerly 
had considerable trouble with- sewers in wet trenches, and 
City Surveyor Andrew J. Gavett states ttat most of their 
sewers in wet trenches are now laid of east iron. Mr. Edw. 
D. Rich reports that while city engineer of Summit, N. J., 
be used cradles consisting of two 2-inch x 10-ineh plank laid 
flat and connected by cross ties of 2 x 4 's spaced so as to have 
one come under each end of the pipe. Wedges cut to fit ap- 
proximately the outside of the pipe were placed on top of 
the 2 x 4's to hold the pipe in line. In quicksand such cradles 
had to be braced to the sheeting to prevent their being raised 
above the grade by the upward pressure. "This method holds 
the pipe from 4 to 6 inches above the bottom of the trench, 
and if pumping is continuous the joints can be kept dry until 
.set. Back filling should be carefully made around the pipe, 
and if the trench is deep the pipe should be concreted. The 
only objection I can see to the cradle method is that the pipe 
rests largely on the two points; and the back filling should be 
compact enough, whether of earth or of concrete, to prevent 

In Carbondale, Pa., Mr. Benj. Anthony always puts a flat 
stone under the bell, using wedges for holding the pipe in 

♦ ^- J, .f H< * 





Plan Employed at Oak Park, 111. 

position on this. Mr. N. S. Sprague, Superintendent of Con- 
struction of Pittsburg, states that their method, where a plank 
foundation is used, is to bed the pipes on concrete about 3 
inches thick so as to insure a uniform bearing along the full 
length of the pipe. The use of wedges he considers bad prac- 
tice. Mr. S. Cameron Corson, Borough Engineer of Norris- 
town. Pa., advises sub-drains of tile or otherwise for draining 
the ditch, on top of which he would place concrete carried up 
to the haunch of the pipe, if necessary covering the pipe en- 
tirely after the joints have been properly connected. "In some 
instances most excellent results have been obtained by a plank 
reinforced with concrete, using bell-less pipe entirely, especially 
made or by breaking ofl: the bells. If the special bell-less pipe 
is used on top of the planks, a cement mortar collar may be 
l)laeed entirely around the joint. The water passes down the 
trench under the plank." 

Possibly no city of the south has had more extensive ex- 
perience with wet trenches than New Orleans. Mr. Geo. C. 
Earl, general superintendent of the sewer and water works 
construction there, describes their method as follows : ' ' Our 
practice in laying sewer pipe in bad bottoms is to lay either 
a horizontal plank under the pipe or, if the bottom is very 
bad, floor over the whole trench bottom. The top of this 
plank or flooring is laid deep enough to give a good strong 
clearance for the bell of the pipe. Over this shells or gravel 
(porous material through which water will run freely) is .spread 
and the pipe laid to grade there and filled around and up 
at least to the centre of the pipe with similar material. We 
prefer to have the pipe nowhere in contact with the foundation 
plank, sheeting or bracing of the trench." In Knoxville, 

Tcnn., City Kngincer Thompson has uesd the plank and block 
method and finds it satisfactory in some eases. Another 
method he has used "is to take out the soft material below 
grade and refill to a depth of 6 to 12 inches with siteam coal 
cinders. Where cost is not to be considered, but it is desired 
to obtain the best results, or where foundation is very unstable, 
I would recommend a concrete base of 4 to 6 inches. Some- 
times a cushion of sand, fine stone screenings, pulverized slag 
or cinders can be used to advantage on this base, in which 
to bed the pipe and render it less liable to breakage." Dallas 
and Austin, Tex., both report having had no experience with 
wet trenches, a condition on which they can be congratulated. 
Mr. F. F. Colby, city engineer of Chickasha, Okla., has laid a 
large amount of sewer in wet trenches and finds the plank and 
wedge method the best he knows of for holding the pipe in 
shifting ground. 

Construction of Wooden Foundation. 

Mr. W. F. Sargent, of Oak Park, 111., reports having had 
considerable experience in laying sewers in saturated sand 
where the "well point' system was used with wonderful suc- 
cess (as at Gary, Ind., in 1908). In other cases he has sup- 
ported both ends of each length of pipe on cross plank fastened 
to the sheeting. In a particularly difficult case a sewer was 
supported on a wooden foundation constructed as follows: 
2x6 planks were driven as piles in the bottom of the trench 
every 4 feet, the 6-inch being crosswise of the trench, and 2x6 
stretchers, with the 6 inches vertical, were nailed one to each 
edge of the plank piles, and with their top edges slightly below 
sewer grade. The pipes were supported on this by short pieces 
of plank laid across the trench and resting upon the tops of 
these stretchers. This plan he reports to have been perfectly 
successful in a 12-foot trench in sand which was completely 
saturated with water. 

While a number of reports were received from Ohio( only 
one city, Columbus, reports using the plank and wedge system, 
stating that it works well. In Cleveland a timber cradle or 
grillage has been used in some eases, but in addition thereto 
a bed of concrete is made so as to insure a proper support of 
the pipe. 

In Grand Rapids, Mich,, the plank and block has not been 
used, but gravel is generally placed for a foundation where 
the soil is insecure. All reports from Kansas indicate that the 
trenches there are never wet enough to make this or any similar 
method necessary. Ogden and Prove, Utah, report having used 
the plank and block method and finding it satisfactory. City 
Engineer Eust, of Toronto, states that in that city the pipes 
are laid on planks, but are usually supported by concrete under 
and up to the haunches of the pipe. In some eases wooden 
cradles are used instead of planks, but here, also, the concrete 
bed is added. 

Word has been received at Winnipeg that the first unit of 
the city's hydro-electric generating plant for Point du Bois is 
ready for shipment. It has been tested at the plant of Vickers 
Sons & Maxim and found most satisfactory. The testing was 
done under the supervision of Mr. Glasco, representing the 
construction engineers, and a firm of British experts, repre- 
senting the city. This unit, and there are five of the same de- 
sign, will develop 3,000 kilowatts, and the second unit will be 
placed on the te.'^ting floor at once. 

Toronto's building business. was greater than that of Detroit 
last year. City Architect McCallum has received the report 
from the latter city, showing that the permits issued there 
totalled a value of $17,250,000, an increase over the preceding 
year of 28 per cent. Here they were $21,2.50,000. The increase 
here over the preceding year was 16 per cent. 





The CoostriuictioHTi of Good Gravel Roads 

Careful Survey and Suitable Plans the First Essentials- Equipment Required 
— Gravel Bed and Shoulders — Harrowing and Rolling Maintenance' 

A well graded and well drained earth road is necessary for 
I the foundation of any Itind of an improved road, therefore 
I money expended on such work is not lost oven though it be sev- 
1 eral yeiars before the road receives a hard surface. In building 
any good road, the first essentials are a eareful survey and suit- 
able plans. 

Orading. — The cost of grading depends upon the kind and 
j amount of cartli that must be handled and the distance it has 
to be moved. Wlicre old roads have been regarded for the 
purpose of building state reward roads, the cost has usually 
, run from $200 to $400 a mile — $300 being a fair average. A 
[few hilly roads have been graded at a cost of more than $2,000 
[ a mile. 

Tools Bequlred. — For rather low turnpikes no tool is so efli- 

S eient iis the road grader in skilful hands. For turnpikes with 

i deep ditches, the flat, or Doan scraper, is excellent. This tool 

is not intended to move earth far, but spreads it evenly over the 

road when rightly handled. 

The drag scraper is good for hauls up to 150 feet. Between 

[that distance and 700 feet, wheel scrapers are best, but to use 

I theim economically, there should be enough scrapers working, 

unless moving soft sand, to keep a snatch team, and 

where the .soil is heavy another team on the plow. For hauls 

longer tlian 700 feet it is cheaper to use wagons. 

Drainage. — In most soils sufficiemt drainage is provided by 
building the ordinary turnpike with side ditches or gutters just 
large enough to provide for the free flow of water that naturally 
1 comes to the road. In clay soils the bohtoms of the side ditches 
should be not less than 2 feet below the crown of the road, 
unless supplemented by tile drains. Especial pains must be 
taken to make sure that the ditches have free outlets. 

Tile drains are a necessity in all springy soils. A 4-inch 
. land tile along the upper side of the road to cut off the spring 
water before it reaches the road bed will usually prove suffi- 
cient. A line of tile can be placed on the other side later if 
found necessary. It is always advisable to cover the tile to a 
depth of C inches or more with gravel of cinders, and in very 
wet soils the drainage will be facilitated by filling the entire 
trench with some porous material. 

In clay soils trenches should be cut through the shoulders 
described in the next paragraph, making outlets into the side 
ditches for water that may collect in the gravel bed during con- 
struction, and later before the surface becomes hard and water- 
proof. Such trenches should be 8 inches or more in width and 
slightly deeper than the gravel bed. They should bo placed at 
all low points in the grade and not farther than 100 feet apart 
in retentive soils and filled with coarse gravel when the first 
layer of gravel is put on. 

Oravel Bed and Shoulders. — After the rough grading and 
drainage above described have been completed the gravel bed 
should bo formed in the central part of the road grade by plac- 
ing shoulders of firm earth on each side and far enough apart to 
retain the proposed width of gravel, which the law provides, 
shall be not loss than 9 feet wide nor less than 6 inches in 
d«pth. It may, however, be such greater width as the commis- 
sioner may specify and as deep as 12 inches if necessary, but 
where any greater depth than 6 inches is used the gravel should 
be put on in two or more layers as herein described. 

Where the road grade is as high or higher than the finished 
road should be, the shoulders are best formed by scraping earth 
from the centre to each side with the four-wheeled grader. But 

•From the Third Biennial Report of the .Mi.;higan Highway Depaitment 

first the road ihonid be leveled by driving the grkdcr back *ni 
forth on the centre of the tnrnpike, with the blade set MjiMre 
across, so as to cot off the high places and deposit the earth ia 
the hollows, using the grader as a planing tool. A doable row 
of pickets set 1 feet farther out on each eide than the margins 
of the gravel bed, so as to clear the babs and wbiffletreea, U a 
convenient method of staking out the grader work. 

If the old road grade is much too low, it is -osoaUy cheaper 
to regrade and turnpike before beginning to form the sbonldets. 
But should the old bed be about the right height for sub-grade, 
ahoulders may be forme<l by bringing up earth from the aides 
with the grader provided it can be spared from the gutters or 
ditches. If not, earth should be brought with scrapers or wa- 
gons from other places where it can be spared. Many places 
will be found where the centre can be notched out, leaving the 
undisturbed sides for shoulders, using the earth thus obtaioed 
to build up shoulders on slightly lower ground. 

The shoulders thus formed should extend to the side diteh ei 
or gutters with the same grade and curvature as required for 
the finished road, viz.: an average rise of 1 in. for each foot of 
distance from the inner edge of the ditches or gutters to the 
centre line of road. Thus, an 18 ft. roadway would bave a 9 in. 
crown and a 24-ft. roadway a 12-in. crown. 

After the machine work above described has been completed, 
lines should be set up on the margins of the gravel bed and 
enough hand tnimming done with mattocks and shovels to bring 
the gravel bed to the exact subgrade, giving it the same width 
and curvature as required for the finished road. Oravel is too 
expensive a material to fill hollows with, for they ean be filled 
with earth from the shoulders for lesa money than gravel tmn 
be shoveled into wagons at the pit, and every high point pro- 
truding into the gravel means a defective place in the finished 

Oravelling. — Next to proper drainage, the most important 
tiling in ibuilding gravel roads is to secure a good quality of 
gravel. Authorities have differed as to the requirements of 
suitable road gravels, most of them in my opinion, placing too 
much stress on the immediate packing qualities. Indeed the 
average township commissioner and farmers generally have be- 
come so imbued with the idea that it is necessary to oae a 
gravel that will pack quickly that they have almost lost sight 
of the fact that the only thing which makes a gravel road 
better than an earth road is the pebbles — real aton es th at 
it contains and is dependent upon to bear up the traffic and 
resists wear. 

The most common material sought after for the binder in 
gravel roads is clay. But, considering all kinds of weather, it 
is probably the poorest cementing material we have. If pres- 
ent much in excess of 20 per cent, of the mass it will make mud 
whenever there is a prolonged wet spell. Ideal clay gravels 
c-ontain only enough clay to coat the pebbles, with no free 
lumps. Such gravels are excellent for the first layer on saadjr 
soils, but sand gravels are much better for the fiiat layer om 
clay and loamy soils. 

Gravels that come from the pit with the peMtles esmeated 
together, even though they contain no day, will re-cemeot ia 
the road and become harder than they were in the pit. Tests 
of specimens of this kind always show that there ia much lima 
present and usually some iron, both of which are ezeeUeat ce- 
menting materials. Briefly, the ezperience of the State High- 
way Department warrants the statemeat that there are few, if 
any, bank gravels in Michigan that do not costaia enough 



limestone and other soft peibblee which grind up under traffic 
and furnish sufficient binder to cause them to consolidate in a 
few moreths tame, if separated from the surplus sand and earth, 
and properly treated after applying to the road. 

Testing Gravel. — To insure a sufficient pebble content the 
State Highway Department's specifications require that the 
gravel for the firsit course shall be good clean bank gravel, not 
less than 60 per cent, by weight, a larger per cent, if pes 
sible, of which shall be pebbles that will be retained on a 
screen of 1-8 inch mesh and pass through a screen of 2%-inch 
mesh. The gravel for the top course must be the same, except 
that no pebbleis are allowed in this course too large to pass 
through a screen of 1% .mesh. 

Screening Gravel. — Michigan is full of gravel pits which are 
too sandy to use pit run. In most cases excellent gravel can be 
obtained from such pits by screening, the cost of which can be 
kept down to a little more than double the cost of shoveling pit 
run gravel into wagons if cheap power driven portable screen- 
ing plants are used. As the screened gravel is delivered into 
elevated bins from which it is drawn by gravity into the wa- 
gons there is no further cost for loading. Next in order of 
cheapness comes the wagon screen. This is a long screen about 
the length of the wagon box and 3 ft. wide, which is attached 
to the far side of the box. The gravel is shoveled over the box 
against the screen, allowing the pebbles to slide back into the 
wagon while the sand falls through the screen onto the ground 
on the opposite side. Hand screening is more expensive, fre- 
quently costing as much a8 40 cents per cu. yd. for the screened 

Applying the Gravel.— After the road has been graded and 
shoulders formed as above outlined gravel of the quality de- 
scribed should be put on the road in two courses and each course 
compacted separately. 

Gravel will conipaot to about 80 per cent, of its depth, loose 
measure, as applied to the road, provided it is shouldered in and 
not allowed to waste away to the sides. If the compacted depth 
is to be 8 ins. and the width 9 ft. as required to secure state 
reward, it will take about 1,500 cu. yds. of gravel to the mile, 
and it is best to make the first layer 6 ins. deep loose measure, 
and the second layer 4 ins. deep loose measure. 

To reduce the amount of spreading to the minimum it is ad- 
visable to place the gravel on the 9 ft. road bed by dumping 
two loads side by side, stringing them out just far enough to 
make the required depth. Thus, if two loads of gravel contain 
ing 1 yd. each are dumped on such a road bed, they will reach 
12 ft. along the road and spread just 6 ins. deep. This requires 
only a very little drawing out of each load at the ends. Should 
the teams draw 1% yd. loads, they would reach 18 ft. down 
the road and spread to the same depth, necessitating moving 
ahead about a wagon length to dump the second half of each 
load. The top layer would be dumped in the same manner, bear- 
ing in mind that to spread only 4 ins. deep the same sized loads 
will reach a half farther — making two 1-yd. loads each 18 ft. 
and two 1% yd. loads reach 2 7£t. The distance two loads 
should reach is best gaged by setting little stakes the proper 
distance apart in the shoulders along the margin of the gravel 
bed. These stakes can be moved ahead as the work pro- 

Harrowing and Rolling.— Usually the gravel should be placed 
on the road commencing at the end of the road nearest the 
gravel supply so thait the teams will aid in packing. As soon as 
the 30 or 40 rods of gravel have been spread on the road it 
should be harrowed with a spike tooth harrow, preferably one 
of the lever type. If but few teams are hauling, the harrow 
may be used twice daily — just before quitting time at noon and 
again at night. If a 100 yds. or so of gravel are hauled to the 
road daily, one team should be working on the harrow all the 
time. The harrowing should be done the same for both courses. 
As soon as the gravel has been well wet by rains it should be 
rolled with the best roller available. For this purpose a weighted 

field roller may be used if one can be had that is strong enough 
to bear weighting to three or more tons. A heavier roller of 
larger diameter is preferable, and where possible it is better to 
use a regular road roller, either of concrete or cast iron, weigh- 
ing not less than four tons. In some places such rollers have 
been hauled with traction engines, the engine wheels doing as 
much or more compacting than the roller. Where a power roller 
is obtainable, dt is better and more efficient than any of the 

Each course should be rolled separately, commencing at the 
sides, rolling lengthwise of the road, but gradually working 
towards the centre. In the final rolling the whole surface of the 
roadway, including the shoulders, should be rolled and left in 
such perfect condition that water will flow without obstruc- 
tion to the side ditches. The grader or float may have to be 
used at times to preserve the crown, but the harrow should be 
kept running until the rolling is completed, or until the gravel 
becomes so well compacted that the teeth refuse to penetrate 
the surface. 

Maintenance. — Gravel roads completed in the prescribed man- 
ner may not become thoroughly compacted, no matter how well 
they are rolled, until after several months of travel — usually 
not until they have passed through one winter. During this 
formative period the road must be looked after and kept free 
from wheel ruts and hollows. It can usually be kept smooth by 
the systematic use of the plank float, the timber or angle iron 
drag, or sometimes by the careful use of the road grader. The 
last named tool often, does much damage by digging up hard 
places, while the former tools only shove the loose gravel for- 
ward, gradually pushing enough of it towards the centre of the 
road to preserve the crown, but always depositing it where there 
is a hollow. Wherever there is an extra deep wheel track or 
other evidence of rutting and not enough loose gravel to com- 
pletely fill the depressions, a little new gravel of the best qual- 
ity should be put on before the floating is done. This work 
should always be done immediately after rains, preferably when 
water is still standing in the little hollows, as then they can 
•be seen more readily, and at such times the gravel is in the 
best possible condition for packing and uniting with the hard- 
ened road bed. Such treatment systematically followed up will 
preserve the gravel road in as good condition as when new 
until the surface has worn down so far that it needs a new top. 

About 7,00U miles, or approximately one-tenth of the total 
road mileage of Michigan, have been reported as surfaced with 
gravel. Some of these are very good and some scarcely better 
than common earth roads. This is caused, first, by placing 
gravel on improperly graded and undrained roads and, second, 
by using gravel which contains too much sand or too much 
loamy clay. Since the state reward road law became opera- 
tive there have been built about 350 miles of gravel road which 
have received a state bounty. These roads have ranged in 
cost from a little less than $1,000 upwards to $3,000 per mile, 
the average being not far from $1,500. 

The treatment of boiler water with lump and with hydrated 
lime has been tested by Mr. C. E. Thomas, general foreman of 
waterworks, Illinois Central Railroad, whose findings regard- 
ing the comparative merits of the two materials are embodied 
in a paper before the Illinois Water Supply Association. A 
test was made on 24 tanks, each containing 65,000 gallons of 
water; 12 tanks were treated with hydrated and 12 with lump 
lime, 3,432 pounds of hydrated lime and 2,808 pounds of lump 
lime being used. Although about 22 per cent, more of hy- 
drated lime than lump lime was used, the lower cost of the 
hydrated lime showed a saving of about 2^ cents per tank 
over the lump lime. A more uniform treatment was main- 
tained by the use of the hydrated product and the uncertain 
and deteriorating effects of storage upon lump lime were 



Msnicipal Coestriuicitioiii at Fort William 

Comparative Costs of Contract Work and Day Labor -The latter 
not an " Inefficient Monstrosity " Methods and Cost of Paving 


Some interesting comments on the subject of day labor, to- 
j^etlier with comparative costs on one or two examples of sewer 
construction, are given in the 1910 annual report of Mr. H. 8. 
Hancock, jr., city engineer of Fort William, Ont. The report 
also contains a considerable amount of useful information on 
paving work, and the following general extracts from the vari- 
ous sections will doubtless be of interest: 

The contract sewer on Amelia street, consisting of 692 feet of 
1.1-inch tile and 1,290 feet of 12-inch tile averaged complete 
.■(16.68 per foot, while a similar sewer on Christina street with 
1,200 feet of 15-iach tile and 300 feet of 12-inch tile cost only 
$3.70 per foot. Of course, the extra work on Kdward street and 
two flush tanks probably accounted for an additional 50c. a foot 
to the contractors, and they undoubtedly made good money to 
which were largely avoided by their skill and energy, but, never- 
theless, the comparison is a distinct tribute to the foroman on 
the Christina sewer. On Mary street, however, constructed dur- 
ing the last three weeks in about I.t inches of frost plus a 
macadam road to be picked and the bugbear of winter work in 
picking back-filling, the cost rose to $6.69. Of course it was all 
1.5-inch tile as -compared with 60 per cent. 12-inch tile in the 
case of Amelia, but it still fails to reveal any gross negligence. 

The contract sewer on May street does not lend itself readily 
to comparison as the excavation was much shallower than either 
May or Brodie South, hut considering that on these latter srtreets 
all sewor connections had to be reconnected from the old sewer 
to the new, I am more than satisfied with the showing made. 

The Francis street-Edward street contract was undertaken by 
day labor after receiving the following tenders: J. J. Flanagan, 
$51,000; E. S. Eutledge, $51,685; Stewart & Hewitson, $51,750; 
Ijaidlaw & Grant, $54,000; Stewardson Bros., $60,761; H. R. 
Murphy, $62,000; A. Cameron, 64,145. 

The actual cost without engineering and inspection is $40,- 
232.54. Total cost including engineering and inspection 
$41,371.88, or a saving under the lowest price bid of over 
$10,000. The machine cost $5,200, and a charge has 'been made 
against this job for its use based on a life of five years and 
working 100 days a year, whereas its life is more likely to ap- 
proach fifteen years. In any case, this decrepit organization has 
made something over $5,000 for the city and presented it with 
the machine. This also in view of the fact that a Lidgerwood 
cableway would have cost $1,000 less and saved over $1,000 of 
expense in crossing the C.N.R. track, a total saving of $2,000, 
an economy which I did not feel justified in effecting on this 
job as the Lidgerwood machine can not be used in trenches 
under eight feet in width, whereas the Carson machine we have 
purchased can be used in any of our trenches, and its future use- 
ftiliicss fully warrants the additional expenditure. 
Sewer Purification. 

Some time in the future, possibly five years hence, probably 
nearer twenty years hence, you will face the problem of sewage 
disposal. To attempt to treat sewage as suggested, with a septic 
tank at each outlet, is not practicable. When the time comes 
it will be necessary to instal a separate sanitary sewerage system 
from which the sewage will be pumped to the tanks and filtra- 
tion beds. The present combined system can then bo utilized for 
storm and flood water. This change, in my opinion, cannot be 
necessary for many years in the case of Fort William, in fact, 
may never be necessary as there is no question of the con- 
tamination of any water supply, but 1 wish to warn you that 
any attempt to instal separate disposal plants at each outlet can 
only be productive of enormous expense and continual disap- 
pointment. Wben the proper time comes a separate system may 

be necessary, but until then you should reaolotcly refnxe to 
adopt any other scheme. 

Id this connection there has already be«iD aome comment on 
the pollution of the Neebing river. It i* obvion* that the in- 
crease of navigation on the Kaministiqiria is rapidly drivioK 
boats and canoes from its surface. The Neebing river offer* 
an alternative if the sewage does not become offencive by the 
disturbance of the water. My idea to overcome thia objection 
and at the same time make this river the best stretch of plea- 
sure warter possible h to build an intercepting sewer donrn both 
banks of the river. These sewera would be perfectly pwallel 
with their covers about three feet above the water level and 
these tops finished as a sidewalk and dock about twelve feet 
wide of reinforced concrete. Water for flushing could be drawn 
from the upper waters of the Neebing rivor. This would give 

H. 8. Hancock, Jr., City Kngineer of Fort William, Ont. 
you a pleasure canal, say, sevonty-flve feet wiiie, spanned by 
ornamental concrete bridges that would be superior to anything 
of the kind on the continent and the cost would be far less than 
you suppose. I would ask you to study this scheme and I think 
that in about five years you will be ready to carry H out. 

Boads, Pavements and Sidewalks. 

During the past year the quantity ot paving in the city has 
been practically doubled. Asphalt block has been used throngfa- 
out, and practically all the main business streets in the centre 
of the city are now paved with this material. On Syndicate 
avenue centre pole construction was adopted for the street nU- 
way and all other poles removed from tho street. This iaprore- 
ment combined with a new 12- foot reinforced concrete sidewmlk 
on both sides of the avenue has produced the finest street in the 
city. The cost of this work has been considerable, but is, never- 
theless, low considering the amount of excavation necessary ia 

some part*^ r^Pd ^ht^ <tTtiniinf f\f i\]) in nthi^rs ti> r«*]|<*Vi thf nfi^w 


Concrete SMCwaiKS nave .'in ufen couslructtM ua toe rris- 
forcrd slab principle and I am still confident that this eUas of 



construction will outlive any other in this climate and subsoil. 

The 12-foot walks built this year show a substantial saving 
over last year's prices and are certainly considerably less costly 
than a rockfill walk of similar width and depth of fill. 

The 6-foot walks all show a higher cost per square foot than 
the 12, but this is only natural when one considers that the sup- 
porting walls of a 6-foot wal kare almost as costly as those for a 
12-foot walk with only half the number of surface feet to share 
the cost. However, when the grade has to be raised to any 
extent, the superior results obtained by this method of construc- 
tion fully warrant its use. 

On the other hand, in strictly residential districts some 
cheaper form of construction must be devised, and I would sug- 
gest that residential concrete walks be built at the same time 
as, or after, the boulevard. Then make a shallow excavation of 
say six inches in which should be laid two inches of gravel or 
cinders, and on this bed a slab of 4-inch concrete properly rein- 
forced and divided into sections five feet or six feet square. In 
case of settlement or raising from frost, the affected slab could 
be barred up and rebedded at small expenses without danger of 
breaking the slab. After the boulevard has been filled this con- 
struction should cost between loe. and 18c. per square foot. 

Macadam roads have been to a large extent held in abeyance 
this year as hard trap rock was difficult to secure because of the 
large quantities of rock used in other branches of construction. 

Since the growth of automobile traffic, it may be taken as an 
axiom that the plain or water bound macadam road is not satis- 
factory either from the viewpoint of service or dustlessness, and 
that some binder of a cementing tendency is essential. 

For cheap and effective road construction, I think the best of 
the bituminous binders is Tarvia X. It has been used in a large 
number of cities in Canada and has given good results on roads 
of ordinary traffic as distinct from heavy city traffic, for which 
a more substantial paving is necessary, and I think you will act 
wisely in laying some experimental pieces of this road. 

Also, the Bocmac system of road making seems, on al! the 
evidence that can be procured, to make an excellent roadway. 
The evidence from England and Scotland is overwhelmingly in 
its favor, but as it has only recently been introduced into this 
country, evidence is not so easily obtained. The city of Port 
Arthur has laid an experimental piece this season. The depart- 
ment of highways of the state of New York, who spend, I think, 
some ten millions of dollars annually on roads, state through 
their first deputy commissioner: "We built about a mile of 
highway under the Rocmac system in 1910. So far this road has 
been very satisfactory and we are seriously considering continu- 
ing the extension of this work next year. We feel justified in 
the way the road has turned out in giving it a more extended 
trial, and will do so next year." 

The construction of the Kocmac road is somewhat similar to 
Travia X, but the bituminous binder of the latter is replaced in 
Rocmac by a solution, which, I understand, contains caustic 
soda, sugar, molasses and several other ingredients not divulged 
by the makers, and is mixed with carboniferous limestone to 
form a matrix, 15 gallons of the solution being thoroughly mixed 
into every cubic yard of limestone. 

The preparation of the subgrade is of the greatest importance 
and must be thoroughly sound and compact. Upon this sub- 
grade a layer of the matrix is laid, the amount depending on the 
finished thickness of the macadam, but approximately %-ineh 
matrix for 4-inch of 2-inch stone. The rock which should be 
trap, basalt or granite is then spread over the matrix and thor- 
oughly rolled with a ten-ton roller until a slurry appears on the 
surface, at which time all the voids of the rock are filled with 
the matrix. It is undoubtedly a process worthy of the most seri- 
ous investigation and it may possibly prove the ideal roadway 
of its type. 

Several roads have been improved by gravelling or by a layer 
of crushed rock. 

The following tables give details of cost and progress: 

PAVING- Cubic 

Yards. Rate. Total. 

Victoria ave. (Syndicate to Vickers) . 4910.4 $3.89 $ 18610.42 

Donald St. (Syndicate to Brodie) 1362.2 3.36 4587.15 

Syndicate ave. (Victoria to Duncan). 10406. 4.63 48241.62 

Donald st. subway 198.2 315 624.33 

16876.8 $4.27 $72063.52 
Average rate per cubic yard for all paving constructed, $4.27. 
The paving at present laid in the city, including that laid by 
the street railway department by years, is as follows: 

1906 988 square yards 

1907 5,878 square yards 

1908 12,930 square yards 

1909 4,216 square yards 

1910 23,251 square yards 

Total 47,263 square yards 

BOULEVARDS- p^^^ ^^,^ ^otal. 

Syndicate ave. (Bidgeway to Duncan) . . . 984 $ .65 $ 639.60 

Archibald st. (Arthur to Ridge.way) 1106 .69 762.60 

Dease St. (Simpson to McKenzie) 1050 1.34 1408.35 

Syndicate ave. (Leith to Dease) 2604 .76 1981.77 

Catherine st. (Arthur to Ridgeway) 1116 .66 741.36 

6860 $ .80.6 
Average rate per foot for all boulevards constructed, 

CONCRETE Wji.LKS— ^^^^^ 

John St. E. (Victoria to Miles)... 6 2,700 38e. 

Miles St. s. (May to Brodie) 6 1,242 45e. 

Frederica st. (Edward to Brown) . 6 4,032 46c. 

Miles st. n. (Simpson to Lane) 6 787 45c. 

Curamings st. n. and 8. (do.) 6 1,574 44c. 

Victoria ave. n. (Vickers to Syndi- 
cate) 12 7,674 32c. 

Donald st. n. (Brodie to Syndicate) 12 2,406 30c. 

Donald St. s. (Brodie to Syndicate) 12 2,406 30c. 

Syndicate e. & w. (Victoria Ridge- 
way 12 39,408 30c. 










62,229 at 32.9 $20,517.93 

Average rate per square foot for all concrete walks con- 
structed, 32.9c. 

Asphalt pavements in Berlin, Germany, aggregate about 
45 per cent, of the total paved area of the city, according to 
a United States consular report. About 53 per cent, is stone 
pavement and 2 per cent. wood. 

Artesian wells in London are being sunk by a number of 
firms in order to secure water at lower cost than it can be 
purchased from the Water Board. "The Builder," London, 
points out that the water level in the chalk formation has 
been falling at a rate of 2 feet a year, and that if the sub- 
sidence continues many of these private wells will cease to 
be effective after a time. 

The writer has in mind two buildings, almost identical, one 
of structural steel and one of reinforced concrete, and both ! 
used for printing purposes. In the case of the steel building 
the vibration of the machinery may be felt and heard in the 
main entrance, whereas in the case of the reinforced concrete 
building, no such vibration is noticed. 

The writer has personally stood next to a large printing ma- 
chine on a reinforced concrete floor where a slight vibration 
could be felt in the floor within the particular panel where the 
machine was placed; but no such vibration could be felt in any 
one of the adjoining panels. — Exchange. 



Coinisolidatioo ©f fche Boildiimg Iimterests 

President Nesbitt at Toronto — The Work and Aims of the 
C.N. A.B. Preparations for the Annual at Meeting Winnipeg 


Oil .Saturday afternoon, January 7, an intereifting address 
wag given by Mr. E. T. Nosbitt, of Quebec, president of the 
Canadian National Associa/tion of Builders, before EKime sixty 
members of the Toronto Builders' Kxcbange. 

Mr. Nesbitt visited Toronto on his return from London 
and St. Thomas. The former city is one of the most active 
workers in the C.N.A.B., anid the latter Mr. Nesbitt succeeded 
in affiliating. 

A short time ago, it will be remembered, Mr. Nesbitt, ac- 
companied by Mr. .T. H. Lauer, secretary of the National Asso- 
ciation, took an extended trip through Western Canada with the 
object of trying to interest that section of the country in the 
important aims of the parent body and inducing them to pro- 
mote the same by their affiliation and co-operation. The results 
of this tour and their bearing upon the future work and de- 
velopment of the Association were the subject matter of Mr. 
Nesbitt 's address. Some account of this work has already 
been gdven in these columns from time to time, but Mr. Nes- 
bitt gave much additional information that will be found of 

Mr. Nesbitt 's itinerary covered 12,750 miles and the net re- 
sult of the trip was the affiliation of the Begina, Calgary, Ed- 
monton and Lethbridge exchanges. "During the past year," 
said Mr. Nesbitt, "we have increased our membership 100 
per cent. At the bime of our last convention the Aesociation 
was comprised of six exchanges. Now there are eleven, repre- 
senting a total membership of 1,200." 

The meetings held at Winnipeg and the above cities were 
tnarked by the greatest enthusiasm. Elaborate preparations 
were made for Mr. Nesbitt all along the lino, and what was 
even more gratifying than the wild duck suppers and sundry 
other little surprises that he encountered at various points, was 
the wholehearted and responsive interest manifested in his 
objective. He spoke in the highest terms of the hospitality of 
the West and stated humorously that he had gained seven 
pounds in weight during his tour. 

In dealing with the enthusiasm of Western Canada, Mr. 
N'esbitt emphasized very forcibly the responsibility of the East, 
urging those present to do their utmost to promote the welfare 
of the Association as a truly national institution and to forget 
the existence of the gap that had divided the East and the West 
in the past. In this way alone could the building interests of 
the country be consolidated. The labor organizations had forci- 
fied themselves in a manner worthy of emulation. At present, 
labor had the field almost entirely to itself. The master build- 
ers and their associations must be brought to see the value of 
co-operation, and organized so as to present a united front. 
Mr. Nesbitt considers that the time is opportune for the estab- 
lishment of headquarters of the National Association, with a 
permanent secretary in charge. If a competent, live man were 
appointed, they would be notified promptly of all adverse 
legislation under consideration by the Federal or Provincial 
Governments and be in a position to take protective measures 
and to secure adequate representation. This matter is one of 
many important subjects that will be discussed at the annual 
meeting of the C.N.A.B., which, Mr. Nesbitt announced, will 
be held at Winnipeg, February 15-16 next. 

Speaking of the forthcoming convention, Mr. Nesibitt ex- 
pressed the hope that he would see a large number of dele- 
gates from Eastern Canada at Winnipeg, where extensive 
preparations are being made by the local exchange. The mem- 
bership of the latter body is considerably over 400 and for the 

banquet which is to be held dnring the eonvention, seating ac- 
commodation is being provided for 650. The Winnipeg ex- 
change has arranged to contribate a number of iatereatiag 
papers, among which are the following: 

"Technical Training," T. B. Deacon. 

"Ethics of the Master Builder," Geo. W. Morrajr. 

"Organization," J. W. Morley. 

"Contracting, from a Oeneral Contractor'! Standpotnt," W. 
A. Irish. 

Mr. Nesbitt enumerated some of the many important rab- 
jects that will come up for discuaeion at Winnipeg. Foremoat 
of these was that of technical education. It was no good bar- 
ing skilled architects to draw up elaborate plana if there were 
no skilled workmen to carry them out. The decline of the 
apprenticeship system was a serious consideration and h wonld 

Mr. E. T. Nesbitt, Queb«^, President of the O. N. A. R 
be necessary to provide better facilities and greater induce- 
ments for learning the building tradea. 

The policy of the Government in discouraging the immigra- 
tion of skilled labor from England was criticized Mrerelj bj 
Mr. Nesbitt. Pressure should be brought to bear upon the 
authorities, he said, with a view to the removal of all re- 
strictions. His own experience was that not one "skilled" 
workman in twenty was properly qualified. The qneatioa WM 
most urgent as the eight-hour Inw wmil,! in<T...>«.. the demaad 
20 per cent. 

Another matter that would he ul!<^u^^e.| »»!• tao applica- 
tion of the Lemieux Act to industrial disputes. Mr. Nesbitt 
dwelt briefly upon the valne of inch an enactment in eaaaa of 

They would also endeavor to deAne more clearly their rela- 
tions with the architects, and to arrange, if possible, for the 
principal issues, such as uniform contracts, details in plans, and 
so on, to be taken up with fho K-.v..i ^rw<h;r.vtnral Isctitnte 
of Canada. 

Mr. Nesbitt Is enthusiastic over trie luinro of tke OJf.A.B. 
and looks forward to the day when it will be a* powerful a 
body as the Can.idian Manufacturers' Association. 

Further details concerning the convention at Wiaaipef Mact 


THE (J O N T K A C 'r K E C U K D 

month may be obtained on application either to Mr. Nesbitt, 
Quebec, or to J. H. Lauer, Builders' Exchange, Montreal. Mr. 
Nesbitt informs us that special arrangements are being made 
whereby the usual transportation rates will be reduced one-half. 
Mr. Nesbitt issues the following open letter to the building 
and contracting interests of the Dominion: 

To the Builders, Contractors, Supply Men and Build- 
ing Exchanges of Canada 

Office of the "Contract Record," 

Toronto, January 7th, 1910. 

As president of the Canadian National Association of 
Builders, I take the liberty of addressing you this open letter 
on a matter of the greatest importance to you all. It is the 
question of organization. As this is the era of organization, 
without which nothing can be achieved, I ask you to join your 
local Builders' Exchange. Where none exists, I say organize 
one at once, and then affiliate it with the Canadian National 
Association of Builders. In it we have an association composed 
of eleven of the most important Builders' Exchanges of Can- 
ada, viz.: Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, London, St. 
Thomas, Winnipeg, Regina, Calgary, Edmonton and Lethbridge. 
It is only in its infancy and we aim to make it as powerful 
and influential as the Canadian Manufacturers' Association. 

Heretofore we were as units distributed over the Dominion, 
without influence because we lacked organization and numbers, 
and therefore the power to impress governments with our views 
on legislation — often detrimental to our interests — that is be- 
ing continually forced upon us. 

When we think that the building business of Canada repre- 
sented last year some $120,000,000, is it not time for us to wake 
up to the pressing need of organizing ourselves to safeguard our 

Questions of great moment to every builder and contractor 
are continually arising. Day after day such matters are be- 
fore us, and we find ourselves powerless to deal with them be- 
cause of the want of a central organization. 

The annual convention of the Canadian National Association 
of Builders opens in Winnipeg on February 1.5 next. The As- 
sociation proposes to perfect its organization and you are cordial- 
ly invited to attend. If you have not a Builders' Exchange in 
your town, get together and form one, or else join the existing 
one in your nearest town or city. In any event, come to Win- 
nipeg on February 1.5, and see and hear what is being done in 
your interest. 

Yours truly, 


Water Filtration and Typhoid Fever 

In their, report on the purification of the Montreal water 
supply, Messrs. Hering & Fuller, consulting engineers. New York, 
made the following comments on the presence of typhoid fever 
germs in natural and filtered water: 

Occasionally tj'phoid fever in scattering cases is found on the 
watershed of the Ouorean. The germs of this disease sometimes 
continue to be evacuated from the bodies of persons for months 
and years after their recovery. The infection of water is there- 
fore likely to be more frequent than was formerly supposed. In 
the soil and ordinary waters as found in nature typhoid germs 
die quite rapidly as a rule. Some, however, will live for months. 
So far as present knowledge goes, the investigation of the most 
experienced workers in bacteriology indicate that this germ 
rarely if ever multiplies in water and soil as found in nature. 

At the Paris Exposition in 1900 the German government pre- 
sented statistics and charts making a comparison of the typhoid 
statistics in various German cities, grouped so as to make the 
different cities generally comparable with respect to conditions 
other than the water supply. Without detailing these various 
features, attention is called to the following statement of the 

average typhoid fever death rate per 100,000 population in Ger- 
man cities for the years 1896, 1897 and 1898, which is illustra- 
tive of the sanitary quality of filtered surface waters in com- 
parison with ground water. 

Filtered surface water: Stuttgart, 4; Chemnitz, 4; Berlin, 
4.6; Altona, 6; Magdeburg, 6; Hamburg, 6; Bremen, 6; Bruns- 
wick, 8.3; Breslau, 8.6; Konigsburg, 17.6; Stettin, 20.6. 

Ground water: Munich, 3.6; Dresden, 4.0; Charlottenburg, 
4.3; Nuremberg, 4.6; Hanover, 5.3; Crefeld, 6.3; Elberfeld, 6.3; 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 7.3; Barmen, 8; Leipzig, 8.3; Cologne, 9; Mann- 
heim, 9.3; Cassel, 10.3; Flensburg, 11.3; Strassburg, 12; Dantzig, 
12.3; Holle, 13; Essen, 13.6. 

On this side of the Atlantic, the experience of the past 15 
years or more allows statistics to be presented which show, as 
did the hygienic exhibit at the Paris Exposition in 1900, that, 
with other sanitary conditions the same, it ds possible by means 
of filtration to purify surface waters so that they will be sub- 
stantially equal in purity to ground waters of the best quality. 
Such statistics are afforded from cities provided with sand filter 
plants, as set forth in the accompanying table. 

Death Sates from Typhoid Fever per 100,000 Population in 
American Cities Using Filtered Water. 

Typhoid death 
Years averaged. rate. 

y^.i -W a> . H p Q fl 

^''y °2 2-2 S-2 2.2 J. .2 

pHg< "Sw JJn -S a *^K 

Sand filters. o §, H <:2 m;S < ^ 

•J <c tn <a tc 

Albany, N. Y 1899 10 9 90 22 

Lawrence, Mass 1893 7 15 114 25 

Pittsburg, Pa 1907 8 1 133 47* 

Mechanical filters. 

Binghamton, N. Y 1907 5 5 47 15 

Cincinnati, 1908 4 1 .50 16 

Columbus, 1908 11 1 78 20 

Paterson, N. J 1902 5 7 32 10 

Watertown, N. Y 1904 5 5 100 38 

York, Pa 1899 2 8 76 22 

Hoboken, N. J I1M1.5 7 4 19 14 

"Including Alleglieny, supplied with unfiltered water. 

Ten years or so ago mechanical filters had their standing pre- 
dicated to a large extent on results of laboratory investigations 
of an exhaustive nature. To-day modern mechanical filter plants 
which are well built and well operated show that communities 
adopting them have experienced as marked reduction in water- 
borne diseases, notably typhoid fever, as was the case when 
sand filters were introduced at Lawrence, Albany and Pittsburg. 
Representative results are also given in the foregoing table. 

Vancouver City Engineer's Report 

City Engineer Clement, of Vancouver, B.C., dealing with the 
work of his department during 1910, reports that 30.64 miles of 
streets were cleared and rough graded. In the southwestern 
.section of the city 6i/. miles of plank walk was laid. 

The season's work on concrete sidewalks brealcs all records in 
this line, 23.39 miles having been laid. This work was all done 
by contract by Messrs. G. Ledingham and M. P. Cotton & Co. I 
The season's work on cement curbs totalled 2.47 miles. " 

The advance work in sewer extensions is very noticeable, 
many miles of sanitary drains having been laid. This work is 
classified as follows: Tile pipe drains, by day labor, 14.95 miles; 
by contract, 3.02 miles; brick and concrete sewers, by day labor, 
2.12 miles; by contract, .85 mile; basement drains, .28 mile; box 
drains, 2,800 lineal feet; concrete culverts, 10; timber culverts, 
16. In addition to the above list outlet sewers were built at the 
foot of Columbia avenue and Burrard street. 

A feature of the report is the mention of plang roadways, a 
large number of which were laid this fall to meet the demand 



1 Great Year im Railroad Construction 

Progress of the Canadian Pacific in Western Canada — N.T.R.'s Good 
Showing in New Brunswick and Quebec News of Construction 


Tlic year 1910 was one of progress for Canadian railwayi aH 
far as the laying of tracks and the building iip of new gradeii 
were concerned. At the beginning of the year all of the <fom- 
panics had jjrepared plans for the building of hundreds of miles 
of new lines during the summer and more railway construction 
was accomplished in the year just closed than during any 
previous year. A good percentage of this work was carried 
out by the Canadian Pacific Railway. In western Canaila 
alone over 1,.330 miles of new grades were built during the year, 
and of these the C. P. R. built over 600, according to the fol- 
lowing table: 

Grading by Grand Trunk Pacific, 350 miles; by Canadian 
Nortliern, 380 nfiles; by Canadian Pacific, 600 miles; total, 
1,330 miles. 

In the east, between Coldwater and Orillia, and on the main 
line in the vicinity of Peterboro, grading operations are being 
carried on by the C.P.R. for a distance of 75 miles. A line was 
built from Coldwater to Victoria Harbor and at the latter 
point a million-and-a-half-dollar terminal elevator has just been 
completed, to be used in connection with the new grain route. 
I The St. Maurice Valley line was extended from Shawinigan 
Falls to Grand Mere, a distance of five miles, and grading and 
track-laying operations were carried on between Ingersoll and 
f Code Junction, four and a half miles. Between Montreal Junc- 
tion and Adirondack Junction the line was double-tracked and 
work was started on the double-tracking of the bridge the 
St. Lawrence river. 

In Western Canada, on the Weyburn line, 45 miles of track 
were laid, leaving matters in good shape for eventually con- 
tinuing the line to Lethbridge. Construction work was carried 
on on the line from Macklin to Outlook, a distance of 147 
miles, track being laid for 90 miles from Maeleod on what will 
eventually be a main line from Edmonton to Minneapolis and 
St. Paul. A bridge is being built at Outlook and in the com- 
ing summer a through service will be established. 

In Alberta the grade of a branch from Carmangay to Aldor- 
syde was built but no steel was laid. This work will he con- 
tinued this year and will be finished early in the spring. From 
Irricana east a line 30 miles long was built, and the steel is 
being laid at the present time. 

In Saskatchewan the longest stretch of line on which work 
was done was from Craven to Colonsay, 110 miles. Steel was 
laid for 50 miles and the work has now been susijended for the 
winter. The line from Regina to Craven was completed, and 
a good deal of work undertaken on the line from Craven to 
Bulyea. Prom Virden, on the main line west of Brandon, a 
branch 14 miles long, in a northwesterly direction, was opened 
for traffic, and from Tilston the grading on a 2o-mile extension 
was completed. At Komarno, 29 miles of new track was opened 
f(ir traflic to Arlmrg, on the Icelandic river. 

According to a \ ancouver despatch, track laying has been 
started on the Kettle Kiver Valley Railway from Merritt south- 
east up the Coldwater river on the 30-mile contract held by 
Macdonell, Gzowski & Company. Grading is already proceed- 
ing ahead of the rails and it is the intention to have the whole 
cDiitract completed within a short time. At present grading 
has been completed for twelve miles out of Merritt and the 
xtcel can be laid that distance, at least, without interruption. 
It is expected, however, that before the rails are down for the 
liist twelve miles from Merritt the remainder of the grading 
will I..' in such a condition that the track work can continue 

straight ahead. The contractor! bare over 1,000 m«a on the 
job and are rushing it as faat as potaible. Before this con- 
tract 18 finished the railway company will be askiDK for ten- 
ders for another stretch eastward from the termination of the 
30 miles now in charge of Macdonell, Ozowski k Company, in 
order to reach the objeetire point of Midway within the leaat 
possible time. 

The N, T, R. in New Brunswick and Quebec 

Good progress is reported on the National Transcontinental 
in the provinces of New Bmnvwiek and Qnebee. Fnlly ninety 
per cent, of the total work on the 257 miles neroM New Brans- 
wick and seventy per cent, of the 203 miles in the province of 
Quebec east of the St. Lawrence at Levis have been completed. 

The first section west of Moncton, a distance of SO miles, end- 
ing at a point near Chipman, which was awarded to the Grand 
Trunk Pacific Construction Company, and sub-let to Corbett, 
Floech & Company, has been fully completed, including track 
laying and ballasting, and so has the following section of eight 
miles, which has been built by J. W. McManum ft Co., Ltd. 

The third section to the westward, 40 miles in length, was Srst 
taken by the Grand Trunk Pacific Construction Co., bat sob-let 
later to the Toronto Construction Co., and fully completed to 
McGivney Junction, where the road crosses the old Canada 
Eastern, now a part of the Intercolonial. 

The Toronto Construction Company also built the fonrth sec- 
tion in New Brunswick, a distance of 66 miles, and it will be to 
this point, 166 miles from Moncton, that the Transeontiaeatal 
Railway will be opened during next year. 

The fifth section was awarded to Willard, Kitchen A Company, 
and the grading has been almost completed by that firm from 
the Tobique River to the Grand Falls on the St. John River, 
some thirty-one and eight-tenths of a mile. 

The Ko. 6 or last section in New Brunswick ertends from 
Grand Falls to the Quebec province boundary — some 61 miles. 
Lyons & White are the contractors, and their track is all laid, 
although a good deal of ballasting has yet to be done. The 
work, however, is progressing rapidly at this point. 

The next two sections to the west, numbering seven and 
eight, were given to Messrs. M. P. k J. T. Davis, who are bnild- 
ing the substructure of the Quebec bridge. The first section of 
a little over 53 miles from the New Brunswick bonndary haa 
been sub-let to Messrs. Casechi k Pegano, and they hare com- 
pleted three-quarters of the grading and have alao laid aboat 
thirty miles of track. 

The Davis Brothers are building the final section of the Trans- 
continental ea»t of the St. Lawrence to Point Laris, the dis- 
tance being n little over 149 miles. 

The substructure of all the bridges on these eontraeta are com- 
pleted, and the superstructure furnished by the Domiaioa Bridge 
Company, the Hamilton Bridge Companr, and the McNeill 
Bridge Company, of New Glasgow, is well adraaeed. 

The right-of-way clearing on the C. N. contract froai New 
Westminster, B.C., to Popkum, a distance of 57 milea, which 
was awarded to the Northern Construction Company, has beea 
completed and the contractors are now engaged in grading 
operations. Over 750 men are employed between the two points, 
not including, of course, the clearing work at Port Maan. 
which is under a separate contract. Some SSO of the laborers 
in the grading gangs are located on ibe three-mile str«ek 



on Sumas mountain, where the heavy rock work necessitates 
extensive side-cutting. It is expected that the whole contract 
will be on the way to completion by spring. 

An action in which C. Matheson, a contractor of Edmonton, 
is suing to recover $3,000 on a contract he held from one of the 
contractors on the Grand Trunk Pacific main line west of the 
Athabasca river, is to be tried in the Edmonton courts this 
month. Matheson was awarded a contract for three cuts in 
the rock work west of the Athajbasca, which would have totalled 
something like $30,000. Matheson started to work early last 
summer, tout was called oflf by the contractors who, it is said, 
gave him to understand that the work was not to be proceeded 
with until the grade had been completed to the Athabasca. 
Matheson claims that he is out $3,000 on the work that he did 
on the contract, and on other expenses. The case has been 
pending for some time. 

Arrangements for the construction of the electric radial line 
between Ottawa and Broekville have been completed, and it is 
probable that the work will be begun next spring. 

Proposed "Uniform Contract" for Quebec. 

Important Negotiations Proceeding in Montreal. 

Negotiations have been reopened between the architects and 
builders of Montreal, for the purpose of drawing up a "uni- 
form contract" similar in effect to that which obtains in the 
other provinces. Two years ago negotiations for the same pur- 
pose were commenced, but were dropped when it was stated that 
the architects felt that the contracts used were sufficiently clear 
and were protected by the Civil Code. The Code Napoleon, how- 
ever, which obtains throughout the Province of Quebec, is un- 
satisfactory, recent judgments having shown that architects' 
orders, even when written, cannot be upheld in a court of law, 
unless signed by the owner of the building. 

A prominent builder told the "Contract Record": "The need 
for such a uniform contract is pressing, for very often a builder 
signs a contract full of technicalities and provisions he cannot 
understand unless he is a lawyer acquainted with the civil code. 
Then he practically signs his own death warrant unless the ar- 
chitect and the proprietor are willing to treat him right. Of 
course it cuts both ways and gives the builder occasional oppor- 
tunities to get the better of the other side. Needless to say, 
opportunities for this sort of petty dishonesty are not wanted 
on either side, and we feel that they can best be wiped away 
by means of a uniform contract agreeable to all parties." 

The drawing up of this contract has been put in the hands 
of Mr. S. Baudin, a capable commercial lawyer, who will submit 
same to both parties for consideration at a conference to be 
held next month. 

Calgary Builders Must Wait for Warm Weather 

Building Inspector Harrison, of Calgary, Alta., recently issued 
the following letters to the contractors and builders of that 
city: "At the present time there is a large amount of building 
being done, and contractors are rushing the work on buildings 
to completion. For the last few days the thermometer has regis- 
tered below zero, and although hot water is being used for the 
mixing of mortar, and sand and gravel are also heated, I have 
lately seen brick laid in walls and the mortar frozen solid within 
a few minutes, and the brick practically impossible to move and 
I was forced to stop the laying of brick. I think it is now time 
that owners and contractors used some judgment in building 
during this bad weather. The placing of concrete in footings 
and brick in walls is in my estimation dangerous, and should 
not be permitted during zero weather. 

"I have heard contractors claim that frost has no evil effect 
on brick or concrete work. I beg to differ. Even in this city 

during the past winter, concrete floors and brick and stone walls 
were built, and although special precautions were taken in the 
following spring, the concrete crumbled, and if any load had 
been placed on this floor, a big calamity might have occurred. 
In another case the brick walls, though built plumb and in a 
workmanlike manner during the winter showed the action of 
the sun in the spring, the ice coming out of the walls, and in a 
very short time these walls wore completely out of plumb and 
showed cracks and settlement all over the building. In a case 
like this I might point out the impossibility of granting a per- 
mit for additional storeys to be placed on a building in this 
state. I think it is time, considering the importance of the 
buildings concerned, to take immediate action and not wait 
until some calamity has occured; I claim that it is my duty as 
building inspector of the city to stop any of this outside work 
when the thermometer is below zero, and to insits on proper 
precautions being taken between freezing point and the zero 

Personal News and Notes. 

Jno. White, contractor of Eastview, Ottawa, succumbed re- 
cently to an injury received by a fall from his work. 

The annual meeting of the Montreal Builders' Exchange will 
take place on January 23rd at 4 p.m. 

Mr. H. Neville-Smith, C.E., of New Westminster, B.C., was 
recently presented with a handsome smoking set by the members 
of his staff. 

Messrs. Bell & McCubbin, consulting engineers, St. Thomas, 
Ont., have opened an office at Chatham, Ont., with Mr. Greo. A. 
McCubbin in charge. 

The Hon. L. P. Brodeur, Minister of Marine and Fisheries, 
and the Hon. Geo. P. Graham, Minister of Railways and Canals, 
will be the chief speakers at the banquet of the Montreal 
Builders' Exchange on January 18th. 

At Calgary, Alta., the carpenters are asking for a further in- 
crease of five cents an hour, to go into effect on July 1. This 
would mean .$4.40 per day instead of $4. The stonecutters are 
asking for an increase from 62% cents to 65 cents an hour. 

Mr. S. Robinson, C.E., left Edmonton recently via the Peace 

River trail for the interior of northern British Columbia, where 

he will spend the greater part of the winter surveying. He is 
accompanied by two assistants. 

Mr. Charles H. Macmillan has been appointed general super- 
intendent of the Dominion Steel Co., in place of Mr. W. C. 
Mitchell, who recently resigned. Mr. Macmillan, who is re- 
garded as one of the best steel men on the continent, has been 
associated with the Schwab interests. 

The death occurred on December 30th of Mr. Henry Mc- 
Donald, railway contractor, at his home at 626 Dorchester street, 
Montreal. For many years the deceased was connected with 
construction work on the Canadian Pacific Railway and in 
recent years took an active interest in the development of the 
Northern Ontario mining regions, where he had several claims. 

Medicine Hat, Alta., the town from which the weather eman- 
ates, reports excellent conditions. Much progress has been made J 
in municipal work during the past year, especially in paving | 
construction. During 1911 it is possible that an additional high 
pressure water plant will be installed. Everything is said to 
point to prosperity. 

A recent visitor to Fredericton, N.B., was Mr. H. H. Charles, 
formerly resident engineer of the National Transcontinental 
Railway at McGivney. Mr. Charles is now at VanBuren, Me., 
where he is the engineer in charge of the construction of the 
new international bridge across the St. John river. The new 
bridge will be open for traffic about May 1st, the contractors. 




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your proposals in 

The Contract Record 

would result in additional competition, 
which might save your city or town or 
yoTir client many hundreds of dollars. 

Messrs. Powers & Brewer, having made a record on the concrete 
work of the substructure, erecting 3,000 cubic yards in six work- 
ing weeks. 

The Winnipeg bricklayers have secured an advance of from 
li2i,4 cents to 67% cents an hour. The pay for the other arti- 
sans, per hour, is as follows: Stonecutters, 60c.; carpenters, 
4oe.; plumbers, 55c.; plasterers, 55e.; lathers, 50c.; steamfitters, 
55c.; painters, 40c.; electricians, 40c.; tinsmiths, 42%e.; build- 
ers' laborers, 27%c.; ordinary laborers, 25c.; team and wagon, 
50e.; team drivers, 25c.; structural ironworkers, 40c. These 
figures are taken from the minimum fair wage schedule ac- 
knowledged by the provincial government and the Winnipeg 
rity council on all public works for the coming year. 

A year ago the .J. I. Case Threshing Machine Company offered 
a free trip to the factory to two salesmen in each territory. The 
trip was a reward for the salesman selling the most goods for 
the year, and for the salesman showing the largest increase 
over the year 1909 in the territory he worked for that year. No 
one salesman was allowed to have both records. As a result, 
about seventy salesmen are now in Racine, looking over the 
plant and getting a line on the company's output for 1911. 

An interesting letter on the subject of empty cement bags 
recently appeared in the Montreal "Gazette." The writer states 
that the bags in which cement is shipped to the Isithmus of 
Panama are returned to the manufacturers, who allow HV^ ceats 
each for them. As fast as the bags are emptied they are loaded 
into box cars and taken to an old building, where a squad of 
twenty men, under a white foreman, are employed sorting and 
jireparing the bags for shipment. Damaged bags are not thrown 
away, but are utilized by filling them with sand for the con- 
struction of dykes. All the bags are well shpken before being 
bundled up and this results in the recovery of about 60 barrels 
of cement a day, which is, of course, in good condition, and 
is used in the locks. These "shakings" pay the wages of the 
men. The writer suggests that there is a hint in the story for 
local contractors. 

Messrs. BelUss & Morcom, engineers, of Birmingham, who 
liave within the last few years introduced a steam turbine of 
their own design, report verj successful progress. Witiiin the 
last few weeks they have secured an important order from the 
Birmingham Corporation Electricity Supply Dept. for eight 
1,000 k.w. Belliss exhaust steam turbines running at 1,500 
r.p.m., to work in conjunction with a similar number of Belliss 
1,500 k.w. reciprocating engines in the Summer Lane Station, 
Birmingham. Repeat orders have also been received for Belliss 
high-pressure steam turbines. The first Belliss high-pressure 
turbine built to a customer's order was for the Aston Manor 
Corporation, and gave such satisfaction that a repeat order was 
placed. Quite recently the city of Johannesburg, South Africa, 
placed a repeat order for a Belliss live steam turbine of 3,000 
k.w. capacity. Messrs. Laurie & Lamb, Board of Trade build- 
ing, Montreal, are Canadian agents for this firm. 

The year 1910 was a prosperous one for the C.P.R., whost 
earnings amounted to nearly $101,000,000, an increase of be- 
tween five and six millions over 1909. 

The Montreal City Council has approved of the plan to erect 
on one of the public squares, a statue to the memory of the 
late King Edward VIT. 

The customs report just issued by the Revenue Department 
shows an increase of two million dollars in receipts over last 
year for Montreal, and eleven millions for the whole of Canada. 
Most of the increase comes from Winnipeg, Vancouver, Cal- 
garv tWd Edmonton. 

Contracts Department 

News of Special Interest to Contractors, Engineers, Manufacturers and 

Dealers in Building Supplies. 

Information for insertion in these columns is invited from Architects, Contractors, Engineers, etc. 


Waterworks, Sewerage and 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Estimates of the Engineering Depart- 
ment will provide for the construction of 
the Rat Creek trunk sewer, which it was 
decided to construct last year, but upon 
whicli suspension of plans was made 
pending the report of Alex Potter. C.E., 
on the sewerage and water systems of 
the city. The sewer will be lo feet in 
diameter, of reinforced concrete, and will 
be some 3,600 feet in length. It will 
form the first portion of a general plan 
of sewers for Edmonton. 

Montreal, Que. 

Tenders addressed to the Board of 
Commissioners will be received until Jan- 
uary 20th for construction of a 2' x 3' 
sewer in Boulevard avenue from Decarie 
avenue via St. Luke Road, to the limits 
of Westmount. Plans, etc., in office of 
the Superintendent of Sewers L. N. Sen- 
ecal, secretary. 

Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont. 

Plans for a system of experimental 
roads between Bridgcburg and Niagara- 
on-the-Lake are being prepared by Cr. 
W. A. McLean, Provincial Good Roads 
and Highways Engineer. The work, 
which is being paid for by the Niagara 
Falls Park Cominision, is designed to 
show just what results can be secured 
from the various methods of road con- 
struction known to the engineers of the 
Public Works Department. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Mayor Hopewell in his opening ad- 
dress recommended ni the near future 
the purchase of a water power for the 
municipal light and power plant. 

A bill will come up before the Ontario 
Legislature to give the city permission 
to raise $300,000 with which to construct 
six miles of sewer to drain the western 
section of the city. It wil run from a 
12-inch circular concrete sewer. A sep- 
tic tank will also be required. 

The municipal campaign emphasised 
the desirability of extending the sewer 
system very much in the western por- 
tion of the city this summer and pro- 
vision will be made to do even more 
there this summer than last. The ques- 
tion of draining the lands around Dowe's 
lake is also under serious consideration. 
At present the sewer mains are not low 
enough to take away this water. 

Regina, Sask. 

The city has decided upon the over- 
hauling of the present system of water 

Sault au RecoUet, Que. 

At a meeting of the council the ques- 
tion of borrowing $140,000, through rais- 
ing the borrowing power from twenty 
to forty per cent., will be further con- 
sidered and action taken. The proceeds 
to bt used for the instalation of a mod- 
ern water system and sewers. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The City Engineer asked for an in- 
terim aupropriation of $50,200 for the 
Water Works Department and $87,800 
for the Works Department. The Board 
of Control was asked to confirm these 
appropriations and to provide the funds 
in advance of the estimates for the cur- 
rent year. 

It is reported that a commission of 
three will be appointed to spend the 
$300,000 voted by the city, York County 
and the Provincial Government for good 
roads leading into the city, each body to 
have one representative, ihe commis- 
sion will prepare plans, not only for 
the construction of the roads, but for 
their maintenance after construction. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The ratepayers have authorized the is- 
sue of debentures for the following. — 
Street improvements, $425,000; water- 
works extensions, $400,000. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The City Engineer has submitted esti- 
mates of the cost of operating three 
softening plants which would have a to- 
tal capacity of 13,000,000 gallons daily. 
He estimated that the cost would be 
about twenty-three cents per thousand 
gallons. It was recommended that the 
old plant be used to soften the water 
from wells 2, 3 and 4, and the new plants 
be secured for wells S and 7. The com- 
mittee laid the proposition over to a 
later meeting. 


North Vancouver, B.C. 

MacDonald Czonski & Co. secured 
the contract separately and in bulk for 
initial sewer installation. The total 
amount of the contract is $206,000. 

Point Grey, B.C. 

The Council awarded a contract for 
laying a 12-inch water main on Bodwell 
road from Heather street to the site of 
the new reservoir near Granville street 
to the Power Contracting Company. 
Tenders were received. The contract 
includes all work in connection with 
digging the trenches and hauling and 
laying the pipe. Mess J[L 
Cameron are the engineers in charge. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The contract for water mains was 
awarded to the Enginer of Construction, 


Railroads, Bridges and Wharves 

Edmonton, Alta. 

On January 27th the ratepayers will 
vote on a by-law to raise $164,000 for 
the construction of a bridge over the 
Northern Saskatchewan River, in the 
northern end of the city. 

Kingston, Ont. 

The directors of the Ontario Kxplora- 
tion Syndicate with iron mines at Wil- 
bur, have applied to council with regard 
to their request for land for shipping 

and smelting purposes and the deepen- 
ing of the Tower harbor and widening 
of the Cataraqui draw bridge. They are 
anxious to proceed with the erection of 
a large pier. 

Montreal, Que. 

The C. P. K. have ordered sixtjr steel 
cars of fifty tons capacity specially de- 
signed for the transportation of pitch. 
add railroads CMy 

Mtchinicoten River, Ont. 

Tenders are being called until Febru- 
ary 13th by the Public Works Depart- 
ment, Ottawa, for the construction of a 
wharf at the mouth of the Michipicoten 
river, VVest Algoma. Flans, etc., at 
above Department and at the office of 
J. G. Sing., Esq., District Engineer, Con- 
federation Life Building, Toronto, Ont.; 
E. B. Temple, Esq., District Engineer, 
Port Arthur, Ont., and on application to 
the local Postmaster, R. C. Desrochers, 

Ottawa, Ont 

Tenders will be received until January 
30th, 191 1, for the construction of a 
breakwater at Brooklyn, Queen's County, 
N.S. R. C. Desroches, Secretary. Pe- 
partmcnt of Public Works. Ottawa. 

Calgary, Alta. 

The timbering part of the cement pier 
work for the G. T. R. bridge at Lignite 
is well under way; also the steel work. 
The bridge is well over a quarter of a 
mile long and is 125 feet above the 
Peterboro, Ont 

George S. Decks, of Toronto, who has 
the contract for building the line from 
t'oldwater to Bethany, just outside of 
Peterboro, a distance of about 80 miles, 
states that he is now busy letting sub- 
contract, with a view to putting work- 
men on the whole route as early as pos- 
sible in the spring. About 17 miles of 
the road have already been completed. 

Peticodiac, N.B. 

Measurements and elevations for a 
new bridge over the Babcock stream 
have been taken. This bridge will be 
built as a permanent structure on con- 
crete abutments, and will be covered. 
Tenders will probably be asked for in 
the spring. Mr. McVey. Public Works 
Engineer: Structural Superintendent. J. 
T. Forbes. Moncton. 

Quebec, Que. 

It was announced in the Quebec Leg- 
islature last week by Mr. Tascherean 
that in ten years the wooden bridges 
would all have disappeared from the 
province and been replaced by iron ones 

United States bridge experts will 
probably be chosen to settle the diffi- 
culties regarding the Quebec brid^ 
The disagreement is caused by the in- 
ability of the commissioners to agree as 
to whether the tenders submitted on the 
original plans must be adhered to or 
whether the tender of the Dominion 
Bridge Company, drawn up on their 
own plan is admissable. 

Tenders for the new bridge across the 
St. Charles rtver were received as M- 



lows: Eastern Steel & Iron Works, J. H. 
Gignac, Phoenix Bridge Co., McGuegan 
Construction Works (Montreal), J. Le- 
nioine & Fils, and Jos. Gosselin, and 
were referred to Mr. L. A. Vallee for a 
report upon the most advantageous of 
the offers, as several of the tenders in- 
cluded figures for a swing bridge as well 
as a draw bridge. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The ratepayers approved of the issue 
of debentures for aid to Second Narrows 
bridge, $115,000; but defeated the pro- 
jects for the two bridges contemplated 
to connect the central section of the city 
with other districts. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Public Works Department re- 
cently awarded the following contracts: 
Duncan's Cove, Halifax Co., N.S., break- 
water, A. W. Giroir and Kingsman 
Sweet, contractors, $6,960; Three Fath- 
oms Harbor, Halifax Co., breakwater, 
Obed A. Ham, contractor, $7,848; Otta- 
wa St. Joseph LaLtellier, Que., wharf, 
N. Warren, contractor, $18,900. 

Public Buildings, Churches 
Schools, etc. 

Anitgonish. N.S. 

A proposal is under consideration for 
the extension of St. Francois Xavier 

A new wing will be added to St. 
Martha's College Hospital. Work will 
commence early in the spring. 

It is also understood that during the 
coming: year a new wing, capable of ac- 
comomdating sixty residential lady 
students, will be added to Mount St. 
Bernard's Convent. 

Atkinson, Ont. 

Tenders will be received until Janu- 
ary 20th, 1911, for the erection of the 
new Sand Hill Presbyterian Church, 
Township of Pittsburgh. Rev. H. W. 
Reede, M.A., St. John's Manse, Kilbirnie, 
Ont.; Henry Johnston, jr., Atkinson, 

Battleford, Sask. 

Tenders are being called until Janu- 
ary 30th by the Department of Public 
Works, Ottawa, for Post Office, Cus- 
toms and Inland Revenue Fittings. 
Plans, etc., on application to W. R. Lati- 
mer, local clerk of works and at above 
Department. R. C. Resrochers. secre- 

Brandon, Man. 

T. Sinclair, architect, has been gather- 
ing information as to the different cold 
storage plants throughout the Dominion 
and has prepared rough plans for the 
proposed local structure, 
through the Canadian Incorporated Sub- 
Plans for the new hospital for the in- 
sane will be completed shortly and ten- 
ders called for within a few weeks. The 
proposed structure will be 372 feet long 
and 150 feet deep, of brick and stone 
construction. Electric elevators will be 

S. Hooper, Provincial Architect, Win- 
nipeg, writes that plans are being pre- 
pared for the new Asylum and power 
house for same, new addition to Land 
Titles Building; also for the new Agri- 
cultural College and addition to main 
Telephone Exchange, Winnipeg. 

Brantford, Ont. 

At a meeting of the governors of the 
John H. Stratford Hospital last week. 
Architect Green, of Buffalo, submitted 

plans for remodelling the building. Mr. 
Green recommended partial completion 
at an estimated cost of about $65,000. It 
is posible, however, that the structure 
will be demolished and a new building 
erected at a cost of $100,000, 

Brockville, Ont 

It is stated that the General Hospital 
Board of Governors have had an offer 
from Mr. Chas. W. MacLean to erect an 
addition to the south wing of the hospi- 
tal as a memorial to his wife. Chas. 
E. Cossitt, president. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

The Dominion Government has made 
a grant of $50,000 for a Military Drill 
Hall for Edmonton, also $10,000 for a 

It is reported The Masonic Temple 
Ltd., purpose erecting a five or six story 
block on the corner of 6th street and 
Jasper avenue this spring. 

On January 27th the ratepayers will 
vote on a by-law to raise $175,000 by de- 
bentures for improving the Exhibition 
Park and erecting additional buildings 

Commissioner Turner, of the School 
Board, is preparing plans for the Mc- 
Cauley School to be erected this spring 
between McCauley and Heiminick streets 
at a cost of about $100,000. 

According to the estimates which 
have been placed before the Provincial 
Legislature $515,000 will be expended 
towards the completion of the new Par- 
liament buildings; $140,000 will be ex- 
pended to complete the new Court 
House, and $50,000 is granted for a site 
and building for a new Land Titles Bldg. 

Fort Steele, B.C. 

The Church of England are consider- 
ing the erection of a new church this 

Fort William, Ont. 

Geo. H. Wiliamson, general secretary, 
Y. M. C. A., invites competitive plans 
for a new Y. M. C. A. building. Condi- 
tions and full information upon request. 

Guelph, Ont. 

A number of small modern buildings, 
cost of all about $80,000, will be erected 
by the Guelph Sanitarium to replace the 
structure recently destroyed by fire. 

Lachine, Que. 

Plans are being prepared for a large 
club house. Mr. P. Magor, of Lachine, 
is interested. Estimated cost, $100,000. 

Lindsay, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to R. C. Desdoch- 
ers. Secretary, Department of Public 
Works, Ottawa, will be received until 
January 30th for interior fittings at the 
post office. Plans and specifications to 
be seen on application to Mr. W. 
Healey, caretaker. Public Building, 
Lindsay, Ont., Mr. T. A. Hastings. 
Clerk of Works, Postal Station "F," 
Toronto, and at the Department of 
Public Works, Ottawa. 

London, Ont. 

A special committe of the County 
Coimcil is considering the extension of 
the court house at a cost estimated from 
$6,000 ot $10,000. 

The City Council are considering the 
the appointment of a special committee 
to arrange for the erection of a new city 
hall. City Architect Nutter will prepare 
preliminary sketches. The site of the 
proposed new building is at present un- 
der consideration. Probable expendi- 
ture, $125,000 to $150,000. 

Macleod, Alta. 

Among the town projects in the com- 
ing season are a new $35,000 hospital; a 

new $10,000 Government Post Office 
building; a new $40,000 municipal build- 
ing containing fire and police accommo- 
dation, and the town hall. 

Medicine Hat, Alta. 

St. Patrick's Roman Catholic congre- 
gation has purchased half a block of 
land on which to erect a new edifice in 
the spring. 

Montreal, Que. 

A meeting of the members of the 
Engineers' Club has been called for the 
18th inst., for the ratification of the pro- 
posed additions and alterations to the 
present building. The sum of $92,500 
is to be spent and Messrs. Saxe and 
Archibald, architects, Beaver Hall Hill, 
have prepared preliminary plans. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

A deputation will wait on the Premier 
and Minister of Militia at as early a 
date as possible to urge that a new drill 
hall be erected in this city. 

Recent Government estimates passed 
include $19,000 for a Post Office in 
Maisoneuve, P.Q., $15,000 for one in 
Marieville, P.Q., and $5,000 for improve- 
ments of the Post Office at Aylmer, P.Q. 

The foundation for new Bethany 
Presbyterian Church is almost complet- 
ed and it is stated work will begin in 
the spring. J. A. Ewart, architect. 
Noted previously. 

It is semi-officially announced that 
plans will be made at an early date to 
demolish the present printing bureau 
and to erect a more modern structure in 
another part of the capital. The present 
site, which is near Neapean Point, will 
be converted into a park by the im- 
provement commission. 

The plans are out for a new machin- 
ery hall in connection with the Central 
Canada Exhibition. It will be 280 feet 
long, and 140 feet wide and of Japanese 
architecture. It will have a steel frame 
with brick on the outside and the roof 
will be of red tile. The pillars, etc., 
will be of concrete. W. E. Noflfke pre- 
pared the plans and it is expected that 
tenders will be called for it in the spring. 

Prince Albert, Sask. 

The ratepayers authorized the e.xoend- 
iture of $8,500 on high school addition. 

Quebec, Que. 

P. E. Ryan, Secretary of the Commis- 
sioners of the Transcontinental Rail- 
way, invites tenders until January 23rd 
for the demolition of Champlain Market. 
Specifications, etc., may be obtained on 
application to A. E. Doucet, district en- 

Regina, Sask. 

Fourteen school districts of the pro- 
vince have been authorized to expend 
$15,000 in all for the erection of new 
buildings. Details are as follows; — 

Daybreak school district. Maple Con- 
lee, $1,500 for the purpose of erecting 
and furnishing a school house and 
building a stable. 

Hayfield school district. Central Butte. 
$1,500 to erect and furnish a school 

Springside school district, Spring^side. 
$600 for the erection of a teacher's resi- 

Stuckle school district, Lenora Lake, 
$1,100 to erect a school house. 

Meadowbrook school district, $1,500 
for the purpose of erecting and furnish- 
ing a school house. 

Pillar school district, Neudorf, $1,000 
to erect a new school house. 

Plans have been prepared for the erec- 
tion of the new Baptist Church at the 






corner of Victoria avenue aiul Lorn? 
street. Estimated cost, $75,00..' 

Saskatoon, Sask. 

I'lic Third Avenue Methodist Church 
has disposed of its present site and will 
erect a new building farther out from 
the business section. 

The K. C. Order has purchased a site 
of ID acres near the end of the city and 
will erect a large boarding school or 
convent thereon. Rev. F. Vachon is in- 

South Middleton, Ont. 
Tenders for reconstruction of school 
[house, S.S. No. 7, township of Middle- 
[ ton, addressed to Geo. Fisher, secretary- 
i treasurer, will be received until March 

iSth. Plans, etc., at office of al)n\e. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to K. C. Desroch- 

[ers. Secretary, Department of Public 

[Works, Ottawa, wil be received until 

January. 30th for interior fittings, postal 

[station B. 

Plans and specifications to be seen on 

fapplication to M. T. A. Hastings, Clerk 

of Works, Postal Station "F," Toronto, 

[and at the Department of Public Works, 

I Ottawa. 

Tenders addressed to Darling & Pear- 

jSon( architects, 2 Leader Lane, will be 

[received until January 28th for all 

trades in the erection of a power house 

for the General Hospital. Plans and 

specifications upon application. 

At a meeting of the Weston Presby- 
[ terian Church last week plans were ap- 
proved for the construction of a new 
school building. Dr. Meldrum may be 

Vancouver, B.C. 

This municipality has authorized the 
issue of debentures for public improve- 
ments totalling $2,525,000, and voted 
[ down proposed expenditures totalling 
$946,000. The objects approved arc as 
follows: Schools. $967,000; hospitals and 
lands, $286,500; Exhibition Purposes .Xs- 
sociation, $115,000. 

Wainwright, Alta. 

A new town hall is being considered 
by this municipality. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Architect Wm. Bruce has submitted to 
the Board of Control amended plans for 

i the public bath to be constructed in Sel- 
kirk park. Plans were submitted some 
time ago which called for the expendi- 
ture of $75,000, which was $25,000 in ex- 
cess of the appropriation, and the board 
refused to consider them. The amended 
plans have been referred to the chair- 
man of the public library and baths coni- 

. mittce. 

I Woodstock, N.B. 

' The school trustees have approved 
i plans for a new building submitted by 
( G. E. Fairweather. architect, this city. 
[The building will contain six class 
Frooms and will cost approximately $60,- 

Ottawa, Ont. 

It was decided to have the alterations 
I at Howick Hall done by day labor un- 
der the supervision of the City Engineer 
at a cost not to exceed $1,600. The as- 
sociation reported that three tenders 
were received but one came in too late. 
The other tenders were A. Slack, $1,761; 
Smith Bros., $1,527. 

Among the recent contracts awarded 
by the Public Works Department are 
St. Henri, Que., addition and alteration 
of Post Office, contractor. Joseph Jacob 
& Co., $4,890; Toronto Central Post 

Office, E. P. Mctirath & Co., coniract'>r>, 
Ottawa, $12,125; militia storcb, fittings 
and racks, E. P. McGrath & •''■ '•■■"- 
tractors, $3,875. 

St. John, N.B. 

\fr. Michael Sullivan, of Kingston, the 
well known contractor, has been award- 
ed the contract to build the armory at 
St. John, N.B. It is estimated the build- 
ing when completed will cost about 


Strathcona, Alta. 

Mr. W. J. Mc.Vamara, of Wctaskiwin, 
has purchased property here on Eighth 
avenue, on which it is stated he will 
erect this year a residence costing about 

Vancouver, B.C. 

A building permit was granted for the 
erection of a three-storey apartment 
house "for Dr. \S'illiam Moody at 1672 
Georgia street. 

Montreal, Que. 

Mr. W. H. Creed, builder, Roslyn 
avenue, Westmount, is erecting two 
apartment houses on Cote des Neiges 
Road near Westmount Boulevard. Cost 

The contract for the plumbing and 
heating of a residence for Mr. A. T. 
Lane, Bellingham Road, Outremont, has 
been awarded to John A. Gordon, 301 
St. Antoine Street. Architects, Hutchi- 
son, Wood & Miller, Royal Ins. Build- 

Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

Chatham, Ont. 

Mr. R. O'Hara will erect a fine resi- 
dence on F'orest street. 

The Western Bridge and Equipment 
Company will erect a larger building 
than at first contemplated. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Building permit was issueil to A. W. 
Ormsby, store. Fifth street, $2,500. 

R. Tegler will erect a six-storey build- 
ing on the southeast corner of First and 
Elizabeth streets, 50 x 150 feet, at a cost 
of about $100,000. 

Crafts, Lee & Gallanger propose erect- 
ing a lour or live story block on the 
northwest corner of First and Peace 
avenue, 100 x 150 feet. 

Architect H. A. Magoon is preparing 
plans for a five-storey hotel to be built 
by J. B. Mercer, on present site Grand 
Central Hotel. Cost about $100,000. 

It is reported an Edmonton Syndicate 
has purchased 50 feet of property ad- 
joining the Journal office. First street, 
at $35,000. for the erection of a lo-storey 

Messrs. MacDougall & Secord con- 
template the erection of a ten-storey 
business block on the corner of First 
and Jasper streets. The date of con- 
struction has not ben decided upon. 

Lethbridge, Alta. 

The Balmoral Hotel was burned on 
the I2th inst. Estimated loss, $75,000; 
F. W. Downey, part owner. 

Maisonneuve, Que. 

The Shawinigan Company has pur- 
chased a block of land comprising 235 
vacant lots fronting on Charlemagne 
street, Maisonneuve, for the sum of 

$75,000. Although no iniornikiion can 

be officially gained as to the company's 

intentions, it is understood that con- 

iderable extensions are to be made to 

•ticir Montreal terminal station. 

Medicine Hat, Alta. 

1 he Alberta Linseed Oil Company, 
capitalized at $500,000, will erect a large 

refining plan here. 

W. Poper Hull, a Calgary capiulUt. 
has purchased 125 feet fronUge on To- 
ronto street on which he will erect a 
four-storey block in the spring. 

Midland, Ont 

The Campbell Milling Company, To- 
ronto, it is announced, will erect a floor 
mill here; capacity, 1,000 barrels daily. 
Work will start in the spring. 

Montreal, Que. 

It is stated that the Montreal Terra 
( otta Co. will locate at Pointe Claire. 
I'.Q., and will erect a new plant and 
kilns there. 

Sets of plans and specifications for 
certain works for Me,^srs. Workman* 
and others are to be displayed ia tbc 
Builders' Exchange, Montreal, by Mr. 
Harry Jones, architect. 

Nelson, B.C. 

.\mong the plans for extension by the 
British Columbia Telephone Company 
is that for the erection of a new ex- 
change building here. Estimated cost. 
$10,000. Other exchanges are reported 
for Kamloops, Alberni and Duncans. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

T. D. McFarlane will build two stores 
f>n Bank street in the spring. 

R. Mulhall & Co. will probably erect a 
large storehouse near the Union Station 
in the spring. 

.'\. LeB. Weeks, architect, is calling 
for tenders for a residence for W. H. 
Southam to be erected at Kockliflc. It 
will be of brick. 

Ex-Ald. T. Clarey will make extensive 
changes to a property he recently pur- 
chased, corner Maclaren and Bank. It 
was partially destroyed by fire. 

Parkhill, Ont. 

The Hastings Hotel was damaged by 
fire on the 9th inst. to the extent of 
about $15,000. 

Quebec, Que. 

The stores of Glover, Fry ft Co. were 
destroyed by fire on the lith iost Es- 
timated loss, $125,000. 

Retina. Sask. 

'1 he Imperial Bank of Canada, it is 
stated, will erect a large block at the 
corner of Scarth street and Elworth 

.\ six-storey fireproof office building 
will be erected by tnglish capitalists on 
Eleventh avenue in the spring. The 
name of the company which will erect 
the building and the exact location are 
withheld for the present, but the plans 
are under preparation by M. W. Sharon, 
architect. The first two stories will be 
constructed of cut Bedford stone, and 
the balance of the building of buff terra 
cotta. Cost. $200,000. 

The Western Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Limited, are their own architects 
for additions and alterations to tbeir 
plant here and at Moose Jaw. The ad- 
ditions at Moose Jaw will be of brick 
and reinforced concrete, of one-storey. 
38 X 43. Estimated cost. $2,500; cost of 
equipment. $5,500. The estimated cost 
of the one-storey power hoase here is 
$3,500; of equipment. $8^500 Plans and 
specifications (or the latter were snp- 
(CoDtinued on page 38) 

Tenders and For Sale Department 



We have a No. 6 and a No. 5 McCuUy gyra- 
tory type with maBganese steel head and con- 
caves, suitable for breaking very hard material. 
Both are new; never set up. Located New York 
State. Also a 60-ft. elevator and a 48-in. x 12- 
ft. McCuUy screen. Will sell separately. At- 
tractively priced. Confer with us. 


171 La Salle St., 

Chicago, 111. 


Toronto General Hospital 

Tenders addressed to the chairman of the 
Building Committee will be received by the un- 
dersigned up till noon, Saturday, January 28th, 
1911, for all the various trades required in the 
erection and completion of a Power House in 
connection with the General Hospital. 

Plans and specificaticns and all ether informa 
tion can be obtained at the office of the Archi- 
tects, DARLING AND PEARSON, 2 Leader 

The lowest or any other tender not necessarily 
accepted. 3*3 

Toronto Main Drainage 

Sealed Tenders addressed to the Chairman 
of the Board of Control, City Hall, Toronto, 
Canada, endorsed "Tender for Section No. 1, 
Low Level Interceptor," or "Tender for Lay- 
ing Reinforced Concrete Over-flow Pipe from 
Sewage Tanks,'* etc., as the case may be, for 
the construction of the several sections of Low 
Level Interceptor and other works, as men- 
tioned below, will be received by registered 
post only, until noon of TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 
7TH, 1911. 

The following is an approximate description 
of the various works: — 

1. Low Level Interceptor, Section No 1, Egg 

shape, 2 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. 4,566 lin- 
ear feet. 

2. Low Level Interceptor, Section No. 2, Egg 

shape, 3 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 9 in., 2,475 linear 

3. Low Level Interceptor, Section No. 3, Egg 

shape, 3 ft. 6 in. X 5 ft. 3 in., 2,295 linear 
feet; Circular, 4 ft. 6 in. diameter, 1,023 
linear feet. (Total length Section No. 3, 
3,318 linear feet). 

4. Laying reinforced concrete overflow pipe 

from sewage tanks, 292 linear feet of 60- 
inch circular pipe in lengths of about 24 

5. Cast Iron Penstocks for Low Level Inter- 


Tenderers shall submit with their tender the 
names of two personal sureties approved by the 
City Treasurer, or in lieu of said personal sure- 
ties the bond of a Guarantee Company, approved 
as aforesaid. 

Specifications may be obtained from, and or- 
iginal drawings will be on file and can be seen 
at the Main Drainage Department, City En- 
gineer's Office, on and after January 9th, 1911. 

For the convenience of Contractors, sets of 
blue prints have been prepared and will be is- 
sued to contractors, upon application to the 
City Engineer and upon receipt of deposits as 
follows: For items 1, 2 and 3 combined, $5.00; 
for item 4, $2.00, and for item 5, $2.00. De- 
posits should be made by cheque payable to the 
City Treasurer. The deposits will be refunded 
upon return of blue prints in good condition 
within thirty days of receiving tenders. 

The usual conditions relating to tenders as 
prescribed by City By-law must be strictly com- 
plied ^vith or the tender will not be entertained. 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 

G. R. GEARY (Mayor), 
Chairman, Board of Control. 
City Hall, Toronto, 

January 3rd, 1911. 2*4 

SEALED TENDERS ad-hessed to the under- 
signed, and endorsed ''Tender for Interior, Fit- 
tings, Postal Station B, Toronto," will be re- 
ceived until 4.00 p.m., on Monday, January 30th, 
igii, for the work mentioned. 

Tenders will not be considered unless made 
upon, and in accordance with conditions con- 
tained in forms furnished by Department. 

Plans and specifications to be seen on applica- 
tion to Mr. r. A. Hastings, Clerk of Works. 
Postal Station "F," Toronto, and at the Depart- 
ment of Public Works, Ottawa. 

Each tender nuist be accompanied by an ac- 
cepted cheque on a chartered bankj payable to 
I'le order of the Honourable the Minister of Pub- 
.ic Works, equal to ten per eent. (10 p.c.) of the 
amount of the tender. 
By order, 


I .'epartment of Public Works, 

Ottawa, January la, 191 1. y^ 

Plaster Manufacturing Plant 
for Sale by Tender 

Tenders will be received by the undersigned 
up to noon on Monday, 6th Fcjruary. 191 1, for 
'le purchase of the assets of The Imperial 
Plaster Company, Linated, Toronto and Cayuga 
as follows: — 

Parcel 1. — Toronto Assets. 
IJnildings, Plant and Mach- 
inery $8,616.55 

Stock in trade and Chat- 
tels 2,714.79 $ii»33i-34 

Parcel 2. — Cayuga Assets. 

Mine and Buildings $6,750.00 

Plant and Equipment ... 4,413.83 

Rock, mined and crushed.. 627.45 $11,791.28 

Intending purchasers may tender for the above 
mentioned assets en bloc or for either or both 
of the parcels separately. 

Each tender must be accompanied by a cer- 
itified cheque, payable to the Assignee, for ten 
per cent, of the amount of such tended. Infor- 
mation as to terms, etc., may be had and in- 
ventories seen at the office of the undersigned. 
J. P. LANG LEY, Assignee, 
McKinnon Building, Toronto, Canada. 

Positions Vacant 

AiirertisemfH's under this heading two cent^ n 
ivord pt' insertion 

WANTED IMMEDIATELY. — Competent archi 
tectural draftsman. Must be flrst-class on de- 
sign, working drawings, details, and perspectives 
rendered in colors, and be capable of taking 
charge of office in western city. State salary 
expected; send samples of work. Only first- 
class men need apply. Address Box 187 "Con- 
tract Record," Toronto. 2-3 

Positions Wanted 

di'ertisemenis under th i headins; one cent a 7cori\ 
per insertion. Box No ten cents extra 

WANTED — Position as superintendent or 
general foreman, railroad work preferred. Twenty 
years experienced. Address, Box 189, Contract 
Record, Toronto, Ont. 3-4 

MAN. — 14 years' experience, capable of hand- 
ling large projects as well as ordinary commis- 
sions, managing an office and interviewing 
clients. Four years' private practice. At lib- 
erty May 1st. Vancouver, Victoria or other 
Pacific coast cities preferred. Address LOUIS 
R. CHRISTIE, 2542 North Spaulding Avenue. 
Chicago, lU. 2-8 

City of Winnipeg 
Tenders for 

Pumping Machinery 

Sealed tenders addressed to the Chairman, 
Board of Control. Winnipeg, Canada, will be 
received at the office of the undersigned up to 11 
a.m., on MONDAY. FEBRUARY 6TH. 1911, for 
the n;anufacturp, delivery and erection complete 
of Two Pumping Plants each of a capacity of 
one million imperial gallons per 24 hours. Speci- 
fications and forms of tender, together with con- 
ditions governing tenders as prescribed by by- 
law, may be obtained at the office of the City 
Kngineer, 223 James Avenue, Winnipeg. The 
rity reserves the right to reject any or all ten- 
ders, or to accept any bid which appears ad- 
vantageous to the city's interest. 


Board of Control Office, 

Winnipeg, Jan. 6th, 1911. 2-3 


Adve>tise»ne 'ts under ks ktoding one cent atvord 
per i'lse^tfOH, Box So. ten cents extra 

irm manufacturing complete Hne of electrical 
measuring instruments want responsible repre- 
sentatives to handle their lines throughout the 
whole of Canada. Are prepared to deal separate 
Iv for Eastern and Western Canada. Box 194 
Contract Record, 'J'oronto, ( )nt. 3-^ 

Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

(Continued from page 35) 

plied by O. E. Tench, architect, New- 
market, Ont. T. A. Wilson, manager. 
Equipment has been supplied. 

Stony Plain, Alta. 

One section of the town on Main 
street from Railway avenue to Second 
avenue, was destroyed by fire on the 9th 

Three Rivers, Que. 

Plans are being prepared by Messrs. 
Pringle & Co., Coristine Building, Mont- 
real, for the buildings in connection with 
the Wayacamite pulp and paper mills. 
Although the prospective cost of these 
buildings cannot be ascertained, it is un- 
derstood that it will be in the neighbor- 
hood of $100,000. 
Tofield, Alta. | 

A business block at Ryley, east of I 
here, was destroyed by fire. Estimated 
loss, $20,000. The principal losers were 
Wick, Burgar, J. L. Hay and others. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Mr. P. J. Mulqueen, it is stated, willl 
erect a hotel on Yonge street north of] 
the Tremont House on the expirationj 
of the present lease in April, 1912. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The Western Steel Corporation are 
stated to have purchased 300 acres on 
the south side of the Eraser river 
through the Canadian Incorporated Sub- 
sidiary Company. About $2,000,000 will 
be expended on construction of build- 
ings and wharves and installation of 
machinery. Among the Vancouver mer 



interested are Messrs. K. P. McLennan, 
G. M. Gibbs, and S. G. Faulkner, direct- 
the American Company, of Irondale, 
Wash., has approved of the site. Noted 

IWelland, Ont. 
Mr. liurgar has been authorized by 
the Niagara Falls, Welland and Dunn- 
ville Electric Railway to secure sites 
for their depot, it is stated. 
The Canadian Automatic Transporta- 
a, tion Company, with head office at To- 
ronto, a branch of the Automatic Trans- 
portation Company, of Buffalo, it is re- 
ported, will erect its Canadian plant here, 
i havinj? purchased a site of three acres 

HK adjoining the Ontario Iron and Steel 
H Company. Building operations will be- 
' gin at once. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The Kelly Block was destroyed by fire 
on the 14th inst. Total loss, about $400,- 


The Allan Line Steamship Company 
has purchased 30 feet on the west sidj 
of Main street imediately north of Ail- 
oway & Champion's new banking prem- 
ises. It is the intention to tear down 
the old building and early in the spring 
the Alan Line will erect a handsome 
modern office building on the site. 

Montreal, Que. 

Messrs. National Steel Co. are erect- 
ing a large plant at Longue Pointe to 
cost one million dollars. General con- 
tract awarded to Messrs. Peter Lyall & 
Sons Limited, general contractors. 
Board of Trade Building. 

The Queen's Hotel Co. are making an 
extension to their present premises at 
the corner of St. James and Windsor 
streets. The general contract has been 
awarded to Peter Lyall & Sons Limited, 
Board of Trade Building. Architects, 
Saxe & Archibald. 59 Beaver Hall Hill. 

The contract for the ornamental iron 
works in connection with the new office 
building being erected for the Dominion 
Express Co., St. James Street, has been 
awarded to Messrs. John Watson & 
Son, Limited, 173 Wellington Street. 
Architects, E. & W. S. Maxwell. General 
Contractors, Peter Lyall & Sons, Lim- 

Three Rivers, Que. 

The contract for the -00 ton pulp 
machine for the Wayakamite Paper Co. 
has ben let to the JefTrey Manufacturing 



Power Plants, Electricity and 

Arnprior, Ont. 

The by-law to authorize the pumping 
of water by electric power was carried. 
This power will be developed by a com- 
pany on the Mississippi at Galetta. 

Calgary, Alta. 

It has been decided to build a pass- 
able road to the power site on the re- 
cornendation of City Enginer Child. 
This is considered the initial step in the 
development of water power on the 
Elbow river. The road is required to 
furnish thoroughfare along a trail which 
now entails the fording of the river 
thirteen times within six miles. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

There is a proposal on foot to build 
a large dam across the Rideau river at 
Hog's Back, at the outskirts of the city 
It is claimed that there would be a 30- 
foot head available there for developing 


power. Engineers are now investifcat- 
mg the feasibility of developing this 

The Morrisburg and Ottawa Electric 
Railway asked permission from Council 
to run electric cars over Main street and 
Hawthorne avenue, in Ottawa East; for 
an entrance into the city to the freijfht 
and passenger terminal station, which 
it is proposed to erect on the west side 
of Main street at the corner of Haw- 
thorne avenue. The city was also ask- 
ed to grade Main street before the 
tracks were laid. 

Press reports state the establishment 
of an electric smeltinp; plant at Chats 
Falls, on the Ottawa River. Active work 
preparatory to the erection of the plant 
will begin early in the sprinp;. It is pro- 
posed to build an electric line from the 
falls to the mines. 

Port Hope, Ont. 

A by-law granting a 30-year franchiie 
to the Seymour Electric Power Company 
was carried here. 

Regina, Sask. 

The fenders for overhead work in con- 
nection with the installation of the 
street railway system, have been receiv- 
ed by the commissioners, and were con- 
sidered. The tenders are very compli- 
cated, according to the commissioners, 
and will require considerable attention 
before an accurate comparison can be 
made of them. City Commissioner, Mc- 

Toronto, Ont. 

The City Engineer was instructed to 
report on the desirability of putting 
cluster lights on residential and other 
streets as local improvements. 

The recommendation of the City En- 
gineer that the Toronto Railway Com- 
pany be ordered to lay a double line of 
car tracks on Danforth avenue from 
Broadview to a point 200 feet east of 
Greenwoods avenue and to extend the 
service thereon, was endorsed, along 
with the recommendation that the 
track allowance be paved with brick 
block, placed on a concrete foundation, 
at an estimated cost of $66,000. It was 
further recommended that the company 
be ordered to lay tracks on Greenwoods 
Avenue from Gerrard Street on Dan- 
forth Avenue, and to extend the service 
thereon and that the track allowance be 
similarly paved at an estimated cost of 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The British Columbia Hydraulic 
Power Co., Ltd., Vancouver, is making 
application under the Water Act for a 
water record of 500 cubic feet per sec- 
ond, to be taken from Nanaimo river and 
lakes at a dam 30 feet high, about 1.200 
feet above Nanaimo falls, and raising 
the water level to a point 3,500 feet 
above the point of diversion. 

Victoria, B.C. 

The arrangement betwen the city and 
the British Columbia Electric Company, 
of a flat rate of one and seventy-five one 
thousandths cents per kilowat hour for 
electricity to be supplied by the com- 
pany's Jordan river plant, is approved 
of by the company and notification to 
council. A. T. Goward, local manager. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

It is stated that Mackenzie & Mann 
will erect a subsidiary steam power 
house at the foot of Mills street. This 
with the present Assiniboine plant 
would furnish 44.000 h.p. within the city 
limits should the appeal to Privy Coun- 
cil from the decision against the com- 


f>any furnishing power for domettic 
ighting from its Lac du Bonnet water 
power plant be dismissed thi» move will 
probably enable the company 10 com- 
ply with the city's demand. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Cnapman & Walker, Toronto, Ont., 
have been awarded for the Calgary 
Municipal system the contract for the 
supply of one 1,500 h.p, 2300 v., 3-pha<>e. 
60 cycle, 400 r.p.m. synchronous motor, 
to be direct connected to a 1.000 lew. 
d.c 550-600 volt generator; al»o one 
200 Ic.w. motor generator exciter set; 
also complete switchboard apparatus — 
motor generator and exciter set, manu- 
factured by Dick. Kerr & Co.. Ltd.; 
switchboard by Cowans, Ltd., Man- 
chestcr, England. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The lowest tender for ornamenul 
electric light poles for the extension of 
the white wiy was that of .Northern 
Electric Co., which was $6,750 for 150 
poles the same as those already placed 
on Sparks street and that of the Can 
ada roundary Company for $6,950 for a 
shorter pole which is fluted and would 
be more attractive. The Municipal Elec- 
tric Commission has recommended in 
favor of the latter. 


Ottawa, Ont. 

Tenders will be received until Febru- 
ary 17th, ipn, for the supply of a mar- 
ine boiler for fisheries protection cruiser 
"Curlew." G. I. Desbarats, Deputy Min- 
ister of Naval Service. Department of 
the Naval Service, Ottawa. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Recent building permits include: — 
Harris & Lee, 1 pair semi-detached two- 
storey brick dwellings on Conduit street, 
$4,800; S. R. Campbell, two-storey thea- 
torium on Main street, $5,000; J. J. Far- 
rell, I pair semi-detached 2Vi-storey 
brick dwellings 159-7 Campbell avenue. 
$4,600; Fletcher Mf^. Co.. five-storey 
brick and steel addition to factory. Hay- 
ter street, $6,000; J, T. & H. HuUon, 
two-storey and attic brick dwelling, cor. 
Oriole road and Heath street, $.5.aoo: 
Geo. Gander, zJ'J-storey brick dwelling. 
Gladstone avenue, $3,300; Ed. Elliott. 2 
pair semi-detached a-storey brick dwell- 
ings, on Concord avenue, $12,000; Caul- 
field, Burns & Gibson. Ltd.. alterations 
to factory, Spadina avenue. $3,000; J. 
Castleman (in trust), three-storey brick 
store and dwelling and warehouse, S.E. 
cor. Elm and Elizabeth streets. $12x100; 
Weismiller & MacKenzie Bros., two- 
storey brick store and dwelling, corner 
Rideau and Macdonnell, $3,000; H. B. 
Reesor, i pair semi-detached two-storejr 
brick dwellings on west side George 
street. $5,500; The Chemical I.abora- 
tories. galvanived iron testing room. 148 
VanHorne street, $5,000; H. Jennings, 
254-storey brick dwelling on St. Clair 
avenue. $5,500. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Building permits were issued as fol- 
lows: T. N. Yates. 1572 Graveley street 
S6,ooo: W. T. Read. 1818 Cornwall street. 
$3,500; J. Coleman. 260 Eleventh avenue 
east. $4,000; W. H. Brown. Semlin and 
Barnard, three houses, $8,400. 

Tenders are called until February 6th 
for purchase of the assets of The Im- 
perial Plaster Company. Limited. To- 
ronto and Cayuga. .Advertisement in 
"Tenders and For Sa'r Department** of 
this issue. 



Laying Wood Paving with Cement-Grout Cush- 
ion along Street Car Tracks 

A difficulty which attends the use of wood block 
paving is that of adjusting and supporting it effectively 
at such breaks in the pavement as are caused by man- 
holes, sewer inlets, street railway rails, etc. The great- 
est amount of trouble occurs at the rails, as they form 
a continuous break in the center of the street, where 
traffic is most congested. The manholes and inlets are 
scattered and are placed where they are subject only to 
an average amount of traffic. This matter has been in- 
vestigated by Mr. H. G. Davis on behalf of the Chicago 
Street Improvement Association, and the following in- 
formation is taken from a report on the investigation. 

The trouble at the rails is due to the following 
causes: (1) vibration caused by the movements of cars, 
(2) leakage of water into the sand cushion bj^ passing 
between the rail and the paving, (3) the heavy stress 
to which the paving is subjected due to concentration of 
traffic upon it. Under these conditions, whore any block 
pavement (wood, brick or stone) is laid upon a sand 
cushion, a special treatment is needed to prevent the 
.sand from being washed or jarred out of place, and a 
consequent settlement of the paving. This settlement, 
however slight, is disastrous to any pavement, and espe- 
cially so for wood block paving. As soon as blocks settle 
the paving begins to get the pounding effects of heavily 
loaded vehicles and a rut is produced. 

The vibration alone will tend to shift the sand, hut 
when water gets into the sand the latter becomes ex- 
tremely mobile and the movement is accentuated. The 
vibration has also a pumping effect upon the saturated 
sand, and may cause it to flow to the surface of the 
pavement. Should this saturated bed of sand become 
frozen, it is likely to heave to such an extent as to cause 
damage to 1h? pavement. To reduce the jai-ring, the 
joint along the rail should be fitted as perfectly as pos- 
sible, so that wheels of vehicles will not drop or climb 
in passing from the rail to the pavement. 

The remedy for the shifting of the sand and conse- 
quent settlement of the paving is believed to be in the 
treatment of the sand cushion. About five years ago 
the South Park Commission (Chicago) began using wood 
block paving for intersections of parkways with streets 
having car tracks, and laid the blocks on a cushion of 
cement grout instead of sand. This paving has jiroved 
successful under heavy traffic. The plan suggested, 
therefore, is to use this sand-ccmcnt grout instead of 
sand for the cushion bed between the rails and for at 
not> enHrely new. and is included in the plans prepared 
least 12 inches outside the rails. This cushion will not 
be affected by water or vibration. This arrangement is 
some time ago for Chicago street railway track construc- 
tion with brick pavement. In this case, however, the 
grout cushion is used only for a strip on each side of 
each rail. 

It is recommended that a dry mixture of 1 part 
Portland cement to .3 parts sand should be made, and 
spread in the same way as the ordinary sand cushion. 
The blocks are laid upon this and tamped. Then the 
paving is flushed thoroughly, so that the water will pass 
through the joints and intci-stices and satiu-ate the sand- 
cement base. It is best to keep traffic off the pavement 
for 24 or 48 hours, in order to give the grout time to 
set. It is said that this is not absolutely necessary, how- 
ever, as even if the traffic is admitted immediately, the 
material will "cake" sufficiently to be superior to a 
sand cushion. The additional cost is said to be very 
slight. This grout cushion may be used wth either 

wood, brick or stone block paving; it may be used also 
around manholes, etc.. if desired. 

Another difficulty experienced where wood block 
paving is laid between the rails is the development of 
transverse ruts or grooves at the tie-rods which hold the 
rails together. This is due to the wide joint, and it is 
suggested that who-e such rods are used the blocks 
should be chamfered so as to permit of making the usual 
close joint. This would cause a little trouble in laying 
the pavement, but not enough to add materially to the 

Notable Concrete Bridge 

A long concrete girder bridge; has recently been 
completed by the Southern Railway Co. for its two-track 
line across the French Broad River near Asheville, N.C., 
between which city and Craggy, N.C.. a new alignment 
and construction has been in progress. The bridge is 
733 ft. 10 in. long, and consists of a series of twenty- 
two 30 ft. spans, each span of three parallel reinforced 
concrete girders, all resting on a solid concrete pier ex- 
tending, on a skew of 30° to the axis of the bridge, clear 
across its width. The three girders are spaced 13 ft. 4 
in. c. to c, the outside two each 24 in. wide and 7 ft. 7 
in, deep, and the middle girder 36 in. wide and 9 ft. 
7 in. deep, both reinforced heavily. The roadway is car- 
ried on a solid concrete slab between these girders 24 in. 
deep in the middle and with large brackets reaching 
down to the supporting girders. The spans are divided 
into series of four, at each of which the piers are 4 ft. 
thick at the top, the intermediate piers being but 3 ft. 
thick. The foundations are carried down to solid rock. 
The girders are continuous for the entire length of the 
liridge. but on each pier, at the foot of the small brackets 
reaching up to the girders, a grooved expansion joint 
was made by placing along it two thicknesses of ordin- 
ary tar paper. Further expansion was provided by a 2 
in. space at each end of the continuous girder. Design 
loads and stresses were: Loading, Cooper E-50 + 100% 
impact ; tension in steel, 12,500 lbs. per sq. in. ; compres- 
sion in concrete 450 lbs. per sq. in. "Work was completed 
in Mav. 1910. The approximate cost of the entire struc- 
ture was $125,000. 

Use of Sawdust Concrete 

Sawdust concrete has been used in the new Public 
Library building at Springfield, ^,, as a base on which 
to lay the cork carpet covering the f\oor. The object 
of the sawdust concrete was to obtain a layer into which 
nails could .be driven and wliich at the same time would 
hold the nails. The company tliat kid it states that it 
accomi)liShed lK)th these purposes. If it had not been 
used it would liave been necessary to lay the usual wood- 
en floor, on sleepers and a cinder fill, between tlie struc- 
tural .slab and the cork carpet. The mix originally speci- 
fied was 1 :2 :2, one part cement, two parts sand and two 
parts .sawdust: but before aj)plying it the contractors de- 
cided to experiment wth various proportions. It was 
found that the 1 :2 :2 mixture would not set and after a 
couple of weeks could almost be blown away by the wind. 
Further experiments led to the conclusion that n 1 ■.2:^/f 
mix, tlirce-fourth.s of a part of sawdust, would give 
pi-opcr results and 5.000 .sq. ft- of this mixture were laid. 
The thickness of the layer was 1 in. and after four months 
of service indications are that the material is successful. 
No cracks developed, even in strips as long as 125 and 
1.50 ft, except at the joints at the end of a day's work. 
At some of these points cracks opened to a width of 14 iu- 



Contractors and Builders Supplies 

Crushed Stone 

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Rubble, Pordand Cement 

CRUSHED GRANITE for Floors and Sidewalks 


Crescent Fire Brick 

We are exclusive Distributing Agents for this high grade, hand- 
made fire brick. Large stock always on hand. 

Don't forget our Prompt Delivery Service. 

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Head Office: 28 King Street West 


Phone Main 4155 
















Hayward Buckets 
meet every digging 
and rehandling 

We can supply 
several styles of 
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size desired. 

Montreal, 318 St. James St. 
Toronto, 73 Victoria St. 
Cobalt, opp. Right of Way Mine 




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Handle hard and 
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greatest efficiency. 



for catalogues. 

Winnipeg, 259-261 Stanley St. 
Calgary, Crown Block. 
Vancouver, Mercantile Bldg. 



The Brush Quartzlite Lamp 

The best Vapour Lamp on the 
Market for Industrial Lighting 


In every sense of the word the 
cheapest light 

Write us for bulletins, prices, and full particulars 

Canada Ford Company 

485 St. James St. 

Ask any Man who has used Them 

The true test of mechanical eflFiciency is found in the wear and tear of hard, 
everyday service. Tried by this exacting test, 

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Scotch Derricks 

have never yet failed to make good. They are 
designed and built for hard work — under rigid 
inspection — from the finest materials only — 
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They combine high efficiency and utmost 
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Write to-day for full particulars and quotation*. Better 
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% H m ^^ 



csTAeusHco isoa 

A Weakly Journal of 

Building. Contracting, Engintering. Public Work* 

Municipal Progress. Advance Informatioa 

Published Each Wednkbday by 


HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 
THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 
HEAD OFFICE - - 220 King Street West, TORONTO 
Telephone Main 2362 

MONTREAL Telephone Main 2200 B34 Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 404 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. - 26 Crowe & Wilson Chambers 
CHICAGO ------- 4059 Perry Street 

LONDON, ENG. ----- 3 Regent St., S.W. 

Canada and Great Britain, $2.00 U.S. and Foreign, $2.50 

Vol. 25 

January 18, 1911 

No. 3 

Responsibility of the Public Press 

The recent investi<?ation.s at Woodstock, Ont., have 
been productive, a.s mijrht have l)een expected, of a cer- 
tftin amount of bungling on the part of the public press. 
The inaccurate and distorted versions of the newspaper 
reporter are continually a source of trouble in the techni- 
cal field. The fact of it is, the value of getting news is 
impressed upon the reporter so much that it becomes 
subversive of everything else in his comix)sition. The 
spirit in which many so-called "news" items are ob- 
tained and publi.shed, puts one in mind of the Quaker's 
advice : "INIy son, get money ; honestly if you can, but get 
money." There may or may not be a certain amount of 
worldly wisdom in this principle, but when it is applied 
to the circulation of reports concerning established in- 
stitutions and business men of repute, it is time to call a 

An announcement was made recently in the Toronto 
papei-s that James A. Vance, acting as agent of the Ham- 
ilton Bridge Works Company. Limited, paid E. L. 
Sutherland, one of the municipal officials, a bribe of ^oO 
to secure a contract for a highway bridge. As a matter of 
fact, the name of the TTauiilton Bridge Works Company 
was not even mcntiontMl nt the Woodstock investigation, a 
statement which is authorized by Judge Snider, the 
presiding officer, and also l)y counsel for the G<ivernment 
and County-. TJpon discovering that the .said Vance was 
not an agent of the comi)any, and that the only transac- 
tions that had been made between him and the bridge 
concern were in the regular way of business as purchaser 
and vendor, the statements were retracted. Neither 
apologies nor damages, however, are any compensation 
for this sort of thing. 

Tlie TTamilton Bridge Works are one of the most n-- 
sponsible concerns of the kind in Canada, and they are 
doing an enormous business on tiieir merits and on !riK)d 
sound principlt>«. The slandering of such institutions. 
whetlKM- wilfully or fi-om uegl(>cting to obtain proper 
confirmation ofiicws reports, is u violation of business 
ethics for which there is no palliation. 

Practical Work in the College 

In another column will lie found at) mtiTt-stinv' ' ' 
ter on the Training of the Engineer-Contractor, by Mr 
A. W, Connor. Toronto. A brief consideration of this 
subject is appropriate in this number. Mr. Connor's let- 
ter is wri'ten in of an article by Mr. W, R. 
Harris, publishi-d in our is-sue of November 2. and of 
a reply thereto by Mr. Henry Holgate. of Montreal, in 
that of November 23. Inasmuch as the matter was dw- 
cussed editorially in the latter issue, it is not onr inten- 
tion to make extended reference to the subject at th)« 
time, but a number of the statements made by Mr. Con- 
nor appeal to us as being particularly suggestive. Mr. 
Connor's opinion coincides to some extent with that of 
Mr. Holgate, in that the eollege is not the proper place 
to acquire practical knowledge relating to construction. 
"I believe it is a great mistake," he wTites, "for a 
college to attempt teaching shop work. This can be done 
l)etter and more economically in a real shop that has to 
earn dividends." The two writers agree upon the value 
of practical work during the vacation, and Mr. Connor 
admits the force of Mr. Holgate's sugirestions in this 

All things considered, the impression of Mr. Har- 
ris' article is still with us. Possibly he is a little over- 
enthusiastic upon the value of practical knowledge, but 
we are living in a practical age and this is excusable. 
Certain it is that the man who is going to make a suc- 
cess of engineering-con*racting in its modern applica- 
tion must have an intimate knowledge of practical work 
and api)liances as well as of design. 

"Too much must not be expected of the newly 
fledged graduate." to quote again from Mr. Connor's 
letter in this number. Certai!)ly it is folly to put a boy 
on a man's job. Af'er all. the college has well defined 
limitations, and while its training and qualifications are 
indispensable, th" real business of life will alwa^'s start 
outside. It depends very much up)on the man. and the 
extent to whi"h he tries to improve himself in the prac- 
tical side of his training. For our own part, we think 
that there is a certain tendency on the part of tho col- 
lege to sacrifice the practical to the theoretical. This 
tendency can be counteracted to a certain extent bv the 
profession itself, but too much must not be expected. 

Toronto Branch, Can. Soc. C. E. 

At llie atniual meeting of the Toronto branch of 
the Canadian Society of Ci\nl Engineers, held at the 
Engineers' Club on Frida.v. Jan. 6th. Dr. Oalbraith in 
the chair, the following officers were elected for 1911: 
Chairman. H. E. T. Haultain ; Secretary -Treastirer, A. 
C. D. Blanchard; Executive. T. C. Irving. Geo. Powell. 
P. Cillespie. W. E. Donglas and E. A. Jam.>s. The 
reports submitted were adopted and forwarded to the 
Canadian Society. The Auditor's report showed a bal- 
ance of ."IslSO to the good. 

Annual Meeting of the Ontario Good Roada 

Active preparations arc being made for the annual 
m«H>ting of the Ontario CixhI Roads .\ssociation. which 
is to be held in Toronto March 1-3. Mr W. A. Mac- 
liean. the Provincial Highways Engint>cr. who is Sec- 
retary of the Association, is working energetically in 
the interests of the convention and a mi«t interesting 
programme is being prepared. Special arrangemens 
are being made in the way of transportation. A record 
gathering may be expected. 



1 Was Caimadla^s Greatest Bmildiinig Year 

Twenty Five Leading Cities Expended nearly One Hundred Millions — An 
Average Gain of 44 per cent — Optimistic Forecasts for Coming Season 

The building returns for 1910 submitted by the prin- 
cipal cities of the Dominion, show an average increase of 
44 per cent, over 1909. In 1910 the expenditure was 
$94,180,778, compared with $65,459,456 for the preced- 
ing year. December, 1910, showed an increase of more 
than two and one-half millions over December, 1909. 
These figures, taken in conjunction with the favorable 
indications for 1911, should be a source of much gratifi- 
cation and encouragement to those interested in building 
and engineering work throughout the Dominion. In the 

may be gleaned from the reports. Toronto maintains its 
place at Ihe head of the list with an increase of 16 per 
cent. During the first six months of 1910 a gain of 11 
per cent, was recorded over the corresponding period of 
1909, so that the final return can only be regarded as an 
evidence of steady development and well maintained 

Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of the returns 
is Montreal's gain of 103 per cent. The figures are par- 
ticularly striking when it is considered that they are 

Town or City, Dec, 1909. 

Toronto $1,593,365 

Montreal 166,885 

Winnipeg 33,425 

Vancouver 512,919 

Calgary 151,550 

Ottawa 104,125 

Hamilton 69,300 

Fort William 247,800 

Eegina 9,025 

Victoria 71,700 

Edmonton 9,780 

Lethbridge 33,885 

Port Arthur 

Mcose Jaw 

Brandon 60 

London 32,155 


Peterboro ' 2,095 

Halifax 33,550 

Windsor 2,500 

Strathcona 1,200 

Sydney, N.S 7,700 

St. Thomas 5,700 


Stratford 2,017 

Totals $3,090,736 

Average increase 44 per cent. 

Approx. Increase 

Dec, 1910. 

12mos., '09. 

12 mos., '10. 

for 12 mos. 









































































































reports received from city engineers, city clerks and 
building inspectors, the consensus of opinion is that the 
standard of prosperity set up by 1910 will be raised to a 
still higher level during 1911. In connection with the 
average increase of 44 per cent, for the year, it is sig- 
nificant to recall that the returns for the first six months 
of 1910 showed an average gain of 41 per cent. A 
greater falling off might have been expected towards the 
close of the year, in view of the fact that an effort is 
always made to get an early start on the more important 
works of the season. The final returns for 1910 are in- 
dicative of natural and healthy progress in all depart- 
ments. The average increase of 44 per cent, is a rep- 
resentative figure for the Dominion. 

In the accompanying table several decreases will be 
noted. In a number of cases, however, these are attribut- 
able to some exceptional inflation the previous year, as 

exclusive of the returns from the suburbs. Allowance 
must be made, however, for the fact that the annexation 
at the beginning of the year brought in the town of St. 
Louis, one of the most rapidly developing districts on the 
island, and other municipalities later on in the year. 
Thus had the total from municipalities which became 
part of the parent city in 1910 been added to the Mont- 
real total for 1909, a more accurate basis of comparison 
wovild be reached. These former municipalities, now city 
wards, in 1909 showed building operations amounting to 
$2,929,800, which, added to " the $7,783,621 shown in the 
city records for the year, would give a total of $10,713,- 
421. As compared then with returns from practically 
the same area of $15,815,859 in 1910, the actual gain for 
the year was about 50 per cent., and not over 100 per 
cent., as would at first appear. 

Of the other eastern cities, Hamilton, with a gain of 



60 per cent., and Port Arthur, with an increase of 82 

per cent., arc entitled to special mention. 

From Western Canada there is every evidence of 
eonsistcnl development. Winnipeg, which occupies third 
place in the table, expended over fifteen millions during 
1910, and made a gain of 64 per cent. Vancouver, in the 
fourth position, has a most creditable record, with a gain 
of 81 per cent, and a total expenditure of only two 
millions less than Winnipeg. The fifth place falls to 
(Jalgary, with an increase of 131 per cent. To Kegina be- 
longs the honor of making the highest gain for the year 
of Canada's leading cities — 214 per cent. Only two de- 
creases are to be found in Western Canada, and in 
neither case are thes<! attributable to any depression in 

Further information, retrospective and prospective, 
will be found in the following reports: 

Toronto, Ont.— P. h. Fraser, Secretary, Builders' Exchange, 
Toronto, writes: "At the end of 1909 there was a general 
feeling that Toronto had reached the high water mark in the 
building industry for some years to come. The first six months 
of the past year dispelled this view and it was generally ad- 
mitted that the amount of building for 1910 would exceed that 
of the previous year by several million dollars. This has 
proved the case and 1910 leads that of the previous year which 
was the highest by about .$3,000,000 or 16 per cent. In fact, 
Toronto permits this year are several millions higher than 
any other Canadian city. 

The question is being aslied, "Is Toronto not over build- 
ing?" There seems to be nothing to indicate that this is the 
case. Outside of the buildings that are erected under con- 
tract, the reports from the speculating builders are the very 
brightest. In the majority of cases, they report having sold 
their complete luimbtr of buildings. The only danger existing 
that should cause any one to have a pessimistic view are the 
inducements that the West offers for investment. As long as 
we can hold our money in this city there is no reason why the 
building industry should suffer any relapse. 

Conditions have been good the year through. The continual 
fine weather was a griat factor in facilitating the work. There 
were no serious labor troubles and always suflScient workmen 
to carry along operations. The contractors experienced most 
trouble in acquiring supplies. Brick has been scarce all the 
year and the G.T.K. strike was a source of delay in securing 
lime, gravel, stone and other supplies from outside points. 

Prospects for 1911 at this date seem even brighter than at 
this period a year ago. There is much large work under way, 
and along with the uncompleted work of last season, such as 
the new General Hospital, the indications are for a very busy 

Montreal, Que.— Correspondence of the "Contract Record." 
— As will be seen by the above returns there was no abate- 
ment of activity in Montreal in 1910. Building conditions 
throughout the year were most satisfactory and there was a 
comparative immunity from labor troubles. Many important 
projects are under way and contemplated. The city itself has 
a most extensive programme. Generally the outlook for 1911 
is excellent. 

Winnipeg. Man. — City Building Inspector Rodgers, who 
has earned a reputation by virtue of his ability to forecast 
building conditions and totals, expects the year 1911 to at 
least equal 1910, with a total of over $15,000,000. Present 
conditions are satisfactory. Things are rather quiet in the 
supply business, but a considerable amount of winter building 
is going on. It is stated that more bricklaying and carpentry 
work has been carrird out in Winnipeg this winter than for 
years past. 

Vancouver, B.C. — S. H. .Tarrett, Building Inspector, writce: 
"In closing the year's business it is very gratifying to report 
such a substantial increase over 1909. The increase is phe- 
nomenal when it was made without taking in any new terri- 

tuiy. Ttiv preseut area of the city ia only 8 ttfamt* Bile*. la 
the outlying portions I can safely say that M.tHHI.OOO worth of 
building hub been done. >'ur ttau my record get* ao crwliL" 
Calgary, Alta. -The year lt>lu haa beea a record oaa trom 
a building standpoint and is easily ahead of any otter year 
in the city's history. Building Inspector Uarrisoa looks (or 
an advance in 1911 and it is hoped that tlie seven mUiioa 
dollar mark will be reached. This is most probable uwiog to 
the enlargement of the city boundaries. 

Ottawa, Ont. — Correspoudtnce ol the "Contract Keeord." 
^ -Commercial building in the city daring 191U was beavior 
than for years but Irom an all-round budding standpoint tha 
year was not so satisfactory, the activity being cuuflaad 
pretty much to the one class of work. The outlook for Itfll 
is good. An increase in residential work is looked (or. Tba 
following is a comparison of the wages prevailing last >ear 
in Ottawa with those of Toronto and Montreal: 

Masons and bricklayers, per hour, Toronto 50 cents, Mont- 
real 5U cents, Ottawa M ceuU (increasing to 62 on May 1 next). 
ijtoueculti rb, per hour, Toronto 6U cents, Muolieai -m eeuu, 
Ottawa 5U cents. 

Marbie cutters and setters, per hour, Toronto 30 and 40 
cents, Montreal 37>>j cents, Ottawa 35 to 4U cents. 

Cement fiuibheis, per hour, Toronto 4U cents, Montreal 
30 to 36 cents, Ottawa 25 to 3U cents. 

laborers and hod carriers, per hour, Toronto 25 eeata, 
Montreal 16 to 22 cunts, Ottawa 25 cents. 

Painters, per hour, Toronto 3u cents, Montreal 25% to M 
cents, Ottawa 27 to 3u cents. Paperbaogers 3U cents. 

Kloctricians, per hour, Toronto 3U cents, Montreal 23 to 
27 y, cents, Ottawa 26 to 35 cents. 

ti^heet metal workers, per hour, Toronto 33 cents, Montreal 
30 cents, Ottawa 35 to 46 cents. 

Plumbers, per hour, Toronto 42^^ cents, Montreal 30 to S5 
cents, Ottawa 39 to 43 cents. 

Steamfitters, per hour, Toronto 42>4 to 47 eenta, Montreal 
3U to 35 cents, Ottawa 39 to 43 cents. 

Plumbers' and steamfitters' helpers, per hour, Toronto 15 
cents, Montreal 1^2 to 15 cents, Ottawa 8 to 15 cents. 

Gasfitters, per hour, Toronto 40 cents, Montreal 30 to 35 
cents, Ottawa 39 to 43 cents. 

Kooters, per hour, Toronto 30 eenta, Montreal 25 to SO 
cents, Ottawa 30 to 45 cents. 

Carpenters, per hour, Toronto 35 cents, Montreal 25 to SO 
cents, Ottawa 25 to 32 cents. 

'Tile setters, per hour, Toronto 50 eenta, Montreal 25 e«Bt% 
Ottawa 25 to 40 cents. 

Lathers, per thousand, Toronto 42 cents, Montreal 44 4-9 
cents, Ottawa 45 cents. 

Plasterers, per hour, Toronto 50 cents, Montreal 40 eenta, 
Ottawa 40 to 42 y, cents. 

Hoisting engineers, per hour, Toronto 35 cents, Montreal 
25 cents, Ottawa 30 to 40 cents. 

Ornamental iron setters, per hour, Toronto 30 to 85 eanta, 
Montreal 25 to 30 cenU, Ottawa 30 to 35 cents. 

Structural iron setters, per hour, Toronto 25 to S5 eeats, 
Montreal 33^ cents, Ottawa 30 to 35 cents. 

Hamilton, Ont. — The substantial increase reeorded daring 
1910 by this city is regarded with much satisfaction by Build- 
ing Inspector Anderson, who writes: "1910 was a good year 
but the prospects for 1911 are even brighter. We look for- 
ward to a very busy year in the erection of factory build- 
ings. A number of important additions are contemplated and 
several new concerns will erect large plants." 

Fort William. Ont. — S. Macnamara, Building laapaetar, 
writes: "1910 was a record year at Fort William. Our Sgaree 
are somewhat lower than for last year, but it is owing to tba 
fact that elevator work was prartically eliminated, only ••• 
permit having been issued, representing an outlay of $233,000^ 
whereas last year the permits for elevator work totalled oae 
and a half millions. The increase in factories, business blocks 
and warehouses more than compensates for the apparent de- 
cline. Each year shows a marked improvement oa tba pia- 
vious one by the class of dwellings, blocks and stores araetcd— 
larger, better and a more lavish rspenditare of moaey. Alta- 
gether the year's work has exceeded the most saaguiae antici- 
pations, and apparently little relaxation will take pla«« dar- 
ing the winter months. Spring prospects look good." 

BaglBa, Sask.— R. O. Bnrdett, Secretary, Board of Trada, 



writes: "Trade conditions in Eegina and in Saskatchewan 
generally were never better than in 1910. The prospects for 
1911 are even brighter. The grain crop was exceptionally 
good in this locality last season and this accounts to some ex- 
tent for the excellent local trade. It is the consensus of opin- 
ion that 1911 will be the greatest year in our history. Im- 
portant municipal improvements are contemplated, these in- 
cluding the installation of a street railway, the building of the 
Board street subway, extensive water and sewer additions, dis- 
posal works, street paving, etc. The entrance of the G. T. P. 
with five lines into Eegina and the opening of additional branch 
lines of the C. P. E. and C. N. E. will doubtless attract new 
industries and give a general impetus to business. It is es- 
timated that the building during 1911 will exceed the three 
million dollar mark." 

Edmonton, Alta. — Ernest H. Cotterhill, Superintendent of 
Buildings, writes: "Last year was Edmonton's busiest sea- 
son. The work done was $1,000,000 above the value of the 
permits, as several large works, such as the new Parliament 
Buildings and the new Court House, commenced one or two 
years ago, have been in full swing this season. The pros- 
pects for the coming year are very bright. The spring will 
see the commencement of a number of metropolitan buildings, 
between 6 and 10 storeys high. The architects are all busy and 
report numerous projects." 

IiOthbridge, Alta. — H. V. Meech, Building Inspector, writes: 
"Building operations here have been delayed somewhat dur- 
ing the last two or three months owing to the early cold 
weather. This has affected to some extent the year's returns. 
Judging by inquiries and trade indications, prospects for the 
spring are bright." 

Port Arthur, Ont.~J. McTeigue, City Clerk, writes: "Dur- 
ing the past four or five years building conditions in this city 
have been healthy and regular. A noteworthy feature is the 
improvement in the class of structures erected. The jiros- 
pects for 1911 are excellent." 

Moose Jaw, Sask.— W. F. Heal, City Clerk, writes: "The 
building prospects for Moose Jaw for the year 1911 are higher 
than they have been before at this season. It is anticipated 
that a number of new business blocks will be started as 
soon as spring opens. Among other buildings assured are 
Gordon, Ironsides and Fares' new packing plant, the Saskat- 
chewan College, armory and market building. A large number 
of other buildings are in contemplation, but nothing definite 
has been announced. The Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk 
Pacific Eailways will reach Moose Jaw early in the year, and 
the outlook is that 1911 will be the biggest year that Moose 
Jaw has yet had." 

lK>ndon, Ont. — Arthur E. Nutter, City Architect, writes: 
"The general character of the work done this year has been 
largely in the form of permanent improvements to existing 
property, this accounting for the large increase in the num- 
ber of permits and the slight falling off in value, and indicat- 
ing permanence and stability of existing institutions, rather 
than the launching out into new and possibly "wild cat" 
ventures. The prospects for 1911 are good. The proposal of 
the Council to erect a new $150,000 or $125,000 City Hall is 
an index of the feeling for progress, and undoubtedly will have 
a beneficial effect in inciting emulation on the part of other 
building owners." 

Brantford, Ont. — T. Harry Jones, City Engineer, writes: 
"The record for 1910 is the greatest in the history of the city. 
It exceeds that of the previous record year, 1907, by $107,000. 
Prospects are good." 

Halifax, N.S. — F. W. W. Doane, City Engineer, writes: 
"The value of the work done during the year is less than 
that shown for 1909. The comparative showing, however, may 
be very easily misunderstood. The figures foi 19G9 were un- 
usually large, as the building operations for that year in- 
cluded permits for a large cathedral and other expensive build- 
ings. The figures for 1910 have returned to about the normal 

sum. The prospects for 1911 do not promise anything unusual 
and there is no evidence at this date that there will be any 
building erected of unusual value that will increase the total 
for 1911 beyond the average. The most important building 
work for which a permit was issued during the past year was 
a new building for the Y.M.C.A., which is now in course of 
construction, the cost of which, when completed, may roach 

Strathcona, Alta. — A. J. McLean, City Engineer, writes: 
"With the exception of inside work, building construction has 
stopped for the winter. There is every prospect of a large 
increase for 1911." 

Sydney, N.S.-^D. McD. Campbell, City Engineer, writes: 
"The prospects for 1911 were never better. A number of 
substantial brick buildings — stores for the most part — are un- 
der consideration. Our returns for 1910 do not include the 
expenditures on the plant of the Dominion Iron & Steel Com- 
pany, Limited." 

Kingston, Ont. — H. B. R. Craig, City Engineer, writes: 
"Despite the apparently bad showing of this city, 1910 was 
a normal year for building operations. The preceding year, 
1909, was exceptional, as it included a new building for Queen 's 
University and a new wing for the Hotel Dieu Hospital. Pros- 
pects for 1911 are for a normal year." 

Woodstock, Ont. — J. H. Morrison, City Clerk, writes: 
"Prospects for 1911 are bright — more promising than for years. 
The outlook for industrial buildings is exceptionally good, the 
commissioners now being in negotiation with several manu- 
facturing concerns. Increased activity may be expected in 
the line of residential work. ' ' 

A breakwater at the British Navy Yard at Simon's Bay, 
Cape of Good Hope, is built with large concrete blocks placed in 
courses inclined 20 degrees to the horizontal. In order to secure 
this inclination it was necessary to lay on the rubble mound foun- 
dation a triangular bed of concrete for each course, so that the 
foundation was saw-toothed. As described in "Engineering," 
London, iron box frames of the exact triangular shape were con- 
structed, the under side consisting of loose bars 1 inch in diam- 
eter spaced 6 inches apart. The boxes were lined with canvas to 
form a bag, which was filled with concrete, the projecting can- 
vas at the top being folded over. The box with its concrete 
contents, weighing about five tons, was lifted by the crane and 
deposited on the level surface by divers. The bottom bars were 
then withdrawn and the frame of the box lifted, leaving a triangu- 
lar-shaped bag of concrete to set and form an accurate founda- 
tion for the lowest tier of sloping blocks. 

A breakwater on the east side of the new British Navy Yard 
at Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope, is 86 ft. wide, 6 ft. 3 in. 
high above the high-water level, 51 ft. high above the rubble mound 
foundation, and 2,500 ft. long. It consists of two walls 37 ft. 
apart in the clear, having the space so formed filled with selected 
material. Coal sheds having an aggregate length of 1,000 ft. 
and coal handling machinery are placed on the breakwater. The 
outer wall is uniformly 30 ft. thick and consists of 28-ton rect- 
angular concrete blocks which are placed in courses inclined 20 
degrees from the vertical. By this scheme the blocks were read- 
ily slid to place, insuring good bearing on their beds, as well as 
on the ends. This type of eonstructicm is carried to the deck 
level, but above low water there is a stone facing set in the blocks 
when they were cast. The inner wall, 14 ft. 3 in. thick in the 
upper part and 19 ft. in the lower, is built of concrete blocks 
with enlarged ends, which act as keys to tie the wall together. 
Above low-water level the inner wall is faced with granolithic 
concrete in courses, with granite stones at intervals to act as 
fenders for the protection of the granolithic work against rubbing 
action by the ship's fenders. These courses are backed with con- 
crete. The large blocks in the outer wall were set by a titan crane 
having a lifting power of 40 tons at a radius of 75 ft. 




Steady Progress of Calgary Power Company 

The power house and step-up transformer house buihlings at 
Kananaskis Falls, on the Bow river, are nearly completed, and 
the turbines are Ijeing installed. The initial installation conaigtg 
of two 3,750 h.p. turbines, Jens Orten-Bovlng manufacture. These 
will drive two 2,500 It. v. a., 12,000 volt, 60 cycle, horizontal type, 
Canadian General Electric generators, which were delivered 
about December 1. The installation of these will be completed 
early in the new year. The accompanying figure represents the 
general layout of the Calgary plant. No's 2 and 3 are the 
units now being placed. 

The 55,000 volt, 47 mile, transmission line to Calgary is pretty 
well completed. The double circuit 12,000 volt, 8 mile line to 
the Western Canada Cement Company's mill at Exshaw is quite 
complete, as is also the substation at this point, and everything 
is in readiness for the delivery of 3,000 h.p. to the Cement Com- 
pany. The transmission wires are carried on wooden poles. 
Aluminium cable is used throughout and was supplied by the 
Northern Aluminum Company. The instilators are the pin type, 
Locke manufacture. 

The main terminal station in Calgary is well under way. The 
station equipment is designed for receiving current at 55,000 
volts and stepping it down to 12,000 volts, 24,000 volts and 600 
volts. The COO volt circuit will supply the Alberta Portland 
Cement Company, who are under contract to use 1,500 h.p. as 
soon as the system is in operation. The other two circuits will 
feed the city of Calgary, who are under contract with the Cal- 

Tho dam and headworks are making good progress and every- 
thing points to the probability that the plant will be in opera- 
tion early in the spring, 
gary Power Company to take a minimum of 2,000 h.p. 

The step-up transforming station at the falls -will contain 
three 3,000 k.v.a. 3 phase units and the Calagry terminal station 

will contain a total of 8,500 k.v.a. transformer capacity to take 
c«re of the city of Calgary and the Cement Compaay. Thia 
apparatus U being supplied by the Canadian WeatiogkOMa, aa i« 
also all switching equipment for both stations. 

Already the demand for more power baa oeeaatitatad the plac- 
ing of an order for a third unit, provinioa for which was made in 
the original plan of the power boaae a* shown in the figure. The 
third turbine will be 6,000 h.p. capacity and ia already baiag 
built. The Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Company, of Clarelaad, 
Ohio, bare the order. The third generator will have a capacity 
of 4,000 k.v.a., and will be installed by the Canadian Oeneral 
Electric Company. The installation of this third anit ia to be 
completed early in the year. Smith, Kerry t Chace, Toronto, 
are the consulting engineer*. 

Dry-rot fungus was discovered on the floor joista of a cer- 
tain bouse and an examination by Mr. William Banaom, Aaaoc. 
M. Inst. C.E., who has reported his findings in the "Surveyor," 
showed that great sheets of the fungoid growth existed be- 
neath the lath and plaster. After trying a number of pre- 
parations to remedy the trouble, treatment of the wood and 
brickwork with carbolinenm is said to have prevented the 
growth. The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, Mr. Ran- 
som states, recommends an application of carbolic acid to 
check dry rot fungus. Creosote, carbolineum and similar pre- 
parations, according to Mr. Ransom, should be applied to the 
ends of timbers resting in buildings as a preventive to the 
growth of dry rot and the ventilation of ground floor timbera 
should bo assured by the provision of sufficient air bricks. 

Mr. B. A. Brocklebank was elected Preaident of the Calgary 
Builders' Exchange at the annual meeting of that bo4y on Jan. 

(it'll. -i-dl plan of Calgary Power Company's Generating Plant, Kauanaakia Falls, Bow River 



Poioit dM Bois Hydro-EleciLric DeYelopimeinit 

City of Winnipeg's Important Enterprise on the Winnipeg River — 
A Brief Outline of Design, Construction and Progress — Equipment 

The work at Point Du Bois is being carried on by the 
city of "Winnipeg as a municipal investment. Surveys 
were begun in 1905, but actual construction work was 
not begun until 1909. However, a standard gauge rail- 
way twenty-four miles long, was built from Lac du 
Bonnet eastward during 1907-8, an investment of about 
$400,000 being made in this track and in the two consider- 
able bridge crossings of the north-flowing branches of the 
river. The Consulting Board, consisting of Messrs. C. 
B. Smith, "William Kennedy, Jr., and Col. H. N. Ruttan, 
reported in 1906 on the available sites and on the cost 
of development at Point du Bois, setting this, along with 
the cost of transmission line and transformer station in 
"Winnipeg, at $3,250,000. The work of construction and 
equipment is now well in hand, and it has been shown 
that the estimate made by these gentlemen is practically 

The "Winnipeg River is very similar in drainage area 
to the Ottawa River and has a large proportion of lake 

1. — Power Station. 

area, though the watershed has not as yet been so nearly 
denuded of timber. The discharge of the river is there- 
fore much more uniform than that of the Ottawa, and 
the minimum flow at Point du Bois is sufficient to guar- 
antee a twenty-four hour output of 60,000 hoi-se power, 
for which dimension the general works are laid out. 

The general arrangement of the works at the generat- 
ing station, consisting of a canal cut across two rocky 
points of land, a series of river walls, rockfill dam and 
power house, is noteworthy. At the present stage the 
canal excavation is nearly completed ; the river walls and 
intake have been finished ; the power house building, half 
of which is now being built, is being roofed and the 
travelling cranes are erected therein; the rockfill dam 
is about three-quarters completed, having been built east- 
ward from the west shore. The natural waterfall at the 
site was thirty-two feet, but by the city's construction 
this has been increased to forty-five. 

The power house building contains all of the equip- 
ment necessary to transform the energy of the entering 

water into electric current for transmission. There are 
five distinct compartments in the building — the rack and 
gate room, the turbine chambers, the generator room, 
the transformer and switch room and the arrester com- 
partments. The building is one hundred and fifty feet 
wide and one hundred feet higli. The present construc- 
tion is two hundred and fifty feet long and the building 
is five hundred and fi)iir feet long. Special features 

2.— (jionei al View of Plant. 

which may be noted are the great area of the racks and 
the method of support, the larger inlets to the wheelpits, 
the wheelpits themselves, whicli are a series of circular 
tanks, the compact arrangement of generating and trans- 
forming apparatus and the liberal water passage at draft 
tube and tail race. The fluctuation of head expected 
at this point is about three per cent, of the average head. 
The first view shows the power station with wheelpits 
completed, but forms not removed, the south and east 
end walls of the building not being yet formed up. 

The second illustration shows the contractors' tem- 
porary structures and the power house in the far dis- 
tance (cent re of the picture). In the foreground are 
the cement sheds, and to the left may be seen the city's 
engine house and coal dock. In the middle ground may 
be noted the smokestacks of the contractors' air com- 
pressing and rock crushing plant, the elevator of which 
is seen alongside. To the far left may be seen the canal 
wall, completed to the neighborhood of power house. 
This view is looking down the river. Photograph No. 3 

3. — Coustiuctional "View from Power House. 



is taken from tlie rooi of the power lookiri)^ ilowii 
upon the forms for the construction of the walls ahove the 
wlieelpits. Tlie natural fall is shown well to the Imek- 
ground, and to tiie extreme left may he noted the easter- 
ly end of the nxjkfill dam. 

The last view, No. 4, is taken from the (ranal wall 
looking north-easterly, and .shows some of the laborers' 
cottages in the foreground, the uf)per jMjrtion of the 
waterfall to the right and roekfill dam and river wall 
No. ], wliieh is the overflow. There is altogether a 
length of fifteen hundred and fifty feet with erest at the 
same elevation as the crest of this overflow wall. 

The transinis.sion line consists of a series of double 
circuit steel towers upon concrete foundations, and 
carrying at present two circuits of aluminum cable of 
capacity of 11,250 K. W. each. At the date of writing 
alM)ut one-half of the calile is strung and the steel towers 
are erected for a further (piarter of the line. 

The terminal station building is ready for the roof. 
The building is of red brick and stone, erected on Point 
Douglas and occupies the north end of a city block facing 
on the river. It is built at pn-sent to accommodate a 
capacity of 24,000 K.W. in transformei-s, 16,000 K.Ws. 
now being installed. The transformation in this station 
is from 00,000 volts to 12,000 volts; the frequency of 
tran.smission is 60 cycles. 

The equipment for these stations is in an advanced 
stage of numufacture: four water turbines are received 
and ill] are shipped; the first generator has recently 

4. — Point du Bois Development 

l)as.sed siitisfactury tests in the manufacturers' shops; 
four of the high tension transformers have also pa.ssed 
satisfactory tests and are shipptKJ. 

It is hojMid that the plant will be put into operation 
on or almut Julv 1st. next. 


Concrete Tower Bases in Lake Ontario. 

The liydro-elcctric! transmission line enters Toronto 
along the lake front from a point just east of Swansea 
to th(! foot of Jamieson Ave. The construction of con- 
crete bases, in the water, to carry the transmission line 
towers proved to be a very interesting and important 
feature of this work. It was necessary that the tower 
bases shoidd be of ample strength, not only to carry the 
towers, but also to resist lateral pressure of ice, which 
at times is very severe. 

The design finally adopted for these tower liases con- 
sisted of four separate bases of .solid concrete, three feet 
square at the top, eight feet square at the l)ottom, and 
about fifteen feet above water level, — Fig. 1. Each of 
these concrete bases was reinforced by eight steel rods 
one inch square, running fi-om top to iKittom. Foiir 
bolts IVi inches in diameter, and 6 feet long were placet! 
in the top of eacli, as an anchorage for the steel 

towers. It was orginally inteml'"' •'■ '•?<••"• ti... -oncrete 
down to rock where [XMsible. 

Nine sets of the«e tower l»a«'> w n- rmiit ny Wells 
& (Jray, Limited, and nine by the Foundation ('ompany, 
Limited, both of thene fimw ^K>ing Kub-oontractom under 

1. -Close view of Tower Base; Hydro- Klectric Ti.i:. . "n 
Line alonK Lake Front at Toronto 

the F. H. McGuigan Construction Company, the general 
contractors for the hydro-electri<' transniiwiion line work. 

The writer is only familiar with conditions encoun- 
tered by Wells & Gray, Jjimited, in tlie construction of 
the nine westerly si'ts of tower Iwses, to which these re- 
marks are continc<l. 

The first four .sets built were behind the sea wall, and 
since they were protected from the action of \vaves and 


2. — View of Hydi-o-Lleclric Tnuit<iuii<siou Linr, Toronto 



ice, it was considered sufficient to carry the concrete 
down to good solid earth. The foundations were pre- 
pared bj' driving 2-inch sheet piling alxjut four feet into 
the lake lx)ttom, pumping out the water and excavating 
about three feet of sand, at which depth a bed of firm 
gravel was found. 

On the first fGundation east of the sea-wall, an at- 
tempt was made to carry the concrete down to solid clay 
or rock. Anchor pilef5 were driven and heavy whalings 
6 inches x 8 inches were provided inside and oittside of 
the sheet piling, which was of 3-inoh southern pine. An 
automatic steam hammer was used. After excavating 
about seven feet of sand, it was found impossible to keep 
the excavation dry with two pulsometer pumps supplied 
with steam from a 30 H.P. Ixjiler, and on taking sound- 
ings it was found that it would be necessary to go nine 
feet further to get a good solid foundation. This would 
be very expensive procedure and it was decided that 
driving piles would be much cheaper. Accordingly, the 
remaining foundations were prepared as follows: five 
piles 12 inches in diameter at the top were driven under 
each base, and three extra piles were driven under the 
bases most exposed to ice action. After the piles were 
driven, the foundations were prepared in the same way 
as they were prepared for the tower behind the sea wall. 

Since these towers are located close to the shore '^from 
100 to 150 feet), the concrete was mixed by machine on 
the shore and wheeled in barrows over runways built 
from the shore out to the work. The concrete was first 
brought up to water level, and after it had set sufficiently 
the forms for the upper part of base were put in place 
and filled with concrete. Enough forms were provided 
for two com])lete towers, these forms being used four 
or five times. 

The work done by Wells & Gray, Limited, was com- 
pleted in eight weeks. It included the driving of 175 
piles, driving 36 M. feet of sheet piling, building 1,500 
lineal feet of runway over water, excavating 360 cubic 
yards of sand, building forms for and depositing 1,250 
cubic yards of concrete, placing reinforcing steel, un- 
watering excavations, etc. 

0{)erations were commenced on October 3, and al- 
thougli the contractors, who were working under a heavy 
penalty for non-completion l)y December 1st, were de- 
layed a great deal by rough weather, they succeeded in 
completing the work well within the time limit. 

Since the original contracts were completed the 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission have filled all around 
these tower bases with rubble stone, as an additional pro- 

after amd Sewer Systems ait WetasHwiim 

Problems Encountered in Design — Interesting Features of Various 
Sections of the Actual Work — Construction Remarkable for its Economy 

The subject of waterworks and sewers for the city of 
Wetaskiwin, Alta., was first brought up in 1907. As a 
start, three cased wells were sunk to form the basis of 
the water supply, and some materials were ordered for 
the distribution system. 

The financial depression in the following year held 
the works in abeyance until June, 1909, when they were 
put into the hands of the John Gait Engineering Com- 
pany, under whose supervision they have been carried to 
completion. Water was delivered to the consumers and 
the sewers were available for use within a year from the 
above date, viz., in June, 1910. The following is a brief 
description of the systems : 

The water supply is obtained from three drilled wells 
10 inches diameter and about 240 feet deep, cased w'ith 
wrought iron pipe — the three wells yielding an ample 
supply. Water is raised from the wells by compressed 
air, discharged into the 3-inch delivery pipes ne^r the 
bottom of the well through a "Harris" air-lift nozzle, 
and delivered to a covered reinforced concrete resei'voir. 
Figure 1 shows the pipe connections to No. 1 wellhead. 
These wellheads have since been protected by a wood 
house over each. The reservoir is circular on plan 60 
feet diameter and with 10 feet depth of water, giving 
176,000 Imperial gallons capacity. The circular walls 
are 8 inches thick, and walls and floor are reinforced 
with Kahn cup bars. Ceresit waterproofing was used 
and there have been no leaks. The reservoir is covered 
with a wooden roof supported on concrete columns- 

From this ground reservoir the water is pumped to 
the mains and to the elevated steel tank, which is situ- 
at^ on a l^oU at the west end of the towTi. 

this has'^^*^'" ^^^^^ ^-^ °^ solid brick construction with 

The D^ hardwood floor. The foundation walls are 

ment necess^^^'' basement is the full size of the building. 

contains a Deane triplex pump of 500 gal- 

lons per minute capacity, direct connected through a 
clutch to a 50 h.p. Westinghouse vertical gas engine; 
also an electrically driven IngersoU Sargeant air-com- 
pressor with autematic regulation, to supply air to the 
wells. The air receiver pipe connections to pump, etc., 
are contained in the basement. The gas engine is oper- 
ated on producer gas from the ad.joining electric .light 
plant, with a small proportion of natural gas. 

Room has been left in the building for another pump- 
ing unit, which will be either gas or steam driven, de- 
pending upon the success or otherwise of a well now 
being driven for gas. 

The elevated steel tank shown in Fig. 2 has a capa- 
city of 176,000 Imperial gallons, and a height of 120 feet 
to the balcony. The tank and i-iser pii)es are entirely 
jirotected with a wooden frost easing, and provision has 
been made for heating when necessary. The tank was 
supplied and. erected by the Ontario Wind Engine and 
Pump Co. An electrically operated valve, controlled 
from the power house, is being installed to close off the 
tank when a fire call is rung in. 

The distribution system consists of about six miles of 
cast iron pipe 10 inches to 6 inches diameter, with the 
usual gate valves and about 50 fire hydrants. The 
domestic pressure from the elevated tank is about 75 
lbs. per square inch, and the fire service, direct from the 
pump now installed, is at the rate of 500 gallons per 
minute at 100 lbs. pressure at the hydrant. The whole 
system has been very favorably reported on l)y the Fire 
Underwriters' inspector. 

A meter is being installed on the supply main at the 
power house and all domestic and other services are 
being metered. 

The sewer system presented a difficult problem on 
account of the very flat topography. There appeared to 
be no natural outlet, and pumping seemed to be inevit- 



"able. After considerable prospecting, however, an outlet 
was secured U) the north-east, and a gravitation outfall 
constructed discharging to a creek at a point 31/^ miles 
from the town. Ground has been secured at this point 
as a site for sewage disposal works, but the con.struction 
of the works has been postponed as a result of the memor- 
andum issued last year by the Alberta Provincial Board 
of Health. The entire system is constructed of vitrified 
tile pipes from 8 inches to 20 inches diameter, there being 
approximately 5 miles of collecting sewers Mrithin the 
town limits. 

Unusual difficulties were experienced on the main 
intercepting sewer on account of the nature of the under- 
lying .strata which consisted of a fine wet silt underlying 
a layer of running sand. The silt s(X)n worked up into 
liquid mud and special methods of timbering had to be 
adopted. All pi])e joints on their sections were entirely 
surrounded by a solid block of concrete. The manholes 
were all built of cement l)rick and cement coated inside 
and outside. There are upwards of 120 manholes in the 

It will be of interest to note that these works were 
carried out by administration (or the "day labor" 
method) under the supervision of the engineers, and 
that this method has proven satisfactory in every way. 
In order to satisfy any doubts on the part of the citizens, 
the council obtained tenders for a considerable portion of 
the works this year. As a result it was demonstrated 
that the work was being done under administration at 

l._Wellhead No. 1, showing air line and discharge pipe 

prices which the contractors could not approach, al- 
though they were bidding on the "easy" portion of the 
work, the more difficult "wet" sections having already 
been completed by the engineers under "day labor." 
The fact that nearly 6 miles of water mains were laid 
without one leaky joint speaks for the quality of the 
work. The noticeable absence of any law suits or even 
of any serious dispute is a further point of interest, also 

the fact that there were practically no injuries to work- 
(nen, and that the works were oom[)lcted three months 
within the contract time. 

The estimated cost of them works was (250,000, bMed 
on current contract rateti. A sum of $22,000 has been 
retained to complete the sewage disposal works and install 
the additional pumping unit, leaving $228,000 as the 

2.— Elevated Tank ; Capacity 102,000 Imp. Gallona 

estimated cost of the portion constructed. The actual 
cost of construction was $217,000, including engineering, 
time-keeping and in.specting, land, insurance and all 
charges. The diflTercnce of $11,000 has been saved to the 
city as a result of efficient management, and there can 
be no doubt that in this instance the "day labor" method 
of const ru(rtion has been a success. 

The principal part of tJie works was carried out 
during the term of office of Mayor H. J. Montgomery, 
who was chiefly instrumental in carrying through the 
preliminary financial and other arrangements. The 
enginwrs were the John Gait Engineering Company, of 
Toronto and Winnipeg, represented on the ground by 
E. L. Miles, A.M. Can. Soc. C.E. : and W. L. Crane acted 
as the city's inspector of works. 

Reinforced Concrete Piles are to be used to support 
about 850 ft. of the centre guide wall of the Gatun Locks. 
About 3.500 piles will be needed in the foundations; they 
will be driven to depths of from 20 to 70 ft. The piles 
will be made of 1 :1 Vo :3 concrete and will be cast on plat- 
forms about 80 ft. wide and 400 ft. long. Two steam 
pile drivers, having n maximum height of 93 ft, and 
equipped with steam hammers weighing 10.000 Iba. will 
be used in putting down the piles. The hammer will fall 
about 42 in. and strike 60 blows per minute. A east- 
steel driving head, containing a cushion of aaad and 
rope fits the head of the pile. 



Interesting Bridge Work on N. T. R. 

In connection with the work carried out last season 
by the National Transcontinental Railway, a number of 
contracts executed by The Hamilton Bridge Works are 
noteworthy. The first photo shown is that of the com- 
pleted structure over the Abitibi River, a few miles east 
of Cochrane, Ont. This is one of the important bridges 
on this line in Northern Ontario, and it is a fair sample 
of the excellent class of structures now being erected by 
the N.T.R.. The total length of this structure is 84(i 
feet and the weight, 2,400,000 pounds. The contract 
price for the superstructure was close to $100,000. The 
structure is divided into two rivetted lattice spans, each 
210 feet long and 43 feet deep, erected over the main 
channel of the river. At each end of the channel spans 
are approaches built on steel towers with deck plate 

1. — Bridge over Abitibi River, near Cochrane, Ont. 

girder spans, the height of these towers varying from 
40 feet to 70 feet. The work was carried out under first- 
class specifications and was rigidly inspected, both in the 
shops and during erection. The erection of this struc- 
ture was performed in a similar manner to that described 
later for the Mistongo trestle. 

The remaining views were taken during the process of 
erection on the Mistongo Viaduct, also on the line of the 
Transcontinental Railway, about 25 miles east of Coch- 
rane, Ont. This fine structure consists entirely of deck 
plate girder spans on steel towers. Its total length is 
1,070 feet, divided up into eleven spans of 30 feet, eleven 
spans of 60 feet and one span of 80 feet, all resting on 
11 steel towers varying in height from 35 feet to 70 feet. 
The weight is 1,600,000 pounds, and contract price about 

3. — Running out Second Girder, Mistong Viaduct. 

.$65,000. Fig- 2 shows a portion of this structure 
erected, and the derrick car lifting up portions of the 
tower columns ready to place same in position. Fig. 
3 shows the Company's erection car running out on the 
completed portion of the structure and carrying out one 
of the 80-ft. girders for the long span. It will be noted 
that one of the^e girders is already in place. Fig. 4 
.'^bows the erection car placing one of the 60-ft. girders 
of the last span. The method of e'-'w'tine this structure 
is the very latest idea in modern bndze practice. It is 
only within the last seven or eight yeai*s that heavy steel 
construction cars have been used for railway erection 
work. Previous to that time very light wooden derrick 
ears of small capacity were used for handling work in 
sections. Consequently, in most of this kind of work it 
was necessary to build falsework at very heavy expense 
and great delay in the erection and completion of struc- 

"With cars of the kind used on the work described 
above it is now possible to place in a very few hours, work 
which a few years ago would take weeks. 

Mr. Gordon J. Grant is chief engineer of the National 
Transcontinental Railway, and Mr. R. F. Uniaeke, bridse 
engineer. Hon. John S. Hendrie is president, and R. 
Maitland Roy, manager of the Hamilton Bridge Works 

2. — Lowering 2nd. Post, Mistong Viaduct. 

4. — Girder in Place, Mistong Viaduct. 



estero Canada Floiuir Mills^ Extension 

The Design and Construction of a Modem Reinforced Concrete 
Building at St. Boniface, Man. — Noteworthy Features of the Work 

The addition comprises a concrete handling and 
cleaninpf house having a mill cleaning capacity of 3,000 
bushels an hour, a system of concrete mixing bins with 
a storage capacity of 60,000 bushels, together with a con- 
crete storage annex giving a capacity of 325,000 bushels. 
The elevation of the completed structure is shown in 
Fig. 1- 

The cleaning house is 40 ft. x 50 ft. x 150 ft. high, 
with two track sheds 85 ft. x 16 ft. located on either side. 
The mixing bins are circular and eight in number. They 
are 12 feet in diameter with three interspaces. The 
height of these tanks is 65 feet, and they are supported 
on a two-storey concrete mixing house. The storage 
annex 21 circular tanks made up of three rows 
of seven each with 12 interspaces or quadrilateral l)ins, 
the total height being 80 feet and each tank 16 feet in 
diameter. These three units, namely, the cleaning 
house in the centre and the mixing bins and storage an- 
nex on either side, are distinctly separate buildings rest- 
ing on separate foundation slabs, all abutting on one 
another with slip joints at the junctions. 

Dfdqn. — The plans both in general and detail were 
prepared in the office of the contractors and embrace a 
thoroughly fireproof building and machinery installa- 
tion, the only wood in the entire building being the 
frames of the cleaners. The foundation shibs for the 
three units rest upon the soil in the stime horizontal 
plane. The bearing value of the soil is computed to 
carry with safety a load not exceeding 4,000 n)s. per 
s(|uare foot, and the base of the footing slabs is 16 ft. 
below the yard grade. The slabs are made up of rein- 
forced concrete 2ft. thick, the top of which forms the 
basement floors of the working house, mixing plant and 
conveyor tunnels — Pig. 2. The concrete in the footing 
slabs "and the side walls up to the grade level are com- 
jiosed of one part Portland cement, 21/. parts sand and 5 
parts broken stone or gravel. The sand used was a clean 
coarse grain, the stone cmshed t/O pass through a 2-in. 
ring, and where gravel was used it was screened to give 
the same sized aggregates. 

The reinfon'ement was medium open hearth steel and 

stressed in tension not to exceed 16,000 lbs. per square 
inch. The concrete was al]owe<l a direct compression 
load of 600 lbs. to the square inch, and an extreme fibre 
stress of 750 lbs. to the .square inch, vertical shear allovr- 
ed for concrete 50 lbs. per square inch ; ratio of modulus 
of elasticity steel to concrete, 15 to 1. 

The concrete comprising the columns, beams and all 
floors of the cleaning house was composed of cement, 
sand and stone, in the proportion of 1 : 2 : 4, and the same 
mix was adopted in the walls of the storage tanks and 
the track sheds. The floors and roofs throughout the 
workint' bouse, except t)ie basement, ns well as the roof 

1.— View of Completed Structure 

of the cupolas on the tanks, are of combination tile and 

Construction. — After the excavation was completed 
tile drains were laid along the bottom of the footings 
leading to a 12-ft. diameter brick sump, located 30 feet 
away from the building line. As the walls were being 
built to grade, a broken stone lacking of 12 feet in thick- 
ness was inserted between the exterior face of the walls 
and the earth, backfilling extending from the bottom of 
the slab to the grade level. This prevents seepage and 


2. —Western Caua«U Flcrnr Mills' Extension. Vi«w of Foiuia»tion», M*y 14th, IMO 



carries off all the surface water about the building. 
Risers of tile pipe were also brought to the grade level 
frcm the main tile drain, for the purpose of connecting 
down-spouts frcm the roofs. The sump is 25 feet deep 
and is fittted with a motor-driven rotary pump, which 
discharges into an adjoining sewer approximately 8 
feet below the yard grade. In this manner rain or sur- 
face water is admirably taken care of. 

The mixer was placed in one of the receiving pits, 
which was the first concrete work constructed on the 
job. A frame tower for the purpose of supporting the 
guides for a concrete skip was extended upward from 
the mixer as the work progressed. The concrete con- 
veyed from the mixer into the skip was discharged into 
a moveable steel hopper which in turn discharged into 
a gravity steel spout or into concrete carts of the Ran- 
some type, delivering thence to the forms. 

The walls and columns were moulded together from 
the basement floor to the yard grade. From this point 
the cleaning house of 8 stories and a roof, and the mixing 

3. — Progress View August 9, 1910 

house to the bottom of the mixing bins, was of skeleton 
construction, as shown in Fig. 3. 

The forms of concrete were of pine boards and planks 
SIS and E, and cut to exact dimensions. These were 
used over three times. All floor finish work was carried 
on within six hours after the pouring of the floor, the 
finish used being 1 of cement and 3 parts coarse, sharp 
sand. As soon as the skeleton work was stripped the 
curtain walls of the cleaning house were proceeded with. 
These were built of solid concrete 6 feet thick poured 
between sheets of Kahn rib lath which eliminated tho 
necessity of wooden forms. The lath was fastened to 
Kahn steel studs, spaced 12 inches on centres vertically, 
and fastened securely into chases which were formed in 
the sides of the columns and the top and bottom of tho 
wall beams. After the studs were erected the outside of 
the wall was lathed full height, the windows securely 
placed in position and the inside wall lathed 3 feet at a 
time as the concrete was being poured. After the con- 
crete was placed and set the outside of the curtain was 
plastered with a waterproof mixture of cement and sand 
in proportions 3 to 1, the thickness of the plaster being 
1-in- The inside of the curtain was finished with hard- 
wall plaster and wood fibre, which enabled a smooth and 
even surface both outside and in, the hardwall plaster 

giving a more pleasing color than the dark finish which 
would have been produced by cement. 

Tank Construction. — The special tanks devoted to the 
purpose of storing mixed and mill wheat are located a 
sufficient height above the concrete floor to enable the 
installation of a harnessed automatic system of weighing 
before delivery to the mill conveyors. These tanks rest 
on column and beam construction. The main storage is 
outlined above- In both sets of tanks the walls are of 
concrete, 7 in. thick, reinforced both horizontally and 
vertically with round mill steel, stre.ssed not to exceed 
10,000 lbs. per square inch. The bars are placed in the 
centre of the 7-in. wall and at variable distances apart, 
and also of different sizes to care for the external pres- 
sure of wheat. The forms for the construction of the 
tank walls were made up of 2-inch lagging 4 ft. long, 
spiked to segments of the outer and inner surfaces. The 
segments are supported by the yoke standards. The 
yokes are of steel channels hung on a shoulder nut which 
is supported on a screw jack operating with a grip on a 
114-inch gas pipe. These pipes are embedded in the con- 
crete walls and are continuous from bottom to top. The 
work of concreting these tanks was continuous night and 
(lay, progressing at the rate of 36 inches in height every 
24 hours. The lagging was faced with galvanized iron 
to in.sure a smooth cast. All tank bottoms are hoppered 
to the discharge spouts. Each tank is furnished with 
-teel ladders from top to bottom, and charging and dis- 
charging spouts, as well as clean-out doors for all ex- 
terior tanks. The cleaning house below grade is con- 
nected with the old working house by means of a tunnel 
in which the transfer conveyor lielts operate. Openings 
for ventilation and light are provided in the under- 
ground tunnels. Tlie sides of the belt gallery, or cupola, 
are of similar construction to the walls of the cleaning 
house. All poofs are covered with a five-ply tar and 
crravel roof. Eaves, gutters and cornices are of galvan- 
ized iron, heavy pattern, and down-spouts are of the 
same material connecting to the drain risers- All win- 
dows are of galvanized steel, glazed with i^-inch wired 
glass, the upper sash pivoted and fitted with the neces- 
sary fastenings to meet the requirements of the fire un- 
derwriters. All doors are of metal and the track shed 
doors are of the Kinnear roller type. The stairs through- 
out the cleaning house are of reinforced concrete built at 
the same time as their respective floors, and all stair-wells 
and openings are provided with hand rails. Metal doors 
are placed in the different floors of the cleaning house for 
the purpose of removing machinery to and from the 


4.— Building nearing completion,!,Oct.i.l4, 1910 


■r Earn 



Equipment. — Equipment is desif^ned in duplicate, 
each half of the house being entirely independent of the 
other, and in general consists of two 30-inch bent con- 
veyors under the tanks to carry the grain to the neces- 
sary lofting legs. Instead of discharging the wheat 
direct from the bins to the belt this is performed by the 
use of a steel belt loader. There are also 24-inch belt 
conveyers connecting the extension to the old plant. In 
the conveyor galleries or cupolas over the annex there 
are two 30-inch belt conveyors, fitted with trippers of the 
double discharge, self-propelling type. 

There are two receiving legs for elevating from the 
receiving pits to the scales, each with a capacity of 8,000 
bu.shels an hour; two lofter legs for elevating grain from 
the basement of the cleaning house to the cupola; one 
shipping leg for handling wheat to the scales; one lofter 

nected to the machines. These cleaners are arranged in 
two groups of five machines each, each group being 
driven by an independent motor- 

The cars are handled through the two unloading sheds 
by means of two single drum car pullers of heavy pat- 
tern and unloaded by two pair of Clark double automatic 
car shovels. 

There are nine motors used to operate the plant, these 
varying in power from 5 to 100 horse power. They are 
of the induction type, operating under a three-phase, 60- 
cycle, 550-volt electrical installation. The main switch 
board and controllers are on the first floor of the clean- 
ing house, the switches being enclosed in dustproof iron 

Rope drives are used for transmitting power from 
one floor to another. All clutches used throughout the 
plant are of the Wet>ster steel plate type. 

The electric lighting system, distributing light to the 
difTerent departments, is what is known as "open con- 
duit work," this being considered more advisable (in the 
event of the necessity of adding additional lights) than 
tlie customary method in reinforced concrete buildings 
of embedding the conduits in the Hoors. 

Ticket elevators and a complete bell and telephone 
system have been installed. 

It is believed that this house is absolutely fireproof. 

The reinforcement throughout the entire plant, with 
the exception of that used in the concrete storage tanks 
is the Kahn system, furnished by the Trussed Concrete 
Steel Company, of Canada. 

The plant was designed and built by Geo. II. Archi- 
bald & Company, engineers and contractors, Winnipeg. 

5. — Detail of Working House Footiug Slab 

leg to deliver mixed grain from the automatic mixing 
system to the mill bins, as well as a screening leg. 

There are three 2,000 bushel scales of the Gurney pat- 
tern; three 2,000 bushel steel garners; ten No. 92 In- 
vincible milling separators; one Humphrey passenger 
elevator; two car shipping spouts. 

The dust collector system installed in this plant is 
what is known as the Day type, and is complete in every 
particular, including a sweep system for each floor. The 
air vents from the dust collectors ai-e brought to the 
outside of the building and the dust is discharged 
through a system of piping to the boiler room of the 
present milling plant. 

The receiving pits, garners, scale hoppers, legs, boots, 
and all fixed and movable spouting in connection with the 
machinery installation, are of sheet steel construction. 

The separators are driven by independent friction 
clutch pulleys on the cleaner countershafts and belt con- 

The tooling of concrete surfaces was discussed by a 
number of members at the convention of the National 
Association of Cement Users, and their experience indi- 
cated that a hammer with 2 to Iti star points gives gener- 
ally more satisfactory results than a bush hammer. These 
hammers are made with diffierent numbers of points. 
One of the speakers had used with satisfaction a 2-in. 
square head with 16 points lor merely removing the sur- 
face film of cement and the board marks without especial- 
ly exposing the aggregate. This tool, pneumatically 
operated, is rapid and common labor when once instruct- 
ed will cover a larger area with it and do the work as well 
as skilled labor. While the bush hammer gives a tine 
finish it clogs readily and has a small output. The star- 
pointed hammer is easily sharpened by merely drawing 
the temper and using a hie on the face to give the desired 

The underpinning of a masonr>' condnit, two 48-in. 
cast-iron water mains, and one 72-in. steel lock-bar pipe 
line is to be undertaken in connection with the hnildin? 
of the new Richmond TTill tnink aewer now under con- 
struction in the Borough of Queens. New York City. The 
existing water-works structures are part of the supply 
system for the Borough of Brooklyn and the sewer will 
be carriwl under them in a double-barrel inverted siphon. 
Tt is proposed to put in pile footintrs on cither .'side of 
the condnit to carry the ends of two heavy steel box 
girders, each about 4fi ft. lone and sliehtly less than .S 
ft. deep- From these girders there will he hunir hy 1-in. 
steel nods 26-in. I-benm strineers which will sunport 
the bottom of the conduit nt intervals of 2 ft. "Wooden 
s-heeting is to be driven along either side of the conduit 
to allow the under-pinning to proceed without removing 
the earth cover from the top and sides of the condnit 



Tlie Caoadiaim Socielty of Civil Emgiimeers 

Programme for the Twenty-Third Annual Convention at Winnipeg 
Next Week — Work, Aims and Personnel of the Institution 

The 25th annual meeting of the Canadian Society of 
Civil Engineers, which is to be held at the Royal Alex- 
andra Hotel, Winnipeg, from Tuesday, Jan. 24th to 
Saturday, Jan. 21st, gives every promise of being one 
of the most interesting and successful conventions ever 
held by that institution. Arrangements for the meet- 
ing have been in active progress for several months, 
and thanks to the untiring energy of Professor McLeod 
and to the characteristic enterprise of the Westerners, 
a programme has been arranged which will make 
1911 a red letter year in the history of the Society. 
Winnipeg, the metropolis of the West, is the centre 
of a section of the country that has witnessed wonder- 
ful developments in the last few years. Many of the 
most interesting works, from an engineering point of 
view, have been put under construction during the 

Col. H. 

N. Ruttan, President, Canadian Society of Civil 

last year or so — notably the Point du Bois construc- 
tion and the G.T.P. shops — -and altogether the occa- 
sion presents a most favorable opportunity for every 
member of the Society to visit Winnipeg. From the 
indications received from the various branches of the 
Society there is every prospect of an exceptionally 
good gathering. 

Since its inception in 1887 the Society has risen 
steadily in the estimation of the profession, until to- 
day it ranks among the foremost institutions of its 
kind in the world. Its object, as defined in its original 
charter — to promote the acquisition of engineering 
knowledge and to encourage investigation in all 
branches of the profession — has been steadily adhered 
to, and its achievement in this connection during the 
comparatively brief period of some 23 years may well 
be a source of national gratification. 

Many valuable papers and reports are scheduled 

for presentation at Winnipeg, and these, with the en- 
suing discussions, will be of incalculable benefit to 
the engineer. 

The society has a membership of approximately 
3,000 and a large number of its members are resident 
in Western Canada. Both the Vancouver and Win- 
nipeg branches are in a flourishing candition, and the 
contingent from Vancouver will doubtless be most 
representative in view of the special inducements in 
the way of transportation. The programme of the 
meeting is as follows: 

Tuesday, 24th January. 

10,. — Meeting for the nomination of ScrutineeTB, re- 
ceiving the Beport of Council, reception and discussion of Ee- 
ports of Committees, and general business of the Society. 

1.30 p.m. — Complimentary luncheon by His Worship the 
Mayor and the Aldermen of Winnipeg. 

3. p.m. — Continuation of business meeting for the discus- 
sion of reports. 

8 p.m. — The members of the Manitoba branch will enter- 
tain the visiting members at a smoker in the ball room of 
the Koyal Alexandra Hotel. 

Wednesday, 25tli January. 

9 a.m. — A special train provided by the Canadian Pacific 
Railway will convey members to the city power plant at Point 
du Bois and to the St. Andrew's Locks. The members are 
also invited to visit the Grand Trunk Pacific shops in Win- 

8.15 p.m. — Members' dinner in the Royal Alexandra Hotel. 

Thursday, 26th January. 

10 a.m. — Meeting for the discussion of Committees' reports 
and reading of papers. 

3 p.m. — Address by the retiring President. Rea'ding and 
discussion of papers and general business. 

Friday, 27th January. 
9.30 a.m.- — Reports of Scrutineers and general business. 

11 a.m.^ — Meeting of the Council under by-law 33. 

The biographical sketches of the officers of the So- 
ciety for 1910, which follow, will doubtless be of in- 
terest at this meeting. We regret one or two note- 
worthy omissions, but these are attributable rather to 
individual reticence than to any lack of effort on our 
part to make this feature complete. 

H. N. Buttau, Winnipeg, Man. — President. 
Lieut. -Col. Henry Norlande Ruttan, C.E., President of the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, has been City Engineer of 
Winnipeg for the last quarter of a century. He was born at 
Cobourg, Ont., on May 21, 1848. Previous to his connection with 
the City of Winnipeg he had extended experience as engineer and 
contractor on the construction of the Intercolonial and Canadian 
Pacific Railways. During his term of oflSce he has witnessed 
wonderful developments in the western capital; indeed, to his own 
energy and foresight is attributable a good share of the city's 
advancement. City Engineer Ruttan has had a distinguished mili- 
tary career, having served in the Fenian Raids and Northwest 
Rebellion. He is the possessor of medals for his part in both of 
these expeditions. The Long Service Decoration has also been con- 
ferred upon him. 

He was a member of the first Council in 1887, and has always 
put forth his best endeavor in the interests of the Society and 



of his profession. He was elected Vice-President in 1909 and 
President at Ottawa, January, 1910. 

Oeo. A. Mountain, Ottawa. — Past President and Hon. Councillor. 

Mr. Ge()rf{e A. Mountain, of Ottawa, Chief Engineer of the 
Canadian Iluilway Commission, has liad a long and honorable con- 
nection with the Canadian Society of Civil Kngineers, of which he 
is a charter member. He has been a Councillor of the Society ten 
times and a Vice-President three times, while he was the imme- 
diate predecessor of Colonel Ruttan in the presidential chair. Mr. 
Mountain has taken a keen interest in the work of the Society since 
its inception. His name has always been included in its various 
committees, of most of which during some period he has been 
Chairman. On three occasions he has been Chairman of the Nom- 
inating Committee. 

As may be supposed, the career of one so prominently identi- 
fied with the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers has been of con- 
siderable interest. A native of Quebec, having been born at the 
ancient capital in 1860, Mr. Mountain received his earliest training 
as a civil engineer in the Polytechnical School at Quebec, after 
which he was connected with Messrs. Kinniple & Morris, civil en- 
gineers, London and Greenock, and later with Chevalier Baillargie, 
City Engineer of Quebec. 

Mr. Mountain obtained his first actual experience in 1878, in 
which year he assisted on the surveys and designing of the Princess 
Louise Embankment, Quebec, and the graving docks at Levis, Que. 
In the following year he was employed as transit man on the 
survey of the Quebec and Lake St. John Railway, now completed. 
His next appointment was in 1880 as assistant engineer on the 
Island Railway of Newfoundland, now the Reid Railway, under 
the chief engincership of Mr. Morris, of Messrs. Kinniple & Mor- 
ris above mentioned. In 1881 Mr. Mountain joined the engineer- 
ing staff of the Canada Atlantic Railway, serving as assistant 
under Chief Engineer Walter Shanley. Three years later he was 
appointed division engineer, and in 1887, upon the retirement of 
Mr. Shanley, chief engineer of this road. 

One of the noteworthy works carried out under Mr. Motin- 
tain's supervision was the Coteau Bridge, 6,000 feet long, across 

Mr. G. A. Mountain, Ottawa. 

It. Lawrence River, which was built in 1888 in the record time 
of ten months and twenty days. 

The surveys of the Ottawa and Parry Sound Railway, from 
Ottawa to the Georgian Bay, wore commenced in 1890 by Mr. 
Mountain. The construction, which included ele\-ators and docks 
at the terminals, was completed in 1897. During this period Mr. 
Mountain was chief engineer of the Adirondack and St. Lawrence 
Railway, from Malone to Valleyficid, and also of the Canada At- 
lantic Railway, from Vermont State boundary to the Qeorgian Bay, 

and branches. In addition, he was eoBsolting engtoaw for tka 
Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway Conmiaiiom. 

In July, 1904, Mr. Mountain r<>signed from the Canada At- 
lantic Railway to accept the position be now oeenpiea, that of ekiaf 
engineer of the Board of Railway Comroiaaiooera for Canada. 

While Mr. Mountain is in every iH>nse of tb« word ao eatbn- 
siast In the work of the Canadian Society of Ciril Engineert, bis 
Interests are naturally wide and varied. He is a charter mcraber 
of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenaoea of Way 
Association, and has served on many of its moat importaat eon- 
mitteoa. He is also a Dominion, Ontario and Qnebee land sur- 
veyor. Of his various other connections may be mentioned tha 
Rideau Club an'! •>■" Mnose Lake and Black Bay Fish and Oama 

Last year s I'onvi'iition, held in Ottawa under the ebairman- 
ship of Mr. Mountain, was noteworthy in many respeeta. and 
among the many impressions that one received at the meeting ia 
the federal capital, the genial face of the Preaident will be tba 
most lasting. 

0. H. McLeod, Montreal, Qaa. — Sacretary. 

Clement Henry McLeod, B.Sc., Ma.E.. F.R.S.C, is so mocb a 
part of the Society that he seems to be connected inseparably witk 

Professor C. H. Mcl^-cxl, Monireal, 

its work and future. Some brief particulars of his career are of 
particular interest at this time, in view of the fact that be is joat 
coming of age as Secretary. 

Professor McLeod was bom at Cape Breton, HA^ Jaa. SI, 
1851, and was educated at the Model and Normal seboola, TniTO, 
N.S. Proceeding to McOill University, be graduated from tkt 
Faculty of .\pplicd Science in 1873. 

Upon graduation he was appointed aanstant engineer in eharga 
of construction on the Intercolonial Railway, and later, rcaident 
engineer on the construction of the Prince Edward Island Railway. 
He was aftfern^rds engineer of public works in Newfoundland. la 
1874 he was appointed Superintendent of the Obaerratory at Mo- 
Gill University, and in 18S8 ProfcMsor in the Faculty of AppUad 
Science of that institution. In 1908 he was elected Vico-OMn. 
He is a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, and baa baai 
responsible for many valuable eontribotiona to technical wid atiaB- 
tifio literature. 

Ernest Harceau. Montreal. — Traaasrar. 

Among the names of those who may justly be dtacribed as tk* 
mainstays of the institution, that of Ernest Ifareeaa is writtaa 
large. The present Treasurer of the Canadian Society of Ctril 
Engineers was bom at Danville, P.Q., in Decetnber, 1SS2. Ha 
mastered the general radiraanta of education at the ftiamtf ( 



from 1858 to 1866. In the latter year he started upon an eight- 
year classical course at Montreal College. He entered the Eeole 
Polytechnique, Montreal, in 1874, graduating with honors in civil 
engineering in 1877. 

In August of the latter year he became identified with the 
Federal Government as assistant engineer on the Grenville Canal 

• Mr. E. Marceau, Montreal. 

enlargement. Three years later — in 1880 — he was made assistant 
to the superintending engineer of the Ottawa River Canals. In 
1893 he was appointed Superintending Engineer of Canals for the 
Province of Quebec, which position he still holds. 

Mr. Marceau 's connection with the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers dates back to 1887. He has served on the Council of 
the Society from 1897 to the present date. From Councillor he 
became Vice-President (1901-1904) and afterwards President 
(1905). Since 1909 he has been doing excellent service as Treas- 
urer. In 1901 Mr. Marceau was awarded the Gzowski medal foi 
his paper on the Carillon Dam and Slide. He has done some lit- 

Mr. W. F. Tye, Montreal. 

erary work in his younger days and is at present one of the direc 
tors of "La Revue Canadienne," Montreal. Since 1900 he has 
been Principal of the Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal. 
W. F. Tye, Montreal. — Vice-President. 
Mr. W. F. Tye, Montreal, who last year was elected a Vice- 
President of the Society, was born on March 4, 1861, at Haysville, 

Ont., and was educated at Ottawa University and the School of 
Practical Science, Toronto. From 1882 to 1885 he was identified 
with Canadian Pacific Railway construction as rodman, leveller, 
transitman and assistant engineer. In 1886-1887 he was employed 
as transitman and assistant engineer on the Great Northern Rail- 
way, and in 1888-1889 as engineer of track and bridges on the 
Mexican Central Railwaj'. During 1890 he was locating engineei 
for the Great Falls and Canada Railway, a position which he re- 
signed in 1891 to become division engineer on the Great Northern 
Railway. In this capacity he remained until 1893, when he accepted 
the position of engineer for the Alberta Railway and Coal Com 
pany. Two years later he ^vas appointed chief engineer for the 
Kaslo and Slocan Railway, B.C., resigning in 1896 to become chief 
engineer of the Columbia and Western Railway, B.C. In March, 
1900, he was appointed chief engineer of construction by the Can- 
adian Pacific Railway, and in May, 1904, chief engineer of the 
same road. The last named position he resigned in 1906 in order 
to engage in private practice. At present Mr. Tye devotes his 
time to the duties incumbent upon him as President of the Sterling 
Coal Company and the Dominion Graphite Company. He is also 
a director of the Home and Foreign Securities Company. Mr. Tye 
takes a keen and unselfish interest in advancing the interests of 
his profession generally and in particular those of the Canadian 
Society of Civil Engineers. 

Hugh I>. Lumsden, Ottawa. — Past President and Hon. 

Hugh D. Lumsden may quite properly be described as a mem- 
ber of the "old brigade" of the Canadian Society of Civil 

Liuiisdi-n, Ottawa. 

Engineers, having been a member of its Council as far back 
as 1887. He was its President in 1906. 

Born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on September 7, 1844, Mr. 
Lumsden was educated at Bellview Academy, Aberdeen, and Wim- 
bledon School, Surrey, Eng. He came to Canada in April, 1861, in 
which year he passed his preliminary examination as Ontario land 
surveyor. The final examination he took after coming of age. For 
five or six years he practised as a land surveyor at Woodville, 
Ont., after which he devoted his attention almost exclusively to 
railway surveying and construction. About 1870 Mr. Lumsden 
located a portion of the Toronto and Nipissing Railway (now the 
G. T. B.) from Eldon to Coboconk. A long line of important 
engagements followed. Among the various roads with which Mr. 
Lumsden has been prominently' identified, may be mentioned the 
Toronto, Grey & Bruce Railway, Northern Railway, Credit Valley 
Railway, Ontario & Quebec Railway, C. N. R., C. P. B., and G. 
T. R. 

In August, 1904, Mr. Lumsden was appointed chief engineer 
of the Transcontinental Railway, fulfilling the duties of that posi- 
tion until June, 1909. 



Professor R. J. Uurley, iVIoutreal. 

Mr. W. J. Francis, Montreal. 

Mr. J. U. HuUiv( 


J. O. Sullivan, Montreal. — Member of Council. 

The .Assistant Chief Kui^imn'r of the C. P. R., Mr. J. O. Sul- 
livan, Montreal, is a native of Bushnell 's Basin, Monroe County, 
N.Y., having been born at that place on June 11, 1863. From 
1884 to 1888 he pursued his studies at Cornell University, from 
which he graduated with the degree of C.E. Leaving Cornell he 
entered the service of the Great Northern Railway as rodman. 
From 1888 to 1890 he was engaged with the Spokane Falls North- 
ern Railway as instrument man and assistant engineer. In the 
latter year he accepted the post <if assistant engineer with the 
(■reat Northern Railway, remaining with that company until 1893, 
when ho took a similar position with the Alberta Railway & Coal 
Company. The following year ho was employed as locating en- 
gineer for the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway, and in 1895 
as principal assistant engineer for the Kaalo & Slocan Railway. 
In ISiUi Mr. Sullivan went into the service of the Columbia & 
Western i{ailway as reconnaissance engineer. Two years later he 
was appointed principal assistant engineer of the same road, re- 
signing in 1900 to become division engineer of construction for the 
C. P. R. From September, 1905, to January, 1907, Mr. Sullivan 
was assistant chief engineer on the Panama Canal. In February, 
1907, he was appointed manager of construction for the 0. P. R.. 
and in September, 1908, assistant chief engineer of the system, 
the responsible duties of which position he is atill fulfilling. 

Walt«r J. Francis. Montreal— Member of Council. 
Walter J. Francis, C.E., of Montreal, a member of the Coun- 
cil of the Caiwdian Society of Civil Engineers, and one of the 
beat-known consulting engineers in the DominioD, waa born at To- 
ronto on January 28, 1872. He is an honor graduate of the School 
of Practical Science, Toronto (1893), and a member of both the 
Canadian and American Societies of Civil Engineers. After obtain- 
ing his early experience on various engineering works at Toronto, 
he entered the service of the Grand Trunk Railway in 1894 as 
assistant engineer to Mr. Edmund Wragge, .M. Inst. C.E.. on the 
construction of the Toronto Union Station. After being emplojred 
on steel work design and construction for some years, he was 
engaged by the Department of Railways and Canals to I<le*igB tke 
G5-foot hydraulic lift locks on the Trent Canal at Peterborough. 
This position developed into that of principal assistant to the eUef 
engineer of the canal, and included the design and eonstmetioa of 
the Kirkfield lift locks. For the description of the faydranlie locks 
Mr. Francis was awarded in 1906 the Gzowski medal by the Can- 
adian Society of Civil Engineers. In 1906 lie left the OoTerBOMBt 
service to^arge of the construction of the 32,000 horsepower 
plant for the West Kootenay Power and Light Co. at Nelson, B.C.. 
for Messrs. Ross & Holgate. Returning to Montreal on the eon- 
piction of that work, he took the position of chief engiaeer aad 
assistant manager of the Dominion Engineering k Conatraetion 

Mr. H. H. Vaughaii, Montreal. 

.Mr. C. K. W. l>otlwell. Halifax. N. S. 

I'mfosHor H. K. T. Ilaultain. TOroatOw 



Company, which he resigned at the end of 1907 in order to engage 
in private engineering practice in Montreal. 

Mr. Francis makes a specialty of arbitrations, court work, bet- 
terments and reports, and carries on an extensive practice. It will 
be remembered that his services were retained by the Boyal Com- 
mission of Inquiry into the Quebec Bridge disaster. As a con- 
tributor to the technical press he is widely known. He is Can- 
adian writer for "The Engineer," of London, Eng. 

Mr. Francis represents the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers 
on tho committee now revising the building code of the City of 

C. H. Rust, Toronto. — Vice-President. 

Toronto's City Engineer was born in the County of Essex, 
England, on Christmas Day, 1852. He entered tho service of the 
city in 1877 and was appointed to his present position in Feb- 
ruary. 1898. Mr. Rust has had an extended connection with the 


City Engineer Rust, Toronto. — Vice President 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. He became a nieinbor in 
1887 and has served a number of times as Councillor and Vice- 
President. He is also a member of the American Waterworks 
.\s30ciation. In 1902-3 he was President of the American Society 
of Municipal Improvements. A more detailed sketch of Mr. Rust's 
career will be found in our issue of August 12, 1908. 

H. H. Vaughan, Montreal.— Member of Council, 
One of the prominent railroad men on the Council is 
Henry Hague Vaughan, whose photo is reproduced herewith, 
ivas born Dec. 28, 1868, at Forest Hill, Kent, England, and was 
educated at Woodford, Essex. From January, 1885, to .January, 
1887, he pursued his studies at the Department of Applied Science, 
King's College, London. In January, 1888, he entered upon a 
three j'ears' apprenticeship at the Nasmyth Wilson & Company's 
works at Patrocroft, Lancashire, England. 

That Mr. Vaughan had no intention of sacrificing the prac- 
tical to the theoretical is evidenced by many things incidental to 
his early professional life. From January to June, 1891, he was 
employed with the M. 8. & L, Bailvray at Gorton, Lancashire, and 
with the London and South Western Railway at Nine Elms, Mid- 
dlesex. Coming to the United States in 1891, he entered the ser- 
vice of the Great Northern Railway, St. Paul, Minn., and re- 
mained with that company until February, 1898, progressing respec- 
tively through the positions of machinist, draughtsman, assistant 
engineer of tests, and mechanical engineer. He then accepted a 
position as mechanical engineer with the P. & R. Railway, Beading, 

Pa., a post he resigned in 1899 to enter upon similar work for the 
Q. & C. Company, Chicago, HI., with which concern he remained 
until March, 1902. At that date he was appointed assistant super- 
intendent of motive power with the L. S. & M. 8. Railway, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Mr, Vaughan 's connection with the Canadian Pacific Railway 
commenced in February, 1904, when he assumed the responsibilities 
of Superintendent of Motive Power, Promotion came quickly to 
Mr, Vaughan, and in November, 1905, he was appointed assistant 
to the Vice-President at Montreal, the post he now holds. 

H, E. T. Haultaln, Toronto. — Member of Council, 
Professor H. E. T. Haultain, of the Faculty of Applied Science 
and Engineering, University of Toronto, was born in England, and 
came to Canada at an parly age. He was educated at the Public 
.school at Peterborough, Ont,, proceeding later to the School of 
Practical Science, Toronto, where, in 1889, he graduated in civil 
engineering. He afterwards took post graduate courses at Lon- 
don and Freiberg. His experience has been wide and varied, and 
it may be truly said that he has an international reputation, for 
he has held responsible positions in charge of mining operations 
in Ireland, Austria, South Africa, the Western States, and various 
parts of Canada, 

Mr, Haultain is a frequent contributor to the technical press 
and retains a consulting practice in addition to his academical 
work. The degree of C, E. was conferred upon him by the Uni- 
versity of Toronto in 1900. He is an associate member of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, a member of the Councils of the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers and of the Canadian Mining 
In-titute, and Corresponding Member of Council of the Institution 
of Mining and Metallurgy. 

Duncan McPherson, Ottawa. — Member of Council. 
Duncan MacPherson, Assistant Chief Engineer of the National 
Transcontinental Railway, was elected to the Council of the Can- 
adian Society of Civil Engineers in the early "nineties." He has 

Mr. D. MacPherson, Ottawa. 

always been an active worker in the Society, of whieli in 1905 he 
was made Vice-President. 

Mr. MacPherson graduated -from the Boyal Military College, 
Kingston, in June, 1880, and in the following year joined the staff 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway on the construction of that line 
north of Lake Nipissing. He remained with the company in vari- 
ous capacities on construction and operation until July, 1905. At 
that time he was division engineer in charge of the maintenance 
of over 1,500 miles of main line and branches, including building 
and bridges. This position he occupied for about fifteen years. In 





Inly, 1905, he waK appointed AHHiHtaut Chief Kngiiiocr for the 
Tnin.scoiitiiiciital Kiiilway, th(^ pimitiou ho now holdK, 

E. W. Leonard, St. Catharlnefl, Ont.— Vice-President. 

lieubon Wrlls I,ooiiar(l in a native! of Tinintfonl, Ont., ami a 

raduato of tin; Hoyal Military College, Kingnton, winning a silver 

nicilal in the elaHH of '8,S. Sinee gradnaliiig he huH followed hiH 

profe.snion for the iiumt part in (.'umida, taking up railway con- 

itfiietion, mining, and water power engineering. 

For two years following graduation Mr. Lcunard wan inHlru 
leut man and engineer in ehargn of construction on the Canadian 
Pacifli! Railway north of Lake Superior. In 1885 ho served in the 
Xorthwest Kebellion on varioiiH staflP appointments. 

Prom 1886 to 1890 he was chief engineer for the Cumberland 

ailwny and Coal Company, of Nova Scotia. For the following 

sixteen years Mr. Leonard has served as engineer and nuinagcr of 

construction on various portions of the Canadian Pacific Railway 

'rom Quebec to British Columbia, on the St. Lawrence and Adi- 

ndaek Kaihvay, on the Rutland Canadian Railway, on the Cape 

reton Railway, and as contractor on the Parry Sound Railway. 

In water power engineering he has constructed hydro-electric 
lants at Niagara Falls, Ont., near St. Catliarincs. Ont., and for 
Kaministiquia Power Company at Kakabeka Falls, Ontario. 
In 1906 the Coniagag Mines, in which Mr. Leonard has a con 
rolling interest, created no small stir in the mining world, anil 
Tried away much of his attention from his civil engineering 
irojects. About this time he built a smelter at Tborold for thr 
fining of silver ores. In 1909 he became actively intercsteil in 
;ho copper claims at Bruce Mines, Ont., in which work is beiii),' 
rried on briskly at present. 

Mr. Leonard is President and General Manager of the Coui 

gas Mines, Limited, with its subsidiary enterprises, the Coniagiis 

duction Company, at Thorold, and the Redington Rock Drill 

nipany. He is likewise President of the Bruce Mines, Limited. 

e is Vice-President of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, 

and Vice-President of the Canadian Mining Institute; he is also a 

Itovornor of the Kingston School of Mines. 
Last spring Mr. Leonard received an appointment to the Board 
f Governors of the University of Toronto. 
J. M. Sbanly, Montreal. — Member of Council. 
Mr. J. M. Shanly, of Montreal, was born at Wankegan, III., 
n May 7, 1857. He was educated at the Gait Collegiate Institute 
nd the University of Toronto. His early professional experiencr 
"as obtained in the office of the late Wiilter Shanly. (IK. In 
jioint of experience, Mr. Shanly is eminently qualified, having been 
^^khief engineer of the Beauharnois .Tunction, Montreal and Ottawa. 
^^Hpcutral Counties, Atlantic and Lake Superior and International of 
^^Bfow Brunswick Bailways. He was also contractor's engineer on 
^^^kic Great Northern Railway of Canada, while as consulting cngin- 
^^ber and expert ho has been engaged on a largo number of muni- 
cipal and hydraulic works. Mr. Shanly 's office is located at 310 
Hoard of Trade Building, Montreal. He makes a specialty of 

iiipert examinations and reports for railways, bridges, water pow- 
irs and other engineering works. Mr. Shanly is also a member of 
he .\merican Society of Civil Engineers, but his primary interest 
B with the Canadian institution in which he holds office. 
C. B. W. Dodwell. Halifax. N.S.— Member of CouncU. 
Of the public works engineers of the Dominion of Canada, 
lone has devoted himself more wholeheartedly to the uplifting of 
his profession and to the improvement of the conditions of Gov- 

Iernmcnt ser\-ice, than Mr. C. E. W. Dodwell, of Halifax, resident 
^gineer of the Department of Public Works for Nova Scotia. lie 
|ia.s always been particularly active in the Canadian Society of 
Civil Engineers, having taken jMirt in its formation in 1887. Indeed 
lie wan one of the original Montreal ronimitte«> of nine. Sinw 
1890 he has been elected a member of the Council twelv.' times, 
the last occa-sion being at the Ottawa Convention in 1910. He 
was Vice President of the Society in 1904. 

Mr. Dodwell is a son of the late R«v. G. B. Dodwell, M.A. 
(Cantab.), and was born in England in 1853. His early education 
i-ns received nt the New College S<'liool, Oxford. 

In 1862 Mr. Dodwell cam* to Caiwda and entered the BiAopt 
<'ollego School, I>cnnoxville, where be remained until 18M. He pur 
sued hiH studies at King'* College, Windaor, N.8.., from 1M0 to 
1873, graduating H.A., with honor* in matbematies and natural 
science. For four years ho wai* engaged on the location and eon- 
Htna^ion of the .N'ova Hiotian railwayM, tbe Weetarn CootiM, 
Nova Scotia Central and Kustern ExtensioD. From 1877 to 1881 
he won AsKiRtunt Provincial Engineer on railway!, bridge*, and 
w) on, for the Nova Snotia Oovernnient. lo the latter year be 
joined tbe HtaflT of tbe Canadian Pacific Railway, upon wbieb faM 
first works were the preliminary Hurveyn and entimate* for tbe 81. 
Lawrence Bridge at Lachine, earrie<J out in January witb Mr. G. 
H. Massy, M.C.S.C.E. II|H>n tbe completion of tbi* work he be- 
<!ame identified witb the construction of the Ontario and Quebee 
Railway, first in charge of a district north of Bellerille, and rab 
sequently in charge of the construction ofBee at Toronto. He was 
next resilient engineer in charge of that portion of tbe C. P. B. 
from Montreal to Vaudreuil, comprising 24 miles. Some heavy 


Dr. Louia Herdt, Montr<>al. 

>io encountered in this section, notably tbe stone viadoel 

entering the city, and tbe bridge* — 33 spans of steel — orer the 
Ottawa River, at St. Anne's and Vaudreuil. Tbe latter work was 
the subject of a valuable paper prepared in 1888 by Mr. Dodwell 
for the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers (Vol. 2, Part 1). 

In 1889 Mr. liodwell resigned his position witb tbe C. P. B. to 
engage in partnership with Mr. A. L. Hogg, M.I.C.E.. M.C.8.C.E. 
.\mong the important works witb which Mr. Dodwell was ConawUll 
at this time may be mentioneil the waterworks and s ewer ag e sys- 
tems at Dartmouth, and the waterworks at Amherst, N.8. la 1891 
Mr. Doilwell accepted an ap]>ointnuMit under the Fe<leral Oovera- 
uient ns Resident Engineer of the Public Works D<>partaMat at 
Halifax, which position he still ocfU|«i<'?«. He was eleeteil an aaao 
eiate member of the Institution of Civil Enginn'r<i in 1881 an*) 
WHS transferred to the ela."is of meinlxis in 1"<91. 

I^ A. Herdt. Montreal.— Member of OooncU. 

Dr. Louis Her<lt. of Montreal, ^hrdonald Pmfeasor of Klee- 
trieal Engineering nt McOill TTnivrrsitr. was bom in ^maea la 
1873. He came to Canada at an early ag<- and was edueatcd at 
the Montreal High SchiHil. .-KfterArards he mtervA MeOill Cai- 
versity. .ind in 1893 graduat<>d in tbp TVpartment of Mechaaioal 



Engineering. For a short period he was connected with the Laurie 
Engine Works, after which he went over to Paris and took a 
course at the Ecole Superieure d 'Electricite. Later he studied 
at the Institute Electrotechnique at Liege, Belgium, from which he 
graduated with first-class honors in electrical engineering. In 1898 
he entered the employ of the Thomas Houston Companj, at their 
Paris works, where he remained for two years as electrical 

Returning to Canada in 1900, Dr. Herdt became identified 
with the Electrical Department of McGill University as demon- 
strator. In 1907 he was made Associate Professor of the Depart- 
ment, and in 1909, on the resignation of Professor K. B. Owens, 
was appointed to the Chair of Electrical Engineering. 

Despite the responsibility of his academical work. Dr. Herdt is 
actively concerned with practical engineering. It is of special 
interest at this time to recall that he is consulting electrical en- 
gineer for the large hydro-electric development which the City of 
Winnipeg is now building at Point du Bois, a development of 
60,000 h.p., with a transmission line of 77 miles. This work also 
embraces the sub-stations and distribution systems in the city, in 
the form of underground conduit construction. Dr. Herdt 'a work 
in connection with the electrolysis of water mains in the City of 
Winnipeg — by the return electric currents of the Winnipeg Street 
Railway — has been reported upon most extensively by the tech- 
nical press. In an advisory capacity Dr. Herdt has always been 
retained at various times by many of the foremost electrical con- 
cerns in the country. As the author of many engineering and 
scientific papers, he has made a wide reputation. 

In 1907, at the first meeting of the International Electro- 
Technical Commission in London, England, Dr. Herdt was the 
delegate to represent Canada and was a member of the committee 
which drafted the rules and regulations governing the work of this 
Commission. He is President of the Canadian Committee of the 

Dr. Hei-dt has given a great deal of his time and spared no 
efforts to promote the welfare of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Kngineers, having been President of the electrical section for some 
years and a member of Council. He is a member of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, being local Honorary Secretary 
for Canada for that institution, a member of the Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, England, and OflScier d 'Academic, France. 

Richard John Durley, Montreal.— Member of Council. 

Professor B. J. Durley is chief of the Mechanical Engineering 
Department of McGill University, Montreal. Born in England, he 
was educated at Bedford Modern School, at University College, 
Bristol, and at University College, London, where he had the honor 
of winning a Gilchrist Scholarship. At a later date he obtained 
a Whitworth Scholarship, and, on two occasions, was awarded a 
Miller prize by the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

After serving his apprenticeship with Messrs. Earle's Ship- 
biulding and Engineering Company, Limited, at Hull. England, 
hi' entered the firm 's technical staff as draughtsman, and obtained 
a varied experience in the design and installation of marine mach- 
inery. He was afterwards appointed Chief Lecturer in Engineer- 
ing at the Hull Municipal Technical Schools, and then came to 
Canada as Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering in Mc- 
Gill University. In 1899 he was appointed head of the depart- 
ment, succeeding Dr. Nicolson. 

During Professor Durley 's tenure of his chair his department 
at the university, like others, has been freely aided by the engin- 
eering firms of the Dominion and by the technical departments of 
the great Canadian railway companies. These have given not only 
equipment for the college laboratories and workshops, but even 
more assistance in the form of employment and special apprentice- 
ship facilities for the students. 

The author of a well known toxt book on "Kinematics of 
Machines," he has also written on a wide range of subjects for 
•technical societies and the technical press. 

Professor Durley has made a special study of questions relat- 
ing to power plant engineering, including heat transmission from 

central stations, and heat economy in connection with the ventila- 
tion and heating of large buildings. He has frequently acted as 
technical adviser in connection with power installations and heating 
and ventilating plants. 

The disastrous fires in 1907, which destroyed two of the largest 
buildings of McGill University, rendered a very large expenditure 
necessary, and Professor Durley took a leading part in the design 
of the engineering features of the new Engineering and Medical 
Buildings, which have now been completed ami which replace those 
destroyed. He has also recently designe*l and supervised the con- 
struction of a 1,000 h.p. central heating and power plant for the 
service of all the university buildings. 

Two years ago the Department of Mines of the Dominion Gov- 
ernment entrusted to- the Departments of Mining Eng'ineering and 

Mr, James A. Bell, St. Thomas, Ont.— Councillor 

of Mechanical Engineering in McGill University the conduct uf a 
series of chemical, industrial and engineering tests of five to ten 
ton samples of coal sent from all the principal mines of the Do- 
minion. Investigations of the calorific value, chemical composi- 
tion, suitability for washing, and coking properties, are being made 
in the Mining Laboratories, while Professor Durley, in the labora- 
tories of the Department of Mechanical Engineering has made a 
complete series of boiler trials, and has tested each coal for at 
least 24 hours in a gas producer supplying a 40 h.p. engine. For 
this laboratory work a special producer had to be designed and 
built, capable of dealing with the very various types of bituminous 
and lignitic coals submitted. The results of these tests, about to 
be published, will afford the first definite information as to the 
qualities of the fuel resources of the Dominion. 

Sir Sandford Fleming. Hon. M., Can. See. C. E. 

Of the honorary members who attended the convention in 
Ottawa last year, none was received with greater interest than Sir 
Sandford Fleming, who celebrated his 84th birthd.ay in the Federal 
Capital early this month. Sir Sandford was born at Kirkcaldy, 
Scotland, and came to Canada at the age of 18. Devoting him- 
self to railroad engineering, he built a great part of the Inter- 
colonial Railway and the transcontinental line of the C. P. B., one 
of the great engineering achievements of the century. It would 
take too long to enumerate the lesser eiigineering projects with 
which ho has been identified. 

His activities have not been confined exclusively to his pro- 
fession. For thirty years he was Chancellor of Queen's University, 
Kingston. As an author he is well known, and in addition he is 
something of a financier, being director of the C. P. T?. pnd the 



a ] 


udson Bay Company, and Honorary President of the Canadian 
lement Company. 

J. E. Hardman, Montreal. — Member of Council. 
Mr. J. E. Hiirdinau, S.B., consulting mining (.Migineer, Mont- 
real, made his iKjhut on the Council of the Canadian Society of 
Civil Kngineers at the last annual meeting in Ottawa. He was 
iducated and took hiH degree as Bachelor of Science at the Ingti- 
uto of Technology in Boston in 1877. From Boston he went 
ircct to Colorado, where he was employed as metallurgist in a 
lilver lead smelter at I^eadville, Colorado. In 1880 he was ap- 
ointed to the United States Geological Survey, and remained with 
that bureau for one year, at the expiration of which he accepted 
a position in Canada with the Hibbard Antimony Company, oper- 
ting mines and furnaces near Lake George, N.B. Here Mr. 
ardman succeeded in producing the first metallic antimony ever 
ade in the Dominion of Canada. The product was sold to the 
oston Type Foundry and the Meriden, Connecticut, Britannia 
orks. Upon l«Hving New Brunswick Mr. Hardman went to the 
adjoining Province of Nova Scotia, where he engaged in active gold 
mining and milling on liis own account. After some ten or eleven 
ears he was appointed to the chair of Mining and Metallurgy in 
cGill University (189.')(3), but resigned after holding his pro- 
essorship one year, and opened an office in Montreal as consulting 
ining engineer. At present he is consulting engineer to the 
anada Iron Corporation and the Canadian Exploration Company, 
8 well as President of the Lake Superior Corporation. He is also 
encral Manager of the San Martin Mining Company, Limited, 
f Mexico. 

E. S. Kelsch, Montreal. — Member of CounclL 
The name of R. S. Kelsch is one of the best known in the 
CaiiailiMii eloetrieal field. Indeed it may be said to be one of 


Mr. R. S. Kelseh, Montreal 

international reputation l\v reason of its owner's wide and varied 
connections. Mr. ]{. S. Kelsch is a member of the Council of the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, n Past President of the Can- 
adian Electrical Association, a member of the Exocative Committee 

of the Engineers' Club, .Montreal, and a member of the Amerieas 
Institute of Electrical Knginecrtt and tb« British lDstitDt« of Blee 
trical Engineers. 

From 1880 to 1887 he was engaged in telephone sad telegraph 
work in Chicago, III., after which for a ten-year period be oeeopied 
the position of general superintendent and chief engin<«r of the 
Chicago Arc Light & Power Company. From 1897 Ui 1903 he 
fulfilled the duties of general superintendent and chief enghieer of 
the Lachine Rapids Hydraulic and Land Company, Montreal. 

In 1903 the property of the latter company was sold to tb«- 
Montreal Light, Heat and Power Company, who retained Mr. Kelaeh 
as consulting engineer to consolidate their various properties, eoa 
sisting of the following companies: Montreal Oas Company, Boyal 
Electric Company, Montreal & St. Lawrence Light k Power Com- 
pany, Imperial Electric Light Company, I.,achine Rapids Hydranlir 
& Land Company, Standard Light & Power Company, Citisens' 
Light & Power Company, Temple Electric Company. 

These companies were operating a great rariety of systema, 
consisting of direct current of 250 an<I 500 volts, alternating ear 
rent at all voltages, and H«>vpral freqaeneiea. 

Since 1903 Mr. Kelseh has continacd to aet as eonsoltiag ea 
gineer to the Montreal Light, Heat and Power Company, u well aa 
to many other important concerns in this field throughoot tb«' 
Dominion of Canada and the Uniteil States. He has a large clien- 
tele amongst commercial corporations using electric power and is 
regarded with the greatest confidence by the profcwsioD. 

Comparative Cost of Cantilever and Gravity 
Retaining Wall 

In building a covered platform for the Saco-Petfee Co^ at 
Newton Upper Falls, Mass., it was found neceaaary to boild a 
retaining wall along one side of the platform to sustain an earth 
fill 250 ft. long and some 16 ft. deep. The engineers in charge 
of this work considered both a reinforced concrete wall of can- 
tilever construction and a wall with gravity section and a deaign 
for the most economical section of each drawn up. 

The following figures give a comparative estimate as to the 
amount of material and the cost of each wall per lineal foot. 

Cantilever Walla. 

29.5 cubic ft. (1:2:4) concrete at 23c. . $6 79 

36.0 square ft. forms at 12c 4 32 

95.0 lbs. steel at 3c 2 85 

O.S." cubic yd. extra fill at 25e 21 

Cost per lineal ft. of wall $14 17 

Gravity WalL 

82.0 cubic ft. (1: 3: 6) concrete at l«e. . *13 12 

32.0 square ft. forms at 12c 3 84 

Cost per lineal ft. of wall tlC M 

Difference in cost per lineal ft. in favor of cantilever wall. 

As the wall in question was 250 ft. loag, a net aviag of 
nearly $700 was effected by using the cantilever wall. — Cbnerelp 

A reinforced concrete motor boat, 14 feet 9 inches long, ha*' 
recently been built in Holland. The walls, streagtheaed by 
ribs, are only 0.52 inch thick, They were given six coats of 
wateirprooflng compound and despite a nunih<>r of .•o1i;«ian< 
have not leaked. 

St. Catharines, Ont., ia to be eoagiatulated upon the 
of Steel & Radiation, Limited, to locate in that eity. The pro- 
ducts of the concern are well known to the baildiog loleraata, tbair 
specialties being hot water boiler* and steel prodacts. Mr. & W. 
Howard is secretary, and Mr. E. J. Clnff, geaenU oMakgar. of 
Steel t Radiation. 



Quebec Architects' Annual Meeting 

Provincial A8»ociation'» New Officers — Satis- 
factory Reports Submitted — Recommend- 
ations for Revision of Building By-Laws 

The twentieth annual meeting of the Province of Quebec 
Architects' Association took place at the Association's rooms on 
Beaver Hall Square, Montreal, on Thursday, Jan. 12, when the 
following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, 
Mr. C. Eawson Gardiner; 1st Vice-President, Mr. Ludger Lemieux; 
2nd Vice-President, Mr. .1. P. E. Dusseault; Treasurer, Mr. W. 
8. Maxwell; Secretary, Mr. J. E. Vanier; Council — Messrs. Jos. 
Venne, Hugh Vallance, G. A. Monuette, Jos. Perrault, Stevens 
Haskell. Mr. T. Raymond, the Past President, was elected in vir- 
tue of his late office. 

The attendance at the business meeting was small, but more 
members were present in the afternoon, when two papers were 
read: "Beauty in Architecture," by Prof. Poivert, and "Orna- 
ment in Architecture, ' ' by Prof. Nobbs. 

The Secretary, in reading the report for 1910, said that there 
were 125 members. Several attempts, he continued, had been 
made to induce the city of Montreal to revise the Montreal build- 
ing laws, and it was satisfactory to note that this work had now- 
been started and a committee of experts appointed. Mr. Jos. 
Venne would represent the Association on this committee. The 
following items are regarded by the Association as being desir- 
able : 

Building lines on all residential streets. 

Minimum size for interior courts with no .skylights over 

Regulation of advertising signs. 
Extension of fire limits. 
In the reorganization of the Montreal building department 
the Association recommends a staff to consist as follows: 
Superintendent in charge of the whole department. 
Chief building inspector. 
Four assistant building inspectors. 

Engineer in charge of steel work and concrete construc- 
Two elevator and fire escape inspectors. 
Sanitary inspector's staff. 
Boiler inspector's staff. 
Clerical staff. 
As the electrical inspection is now under the supervision of 
the fire underwriters, it was decided that a certificate from them 
would protect the city's interests. 

An interesting discussion took place on the suggestion that 
the Association should keep a record of all historic or old build- 
ings of architectural interest in the Province of Quebec, and 
members were urged to send in copies of photographs or measure.i 
drawings of sufficient interest to file. Those who are acquainted 
with old buildings of a date prior to the middle of last century, 
were especially asked to communicate with the Secretary. Mr. 
Venne proposed offering prizes to the architectural students who 
submitted the best measured drawings of such old buildings, and 
Mr. W. S. Maxwell thought that photographs of specially inter- 
esting buildings might be enlarged and hung on tlio walls of the 
Association's rooms. 

It is proposed to hold an "Esquisse" competition in which 
the subject would be drawn en loge, with five hours allowed for 
its development. 

At the last annual meeting it was suggested that travelling 
scholarships be offered to students of architecture, and it is now 
intended to ask the members of the Association to subscribe to- 
wards the fund for such scholarships, in order to show their own 
practical interest in the idea before approaching the Government 
or public for finances. 

The sketching club was reported to be very successful ; ten 
out of the fifteen members submitted designs to the Beaux Arts 

Society of New York, and eight of them were awarded mention. 

This was placed to the credit of Mr. W. 8. Maxwell, who devotc<l 

much time and energy to the club as "patron." 

The year's receipts totalled $1,820.72. and a balance in the 
In the evening a banquet was held at the Engineers' Club. 

bank was reported of $2,460.07. 

Concrete Siphon Under a High Head 

A reinforced concrete siphon has been built across the Albelda 
Valley, Province of Huesca, Spain, which operates under a maxi- 
mum head of dSVz ft. It is 2,378 ft. long, 13.12 ft. in inside 
diameter, and has walls 7.87 in. thick, including an interior mor- 
tar coat of 0.6 in. The reinforcement, which is varied from point 
to point iu accordance with the head, consists of longitudinal 
round rods and circular T-irons, all tied by wire at intersections. 
Under the maximum head the T 'a measure approximately 2x2 
x % in. and are spaced about 3% in. apart on centers. The 124 
longitudinal rods are each % in. in diameter. The concrete was 
mixed in proportions of 1:114:2% and the inside mortar coat 
in proportions of 1: 1. In order that any leakage might not dis- 
turb the foundation of the siphon it was laid in a bed of porous 
concrete which reached to the horizontal diameter and contained 
on one side a drainage channel. The upper half of the siphon 
was covered with loose stone, and the seepage was discharged to 
the channel through holes in the concrete cover over it, and from 
the other side of the siphon, through pipes in the foundation. 
This channel has an outlet to a drainage canal at its lowest point. 
After a year's service the leakage of the siphon is saiil to be 
scarcely perceptible. 

British Firm Coming 

Messrs. James Wood & Co., manufacturers of builders' su])- 
plies. Royal Exchange, Glasgow, propose opening a branch Rstab- 
lishmeut in Canada. For twenty years this firm has Ijeen en 
gaged in the South African trade and has had slight dealings 
with Canadian contractors. They intend, however, to make an 
effort to obtain the Canadian trade, and for this purjiose a mem- 
ber of the firm is now on his way to Canada to arrange for the 
opening of a branch oftice which, if results justify it, will quickly 
bo followed by a factory. 

Mr. C. Amriault has been appointed assistant engineer to 
Chief Engineer Janin of Montreal. 

Mr. H. S. Hancock, Jr., city engineer of Fort William, h:is 
tendered his resignation to the city. He recommends his as 
sistant, Mr. Wilson, for the |)Osition. 

The double tracking of the CP.R. from Winnipeg to Bran- 
don, commenced last year, will bo completed this summer, giv 
ing the company J)52 miles of double track west of the great 

The Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park Commission is plan- 
ning the construction of a number of experimental roads between 
Bridgeburg and Niagara-on-the-Lake. The work will be carried 
out under the supervision of Mr. W. A. MacLean, Provincial 
Highways Engineer. 

Mr. F. A. yerbury, vice-president and managing-director of 
the Canadian Boving Company, Limited, will leave shortly for 
Winnipeg to attend the convention of the Canadian Society of 
Civil Engineers. Afterwards he will proceed on through West 
ern f!anada to British Columbia in the interests of his com- 
pany. Mr. Yerbury is an aMociate member of the Institute 
of Civil Engineers of Great Britain. Among the many leading 
British concerns for which the Canadian Boving Company are 
agents may be mentioned FVank Pearn & Company, Manchester, 
reciprocating pumps; Alley & McLellan, Glasgow, steam engines 
and air compressors; Mirrkes & Day, Stockport, Diesel oil 
engines; Heenan & Fronde, Manchester, railway rolling stock, 
equipment, etc. 




Am Exaimple of Progress from V 


Canadian Pipe Company, Limited, and its Development in Recent Years- 
Brief Description of Up-to-date New Plant Some Recent Contracts 

Vancouver concerns, like those of inogt other western cities, 
are noti^il for thi-ir progrcssivenfiss. A notable example is the Can- 
ailiau Pipe Company, Limited, manufacturers of all kinds of 
nachiue wire wound wooden water pipe and iron specials for water- 
works systems. The products of this firm have always attracted 
nuch favorable attention, and business increased so rapidly during 
he last few years that it was found necessary to secure a new 
jfactory, views of which are shown herewith. The company 's new 
premises are located on Pacific street, one block of (iranville 
treet. The latter thoroughfare is second only in importance to 
lastings street, the jjrincipal avenue of commerce at Vancouver, 

from the Canadian Pipe Company's plant is 5,000 HdcbI f«et. 
Among the many large orders received this season may be mtm- 
tioned the following: C. P. B., 75,000 feet; City of BerelsUtkc, 
25,000 feet; Summerland municipality, 75.000 feet; City of North 
Vancouver, 28,000 feet; Raymond, Alta., 35/>00 feet; Daopbin, 
Man., 50,000 feet. A view is shown of a carload of 12-ineb diam 
cter pipe consigned to Weyburn, Sask. 

The manufacture of contimious wood stave pipe is also a 
specialty of this plant. The company's product is aivicmbled in 
place and banded with steel bands. It is generally of larf^er 
diameter than can be wound by machinery. Nine thoosand feet of 

Canadian Pipe Ooiniwiny'.s Kine New Kactovy on Pacific Street. V'anco\iv«"r 



nd consequently there are excellent facilities for rapid ransporta- 
tion and easy access. The company's factory, illustrated herewith, 
is 112 feet by 2.')0 feet, these dimensions giving an area of 28,000 
square feet, as compared with 10,000 square feet in the old prem- 
ises. A complete double line of machinery of the latest improved 
pe has been installed. Each machine has an independent electric 
motor. Some idea of the excellent arrangement of the company's 
plant may be obtained from the interior view published herewith. 
There is a 20-foot driveway through the centre of the factory 
between the lines of machinery. 

We have alluded above to the growing demand for the com- 

any's wire wound wooden pipe. It may be interesting to state 

this connection that the average daily output of this material 

60'inch diameter pipe was built in the Cariboo district this year 
for the Quesnelle Hydraulic Gold Mining (X; also about 1.800 
feet of 53 inch diameter pipe for the Canadian Pacific Kailway for 
use in connection with their irrigation system near Calgary. 

Additional evidences of this company's soceeas are plentifol. 
In addition to a number of other important contmeta. they arc 
now engaged on one approximating $140,000 for the eommiaaioDers 
of the Transcontinental Railway at St. Boniface, Man.. instalUnfr 
complete about 4'/.i miles of 42-inch diameter wooden stave pipe. 
to be used a.s a force main for the discharge of sewage. The com- 
pany's success is attributable to the excellence of the varfous Udm 
manufactured, to business-like methods and expedition in delirery, 
and lastly, to the spirit of progressireness aforementioned. 


Canadian Pipe Company's Factory — Interior View 

A Carload of 12 inch Pipe for Weyburn. Saak. 




Functions and Limitations of the College — System, and its 
Influence on Originality — Value of Experience in Actual Work 

Toronto, Jan. 11, 1910. 

Editor "Contract Becord": 

I have read with interest the letter recently published on 
the above subject by Mr. W. B. Harris and the discussion by Mr. 
H. Holgate. The question at issue appears to be confined to the 
amount of practical work that should be taken up in the engineer- 
ing colleges. 

What is the function of the college f Is it to turn out en- 
gineers trained in both theory and practice, and equipped with 
a large fund of useful information? Or is it less utilitarian, and 
intended to train the mind and develop independence in thought 
and to equip the student with such implements in the way of 
science, mathematics, mechanics, etc., as are necessary in working 
out engineering problems as met in practice? In other words, 
should the student take up only such subjects as have an imme- 
diately seen practical value? Is it how much has been crammed 
into him, or how he has learned it, and his mental equipment 
for new and untried fields? 

A college cannot think of turning out engineers. It cannot 
attempt to give the practical side of the work, so that while the 
young graduate may have learned the theory of design, he is by 
no means a designer; as he very soon finds out when he takes 
his first position and is placed at the bottom of the ladder. I 
believe it is a great mistake for a college to attempt teaching 
shop work. This can be done better and more economically in 
a real shop that has to earn dividends^ It is feeding students on 
pap. Let them learn by experience and not depend on being told 
everything they will have to know. Too much system kills origin- 
ality. A child never profits by his father's experience. 

There are some things that are best learned at college, and 
others that are best learned in practical work. During the col- 
lege course it is profitable in more than one sense to take up some 
engineering work during the vacations. I believe that there are 
some valuable suggestions in Mr. Harris' letter in the matter 
of combining the experience of the vacation with the college work. 
The comparison is a most valuable exercise, and tends to clarify 
many an obscure theory. Each part of the work should have its 
due proportion. Don't attempt to build a large structure on an- 
other's experience. There is a point, perhaps not readily deter- 
mined at which the college part of one's education should give 
place to the education of life's experience. 

The discussion of actual work in the college course might 
also have a secondary effect in making the professors more prac- 
tical. No matter how abstruse a subject may be, there is a value 
in mastering it, but there is greater value in also finding out its 
application to practical questions. Certainly an engineering course 
should be a practical one. • "■ 

Too much must not be expected of the newly-fleSged gradu- 
ate. Don't put a boy at a man's job. At first a student would 
be of more value on a job if he had given all the time spent at 
college outside work, but later on the college training will be 
more advantageous. 

A striking parallel, showing the importance of mental devel- 
opment in the preliminary training of students for, research work 
in science at the universities, is given in an address before the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science by Principal 
H. A. Miers, of London. He says: 

"I have often heard it asserted that if a boy is capable of 
taking up at the university a course which is entirely different 
from his school course, he will generally be found to have come 
from the classical side and not from the modern side. ' ' 

Statistics taken at the University of Berlin some years ago 

showed that the men of classical schooling, in the latter part of 
their scientific career at the university, outclassed the men whose 
schooling was scientific. May we not draw a parallel in the case 
of the college training for the engineering profession? 

While it is highly desirable that this training should be as 
practical as possible, there is a danger of narrowing the vision 
to the limits in which an engineering specialist is apt to be con- 
fined. A man should have an exact knowledge of one subject 
and a wide and general knowledge of many. Too much cannot 
be successfully undertaken in the college course. The question of 
revision of the curriculum might well receive greater attention 
from the engineering profession than it does. 

I believe Mr. Harris' letter contains valuable suggestions on 
this line, although I think to follow him fully would mean too 
early specialization. 

Yours truly, 


Wages at St. John, N.B. 

St. John, N.B., Jan. 9, 1911. 
Editor "Contract Record": 

On page 38 of your issue of December 28 last was published 
a communication headed "Wages and Compensation at St. Johns, 
N.B." (This refers to St. John, N.B.) I must take exception to 
the rate of wages submitted by City Engineer Murdoch. We are 
large employers of labor, and we never think of giving less than 
$1.40 per day to the commonest laborer. Other skilled mechanics 
get as much as $5 a day. 

Yours very truly, 


Canadian Railroad Development 

Ritchie, Ludwig & Ballantyne, Toronto, are to apply to Par 
liament for permission to build a line of railroad from Toronti 
to Barrie. The line will probably be operated by electricity. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway now has over 2,500 men !il 
work on its grade east of Prince Rupert, B.C. This would indi- 
cate that the labor scarcity of last summer has been very much 
relieved. Sixty per cent, of the grade has been finished from 
Kitsalas to Hazelton. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway system is awaiting the av 
rival of a shipment of 200,000 cross ties from southern United 
States ports, A large amount of steel rails have also been con- 
tracted for in Sydney, C.B., and that shipment will also he re- 
ceived at the same wharf. 

Good progress is being made with the work of clearing the 
right of way for the branch line of the Temiskaming & Northern 
Ontario Railway from Kelso to the Porcupine district, and it now 
looks as though the branch would be completed by ,Tuly 1. The 
clearing work is being done by station men. 

Steel has been laid on 227 miles of the 400 miles of the Na- 
tional Transcontinental Railway in Quebec now under construction. 
East of Quebec City 50 miles are completed; 50 miles are com- 
plete on the Weymontashene section, which is 197 miles long; 47 
miles on the section immediately west of the City of Quebec, and 
.SO miles of MacDonald and O'Brien's l07-mile contract. M. P. 
and J. T. Davis have 50 miles ready on their Quebec contract also. 

A Grand Trunk Pacific survey party which has spent the sea- 
son looking over the ground north of Harrison Lake as a route for 
a railway line into Vancouver, has reached Vancouver. It is under- 
stood that the party found the country without insuperable diflS- 




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eulties for railway building, and the route is looked upon as « 
good one. The party was in charge of W. 0. Bassett, who was 
with one of the parties in the field this year doing preliminary 
work for the proposed line from Fort George to Vancouver. He 
went in by way of Harrison Hot Springs, and planned to look 
over 115 miles of country between there and Lillooet, north of 
which town another survey party was working. 

Personal News and Notes 

Mr. A. S. Dawson, formerly assistant chief engineer on the 
C. P. E. irrigation at Calgary, Alta., has been appointed chief 

Mr. A. T. Davidson, of Davidson Brothers, contractors, left 
Winnipeg recently for Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, New York 
and other eastern cities. 

The City of Ottawa is considering the matter of engaging 
Mr. W. F. Tye, Montreal, to prepare a report on the entrances 
of railways into the city. 

Cement Age, of New York, and Concrete Engineering, of Cleve- 
land, have been consolidated. Mr. R. W. Lesley becomes editor of 
the new publication, which will be known as the Cement Age. 

Mr. Geo. Lang, A.M.Can.Soc.C.B., and Mr. W. P. Major, 
A.B.I.B.A., have formed a partnership to carry on a general archi- 
tectural and engineering practice at Calgary, Alta. 

Mr. F. M. Brown has resigned his position as general pw 
chasing agent of the Dominion Steel Corporation to accept the 
office of general manager and vice-president of the Nova Scotia 
Car Company, Limited. 

Prince Albert, Sask., has passed a by-law providing for the 
governing of the city by commission. The commissioners appointed 
were: Mayor Holmes, City Engineer Creighton, and C. O. David- 
son, now City Treasurer. Messrs. Creighton and Davidson will 
receive $2,700 and $2,000 a year, respectively, for their services. 

Mr. R. E. Chadwick, assistant city engineer, in charge of 
bridges and docks, Toronto, has accepted a position with the Foun- 
dation Company, of New York. Mr. E. L. Cousins, who is now 
in charge of special work and grade separation, and who was for- 
merly resident engineer for the Grand Trunk, will succeed Mr. 

The Ottawa Builders' Exchange have sent a letter to the 
Board of Control of that city, protesting against the manner of 
calling for tenders for the work to be done at Howlck Hall. The 
Exchange claims that no plans were submitted for the work, and 
that the specifications were so indefinite that it was impossible for 
a contractor to tender from them. They are also drawing the 
attention of the Board of Control to the manner in which previous 
work has been done without competition. This, they say, is con- 
trary to the city by-laws. 

Sydney Cement Company Wins Action 

According to a dispatch from Halifax, N.S., judgment has 
been rendered in the ease of Brownley vs. the Sydney Cement Com- 
pany by the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia reversing the judg- 
ment of Mr. Justice Laurence, which was given in favor of the 
plaintiff. The Sydney Cement Company, which is the only one in 
Eastern Canada which was not absorbed by the Canada Cement 
merger, employs foreign flint pebbles in the grinding process inci- 
dental to the manufacture of cement, into which specially treated 
slag from the Dominion Steel works also enters. The plaintiff 
Brownley shipped a quantity, of flint pebbles from France to the 
Sydney works, and the dispute arose as to their quality and suit- 
ability for the work. Judge Laurence decided against the Cement 
Company, but the ease went before the full bench at Halifax, with 
the result of a decision in favor of the company. The case was 
commenced over two years ago. The evidence of the plaintiff 
was taken in Paris and an expert witness was brought from New 

Contracts Department 

News of Special Interest to Contractors, Engineers, Manufacturers and 

Dealers in Building Supplies. 

Information for insertion in these columns is invited from Architects, Contractors, Engineers, etc 


aterworks, Sewerage and 

wmanville, Out. 

■|"lli^ imiiiicipality is considering the 
iiihtiilUilioii of waterworks. The pro- 
posed source of water .-.upply is from 
springs seven miles distant. John Lyle, 

Calgary, Alta. 

.\ .-.ysteni of macadamizing streets in 
tile resi<lential portions of the city will 
be inaugurated this spring. 

Camrose, Alta. 

The town will install a waterworks sys- 
tem litis summer to cost $loo,a)0. Ad- 
dress M. A. Maxwell. 

iwichan Lake, B.C. 

e are inliirmcd that the installation 
small waterwiirks for household and 
power supply is still undecided owing 
to those tendering not being able to give 
a figure because travelling expenses W'as 
not allowed for investigation. T. L. 
Stamford, C.E., P.O. Box 107 Victoria, 
and VV. G. Winterburn, 566 Bastion 
Square, Victoria, were among the tend- 
erers. l''or furtiicr informaticjn address 
722 Colonist ot'lice building. 

Esquimault, B.C. 

lans have been prepared for a sewer 
tem to cost about $250,000. J. H. Mo- 
un, Victoria, is in charge. 

arrison, Ont. 

■The expenditure of the $35,000 voted 
_ the purpose of constructing water- 
works here is divided as follows; water 
tower and foundations, $4,100; driven 
wells, $1,000; pumping station, $1,500; 
power plant and pump, $6,000; concrete 
reservoir, $2,000; distribution system. 
$18,055; real estate, $5,000; engineering 
and incidentals. $1,845. Herbert J. Bow- 
man, consulting engineer, Toronto; A. 
J. Stewart, clerk. 

Montreal, Que. 

R Considerable alteration to Victoria 
[uare is contemplated by the Board of 
Plans are in course of preparation for 
e establishment of a sewage farm to 
. enable the city to dispose of its sewage 
jj^Kithout using the river. 
^■The Board of Control in order to 
^^woid delay, will call for tenders at once 
for all curbstones that may be required. 
The same course will be follow-ed in re- 
gard to the laying of asphalt and otlier 
road work. 
I^^A charter has been applied for to in- 
^^^Brporate the town of Greenfield Park 
V^^k the south side of the river in order 
I^^Kat the residents, numbering about two 
^^niindred, can proceed with the neces- 
sary improvements such as sidewalks, 
sewerage, water, and the building and 
grading of roads. Mr. \V. D. Lighthall 
is in charge of the legal part of the work. 
In the details of the scheme for the 
improvement of the system there are 





many elements of expense. The report 
of the waterworks department sums up 
the items of expenditure as follows: 

Construction of the filtra- 
tion plant $1,687,000.00 

Purchase of extra land ne- 
cessary for said plant 318,700.00 

Completion of work of en- 
larging aqueduct now in 
course of execution 675,000.00 

To product 7,000 extra h.p, 
of which 3,000 to pump 
50,000,000 gallons more 
and 4,000 h.p. for other 
municipal purposes: 

Enlargement o f 
aqueduct $l,g00,000 

Enlargement of 
tail race (prop.) 50,000 

Machinery, tur 

bines, pumps, etc. 250,000 

Buildings, founda- 
tions, weirs, etc. 100.000 

$2,300,000 00 

* ■ $4,980,700.00 

The million and a half that was voted 
by the City Council is to establish a 
double filtration plant. It will be capable 
of filtering fifty million gallons daily. 
Six acres of filters will be constructed, 
an dthese basins will be connected with 
sand washing machines. There will also 
be included in the plant a sterilization 
system, and finally a laboratory for the 
testing of the water. The system will 
be similar to that of New York. 

New Glasgow, N.S. 

A conference is to be held shortly in 
connection with the new water supply of 
the town of New Glasgow to decide upon 
the type of pipe to be used, i.e., cement. 
steel, or wood stave. .Vbout seven miles 
of 16" or 17" pipe will be needed. Mr. C. 
E. Mitchell, New Glasgow, is the engin- 
eer in charge. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The City Engineer will shortly call 
for supplies needed for that department 
during the year. It is stated that on Feb- 
ruary 14th tenders will be called by the 
Board of Control for a large amount of 
piping, brick, etc 

Tenders are called until February 14th 
for broken stone, brick, stone, curbing 
cement, plank and cedar, etc. Newton J. 
Ker. City Engineer, .\dvertisement in 
"Tenders and For Sale Department" this 

Tenders are called until February 14th 
for supply and delivery of brasswork. 
special pipe castings, etc. in connection 
with waterworks? supplies. Newton J. 
Ker, City Engineer. Advertisement in 
"Tenders and For Sale Department" of 
this issue. 

Pembroke, Ont. , 

Tenders are called until February I3lh 
for all labor in connection with laying 
about 5.40<^ feet of i,1" lapwelded steel 

intake pipe and the construction of a 
concrete pump well. Specilicationj, etc, 
at offices of T. Aird Murray, Toronto, 
contracting engineer; J. L. Armour, 
Pembroke, resident engineer. A. J. For- 
tier, town clerk. Tenders are also called 
until same date for labor in connection 
with laying about 5,goo feet of 16" water 
main, together with fixing valves and 
hydrants. Advertisement in "Tender* 
and For Sale Department" this i-siic 

Point Grey, B.C. 

The ratepayers authorized the expend- 
iture of $350,000 on road improvements. 

Porcupine City, Ont. 

Plans for sewers and water are already 
underway by the local officials . 

Port Hope, Ont. 

This municipality passed the by-law to 
expend $13,000 fur concrete sidewalks. 
We are informed that contracts will open 
about May ist. J. W. Sanders, town 

Strathroy, Ont. 

.'\. Mcl.achlan, Strathroy, is in charge 
of the work of installing the new engine 
and pump required by the water com- 
missioners. By-law carried voting $5,000 
towards this purpose. Under date of 
last information the above had not been 

St. Thomas, Oot 

The ratepayers of Ross street, sonth 
of Wellington, decided at a meeting re- 
cently to advertise for tenders for pav- 
ing that portion of the street. Tenders 
will be asked in bulk or in part. 

Toronto. Ont 

The city will ask the Ontario Legis- 
lature for permission to issue deben- 
tures and raise the sum of $626,544 to 
cover the cost of an additional water- 
works intake pipe and new trunk mains, 
to increase the daily supply. 

The City Engineer recommend.* the 
construction of the following mains, to 
relieve the situation, at an estimated cost 
of $161,544: 

Thirty-six inch main from the main 
pumping station at Front street, and 
along Front street to Simcoe. 

Thirty-six inch main from Wellington 
along John street. Grange road and Bev- 
erley street, to College street. 

Twenty- four inch main on Sumach 
street, from Queen to Wellesley. 

Twelve inch main to feed North Rose- 

Twelve inch main on Wilton avenue 
from River to Broadview. 

Victoria. B.C. 

The $150,000 waterworks loan by-law 
and Sooke Lake by-law both carried. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Tenders arc being called by the Board 
of Control until March ist for supply of 
asphalt for street pacing for this dty. 
Plans, etc., at office of City Engineer. II 
Peterson, secretary For further infor- 



mation see advertisement in "Tenders 
and For Sale Department" this issue. 

Pembroke, Ont. 

John L. Armour, resident engineer, 
writes that the contract for supply of 
i8" intake pipe and i6" water main have 
been awarded by the Town Council to 
Messrs. Drummond, McCall & Co., 
Montreal. T. Aird Murray, consulting 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The contract for sewer on Centre 
street has been awarded to Mr. Newman 
at $17,000, by Board of Control. 

Railroads, Bridges and Wharves 

Brantford, Ont. 

City Engineer Jones has condemned 
the Lome bridge as unfit in its present 
condition to sarry the proposed line of 
cars to Port Dover. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Tenders addressed to N. E. Brooks, 
divsion engineer, C. P. R., Calgary, will 
be received until January 31st for erec- 
tion of timber trestles, including end 
and central towers over south fork of 
Old Man River, etc., maximum height, 
137 feet, length 650 feet. Material to be 
furnished by company. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

A subway will be constructed at Jas- 
per avenue and not a bridge as at first 
intended. J. G. Sullivan, C. P. R. En- 
gineer, Montreal, Que., will have charge. 
F. M, C. Crosskili, Secretary-Treasurer, 
of Edmonton. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to the Chairman of 
the Board of Control will be received 
until January 31st for cleaning and paint- 
ing St. Patrick and Sussex street bridges. 
Newton J. Ker, City Engineer. 

The council have decided to bring the 
eminent railway engineer, Mr. W. F. 
Tye, of Montreal, to Ottawa, to report 
in conjunction with City Engineer Ker 
on the railway entrance problem. Noted 

The Dominon Government will be ask- 
ed to put $75,000 in the estimates this 
year as its contribution towards the cost 
of erecting the high level bridge over 
the Rideau canal at Bank street. The 
civic street railway extension committee 
appointed Aid. Carnochan and Brown 
and City Engineer Ker as the deputa- 

Penticton, B.C. 

Penticton and Princeton Boards of 
Trade will co-operate in the construction 
of a new scenic route through the Os- 
prey Lake district. 

PortArthur, Ont. 

It is understood from good authority 
that the C. P. R. will double track their 
line between Fort William and Port 
Arthur at a cost of about $250,000, and 
that R. Ferguson, general road master, 
will be put in charge. 

St. George de Beauce, Que. 

Tenders will be received on or about 
February 15th at the office of the council 
at Providence P.O., Beauce, for the con- 
struction of an iron and concrete bridge 
on the Chaudiere river; tenders to be of 
two kinds, one for the substructure, and 
the other for the superstructure. Plans, 
etc., at the office of Mr. Arthur Godbout, 

East of St. Georges de Beauce; Charles 
Bolduc, secretary-treasurer, C. N. C. B. 

Ste. Famille, Que. 

Tenders are called by Public Works, 
Ottawa, for extension to wharf here un- 
til February 20th. Plans, etc., at above 
department; at the offices of the district 
engineers in Montreal and Quebec; and 
on application to local postmaster. 

Temiskaming, Que. 

Hon. Chas. R. Devlin, of the Quebec 
Government, Dr. Hodgins, M.P. for Pon- 
tias, and others waited upon Mr. Pugs- 
ley, Minister of Public Works, to urge 
an increase in the grant for the construc- 
tion of a bridge at Temiskaming. The 
sum of $50,000 is already in the esti- 
mates for the bridge here, but the depu- 
tation has asked to have this amount in- 
creased so that the bridge could be 
strengthened sufficiently to enable it to 
be used by the Cobalt and Haileybury 
tend into the Province of Quebec to the 
Town of Ville Marie. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Michael Carlin & Co. have been award- 
ed the contract for the Vancouver Island 
section of the C. N. R., $500,000. 

erection of Masonic Temple here. Plans, 
etc., obtained from the above. 

It is stated that tenders for erection 
of new Zion Presbyterian Church will 
be called shortly. Messrs. Robert Mc- 
Calluni, A. F. Stewart and J. S. Burnie 
were elected managers. Noted pre- 

Public Buildings, Churches 
Schools, etc. 

Aldergrove, B.C. 

The citizens here are feeling the need 
of a public building. 

Amherst, N.S. 

Tenders addressed to R. C. Desroch- 
ers, secretary. Department of Public 
Works, will be received until January 
25th for electric light fixtures, wiring, 
etc., in public building here. Plans on 
application to the caretaker of the 
building, Mr. J. H. Chapman, Amherst, 
N.S. Mr. C. E. W. Dodwell, District 
Engineer, Halifax, N.S., and above De- 

Bracebridge, Ont. 

The Oddfellows' Block was destroyed 
by fire on the 17th inst. 

Brantford, Ont. 

Messrs. Taylor & Taylor, architects, 
are preparing plans for an enlargement 
of Wesley Methodist Church in Eagle 
Place; also for a new school at Moyle's. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Architect McElroy will design the 
new church for St. Paul's Presbyterian 
congregation. Estimated expenditure, 
about $37,500. It will be carried only as 
far as the basement at present. ' 

The present incinerators have been 
condemned and the medical health 
officer, E. W. A. Brock, of the health 
department, has submitted several plans 
of incinerators to the city commis- 
sioners. Eestimated cost, $15,000. 

Cardston, Alta. 

The plans for the aj^-story hospital 
are prepared. The Dainty Hospital 
Company, Lethbridge, are behind the 

Carleton Place, Ont. 

The citizens are again considering the 
erection of a large rink. Plans, site and 
some capital have already been secured. 

Tenders addressed to D. H. Mcintosh, 
M.D., Chairman Building Committee, 
will be received until February 15th for 

Collingwood, Ont. 

Mr. Wilson, architect, is preparing 
preliminary plans for the new school for 
which the ratepayers recently voted 

Cumberland, B.C. 

Mr. Coulson, mine manager, has asked 
for a citzens' committee to report on the 
cost of erection and equipment of a Y. 
M. C. A. here. Dr. Gillespie, chairman; 
J. Shaw, secretary. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

At a meeting of the Exhibition direc- 
tors it was decided to call for competitive 
plans for the erection of new stock pavil- 
ion from members of the Alberta Asso- 
ciation of Architects, who reside in Ed- 
monton and Strathcona. Entries of plans 
close February I5t. President, Campbell. 

Tenders addressed to John Stocks, 
Deputy Minister of Public Works, will 
be received until January 28th for sup- 
ply and delivery of (a) hollow terra 
cotta partition tile and (b) small angles, 
required in connection with the new 
Parliament Buildings. Plans, etc., at 
above Department or at the branch 
office, Calgary. 

Grimsby, Ont. 

The public library board received a 
grant of $8,000 towards the erection of 
a library building. The site has been 
obtained and plans are being prepared. 
Jas. Aitchison, secretary. 

Halifax, N.S. 

Forty acres, estate of late Dr. Robert 
Murray, have been purchased by Dal- 
housie University on which a new build- 
ing will be erected. 

Kingsmill, Ont. 

The citizens on January 2nd voted to 
erect a library. 

London, Ont. 

Aid. Fichter is chairman of the com- 
mittee appointed to superintend the con- 
struction of new city hall. 

Markdale, Ont. 

The Public Library Board here have 
received the offer of $5,000 from the 
Carnegie Library Fund, providing the 
town provides a suitable site, etc. 

Montreal, Que. 

The Calvary Congregational Church 
have under consideration three or four 
building sites for their new church. 
The conditions of sale of the old church 
leave the congregation in possession un- 
til June I, 1912. 

The Engineers' Club Committee has 
decided to erect a new home. The pre- 
sent building will be removed and a large 
additon made. The plans have been pre- 
pared by Saxe & Archibald and work will 
be commenced in the early spring. Esti- 
mated expenditure. $100,000. 

Newcastle, N.B. 

The County Council have declined to 
provide for building a new court house 
this year; the cost ranging from $27,000 
to $40,000. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Exhibition Association Committee 
have decided to recommend to the City 




Council that the new agricultural imple- 
ment and machinery hall be built this 
year. The estimated cost is $75,000. 
President, T. C. Bate, Messrs. John Gra- 
ham, C. Ross, Geo. May, F. Heney and 
City Engineer Ker are members of the 

The estimates of the Public Works De- 
partment passed last week include: In 
Quebec Fraserville, Armory, $5,000; 
(irosse Isle; quarantine station, repairs, 
$7,000, new building, $50,000; Levis, ar- 
mory, $30,000; Maisonneuve, post office, 
$19,000; Marieville, public building, $17,- 
000; Megantic, public building, $22,000; 
Ontreal, general post office, enlarge- 
ents, etc., $140,000; post office, Mile 
ind, enlargement, $5,000; public build- 
g, $10,000; new barracks, $100,000; 
apierville, public building, $10,000; 
Quebec — Custom house, $70,000; drill 
,all extension, $50,000; detention build- 
g $50,000; immigration building, $80,- 
; examining warehouse, $2,000; Que- 
c Province immigration buildngs gen- 
ally, $10,000; l-iigaud, public building, 
8,000; Roberval, public building, $14,- 
10; Kock Island, public building, $15,- 
; Shawinigan, public building, $15,- 
; St. Henri, post office improvements, 
7,000; St. Jacques de L'Achigan, public 
building, $15,000; St. Lambert, public 
building, $20,000; Three Rivers, new pub- 
lic building, $75,000; Westmount, public 
building, $50,000. 

In Ontario — Athens, public building, 
5,000; Hrantford, drill hall, $yoo; Ches- 
y, public buildings, $15,000; Dominion 
blic buildings, repairs, etc., $ao,ooo; 
resden, public buildings, $17,000; Dun- 
s, public building, $15,000; Elora, pub- 
ic building, $14,000; Essex, post office, 
4,000; Fergus, public bulking, $14,000; 
brt William, public building, enlarge- 
ment, $H,ooo; Gananoque, post office, ad- 
dition, $4,000; Goderich, public building, 
,000; Harrison, public building, $15,- 
o; Kingston, post office, additon, $25,- 
Listowel, public building, $18,000; 
idland, public building, $10,000; Mit- 
chell, public building, $18,000; Mount 
Forest, public building, $18,000. 

Sarnia, Ont. 

We are informed that the $45,000 
granted by last year's council for new 
school will not be issued in debentures 

Rty present council. Therefore the erec- 
lon of school cannot be carried out 
or some time. Noted in December 7th. 
Tenders are called until January 31st 
or the masonry, carpentry, plumbing, 
electrical wiring, painting, etc., required 
in the remodelling of Devine Street 
Methodist Sunday School. Plans at 
^^^Simpson & Carter's store. Geo. Leach, 

^^Strathcona, Alta. 

The Library Board will apply to 
council for a site for the library build- 
ing; also to Carnegie Library Commit- 
tee for grant of $25,000 for the erection 
of building. Ex-Mayor Duggan, chair- 
man; J. H. McDonald, secretary-trea- 

St. John, N.B. 

Tenders were called until January 
25th for heating and plumbing in the 
extension of the St. John Exchange of 
the New Brunswick Telephone Com- 
pany, Limited. G. E. Fairweather, ar- 
chitect, 84 Germain street. 

Toronto, Ont. 

A central site has been purchased in 
trust for the establishment of a working 
girls' home for the Catholic women of 




Toronto. Mrs. James E. Day, President 
of the Watch-out Committee of the 
Catholic Women's Auxilary; Dr. Amyot, 
Messrs. A. C. Macdonell, M.P., T. P. 
Phelan are interested. 

The Registry Office has been con- 
demned by the Grand Jury in their re- 
port on local institutions. 

The congregation of Grace Church, 
Elm street, have decided to sell their 
edifice and move elsewhere. 

It was announced at the annual meet- 
ing of the Presbyterian Church that the 
old property on the Don Mills Road had 
been sold and a new site on Broadview 
Avenue purchased. The church will 
erect a new Sunday school, costing abuut 
$25,000, as soon as the weather permits. 
Rev. P. S. Sinclair, pastor. 

Truro, N.S. 

Dr. Dunbar and Mr. J. C. B. Olive 
were appointed as members of the com- 
mittee nominated to report on the ques- 
tion of the establishment of a public 
general town and county hospital, the 
report to be ready for the public meet- 
ing during the session of the county 
council in April next. Noted previously. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Permit was granted for the erectiion 
of moving picture theatre, 2222 Gran- 
ville street, $6,500. Messrs. Stark & 
Crossley will erect it. 

The Art, Historical and Scientific As- 
sociation have announced their intention 
to undertake the erection of a museum 
building. Secretary, H. J. de Forest. 

At a meeting held recently the Wo- 
men's Club Building Society was defi- 
nitely organized with the object of build- 
ing a women's club in this city, and steps 
will be taken for its incorporation. It 
is expected that the building will cost 
about $50,000. Mrs. J. H. MacGill, Mrs. 
Phillips, secretary-treasurer. 

Tenders addressed to the Minister of 
Public Works, Victoria, will be received 
until February 2nd for erection of an 
addition to the Court House here. Speci- 
fications, etc., at office of the Provincial 
Timber Inspector, Vancouver, B.C., and 
at the Department of Public Works, F. 
C. Gamble, Public Works Engineer, 
Parliament Building, Victoria, B.C. 

The by-law for expenditure of $115,- 
000 for improvements to exhibition 
grounds having been carried, an exten- 
sion to the present grand stand will be 
constructed; 500 additonal feet will give 
the needed seating accommodation. 
Work on the central auditorium will be 
commenced as soon as tenders have been 

The following are the details of the 
by-laws which carried (noted in issue 
of last week): School extensions, pro- 
viding $572,000 for general building and 
improvements; school extensions, pro- 
viding $100,000 for the purchase of sites 
on the south side of False Creek; school 
extensions, providing $295,000 for the 
enlargement of King Edward and Brit- 
ania High schools; morgue by-law pro- 
viding $25,000 for erection of public 
morgue with second story of buildng to 
be used as analyst's laboratory; fire hall 
by-law, providing $2t,ooo for new cen- 
tral fire hall for Mount Pleasant. 

Vicotria, B.C. 

Mr. C. E. Watkins, architect, has been 
instructed by the school board to pre- 


pare plans for a new three-ttory high 
ichooi and submit them to the board. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The Provincal Health Board have 
granted permission to the city to erect 
a contagious disease hospital. 

The board of management of the Old 
Folks' Home, Middlechurch, have decid- 
ed upon the building of an annex which 
will be planned during thi< year. Mrs. 
Geo. Bryce. president. 

Yorkton, Suk. 

The management of the Exhibition A»- 
sociation have decided to direct all their 
energy towards a large exhibtton in 
1913. Recently the board bought an 80 
acre site. 


Burk'i Palls, Ont 

The building owned by James Mitchell, 
of Elmsdale, was destroyed by fire re- 
cently. Loss, about $4,000. 

Wallaceburg, Ont. 

Plans are being drawn by Architect 
S. G. Kisney, Chatham, for a new brick 
residence for Mrs. S. A. Miller, of Wal- 
laceburg. It wilt be built in the spring. 

Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

Berlin, Ont. 

The L. .\IcBrine Company, trunk man- 
ufacturer!;, and the Art Glass Company 
are planning to construct large additions 
to their present factories; the Felt Boot 
and Rubber Manufacturers intend build- 
ing a box factory. 

Brandon, Man. 

Elevator .No. l of the Maple Leaf Mill- 
ing Company was destroyed by fire on 
the 19th inst. Loss, about $7S,ooo. 

Brantford, Ont 

Press reports state that the Bank of 
Montreal are considering the erection 
of a large branch building on their pre- 
sent site. Local manager, Mr. Monti- 
zambert; architects, Peden & McLaren. 
Montreal, Que. 

Boynston, Que. 

The store belonging to Mrs. Bacheldor 
was destroyed by fire on the loth inst. 
Loss, about $2,000. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Chas. Webster, secretary. Board of 
Trade, has received a communication 
from a large glass manufacturmg con- 
cern anxious to locate in the west and 
attracted by the discovery of natural 
gas in this vicinity. 

Carleton Place, Ont 

The Union Bank of Canada have pur- 
chased property on Bridge street on 
which it is stated a new branch wilt be 
erected. The C. P. R. is reported to be 
contemplating the erection of a new pas- 
senger station here; Findlay Bros. Stove 
Company also purpose enlarging. G. H. 
Balfour, Quebec, General Manager. 
Union Bank. 

Fort Frances, Ont 

P. S. Dainerd, superintendent, will sup- 
erintend the construction of the new saw 
mill being built by the ShevUn-Clarke 

Hamilton, Ont 

The Magee-Walton Ice & Coal Com- 
pany have building permit for the erec- 



tion of a corrugated iron ice house on 
Strachan street. Cost, about $20,000. 

The Imperial Bank will, it is stated. 
erect on their site on James street a new 
2-story office. 

M. Brennen & Sons, Manufacturing 
Co., Ltd., this city, are contemplating 
the erection of a large addition to their 
sash and door plant during 1911. 

Lethbridge, Alta. 

The Farmers' Lumber Company has 
purchased property on which office 
buildings and lumber sheds will be erect- 
ed. Whiddington Bros, are in charge of 
the construction. 

Medicine Hat, Alta. 

The American Grain Separator Co., of 
Minneapolis, is looking for a location to 
establish a branch factory in Canada. 
This city is being considered. W. L. 
.Searles. sales manager. Medicine Hat. 

Mitchell, Ont. 

Ford & Murphy, Stratford, have 
bought 44 feet frontage on Main street 
and will put up a brick block next sum- 

Montreal, Que. 

The Canadian Car Corporation is 
thinking of enlarging its establishment 
by the erection of a foundry and by com- 
pleting its unfinished power building at 

Plans are now being prepared by the 
architects, Messrs. Warren and Wet- 
more, for a first-class modern residential 
hotel for the Carlton Hotel Company, 
of Montreal. Contracts will be let about 
the end of March for the construction of 
the hotel, which it is expected will be 
ready by the beginning of May, 1912. 
Sir Montagu Allen, president; L. W. 
Just, secretary. 

Moose Jaw, Sask. 

The publishing plant of the "Daily 
Times" was destroyed by fire on the 19th 
inst. Total loss, about $100,000. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The corner block on Clarence and Dal- 
housie streets, occupied by V. Charron, 
S. L. Tesky and others, was destroyed 
by fire on the 22nd inst. 

A new office is to be constructed at 
the works of Jas. MacLaren Lumber 
Company, Buckingham. The Ottawa 
Stair Works has the contract. J. P. Mac- 
Laren, architect. 

Donald Fraser will erect a commercial 
building at the corner of Albert and 
Slater, with seven stores and twelve 

The R. H. Millar building, 248 Albert 
street, has been purchased by a syndi- 
cate, whose intention is to build two ad- 
ditional stores on the rear extension. 

Phoenix, B.C. 

The Queen's Hotel here was destroyed 
by fire on the 15th inst. Owner of 
building, David Oxley. 

Regina, Sask. 

Plans for the new Bank of Ottawa 
building have been prepared. George 
Burn, General Manager, Ottawa. Work 
will probably start in the spring. Noted 

It is reported that the Regent Com- 
pany will be re-organized as the Regina 
Tractor Company. On the guarantee of 
sufficient capital a new plant costing 
about $100,000 will be built in the spring. 
The site has been secured and paid for. 
it is stated. R. G. Thompson is in 
charge of re-organization. 

Rivers, Man. 

J. A. Morden has the contract for the 
heating and plumbing of the new hotel 
in Transcona. 

Sarnia, Ont. 

The new plant being erected for A. H. 
Diver here will be two storeys in height, 
80 X 200 feet, of reinforced concrete. 
Work will commence in the near future. 

St. John, N.B. 

The grist mill of the Perth Milling 
Company, Andover. Victoria County, 
was destroyed by fire on the 22nd inst. 
Loss, $8,000. 

Three Rivers, Que. 

A 40-ton pulp and paper mill is to be 
erected here by the Union Bag and Pa- 
per Company, of Sandy Hill, N.Y. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Tenders were called until January 
2,3rd for removing stores, Nos. 152 and 
154 Yonge street. Messrs. A. R. Denison 
& Stephen, architects, 20 King street 

The Ontario Brass Rolling Mills Co. 
are stated to have tentative plans under 
considerations for extensive additions to 
their plant other than those now under 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Permit was granted to Mr. J. W. 
VVeart, managing director of the In- 
vestors' Guarantee Corporation, for the 
15-story block, corner of Hastings and 
Richards streets, $500,000. 

The Bank of Vancouver plans to re- 
place its temporary office on Douglas 
street by a bank building. The present 
lease runs three years. W. H. Ronald, 
acting manager. 

The British Columbia Telephone Com- 
pany have awarded the contract for the 
construction of its new telephone ex- 
change in Kitsilano to Smith & Sher- 
bourne. Total cost, $44,000. Construc- 
tion is to be commenced at once and it 
is the intention to have the structure in 
a completed conditon by May I. 

The Hudson Bay Company have under 
consideration the enlargement of their 
stores. In Vancouver it is proposed to 
erect at the corner of Granville and 
Georgia streets a 6-story building of 
steel structure. H. E. Burbridge, sales 
commissioner, Winnipeg. 

Plans were presented for the 5-story 
warehouse to be erected by Messrs. 
Walter & E. C. Taylor on Water street 
at an estimated cost of $25,000. 

Mr. William Price, general manager of 
the Western Steel Corporation, is au- 
thority for the statement that the steel 
plant to be econstructed near .Sunbury 
will be started by April ist. Jas. A. 
Moore, president. Noted in last issue. 

Plans have been filed by Messrs. Parr 
& Fee for a twelve-story building to be 
erected on Granville street for Mr. Dom- 
inic Burns,$4D0,ooo. The building will 
be constructed of steel and faced with 
brick and terra cotta. Excavation work 
on the 12-foot basement has been prac- 
tically completed. A great amount of 
architecural work will adorn the porticos 
and stuccowork. There will be three 
passenger elevators and one freight 
hoist. The structure will be fireproof 
in construction and will have a ground 
area of 50 feet by 120 feet. 

Victoria, B.C. 

It is reported that plans have taken 
shape for th immediate erection of a 10- 
story block on the site of the Spencer 

Building, recently destroyed by fire. The 
proposed structure will cost about $750,- 

Mr. L. W. Hargraves, architect, is pre- 
paring plans for the new 5-story hotel 
to be erected at the southwest corner of 
Douglas and Pandora streets for Mr. 
Lim Bang. Work will start as soon as 
plans are completed. 

Welland, Ont. 

The site of three acres for the Can- 
adian Automatic Transportation Com- 
pany's plant has been purchased. The 
factory will be of brick and concrete 
and two storeys high and will be a dupli- 
cate of the one in Buffalo. Building 
plans are ready. B. J. McCormick. In- 
dustrial Commissioner. I'resident, W. C. 
Carr, Buflfalo; Secretary-treasurer. Chas. 
O'Hara Craigie, Toronto. 

The deal whereby the Ontario Iron 
and Steel plant, located here, will be- 
come the property of the Canadian Car 
& Foundry Company, of Montreal, has 
been closed. It is believed that improve- 
ments and additions to the extent of 
$1,000,000 will be made to the plant by 
the present owners. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The $35,000 building permit taken out 
by the Hudson Bay Company is for al- 
terations and improvements to the stores 
buildings in connection with the com- 
pany's extension plans. Mr. Woodman, 

Woodstock, Ont. 

The agreement between the Ken Knit 
Co., Ltd. (to be incorporated) and the 
city, has been arrived at. In return for 
civc privileges the company will erect 
and rnaintain a factory to cost at least 
(building and machinery) about $35,000. 
G. F. Mahon, barrister, of this city, re- 
presentative of companw. Aid. Wel- 
ford, chairman of industrial committee. 


Hamilton, Ont. 

The International Harvester Company 
has awarded to George E. Mills the con- 
tract for the erection of their fine office 
buildng, $40,000. Work is to be rushed 
to completion as speedily as possible. 
The company will do its own excavating. 
The building will be 100 feet long and 
60 feet wide, and will be two stories high, 
with a basement. The following have 
sub-contracts: John Poag, carpenter 
work; Burton and Baldwin, interior fin- 
ishings; Adam Clark & Sons, plumbing; 
John E. Riddell, roofing; Stamp & Son, 
painting; Electrical Supply Co., wiring 
and fixtures; Hamilton liridge Co., struc- 
tural steel work; Canadian Wire Goods 
Company, lockers, etc. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The contract for the Porous Terra 
Cotta fireproofing of the new Hobberlin 
building, corner Yonge and Richmond 
streets, has been awarded to R. Bennett, 
contractor, 347}^ Euclid avenue. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Mr. S. Olason took out a building per- 
mit for a brick block at 549 Richards 
street, $30,000. 


Power Plants, Electricity and 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Ex-Mayor May, and M. W. Eager, bar- 
rister, Edmonton, are endeavoring to se- 
(Continued on page 30) 

Tenders and For Sale Department 


K Wn hiivc a No. « and a No. 5 McOully gyin- 
tiiry type with manganese steel head and con- 
cnvi-H, suitable for breaking very hard material 
Both are new; never set up. Located Now York 
State. Also a 60-ft. elevator and a iSln. X 12 
ft. McCully scri'en. Will sell separately. At- 

Itively priced. Confer with ns. 
171 I.a Salle St.. 
Chicago, III. 

Tenders for 


Supply of Asphalt 

staled tenders, addressed to the Chairman, 
jard of Control, Winnipeg, Canada, for the 
pply of from to i,.i;oo tons of Asphalt 
for street paving for the City of Winnipeg, will 
he received at the office of the undersigned ur to 
II a.m. on Wednesday, March ist, 1911. Speci 
ticalion and form of tender, togctlier with condi- 
tions I'overning tenders, as inescrihed by by-law. 
may be obtained at the office of the City En- 
gineer, 2^ James Avenue, Winnipeg, Canada. 
The Hoard reserves the right lo reject any or all 
nders or to accept any bid which appears ad- 
Dtageous to the city. 

M. PETERSON, Secretary. 
iBoard of Control Office, 

ninnipeg, Jan. iQth, 1911. 4-5 

Notice To Contractors 


Civic Supplies 

Sealed tenders addressed to the Chairman of 
e Hoard of Control, City Hall» Ottawa, will be 
iceived v the Secretary of the Board of Con- 
I'ol, City llall, Ottawa, up to 4 p.m., Tuesday, 
'cbruary i^th, 191 1, endorsed "Tender for (troken 
5tonc, Jtrick, Stone Cnrbing, Stone Setts, Cement, 
IMank and Cedar. Sand, Vitrified Clap Pipe, As- 
halt, ("astings, or Hardware," as the case may 

Specifications, form of tender and full particu- 
Ts may be obtained on application at the City 
ngineer's office. City Hall, (Ottawa. 
Any tender received after the above stated 
lime will be declared informal. 

The Corporation does not bind itself to accept 
le lowest or any tender. 


City Engineer. 
(Ottawa. Ian. srst. 19''- 4-5 

last Iron Water Pipe 

Sealed tenders addressed to the Cit^ Clerk, 

Srandon, Man., endorsed "Tender for Cast Iron 

'Pipe," will he received until 12 o'clock noon on 

Friday, the third day of February next, for from 

Ten to Twenty Tlunisand Kcet of Six Inch and 

I^Four Inch Pipe. 

The 6" pipe to be .50 lbs. per foot and 4" pipe 
o lbs. per foot, which must be tested to hydro- 
static pressure of 300 lbs. 

J 5,000 (eet to be delivered by April the 15th, 
|nd the balance not later than th eist day of 
June next. 

Specifications^^may be had from the City En- 
[ineer's office, Brandon. 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 


hairman Waterworks Com. City Engineer. 

Brandon, Man., Jan. 18, 1911. •'"5 

Notice To Contractort 

Water Works Supplies 

Sealed lenders, addressed to tiie Chairman o( 
the Waterworks Committee, City Hall, Ottawa, 
will be received by registered post only, up to 
4 p.m., Tueaday, February 14th, 1911, for the 
supply and delivery of ItrasBwork, Special Pipe 
Castings, Hydrants, Cast Iron Pipe, I-ead Pipe 
and Pig Lead, Valves or Oila and (Ireaae a> the 
case may be. 

.Specifications, form of tender and full narticu- 
lars may be obtained on application at the City 
Kngineer'a Office. Cily Hall, Oitawa. 

Any tender received after the above stated 
time will be declared informal. 

The Corporation does not bind itself to accept 
tlie lowest or any icnrler. 


City Engineer. 

Ottawa. Jan. jist, igii. 4-5 

Town of Pembroke, Ontario 

Tenders For 

Laying and Jointing 
Water Mains, etc. 

Tenders are required to be delivered on or be- 
fore Monday, i3tn February. loii. at 1 o'clock 
p.m.. addressed to Mr. E. A. iJunlop, Chairman 
of Water Committee, Pembroke. 

Tendeis to include for all labor, etc., in con- 
nection with laying about 5,900 feet of 16 inch 
water main, together with fixing valves and 
hydrants. . . 

Forms of Tender may be obtained and specih- 
cations and plans examined either at the offices 
of Mr. T. Aird Murray, 30.1 I.umsden Building. 
Toronto, or at the office of the Resident En 
gincer, Mr. J. L. Armour, Pembroke, on or after 
the ioth inst. 

Tl\e right is reserved to reject any or all 

By order, 
A. J. PORTtER. Town Clerk, 


Consulting Engineer, 
Toronto. Ont. 4-4 

Town of Pembroke, Ontario 

Tenders for 

Laying and Jointing 
an Intake Pipe 

Tenders are required on or before Monday, 
the 13th of February, 1911. «t 2 o;clock p.m., 
addressed to Mr. E. A. Dunlop. Chairman of 
Water Committee. Pembroke. 

Tender to include for all labor, etc.. in connec- 
tion with laying about 5.400 feet of 18 inch Lap- 
welded Steel Intake Pipe, and the consiruclion of 
a Concrete Pump Well. ^ . . . <- .^ 

Forms of Tender may be obtained and Specih- 
cations and Plans examined either at the offices 
of Mr. T. Aird Murray. 303 Lumsden Building. 
Toronto, or at the office of the Resident En 
gineer, Mr. J. L. .\rmour, Pembroke, on or after 
the 30th inst. . „ 

The right is reserved to reject any or aH 

By order, 

A. J. FORTIER. Town Clerk. 


Consulting Engineer, 

Toronto, Ont. 4-4 


A one yard Peatfy dredjM in firat-ctei* rfnac 
,~road sution. will All 

withl , , 

for . .(Iso a half rard 

ine -1 in firsl-cua* M pwr * 

Apply 1-KKii .\. KiM-.r.KTSON, Cornwall, 0»t. 


City of Strathcona 


Tenders for 

Engine, Boilers and 

Tenders addressed lo David Ewins. OiM En 
gineer jiower house. Strathcona. Alia., for the 
above machinery, will be received until noon. 
Wednesday, March isl, 1911. Specificiliona mcr 
be obtainea upon application to the andcnifiMa. 

A. J. McLEAN. 

City EosiiKCr. 

Strathcona. AltB., Jan. 16, 1911. 4-S 

Positions Wanted 

drtrtitfmentt un.Ur th i hrtuitnf i*tu cent « fc^*«J 
frr imtrrtitm. B0X So ten crmts rxtrm 

WANTED — Position ■» kut>crintcndenl or 
treneral foreman, railroad work preferred. Tweniy 
years experienced. Addre»», Hok 189, Contract 
Record, Toronto, Onl. t 4 

ARCHITKCT, higbrnt qualifications and ex 
pericncc, would take charge of olBcc or cooaidcr 
partnership. Tlie West preferred. Boa aoo. Con- 
tract Record. Toronto. «tnt. 4 7 


AJrvrtiumtmlt undtr Hum kesJimg tu ctnt m 
/Vr inttrtimn, B*x St. Urn cenit tjttr* 

AGENTS WANTED— L»rge United State* 
Terra Cotta company desires high. class agenciea 
for Canada. Send particular* to W. D Ward. 
Tribune Building. New Vork Cily. 4 6 

THE STEEf, SyUAKE— For •ate—a coptea 
of vol 1 and a copies of vol. a Fred T. Hods- 
son's book. "Practical Treatise oo the Me«l 
Square." ni PV- l^'ee. only 50 ccats a 
copy. Contract ilecord. jio Kin( street weat. 

Toronto. Onl. 

4 5 

firm manufacturing complete lise ol electiical 
measuring instruments want m po n ii nlii xr^n- 
senlatives 10 handl-- ''■" ^'nes ihroaBboal the 
whole of Canada. ^ I to deal aeparate- 

It for Eastern an^: > aoada. Box i»4 

Contract Record. 1\ . ; . J-i 

ADA— British firm ol elecirical and 
engineers manufacturing electric l>Skir^ 
ties, wants t" «ecure reliable CanadtUI 
seniativ< - :i carry a Mock in C 

Write f . s lo Box 199. Contract Re- 

cord. T.. « 5 

The Vice-President and General Man- 
ager of thejMonterrey Railway. Light 
and Power A)nipany. Limited, .\partado 
(P.O. Box 58^. Monterrey. N L.. Mexi- 
co, will receive tenders until March i5i. 
191 1, for erection of gas plant. Plans, 
etc., at ofSce of the abov«. 



Power Plants, Electricity and 

(Continued from page 28) 

cure rights from the Dominion Govern- 
ment to build a dam on the upper Sas- 
katchewan above Edmonton, for the pur- 
pose of developing hydro-electric power 
for the supply of Edmonton and towns 
in the vicinity. 

One of the features of the Provincai 
Telephone Department for this year will 
be the strengthening of the long distance 
lines between Edmonton, Calgary and 
Lethbridge with new copper wire. There 
will also be a number of new exchanges 
and the remodelling of old exchanges. 
John Stocks, Deputy Minister. 

Two important extensions of govern- 
ment telegraph lines into the north 
country are being planned for this year. 
One will carry the line northeast along 
the Athabasca river, to Fort McMurray, 
a distance of about 200 miles. The other 
will be down into Grande Praire from 
Peace River crossing to where the line 
was extended last year. Construction of 
these extensions will probably be com- 
menced on the opening of spring. 

Guelph, Ont. 

The Light and Heat Commission sub- 
mitted a plan for new lighting system 
in which is suggested the placing of two 
large arcs and a cluster at the street 
corners in central section and the light- 
ing of balance of city with 800 75 c.p. 
lights. Mr. Carter, chairman. 

Hamilton, Ont. 

Steps are being taken to operate the 
east end sewage disposal works by 
Hydro power. The return power line 
from the beach pumping plant to the 
disposal plant has not yet been built, 
and that work will have to be undertaken 
very soon. City Engineer Macallum. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The municipal electrical commission is 
having plans prepared to place all the 
wires on Sparks street underground. 
Superintendent, Brown. 

Regina, Sask. 

The council has instructed the com- 
missioners to meet the Government offi- 
cials in regard to the steps necessary to 
the establishment of a municipally own- 
ed gas plant. 

Tenders marked "Tenders for Street 
Railway Materials D," addressed to the 
City Commissioners, will be received un- 
til January 31st for supply of trolley 
poles and railway ties. Particulars up- 
on application to City Engineer, L. A. 

The Street Railway Commissioners 
recommended the award of supply as fol- 
lows; For the overhead work and other 
equipment:Northern Electric Company — • 
Straight line hangers, $42 each; line ears, 
$26.90 each; douljle curve hangers. $56.- 
20, and single curve hangers, $35.20 each; 
strain plates, ^33 each; strain ears, $37 
each; left hand trolley frogs, $270 each; 
right hand trolley frogs, $270 each; 
crossovers, $410 each. 

Dawson and Company — Wood insu- 
lators, $23 each; splicing, $54; eye bolts, 
nine inch, $9.30 each; 10 iijch, $9.80, 11 
inch, $11.20, 12 inch, $11 each. 

General Electric Company — Turn- 
buckles, $65 each, and lightning arresters, 
$400 each. 

In almost every instance the lowest 

prices were recommended. The equip- 
ment already decided upon by the city 
engineer and city commissioners docs 
not constitute all that will be required. 

The United States Steel Products 
Company have practically been selected 
to supply all rails, spikes and bolts 
necessary at a total cost of $47,409.90. Of 
that amount $46,846.90 is for rails. The 
tenders for the rails required very little 
attention as the American firm was 
pracitcally alone in the field in that re- 

Strathcona, Alta. 

At a meeting of council the recom- 
mendation of the fire and light commit- 
tee, based on the information of Elec- 
trical Engineer Ewing as to the ineffi- 
ciency of the power plant (noted in issue 
of December 28th) that equipment to 
the value of about $72,000 be purchased 
at once, was adopted. The details of this 
expenditure was given as follows: 600 
k.w. generator. $14,300; accompanying 
engine, about $20,000; necessary boilers, 
$32,000; provision to be made later for 
the installation of an exhaust steam 
turbine engine which would increase the 
capacity 400 k.w. Chairman Richards 
stated no time would be lost in securing 
tenders for machinery supply. 

Victoria, B.C. 

The electric lighting by-law ($25,000) 
was carried; also the underground tele- 
phone by-law. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Pratt & Ross, Architects, have pre- 
pared plans for a turbine power house 
for the Winnipeg Electric Co., to be 
erected here at a cost of $72,000. Wil- 
ford Phillips, General Superintendent. 


Ottawa, Ont. 

The contract for the additional poles 
required for extending the "white way" 
to Rideau and Bank streets was awarded 
to the Canada Foundry. 


Edmonton, Alta. 

The I'ire Department estimates for ex- 
penditure for 191 1 provide for the pur- 
chase of a motor driven chemical and 
hose combination wagon with a capacity 
of 50 gallons of chemical, estimated to 
cost $6,500. 

In the estimates for equipment pro- 
vision will be made also for an aerial 
ladder truck with 75 feet extension lad- 
der, wall ladders and other equipment, 
the whole to be horse drawn. This will 
cost $6,000. 

3.000 feet of cotton rubber lined hose 
will cost $3,300. The total capital ex- 
penditure for the year is estimated at 
$25,085.75. This will include $1,000 for 
the purchase of sites for future substa- 
tions. Chief, Davidson. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Tenders are being called until Janu- 
ary 31 by the Board of Control for sup- 
ply of travelling crane. G. R. Geary, 
chairman. Board of Control. 

Recent building permits include: W. E. 
Mackey, 2 pair semi-detached 2^-story 
brick dwellings. 91-97 Wright avenue. 
$10,000; Fairbanks-Morse Canadian Man- 
ufacturing Co., l-story brick and steel 
addition to foundry, 1369 Bloor street 
west, $13,800; 2-story brick foundry 
cleaning and pattern house, 1469 Bloor 

street west, $7,000; i-story stucco storage 
shed, 1363 Bloor street west, $5,000; Jos. 
Lavvie, i pair semi-detached 2-story 
brick dwellings, 35-37 St. Clarens avenue, 
$4,000; H. S. Mara, i pair semi-detached 
2-story brick dwellings, Ritchie avenue, 
$4,000; D. Schwalm, 2-story brick dwell- 
ing, St. Clair avenue, $4,000; T. J. Bowen, 
3 attached 2-story brick stores and 
dwellings, on south side Dundas street, 
$9,000; Canadian Pacific Railway Co., i- 
story brick repair shop on west side 
Keele street, $20,000; E. B. Shuttleworth, 
i-story brick additon to warehouse on 
southeast corner Victoria and Wilton. 
$7,000; T. J. Sharp, i pair semi-detached 
3-story brick stores and dwellings on 
east side Roncesvalles avenue, $7,000; 
John Logan, 3 i-story brick kilns, north 
of G. T. R. on east side Greenwood ave- 
nue, $7,500; Dundas Building Co., i pair 
semi-detached 2-story brick dwellings on 
east side Murray street, $7,000; Mary C. 
Horrocks, I pair semi-detached 2-story 
brick dwellings on south side Winchester 
street. $5,500; H. J. Rae, 2-story and attic 
brick dwelling, near Summerhill avenue, 
east side Glen road, $4,500; Virginia Cas- 
sevoi, I pair semi-detached 2-story brick 
dwellings on 17-19 Ritchie avenue. 
$4,500; H. Gingrass, i pair semi-detached 
2-story brick dwellings on 8-10 Spencer 
avenue, $4,000; D. E. Moore, i pair semi- 
detached 2-story brick dwellings, near 
Harriett on Leslie street, $4,000; Fred 
Holt. 2-story and attic brick dwelling, 
near Heath on Dunvegan, $8,000. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Permits were granted as follows: Pro- 
vincial Land & Fire Corporation, seven 
residences, Trafalgar Road, $18,400; J. 
Chisholm, 2021 Bismark street, $2,110; M. 
Lothian, 56 Eighth avenue east, $3,000. 
S. B. Wood, 975 Tenth avenue west, 
$6,000; P. Duffy, 1036 Thirteenth avenue 
east, $2,000; Mrs. Ward, 752 Richards 
street, $5,000; P. Watson, 1218 Four- 
teenth avenue east, $3,600; D. B. Car- 
michael, 1035 Barnard etreet. $2,100; F. 
Wallace. 1549 Charles street. $2,800; Jef- 
ferson & Clapham. 1256 Eighth avenue, 
$2,700; John Coleman, 1363 Fourteenth 
avenue east, $2,500; J. Morley, 2535 Sixth 
avenue west, $2,500; moving-picture the- 
atre at 2222 Granville street, for Messrs. 
Stark & Crossley. $6,500. 

Victoria, B.C. 

Building permits were issued as fol- 
lows: Mrs. J. Handley for a dwelling on 
Queen's avenue. $2,375; John C. Carling, 
dwelling on Fell street, $3,000: to David 
Spencer, alterations to the Driard hotel, 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Recent building permits include: Lyall- 
Mitchell Company, warehouse, corner 
Wall and Richard streets, $11,000; D. 
Johnson, house, north side of Elmwood 
avenue, $2,000: A. Kolbe. house, between 
Powers and Andres, $2,000. 

Tenders addressed to M. Peterson, 
secretary. Board of Control, will be re- 
ceived until Februarv i. 191 1. for the 
supply of labor and material required in 
the erection of three gateways on Corn- 
ish avenue, Armstrong's point. Specifi- 
cations at office of City Engineer. 


Prince Rupert, B.C. 

The contract for a new marine depot 
at Prince Rupert has been awarded to 
the Pacific Construction Company of 
Victoria, $150,000. 



Contractors' and Builders' Supplies 

Crushed Stone 

For Concrete Fireproof Construction, Roadwork and Sidewalks 

Rubble, Portland Cement 

CRUSHED GRANITE for Floors and Sidewalks 


Crescent Fire Brick 

We are exclusive Distributing Agents for this high grade, hand- 
made fire brick. Large stock always on hand. 

Don't forget our Prompt Delivery Service. 

The Rogers Supply Co. 

Head Office: 28 King Street West 


Phone Main 4155 

Sand Dredging Pumps 











THE ( 





We 1 
Road Mat 
solicit enq 
ities con 
of anythii 


Montreal, 318 St. James St. 
Toronto, 73 Victoria St. 
Cobalt, opp. Right of Way Mine 


va:o rd 



^mplete range of 
ad equipment and 
•m any Municipal- 
\g the purchase 
line such as: 



steam or motor ) 









Winnipeg, 259-261 Stanley St. 
Calgary, Crown Block. 
Vancouver, Mercantile Bldg. 



Concrete Finishes 

Concrete Floor Dressing prevents abrasion, 
wear, dust formation, water, oil and grease ab- 

Alkali Proof Wall Size prepares interior 
plastered walls for highest class decorations. 

Waterproof Flat Finishes for highest class 
interior decoration of plaster, metal and Beaver 
Board Surfaces. 

Waterproof White Finish, washable, sanitary, 
intensifies the radiation of light for interior or 
exterior use. 

Courts, factories, elevator shafts, etc. 

French Caen Stone Finbh, a perfect repro- 
duction of French Caen Stone. 



Transparent Waterproofing waterproofs con- 
crete, brick, stone, granite and marble without 
changing color or texture. 

Liquid Cement waterproofs and uniforms sur- 
face color of concrete and stucco. Bonds plaster 
to concrete. 

Liquid Cement Filler fills cracks and breaks 
in concrete and stucco surfaces. 

Acid Proof Coating and Graphite Acid Proof 
Coating for iron and steel submitted to Extreme 
Corrosive Conditions. 

Liquid Rubber for dampproofing interior surf- 
aces of exposed walls— plaster applied over it — 
for waterproofing basements. 

Liquid Rubber Cement for filling expansion 


Booklet covering the above materials and Specifications for use, also samples sent 

gratis, upon request 


Block Stone, Dimensions, Random, Head Sills, Shoddy, Stone Sawing 

Sackville Freestone Co., Limited, SackviUe, N. B. 




^—-^ 1 i ^^^ CSTA8USM10 IM« 

gntract Record 

Building. Contracting. Engineering, Public Works 

Municipal Progresa, Advance Information 

PuBLisHKD Bach Wkdnebday by 


HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 
THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 
[EAD OFFICE - - 220 King Street West, TORONTO 
Telephone Main 2362 

fONTREAL Telephone Main 2299 B34 Board of Trade 
'WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 404 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. - 26 Crowe & Wilson Chambers 

CHICAGO 4059 Perry Street 

LONDON, ENG. 3 Regent St., S.W. 

Canada and Great Britain, $2.00 U.S. and Foreign, $2.50 

El Cana 
Vol. 25 


January 25, 191 1 

No. 4 

he Law of Compensation Proportionate to 


Among the ten fundamental laws of business man- 

jement, as formulated by Gillette and Dana in their 

■ork on "Cost Keeping and Management Engineering," 

ihe most important is the seventh: "All payments for 

ork should be proportionate to work done." There are 

,.ve ways in which business managers have attempted to 

follow this law, where they have attempted it at all, 

namely : 

il'. By th(! payment of higher wages or salaries to 
e most skilful and most intelligent individuals. 

2. By payment of a wage with a sharing of profits. 

3. By payment per unit of work done. 

4. By giving a bonus, commission, or the like, in 
ddition to a regular wage or salary. 

.5. By a combination of two or more of the fore- 
oing methods. 

The first method is a crude attempt to follow the 
fundamental law of economic management. The degree 
of its crudity depends upon the c(mditions of supply and 
' emand in the labor market, the strength or weakness of 
labor unions, and the varinble notions of employers as to 
;hc worth of individual (>mployes. The graduated wage 

etliod of pnyment, if we may so designate it. is not with- 
lut merit, particularly as applied in the payment of 

anagcrs. superintendents and foremen. Tn a rough way 
;he employer measures the producing efficiency of such 

en. and attempts to reward them by higher salaries for 
increased profits due to their wits or energy. When. 
however, we come to the compensation that men in the 
rniiks r(>ccive iuid(>r the wage system, we find far less 
intelligence displayed by employers. Here are large 

dies of men, classed almost alike as to wages, regard- 
ess of individual ability. Can we wonder at the rest- 
le.ssness of the wage earner under such a system? Can 

e find fault with him for listlessness ? Is he l^o be 
ilamed for listening seriously to soeialistie doetrinest 

he wage system in its present form is assuredly doomed. 

Those managers who abandon it first are the ones nuwt 
likely to win greater profit* for themHelves while griving 
greater income to their employes. 

Bbaring Proflta. 

The second system of payment has beeii widely ad- 
vocated in years past, but. in spite of freijnent trial, has 
never become strikingly effective. Its drawbacks are 
many. To be perfectly fair, a profit sharing plan in- 
volves its converse — a loss sharing plan. If employes 
are to receive extra compensation in the fat years, they 
should suffer a deduction from their wages in the lean 
years, which none as yet has been found willing to do. 
Even a more serious objection, however, is that a profit 
sharing plan violates the law of prompt reward. The 
average workman lacks enough imagination to work hard 
to-day that he may receive a profit a year hence. F'in- 
ally. the profit sharing plan fails miserably, when ap- 
plied by itself, becaase it fails to appeal sufficiently to 
the instinct for individual supremacy. It fails for the 
same rea.son that socialism must fail, because it asks the 
energetic to share with the lazy, the wis<? with the foolish. 

The third method of payment is amazingly effective 
wherever it can be applied. Unfortunately it is diffi- 
cult of application except in the payment of managers 
and employers. The manufacturer, the farm owner, the 
contractor and the the railway owner, are paid per unit 
of product. The fundamental law of social economics — 
payment in proportion to performance — Is applied in 
their cases and with results that can leave no doubt what- 
ever about the superiority of creating individual incen- 
tive. Yet the very men who iire themselves thus driven 
to work with the greatest energy — the employers — have 
usually failed to apply to their employes this system of 
payment per unit of product. 

In seeking a reason for this anomaly we need not 
look far, A contractor, for example, receives 20c per 
cubic yard for excavation, involving the use of a steam 
shovel and car plant. His employes are engaged in many 
different duties — some running the shovel, some on the 
dirt drains, some on the dump, some laying track, some 
repairing cars and tools, and so on. It is practically 
impossible to pay each of these classes of men on the 
basis of the cubic yard of excavation and do so with any 
measure of justice. The yardage output s<H-ureil by the 
steam shovel gang is dependent not only upon their own 
efforts, but upon the size and condition of the shovel, 
the depth of the cut, etc. Yet they might be fairly sat- 
isfactorily recompensed on a yardage basis. On the other 
hand, the crews on the dirt trains p^rfonn work that is 
not closely measurable in terms of the cubic yard at all. 
Still less so is the work of the track layers and of the 
repair men thus measureable. Difficulty of apportioning 
j)ayment on the yardage basis is so great that it is rarely 
attempted. Even to a greater degree would it be im- 
jiracticable to pay the employes of a street railway sys- 
tem on the basis of the pa-ssengers carried — for that is 
the unit in which the street railway company itself ia 

Payment per Unit of Work. 

Piece rate payment is a >uiit price .system for the em- 
ploye in which the unit usually differs from that in whieh 
the employer is paid. of employers has 
doubtless led to the disrepute under which the piece rate 
plan now labors. Added to this we have the so«'i«listic 
influence so strongly manifest in most labor unions. Be- 
twtH'u the employers who constantly seek excuses to cut 
piece rates as productiveness increases, and the organ- 
ized emplo.ves who aim to secure pa.v for the poorest 
workman equal to that of the best, the piece rate sy»- 



tern has been prevented from attaining the popularity 
that it really deserves. 

Wage Plus a Bonus. 

The fourth plan — wage plus a bonus— has been 
slowly growing in popularity, and seems destined to find 
a wider application than any other method of compen- 
sation, unless we except the fifth plan, which, as yet, has 
been tried too infrequently to admit of satisfactory com- 
parison with the others. The bonus system was probably 
first applied extensively in the payment of traveling 
salesmen, who received a salary plus a commission on 
sales effected. Perhaps a claim to priority might be 
raised for the "tipping system" of paying waiters, 
which is essentially a bonus system wherein the patron 
pays the bonus. In passing, we may add that the per- 
sistence of the tipping system is due to the fact that it 
secures better service through the stimulus that the tip — 
the bonus — creates. So long, therefore, as no better 
application of the bonus system in restaurants and ho- 
tels is devised, the tipping system will retain popularity. 

A few far-sighted merchants have adopted a bonus 
system for paying their clerks. Each clerk receives a 
small commission on the sales that he effects, in addition 
to his salary. The result is unquestionably more intelli- 
gent and more obliging service, which, in turn, draws 
more custom. 

The greatest difficulty that usually arises in at- 
tempting to apply the bonus system is the diiificulty of 
finding satisfactory units in which to measure the out- 
put of employes of each class, and particularly of indi- 
viduals. How, for example, shall the work of train con- 
ductors be measured? In train-mile units? The train- 
mileage, however, is only to a degree within the control 
of the train crew. Yet we believe that any well con- 
ceived plan of paying train crews a bonus on train- 
mileage would aid remarkably in increasing the present 
average mileage performance, just as certainly as bonus 
for small coal consumption has effected marked reduc- 
tion in fuel used on locomotives. 

To contractors who adopt the bonus system and 
apply it .justly, even liberally, there will come not only 
greater profits than they now receive, but the satisfac- 
tion of having aided in bettering the condition of their 

To engineers who introduce the bonus system in the 
management of public utilities will come positions of 
large emolument and the respect of the world. Such 
engineers will raise the status of their entire pTofession 
to a managerial science. — Engineering-Contracting. 

gencies and extra compensation is allowed where ex- 
cavation becomes difficult, or where forms for con- 
crete are complex, so that they require not only more 
time, but additional outlay for material. 

There can be no doubt that the step taken by this 
committee is in the right direction, and that much re- 
sultant good will be the outcome. More than this, it 
is worthy of imitation and an extension with moditi- 
cations to suit, into the general contractors' field. 
Here it would undobutedly prove quite a factor in 
solving some of the problems which arise in reference 
to proper compensation. Most contractors would not 
require deep research in the repertory of their work 
to adduce instances of this kind, where, for instance, 
the encountering of a certain kind of material made 
the execution of the work a dead loss at agreed prices, 
which would not have been accepted had the circum- 
stances been foreseen. It is a fact well known to 
contractors that in many of these cases the solution 
has to be sought in the arbitrary decision of the en- 
gineer, who would or would not allow additional com- 
pensation, according to his interpretation of the con- 
tract or specifications. In almost every contract in- 
stances of this nature arise, and it would seem that a 
logical solution would be the establishment of stand- 
ards to cover these contingencies. 

As a step toward standardization alone, this Chic- 
ago body has marked an advance. A little study of 
organization proves that the establishment of stand- 
ards has been the keynote of success for all enter- 
prises, which would apply in this case. It would fur- 
thermore promote good feeling betwen all parties 
concerned, which in turn would resuh in better work. 
Another benefit which would result from this is that 
the establishment of such rules of measurement in the 
general contracting field would make a better basis 
for estimate. 

Rules for Measuring Concrete and Excavation 

A joint committee, consisting of architects, en- 
gineers and contractors of the City of Chicago, has 
recently adopted rules for the measurement of exca- 
vation and concrete work. The formulated rules 
cover all the details of this kind of work and building 
construction, defining specifically liow certain classes 
of work shall be paid for. The adoption of this set of 
rules, according to our contemporary, the Contractor 
of Chicago, is the outgrowth of difficulties in coming 
to an agreement for compensation, entailing not only 
disputes and bad feeling between the parties, but liti- 
gation as well. It is only natural that a contractor 
will make claims for extra compensation when his 
margin of prifit is dwindling because lie was obliged 
to go to additional expense in erecting forms of con- 
crete or sheeting in for excavation, which could not 
be foreseen when he made his estimate. Under the 
rules drawn up, provision is made for these contin- 

Heavy rail sections are being tested on the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey on certain lines carrying very 
heavy and fast traffic over tracks having an unusually 
large amount of curvature. The 90-lb. rails in regular 
use wear out rapidly, and the company accordingly de- 
cided to try much harder steel, which made it necessary 
in turn to use a large section in order to keep down the 
unit stresses. The new rail is 61/2 in- bigh> weighs 135 
lbs., and has from 0.9 to 1.10 per cent, carbon. It is 
made by the open-hearth process, with phosphorus under 
0.02 per cent., and is curved at the mill, the rails being 
numbered after bending to indicate their position in the 
track. A check on the experiments ^vith these heavy 
sections will be afforded by the behaviour of over 14,000 
tons of 100-lb. rails containing 0.75 to 0.83 per cent, of 
carbon foi* open-hearth steel and about 0.65 per cent- for 
Bessemer steel. 

Reinforced Concrete Roof Arches with a clear span 
of 50 ft. have been used in the building for the Ham- 
mersmith Baths, London. The main members are arch 
ribs with segmental circular intrados and without tie 
rods, carried with their springing lines alx>ut 17 ft. above 
the piers on w4iich the columns rest. The ribs, as de- 
scribed in "The Builder," London, are approximately 
12 ft. 9 in. on centres and carry reinforced concrete ])ur- 
lins for the roof decking. Sui-mounting the arches is a 
monitor of concrete construction. Cantilever galleries 
on both .sides are carried on the colunms about 7 ft. below 
the springings. Outside are roofed passageways, con- 
structed monolithically with the main parts of the 



Deep Well Drilling in Saskatchewan 

(Joutributod by J. M. WilHon, Assoc. M. (Jan. Hoc. C. E., 
(Jity Engineer of Moose Jaw, Hask. 

In a country impoverished in respect to natural water 
supplies, and remote from the sources of su[)ply of fuel, 
the natural inclination is to Iwre into the bowels of the 
earth, and unfetter if possible pent up su|)plies of pure 
-Water or natural gas. The city of Moose Jaw is at pres- 
pt drilling a test well, 3,000 feet deep, and a summary 
pi the results shown by the first 1,160 feet of drilling 
nay be of interest from a geological standpoint. 
The well is located in the S.W. ',4 of Sec. '<i'3, Town- 
lip ]6, Range 2H, West of the 2nd Meridian, and within 
the incorporated limits of the City of M(K)se .Jaw. Dril- 
ling was .started in the Spring of 1910 and has been con- 
tinued until the present time, a depth of 1,1 fiO feet hav- 
l^ng been attained. 

IP The following tat)le shows the nature of the strata 
encountered at different depths: 

The water supply encountered at 468 feet must have 
l)een only a pocket, an a pumping test lowered the water 
p«;rmanently. The KU[)ply at !)8.') feet looked very en- 



Hard or 

From To 












Gravel & San 


Very line sand. 








Sandy Clay 


Struek water at 468 ft. 








Sandv Clay 




Clay ■ 





Sandy Clay 











Very fine sand. 

Struck water at 903 ft. 



Sand & Rock 




Shale & Clay 




Sand* Clay 





& Salt 


Struek water at 96S ft. 
Flow of 1200 gals, per hr 



Sand & Clay 


increased to 4000 gals, 
per hr. at 985 ft. 



Clav & Hlhale 







General View of Exterior 

eouraging and it was decided to apply a pumping test- 
Ry lowering the w^ater 80 feet in the ojising. the level 
remained constant for 21 hours and the supply was in- 



creased tx) 10,000 gallons an hour, this being the capa- 
city of the pump used. 

An examination of this water resulted in the follow- 
ing analysis: Parts in 1,000,000 — Suspended solids, 20; 
dissolved solids, 5,995 ; loss in ignition of dissolved solids, 
370 ; chlorine, 3,000- 

" B " Coli absent and sulphates in very small quanti- 

The above analysis points to a spring water high- 
ly charged with mineral salts, but uncontaminated with 
sewage matter. From the appearance of the residue on 
evaporation, the greater part of the saline matter was 
probably calcium chloride. Owing to its large chlorine 
contents, this water was practically unfit for domestic 
purposes, and certainly unfit for manufacturing pur- 
poses and boilers. 

The well was started with an 18-inch casing which 
extended for 150 feet, and then changed to 600 feet of 
14-inch, the remainder being 10-inch pipe. The work is 
in charge of the Wallace-Bell Company, of Montreal, 
whose contract calls for a price of $10 per foot for a 
3,000 foot well. The work is being pressed to comple- 
tion, and it is the hope of the municipality that further 
development will yield an abundant supply of either 
fresh water or natural gas. 

Importance of Party Walls 

By Owen B. Maginnis 

At the outset of this article the reader might 
rightfully ask, what is meant by a "party" wall? 
Webster defines a wall of this kind as "a. wall that 
separates one house from the next," which is correct 
as far as it goes, but it doesn't go far enough from a 

Fig. 1 

Fig. 2 

constructive standpoint, according to the American 
Carpenter and Builder. 

It is not only owned by different parties, but is, in 
its utility, fulfilling two functions as a bearing wall, 
as will be seen in Fig. 1. In this sketch there is re- 
presented an 8-inch party wall, one side of which is 
owned by "A' and the other by "B." "A" owns 4 
inches and "B" 4 inches, respectively, and each owner 
is entitled to what is technically known as "beam 

right," that is to say, the right to place the ends of 
floor beams in the wall without endangering its safety 

The foundation is of stone, the upper part of 8- 
inch brick. This thickness of party wall, however, is 
now a thing of the past, having been mostly used in 
small one or two storey houses. 

The next thickness of party wall we come to is the 
12-inch wall, where, of course, the dividing vertical 
line entitles each party to 6 inches on either side. 
This thickness of awU is consistent up to a height of 
3 stories or perhaps four ; but beyond this it is hardly 
safe. Much depends, however, upon the character of 
the building and its uses. For example, there is a 
difference between a wall built of cement and one of 
lime mortar in bearing capacity, and between a ware- 
house wall and a dwelling-house wall. Forty feet is 
about the best limit in height for a 12-inch party wall. 

There are some very curious features in connec- 
tion with party walls which are not known among the 
general run of builders and with which they should be 
familiar. For instance, it is not permissable for the 
owner of one side of a party wall to alter, strain or 
endanger the same by cutting into it or weakening its 
structural value in any way, without the consent of 
the next interested party, and he is liable for dam- 
ages for so doing. He cannot sell or deed his half 
without the signature of his neighbor being affixed 
to the instrument or deed. 

To illustrate this let us refer to the sketch. Fig. 2, 
where the importance of party walls is fully exempli- 
fied and the work of which was recently carried out. 
Originally there existed where these two walls are 
represented an old 12-inch party wall separating two 
old business buildings. Both owners were desirous 
of improving the property, so by mutual agreement 
"B" sold his entire half to "A," thus moving the line 
12 inches east, to the right in sketch as shown, thus 
nullifying its party value, so the improvements were 
proceeded with as follows: "A" needled his wall be- 
low the bottom stone and underpinned his foundation 
down to the level of the concrete in "B's" building 
in the manner seen to the left, doing this for the pro- 
tection of his own building and to gain a'subcellar. 
When this was done "B" set his concrete footings 
and commenced the erection of his new building to 
the entire satisfaction of everybody concerned. 

Fire was the means employed to demolish an old 
210-foot smokestack at Thirty-second and Walnut 
streets, Philadelphia. When the final crash came and 
the forty-five-year old shaft crumbled to earth in a 
heap the sight well repaid the many hundreds who 
journeyed to the shop to witness the razing. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company recently purchased 
the site to enlarge their West Philadelphia freight 
yards and desired the site cleared quickly. The con- 
tractor's foreman examined the stack and its sur- 
roundings and reported that the shaft could be "burn- 
ed down," and several weeks ago began tearing down 
the small buildngs to the east of the stack, and after 
this work was completed bricks were removed from 
the eastern base of the big chimney and replaced by 
wooden shorings until almost the entire weight of the 
stack was borne up by the timber. Bricks on the 
west side of the base were left in position. This ar- 
rangement, it was calculated, would insure the chim- 
ney falling in a heap, practically where it stood. Sev- 
eral gallons of oil were poured on the wooden sup- 
ports and a match applied. Inside of an hour the 
stack fell 






Preliminary Work and Organization Circuitous Routes to Avoid Expensive Construction 
— Increased Grants Now Being Made by Government — Satisfactory Outlook 

By F. J. RobiiiHoii, Deputy MiniHter of Public Works 

:2_ r£ 

The Province of Saskatchewan is one of the two 
_ oungcst sisters of the Canadian Confederation, having 
been granted provincial autonomy in 1905, when the 
Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were organized 
out of the southern portion of the territory previously 
known as the Northwest Territories. It may be further 
explained, in order to emphasize the title of this article, 
that the territory now comprising these two young and 
vigorous Provinces was, when the Province of Manitoba, 
which adjoins Saskatchewan on the east, was organized, 
not considered worth including in that Province and for 
some years after the name Northwest Territories, to 
the residents of eastern Canada, was synonymous with a 
band of rebellious Indians, a few brave cattle and horse 
ranchers, a corps of mount<^d police, and a boundless 

rairie fit only to produce cactus and alkali water. 

Here and there the Hudson's Bay Co. had estab- 

shed fur posts, and between them the only roads, or 
trails as they were then both in name and reality, ex- 
tended. These trails usually continued in a general 
direction between the objective points, but direct roads 
were sacrificed for the sake of keeping on high, dry 
lands, diverting in all directions to pass by good water, 
or to reach fordable crossings of the rivers. These fea- 
[tures are so evident while traveling these old trails that 
one is almost assured that the Hudson's Bay Company's 
freighters and the police followed the paths of the early 
Indians, who, in turn, doubtless were led to the good 
watering places and easiest river crossings by the first 
monarchs of the plains, namely, the North American 
buffaloes. So it would appear to the student of nature 
that the roads, part of which in some places are the 
main roads of to-day, were located by the buffalo and 
perpetuated by circumstances, serving in turn the In- 
dians, the traders, the police, the ranchers, the immi- 
grant in search of a homestead, later the same party 
to market his grain, and finally even the street of the 
towns and cities, a notable instance of which, though in 
another Province, is the old Red River trail, now the 
main street in the city of Winnipeg. 

Preliminary Work and. Organization. 
So long as the settlers left the Northwest Territor- 
ies to the ranchers, road making was a matter of small 
import. To improve a hill or throw a little dry earth 
on a wet spot was all that was considered. The ranchers 
were, as a rule, content to cross the rivers for supplies 

tat a time ■when the ice was set or when low water per- 
mitted fording, but the settler who grew grain required 
more service, and bridges ceased to be a luxury. For 
some time fencing was not carried on to any consider- 
able extent, and the grain growers were obliged to per- 
mit the public to continue along the shortest route to the 
nearest railway station. This, however, could not last 
long, for the increasing trafiic, owing to the land becom- 
ing more thickly settled, caused havoc to the crops for 
rods wide along the principal roads; so by fencing, 
placing notices and general regard for individual rights, 
tratfic was forced to the road allowances which, in the 
greater part of Saskatchewan, are 66 feet wide. This 
produced the consequent necessity of more vigorous road 
making, filling and raising wet places, always called 

".sloughs," grading and placing culvert* across ravines, 
generally known as "coulees," and bridging the frtreams 
varying in size from the mere spring freshet creek to 
the Saskat(!hewan River. Over this the Government has 
erected, at Battleford, a bridge 1,850 feet long. 

The first provision for public money for roads was a 
grant by the Federal Government of the Dominion of 
Canada, which was placed under the control of the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the Northwest Territories, whose Ad- 
visory Council distributed it as best they could where 
the small amounts available would do the most good to 
the greatest number. Later the Advivsory Council devel- 
oped into a Legislature whose members were allotted 
equitable sums to distribute over their constituency. 
Still later and within a few years of the organization 
of the Province, the Government was divided into de- 
partments, and the Department of Public Works was 
organized with a staff of engineers and surveyors to 
.supervise the expenditures on public improvements. 

The writer joined the staff in 1901 and was sta- 
tioned at MacLeod, now within the Province of Alberta. 
where, as in the eastern portion of the Territories, or 
the present Saskatchewan, the duty of the district en- 
gineer was to find a road to market for settlers, or a 
colony of them, who had gradually become hemmed in 
by fences or natural obstructions. The funds available 
for this purpose were limited, so that circuitous routes 
were resorted to in order that natural obstructions could 
be overcome by crossing streams at the least expensive 
points, and private lands were crossed by surveys and 
the subsequent purchase of the areas required for road 

Road making was not the only channel of expendi- 
ture of the Northwt^t Government, so that only a por- 
tion of the Dominion subsidy was available for this ser- 
vice. The increasing settlements were continuing to limit 
the travel to narrower lines and it was found advi.sable 
to levy a tax of l^i cents per acre on all occupied lands 
to assist in the road making operations. This tax was 
at first collected entirely by the Government and ex- 
pended under the supervision of the Department of 
Public Works, but by degrees the more thickly settled 
districts were allowed to form into improvement districts 
and by elected Councillors collect and spend taxes with- 
in their boundaries, the Government continuing to act 
as trustee for the funds collected in the sparsely settled 
portions of the Territories. A similar system prevails 
now in the Province of Saskatchewan in the parts that 
have been lately settled, but in the more advanced por- 
tions municipalities have been created and the Councils 
have thereby acquired powers and responsibilities almost 
equivalent to those enjoyed by the towns and cities. 
Increased Subsidies from OoTemment. 

Since the organization of the Province the subsidies 
received from the Dominion Government have been great- 
ly increased, and notwithstanding the fact that large 
expenditures are requi'"'"'' annually for the various other 
services, a substantial sum has yearly been set aside for 
the constrmjrton of roads and bridges. 

As UlK^road system within the area comprising the 
Provim^gradually evolved from the trail to the high- 


way, so have the expenditures been gradually systema- in addition to about $700,000 spent by road crews, a 

tized, from the first patching of bad spots and the sub- sum of $60,000 was set aside to assist rural munici- 

sequent improvement of colonization roads, until now palities in the construction of main roads. Regulations 

our expenditures are concentrated on main roads, leav- governing the distribution of this amount were put iu 

ing the lateral roads to be improved by the local organi- force, which were intended not only to protect the 

zations with moneys collected by them. public funds, but also to enforce systematic methods 

The bridges were at one time built by contract, of carrying on the business of these rural organizations 
This method was found undesirable owing to the fact and to stimulate a main road policy by the improve- 
that few were equipped to properly carry on the work, ment of roads which will in the future become trunk 
therefore Government bridge crews were organized, who. highways throughout the length and breadth of the 
by training and praciice, have become experts, and a Province. On the whole, the result has been very satis- 
great saving of money is effected, as well as a superior factory, some $50,000 of the Government grant has been 
quality of bridges secured. All classes of bridge.? are earned, which means $100,000 has not only been ex- 
constructed by these crews, the timber for the wooden pended by the municipalities, but for which value has 
structures being purchased by the Government from the been received on the roads leading directly into the mar- 
mills and shipped direct to the station nearest the site of ket centers. This, added to the amount expended by 
the bridge. The metal for the steel bridges is manufac- the Government crews, makes a fair showing for road 
tured according to our standard specifications by bridge expenditure under Government control for a Province 
companies in eastern Canada and erected by our crews, .just past five years old. This seems an enormous amount, 
AH the bridges erected during the past ihree years are but let me say it is not big enough, 
designed to carry a 24-ton traction engine under steam. Last year the Province grew over 200.000,000 bush- 

The road grading was at one time done by settlers els of grain, divided between the different cereals as fol- 

living close to the work, who were instructed to engage lows : Wheat, 90,215,000 ; oats, 105,465,000 ; barley, 8,- 

men and teams at times convenient to themiselves and 833,000; flax, 4.488.000. It takes on an average lie 

their neighbors. This method for many reasons was per bushel to haul it by rail to the head of the Great 

found inefficient and savored too much of the old statute Lakes, amounting to $22,000,000. It is estimated, and I 

labor laws of the older Provinces, where road work days think the estimate is low if in error at all, ihat it costs 

were often considered a semi-holiday. The local fore- one and a half times as much to haul from the thresher 

men were superseded by organized grading gangs, con- to the internal elevator by team as it does to haul from 

sisting of an experienced foreman, from eight to twen- the internal elevator to the terminal elevator by trains. 

ty teams and drivers and the required number of scrap- therefore it cost the farmers of Saskatchewan $33,000,000 

er holders and shovelers, all of whom are engaged for to market their crop last vear over the rural highwav. 
the season, equipped with plows, scrapers, both wheel gg^^er roads would permit not only larger loads, 

and slush, a road grader and cook Outfit. These gangs, ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^p^^^l ^^ j^^^p ^^^ ^^ ^^^ reached the road 

like the bridge crews, become experts and set an ex- ^^^^al stage in our road making and must be content to 

ample to the local Councillors m road making, not only ^^^^^ .^^^ ^^^.^-^ ^.-^-^ speciaf attention io drains. In 

in the class of work, but in the system of carrying it ^ j^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^ j^^^^g y^^^^ ^^^^-^^^ ^^ j^^^l ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

'^^^- -r, , , , , roads through sand beds, and vice versa, but as a rule 

For the past three years we have been encouraging ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ been considered within our reach 

the use of road drags by parties livmg on graded roads. ^^^^ ^„ ^^^^ grading and draining vet to be done. 

In order to ftstab ish one m each district we offered to g^-^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^j^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^ 

pay $1.25 per mile of road attended, six times over to ^^^ ^j^^^^^^. decrease the of marketing the produce 

be the mmimum, the drag being sent to some reliable ^,f ]^^ Province bv at least one-third. 

farmer, with instructions how and when to use. Ihe ' 

result has been very gratif ving, not only from the stand- 
point of the particular road attended, but also from the The Canadian Pacific Railway is considering the 

fact that the Councillors have realized the advantages construction of a new connecting line between Nepigon 

of the road drags and are using them on their own ac- and Savanne. which will give a direct run across from 

count. ^^6 head of the lakes, 69 miles north-east of Port Wil- 

During the last ten years the Government has ex- liam, to a point 72 miles to the north-west. It is e.sti- 

pended by the above methods $4,427,444.83, of which mated that this .straightening of the track will save from 

$508,522.37 has been collected from the settlers as a 40 to 50 miles in the conveyance of coast to coast traf- 

road tax. The local organizations have collected during fie, the present distance between these two points being 

the same period $2,992,640, making a total of $7,420,- I*! miles. 

085.27 expended on roads in Saskatchewan, distributed 

through the years as follows: „ , , ^ „ , , The Annual Statistical, Review and Outlook Num- 

Road tax collected Taxes collected u £ ii. in ^ m- • n J^^ , i , 

„ , , ^v , ^, ber of the Monetarv limes is one of the most complete 

Government and spent by and spent by j • j. x- j-1- j? ii_ i • i • t , ,, • 

„ , r. / T 1 r^ ■ I and interesting editions of the kind ever issued bv this 

funds. Government. Local Councils. , ■ • i i- i- » ^i ^ ' .-, 

1900 $85,445 67 .$5,598 42 Ret. incomplete enterprising publication. Among the many noteworthy 

1901 82,046 11 33,793 95 $56,377 90 ^^«*"''*^^ f }t' '"^r ,''' f '^"^ated to be of interest to 

1902 130 102 41 36,920 92 77,136 18 JT^^^'j^ ^^ J^*^ Contract Record ' are the fol ou-ing : 

1903 142,216 56 36,781 24 86,070 98 ^T^'^T^ I ^ V I ?' u ^ J'^^^^^l^'- ^^"' 

1904 217,041 40 92,412 38 94,841 22 2^^ f ^''^/^'^ n'''^% Industry by E. B. Biggar ; 

1905 202.783 48 70 798 72 218,967 19 ^^^^^^ ^J.^'''* i^T ^f'^^^'rf- ^^^^^^^^ of the Rail- 

1906 297.610 65 56,150 62 32.5 798 97 ''"'^^^^ ^''^f'f'^. ^^^^^^'^^J Statistics, Government by Com- 

1907 , 902,868 98 61,934 83 574,000 00 '"^''^""- Statistics of Growth. 

1908 1,308,879 09 43.139 59 653,000 00 

1909 549,928 11 70,99170 906,448 00 The Ottawa branch of the Civil Engineers' Association 

has decided to open its lectures to the press. Meetings will 

$3,918,922 46 $508,522 37 .$2,992,640 44 be closed only when the lecturer makes a special request to 

This year a slight departure was made, in that, that eflfect.. 


Tall Reieforcedl Coincrete Bridge Pier 

General Features of Design and Construction A Numbei' of Diffi- 
cult Conditions Involved- Construction and Sinking of Caisson 

A reinforced concrete bridge pier, 165 feet high, 

as been built recently in the Willamette River on 

brancli line of the Southern Pacific Company near 

Portland, Ore. At the crossing wliere this pier is 

^^located the Willamette River is 570 feet wide and has 

IHp depth of 65 feet in the channel at low water, the 

■^^epth at the pier being 55 feet. The average high 

water is 25 feet above the low stage, and occasional 

floods go 8 to 10 feet higher. The bottom of the river 

at the site consists of coarse gravel to a great depth. 

IHCThe bridge in which the tall pier is included eml)races 
^Bwo 300-ft. riveted Pratt-truss single-track spans with 
inclined top chords. The tall pier carries the shutting 
nds of the two spans and the shore ends of the spans 
re on plain concrete piers, one of which is 73 feet 
nd the other 75 feet high. 

The general features of the design of the 165-ft. 
ier are shown in an acompanying drawing. The 
road base of the pier is seated on the gravel at a 

the bridge seats, with its sides also battered 1 inch to 
the foot. 

The outside walls of the superstructure are 18 in. 
thick and are anchored to the substructure by vertical 
1^-in. Kahn cup bars 26 feet in length. These bars 
extend 16 feet downward into the top of the sub- 
structure, while those at the columns are continued 
up into the latter. The side walls of the superstruc- 
ture are reinforced as vertical slabs .spanning hori- 
zontally between the columns and vertically between 
the horizontal diaphragms, which separate the interior 
of the superstructure into eight stories. The rein- 
forcement consists of Kahn shear and cup bars placed 
so a load can be brought on the walls from either side. 
The end walls are similarly reinforced with additional 
horizontal rods tying them back into the columns. 
The pier contains eight reinforced concrete cohimns 
extending from the base of the superstructure to the 
bridge seats. Four of these columns are built in con- 
nection with each side wall of the pier, and together 
with the walls, carry at the top a 5-ft. reinforced con- 
crete slab in which two granite blocks are set as bridge 

Between the outside walls of the hollow super- 
structure are seven reinforced concrete horizontal dia- 
phragms each 2 feet thick, which are designed as flat 
plates that may be loaded from above or below. The 


y-*-* ,Tii I >■■ ■'"'■ -»" "•"rt-;"!-'"'t"'' 


pt-f »,-(-► 

Longitudiual and Transverse Sections of Superstructure 

'dejith of 55 feet below the lowest point of the river 
l)ed. The sides of the pier are battered for a height 
^of 12 feet and above that they are plumb for 64 feet, 
nd to that height the pier is of solid concrete. The 
lower 72 feet of solid masonry forms a substructure 
for the hollow reinforced concrete superstructure 93 
feet in height. The superstructure is offset at its base 
from the top of the substructure and has pointed ends 
the same as the latter. The bottom 10 feet of the 
superstructure also is of solid concrete, while above 
this massive base it consists of reinforced concrete 
walls connected by horizontal diaphragms and with 
reinforced concrete columns carrying directly the ends 
of the stel spans. To a height of 55 feet, which reaches 
above the maximum high water of record, the sides 
of the hollow portion of the pier are battered 1-inch 
to the foot. At this height the pier is oflfset sharply all 
around to a smaller section, which is continued up to 

Plan of Diaphragm. 

reinforcement in these diaphragms consists of Kahn 
shear bars placed alternately near the upper and lower 
sides. The lower five diaphragms are spaced 9 feet 
and the upper three 10 feet apart, so the span of the 
side-wall slabs between them is short. At the center 
of each diaphragm is a 3-ft. circular hole which per- 
mits the free passage of water between the eight 
stories in the superstructure. In one side of the lowest 
story is an opening 12 in. wide and the full height of 
that story so water may rise and fall inside the pier 
with variations in the stage of the river. The rein- 
forced concrete walls of the superstructure, therefore, 
are not normally subject to a head of water, but the 
design provides for any emergency that may occur 
by including in them reinforcement placed so a head 
may be brought against the walls and diaphragms 
from any direction. 

The pier was built in an open-timber caisson, 90 
feet high, which was designed to meet the difficult 
conditions involved. The caisson was 40 ft. 10 in. 
square in plan at the bottom, the same as the base of 



the pier, and from its lowest edge its sides were batter- 
ed the same as the sides of the base of the pier to a 
height of 12 feet. Above that height the sides and 
ends were built plumb to the top. The walls of the 
caisson consisted of 3 x 10-in. plank placed flat and 
drift-bolted together. The side walls were braced 
across the caisson vertically at intervals of Syi feet, 
by solid 10-in. by 2-ft. 9-in. timber sections built up 
of 3 X 10-in. plank. Triangular pockets were formed 
in the corners of the caissons by solid 10-in. walls, 
and the sides of these pockets also were braced at the 
same intervals as the caisson by solid sections of 
3 X 10-in. plank. A rectangular pocket, 4 ft. 10 in. by 
8 in. in plan, was built on both sides of the caisson to 
provide sufficient space, with the triagular pockets in 
the later, for the ballast required to sink and hold the 
caisson in place. 

The outside pockets were tied to the caisson by 
continuing the cross braces of the latter through its 
solid walls and by connecting the projecting ends of 
these braces with built-up timbers parallel with the 
sides of the caisson. Vertical studs were placed in- 
side of the projecting ends of the cross braces and 
3 X 12-in. plank nailed on them as lagging for the 
pockets. The 11 stories of braces in the caisson and 
in the pockets were tied together by vertical rods, and 
knee-braces were placed between each story in the 
pockets. This construction produced a structure that 
was amply strong under the high head and the swift 
current to which it was subjected while work on the 
pier was in progress. 

The bottom at the site of the pier was first dredg- 
ed to a depth of 35 feet by means of an orange-peel 
bucket swung from a stiff-leg derrick on a barge. 
Meanwhile, the lower part of the caisson and the bal- 
last pockets were built up on ways on the shore near 
the work, then launched into the water and towed to 
place, where the balance of the framing was done in 
the water. The ballast pockets were filled as the work 
progressed so as to keep the top of the caisson about 
.S feet above the water. Special care was taken to 
anchor the caisson exactly in position when the lower 
edge of it approached the bed of the river. As soon 
as the caisson was seated on the gravel, ballast was 
added to hold it in place and to sink it as material was 
excavated from the inside of it. The orangepeel 
bucket was used through the water to remove the 
material from the inside so the lower edge of the cais- 
son finally went about 20 feet into the gravel and made 
the form for the base of the pier. 
- While the sinking of the caisson was in progress, 
a concrete mixer plant was set up on a barge. As 
soon as the caisson was down to the required depth 
concrete was deposited through the water by means 
of bottom-dump buckets to fill the caisson uniformly 
to a height of 72 feet. The water was then removed 
and the reinforced concrete portion of the pier built 
in the dry. The walls of the caisson also made the 
forms for the pier up to the offset in the latter and 
above that specially framed forms were built inside. 
The caisson was constructed and sunk to place 
in twenty working days ; the concrete seal then was 
poured, the water removed and the pier built with all 
possible speed, because the time of high water was 
approaching. By working day and night, practically 
without interruption, the pier was kept above the 
stage of water in the river and was completed before 
the water reached the top of the caisson. Concrete 
was placed at an average rate of about 200 cubic 
yards a day, the 7,000 cubic yards in the pier being 
deposited in 35 days. The forms for the hollow por- 

tion of the pier were built and erected as the work 
progressed, since they involved practically the same 
conditions as an 8-story building of like size. 

Within 25 days after completion of the pier the 
river began to rise rapidly, and continued until a 
height of 22 feet above low water was reached. The 
unusual stage of the freshet resulted in a great num- 
ber of large logs being brought down, and during 
the height of it the upper part of the caisson and 
forms were ripped off by the force of the logs which 
struck it. The pier stod safely, however, and when 
the water receded no evidence of damage could be 

City Planning As Seen By Landscape Architects 

Strictly speaking, city planning is not a new 
science; but it is comparatively new in this country. 
In general, we have to go to the Old World to find 
cities which have been upheld by the landscape archi- 
tect. The landscape architect's city is planned after 
a composite of all that is best in the Old World cities, 
revised and brought down to date to meet modern re- 

The fundamental principle of scientific city plan- 
ning as practiced by the landscape architect of to-day, 
is first, convenience; second, beauty. Your modern 
city must be convenient to be successful. The theo- 
retical city would be planned in a circular form, with 
all points in the outskirts esually distant from a com- 
mon center, and with radial boulevards in every direc- 
tion, like spokes of a wheel, connected by encircling 
drives about the circumference. 

Paris, on account of its peculiar situation, being 
surrounded by three walls of fortification, was forced 
to adopt a radial and encircling street system to facili- 
tate the handling of troops from the center of the city 
to the fortifications. Afterwards this was found to 
be so practical for the ordinary city traffic that other 
cities, notably Berlin and Moscow in the Old World, 
followed its example. Thus we established a principle 
which is being applied, as far as local topography will 
permit, in the readjusting of our street systems to 
meet modern traffic conditions. 

Let me describe briefly the ideal city of the land- 
scape architect. It is planned in conjunction with 
engineers, architects, sculptors and landscape gar- 
deners. It is a metropolitan and preferably a harbor 
city. Its approaches by rail and water are attractive, 
artistic and imposing. Its traffic is centralized, the 
railroads entering a union station below grade and the 
electric systems entering at the same point, also by 
means of subways. Its business streets are wide, clean 
and well lighted and paved; the sidewalks are wide; 
the residential section is well parked ; a uniform sys- 
tem of street trees, under the care of a city forester, 
is to be found. The parks, playgrounds, plazas and 
parkways are well designed, connected by wide park- 
ways or boulevards shaded by trees and accessible by 
foot and electric cars. 

The entire metropolitan park system should be 
under the control of an active, wide-awake park com- 
mision appointed for a term ot years, acting in con- 
junction with a consulting landscape architect. The 
commission should be free from political influence 
and backed with sufficient funds to make their work 
effective. No really modern harbor city is without 
a beach reservation for its municipal bathhouse. 

Not once in a lifetime does the landscape architect 
have an opportunity to plan an entirely new city along 
modern lines, embodying all that is convenient and 
beautiful. But our newer cities now a-building have 




excuse for making the same old mistake over and 
er again. There is no excuse for misplacing our 
unicipal l)uildings. To make an ideal city out of 
our present American cities would require some 
changes in our laws, especially those covering excess 
condemnation proceedings. The best city improve- 
ment plan conceived by our civic experts can be com- 
pletely blocked l)y a few selfish individuals — witness 
altimore and San Francisco. 
The landscape architect's ideal city is not a city 
Tmprovement plan developed in a month's study, for 
no city can he comprehensively rcplanned in less than 

sixteen months or two years. To be of value, a plan 
must first of all be practical ; every business interest 
must be considered; its future growth and present 
needs must be studied. A comprehensive plan is of 
the utmost value to a city if only to point out land 
which must be acquired for its subsequent develop- 
ment. The improvements on this land may be defer- 
red until needed. It goes without saying that no land- 
scape architect plans for city slums, but he seeks to 
have open spaces for light and air in the poorer quar- 
ters where people must necessarily live more closely 

Cost ©f Reimf ©reed C©inicrete C©ostrycti©iii 

IV Rei 

Factors Which Influence Contractors In Bidding Upon Work — Gradual 
Elimination of Uncertainties — Two Principal Methods Now In General Use 



Reinforced concrete construction has developed so 
rai)idly and has been used such a short time that only 

cently has anything like a standardization of cost 

en attainable. 
In taking bids upon reinforced concrete construc- 

n, architects and engineers are finding that the esti- 
mates are running closer than formerly — that is, there 
is not the great variation between the highest and low- 
est bid that existed five years ago, says M. M. .Sloan 

The Building Age. When reinforced concrete con- 
Tuction became a prominent factor in building work 

any reinforced concrete contractors started this busi- 
ness as a specialty. Some of these contractors had 
been contractors for plain cement work, and others 
were engineers who, owing to their technical know- 
ledge, thought of applying it with the contracting 
business in this special line. Neither of these ty]ies 
of contractors was any too familiar with nor had much 
experience in the carpentry work required for the 
forms, and. in fact, without precedent it would have 
boon difficult for a master builder of any kind to have 
definitely estimated upon the cost of the forms requir- 
n reinforced concrete construction. 
Those who have had to do with the estimated cost, 

her in shop work or the cost of building labor, 

ow the difficulty in placing an estimate upon any 
particular piece of work and have the final results 
of the cost ledger for labor agree with the estimated 
cost. In any instance a labor estimate is not much 
better than a good guess, and it is impossible to make 
an accurate estimate of labor cost in every instance 

th any degree of certainty. 

As, the cost of the form construction necessary for 
the construction of reinforced concrete work is a con- 
siderable item in the total cost, it was not long before 
the contractors in reinforced concrete work found that 
in many instances they had taken the work at too low 
a price, and the failure of several prominent concrete 

Ipntractors is directly traceable to their inability to 
pcurately estimate upon the cost of the form con- 
truction for large operations. 
I On the other hand those who survived the first few 
(tars in operating with the new construction gradu- 
lly accumulated data which, when averaged, gives a 
pretty accurate basis upon which reinforced concrete 
ork may be estimated. 
In estimating upon reinforced concrete work two 
methods generally are employed. The first consists 
in taking off accurately the quantities of all materials 



and separately estimating the labor required for each 
branch of the work, while the second method is to fig- 
ure only the quantity of concrete and tonnage of the 
steel, and, in some instances, the amount of lumber 
required in the form construction in board feet, and 
apply to these quantities imit prices which cover the 
cost of labor and material. 

The first method is undobutedly the surer and most 
intelligible of the two, though very close approxima- 

Plan and Section of Reinforced Concrete Slab 
for Floor System. 

tions to the exact cost may be obtained by the latter 

Tile designer of reinforced concrete construction is 
constantly impressed with the different way in which 
the several contractors analyze the design with refer- 
ence to the determination of the cost. Certain contrac- 
tors will carefully consider the labor of removing and 
reconstructing the forms and will consequently give a 
much lower figure on the work, if the same sized 
columns and beams and girders are used throughout, 
even though by so doing the quantity of concrete is 
somewhat increased. 

Again, if the contractor is in the habit of figuring 
the concrete at so much a cubic yard, the designer 
would not find economy in thickening a floor slab in 
order to save the same beam and girder spacing and 
thus utilize the forms used in another floor of the 
building, whereas the designer would be justified in 
thickening the floor slab an extra inch or two if he 
would take into consideration that this extra thick- 



ness could be put in a place at a very low unit price 
from the fact that the plant and equipment justify 
the change in the thickness of the slab construction. 

While the cost of reinforced construction varies 
with the local prices of labor and materials these are 
becoming so generally uniform that the cost of rein- 
forced concrete construction is approaching a standard 
cost for construction of the same type. 

The review of an estimate for the usual slab beam 
and girder construction of a floor system is interesting 
and may be instructive. The construction shown in 
Fig. 1 is to be estimated upon and the framing plan 
and section are shown in the figure with dimensions 
and not giving the reinforcement complete. 

In making estimates a systematic tabulation of 
the quantities of concrete, reinforcing steel and mater- 
ial for centering greatl}' helps in avoiding mistakes 
and is much clearer if future reference has to be made 
to the estimate. 

Referring to Fig. 1 the quantity and labor esti- 
mated are as follows : 

Concrete. Cu. Ft. 

Concrete in slab, 75 X 40 -=• 3 1,000 

Concrete in beams and lintels, 14 X 2-3X 

35 327 

Concreter in girders, 19 1-3 X ij^ X 8.... 232 

Concrete in column, 15 X i 7/9 X 4 107 

Footing, 4 X 4 X 4 64 

Total amount of concrete i,730 — 64 cu. yds. 

Steel. Pounds. 

Slab reinforcement, 75 X 2 X 40 — 7000 ft., at .498.. 3,486 
Add for lapping of bars, waste, etc., 10 per cent.. .. 348 

Beam reinforcement, 1500 ft, at 1.92 2,880 

Add for laps, etc., 75 ft., at 1.92 144 

Girder reinforcement, 800 ft., at 3.4 2,720 

Lintel reinforcement, 450 ft., at 1.92 864 

Secondary reinforcement, 7J^% of beams and girders 496 

Column rods and ties 584 

Reinforcing rods for footings 260 

Total amount of steel reinforcement 11,782 

Lumber for Form Construction. 

(Considerng only one floor to be constructed) Ft. B.M. 

4/4 matched flooring for slab centering, 75 X 40.. 3.000 

Add 25% for tongue and groove 75° 

Add 5% for waste in cutting and handling 150 

iH dressed plank for side and bottom forms of 
beams and girders: 

Beams i.Soo 

Girders 1,200 

Lintels 450 

Studding, 10,500 ft. 3 X 4 875 

Ledger boards, 1X6, 1,500 ft 75o 

Miscellaneous lumber 500 

Total amount of lumber required 9,175 

It will be observed that in the above estimate the 
items have not as yet been priced, and it is in the pric- 
ing of the items that the method of estimating prin- 
cipally differs. 

For a rapid estimate, one which is pretty sure 
to be approximately correct, and yet one that could not 
be so well used in close competition, can readily be 
made from the above estimate of the amount of mater- 
ials required by totalling the itemization for each 
material and taking a unit price, which is the actual 
cost price for the work completed. 

In the eastern part of the country, at least, con- 
crete can be placed in floor construction, with the 
usual thickness of slabs and the usual size of beams 
and girders, at a net cost of $6 per cubic yard. As a 
general rule, steel can be bought delivered, bent and 
placed at an average cost of about $50 a ton. or 2^ 
cents per pound. In large operations, where the 
beams and girders are heavily reinforced, this cost 
mav reduce to $48 a ton, and where the construction is 

light and the amount of handling and placing is im- 
proportionately large, owing to the peculiarties of the 
construction, the cost may run as high as $55 or even 
$60 per ton. However, 2]/^ cents a pound is a good 
average price for the steel complete in the forms. 

In figuring the lumber and form construction the 
several grades used vary considerably in price, but 
on an average estimate can be taken at $25 for the 
material, plus an equal cost for the labor, or a total 
cost of $50 per thousand feet board measure. This 
unit price may be applied to the totals in the esti- 
mate, and the cost estimate for the construction shown 
in Fig. 1 will then be as follows : 


Concrete (material and labor), 64 cu. yds., at $6.00. $384.00 
Re-enforcing steel (material and labor), 11,782 lbs., 

at 2i^c 294.55 

Lumber and carpentry work, 9175 ft. B.M., at $50.00 

per M 458.75 

Total actual cost of construction 1,137-30 

Profit, charges, etc., 10% 113-73 

Total of estimate $1,251.03 

As a precautionary measure all estimates should be 
checked in some general way, so that the possibilty 
of a serious omission may be avoided, and it is the 
practice of some contractors to check their estimates 
with a unit price per cubic yard for the concrete, 
which includes the cost of the concrete, reinforcing 
steel and form construction complete. The actual 
cost of a reinforced concrete floor system runs from 
$20 to $22 a cubic yard of concrete in place. Applying 
this approximate estimate to the above itemized esti- 
mate, in which there was 64 cubic yards of concrete 
required, it can readily be seen that the price of $1,251 
is about correct, for 64 yards at $20 is $1,280. 

In making approximate estimates upon the cubic 
yard basis, of course, much depends upon the char- 
acter of design — whether the floor system is in uni- 
form-sized panels or whether it is considerably cut 
up, with panels of odd shapes and sizes and with num- 
erous stairways, wall openings and other features 
incidental to a complex building operation. In gen- 
eral, however, the following table is of value in mak- 
ing approximate estimates on reinforced concrete floor 
construction, and it will be observed that in this esti- 
mate the three main items, the concrete, the steel and 
the form construction, are priced on the basis of a 
cubic yard of concrete in place, and this table gives 
approximate net cost without profit added: 

Concrete, $6 per cubic yard. 

Form work, two, three and four-story buildings, 
$7 to $8 per cubic yard of concrete. 

Form work, eight to ten-story buildings, $6 per 
cubic yard of concrete. 

Steel reinforcement, $4 to $7 per cubic yard of con- 
crete placed. 

The average of these items, it can be seen, will add 
up to from $18 to $22 per cubic yard, which agrees 
closely with the figure given above as the cost of rein- 
forced concrete floor construction per cubic yard of 
concrete in place. 

As previously stated, a very accurate method of 
estimating the cost of reinforced concrete floor con- 
struction is to separately itemize and price the mater- 
ial, and to do the same with the labor. The import- 
ance of this can readily be tmderstood from the fact 
that the cost of materials varies considerably in dif- 
ferent localities, and there are not only local advan- 
tages in prices, but, as well, the individual contractor 
is frequently able to obtain special prices. Besides, 
the cost of labor, as well, varies with locality. 



©d aod Cost of Fieisliieg Coimcrete 

By Rubbing, Floating and Brushing Supervision of Mixing and Deposit- 
ing—Machine Preferable to Hard Mixing — Economical Work Exemplified 

By S. M Klein 



In order to give any concrete structure a pleasing, 
urahle and inexpensive surface finisii, tlie most im- 
_ ortant consideration is to have a good foreman on 
|the work ; a foreman who understands how to lay out 
is work to advantage, wlio knows how to build forms, 
who can handle concrete intelligently, and who can 
train his men. Intelligent inspection and supervision 
is another important requirement. 

Beginning with the form work, I have seen good 
[Carpenters construct careless and poor forms, when a 
little attention by the foreman (jr inspector could have 
remedied many defects. It is just as cheap and often 
icheaper to build the forms well and substantial from 
^the start as to patch, chink and shim later on. 

In constructing forms tongue and grooved lumber 
s not necessary. Hard pine boards, planed on one 
ide or both, 1^x8 inches, will best do for face lum- 
ber. Boards of this width do not war]) so much as 
wider boards, and do not corduroy the face to the 
same extent as narrower boards will. Studs can be 
made 2 x 4-in., 2 x 6-in. 4 x 6-in., and walls 6 x 6-in., 
X 8-in., sometimes of 8 x 10-in., according to the 
nature of the work and amount of concrete deposited 
each day. 

It is essential to start all face boards horizontally 
and keep them horizontal by drawing the board down 
with a wedge, which also closes all openings and 
leaves the forms tight, and nail each board securely 
to every stud. By shimming some boards and nailing 
others tight, the unsightly fins on the face can be 
largely avoided. 

Tlie same care need not be taken with back forms, 
and bulkheads; 1-in. boards can be used if securely 
studded and waled. However, the back forms and 
bulklieads should be tight to avoid honeycombing. 

After the forms are built they should never stand 
long in the sun and be exposed to the weatlier. If 
such is the case they will need relining, shimming and 
chinking. The boards will shrink and warp and the 
whole formwork will be twisted out of shape unless 
kept wet. All forms should be studded carefully to 
avoid bending of boards betwen studs. They should 
be nailed every 5 feet and if possible rodded and not 
wired. From cost data which I kept I learned that 
rodding was much cheaper than wirng. Further, it 
was safer on large structures and, what is very essen- 
tial, rodding left more working room ior dumping 
buckets and the men to work in the forms. Rules for 
designing concrete forms are difficult to deduce as 
every structure has its own peculiarities ; the amount 
of concrete deposited by hand mixing or machine mix- 
ing from a board or from dump buckets, all influence 
the design. I have built forms which were perfectly 
safe with a dry mixture shoveled oE a board, but 
which began to give and needed rebracing when the 
concrete was wet and was dumped from buckets. 
Care in Mixing Essential. 

Great care should be exercised with the mixing 
and depositing of concrete. Ignorant supervision anil 
inspection are often the cause of careless work. With 
careful and intelligent supervision and inspection all 
men co-operate with the foreman and insjiector and 
good work is the result. Concrete should he thor- 

oughly mixed and should never look raw when de- 
posited in the forms. Where possible machine mix- 
ing is preferable to hand mixing. If hand mixing is 
used concrete should not be shoveled into the forms 
until the mixture has a uniform fatty appearance and 
when struck with the back of a shovel on the mixing 
board the concrete should be left smooth and the 
shovel clean. Concrete should never be mixed too wet 
and the cement drowned out. 

On the triple 60-ft. arches built by the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. west of Richmond, Ind., a four pan Haines 
mixer was used which mixed 1 cubic yard of concrete 
per batch. When work was started in the morning 
the foreman used 25 gallons of water per batch until 
a 6-in. layer of concrete was deposited on the bottom 
of the forms, then the water was reduced, but to never 
less than 15 gallons per cubic yard, so that the con- 
crete quaked in the forms but water seldom accumu- 
lated on the surface. The foreman used great care in 
depositing all concrete in 6 or 8-in. layers, following 
the horizontal marks between two boards and forking 
the concrete with a potato fork after spading first with 
a shovel. The forking was carefully done by pushing 
the fork down into the concrete 8 inches, drawing the 
fork back from the face slowly to allow the grout to 
reach the face, then withdraw the fork and repeat the 
process. The man forking had to tramp around the 
face tamping the concrete with his feet. Spading was 
thus done all around, giving a homogeneous, imperv- 
ious concrete everywhere. 

Levelling off when the Day's Work Stops. 

Generally 150 cubic yards of concrete constituted 
a day's work. Expansion joints were arranged in 
such a way as to facilitate concreting and to finish 
one or two sections each day. However, if a section 
was too large or through a breakdown could not be 
filled and a horizontal joint was required the foreman 
left the concrete at the end of the day or whenever 
a stop was made, perfectly level following the joint 
between the boards. If any excess of water was in 
the forms the foreman drew it off by boring holes with 
an auger in the back and plugged the holes the next 
day. A man washed the face boards with a whitewash 
brush and water to have them clean next day. then 
he forked all around the forms and with a shovel or 
float smoothed the concrete for 6 ins. along the face. 
The concrete was sound and solid around the face 
next day and not soggy, dirty and full of mud. .At 
the back the concrete was left about 2 inches lower 
than in front and 2 x 12-in. or 3 x 8-in. plank was laid 
along the back and forced into the concrete. Through 
the center 6x6-in. timbers were forced in to form keys 
for the upper layer and were taken out next day. 

By drawing the water off the top before closing a 
day's work and taking care that no water should 
accumulate the foreman avoided laitance altogether 
and never had any trouble after he learned how to 
avoid the same. Laitance is caused by the verj' fine 
impurities, finer than pass a 200 mesh, floating on top 
of the water and accumulating as the impurities in- 
crease. If the water is allowed to stand and to evap- 
orate the impurities seldom if ever set up hard and if 
not cleaned olT will leave a yellow band along the 



face, a mark showing ignorance and carelessness by 
the foreman and by the engineer or his inspector. 

Every time a day's work is finished and a hori- 
zontal joint is thereby required, forethought should be 
used to either stop 6 inches below a wale, wiring or 
rodding, or 6 inches above. If stopped 6 inches below 
the wires and rods can be tightened and the face 
boards made to hug the previous day's work, thus 
avoiding an unsightly lip and a saggy contact which 
will always show and deform an otherwise good sur- 
face. If stopped 6 inches above the rods or wires the 
weight of the concrete will tighten the wire and draw 
the wale close to the studs and thus bring the boards 
tight to face. Should the foreman neglect the above 
precaution he must shim the boards away from the 
studs with shims and not just drive them out with 
the hammer. Unless the boards are shimmed the 
wet concrete will force them back against the studs 
and the result will always be an ugly fin. 

Finishing the Forms 

In finishing the forms the foreman was careful to 
have them the exact height on the top. He made it a 
rule to chamfer all sharp corners and copings with a 
%-in. beveled strip of wood. He also inserted a %-in. 
strip vertically at every expansion joint, leaving a 
notch 1^ ins. wide and %-in. deep at every expansion 
joint, thus doing away with irregular and saggy con- 
tact, especially where the forms were built in sections 
and moved, the whole face and back to construct an- 
other section and save carpenter work. In such a 
case the forms were oiled and cleaned before they 
could be used over again, and the face was repaired 
where needed. 

The concrete was always filled an inch higher than 
the finished forms and was allowed to settle. Copings 
and exposed surfaces were well spaded on the top to 
bring mortar to the surface and after allowing an hour 
for settlement were levelled off with a straight edge, 
then smoothed off with a wooden trowel and stroked 
with a moist whitewash brush. This gave a homo- 
geneous surface which did not scale. Topping off 
copings with mortar was not allowed, and better re- 
sults can be obtained by spading the concrete and 
then straight edging than by topping oft with a layer 
of mortar which sooner or later will crack off. As 
soon as the concrete was set the top of all copings 
was covered with an inch layer of sand and kept wet 
for ten days to prevent crazing. 

Forty-eight hours after the last batch was placed 
4n the forms they were removed whenever possible. 
If the surface was green and soft, fins were scraped 
off with the edge of a trowel where noticeable, then 
the surface was wetted with a whitewash brush with 
clean water and easily rubbed with a 2^/2 x 2J^ x 6-in., 
2 to 1 mortar brick not more than 8 days old. The 
men rubbed the wall with a circular motion which left 
spots in places. Next day the wall was moistened 
and floated all over the surface with a wooden float 
and after that stroked in one direction up and down 
with a moist, clean whitewash brush. Two men rub- 
bed and finished a section 10 feet high, 30 feet long 
and three days old in four hours at 17^ cents per man 
per hour. 

Where the concrete was a week old and older after 
forms were removed all fins were removed with a bush 
hand chisel having five blades. The surface was then 
wetted with plenty of cold water and rubbed with a 
23/2 X 254 X 6-in. 1 to 1 mortar brick not more than 
six days old. One section was rubbed down well, 
all rod holes were plugged and next day the section 

was floated down and stroked with a moist, clean 
whitewash brush. No cement wash of any kind was 
allowed. Any broken corners had to be carefully re- 
paired by thoroughly cleaning the surface, wetting 
the patch down well, then if possible driving 20d nails 
or railroad spikes into the concrete, putting up a form 
and grouping the broken place. Several patches were 
thus made and after finished could never be dis- 

The surface thus rubbed, floated and brushed 
bleached out uniformly everywhere, showed neither 
spots nor blemislies and gave the whole face a beauti- 
ful smooth dull finish. One foreman at 40 cents per 
hour and 6 laborers at 17J/2 cents per hour averaged 
25 square yards per man nearly every day rubbing and 
finishing was done, and they became very efficient at 
it and took a great deal of pride in their work. 

Scotchmen for G. T, P, Construction. 

It is stated that the contractors for the mountain 
sections of the Grand Trunk Pacific propose to bring 
out five thousand Scotchmen to build the railway. 
This is the result of the hostility of the people of 
British Columbia to the use of Asiatic labor. No 
doubt Scotchmen will have to be paid better wages 
than Chinamen, and it will cost more to transport 
them by land and sea to the mountains of British 
Columbia than it would to carry Asiatics there, but 
all the competing contractors know the conditions of 
the labor market and no doubt they were taken into 
account in making tenders. The Grand Trunk Pacific 
Company will probably have to pay the contractors 
considerably more than they would if Asiatic labor 
could be employed, but on the other hand when the 
railway construction work is completed the Scotch- 
men will as settlers make more traffic for the railway 
than twice as many Asiatics would. Moreover, they 
will atract other Scotchmen to the localities where 
they settle, and any district settled by Scotchmen is 
likely to be prosperous and progressive. 

The fact that $3,000,000 is being included in sup- 
plementary Government estimates for deepening the 
Back River at Montreal, Riviere des Prairies, and the 
French River is taken to indicate that the Govern- 
ment has at length decided to go ahead with the 
Georgian Bay Canal. The works mentioned would 
all be of utility in any event, but they are also on the 
proposed route of the canal, and in that the signifi- 
cant part of it lies. 

Railway development in Western Canada during 
the past year, is shown by the remarkable increase in 
the staff of the Canadian Pacific Railway in Calgary. 
At the close of 1909 the average number of employees 
in Calgary for the year was 700, and the pay roll, 
roughly estimated, amounted to $600,000. Last year 
the figures were more than doubled. The average 
number of people employed was 1,700, and the pay roll 
for the year was over $1,500,000. 

At a meeting of the Structural Bridge Workers' 
Union last week at Winnipeg it was decided to ask for 
an increased wage, from 40 to 50 cents an hour, to 
go into effect May 1st. There are 170 members in the 

During 1910 the city of St. Boniface, Man., ex- 
pended $861,870 on building, compared with a quarter 
of a million during 1909. 




The SmiccessfiLiil Preparatioe of Concrete 

Some Observations Upon the Main Principles to be Observed Maximum 
Reduction of Voids — Incorporability — Uniformity in Grading' 



By Harry l"'ran 
The preparation of concrete is an art requiring every bit 
iS much exact knowledge, experience, skill and painstaking- 
'ess as the preparation of steel. It is, if anything, a more 
difficult art than steel-making; for while the latter is carried 
n under fixed conditions and everything favors reduction 
if the process to a science, the preparation of concrete sel- 
dom takes place under conditions twice alike. In the first 
place, and from time to time, differing in composition, 
quality, size, and grading; and in the second place, the as- 
sembly of the various materials that go to make up the 
composition of concrete, and their final deposition as con- 
rete, involves a continual readjustment of the modus oper- 
,ndi. To prepare concrete properly, therefore, it becomes 
Very necessary:— 

(i) To make a careful investigation of available materi- 
als before each and every use, involving an analysis to de- 
termine fitness, and a synthesis to fix upon proper propor- 
lons to insure the desired results; and, 

(2) To see that every reasonable precaution is taken, in 

e several operations incidental to installation, to insure 

roper handling of the materials, both before, during, and 

after intermingling, until the finished product is in place; and 

thereafter to see that it is left to solidify under the most 

favorable conditions possible. 

In order to undertake successfully — and successfully 
eans intelligently — the preparation of concrete, it is of 
lourse first necessary to understand the principles involved. 
It may be stated as the chief aim of concrete prepara- 
ion to secure as dense and homogeneous a mass possible, 
ly which it is meant that there shall be the closest possible 
:ontact between particles, and that the particles shall be so 
ized as to reduce the contained voids to a minimum. 
Principles to be Observed. 
To secure a dense concrete two things are necessary: 
(i) To effect, by the manner of siznig and proportioning 
inerts, a maximum reduction of voids; and, 
(2) To fill all pores, interstices or voids remaining after 
reduction as above with an elastic, insoluble and tena- 
cious substance, which must first have the property of a 
liquid, so as to flow freely into place, secondly that of a 
glue, to unite all particles into a homogeneous whole, and 
thirdly that of becoming itself hard and stone-like. 

It is not possible, no matter how carefully and to what 
Extent the grading of inerts is carried, to therewith alone 
eliminate virtually all voids, any more than it is possible, in 
^ the familiar illustration in geometry, to divide a rectangle 
nintil there shall be no more to divide. Various inerts, as 
^bhey come for use in concrete mixtures, have voids rougly 
^■is follows: Broken stone, one size, 50 per cent; broken stone 
^Rwo sizes, not greatly differing, 45 per cent.; gravel, one size, 
0SO per cent.; gravel of indiscriminate sizes as found naturally, 
30 to 40 per cent.; natural sands, 30 to 40 per cent.; artificial 
(crushed stone) sands, 35 to 45. Thus, on the average, in- 
Tts — as they come naturally to hand — have from one-third 
to one-half of their volume air-space, or voids. Ordinarily, 
by combining broken stone or gravel with sand, in certain 
proportions, usually about two volumes of the former to 
one of the latter, it is aimed to reduce these voids, not en- 
tirely or even as much as possible or advisable, but only 
somewhat. This "somewhat" may reach as low as 15 per 
cent., if haply the finer inerts — the sand — are particularly 
well graded naturally; more often it is not less than 25 or 

•Extracted Irom paper read before the National Association ot Cement Users 


kliti Port«;r, O. E. 

30 per cent. The balance, whatever it may be, is then offset, 
as best may be, with cement. A typical specification for 
such a mixture would read: 

"The voids in the coarse aggregate are to be filled by 
an equivalent volume of fine aggregate, and enough cement is 
to be supplied to fill the voids in the fine aggregate with 
(say) 10 per cent., excess." 

Or it might be stated more simply and specifically yet: 

"The concrete is to be proportioned one part by volume 
of cement, to two parts sand, to four parts broken stone." 

Of these two specifications, both of which are typical of 
average practice, the former is the more scientific; but 
neither is scientific enough to insure consistently good re- 
sults, the object, presumably, we are after. In the first place, 
statement of the proportion of cement by volume measure- 
ment is exceedingly slipshod, for it ignores the fact that 
cement dry from the bag, cement packed down, and cement 
mixed with water, have volumes respectively that differ 
widely, and that it is the volume of cement with its requisite 
water that should be taken into consideration; secondly, 
that there is no accurate or real distinction between coarse 
aggregates and fine; and thirdly, that actual voids in ag- 
gregates is a very variable quantity, differing practically, not 
only with every job, but from day to day on the same job, 
even from hour to hour. 

It is some improvement to state the proportions, as 
many engineers are now doing, as one part cement to so 
many parts aggregate, making no longer a distinction be- 
tween coarse aggregates. But this even is not enough. A 
specification to be proper should state, first, the maximum 
size of inerts allowable; second, the maximum voids; and 
third, the quantity of cement paste necessary to effect a final 
filling of the voids and fulfill the requirement of a binder 
for all particles. 

Maximum Size of Inert 

The maximum size of inert, that figures in the mixing 
of the concrete proper, is fixed usually by the conditions of 
practice; it is of advantage to have it as large as practical, 
since the larger the individual volume of the inerts the less, 
relatively, the superficial surface to be coated with binder. 
This follows from the fact that, whereas the volume of solids 
increases as the cube of the diameter, the surface increases 
only as the square. Three conditions, at least, work to limit 
the maximum size inerts: 

■ (i) The incorporability; no particles should be used in 
the mix proper that will not readily merge with it. 

(2) The width of members that are to be cast. 

(3) The location and spacing of the reinforcement. 
By the first consideration the size is limited to about two 

inches; and by the other two, on occasion, to as fine as 
;4-inch, and seldom, in reinforced work is larger than }i- 
inch practicable. Two-inch stone, even, are not ea.«y to mix, 
and it is probable, for best mixing, not larger than i-inch to 
i^-inch should be used. Other grades of inerts are then to 
be supplied of such sizes and amounts as to effect a maxi- 
mum reduction of voids. It is entirely possible to reduce 
the voids to 10 per cent, and even less; but probably 10 per 
cent, is a practical minimum. To fill the remaining voids 
cement must be largely relied upon. 

Not many sizes of inerts are needed. Suppose the maxi- 
mum is fixed at one-inch; then, as it has been found experi- 
mentally and as it may be demonstrated analytically, the 
next size smaller should be, in order to fit easily into the 



voids of the maximum size, approximately one-fourth as 
large, that is, in this case, 54-inch, and there should be about 
half as much of them; the next size should be approximately 
one-quarter of the second — viz., l-l6-inch, and a volume of 
them equal to one-half of the second size or one-fourth the 
first, and so on, down to impalpable dust; but probably there 
will be more than four or five grades altogether, the finest 
grade comparing with cement in fineness, finer than which 
it is scarcely possible to go. This law of grading, if repre- 
sented by a curve, would assume the form of a parabola, 
having its origin at the intersection of zero size and zero 
proportion, and approaching coincidence with the horizon- 
tal at the intersection of the lOO per cent, ordinate and the 
maximum size abscissa. It will be found of this parabola, 
that the intersection of the 50 per cent, ordinate and one- 
fourth maximum size abscissa, and the intersection of the 
25 per cent, and the i-i6th size, and so on as outlined above, 
will fail in it or near it. 

By use of such a curve, and the separation of a com- 
bination of inerts proposed for use into several grades down 
to dust, jotting the results alongside the standard curve 
for comparison, the deficiencies can be at once recognized 
when the extra proportion of any one or more sizes, or the 
proportion of a size not present, may be readily calculated, 
and the deficiencies corrected. 

If there is an excess of coarse stuff the curve will be 
too flat; if an excess of fine, too high. An excess of fine is 
particularly obejectionable in that it crowds the cement 
grains and prevents their working properly; moreover, it 
requires an excess of cement, over and above a properly 
graded aggregate. An excess of cement is also required 
when there is an excess of coarse stuff, but, unlike the other 
condition, there is no crowding of the grains; the cement 
still does not function properly, in that it is congested in the 
large voids instead of being distributed in thin films and fine 
points, forming as it were an interlacing meshwork, entwin- 
ing all particles, but this condition is not so bad as the 

Grading Must be Uniform. 

Best results obtain when the grading is uniform, from 
maximum to dust, but with no more than 10 per cent, of 
the finest grade, which approximates the cement in size and 
may be regarded as replacing so much of it as finest filler. 
The cement, then, when made into a fluid with water, will 
have only to coat all particles with a thin film and to bridge 
the few small remaining interstices. Nothing but a liquid 
can perform this office; this is an important point and will 
be dwelt upon hereinafter. 

Another point: It is well not to have the sizes too close 
together, as for instance, to have a mixture of i-inch and 
^-inch stone, for the reason that 54-inch will crowd the 
inch, preventing it from assuming the most compact form; 
in fact, even so large as yi-inch will crowd the larger size. 
The desideratum is (i) that the maximum size should be 
free to assume its most stable configuration, which is when 
all particles are in as close contact as possible; and (2) that 
the next smaller size should just be large enough to neatly 
fill the maximum interstices, and that there should be just 
enough of this size to fill all these interstices. Similarly, 
the next smaller size should be such in dimension and 
amount as to effect a complete filling of the next largest in- 
terstices, and so on. 

If this law of grading is observed, it will be found that 
the final total volume about equals the original volume of 
the maximum size, and that mixture will be the most dense 
of which this is the nearest true. 

This points a practical way to determine upon the best 
proposition — to wit, to try a number of different combina- 
tions of the materials available, and to use that one which 
gives the least volume, or the one nearest the size of the 
volume of maximum size particles alone. 

Needless to state, almost, the test mixture should be so 
soft as to quake like jelly, and be ready to flow, for the 
above indications as to quality to be apparent. Similarly, 
during the deposition of concrete, if it is of a proper liquid 
or semi-liquid consistency, the trained eye of the foreman or 
supervisor can keep track of the quality of the mixture 
almost as accurately as an automatic proportioner, suppos- 
ing there were such an instrument. As a matter of fact, 
there is no satisfactory substitute for the trained eye of the 
installer, nothing that can detect so quickly and accurately 
any variations in the composition of the mixture, as occur 
often many times in a single day on the average concrete 
job, due sometimes to variations in the material, again to 
mistakes of the workmen. 

Test Accuracy by Weighing. 

Another way to gauge the accuracy and sufficiency of 
the grading is by weighing. That mixture, obviously, which 
weighs the most relatively is the densest. If the solidity of 
the concrete were absolute, that is, if the voids were com- 
pletely filled, its weight would be in the neighborhood of 
pounds if of limestone, and 180 if of trap. A quartz con- 
crete, thus, that weighed close to 160 pounds, would be about 
as dense as it would be possible to make it. A few pounds, 
always, are to be allowed for shrinkage, say two per cubic 
foot for moderately wet mixtures, so that if measurement 
and weight are taken wet, this correction should be applied 
before estimating the density. There will be no less, too, 
by evaporation, to take into account, if the concrete is to 
DC allowed to harden freely exposed to the air. If wet- 
blanketed, then there will be practically no loss from this 
source. A weight of 160 pounds for a quartz-concrete, 
hardened under favorable conditions of wetness, with shrink- 
age allowed for, can scarcely be improved upon. It means a 
solidarity of 97 per cent., or a reduction of voids to three 
per cent. A concrete this dense will be found practically im- 
pervious to water, even under considerable head, indeed to 
the limit of its strength. What more could be asked? 

The size of inerts is not necessarily limited to the maxi- 
mum stated, if conditions permit as large stone as it is con- 
venient to handle may be intermingled with the mass, so 
long as there is always an abundance of concrete^ — which in 
this case may be regarded as a coarse mortar — to completely 
cover them. Such stones may be called, to distinguish them 
from ordinary inerts, bulk-swellers. 

Bulk-swellers should not be less than four diameters 
larger than the largest inert, and preferably still larger, in 
order that there may be no doubt as to the fine material 
slipping into the voids, in case especially if the volume of 
bulk-swellers is sufficient to cause the concrete-proper to 
occupy the relation to the void-filler; but they should in no 
event be less than four times larger, lest they act merely to 
displace or crowd the coursest inerts, rather than an equiva- 
lent volume of all inerts. If the bulk-swellers are so sized, 
a volume of them may be used equal approximately to twice 
the volume of the concrete-proper. Of course, practically, 
bulk-swellers being generally added subsequently and indi- 
vidually, relative volumetric considerations scarcely figure, 
but — as stated previously — coarser particles may be added up 
to the point where there ceases to be a sufficiency of fine 
material to thoroughly imbed them. 

When large stone are introduced into the mass, great 
care must be exercised to see that they are well distributed, 
with a comfortable margin of soft material all around, above 
and below each piece. The danger is, of course, that the 
large stone, particularly if regular in shape, will bunch, 
either across or up and down, introduc'ng thus planes and 
weakness. It is also important that the stone be clean and 
thoroughly wetted, lest the adhesion be deficient. 

The shape of bulk-swellers is an important considera- 
tion likewise; cubical or square-faced blocks are less desir- 
able than irregular or well-rounded ones, for square edges 




^ COI 

act like so many wedges, tending to cleave the mass as in 
hardening it shrinks around them. Rounded stone, on the 
other hand, imbed themselves more naturally, the mass in 
shrinking tending to conform to their contour; irregular 
shapes tend to key themselves in, and to prevent, rather than 
induce, cracking. Flat stones are less desirable even than 
cubical ones, as their tendency to induce splitting is still 
ore pronounced. These objections on the score of shape 
constitute in fact the greatest drawback to the use of large 

I Use of Large Bulk-Swellers. 

An interesting example of the use of large bulk-swellers 
is afforded in the construction of the piers and abutments 
for the new concrete arch, bridge across the Rocky river, 
ait Cleveland, which outranks the famous Walnut Lane 
bridge spanning the Wissahekon in P'airmont park, Phila- 
delphia, both in span and in height. In this instance huge 
chunks of rock, as large as could be swung into place with a 
derrick,, were introduced into the mass at frequent intervals, 
being first cleaned, dusted and wetted. Advantage was taken 

hof these stone, at the conclusion of any period of operation, 
when there was to be a break of some little duration, by 
placing them so that about half protruded, thus providing an 
admirable key for the subsequent work. It is an interesting 
fact that, although frequently square-faced stone were used, 
no unfavorable shrinkage action showed itself; which would 
indicate that most of the shrinkage must take place while 
the concrete is still plastic enough to conform to the rigid 
outline of the contained block without separating. Hence 
the tendency to induce cracks, as pointed out l)efore, may 
not be so serious a matter as offhand might be supposed. 

There is another advantage in the use of bulk-swellers, 
of irregular shapes especially, rounded ones less so, namely, 
that they act also as reinforcement, forming here and there, 
throughout the mass, so many rigid keys locking the parts 
together, and in this way enhancing, no doubt, both the com- 
prehensive and tensile strength — if not very much in the 
long run — at least an appreciable amount on short time. Of 
course, just how much strength will be added in this man- 
ner depends largely on the character of the stone itself. 
This enforces the necessity for a good quality of stone, 
\ always, for concrete mixtures. 

Bearing on this point, investigations made in connec- 
tion with one of the bridges recently constructed by the city 
of New York, to ascertain how the strength of concrete 
might be increased so as to act as an adequate filler and 
stiffener to some cast pedestals, are of interest. It was 
found by the addition of a certain number of cut nails or 
spikes per cubic foot of concrete the crushing strength, and 
the tensile correspondingly was increased enormously, one 
series of tests giving results as high as 18,000 pounds per 
square inch, or nearly eight times the ordinary strength. 

Similarly, by the plentiful intermingling of large, irregu- 
lar shaped, more or less elongated, tough bulk-swellers, to a 
mass of concrete, it would appear that the strength must 
benefit no slight amount. In reinforced concrete work, espe- 
cially, this principle might well be taken advantage of, pro- 
viding of course conditions are favorable to it, to the end 
that the concrete act further with the steel to resist ten- 
sion, thus increasing the actual strength of the whole mem- 
ber. Indeed, it is not at all improbable that, in the no very 
distant future, reinforcement of this nature, that is, supply- 
ing resistance to particles throughout the mass, by introduc- 
ing here and there short pieces of steel, on the tensile side 
especially, will come into use, thus making concrete a more 
truly homogeneous structural material. The same principle 
might also be taken advantage of in columns, in order to 
keep down the girth and avoid the necessity of steel cones. 

All concrete may be looked upon as a combination of 
mortar with bulk-swellers. Thus the conventional 1:2:4 mix- 
tures might be regarded as composed of one part 1 .2 mortar 

and four parts bulk-swellers. The correctness of the rule as 
to the proportion of bulk-swellers allowable — to wit, a vol- 
ume of them equal to twice the volume of fine material, is 
now apparent. What, then, it may be asked, is the practical 
use of regarding the bulk-swellers separately? Just this, that 
they play no vita! part in the proper balancing of the inerts 
from coarse to fine to secure a dense concrete — it is the 
fitness, largely, of the mortar in any concrete that deter- 
mines its density. 

Standard Concrete Mixture Feasible. 
This would indicate the feasibility of a standard concrete 
mixture, one which might be used for any and all purposes, 
differing only in the proportion and size of the bulk-swel- 
lers added. It would be only necessary to agree upon the 
most suitable and convenient maximum size inert in the 
concrete-proper. Larger than one-inch would scarcely be 
possible, as already pointed out; probably one-inch or Ji- 
inch would best satisfy general requirements. The prepara- 
tion of good concrete, then, would resolve itself down to the 
selection of suitable finer grades of material to compare with 
the maximum grade determined upon, even according to the 
diagram of grading hereinbefore outlined. Efforts in the 
direction of economy in this case, instead of expending 
themselves in such unworthy ways as skimping the cement, 
would be confined to improving the grading (which truly 
economizes on the cement by increasing the amount of it 
required to produce a given result, not to mention the many 
other advantages of a scientifically graded mixture), and to 
incorporating with the mass, either during mixing or there- 
after, as many and as large bulk-swellers as conditions favor 
and judgment approves. If bulk-swellers are added during 
the mixing, they should be held out until the rest of the 
material is pretty well intermingled. No specific limit need 
be set as to their amount relative to a stated volume of fine 
material (as measured mixed), except to rule that no more 
of them shall be added than can be readily incorporated. An 
approximate ratio has already been given, but this may not 
always indicate the true proportion, more or less; judgment 
on occasion is the best guide. 

A Progressive Plaster Products Firm 

The Ritchie Contractors' Supply Company, Bower 
Building, are operating a plaster mill in Vancouver, in 
which they manufacture "Peerless" prepared plaster, fibred 
plaster and plaster finishes. They also manufacture gypsum 
fibred plaster blocks, and plaster boards. The plaster block 
has been used in the eight-storey Pacific Building (W. M. 
Somerville, architect), erected for W. A. Bauer, and also on 
five provincial school buildings; they are likewise supply- 
ing blocks for the new Mission Building in this city, and 
have several large contracts for other buildings in Van- 
couver, Victoria, and New Westminster. Since the opening 
date the plant has been in constant operation, as well as 
the plaster mill. The firm are also installing the Polly sys- 
tem for manufacturing hollow fireproof partition tiles, and 
as their facilities for shipping are the very best, having rail 
and water connection, the firm are justified in looking for- 
ward to a large demand for their various products. The 
Ritchie Company's attractive business announcement ap- 
pears on another page of this issue. 

The Artificial Light required in concrete buildings is 
considerably less than neetlcil in buildings of slow burn- 
ing mill construction according to the experience of Mr. 
Leonard C. Wason, of Boston, This is due to better 
reflection in the concrete buildings, from the white walls, 
ceilings and columns. The better natural lighting in 
concrete buildings due to reflection and the large window 
areas has been frequently commented upon- 



Cost of Construction at Ottawa 

No Important Changes Expected this Spring — 
Eight Hour Day to be Instituted on May 1st 

Ottawa, January 20, 1910. 

The general opinion of the architects is that the build- 
ing operations will cost about the same this spring as last. 
So far there are no changes in the prices of materials; 
brick, cement, lumber and steel all remaining at the same 
prices as prevailed all last summer. It is not expected 
that there will be any changes in lumber, although the 
cheaper qualities may be a little firmer. The only change 
anticipated in the cost of labor will be in connection with 
the contractors; the eight-hour day begins on May ist. The 
agreement was signed last May for five years, the eight- 
hour day coming into force this spring. There will then be 
an increase of two cents an hour, making it 52 cents. It is 
now 50 cents. This will not make much difference except 
that the assistants to these trades will also be compelled to 
work only eight hours, because there would be nothing for 
them to do for the remaining hours. It is expected that all 
the other trades will remain at the same wage. 

There are considerable workmen unemployed just now 
as is always the case in mid-winter. However, there is more 
winter building operations than in other years at this time. 

The Ottawa Improvement Commission has a large force 
of men employed demolishing the buildings along Sussex 
street which is to be converted into a driveway. The lum- 
ber from these will be used for the most part in erecting 
houses for some of the commission's employes in Rock- 
liffe as well as a large shed which is to be used for storing 
the commission's machinery, etc. The stone from the build- 
ings will be crushed and put on the roadway. A large quan- 
tity of old brick will be sold, probably by tender. 

There is still nothing definite with regard to the annexes 
proposed for St. Luke's and Rideau Street hospitals. The 
boards of both institutions are seeking to finance such addi- 
tions, but it is too early to say with what results. In each 
case the enlargements will cost about $150,000, as planned. 

Whether or not W. F. Tye will be engaged to co-oper- 
ate with City Engineer Ker to prepare a general plan for 
railway entrances into the city, still remains undecided. The 
city council has referred the matter back to the Board of 
Control and that body has again recommended his appoint- 

The Ottawa Builders' Exchange was addressed recently 
by Mr. E. T. Nesbitt, Quebec, President of the Ontario 
National Association of Builders. There is every indication 
that the local exchanges will be well represented at the con- 
vention of the Association, which is to be held in Winnipeg, 
February 15-16. A big delegation is all the more likely as 
the meeting will be held during the week of the curling bon- 

City Engineer Ker, of Ottawa, is reported to have re- 
ceived a tempting oflfer from Vancouver, B.C. It is un- 
derstood that the federal capital will do its best to retain his 

An Ottawa architect stated last week that from the inti- 
mations he has already received more large commercial 
buildings will be begun on Sparks street this season than 
last year. This is a particularly big statement, because last 
year was a record for building on this street. 

The proposed plaza over the canal between the Grand 
Trunk station and Chateau Laurier at Ottawa is again be- 
ing discussed b;' the authorites and a plan is stated to have 
been prepared. 

An Explanation of Ottawa's Paving Contracts 

Ottawa, January 18, igu. 
Editor Contract Record: 

In your issue of January nth, on page 38, there is an 
article which states that "An Ottawa Alderman declared last 
week that when the City Engineer wanted to obtain the con- 
tract for small blocks of pavement he tendered low, and 
when he did not want to take contracts for large blocks of 
pavement, he tendered high." 

This statement was made by an Alderman during the 
recent election campaign, and as the matter is pretty well 
understood here, no attention was paid to it by me at that 
time, but when the statement appears in the Contract Record 
and is published broadcast throughout Canada, it is time to 
take some recognition of it, and in view of your recent dis- 
cussion of the day labor question, the following facts may 
prove interesting to your readers. 

In April last tenders were called for the paving of the 
south end of Bank street and the eastern section of St. 
Patrick street. These streets are main thoroughfares and 
compare in their relative location to Yonge and Queen street 
east in Toronto. Both streets have double street car tracks. 
Bank street has a four-minute service, that is, a car every 
two minutes, and St. Patrick street an eight minute service. 
The car service had to be maintained as well as the vehicular 
traffic during construction. As the Exhibition Grounds are 
at the south end of Bank street, it was advisable to have the 
pavement laid complete for the Exhibition, which opened 
September 7th. Consequently the penalty for overtime was 
made $50 a day on Bank street, the penalty for non-comple- 
tion in time for St. Patrick street being $30 a day. 

The pavement on both streets was to consist of stone 
setts on 6 inches of concrete in the track allowance, with 
8 inches of concrete under the rails, the sides of the street 
being paved with 2j/4 inches of ashphalt on 6 inches of con- 
crete, with concrete gutters. 

The prices received were as follows: — 
Bank Street. 

Ottawa Construction Co 37,989.00 

Union onstruction o 47,673.00 

Barber Asphalt Paving Co $37,565-00 

City Engineer 47,673.00 

St. Patrick Street. 

Barber Asphalt Paving Co 45,750.00 

Ottawa Construction Co 49,495.00 

Union Construction Co 50,750.00 

City Engineer 59,522.70 

You will note the City Engineer's tenders were much 
higher than the other contractors and considerable comment 
was made at the time. 

What has been the result? The Barber Asphalt Paving 
Co., an old and experienced company, being the lowest 
tenderer, were awarded both contracts. Instead of finishing 
the pavements on time, neither of the pavements were fin- 
ished when the work was suspended on account of frost in 
November. They have not been accepted from the con- J 
tractors, and in my opinion, a considerable section of both | 
pavements will have to be relaid in the spring, for despite the 
most rigid inspection, the work is not satisfactory to this 
department or to the ratepayers. Both streets were torn up 
all the summer, causing considerable loss to the merchants 
on the street. 

The penalty for overtime is at present about $2,500, 
while I have it on good authority that the contractors have 
lost betwen $6,000 and $7,000 on the work. Under these con- 
ditions I think my tenders were sane and reasonable, as they 
provided for good work and prompt completion. 

Later on in the season, tenders were called for nine other 
streets, the three companies and the City Engineer tender- 
ing on each, and there was very little diflFerence in the prices. 
The Ottawa Construction Company were awarded contracts 




W S 

for four and the Barber Company two, while the City En- 
gineer was awarded three. 

Fair prices were put in for the three contracts awarded 

[to this department and the work was carried out promptly on 

time, giving entire satisfaction to the ratepayers; nor have 

I heard any criticism from the contractors as to the quality 

f our work. 

The civic asphalt plant was installed in the spring of 
1908, to keep in repair the various pavements laid under the 
day labor system by the city as well as pavements laid by 
contractors upon which the guarantee has expired, and for 
the purpose of laying new pavements. 

The installation of the plant has resulted in preventing 
[combines and in reducing the cost of asphalt pavements 
Tom $2.50 to $2.75 per square yard, to $1.80 to $2.15 per 
square yard, according to the type of pavement laid, and in 
the past three seasons it has paid for itself twice over. 

There is no disposition on the part of the engineering 
epartment here to cut prices to such an extent that good 
ork cannot be done by the contractors with a fair profit. 
Yours ver truly, 

Newton J. Ker, 

City Engineer. 


Victoria City Engineer's Annual Report 

The annual report of Mr. Angus Smith, City Engineer, 

ictoria, B.C., contains a number of items of interest. The 

eport shows that the amount of sidewalk work completed 

as 25.48 miles, compared with 13.45 in the previous year; 
4.65 miles of sewers were laid, as against 6.40, and the 
amount of curb and gutters laid was ioJ4 miles, compared 

ith syi miles for the previous year. 

Pavements laid — Asphalt pavement laid on St. Charles, 

inden, Southgate, Rockland, Fernwood, and Bastion streets, 
37iSoo square yards, or 2.10 miles; wood block pavement 
laid on Yates, Douglas, Herald, Belleville, Humboldt and 
Gordon street.s, 37,280 square yards, or 1.20 miles; concrete 
pavement on Broad and Pandora streets, 4,100 square yards, 

r one-sixth mile; tar macadam laid on Oak Bay avenue, 
North Park street and Princess avenue, 1.17 miles; macadam 

aid on Spring, Catherine, Langford, St. Lawrence, Michi- 

an, Rudlin, Fernwood and Gladstone streets, 42,506 square 

ards, or 2.20 miles. 

The following is the actual and estimated cost per 

quare yard of some of these latter pavements: — North 
Park, tar macadam estimated cost $1.25 per square yard, 
actual cost $1.00; Broad street, concrete, estimated cost 
1I2.80 per square yard, actual cost $1.84 per square yard; 
,Herald street, wood block, estimated cost $3.75 per square 

ard, actual cost $3.47 per square yard; Yates street, wood 
block, estimated cost $3.75 per square yard, actual cost 
$3.31 per square yard; Government street, wood block, esti- 
mated to cost $3.75 per square yard, actual cost $3.62 per 
square yard. 

With the assistance of the public works department sur- 
veys, plans and specifications were prepared and the con- 
tract let for the construction of the Dallas road sea wall 
;at an estimated cost of $75,000. The groins were constructed 

n Ross Bay beach, for the purpose of protecting the cliff 
oposite the cemetery. The groins appear to give the pro- 
tection intended and these are probably the first experiment 
of the kind on the coast. 

The following material was purchased in the year 1910: 
12,108 of gravel, 9,291 yards of sand, 21,490 barrels of 
.cement, amounting to $79,669; also 1,700 yards of crushed 

ock amounting to $30,000, making a total of $110,269. 

Mr. W. H. Browne, a prominent consulting engineer, 
[formerly of Montreal, died last week at Brooklyn, N.Y., at 
the age of 61. 

Civic Improvements at Montreal 

About Fifteen Million Dollar* to be Expended- Building 
Trade Continue* Active — Interesting Comparison* 

Office of the Contract Record, 

Montreal, January 20, 191 1. 

Notices were sent out recently for the re-opening of 
the sessions of the Canadian Society of Engineers with a 
paper on "Recent Advances in Machine Tool Construction," 
by Mr. Thomas Reid, of the John Bertram & Sons Com- 
pany, Dundas, Ont. The cards did not arrive, however, un- 
til the morning of the lecture, and this, combined with the 
inclement weather, caused an attendance of less than a dozen 
members. It was therefore decided to postpone the read- 
ing of the paper until February 9, when it will be read by 
Col. Bertram, Mr. Reid being in Europe. Col. Bertram will 
greatly extend the scope of the paper by then, and the great 
changes which have been made in tools and their manipula- 
tion during the past ten years should prove material for 
an interesting address. 

About thirteen million dollars will, it is expected, be 
spent on civic improvements during 191 1, and over two mil- 
lions on the harbour improvements. Although no official 
information can dc given for at least a month, it is under- 
stood that work on the construction of the St. Lawrence 
tunnel for the new central terminal station will be com- 
menced in March. 

Mr. Chausse, the Montreal Building Inspector, is 
amused at the claims of other cities to show larger building 
returns than Montreal for the past year. In 1909 Mont- 
real's building permits totalled $7,800,000. Last year the 
total of permits issued amounted to $15,815,859, but this of 
course was not the actual total of work done. 

"Winnipeg claims many other things besides the value 
of permits," he said this morning. "Suppose we do the 
same. In the first place, for fear of assessment or for other 
reasons, people seldom quote the total value when apply- 
ing for a building permit, and it is permissible to add at least 
twenty per cent, for these reasons, say three millions. Then 
outside the actual permits we have the harbour improve- 
ments, amounting to four millions, and the railway rwoks — 
bridges, subways, etc., of not less than two millions. There 
are two annexed wards which do not have to apply for 
building permits, but which have spent at least a hundred 
thousand, and at least a hundred and fifty thousand has been 
spent on civic buildings. This means a total of over $25,- 
000,000, without counting municipalities within our bound- 
aries, viz.: Westmount, Outremont, Maisonneauve and Ver- 
dun, which between them have spent not less than four and 
a half millions, bringing the total to over thirty million dol- 
lars. Next year this will be greatly increased. 191 1 will 
be the greatest building year in Montreal's history." 

Prices keep fairly firm. There is a good market for 
bricks at $10, $15 and $18 per thousand; cement is steady 
at $1.00 f.o.b. Montreal in car lots, with 5,000 barrel orders 
fetching lower prices; metallic laths are 25c straight and 
30c. bent. For paints and oils there is a good demand with 
a fair market; white lead, $6.50 to $7.00; linseed oil, high, 
at $1.09 raw and $1.11 boiled, and turpentine fairly steady 
at from $1.08 to $1.10 a gallon. 

The building trade is still brisk for the time of year. 
The foundations for the Dominion Express building are 
beginning to take form and many other of the new buildings 
look as though they will be ready well before May, which 
is the general moving time here. 

Mr. W. H. Ford, the genial General Sales Agent of the 
Canada Cement Co., made a most comprehensive tour of the 
Maritime Provinces during December, paying a visit to 
each of the firm's customers. He has now left for a similar 
trip through Ontario and the West, intending to interview 



practically every dealer in Canada. He will therefore be have in hand some of the largest public works contracts in 
absent from Montreal for a considerable time. the west. 

Personal and General 

On January 23rd Mr. C. R. Woodruff, secretary of the 
National Municipal League of America, delivered an inter- 
esting address at Montreal under the auspices of the City 
Improvement League on "Co-operation in City Planning and 
the Function of Business Bodies in Civic Betterment." 

The annual general meeting of the British Columbia 
Land Surveyors was • held recently in Vancouver. The 
board of management elected for the current year consists 
of: E. A. Cleveland, president, W. S. Gore, vice-president; 
S. A. Roberts, secretary-treasurer, and E. B. Hermon, G. 
H. Dawson, J. H. McGregor, S. C. Green, N. F. Townsend, 
and (ex-officio) E. B. McKay, surveyor-general, members of 
the board. 

According to a dispatch from Calgary the Exshaw 
Cement Company's plant was sold last week in the sheriff's 
office to the Canada Cement Company for upwards of one 
milion dollars. 

Mr. Wiliam Price, of Seattle, general manager of the 
Western Steel Corporation, announces that the construction 
of a $500,000 plant will be commenced near Sunbury, B.C., 
by April ist. 

Mr. R. L. Parsons, of the Parsons Construction & En- 
gineering Company, Regina, returned recently to the latter 
city after a visit to Calgary, where his firm has the con- 
tract for a large overhead bridge. The Parsons Company 

The annual meeting of the Architects' Association, of 
Victoria, B.C., was held last week. The newly formed asso- 
ciation numbered about 20 members. 

The survey is nearly completed for the new water sup- 
ply for the town of New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, and an im- 
portant meeting of the engineers in charge will take place 
within the next few weeks to decide upon the type of piping 
most suitable for the conditions. About twenty years ago, 
when the question of a water supply was first dealt with, 
a steam pump was installed, but with the growth of the 
town a larger and better supply of water has been found 
necessary. It has therefore been decided by the municipality 
to tap the waters of McLellan's brook at a point about six 
miles from the town limits utilising a number of small lakes 
in the district to form a reservoir, and this water will be 
brought to the town by gravitation. There will be sufficient 
fall for fire presure and the old pump will then go out of 
service with the completion of the new system. 

The Trussed Concrete Steel Company of Canada are 
starting the erection of special buildings at Walkerville for 
the manufacture of steel sash. The initial capacity of the 
plant will be 4,000 square feet a day, but provision will be 
made for doubling this in the near future. 

Mr. Geo. E. Bell, the son of Mr. Jas. A. Bell, of St. 
Thomas, Ont., has been appointed manager of the Dominion 
Bridge Company's office and plant at Winnipeg. He will 
have charge of all the company's business in Western Can- 
ada. Mr. Bell was educated at the Collegiate Institute at 
St. Thomas and McGill University, Montreal. 


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From the earliest dawn of time, 
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Build in this or any clime 
If you build with Renfrew Lime. 

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Lime : Brick : Tile 

The Largest Cities and Smallest Towns use 

W. E. Seagrave Fire Apparatus 


There is a Reason: 

Tlie name W. E. Seagrave guarantees the 
Best, the Lightest, the Strongest, the Most 
Economical in Operation and Maintenance. 
No order too large. No order too small. 
Consult us before buying. 

Automobile Fire Apparatus and IVIotor Driven 
Vehicles of all kinds, our latest Production. 


Contracts Department 

News of Special Interest to Contractors, Engineers, Manufacturers and 

Dealers in Building Supplies. 


Information for insertion in these columns is invited from Architects, Contractors, Engineers, etc. 

Waterworks, Sewerage and 


rampton, Ont. 

lif inspector of llie Canadian Fire 
nderwriters' Association recommended 

t a reservoir be constructed at the 

;e to hold 507,000 imperial gallons, to 

used in case of fire only. 

Igary, Alta. 

On the report of City Engineer Child 
as to the cost of a municipal paving plant 
(capacity 800 to 1,000 yards a day) a by- 
law will be submitted for $25,000 to au- 
thorize the purhcase. 

Chatham, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to W. G. Mcrritl. 
Icrk, will be received until February 6th 
supply of sewer pipe, brick, sand, 
vcl, lumber and hardware for 191 1. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

The items in the expenditure in the 
engineer's department for the year are 
as follows: Plank walk and crossing con- 
struction, ..16,000; concrete walks, $15,- 
000: boulevards, $30,000; paving, $125,- 
000; street railway, $50,000; sewer, $281,- 
000; watermain construction, $40,000; 
bridges, $165,000; grading, $4,000; sub- 
way, Twenty-fourtli street, $12,000; west 
end park and nursery, $6,000; tools and 
cipiipment, $2,500; Second street improve- 
meiil, $20,000; I'^ourth street improve- 
ment (unprovided for, cost approximate- 
ly $20,000); F'ifth street improvement, 
$7,500; field engineering estimates, $1,000; 
yard and stable, $35,000; installation of 
generator, plumbing, $50,000; sliding 
bank, further investigation to be made 
regarding cost. 

amilton, Ont. 

Tenders for supply of concrete pipe for 
wers in west end will be called. 

ndon, Ont. 

Engineer Van Cleve recommends a 
storm sewer system for the city. The 
board of works will take this matter up 
sluirtly, and froiu present indications a 
by-law will be prepared for submission to 
electors in January next. 





ontreal. Que. 

Mr. James Baillie, Board of Trade 
Building, Montreal, expects to have the 
plans ready next week for the Villa 
"iria sub-division. They are now in the 

nds of a firm of landscape architects in 
ston, and as soon as they arrive con- 
tracts will be asked for for the construc- 
tion of sewers and sidewalks, and the 
grading and making of roads through the 
property. All this work will be done 
before the lots are put on the inarket, 
and the estimated cost will be in the 
neighborhood of $500,000. It is under- 
stood that the whole will be left as one 
inclusive contract. 

Neson, B.C. 

City Engineer G. C. Mackay recom- 
mended sewer construction in the south 
of the city at once at a cost of $4,703. 

and also the purchase of sewer pipe and 
fittings to the value of $500. 

New Westminster, B.C. 

Plans for sewerage systems in the 
west and east end of the city will be 
prepared by the city engineer. It is im- 
probable that the work will be carried 
out this year. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

.\ by-law may be submitted to the 
people shortly to authorize the expendi- 
ture of $195,000 for waterworks purposes. 
I'or the completion of the work on the 
aqueduct $150,000 is needed and over 
$40,000 is required for water main ex- 
tension on the Glebe. 

Regina, Sask. 

L. A. Thornton, City Engineer, writes 
that Kegina is making a survey of the 
spring area with a view to getting defi- 
nite information as to the supply avail- 
able. Some repairs are being made to 
the supply main. 
Sarnia, Ont. 

Tenders are called until February 4th 
for supplies for waterworks such as 
brass service and stop cocks, lead flange 
couplings. A. A. Kelly, Chairman Fire 
and Water Committee. 
Smith's Falls, Ont. 

Tenders will be received until Febru- 
ary 6th for $41,501 30-year and 20-year 
waterworks and local improvement de- 
bentures. J. A. Lewis, town clerk. 
St. Lambert, Que. 

A by-law will be submitted to the rate- 
payers to issue $225,000, local street and 
sewer imi)rovement debentures. 

St. Thomas, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to Geo. K. Crocker, 
Chairman Board of Water Commission- 
ers, will be received until February 13th 
for the building of a covered reservoir 
here. For further information see ad- 
vertisement in "Tenders and Fqr Sale 
Department" of this issue. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Because of the annexation of Hastings 
Townsite and D. L. 301, it is thought 
that an additional amount of $100,000 will 
be required to provide this new section 
with a complete water system. .\ 
waterworks by-law for $400,000 was ap- 
proved in the beginning of the year be- 
fore this district was annexed. 

Victoria, B.C. 

On the recommendation of the water 
commissioner, the city will purchase 473 
Trident water meters of various sizes at 
a cost of $7,500; 15.000 feet of 12 in.. 
10,000 feet of 8 in., 35,000 feet of 6 in.. 
80,000 feet of 4 in. Manncssman's steel 
tubes at a cost of $80,000; and 460 gate 
valves of various sizes at an estimated 
cost of $4,000; and 15 tons of pig lead. 
These supplies will be used in exten- 
sions of the distribution system. 

The board of works, at its initial meet- 
ing decided upon asphalt as the type of 
pavement to be utilized in the big street 
improvement scheme, the cost of which 

will aggregate close to $1,000,000, and 
instructed the city engineer to take such 
steps as will enable tenders to be called 
for almost immediately. The scheme is 
as follows: Trunk road, $487,125; passed 
and reported, $321,910; passed, not re- 
ported, $399,560; recommended, $304,790. 

Railroads, Bridges and Wharves 

Amherstburg, Ont. 

Plans are being prepared for the con- 
struction of a drydock here and possibly 
a shipyard. Preliminary estimates place 
the cost at about $250,000. A. H. Clarke, 
Member for South Essex, is interested. 

Barrie, Ont 

Tenders addressed to R. H. Jupp, Sup- 
erintendent County Roads, will be re- 
ceived until February loth for pile timber 
and driving same for substructure, abut- 
ments and wing walls of Old Fort Bridge 
across Wye River. Plans, etc., at office 
of above or at office of County Clerk, 

Dartmouth ,N.S. 

The Board of Trade and citizens will 
ask for a Government wharf to be built 
here capable of accommodating ocean- 
going steamers. Mayor Netting, Coun- 
cillor Douglass and A. C. Pyke are in- 

Digby, N.S. 

The C. P. R. propose to build a new 
bridge here on the location made by the 
old Western Counties Railway. 

London, Ont. 

A deputation from Caradoc and Dela- 
ware Townships, composed of Messrs. D. 
C. Brodie, John Stewart and Ephraim 
Howlett, requested the construction of a 
bridge at what is known as the Giles 
site, the matter was referred to the board 
of road directors to report. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Carleton County Council will 
build three concrete arch bridges during 
this summer for which tenders will be 
called. Chas. MacXab, county clerk. 

A new and modern swing bridge will 
be installed by the G. T. R. at the end of 
Elgin street to replace the railway 
structure which at present stands there. 
Mr. Morley Donaldson. 

Quebec ,Que. 

Survey.-, are .-tated to have been com- 
pleted and work will shortly commence 
on the 170 miles extension from Maiane 
to Gaspe Basin for the Canada & Gulf 

The tenders recommended for accept- 
ance in the report of Mr. L. A. Vallee. 
re bridge over St. Charles River, were 
as follows: J. H. Gigrnac. Ltd.. $160,000: 
Phoenix Bridge Company, $160,500. Both 
plans called for the swing bridge type. 
The Road Committee decided to hold 
both tenders and also have Government 
engineer prepare plans for the bascule 



type bridge for which tenders wi!l be 

St. Leonards, N.B. 

An act has been introduced in the 
Maine Legislature, granting a charter to 
Messrs. Wm. H. Cunliffe, Frank W. Mal- 
lett, etc., to build a bridge across the St. 
John river between Van Buren, Me., and 
this place. 

Township of Barton. 

On February 14th a by-law will be 
voted on to issue $6,500, A]^ per cent, 
bridge debentures. A. G. E. Bryant, 
Township Clerk. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The G. T. P. engineers have been mak- 
ing tests for the purpose of locating a 
solid foundation for piers, etc. When 
plans are accepted the construction work 
will commence immediately. The Albion 
Iron Works, occupying site, have re- 
ceived notice to vacate. 

Welland, Ont. 

A special committee from the city 
council and a similar number selected 
from property owners will meet shortly 
for the purpose of reporting on the best 
plans re site, division of cost, etc., in 
connection with the high level bridge 
over Welland canal. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

It is understood that James J. Hill in- 
tends to proceed with immediate railway 
extension into Manitoba. It is believed 
that he will not only build the line at 
present projected, but that he will tap 
the boundary at a number of points in 
Western Canada. 

As a result of a deputation which 
waited upon the Board of Control in re- 
gard to the proposed bridge across the 
Red River, which the residents of St. 
Vital are in favor of, plans and estimates 
giving full particulars for the considera- 
tion of the works committee of city 
council will be prepared. Mr. Mager, 
Reeve of St. Vital, and Councillor Wil- 
son are interested. 


Burk's Head, N.S. 

The contract for breakwater has been 
let to Messrs. A. W. Girroir & Kinsman 
Sweet, of Antigonish, N.S., $35,490. 

Chapel Cove, N.S. 

The contract for the construction of a 
breakwater has been awarded to Mr. W. 
J. .Landry, of Antigonish, N.S., $11,148. 

Duncan's Cove, N.S. 

The contract for breakwater has been 
awarded to Messrs. A. W. Girroir & 
Kinsman Sweet, of Antigonish, N.S., $6,- 

Morris, Man. 

Robert Coats, this place, has been giv- 
en the contract for the construction of 
two pile bridges here at $3.13 per foot. 
Other prices ranged from $3.70 to $5.50. 

South Ingonish, N.S. 

The contract for wharf goes to Messrs. 
Robert & Barth Musgrove, North Syd- 
ney, N.S., $5,100. 

St. Joseph de Letellier, Que. 

The contract for wharf goes to Nap. 
Warren, of Chicoutimi, Que., at $18,900. 

Three Fathom Harbor, N.S. 

The contract for beach protection goes 
to Obed A. Ham, of Mahone Bay, N.S. 
at $7,848. 

Public Buildings, Churches 
Schools, etc. 

Arelee, Sask. 

Tenders were received until February 
1st, 1911, for the purchase of materials 
and the construction of a school house. 
Fred Strate, secretary-treasurer. 

Berlin, Ont. 

Reeve Euler and Aldermen Clement 
and Kranz have been appointed to con- 
fer with the Board of Health regarding 
the erection of Isolation Hospital. 

The Board of Health has requested 
Mr. Beilstein to prepare sketches of three 
buildings instead of one to be used as 
Isolation Hospital. Secretary, Miller. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Tenders were called until January 31st 
for the purchase and removal of the old 
city hall buildings. W. D. Spence, city 

The plans for the new St. Andrew's 
Church were approved at a recent con- 
gregational meeting. Pastor, Rev. Mr. 

The congregation of Knox Presbyter- 
ian Church decided to purchase property 
at Fourth street and Sixth avenue and 
to erect a church not to cost more than 
$125,000. Thorburn Allan, treasurer. 

The supplementary report of the city 
commissioners recommended the erec- 
tion of new fire headquarters and equip- 
ment. Estimated cost of building, $38,- 
000. Total cost, $75,000. A by-law will 
be prepared at once. 

Carleton Place, Ont. 

J. Albert Ewart, Ottawa, is the archi- 
tect in charge of the erection of the 
Zion Presbyterian Church here. Size, 
ground floor, 90 x 72; number of floors, 
2; estimated cost of building, $20,000; 
cost of equipment, $5,000. We are in- 
formed that contracts will be awarded 
next month. W. Allen, secretary build- 
ing committee. Noted in last issue. 

Chilliwack, B.C. 

We are informed that the tenders for 
hospital building here were considered 
too high. None were awarded. R. J. 
Douglas, secretary hospital board. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Geo, E. Turner, architect and build- 
ing commissioner, is in charge of the 
erection of 3-story primary school be- 
tween McCauley and Heiminck streets. 
The school will be built of brick, stone 
dressings, fireproof floors over boiler 
room, fireproof staircase wings at an 
estimated cost of $100,000, which in- 
cludes everything but desks and furni- 
ture. Under date of last information 
contracts were not stated to have been 

Fredericton, N.B. 

Arrangements are being made to se- 
cure figures on the erection of a suitable 
building for the Exhibition in 1912. 

Gait, Ont. 

At a meeting of citizens interested in 
the formation of a Business Men's Club 
here, it was decided that the first step 
would be the erection of an up-to-date 
building. Estimated cost, $20,000. 

Guelph, Ont. 

Plans prepared by Architect Cowan 
for the erection of Children's Shelter 
have been accepted by the executive 
committee. Estimated cost, $10,000. 

Kamloops, B.C. 

The plans prepared for the new hos- 
pital provide for a modern and substan- 
tial structure. The building designed 
has a frontage of 200 feet, and is 144 
feet in depth. Estimated cost, $120,000. 
Noted in issue of January 4th. 

Marysville, N.B. 

The Methodist Church here was de- 
stroyed by fire on the 2C)th inst. Esti- 
mated loss, $65,000. 

Montreal, Que. 

The Homoeopathic Hospital have a 
committee at work for the purpose of 
raising $100,000 for erection of a new 
building. Dr. J. T. Novinger, secretary. 

Orillia, Ont. 

Competitive preliminary sketches for 
proposed new Sunday school for Presby- 
terian Church are called until February 
iSth. For further information see ad- 
vertisement in "Tenders and For Sale 
Department" of this issue. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Central Canada Exhibition Asso- 
ciation have decided to postpone the 
request for the erection of new mach- 
inery hall till next year. Secretary, Mr. 
McMahon. Noted in last issue. 

Peterborough, Ont. 

The congregation of Murray Street 
Baptist Church have decided to build 
their new church. Estimated expendi- 
ture, $56,500. Chairman Building Com- 
mittee. Mr. T. F. Matthews. 

Regina, Sask. 

Work on the first building of the 
Regina Methodist College will be start- 
ed in the spring. Dr. W. W. Andrews, 

Souris, Man. 

The school board is preparing to build 
another school in the spring. It will 
probably be an eight-room building. 

A committee from the hospital board, 
composed of T. H. Patrick, George 
Brown, and W. McCulloch, have been to 
Brandon to consult an architect with re- 
gard to a new hopsital building. 

Strathcona, Alta. 

The council granted the request of 
the Public Library Board for increase 
of grant and building site. Noted in 
last issue. 

South Vancouver, B.C. 

A site in the vicinity of Home road 
east of Eraser avenue is being considered 
for a new school. 

Sydney, N.S. 

The city council has approved of the 
granting of $75,000 for the erection of 
two brick schools. 

St. Boniface, Man. 

The Roman Catholic Church have de-j 
cided to erect a fine building on Aulunea 
street in this city, as a training schoolj 
for j'oung priests. Plans are being pre- 
pared by a Montreal architect. Esti^ 
mated cost, $250,000. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 

Architect Thomas Wiley. St. Cathar-j 
ines, is preparing plans for an addition 
to be built to the Rittenhouse school a^ 
Jordan Harbor in the spring. Plans cal| 
for an extension of two wings of brick 

St. John, N.B. 

The Main Street Baptist Church wiH 
start a fund for the purpose of erecting 
a new Sunday school. W. H. White, 


treasurer; W. Heathfield, financial sec- 

M. Sullivan, contractor, Kingston, 
(Jnt., is calling for bids for purchase and 
removal of houses on the site of the pro- 
jjosed new drill hall. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Hon. W. J. Ilanna, Provincial Secre- 
tary, received a deputation from the 
Victoria and Alexandra Industrial 
Schools requesting the Government grant 
..f $20,000 to the two institutions. It pointed out that a new school build- 
iiR costing $15,000, is needed at East 
Toronto. At Mimico the institution re- 
luires a new cottage, to cost $25,000, as 
A^ell as a barn and lavatories, $10,000. 

Toronto, Ont. 

■ ^ffhe Public School Inspectors have 
H^ked for the additional accommodation 
V 0F92 rooms to be ready for use in Sep- 
tember, 191.2. 

At the annual meeting of the Canadian 
National Exhibition Association, Presi- 
dent Gooderham announced that a Wo- 
men's Building would be erected this 

H^kenders are called until February 13th 
™iy^ Public Works Department, Ottawa, 
for alterations to Examining Warehouse 
here. Plans, etc., obtained at the office 
of Mr. Thos. Hastings, Clerk of Works, 
jt|ostal Station F, Yonge street, Toronto, 
at the Department, 
enders, bulk or separate, addressed to 
G. R. Geary, Chairman, Board of Con- 
trol, will be received until February 13th 
for the following trades in connection 
with the erection of Howland Avenue 
Fire Hall; concrete, paving, etc., hard- 
ware, sliding poles, covers for sliding 
pole openings, metal weatherstrips, light 
fixtures, stable fittings. Plans with City 
Architect. Advertisement in "Tenders 
and For Sale Department, this issue. 

«incouver, B.C. 
The plans for the new church were 
ssed by the congregation of Chalmers 
Presbyterian Church. Rev. E. A. 

Menry, pastor, 
ponipetitive plans are invited until Feb- 
sary 6th for erection of stock judging 
pavilion on Exhibition grounds. H. S. 
iplston. Secretary, Vancouver Exhibi- 
■^Kn Association, 319 Pender street. 

■^*0. W. Moberg, architect, has submit- 
ted plans to the Parks Board for the im- 
provements to Stanley Park, including 
concert and refreshment pavilions. $15,- 
000 will be spent. Noted in December 
t issue. 

he First Presbyterian Church at their 
annual meeting discussed building plans 
>for their new church. It was decided to 
■call for further plans before making any 
decision. Noted in issue of December 
21. Dr. Eraser, pastor; Messrs. S. Mun- 
son, K. J. Marshall, and Ramage, mem- 
bers board of management. 

Victoria, B.C. 

■'he site for the new high school has 
n purchased. 
. J. Drake was appointed chairman of 
management committee which has 
rge of the financing of the building 
fund for Knox Church. 

D. E. Campbell, President of the Hos- 
pital Board, urged the necessity of the 
complete rebuilding of the Jubilee Hos- 
pital on a large scale. Referred to a 

l^pAt the annual meeting of the First 
Presbyterian Church it was decided to 


take steps toward the erection of a new 
church building. Messrs. E. J. Martin, 
Mcllvride and Dempster were elected 
to the board of finance. Rev. Dr. Camp- 
bell, pastor. 

Tenders for the erection of the com- 
fort station were received from the fol- 
lowing: For the plumbing, heating and 
ventilating, D. R. Menzies & Co., $6,- 
725; W. Bownass, $S,ooo; Victoria 
Plumbing Company, $6,904; Colbert 
Plumbing Company, $6,897; ^<- J- Knott, 
$6,832; J. H. Warner & Son, $7,000; Hay- 
ward & Dodds, $6,601; A. Sherret, $6,865. 

Tenders for the erection of the build- 
ing were received from the following: 
Dinsdale & Malcolm, $13,787; Parfitt 
Bros., $16,493; Luney Bros., $14,936; 
Thomas & Hodgson, $13,280; Ferris & 
Barflf, $12,718; city engineer, $12,893. 
Welland, Ont. 

The town council are considering the 
purchase of a site for market accommo- 
dation and Carnegie Library. 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Tenders will shortly be called for the 
proposed addition of 12 rooms to Strath- 
cona school on McGregor street. J. B. 
Mitchell, Commissioner of School 

The Women's Hospital Aid Society 
contemplate the erection of a convales- 
cent home to cost about $30,000. A 
grant of five acres is expected from the 
Provincial Government. President, 

Mrs. E. M. Wood. ^ 

Woodstock, N.B. 

Under date of last information the 
contracts for the brick and stone school 
house (120 X 80), three storeys, had not 
been awarded. H. B. Connell and Col. 
Dibblee, trustees, Woodstock; G. Ernest 
Fairweather, architect, St. John. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Grant Brothers were awarded the con- 
tract for the erection of the school at 
Mission Bridge, at $57,000. Marr's 
Plumbing Company secured the contract 
for plumbing and heating this school at 
$12,934. Total, $79,934- 

The contract for the erection of the 
five-roomed addition to the high school 
was awarded to James McPhail at $32,- 
850. The plumbing and heating in the 
addition was awarded to Grant Bros., at 
$11,616. Total, $44,466. 

Although tenders were sent in for the 
building of Hillhurst and the Colonel 
Walker estate schools, the board decided 
to make the latter a 12-roomed school 
instead of an eight-roomed school as pre- 
viously planned. The former school is 
to be in a locality where it is much more 
difficult to haul material, therefore the 
tenders will have to be increased. Those 
sending in tenders will be allowed to 
figure again to guard themselves against 

It is estimated that each of these 
schools will cost $110,000. The plumbing 
contracts for each were awarded as fol- 
lows: E. J. Young, for plumbing and 
heating in the 12-roomed school in Hill- 
hurst, at $17,745 ,and W. Head for 
plumbing, heating and ventilating in 12- 
room school near Colonel Walker's es- 

Forest, Ont. 

The contract for supply of two No. 24 
Kelsey generators and ventilation, manu- 
factured by Jas. Smart Co., Brockville, 
for high school here was given to Scott 
Bros., this place. 


Grand Falls, N.B. 

Contract for public building here 
awarded to Powers & Brewer, Grand 

Falls, $17,777- 

Montreal, Que. 

The contracts for the plumbing, heat- 
ing and lighting of the new Art Gallery 
are the chief ones which have not yet 
been let. Messrs. G. A. Fuller & Co., 
genera! contractors, have let the follow- 
ing: Reinforced concrete to Messrs. F. 
J. Jago & Co., Montreal; excavation, to 
Messrs John Quinlan & Co., Montreal; 
marble and granite to The Norcross 
Bros., Worcester, Mass. 

Nanaimo, B.C. 

The contract for erection of public 
building here was awarded to A. Hender- 
son, $23,441. 

St. Henri, Que. 

Contract for additions to post office 
awarded to J. Jacob & Co., Montreal, 


Wolfville, N.S. 

The contract for erection of Baptist 
Church here has been awarded to A. W. 
Allen, Middleton, N.S., $35,000. C. B. 
Chappell, architect, Charlottetown. 

Victoria, B.C. 

The contract for the erection of the 
public convenience, corner of the Cause- 
way and Wharf street, was awarded to 
Ferris & Barr, $11,966.90. The contract 
for the plumbing, heating and ventilating 
plant will go to W. Bownass for $5,000. 


Brockville, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to B. Dillon, archi- 
tect, will be received until February 4th 
for erection of addition and alterations 
to the residence of H. A. Stewart, K.C. 
Plans, ets., at office of above. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Tenders addressed to A. Pirie, archi- 
tect, will be received until February i8th 
for complete construction, including all 
material, for an apartment block here for 
O. G. Devenish. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The building permits issued recently 
include: Edward WentzlaflF, dwelling. 
Mac Kay street, $2,500; William Beatty, 
dwelling, Spadina avenue, $2,500; Jacob 
Potowin, dwelling. Bell street, $3,000. 

Port Colbome, Ont. 

S. Port, architect, has plans for J. 
Tuck's new residence; also for extensive 
alterations to Price farm house, Welland, 
for J. C. Laughltn. 

Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

Alliston, Ont. 

Parker Bros, have decided to build a 
new grist mill, of brick and concrete, to 
replace the one destroyed by fire recently. 

Brantford, Ont. 

The preliminary plans for new Bank 
of Montreal have been prepared and re- 
vised. It is likely that the work will be 
carried on this year. Noted in last issue. 

Berlin, Ont. 

It is reported that the Merchants Bank 
is negotiating for the purchase of he 
Janzent block, on the northwest corner 
of King and Queen strets. Local man- 
ager, W. E. Butler. Building operations 
(Continued from page S3) 

Tenders and For Sale Department 


"We have a No. 6 and a No. 5 McCuUy gyra- 
tory type with manganese steel head and con- 
caves, suitable for breaking very hard material. 
Both are new; never set up. Located New York 
State. Also a 60-ft. elevator and a 48-in. x 12- 
ft. McCully screen. Will sell separately. At- 
tractively priced. Confer with us. 


171 La Salle St., 

Chicago, 111. 

Tenders for 

Supply of Asphalt 

Sealed tenders, addressed to the Chairman, 
Board of Control, Winnipeg, Canada, for the 
supply of from i,ooo to ijSoo tons of Asphalt 
for street paving for the City of Winnipeg, will 
be received at the office of the undersigned ur to 
II a.m. on Wednesday, March ist, 1911. Speci- 
fication and form of tender, together with condi- 
tions governing tenders, as prescribed by by-law, 
may be obtained at the office of the City En- 
gineer, 23 James Avenue, Winnipeg, Canada. 
The Board reserves the right to reject any or all 
tenders or to accept any bid which appears ad- 
vantageous to the city. 

M. PETERSON, Secretary. 

Board of Control Office, 

Dinnipeg, Jan. 19th, 1911. 


Notice To Contractors 

Civic Supplies 

Sealed tenders addressed to the Chairman of 
the Board of Control, City Hall, Ottawa, will be 
received v the Secretary of the Board of Con- 
trol, City Hall, Ottawa, up to 4 p.m., Tuesday, 
February 14th, 1911, enclorsed "Tender for Broken 
Stone, Brick, Stone Curbing, Stone Setts, Cement, 
Plank and Cedar, Sand, Vitrified Clap Pipe, As- 
phalt, Castings, or Hardware," as the case may 

Specifications, form of tender and full particu- 
lars may be obtained on application at the City 
Engineer's office, City Hall, Ottawa. 

Any tender received after the above stated 
time will be declared informal. 

The Corporation does not bind itself to accept 
the lowest or any tender. 


City Engineer. 

Ottawa, Jan. 21st, 191 1. 4-5 

Cast Iron Water Pipe 

Sealed tenders addressed to the City Clerk, 
Brandon, Man., endorsed "Tender for Cast iron 
Pipe," will be received until 12 o'clock noon on 
Friday, the third day of February next, for from 
Ten to Twenty Thousand Feet of Six Inch and 
Four Inch Pipe. 

The 6" pipe to be 30 lbs. per foot and 4" pipe 
20 lbs. per foot, which must be tested to hydro- 
static pressure of 300 lbs. 

5,000 feet to be delivered by April the 15th, 
and the balance not later than th eist day of 
June next. 

_ Specifications may be had from the City En- 
gineer's office, Brandon. 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 


Chairman Waterworks Com. City Engineer. 

Brandon, Man., Jan. 18, 191 r. 4-5 


Sealed tenders, addressed to the undersigned, 
will be received until noon on Monday, Febru- 
ary 13th, for the building of a clear water cov- 
ered reservoir at the St. Thomas Waterworks. 
Plans and specifications may be seen at the City 
Engineer's office, St. Thomas, and blank forms 
of tender obtained. Tenders must be accom- 
panied by a certified chegue payable to the 
Treasurer of the City of St. Thomas, for five 
per cent, of the amount of tender. This cheque 
will be held until the successful tenderer enters 
into contract for the due completion of the work. 
Chairman Board Water Commissioners. 

St. Thomas, Jan. 23. 191 1» 5-5 

Notice To Contractors 

Water Works Supplies 

Sealed tenders, addressed to the Chairman of 
the Waterworks Committee, City Hall, Ottawa, 
will be received by registered post only, up to 
4 p.m., Tuesday, February I4tn, 1911, for the 
supply and delivery of Brasswork, Special Pipe 
Castings, Hydrants, Cast Iron. Pipe, Lead Pipe 
and Pig Lead, Valves or Oils and Grease as the 
case may be. 

Specifications, form of tender and full particu- 
lars may be obtained on application at the City 
Engineer's Office, City Hall, Ottawa. 

Any tender received after the above stated 
time will be declared informal. 

The Corporation does not bind itself to accept 
the lowest or any tender. 


City Engineer. 

Ottawa, Jan. 21st, 1911. 4-5 


Rowland Avenue 
Fire Hall 

Bulk tenders or separate tenders for the sev- 
eral works mentioned below, in connection with 
the above building, will be received by registered 
post only, addressed to the undersigned, up to 
noon on 

MONDAY, 13th FEBRUARY, 1911. 

1. Concrete Paving., etc. 

2. Hardware. 

3. Sliding Poles. 

4. Covers for Sliding Pole Openings. 

5. Metal Weatherstrips. 

6. Light Fixtures. 

7. Stable Fittings. 

Plans and specifications may be seen and forms 
of tender and all information obtained at the 
office of the City Architect, City Hall, Toronto. 

Envelopes containing tenders must be plainly 
marked on the outside as to contents. 

The usual conditions relating to tendering, 
as prescribed by city by-law, must be strictlv 
complied with, or tender may not be entertained. 

Tenderers shall submit with their tender the 
names of two personal sureties or the bond of a 
guarantee company. 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 

G, R. GEARY Mayor), 

Chairman Board of Control. 
City Hall, Toronto, 23rd January, 191 1. 5-5 


CASH PRIZES of One Hundred, Seventy- 
five, and Fifty Dollars are offered for coinpetilive 
Preliminary Sketches of proposed new Sabl)ath 
School building and Church Parlors for Orillia 
Presbyterian Cliurch, Sketches to be in hands of 
undersigned not later than February Fifteenth. 
Full information may be had from J. J. THOMP- 
SON, telephone 261. Orillia. 

5-6 T. G. KING, Secretary. 

City of Strathcona 


Tenders for 

Engine, Boilers and 

Tenders addressed to David Ewing, Chief En- 
gineer power house, Strathcona, ATta., for the 
above machinery, will be received until noon, 
Wednesday, March ist, 191 r. Specifications may 
be obtained upon application to the undersigned. 

A. J. McLEAN, 

City Engineer. 
Strathcona, Alta., Jan. 16, 191 1. 4-8 

Positions Wanted 

A(h*€rlisements under th'- heading one cent a 7tvnd 
per insertion. Box So ten cents extra 

ronto, I st week March ; desires situation, any 
capacity; cjualifications, P. A. S. I.; typewriter; 
any capacity start. SCOTT, 151 Vine street, 
Lockport, \k S. a. 5-5 

ARCHITECT, highest qualifications and ex- 
perience, would take charge of office or consider 
partnership. The West preferred. Box 200, Con- 
tract Record. Toronto, Ont. 4-7 


Advertisements under 'his heading one cent award 
per insertion. Box No. ten cents extra 

AGENTS WANTED— Large United States 
Terra Cotta company desires high-class agencies 
for Canada. Send particulars to W. D. Ward, 
Tribune Building, New York City. 4-6 

THE STEEL SQUARE— For sale— 4 copies 
of vol. 1 and 2 copies of vol. 2 Fred T, Hodg- 
son's book, "Practical Treatise on the Steel 
Square." 242 pages. Price, only 50 cents a 
copy. Contract Record, 220 King street west, 
Toronto, Ont. 4-5 

firm manufacturing complete line of electrical 
measuring instruments want responsible repre- 
sentatives to handle their lines throughout the 
whole of Canada. Are prepared to deal separate- 
ly for Eastern and Western Canada. Box 194 
Contract Record, Toronto, Ont. s-,*" 


ADA — British firm of electrical and mechanicd 
engineers manufacturing electric lighting speciafl 
ties, wants to secure reliable Canadian reprrf 
sentatives who will carry a stock in Canada 
Write for particulars to Box 199, Contract Rq 
cord, Toronto, Ont. 4-5 

CAPITAL WANTED for interior fitting factor^ 
doing a first-class business in bank and storl 
fixtures. Splendid equipment and first-class coii 
nection. Preference stock for $20,000 to be id 
sued. Apply for particulars to Box 207 Contraq 
Record, Toronto. 5-6 



The City of Calgary dredges for sale 

lenders will be received by tlie (Jity Coniniis- 
•ioncrs up to the 19th day of February, 191 1, for 
3)0 (more or lessj 5-light ornamental lamp posts 
to be dclivcied in carload lots as reuuired. AH 
persons lenderinK will subipit their designs, to- 
gether witli full dimensions, wciglits, etc. 

Globes are to be of light alabaster. Easli post 
must be equipped with standard Edison sockets, 
all complete and ready for wiring up. Tenderer 
V ill also submit prices on extra globes wliich 
riight be required. Tungsten lamps will be sup- 
I lied by tl e city. A checiue for two per cent. 
tf the bid must accompany all tenders. The city 
reserves the right to accept the whole or an^ part 
(( a tender; the lowest or any not necessarily ac- 
. " ted. 

Dated at Calgary, January 27th, 191 1. 

; -6 City Commissioner. 

Sale by Tenders 

In ro The 

St. John P.Q. Brick Co. 


In Liquidation. 

A one yard Bcatty dredge in first-class shape, 
within a few miles of railroad station, suitaule 

V,.d be sold, by tender, the St. Johns P. Q. 
BricK Plant, situated in the town of St. Johns, 
P.Q., and being as follows: 

Land. — 15 acres, more or less, situated between 
the U. T. K. and the C. P. R. lines, with sidings 
of both companies in the brick yard. Clay of 
the best quahty. 

Buildings. — Office, wood building, 24 x 26 feet. 
Kihi shed, wood, 58 x 2^3 feet. Engine building, 
brick, containing engine, boiler and motor, 23 x 
33 teet and attached to this building one small 
shed for fuel 12 x 23 feet. Building for brick 
presses, wood, 58 x 125 feet. Another small build- 
ing 10 x 52 feet. Building with horse stables 34 
X 47 feet. Sand house, 12 x 24 feet. Dryers of a 
capacity of 350,000 to 400,000 bricks. 

Machinery and Accessories. — All the machinery 
and accessories necessary to the brick manufac- 
turing: two brick presses, one clay press of a 
capacity of 40,000 bricks per day and one cement 
press of a capacity of 20,000 to 25,000 bricks per 
day, trucks, wheelbarrows, horse trucks, railway 
trucks, pallets, etc., etc., and office supplies, safe, 
typewriter, desks, etc., etc. Plant ready to be 

The whole to be sold as it now is and with- 
out warranty whatever as to precise measurement, 
quantity or otherwise. 

The tenders shall be sent to the undersigned, 
by registered letter, on or before February i jth, 
1911. Each tender to be accompanied with 
accented cheque of lo per cent, of its amount, 
the balance payable on acceptance of tender, or 
special terms of payments if approved by the 
Superior Court of the district of Iberville. The 
highest or any tender will not be necessarily ac- 

Further information may be had from the un- 
dersigned or his attorneys Messrs. lieneker, Duff 
Mid Johnson, advocates, Montreal. 

■St. Johns, P.Q., January 13th, 1911. 



Positions Vacant 


umier this heatiiHg two cents a 
n'orti f>tr insertion 

Superintendent wanted tor interior tittins fac- 
tory manufacturing a high class of fittings, must 
be able to invest from three to five thousand dol- 
l?j'' j"./ practical man and a pusher con- 
•merea i o such good returns guaranteed. Ap- 
ply with particulars to Box ao8, Contract Record, 
loronto. _.g 

for dredging or ditching; also a half yard mach- 
ine with portalilc oak hull in first-class shape. 
Apply FRED. A. ROllKRTSON, Cornwall, Ont. 


Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

(Continuiid from page 33) 

will commence on expiration of lease, in 


Calgary, Alta. 

The iJoniinion Bank received permis- 
sion to commence tearing down the 
Bradley & Tuck building on the corner 
of I' street east and Eighth avenue 
preparatory to the erection of their large 

Tenders are called until February 16th 
for the erection of a brick and stone 
building for Messrs. Beveridge Bros., on 
corner of Seventh avenue and First street 
east. Plans, etc., with Hodgson, Bates 
& Butler, architects. Grain Exchange. 

At a special meeting the city council 
reached an agreement with the C. P. R. 
whereby the latter will at once proceed 
with the erection of a hotel in this city, 
which when completed will cost in the 
neighborhood of $1,000,000. 

Cornwall, Ont. 

The counties of Stormont, Dundas and 
Glengarry have appointed a special com- 
mittee to procure plans and ask tenders 
for the erection of a joint House of 
Refuge on the site given here. Coonties 
Clerk, A. I. Macdonnell. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

A modern three-storey warehouse 
block, 140 by 50 feet, will be ercted on 
the corner of Peace avenue and Seventh 
street, by Nicholson and Bayne, commis- 
sion merchants and brokers. 

Tenders addressed to H. A. Magoon, 
architect. Credit Foncicr Building, will 
be received until February loth for the 
erection of a brick and stone 90-roomed 
hotel on Jasper avenue. 

Plans are being prepared, it is under- 
stood, by representatives of the Houston 
estate, of which Rev. Dr. McQueen and 
VVm. Short, K.C., are excutors, for the 
erection of a large business block on 
Jasper avenue. Estimated cost, $75,000. 

Guelph, Ont. 

Alterations costing about $17,000 will 
be made to the Bank of Montreal office 
here. Contracts have been awarded. 
Work will start in April. 

It is understood that plans are under 
consideration by Mr. Mahoney, architect, 
for the new arcade which certain parties 
have under contemplation to run through 
from St. George's square to Cork street, 
with offices above. 

Gowganda, Ont. 

The following buildings were destroy- 
ed by fire in the recent fire: Queen's 
Hotel, Canadian Bank of Commerce, 
Taylor drug store, etc. 

Hamilton, Ont. 

Canadian Northern Railway Company 
are reported to be buying property in 
the neighborhood of Macnab and Stuart 
streets. That is taken to indicate the 
company's intention of building a station 
near the corner of James and Stuart 

Hull, Que. 

Mr. Ernest Smith, of Ottawa, repre- 
senting an American firm, has under con- 
sderation the location and erection of a 
factory to cost about $100,000. 

Lignite, Alta. 

Thomas McKelvie, of I^combe, is 
erecting a $20,000 hotel. 

Medicine Hat, Alta. 

W. P. Hull, Calgary, writes that no 
plans have been prpared as yet for busi- 
ness block here. Noted in issue of Janu- 
ary 18th. 

D. Milne, Mayor, writes re erection 
of large refining plant here that the 
agreement with city provides that build- 
ings, elevators, etc., will be complete and 
plant in operation by October. Materi- 
als, fireproof, brick and cement. Cap- 
acity, 1,000 gallons per day; estimated 
cost of building and equipment, $50,000. 
The company is yet to be incorporated. 
Noted previously. 

Moose Jaw, Sask. 

W. A. Kirkwood, secretary. Board of 
Trade, is in receipt ol an enquiry trom 
a iirin manuiaciunng trunks as to tne 
location ot a wareuouse here. 

Middleton, N. S. 

Ine toiiowing lost in the recent tire 
here: Koyal l^ank. Parsons, iiiliott & 
Co., Marsuens, bnattners, and bentiey & 
Co. JLoss, about 41120,000. 

Montral, Que. 

ine Monireal Harbor Commission an- 
nounce tne purciiasc ot auout 70,000 »q. 
It. ul laiia east 01 tne Uoiuiuion uoiton 
Mills WHICH will be usea as a uaruor yard 
tor repair snops. 

Mr. 1^. VV. Just, secretary Ritz-Carlton 
Hotel Company, 60 Aotre L>anie west, 
is arranging tor a contract tor tne tear- 
ing aown of tne buildings now on tne 
sue ot tne new liotel. 

Nelson, B.C. 

ine Hudson Bay Company's store 
here will be remodelled, t. P. Gigot, 


Ottawa, Ont. 

iiie uoriiiwest corner of Mosgrove 
and i<ideau streets nas been purcuased 
by C. A. Douglas, F. 1. Oraves and K. 
McMorran. A six-storey bunding is one 
ol tne propositions reported. 

Pembroke, Ont. 

ine Canadian Box & Barrel Company 
are considering expansion wnich win be 
followed by tne bunding of a lactory to 
construct collapsible boxes and barrels, 
etc. Air. Geo. ivoss is interested. 

Picton, Ont. 

Messrs. Church Bros, will build a new 
canning factory here. Cost, about $50,- 
000, corner of Talbot and Main streets. 

Port Arthur, Ont. 

The contract calls for the removal of 
the houses on the site for the armory by 
April 1st. Contractor McKae. 

Quebec, Que. 

The Hochelaga Bank, it is stated, has 
purchased the property at the corner of 
Crown and Desfosses streets. 

Regina, Sask. 

Under date of last information re the 
6-storey steel and concrete faced stone 
and brick office building, corner nth 
avenue and Lome street, the contracts 
had not been awarded. M. VV. Sharon, 
architect. Noted in January i8th issue. 

Cameron & Heap, wholesale grocers. 
will erect a large warehouse on Rose 



street, $45,000. Haug Brothers & Neller- 
moe Company of Winnipeg have under- 
taken to erect an implement warehouse 
which will cost at least $50,000. The To- 
ronto Type Foundry Company, of To- 
ronto, will also erect a warehouse in 
Regina this summer, $20,000. Noted pre- 

Souris, P.E.I. 

The woodworking steam mills of Bar- 
nard Creamer were destroyed by fire, 

Stewart, B.C. 

The Finch-Hickey department store 
was destroyed by fire on the 27th ulto. 
Estimated loss, $20,000. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 

The ratepayers have authorized the 
by-law giving civic privifleges to the 
Steel & Radiation, Limited, in return for 
which the company will erect buildings 
valued at $50,000. 

St. John, N.B. 

Joseph R. Clarkson, manager for the 
Partington Pulp & Paper Company, is 
authority for the statement that the new 
mill will be erected in the near future. 
Plans are being prepared in England. 

Tenders are called until February 13th 
for the purchase of the brick plant here. 
For further information see advertise- 
ment in "Tenders and For Sale Depart- 
ment" of this issue. 

Summerside, P.E.I. 

Mr. M. F. Schurman & Company's mill 
was destroyed by fire recently. Loss. 

Sydney, N.S. 

The general offices of the Dominion 
Steel Corporation were destroyed by fire 
on the 25h ulto. Loss on building, about 
$50,000. General Manager, M. J. Butler. 

Sarnia, Ont. 

The Imperial Oil Company's plant 
here was damaged last week to the ex- 
tent of about $15,000. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The Dominion Bank will erect a large 
bank building on the northeast corner of 
King and Yonge streets. No definite 
time is stated for construction. General 
Manager, C. A. Bogart. 

The C. P. R. offices, corner of King and 
Yonge street.s, will have a frontage of 
85 feet on King street and 100 on Yonge 
street, will be 15 storeys, of steel, faced 
with glazed terra cotta at a cost of about 

Tenders will be received until Febru- 
ary 2 for excavation required in erection 
of 6-storey warehouse, corner King and 
Parliament streets for the Aluminum and 
Crown Stopper Co. Architect, F. H. 
Herbert, 65 Adelaide east. 

The Lake of the Woods Milling Com- 
pany have purchased 100 feet frontage on 
Dupont street near Kendall avenue, on 
which a mill will be built. The sale was 
effected by H. G. Phillips, 206 Dupont 

Vancouver, B.C. 

W. S. Collister & Company announce 
extensive alterations to their premises. 

P. Burns & Co. will build an extension 
to cost about $200,000 to their abattoir 

Plans and specifications for a three- 
storey block wanted. For full, particu- 
lars apply Saskatchewan Land Company, 
3127 Westminster road. 

Plans are now being prepared by the 

engineers of the B. C. Electric Railway 
Company for extensive freight terminals 
on the north shore of False Creek. 
Frontage was purchased several years 
ago. A permit will shortly be requested 
for the first of the new buildings at the 
point, this being a freight shed 80 by 120 
feet in size. 

Victoria, B.C. 

Mr. P. R. Brown has been given a per- 
mit for 3-storey block on Broad street, 
$40,000. H. S. Griffiths, architect. 

Messrs. Finch & Finch have let the 
contract for the erection of their busi- 
ness building on the site of the Moore 
& Whittington factory. 

Messrs. David Spencer & Co. have had 
plans prepared for their new depart- 
mental store which will cost about $600,- 
000 and will call for eight storeys. The 
site is as yet undetermined. 

Weymouth, N.S. 

G. D. Campbell's pulp mill here was 
destroyed by fire on the 24th ult. Esti- 
mated loss, about $50,000. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Work on the new 3-storey office build- 
ing for the Mortgage Company of Can- 
ada will be commenced in the early 
spring. Manager, A. Gouzee. 

Woodstock, Ont. 

The ratepayers will vote on the by-law 
granting civic privileges to the Ken-Knit 
Company on February 20th. Noted in 
last issue. 

Guelph, Ont. 

Tenders for most of the work of alter- 
ations to Imperial Hotel have been let 
by Architect Mahoney: Geo. Ibbotson, 
carpentering; Sam. Rundle, stone and 
brick work; W. Scriven, plumbing. 

The contracts for alterations to Bank 
of Montreal are as follows: Robt. Dun- 
bar, mason work; Geo. Scroggie, carpen- 
ter; Geo. Wolcott, galvanized iron; J. J. 
Mahoney. plastering; Stevenson & Mal- 
colm, electric wiring and lighting; Wm. 
Scriven, painting; Fred Smith, heating 
and plumbing; Hamilton Bridge Works, 
steel and iron work. Estimated cost, 

Ottawa, Ont. 

W. G. Adamson has the contract for 
repairing the methylated spirits ware- 
house, recently wrecked by an explosion. 

Peterborough, Ont. 

The contract for the building of the 
new factory of the Lakefield Canoe 
Building and Mfg. Co., has been let to 
Messrs. Baptie Bros. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The Porous Terra Cotta fireproofing 
contract of the Annette Street School, 
West Toronto, has been awarded to Ro- 
bert Bennett, contractor, of Euclid ave- 

Victoria, B.C. 

The contract for erection of Mr. P. R. 
Brown's 3-storey office building was 
awarded to Messrs. Murray & McKin- 
ney. The estimated cost is about $38.- 
000. H. S. Griffiths, architect. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

M. Peterson, Secretary Board of Con- 
trol, writes that the contract for steel 
work for power sub-station No. i King 
has been awarded to The Manitoba 
Bridge & Iron Works, Limited, Winni- 
peg, $12,413. 

Power Plants, Electricity and 

Calgary, Alta. 

A by-law is being prepared for the ex- 
penditure of about $300,000 for electric 
power, which will be spent in transform- 
ers and sub-stations and new machinery. 
In addition to this it will be necessary to 
provide more underground cabling. Com- 
missioner Graves is interested. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Four schemes are submitted in connec- 
tion with the new 6,000 gallon pump, and 
the estimates of cost vary from $26,000 
to $7S,ooo for the pumping plant alone. 

Apart from machinery, the estimated 
expenditures of the power house depart- 
ment for the year are $19,830. This sum 
will cover the cost of a $10,000 addition 
to the builder house, the installation of a 
motor generator, $12,000. 

Edmonton has appointed a city council 
committee to deal with the International 
Heating and Lighting representative with 
regard to a gas franchise. The Inter- 
national company asks for a twenty-five 
year franchise to supply gas. 

The Edmonton Heat and Power Com- 
pany, in which is included local and east- 
ern capital, propose to produce several 
hundred thousand horse power by a 
hydro-electric plant on the Saskatchewan 
river, sixty miles up from Edmonton, 
where they have secured rights to con- 
struct a dam and other works necessary. 

The expenditure for power house de- 
partment for financial year may vary 
from $139,750 to $298,750, according to 
the plans accepted by the commissioners. 
For the 2,000 kilowatt alternator alone, 
which will increase the capacity of the 
lighting and power plant, and also for 
the street railway department, the esti- 
mates vary from $80,000 to $igo,ooo. 
Four alternative engines and alternators 
are estimated upon, giving this wide 
range of cost. 

Iroquois, Ont. 

It is reported that M. F. Beach, Iro- 
quois, will develop power on the Mada- 
waska river at High Falls near Cala- 
bogie. Engineer McRae, Ottawa, has 
investigated to some extent. 

Prince Albert, Sask. 

This city has been granted the La 
Colle Falls power franchise and the 
lands that will be flooded by the dam- 
ming of the river. Noted previously. 

Portage la Prairie, Man. 

At a meeting of the city council a spe- 
cial committee was appointed to ascer- 
tain the possibility of purchasing a cen- 
tral electric light and gas plant with the 
view of a municipal owned plant to fur- 
nish the city with light and power. 

Regina, Sask. 

Tenders addressed to S. P. Porter, 
Deputy Minister, will be received until 
February 9th for supply of insulators,, 
toppins, guy wire, copper sleeves, cross-' 
arms, galvanized iron wire, pole line,] 
hardware, etc. Specifications at Depart- 
ment of Railways and Telephones. 
Victoria, B.C. 

Angus Smith, city engineer, is author-! 
ity for the statement that plans and| 
specifications were being drawn prepar- 
atory to the calling for tenders for thej 
large amount of street work contemplat- 
It is hoped that contracts for much off 
the work will be let within two weeks'! 



Contractors' and Builders' Supplies 

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Rubble, Portland Cement 

CRUSHED GRANITE for Floors and Sidewalks 


Crescent Fire Brick 

We are exclusive Distributing Agents for this high grade, hand- 
made fire brick. Large stock always on hand. 

Don't forget our Prompt Delivery Service. 

The Rogers Supply Co. 

Head Office: 28 King Street West 


Phone Main 4155 

Sand Dredging Pumps 
















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Toronto, 73 Victoria St. 
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©ntract Re 

^^^^^^^ A Wsckl^ Journal of 

Building. Contraclin^. Engineering. Public Vbrkft 

t Municipal Progress. Advance Information 

PcBLiBHKD Each Wbdnebday by 
HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 
THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 
HEADOFFICE - - 220 King Street West, TORONTO 
Telephone Main 2362 


MONTREAL Telephone Main 2299 B34 Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 404 Travellers' Bldg. 
I^PVANCOUVER - Tel. - 26 Crowe & Wilson Chambers 

•CHICAGO 4059 Perry Street 

LONDON. ENG. 3 Regent St., S.W. 


Canada and Great Britain, $2.00 U.S. and Foreign, $2.50 

February i, 191 1 

No. S 




The Canadian Society of Civil Engineers 

The annual convention of the Canadian Society of 
'ivil Engineers at Winnipet^ last week provided fur- 
ther evidence of the rapid development of this institu- 
tion, of the excellent work which is being carried on 
by its various committees and of its indispensableness 
to the profession at large. 

Of the many significant things that one might no- 
tice in connection with this meeting, the general recog- 
nition of the status of the Society is particularly 
worthy of mention. The members may well 
feel an appreciable measure of gratification in 
that their Society is the only one that has been accord- 
ed free transportation by a Canadian railroad. Such 
a concession on the part of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way truly is a great tribute to the profession and an 
acknowledgement of its supreme importance in ad- 
vancing the best interests of the country. Theii there 
was the magnificent reception by the Winnipeg civic 
officials, a proof that one of the most progressive cities 
■ ' on the continent considered the occasion worthy of 
■■its best eflfort. 

H ^" important work which tlie Society is only just 
BB undertaking consists in the preparation of standard 
■H specifications governing the various branches of en- 
IB gineering work. In this connection the Society's re- 
BB ports on cast iron pipe and cement are of the greatest 
IB value. Standard specifications for steel structures are 
now under consideration. It is hoped to bring these 
l)efore the next annual meeting. 

The committees on the various branches of trans- 
portation have completed portions of their work. An 
important contribution next year will be a discussion 
on the relative value to the country of railways and 
canals as a means of communication between the 
Great Lakes and the seaboard. Particular regard will 
be had in this discussion to the much discussed Georg- 
ian Bay ship canal, as regards the expediency of the 
construction of which some engineers, at least, have 
entertained serious doubts. 

A few facts concerning the policy and inside work 
of the Society may be of special interest at this junc- 

ture. In the first place, the Society aims to develop as 
a truly national institution and to extend its influ- 
ence to all parts of the Dominion. The first step in 
this direction was the establishment of the branches 
formed in Quebec, Ottawa, Toronto, Winnipeg and 
Vancouver. In addition to these, branches will be 
formed at an early date in Halifax and Edmonton, thus 
establishing a chain around the country and linking 
up the interests of the profession in a manner that will 
mean much for its ultimate development. Supple- 
menting this the Society has endeavored to pay ade- 
quate attention to important centres outside of its 
headquarters by holding its annual convention when- 
ever possible at the home of the retiring president. It 
may be said that in so doing there has been no inten- 
tion of neglecting Montreal, which will possibly be the 
seat of the 1912 convention. In pursuance of the same 
broad idea of development, the council, under the re- 
vised by-laws of the Society, must necessarily be re- 
presentative of the whole country, since three members 
must reside in the Maritime Provinces, three in the 
Province of Quebec, three in eastern and three in 
Western Ontario, three in Manitoba and three west of 
the last named province. The^e are in addition to 
the six councillors residing at headquarters, upon 
whom devolves much of the Society's routine work. 

The chief means which the Society adopts for the 
advancement of engineering knowledge is the publica- 
tion of professional papers. Much of the difficulty ex- 
perienced hitherto in obtaining such papers is expected 
to be overcome by the more complete co-operation of 
the branches. It is now arranged that papers may 
be read at the branches independently or concurrently 
with headquarters, and that such papers, on the recom- 
mendation of the branches, will be published in the 
Society's transactions. The, latter arrangement is re- 
garded as a particularly wise enactment. One of its 
greatest advantages will be the spirit of rivalry among 
the branches which it will stimulate, a consideration 
which is strengthened by the possibility that the medal 
awarded for the best paper during the year may be 
presented in this way to a member of one of the 

The Canadian Society of Civil Engineers is 
an institution in which the country should have a 
national pride. At this stage of our development, en- 
gineering occupies perhaps the most important place 
in the professions and the standing of an engineer in 
tlie Society is an indisputable measure of his .standing 
in the commimity. 

Among those who are identified most closely with 
the work of the Society and who are the most inter- 
ested in its welfare there would doubtless be a feeling 
akin to resentment if a special tribute were not paid to 
Professor McLeod, whose zealous devotion during the 
twenty-one years that he has been Secretary of the 
institution has contributed so much to its advance- 

.\ permit was taken out just before the close of 
1910 for what will be the largest office building west 
of Toronto; to be erected on the southwest corner of 
Homer and Pender streets. The structure will be 13 
stories in height and will contain 308 offices and suites, 
served by four elevators. In the basement will be lo- 
cated one of the finest cafes on the coast. The build- 
ing will cost $650,000. 

Over 15,000 cubic yards of rock will be required 
for the foundation of the new steamship pier being 
constructed by the C. P. R. on Vancouver harbor 



The Close of a Notable Life 

News of the sudden and tragic death of Mr. J. E. 
Schwitzer, of Montreal, on January 23rd, was learned 
with keen regret by railroad and engineering circles 
in many parts of Canada. Mr. Schwitzer's demise 
came at the moment when he had just reached one 
of the highest positions in his profession. He had 
been chosen three weeks previously to fill the post of 
Chief Engineer to the entire C. P. R. system. He was 
attacked by la grippe and was removed to the Royal 
Victoria Hospital within three days of taking up his 
new duties. Pneumonia set in and he became steadily 
worse and passed away after a short illness. The 
body was taken to Ottawa for interment. 

The late Mr. Schwitzer was born in Montreal on 
April 19th, 1870, and graduated from McGill in 1891 
with a degree of B.A.Sc. 

His first position was with the Temiskamingue 
Colonization Railway as a roadman and later he be- 
came engineer on location and construction for the 

The late Mr. J. E. Schwitzer, Chief Engineer of the C. P. R. 

Ottawa and Gatineau Railway. From January to 
July, 1892, he was engaged in land surveying and en- 
gineering at Ottawa and from then until September, 
1896, he was assistant engineer on location and con- 
struction, of the Parry Sound Colonization Railway 
and engineer in charge of the Central Counties Rail- 
way between South Indian and Rockland for the Can- 
ada Atlantic Railway. Then for three months he was 
busy surveying for the Hull Electric Railway, after 
which, until July, 1899, he went into private practice 
as a civil engineer and land surveyor at Rat Portage, 
of which town he was appointed engineer in 1898. 

Mr. Schwitzer returned to railway work in July, 
1899, when he was appointed assistant engineer of the 
C. P. R. in charge of terminal improvements at Rat 
Portage and afterwards became assistant engineer of 
maintenance of way at Winnipeg. His next promo- 
tion was to the post of resident engineer of district 
No. 2 of the C. P. R. at Winnipeg and later he became 
divisional engineer of the Central division of the same 

In 1905 Mr. Schwitzer was appointed engineer of 
western lines of the road at Winnipeg and in 1907 as- 

sistant chief engineer of the same district. His ap- 
pointment to the post he held at his death was an- 
nounced on January 1st of this year; it was a position 
which had not been held for some time. 

Sir Thomas Shaughnessy thought very highly of 
the late Mr. Schwitzer, and when told of his death 
said: "It is impossible to put into words the great loss 
the company has sustained in the death of Mr. 
Schwitzer but it is even harder to speak of the loss to 
his personal friends who have watched his progress. 
Personally and officially I can say that he cannot be 

Temporary wooden bridges are being built across the 
River Po to furnish crossings in the vicinity of the 
grounds on which will be located the various buildings of 
the international exhibition which will be held in April 
to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Kingdom 
of Italy. The largest bridge, according to "The En- 
gineer," is being built with two levels, the lower one for 
moving platforms and the upper one for pedestrian traf- 
fic. The river at the bridge site is about 650 ft wide and 
the bridge is slightly less than 1,000 feet long. It 
has five spans. The roadway is supported by four sets 
of four piers, each pier consisting of four vertical timbers 
braced by horizontal pieces. All connections are by iron 
bolts and plates. The trusses are of the Howe type. The 
lower roadway is carried just alwve the lower chord, 
while the upper roadway is a deck supported above, but 
not on, the top chord, by posts directly above the verti- 
cals of the trusses. On these posts is the usual fioorbeam 
and stringer construction for carrying the decking. The 
river Po occasionally changes from a quiet stream into a 
swollen torrent and the bridge construction is necessarily 
heavy to guard against the possibility of the structure 
being damaged during a flood period. 

The parties behind the scheme to build a scenic 
railway to the summit of Grouse Mountain, in North 
Vancouver, B.C., are Messrs. Macdonell & Gzowski, 
the well-known engineers and railway contractors ; 
Chas. H. Allen, barrister, formerly of Winnipeg, and 
later of San Francisco; Geo. M. Gibbs, broker, and 
formerly inspector and later manager at Dawson of 
the Canadian Bank of Commerce; and Walter E. 
Graveley & Co. The idea is to build a mountain rail- 
way similar to that up Mt. Tamalpas, near San Fran- 
cisco, and to have an hotel and summer resort on the 
summit, with cottages for summer residents. 

The decision of the C. P. R. Company to transform 
its coasting fleet gradually into oil burners calls for 
provision to be made for the storage of oil. A huge 
tank capable of holding 50,000 barrels will be located 
on the Inlet foreshore, at the end of Bute street ; from 
this tank pipes will run along the wharves and con- 
nect with a smaller tank holding about 20,000 gallons. 

The building permits in Victoria for 1910 reached 
the record total of $2,371,095, as compared with $1,- 
773,420 for 1909, and $1,130,740 for 1908. The expendi- 
ture on civic improvements has been large, and the 
city is being beautified in many ways. 

There is a strong probability that the British Em- 
pire Bridge Works, of Birmingham, Eng., one of the 
greatest firms in its line on the globe, will establish an 
engineering and construction branch near Vancouver, 
to cost $5,000,000. 





Inverlea Bridge, Peterborough, Ont.— Looking North, Januai-y 7, 1911. 

A Noteworftliy Reinf ©reed Coecr 

I^P This bridge spans the River Otonabee in the line of 
Smith Street in the city of Peterboro, Ont., and replaces 
a wooden Howe trus« bridge. 

I It consists of three arched spans of reinforced con- 
crete, 100 feet centre to centre, or 94 feet clear, with 
abutments reaching well into the river banks on })oth 
sides and beyond the shore lines, making a total length 
of structure of 138.) feet. 
The arches were designed to sustain a maximum live 
load repr(>sentod by a 15 ton road-roller. The clear width 
between railings is 31 feet, sidewalk 5 ieet wide on south 
side, a space 10 feet wide for single track street car line 
on north side, and 16 feet roadway between. The centre 
line of the bridge makes an angle of 72 degrees with the 
channel of the river. The intrados of arch is a two 
centre curve or 3 feet 9 inches, 120 feet radii and a rise 
of 12 feet. The extrados is a segment of a circle of 170 
feet radius. The arches have a radial thickness of 22 
inches at crown to 48 inches at the point of lesser radius, 
'45 feet from crown. 

The west abutment rests on a compact mass of 

Detailed Description of the Inverlea Bridge at Peterborough Ont. 
— Features of Design and Construction Cost and other Data 

(Jontiibuted by T. A. .S. Ilay, City KiigiiietT, Peterborough. 

boulders and heavy gravel. The two channel piers and 
oast abutment rest on a heavy l)ed of limestone rock. 
The footings of abutments and wing walls are carried 
up to 3 feet below normal level of water and those of 
channel piers to 5 feet. The width of footings of the 
wing walls is 5 feet 3 inches, of the abutments 12 feet, 
and of the piers 9 feet 8 inches. 

Tlie i)iers above footings are battered 1 in 8 to 6 feet 
wide at top, with belt course extending 3 inches; bull- 
nosed ends protected with 5-16 inch plate iron. Owing 
to the depth of water (6 to 16 feet) and speed of current, 
unwatering for foundations was not attempted, but the 
beds for footings were cleared of all loose materials and 
to a .satisfactory I)Ottom. Cribs of IflxlO-inch close fit- 
ting timber lined with 1-in. vertical matched sheathing, 
were lowered into position, weighed down and filled with 
concrete, deposited throng a tube in 6-in. layers, well 
rammed, in whioh stone from 6 to 10 pounds weight were 

The footings having been brought up to proper level, 
permission was obtained to lower the water sufficiently 

Constructional View of Inverlea Bridge from East End, July 90, 1910. 



to set the forms and build up to belt (lourse. Owing to 
inconvenience to power plants by loss of head, this part 
of the work had to be carried on as quickly as possible, 
as the time allowed for low of level water was limited to 
14 days. The concrete in footings consists of one part 
cement to seven parts gravel and sand, and generally in 
all parts above footings the composition is the same. 

The false w^ork for arches consisted of bents of 10x10 
timber placed transversely with centre line of bridge 
and spaced 8 feet apart, centre to centre, with longitud- 
inal stringers 4 feet apart on top, forming a deck level 
with spring line of arches. On this deck the centering 
was erected, consisting of laminated rings of 2-inch 
plank, bolted together with a section of 10x10 inches, sup- 
ported on posts braced in both directions. On the rings 
was laid the lagging of 3-inch pine plank dressed and 
scribed to the radii of arches, all joints being calked. 
The concrete in arches consists of one part cement to six 
parts gravel and sand, built in voissoir sections, full 
width of bridge, commencing at spring of arch and work- 
ing towards the centre and maintaining full depth. 

The concrete in spandrel walls is composed of one 
part cement to seven parts gravel and stone. They are 
18 inches thick at top, battered inside 1 in 4 and panelled 
outside 2 inches deep. The concrete in wing walls is of 
the same composition as spandrels. They are 18 inches 
thick at top, increasing by 9-inch steps at every 3 feet 

The hand rail is composed of concrete one part 
cement to six parts gravel and sand. The part over 
arches is a balustrade of 6x8-inch balusters, with 6-inch 
spaces. That along the wing walls is solid, 8 inches 
thick. The l)ase of railing is 16 inches wide by 15 inches 
deep. The cap is 12 by 8 inches. The railing is divided 
into sections by panelled pediments 2 feet wide by 41^ 
feet long, projecting 4 inches Ijeyond faces of railing, one 
over each abutment and pier. The rail is terminated at 
outer ends of wing walls with posts 18x18 inches. 

The faces of walls are relieved by a sailing course on 
the line of intrados of arch and projecting 2 inches be- 
yond face. The forms for all parts above water, ex- 
cept arches and hand-railings, consisted of 2-inch pine 
plank, dressed, tongued and grooved, and painted with 
soft soap, posts and braces being of 4x4-inch pine, 30 
inches apart. 

All concrete above water was mixed and run as licjuid 
as practicable to ensure filling. Expansion joints, tongue 
and groove, were made in spandrel walls and railings 
over each arch. 

The reinforcing adopted throughout the structure 
consists of the Kahn System, manufactured by the Trus- 
sed Concrete Steel Company of Canada, Limited. The 
design conforming to the usual formula for parabolic 
arches, (although more eliptic than parabolic as design- 
ed) each arch is computed to have a rise of only one- tenth 
of span or 9.40 feet from springing line to the intrados 
at the crown. The actual rise, however, is 12 feet, thus 
giving an additional factor of safety which more than 
takes care of the difference in assuming the arch to be 

The horizontal component of thrust of one arch is 
neutralized by that of the adjoining arch and the effect 
is a downward thrust on the piers. This result is only 
obtained when the spans are equal and under the same 
conditions of loading. 

Owing to the length of span it would have been prac- 
tically impossible to have made the longitude steel re- 
inforcing bars continuous throughout each arch- It was 
therefore important to enquire into the best position 
for splices in such members. Although it would be pos- 





Inverlea Bridge from Kast Bank, looking up stream, July 30, 1010. 

■^ fu 








lible to splice two bai-s, to be embedded in concrete, so 
that the joint would be as strong as the bar, this is seldom 
done in practice. For this reason splices should be 
placed where the tension is least. 

The severest loading of an arch of this type occurs 

hen one half (from centre to abutment or pier) is under 

full load, while the other half is not loaded. Under these 

conditions the maximum tension occurs in the extrados 

t a distance of about one third of the span from abut- 

ent (or pier) at the unloaded end. This, therefore, is 

point where the longitudinal reinforcing bars in the 

extrados should not be spliced. Under a central load, 

tension may be produced in these bai-s in the intrados of 

the arch, which is a point where no splicing should occur. 

'n the design of tliis bridge the splices have been kept 

far from these points as possible. 

Owing to vibration caused by heavy moving loads, 

nd the variations in stres-ses under varying conditions 

of loading, the danger of the reinforcing bars becoming 

toose in the concrete is provided against by the of 

'Kahn" trussed bars. These form a perfect anchorage, 

having the long shear prongs bent into the Ixxly of tlie 

arch and attached rigidly to the main tension members. 

The reinforcement of ardies in intrados consists of 

15 "Kahn" bars, 1x3 inches, and 12 inches centres, 

th prongs bent upwards 45 degrees; and in extrados 

4 "Kahn" bars, 1x3 inches, 12 inches centres, with 

rongs bent downwards at same angle. These bars are 

3 feet long with splices 2y2 feet long. They are placed 

with extreme angle of rib 3 inches from surface of fin- 

hed concrete. 

A row of i/^-ineh bars 32 feet long and 9 feet apart 
Te placed in.side and adjoining intrados bars, with the 
me for extrados bars, tiie latter placed over middle of 
space of lower row. Intrados bars extend to centre of 
abutment body and cross the corresponding bar of next 
span over pier and to 8 inches from face of pier. Extra- 
"os bars extend to rear of abutment body and cross at 
as with intrados. Over each pier are set 11 saddle 

bars, 1x3 inches, 16 feet long, 36 inches apart centres 
and with prongs downwards. 

The total weight of reinforcing steel in bridge is 70 
tons- The upper surfaces of anihes were painted with 
asphalt paint laid hot. Tlie total amount of concrete 
in structure is 2,754 cubic yards. The cement used was 
"Jlonarch" brand, manufactured by the Lakefield 
Cement Company. 

The contract prices were $9.30 and $11.22 per cubic 
yard for reinforced concrete in place, including forms, 

Putting in Bottom for West Channel Pier. 

false-work and removal of same. The centering was 
struck 60 days after of concrete (below hand rail) 
was laid. The gravel used in concrete was first grade 
clean gravel, with 35 per cent, of coarse, sharp sand, 
hauled three-quarters of a mile, oosting 75 cents per 
cubic yard delivered. 

Gravel filling for roadway was carried up to sub- 

Inverlea Bridge, Peterborough,— Cofifer Dam for West Abutment. 



grade before the centering was struck. This will be 
topped with crushed stone next season. This gravel was 
procured from the Corporation gravel pit and was of a 
coarser grade than that used for concrete. Cost for 
loading, hauling and spreading was 36 cents per cubic 
yard, hauled three-quarters of a mile. 

Drainage for road is provided for by 6-inch tile run- 
ning from surface down through gravel filling and dis- 
charging vertically at each side of piers. The sidewalk 
has not been laid yet as it is intended to lay mains, for 
water and gas, and ducts, for wires, beneath it next 
season. The bridge is lighted by eight lamps on oast 
iron posts set on the pediments, the wires for which are 
conveyed in galvanized iron ducts built into base of 

The actual time occupied in erection was ten months, 
which included the removal of old bridge. The total cost 
when completed will be $35,000. 

The bridge was designed by T. A. S. Hay, city en- 
gineer, and built by Messrs. Conroy Bros., and the con- 
struction was superintended by Inspector W. J. ^lartin, 
all of Peterborough, Ont. 

Improved Municipal Government 

Two addresses were given in Montreal last week 
by Mr. Clinton Rogers Woodruff, secretary of the 
National Municipal League of the United States, on 
"The New Municipal Idea," which he elaborated as 
one in which graft was eliminated and cities secured 
not only honest but efficient men to run their affairs. 

The past twenty years, since the publication of 
Mr. Bryce's famous book on the American Common- 
wealth, he said, had marked a new era in national and 
municipal life in the United States, which had grown 
from a general pessimism of two decades ago to a 
spirit of hopefulness to-day. The National Municipal 
League had been organized in 1891, under depressing 
circumstances. But to-day they had over a thousand 
organizations working for the betterment of municipal 
conditions in all the larger cities. 

"Twenty years ago," continued Mr. Woodruff," a 
grafter was regarded as a successful and shrewd poli- 
tician, but to-day publicity and the growth of public 
opinion makes a recurrence of such a condition diffi- 
cult, if not impossible. But we want more than that. 
We want not merely honesty, but efficiency in civic 
affairs. Civic business, like any other, needs men of 
abiilty who will devote their time, energies, and car- 
eers to the subject. In Germany this professionalism 
is recognized to the extent of having professional 
mayors and it is no infrequent thing to see a muni- 
cipality advertising for a mayor. 

As an example of the growth of the new municipal 
idea Mr. Woodruff stated that in the United States 
there were 100 cities under government by commis- 
sion, while 200 more were seriously considering the 
matter. What was needed was not the practical poli- 
tician, but simpler methods of city government. 

To-day in most cities the mayor and officials recog- 
nized the)' were servants of the public, and wherever 
the people gathered to discuss public matters they 
were to be found. In various United States cities the 
mayors even went so far as to publish periodical jour- 
nals, to tell the public what was being done with their 
money for the public good, while in New York a 
mayor elected by Tammany had organized a "Budget 
Exhibition," to show the people in simple manner 
what was being done. Further than this in the cities 
governed by commission the idea of party politics had 

been cut out, and the ballots did not mention whether 
candidates were Republicans, Democrats or anything 
but men anxious to serve the city. 

The whole idea of the movement was democratic, 
to secure for the people honest and efficient govern- 
ment by the people, and he had been much impressed 
to find this same democratic principle in civic life as 
strong in Canada as in the United States. 

"And here in Montreal," concluded Mr. Woodruff, 
"if democracy is to be triumphant and successful as in 
other cities it must be by the co-operation of every 
man, woman and child within your borders. We can- 
not depend upon any imposed government. Every one 
of us must recognize that we have a part in the up- 
building of the city, and success can only come by each 
taking his or her particular place in the machinery of 
civic life." 

Concrete piers will be used by the Westholme Com- 
pany, of Victoria, in constructing the large govern- 
ment wharf at Prince Rupert. At the present time the 
only other place where the concrete pile is in use is 
in San Francisco, where it has proven to be a great 
success. In the great southern port the piles used 
range from 16 to 20 feet in length, but at Prince Rupert 
the great depth of water will necessitate a minimum 
length of 40 feet and a maximum of 100 feet. With 
their tremendous weight no driving will be required 
and they are so constructed that once the bottom is 
reached a firm and solid basis is assured through a 
suction tube through which all the loose mud and de- 
leterious matter can be drawn to the surface. Each 
pile is sixteen inches square. The centre is perforated 
by a steel pipe which runs right through. This is for 
extracting all the matter between the bottom of the 
pile and the solid rock. Round the tube are placed 
four reinforcement girders which play the part of 
grapplers. In order to render them stiff and immov- 
able they are circled by stays at intervals of five feet. 
Outside these steel ribs is placed a closely latticed net- 
work of wire to give the concrete a groundwork. A 
huge derrick will place the piles in position, a task that 
will entail a considerable amount of power as the aver- 
age weight of the piles is about sixteen and a half tons. 

The business men and other level-headed citizens 
of Vancouver rejoiced at the recent announcement 
that the Vancouver Dry-dock and Shipbuilding Com- 
pany had definitely undertaken the construction of a 
huge drydock at Roche Point, on the north shore of 
Burrard- Inlet, some miles east of the city at a cost of 
$1,214,154. The dock is to be started within six 
months and completed by December 1st. 1912. The 
Dominion government will grant the usual subsidy ■ 
of 3^2 per cent, for twenty-five years on cost of con- I 
struction providing the stated conditions are complied 
with. It is likely that the Grand Trunk Pacific Rail- 
way Company will apply for a subsidy for a similar 
dock at Prince Rupert, as the British Columbia fleet 
of ocean and coasting steamers is increasing so rapidly 
that two docks will be necessary in the near future. 

Next summer Granville street, Vancouver, will be 
extended and paved clear through to the north arm of 
the Eraser on the south, making a thoroughfare six 
miles in length. From the present city boundary the 
work is being carried through by the Provincial Gov- 
ernment and the C. P. R. for he benefit of their Point 
Grey holdings. 




Orgaokatiomi ©f Road EiuiiHmg iim Canada 

With Special Reference to the Methods Employed in Ontario — 
Provincial Aid to County Roads Success of Prison Labor* 

By VV. A. McLean, Provincial Knxinccr of Hi«li\vay!t fnr (Jntaiio 


Road building is a matter of admittedly great import- 
ance throughout Canada. As with the United States, we 
ave a country of magnificent distances, and adequate pro- 
vision for transportation is an important factor in national 

Road construction from the standpoint of climate, topo- 
raphy, material, and trafific shows great diversity. We 
have moist climate, and dry climate; extremes of cold and 
heat; the mountains of British Columbia come into close 
icontact with the level prairies of Alberta, Saskatchewan 
and Manitoba. Through Ontario and Quebec, to New Bruns- 
wick and Nova Scotia the country varies from mountainous 
and forest covered, to fields of rolling fertility. Through 
the prairies there is a "log drag" area where road metal 
(is non-existent. In other districts the metal available varies 
from Laurentian granite to limestone or more recent glacial 
deposits of gravel. Traffic in some cases is that of auto- 
mobile travel between large cities; in others that of the 
strictly rural highway; in others the prairie or forest trail, 
or the mining road over mountains and muskegs. The road 
question is with us, in all its varying forms. 

Road making in Canada, with some exceptions, has been 
a strictly municipal function until the last decade. In that 
period practically all provincial governments have adopted 
some measure of provincial legislation equivalent to state 
road laws. In some cases it amounts merely to engineering 
advice and instruction; in others it is a substantial measure 
of provincial aid. None of these laws are, as a rule, modeled 
after those of another province, or of another country, but 
have grown, as it were, from the native soil, according to 
local requirements and conditions. 

Thus the laws of Quebec are framed to harmonize with 
fOld French customs, chief of which was that each farmer 
should be responsible for the road in front of his property. 
In Nova Scotia the feeling of the people has been trained 
to accept provincial measures. In Ontario, ideals are more 
favorable to local government so that the provincial author- 
ities have not moved along the line of provincial aid as fast 
as would be possible in other provinces and states. The 
federal government of the Dominion does not give aid to 
road building, nor does it maintain an office in any way sim- 
ilar to the Office of Public Roads at Washington. 
The Ontario System 

It is with respect to Ontario that 1 am best qualified to 
speak, having charge of the highway division of that pro- 
vince, a branch of the Provincial Department of Public 
Works. Roads in Ontario are constructed under three dif- 
ferent systems or organizations: 

1. By townships. 

2. By counties. 

3. Colonization roads by the provincial government. 
To an understanding of these, it is to he explained that 

the province of Ontario is divided into two almost distinct 
parts: (i) Southern or Old Ontario, lying soutli of a line 
drawn due west from Ottawa to Penetanguishene, covers an 
area of 35,000 square miles. This district is closely populated 
and is devoted almost wholly to agriculture. (2) Northern 
or New Ontario, including the whole of the province north 
r of the line between Ottawa and Penetanguishene comprises 
an area of over 100.000 s<iuare miles. This district is sparsely 
populated; is for the most part rough and broken, and while 

♦Presented at the Convention of the American Road (Guilders' Association. 

some parts are suitable for agriculture, it is chiefly as yet 
devoted to mining and lumbering. 

Township System in Southern Ontario: — The greater 
mileage of roads in the older part of Ontario is under the 
control of the township councils. These township roads are 
maintained solely by township expenditure raised by direct 
taxation, supplemented by statute labor. In numerous town- 
ships statute labor is commuted or wholly abolished and 
road construction placed on an entirely cash basis. 

In the near future statute labor will undoubtedly be 
done away with by all townships, as I believe that public 
feeling is strongly turning toward that end. I have recently 
shown that township councils spent last year in cash, on 
purely township roads, over $1,400,000, and over 1,100,000 
days of statute labor, equal at least to $2,500,000. In the next 
ten years townships will at this rate spend twenty-five mil- 
lion dollars, and unless better methods are followed there 
will be little of permanent value from this outlay. Under 
more efficient methods of managing labor, which I hope to 
see adopted, such an outlay should produce substantial im- 
provement, and although our people are conservative, it 
remains to appeal to their good judgment to attain the 
object looked for — an entire cash system under a permanent 
road superintendent in each township. 

Provincial Aid to County Roads 

The distinctly "good roads" work of Ontario, in addi- 
tion to educational measures, is in connection with county 
council management. The act to "Aid in the improvement 
of Public Highways" provides for the establishment of 
county systems of highways, these to be aided by the pro- 
vincial government to the extent of one-third of the cost of 
construction. These roads are built under government reg- 
ulations, and are subject to government Inspection, but 
otherwise county councils have control of the entire expendi- 
ture. The best and more expensive macadam roads in the 
province are being built under this system. 

Under this act, a county council may assume the main 
roads within the county, usually comprising from 12 per 
cent, to 15 per cent, of the road mileage in each township. 
These roads are built in a permanent manner, the work being 
in charge of a superintendent or engineer appointed by the 
county. At the end of each year the county treasurer trans- 
mits to the Provincial Highways Division a statement of 
the county road expenditure. One-third of this amount is 
then paid to the county, through the provincial treasurer. 
The work is carried on from year to year by the county, 
and annual payments are made by the province until the 
county system is constructed in a durable manner. 

To the present time about 1,200 miles of road have been 
built under this act, and the beneficial results are becoming 
apparent. For $2,500,000 more permanent results have been 
accomplished than by township councils in the past twenty 
years, with an expenditure estimated at thirty millions. 

One feature of the provincial grants is that they are 
not distributed according to any schedule of assessment, 
population, or area. The only basis is the cost of the roads. 
and the amount county councils are willing to spend on them. 
The provincial grant includes one-third of the cost of 
bridges, so that as compared with some state laws, the 
Ontario proportion would more nearly equal one-hall. 
Rivers and streams are large and numerous, and the bridges 
being built are of a substantial type, consisting of reinforced 



concrete arches, reinforced concrete beams with concrete 
floor; or steel trusses with concrete floors and abutments. 
To receive the provincial grant, bridges are to be built under 
the general specifications of the Highways Division. 
Roads of Northern Ontario 
Colonization roads are constructed under a colonization 
road act, which is applicable solely to northern Ontario. 
This act may be divided into two parts: 

1. The grants and expenditure made solely by the pro- 
vincial government under officials and foremen appointed 
by the provincial government. These are the only roads 
built solely by the provincial government, and vary in char- 
acter from well graded forest roads to heavy macadam, well 
rolled and drained. 

2. The second system of procedure under the "Coloniza- 
tion Road Act," is one whereby any organized township in 
northern Ontario may vote a sum to be spent on a certain 
road or roads. A provincial grant of from one-third to two- 
thirds of the township expenditure is made under this plan. 
The total provincial expenditure on colonization roads and 
bridges in 1909 was about $700,00(0. 

Prison Labor on Roads 

An especially interesting departure in Ontario at the 
present time relates to prison labor for road purposes. Each 
county in the province has a county jail in which are confined 
short term prisoners. To relieve the county jails, the pro- 
vince maintains a central prison, where convicts with terms 
of from three months to two years are detained. For terms 
exceeding two years convicts are sent to the federal peniten- 
tiary at Kingston. 

The existing provincial prison having become inadequate, 
the present provincial secretary, Hon. W. J. Hanna, con- 
ceived the idea of a prison farm. This, recently purchased, 
contains 800 acres of land, and was chosen not only for its 
farming possibilities, but for its value, in part, as a stone 
quarry, where it is intended to crush stone for use on roads 
built or aided by the province. 

For the past season from 180 to 200 prisoners have been 
kept in temporary quarters on this farm, cultivating, clean- 
ing up, building workshops and constructing a concrete 
bridge 148 feet in length. Roads through and around the 
farm will be among the first works undertaken, in order 
that as a prison farm, any part can be quickly reached. Rail- 
way switches are to be put in, and arrangements for the 
shipment of crushed stone are proposed in due course, as 
the permanent buildings needed on the farm become com- 

In northern Ontario, rather than bring men several 
hundred miles to the central prison, they have been sent 
into the northern districts to open roads through bush, 
mining, and as yet sparsely occupied country. Two camps 
Have been maintained of about fifty prisoners each, and four 
guards with each camp. 

Both at the prison farm in southern Ontario and at the 
colonization road camps in northern Ontario, there are one 
or two features which have attracted wide attention. The 
prisoners are given plenty of wholesome and appetizing 
food such as some of them would not get for a Sunday din- 
ner at home. The guards do not carry a weapon of any kind. 
Instead of being "guards" in the ordinary sense, they are 
working foremen, leading and inspiring the men, instead of 
driving them. 

One misses the sullen abject despair that so often char- 
acterizes prison life. The prisoners are, as a rule, sent down 
for minor offenses, more often the result of drink or ban 
associates than a criminal disposition. 

With constant, healthful employment, good food and 
good leadership, prisoners coming to the farm and the road 
camps physical wrecks, are sent away at the end of their 
terms vastly better physically, and, therefore, we believe, 
better morally. They have been taught how to do an honest 
day's work. 

Without any sentimental view as to the desirability of 
punishment, it is, after all, results we are looking for. My 
contact with this work for the past season has been inti- 
mate and I am strongly impressed with the belief that ex- 
perience in Ontario will show that a new era has been reach- 
ed in the treatment of a large class of prisoners to the bet- 
terment of themselves, society, and the roads. 

County jails have usually from three to a dozen pris- 
oners confined. A description of our convict work would 
not be complete were the case of one Ontario county omit- 
ted, in which the prisoners are employed in making concrete 
tile for road culverts. The necessary materials, gravel, 
cement, collapsible forms, etc., are kept inside the jail yards 
and pipes up to three feet in diameter are sold at a low rate 
to the local municipalities or are used on county roads. 

To this I must add that public feeling in favor of better 
roads is fast gaining ground in Ontario, and what the future 
may bring is hard to foretell. One citizen, Mr. J. C. Eaton, 
and the company of which he is president, under my direction 
has spent $20,000 in building a sample road three miles in 
length adjacent to Toronto. We have active roads organiza- 
tions, doing educational work. The city of Toronto has 
introduced a by-law, which I believe will be ratified, to grant 
$100,000 to aid the improvement of county roads adjacent to 
and radiating from the city. 

Comparatively few farmers in Ontario as yet use auto- 
mobiles but the number is steadily growing. The motor 
principle is destined to a tremendous application to high- 
way traffic, and in my opinion that day, with the consequent 
demand for good roads, is approaching so rapidly that it 
may be doubtful policy to force public opinion too urgently 
at the present time, as a demand may readily be reached 
beyond the ability of a government to satisfy. 

Exhibit of Engineering Instruments at Winnipeg 

The Eugene Dietzgen Company, Limited, had a note- 
worthy exhibit of engineering instruments at the Royal 
Alexandra Hotel last week during the convention of the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. An instrument that 
received most favorable comment was the Percenter Level, 
which has been designed to afford a ready means of deter- 
mining quickly and accurately with but one operation the 
grade per cent, between any two points, without measuring 
the distance between the same and without any calculation 
or reference to tables. The instrument appealed particularly 
to railroad engineers and road builders on preliminary work. 

The railroad dumpy shown was a low priced but ser- 
viceable instrument possessing a good quality telescope, 
length 15 inches, magnifying power 25 diameters, achro- 
matic terrestrial, powerful and of good definition, with a 
sensitive level vial, weight 7J4 pounds. 

A new 3-screw transit and a high power telescope were 
also shown. Additional features were a rail profile machine 
for determining the wear of any rail within a few minutes 
without taking out the rail, cutting or distributing the road- 
bed, and the Noyes draughting machine, which eliminates 
all lost motion. A general line of up-to-date engineering in- 
struments made up the balance of an interesting exhibit. 

At the meeting of the Montreal Art Association last 
week, the secretary, Mr. J. B. Abbott, stated that in order to 
obtain the highest possible type of a modern art gallery and 
school of art, it was decided to appoint Mr. E. M. Wheel- 
wright, of Boston, to pronounce upon the merits of certain 
plans submitted to him in competition, and to act in con- 
junction with the successful architect in the preparation of 
the final plans. The competition was decided in favor of 
Messrs. Edward and W. S. Maxwell, and as Messrs. G. A. 
Fuller, Co., Ltd., of New York, were found to be the lowest 
tenderers the contract for the erection of the whole building 
in marble for $301,087, was awarded to them. 




Civil EogiBieers^ Comveiniftioiii at Wimunipeg 

Record Gathering in the Western Metropolis — Enthusiastic Reception by 
the City— The Proceedings: Reports, Discussions, Papers, New Officers 

1.. „.„,.,...... 

I^ftiety of Civil Engineers, which was held at the Royal Alex- 

l^^ndra Hotel, Winnipeg, January 24-27, was attended by 

nearly 300 members, a considerable number of whom were 

accompanied by ladies. Special arrangements had been 

made for the transportation of members from eastern and 

estern points, and the response to the Society's invitation 

as a source of much gratilication to the indefatigable scc- 

'etary. Professor McLeod, and the general directorate of 

City Engineer Uust, of Toronto, the new President of the 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers 


he institution. A perusal of the list of members present, 
published below, will demonstrate the representative nature 
of the attendance. 

Those Present: 

H. A. K. Drury, Winnipeg. 
H. L. Johnston, Winnipeg. 

F. G. Earle, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

G. W. N. Day, Toronto, Ed- 
itor Contract Record. 

N. B. McTaggart, Winnipeg. 

A. L. McDougall, Ottawa. 
H. Saltzman, Winnipeg. 
J. N. de Stein, Rivers. 
W. E. Hobbs, Winnipeg. 
Geo. E. Bell, Winnipeg. 
S. G. Karlan, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
J. R. Reid, Colonsay. 
R. G. Saunders, Moose Jaw. 

B. S. McKenzie, Winnipeg. 

E. F. Chandler (Am. Soc. C. 
E.), University of North 

Guy C. Dunn, Winnipeg. 
N. E. Brooks, Calgary. 
K. S. Patrick. Winnipeg. 
J. B. Phillips, Winnipeg. 
Newton Wallis, Winnipeg. 

F. St. C. Farran, Edmonton. 

. N. Ruttan, Winnipeg. 
H. Rust, Toronto. 
Galbraith, Toronto. 
John Kennedy, Montreal. 
Wm. Kennedy, jr., Montreal. 
rW. P. Anderson, Ottawa. 
. A. Mountain, Ottawa. 
. H. Duggan, Montreal, 
uncan MacPherson, Ottawa 

A. Herdt, Montreal. 
'. H. McLeod, Montreal. 
J. Durlcy, Montreal. 
F. Uniacke, Ottawa. 
Chase Thomson, Montreal 
Chas. H. Dancer, Winnipeg. 
Edward P. Fctherstonhaugh, 

W. V. Taylor, Quebec. 
~ E. Brydone-Jack, Winni- 

E. Brandon, Toronto. 

F. M. Davis. Windsor, Ont. 

Iarry B. Miller, Montreal. 
. Loch Trimingham, Mont- 

E. H. Harrison, Winnipeg. 
Geo. A. Bayne, Winnipeg. 
W. Z. Earle, Winnipeg. 
T. C. Irving, jr., Toronto. 
A. S. Innes, Winnipeg. 

De Gaspe Beaubien, Mont- 

J. A. Strumbert, Montreal. 
M. P. Blair, St. Boniface, 

J. C. Holden, Winnipeg. 
Frank Lee, Winnipeg. 
Joseph Labelle, Montreal. 
W. G. Chacc, Winnipeg. 
Matthew Neilson, Montreal. 
J. Duchastel, Montreal. 
Harold A. Baylis, Montreal. 
Henri Dessaulies, Montreal 

F. B. Fripp, jault Ste Marie, 

J. R. Freeman, Moncton, N.B. 

G. E. Howie, Fredericton, 

G. W. Volckman, Ottawa. 
G. Ridout, Toronto. 
T. Aird Murray, Toronto. 
J. Hammersley-Heenan, 

Donald A. Ross, Winnipeg. 
W. Archibald Duff, Winnipeg 
W. H. Munro, Peterborough, 

A. J. McDougal, Ottawa. 
F. S. Lazier, Campbellford, 


D. C. Tennant, Montreal. 

F. P. Shearwood, Montreal. 
H. M. Balfour, Frankford, 

H. B. Muckleston, Calgary, 

J. P. Menard, Montreal. 
Arthur W. Sullivan, Valley- 

Eugene O'Sullivan, Montreal. 
Patrick O'Sullivan, Indian 

Lorette, Que. 
F. J. Mcintosh, Winnipeg. 
."Vurelien Boyer, Montreal. 

E. A. James, Toronto, Ed- 
itor Canadian Engineer 

F. A. Creighton, Prince Al- 

Norman M. McLeod, To- 

G. G. Powell, Toronto. 

J. M. Wilson, Moose Jaw, 

William Storrie, Toronto. 
.•\. R. Dufresne, Ottawa. 
W. Hollingworth, Toronto. 
A. E. Jupp, Toronto. 
F. A. Wilkin, Winnipeg. 
F. Crossley, Winnipeg. 
O. F. Fischer, Cochrane, Ont. 
Horace Longley, St. John, 

R. H. Gushing, St. John. N.B. 
C. W. Archibald, Truro, N.S. 
J. T. Bertrand, Isle Verte, 

E. B. McLean, Moncton, N.B. 

of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
H. Cashdan, L'nivcrsity of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
C. C. Chataway, Winnipeg. 
W. B. Young, Winnipeg. 

A. J. Papineau, Winnipeg. 
W. M. MacPhail, Winnipeg. 
W. E. Jenkins, Edmonton. 
H. B, Fergusson, Vancouver. 
T. R. Deacon, Winnipeg. 
Phillip J. Duff, Montreal. 
G. W. Goodall, Winnipeg. 
Sherman Smitii, Melville. 
N. S. Tate, Watrous. 
H. A. Bowden, Watrous. 
H. L. Bodwell, Calgary. 
L. H. S. Taunton, Winnipeg. 
M. B. Henselwood, Winnipeg 
S. Wilkins, Winnipeg. 
W. W. Bell, Fort William. 
F. A. V. Cowley, Victoria. 
C. W. Hookway, University 

of Manitoba, VVinnipeg. 
R. Cruickshank, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
J. H. Irvine, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
T. W. White, VVinnipeg. 
James White, Ottawa. 
L. R. Gransaull, Wainwright 
Geo. F. Richan, Vermillion 

J. A. Douglas, Winnipeg. 

A. R. Greig, Saskatoon. 

F. H. Girdlestone, Winnipeg. 

W. A. James, Winnipeg. 

John Irvine, Vancouver. 

J. D. Ruttan, University of 
Manitoba, A'innipeg. 

R. W. Bellhouse, University 
of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

Wm. D. Knox, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

Leslie R. Thomson. Univer- 
sity of Manitoba, Winnipeg 

Thos. W. Brown, Saskatoon. 

J. H. McKenzie, Superior 

R. F. Howard, Winnipeg. 

F. T. Bagshawe, Winnipeg. 
R. D. Willson, VVinnipeg. 
Hugh D. McKinnon, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba, Winnipeg 

J. P. Eraser, University of 
Manitoba, VVinnipeg. 

W. H. Richardson, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba, VVinnipeg 

N. L. McLeod, University of 
Manitoba, VVinnipeg. 

H. O. Canfield, Point du Bois 

H. I. Morris, University of 
Manitoba, VVinnipeg. 

H. A. Bayne, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

G. Halstead, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

W. L. Mcintosh, VVinnipeg. 
V. H. Tait, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

B. S. Johnston, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

VV. J. Dickson, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

C. N. Mitchell, jr.. University 
of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

Wm. C. Fingland, University 
of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

D. T. Croll, University of 
Manitoba. VVinnipeg. 

John R. Black. Winnipeg. 
Alex Taylor, Portage la 



G. A. McCarthy, Calgary, 

J. W. Harris, Winnipeg. 

W. L. Mackenzie, Winnipeg. 

J. R. C. Macredie, Winnipeg. 

M. C. Burr, Vancouver, B.C. 

A. A. Young, Montreal. 

A. S. Dawson, Calgary, Alta. 

C. M. Arnold, Lethbridge, 

C. Hoard, Victoria, B.C. 

G. H. Power, Winnipeg. 

J. Chalmers, Edmonton, Alta. 

W. P. Morrison, Maple Creek, 

W. R. W. Parsons, Regina, 

R. J. Leckie, Regina, Sask. 

Dr. Martin Murphy, Edmon- 
ton, Alta. 

C. Ewart, Edmonton, Alta. 

C. E. Cartwright, Vancouver, 

E. A. Johnson, Vancouver, 

W. Muir Edwards, Edmon- 
ton, Alta. 

F. DeC. Davies, Winnipeg. 
R. C. Smith, Saskatoon. 
Thomas C. McNabb, Winni- 

M. J. Haney, Toronto. 
E. A. Forward, Winnipeg. 
H. L. Bucke, Port Arthur. 
A. W. McMaster, Winnipeg. 
H. A Zimmerman, Winnipeg 
A. J. Dostert, Winnipeg. 

E. R. B. Pike. Winnipeg. 
.\. Q. Cavanagh. University 

of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
W. W. Dynes, jr., University 
of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

C. Shandon, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

D. T. Townsend. Winnipeg. 
L. B. Merriam, Winnipeg. 
W. W. Mack, Hardwick, Vt. 
J. W. Dorsey, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
R. E. Speakman, Brandon, 

Chas. Maclntyre, Editor of 

Western Can. Contractor. 

F. M. Lawleclge, Winnipeg. 
K. J. C. Zinck, Winnipeg. 
M. P. Cotton, Vancouver. 

D. McMillan, Winnipeg. 

G. N. Otty, Fort William, 

G. S. Roxburg, University 
of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

J. Woodman, Winnipeg. 

M. H. MacLeod, Winnipeg. 

C. Harry Fox, Fort William, 

J. A. Hesketii, Winnipeg. 

A. A. McCoubrey, Winnipeg. 

A. Rimmington, University 
of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

John Callaghan, Winnipeg. 

H. F. H. Hertzberg, Winni- 

A.H. Aldinger, Wmnipeg. 

W. McCartney, Winnipeg. 

H. A. Woods, Montreal. 

M. C. MacFarlane, St. Boni- 
face, Man. 

E. S. Miles, Lockport, Man. 
Robert I. Lothian, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba, Winnipeg 

William Burns, Winnipeg. 
A. H. O'Reilly, Winnipeg. 

D. M. Mawhinney, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba, Winnipeg 

A. J. Taunton, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
G. L. Shanks, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
T. L. Robeits, Winnipeg. 
C. W. U. Chivers, Winnipeg. 
R. H. O'Reilly, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
L. Easton, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
S. J. Fisher, Montreal. 
Alfred J. Stevens, Winnipeg. 
L. F. Grant, Prince Rupert, 

M. H. McPhee, Superior Jet., 

W. W. Mack, Hardwick, Vt. 
C. W. Dill, Toronto. 
Victor Michie, Winnipeg. 
A. J. Riddell, Winnipeg. 
James Riddell, Winnipeg. 
H. J. Lamb, London, Ont. 
W. C. Trotter, St. Johns, P.Q. 
Frederick H. Fay, Boston, 

A. McGillivray, Winnipeg. 

F. A. W. MacLean, Winnipeg 
H. A. Bowman, Winnipeg. 
H. A. Alexanoer, Winnipeg. 
C. Donnelly, Winnipeg. 
J. J. Aldred, Winnipeg. 

E. W. M. James, Winnipeg. 
A. K. Grimmer, Medicine Hat 

G. H. Burbidge, Montreal. 
J. T. Farmer, Montreal. 
S. S. Oliver, Quebec. 
H. Lumsden, Winnipeg. 
L. B. Elliott, Calgary, Alta. 
G. McPhillips, Winnipeg. 
J. R. Grant, Vancouver, B.C. 

F. F. Busteed, Vancouver. 
F. C. Laberge, Montreal. 
S. R. Poulin, Winnipeg. 
S. H. Reynolds, Victoria, B.C. 
F. W. Anderson, Ottawa. 
J. V. Dillabough, St. Boni- 
face, Man. 

E. D. Allen, St. Boniface, 

K R. Chestnut, Edmonton, 

F. Sedziak, Winnipeg. 
A. L. Mieville, Winnipeg. 
J. F. Earl, Superior Jst.. Ont. 
L. C. Jacobs, Superior Jet., 

J. G. Legrand, Winnipeg. 
H. F. McDonald, Winnipeg. 
W. H. Jones, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
Herbert Auger, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
J. C. Munro, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
W. S. Wallace, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
W. S. Collins, University ot 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

C. B. Sharpe, University of 
Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

L. Betourney, University of 

Manitoba, Vi'innipeg. 
H. R. Urie, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
J. F. Leslie, University of 

Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
E. A. Childerhose, University 

of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 
W. T. Mawhinney, University 

D. A. Evans, St. Boniface, 

The Toronto members left at 9.30 a.m., Saturday, Janu- 
ary 21, in a sperial car attached to the regular Ottawa train. 
At Carleton Place connection was made late in the after- 

noon with the special train from Montreal. The renewal of 
old friendships and the many reminiscences that were going 
the round stimulated the spirit of genuine enjoyment that 
makes the hours fly, and the pleasures of the way alone were 
commented upon. Montreal and Toronto to Winnipeg in 
mid-winter is not calculated to inspire one with a great deal 
of enthusiasm, but had the scenery been of an Alpine char- 
acter in its impressiveness it is scarcely probable that it 
would have received much attention. There was so much 
to be heard and told that the outside world mattered little 
until the end of the journey. (This, of course, with apologies 
to the "Fresh Air Brigade," who defied the elements at White 
River, Schreiber and other historic points along the route). 

The eastern delegates ai rived at Winnipeg about ten 
o'clock on Monday morning, January 23, and the majority 
of the western members put in an appearance the same day. 

News of the death of Mr. J. E. Schwitzer was received 
on the Monday morning and left a feeling of personal loss 

Mr. C. E. W. Dodwell, of Halifax, one of the 
new Vice-President.s. 

with every member of the Society. \ sketch of the career 
of Mr. Schwitzer is published elsewhere in this issue. 

At the opening session on Tuesday, January 24, the Pres- 
ident, Col. H. N. Ruttan, paid a feeling tribute to the mem- 
ory of Mr. Schwitzer, and proposed the passing of an official 
resolution as an expression of the Society's deep regard. 
This resolution, which is given below, was subsequently in- 
troduced by Mr. John Kennedy, of Montreal: 

"Be it resolved that the members of the Can- 
adian Society of Civil Engineers assembled in an- 
nual meeting in Winnipeg, desire to take the oppor- 
tunity of expressing their sorrow on hearing of the 
sudden death of Mr. J. E. Schwitzer, one of 'the 
most distinguished of the members of the society. 
Their sorrow is emphasized by the fact that he had 
just received promotion to the chief engineership 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which appoint- 
ment marked the appreciation of a great corporation 
for one of its most able and devoted officers. Mr. 
Schwitzer was one of the most manly, loveable, 
and popular members of the society, and his death 
is mourned by each member as a personal loss. 

"Be it resolved that the society respectfully 
begs to express its deepest sympathy with Mrs. 
Schwitzer in her great bereavement, and that a copy 
of the above resolution be forwarded to her." 

The proceedings on the first day were mainly of a 
routine character. The morning session opened with the 
reading of the minutes of the last convention by the Secre- 
tary, Professor McLeod. These were approved, and after- 




wards the reports of the Quebec, Ottawa, Toronto and Man- 
itoba Branches were received in turn and adopted. 

I Reports of Branches. 

The Quebec Branch, which has a membership of 49 
orporate members, four Student Members and two Asso- 
iates, held ten meetings during iqio. The following ex- 
ract from its report may be of interest: 
It is felt that the members of the Society in the Province 
n uf Quebec do not enjoy the protection which they are en- 
titled and have a right to look forward to, according to the 
M barter of the Society. In many cases, it has been brought 
the attention of the Quebec Branch of the Society, that 
ngineers who do not belong to the Canadian .Society of 
'ivil Engineers, have been brought in from foreign coun- 
ries, to carry on important engineering works, which, it is 
^ felt would have been equally as well looked after by Can- 
, adian engineers, members of the society. 

It is generally felt among the members of the Quebec 
ranch that stricter measures should be taken to enforce 
the carrying out of our by-laws, which provide that no 
engineer, not a member of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers, although such may be a graduate of some univer- 
sity, is entitled to practice as an engineer in the Province of 
I Quebec without complying with the by-laws. 
I The Ottawa Branch, at the close of 1910, had a total 
membership of 228. During the year many interesting papers 
pirere given, and the report furnished ample evidence of the 
bnthusiastic manner in which the Branch is supported by its 
[nembers. The recommendations of special interest contain- 
ed in this report were as follows: 
We recommend that the Council consider if some means 
may be devised whereby assistance of some kind may not be 
given to branches to form local libraries in order that mem- 
bers of branches, who will be. under proposed amendments 
to by-laws, considered as resident members, may derive more 
f the benefits of resident members in Montreal. 

We recommend that papers of merit read before branches 
should be published in the Transactions of the Society when 
desired by the Branch, subject to censorship at headquarters 

H instead of compelling authors to read at Montreal first in 
f^\ cases. 
[ We recommend that the mode of election of officers and 
Council be considered with a view of giving branches repre- 
penting the various districts some voice in the selection of the 
inembers of the Nominating Committee. 
- The Toronto Branch reported a total membership of 
275. Its meetings during 1910 were held at the Engineers' 
Club, 96 King street west. The new executive will have to 
ecure fresh quarters for 191 1. owing to the launching of a 
new organization, which is to become the successor of the 
club just referred to. A number of valuable papers were 
given last year. Addresses are secured from eminent en- 
gineers in Toronto and other cities in addition to the usual 
iscussions of papers delivered before the parent society. 

The following recommendation contained in the report 
f the Manitoba Branch was discussed at some length and 
as productive of a resolution urging the importance of the 
uggestion upon the incoming Council: 

The members of the Branch wish to recommend that the 
by-laws of the Society be revised so that papers which have 
been read before the Branches of the Society may be pub- 
lished in the Transactions, providing the Council consider 
them worthy of publication. 

The total membership of the Manitoba Branch is 166. 
The officers for the current year are as follows: Chairman, 
C. H. Dancer; Executive Committee: E. P. Featherstonhaugh, 

ij. A. Hesketh, T. Turnbull and Col. Ruttan. 
The remainder of the Tuesday session was devoted to 
the reception and brief discussions of the reports of the 
special committees. 
t Discussion on Sewage Disposal. 

An interesting discussion ensued upon the presentation 
of the report on Sewage Disposal, Messrs. Rust. Murray. 
Kennedy and Col. Ruttan taking part. 
City Engineer Rust opposed the adoption of the report 
on the ground that the principles advocated therein might 

be accepted by municipalities as having the sanction and 
general approval of the Society, whereas with the varying 
conditions existing throughout the country individual treat- 
ment was essential. Concerning the Provincial Boards of 
Health Mr. Rust was disposed to criticize the formation of 
these bodies inasmuch as in the majority of cases they were 
composed of medical men who had not made a special study 
of sewage disposal. In his opinion, such boards should be 
supplemented by the appointment of a consulting engineer 
properly qualified to give reliable advice. 

Mr. T. Aird Murray remarked that he was somewhat dis- 
appointed in the report inasmuch as the principal adopted 
therein was the very opposite to that which he had inaugu- 
rated in the province of Saskatchewan. The report did not 
appeal to him as being up-to-date, for it concluded that it 
was impracticable to so treat sewage that the danger of 
transmission of typhoid by effluents could be satisfactorily 
met. For this reason the committee recommended that 
sewage disposal plans should proceed no further in treat- 
ment than that which is covered by the processes of sedi- 
mentation and removal of the tendency to putrefaction of 
the organic matter, and that the onus of removing disease 
infection from water should be met entirely by those using 
water mixed with sewage, for purposes of domestic water 

Mr. Murray pointed out that the acceptance of such a 
principle in the report was a practical acknowledgement that 
sewage disposal was a failure in its most essential require- 
ment — that of eliminating the risk of infecting waters with 
typhoid bacteria. P'urther, he pointed out that apart from 
the larger cities it was impossible or impracticable to install 
efficient methods of water purification because of the great 
expenses in first cost and in maintenance. Also, that in many 
cases the people who suffered from polluted streams were 
the farmers and isolated rural communities on such streams. 
In fact, that many epidemics of typhoid were caused in cities 
by returning the sewage to the city by means of milk from 
such rural centres, where milk cans were washed by the 
very water which contained infected city sewage. 

The policy adopted in Saskatchewan, said Mr. Murray, 
was that of not only eliminating from sewage the aesthetic 
nuisance, but also the sanitary, or pathogenic; therefore, as 
a final adjunct to any sewage disposal scheme, the hypo- 
chlorite method of disinfecting or sterilizing the sewage 
was insisted upon. He held that it was practical and easy 
with our newer knowledge of disinfecting processes to pro- 
cure sewage effluents entirely free from disease infection, and 
that municipalities and others would be more likely to vote 
for such complete schemes than for the measures proposed 
in the committee's report. 

Finally, it was decided to defer the adoption of the re- 
port on sewage disposal pending further consideration and 
investigation by the Special Committee. 

Complimentary Luncheon, January 24. 

\ complimentary luncheon given on January Z4 by the 
Mayor (Mr. Sanford Evans) and Aldermen of the City of 
Winnipeg, was attended by upwards of four hundred mem- 
bers and their friends, and was a most enjoyable function. 

In his address of welcome Mr. Evans made a feeling 
reference to the late Mr. Schwitzer, who, he said, had laid. 
during recent years, the foundations of the material develop- 
ment of the West. He deplored deeply the early closing of 
such a notable life. 

Mr. Evans, continuing, said that the profession as a 
whole was playing a most important part in Western Can- 
ada and that its members were to be complimented upon the 
manner in which they had gained the confidence of the pub- 
lic. In Col. Ruttan they had a leader of great personal in- 
tegrity and efficiency. There were many evidences of Win- 
nipeg's practical interest in industrial development and their 



best efforts were being put forth on behalf of technical edu- 
cation. Also, they were endeavoring continually to make 
Winnipeg clean, sanitary and attractive. 

"Throughout the city," said Mr. Evans, "there is an 
active and intelligent interest in the subject of engineering. 
We realize the work you can do and the importance of the 
projects committed to your direction. The city of Winni- 
peg's work at Point du Bois has-been undertaken in order 
to provide, at the lowest cost, that great fundamental of 
modern progress — power. The school board of Winnipeg 
has taken a noteworthy step in advance, in the construction 
of two properly equipped technical schools, now under erec- 
tion. The Provincial Government has appointed a commis- 
sion which is working independently of that appointed by 
the Dominion Government. We have many undertakings in 
the West and we have always sought for the best and most 
modern solutions. 

Col. Ruttan, Mr. C. H. Rust and Col. Anderson replied 
briefly on behalf of the Society. 

Col. Anderson, who said that he had some claim to con- 
sideration as an "old timer," gave a few interesting reminis- 
cences. He had been a student in Manitoba College in 1873 
and the journey west, over the Dawson road, had taken him 
three weeks. The only other means of approach meant a 
wagon trip of 500 miles, or steamboat down the winding Red 
River. He was greatly impressed with the developments of 
the intervening time. The Colonel dwelt briefly upon the 
intimate relation of Winnipeg's growth to the prosperity of 
the whole Dominion. 

On Tuesday evening the ladies and members were enter- 
tained by the Women's Canadian Club of Winnipeg. 

Winnipeg's Great Work at Point du Bois. 

On Wednesday, January 25, the majority of the members 
paid a visit of inspection to the city power plant at Point 
du Bois, situated TJ miles from Winnipeg. The journey was 
made in a special train of ten cars provided by the C.P.R. 
Luncheon was served en route. The work at Point du Bois, 
a description of which was published in our issue of Janu- 
ary 18, is well advanced and the plant is expected to be in 
operation this summer. Mr. W. G. Chace and several mem- 
bers of his staff accompanied the party and furnished infor- 
mation relating to design, construction and progress. An 
interesting feature was the method of carrying on the con- 
crete work, the prosecution of which had been accomplished 
(with the thermometer registering, at times, 34 degrees be- 
low zero) by means of a canvas shelter, beneath which the 
temperature varied from about 3 to 20 degrees above freez- 
ing point. At time of writing the concrete roof of the main 
section of the power house has just been completed. The 
roof is 53 by 250 feet in area and has been laid with concrete 
4j^ inches thick. This will be covered with three layers of 
burlap and asphalt, with a gravel surface. The greatest in- 
terest was manifested in the project, and Mr. Chace and his 
staff, together with Controller Cockburn and the other civic 
officials who accompanied the party, were highly compli- 
mented upon the enterprising and resourceful nature of the 
scheme. The work will involve a total expenditure of some 
$4,000,000, which, as Mayor Evans pointed out at the ban- 
quet held in the evening, is a sum greater than that which 
is being spent by the whole Province of Ontario in its hydro- 
electric undertaking. The party from Point du Bois re- 
turned to headquarters, the Royal Alexandra, shortly after 
seven o'clock in the evening. 

Visits were also paid by some of the members to the 
St. Andrews Locks and to the G. T. P. shops now under 
construction at Transcona. The many interesting features 
of the former work will be familiar to the majority of our 
readers and we hope to furnish a detailed description of the 
latter in an early issue. The members were met at the 
G. T. P. shops by the superintendent, Mr. F. W. Walker, and 

Mr. C. J. Maxwell, who is in charge of construction for the 

Annual Banquet, January 25. 

This function was one of the most successful of its kind 
in the history of the Society and reflected great credit upon 
the entertainment committee of the Manitoba Branch (Mr. 
W. A. Duff, chairman). In addition to some two hundred 
members of the Society, those present included the Mayor, 
Mr. Sanford Evans; Hon. Hugh Sutherland, of the Canadian 
Northern; Mr. William Whyte, Vice-President of the C.P.R.; 
Mr. C. C. Chipman, of the Hudson'-^ Bay Company; Hon. 
J. H. Howden, of the Provincial Government, and many 
prominently identified with allied professions. Among the 
latter may be mentioned Mr. D. Atcheson, representing the 
Architects' Association; Mr. G. A. Bayne, of the Manitoba 
Land Surveyors, and Mr. F. H. Fay, of the Boston Society 
of Engineers. 

The proceedings from first to last were characterized by 
a whole-hearted enjoyment always professional in its de- 
corum but enlivened by the college yells so well practised 
in former days and handed down by the various institutions, 
such as 'Varsity, McGil! and U. N. B., as an indispensable 
part of their training. "This manifestation of the spirit of 
the boy is an indication of that of the true man," said Mayor 
Evans, a little later on in responding to the toast, "Our 
Guests," proposed by Col. Ruttan. And then His Worship 
was perforce obliged to pause during the rehearsal of an- 
other series of strange staccatos from all corners of the 

The frontispiece of the menu card contained the follow- 
ing definition: 

"A Banquet is an assemblage of men who look 

slyly at their watches, wishing they were in bed, 

while loudly proclaiming they are jolly good fellows 

who won't go home till morning." 

This, however, was evidently the exceptional occasion 
necessary to establish the general truth of the assertion. 

Short speeches, interspersed with musical items provid- 
ed an ideal programme and there was not a dull moment the 
wohle evening. 

Mr. Sanford Evans, who was received with- much en- 
thusiasm, recited at some length Winnipeg's progressive 
policy in regard to municipal development and dwelt upon 
the present importance and future prospects of the engineer- 
ing profession in this connection. In the economical execu- 
tion of great works involving large expenditures the engineer 
had a tremendous responsibility. The status of the profes- 
sion was continually being elevated to a higher plane. The 
profession had developed rapidly. It was not so very many 
years since engineering had been a trade, but now it was a 
profession in the highest and best sense of the word. 

The toasts to the Society and to the retiring President 
and Council were responded to by President Ruttan and 
Mr. C. H. Rust, respectively. Messrs. Atcheson, Bayne and 
Fay replied briefly on behalf of "Sister Societies." 

At the resumption of the business session on the morn- 
ing of Thursday, January 26, a special committee was ap- 
pointed to report upon the most satisfactory principles of ] 
construction and maintenance for road and street work, and 
to draw up specifications for the same. A resolution was 
proposed in regard to the conduct of the Vancouver City 
Council in accepting the City Engineer's resignation with- 
out giving him a satisfactory investigation, but no definite 
action was taken beyond the appointment of a committee to 
investigate the matter and report the following morning. 
An interesting paper, which we regret is not yet sufficiently 
complete for publication, was then read by Professor W. 
Muir Edwards, of the University of Alberta, Edmonton. At 
the afternoon session there was an excellent gathering to 
hear the address of the retiring President, Col. Ruttan, and 



an excellent lantern lecture on the Point du Bois construc- 
tion by Mr. W. G. Chace, who was accorded a hearty vote of 
thanks for his comprehensive paper. Col. Ruttan's address 
will be found in another column. 

At the closing session on Friday morning, January 27th, 
the special committee appointed to inquire into the relations 
between the Vancouver city council and their engineer, 
reported that it would be inadvisable to make a resolution 
such as had been proposed the previous day by Mr. White. 
The matter was submitted to the vote of the assembly whose 
verdict was in accordance with the feeling of the committee. 
While there was a general feeling of disapproval at the 
action of the council in dealing so summarily with the en- 
gineer without giving him an opportunity of being heard, 
it was realized that the Society had no warrantable ground 
for interfering between the two parties and that as a general 
principle it had no locus standi between employer and em- 

of the 

shortly after one o'clock on Friday afternoon. A consider- 
able number of the Winnipeg and other western members 
put in an appearance and cheered lustily as the train drew 
out. The Toronto and Montreal members parted company 
on Saturday night, at Sudbury, after the most enthusiastic 
demonstration of good fellowship. Professor McLeod was 
given a particularly warm send-off. The Montreal section 
was due to arrive at about eleven o'clock on Sunday morning. 
The Toronto members reached home about 845 a.m. 
Sunday, January 29, after what was unanimously conceded 
to be the most delightful combination of business and plea- 
sure ever undertaken. 

A paper entitled, "Hydro-Electric Power Development 
o? the British Columbia Power Company," prepared jointly 
by Messrs. N. R. Gibson, S. M. Waldron, and A. L. Mudge, 
had been printed and distributed among the members and 
at this session Mr. W. H. Munro, of Peterborough, Ont., gave 
an interesting lantern talk on the work. Some fifty or sixty 
;cellent slides were shown. 

The scrutineers reported that the amendments to the 
various by-laws of the institution had all carried. Among 
these measures was one in favor of the formation of a new 
class of junior members, coming between that of student 
and associate member. Under this enactment the graduate 
of a recognized enginering school can only remain as a 

•dent member one year after graduation. 
Election of Officers. 
City Engineer Rust, of Toronto, was elected President 
the Society for the ensuing year. The remaining officers 
were elcted as follows; Vice-presidents: Henry Holgatc, 
Montreal; C. E. W. Dodwell, Halifax; Councillors: L. A. 
Herdt, Montreal; Phelps Johnson, Montreal; H. G. Kelley, 
Montreal; J. M. Shanly, Montreal; J. G. Sullivan, Montreal; 
H. H. Vaughan, Montreal; P. S. Archibald, Moncton; F. W. 
W. Doane, Halifax; R. McColl, Halifax; A. E. Doucet, Que- 
bec; J. T. Morkill, Sherbrooke; P. E. Parent, Quebec; C. R. 
Coutlee, Ottawa; D. MacPherson, Ottawa; W. J. Stewart, 
Ottawa; H. E. T. Haultain, Toronto; A. F. Stewart, To- 
ronto; C. L. Fellowes, Toronto; E. E. Brydone-Jack Winni- 
peg; J. A. Hesketh, Winnipeg; J. G. Legrand, Winnipeg; 

F. F. Busteed, Vancouver; J. S. Denis, Calgary; J. C. Ken- 

l^fedy, Vancouver. 

IB Votes of thanks were accorded the various bodies that 
I^Kd contributed to the general succss of the meeting. These 
mcluded the C.P.R.— for their generosity in providing free 
haulage, the G. T. R., the C. N. R., the Mayor and Aldermen 
of the City of Winnipeg, the Manitoba Cub, the Canadian 
Women's Club and the Street Railway Company. Particu- 
lar appreciation was shown by the members for the work of 
the Manitoba Branch, whose enterprise and foresight was 
reflected in the local arrangements. A hearty vote of thanks 
to Colonel Ruttan for his energetic work in the interests of 
the Society during the past year practically terminated the 

The nominating committee appointd in addition to the 
three last presidents (Col. Ruttan, Mr. Geo. Mountain and 
Dean Galbraith) was as follows: J. M. R. Fairbairn, Mont- 
real; E. A. Stone, Fredericton, N.B.; E. Decarie, Quebec; 
Jas. White, Ottawa; A. C. D. Blanchard, Toronto; J. A. Hes- 
keth, Winnipeg; C. E. Cartwright, Vancouver. 

The proceedings of the Society closed with a meeting of 
the newly elected council, at which work of a purely routine 
order was transacted. 

The eastern members left Winnipeg by special train 

Engineering and Conservation. 
Engineering was some 80 years ago defined by Thomas 
Tredgold as "the art of directing the great sources of power 
in nature for the use and convenience of man." 

At the beginning of the twentieth century it has become 
apparent not only to engineers, but to all those who have the 
interests of posterity at heart, that the great sources of 
power in nature should not only be directed, but that they 
should be economically managed and conserved, so that 
Tredgold's definition may now properly read, "The art of 
directing and conserving the great sources of power in 
nature for the use and convenience of man." 

Anything approaching an exhaustive discussion on the 
subject, one on which volumes might be written, is not now 
intended. It may be pointed out that among the wastes 
which have been permitted throughout the past are: 
(i) The impoverishment of the lands. The gradual conver- 
sion of what were productive areas into barren wastes, 
examples of which may be seen in older parts of Asia 
and Europe, and, unfortunately, to an appreciable ex- 
tent, in North America. 

(2) Following the exhaustion of the soil, and keeping pace 
with it, has been the destruction of the forests; and 

(3) The unbalancing, and perhaps the lessening, of precipi- 
tation, so that rains come when they are not wanted and 
fail when they are indespensible for successful agricul- 

(4) The primitive and wasteful manner in which transporta- 
tion lines are laid and constructed. 

It is the last paragraph only with which it is proposed to 
deal in the present address. 

Routes Improperly Located. 
The requirements of modern civilization demand not 
only that people be carried at express speed from one quarter 
of the globe to another, but that every food and fabric grown 
and produced be distributed broadcast for the use and con- 
venience of man. The rush to meet these requirements has 
led to the abnormal development of transportation routes, 
which, though good in themselves and generally advantage- 
ous, have often, with a total disregard of economic arrange- 
ment, been improperly located or needlessly multiplied in 
one section to the inconvenience of another. 

The necessary requirements in the initiation and con- 
struction of transportation lines may be stated as follows: 
(i) A thorough knowledge of the country to be served, both 
in its physical features and its capabilities for production. 
(2) That this knowledge be utilized in the location of lines 
of transportation, so that the greatest service be pro- 
vided at a minimum ultimate cost against the traffic 
using the lines. 

Before going further it may be well to consider to what 
extent these requirements are at present met. 

A study of the railway systems of any country must lead 
to the conclusion that no effective system of supervision has 
been exercised in the locations of the system* to ni«et the 
economic requirements above stated. 



Much comparatively useless road has been constructed 
for the purpose of enabling one set of capitalists to take tolls 
on traffic which could have been easily handled by an exist- 
ing line. 

Instances appear where productive districts, separated 
by unproductive or partially unproductive country, are con- 
nected by lines running full length through the unproductive 
land, whereas a single line would have served the traffic of 
several converging railways. All this largely increases the 
capital, interest, maintenance, and management charges, 
which must be borne by the traffic. 

Causes of Defective Economy. 

Some of the causes contributing to the defective economy 
referred to are: 
(i) Want of knowledge of the country in the construction 

of the first lines. 

(2) The desire of capitalists to share in profits being earned 
by favorably situated lines. 

(3) The ease with which charters for so-called competing 
lines may be obtained. 

(4) The relatively slight interest taken by the public in the 
location of transportation lines, and the mistaken idea 
that the construction of any line is advantageous. 
This deplorable state of affairs may be remedied in a 

most simple and inexpensive manner. 

Before any companies are given franchises by Parlia- 
ment, both the public and Parliament should insist upon hav- 
ing before them sufficient information to enable them to 
judge of the effect upon both public and private property 
of the proposed works. 

Attention is called to the fact that in Canada something 
should at once be done to arrange for surveys of the country 
and the preparation of plans similar to the ordnance maps 
of Great Britain. 

A further step forward would be the giving of com- 
pulsory running rights over existing lines to companies 
which may properly participate in the traffic of certain dis- 
tricts, and which cannot do so without heavy expenditure in 
the construction of parallel lines, which would in themselves 
be unproductive or which would unnecessarily cut into busi- 
ness which can readily be handled by existing lines. 

The remarks on granting charters to railway companies 
and proposed improvements in procedure apply with equal 
force to canals, river improvements, and hydro-electric plants. 

Though Canada is noted for its magnificent canal system 
and for the progressive and patriotic policies of its Govern- 
ments in this respect, the opening up of the country will 
necessitate in the immediate future a development far be- 
" yond any that has yet taken place. It is therefore most 
necessary that a broad and intelligent view of the whole 
situation be taken so that duplication of facilities be avoided 
and expenditure be made in the interest of, and ultimate 
economy in, capital and operation charges. 

Numerous instances might be given illustrating great 
expenditures which have been made in an ill-considered and 
extravagant manner in the construction of railways, and of 
applications to Parliament for charters to construct works, 
which were both physically and economically impossible to 
carry out. These have often masked the acquisition by 
private parties of important assets of the public domain. 

Such instances are well known to most engineers. It is 
therefore not necessary to refer directly to them. 

Suggestions Looking to Improvement. 

It is not intended in any way to discourage development 
work in the country, but to point out the haphazard and 
expensive manner in which undertakings for the public ser- 
vice are often carried out, and to suggest what is considered 
a business-like and common-sense means of conserving, in 
this respect, the interest of the people at large. It must be 

remembered that eventually the burden falls upon, and must 
be borne by, the people. If the construction of an unneces- 
sary mile of railway is prevented, or a mile already con- 
structed is made to do the work of two, the country as a 
whole will be greatly benefitted. 

At first it may appear that the suggested changes in 
initiating and carrying out public works would, if carried 
into effect, discourage the construction of works needed for 
the development of the country and its resources. This, 
however, would not be the case; on the contrary, the care 
displayed in scrutinizing projects before they were author- 
ized would give confidence to investors by the assurance 
that, in the opinion of Parliament, the works were such as 
were reasonable and proper, and would go far, by the con- 
fidence inspired, to facilitate the flow of capital into the 

A charter granted by Parliament under the regulations 
proposed would be in itself a guarantee that the project was 
sound and practicable. The criticism called for by these 
regulations should greatly assist in determining the merits 
of such projects. 

It is, o' course, appa.ent that ,in addition to the enor- 
mous saving which could be made by the economic location 
and construction of works for the use and convenience of the 
public, there are other co^Hitions not less important. For 
example, the power now possessed by companies to increase 
capital beyond reasonable limits, and the crude management 
in operation, now being so much discussed in connection 
with the claim of the American railways, that rates must be 
increased to enable them to earn revenue to meet their cap- 
ital and operation expenses. 

In the following conditions the last two are not purely 
engineering, and need not be further considered at the 
present time: (i) The economic location and construction 
of lines of transportation, (2) the limiting of capitalization 
within reasonable bounds, (3) the scientific and economical 
operation of all transportation services, will all three have 
the effect of reducing rates to a minimum. 

It is in the first of these that engineers are vitally in- 
terested, and their advice to clients will go a long way to- 
wards conserving immense sums of capital now wasted in 
crude and uneconomical locations and constructions. The 
word economy has no reference to detail, and is used in its 
broader meaning only. As to economy of designs in detail, 
there is no fault to be found; on the contrary, all are proud 
of the bridges, tunnels, and other noted structures which 
are being constantly turned out by the profession. 

In carrying out the proposed system no cumbersome 
legislative machinery would be required — an amendment to 
the Railway Act giving the Railway Commission power to 
make regulations for the necessary surveys and plans, and 
finally to deal with the matters in question, is all that would 
be necessary. 

Mayor Taylor, of Vancouver, resents the attitude of the 
Canadan Society of Civil Engineers in discussing the rela- 
tions between the City Council of Vancouver and City En- 
gineer Clement. Interviewed recently, Mr. Taylor stated 
that there had been no direct proposal to discharge the 
City Engineer. At present the city had under consideration 
the appointment of a supervising engineer. There had been 
no need for investigation as no charge of incompetency had 
been made, neither was any personal question involved. 
Mr. Taylor concluded by stating that Vancouver's engin- 
eering department would in any case be reorganized. 

A meeting of the representatives of the various 
municipalities on the Island of Montreal is being 
called by Mayor Guerin to discuss the practicability 
of adopting the borough system as used in London, 




Receimt ImiYesfeigatioiiis ©0 Sewage Disposal 

An Interesting Report on the Question with Reference to the Pollu- 
tion of Lakes and Streams in Canada Data from Many Cities 

The rivers and streams of a country are the natural 

tainage cliannels into which all of the rainfall, not directly 

evaporated or taken up by plant growth, must ultimately find 

its way. A portion of it sinks into the ground and reaches 

the streams in the generally pure form of springs or seep- 

:e through their beds or banks. The remainder ilows 

ectly into them over the surface, and naturally and in- 

Stably carries with it a considerable quantity of polluting 

tter, the character of which will depend upon the nature 

the drainage area and density of the population. 

The surface drainage from an uninhabited watershed will 
t generally cause any dangerous pollution, but may add 
the color and turbidity of the water to an extent as to 
,ke it more or less objectionable for domestic purposes, 
cams, however, rising in mountainous or other wild un- 
settled districts usually furnish good and wholesome water 
near the source of their supply; but where they pass through 
populated districts, devoted to farming and other industries, 
they receive from their banks, and from tributary brooks 

Kd rivulets, the drainage from farm yard, dairies, dwellings, 
inured land, and finally the sewage of villages and towns, 
tich of the objectionable drainage from country districts 
more or less purified by natural processes, but on the 
other hand a considerable proportion often reaches the 
stream direct. That this is often highly dangerous in char- 
acter has been demonstrated in several instances, as at Low- 
ell, Mass. Tliis city, which obtains its water supply from the 
Merrimac River, was visited in the autumn of 1890 by an 
unusually severe epidemic of typhoid fever. By careful in- 
vestigation this was traced to an infection of the river water 
by a few cases of typhoid fever on a small brook which en- 
tered it about three miles above the water works intake. 
It is impossible, or at least impracticable, to prevent pol- 
ition of this kind except in the case of streams with very 
limited watersheds, where the conditions may be made sub- 
ject to control. In this connection it is interesting to note 
the case of Liverpool, England. The water supply is ob- 
tained from a stream rising in the mountains of Wales, the 
watershed of which is owned or controlled by the city. This 

Icumstance is not, however, depended upon to ensure the 
tire safety of the water, which is filtered through slow 
ad filters before being delivered to the consumers. 
So far as the subject of this report is concerned, the 
llution of lakes and streams referred to applies particu- 
larly to tliat produced by large isolated institutions, indus- 
_^Uial establishments, etc., or by cities and towns provided 
■H|th systems of sewers and drains. It, therefore, does not 
■^ftal with all sources of pollution, but rather is confined to 
those cases in which impurities are added, in comparatively 
large quantities, to water which is already more or less ini- 
l)ure. It is important that this should be borne in mind when 
considering the general question of sewage disposal, and the 
_^^gree of purification which may be deemed practicable or 

I^B The necessity for the purification of sewage may be 
I^V>sidered from two points of view, with regard to the or- 
ganic matter which it contains, and, second, with regard to 
its germ content. The inevitable fate of the organic matter 
is to pass through certain processes of decomposition where- 
natural conditions, this may cause nuisances and conditions 


Extract trom R port ot Committee on Sewage Disfiosal. 
vcntton of the Six'iety of Civil Eng^ineers. 

Presented at Annual 

offensive to the senses. The main object of sewage di»- 
by it is ultimately reduced to harmless mineral forms. Under 
posal, as it is at present understood and practiced, is to 
cause this decomposition to take place quickly under con- 
trolling circumstances, and at least to such a degree as will 
prevent it from undergoing further putrefactive changes. All 
modern methods of treatment are capable of accomplishing 
this, but without greatly diminishing the number of bacteria 
present in the raw sewage, where they often occur to the 
extent of several millions per cubic centimeter. Among them 
are to be found large numbers of germs from the intestines 
of man and the lower animals, and these usually include 
specific germs of disease. 

Sewerage Systems 

Sewerage systems may be either combined or separate, 
that is, there may be a single system to carry both the 
domestic sewage and the street drainage; or the domestic 
sewage and the street drainage may be kept separate and 
carried by a system of sanitary sewers and a set of storm 
water drains. During heavy storms combined sewers will 
occasionally have to discharge a volume many times grreater 
than the dry weather liow. It is obviously impracticable to 
attempt to purify more than a small percentage of the storm 
water discharge. The English Local Government Board 
requires sewage disposal plants for systems of this kind to 
have a capacity necessary to provide for six times the dry 
weather flow. Anything beyond this is discharged without 
treatment. It is therefore evident that the kind of sewerage 
system in use, whether separate or combined, will have an 
important bearing on the question of the disposal or treat- 
ment of the sewage, and the pollution of the bodies of 
water into which it is finally discharged. 

Detailed descriptions of the principles of sewage purifi- 
cation, and the different methods by which it may be accom- 
plished, are given in the various published works on that 
subject. It will be convenient, however, at this point to refer 
briefly to these methods and to mention a few sewage dis- 
posal plants now in operation which illustrate the different 

Early Methods of Sewage Disposal 
With the introduction of really efticient systems of 
sewerage which has taken place almost entirely within the 
last fifty years, the first and most obvious method of disposal 
was to turn the sewage into the nearest body of water. In- 
cidentally, it may be stated that this is still the practice in 
the majority of cases in every country with the exception of 
England. There, the density of the population, the great 
number of large manufacturing cities, and the small size of 
the rivers, combined to produce conditions which urgently 
demanded some measures of relief. The first method em- 
ployed was Broad Irrigation, or Sewage Farming. The 
results obtained were in many cases fairly satisfactory, but 
the difficulty in obtaining the required areas of suitable 
land, and certain objections from a sanitary standpoint have 
led to a gradual restriction in their use, and even to their 
abandonment in Birmingham and several other places. 

Many other systems involving chemical treatment of the 
sewage were attempted, but generally with indifferent suc- 
cess in the way of real purification. The example of England 
was followed to some extent in other parts of Europe and 
in the United States. In the latter country intermittent 



filtration through prepared beds of underdrained sand anr 
gravel has been used with great success in some of the 
Eastern States where the natural conditions are favorable. 
Generally, however, there has been little development until 
within the last twelve or fifteen years. During this period 
the newer methods of sewage disposal, or the so-called 
"biological processes," have been more fully studied and de- 
veloped, and are now being almost universally adopted. 

Modern Methods of Sewage Disposal 

These may be said to consist in a general way of two 
processes, viz.: (i) the separation of the greater part of the 
suspended matter or sludge, and (2) the oxidation of the 
remainder and of the organic matter in solution, in artifi- 
cially prepared beds or filters. The first, or sedimentation 
process, is accomplished by screening the sewage and pass- 
ing it through sedimentation, chemical precipitation, and 
septic tanks, and the deep tanks of the Hampton and Im- 
hoff types. 

In the second or oxidation process, there are two gen- 
eral methods employed, viz.: Contact Beds or Percolating 
Beds. These beds are commonly called filters, though the 
process is not one of filtration. 

Contact Beds are briefly watertight basins, 4 or 5 feet in 
depth, filled with crushed clinker, coke, coal, broken stone, 
screened gravel, or any hard substance, broken to the pro- 
per size, which is usually from }4-in. to ij^-in. The tank 
effluent is applied to the beds by means of overflowing 
grooves and troughs and through open jointed pipes. When 
the bed is filled to within a few inches of the surface, the 
inflow is stopped and the bed is held full for two or three 
hours. Next, the effluent valves are opened, allowing the 
beds to empty slowly and the interstices to fill with air. 
The beds are then allowed to remain empty for a time, when 
the entire process is repeated. The time of a complete cycle 
thus includes the periods of filling, resting full, emptying, 
and resting empty. Ordinarily, there are three such cycles 
in twenty-four hours. The beds are usually operated in 
groups, and the valves are opened and closed at the proper 
times by automatic devices. In many cases it is necessary 
to pass the effluent from the first contact beds through a 
second set. 

Percolating Beds are sometimes referred to as Trickling 
or Sprinkling Beds or Filters. In this instance the materials 
used are the same as in contact beds, but usually of larger 
size. The walls need not be watertight, their purpose being 
merely to support the material of the bed. They are usually 
from 6 ft. to 8 ft. deep. The sewage is distributed over the 
surface of the beds in the form of a spray from jets placed 
at regular intervals, or from travelling distributors usually 
operated by power. The operation is continuous, the sewage 
trickling through the material of the bed and carrying the 
air down with it. The concrete floor of the bed is pro- 
vided with a system of underdrains through which the 
effluent discharges. 

Efficiency of the Different Processes. 

The degree of purification effected by the different 
methods referred to may be briefly stated as follows: 

Sewage Farming. — Where sufficient areas of well drained 
suitable soil are available, the effluents are usually nonput- 
rescent and often of a comparatively high degree of purity. 
The percentage reduction of bacteria is also satisfactory 
both with respect to the total number and to Bacillus Coli, 
which is a representative intestinal germ. In many cases, 
however, where there is careless management, over dosing, 
and non-porous subsoil, the purification is inferior and the 
effluent contains large numbers of bacteria. 

Intermittent Filtration. — Under favorable conditions this 
is the most efficient of all processes, the effluents being uni- 

formly non-putrescent and the bacterial contents compara- 
tively low, usually less than 10,000 per c.c. These results 
are not, however, always attained in practice, especially dur- 
ing the winter and early spring. 

Contact Beds. — Treatment by single contact effects a 
moderate degree of purification, but a second treatment is 
generally necessary to secure a non-putrescible effluent. The 
removal of bacteria is imperfect, the effluent frequently con- 
taining a million or more per cubic centimeter. 

Percolating Filters. — The purification effected by this 
process is superior to that obtained by double contact. The 
effluent is ordinarily non-putrescent, but at intervals it con- 
tains an unusually large proportion of suspended matter. 
When the removal of this is necessary it can be readily pro- 
vided for by small sedimentation basins. The percentage 
reduction in bacteria is higher than with contact beds, but 
is still so low as to be of little importance from a sanitary 

From the experience of the last few years with contact 
beds and percolating filters on a working scale, and from the 
results of several series of experiments carried out in the 
United States, Germany, France, and England, the concensus 
of opinion seems to be in favor of the percolating filter, and 
this is the process which is now being adopted in the major- 
ity of cases in the United States and Europe. Manifestly 
the operation of either system during the winter season in 
cold climates will be attended with special difficulties. Two 
contact bed installations, one for the s ;\7age oi Macdonald 
College at Ste. Anne de Bellevue, and the other for a small 
district in Toronto, are reported to be working satisfactorily; 
and at least two percolating filters are being built in con- 
nection with institutions in Quebec. 

In the colder parts of Canada no demonstration has yet 
been made of their possibilities, though several plants are 
contemplated, or are already in course of construction in 
Saskatchewan and Alberta. 

Dunbar, a German authority on sewage disposal, states 
that "the object of sewage disposal may be briefly described 
as an attempt to preserve our rivers in a natural condition, 
to guard them against visible pollution, and to prevent danger 
to the health of those living near them." 

These requirements can be fulfilled under all circum- 
stances by methods described above. To what degree puri- 
fication should be carried out, or whether it is necessary at 
all, will depend on local circumstances, each case requiring 
separate consideration. In large rivers such as the Ottawa 
and St. Lawrence, the raw sewage of even large cities can 
be discharged without sensibly offensive results. The dilu- 
tion is so great that the organic matter soon disappears un- 
der the action of natural processes of purification. The same 
is, in general, true of large lakes, where the sewage is dis- 
charged a sufficient distance from the shore. Where, how- 
ever, the stream or lake is small and the volume of sewage 
discharged is relatively large, one or other of the complete 
processes must be employed, which will produce a non-put- 
rescible effluent. In England, where the conditions are mostB 
unfavorable, this is practically the universal requirement; and" 
the same may be said of Germany, France, and the United 

When the water of a river or lake is to be used for 
domestic purposes, the aspect of the case is entirely changed^ 
The presence of intestinal bacteria, which cause typhoid and 
other diseases, undoubtedly constitutes a menace to health! 
and while their tendency is to die, and eventually disappear| 
they may persist in sufficient numbers to render the wateii 
dangerous for drinking purposes for long distances from thfl 
point of discharge. Modern sewage disposal methods do 
not prevent such contamination. Unavoidable pollution ofc 
the same nature from combined sewerage systems, and fron 




country districts, has already been discussed. Hence the 
only feasible method of securing complete protection for 
surface water supplies would seem to be the filtration of the 
water by the towns and cities using it. In Germany this is 
required by law for all surface supplies. 
IB There may, however, be special circumstances such as 
He close proximity of a sewage outfall to a waterworks in- 
take, which would render the filtration of the water unusually 
difficult or expensive; or where, as in the case of Baltimore, 
a shellfish industry is threatened. In such cases further 
treatment for the purpose of disinfecting the effluent, or the 
removal of the bacteria, should, if possible, be employed. 
The latter can be accomplished to a greate extent by filtra- 
tion through sand. Disinfection of effluents and even of raw 
sewage, by various chemicals, has been practiced in emer- 
gencies for some time, but the high cost of the materials, 
and the large quantities employed, render it generally pro- 
hibitive on the score of expense. But within the last four or 
five years, experiments by Rideal, in England, and Phelps 
and others in the United States, have shown that filter efflu- 
ents can be sterilized to the extent of destroying practically 
all the harmful bacteria by the use of chloride of lime or 
bleaching powder, and at an estimated cost of from $1.50 
to $3.00 per million gallons of sewage. Tank effluents and 
even raw sewage can also be sterilized but at a considerably 
greater cost. Plants of this kind are contemplated for sev- 
eral places in the Atlantic States where the circumstances 
warrant their necessity. It should be observed in this con- 
nection that chloride of lime has lately been successfully used 
for the disinfection of water supplies, and at a mere fraction 
of the cost of treating sewage. 

Conditions in Canada 
Coming now from the foregoing general survey of the 
subject to consider more particularly the conditions in Can- 
ada, we find that with its large lakes and rivers, and its 
relatively small population, it has so far suffered less from 
inadequate methods of sewage disposal than most countries. 
For the purpose of obtaining definite information, a list of 
questions was sent to all places with populations of 1,000 or 

Questions Asked. 

1. Is the sewerage system of your city separate or com- 
bined (i.e., do the sewers carry domestic sewage only, or 
do they also provide for street drainage and storm water in 
the same pipe)? 

2. Do your sewers discharge directly into a lake or 
stream? If so, please give the names. 

3- Is the sewage treated or purified in any way? If so 
please describe method, giving information as to whether it 
has been successful and whether any difliculties have been 
met with in operating it, especially referring to winter 

4- What tests have been made to determine the char- 
acter of the treated sewage? Please give the results of any 
*uch tests. 

. 5- Where is the water supply obtained from? If from a 
river or lake, please give the name. 

6. If water supply is obtained from a stream, is there 
any considerable discharge of sewage or factory refuse above 
or if obtained from a lake, is there any considerable dis- 
charge near the point where the supply is obtained? 

7- Is the water supply filtered or otherwise purified, and 
If so, by what means, and are the results satisfactory? Has 
any analysis of the water been made? If so, give results. 

The replies may be briefly summarized where necessary 
as follows: 

Question i. 64 places report combined systems, 38 sep- 
arate, and 64 none at all. 

Question a. Of those reporting from the Maritime Pro- 
vinces, the discharge in every but one is into the sea 
coast harbors or tidal estuaries unfit for domestic water sup- 

Quebec reports 8 discharging into the fresh water por- 

tions of the St. Lawrence or into the Ottawa, aad 13 into 
smaller rivers. 

Ontario reports 20 discharging into the St. Lawrence, 
or into the Ottawa River, or into the Great Lakes, and 30 
into smaller rivers and lakes. 

Manitoba reports 5 discharging into the Red and Assini- 
boine Rivers. 

In Saskatchewan, 2 discharge into the Saskatchewan 
River and 2 into small creeks. 

In Alberta, 3 discharge into the Saskatchewan, 5 into 
smaller rivers. 

Question 3. The Maritime Provinces, Quebec, and Mani- 
toba, report no sewage disposal plants. 

British Columbia reports i place with tank treatment. 
In Ontario there are 15 reported, 9 with tank treatment 
only, 4 with tanks and bacteria beds, I intermittent sand filter, 
and I with treatment on land. 

Saskatchewan and Alberta each report i place with 
.septic tanks and a few others in which the newer processes 
are contemplated at an early date or are actually under con- 

That is, only 18 places report any kind of purification, 
and in 12 of these it is limited to treatment in tanks. 

Questions 5, 6 and 7. Of the 166 places reporting, 145 
have waterworks. Of these, 36 have supplies from under- 
ground sources, 44 obtain their supplies from small lakes and 
streams in practically uninhabited watersheds, 25 from the 
Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers, and 
40 from lakes and streams liable to some contamination by 

14 places report mechanical filters for the water supply, 
I place a slow sand filter, and 9 natural filtration through 
river beds. In Toronto and Montreal the water is treated 
with hypochlorite. 

The information furnished by these replies shows that 
not much has yet been done in Canada, in the way of the 
purification of either water or sewage. At the same time, 
it indicates that favorable local circumstances in many cases 
have so far prevented any serious consequences. Nowhere 
in Canada do such adverse conditions exist as are frequently 
met with in other countries, as for example, on the Hudson, 
Merrimac, Passiac, Susquehanna, and other rivers in the 
United States. These facts do not detract from the im- 
portance of the subject of this report, but rather to empha- 
size the necessity of taking prompt and effective measures to 
put an end where possible to any present pollution of the 
lakes and streams and to prevent it in the future. 

In the Maritime Provinces the sewage is in most cases 
discharged into sea water unfit for domestic supplies, and 
where the dilution is sufficient to prevent nuisances. In such 
cases there is no immediate need of sewage purification. 

In Quebec and Ontario, many of the towns discharge 
their sewage into, and obtain their water supplies from, the 
Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers or the Great Lakes. While 
the dilution is great, the water is, in important cases, unsafe 
for drinking without previous purification, and sometimes the 
eflfect of eddies results in the contamination of the water 
supply by the sewage of the same place. In such places, at 
least, thorough purification of the sewage as well as filtra- 
tion of the water may be necessary. 

The need of both water filtration and sewage purifica- 
tion will obviously be greater in the interior sections of these 
provinces, where the only available source of water supply 
may be from the smaller lakes and rivers tributary to the 
St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers and the Great Lakes. 

In the Northwest Provinces the water supply problem 
is an unusually difficult one, as it must in many cases be 
obtained from the rivers which receive more or less directly 
the discharge from all sewerage systems. 

In British Columbia the conditions on the coast are aim- 



ilar to those in the Maritime Provinces. Up to the pre- 
sent time the water supplies have been obtained from moun- 
tain streams or lakes whose water sheds can be protected. 
The necessity for sewage purification is therefore far less 
urgent than in the interior provinces. 


Before submitting our conclusions and recommendations 
with respect to the subject of this report, it is desirable 
that some idea should be given of the legislation dealing 
with this question of sewage disposal, which, after consider- 
able experience, it has been found exepdient to adopt in 
older countries. 

In England, the Public Health Act of 1875, and the 
Rivers Pollution Act of 1876, and subsequent amendments 
depute to the Local Government Board the supervision of 
sewage disposal. The 1875 Act requires the sanction of the 
Board for the raising of loans for the purpose, and gives 
the Board power to require land treatment in all cases. The 
1876 Act prohibits the throwing of any solid or liquid sew- 
age into the streams and the pollution of the streams by 
sewage and manufacturing refuse, but certain qualifications 
have rendered these laws more or less ineffective. Such Acts 
as the Mersey and Irwell Act, and the West Riding of 
Yorkshire Act, have since been passed, which provide for the 
formation of joint Committees for the purpose of administrat- 
ing the Rivers Pollution Prevention Act. These committees 
are given special powers against the pollution of streams by 
solid matter and domestic and manufacturing sewage, but in 
the latter case proceedings can only be taken with the sanc- 
tion of the Local Government Board. 


In France, plans for sewage disposal after being sub- 
mitted to the engineers in charge of the body of water into 
which the efHuent is to be discharged (navigable rivers, non- 
navigable rivers, or the sea), must then be approved by the 
Department Board of Health if the population of the town 
is less than S,ooo; or to the Conseil d'Hygiene Superieur if 
it is 5,000 or more. 


In Germany the various Federal States each have their 
own laws relating to river pollution. As most of the German 
rivers flow through several states, attempts have frequently 
been made to obtain Imperial legislation, but the constitu- 
tion renders this impossible. It, however, places the super- 
vision and legislation concerning measures to be adopted 
by the Medical and Veterinary Police authorities in the 
hands of the Imperial Government and hence the Epidemic 
-Diseases Act of June 30th, 1910, stipulates that methods for 
the disposal of waste shall be supervised by the State. Pro- 
vision is also made for the formation of an Imperial Council 
of Health, the work of which, so far as river pollution is 
concerned, is restricted to those waters which flow by sev- 
eral of the Federal States. 

Summary of Conclusions 

After a consideration of the various phases of the sub- 
ject of this report our conclusions may be summarized as 

I. None of the methods of sewage disposal, which are 
feasible and economically applicable on a large scale, are 
capable of effecting complete purification. Efiluents can, 
however, be produced which are non-putrescible, and which 
may be discharged into bodies of water without any danger 
of causing nuisances, or of sensibly impairing the quality 
of the water, as determined by chemical analysis. The per- 
centage removal of bacteria is often high, but this cannot be 
depended upon, and even under the best conditions the 
actual number remaining in the effluent is still very con- 

2. The distinction between the general surface drainage 
of a populated district and its urban sewage is one of degree 
only, and each in itself may render the water into which it 
discharges, unwholesome, and dangerous for drinking pur- 

3. Since much of the surface drainage cannot be even col- 
lected for treatment, and since sewage disposal processes in 
the present state of the art cannot be depended upon to effect 
complete bacterial purification, it follows that the raw water 
of rivers and lakes in populated districts can never be con- 
sidered entirely safe, and fit for domestic supplies. 

4. Experience has shown that water of even a consider- 
able degree of pollution can be rendered pure and wholesome 
by filtration, and, for practical purposes this is the only re- 
liable means of ensuring the safety of surface supplies from 
unprotected watersheds. 

Towns and cities which take their supplies from sus- 
picious sources should not depend for their safety upon the 
efforts of others, but should themselves adopt such precau- 
tions as are available. To require the purification of the 
sewage of a large city, in order to afford protection to the 
water supplies of one or two small places down stream, 
which could be more effectively accomplished at a much 
lower cost by filtration, would be at least an unbusinesslike 
procedure. As a matter of fact each case constitutes a sep- 
arate problem in itself, and whether sewage purification or 
water filtration is demanded, or whether both are necessary, 
are questions which should be dealt with by properly quali- 
fied experts. 

5. In Canada up to the present time practically nothing 
has been done in the way of purifying the sewage of muni- 
cipalities, except in the case of less than half a dozen places 
in the Province of Ontario. During the last two or three 
years, however, the importance of the subject has been gain- 
ing general recognition. While the climatic conditions are 
in some parts of the country unusually severe, there is little 
doubt that the methods which have proved effective in other 
countries can be employed sucessfully here, though special 
provision will be necessary to ensure efficient operation dur- 
ing cold weather. 

6. The Public Health Acts of the different Provinces pro- 
vide in a general way against the discharge into bodies of 
water of matters which would cause nuisances, or which 
would endanger the public health. Such laws lack definite- 
ness, and are therefore generally ineffective. A consideration 
of the legislation on the subject of sewage disposal and 
stream pollution, indicates that the best laws are those which, 
instead of attempting to formulate specific rules or regula- 
tions which can never have more than local application, 
require all plans for proposed works to be submitted for 
approval to the Provincial Boards of Health, or other pro- 
perly constituted bodies. These should have the power to 
enforce their recommendations with regard to both sewage 
disposal and the filtration of water supplies. Such power is 
very effectively secured by Section 23 of the Saskatchewan 

Interprovincial and International rivers should be sub- 
ject to joint Federal and Provincial control, and it is desir- 
able that all legislation on the subject should be as nearly 
uniform as possible. 


R. S. Lea, Chairman. C. H. Keefer. 

H. J. Cambie. John Kennedy. 

C. R. Coutlee. W. Chipman. 

E. J. Walsh. R. W. Leonard. 

C. E. W. Dodwell. J. S. Dennis. 

By next summer the new intake will be in opera- 
tion for Montreal's water supply. 



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Yord street, Hamilton. They will also have branch offices 
at Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, Cobalt, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Quebec, Fredericton, N.B., St. John, N.B., and 
Truro, N.S. 

Dredge of Latest Design 

There will arrive at Vancouver about the first of Feb- 
ruary, the new Government dredge No. 508, which left 
Scotland on November 7th for its long journey round the 
Horn. The dredge, which was built by Messrs. William 
Simons & Co., Ltd., Renfrew, Scotland, is of the bow well 
bucket ladder type. It is of steel construction, 199 feet long, 
36 ft. 6 in. broad and 13 ft. 6 in. deep, and is designed for 
dredging 1,000 tons of free material per hour. The driving 
gear and bucket chain is designed for dredging hard ground; 
the buckets are 24 cubic feet capacity with solid cast steel 
backs and links; the cutting lips and all wearing surfaces 
being of manganese steel. The gearing for driving the 
chain, which is of cast steel, is arranged to give two speeds 
which are suitable for the material to be aredged. 

The bucket ladder is suspended on an independent shaft, 
works in an open bow well and is capable of cutting the 
dredge's flotation and dredging to a depth of 50 feet. 
Shoots are piovided on each side of the vessel to deliver 
the spoil as required, and are worked by independent steam 
gear. All the necessary mooring and warping winches are 
of the most powerful design for dredging in rapid currents. 
Scotch boilers working at 120 lbs. and two sets of com- 
pound surface condensing engines constitute the motive 
force, the speed on trial trips under deep load conditions 
being ten knots. The engines are arranged to drive direct 
on the screw shafting, or to operate the dredging machinery. 

The Advance Machine Works, Limited, Walkerville, 
Ont., furnished an alternating current three-motor electric 
crane for the Roman Stone Company's plant at Weston. 

Contracts Department 

News of Special Interest to Contractors, Engineers, Manufacturers 

Dealers in Building Supplies. 



Information for insertion in these columns is invited from Architects, Contractors, Engineers, etc. 

Waterworks, Sewerage and 
■■L Roadways 

IVph, Ont. 

The Board of Works liave under con- 
jideration the advertising for tenders 
from various pavement manufacturers for 
■Mfork on pavement to be done at so much 
per foot, thus gaining a fair comparison 
(if the various cost of the different pave- 
ments on the market. 

(jleichen, Alta. 

The propsed waterworks will be con- 
structed by day labor under supervision 
of the John Gait Eng. Co., of Winnipeg, 

Laprairie, Que. 

The (iovernment will construct a large 
irunk sewer this year connecting the fol- 
lowing municipalities: Laprairie, St. 
-ambert, Longueil, Boucherville. 

Mtontreal, Que. 

City Engineer Janin denies the report 
that a new sewage farm is to be con- 
■structed by the city. Some alterations 
iire being made to the existing plant, he 
states, but nothing else. 

General Purchasing Agent, Mr. Stan- 
ion, has been instructed to prepare speci- 
ications in granite paving blocks and 
i;hain stone. 25,000 square yards of the 
'ornier material, and 150,000 lineal feet 
of the latter will be ordered. Public ten- 
ders will be called for, addressed to the 
Board, and the latter's selection will be 
■eferred to Council for approval. 

North Vancouver, B.C. 

Tenders addressed to City Clerk, will 
ae received until February 13th for sup- 
ply and delivery of c.i. pipes as follows: 
10,000 feet 4-in. standard c.i. pipe, ap- 
oroximate weight, 20 lbs. per foot; 5,000 
feet 6-in. standard c.i. pipe, approxi- 
mate weight 30 lbs. per foot; 19,400 feet 
^-in. standard c.i. pipe, approximate 
weight 45 lbs. per foot; 9,750 feet lo-in. 
standard c.i. pipe, approximate weight, 
5o lbs. per foot; 6,300 feet lo-in. c.i. 
pipe, weight approximately 75 lbs. per 
foot; total of about 1,134 tons. Specifi- 
cations obtained from Geo. S. Hanes, 
City Engineer. 

Oakville, Ont. 

T. ,\ird W. Murray, of Toronto, has 
prepared preliminary plans for a sewer 
system, but nothing definite has yet been 
done. Chas. A. Bradbury, town clerk. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

Plans have been completed for the 
new plaza between the Dufferin and 
Sappers' bridges by Public Works De- 
partment. Cost will be around $80,000. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 

Tender.s are called until February 28th 
for c.i. pipe and special castings; gate 
valves and pig lead, .advertisement in 
"Tenders and For Sale Department" of 
this issue. Tenders for pipe laying, etc.. 

A. Milne, superin- 

will be invited later, 
tendent waterworks. 

St. John, N.B. 

The committee appointed to consider 
the question of paving have recommend- 
ed that tenders be called for the pav- 
ing of the four streets, r'ond, Nelson, 
Mill and Dock. W. F. Murdock, city 

Vancouver, B.S. 

City Clerk McQueen was instructed 
to call for tenders for supply of brass 
goods for waterworks department in 
about three weeks' time. 

Victoria, B.C. 

Extensive additions to the water dis- 
tribution system in Saanich municipality 
will be made this year to furnish about 
3,000 feet of 8 in. and 24,000 of 6 in. pipe, 
at estimated cost of $30,000." 

Wm. W. Northcott, purchasing agent, 
is calling for tenders until March 3rd, 
for 350 4-inch, 100 6-inch, and 10 12-inch 
double gate valves and 15 tons of pig 
lead. Specifications at office of above. 


Fort William, Ont. 

The Canadian Iron Corporation were 
awarded the contract for the supply of 
pipe for the summer; prices. $37.50 a 
ton for ordinary pipe and $60 a ton for 
special pipe. The Kerr Engine Co. and 
the Canadian Fairbanks Co. were award- 
ed the contracts for the valves. 

Point Grey, B.C. 

The contract for the supply of piping 
for the waterworks system was awarded 
to Robertson. Godson & Co. 

Strathcona, Alta. 

Contract for installing new i8-in. in- 
take pipe, etc., has been awarded to M. 
S. Caine for $4,200, this being the lowest 
tender. The contract calls for the com- 
pletion of the work in 60 days. 

Railroads, Bridges and Wharves 

Dauphin, Man. 

Tenders are called until February 25th 
for all labor and material necessary for 
construction of two reinforced concrete 
highway bridges. Advertisement in 
"Tenders and For Sale Department" of 
this issue. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

The by-law to raise $164,000 for new 
bridge over the North Saskatchewan was 
carried; also that to raise $12,450 as 
city's share of constructing subway on 
Jasper avenue; also that for further sum 
of $10,000 for widening bridge across 
Groat ravine. 

Lanark, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to J. Boyd, Cald- 
well, chairman roads and briges com- 
mittee, will be received until March 4th 
for erection of a reinforced concrete 
bridge over the Clyde river. Advertise- 

ment in "Tenders and For Sale Depart- 
ment" of this issue. 

Paipoonge Tp., Ont. 

On P'ebruary loth a by-iaw will come 
before the ratepayers to issue $4,000 20 
year, 5 per cent, bridge debentures. G. 
F. Scholfield, Clerk. 

Port Stanley, Ont. 

Plans will be prepared for a break- 
water 1,200 feet long and estimated to 
cost $250,000. $60,000 has already been 
appropriated for this. Government En- 
gineer, Lamb. 

Quebec, Que. 

Tenders addressed to J. F. Guay, C.E., 
Morin Building, will be received until 
March 2nd for construction of about 56 
miles of railway for the Quebec & Sag- 
uenay Railway. Advertisement in "Ten- 
ders and For Sale Department" of this 

Township of Barton, Ont. 

On February 14th a by-law will be 
voted on to issue $6,500. 4}^ per cent, 
bridge debentures. A. G. E. Bryant, 
Township Clerk. 


Gravenhurst, Ont. 

Contract for wharf here awarded by 
Public Works Department, Ottawa, to 
T). G. Stewart, Ottawa, $12,984. 

Leitche's Creek, N.S. 

Contract for wharf here awarded by 
Public Works Department, Ottawa, to 
Robert & Bart, Mosgruve, N. Sydney, 


Margaree Harbor, N.S. 

Contract for breakwater extension by 
Public Works Department, Ottawa, 
awarded to Robert & Bart, Mosgrove, N. 
Sydney, $5,300. 

Monk's Head, N.S. 

Contract for breakwater here awarded 
by Public Works Department, Ottawa, 
to Dougald & A. P. Mclsaac, Black- 
smith, N.S., $6,255. 

Port Bnrwell, Ont. 

The contract for building the break- 
water has been awarded to Mr. Hogan, 
Port Col borne, $234,000. Work is to be 
completed in 18 months from January 30. 

Quebec, Que. 

The contract for the new bridge at the 
Louis Basin has been awarded by the 
Harbor Commission to the Dominion 
Bridge Company, $26,730. Work will be 
commenced without delay. 

The construction of the first portion 
of the Quebec & Saguenay Railway will 
be undertaken at the opening of the pre- 
sent spring. The contract for the line 
has been awarded to the Bishop Con- 
struction Company, of Montreal, from 
Cap Tourment to Murray Bay, E. A. 
Evans, construction engineer, Quebec & 
Saguenay Ry. 



Stratford, Que. 

Contract for landing pier here awarded 
by Public Works Department, of Otta- 
wa, to McLaughlin Bros., Ottawa, $5.- 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Construction has been started on the 
section of the C. N. R. between Pop- 
kum and Hope, a distance of twenty 
miles. The contract has been awarded 
to the Northern Construction Company, 
which already holds the contract for the 
first section from Port Kells to Popkum. 
Engineer Gwyer is in charge. 

Public Buildings, Churches 
Schools, etc. 

Alba, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to John Cotnam, 
Alba, Ont., will be received until Febru- 
ary 2Sth for erection of Greenwood 
Methodist Church. Plans, etc., at resi- 
dence of the above. 

Amherst, N.S. 

F. G. Spencer, St. John, N.B., is stated 
to have definite arrangements made for 
the erection of an up-to-date- theatre 
here to cost about $25,000. Tenders will 
be called within the next two vveeks. 
Hewson & Moore, Moncton, are inter- 

Calgary, Alta. 

The congregation of St. John's have 
decided to erect a new church at Eighth 
avenue. Work of construction will be 
started at once. Messrs. Lang & Major, 

A by-law is being prepared for approv- 
al of ratepayers for one, or perhaps two, 
new Heenan & Proud incinerators. Esti- 
mated cost of two, about $ 

CoUingwood, Ont. 

Under date of last information the 
contracts for erection ot 8-room school 
here had not been awarded. Estimated 
cost of building, $28,000; of equipment, 
$2,000. John Wilson, architect. 

Davidson, Sask. 

On February loth the following by- 
laws will be voted on by the ratepayers 
to issue $4,000, 20 years, syi per cent. 
Town Hall and $2,000 20 year, sVi per 
cent, debentures. Arthur Jas. Robert- 
son, Returning Officer. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

The by-law to raise $175,000 for im- 
proving Exhibition grounds and erecting 
new buildings was carried; also $3,500 to 
supplement the $4,000 already raised for 
addition to city hall. 

Fort Frances, Ont. 

Tenders are called until February 
15th for the erection of school in S. S. 
No. 10, Tp. Lash. Plans, etc., at office 
of B. L. Phillips, Emo F. Anness, secre- 

Gait, Ont. 

The congregation of Trinity Church 
have decided to erect a new Sunday 
school room. Plans call for an expendi- 
ture of about $10,000. 

Grimsby, Ont. 

Nothing definite has as yet been done 
in connection with the Carnegie public 
library. Jas. Aitchison, secretary lib- 
rary board. 

Hull, Que. 

The Notre Dame hall will be torn 
down and an up-to-date hall erected, 
costing about $20,000. 

London, Ont. 

The City Council accepted the offer of 
$100,000 from the Royal Bank for the 
present City Hall. 

Tenders addressed to the Director of 
Contracts, Department of Militia and 
Defence, Ottawa, will be received until 
February 15th for construction of maga- 
zine building and an explosive store 
building here. Plans at offices of district 
officer, London, and the director of en- 
gineer services at above department. 

Montreal, Que. 

A tuberculosis dispensary is to be 
erected at 369 St. Catherine street east 
in connection with a Sanatorium at 

Tenders are being asked for by Mes- 
srs. Saxe and Archibald, Beaver Hall 
Hill, for the alterations to the Engineers' 

Mr. Leslie H. Boyd, K.C., is interested 
in the reported erection of Homeopathic 

Morewood, Ont. 

C. P. Meredith, Ottawa, is preparing 
plans for continuation school here. 

Outremont, Que. 

A church sacristy and rectory are to 
be erected in the parish of St. Viateur, 

Peterborough, Ont. 

Messrs. Burk, Horwood & White, ar- 
chitects, Toronto street, Toronto, are in 
charge of the erection of the Murray 
Street Baptist Church here. 

Quebec, Que. 

It is stated that plans are being pre- 
pared for an athletic club building 
among the French-Canadians in St. Roch. 

Regina, Sask. 

The Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation have taken an option on three 
lots here as a possible buliding site. 
Architects are submitting preliminary 
sketches for the building, which will cost 
about $50,000. 

Renfrew, Ont. 

C. P. Meredith, architect, Ottawa, is 
preparing plans for an 8-roomed Separ- 
ate school for Renfrew. The building 
will be of brick. Mr. Meredith is also 
preparing plans for an addition to a 
convent in Renfrew. 

Stratford, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to John S. Wahl. 
Gadshill, will be received until Febru- 
ary 15th for erection ol school at Gads- 
hill for Union School Section No. 8, 
North East-Hope. Plans, etc., with 
above or at office of R. Bank Barber, 
architect, Stratford. 

Thetford Mines, Que. 

Tenders are called by Public Works 
Department until February 14th for ad- 
ditions to post office fittings here. Speci- 
fications at above department and on ap- 
plication to local postmaster. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The plans for the new Broadview 
Y. M. C. A. are completed and provide 
for erection of 3-storey building with 
basement at an estimated total cost of 
$75,000. Construction will start in the 

spring. Edmund Burke, 28 Toronto 
street, architect. 

Tenders addressed to the Chairman of 
the Building Committee will be received 
by the architects. Darling & Pearson, 
until February i8th for all trades with 
the exception of masonry, concrete work, 
structural steel and terra cotta, required 
for the erection of surgical wing in con- 
nection with General Hospital. Plans, 
etc., at office of the above. .Advertise- 
ment in "Tenders and For Sale Depart- 
ment" of this issue. 

Tillsonburg, Ont. 

The Public School Board have de- 
cided to build an addition of four rooms 
to the school. Chairman, T. C. Waller. 

Tenders addressed to R. C. Desroch- 
ers, secretary, Department of Public 
Works, Ottawa, will be received until 
February 28th for construction of pub- 
lic building here. Plans, etc., at office 
of Mr. H. J. Lamb, district engineer. 
London, at local post office and at above 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Plans are to be called for at once for 
the manufacturers' building at Exhibition 
park. H. S. Rolston, secretary. Exhibi- 
tion Association, 319 Pender street. 

The plans prepared by O. W. Moberg. 
architect, for pavilion were accepted. 
Noted in last issue. 

Assisting Building Inspector R. Mac- 
kenzie is preparing plans for the fire hall 
to be erected on Quebec street and 
Twelfth avenue. The by-law recently 
passed appropriated $21,000 for this 

Vernon, B.C. 

Tenders are called until February 14th 
for post office fittings here by Public 
Works Department. R. C. Desrochers, 

Wallacetown, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to J..T. Kerr, sec- 
retary-treasurer building committee, will 
be received until February i8th for all 
trades required in the erection of church 
iilA miles east of here. Plans, etc., at 
residence of above mentioned, and at 
office of N. R. Darrach. St. Thomas. 

Welland, Ont. 

The Presbyterian Church will go on 
with part of the enlargement this year 
according to plans adopted last year. .\ 
E. Anderson, treasurer. 

The Salvation Army will purchase 
property on the east side of Cross street, 
where a fine barracks building will be 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The plans of William Bruce for erec- 
tion of public baths have been accepted 
and tenders will be called. 

Tenders for the different trades in 
connection with the erection of Selkirk 
.Avenue Y. M. C. A. building will be re- 
ceived until February 14th. J. H. G| 
Russell, architect, McArthur Building. 


Amherst, N.S. 

The contract for the new school hou4 
on Hickman street was awarded to tlj 
Victor Wood Workers, $14,000. TB 
building will be of brick and stone. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Messrs. Doyle & Thomas, of LetH 
bridge have been awarded the cofl 

ct for erection of Colonel Walker 
ool. Estimatefl expenditure, $100,000. 

iterborough, Ont. 

ontract awarded by I'ublic Work.-. 
partinent, Ottawa, for erection of ad- 
ion to public building here to Jame.s 
Rose and II. Mickey, of PeterborouRh, 


ince Rupert, B.C. 

ontract awarded by Public Works 
partment, Ottawa, for erection of 
quarantine bospital here to Anderson & 
McKinnon, Prince Kupert. 


•Stella, $6,000; Johnson & Bjornson, 
dwelling on the east side of Alverstone, 
$2,600; Kristjanson & Bjornsson, dwell- 
ing. -Mverstone, $,3,000. 

Montreal, Que. 

Contracts have been awarded for the 
plumbing and tiling of the house of Mr. 
J. M. Wilson, Ontario avenue; the form- 
er to Messrs. W. J. McGuire & Co., and 
the latter to the Sanitary Tiling Co. 



nrteal, Que. 

"he residence of Mr. A. McGoun was 

troyed by fire on the jrd inst. Esti- 

ted loss, $10,000. 

enders will be called for this month 

for a new residence for Mr. Clarence I. 
de Sola, to be erected on Pine avenue, 
four-storey dwelling house is to be 

cted on McGregor street, and tenders 
it are now being received by Mr. 

nncth G. Kea, architect. 

de ; 


Quebec, Que. 

Xcgotiations were concluded on 
ursday, by which the house of 
owne, of Montreal, takes over the 
piece of land on I^agauchetiere street, 
comprising 18,000 square feet. A four- 

Krey apartment house is to be erected 
the site, containing 52 apartments. 
Annes, Que. 
Ir. C. n. Gordon is having a resi- 
dence erected here early in the spring, 
and tenders will be asked for this month. 
Messrs. Saxc and .Archibald, Montreal, 
arc the architects. 


Tonto, Ont. 

he residence in course of erection for 
Mr. J. T. Moore was destroyed by lire 
one the 2nd inst. J. H. Galloway, archi- 
t, 23 Toronto street, 
essrs. J. T. Hutson have secured a 
site corner of Avenue road and Cumber- 
land street, on which, it is stated, they 
will erect an apartment house. 

Wallaceburg, Ont. 

Tenders will be received until Febru- 
ary 10th bv Mrs. S. A. Milner, 2 Brisco 
lilock. Chatham, for erection of brick 
tenement building here. Plans, etc., at 
olfice of S. G. Kinsey, .irchitect. Mer- 
chants Bank. Chatham. 

'estmount. Que. 

Mr. F. G. VValtcr will build a seini-de- 
I ached brick and stone house on Belve- 
ilere avenue. 

The Osnionde Sharpe Construction Co. 
will build a pair of semi-detached resi- 
dences in reinforced co.icrete and brick 
on Victoria avenue. 
^^Mlessrs. Charbonneau Bros.. West- 
^^Bunt, are preparing plans for two 
^^mises to be erected on Selby street at 
^^Kost of $12,000. 

^^B*Iessrs. Saxe & Archibald have plans 
I^P hand for the following VVcstniount 
properties and will ask for tenders with- 
in the next few days; residence on I"or- 
den avenue for S. W. Stevenson, Esq.; 
.Aberdeen avenue, for J. R. Hathawav. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Recent building permits include; E. 
Xoe, two houses on the north side of 

Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

Berlin, Ont. 

Cnder date of last information plans 
for the brick addition to the plant of 
The L. McHrine Co., Ltd., had not been 


Brantford, Ont. 

Mr. Chester Harris has purchased pro- 
perty on Bridge street on which, it is 
stated, he will erect a 2-storey brick gar- 
age, 64 X 40. 

Buckingham, Que. 

The Gauthier and Kaby and Marwell 
buildings were destroyed by lire on the 
2nd inst. Estimated loss, about $6,000. 

Calgary, Alta. 

It is reported that the Hudson Bay 
Company have purchased a site further 
west from their present one on which 
large buildings will be erected. 

Dryden, Ont. 

The plan submitted to council by the 
Dryden Timber & Power Co., for the 
pulp mill, call for a building 400 feet in 
length, 250 feet wide, and provide for 
shipi)ing rooms, screens and wet mach- 
ines, etc. 

Guelph, Ont. 

It is stated that the new buildings for 
the Homewood Sanitarium to replace 
those recently burned, will cost about 

Halifax, N.S. 

The building occupied by the Mer- 
chants Bank of Canada was damaged on 
the 5th inst. to the extent of about $150.- 

It is stated officially that the C. P. k. 
is arranging to have two large modern 
hotels erected in Nova Scotia, one at 
Digby. and one at Halifax. 

Montreal, Que. 

The Holt. Renfrew Co., Ltd., have 
purchased property adjoining their pre- 
sent premises on which they will con- 
struct an 8-storey fireproof block as 
soon as they come into possession. 

Mr. John Thilbin is building a store 
on St. Catherine street. 

Plans for the new Herald building are 
now being prepared by Messrs. Ross & 

The Gillette Razor Company have pur- 
chased land on Alexander street upon 
which they will erect a $100,000 factory. 

Extensive alterations and additions are 
to be made to the offices .of tlie Montreal 
Rolling Mills. Plans are being prepared 
by Mr. Kenneth G. Rea. 

.'\ factory is to be erected at the cor- 
ner of Duluth avenue and Mitcheson 
street by the Western Manufacturing 

Messrs. Henry Birks & Co., it is re- 

ported, will erect an K-storey fireproof 
building on the southwest corner of 
Cathcart street and Union avenue. Plan* 
have not been prepared. 

The Colonial Real Estate Company, 
Montreal, will erect a ten-storey build- 
ing on St. Catherine street west, extend- 
ing from Balmoral to Mance streets. The 
building, which will be of reinforced 
concrete, faced with terra cotta, is being 
designed and will be erected by Henry 
Morgan & Co.. Ltd. 

Nairn Falls, Que. 

Plans have been prepared for the new 
ground wood mill of the East Canada 
Power and Pulp Company, Ltd. This 
company have taken over the limits of 
the Murry Bay Lumber & Pulp Company 
and the property of the Labrador Power 
Company. Engineer in charge, Mr. Geo. 
F. Hardy, Xew York City. The intention 
is to erect a plant which will incorpor- 
ate the most advanced Swedish and Can- 
adian practises in the manufacture of 
ground wood. R. Forget, Montreal, pres- 
ident; L. C. Haskell, Montreal, secretary- 

Sarnia, Ont. 

The Imperial Oil Company is said to 
be acquiring options on land in the vicin- 
ity of the refinery here, for the purpose 
of making improvements and extensions. 

Stewart, B.C. 

Mr. Perry Finch, 1256 Yates street. 
\'ictoria, is authority for the statement 
that Finch & Hickey will rebuild their 
departmental store here, destroyed by 
fire recently. 

Strathcona, Alta. 

On the 31st ulto. fire destroyed the 
stores of Bright & Ashbaugh; Cook & 
Orr and the up-town office of the O'Brien 
Lumber Company. Total loss, about 

P. Burns has purchased additional pro- 
perty in the south end, on which, it is 
stated, a paving plant costing about $1,- 
500,000 will be erected shortly. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Tenders addressed to Curry & Sparl- 
ing, 90 Yonge street, will be received un- 
til February 15th for erection of fire- 
proof building. 

The Dominion Bank will build new 
branches at the following points in To- 
ronto: southeast corner Bloor and Dover- 
court; southeast corner Lee avenue and 
Queen street, southwest corner St. Clair 
avenue and Vaughan road. 

The Canadian Pacific has filed plans 
for its proposed new freight yards and 
sheds on the property bounded by Sim- 
coe, Dorset and King streets, including 
the present site of government house. 

Tenders addressed to Geo. .\. Mitchell. 
master of B. and B., room 414 Union 
Station, will be received until February 
13th for the purchase and removal of the 
following houses. Empress Crescent, 10. 
22. 24; Dunn avenue, 57, for the G. T. R. 

The Imperial Bank is stated to have 
secured the adjoining property to the 
corner of Buchanan and Yonge streets. 
purchased some time ago. on which a 
large building will be erected. 

Truro, N.S. 

Crowe Bros., druggists, were burned 
out. Loss. $20,000. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Plans have been presented to Building 
(Continued on page 81) 

Tenders and For Sale Department 


A one yard Beatty dredge in first-class shape, 
within a few miles of railroad station, suitable 
for dredging or ditching; also a half yard mach- 
ine with portable oak hull in first-class shape. 
Apply FRED. A. ROBERTSON, Cornwall, Ont. 



CASH PRIZES of One Hundred, Seventy- 
five, and Fifty Dollars are offered for competitive 
Preliminary Sketches of proposed new Sabbath 
School building and Church Parlors for Orillia 
Presbyterian Church, Sketches to be in hands of 
undersigned not later than February Fifteenth. 
Full information may be had from J. J. THOMP- 
SON, telephone 261. Orillia. 
5-6 T. G. KING, Secretary. 

Notice to Contractors 

Whole or separate sealed tenders endorsed 
"Tender for School," will be received by the 
undersigned at his residence, Gadshill, up to 12 
o'clock noon, 15th inst., for the erection of a 
school house at Gadshill for Union School Sec- 
tion No. 8, North East-Hope. Plans, specifica- 
tions, etc., may be seen at Gadshill or at resi- 
dence of R. Bank Barber, architect, Stratford. 
The Trustee Board do not bind themselves to 
accept the lowest or any tender. 


Gadsaill, February 3, 191 ■■ 6-6 

City of Strathcona 


Tenders for 

Engine, Boilers and 

Tenders addressed to David Ewing, Chief En- 
gineer power house, Strathcona, ATta., _ for the 
above machinery, will be received until noon, 
Wednesday, March ist, 191 1. Specifications may 
be obtained upon application to the undersigned. 

A. J. McLEAN, 

City Engineer. 

Strathcona, Alta., Jan. 16, 191 1, 4-8 

The City of Calgary 

lenders will be received by the City Commis- 
sioners up to the 20th day of February, igii, for 
200 (more or less) 5-light ornamental lamp posts 
to be delivered in carload lots as required. All 
persons tendering will submit their designs, to- 
gether with full dimensions, weights, etc. 

Globes are to be of light alabaster. Eash post 
must be equipped with standard Edison sockets, 
all complete and ready for wiring up. Tenderer 
will also submit prices on extra globes which 
might be required. Tungsten lamps will be sup- 
plied by t> e citv. A chequt. for two per cent, 
of the bid must accompany all tenders. The city 
reserves the right to accept the whole or any part 
of a tender ; the lowest or any not necessarily ac- 
r— ted. 

Dated at Calgary, January 27th, 191 1. 

5-6 City Commissioner. 

For Sale — Second Hand 

No. 8 Austin Gyratory Crusher. 

No. 6 and No. 3 Austin complete plant. 
No. 3 Austin and 2 No. 6 Gates and No. 5 "B." 
70-ton Vulcan Steam Shovel, 2-yard. 
50-ton Bucyrus Steam Shovel, i -Vi -yard. 
Loco, Crane, with i J4-yai'<l Clam Shell. 
Little Giant Traction Steam Shovel, 1 !4 yard. 
Hayward Orange Peel Buckets, i and rj^-yd- 
Concrete Mixers, Steam Rollers, Air and Steam 
Drills, Air Compressors, I^ocomotives, Dump 
Cars, etc. 

All our goods we fully guarantee. 

Send for our February Booklet. 

171 La Salle St.. 

Chicago, 111. 

St. Catharines Water 


Sealed tenders addressed to "The Chairman 
Water Works Commision," endorsed "Tenders 
for Pipe and Specials"— Gate Valves — Pig Lead, 
will be received up to noon on Tuesday, Febru- 
ary 28th, 1911, for the cast iron pipe and special 
castings 12-in. to 36-in., Gate Valves 4-in, to 
36-in., and pig lead required. 

Specifications, forms of tender and full partic- 
ulars may be obtained at the office of The Com- 
mission, City Building. 

The Commission does not bind itself to accept 
the lowest or any tender. 



St. Catharines, Ont., Feb. 2, 1911. 6-7 

Town of Dauphin 

Province of Manitoba 

Tenders for Reinforced 

Concrete Highway 


Sealed tenders addressed to the ' undersigned 
Town Clerk will be received up to 8 p.m. Sat- 
urday, the 25th day of February, 191 1, for all, 
labor and material necessary for the construction 
of two reinforced concrete highway bridges to 
be constructed in the Town of Dauphin. 

Plans and specifications will not be sent out, 
but may be seen at the Town Clerk's office, 
Dauphin, Man., or at Provincial Public Works 
Department, Winnipeg, Man, 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 


Chairman Public Works Committee. 
6-8 Town Clerk. 

Positions Wanted 

Advertisements under this heading one cent a ^vorA 
per insertion. Box No ten cents extra 

ARCHITECT, highest qualifications and ex- 
perience, would take charge of office or consider 
partnership. The West preferred. Box 200, Con- 
tract Record, Toronto, Ont. 4-7 


The Quebec & Saguenay Railway 

Tenders will be received up to March 2nd, 
191 1, at 5 o'clock p.m., by the undersigned, for 
the construction of about 56 miles of the above 
railway, from Cap Tourmente to Murray Bay 
Wharf, divided up into sections of ten miles. 

A certified cheque amounting to $2,000 for 
each ten mile section tendered for must accom- 
pany each tender. 

Forms of tender may be oT)tained and specifi- 
cations and plans examined at the office of J. F. 
Guay, Civil Engineer, Morin Building, Quebec. 

The right is reserved by the company to reject 
any or all tenders. 
6-6 (Signed) J. K. GUAY. 

St. Augustine's 

Tenders will be received by the undersigned 
until 12 o'clock noon on Saturday, the i8th inst., 
for the plastering, rooting, flooring, tiling, paint- 
ing and glazing and iron stairways required for 
St. Augustine's Seminary on the Kingston road, 
near Toronto. 

Plans and specifications may be seen at the 
office of the Architect. 

Satisfactory bonds to the effect of one-half of 
the amount of contract will be required for the 
faithful jjerformance of the contract. 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 

Arthur W. HOLMES. 


10 Bloor street east. 6-6 


Toronto General Hospital 

Tenders addressed to the Chairman of the 
Building Committee will be received by the 
undersigned up till noon, Saturday, February 
i8th, 1911, for ail the trades, with the exception 
of masonry, concrete work, structural steel and 
terra cotta, required for the erection and comple- 
tion of the Surgical Wing in connection with 
the General Hospital. 

Plans and specifications and all other informa- 
tion can he obtained at the office of the archi- 


2 Leader Lane. 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 
cepted. 6-6 


Advertisements under this heading one cent atford 

per insertion. Box No. ten cents extra \ 

AGENTS WANTED— Large United States 
Terra Cotta company desires high-class agencies 
for Canada. Send particulars to W. D. Ward, 
Tribune Building, New York City. 4-6 

CAPITAL WANTED for interior fitting factory 
doing a first-class business in bank and store 
fixtures. Splendid equipment and first-class con- 
nection. Preference stock for $20,000 to be is-4 
sued. Apply for particulars to Box 207 Contract] 
Record, Toronto. 5-6 

Tenders for Bridge 

Tenders will be received by the undersigned 
» to 6 o'clock p.m., Saturday, the 4th day of 
»rch, 1911, for the erection of a reinforced con- 
ete bri<Ige, single span over the Clyde Kiver at 
point about 3 miles north of Lanark Village. 
Bridge about 70 feet long. 

plans may be seen at the office of the under- 
picd at Lanark, or teiulerers may submit their 
tn plans and specifications. 

peposit of ten per cent, to accompany each 
ndcr, which will be returned if tender not ac- 

The lowest or any tender not necessarily ac- 
L Dated this 2nd day of February, 1911. 
Cliairman of Roads and Bridges Com. 
Lanark, Ont. 6-y 


Foundry and Machine Shop in the Town of 
Welland, in the County of Welland 

HFor Sale By Tender 
Foundry and Machine Shop in the Town of 
elland, in tlie County of Welland For Sale by 

Sealed Tenders marked "Tender for The Rob- 
tson Machinery Company, Limited," will be 
eived by tlic undersigned up to twelve o'clock 
ion on Tuesday, the 21st day of February, A.D., 
II, for the purchase, en bloc, of the assets of 
Robertson Machinery Company, Limited, 
'elland, Ont., which is unusually well situated, 
*ng on t!ie Grand Trunk Railway, with switch- 
rights to all other railways, consisting of: — 
,nd, Factory site, part of Block W., 
about 4 acres, with right to switch, 
ncluding building 70 ft. x 112 ft. 
— besides store rooms, motive power, 

cupula, line shafting, etc $1 1,290.00 

<n working machinery 3.945 - 00 

ood working machinery 250.00 

PuUies O41.00 

Small tools : — 

^ Machine sliop $1,000.00 
Foundry 5 1 1 . Oo 
— ' 1,511.00 
oisting engines and parts 1,500.00 

Foundry merchandise 632.00 

(jeneral merchandise 2,500.00 

I^^fBce furniture and fixtures 275.00 

^K $23,544-00 

^BAn inventory will be mailed upon request. The 
^■Bnt has not been shut down. It is excellently 
^Boated, and has been doing a good business. 
^■Each tender must be accompanied by a certi- 
^Bcd clieque, i)ayable to ttie Assignee, for the 
■* sum of one thousand dollars, the balance of the 
purchase price to be paid within thirty days, 

Bithout interest, wlien immediate possession can 
I given. 
[Dated this ist day of February, A.D. 1911. 
[ J. F. GROSS, Asignec, 

^ Welland, Ont. 

Positions Vacant 


k'triisrmeftis uniier this Jtduiin^: tivo cents 
word ptr insertion 

Superintendent wanted for interior fitting fac- 
tory, manufacturing a high class of fittings, must 
be able to invest from three to five thousand dol- 
lais. Only practical man and a pusher con- 
sidered. To such good returns guaranteed. Ap- 
ly with particulars to Box 208, Contract Record, 
pronto. J. 6 


Business Buildings and Indus- 
trial Plants 

(Contimu'il from page 2S)) 

spector Jarrett for a warehouse on 
owe and Hastings street. 

Welland. Ont. 

Tenders for tlie purchase of The Rob- 
ertson Machinery Company. Limited, 


will be received until February 2ist. Ad- 
vertisement in "Tenders and For Sale 
Department," this issue. 

Col. L. C. Raymond, it is stated, will 
build a 2-storey brick block on Cross st. 

Plans are being prepared for the ex- 
tension of the Ross block on East Main 
street. Mr. 1). Ross, Welland, is inter- 

Weymouth Bridge, N.S. 

The Campbell Lumber Company, 
whose plant was destroyed by fire on 
January 23rd, will immediately erect a 
new building. They are undecided as 
yet whether to install a pulp mill or a 
power plant, but expect to settle the 
matter shortly. The buildmg will prob- 
ably have concrete foundations with steel 
superstructure and corrugated iron. If 
the pulp mill is erected it will have the 
latest improved wet machines, screens, 
etc. An up-to-date saw mill will also be 
installed in connection with the pulp 

Windsor, Ont. 

The Moloney Electric Co., of St. Louis, 
Mo., will establish a Canadian branch 

Winnipeg, Man. 

The new building for Gowans-Kent 
Western, Limited, will be eight storeys, 
of reinforced concrete. Architects, Jas. 
Chisholm & Son; contractors, Carter- 
Halls-Aldinger Company. 

Mr. Geo. M. Ellis, automobile manu- 
facturer, has secured option on 30 acres 
of land east of the Seine River as a build- 
ing site for a factory about which nego- 
tiations are being carried on with city 
council. J. B, Cote, city clerk. 

Woodstock, N.B. 

The sawmill and factory owned by Mr. 
Hayden were destroyed by fire on the 
31st ulto. No loss stated. Mill will be 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Ottawa Car Company is building 
20 cars of the pay-as-you-enter type for 
the Ottawa Street Railway at a cost of 
$8,000 each. 

John M. Garland, Son & Co. will erect 
a large addition to their warehouse, cor- 
ner Queen and O'Connor streets, this 
spring. The annex will be as large as 
the present seven-storey building and 
similar in design. 
Quebec, Que. 

Mr. J. A. I^abouche has received a con- 
tract from the Transcontinental Railway 
Commission for demolishing Champlain 
Market Hall to make way for the railway 

Regina, Sask 

Smith Bros. & Wilson, Regina, were 
awarded contract for the warehouse here, 
$15,000. Owner. Hany Bros. & Nelli- 
more, Wianipeg; architects. Storey & 
Van Egniond. 

Saskatoon, Sask 

The contract for the 6-storey hotel 
has been awarded to Carter-Halls-Ald- 
inger Co., Winnipeg. Estimated ex- 
penditure, $300,000. Architects, Brown 
& Vallance, Montreal. Hon. Edward 
Coke, president Saskatchewan Invest- 
ment & Trust Co., is interested. 

Sydney, N.S. 

It is stated that the Dominion Steel 
Corporation will erect a $150,000 office 
building. Prince street and Old Victoria 


road, to replace the building recently 
destroyed oy fire. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The Independent Glass Producers, 
Limited, have a permit for a two-storey 
brick and metal-clad factory, Carlaw 
avenue, $20,000. 

Power Plants, Electricity and 

Calgary, Alta. 

Tenders are being called by City Com- 
missioner until February 20th for the 
supply of ornamental lamp posts. A. E. 
Graves, City Commissioner. Advertise- 
ment in "lenders and For Sale Depart- 
ment" of this issue. 

Dundas, Ont. 

The council have passed the by-law 
authorizing contract with the hydro- 
electric company and raising $12,000 by 
debentures for erecting a portion of the 
necessary' distribution plant. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Application has been made to the 
Dominion Government by this city for 
power rights on the Grand Rapids on 
the Athaoasca River. Plans filed with 
the application show a maximum power, 
if all the dams are built, of 60,000 horse- 

Guelph, Ont 

Tenders are being received by the 
Street Railway Commission for construc- 
tion of new branch to be built in St 
Patrick's Ward. 

Liverpool, N.S. 

A scheme is on foot to harness the 
extensive water powers in this vicinity 
for the purpose of supplying electricity. 
Surveying operations under the supervi- 
sion of Mr. Holgate, Montreal, are being 
carried on. J. L. McLeod and Geo. S. 
McLaren, pulp mill owners, Liverpool, 
are interested. 

London, Ont. 

At the annual meeting of the London 
Street Railway directros it was decided 
to build an up-to-date steam power 
plant, and abandon the proposals for 
the use of hydro-electric power from 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Morrisburg & Ottawa Electric 
Railway are seeking a franchise to build 
a railway along Main street to connect 
with the Ottawa Street Railway. C. M. 
Willard, Morewood, Ont., president. 

Prince Rupert, B.C. 

Until March 2nd tenders will be re- 
ceived for $40,000, 20 year, 4J4 per cent., 
telephone debentures. Ernest A. Woods, 
City Clerk. 

Pincher Creek, Alta. 

Tenders are called until February 20th 
for issue of $22,000 electric light deben- 
tures. G. D. Plunkett, secretary-trea- 

Renfrew, Ont 

Engineers of the Hydro- Electric Com- 
mission are here to visit the upper lakes 
of Bonnechere River, looking for sites 
for dams for storage purposes. The 
town is' expending $150,000 for power 

Renfrew, Ont 

K report was received from the en- 
gineers re the building of reser\-ation 



dams on the upper lakes of the Bonne- 
chere to the effect that a lo-ft. dam on 
the outlet of Lake Clear could raise the 
water seven feet, thus giving additional 
power for lOO days during the low water 
period of the Bonnechcre. 

Regina, Sask. 

The contract for supply of rails, etc., 
for municipal railway here went to U. S. 
Steel Products Co., of which the details 
are as follows: 560 gross tons 80 lb. Lor- 
ain sec. 335 rails at $58.84; 247 
gross tons A. S. C. E. 60 lb. rails at $50.50 
620 pair Lorain splice bias at $3.10 
per cwt.; 460 pair A. S. C. E. splice 
bias at $2.45 per cwt.; 5560 Lex. head 
bolts at $4.50 per cwt.; 6,000 rail spikes 
at $2.60 per cwt.; 2200 rail bonds M.P.3 
4/0 13 inch c-c at $46.25 per cwt.; 100 
cross bonds C. P. X. 4/0 60 inch c-c at 
$gi,oo per cwt.; 20 cross bonds C. P. X. 
4/0 66 inch at $98.00 per cwt. L. A. 
Thornton, city engineer. 

The plans of the city commissioners 
call for the laying of five and one-half 
miles of street railway track during the 
present year, at a cost of about $135,000, 
and the laying of six miles of track dur- 
ing the year 1912 at a cost of about $125,- 

The rails necessary for the completion 
of the work outlined by the city commis- 
sioners have been ordered and a con- 
siderable portion delivered already. 

The total estimated cost of the work 
during the present year is $213,000, and 
for 191 1 and 1912, $402,000. The estimates 
of the commissioners for the present 
year provide as follows: 
Five and one-half miles track. .$135,000 

Six cars 38,500 

Snow sweeper 4,SOO 

Power unit 20,000 

Carbarns iS,ooo 

For 1912 provision is made for the ad- 
dition of seven cars. 

Sherbrooke, Que. 

The ratepayers voted on February 6th 
on the "Drop Off" Power development 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Tenders addressed to Chairman. Board 
of Control, will be received until Febru- 
ary 22nd for the following items, speci- 
fication Xo. 63, conduit, 1911: specifica- 
tion Xo. 64, construction of conduit runs, 
T911. Specifications, etc., obtained from 
power engineers, Smith, Kerry & Chace. 
Carnegie Library; M. Peterson, secre- 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Tenders addressed to the Chairman. 
Board of Control, will be received until 
March 3rd for the manufacture of a 
motor car for use on standard guage 
railway track. Specifications, etc., at 
oflice of power engineers. Smith, Kerry 
& Chace. M. Peterson, secretary. 

advertised, since following the rule of 
the Admiralty, details have to be kept 
secret, and only firms in whom the de- 
partment has confidence and who might 
be bona fide tenderers, will have access 

Recent building permits include W. .A., 
and J. B. Lamb, repairs to office build- 
ing, W. G. Adamson, contractor, $4,000; 
William Weston, dwelling Percy street, 
$2,900; A. Larocque. dwelling. Black- 
burn avenue, $3,500. 

Toronto ,Ont. 

Tenders addressed to the Postmaster- 
General, Ottawa, Ont., will be received 
until March 17th for manufacture and 
delivery at Toronto of one or more 
motor trucks. Specifications obtained 
from chief post office superintendent. 
Room I Post Office Building. G. C. 
Anderson, superintendent mail contract 

Bassano, Alta. 

The contract for the construction of 
a great dam on the Bow River here has 
been let by C. N. R. The contract for 
the excavation work was let to Jense, 
McDonnell & Company. The concrete 
work will »e done by Walker, Fisher & 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The following contracts have been 
awarded by the Public Works Depart- 
ment: Two dump scows for dredge Mud 
Lark, British Columbia, Ross and How- 
ard, Iron Works Co. Ltd., Vancouver, 
B.C.. $10,800; Quinze, Pontiac County, 
transportation of cement for dam, Geo. 
H. Rochester, of Haileybury, about 
$S,ooo, and T. Simard, of Ville Marie, 
P.Q., for about $3,000; gasoline motor 
tug to tend dredge King Edward, B.C., 
to Vancouver Ship- Yards. Ltd., Van- 
couver, $6,850; French River, Indian Re- 
serve, dam and sluice ways, J. F. Boyd. 
Sault St. Marie, about $13,000. 


Ottawa, Ont. 

The Government has called for tend- 
ers for the construction of the ten new 
vessels of the Canadian navy, viz., four 
liristols and six destroyers of the latest 
improved type. The plans and specifica- 
tions are based on the plans received 
from the Admiralty last fall and em- 
brace the very latest advances in naval 
science. The tenders are not ^publicly 

New Companies 

Eastern Paper Company, St. Basile, 
Que., incorporated, capital, $100,000. In- 
corporators, E. R. Pepin, manufacturer. 
J. O. Collette. foreman, both of St. Ba- 

Central Canada Iron and Steel Cor- 
poration. Montreal, Que., incorporated, 
capital. $500,000. Incorporators. G. V. 
Cousins and O. B. MacCallum. barristers. 
.S. T. Mains, accountant, all of Montreal. 

Standard Chemical Iron and Lumber 
Company of Canada, Limited, Toronto. 
Ont.. incorporated, capital, $6,000,000. 
Incorporators. J. Wood and T. W. 
Lawson, barristers, both of Toronto. 

The Erie Timber and Land Company. 
Limited, Toronto, incorporated, capital, 
$100,000. Incorporators, A. H. Royce 
and R. B. Henderson, barristers, both of 

Britsh Canadian Lumber Corporation. 
Limted, Montreal, incorporated, capital. 
$20,000. Incorporators, F. H. Chrysler. 
C. J. R. Bethune, both solicitors, Ottawa. 

The Western Manufacturing Company. 
Limited, Winnipeg, Man., incorporated, 
capital, $250,000. Incorporators: C. M. 
Boynton. R. T. Ferguson, law clerks, all 
of Winnipeg. 

The Canadian Kellog Company, Limt- 
ed. Montreal, Que., capital, $25,000, in- 
corporated to design, etc., and contract 
for and deal in pipes, fittings, valves, 
etc. Incorporators, J. A. Mann, C. G. 

Mackinnon and J. T. Hackett, advocates, 

all of Montreal. 

The Brockville, Construction Com- 
pany, Limted, Ottawa, incorporated, 
capital, $2,000,000. Incorporators, John 
Black, broker, R. T. Mullin, barrister, 
Montreal, and G. C. Hurdman, lumber- 
man, Ottawa. 

The Winnipeg Bridge and Construc- 
tion Company, Limited, Winnipeg, in- 
corporated, capital, $60,000. Incorporat- 
ors, John FVankman, bridge contractor, 
H. Frankman. bridge contractor; James 
Frankman, bridge contractor, all of 
Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A. Johannes 
LaCour, civil engineer, Winnipeg. 

The Twin Lake Lumber Company. 
Limited, Nipissing, Ont., incorporated, 
capital, $40,000. Incorporators, H. E. 
Hurlburt and Edward Floyd Armstrong, 
lumberman, both of Nipissing. 

Great Lakes Lumber Company, Lim- 
ited, Owen Sound, Out., incorporated, 
capital, $40,000. Incorporators, W. A. 
Rowland, H. E. Rowland, and J. M. 
Rowland, lumbermen; A. G. Mackay, 
barrister, all of Owen Sound. 

The Louise Lumber Company, Me- 
gantic. Que., incorporated, capital, $20,- 
000. Incorporators, Thos. Malcolm 
Craig, lumber dealer, Sherbrooke, Que., 
L. Bolduc, lumber merchant, and E. 
Huard, merchant, Megantic. 

Canadian Quarries and Construction 
Company, Limited, Ottawa, Ont., incor- 
porated, capital, $2,000,000. Incorporat- 
ors, John Black, broker, and R. T. Mul- 
lin, barrister, both of Montreal, and S. 
Bidsky and G. C. Hurdman, lumber- 
man, both of Ottawa. 

Central Canada Iron and Steel Cor- 
poration, Limited, Montreal, Que., in- 
corporated, capital, $500,000. Incorpor- 
ators. G. V. Cousins, and O. B. Mac- 
Callum, barristers, both of Montreal. 

Quebec Pulp & Paper Company, Lim- 
ited, Montreal, Que., incorporated, cap- 
ital, $15,000,000. Incorporators, C. G. 
Greenshields and E. R. Parkins, advo- 
cates, both of Montreal. 

Standard Chemical Iron and Lumber 
Company of Canada, Limited, Toronto, 
incorporated, capital. $6,000,000. Incor- 
porators, J. Wood and T. W. Lawson. 
barristers, both of Toronto. 

The George X. Kernohan Lumber 
Company. Limited. London, Ont., in- 
corporated, capital, $40,000. Incorporat- 
ors, G. N. Kernohan. lumber merchant, 
and J. M. McEvoy, barrister, both of 

The Lethbridge Brick Company, Lim- 
ited. Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., incorporat- 
ed, capital, $20,000. Incorporators, \\ . 
W. Lethbridge. brickmaker, D. D. Mc- 
Phail and K. M. Wright, contractors, 
both of Sault Ste. Marie. 

La Compagnie G. Blais. Limitee, S. 
Euphemie, Que., incorporated, capital, 
$45,000. Incorporators, G. Blais, mer- 
chant, Z. Cloutier. manufacturer, both 
of St. Pierre de la Riviere du Sud. 

The Brockville Construction Com- 
pany, Limited. Brockville, Ont.. incor- 
porated, capital, $100,000. Incorporators. 
W. S. Buell, J. H. Botsford. barristers, 
both of lirockville. 

.\. J. .Sequin, electrician. Ottawa, is 
stated to have sold assets. 

Finch & Jones, lumber merchant, Cor- 
bin, B.C., are stated to have been suc- 
ceeded by Riverside Lumber Company, 



Contractors' and Builders' Supplies 


Crushed Stone 

For Concrete Fireproof Construction, Roadwork and Sidewalks 

Rubble, Portland Cement 

CRUSHED GRANITE for Floors and Sidewalks 


Crescent Fire Brick 

We are exclusive Distributing Agents for this high grade, hand- 
made fire brick. Large stock always on hand. 

Don't forget our Prompt Delivery Service. 

The Rogers Supply Co. - Toronto 

Head Office: 28 King Street West Phone Main 4155 



Boiler Feed 
Water Works 
Fire and 
General Purposes 

Works : 
512 William St. Montreal 









Road Me 
solicit en 
ities CGI 
of anyth 


Montreal, 318 St. James St. 
Toronto, 73 Victoria St. 
Cobalt, opp. Right of Way Mine 






rriplete range of 
i equipment and 
1 any Municipal- 
the purchase 
line such as: 


( steam or motor ) 








Winnipeg, 259-261 Stanley St. 
Calgary, Crown Block. 
Vancouver, Mercantile Bldg. 



Concrete Finishes 

Concrete Floor Dressing prevents abrasion, 
wear, dubt formation, Wdter, oil and grease ab- 

Alkali Proof Wall Size prepares interior 
plastered walls for highest class decorations. 

Waterproof Flat Finishes for highest class 
inienor Jecoration ol plaster, metal and Beaver 
Board Surfaces. 

Waterproof White Finish, washable, sanitary, 
intensities the radiation of light for interior or 
exterior use. 

Courts, factories, elevator shafts, etc. 

French Caen Stone Finuh. a perfect repro- 
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Transparent Waterproofing waterproofs con- 
crete, brick, stone, granite and marble without 
changing color or texture. 

Liquid Cement waterproofs and uniforms sur- 
face color of concrete and stucco. Bonds plaster 
to concrete. 

Liquid Cement Filler fills cracks and breaks 
in concrete and stucco surfaces. 

Acid Proof Coating and Graphite Acid Proof 
Coating lor iron and steel submitted to Extreme 
Corrosive Conditions. 

Liquid Rubber for dampproofing interior surf- 
aces of exposed walls — plaster applied over it — 
for waterproofing basements. 

Liquid Rubber Cement for filling expansion 

Booklet covering the above materials and Specifications for use, also samples sent 

gratis, upon request 


Block Stone, Dimensions, Random, Head Sills, Shoddy, Stone Sawing' 

Sackville Freestone Co., Limited, SackviUe, N. B. 






©iilract Record 

^^^^/ A W.eklj, Journal at 

Building. Contracting. Engineering, Public Works 

Municipal Progreaa. Advance Information 


HUGH c. Maclean, limited 

HUGH C. MacLEAN. Winnipeg, President. 
THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 
lEAD OFFICE - - 220 King Street West, TORONTO 
Telephone Main 2362 


MONTREAL Telephone Main 2299 B34 Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 -404 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. - 26 Crowe & Wilson Chambers 
|CHICAGO ------- 4059 Perry Street 

jLONDON, ENG. ----- 3 Regent St., S.W. 

Canada and GtPat Britain, $2.00 U.S. and Foreign, ,$2.50 

Vol. 25 

February 8, 191 1 

No. 6 

,^^hases of the Tariff Question 

I^P While the revised tariff agreement with the 
United .States ndw under consideration I)y the Can- 
adian Government is not of particidar moment in so 
far as concerns our huildinnf and engineering supply 

I ^-houses, there seems to be a general feeling that the 
^fcchedule is one which the country can afford to reject ; 
that the prosperity of recent years is a sufficient indi- 
cation of the success of the old agreement ; that in time 
the United States will come to us in any ease, and in 
short that any change in our fiscal policy at this junc- 

IHfture is not going to help us. 
^» As we have intimated, the changes in .so far as 
this journal is concerned particularly would not he an 
'mportant consideration. For instance, a reduction of 
cents a barrel on the duty of cement, from 43 cents 
o ,38 cents, will scarcely make the importation of that 
rticle less prohibitive, especially when the question of 
reight is taken into account. The brick maiui- 
iiacturers are not affected and no change is scheduled 
r lime, hard wall plasters, fire brick, etc. A cut of 
Yi per cent, on building stone may be overlooked in 
s effect upon the trade, while a 5 per cent, reduction 
n vitrified paving blocks will have no far reaching 
ffect. .\ reduction of 4 per cent, is made in the case 
of roofing slate, and 2]/, per cent, in plate glass. The 
^^inanufacturers of steamfitters' supplies, paints and oils 
I^Hpnd a few other lines are not affected. 
^^H On looking through the .schedule there are a nuni- 
^^■cr of items which, to say the least, are amusing. One 
^^Bf is a cut of MVi per cent, on Canadian made 
l^pilocks and watches entering the United States. We 
wonder whether this is a source of much alarm to the 
^^Anierican maker? We were always under the impres- 
[^■>o" that the best watches were made in the old coun- 
^^wy> a few good ones in the United States and the cheap 
^^Bnes on the continent. Certainly we were not aware 
"^^nat Canada's share in the business amounted to any- 
thing. Uikewise the ai^parently heavy concession by 
the United Stales in plate glass is a negligible factor, 
and from the profit made on all the brass band instru- 

ments which we shall send out of Canada at a reduc- 
tion of 22y2 per cent., the manufacturers in that line 
are not likely to devote any considerable portion to 
philanthropic enterprises, in the way of model roads, 
public buildings, and so on. We can readily under- 
stand that at this juncture anything capable of emit- 
ting hot air will have an added value across the border, 
but for the self-same reason we need those brass band 
instruments ourselves. 

Certainly our own impression is, "Let well alone." 
f)ur development during the last decade, to go back 
no further, has occupied the attention of the whole 
world, not alone the United States. Our trade has in- 
creased beyond the most sanguine predictions, immi- 
gration has assumed marvellous proportions, our 
cities have prospered, the farmers have made money 
(in spite of their pessimism), and altogether we have 
every reason to be both gratified and .satisfied. Let us 
do our best for a time at least to keep our trade within 
the empire, and let us work for any agreement that will 
enable us, under more favorable conditions, to con- 
sign our surplus products to British ports over our 
own transcontinental railways. We are looking for no 
concessions from the United States and it is no longer 
within the power of that country to intimidate us. 
With our enormous natural wealth we are more than 
independent. Let us not jeopardize that independence 
for considerations of temporary advantage. 

The Portland cement production in the United 
States in the year 1910, according to the preliminary 
estimate made by Mr. E. F. Burchard, of the United 
States Geological Survey, has set a new high record. 
His preliminary estimate is based on statistics and 
estimates received by the Survey from 20 per cent, of 
the companies manufacturing Portland cement, these 
companies representing nearly half of the entire out- 
put of the country. From these figures he concludes 
that the production in 1910 was between 73.500,000 and 
7.S,000.000, bbl., as compared with 63.508,471 bbl. pro- 
duced in 1909. This is an increase of 10.000,000 to 
12,.S00,000 bbl., or 15 to 20 per cent. The figures on 
which this estimate is based have been received from 
manufacturers in all parts of the United States, and are 
therefore considered to be representative of the country 
at large rather than of any single section or district. 
.\lthough the average values for 1910 appear, from re- 
turns received thus far, to have been slightly higher 
than in 1909, prices were far from satisfactory, especi- 
ally to the large manufacturers in the Lehigh \'alley 
district and in certain of the Eastern States. The year 
1911 opens with prices cut 5 to 10 cents a barrel lower 
than those prevailing in 1910. The construction of 
several new plants has been pushed during the year, 
and several plants that were under construction in 
1*X)9 became producers in 1910, so that the kiln capa- 
citv remains far in advance of the demand. 

The I'rovince of Quebec has a surplus of nearly 
a million dollars on the operations of the last fiscal 
year, according to the report of the Provincial Trea- 
surer, lion. P. S. Mackenzie. The expenditure esti- 
mated for 1911 shows an increase of some $600,000 
over 1910. Of this increase $175,000 will be devoted 
to rural roads, making a total grant of S250.000. This 
is additional to $170,000 for colonization roads. The 
total amount to be spent on highways and roads in 
the three departments of agriculture, public works and 
colonization is $595,000. 



Tlhie Oimtari© Good Roads Associatioin 

Advance Programme of Proceedings at Forthcoming Convention in 
Toronto — Addresses by Prominent Engineers and Others — March 1-3 

From the general interest taken in the work of the 
Ontario Good Roads Association and from the excel- 
lent results obtained by that body in recent years, 
there is every reason to expect that the annual meet- 
ing of the association, which is to be held at the York 
County Municipal Building, Adelaide street east, To- 
ronto, March 1-3, will be productive of many things of 
interest to municipal engineers, contractors and others 
directly or indirectly concerned with good roads. The 
complete programme for the sessions has not yet been 
issued, but from the advance copy published here- 
under, which of course is subject to revision, it will be 
seen that every effort is being made to cover all sides 

Mr. W. A. McLean, Provinnial Highways Engineer, 
an Enthusiastic Worlter for the Association. 

of the question and to make the convention as directly 
helpful as possible, to the practical man as well as to 
the engineer. The association is negotiating for special 
railway rates and it is expected that smgle fares for 
the return journey will be secured. All those who at- 
tend the convention should obtain one-way tickets and 
secure the usual certificate from the railway ticket 
agent. Tickets will be good going from Saturday, 
February 15th, to March 2nd, and returning, March 2nd 
to March 6th, but must be presented for signature at 
the Good Roads Convention upon Thursday, March 2. 
All the proceedings of the convention will be open 
to the public. For further particulars address either 
the President, W. H. Pugsley, Richmond Hill, Ont., or 
the Secretarv, Col. J. E. Farewell, Whitby, Ont. 

Wednesday, March ist. — Morning Session, 10.30. 

Address of Welcome — G. R. Geary, Mayor of Toronto; 
R. T. Bull, Warden of York; Controller Ward, Toronto. 

President's Address — W. H. Pugsley, Richmond Hill. 

Secretary's Report — J. E. Farew.;!!, K.C., Whitby. 

"Brief Sketch of the Good Roads Movement in On- 
tario," J. F. Beam, Black Creek. 

Afternoon Session, 2 p.m. 

Address — Hon. John Morrissy, Minister of Public 
Works, New Brunswick. 

"Why Toronto voted $100,000 for York Roads," L. H. 
Clarke, Toronto Board of Trade; W. G. Trethewey, To- 
ronto Board of Trade. 

"Good Roads and the Fruit Trade," L. A. Hamilton, 
Lome Park. 

"The Niagara Boulevard," John H. Jackson, C.E., Sup- 
erintendent Queen Victoria Park, Niagara Falls. 

"Road Management," T. L. Kennedy, Reeve of To- 
ronto Township. 

"Road Systems," W. A. McLean, C.E., Provincial En- 
gineer of Highways. 

Thursday, March 2nd. — Morning Session, 10 a.m. 

"New York State Roads," Geo. C. Dichl, Engineer of 
Erie County, Buffalo, N.Y. 

"Design and Cost of Concrete Bridges," C. R. Wheel- 
ock, C.E., Engineer of Peel County, Orangeville. 

"Shop Fabrication and Erection of Highway Bridges," 
L. J. Street, C.E., Toronto. 

"Highway Bridges from the Invest ment Point of 
View," C. R. Young, C.E.,Toronto. 

Afternoon Ses.^ion, 2 p.m. 

Address — Hon. J. O. Reaume, Minister of Public 

Address — Geo. H. Gooderham, M.P.P., Toronto. 

"Cost of Primary Transportation," R. H. Jupp, County 
Engineer of Simcoe. 

County Road Systems," Herbert J. Bowman, C.E.. 
Waterloo County; T. J. Lammiman, County Road Superin- 
tendent, Oxford County; W. R. Cummings, Carleton 
County; John A. Sanderson, Warden, Leeds and Grenville; 
Geo. M. Fox, Warden of Wellington County; W. B. Russ, 
Lincoln County; J. L. Taylor, Wentworth County; and 
other county representatives. 

Friday, March 3rd. — Morning Session, 10 a.m. 

Address. — A. McGillivray, Highway Commissioner of 

"Township Road Methods," Walter Scott, ex-Reeve of 
Markham; R. W. Longmore, Reeve of Ernesttown; J. C. 
Rose, Clerk of Orillia Township; Thos. W. Allan, Reeve of 
North Grimsby; Wm. B. Bridgman, Reeve of Saltfleet; F. 
H. Lowery, Reeve of Niagara Township. 
Afternoon Session, 2 p.m. 

"Tile Drainage of Roads," Charles Talbot, County En- 
gineer, Middlesex. 

"Road Drainage and Drainage Laws," F. J. Ure, C.E., 

"Roads of Coleman Township," H. L Routley, C.E., 

Reports of Committees. 

Election of officers. 

The reconstruction of the Radcliffe viaduct of the 
Great Northern Railway, England, has involved the 
substitution of a brick structure for the original one 
of timber without interrupting traffic. The total length 
of the viaduct is about 1,254 feet. The new portion 
consists of 28 spans, 18 of 24 ft. 11 in. and 10 of 25 ft. 




n. each. The arches, each five rings in thickness, 
re divided into five sets and are separated by stop 
piers 10 ft. in width. The reconstruction work was 
l)e{i:^nii by building three stop piers to the springing 
level of the arches. A trestle was fixed upon each and 
wedged against the old viaduct, thus dividing the old 
structure into five parts; the work was then dealt with 
sections between the stop piers. The intermediate 

piers were carried up to .springing level and the centers 
fixed. The arches were turned in the usual way leav- 
ing the piles of the timber viaduct passing through 
them. When the haunches were filled the weight was 
transferred to the arches and the tops of the piles saw- 
ed off, and the holes which they liad occupied filled up. 
Traffic was carried on one-half of the structure while 
work was under way on the other. 


aster BiuiiHers^ ComiYeMioini ait Wioiniipeg 

Enterprising Arrangements made for the Fifth Annual Meeting of the C. N. A. B. 
Reduced Railroad Fares, Papers, Discussions, General Business — February 15, 16. 




The annual convention of the Canadian National 
Association of Builders' Exchanges will be held on 
February 15-16 in the Assembly Hall of the Builders' 
Exchange, Winnipeg. The headquarters during the 
meeting will be at the Clarendon Hotel, Portage ave- 
nue. Arrangements have been made with the Grand 
Trunk Railway for the members of the association to 
avel under the authorized tariff for club rates. This 
a special one-way fare for the return trip, applicable 
parties of ten or more travelling trom the same 
point of origin to the same destination. The general 
programme as prepared by the local committee of ar- 
rangements is given below. The association is to be 
congratulated upon such a business schedule and cer- 
tainly every member should make a special effort to 
attend the meeting. To easterners, especially, the 
occasion should ofTer an excellent opportunity for 
visiting the West under very agreeable circumstances 
and at a very reasonable rate. Mr. J. Herbert Lauer, 
Eastern Townships Building, Montreal, is general 
"icretary of the C. N. A. B. 

Wednesday, February 15. 
9.30 a.m. — Delegates and visitors are requested to reg- 
ister at Headcjuarters, Builders' Exchange, and procure their 
(ges, programmes, etc. 
10.00 a.m. — Inaugural Session of the Fifth Annual Con- 
tion in the Assembly Hall, Builders' Exchange. 
(a) Address of welcome to the delegates by His Wor- 
.), Mr. W. Sanford Evans, Mayor of Winnipeg. Response 
by Mr. E. T. Nesbitt, President of the Canadian National 
sociation of Builders' E.\changes. 

(b) Business Session. Call to order. 

(c) Address of welcome to the convention, Mr. J. W. 
rley, vice-president (Winnipeg). 

(d) Response to Address, Mr. Geo. A. Crain, past-presi- 
t (Ottawa). 

(e) Roll call of officers and accredited delegates. 

(f) Minutes of the Fourth Convention, London, 1910. 

(g) Reports of officers: (i) president; (2) vice-presi- 
ts; (3) secretary and treasurer. 

(h) Appointment of committees — (1) Resolutions; (2) 

1.00 p.m. — Civic reception and luncheon at the Royal 
e.xandra Hotel. 
2.30 p.m. — .'Automobile trip "Seeing Winnipeg" to prin- 
cipal places of interest. 

8.00 p.m. — Theatre party, drama or vandeville. tendered 
_^^ the \\ innipeg Exchange. 

I^f Thursday, February 16. 

9.30 a.m. — Convening Committee on Resolutions. 
10.00 a.m. — Open session of convention. Open ,.; 
the building trades. 

(a) "Technical Training," by Mr. T. R. Deacon. 

all m 

(b) "Ethics of the Master-Builder," by Mr. Geo. W. 

(c) "Contracting from a General Contractor's Stand- 
point," by Mr. W. A. Irish. 

(d) "Impressions and Reminiscences of the Master- 
Builder," by Mr. P. Mackissock. 

(e) "Organization," by Mr. J. W. Morley. 

General Debate, 
i.oo p.m. — Adjournment. 
2.30 p.m. — Open session of convention. 

(a) "Reinforced Concrete," by Mr. C. A. P. Turner. 

(b) "Architectural Jurisprudence," by Mr. Isaac Camp- 
bell, K.C. 

Mr. J. H. Ltiuci. .ii.iutreal. General 
SecreUry C. N. A. B. 

(c) "Contracting 30 years ago," by Alderman E. Cass. 

General Debate. 
4.30 p.m. — Coiivoiitiin\ l>tisiness session, for delegates 

(a) Communications and reports. 

(b) Prospective legislation. 

(c) Ways and means. 

(d) Election of officers. 

(e) Choice of place of next annual convention, 191a. 

(f) \ew business and good of the association. 

8.00 p.m. — Banquet tendered to delegates at Manitoba 
Hall, 293 Portage avenue, by the W'innipeg Builders' Ex- 


The death occurred recently at Sussex, N.B., of Mr. 
Thomas Heffer. a well-known brick manufacturer. The latt 
Mr. Heflfer was in his 88th year. 



For Sanding Slippery Sidewalks 

An ingenious device has been patented by Chief of 
Pohce Gibeau, of Verdun, Que., for sanding sHppery 
sidewalks. Like most useful implements it is ex- 
tremely simple. A hopper is mounted in the front of 
a pair of runners. At the bottom is a screen connected 
with a rod attached to a crank. The crank is in the 
centre of a live axle which revolves with the spiked 
wheels at either side of the runners, and thus moves 
the screen backwards and forwards, sifting the sand 
close down to the ground in .strips of about a foot wide, 
leaving about three inches between each sanded por- 
tion. Being close to the ground no dust flies about 
as is the case when the ordinary method of throwing 
sand from a shovel is employed. There is also no 
waste, as the machine is made the width of the cernent 
sidewalk and just lays the sand or ashes where it is 

The Verdun council thought so highly of the idea 
when the plans were shown them that they gave the 
inventor the facilities of their municipal workshop to 
make a trial machine. It is now working satisfactorily 
in the town, covering 26 miles of sidewalks in about 
two days. It requires one man and one horse to oper- 
ate it and although the a.shes from the boiler house 
have been used in the past, sand is to be used in future 
on account of its more cleanly properties. One filling 
of the hopper will at present cover ly^ miles of side- 
walk, but it is proposed to increase the size. It has 
been worked out so that when the man starts out to 
sand the streets he finds a carter waiting with fresh 
sand at about the point the hopper is empty. Mr. 
Gibeau has not yet decided whether to sell his rights 
in the machine or manufacture it himself. 

The Architectural Element in Steel Bridges 

While it is conceded by most engineers that there 
is considerable room for improvement in the archi- 
tectural treatment of steel bridges and that many com- 
mon types of construction employed in this branch of 
engineering are obviously incapable of artistic treat- 
ment, there are, however, several matte. s about which, 
when viewed from an asthetic standpoint, widely vary- 
ing opinions are held, says The Engineering Record. 
Authorities generally agree that to produce the most 
pleasing steel bridge some form of arch must be used, 
.but whether the type should be the plate girder solid 
rib, the crescent-.shaped trussed rib or the trussed ril) 
with parallel chords is still an unsettled question. Evi- 
dently the spandrel-braced rib cannot be made beauti- 
ful. One great difficulty in constructing these pleasing 
forms is that appropriation for bridges are generally 
so small as to exclude consideration of anything more 
than the mere utilitarian requirements, although there 
is now a faint demand for more artistic bridges, and it 
is acknowledged that the community which builds an 
ugly structure is certainly not making the most of its 

England and the United Slates are far behind 
France and Germany in this matter although some- 
thing has been done here. The Washington Bridge 
over the Harlem River in New York and the West 
Boston Bridge over the Charles Basin in Boston are 
among the most beautiful structures in the United 
States. An analysis of them easily reveals the causes 
of their superiority. The first and greatest is their 
evident fitness for duty. Unless a bridge is designed to 
meet this requirement it cannot be an artistic success 
no matter how much merit it may otherwise possess. 

It is this that makes the arch so eminentl}' pleasing 
for long-span bridges. The observer cannot help see- 
ing that a simple arch rib, as in the Washington 
Bridge, carries the loads downward and outward at the 
abutments, which is a direct transfer of load that com- 
mends itself to the layman. In this respect a truss of 
the Pratt Howe type is woefully lacking in apparent 
efficiency, because the loads are carried to the supports 
along devious paths, first vertically, then diagonally, 
until, after sufficient repetitions, the abutments are 

Symmetry, grace, simplicity and truthfulness are 
essential elements in a bridge of architectural merit. 
Truth is a prime requisite, and when a steel bridge or 
a concrete bridge is tricked out to represent stone the 
result is a dismal failure. One material must not be 
made to represent another ; each must be used for the 
purpose and in the manner to which it is peculiarly 
adapted. It is probable that the two arched bridges 
above mentioned owe their charm as much to the pro- 
per combination of steel and stone as to the graceful 
lines upon which the steel spans are built. This is also 
seen in many German structures, where the stone piers 
and abutments are usually carried ui)\vard, at least to 
the roadwa)- surface, and often even higher so as to 
form towers or triumphal arches. For an illustration 
of the effect of this feature, contrast the Washington 
Bridge in New York or the Eads Bridge in St. Louis 
with the Fairmoimt Park Bridge in Philadelphia. In 
the first two structures the piers extend up to the road- 
way, while in the last they end just above the water 
level, far below the roadway. The combination of 
masonry and steel as employed in the former is very 

Washing Gravel in Perforated Wheelbarrows 

A novel scheme for washing gravel has 
been in use at Bangor, where construction has 
been under way for some time on ' an new 
mechanical filtration plant, which is being built 
by the New York Continental Jewel F"iltration 
Company, to replace the existing water purifi- 
cation works. The concrete aggregate is delivered in 
piles near the work and carried from them to the mixer 
in wheelbarrows. The gravel contained a certain 
amount of loam and -it was considered necessary to 
wash it before incorporating it in the concrete. To 
accomplish this holes were punched in the bottoms and 
sides of tlie wheelbarrows, converting them practically 
into sieves. Between the mixer and the storage piles 
a water pipe was connected up as shown with a large 
perforated nozzle at its discharge end. Each wheel- 
barrow load of gravel on its way to the mixer was roll- 
ed tmder the nozzle and streams of water discharged 
upon it, the material being churned about with a spade 
to expose the lower part of the load to the cleansing 
action of the water. The water and the loam which 
it flushed out passed out through the perforations in 
the wheelbarrow and the clean gravel was then carried 
to the mixer and used. 

The new C. P. R. offices to be erected at the corner 
of King and Yonge streets, Toronto, at a cost of $1.- 
000,000, will have a ground area of 85 feet on King- 
street and 100 feet on Yonge, 8,500 square feet. The 
building will be sixteen storeys high, or one storey 
higher than the Traders' Bank building, which is the 
highest office structure in the British Empire. It will 
be of steel faced with terra cotta, similar to the mater- 
ial used in the magnificent Standard Bank head office. 


eYelstoke Power FlaimlL Nearly Commpleted 

Municipally Operated System -Plans Laid for Future Extension Dia- 
grams Show Construction Work — Special Design To Prevent Frazil 

About fifteen years ago a private company built tlic 
resent power plant on the lUecillewaet River, about two 
lies west of the centre of the city of Revelstoke, generat- 
ing there 125 kilowatt by water, diverted by means of a 
timber dam at the head of a canyon, down which a square 
flume was built for a distance of fifteen hundred feet, about 
alf of which was under pressure, terminating in a steel 
;asing in a wooden power house. On one side of this casing 
as a SCO h.p. Samson turbine designed to operate under a 
ead of thirty-seven feet. The single phase belt-driven gen- 
irator was next duplicated on the other side of the turbine 
nd later a three-phase machine of 150 k.w. was installed 
n the same shaft to carry the power load. This plant was 
ought by the city in 1903. 

On account of severe frazil and slush ice conditions 

peculiar to this turbulent mountain stream, it was decided, 

about five years ago, to install an auxiliary gas producer 

plant with a 125 h.p. engine, belt connected to the same 

haft as the turbine. The turbine shaft operated at a speed 

f 275 revolutions, and the engine at 175. 

Conditions on River 

In the winter slush ice would sometimes block the lllc- 
iliwaet for a distance of three miles to its junction with 
ihe Columbia and back into the tailrace, which was connected 

th the river by a short channel, and about 
light feet above low water. The discharge of 
he river has a very large variation ( as far 
,s has been determined to date being estimat- 
d as high as forty to one). Owing to land- 
ilides and avalanches it is estimated that the 
ischarge has been as high as twelve thous- 
nd cubic feet per second for a short time, 
while its low water flow is estimated to be as 
low as three hundred. The main line of the 

i'anadian Pacific Railway is built in the north 
vail of the canyon overlooking the old dam 
nd flume, and any proposed uevelopment had 
o keep the water level at flood at a safe dis- 
ance below the rails. The scour of water 
iver the old dam had eaten away a large por- 
ion of the schistose rock below the dam, un- 
dermining the timber apron and carrying away 
n timber crib supports and protection for the flume immedi- 
itely below the dam. 
I New Development 

In November, 1909, it was decided to construct a new 
permanent dam at a point about two hundred feet below 
the old one on a reef in the bottom of the river extending 
between an overhanging canyon wall on the south and a 
solid rock point on the north side of the canyon. It was 
decided to build this dam to a height sufficient to create as 
large a pool as possible above for handling the frazil ice; 
to provide sluices to maintain a constant head at a safe dis- 
nce below the railway, and to connect the power house and 
Id machinery with a new six-foot wooden pipe line replac- 
ng the old flume. 

It was later decided to raise enough money at the same 
ime to install a new unit and change from a single phase 
to three phase current for distribution in the city, remodel- 
ling, as far as possible, the distribution system therein. 
The accompanying plans show the dam as built with 

large construction sluiceway, blow-oflf for handling silt and 
anchor ice close to the rack bars, with an intake at right 
angles to the stream provided with two sets of rack bars 
and provision for steam heating of same in very severe 
conditions; together with stoplog sluiceway taking the ice 
raked from the rack bars. 

Power House Layout 
The power house layout was designed to meet existing 



Showing Present and Ultiniate Capacity Revelstoke Power House 

conditions and allow of gradual replacement of old plant 
without interfering with operation. The illustration shows 
the proposed development without any reference to the old 
plant except that the old power house is shown in full lines. 
The 1910 addition to the power house is of brick on con- 
crete foundation, and the proposed extensions of this to 
take in the three additional units are shown in dotted lines. 
Penstock No. i was built to serve units No. i and No. 2, 
and the connections were so constructed that the blow-oflf 
at the end of the penstock could be moved when No. 2 was 
installed, and placed at the end of the penstock, while unit 
No. 2 will be connected to the penstock and No. i by 4 
ft. pipe and gate valve. 

No. I is gated from the penstock by 48" horizontal 
valve. The old flume enters the power house on the line 
of penstock No. 2 which will replace it and will serve units 
No. 3 and No. 4. which will be duplicates of one and two; 
and will, in addition, have a connection to No. 2. The next 
step in development will be the addition of penstock No. 2 
and completion of unit No. 2 and units No. 3 and No. 4 



may be added when the load increases. The 150 k.w. gen- 
erator at present operating from the jack shafts from tur- 
bine or gas engine will be finally moved and belted direct 
to the gas engine as shown on plan. No details in regard 
to switchboard gallery, machine shop and boiler room have 
been worked out. Unit No. i has been built in a separate 
building and the new switchboard for it placed therein 

The old plant had a rated capacity of 400 k.w., 250 k.w. 
of which was single phase and 150 k.w. three phase. The 
old casing and turbine are still able to operate 
from the old flume, and a new 250 k.v.a. three- 
phase machine has been installed on the old founda- 
tions to replace the single phase machine, which 
will now be sold. Unit No. i consists of a 900 h.p. single 
runner spiral casing turbine, manufactured by The Jenckes 

temporary flume through and over the site of the new dam, 
while the footings were being excavated and concreted in. 
Added to this, avalanches above, causing sudden rises and 
falls for which the stream is noted, and unusually high 
water during the winter, were a constant menace to the 
progress of the work. Water was diverted by coffer dam to 
the south side of the expansion joint and the central part 
of the dam built up to an elevation of one hundred feet be- 
tween the expansion joint and the power and diversion 
flumes. These were built on the slide rock from the rail- 
way cutting above, and it was a difficult problem to carry 
them over the dam site. A concrete cut-off wall under the 
unwatering flumes was built on the line to the north wall. 
It was found impossible to complete this portion of the dam 
further, until the last thing in the spring, after the footings 
on the south side had been obtained by diverting the water 

Sectional Flans showing Large Sluiceway, Special Rack Design for Handling Frazil, etc. 

exciter operating at a speed of 600 r.p.m. This unit was 
designed to operate under a head of seventy-three feet and 
carry the full lighting and power load. With overload this 
would carry the normal increase of the city lighting, and 
some additional power, for another year or two. The bal- 
ance of the plant was designed to operate as an auxiliary 
until the old flume was useless, at which time penstock No. 
2 would be built and connected up with a new turbine to 
250 k.v.a. unit, which will then complete unit No. 2. The 
other extensions have already been explained. 
Construction of Plant 
The construction of the dam in the canyon was inter- 
esting and difficult owing to the fact that the work had to 
be done during low water in the winter time with only lim- 
ited time for completion, and the diffculties which obtain, 
due to necessity for keeping the present power plant running 
and carrying that water and additional water diverted by 

by a second coffer dam into the 8 x 12 sluice above men- 
tioned. Serious delays when this stage of the work had 
been reached caused grave apprehension that it would not 
be possible to complete the dam before high water; and it 
was necessary to carry on the work with this possibility in 
view so as not to jeopardise the safety of the supply of 
power for the city until high water had subsided. A short 
shut down of the power plant was necessary when the 
power flume was cut, and the footings under the lower rock 
slide, immediately below the railway track on the down 
stream side of the dam, were being excavated and concreted. 
This work it was necessary to push forward in the early 
spring, night and day. Twice the water rose in the river 
filling the 8 x 12 sluice and threatening to get beyond con- 
trol. Finally the new penstocks were built in and the north 
and south sides raised alternately to the level of the central 
completed portion. The gate-house was under construction 


when a flood, the result of hot weather, caused a rise of 
twenty feet in the water against the dam in one day, brought 
down a large amount of old crib and loosened the old power 
flume. This driftwood was forced against the incompleted 
gate-house pier, bending the steel and rendering its com- 
pletion before the floods doubtful. The water poured over 
the incompleted dam to a depth of three feet, and it will be 
remembered that at this time the 8 x 12 sluice was under 
a head of thirty-five feet, and the large 18" timber-gate, dc- 

and it is expected that the gate-house will be completed, 
the bulkhead again put in place and the full head be put 
on the dam by the time this article appears. 

On account of the location of the 6-ft. wooden stave 
pipe-line, above the old flume along the foot of the railway 
embankment, its construction, without interfering with the 
operation of the old flume, was difficult and expensive. On 
it there are a number of sharp curves, as shown in the illus- 
tration, one of which is less than one in fourteen. The 

Concrete Const nictioii Work Kcvi'lslokc, !!.('. 

signed to close it and turn the water over the top of the dam, 
had not yet been placed in the groove which was prepared 
for it. This was an anxious time for everyone concerned, 
and when the water subsided on the second day, gradually 
falling again to within six feet of the top of the sluiceway, 
it was decided to endeavor to force the bulkhead into place. 
This was accomplished by loading it with rails and letting 
it go with a run. It fell to within eighteen inches of the 
bottom of the opening and the water was successfully 
turned over the top of the dam. This it had been decided 
' to leave for the summer incomplete, but sufficiently high to 



- -ir^ju— 

1 r- 


1 i. 

\ \ 


" "TO; v"^ 

- 1 ! - 

Present and Ultimate capacity of Powei House 

take the water through the new penstock, which was then 
connected with the old flume, and operation under water 
power again resumed. It was unfortunate that is was found 
impossible to complete the gate-house at t\iat time, and the 
gate to the 8 x 12 sluiceway had to be blown out during the 
next low water period and the gate-house foundations built 
in the dry. The dam withstood the summer floods, in spite 
of its incomplete condition and flat crest, showing little 
sign of wear. The crest and piers have since been added, 

The River Banks are of Solid Rock 

timber in the flume is Douglas fir, kiln-dried, and is of the 
very best quality. Both it and the sills are painted with pre- 
servative coat of asphaltum paint. This part of the work 
was done by day labor. 

On the pipe-line are one-way poppet vaJves, a man- 
door at the lower end, and a relief valve on the turbine cas- 
ing just outside of the power house, discharging into the tail- 

Design of the Dam 

The design of the dam is interesting, in view of its 
location upon a micaceous schistose rock on the north side, 
which was seamed with quartzite and very freaherous and 
faulty, which in the centre of the stream came in contact 

Construction Work— Bevelstoke, B. C. 

with a later intrusion of more evenly laminated layers of 
diorite. This south wall of the canyon was precipitous, 
its top overhung the base about twelve feet. The dam was 
located on the roof connecting the two walls and given 
the form of an arch upstream by the bend in the dam near 
the north end. In this way, and taking advantage of the 
position of the wall on the south side, it was possible to 
lighten the section of the dam, to take the penstock out at 
right angles to the abuttment and at the same time obtain 



a suitable angle for the rack bars in reference to the current. 
The structure was built with the least expenditure pos- 
sible and to this end the favorable location in reference 
to gravel and rock and ability to handle these by a compact 
and overhead traveller, were advantages not often obtained. 
The Illecillewaet is one of the most difficult streams of the 
province to handle in flood, due to the immense amount of 
silt carried in suspension, and the large quantities of logs 

ice through the 4.5 ft. sluiceway. The blow-off is situated 
at the foot of the rack bars under a head of forty feet and 

Pipe Line Running parallel with Flume 

which come down the canyon. It is intended to handle 
these latter by booms in the pond above. The most difficult 
problem in design was to obtain satisfactory sluices at a 
minimum cost which would satisfactorily permit of quick 
operation and maintain a constant head during flood. The 
location of the dam in the canyon so situated in reference 
to the railway track and with no possibility of enlarge- 
ment of spillway area, without tunnelling on the south side, 
had to be met by construction of gates which could be lifted 
clear— were not too large — and yet would permit of passage 
of drift through them over the crest. The piers, therefore, 
had to be made as small as consistent with strength and 
are heavily reinforced with the best steel obtainable. The 

Oonstruction Work on Dam— Revelstoke, B. O. 

full head in low water will not be required for some years, 
and until that time the sluice-gates will not be installed in 
all of the openings. 

The handling of the frazil ice was, as above indicated, 
one of the chief points in design, and the gate-house with 
the rack bars will indicate the method adopted. Water is 
taken in between eight and twenty-five feet below the sur- 
face, and the rack bars are situated so as to take advantage 
of a minimum amount of water to slush the accumulated 

New 6-foot Penstock on Right 

will handle small amounts of anchor ice and keep them 
clear of silt. 

Unit No. I is now in operation under a head of sixty 

The Government has appointed Mr. H. W. Hodge, of 
New York, one of the best known engineering experts on 
the continent, and Mr. M. J. Butler, ex-Deputy Minister of 
Railways and Canals, and now General Manager of the 
Rominion Iron & Steel Company, to finally settle the differ- 
ences of opinion among the board of engineers in charge 
of the construction of the Quebec bridge. Several designs, 
involving basic principles of bridge engineering have been 
under consideration for months past by Messrs. Modjeska, 
Vautelet and Macdonald, the engineering experts entrusted 
with the carrying out of the work. They have been unable 
to agree on some vital questions relating to the plans for 
the long central span. On the decision of Messrs. Hodge 
and Butler will depend the solution of problems in which 
bridge engineers the world over are interested. 

Messrs. Geo. Anderson & Co., engineers and ironfound- 
ers, of Carnoustie, Scotland, and Montreal, have opened a 
branch at 504 Builders' Exchange, Winnipeg, for the purpose 
of looking after their western trade. They have already met 
with the most encouraging success. The Canadian Manager, 
Mr. W. Furniss Clarke, has just returned to Montreal with 
several large orders for cut stone plants, which indicate 
liright prospects for the firm's specialties. They manufac- 
ture the famous Anderson Circular Diamond Saw, gang 
saws, patent planers, marble machinery, carborundum macb 
inery, rubbing beds, polishers, electric and hand overhead 
travelling cranes, locomotive cranes, and derricks of all sizes 
and kinds. They will be glad to meet their western friends 
in the Winnipeg office, as this branch is intended to deal 
fully with the western business. 

A most prosperous state of affairs was disclosed at the 
annual meeting of the Canada Paint Company, Limited, held 
recently in Toronto. The managing director, Mr. Robert 
Munro, of Montreal, reported that the business of the past 
year had been a record year as regards the volume of trade. 
The manufacturing plants in Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg 
and St. Malo were all in excellent shape and running to 
their fullest capacity. Various extensions will continue to 
be made to keep pace with the continued development, and 
a heavy trade has already been booked for ion shipment. 










An Instructive Report on Ties* 

Your Cointnittee would beg leave to report as follows: 
In their report, presented to the Society in January, 1909, 
it was pointed out that some twelve million ties were being 
used annually in Canada, which number was being continu- 
ously and largely increased, so that probably, within the 
next 40 years, the consumption will be about one hundred 
and twenty millions, or equal to the present annual con- 
sumption in the United States. 

Assuming the following data — average cost of untreated 
ties at point of shipment at 50c.; freight and putting in track, 
iSc; total, 65c.; average life, 8 years. Initial cost of treated 
tie the same as above; cost of treatment, mcluding extra 
handling, 25c.; total, 90c.; average life, 16 years. Then, if 
twelve million untreated ties are being used annually, and 
their average life is 8 years, there must be about ninety- 
six millions in use, and the capital necessary to place these 
ties in the track and provide for their renewal every 8 years, 
[on a 4 per cent, basis, would be $2.41 per tie. The capital 
necessary to place treated ties in the track and provide for 
renewal every 16 years would be $1.93 per tie. The total 
apital necessary: 

quals 96,000,000 X $2.4 1 equals $231,360,000 for untreated ties. 

96,000,000 X $1.93 equals $185,280,000 for treated ties, 
otal difference in capital .. $46,080,000. 

$46,000,000 at 4% equals $1,843,200 equals eventual an- 
ual saving. 

As the cost of untreated ties and the numbers used are 
ncreasing very rapidly, and the cost of treatment is likely 
[to be reduced, surely no more need be said to prove the 
jurgent necessity of at once beginning the introduction of 
Teated ties at all points where their capitalized values will 
how a fair saving on the investment, even if the question 
is only viewed from the standpoint of economy for the rail- 

When the broader view of conserving our supplies, for 
ear of depletion, is considered, it assumes enormously 
reater importance. 

Preservation Not Considered Sufficiently 

Tic preservation by creosoting or otherwise has not 
hitherto received the attention it deserves in Canada, but it 
doubtless soon will, as the railway companies are becoming 
alive to this really vital subject. The American Railway 
Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association have, 
however, taken the matter up vigorously, and valuable in- 
■formation can be found in their Proceedings, vol. x, part i, 
Tor 1909, and subsequent volumes. In co-operation with this 
ssociation. Purdue University made a series of tests to 
letermine whether or not treatment of tie timber had any 
injurious effect on the strength of the material. The con- 
clusions arrived at. from these tests, are briefly summarized 
as follows: 

(1) No weakness was shown by treated ties, as com- 
lared with natural ties, either in rail-breaking or spike- 
olding strength, except in the case of ties treated with 

crude oil, and, even with that treatment, the weakening in 
'ail-bearing was of a temporary character. 

(2) The average stress under the rail at the elastic limit 
^ m the various woods was as follows: Red oak, 1,131 lbs. per 
■square inch; short leaf pine, 642 lbs.; long leaf pine, 690 lbs.; 
red gum, 830 lbs. 

(3) The extremes of atmospheric temperature have an 
ppreciable effect on the strength of wood, especially when 
Teen. The warm timber was from 9 per cent, to 17 per 
:ent. weaker than the very cold timber. 

(4) The direct pulling resistance of common spikes in 

'Extracted from Report ot Special Committre of the Canadian Society of Civil 

the various woods was as follows, in their natural state: 
Red oak, 7639 lbs.; short leaf pine, 4,359; long leaf pine, 
3,955; red gum, 3,883. 

(5) The lateral resistance of common spikes in the 
various woods was as follows, loads at elastic limit, in lbs.; 
Red oak, 2,026; red gum, 1,704; long leaf pine, 1,650; short 
leaf pine, 1,619. 

The lateral resistance of screw spikes depends on the 
diameter and length of shank under the head, elastic limit 
of the metal, and character of the wood. 

(6) The screw spike had from 1.7 to 3.8 times the 
strength of the common spike against direct pull, and from 
1.2 to 2.4 times the strength of the common spike against 
lateral resistance. The smaller screw spikes gave greater 
lateral resistance per lb. of weight than the larger spike. 

The strength of the common spike against withdrawal 
is increased when driven to follow a bored hole. The shape 
of the point of a common spike, however, leads it to drive 
out of a bored hole, and the resistance to withdrawal is 
thereby lowered. 

A very interesting paper on the economic comparison 
of railway ties of different materials, written by Neil M. 
Campbell, appears in the Engineering News of September 
22nd, 1910. The results are summed up in a table giving 
the order of merit of different kinds of wood treated by the 
three processes, zinc chloride, creosote, and Rueping, as 
compared with untreated ties, taking into consideration the 
first cost in the track and the average life. 

Strange to say, the first in order of merit is untreated 
catalpa wood, but, as the writer does not give the value of 
treated ties of the same wood, this does not prove that it 
might not be still more valuable if treated. 

The second in order of merit is cypress, also untreated, 
for which a life of 10 years is claimed, and initial cost in 
track 54c. The same wood, when treated with creosote, 
comes 19th in order of merit, having a life of 17.5 years 
and first cost of 950. When treated by the Rueping pro- 
cess, the order of merit is 6, life 15 years, and cost in track 
81 c. 

Oaks, untreated, come 30th in order of merit, 23rd when 
treated with zinc chloride, isth when creosote is used. 

Pine, when treated with creosote, comes 3rd in merit, 
28th when zinc chloride is used, and 29th when untreated. 

Tamarac, treated by the Rueping process, comes loth 
in order of merit, but no mention is made of untreated 
tamarac or cedar. 

Different woods require different treatments. The 
Rueping process is a creosote treatment, and is fully des- 
cribed in the Railway and Engineering Review of October 
'5th, 1910. It differs from ordinary creosoting in that the 
timber is first put under air presure sufficient to fill all 
the wood cells with air. The creosote fluid is then forced 
in at higher pressure, and the theory is that, after the greater 
pressure is released, the expansive force of the air through- 
out the interior of the timber will expel part of the fluid 
from the cells, leaving the walls of the cells painted with 
creosote instead of having the cells filled with it. 

The cost of treating ties, of course, will vary largely, 
and will depend, to a great extent, on the numbers treated, 
the efficiency of the plant, and the nature of the treatment. 
but the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, who have 
used the Rueping creosote treatment pretty extensively, re- 
port that the cost of treating inferior pine ties is 20 cents. 

Mr. Kelley, a member of your committee, reports s*t- 
isfatcory personal experience with the Burnettizing process 
at a cost of from 15 to 20 cents. 

With regard to size of ties, the 8 ft length, 6 in. to 7 in. 
thick, with face from 6 in. to 10 in., is in most general use. 
but it is somewhat difficult to find any logical reason, other 



than initial cheapness, for adopting an 8 ft. tie for standard 
gauge track. As this length was adopted, and has been in 
use for such a long period, it is very easy to understand 
why the railway companies should hesitate to change, for 
the transition period would be both troublesoine and costly. 
However, as the weights of rolling stock have more than 
doubled in the past twenty years, and steel rails have been 
increased in, roughly, the same proportion, it seems about 
time to make some corresponding adequate change in tie 

It is true that the spacing of ties has been, of late years, 
made slightly closer, but, while the loads have been in- 
creased from 200% to 300%, the base of the superstructure 
to carry these loads, or the base area of the ties under a 
rail length, has been increased less than 50%. As there is 
a practical limit to close spacing of ties, on account of the 
difficulty of properly tamping them when spaced closer than 
20 inch centres, the only resource left is to lengthen them, 
if more supporting area is required. 

The 8 foot tie, not only does not give sufficient support, 
but it is impossible to utilize its whole length for fear of 
breaking it, owing to the distribution of the loads on track 
of standard gauge. 

The distance from the end of an 8 foot tie to the outer 

^, «. . 22 -. 

TTlv tamped loOTfly . -f.nnty tamped 

\ ~ : unnot b« tdmpdd firmly in Cdntre 
I <a f.«r o( br«kmj*.m- 


-. to-6 Tie '■-■i 

fiVmtj tarofied for it» whple leny^^t .^....\.^... . , 

edge of a 5 inch rail base is about 16 inches, and the best 
practice is to firmly tamp such ties only 16 inches from the 
rails each way. The reason for this is that, if fully tamped 
to the centre of the track, they would give a firmer support, 
in proportion to the load, at centre than at both ends, and 
and- the ties would break. In other words, you cannot utilize 
much more than 75 per cent, of the bearing capacity of such 
a length of tie under a standard gauge track, without destroy- 
ing the tie itself. In order to utilize the full uniform sup- 
porting capacity of the tie for its whole length, it should 
have the same length from the centre of rail to end of tie, 
as from former point to centre of track, which would make 
it 10 ft. 8 in. — say 10 ft. 6 in. long. 

It is certain that even the best roads would hesitate to 
Tiake such a radical change, and, of course, your committee 
would not presume to say that they should make such a de- 
that strong logical reasons can be given for the use of ties 
10 ft. 6 in. long, and such reasons cannot be given for the 
parture from long-established practice, but the fact remains 
use of 8 foot ties. 

Ties 7 inches thick, 10 ft. 6 in. long, with 9 in. face, 
would give about 70 per cent, increased support at an in- 
creased cost of only 31 per cent. No increased width of bal- 
last section would be necessary for the longer ties, because 
no shoulder of ballast would be required at the ends of 
such ties, so that the actual yardage of ballast required would 
be slightly decreased by the increased space occupied by the 
ties. This is fully shown on the accompanying diagram, 
drawn to scale, illustrating how ties 10 ft. 6 in. long may be 

used in an ordinary ballast section of 8 ft. ties, without re- 
quiring any extra ballast. 

Note. — 8 foot ties tamped firmly for 16 inches each way 
from rails only utilize the supporting area of ■J^ per cent, 
of tie, equal to 74 inches in length, or 740 square inches for 
a tie of 10 inch face. 

10 ft. 6 in. ties could be used in the same ballast section, 
firmly tamped for the whole length, giving the maximum 
supporting area of 1,260 square inches, or equal to 170 per 
cent, the efficiency of 8 foot ties. 

At the present average price of soc. for 8 ft. ties, they 
cost about 36 per cent, of cost of 80 lb. rails and fastenings, 
which would only be increased to 42 per cent, by using the 
longer ties. The improved condition of track and saving in 
maintenance of rails and rolling stock would probably soon 
more than offset the difference in cost of ties. 

It has been suggested that longer ties would make drain- 
age more difficult, but, if good ballast is used, there would 
seem to be no difficulty in that regard, and, if the ballast is 
inferior, the loose tamping under the centre of 8 foot ties 
and the shoulder required at the ends of them would form 
pockets to retard drainage that would be obviated by the use 
of long ties. Your committee would suggest experimental 
tests with ties 10 ft. 6 in. long. 

The best kinds of wood to use for ties depends upon so 
many conditions of climate, availability, and cost of timber 
treated and untreated, that it is very difficult to make definite 

For general use in our Canadian climate, however, the 
following woods, if untreated and used with tie-plates, might 
be recommended, and they are given approximately in their 
order of merit, having regard to life and initial cost: Cedar, 
tamarack, oak, yellow pine, hemlock. 

For treated ties, used with tie-plates, the order of merit 
would be about as follows: Yellow pine, tamarac, hemlock, 

Rails, Fastenings and Tie Plates* 

At the annual meeting two years ago your committee on 
rails, fastenings, and tie-plates, presented drawings of the 
various sections of rail used as standard by the railroads of 
Canada and the United States, and also of some sections 
which had been proposed and were being placed in service 

At the last annual meeting your committee reported 
upon a standard drop testing machine, which received the 
approval of the society, and which is now in universal use 
in the mills of both countries. 

The experiments with the new sections have not pro- 
gressed sufficiently for your committee to present a state- 
ment of the results in this report, but the use of the new test- 
ing machine is proving most satisfactory, and is producing 
a uniformity of results in the physical tests at the different 
mills, which is of much value in the collation of statistics. 

In considering the subjects for this year's report, it has 
seemed to your committee, that the next logical step is to 
consider the service to which a rail is subjected, and the 
physical qualities requisite for such a rail, leaving for future 
investigations the consideration of how such physical qual- 
ities can be obtained. 

With the increasing traffic of railroads, there followed 
naturally and of necessity an increase in car capacity and 
of engine weights. From a freight car weighing about 16,- 
000 lbs., with a carrying capacity of 20,000 lbs., there came 
gradually an increase to cars having a carrying capacity of 
40,000 lbs., 60,000 lbs., 80,0000 lbs., and finally 100,000 lbs., with 
an allowable overload of 10 per cent. 

In this transition of car weight and capacity, it is inter- 
esting to note, that whereas the cars weighing 16,00 lbs. had 
♦ Report presontni to Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. 



a carrying capacity of 125 per cent, of their empty weight, 
that the cars of to-day carrying 100,000 lbs., with a maximum 
empty weight of 40,000 lbs., have a carrying capacity of 
250 per cent, of their empty weight. 

Freight cars having originally about 36,000 lbs., upon 
eight (8) wheels, or 4,500 lbs. per wheel, were superseded 
gradually by cars having, when overloaded 10 per cent., 
150,000 lbs., upon eight (8) wheels, or 18,667 lbs. per wheel. 
Engines having 12,000 lbs. per driving axle, or 6,000 lbs. per 
driving wheel, gave place to engines having 50,000 lbs. per 
axle, or 25,000 lbs. per driving wheel. 

The original weight or rails varied from 35 lbs. to 45 
lbs. per yard, but with the increasing weight of equipment 
the change was rapidly made to 56 lbs., 60 lbs., 65 lbs., 72 lbs., 
and finally to as high as 100 lbs. per yard. 

The effects of these heavy loads upon track having been 
investigated both theoretically by mathematical analysis and 
practically by carefully conducted tests upon the rail and 
track, under actual train movements. 

Allowing 100 per cent, for the impact of rapidly moving 
trains over the standard track in use in this country, with 
engine axle loading of 50,000 lbs., we obtain the following, 
in which the third column would probably be more nearly 
the correct one theoretically, provided the stresses were due 
to the effect of the assumed load only. 

Fibre Stress per square inch (Tension) 

Weight of 
Rail per yard 

60 lbs. 

80 lbs. 

100 lbs. 

Between ^ ties an a 

continuous fj^irder 

having stable 


24,878 lbs. 
16,668 lbs. 
11,417 lbs. 

Between ^ ties as a 

continuous girder 

havinif an unstable 

centre support. 

28,000 lbs. 
18,7.50 lbs. 
12,&t2 lbs. 

The stresses shown in column 3 do not reflect accurately 
the actual condition to which a rail may be subjected, for 
there is a reversion of stress of tension to compression like 
the swing of a pendulum under the passage of every wheel. 

In addition, the rail is subjected to a continual series of 
shocks, due to imperfect counter-balancing of engines, flat 
spots on wheels, irregularity of track surface, the oscilla- 
tion and jar of equipment, the tension due to contraction in 
a falling temperature, and the effect of the tractive force of 
the engines. 

To determine the actual effect upon rails by passing 
train.s, a series of careful experiments were conducted on 
the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, with a 
delicate automatic recording machine, by which the actual 
deformation of the rail could be measured for each passing 
wheel of a train, and the actual stresses in the rail deter- 

These investigations demonstrated that at speeds of 
30 to 40 miles per hour, engines having about 20,000 lbs. 
upon a driving wheel would produce tension stresses in 
the bottom flange of 80 lb. rails somewhere in excess of 
that shown in the third column of the preceding table, but 
well within the safe allowable limits of unit stress for good 
rail steel. 

Experiments upon joints have also shown that a tensile 
stress of 12,000 lbs. per square inch could be produced in 
the unloaded rail due to its construction in a falling temper- 
ature, before the grip of the angle bars would permit the 
rail to slip and relieve itself. 

An accumulation of these varied stresses in the lighter 
sections of rail, might therefore bring the total stress up 
close to the "Elastic Limit" or "Yield Point" of some of the 
rail steel. 

The question has sometimes been asked, has the weight 
of the rail section increased as rapidly as the wheel load- 
ing? To this may be answered, Yes! In the days when a 
60 lb. rail section was a common standard, an engine axle 
loading of 24,000 lbs. was not infrequent; this loading pro- 

duced a tension in the rail under the conditions of column 
3 of the table of 13,440 lbs. per square inch, as compared 
with 12,842 lbs. per square inch for a too i'o. rail, under an 
axle loading of 50,000 lbs. 

From a study of the preceding conditions it is evident 
that certain physical characteristics must be secured, in a 
steel rail, to meet the requirements of modern transporta- 
tion necessities; briefly these may be recalled as follows: 

(i) The steel must be sound and free from physical de- 

(2) It must be sufficiently hard to resist abrasion rea- 
sonably and also deformation of section. 

(3) It must be of uniform texture, but not brittle. 

(4) It must have a high limit of elasticity and ultimate 
tensile strength. 

The question naturally arises, can such a rail steel be 
produced? The answer is, that it has been produced in the 
past, that it is produced to-day, although not uniformly, 
and therefore, that it should be produced uniformly in the 

How to produce a rail steel uniformly possessing such 
qualities, and bow to identify positively when such a steel 
has been produced, is a work, first, for the manufacturers, 
and second, for the manufacturers and users of rail jointly, 
and this knowledge must be the basis of a satisfactory speci- 
fication in the future. 

That such a result can be reached is earnestly to be 
hoped, but it will require the co-operation and serious en- 
deavor of both interests to accomplish this most desired and 
necessary result. 

The City of Montreal is considering its estimates for 
the coming season. It is proposed to make a grant of $1,- 
500.000 to the road department and $1,000,000 for sewer con- 
struction. This is exclusive of $700,000 to be spent solely in 
the new wards, and also exclusive of the permanent works 
to be executed in virtue of special loans, viz., the enlarge- 
ment of the aqueduct, the building of underground conduits 
and other permanent works. 

Mr. Wm. C. Mitchell, formerly superintendent of the 
Dominion Steel Company, has opened an office in the Can- 
adian Express Building, Montreal, as a consulting engineer. 
Mr. Mitchell has had extended experience both in America 
and Europe, and should be well qualified to undertake the 
design of modern iron and steel plants, as well as to effect 
economies in existing plants. 

A recent visitor to Montreal was Mr. Wm. Beardmore, 
of the Clyde shipbuilding firm of that name. Mr. Beard- 
more has come to Canada to look over the situation in re- 
gard to Canadian naval construction. 

Mr. J. T. Brower, of the Structural Steel Company. 
Longue Point, Que., has been appointed general manager 
of the National Bridge Company. Montreal, and will enter 
upon his duties on March 1st. 

Mayor Frazer, of New Glasgow, N.S., was in Montreal 
recently in connection with the new waterworks system 
which is being installed in New Glasgow. 

Mr. N. R. Darrach, architect. St. Thomas, Ont., return- 
ed to that city last week from a combined business and 
pleasure trip to Regina, Sask. 

City Engineer Fellowes, of Westmount, has left for an 
extended tour through the United States, where he will 
make a study of good roads. 



Notes ©mi fclne Desigmi ©f Retaiminig Wall^ 

Fundamental Principles and their Application— The Avoidance of Excessive 
Theoretical Calculations — Defects in Prevailing Methods — Cases in Point 

By Edward Godfrey* 

Retaining walls, like dams, were among the most ancient 
of engineering necessities. Like dams they are among the 
most recent to be accorded critical attention in the matter 
of their design. The design of dams is in such a primitive 
state that in all the works on dams, so far as the writer can 
discover, there is not one word concerning the upward pres- 
sure of water that may, and as a rule does, work its way into 
horizontal joints and under the base of the dam — 
the force that has been the cause of practically all the 
great failures of masonry dams. The great Austin dam fail- 
ure was discovered to be due to this eight years after the 
failure. Colleges are beginning to mention it in their courses 
after agitation by the writer begun in 1904. 

The destructive force that is almost neglected in the 
case of retaining walls is the effect of frost. Much has been 
done in the way of working out elaborate formulas for the 
supposed pressure of earth against the back of a retaining 
wall. The exact direction and point of application of the 
forces acting on the back of a wall can be very nicely deter- 
mined — theoretically. When the real wall is constructed, 
sometimes the earth will stand vertically with little or no 
sharing, while the masonry is being put up, this in spite of 
possible thousands of tons of horizontal force which (on 
paper) is being exerted. 

Of course there is or may be horizontal force exerted 
against the back of a retaining wall. The writer would not 
belittle calculations, per se, of the force to arrive at a basis 
for proportioning the wall. But when the theory of pres- 

J- * -{ 

Fig. 1 Flo. 2. FIfl- 3. 

sures is founded wholly on assumptions which may at times 
be erroneous to the extent of the infinite ratio of a finite 
quantity to zero, the case is one where simplicity is more in 
keeping with fact than elaborate formulas. 

Before the real nature of the planets was discovered, 
supposed scientists worked out intricate rules to describe the 
paths of the planets among the stars. There is a great deal 
of mathematical junk in engineering books that is of no 
more use to any one than those rules would be to a modern 

When men want to know at what slope earth may safely 
lie and not be beaten down by storms and the changes of 
temperature, they do not take a lump of mud and let it slide 
down a mud incline to get the coefficient of friction and from 
this to find the angle of lepose. This might be done in such 
regular and uniform materials as dry sand or grain. But 
vastly more reliable data are obtained by observation on em- 
bankments that have stood the weather or have perhaps been 
subjected to the partial leveling that nature demands before 
she will permit them to remain stable and undisturbed. 

*In Enginearing — Contracting^. 

In the simple matter of the brick walls and windows of 
a building, if their capability to resist a wind pressure of 40 
or 50 lbs. per square foot were a test of their ability to stand, 
but few would remain standing. Here, too, experience has 
been the prime factor in determining the proportions. 

Many structures admit of exact calculations and exact 
theories for their stresses are in place, but retaining walls 
are not among these. Safe proportions for a retaining wall 
may be arrived at in a manner somewhat similar to the de- 
rivation of the rule for the slope of embankments; that is, 
by observing the proportions of walls that have remained 
stable. Empirical rules based on such observations point to 
the fact that if a solid masonry wall has a height about three 
times as great as its thickness, it will retain ordinary earth 
with complete stability. The design of a retaining wall 
would then seem to be a simple matter for such cases, merely 
the making of a wall of a thickness one-third of its height. 
But there are other features that must be taken care of, and 
these are of equal importance with the thickness of the wall. 
In order to arrive at a basis for determining the stability 
of a retaining wall of other than the rectangular shape and 
avoiding the excessive theoretical calculations so often made 
use of, it will be assumed that a masonry wall of rectangular 
cross section and having a height three times its thickness 
is stable against the pressure of ordinary earth or fill. A 
fluid pressure will be assumed on the back of the wall, and 
friction of the fill against the back of the wall will be ignored. 
For stability the resultant pressure on the base must fall 
within the middle third. If it falls at B (Fig. i), 'the edge 
of this middle third, there will be no uplift on the base. The 
shaded triangle H J K will represent the pressure on the soil. 
Moments around B should then balance; that is, the mo- 
ment of the weight of the wall will balance the moment of 
the horizontal force of the backing. For a foot of length 
of wall, if W equal the weight per cubic foot of the masonry 
and w the equivalent fluid weight per cubic foot, we 

b h h 

have : W h b x — = w /i x — x — , or if /t = 3 6, IV = 9 w. 
6 2 3 

If then the weight of masonry be 150 lbs. per cubic foot 
and the weight of earth fill be 100 lbs. per cubic foot, the 
equivalent fluid weight is 16 2/3 lbs. per cubic foot, or one- 
sixth of the weight of the fill. It is very much simpler to 
consider the pressure of the fill as a fluid pressure of say 
one-sixth or one-fifth of the weight of fill per cubic foot than 
to use the intricate formula for earth pressure which fail 
so conspicuously to justify their existence. 

A retaining wall of any considerable size is a heavy 
structure, and heavy structures demand special provision 
against settlement. Settlement in a retaining wall is tanta- 
mount to failure, because it is invariably unequal settlement, 
disturbing the perpendicularity of the wall, destroying its 
alinement, and giving rise to cracks. In other structures 
such as buildings, settlement may take place without serious 
consequences if that settlement be small, provided the de- 
sign has been made with a view of making the settlement 
uniform. This latter can readily be done by the simple 
expedient of making the areas of the footings proportional 
to the load. In a retaining wall the greatest pressure will | 
be under the outer edge of the wall; settlement here means 
that the wall will lean outward. It is also true that the 
smallest resistance of the soil against pressure is at this 




same outer edge, since soil will resist very much less pres- 
sure near its surface than at a point some distance below 
the surface. Furthermore, the conditions in a retaining wall 
are unfavorable in the matter of the softening of the ground 
by the action of the rain at the very place where such soft- 
ening has the most harmful eflfect. Ground water at the base 
of a retaining wall will soften the soil and make it more 
yielding. Sometimes in railroad work there )s even a gutter 
at the base of a retaining wall. These conditions do not 
exist in a building where the cellar is kept dry and the sur- 
face of the soil that is nearest to the level of the footings of 
walls does not undergo this softening action. 

One way that would suggest itself to overcome the 
difficulty would be to build the retaining wall deeper. This 
not only adds largely to the expense but increases the soil 
pressure, thus defeating to some extent its own end. An- 
other way is to drive piles under the wall near the outer 
edge of the same, so as to increase the bearing power of 
the soil at this critical locality. This would no doubt be an 
excellent and economical method of insuring the stability 
of a retaining wall in many cases. 

Still another method is to use a wide slab for a footing 
under the wall, as indicated in Figs. 2 and 3. In stone work 
flags would have to be used. In mass concrete, of course, 
a concrete slab would be used. A little steel reinforcement 
would add greatly to the efficiency of the slab. In railroad 
work the same slab might be made to act at a gutter, car- 
rying the water away that might otherwise act to soften the 
soil at the base of the wall. 

It is seen from Figs. 2 and 3 that by anchoring the wall 
into the slab at the back, the stability against overturning 
would be very greatly increased. This cannot well be done 
in ordinary masonry, but in concrete it could very readily be 

It is further seen that if the slab projected under the 
soil at the back of the wall still more stability would result 
by reason of the fact that the slab would be loaded with a 
large weight of superimposed earth. A T or L shape is then 
a logical shape for a retaining wall. Such shapes are not 
possible in ordinary masonry; that is, they would not have 
the required strength. In reinforced concrete, however, they 
are both practicable and economical. The projection at the 
front of the wall does not need to be very large, except where 
the soil is particularly soft. At the back the projection 
should be a large fraction of the height in order to take hold 
of sufficient earth to give the required stability. The wall 
will then be L shaped in cross section. 

A simple L shape of uniform cross section in a retaining 
wall would mean that the base slab and the vertical wall 
would have to act as cantilevers. Cantilever slabs are not 
economical, and they are diflicult to reinforce. Two canti- 
lever slabs meeting at right angles would be specially 
troublesome to reinforce because of the difficulty of carrying 
stresses around the corner. 

Figure 4 shows a suggested form for an L-shaped wall. 
Three series of reinforcing rods are used. Rods a b would 
reinforce the cantilever whose critical section is X X. Rods 
e f would reinforce the cantilever whose critical section is 
Z Z. Rods c d are needed to reinforce the corner. The 
section Y Y could here be used as the critical section. If 
a single curved rod were used in place of these three from 
a around to e, the tendency, when this is under tension, 
would be for the rod to pull out and break off the overlying 
concrete. Each rod can in this arrangement run beyond 
the points A and B far enough to get the full anchorage 
value, say 50 diameters. Rods e f can further be curved 
down as indicated to reinforce the projection at the heel of 
the wall. 

In order to make the two slabs of an L-shaped retaining 
wall act as simple beams and not as cantilevers these slabs 

may be joined by ribs or counterforts at intervals in which 
rods are embedded. An oblique projection of such a wall U 
shown in Fig. 5, viewed from the rear. 

It is an absurdly simple proposition that the rods in the 
counterfort or rib act merely to tie together the horizontal 
slab and the vertical slab. The vertical slab is subject to 
horizontal pressue from the earth back of it. The rods in 
the ribs resist that pressure, and in order to have something 
against which to pull they must be anchored down into the 
horizontal slab, which is able to resist the pull by reason of 
the weight of earth upon it. In spite of the simplicity of 
this proposition this three-cornered counterfort is analyzed 
in books as a beam. Besides this, in nearly all the walls 
built on this plan rods are thrown in in a most senseless 
and wasteful manner. In one example of a wall 45 ft. high 
there are nearly 100 horizontal rods varying from 3/8 to i in. 
square, besides 22 rods ^'/i inches square placed diagonally 
close to the back, all of this in a single counterfort. In this 
structure there are tons of steel positively wasted. , In other 
examples there are meshes of horizontal and vertical and 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5. 

diagonal rods that cannot possibly be good for more than 
a small fraction of their tensile strength. 

Figure 6 shows the two ways in which one of these re- 
taining walls could fail. The real strength of all this mass 
of steel rods is merely the little anchorage value of the short 
ends that are embedded in the vertical and the horizontal 
slabs. It is a cardinal principle of good design in rcin- 
forred concrete that a short end of a rod is entirely inade- 
quate to anchor it for its full value. 

Another glaring fault in the common method of design, 
illustrated in Fig. 6, lies in the useless intermeshing of the 
rods. A single curved rod running from the horizontal to 
the vertical slab and anchored in each would perform all 
and more than all the duty that a horizontal and a vertical 
rod, as shown in Fig. 6, can perform. The long rods A and B 
are absolutely useless for the greater part of their length. 
A single short rod from A around to B. with end anchorage 
at A and B, would be far more effiectual than these two rods 

Another serious fault in this common design lies in the 
difficulties and uncertainties in the matter of execution. A 
mesh of rods in any event is a serious menace to the proper 
placing of concrete. A little misplacement of a rod whose 
short end is depended upon for anchorage could result in the 
rod beng totally useless. Rods could very readily be omitted, 
even under the eye of a watcher, where such a large number 
is called for. It would be extremely difficult to hold too loose 
rods in place during the pouring of concrete and to be sure 
that no