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Full text of "Engineering and Contracting"

i il^ili 1' 




!i 



BIN])I]SGl^..„oiJ lo 1924. 



\0ck%0( 



Engineering and Contracting 

Devoted to the Economics of Civil Engineering Design and to 
Methods and Costs of Construction 

-nY^* index 



Vol. LX, July-December, 1923 



GENERAL INDEX 



Accelerators, Effect of Concrete. 358 

Accelerators, Effect on Beinforcing Steel 203 

Accident Prevention in Structural Work 875 

Accident Beduction. Contractors' Associations' 

Actinties in 1151 

Accidents, Automobile, Causes 688 

Accidents, Automobile at Grade Cnwaings 135 

Accidents, Crossing, Cause 482 

Accidents, Motor Vehicle. 7 

Accidents, Bailroad Crossing, How to Avoid 110 

Accidents, Traffic, on British Highirays 994 

Accounting, Highway Equipment 706 

Accounting. Water Works, Charleston. W. Va 1050 

Acetylene Flares for Night Lighting 923 

Activated Sludge Plant, Milwaukee. Fine Screen- 
ing 576 

Activated Sludge Process, British Derelopmoits- 79 

Activated Sludge. Value as Fertilizer 538 

Advance. Electrical _ 1234 

Advertising Matter, Suggestions for Filing 1324 

Advertising, Mark Twain on 306 

Aggregate, Handled by Conveyor and Bin Method 1040 

Air Brush Painting. Improvements in Guns 421 

Air Compressors Mounted on Ford Truck 894 

Air Movement in Tunnels, Device for Deter- 
mining 613 

Air Operated Steam Shovels 608 

Algae. Methods of Control of 1235 

Alkaline Conditions. Effect on Concrete 288 

Alley Paving, Labor Saving Arrangement for. 971 

American Institute of Arcchltects. Opporttmities 

and Purposes of _ 374 

American Irrigation. Advances Since 190O..I%.Hi. m » 
American Road Biiilders' Association Convention 689 
American Society of Municipal Improvements, 

Specifications for Street Railway Track...... 1072 

American Type Office Buildlns. Besistance to 

Earthquake Damage 1154 

Ammite. New Explosive. 457 

Analyses, Water. Expressing Resnlts 103 

Analysis of "Two-Way" Flat Slabs 155 

Apparatus, Development of, for Field Testing 

of Boads 248 

■ Apartment House With Full Electrical Equip- 
ment 1370 

Apartment House Building, New Features in. 653 

Apartment House. Jackson Heists Development 653 
Appraising Bailway Lands, Methods Employed 

by Bureau of Valuation _ 1297 

Apprentices in BuUding Trades 172 

Apprenticeship Trainftig, New Development in. " 291 

Aquaphone Surveys 1269 

Arbitration Clause in Contracts 1160. 148 

Arch Dam. Deflection Measurements in Switzer- 
land 530 

Architect. Anonymous 14g 

Architect as Contractor. 395 

Architect and Ensineer. Co-operation BetweaL_ 375 

Architect and Illuminating Practice 377 

Architect and Owner. Contract Between.- ~ 190 

Architect and Publicity _ _ „ 1145 

Architect, Right to Damages for TTnauthorized 
use by Owner of BuUding Plans and 

Speclflcatlon."! 393 

Architects' Findings FoUowing Japanese Earth- 
quake _ _ 1355 

Archltecttire, Creative and Concreta LJl 136rt 

Architecture. Snlrit of Community _ 184 

Architectural Representation, Models I"_" 179 

Area of Assessment. Determination of 722 

Arteries of Commerce. Transportation 317 

Asphalt. Causes of Waves 975 

Asphalt Con-structlon. Little Rock.'Ai*..."..".. ".i . 52 
Asphalt Construction. Rhode Island Highway 691 



Asphalt Lining for Drainage Ditches- 
Asphalt Macadam, Rhode Island- 



Asphalt Pavement, Type. Selection With Refer- 
ence to Local Materials 

Asphalt Plant. Municipal. Los Angeles 

Asphalt. Simplifications 

Asphalt Storage Tanks_ 



1003 
691 

740 
854 
913 



AsptuUt. Beduction of Varieties.. 
Asphalt. Resurfacing Brick Paveme 
Asphalt. Uses In Hi^way Construction- 
Asphalt Wagon. SpeciaL. 



Asphaltic Concrete Constniction. Fresno County- 
Assessment. Area. Determination of 

AutomobUe Accidents. Causes of 

Automobiles. Regulating Parking 



691 
451 
958 
722 
688 
244 



B 

BacUlus Coli. Movement of m Ground Water lOO 

Bad Roads for Good 945 

Ballast. Methods and Co^t of 583 

Ballast Deck TresUes. Method of Repairing 1095 

Bsltimora, Meterage 551 

Baltimoce. Water Waste. Meters and Rates. 751 

Banker. Contractor's. What Ho Should Know 1360 

Bankers and Builders 350 

Barber- Greene Improve Vertical Boom Ditcher 411 

Base for Bates. Original Cost or Present Value?- 106 

Beams. Concrete. New Type 175 

Beams, Haydite. Test of 198 

Beams, Short Concrete. Strength 883 

Beams, Steel I. Haimched With Concrete 1119 

Beams , Steel. Value of Haunching . 354 

Belt Conveyor, Life of. St. Louis. Water Worts- 750 

Belt Conveyor, for Placing Concrete 795 

Belt Conveyor for Handling Aggregate and Con- 
crete in Dam Constructioii 745 

Bidder, Responsible. Selecting ^ Til 

Bidders. Determining Skill and Responsibility of 115 

Birch Flooring 391 

Bituminous Macadam, Construction and Main- 
tenance of 715 

Bittuninoos Macadam. Marquette County Method 1187 

BltumiiKMU Macadam. Newton. Mass. 5 

Bittnnlnons Macadam. Rhode Island 691 

Blast Hole Drill, All-SteeL 882 

Blasting Chutes. Safe Method. 128 

Blasting to Loosen Up Material for Soctlm 

Dredging lU 

Blasting Madilne. Improred 408 

Blasting. Method for Directing Holes for V-Cut_ 1321 

Blasting. Method of Reducing Costs 507 

Blasting. Steel Tank Safety BeTage in 821 

Blasting, Tunnel : 137 

Block, Concrete S78 

Boiler Plant Operation, St. Lotils. With Fud OH 525 

Boiler, Testing In Small Plant 1271 

Bond Issues for Highway Coii.structlon__ 1238 

Bond Issues, Highway. Long Time. Sophistical 

Arguments Against 1 

Bonding, Skip. With Electric Bonding Machine.. 465 

Bonding. Special Track Work- 834 

Bonus System for Workmen on Road Job 459 

Boom Ditcher. Barber-Greene Im u r ote mait 411 

Bore Hole. Method of Stopping Flow From 285 

Boring Machine. Thrust 908 

Box Car Loader 414 

Bracket. AH-Steel Scafftdd 922 

Branch Lines. Light Traffic Maintenance 799 

Brank County. Concrete Highway 473 

Brick Laying Machlna 1369 

Brick Pavements. Modem Construction 1195 

Brick Pavements, Resurfacing With Asphalt 2 

Brick. SalvaginjT. Machine fnr. 455 

Bridge. Concrete. TTnustial Design. : 153 

Bridge, Hl^way. Economic Problems 238 



11 



Engineering and Contracting 



)•!««>%' 



Bridge, Menai Suspension, llesults of Exami- 
nation 

Bridge, Railway, Supervision. 

Bridge, Steel Higliway, Erecting TO Jliles From 
BaUroad 

Bridges, lligliway, i'roposed Loading for 

Bridges, Higiiway, Use of Timber in 

Bridges, Small 

Bridges, State Toll, Connecticut. 

British Developments in Activated Sludge Process 

British Uigliways, Traffic Census 

British Irrigation I'roject, Large 

British View of Fourth International lioad Con- 
gress - 

Bucket Loader, Mounted on Fordson. 

Bucket Plant, New Mast Hoist. _ 

Builders and Bankers ~ ^,~~ 

Building, Changes in lletail Cost — 

Building Construction, Japan. 

BuUding Construction, November 

Building Cost, California 

Building Costs, High, Who Is Responsible r 

BuUding Costs, 82 Years of 

Building Field I'rices, Prospective 

Building Forces, Railway, Supen'ision 

Building Foundations in Clay 

Building Industry, Monthly Statistics 

203, 347, 401, 677, 877, 1103, 

Building Labor Inefficiency Bred by Booms 

Building Materials, Retail Prices 

1106, 840, 632, 352, 150, 

Building Mechanics, Trade Schools for. 

Building, Moving 7-Stor>' for Railway Terminal 
Improvement 

Building Operations, Halting, Because of In- 
tolerable Costs 

Building Plans and Specification, Bight of 
Architect to Damages for Unauthorized 
Use of - 

Building Problems ~ - 

Btiilding, Situation, 1924 

Building Stone, Importance of Proper Storage.... 

Building, Straus, Chicago. - 

Building Trade, Wages and Average Employ- 
ment in - - 

Building Trades, Apprentices in. 

Building Trades, New York, Wa«e Increase in.... 

Building, Winter ~ 

Buildings, High, Development in Germany 

Buildings, Industrial, Roof Types 

Buildings, Protection Against Lightning. 

Buildings, School, I-lve Floor Load Requirements 

Buildings, School, Standardized Elementary 

Buildings, Stone, Cleaning 

Buildings, Tokio Steel Frame, Special StlfTenlng 
of - ■■■■■ 

Buildings, Winter Construction, Economy of 

Bump Machine, Anti-Chatter. 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Statistical Methods.. 

Bureau of Valuation, Methods Employed for 
Appraising Railway Lands - 

Bus Lines, Municipal _ 

Bus Operation, Comparison of Cost With Elec- 
tric Car Operation. 

Busses and Electric Railways 

Business Men Are Still "Jumpy" 

Buster, New Concrete -._~ 



1113 
1076 



363 
48 

478 

1168 

79 

729 
91 

4 
453 
893 
350 
186 
1118 
1351 
1362 
1348 
1158 
145 
1076 
870 

1357 
680 

1364 
168 

1063 

349 



393 
631 
1161 
671 
355 

683 
172 
160 

1324 
666 

1331 
357 
158 
686 

1115 

678 

629 

446 

47 

1297 
508 



693 
146 
944 



C 

Calcium Chloride Type of Accelerator. Tests on 358 

Calendar, Suggested Improvements In. 579 

California Building Cost 1362 

California Day Labor Law 199 

Camden. N. J., New Well Water System — 258 

Canadian Engineer. Schedule of Fees for. 983 

Canadian Parlflc Rail Laying Methods. — 1293 

Canadian Road Policies 468 

Canals, Irrigation, Concrete Lining of. 639 

Canals, Irrtgatlon. Economies In Cleaninx. 568 

Canals, Railways and Highways, Relation 1273 

CaiijboHrd Modeling. Advantages of 179 

Car Puller, New Cnpstan _ 439 

Cars. 1-Mnn and 2-Mnn. Operating Costs 1070 

Cast Iron Pipe Prwiuc tlon. 1238 

Castlotnn Cut-Off, Unusual Culvert Construction 

on „ _ 148 

Cellar Drainer, Penbcrthy Automatic 448 

Cement Oun for Repairing Coagulation Basins'.... 1094 

Cement Joints ._ 629 

Cement Mortar, TnveRtlgatlon of Fatigue Ele- 
ment nf : „ 209 

rpntrr T,lnlng Minnesota Highways 1186 

Central Mixing Plnnt, ElerfrlfBllr Operated 883 

Charleston Wafer Works Accounting 1050 

C. * N. W. Ry. Retaining Wall Construction. 

Milwaukee 797 

Chlcftgo Termlnsl Improvements, Illinois Central 622 
Chicago TTnlon Station Development 805 



H^emei^iun 
ghn. coa^n- 
. . .%..../....^.... 



Chicago Union Station Tracks, Concrete Slab 

Supports for 

Chicago Water Meterage _... 

Chimney, Method of I'roportioning 

Chimney Sizes, Determination of _ 

Chouteau Avenue Incinerator Plant, St. Louis 

Chronology, HjdrauUc 

Chutes, Safe Alethod of Blasting 

City Manager, First 

City Manager Plan, Growth of 

City Manager, Problems in City;^f Abo*t 10,000.. 

City Planning, New York JfA..\..tr^ 

City Planning, Regional .*. ^—.r 

Clebum, Tex., Water Works. ^*umpa* and 

Operating Cost _ -*-^ 

Coagulation Basins, Repairing Witlf^emew«un 

Coagulation Control by Hydrogen ^^- ''■" 

tration 

Coagulation, Double, in Water FiltrH^ion 
Coal Consumption at Pumping PlanI 

Coal Pier, Western Maryland Ry 

Coal Pile, Water Works Reducing 

Coaling Stations, Creosoted Timber. 

Code. Safety, lor Contractors. ~ 

Cold Weather Concreting „ 

Cold Weather Concreting, Fundamentals 

Cold Weather Construction of Concrete Culvert — 

College Education - 

College Graduate and First Job 

Colonization Railway, Canada 

Commodity I'roduction, Quality Standards in. 

Common Labor, Railway Construction and Main- 
tenance 

Community Spirit in Architectura 

Compressed Air for Operating Steam Shovels 

Compressor, Portable 

Concrete Beams, New Type 

Concrete Beams, Short, StrengUi of 

Concrete, Behavior Exposed to Alkaline Condi- 
tions - 

Concrete Block Machine. 

Concrete Bridge, Unusual Design 

Concrete Bridge. Watertown, N. Y..._ 

Concrete BuUding Block and Concrete BuUding 

Tile - 

Concrete Construction, Pre-Cast. New Type 

Concrete, Corrosion of Iron. 

Concrete and Creative Architectura 

Concrete Culvert Construction in Zero Weather- 
Concrete, Culverts, Monolithio. 

Concrete Design, Shortcuts for Solving. 

Concrete, DeU'rioration in Alkaline Soils _ 

Concrete, Effect of Accelerators in. — 

Concrete Floors, Compound for Repairing. 

Concrete Floor Finish - — 

Concrete Floor Hints for Contractors — 

Concrete Floor Treatment - ~ 

Concrete Hardener. Colored 

Concrete Haunching of Steel I Beams 

Concrete Highway, Sampling Pine Aggregate for.. 

Concrete Lining for Irrigation Canals 

Concrete Lltnel in Brick Walls 

Concrete Mixers, Proportioning — 

Concrete Mixers. Water Measuring Tank for 

Concrete Mixtures, Workability of — 

Concrete Paving, Plant Layout 

Concrete Paving of Street Railway Track. _... 

Concrete Paving, "Rhoubonlte" Process. 

Concrete Pavement Laid in Four Sections. 

Concrete Pavement Sections With Thickened 

Edges 

Concrete Pavements, Methods of Constructing 

Concrete Pavements, Resurfacing With Brick 

Concrete Pavements, Testing Materials for. 

Concrete I'lles. Cutting With Dynamite 

Concrete, Placing With Belt Conveyor _ 

Concrete Railway Ties — 

Concrete, Reinforced, Under Shock - 

Concrete Road Surfacing by "Bhoubenlte" 

Process 

Concrete Roads, Behavior of Under Service 

Conditions 

Concrete Schoolhouso Design, Philadelphia, Pro- 
gressive Economy 

Concrete Single Track Highways 

Concrete Slab. Grade Crossings - 

Concrete Slab Supports for Chicago TTnlon 

Station Tracks ?1 

Concrete Slabs. ElToct of Repeated Ix>ads 

Concrete Sfandpipe, Waterproofing. » 

Concrete, Strength. Relation to Cement, Agxre- 

gates and Water..., .. — ™_..._ 

Concrete. Strength of _ 

Concrete Surface Grinder _ 

Concrete Tank. Ollpmoflng 

Concrete Tanks for Railway Water Service. 

Concrete Test Cylinders. Effect on Irregular 

Ends on 

Concrete Tile Expwlmonts In Alkalln Soil 



611 
59 

645 

U45 

286 
1228 

128 

513 

280 
1265 

402 

4yy 

790 
1004 

281 

542 

84 

1283 

84 

13J6 

389 
1326 

843 
1318 

743 

336 
1277 

515 

1307 
184 
608 
936 
175 
863 

, 289 

iso 

158 
153 

378 
175 
194 

1366 

1318 
704 

1327 
288 
358 
907 
664 
662 
66S 
922 

1U9 
736 
539 

1134 

961 

452 

879 

24 

1319 
56 
972. 

20 
229 
995 
996 
339 
795 
586 
1330 

56 



1S45 
478 
690 

611 
209 
623 

1136 
1136 
918 
399 
1078 

228 
1022 



Engineering and Contracting 



HI 



Concreting in Cold Weather. 

Concreting. Cold Weather, Fundamentals. 

Concreting Units. Movable, Miring. Elevating 

and Chuting -• 

Connecticut Investigations of Highway Traffic 

ConstrucUon Equipment, Bcntal Charges. 

Construction oiuioolc for 1924 

ConstrucUon Program, Big, BaUwajs-. .-.- 

ConstrucUon Service. Selling by Photographic 

Construction. Winter, Economy of 

Construction Work. Safe Practices in. 

Conitructor and Designer. Kespective Senices 

Contract Between Architect and Owner 

Contract Form. Illinois Society d Architects 

Contractor as Architect 

contractor. Expiosne =, 

Contractor, yualihed. Selecting. .- 

Contractors' Associations' AcUviUes in Accident 

UeducUou - 

Contractor's Banker. What He Should Know 

Contractors' Barrows. New 

Contractors and Higuway llesearch 

Contractors' Safety Code 

Contractor's Viewpoint in SpectflcaUons. 

Contracts, Arbitration Clause in 148. 

Contracts, Long Term, Income From 

Contracts. Road and Street 

Conveyor and Bin Method for H a ndlin g Aggre- 

Co-operation Between Engineer and Architect. 

Co-ordination of Kail and Motor Service 

Copi>er-Bearing Steel, Durability of 

Copper Sulphate, Use in Control of Algae. 

Corrosion of Iron in Concrete. 

Cost Maintenance. St, Louis. 

Cost. Painting, by Hand and by Air Brush 

Cost, Truck Operating. 
Costs. Building. 82 Yeats. 
Covered Reservoirs. Details of_ 
Coyote Method of Blasting.. 



1326 
843 

682 

14 

1130 

1312 
1339 
581 

115G 
629 
849 
152 
19U 
190 
395 
34J 
115 

1151 

1360 
416 

1196 
389 
161 

1160 
55 



Crane. General Purpose for.. 
Crane for Industrial Haulin^„ 

Crane. Locomotive 

Crane Mounted on Electric Truck 

Crawler Crane, ConverUble 

Creative Architecture ; 

Creosoted Timber Bridges, Alabama 

Creosoted Timber Coaling StaUons 

Crib Dams on Cumberland River. 

Cribs, Design of 

Crossing Accidents. Cause of „ _ 

Cros.slng Plank. Old Bridge Ties for 

Crossings. Highway Grade. Concrete Slab„ 
Crossings. Railway. Grade Separation- 



Crusher, Mounted 24-ln. Symons Disc 

Crusher Outfit. Compact 

Crushing Plant. Portable Gyratory ^2, 

Cumberland River Crib Dams 

Culvert ConstrucUon. Unusual 

Culvert Construction in Zero Weather 

Ctilverts „ _ 

Ctilverta, Metkods of Installing Under Traffic 

Ctilverts, Monolithic Concrete. 

Curb. Integral. Method of Constructing. _ 

Curing, Slide, on Yazoo & Mississippi Valley 

R. R. _ 

Current Material Prices. 

209, 1276. 1056. 582, 334. 



D 

Dam. Arch, Deflection Measurements in Switzer- 
land : 

Dam Foundation, Sealing With Grout 

Dam, Earth. Criteria for Design. 

Dam. Laurel Road. Construction Methods 

Dam. Malone Diversion. Cost 

Dam O'Shaughnessy, Dedication of 

Dam, O'Shaughnessy, Siphon Spillway. 

Dams. Crib. Cumberland River 

Dance Floors. CMicrete, ~Z 

Davis. Removal as Director of U. S. Reclamation 

Service 

Dav Labor Law, California... 7 "' ." Z 

Decoration. Sgraffito, Method of Maklni___ 

Deer Island Outlet Sewer 

Defe^-t In Rate Regulation System „ '"_ 

Deflection Measurements on Arch Dam in 

Switzerland „ 

Derrick. One-Man Portable ~ _" Z! _Z 

Derrick, Roof Truss, Erect Standpipe.."' !' 
Design. Schoolhnuse Concrete, at Philadelphia..- 

Design of Streets . 

nesigner and Constructor. Respective"SeiTlc«e..Z 

npslgnlng Practice. Structural. Advances In 

Dft^rioratlon of Structures In Sea Water 



1040 

375 

113 

2 

1235 
194 
920 

1352 
33 

1158 
783 
137 
891 
904 
886 
S2A 
895 

1366 
742 

1306 
638 
97 
482 
619 
590 
469 
419 
410 
414 
038 
143 

1318 
478 

1062 
704 
714 

1320 

112 



530 
548 
90 
745 
1048 
256 
674 
638 
663 

62 

19<» 

1117 

1239 

1053 

530 

454 

1042 

1345 

1174 

152 

838 

859 



Developing Inland Water Transportation. _... 

Device for Testing Wheel Impact on Bails 

Dikes, Permanence of Timber Work in 

Dirt Mover's Day 

Dirt Road Maintenance in Sierra Nevada 

Mountains ...—_. 

Ditches. Drainage. Asplialt Lining for 

Diversion Dam. Malone. ''<va. 

Douglas Fir. Identiticauon 

Dowie BuUding. Method of Moving- 



Drag-Line EicavaUon on Irrigation Project 

Dragline, for Sewer Trenching. 77, 

Drainage Ditclies. Asphalt Lining for_ 

Dredging. Sucuon, Loosening Up Material 

DrUl Holes, Deep Well. Loading 

Drill Steel. Device for Simplifying Heat Treat- 
ment 

DrUl. Steel, How to Temper 



Drills, New Rotator- 
Drills, Rock, for Structural Wort 

Drinking Fountains, Cost of Icing 

Drivers, Motor Truck. How to I'ick 

Driving Reckless 

Drum Puller. l-Man 

Dump. Body, for Hauling Lumber. 

Dump Hoist. New FrlcUon 

Dump Trailer, New 

Durability of Copper-Bearing Steel 

Dynamite. Cutting Concrete PUes With 



519 
835 
193 
794 

978 
10O2 
1048 
661 
1063 
260 
789 
1002 
111 
626 

931 

1061 

888 

1349 

574 

1094 

687 

456 

707 

443 

457 

339 



E 

Earth Dam Design, Criteria for 90 

Earthquake. Japanese. Architects' Findings. 1355 

Easy Dodges In Mathematics. 1109 

Economic Highway Bridge Problems 238 

Economic Value of Good Roads 243 

EducaUon of Highway Engineers. 28 

Education, College 743 

Elastic Wall Primer as Paint Base. 1338 

Electric Car OperaUon. Comparison of Cost 

With Bus OperaUon ; 838 

Electric Hammer for Drilling. Chipping. Etc S03 

Electric Motor. Fitting to Pump 1013 

Electric Railway Industry. Present Situation In.. 1088 

Electric Railway Practice 1057 

Electric RaUway and Motor Bus 592. 1301 

Electric Railways. Motor Bus Operation by 109O 

Electric Railways and Busses 580 

Electric Welder and Grinder Combined 118 

Electrical Advance - 1224 

Electrical Equipment for Apartment House 1370 

Electrical Equipment for Operating Coal Pler__^ 1283 

Electrification of Railway. Economics of 1288 

Electricity. Method of Measuring Water 1230 

Elevator Hydraulic. Moving River Sand 88 

Elevator Installation. Notable Sute 1354 

Engine. CUmai 417 

Engines. Le Roi ... 451 

Engineer and Architect. Co-operaUoo Between 375 

Engineering and Finance 812 

Engineering. Government. Politics in. 60 

Engineering. Highway and Highway Transp(»t.... 7 

Engineering Office Standards 200 

Engineering. Past. Present and Futur«L.-.-_ 988 

Engineering. Professional Status of 187 

Engineering QualiflcatlMis 1275 

Engineering. Sanitary. Recent Developments „. 169 

Engineering Work for Large British IrrigaUcMi 

Project 91 

Engineers. Canadian, Schedule of Fees for. 983 

EniEineers. Highway. EducaUc* 28 

Engineers' Participation in PubUc Affairs 739 

Engineers. Railway. Dogmatic 1055 

Engineers and Removal of Davis as Director of 

U. S. Reclamation Service 62 

English Tests of Heat Transmission Through 

Walls 1148 

Equipment Accounting, Highway 706 

Equipment, Construction. Rental Charges 1130 

Equipment, Heavy, Special Transfer Provided tar 483 
Equipment, I.Abor-Saving. Formulas for Com- . 

putlng Economies of _ "673 

Eqtilpment for RaUway Bridge and Building 

Service 1315 

Excavation Drag-Line on Irrigation Project 2R0 

Experimental Oiled Roads. Illinois 730 

Explosive Contractor 340 

Explosive. New, Anunlte 457 

Explosives. Accidents In Handling 144 

Explosives for Deepening Rivers. 1272 

Explosives. How to Avoid Waste of 507 

Explosives. Liquid Oxygen. 594 

Explosives Used In September. 1102 



Fatigue Element of Cement Hortar. Iiivestlga- 

tion of. 209 

Federal Aid Road Construction...... 957 



IV 



Engineering and Contracting 



Federal Aid Boads, Kelative Mileage of 30 

Fees, Schedule for Canadian Kngilieers. 983 

Fertilizer, Value of Sludge as _ 538 

Field Testing of Roads, Apparatus for. 248 

Filing Advertising Matter 1324 

Filter Plant Operation, St. Louis 650 

FUter Sand. Effect of Size of on Operation. 102 

Filters, Stream Lina 1011 

Filtration I'lant Operation, Rapid Sand 74 

Filtration, Steam Line Filters 1011 

Filtration. Water, Double Coagulation. 542 

Finance and Engineering 812 

Finance, Higliway 1167 

Financing Highway - 1166, 1213 

Financing Water Main Extensions 1045 

Fine Aggregate, Sampling for Concrete Highway.. 736 
Fine Screening of Activated Sludge i'lant, 

Milwaukee 576 

Fink Truss, Solution of _„.1105, 1325 

Fire Engines, Hydrant Connections 1248 

Fire Hydrant, JS'on- Jacketed 425 

Fire, Mine, JleUiod of Cutting Off by Trenching 627 

Fire, Spread, Hue to Structural Conditions 1358 

Fires, Repumping vs. Increased Pressure for. 526 

First Job and College Graduate 336 

Flag Signals, Pipe Staff 1322 

Flat Slabs. "Two-Way," Analysis ~ 155 

Flood Control. Comparison of Measures 563 

Flood I'rotection, Pueblo, Colo 1043 

Floods, Causes of 563 

Flooring, Maple, Beech and Birch _ 391 

Floors, Heavy Duty, for Industrial Buildings 662 

Floors, Reinforced Concrete, Test of 201 

Floors, Terrazzo J;°2 

Food, Changes in Retail Prices 208 

Food. Retail Cost of 792 

Force Pump, Trench 943 

Ford Engine, Method of Cooling for Mixer Oper- 
ation • ?ff 

Fordson, Converted to Track Locomotive Hi. 

Fordsons, Full-Crawler Attachment for 409 

Foremen, Section, Training 1291 

Forreston Gravel Plant. I. C. R. R 806 

Fort Worth, Tex., Experiences With Algae 1235 

Foundation Dam. Sealing With Grout. 548 

Foundation for Highway Bridge, Grouting 994 

Foundation, PUe, Notes on. 1124 

Foundations. Building, in Clay 870 

Foundations, Pavement 1192 

Foundations. Public Drinking. Cost of Icing. 574 

Fourth Intemationay Road Congress, British 

View of - ■ * 

Frame and Pile Trestles in Electric Railway 

Practice - 1057 

Franklin. N. J., Tj-phoid 81 

Fresno County Asphaltlc Concrete Construction.... 958 

Fresno With Improved Details _ 429 

Frozen Ground. Blasting 578 

Fuel EfBclencies. Increasing _ 254 

Fuel Oil for Boiler Plant Operation 525 

Purring Clip for Wire Mesh - 921 

G 

Gable Flnlal, New 893 

Garage Door Arrangement. ,. 399 

Garages, Truck, Design of 397 

Garbage Disposal, St. Louis. 286 

Garbage. Humus Prom »......_ 933 

Garbage Wagon. Improved ™ . 429 

Gasoline Shovel, New ™...__....™_„__— 886 

Gas From Sludge ~ 1044 

Gasoline Engine, Nevt. ~ 409 

Gasoline Roller - 985 

Gasoline Shovel, New %-Yard „ — 466 

Gasoline Tax for Road Purposes 261 

Gelatin, New Atlas _'._ 424 

Geophone 438 

G«opbone, Experiences In Locating Underground 

Leaks _ 785 

Geophone. Tx)catlnK Leaks With 89 

German Skyscrapers. Development of. - — 666 

Girder, 68-Ton — - 848 

Girder, 98-Ton. Placing _ 809 

Girders. 67-Ton. Hauling _... 635 

Good Roads. Economic Value 243 

Government Ownership of Railways and Attack 

on Valuation 601 

Grade Croeslng Accidents, Automobile. 186 

Grade Separation at Railway Croesinm 469 

Grader, General Utility „ 422 

Grader Wheels, Improved _ _ 890 

Grades, Highway, Economic Value „ 247 

Graphic Rrheme for Expressing Results of Water 

Analvses „ _ 10.1 

ftravel Barge. Spotting With Crane 116 

Gravel Plant. Forrfston. I. r. R. B. Sflfi 

Gravel Road Construction, Utah 968 

Gravel for Road Maintenance 213, 051 



Gravel Road Maintenance, Alichigan 

Gravel Road Maintenance With "Spring 

Scrapers" 

Gravel Screening and Cnishing Plant _ 

Ground Water, Pollution of 

Ground-Water Supplies, I're-Clacial Valleys _... 

Grout. Sealing Foundation of Dam Witii. 

Grouting Dam Foundation. 

Grouting, Foundations for Highway Bridge, 

Method .„ 

Grouting, Methods Shaft Sinking 

Guard Plate, New, for Railway Switches 

Guard Rail, Wire Rope 



25 
917 
lOD 
775 
548 
548 

994 
315 
342 

247 



H 

Hammer Drill, Somerville Gasoline. 447 

Hand Level, Reflecting.^. 911 

Hauling, 67-Ton Girders 635 

Haunching, Value of, for Steel Beams 354 

Headwalls for Pipe Culverts 1093 

Heat Transmission Through Walls, English Tests 1148 

Heater, Tar and Asphalt 432 

Heavy Electric Traction, Development of 1059 

Heavy Electric Traction, Trolley Construction for 333 

High Building Costs, Who Is Responsible 1348 

Highway Bond Issues, Long Time, Soptiistical 

Arguments Against 1 

Highway Bridge, Foundation for Grouting 994 

Highway Bridge Problems _ 238 

Highway Bridge, Steel. Erecting 70 Miles From 

Railroad 886 

Higliway Bridges, Use of Timber in 48 

Highway Bridges, Proposed Loading for 363 

Higliway Construction, Bond Issues. 1208 

Highway Construction Througli Swamp 963 

Highway Construction, Uses of Asphalt in 691 

Highway Crossings. Grade Separation. 468 

Highway Curves, Widening on. _... 1208 

Highway Engineering, University of Michigan 1190 

Higliway Engineering and Highway Transport 7 

Highway Engineers, Education of „. 28 

Highway Equipment Accounting 706 

Highway Finance _ 1167 

Highway Financing „„ 1166 

Highway Financing, America, Problem of 1213 

Highway Grade Crossings, Concrete Slab 690 

Higliway Grades, Economic Value of Reducing.... 247 

Highway, "Invisible Track" Type 956 

Highway Lighting 226, 8, 726. 1177 

Highway Maintenance 22 

Higliway Maintenance, GraveL 96i 

Highway Maintenance, Gravel, "Spring Scrapers" 25 

Highway Maintenance, Gravel and Stone for 213 

Highway Maintenance, Intensive, North Carolina 973 

Highway Maintenance, Kentucky, Cost 713 

Highway Maintenance, Monroe County, Mich 480 

Highway Maintenance, Notes on _. 1221 

Highway Maintenance, Patrol Method 53 

Highway Pavements. General Instructions for 

Surveys 510 

Highway Research, What Contractors Are Doing.. 1196 

Higliway Spillways for Carrjing Flood Water 967 

Highway Systems. Provincial, Canada 23 

Highway Traffic, Connecticut Investigations 14 

Hlgkway Traffic Counter 983 

Highway Traffic Surveys laia 

Highway Transport 1082 

Highway Transport as Aid to Railroads '. 1082 

Higliway Transport Education. Michigan 1190 

Highway Transport and Highway Engineering 7 

Highway Views and News 967 

Highways, Concrete, Behavior Under Service 

Conditions _ 491 

Highways, Concrete Single Track ™Z™! 473 

Highways, Connecticut. Cost 987 

Highways, Canals and Railways, Relation. 1273 

Highways, Equitable Distribution of Cost 44 

Highways, Pennsylvania, Traffic Inspection 

Officers „ 43 

Highways, Progressive Construction of 1." 2*3 

Hinsdale, 111.. Problems of City Management 1265 

Hitch, Offset, for Tractor Use 88S 

Hoist Attachment for Fordson Tractor 896 

Hoist, National Junior 428 

Hoist. New Tractor 42s 

Hoist. Reversible, for Builders and Contractors.... 437 

Hoist. Utility „ „ 415 

Hoisting Outfit Improved „ 421 

Hoists. Portable, for Mucking In Mines 822 

Hollow Rnlldlng Tiles, Sizes and Weights 916 

Tfou.se. Rcndy-Cut 837 

Houses. Ready-Cut _ _ 865 

Hydrant Connootlnns for Fire Engines. 1248 

Hydraulic Chronology 122S 

Hydraulic Elev.itor, Moving River Sand 88 

Hydraulic Gradient, Method of Locating In 

Water Tunnel „ 786 



Engineering and Contracting 



Hldio Klectric Development, 105.000 H. P.. 
Hydro -Plants. Ice Problems 



lOlS 
12M 



K.-^- Co^ce^SS Co.gul«iou'^5SES5 m 



I Beams. Steel, Haunched With Co 

Ice Plant, Municipal. OmaHa 

Ice Problems of Hjciro-Planti.- 



ifina. Cost for Drinking Ko --^, 

Sis C«itral Terminal Improjemeats, Clucgo 

L C B. K- Forresion Gravel Plant 

Illinois Experimental OUed Boads --r-— 

Illinois society of Architects Contract Form 

UlumlnaUon of City Streets and Highways 

Illumination of Highways ..- 

Illuminating PracUce and Archxwct----- 

Impact Wheel on Bails, Device for Testing 

Improved Bead. Profits From-- " ■■■ ^ •■- 

Sanerator Plant. Chouteau Avenue, St. U>vi». 

Mo. • r — -— 

Income Tax, Methods of Beporting. 

Income, Long Term Contracts. 



Increased Pressuse vs. Bepumping for Fires 
Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices 



U19 

768 
1254 
574 
622 
806 
730 
1»0 
726 
726 
377 
835 
U6fi 

286 
55 
55 

526 



Industrial BuUdings, Boof Surfaces 

Indu'trial Plants, Appropriate Beauty 

Industrial Begions, Boad Service UL — _- 

Industrial Tractor With Internal Gear Drive 

Industrial Wastes, Treatment of__._._ — - 

Inland Water Boute, Successful ShipmaU or 

Tanks ■ ■ 

Inland Water TransporUtion, Developing- 



.634, 351. 149. 1363, 1108 
1331 
348 
1181 
914 
1261 



Inatiuctions for Surveys for Highway Pavements- 
Insulating Material. New. 

Intakes. Water Works. Construction 

Intakes. Construction of — 

Integral Curb. Method of Constructing. 

Intensive Highway Maintenance. North Carolina- 
International Boad Congress, British View of 

Intersute Commerce Commission. What Is Wrong 

InvesUgaUons "oT Water Supply. Importance of 

Before Commencement of Construction 

•Invisible Track" Type of Highway 

Iodine Treatment of Water 

Iowa. Practice in Construction of Highways 

Iron. Corrosion in Concrete. 

Iron Bemoval From Naval Academy Water 

Supply 

bilgatiioa. American, Advances Since 1900 

IrrlgatlMi Canals, Concrete Lining. 

Irrigation Canals, Economies in Cleaning.. 
Irrigation Project. Drag-Line Excavation... 
Irrigation Project. Large British — 



Jack Hammers for Bemoving Submarine Bock — 

Jackson Helots Development 

JaU, Construction Costs, St. Louis County 

Japan. Building Construction, in 

Japanese Earthquake, Architects' Findings 

Japanese Earthquake. Effect on American Type 

OfBce Buildings 

Joints. Comparison of Lead, Leadite and Cement 

Joints, BaU. Boosting 

Joints. Steel 

Joints. Track. Jfalntenance of 

Jrtnts, Welded BaU 



Kansas Early Bailroad Grading Camps... 
Kentucky Hi^way Maintenance. Cost 



Labor. Btrlldlng. Inefficiency Bred by BoomsL— . 

Idibor. Common. Ballway Construction 

Labor Saving Devices. Track Work. 

Labor-saving Equipment. Formulas for Com- 
puting Economies of 

IiUidls Award, Two Tears of 

Laurel Boad Dam. Construction Methods 

Lawns, Control of Weeds on 

Lead. Leadite and Cement Joints. Comparison—— 
Leadite Joints 



leakage. Underground. Methods of Detecting—.. 

Leaks. LocatinB With Geophone 89. 

Level. Convertible 



Lighting, street and Hi^way 

Lighting of Streets.. 

Lightning. Protecting of BuUdings Against 

Lime. How to Make It Set Quickly 

Lincoln. Neb., Sewage Disposal Worto. 



575 

519 

510 

419 

97 

97 

714 

973 

4 



545 
956 
63 
220 
194 

1267 
1243 
539 
568 
260 
91 



1035 
653 
362 
1118 
1355 



529 
108 
430 
1097 
833 



610 
713 



680 

1307 

816 

673- 

1103 
745 
966 
529 
529 

1S69 
785 
448 
226 

1177 
357 
918 

1028 



Lining, Concrete, for Irrigation 

Lintel, Concrete, WiUi BricJs 

Liquid Oxygen Explosives- 



Little Bock. Ark., Sheet Aafh^it Constractioa in 
Live Floor Load Bequiremous in School Build- 
ings 

Load, Live Floor, School Buildings 

Loader. Improved Haiss . 

Loading, Proposed for fii^way Bridges 

Loading WeU DriU Holes 

Locomotive Stiipments 



Locomotive Terminals. Modem. Important Fea- 
tures 

Long-Bell Lumber Company's New City - 

Long Term Contracts, Income From __ 

Longview, Washington 



Lumber, WMiiin g jn Dump Bn^y 

Lumber Industry, Standard AbbreviatlODs 

Terms 



Lumber, Wastes by Consumer- 



53» 

US4 

5M 

S2 

158 
158 
423 
363 

6X6 
1296 

595 
657 
55 
657 
707 

182 
llfi7 



Macadam. Bituminous. Itewton. Mass. 5 

Machine for Laying Brick 1369 

Machine for Bemoving Shale From Sand sad 

Gravel 920 

Machinery, Boad, Use and Care 488 

Maintenance of Bituminous Macadam 715 

Maintenance. Hi^way, Cost 713 

Maintenance, Highway 1221 

Maintenance, Highway. Monroe County, Hicta 480 

Malone Diversion Dam, Method and Cost of 

Construction 1048 

Manslaughter. Official 61 

Maple Flooring 891 

Mark Twain on Advertising 206 

Marquette County Boad Construction 1187 

Masonry Paititiims. Transmission of Sound by — 368 

Masonry Walls. Wsterprooflng Processes 11S3 

Mass Transportation Facilities Planning . 129 

Mast Hoist. New Double Drum 897 

Material Elevator Hoist 932 

Material Prices. Current. 304, 793 

Materials. Local, Selection of Types <tf Asphalt 

Pavement 740 

Materials, Testing for Concrete Pavements 996 

Mathematics, Some Easy Dodges in 1109 

Measurements, Deaection. on Arch Dam 530 

Measuring Devices and Steel Bin 416 

Measuring Hopper, Adjustable 940 

Measuring Water With Salt and Electricity 1230 

Menai Suspension Bridge, Besults of Examina- 
tion U13 

Meter InstaUatlons, Ohio 1231 

Meter Bates, Ohio 1231 

Meterage. Baltimore 551. 751 

Meterage. Water 69 

Metering Chicago's Water Supply M 

Meters. Quarterly or Monthly Beading 1256 

Methods of Detecting Underground TjeakMge 1269 

Methods of liniiro>rement In Mudcapping 625 

Metropolitan Flanntng 499 

Michigan, ffigbway HaintoianceL _. 53 

Michigan Water Treatmmt, Supervision 1041 

MUwmnkee Quantity Survey 170 

Mints Deepest In the World 108 

Mine Fire. Method of Cutting Off by Trenching.. 627 

Mine Mucking With Portable Hoists 822 

Mineral Contamination of Water. 520 

Mlred-Down Caterpillar Shovel. Method of Be- 

leaslng .-. 1058 

Mixer Construction Improvemoit < 413 

Mixer, Jaeger 457 

Mixer, Mounted on TraUer. 441 

Mixer, New Lakewood 454 

Mixers, New Line 942 

Mixer. New Type Hand Power 435 

Mixers. Improved Bex 431 

Models In Architectural Bepresentation. 179 

Modem Developments In Concrete Pavements. — 229 

MonoUthlc Concrete Culverts 704 

Monroe Countr. Boad Maintenance 480 

Monthly Reading of Meters 1256 

Monthly Statistics of Building Industrr 

1163. 877, 677. 401, 1357 

Mortar. Cement. InTestlgatlon of Fatigue Ele- 
ment 209 

Mosquito Control. BesiUts. Brunswick. Oa 1247 

Motor Bus and Electric RaUway 937. 1301. 592 

Motor Bus OpwatioD by Electric "BaBwvn 1090 

Motor Car. SaUroad. Development of 1304 

Jfotor. Electric. Fitting to Ptimp 1013 

Motor Hoists. New Air. 892 

Motor and Ball Service. Co-ordination of. 113 

Motor Transport. Relation to Railways 1085 

Motor Truck Drivers. How to Pick 1094 

Motor Truck TransportaticHL - 484 

Motor Trucks 1198 



VI 



Engineering and Contracting 



Motor Trucks, Whea Should They Be Retired?.... 1198 

Motor Trucks and Bailroads 1082 

Motor Trucks, Kegulaiion of Overloading 464 

Motor Vehicle Accidents In Massachusetts. 7 

Motor Vehicle Production. _ — .3, 116B 

Moving 7 -Story Building, Chicago. _ 1063 

Mucking in Mines With Portable Hoists..- 822 

Mudcapping Methods, Improvements In. 625 

Mxinicipal Asphalt Plant Operation, Los Angeles 954 

Mimicipal Bus Lines _ 508 

Municipal Ice Plant, Omaha 768 

Municipal Ownership of Public Utilities 1054 

Municipal Traffic Problem. 976 

Municipal Use of Water at Springfield, Mass 104 

N 

Naval Academy, Iron Kemoval From Water 

Supply 1267 

Naval Academy, Waterproofing Hoof Terrace of.. 1141 

New Concrete Buster. - 944 

New England Water Works Association Con- 
vention ~ _ ~ 572 

New England, Water Works Additions 1023 

Newton, Mass., Bituminous Macadam ... 5 

Newton, Mass., Water Supply _ 784 

1924 Building Situation. 1161 

Non-Bituminous Material, Standard Tests for.... 58 

North Carolina Highway Maintenance 973 

North Carolina, Practice in Construction Hiak- 

North Carolina, Sampling Fine Aggregate-. 736 

O 

Obsolenscence 791 

Office Building, American Type, Besistance to 

Earthquake Damages 1154 

Office Space, High Class, Production of 636 

Official Manslaughter — 61 

Ohio Conference on Water Purification. _ 1044 

Oil Burning Tool and Surface Heaters 433 

on Pipe Line, Tunnel Construction for. 830 

Oiled Eoads, Experimental. Illinois 730 

Ollproofing Concrete Tanks 399 

Oils, Eoad, Testing 497 

1-Man Cars. Operating Costs 1070 

Operation Records for Small Water Works 1007 

Original Cost or Present Value as Base for Bates 106 

O'Shaughnessy Dam, San Francisco 256 

O'Shaughnessy Dam, Siphon Spillway 574 

Outfall Sewer, Los Angeles _ . 83 

OuUet Sewer. Deer Island 123!) 

Overloading Motor Trucks, Regulation 464 



Paint Base, Elastic Wall Primer 1338 

Paint, Cold Water, Covering Capacity 1150 

Paint Cost vs. Cost of Painting. 1352 

Paint, Whitewash, Covering Capacity 1150 

Painting, Air Brush. 1352 

Painting Jobs, Estimating 868 

Panama Canal, First 9 Years' Operation 621 

Paper Mill Wastes, Treatment _ 1261 

Parking of Automobiles, Regulation _. 244 

Passenger Terminals, Design _ 121 

Patrol Method of Road Maintenance 53 

Pavement, A.snhalt 74o 

Pavement, Concrete, Sections With Thickened 

Edges 20 

Pavement Construction Without Sub-base Treat- 
ment _ 3.1 

Pavement Design 1174 

Pavement Design, Concrete 20 

Pavement, Design of Street Railway Track in. 614 

Pavement Founflatlon.s _ 1192 

Pavement Practice. Worcester, Mass 30 

Pavement Within Street Railway Area 1310 

Pavements, Brick, Modern Construction 1196 

Pavements. Brick, Resurfacing With Asphalt 2 

Pavements, Concrete, Modem Developments. 229 

Pavements, Highway, General Instructions for 

Surveys _ 610 

Paved Streets, Design of Street Railway Track In 614 

Paver, Blgge/it 405 

Paver. Special Design of 1205 

Paving. Alley. T,ahor Saving Arrangement for. 971 

Paving, Street Railway Area „._ ... 1310 

Paving. Street Railway, Los Angeles „.„.. 144 

Penetration Macadam _ 1187 

Penetration Test for Workability of Concrete 

Mixtures „ „ 879 

Penetration Treated Macadam 1187 

I'ennsvlvania Orade Crossings, Illuminated Flash 

Signals for 82 

Philadelphia Design of Concrete 8choolhoiise_.... 1848 
Photographs and Sales Construction Service. 1166 



Pier, Coal, Western Maryland By 1283 

Pile Driver, Convertable Crane. -. 406 

Pile Foundations, Notes on _.„ 1124 

Pile Trestles in Electric Railway Practice. 1057 

Piles, Concrete, Cutting With Dynamite 339 

Pipe Culverts, Headwalls for. 1093 

Pipe Joints, Comparison of Lead, Leadite and 

Cement _ 529 

Pipe Lines, Methods of Installing Under Traffic. 1062 

Pipe Line, OU, Tunnel Construction for. 830 

Pipe Line, Submarine, Method and Cost. 765 

Pipe SUff for Flag Signals _. 1322 

Pipe Vise „ _ 832 

Plank. Crossing, Old Bridge Ties for. 619 

Planks on Sub-Grade Speed Up Paving. 980 

Planning, Metropolitan 499 

Planning, Regional _ _ 499 

Planning, Some Ideals for New York. „ 402 

Plans and Specifications of Buildings, Right of 

Architect to Damages for Unautiiorized 

U.se of _ 393 

Plant Layout, Concrete Paving. _ 24 

I'lants, Industrial. Appropriate Beauty 348 

Pole, Whitewashed, Protecting From Porcupines.. 1173 
Poles, Wood, Experiences With Pressure Treated 335 

Politics in Gtovernment Engineering. 60 

Portable Bind With Screen 420 

Portable Road Building Crushing Plant 911 

Portland Cement, Price of 254 

Portland Cement Production. „..148, 1279 

Portland Cement, Standards in Production of 615 

Post & McCord, Methods of Accident Prevention 

in Structural Work „ 875 

Pre-Cast Concrete Construction, New Type 175 

Present A'^alue or Original Cost as Base for 

Rates _ 106 

President Harding's Death 253 

Pressure Pump, Evinrude Portable High 415 

Pressure, Increased, vs. Repumping for Fires 526 

Pressure Pump for Sludga 913 

Pressure Treated Wood Poles 335 

Prices, Curreat Material. 

112, 304, 582, 793, 1056, 1276 

Prices. BeUll, Building Materials „ „ 

_ 150, 352, 632, 840 

I*rlces and Wages, Prospective, In Building Field 145 

Prices, Wholesale 676 

Prices, Wholesale, Index Numbers.. 149. 351 

Problems of Private Water Company „_ 1038 

Professional Status of Engineering 187 

Profits From Improved Road _ 1166 

Progressive Construction of Highways 220 

Proportioning Concrete Mixers 961 

Prosi)ective Wages and Prices in the Buildins 

Field 145 

Protection of Watershed for Public Supplies 634 

Improvidence, R. I., Zoning 642 

Public Affairs, Engineers' Participation in 739 

Public Supplies, Protection of Watershed 634 

Public Utilities, Municipal Ownership of 1054 

Publicity of Architect 1145 

Pueblo, Colo., Flood Protection. Bids Asked 1043 

Pump. Centrifugal, Details of De Laval „„ 424 

Pump, Double Diaphragm 930 

Pump, Fitting Electric Motor to 1013 

Pump, "Hercules" High Pressure 487 

Pump, High Pressure Triplex 450 

Pump, Improvements in Humdinger ; 4S0 

Pump Slippage, Simple .Method of Determining.... 1226 

Pump Unit. New Centrifugal 896 

Pumper "Anti-Splash" _ 445 

I'umper Attachment. Portable, for Ford Cars 410 

inimplng Outfit, Centrifugal 887 

inimplng Plants, Cutting Down Coal Consump- 
tion at _ 84 

I'umplng Stations. Determining Comparative 

Efficiencies of 790 

Pumping SUtions, Water Works, Design 68 

I'umplng Unit of Trenton, N. J., New. 1047 

Pumps, Vaccum, New Line.. „... 930 

ininch. New Shank and Bit. 427 



Qualified Contractor. Selecting „ 115 

Qtiallty Standards In Commodity Production. 615 

Quantity Survey, Economic Value of.„ 147 

Quantity Survey, How It Works In Milwaukee 170 

Quarry Blasting, Method of Reducing Costs 537 

Quarry Car New _ _ _ 941 

Quarterly Reading of Meters.^ 1258 



Radiators, Increasing Efficiency of . 917 

Rail Failures _ 1275 

Rail Filler for Street Railway Tr»ck. 

Ball Joints, Method of Boosting lOR 

H»U Joints, Teste of Welded _ 883 



Engineering and Contracting 



vu 



B*U Lwing. Canadian Pacific li» 

BaU Laying at Rate of 1 MUe Per Hour 1W3 

Bail Maintenance and Conservation — 116 

Ball and Motor Service. Co-ordination of 113 

Bailroad Crossing Accidents. How to Arold 110 

Bailroad Grading Camps. Early. Kansas 610 

Bailroad Motor Car Development 1»W 

Bailroad Ties. Treatment of |1° 

Bailroad Terminals and Street Development 311 

Bailroad Transportation. Present Day. Some 

Phases of .'i" , 

Bailroad Type Steam Shovels. TracUon VSTieel 

Mountings - ^^ 

BaUroads. How to Deal With ^-..^-... 107 

lUilway BaUast. Methods and Cost of Cleaning 583 
Bailwav Bridge and Building Service. Equipment 

for - Iil5 

Bailway Bridge. Force. Supervision — lOTS 

lUUway Building Forces. Supervision -. lUjU 

BaUway Building Service. Equipment for 131S 

lUilway. Colonization. Canada. Construction- 12ii 

lUilway Construction. Common iJibor — — 1307 

lUUway Crossings. Grade Separation. *S9 

BaUwav Electrification. Economics of IJWS 

BaUway Engineers, Are They DogmaUcr .— -^- 1053 

BaUway Lands Appraisal. Metnods Employed 

by Bureau of Valuation. 

BaUway Maintenance. Common Labor 

Bailways. Belation to Motor Transport 

BaUway Svntches. New Guard Plate for 

BaUway Ties, India _. ^.— -_ 

BaUway Terminal Stations. Design or 

BaUway Yards. Large. Maintenance 

BaUways, Attack on Valuation of 

Bailways. Canals and Highways. Belation... 

BaUways. Construction l*rogram 

BaUways. Government Ownership of 

BaUways, Track Maintenance 

Bapid Sand FUtration Plant Operation. — T* 

Rate Begulation System. Gi-eatest Defect. 1063 

Bates. Base. Original Cost or I'rvsent Value. 106 

•'Beady-Cut" House 8ST 

Beady-Cut Houses 866 

Beading Meters. Quarterly 1256 

Reckless Driving. Punishment for. 467 

Records. Operation, for SmaU Water Works lOOT 

Records. Stream Flow - — T76 

Refined Tar in Road Construction — 947 

Reflector for Industrial Lifting.- _ 433 

Regional and Metropolitan Planning 49» 

Reinforced Concrete Construction. New Develop- 
ment 41S 

Reinforced Ccaicrete, Under Shock 1330 

Reinforced Steel. Effect of Accelerators on. — 202 

Rental Charges for Construction Eqiupment 1130 

Bepumplng vs. Increased Pressure for Fires. 526 

Besearch. Highway, and Contractors 1196 

Reservoirs. Covered 783 

Responsible Bidder, Selected 711 

Re«arfacting Brick Pavements with Asphalt 2 

Resurfacing Old Concrete with Brick. 995 

B«UU Prices of BuUding Materials.. 



1297 
„.- 1M7 
__ 1083 
_.. 342 
_... 586 
„.. 121 
_... 801 
.... 601 
_.. 1X73 
581 
601 
799 



150. 352. 632, 797. 840. 1106. 1364 
Rhoubenite Process. Concrete Bo«d Surfacing. — 56 

Ring. New Piston.- 899 

Rivers. Deepening with Explosives 1272 

Riveted Steel Tanks._ 1123 

Road BuUder. Dignity of 490 

Road Biulding. Kentncky. 969 

Road Caistnictlon, Federal Aid »57 

Boad Constmctl(» in Marquette County 1187 

Road Constractlon, Refined Tar in 947 

Road Description. Old Time „ 970 

Boad Finisher. Improvements in Lakewood 436 

Boad Grader, 1-Man. 1194 

Bo«d Grader, Stockland Improvements. 406 

Boads. Gravel. Maintenance 951 

Boad. Improved. Profits B^m 1165 

Road Machinery. Use and Care of 488 

Boad Malnulner, Combination 926 

Boad Maintainer, New 940 

Road Maintenance. Dirt. In MounUinous District 979 
Boad Maintenance Methods In Canadian County 22 

Road Maintenance. Monroe Countv. Mich. _... 480 

Boad Maintenance. Gravel. Michigan 1169 



Road Maintenance. Gravel and Stone for„ 

Boad Maintenance. Patrol Method 

Road Maintenance. Refined Tar In... 



213 
53 
947 
432 
8U- 
144 



Boad Maintenance Scraper, All-Steel 

Boadmaster, Old Time 

Roadmaster. Passing the "Buck" to 

Boad OU. Cost of Heating and Spreading in 

Los Angeles 1168 

Boad OU Storage Tanks. 968 

Road OUs. Testing 497 

Road Patrolmen. Suggestion for 1221 

Road Flans. Cost. South Carolia*. 970 

Road Policies. Canada _ 468 



Bo«l BoUer. Motor.- 918 

Bo«i Rollers. Steam. Care and Use of T08 

Road Service in Industrial Begioas 1181 

Road Show. List of Exhibitors 9K 

Boadside Trees . 479 

Boad SUbs. Weak Spots in 206 

Road and Street Contracts .3. 208. 690, 946. 1167 

Road Surfacing. Sand Clay 13 

Roads. Biuiminous Macadam 715 

Boads. Federal-Aid. MUea«e.- "ZO 

Boads. Field Testing of 148 

Boads. Good. Economla Value 243 

Boads. OUed. Experimental. lUinols. 730 

Bochester, N. T.. Iodine Treatment for Goitre-.. 63 

Bock Drills for Structural Work. 1349 

Bock Bemoval with Jack Hammers 1035 

BoUers. Steam Boad. Care and Use of 708 

BoUer Wheel. Steam. Improved Type. 109 

Roof Surfaces for Industrial BuUdings 1331 

Boof Terrace of Naval Academy. Waterproofing of 1141 

Boof Truss Derrick Erects Standpipe. 1042 

Boof Types and Surfaces for Industrial BuUdings 1331 

Booflng. Industrial Buildings. 1331 

Roofing and Structural Slates 165 

Bope. Wear and Care of 604 

Bope. Wire. Care of 604 

BoUry Pump. Westco-Chippewa 426 

S 

Safe Practices on Construction Work 849 

Safety Code for Contractora... _. _ 389 

Sampling Fine Aggregate for Concrete Highway 736 

Sand-Clay Mixtures. Natural or Artificial 13 

Sand-Clay Boads „ __ 1189 

Sand Drier. Pacific Type OU Burning. 434 

Sand. FUter. Effect of Size on Operation-. 102 

Sand-Gravel Boads 1189 

Sand, Moving by Hydraulic Elevator 88 

Sander for Woodwork Finish 910 

Sanitary Engineering, Recent Developments 769 

Sanu Fe By. Tie Treatment _ 818 

Savings and Improvements Throngh General 

Conference mi 

Saw. (Me-Man. Improved 447 

Scarifier. Motor Driven l»ower Lift 27 

Schedule for Water Bates. 1032 

School BuUdings. Live Floor Load Beqairements 158 

Sdiool Buildings. Standardized Elementary 686 

Scre«iing Outfit. Portable... 428 

SeatUe Street BaUway Affairs 301 

Sea Water, Effect on Structures. 859 

Section Foreman, Training 1291 

Service Conditions. Effect on Concrete Roads. 491 

Serrices, Water, Becord Forms 544 

Sewage Disposal Works. Lincoln, Nebr 1028 

Sewage Sludge Problem in U.' S 1020 

Sewage Screen, Automatic BevcAvlng. 939 

Sewage Screen. Tark 925 

Sewace Treatment Plants, Tools for 1234 

Sewer Design. Assumptions in New York City 90 

Sewer Outfall. Los Angeles 83 

Sewer. OuUet. Deer Island 1239 

Sewer Trenching with Dragline. 77. 789 

Sewers. Tool for Cuuing Boots. 444 

Sgraffito Decoration. Method oj Making 1117 

Shaft Assembly. Heavy, Shrink-Fitting. 1009 

Shaft Sinking. Methods of Grouting in.- — 315 

Shovel, CaterpUlar. Method of Beleasing Mired- 

Down _ 1 1058 

Shovel and Dragline Work in Conjunction on 



Irrigation Ditch 

ShoveL Heavy Duty. Bucyrus 

Shovel Hoar Underground 

ShoveL Michigan 

Shovel, New GasoUne 

Shoring, Adjustable - 

Shortcuts for Solving Concrete Design 

Shrink-Fitting Heavy Shaft Assembly 

Signals, Illuminated Flash for Grade Crossings 

Single Track Hie^ways. Concr^e. 

SiiAon Spillway in O'Shaughnessy Dam 

Skip Bonding with Electric Bonding Machine 

Skyscrapers. Development in Germany 

Slabs. Concrete. Effect ol Repeated Loads on 

Slates. Booflng and Structural 

Slates. Stmcttiral 

SUde Curing on Yazoo & Mississippi Valley B.B. 1320 

Slippage, Pump, Method of Determining. 1226 

Sludge as Fertilizer 538 

Sludge, Sewage, Problem in U. S . 1020 

Sludge Plant. Compact Activated . 1263 

Snow Loader. Special 453 

Snow Plow, Motor Truck 886 

Snow Plow, New :^ 906 

Snow Plow, New V-Type 907 



452 
426 
413 
890 
404 
934 
1327 
1009 
32 
473 
574 
465 
666 
209 
165 
165 



VIH 



Engineering and Contracting 



Snow I'low, notary 90O, 1237 

Snow Plow, Twin Kotory ..._ 1222 

Solder Pot, New _ 9x0 

Sound Transmission by Masonry Partitions.'"!".." 368 
Soutliem California Edison Co. Electric Develop- 
ment _ 1018 

Space at Chicago Road Show, Applications for 839 

Space Saving 1159 

Specifications from Contractor's Viewpoint 161 

Specifications, Proposed Standard for Concrete 

Building Block 37g 

Specifications, Proposed Standard for Concrete 

Building TUe „.._ 378 

Special Track Work Bonding. !.'"."" g34 

Spillway, SiiAon in O'Shaughnessy Dam 574 

Spray Painting, Cost of._ „ 022 

Spring Scrapers, Gravel Road Maintenance 25 

Stage Elevator Installation, Notable 1354 

Standard Testa for Non-Bituminous JIateriaL 58 

Standpipe, Reinforced Concrete, Waterproofing.... 523 

Standpipe, Erected by Roof Truss Derrick 1042 

State Highway Construction, Massachusetts 1208 

State Highways, Distribution of Cost 44 

Station Economy Improvement by Higiier Steam 

Pressures 292 

Stations, Railway Terminal, Design. 121 

SUtistics, Monthl}-, Building Industry 203, 401, 1357 

Steam Shovel, Heavy Duty 422 

Steam Shovels Operated by Compressed Air 608 

Steam Shovels, Railroad Type, Traction Wheel 

Mountings tor 127 

Steam Pressures, Higher 1224 

Steam Pressures, Higher, Improvement in Station 

Economy 292 

Steam Road Rollers, Care and Use of 708 

Steam RoUer Wheel, Improved Type 109 

Steel Beams, Value of Hauncliing for 354 

Steel, Copper-Bearing, Durability of _ 2 

Steel, Fatigue Properties of 671 

Steel I Beams, Strengtli Haunched with Concrete 1119 

Steel Tank, Unusual Method of Moving 919 

Steel Tower Construction Improvement „... 895 

Stiffening, Special, of Tokio Steel Frame Build- 
ings _ 678 

Stone Buildings, Cleaning III5 

Stone Bake 904 

Stone for Road Maintenance. 213 

Stone Work, Appearance of 671 

Straus Building, Chicago, Some Features of 355 

Straus Building, General Conference, Results in 

Savings and Improvements 1111 

Stream Flow, Records of __. 776 

Stream Line Filters _ _ lOii 

Street Design „ II74 

Street Development and Railroad Terminals. 311 

Street and Highway Lighting g 

Street Lighting 8, 226, 725, 1177 

Street Railway Area, Pavement Within.„ 1310 

Street Railway Fares, Seattle 106 

Street Railway Paving, Los Angeles 144 

Street Railway, Seattle ]~ 801 

Street Jlailway Track, Concrete Paving. Z 1819 

Street Railway Track, Design in Paved Streets.... 014 

Street Railway Track In Paved Street. 1372 

Street Railways, Outlook for 687 

Street Railway Tracks, Construction In Paved 

Street 504 

Street Sweeiier. Mot6r Plck-Up._ 425 

Street Sweeper, Suction ' "" goi 

Strength of Steel I-Beams Haunched wiui 

Concrete jhq 

Structural Conditions Leading to Spread of "Fire 1368 
Structural Designing Practice. Some Advances in 838 

Structural Failures, Cause of ]% 

Structural Timbers, Working Stresses for 640 

Structural Work, Accident Prevention In 876 

Structural Work, Interesting Failures in 196 

Structural Work, Rock Drills for „ „ .. 1349 

Structures, Why Some Fall 190 

Stucco Investigation „„ 157 

Stump Puller, Self Anchoring „.......' 980 

Sub-Ba.so Treatment -Pavement Construction..!!!! 80 

Submarine Pipe I,lno. Metho<l and Cost : 765 

Submarine Rock, Removing with .Tack Hammers 1085 

Subsurface Ix-ak Dctwtlon, New York 1270 

Sub-Surface Systom for Water Collection...!!! 784 

Successful Shipment by Inland Water Route.... . 678 
Suction Dredging, Blasting to Loosen Up 

Material _ „ HI 

Surface Aerator for Activated Sludge!!!.!!!!! ! 016 

Survey, Transport, Pennsylvania 1206 

Surveys, Aquaphono 1269 

Surveys, General Instructions for HIghwiiy Pave- 

"*<"'"'' 610 



Surveys, Highway Traffic 
Surveys Hose and Meter.... 
Surveys, Pitometer 



1212 
1269 



Swamp Road Construction, South "caroilna 963 

bwltches, RaUway, New Guard Plate .' 342 



Tanks, Concrete, for Hallway 1078 

lanks. Storage, for Aspkalt qeo 

Tannery Wastes. Treatment of ZZZZZ" 1261 

Tar Macadam . — Tit 

Tar, Refined, In Road CoMtmction "iiid'Miln- 



tenance 



947 



Tar Wagon with Welded Kettle.".".'.!.".".".!!." 921 

Target, Concrete LevelllJig 444 

Tax, Gasoline, for Road t'-irposes 251 

Temlskaming & Northern Ontario By., Develop- 

ments _ _... 1277 

Temping DriU Steel _ .." iqgi 

Terminal Improvements, Chicago, Iliiiois "centrai 622 

Terminals, Modem Locomotive _ 595 

Terminals, Railroad and Street Development 3U 

Terms Used in Lumber Industry, Sundard 

Abbreviations jgj 

Test Cylinders, Concrete, Effect of Iriegii'iar 

Ends on 028 

TesUng Boiler in SmaR Plant !.!.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!" 1271 

Testing Materials for Concrete Pavements oofi 

Testing Road Oils J-J 

Tests, Webb Plate Compression. !!!!!.!.' XS» 

Texts Penetration, for WorkabUlty of Concrete 

Mixtures _ _ 3^^ 

Ties, Concrete, India ..!!.!.!!!!..!!!!!.'!!."!.".. 6^^ 

Ties, Railroad, Treatment and Care of Slg- 

TUe, Concrete 87S. 

TUe, Test of _ !.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!""' 20? 

Timber, Creosoted, Coaling Stations !!!!!!! iMfr 

Timber, Creosoted, for Highway Bridges ... 742^ 

Timber, Hlgliway Bridges 49 

Timber Structures, U. S. Bureau of Public Iloads 48: 

Timber Work, Permanence of in Dikes 19S 

Timbers, Structural, Working Stresses '" 640 

Tokio Earthquake, EfiTect on American Type 

Office Buildings 1154 

ToMo Steel Frame BuUdlngs. Speciii "stlffeiiing 

of _ „.„._ 678 

Toll Bridges. Connecticut _..."..'.!.! 1168 

Tool, Self-Propelling, for CutOng Roots in Sewere 444 

Tools for Sewage Treatment Plants 1284 

Top Soil Roads ._ ugp 

Torch, Combination Cutting and Welding..!.!!!!!!!!..' 435 

Trade School Education, Los Angeles ! 367 

Trade Schools for Building Mechanics !!!!!!!!' 168 

Track Construction, Canadian Pacific 1293 

Trade Jack. One-Man Single Acting 912 

Track Joints, Maintenance of 1097 

Track Mower _ „ !!!!!!!!!!!! 827 

Track Plan.s, Method of R!einewiJQg!!..!! 1076 

Track Shifter. New _....;....""" 405 

Track, Street Railway, De-Mgn In Paved Streets 614 

Track, Street RaUway In Paved Street 1072 

Track Work Bonding, SpociaL _ 834 

Track Work, Labor Saving Devices in._ 816 

Tracks. Chicago Union Station, Concrete Slab 

Supports for _ „ en 

Tracks, Rigid Rail for Fordson. „ !.....! 428 

Tracks, Street RaUway, Coastructlon In Paved 

Street _ _ __ 804 

Tractor-Graller Operation on Virginia Road Jol) 712 
Traction, Heavy Electric, Development of... . 1059 
TraoUon Wheel Mounting for Railroad Type 

Steam Shovels jjy 

Tractor, Bear _ 042 

Tractor. Wallls .„ _ „.!!!!!!!!! Z 439 

Trartors. Chain Drive of Monarch 436 

Traffic Accidents on British Highways. """994 

Traffic Census, Highways. 739 

Traffic Control Unit, lUumlnated !!!! 902 

Traffic Highway «nd Automatic Scale 093 

Traffic, Highway, Connecticut Investigations . 14 

Traffic Tii.siMvtIon Officers, Pennsylvania . 48 

Traffic Marker. Mound 44^ 

Traffic I'rohlem. Municipal 976 

Traffic Regulation In City of 100,()bb flsi 

Traffic Survoy.s, Highway ""■ 1212 

Trailer for Hauling Heavy Eaulpmen't!!!!!!!!."!!."."!'! " 903 
Trailer, for High Speed Power Units flis 

Trailer, 2-Whocl Rear Dump 941 

Trailer Mixer, New „ ™ "■" 915 

Trailer for Transporting T>ong 'Loaiis...!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 888 



Engineering and Contracting 



IX 



TnUlmobile, T.amber Dumiiiiis.. 
Training of Foremen 



Transmission Sjrston for 1-Ton Track — 
Transport. Motor, Relation to Bailways- 
Transport Survey. Pennsylvania- 



ISO 
1291 
445 
1085 
1106 
317 
129 
519 
484 



TransportaUoQ, the Arteries of Commerce 

Transportation Facilities, Mass., Planning 

Trmnsportation. Inland Wato'. Developing. 

Tranq;iMtati(m. Motor Truck 

Transportatitm of Railroad. Phases of Presoit 

Day 328 

Treatment of Industrial Wastes 12«1 

Trees, Roadside 479 

Trenching, for Cutting Off Mine Fire 62r 

Trenching Macliine Bucket. New 940 

Tren<iiing Sewer with Dragline 



Trenton Pumping Unit, New- 



7T. 789 

1047 

Trestles, Ballast Deck. Method of Boiewing . 1095 

Trestles, Frame and Pile, in Electric Railway 

Practice 1057 

Trolley Bus and Electric Railway 937 

Trolley Construction. Orerfaead. New Type 333 

TioUcir OoBstiuction for Heavy Electric Traction 333 

TroA BodicB. Flat Type 440 

Trade Oaraces. Design of 397 

Truck Body Htdsta. Medianical Dump 898 

Truck lioad BeatrloUoos. Rhode Island 957 

Tru<* lioader. New Creq>er 939 

Tm^ Motor. Transmrtatioo 484 

Trado, Motor 1198 

TnidEi Operating Costs 33 

Truckrane on Reserrolr Job _407 

Tructractor, New 443 

Truss Problems. Solutions oT 878 

Tunnd Blasting . 137 

Tunnel Construction for Oil Pipe Line Under 

^ Canal 830 

Tunnel Driving, Method for Directing Holes. 1321 

Tunnel, Water, Method of Locating Hydraulic 

Gradient . 788 

Tunnel Work. Winch for 44O 

Tunnels, Device for Determining Air Movements 

in . 

2-Man Cars, Operating Co8ts__ 

Two Truss. SoluUons of 

•Two-Way" Flat SUbs, Analysis- 

Typhoid. Franklin, N. J 

Typhoid Progress -.■ 

TsTJhoid, Water-B<Hne. Outbreak of Unusual 

Cliaracter 



613 

1070 

878 

155 

81 

1223 

81 



Underground Loader, New 905* 

Union SuUon. Chicago.^ 305 

U. S. Bureau of Public Roads. Standard 

Specification for Timber Structures 48 

U. S. Reclamation Service. Work of 96 

Utility Betterments and Extensions 1001 



Valleys. Pre-Glacial. for Ground-Water SuppUes 775 

Valuauon of Railways 601 

Valve. New Balanced, for Mixos 943 



Ventilating Shade for Center Window Sash 
New Type of 



Vise Stand and Pipe Bender- 



396 



W 

Wage Increase in New York Building Trades 

Since 1916 ^^ 

Wag^ and Average Employment in Building 

Trade _ZZ. 

Wages of Contractors' Workmen. London_____ 
Wagon for Light Hauling Bulky Rubbish 

WaU Plaster. Bate of Drying 

Wall Street Myth. ~ 

Walls. Concr«« Lintel for. 



Walls, Pro-Cast, Milwaokee__ 

Walls, MnoBTT. Waterprooflng Processes 
Walls. TraDSBolailoa Thr«aA 



Wastes. Indn^aL Effect on Water 8aw>Ue8___ 
Wastes. Industrial, TieMment rf________IZ 

Water Analyses. Ezpreadng Besolts ol. 

Water-B<Hiie Typhoid Ontbreak oT Umisual 

Character __^___ 

Water ClorinaUon ^ 

Water, CoUecUon by Sub-Surface 8ystem__.„" 
Water Company, Problems of 



160 

683 

373 

919 
1118 

S3S 
1134 

797 
1163 
U48 

294 
1261 

103 

81 

60 

784 

1038 



Water Consumption 

Water District 

Water Filtos, Pressure Type_ 
Water FiltntioB. Rapid Sand_ 



Per Capita. Massachusetts 



672 

_887 



74 
650 
63 
1045 
1230 
452 
59 

Wat«, Mineral Contamination of 520 

Water. Mnntripal Use of at Springfield. Mass. 104 
Wata Plaat. Testing Boiler 1271 



Water Filtration. St. IiOUia_ 

Water. Iodine Treatmoit of 

Water Main Krt^^sinn. Financing 

Watv, Measuring with Salt and £lectricity_ 

Water Measuring Tank 

Water Metoaae. Chicaco 



Water Power Inrestigatlaa by Interior Depait- 



Watamrooang Praoesaes 
Masomy Walls 



78 



for Preservation of 

1153 

Watermooflng Reinforced Oanerete Standpipe 523 

Watemrooflng Roof Tsnoe at Naval Acadeniy_ 1141 

Wata PurificatioB. Mdo ConfereiKe 1044 

Water Bates. AdavOag Ptaoer Schedule 1032 

Water Rates. Baltimore -. 551. 751 

Water Service. Bailwajs. Concrete Tanks tor— 1078 



Water Servioes. Forms for Keeping Records 
Water and Sewer ContiactB_ 



544 
522 
534 
119 
60 



Watershed Protectioa for PaUic Sandies__ 

Water Softening Plants. New Veatme of LC.R.R. 

Water Supply. Meterace. Chicago 

Water Supply, Impottaaoe of Competent Investi- 
gations Before Commoicement of Con- 
struction 543 

Water Supply. Naval Academy. Iron Removal 1267 

Water Supply. Newton. Mass. 784 

Water Qnppiy. Wichiu Counir, Tex. 277 

Water SnppUes of American Cittaa 1031 

Water Supplies. Groond. Pre-Oadal Yall^s 775 

Water Sumdies. Effect of Industrial Wastes on . 294 

Water Tanks, a Successful Shipment. 575 

Water Treatmou Plants. L C. R. R. 119 

Water Treatment Plants. Michigan, Supervision 1041 
Water Tunnel. Method of Locating Hydraulic 

Gradient 786 

Water Wastes Meters and Rates. Baltimore 751 

Water Wastes. Baltimore— 551 

Wat« Wastes, Meters and Rates. Baltimore 551 

Water Works Accounting Syston. Charieston. 

a C. 1053 

Watw Works AddiUon in New Knglanri 1033 

Water Works, Cleburne. Tex. 790 

Water Works Intakes, Construction of 97 

Water Works Pumping Stations. Design of M 

Water Works and Sewer Contracts 

65. 255, 788. 1003. 1226 

Water Works. Small. Operation Records for 1007 

Waves, Causes in Agi<h»it Pavemoits 975 

Weatherstrip. New DetachaUe 1369 

Webb Plate Compression Tests—. . 159 

Weeds. Method for Control on Lawns 966 

Welded Rail Joints . 833 

Welded Sted Tanks— 1123 

U8 
OS 
258 
100 
1283 



Welder. Electric and Grinder C<Nnbii 
Wdl Drill Holes. Method of 
Well Water System. Camden. N. J._ 
Wells. Pollution lor Badllns CM- 
Westem Mvyland Ry.. Coal Pier_ 



Wheel Impact on Rails. New Device fw Testing 835 

Whitewash Treatment 1150 

Wholesale Prices, Index Numbers of 

. . 149. 351, 634, 842. 1108. 1363 

Wludesale Prices ett 

Wichiu County. Tex.. Water Supply Project 277 

Widening Curves on Highways 1209 

Winch. New Tractor 924 

Vnnter Building 1SJ4 

Winter Construction of Buildings, Economy of 629 

Wire Rope Guard Rail . 247 

Tire Bope, Wear of 604 

Wiring for Electrical Appliances 927 

Wood Lath. Expanded . 901 

Wood Poles, Eqierienoes with Pressure Treated 335 

Wood Preservation. T«n Tears in 684 

WwcestCT. Mass.. Pavement Practice SO 

Workability of Oanerete Mlxtnies S79 

WMking Week. Length of 390 

Working Stresses for Structural Timbers 640 



Yards. Railway, Largew Maintenance^ 
Yard Tracks. Maintenance of 



801 
801 



Zoning, Chicago 1323 

Zoning. Fundamental Purposes and Limitations 642 

Zoning. Provideoc*. R. I. 642 

Zoning. United States 972 



Engineering and Contracting 

AUTHORS INDEX 





A 


906 






339 




Gould, Carl F 
Gibbs, Alec B. 




184 
. 1113 






13G0 


1256 


Albert, K. F 




706 






238 


AUen, G. W. G 




708 




H 




Angus, Kobert W 


B 


87 

1331 
1352 
1307 
6G0 
317 
1195 


11 1181 


Balllnger, Walter K 
Beaeh, Howard W 
Beachan. William 
Behrendt, Walter Curt 
Bubbins, J. Eon land 
Blair, Will P 


Harrington John Lyle 
Hatfleld, William D 
Hawkins. W E 
Hazen, Allen 
Helmle, H V 
Hess, Otto S 


- 


187 
74 

973 
1023 

497 
25 


Blake, J. C... 
Blanchard, Arthur H 
Blanchard, Cecil K 
Blomqulst, H. F 
Boggs. I. H. 
Bonner, Jr., Davis 




30 
1082 

81 
1045 
704 
745 
165 
172 
362 

55 


Hirst, A. R 
Hitchcock F A 
Holway, A S 
Hoover, C P 
Howard, H W 
HoweUs, John Alead 




1213 
379 

1094 
103 
484 
630 






975 


Boyd, D. Knlckerbacki I 


Hussey, Harold D 




363 


Brosnan, E. J 




Hutchinson G W 


' 


736 


Brownlow, Louis 




513 
622 




Buffe, F. G... 




587 








1318 


244 






66 
292 






473 


Bushnel, F. H 


James, E. A 
James, Lcland F 




22 


Byllesby, H. M 


C 


812 
.. 281 


9<i8 


Jensen, Arthur 




52(i 
958 








315 




Jonah, F. G 




811 


CaUett, Robert L 
Chapin, Boy D 




336 
_ 44 


Jordan, L C 

Kellev. F. W 


K 


1109 


Childs, Leslie 




898 




Clement, S. B 
Clemmer, H. F 




1277 

248. 497, 730 
715 


515 


Cochrane, R. S 




_- 1097 


Kendrlck, .T. W 





962 


CoUege, W. W 




1038 
604 


Knapp. A. R 




1271 


Coppock, F. D 




951 
818 
645 
776 






.„ 107S 


Copper, S. D 
Cotton, Alfred 
Covert, C. C. 


Kohn, Robert D 

Larsen, Daniel 

I^. W. S 

Little, Beekman C 
Locke, Fred H. 


L 


375 


Coykendall, C 
Cram, B. C. 




220 
804, 1310 








947 




Crane, Jacob L , Jr 
Crayton, Q. A 




811 
1209 


63 


Crepps, R. B, 




209 


981 
258 


Cnun, R. W.- 




961 


Loud. Ralph W 


M 


123!) 


f!n»hing, J, 0, 




137 






D 


1265 


053 




MarMullan. Ralph A. . 
Maophail J B ~-. 




1151 


Delaney, B. W.._ 




875 


...„ 868 


D'Esposlto. J.._ 




309 






1285 


Drayer, Walter W. 




671 


Marquardaen, R. P. V.. 
ilarshall, E 




1827 


Driggs, Jean R.._ 




980 


1288 




E 


1261 

395 


Marshall. H. 8 




1297 








-. 1248 








„.. 480 


Eddy, Harrison P 

Edwards, J. C. ._ 


Maxwell. Donald H 

McAnlls. C. R 




_ M 

878 


Blgel, 8. H.._ 




170 






..„ 175 


Elliott, Clifford A 


F 


108 

121 

lOfiS 

129 






1124 








1849 




MrNelU. R. W -. 




...- 1288 




Miles E Ij. -.. 




478 


Fellhelmer, Alfred 


Mltx-hell. Louis ...... 




1228 


Flllppl, Hugo 


Mullen. .John H 




789 




Mundorff. R. Franklin... 


N 


88 






196 








499 




Ford, W. E 

Fortler, Samuel ._ 




52 

1243 

870 

28 


63 


Fowler, Charles Evan... 




NoetjiU. F. A 




530 


Fuller. Oeorge W. 

Fuller. Harry U 


G 


7fin. ion 

765 

179 


Noyes, ,T. A 


P 


601 








879 


rielha<'h W A 




soft 


IMerre, .T. F 




1226 




..„. .. «14 


Vlene. R. E 




979 


Goldbeck. A. T 




_v. 491 


Pollock, Clarence D 


,...„......( _.,.. i.. 


1192 



Engineering and Contracting 



Rich. Edward D _ 1041 

Hich, \V. W. ~ 1032 

Kichart. Frank K 1135 

Koberti. E. I. 1S31 

Kockwood, E. ¥. 155 

Rogers, Edwin H. 784 

Rogers, H. H. 1013 

Rogers. Stephen CarleUm - 11T7 



8 



Sabine, Paul E. 

Sawyer, K. I 

Scarr, F. J 

Sckelman, Bertbold 

Sheehan, F. E 

Shenton. H. C. H 

Sherman, Edward C 

Siems, V. Bernard 

Slattery. J. R. 

Slauson. H. W. 

Smith, K E., 2nd 

Smith, Ir» L. 

Sniffin. P. L. 

Sperry, F. L. 

SUhl, Charles J. 

Stlckney, Q. F. 

Stiles, C. W. 

Stockwell. W. L. 

Stokes, Stanley . 
Stone. Ralph T. 
Storrs, L. S 



3C8 

1187 

1198 

722 

542 

79 

12G7 

, 751 

638 

976 

102 

1339 

1094 

730 

226 

574 

100 

377 

1130 

608 

1301 



Taylor. Howell ._. 
Tliom. Alfred P. .. 
Thompson. B. A. 

Tindall. C. L. 

Tiney, B. C 

Tticker. C. L. 

Tudsberry. Henry 



Upbam, C. M. 



Van Winkle. R. N.. 
Voorhees, W. E 



1145 
Ml 

tn 

7M 
U89 
568 

UU 



823 



.... 507 
... 488 



Walker. W. T 

Wason. Leonard C. 
Waterman. Earle L. 
Welsh. James W. _ 

Whitten. Robert 

Willemin. E. G. 

WUliams. G. M. 

WiUiams. W. S. 

Wlschmeyer. WUUam F. 
Woollett. WiUiam Lee .. 
Woore. J. M. S. - 



1*54 

683 

1007 

-592. 1088 
842 
SS9 
M8 
185 
161 
1866. 

n 



Young, C. R. 



Talbot. Arthur N. 
Taylor, Harry 



1135 
563 



Zenor, George W. 



0. 



Roads and Streets 

MONTHLY ISSUE OF 

ENGINEERING AND CONTRACTING 

Published by Engineering & Contracting Publishing Co. 

221 East 20th St., Chicago 

Halbert p. Gillette, President and Editor 

Lewis S. Louer, Vice-President and General Manager 

New York OfiBce: 904 Longacre Bldg., 42d St and Broadway 

RiCHAKo £. Bsown, Eastern Manager 

The specialized publishing plan of Engineering and CJontracting provides 
four rotating monthly magazines, each of which is $1 a year. All four 
may be subscribed for at $4 a year, and thus taken they provide a weekly 
service completely covering the construction field. 



Romd and Streets— 1st Wednesdiir. $1 

(a) Road Ck)n- (c) Streets 
struction (d) Street clean- 

(b) Road Main- ing: 
tenanee 



Railways — 3rd Wednesday, |1 

(a) Steam Rail- (b) Electric Rail- 

way Construe- way Ckmstrtic- 

tion and tion and 

Maintenance Maintenance 



Water Works— 2nd Wednesday. $1 

(a) Water Works (c) Sewers and 

(b) Irrigration and Sanitation 
Drainage (d) Waterways 



Bnildinffs — Ith Wednesday. $1 

(a) Buildingrs (d) Miscellaneous 

(b) Bridges Stractures 
(c) Harbor Structures 

Copyright. 1923, by the Engineerinc and Contracting Pablishing Company 



Vol. LX. 



CHIC-A.GO, ILL., JULY 4, 1923 



No.l 



Sophistical Arguments 

Against Long Time 

Highway Bond 

Issues 

Illinois newspapers have recently 
published many editorials against the 
proposed 30-year hundred million 
highway bond issue. Editorials may 
not express public opinion, but they 
tend to form public opinion and are 
therefore not to be ignored when they 
teach false economics. From the 
Rock Island Argus we quote part of 
an editorial that summarizes Senator 
Kissinger's argument against the 
bond issue: 

"The $100,000,000 bond issue will 
cost $90,000,000 in interest. 

"I oppose this bond issue because: 

"First, we owe enough already. 

"Second, it is wasteful to spend 

$90,000,000 for interest which can be 

spent on roads. 



"Third, if the license fees come in 
we don't need the bonds. 

"Fourth, if the fees don't come in 
we can't pay the bonds. 

"Fifth, the danger of a direct tax. 

"Sixth, we will have the bonds to 
pay long after the roads have been de- 
stroyed by the conditions of climate 
and traffic. 

"Seventh, the Republican party in 
Illinois cannot afford to foist on the 
taxpayers a bond issue so economic- 
ally unsound and so politically unwise 
as the proposed issue." 

The argument that interest paid on 
road bonds is "wasteful," applies 
equally to interest paid on any form 
of loan. It would be just as soimd 
to contend that a man should not 
borrow money from a building and 
loan association in order to finance the 
erection of a home. All arguments of 
this sort are sophistical, for they 
consider only one side of the ledger. 
If a home owner pays interest on a 
mortgage, he is justified by the sav- 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



ing he affects in rent. Similarly if 
taxpayers pay interest on road bonds, 
they find justification in the saving 
affected in the cost of highway trans- 
portation. 

The argument that motor car li- 
cense fees would pay for the roads 
needed is sophistical, because license 
fees would barely pay bond interest 
charges and would not begin to suffice 
to cover the full first cost of neces- 
sary road improvement. License fees 
and gasoline taxes should be regarded 
as income paid by motor car operators 
for the use of the roads, being essen- 
tially the same as the freight and 
passenger income of railways. Freight 
and passenger income are not ex- 
pected to pay more than operating 
expenses and a fair return on the 
capital invested in railways. Why, 
then, should license fees and gasoline 
taxes be expected to do more than is 
expected of freight and passenger in- 
come? 

The argument that bonds will have 
to be paid off long after the highway 
has been destroyed is fallacious for 
several reasons. First, an improved 
road is even more permanent than a 
railway. Road surfaces, it is true, 
wear out, but ties and rails rot and 
wear out even faster. As renewals of 
ties and rails are not paid for by 
new bond issues, so renewals of road 
surfaces should not be paid for by 
new bonds. The useful life of the 
structure or plant taken as a whole 
should of course exceed the life of 
the bonds, but the opponents of long 
time road bonds befuddle this eco- 
nomic principle when they try to make 
it appear that the life of the road sur- 
face is synonymous with the life of 
the road as a whole. 

There has been not a little error on 
the part of daily paper editors as to 
the average life of road surfaces. Sev- 
eral Illinois editors have said that 
during a bond term of 80 years "the 
roads will have been worn out and 
replaced several times." Of course, 
practically none of the roads will 
have been replaced as a whole at the 
end of thirty years, and the editors 
obviously have in mind only the road 
surface. But we should ^ike to know 
their authority for asserting that even 
the surface of the average improved 
road will be renewed several times 
in 30 years. It is our opinion that the 
surface of the average improved road 
will show a life exceeding 20 years. 
There will, of course, be exceptions, 
but we are speaking of averages. 



Where a pavement is made thick 
enough to provide for the heaviest 
probable wheel loads, it should have a 
life of fully 30 years on the average 
highway. 



The Durability of Cop- 
per-Bearing Steel 

In our issue of June 6 we gave the 
results of atmospheric exposure tests 
of copper-bearing steel sheets and of 
pure iron sheets as made by a com- 
mittee of the American Society for 
Testing Materials. Those tests 
showed greater durability for the cop- 
per-bearing steel; but our attention 
has been called to the fact that since 
culverts are buried in earth which fre- 
quently contains water that is acid- 
ulous, consideration should be given 
to the immersion tests made by the 
same society committee. Immersed in 
acid mine water of the Pittsburgh coal 
region, the committee report reads: 

"In the immersion test, under the 
conditions which prevail at the Cal- 
umet Mine, the presence of copper- 
would indicate little influence on the 
life of the specimen, and if any dif- 
ference, the presence of copper would 
seem to give a slightly shorter life. 
Also, the order of failure of the vari- 
ous groups is decidedly changed, but 
it would be safer not to draw definite 
conclusions until we have the finished 
results of the various atmospheric 
and immersion tests." 

The photographs of the test pieces 
indicate that the pure-iron specimens 
resisted the acid better than any other 
specimens. 



Resurfacing Brick Pave- 
ments With Asphalt 

Two years ago a contract was let 
in Oil City, Pa., for resurfacing a 
number of old brick streets with sheet 
asphalt, and the results have been 
excellent, according to D. A. Grant. 
With one exception, the brick pave- 
ments have been laid on a gravel base, 
and in all cases the surface was very 
irregular and contained many pot- 
holes. All the low places were filled 
with a dense asphaltic concrete, which 
is superior for this purpose to the 
ordinary binder mixture. The binder 
course was 1 in. thick and it differed 
from the ordinary binder in contain- 
ing about 20 per cent of limestone 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



screenings. The average mix was 
about as follows: 

Per cent 

Stone, % to 1% in 65 

Screenings 20 

Sand 10 

Asphaltic cement _ 5 

The surface course was 1% in. 
thick. Mr. Grant points to the exten- 
sive use by the Pennsylvania State 
Highway Commission of 1 in. binder 
and 1^ in. surface as being sufficient 
proof of the serviceability of such a 
thin pavement. He regards the addi- 
tion of screenings to the binder as 
being highly important, producing, as 
it does, a true asphaltic concrete that 
has greater density, rigidity and sta- 
bility than the ordinary binder course. 
Such a binder can be rolled to any ex- 
tent and suffers no distortion from 
5-ton trucks. 



City Planning Commission for New 
Orleans. — An ordinance has been 
passed by New Orleans, La., providing 
for a city planning commission of 20 
members. 



Road and Street Contracts 

Awarded During the Last 

40 Months 

The accompanying table shows 
three outstanding facts: First, that 
highway contracts awarded during 
the last half of each year have aver- 
aged only 25 per cent less in volume 
than those awarded during the first 
half; second, that there is not a month 
in the year without a very large vol- 
ume of road and street contracts 
awarded; third, that each year shows 
a substantial gain over its prede- 
cessor. 



Motor Vehicle Production in May 

The U. S. Department of Commerce 
announces May production of automo- 
biles, based on figures received by the 
Bureau of the Census in cooperation 
with the National Autombile Chamber 
of Commerce and covering approxi- 
mately 90 passenger-car and 80 truck 
manufacturers each month. 



AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION 

(Number of Machines) 

Passenger Cars 

1923 

January „-- 223.706 

February 254.650 

March 'Sia.eSS 

April •344.474 

May 350,180 



Trucks 



January 

February _ 
March — 
April ._ 

May 



1923 

19,398 

♦21,817 

•34.681 

•37,527 

42.983 



1922 
81.693 
109,171 
152,859 
197.216 
232.431 



1922 
9,416 
13.195 
19,761 
22,342 
23,788 



♦Revised. 



State Line Markers for Pennsyl- 
vania Highways. — The Department of 
Highways of Pennsylvania is about to 
begin the erection of the State Line 
markers on all State Highways which 
intersect the boundary lines of Penn- 
sylvania. These markers are to be of 
white reinforced concrete. They are 
triangular in form and the monument 
will be bisected by the state line. Each 
will bear the name of Pennsylvania 
and the adjoining state. 



Topographic Surveys in 1922. — Dur- 
ing the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1922, the topographic branch of the 
U. S. Geological Survey surveyed 
more than 12,000 square miles of new 
area, exclusive of Alaska, and resur- 
veyed approximately 1,500 square 
miles. 



ROAD AND STREET CONTRACTS EXCEEDING $25,000 IN SIZE 

January. 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

Jane 

July. 

August 

September.... 

October 

November, 
December 

Total 

Note. — About 100 per cent must be added to these totals to give the grand total of highway 

contracts in the United States. 

Bridges are not included, and bridge contracts average 15 per cent as much in value as road 
and street contracts. A great deal of road and street work is done by directly hired labor and 
IS not included above. 




Roads and Streets 



July, 



A British View of the Fourth 
International Road Congress 

Editorial in The Surveyor, London 

We should like to be able to say — or 
even to think — that the Fourth Inter- 
national Road Congress which has 
lately been held in the city of Seville 
has achieved what had been hoped 
from it, or that the results have been 
something like commensurate with the 
labor involved in its preparation. We 
can honestly say neither; all that we 
are able to assert with any feeling of 
confidence is that the proceedings 
should not be wholly barren of good 
and should be instrumental in dissem- 
inating among those in need of it a 
certain amount of useful information 
on road-making questions that could 
doubtless, however, have been secured 
with infinitely less trouble and cer- 
tainly at much smaller expense in 
other ways. 

So far as the British road engineers 
who were present are concerned the 
Congress has been little short of fu- 
tile, and there cannot be the least 
doubt that unless future congresses 
are conducted on lines which are more 
in conformity with Anglo-Saxon ideas 
it will be useless to expect that Great 
Britain will take any official — or for 
that matter, even an unofficial — part 
in the deliberations. When it is stated 
that in one of the two sections into 
which the Congress was divided a 
whole hour in a sitting of little more 
than two hours on the third day of the 
Congress was occupied in combating 
an obviously undesirable addendum to 
a certain resolution, it is not difficult 
to understand how little actually was 
accomplished during the week of the 
Congress. 

Papers on each question, it may be 
explained, are prepared by the "offi- 
cial" delegates of the various coun- 
tries. These are printed in full; but 
at the same time they are compressed 
into a more or less satisfactory — 
usually a most unsatisfactory — precis 
by the Reporter to the Section, who 
submits for approval a list of "con- 
clusions" based on his reading of the 
contributions. 

More unfortunate than anything 
else, perhaps, was the action taken 
when attempts were made by mem- 
bers in the body of the hall to discuss 
the questions brought forward; the 
would-be speakers were instantly and 
firmly suppressed by those in charge 



of the meeting. Such utterances as 
were made came almost exclusively 
from a select few on the platform, 
and as the remarks of these no doubt 
well-meaning gentlemen were gener- 
ally otherwise than brief, and deliv- 
ered at express sped, the task of the 
interpreter became an impossible one. 
As a result, interest in the proceed- 
ings quickly waned, and delegates who 
had gone to a meeting hoping and be- 
lieving that they would be enabled to 
present their views on the matters un- 
der consideration drifted away from 
the conference room, leaving those in 
charge of the gathering to do their 
worst. 

It is not at all unlikely — in fact, 
most probable — that an invitation will 
be received before long from the Ital- 
ian Government to hold the next Con- 
gress in Rome. Unless very drastic 
alterations in the present methods of 
procedure are made it is quite certain 
that this Congress can only be a repe- 
tition of what has just come to an end 
in Seville — a gathering which has 
merely served to irritate the members 
of the British Section owing to the 
astonishing attitude of the controlling 
officials. Apart from this very real 
ground for complaint, it would be as 
well if in drawing up the program of 
the next congress a little more time 
were devoted to business and rather 
less to excursions which have only the 
slightest relation to the subjects under 
consideration, if they have any at all. 
It is true that Spain, and especially 
the southern part of the country, has 
little in the way of road-making to 
bring to the attention of visitors, but 
that is scarcely a sufficient excuse for 
setting aside such a minute portion of 
the time of the Congress, as was done 
at Seville, for the exchange of infor- 
mation and experiences between the 
road engineers of the different coun- 
tries, which, after all, may be said to 
be the main purpose of these gather- 
ings. It may be that the officials of 
the particular section to which we are 
referring are unaware of the strong 
feeling that has been aroused. If so, 
it may be hoped that what we have 
thought fit to write will be taken seri- 
ously to heart. Unless it is, and we 
cannot believe that it will not have the 
most careful attention, British dele- 
gates at the next Congress, wherever 
it happens to be held, will for a cer- 
tainty be even fewer in numbers than 
they were in Seville, where the at- 
tendance was unquestionably disap- 
pointing. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



Bituminous Macadam at 
Newton, Mass. 

Notes on Construction and Mainte- 
nance Given in Paper Presented 
Feb. 21 Before Boston So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers 

By EDWIN H. ROGERS, 

City Engineer, Newton, Mass. 

The city of Newton was a pioneer 
among the cities of this country in the 
early experimental work relating to 
the treatment of roads with bitu- 
minous preparations, and had estab- 
lished a fixed policy as to such treat- 
ment while the majority of other 
municipalities were still experiment- 
ing or had done but little or no work 
in this line. 

This city is unique in undoubtedly 
being the only city of its population 
or valuation which has no paved 
streets as this term is usually under- 
stood by the general public, which cus- 
tomarily thinks of the word "pave- 
ments" as referring to wood block, 
stone block, cement concrete or else 
sheet asphalt or similar preparations 
on a concrete base. 

This city has none of the types of 
pavements, except between tracks and 
rails of the street railway companies. 
The reason for this non-use of heavy 
pavements is that the city's population 
of some 50,000 is scattered over its 18 
square miles of area in eleven differ- 
ent villages or distinct centres of pop- 
ulation, with resulting wide distribu- 
tion of traffic over a network of more 
or less moderately traveled thorough- 
fares connecting these villages and 
the surrounding municipalities, with- 
out concentration of heavy trucking 
traffic on any single road. 

Tlie more heavily travelled ways are 
surfaced with bituminous macadam 
averaging 3 ^4 -in. to 4-in. in thickness, 
constructed by the penetration proc- 
ess, using as a binder bitumen of 
either tar or asphaltic composition and 



laid on old macadam or gravel roads 
as a base. The lighter travelled 
streets are water-bound macadam or 
gravel, covered with a blanket coat of 
asphaltic oil or light tar, and sanded. 
The city has sufficient mileage of these 
two types of surfacing so that the 
cost of construction of the former and 
the maintenance of both types may be 
taken as representative. 

Costs of New Surfacing, Repairs 
and Patching. — Table I shows for a 
period of years the amounts and costs 
of new bituminous surfacing, repairs 
and patching (exclusive of cleaning) 
of all the city's public ways, and the 
sprinkling of the larger portion of its 
streets. The average yardage of the 
roadways is about 2% sq. yd. per 
lineal fot. The city has 153 miles of 
public ways, including 43 miles sur- 
faced with bituminous macadam. 

Maintenance Methods. — The method 
of maintenance on both the penetra- 
tion roads and those having blanket 
surfacing is to fill the holes with the 
usual mixture of stone and bitumen. 
This patching is continued as needed 
until further work of that nature is 
inexpedient when a new pavement is 
built. 

The term "sprinkling" is applied to 
that treatment the roads receive out- 
side of patching maintenance, and 
consists usually of not more than one 
application per year of 45 per cent 
asphaltic oil or light tar covered with 
sand, the two types of material being 
used in about equal amounts. The 
cost of this work is assessed on the 
abutting property, the rate varying 
from 3 ct. to 5 cl. per lineal foot of 
frontage from year to year. 

The city has naturally experi- 
mented with practically all the com- 
mercial road surfacing materials 
which it has appeared expedient to 
try, and at present uses for its pene- 
tration work bitumens of asphaltic 
composition to somewhat greater ex- 
tent than tar preparations, as it ap- 
pears that the cost of maintenance of 



Table I — Cost of Surfacing:, Repairs and Sprinkling 

Bituminous Macadam Repairing 



Year 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 



Re-Surfacing 
Cost per 
Sq. yd. sq. yd. 

49.600 $0.41 

71,105 .55 

52.092 .62 

54,657 .74 

42,771 .98 

14.'077 2.13 

48,526 2.34 

22,166 1.93 

. 28,878 1.56 



and Patching 

Cost pel 



Miles 



144 
145 
145 
148 
148 
149 
150 
153 
153 



mile 



9162 
179 
223 
244 
308 
358 
277 
263 
236 



Sprinlcling 
Cost i)er 
Miles mile 



80 

86 

90 

90 

97 

112 

112 

119 

121 

123 



$275 
300 
348 
342 
420 
383 
470 
492 
454 
374 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



the former is somewhat less, although 
detailed records are not kept. Non- 
asphaltic oils were used to some ex- 
tent in previous years on lateral resi- 
dential streets, but these materials 
are not now employed on such work. 
Light non-asphaltic oils are now used 
only as dust layers on the paved 
tracks of the street railways and on 
such tracks as are not in a grassed 
reservation but are surfaced with 
gravel. 

Street Grade Problem. — The matter 
of grades on our streets is a problem. 
In the old water-bound macadam or 
gravel days the roads were worn down 
by attrition from iron-tired wheels 
and horses' hoofs; now that our roads 
are not so worn down, patching and 
sprinkling with oil and sand constant- 
ly raises them. When they are re- 
surfaced, the new surfacing is usually 
thicker than that of the old, for 
usually a better foundation results 
from removing but little of the old 
material, while the saving in cost is 
an essential consideration. This grad- 
ual raising of the roadway grade de- 
stroys its proper relation to the side- 
walk grade, so we find it advisable in 
many cases to keep our new sidewalks 
at a grade of sufficient height above 
the roadway so that a proper cross- 
section will result after future repairs 
or re-surfacing of the roadway is done 
to a limited extent. 



Reduction in Varieties of Asphalt 

In a meeting of producers and con- 
sumers of asphalt held May 28 at the 
Department of Commerce, the 88 va- 
rieties of asphalt used for paving 
purposes were reduced to 9, and 14 
varieties used as brick and stone block 
fillers were cut to 4. Since 3 of the 
grades adopted for fillers are identical 
with 3 of those adopted for paving 
use, the actual reduction is from 102 
to 10, or practically a 90 per cent 
elimination. 

The meeting was the outgrowth of 
a preliminary conference of producers 
on April 24, 1923, called at their re- 
quest by the Division of Simplified 
Practice of the U, S. Department of 
Commerce which is co-operating with 
various industries in their efforts to 
reduce waste by eliminating super- 
fluous varieties. At the first meeting 
the producers volunteered to send to 
the department statements covering 
their individual shipments for 1922 of 
various grades of asphalt, as defined 
by penetration limits. This was done 



and the summary showed that 81 per 
cent of their 1922 shipments in 88 va- 
rieties fell within the 9 grades in- 
cluded in the tentative specifications 
of the American Society for Testing 
Materials. The other 19 per cent of 
the total tonnage was outside these 
grades. 

After brief discussion the above ac- 
tion was taken. The producers were 
represented by delegates from the 
Asphalt Association, and also by rep- 
resentatives from asphalt companies 
not members of the Association. The 
consumers were represented by engi- 
neers and other officials from various 
state and city highway departments. 

The conference unanimously agreed 
that grades of asphalt used in con- 
struction of sheet asphalt, asphaltic 
concrete, and asphalt macadam, pave- 
ments, and also for surface treatment 
should be reduced to the 9 grades hav- 
ing the following penetration limits: 



25 to 30 
30 to 40 
40 to 50 



50 to 60 
60 to 70 
85 to 100 



100 to 120 
120 to 150 
150 to 200 



In adopting these limits, it is under- 
stood that the producer will furnish 
asphalts with penetration equal to the 
mid-point in each range, a plus-and- 
minus tolerance from that mid-point 
being acceptable to all parties, but in 
no case shall the deviation from the 
mid-point exceed the limits of the 
grade specified. 

The conference also unanimously 
adopted 4 grades of joint filler for 
various types of construction — 30-50, 
50-60, 60-70, and 85-100. The first is 
used primarily for brick pavements 
and does not require admixture with 
sand, whereas the latter three, which 
are identical with three of the grades 
adopted for asphalt pavement con- 
struction, are those which would ordi- 
narily be used in admixture with sand 
to produce an asphalt grout. 

This gives a total of 10 grades by 
penetration limits for asphalt used in 
construction and treatment of roads 
and pavements. It is the hope and ex- 
pectation of all present that this re- 
duction in variety will bring notable 
economies in the production, sale, and 
use of asphalt, all of which in due 
time means to the taxpayer "more 
miles of highway per dollar spent," 

It was further agreed that this 
elimination should become effective in 
all deliveries of these materials made 
after Jan. 1, 1924. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



Highway Ejigineering and 
Highway Treuisport 

Report Adopted by the Society for the 

Promotion of Engineering 

Education 

At the convention of the Society 
for Promotion of Engineering Educa- 
tion at Ithaca, N. Y., the Committee 
on Civil Engineering submitted its 
final report relative to highway engi- 
neering and highway transport. The 
committee consisted of Frederic Bass, 
University of Minnesota; C. B. Breed, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy; H. S. Boardman, University of 
Maine; H. J. Hughes, Harvard Uni- 
versity; A. H. Blanchard, Chairman 
University of Michigan. The report, 
which was adopted June 21, was in 
parts as follows: 

The committee, will confine this re- 
port primarily to definite recommen- 
dations relative to courses in highway 
engineering and highway transport 
which should be or may be given un- 
der the supervision of civil engineer- 
ing departments. This report will not 
include outlines of subject matter of 
the various courses as comprehensive 
reports covering outlines of under- 
graduate courses in highway engi- 
neering and highway transport were 
presented at the Second National 
Conference on Education for Highway 
Engineering and Highway Transport. 
Page references to the Proceedings of 
the Second National Conference have 
been enclosed in brackets following 
each recommendation in cases where 
a report presented at the conference 
covered the subject matter of the 
course or courses mentioned in a rec- 
ommendation. 

The Committee submits the follow- 
ing recommendations for your consid- 
eration : 

1. In four year civil engineering 
curricula with or without technical 
electives, there should be included a 
required 3 hour semester course in 
the fundamentals of highway engi- 
neering (pages 194 to 199). 

2. In institutions offering civil engi- 
neering curricula with technical elec- 
tives and which are equipped to give 
advanced instruction in highway engi- 
neering and highway transport, provi- 
sion should be made for senior stu- 
dents to elect courses aggregating six 
to nine semester hours from the fol- 
lowing group: Theory and economics 
of highway improvements, highway 
design and highway laboratory (pages 



204 to 210); highway transport eco- 
nomics, surveys, operations, equip- 
ment and legislation; interrelationship 
of highway, railway and waterway 
transport; and the science of traffic 
regulations (pages 200 to 202 and 218 
to 221). 

3. In several institutions, preferably 
located in different geographical sec- 
tions of the United States, there 
should be offered graduate courses in 
highway engineering and highway 
transport. 

4. Highway engineering and high- 
way transport research by graduate 
students in ci\'il engineering should be 
encouraged and developed. 

5. It may be advisable for the civil 
engineering departments of some in- 
stitutions to conduct, during the win- 
ter months, a highway engineering 
conference of about one week in 
length for the discussion of local high- 
way engineering problems by the en- 
gineers and officials of the state, 
county, township and municipal high- 
way departments, provided such con- 
ference is not otherwise satisfactorily 
conducted (pages 215 to 217). 



Motor Vehicle Accidents in 
Massachusetts 

During 1921 the campaign inaugu- 
rated early in 1920 to reduce accidents 
and make the highways of Massa- 
chusetts safter for all who use them 
was carried on with unabated vigor 
both by the police throughout the 
Commonwealth and the Department 
of Public Work. The result attained 
was striking, particularly with refer- 
ence to the reduction in the number of 
persons injured. In 1919 there were 
16,287 persons injured, in 1920 there 
were 21,182 injured, while in 1921 
there were only 11,487 persons in- 
jured, notwithstanding the fact that 
there were 111,909 more autombiles on 
the highways of the Commonwealth 
than in 1919, and 53,016 more than 
there were in 1920. The principal rea- 
son for this great reduction, according 
to the 1921 report of the State Divi- 
sion of Highways, was the new regu- 
lation put into effect by the registrar 
on Dec. 1, 1920, making it necessary 
for every one to pass an examination 
before an orig^inal license was issued 
to him. 



Trees Along Massachusetts _ High- 
wavs. — In the 17 years ending in 1921 
a total of 45.607 trees had been 
planted on the borders of state high- 
ways in Massachusetts. 



Roads and Streets 

Street and Highway Lighting 



July, 



Recent Developments Outlined in Report Presented June 6 at 46th 
Annual Convention of the National Electric Light Association 



The interest of the public has been 
awakened to the necessity for im- 
proved street lighting and there is an 
increasing tendency on the part of 
municipalities to recognize the greater 
hazards accompanying automobile 




Fig. 1. Dustproof Pendant With Auto Trans- 
former for 15 or 20 Amp. Mazda Lamps in 
Separate Ventilated Chamber Above the Lamp. 

traffic, not only by installing high in- 
tensity ornamental systems in the 
center of the city, but also by greatly 
improving the standards of lighting 
in the thoroughfares leading through 
the city. 

Municipal officials are keenly alive 
to the desirability of improved street 
lighting, and this is evidenced by the 
discussions on the subject at the meet- 
ings of municipal associations and so- 
cieties. The report of the Street 
Lighting Committee of the American 
Society for Municipal Improvements, 
1922, contains a table of "Street 
Lighting Practice" which is notewor- 
thy because it clearly shows a recog- 
nition on the part of municipal offi- 
cials of the necessity for high inten- 
sity street lighting. The recommend- 
ations in this table for main business 
thoroughfares in cities of 100,000 pop- 
ulation or larger are 10,000 to 50,000 



lumens per post, and for similar 
streets in cities of 20,000 to 100,000 
population, 10,000 to 25,000 lumens 
per post. 

Ornamental Street Lighting. — Thie 
trend in the development of orna- 
mental street lighting equipment has 
been towards higher mounting and 
larger units. This is logical, first, be- 
cause of the acknowledged demand for 
increased illumination, due to modem 
traffic conditions, and, second, because 
the efficiency of the Mazda C series 
lamp increases rapidly with its size. 
Several interesting installations have 
been made during the past year, in- 
volving ornamental posts varying in 
mounting height from 16 to 30 ft., 
with lamps up to 25,000 lumens. 

Highway Lighting. — An almost vir- 
gin field for development lies in the 
lighting of inter-connecting state 
highways. Highway lighting is a de- 




Enclosed Highway Lightinar Unit. 



velopment in which the central sta- 
tion is vitally interested, not only on 
account of the load which it develops, 
but also because it may be the means 
of taking electrical service into rural 
districts which could not otherwise be 
economically served. The automobile 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



associations are alive to the impor- 
tance of this service and are co-op- 
erating in every possible way in all 
schemes for extending highway light- 
ing installations. 

Progress in 1922. — The year just 
closed has seen more street lighting 
improvements made than have been 
reported in any previous annual 
period, and there is every prospect 
that the coming year will see still 
further increases in the street lighting 
load. 

During the year the City of Chicago 
placed an order for 11,800 ornamental 



as a means whereby the lamps may 
readily be lowered for cleaning. While 
the code demands the use of absolute 
cutouts on arc lamps operating on 
series circuits, an exception in the 
code has permitted the operation of 
incandescent lamps on series circuits 
without absolute cutouts. The manu- 
facturers of this de\ice rejwrt more 
sales in cutout pulleys during the year 
1922 than in any previous year. 

Street Lighting Glassware. — The 
quality of enclosing glassware used 
in a street lighting unit has an im- 
portant bearing on the efficiency of 




Fig. 3. Viadnct Lighting, HcLemore Ave. Viadnct, Memphis, Tenn. 



posts to complete a scheme for plac- 
ing the residence lighting distributing 
system underground. This is the 
largest individual order for orna- 
mental posts ever placed at one time. 

The Philadelphia Electric Company 
is carr\ing on some interesting experi- 
ments with 9.6 ampere series Mazda 
Lamps, designed to take the place of 
the 9.6 ampere open arc lamps at 
present used in manv parts of the 
City of Philadelphia. 

The past year has seen a marked in- 
crease in the use of automatic cutout 
hangers for pendant Mazda Lamps, 
and a general recognition that such 
devices are desirable, not only as a 
safeguard to the "trimmers" but also 



the unit and on its appearance. There 
has been an e\ident demand on the 
part of the public for a sparkling ef- 
fect in street lamps which would im- 
part life and brilliancy to the appear- 
ance of the streets without undue 
glare. This has been proved by the 
greatly increased use of alabaster rip- 
pled globes during the past year. ^ A 
valuable addition to street lighting 
glassware will be found in the new 
rectilinear glassware. The surface of 
this glassware presents a number of 
rectangular protuberances which tend 
to diffuse the light without materially 
altering its direction. It is supplied in 
clear crystal or slightly flashed opal- 
escent. The latter gives the most 



10 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



pleasing results, softening the light 
and giving a maximum of "eye com- 
fort" to the observer. 

The trend of development in the use 
of panelled lanterns for street light- 




Fig. 4. 



Lighting Unit for East Cleveland, 
O., Residence District. 



ing units has been continued, and 
many cities have found the claims for 
lower maintenance costs, due to lesser 
glassware breakage, fully justified. 
Several types of lantern units for 
which replacing panels may be pur- 
chased from local glass dealers at low 
cost are now available. 

A new type of bowl refractor for 
pendant units has been introduced. 
This is known as the "Superlux" and 
its characteristics are such as to build 
the light rays laterally, while at the 
same time adequately illuminating the 
area adjacent to the unit. Experi- 
ments are also being made in the de- 
sign of an a symmetrical refractor 
which will build up the light longi- 
tudinally while only allowing a small 
portion of the light to be directed 
across the street. 

Ornamental Post Tops. — During the 
past year several new designs of or- 
namental post tops have been added 
to those already available, some of 
which are illustrated. The light dis- 
tribution in these units is controlled 
by japper and lower parabolic re- 
flectors, designed to give a maximum 
distribution 20 deg. below the hori- 
zontal, and thus the necessity for re- 
fracting glassware is eliminated. The 
reflectolux system of light distribu- 
tion is particularly adapted for orna- 
mental post lighting where the spac- 
ing varies between 50 to 100 feet. 

Pendant Units. — There have not 
been many developments in pendant 




Lighting System in Residence District of Ephrata, Pa. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



11 



street lighting units during the past 
year, and the tj'pes at present avail- 
able appear to be well standardized. 
One development worthy of mention 
here has been made in the auto trans- 
former type pendant for 15 and 20 
amp. lamps. A unit has been designed 
(Fig. 1) in which the auto transfor- 
mer is located in a separate ventilated 
cham.ber above the lamp, thus ena- 
bling the lamp to bum in a separate 
chamber from the transformer; the 
partition between the lamp and trans- 
former chambers prevents the rising 
currents of hot air reaching the trans- 
former. This construction renders the 
unit dust and bug proof when equipped 
with a closed bottom refractor or an 
enclosing globe well seated on a felt 
gasket. 

A new totally enclosed Highway 
Lighting Unit is shown in Fig. 2. In 
this unit the lamp is placed at the 
focus of an inverted parabolic re- 
flector which re-directs the light rays 
vertically do^\•nwa^d upon two re- 
fracting prismatic surfaces, and 
thence to the roadway in two direc- 
tions only. It is claimed for this unit 
that it is "dust-proof and that its 
initial efficiency is maintained for 
long periods without cleaning. 

Arc Lamps. — Improvements in lu- 
minous arc lamps include the use of 
rippled glass globes, more effective re- 
flecting deWces, and electrodes of 
longer life and higher efficiency. Com- 



pressed electrodes of square or oval 
shapes were found to give much 
greater life than previously secured 
with proportionally diminished trim- 
ming costs. 

Viaduct Lighting. — An important 




Fig. 6. Boulevard Lighting at Lansing, Mich. 




Fig. 7. Ni^t View at Lima, O.. a Good Example of Efficient Street Illaminatieiu 



12 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



phase of street lighting is the efficient 
illumination of viaducts and bridges, 
and an installation recently completed 
on the McLemore Avenue Viaduct, 
Memphis, Tenn., is noteworthy. This 
installation (Fig.3) shows a pleasing 
combination of cast iron bracket and 
pendant lantern with the concrete 
structure of the viaduct. In this in- 




Tig. 8. Ornamental Steel Pole and Brackets 
With Ornamental Pendants at Newark, O. 

stallation multiple circuits are used 
because of the desirability of keeping 
the series circuit off the viaduct. The 
multiple circuit is controlled by a re- 
mote control switch connected to the 
series circuit and so arranged that 
when the series circuit is turned on at 
the plant, it energizes the magnet coil 
of the switch and causes the switch 
to close on the primary side of a small 
distribution transformer which feeds 
the lights on the viaduct. By this 
arrangement the viaduct circuit re- 



quires no special attention, and goes 
on and off automatically at the same 
time as the main street lighting cir- 
cuit. 

Interesting Lighting Installations 
of the Past Year. — With the orna- 
mental street lighting equipment at 
present available, the planning of an 
improved system for a business dis- 
trict is a fairly simple matter; but, 
owing to the dense foliage which gen- 
erally exists on residence streets, this 
class of lighting presents some diffi- 
culties. The problem may be solved 
either by the use of bracket type units 
supported on tall poles of sufficient 
height to bring the light source well 
beyond the foliage line, or by orna- 
mental posts with the light source 
mounted below the foliage line. Each 
system has its application, and the 
type selected must be determined by 
local conditions. 

An interesting residential district 
installation was made during the past 
year at East Cleveland, O., which is 
worthy of mention. Here the units 
(Fig. 4) are mounted on brackets sup- 
ported on steel poles 16 ft. above the 
sidewalk and projecting 6 ft. over the 
roadway. This arrangement brings 
the light source well beyond the foli- 
age line. The unit is equipped with a 
dome refractor within a rippled glass 
globe, which permits of a spacing of 
280 ft. staggered resulting in a high 
degree of illumination on the road 
surface and sidewalk. This installa- 
tion is one of the few modern street 
lighting system in which multiple cir- 
cuits are used. It was found more 
economical when planning this system 
to connect the residence street lamps 
to the 115 volt house lighting secon- 
daries located along the rear lots 
through underground services brought 
out along the side lot lines. A time 
switch is used to control the lamps 
supplied by the secondary in each 
block. 

A typical residence street in which 
ornamental posts are used is shown in 
Fig. 5. In this installation the posts 
are spaced 300 ft. apart, and each is 
equipped with diffusing glassware 
mounted 10 ft. 6 in. above the side- 
walk. As will be seen from the photo- 
graph, the light source is placed below 
the foliage line and a good illumina- 
tion is obtained on roadway and side- 
walk. This installation is operated on 
the usual series system. 

An interesting installation has just 
been completed at Lansing, Mich. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



13 



(Fig. 6), which is part of a plan for 
re-lighting the entire city with an or- 
namental system. On the main busi- 
ness streets, two light standards, 20 
ft. to the light source, with 10,000 
lumen lamps will be used. Secondary 
business streets will have single light 
standards, 15 ft. to the light source, 
with 10,000 lumen lamps, and the 
boulevards, such as are shown in the 
illustration, will have 13 ft. standards 
with 4,000 lumen lamps. The minor 
residence district will be equipped 
with 2,500 lumen lamps, 11 ft. 6 in. to 
the light source, and all units will be 
provided with a means whereby the 
next size larger lamp may be sub- 
stituted when increased traffic condi- 
tions demand such change. 

Another installation, which is note- 
worthy because it emphasizes the 
tendency on the part of municipalities 
to treat ornamental street lighting 
improvements as part of a scheme to 
beautify the city as a whole, has been 
completed at Lima, O. (Fig. 7). The 
installation covers an ornamental sys- 
tem for the entire city, and the height 
of post and size of lighting unit have 
been carefully graduated with regard 
to the relative importance of the 
streets. A minimum of 2,500 lumens 
is used in the residence districts, in- 
creasing to a maximum of 10,000 
lumens in the main business streets 
and the public square. The impres- 
sion of the graduated and harmonious 
illumination is very pleasing and the 
stranger is able immediately to dis- 
tinguish the importance of the vari- 
ous streets by the intensity of illum- 
ination. 

Newark, 0. (Fig. 8), is one of the 
first cities to take advantage of the 
new 25,000 lumen Mazda "C" Lamps, 
and an installation is being made with 
the lamps mounted 30 feet above the 
sidewalk. Special pendants have been 
designed, equipped with large Holo- 
phane Bowl Refractors arranged to 
give a maximum illumination at 15 
degrees below the horizontal. The in- 
stallation is highly efficient and the 
results obtained, pleasing to the eye, 
as the brilliant light source is mounted 
sufficiently high to take it out of the 
range of vision of the pedestrian or 
the vehicle driver. 



Natural or Artificial Sand-Clay 
Mixtures for Road Surfacing 

At the 26th annual meeting of the 
American Society for Testing Ma- 
terials, June 25-29, at Atlantic City, 
N. J., Committee D-4 on Road and 
Paving Materials, submitted a "pro- 
posed tenative" specification for nat- 
ural or artificial sand-clay mixtures 
for road surfacing. Criticism of this 
tentative specification is invited by 
the committee and should be directed 
to Prevost Hubbard, Secretary, 25 W. 
43rd St., New York City. The tenta- 
tive specification follows: 

The sand-clay shall be composed of 
either a naturally occurring or artifi- 
cially prepared mixture of hard, dur- 
able, preferably angular, fragments 
of sand together with silt and clay 
with or without gravel, and shall be 
free from an excess of feldspar or 
mica. 

When tested by means of labora- 
tory sieves and screens the material 
shall conform to the following require- 
ments as to grading: 

Passing 2-in. screen — loO per cent 

Passing ^-in. screen 30 to 100 per cent 

The material, if any, retained on 
the ^4 -in. screen shall be uniformly 
graded from the maximum size pres- 
ent to 14 -in. 

The material passing the ^-in. 
screen shall conform to the following 
requirements : 

Total sand 50 to 80 per cent 

Sand retained on 60-mesh 30 to 60 per cent 

Silt 5 to 20 per cent 

Clay _ „..15 to 30 per cent 

The tests for the mechanical analy- 
sis of the sand, clay, natural sand- 
clay or topsoil mixtures shall be made 
in accordance with the Tentative 
Method of Mechanical Analysis of 
Subgrade Soils (Serial Designation: 
D 137-22 T), except that the deter- 
mination of the percentage of suspen- 
sion clay may be omitted and the per- 
centage of total clay may be calcu- 
lated by difference as follows: 

100 — (Percentage of Sand -f- Per- 
centage of Silt) = Percentage of 
Clay. 



14 Roads and Streets July, 

The Connecticut Investigations of Highway Traffic 

Some Results of the Censuses Carried Out by U. S. Bureau of Public 

Roads and State Given in Paper Presented Feb. 14 at 9th 

Annual Michigan Conference on Highway Engineering 

By GEORGE E. HAMLIN, 

Maintenance Engineer, Connecticut State Highway Department 



The Rolvitiff of hiirhwav nrnhlpms bv 
the analysis of data obtained from 
comprehensive and continued studies 
of traffic conditions is now recognized 
as necessary for the proper construc- 
tion and financing of any good roads 
program. Investigations have been in 
progress in various states with a view 
of determining the economic road 
which will in cost, construction and 
maintenance give the maximum serv- 
ice to the average tax payer. Sections 
of experimental road have been built 
which have been tested to destruction 
in order to determine their sustaining 
characteristics for various types of 
traffic. From these experiments it is 
desired to determine the type of road 
which will best economically fit a de- 
termined traffic condition. There, 
therefore remains the determining 
of the character and amount of traffic 
which any particular highway will be 
required to carry. For this purpose 
traffic censuses have at various times 
been instituted in many localities ex- 
tending generally over a compara- 
tively short period and in many cases 
only over peak periods, from which an 
attempt has been made to develop a 
curve of increase, both in quantity 
and weight, by which the necessary 
qualities may be determined for the 
estimated life of any particular road 
surface. 

Results of Maine Traffic Census. — 

The Highway Commission of the State 
of Maine inaugurated in 1916 a traf- 
fic census which at its inception was 
taken at about 12 stations on the 
state highway system. This census 
has been taken each year, the number 
of stations being increased as found 
necessary to develop the results. In 
the year ending June 30, 1922, traffic 
was counted at about 50 locations and 
extended over a period of seven suc- 
cessive days. This count is generally 
made during the laot week of August 
or the first week of September and 
takes in a daily period of 12 hours 
from 7 a. m. to 7 p. m. The count is 
divided into north or south and east 
or west traffic, further divisions being 
made into horse-drawn and motor ve- 



hicle traffic with several further sub- 
divisions of each class. 

At one of the stations near Port- 
land the 1922 census developed 99.8 
per cent of motor vehicles and .2 of 
1 per cent of horse-drawn vehicles. 

At this same station in 1916, 97 
per cent of the vehicles were motor 
vehicles with 3 per cent of horse- 
drawn vehicles. In 1916, 7,790 motor 
vehicles were counted and 258 horse- 
drawn vehicles. In 1922 there were 
26,012 motor vehicles and 63 horse- 
drawn vehicles. While this proportion 
does not hold true at all stations 
throughout the state, due to the char- 
acter of the country, in the great ma- 
jority of cases the percentage of mo- 
tor vehicles is 97 per cent or more. 

The Commission notes in its report 
"the traffic census not only shows 
which roads are of most importance to 
the public, but the information also is 
an indication as to the type of surface 
which must be provided at the loca- 
tions under consideration," 

The Purpose of Traffic Counts. — Mr, 
Nelson P. Lewis in charge of the phys- 
ical survey. Plan of New York and 
Its Environs makes the following com- 
ments in relation to traffic surveys: 

"I consider that the chief purpose 
of traffic counts is to determine where 
additional traffic capacity should be 
provided in one or more of the fol- 
lowing ways: 

(a) Widening existing roads; 

(b) Constructing additional main 
roads; 

(c) Segregating slow and fast mov- 
ing traffic, as through the provision 
of motor truck highways; 

(d) By-passes around congested 
centers. 

The traffic to be provided for is that 
desiring to use the road at the busiest 
time of day so that the number of 
vehicles passing during the heaviest 
hour, or quarter hour, will give some 
indication of the need of relief, but 
this may be misleading in that a 
small number of vehicles may be due 
to relatively slow speed, on account 
of mere numbers, or to the presence 
in the line of a large proportion of 
heavy vehicles of low speed and flexi- 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



15 



bility. A complete diagnosis cannot 
be made unless the census includes a 
record of the speed, flexibility, and de- 
gree of obstruction offered by the ve- 
hicles, while the wheel loads will af- 
ford a fair measure of the destructive 
character of the traflfic. 

Proposed methods of observation 
and analysis should be so worked out 
and put in such logical and simple 
form that they will not deter states 
or other political units where funds 
for this sort of work are scant or 
where its importance is not yet fully 
realized, from undertaking any traf- 
fic analysis. 

The value of observations will be 
proportioned to their completeness and 
thoroughness, but even if they are not 
exhaustive they will have considerable 
value if the most important, even 
though the simplest details are taken 
up first. Where saturation already 
exists there is little to be gained by 
extensive observations. Comparisons 
may be made to determine the relative 
capacity at certain contracted points, 
or "bottle necks," compared with that 
at other points where such conditions 
do not exist, provided the latter are 
not within the influence of the con- 
traction, or "bottle neck," with which 
comparison is to be made. 

TraflSc Survey in Minnesota. — In 
the State of Minnesota in the year 
1921 it was arranged for the state 
maintenance force to carry a contin- 
uous traffic survey on the more im- 
portant roads throughout the whole 
season, taking one or two days each 
week so that the seasonable variation 
in traffic could be enumerated. In 
this census four general classes of ve- 
hicles were noted: Passenger cars, 
transportation lines, miscellaneous 
trucks and horse-drawn vehicles. The 
passenger cars were further divided 
into heavy and light models; also for- 
eign and Minnesota cars were noted. 
The number of passengers in each car 
was taken in all cases. 

Mr. John H. Mullen, Chief Engineer, 
says that this traffic survey is more or 
less superficial and that plans should 
be evolved which will not only show 
the character and change in volume 
of traffic from year to year, but that 
maps should also be prepared showing 
the origin and destination of various 
kinds of traflfic, from which can be 
ascertained in a measure the future 
development of traflftc in a given com- 
munity. 

Early TraflBc Censuses in Connecti- 
cut. — The State of Connecticut during 
the past few years has carried on traf- 



fic censuses for short periods of time 
with a view of determining the natural 
increase from year to year on the 
various highways comprising the 
trunk line system. The first censuses 
were taken at different strategic 
points along the highways through- 
out the state, being carried on in many 
cases for a continuous 24 or 48-hour 
period, and generally at the time of 
the year when it was estimated the 
average traffic would be found. 

The data obtained, however, were 
extremely conflicting and did not nec- 
essarily show the logical growth to be 
expected for a period of years. To 
obtain peak loads which must of ne- 
cessity be carried by the highways, a 
census was made two years ago on 
seven main roads in the vicinity of 
New Haven on the occasion of the 
Yale-Princeton football game. This 
census extended over a period of 12 
hours, from 8 a. m. to 8 p. m., only 
the number of vehicles and their di- 
rections noted. No attempt was made 
to determine the origin or destination 
of the traffic outside of New Haven. 
During this period 26,016 vehicles 
were noted, the period of greatest 
congestion being on the Boston Post 
Road west of New Haven on the direct 
New York highway, between the hours 
of 5 and 6 p. m., when 1,619 vehicles 
were enumerated passing the station, 
this being an average of one vehicle 
every 2^4 seconds. It is understood 
that this was an extreme peak condi- 
tion but if the traffic is to be cared 
for on public highways, such peaks 
must be taken into consideration in 
designing both the width of the high- 
way and the character of the surface. 

The Present Connecticut Survey. — 

In 1912 in connection with the Bureau 
of Public Roads, traffic censuses were 
taken at the New York State line in 
Greenwich and at the Massachusetts 
State Line on the Hartford-Springfield 
Trunk Line for a two weeks period. 
Each vehicle was stopped and the 
driver questioned in regard to origin 
and destination of trip and in the case 
of trucks, the commodity weight, tire 
condition, etc., was obtained. 

Many interesting facts were 
brought to light which seemed to re- 
quire further study before being ac- 
cepted as basic data. Arrangements 
were therefore completed with the 
Bureau of Public Roads and in Sep- 
tember of last year a system of 56 
stations was laid out at strategic 
points throughout the state where 
periodically a party was detailed to 



16 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



obtain the information required to de- 
velop the average yearly traffic. 

To carry out this survey of traffic 
and obtain the detailed information 
desired, three motorized parties of 
five men each were established and at 
eight of the stations selected with ref- 
erence to traffic conditions, pit plat- 
form scales of 25-tons capacity were 
established to obtain the necessary 
truck weight requirements. Two of 
the parties known as extensive parties 
work entirely independently of each 
other. Information is obtained by 
them as follows: 

Passenger cars : 

Station at which information is taken. 
Day and hour on which information is taken. 
Direction in which car is traveling. 
State issuing car license. 
Make of car. 

Type of car. whether roadster or touring. 
Number of passengers in car. 
Nature of trip being made, whether busi- 
ness or pleasure. 
Origin of trip. 
Destination of trip. 
Trucks : 

Station at which information is taken. 
Day and hour on which information is taken. 
Direction in which truck is traveling. 
State issuing truck license. 
Make of truck. 
Capacity of truck. 
Commodity carried. 
Number of trips made per week. 
Length of time required to make trip. 
Length of trip. 
Destination of trip. 

How the Census Is Taken. — Of the 
five men in each extensive party, four 
handle passenger car traffic. This 
work is generally divided so that two 
men obtain the information in regard 
to north or east bound cars and two 
in regard south or west bound cars. 
In each case one man acts as observer 
and the other as recorder. The ob- 
server stands on the road, stops the 
cars and calls out the information to 
the recorder who enters this on the 
prepared sheets or cards. 

The fifth man obtains truck infor- 
mation and must take care of traffic 
in both directions, doing both his own 
questioning and recording. A card 
simlar to the passenger car card is 
made out for each truck. 

In order to prevent congestion and 
to keep at least half of the road open 
at all times, the passenger car men 
have stations at least 200 ft. apart. 
It has been found that traffic is seri- 
ously impeded where all questioning is 
done at the station itself. Very lit- 
tle trouble has been encountered at 
most sations in detailing one man to 
obtain truck information. At a few 
sations in the state where the truck 
traffic is abnormally heavy at times, 
it is customary to transfer one of the 



passenger car men to help obtain the 
truck information. Additional men 
are also assigned to stations where 
passenger car traffic is unusually 
heavy to avoid any congestion or 
serious slowing up of traffic through 
the operation of the census. 

Printed signs 3x4 ft. are placed 
alongside of the road so that the 
driver is warned in approaching the 
census station of the reason of the 
questioning. 

The prepared cards are sent to 
Washington where the information 
shown on the stub is punched on the 
card which is then ready for placing 
in the tabulating machine. 

The third party is known as the 
intensive party and operates only at 
points where platform scales have 
been installed. This party occupies 
each station for a period of six con- 
secutive days and the amount of in- 
formation required is such that the 
listing of the data has been divided 
between two recorders. 

The first recorder lists the follow- 
ing: 

Station at which information is taken. 

Day and hour on which information is taken. 

State, and number of truck license. 

Name of truck owner. 

Name of party shipping goods and city and 
state from which they have been shipped. 

Name of party receiving goods and city and 
state in which they will be received. 

Class of shipment whether Pick-up to De- 
livery, Terminal to Terminal. Pick-up to Ter- 
minal, or Delivery to Terminal. 

Commodity carried. 

Nature of packing and crating, whether 
goods are being carried loose, boxed, crated, 
baled, etc. 

The second recorder lists the follow- 
ing: 

Station at which information is taken. 

Day and hour on which information is taken. 

State and number of truck license. 

Make of truck. 

Number of trips made per week. 

Capacity of truck. 

Length of time required for trip. 

Whether truck is loaded or empty. 

Width of truck body. 

Net weight. 

Gross weight. _ 

Front axle weight. 

Rear axle weight. 

Type of tires and width of tires on pave- 
ment under load both front and rear. 

Depth of tires ccannel to pavement under 
load. 

Width of tires channel to channel. 

Care is taken in listing the informa- 
tion so that the same truck appears 
upon the same line in both sheets. 
This is afterwards checked up before 
the sheets are sent to Washington by 
comparing the license numbers listed 
on the corresponding lines. The time 
required for obtaining information and 
weighing the truck varies from 1-3 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



17 



minutes; the average time being prob- 
ably 1% minutes. The first recorder 
questions the driver in regard to 
origin, destination, number of trips, 
etc. The second recorder receives the 
truck weight from the scale man and 
truck measurements from an addi- 
tional observer. These items he lists 
on the proper sheets in accordance 
with the direction of traffic. 

Tire widths are obtained by caus- 
ing the truck to pass over a strip of 
white cardboard and measuring the 
crack made. Channel widths are ob- 
tained by means of a pair of callipers. 

Use of Scales Reduces Truck Over- 
loading. — The eight sets of scales 
were primarily constructed for use in 
the traffic census, and the average cost 
of each completed scale, including 
scale house, self-reading dial, lighting 
system, etc., was $2,532. While this 
would seem to ba a large investment 
for census purposes, these scales are 
also used in the State of Connecticut 
by the State Police Department for 
measuring overloads and overweights 
on trucks. The law forbids the load- 
ing of any truck beyond its regis- 
tered capacity or a total weight in ex- 
cess of 25,000 lbs. which may be re- 
duced if found necessary at certain 
seasons of the year by order of the 
Highway Commissioner. It has been 
found that since the installation of the 
scales, overloading has been reduced 
and as a consequence that fewer 
breaks in the surfaces of the more im- 
permanent types of road have resulted 
during the early spring. 

The 56 stations in the state have 
been di\aded into eight districts, each 
extensive party completing one dis- 
trict in a week so that by working 
seven days a week and spending one 
day at each station, each party com- 
pletes a district in one week and a 
cycle of the state in eight weeks. The 
intensive party travels from one to an- 
other of the intensive 'stations, occu- 
pying each station for six successive 
days and making a cycle of the state 
in eight weeks. This party does not 
operate on Sundays on account of the 
small amount of truck traffic on that 
day. Care has also been taken to 
route parties so that no more than one 
of the three parties is in the same 
district at the same time. This out- 
line of work was carried on during the 
summer and fall months. With the 
coming of winter the large decrease 
in the passenger car traffic and the icy 
cone ition of the roads caused the 
abandonment of the practice of stop- 



ping and questioning the drivers of 
the passenger cars. The extensive 
parties were then cut down to two 
men each and an hourly count of pas- 
senger cars was made. 

I uU information obtained in regard 
to truck is still being obtained. The 
intensive party, however, has been 
reduced to three men. Two additional 
men divide their time among the 
three parties when any one of these 
is located where travel requires addi- 
tional observers. 

Tie total cost of the census from 
Sept. 11, 1922, to Jan. 27, 1923, in- 
cluding the cost of the three cars used 
in the work, but no part of the cost 
of the scale installation, has been 
about $15,000, $3,000 of this amount 
bein;? estimated as paid by the Bureau 
of Public Roads for the salaries and 
expe.ises of three government ob- 
servtirs. 

During the four months of opera- 
tion various minor difficulties have 
arisen which have been adjusted to fit 
the J articular condition. 

It has been common practice to lo- 
cate a station at the jimction of two 
roads-. This is satisfactory in most 
cases, but an exception is found at 
Station No. 19 at the Rhode Island 
State line in Westerly, The junction 
here occurs in a congested business 
district where a large proportion of 
local traffic was found. Arrange- 
ments were therefore made to cover 
each road separately and an additional 
man was detailed to the party for this 
purpose. 

The Chief of the Survey visits each 
party at least once and frequently 
twice each week, collecting from them 
the cards and sheets which have been 
filled out, and adjusting any difficul- 
ties which may have arisen in han- 
dling the work. These cards and sheets 
are shipped to the Bureau of Public 
Roads in Washington, where oper- 
atives punch each card with the in- 
formation shown on the stub. These 
cards are then ready for passing 
through the tabulating machine. 

Some Results of the Census. — A 

comparatively small amount of tab- 
ulation at the present time has been 
made ready for publication. Possibly 
the most interesting chart as yet fur- 
nished is that which shows the aver- 
age daily movement of motor trucks 
on Connecticut highways between 
Sept. 11 and Dec. 3, 1922. This chart 
shows an average of about 750 motor 



18 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



trucks per 24-hour day on the Boston 
Post Road between the New York 
State line at Greenwich and Bridge- 
port. From Bridgeport through New 
Haven to Hartford and from Hartford 
to the Massachusetts line south of 
Springfield, the average number of 
trucks approximates 350 to 400 per 
24-hour day. In the vicinity of Water- 
bury in which are manufactured large 
quantities of brass products and which 
to the north and south for a consid- 
erable distance is a succession of 
manufacturing cities, the chart shows 
350 motor trucks per day. About 100 
of these constitute local traffic, the re- 
maining 250 being nearly equally di- 
vided between the New Haven and 
Bridgeport roads. Inasmuch as the 
truck traffic determines to a large ex- 
tent the character of the necessary 
road surface, it is fair to assume that 
the width of line showing the number 
of trucks per day is directly propor- 
tional to the need of a hard surfaced 
highway. 

During the period from Sept. 12 to 
Dec. 2, 1922, the estimated gross truck 
tonnage movement on Connecticut 
highways was 495,357 tons with a net 
weight of 188,812 tons. Of the latter 
amount, about 112,000 net tons were 
carried on trucks with Connecticut li- 
censes, and 77,000 net tons on trucks 
with foreign licenses. New York and 
Massachusetts trucks carrying re- 
spectively 35,000 and 32,000 net tons; 
New Jersey, 5,380 net tons; Rhode 
Island about 3,000 net tons and 1,5000 
tons from miscellaneous states. 

These figures would seem to show 
that more than 40 per cent of the net 
truck tonnage operating on Connecti- 
cut highways is carried in trucks with 
foreign markers paying no fee for the 
privilege of operating upon Connecti- 
cut highways. 

Average Mileage and Vehicle 
Weight. — From data obtained a chart 
of comparison of average mileage 
with average gross weight per vehicle 
has been drafted. This would tend to 
show that the average mileage and 
the average gross weight per vehicle 
is proportional. Of Connecticut trucks, 
the average gross weight being about 
9,700 lbs., the mileage averages 30. 
New York trucks with an average 
gross weight of 10,700 lbs. shows an 
average mileage of about 40. Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts trucks with 
an average gross weight of about 12,- 
000 lbs. show an average mileage of 
75, while New Jersey trucks with an 



average mileage of 110 show average 
gross weight of 13,500 lbs. 

Charts have been prepared for each 
of the intensive stations showing the 
truck traffic density by hours. 

These charts show the number of 
vehicles passing each station during 
each of the 24 hours and show points 
of density in the morning and after- 
noon which are evidently directly re- 
lated to the distance of the station 
from the point of origin of haul. 

At Greenwich, at the New York 
State line, the hourly truck traffic 
shows an increase from 32 between 
the hours of 6 and 7 a. m. to 57 be- 
tween 12 and 1 to 40 trucks, increas- 
ing again between 1 and 5 p. m. to 
between 55 and 60 trucks per hour, 
dropping between 6 and 7 p. m. to 27 
trucks and between 3 and 5 a. m. to 13 
trucks. 

Average Length of Truck Haul. — 

To a certain extent the average length 
of haul can be computed from these 
charts by taking half the time be- 
tween the peaks and multiplying this 
by the average rate per hour per 
truck. The lag during the noon hour 
is very evident on most of the charts. 

The chart of average truck haul by 
capacities taken from the records of 
the Greenwich station shows that ton- 
nage value of the material is nearly 
proportional to the average haul in 
miles. On trucks of 3-4 tons capacity 
products of mines were hauled an 
average of 21 miles; products of for- 
est an average of 38 miles; products 
of agriculture an average of 48 miles; 
products of animals, an average of 54 
miles; manufactures and miscella- 
neous an average of 75 miles. This 
tends to prove the claim of the rail- 
road companies that the motor truck 
has taken away to an appreciable ex- 
tent the hauling of the high grade, 
high class commidities, leaving to the 
railroad only the lower class of 
freight of large tonnage and low re- 
ceipts. 

In the period from Sept. 11 to Dec. 
3, 1922, it is estimated that 33,631 
net tons of freight were transported 
from New York City to Connecticut 
points. It is interesting to compare 
the total net tonnage delivered in 
various cities with the total mileage 
covered. 

The following table gives the des- 
tination, tonnage, percentage, and dis- 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



19 



tance from New York as a basis of 
comparison: 

Per- Dis- 

cent- tance 

Tons age Miles 

Greenwich 2,216 7 30 

Stamford 7^47 22 35 

Danburv 1,011 3 63 

Norwalk 3,684 11 44 

Bridgeport 7,086 21 58 

New Haven 4,853 14 75 

Waterbury 1,435 4 90 

Hartford 1,186 3% 113 

Vicinity of New 
Haven 2^58 7 74 

No attempt has been made as yet 
to consider the population of these 
cities and towns as a basis for ap- 
proximately determining the tonnage 
of freight to be moved for various 
distances and it is not known that 
such a formula can be established 
without considering in addition the in- 
dustries of the city receiving the 
freight. 

It is possible, however, that there 
is a comparative relation existing 
which can be used as a basis for de- 
termining the probable amount of 
freight traffic over any particular road 
for any given distance. 

The census now in progress begin- 
ning Sept. 11, 1922, has not developed 
the high peak of traffic which will be 
encountered at some of the stations 
during the summer months. On the 
pre\ious census taken at Greenwich 
on Sunday, July 9, 1922, between the 
hours of 10 a. m. and 8 p. m. 6,930 
passenger cars, 48 trucks and 60 mis- 
cellaneous vehicles passed the station. 
In the census now in progress, a maxi- 
mum number of passenger cars 
counted on any one day was at the 
Greenwich station on November 11, 
when 3,252 passenger cars and 663 
trucks were enumerated, between the 
hours of 11 and 8 p. m. 

Seasonal Variation in TraflSc. — Com- 
parison has also been made to deter- 
mine the seasonal variation in traffic 
at the various stations. The infor- 
mation already collected would tend to 
show that while passenger car traffic 
decreases notably during the winter 
period, truck traffic remains fairly con- 
stant throughout the year, decreasing 
only a small percentage during the 
winter months. 

At Station 46 on the Hartford- 
Springfield Trunk line 1,135 passenger 
cars and 201 trucks passed the station 
in nine hours in the latter part of 
October. The count taken about Jan- 



uary 1 showed 242 passenger cars 
and 191 trucks. During the same 
period at Station 8 near Bridgeport, 
on October 20 there were counted 
1,811 passenger cars and 499 trucks; 
on January 25, 572 passenger cars 
and 315 trucks. 

At Station 6 at Greenwich on Sept. 
16, 1,718 passenger cars were enumer- 
ated while on Dec. 23, 2,470 cars were 
counted. This is not comparative, in- 
as much as the large number of cars 
in December is due, without doubt, to 
the near approach of the holiday. 

At Station 38 near Meriden on Sept. 
18, 1,520 passenger cars and 261 
trucks were enumerated; on Jan. 23, 
there were 186 passenger cars and 
190 trucks. 

It is not expected that the informa- 
tion now obtained will necessarily be 
final or that the conclusions given 
may not be subjected to change, 
when additional data has been col- 
lected. It is intended to carry on the 
survey now in progress for a suffi- 
cient period to determine definitely 
what may be expected by the road de- 
signer and builder for ' his future 
guidance. This does not mean that it 
will be necessary to inaugurate each 
year an extended highway traffic cen- 
sus for long continued periods of time. 
After the seasonal variation is deter- 
mined by the census now in progress, 
it is hoped that from counts for short 
periods of time at different seasons 
of the year may be determined the 
yearly increase of both weight and 
traffic so that curves can be platted to 
show what may be expected at any 
definite future period. 

It is believed that the traffic census 
will be of great value to the student 
of transportation as well as to the 
road builder. The results obtained 
will give the value of the truck as a 
transportation unit in connection with 
the study of transportation as a whole 
and particularly as applied to trans- 
portation by railroads. ^ Committees 
are at work in connection with the 
problem of transportation to deter- 
mine where the railroad and truck 
are in competition and to co-ordinate, 
if possible, the various activities so 
that all transportation methods, hav- 
ing in mind railroad, trolley, water- 
way or truck, may have defined eco- 
nomic areas of activity. All agencies 
should help in the quick and efficient 
delivery of commodities, rather than 
for the one to assume functions^ which 
can best economically be carried on 
by another. 



20 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



Concrete Pavement Sections 
With Thickened Edges 

The thicker-at-the-edges design for 
concrete pavement, though it has been 
used in a modified way in the earlier 
days of concrete road building, has 
only recently been accepted as an im- 
portant improvement in concrete pave- 
ment design. Since its first extensive 




Typical Paving Sections. A — Granville Island, 
Vancouver Harbor. B — Standard Section Illi- 
nois Division of Highways. 

use in Maricopa County, Arizona, the 
thicker-at-the-edges section has 
proved its worth in the Pittsburgh 
Test Road; its necessity was demon- 
strated in the Bates Experimental 
Road and it has been adopted, with 
slight variations, as the standard de- 
sign in several state and county high- 
way departments. We are indebted 
to the Concrete Highway Magazine 
for the following particulars regard- 
ing this new feature. 

Wayne County Pioneer in Heavier 
Edge Construction. — Probably the first 
concrete pavements with heavier 
edges were built in Wayne County, 
Michigan. The thickened edge was in 
reality an inverted curb which was 
placed to provide additional strength 
at the edge where the corner was 
rounded to make it easier for vehicles 
to get on and off the pavement. Other 
examples of the use of inverted curbs 
or beams under the edges of concrete 
pavements were found in California, in 
Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and Chautau- 
qua County, New York. In all of 
these cases, the additional support at 
the edges was provided to meet some 
particular condition, such as an espe- 
cially insecure subgrade. They consti- 
tuted a special precaution and were 
not considered necessary under ordi- 
nary conditions. 

The general trend in standard road 
sections was in the opposite direc- 
tion — thicker at the center than at the 
edges. This was probably caused by 
the desire to get away from the 
crowned subgrade which was more dif- 



ficult to construct accurately and 
which was thought by some engineers 
to be responsible for the formation of 
longitudinal cracks. But it was soon 
found that one of the most prolific 
sources of trouble was the tendency of 
concrete roads too narrow for the vol- 
ume of traffic to be served to break 
at the edges and at the corners of 
slabs. Added strength given to the 
center of the slab seemed misplaced 
in view of the greater volume of traf- 
fic forced to travel near the edges. 

Concrete Pavements in Maricopa 
County. — Maricopa County, Arizona, 
was the first to undertake, on a large 
scale, the construction of concrete 
pavements having thickened edges. 
The section adopted became known as 
the Maricopa Section and was selected 
as standard for that county's 309-mile 
concrete highway system which was 
begun in 1920. How well the Mari- 
copa Section served traffic is shown 
by a recent thorough inspection. 
There was an almost complete ab- 
sence of comer breaks in spite of the 
fact that as soon as the pavements 
were opened to traffic, they were used 
by heavily loaded material trucks 
weighing aboftt 12 tons which trav- 




fe 



fe 



CofH.taitd dtformtd mttat jotnt- 






Crtmntd n/b^rod* 



^' ' dtformtd bars S'-<t ctnttrs ). 
tech 5idt of /oinf) 



yttndinq i'O' t 

Typical Paving Sections. A — Utah State High- 
way Commission. B — Maricopa County, Ariz. 
C— State Highway No. 40, Tarrant County. 
Texas. D — Delaware State Highway Depart- 
ment. 

eled on the extreme edge of the pave- 
ment. 

The Pittsburgh Test Sections. — 

While the Maricopa County pavements 
were under construction, a test road 
containing thirteen diiferent designs 
of concrete pavement was being con- 
structed at Pittsburgh, Calif. Four 
sections were constructed with thick- 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



21 



ened edges and one of these was of 
the Maricopa design. The road was 
subjected to intensive traffic so that 
the behavior of the various designs 
could be studied and compared. It 
was found, among other things, that 
the edges of the slabs appeared to be 
the most vulnerable places and that 
most of the breaking started at the 
edges or the joints. Sections with 
thickened edges made the most favor- 
able showing in spite of the fact that 
these were built without reinforce- 
ment. 

The Bates Road Tests. — Tests made 
at the Bates Experimental Road near 
Springfield, 111., under the direction 
of the Illinois Division of Highways, 
substantiated the findings at Pitts- 
burgh. In the Bates Road sixty-three 
sections of various types and designs 
were subjected to traffic and the re- 
sults carefully studied. Though there 
were no sections with thickened edges 
in the Bates Road, the test showed 
conclusively the need for greater 
strength at the edges. Commenting 
on this feature, Clifford Older, Chief 
Engineer of the Illinois Division of 
Highways, said: "Rigid pavements 
having a uniform thickness or edges 
thinner than the center are greatly 
unbalanced in strength and will fail 
along the edges long before the wheel 
loads are reached which will cause the 
destruction of other portions of the 
slab. Although fifty of the original 
sixty-three sections of the Bates Road 
either were completely destroyed, or 
sustained decisive local breaks, not one 
case of serious partial or complete 
failure of a rigid section occurred 
that was not directly due to the 
lengthening and widening of one or 
more small broken corner areas. 

"The comparative absence of de- 
struction along the north edge of the 
road where the wheels, except dur- 
ing the first and a portion of the sec- 
ond increments, traveled three feet 
from the edge is striking. * * * In- 
creasing the edge strength of pave- 
ments of ordinary width should there- 
fore be of first importance in design." 

On the strength of these experi- 
ments, backed by the results at the 
Pittsburgh Test Road, the condition of 
the Maricopa County pavements and 
theoretical computations, the Illinois 
Division of Highways changed its 
standard concrete pavement section 
from a 7-in. uniform thickness to the 
cross section shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration, having a thickness of 



9 in. at the edges and tapering to 6 
in. 2 ft. from the edges. For roads 
to carry especially heavy traffic, or 
for bad subgrades, the central part 
of the slab will have a thickness of 7 
in., with 9-in. edge. 

To verify these conclusions, five 
new sections of concrete were added 
to the Bates Experimental Road. Four 
of these have edges thickened to 9 in. 
with 5 and 6-in. centers, the other 
being the old standard section of 7-in. 
uniform thickness. Truck traffic is 
now testing these new sections and re- 
sults to date have convinced Mr. Older 
that the adoption of the new design 
was justified. 

The New Illinois Sections. — It is al- 
so significant that the new Illinois 
standards require the same mixture as 
required for concrete roads (1:2:3^4), 
and identical cross-section for concrete 




^Xjni.'rucrfcr /j-r* 



Typical Cross Section New York State High- 
wars. 

bases for asphaltic tops, including the 
marginal rods and center joint. For 
bituminous filled brick, the concrete 
base is specified to be 6^ in. thick, 
1:2:3% mix, marginal rod, center 
joint, with marginal curb 8 in. wide, 4 
in. deep, monolithic with the base. 
For monolithic brick, the base, includ- 
ing the mortar bed, is 5 in. thick, but 
curbs, marginal rods and center joints 
are not required. 

Since Illinois has changed to the 
thicker-at-the-edge section, other state 
and county highway departments have 
adopted similar designs. Accompany- 
ing illustrations show cross sections 
now being used by New York, Dela- 
ware, Utah, Tarrant County, Texas, 
and by the Vancouver (B. C.) Harbor 
Commission. Other highway depart- 
ments using similar designs are the 
state of Virginia, the District of Co- 
lumbia and Caddo Parish, La. While 
the individual designs of these sec- 
tions differ in their details, all of them 
make use of the newly accepted prin- 
ciple that the edges of the slab re- 
quire greater thickness than the 
center. 



22 Roads and Streets July, 

Road Maintenance Methods in Canadisoi County 

How Toronto and York Highway Commissions Maintain Elarth and 

Gravel Roads, Described in Paper Presented June 12 at Annual 

Convention of Canadisui Good Roads Association 

By E. A. JAMES, 

Consulting Engineer, Toronto, Ont. 



While we believe in maintenance, 
yet_ we must point out that adequate 
maintenance is frequently a waste of 
public funds. The road builder and 
and the road financier must carefully 
balance annual maintenance against 
annual depreciation and the carrying 
charges of constructed roads. Other- 
wise you will find that adequate main- 
tenance is costing twice as much as 
proper construction. 

We have in mind a macadam high- 
way which was properly constructed 
as a macadam highway but which to- 
day is costing $2,500 per mile per 
year to maintain. It would be much 
better for that municipality to con- 
struct a higher type of pavement and 
thus get good service at much less ex- 
pense. We take it that when speaking 
of maintenance we have in mind the 
maintaining of roads that have been 
properly planned and constructed hav- 
ing regard to local conditions and traf- 
fic. One can hardly speak intelligent- 
ly of adequate maintenance unless 
there has first been adequate con- 
struction. 

Organization and Work of Mainte- 
nance Force. — Originally our roads 
were divided into beats and we had a 
patrol system. The number of men 
varying with the type or road and 
character of traffic. We found, how- 
ever, that the type of man who was 
content to patrol the roads doing the 
necessary repair work, required too 
much direction, and also that a man 
working alone or even with one com- 
panion became as years went by less 
efficient, due we think to the lack of 
competition. In later years we have 
grouped four or five patrol parties un- 
der one foreman, a man of experience 
and with some judgment so that now 
our maintenance work is carried out 
by parties of five or six men equipped 
with one ton truck, tools, materials, 
etc. 

The work of these maintenance par- 
ties not only includes the repairing 
of small holes, cleaning ditches and 
water ways, but also on the gravel 
and macadam roads, the elimination 
of ruts and the preventing of ravel by 



the application of bituminous carpet 
coats from time to time. In some in- 
stances bituminous wearing surfaces 
are maintained and repaired by the 
use of cold patch material. By using 
larger gangs, having charge of greater 
mileage, we have in many instances 
been able to engage men who have a 
construction experience and in every 
case men who possess considerable in- 
telligence. 

Each year we try to plan so that 
these men may do some construction 
work, culverts, small bridges, some 
water bound or bituminous bound 
macadam roadways. In this way we 
maintain their interest and improve 
their workmanship. The foremen are 
employed for twelve months in the 
year and foremen with sections of 25 
miles or more have at least one man 
with them the year round, but they 
have permission to hire more help 
when required. 

These foremen look after the snow 
roads in winter, trim trees in early 
spring, and as many of them have 
been with us since the commission 
was formed we feel that they are tak- 
ing a personal interest in maintaining 
the road in their division to as high a 
standard of efficiency as the money 
available will allow. 

Between seasons they paint guard 
rails, place direction signs, lengthen 
culverts, cut weeds, etc. They report 
weekly to the office on their time 
sheets what and where they have been 
engaged for the previous week, and 
in this way we maintain a check not 
only on their work but also on the 
costs. The gang foreman has instruc- 
tions that he must see personally the 
whole of his sections at least once a 
week, and as a matter of custom it 
has been developed that this inspec- 
tion is made on Friday, thus guaran- 
teeing the best conditions for the 
heavy week end traffic. 

Our roads so intersect that it is 
possible with but two exceptions to 
lay out the foreman's section so that 
his longest drive in any direction from 
his home is seven miles. The sec- 
tions being thus compact are usually 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



23 



inspected more often than once a 
week. 

Earth Road Maintenance. — Earth 
roads require constant maintenance 
because in the very nature of things 
they deteriorate at every season of 
the year, and rapidly. Commencing 
with April we first shape them with 
a blade grader giving them 7 to 9 in. 
of crown in a width of 16 ft., care 
beink taken, however, to first throw 
the sod into or over the ditch. In 
operating the grader we find the trac- 
tor more satisfactory than the horses 
because of steadiness of operation. 

Following the relatively heavy 
grading in the spring we use the metal 
road drag drawn by horses. Judg- 
ment, of course, must be used as to 
when the drag should be put upon 
the road because there is a different 
time with ditferent soils for proper 
dragging. We prefer a hitch so that 
the blade will make an angle of about 
45 deg. with the traveled road. This 
smooths the road, shapes it and is 
relatively easy on the team. By 
means of the length of the hitch we 
regulate the cut of the drag. 

The drag does its best work when 
the soil is moist but not sticky, but if 
the ruts are deep it is well to use it 
when the road is slushy. On clay 
soils using these methods one can 
quickly develop a hard, impervious 
surface. Thus dust is prevented, rain 
water runs at once to the ditches and 
the road drys quickly. The best guide 
as to when to drag is experience with 
the road itself. 

Maintenance of Gravel Roads. — 
Gravel road maintenance requires 
more care than earth road mainte- 
nance because usually the traffic is of 
greater and the demand is greater for 
a higher type of road. 

Good gravel roads may under heavy 
traffic in the fall and spring break up, 
but when shaped by the grader and 
dragged in late spring may easily give 
six months of excellent service. In 
grading our earth roads we cut the sod 
right to the ditch line so that the 
water may run off quickly, but in 
grading the gravel roads we leave a 
sod berm, which berm catches the 
sand and gravel from the roadway and 
holds it where it may be dragged back 
to the middle of the highway, other- 
wise this road metal is washed to the 
ditch and lost. We do however, cut 
through the sod berm ditches to let 
off the water. The dragging of gravel 
roads brings to the surface a percent- 
age of large stone which should be 



picked off and can be made to do good 
service in breaks in the road in the 
spring. 

Traffic conditions frequently require 
that a dust layer be applied to gravel 
roads, and bituminous spray will pre- 
vent dust, but we have found that it 
also prevents moisture from entering 
the roads and a good gravel road al- 
ways contains a high percentage of 
moisture. Our recent practice is to 
use calcium chloride as the road does 
not develop breaks so quickly and to 
our mind it is not any more expensive 
than bituminous spraying. If, how- 
ever, the gravel road is over a sub- 
soil, that will provide sufficient mois- 
ture from below the bituminous spray 
it is the more satisfactory. 

The factors that enter into mainte- 
nance costs are so many and variable 
that only very general statements can 
be of much value and they only as a 
guide. 

When the maintenance of an earth 
road reaches 10 per cent of the cost of 
the gravel it would appear to be good 
business to gravel it, and when the 
dragging and scraping of a gravel 
road can be reduced materially by 
surface treating it would appear to 
be good business to surface treat. Road 
maintenance costs should simply be 
an expenditure invested to secure ade- 
quate returns on the construction in- 
vestment. The returns we get for 
construction and maintenance invest- 
ment is not interest but returns in 



Provincial Highway Systems of 
Canada 

An expenditure of over $81,000,000 
is to be made in the next few years 
on a connected system of highways in 
Canada. The mileage of roads and 
the total outlay for these provincial 
highways were summarized as follows 
in a paper presented last month at the 
annual meeting of the Canadian Good 
Roads Association by George Hogarth, 
Engineer of Highways of Ontario: 

Province Mileage Total 

Alberta 2,475 $ 3,694,525 

B. Columbia 1.977 10,015.050 

Manitoba 4,000 6,602,265 

N. Brunswick 1,595 2,914,612 

Nova Scotia 1.297 12,493,700 

Ontario 1.824.7 22.200,000 

Pr. Edward I 850 850,000 

Quebec 1.433 17,390,000 

Saskatchewan 7,000 5,329,500 

Total 22,451.7 $81,489,652 



24 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



Simple Plant Layout on Con- 
crete Paving Job 

Efficient Use of Equipment and Organi- 
zation on Iowa Road Contract 
Described in Concrete High- 
way Magazine 

By GEORGE W. ZENOR, 

Paving Superintendent, Empire Construction 
Co., Des Moines, Iowa 

Guided by ten years of paving ex- 
perience, the Empire Construction Co. 
of Des Moines, la., developed its most 
efficient plant layout and crew organ- 
ization during the 1922 construction 
season. 

Their contract that season was for 
11^ miles of concrete pavement on 




Layout of Proportioning Plant. 

the North Iowa Pike, extending from 
Algona, the county seat of Kossuth 
County, to the east county line. The 
slab was 18 ft. wide, 8 in. thick and 
was made of 1:2:3% concrete. Re- 
inforcement consisted of %-in square 
bars spaced 6 ft. apart transversely 
and three %-in. bars longitudinally. 
This is the standard Iowa section. 

Grades were moderate; the sub- 
grade was composed of soil which 
stayed muddy for a long time after a 
rain; and railway sidings were con- 
veniently located. These conditions 
favored hauling by industrial railway 
from a central proportioning plant to 



the mixer and that was the method 
selected for handling materials. 

The proportioning plant was laid 
out as shown in the accompanying il- 
lustrations. The track from the sand 
bin to the stone bin was given a slope 
of V2 ft. per 100 ft. which was in- 
tended to permit "spotting" by grav- 
ity. This slope must be accurately 
determined, for if it is too steep the 
cars cannot be stopped, and if too flat 
they cannot be started. The slope used 
proved too flat and a mule was re- 
quired to shift cars at the plant. 

Each train was spotted twice — un- 
der the sand bin and under the stone 
bin. Cement was loaded by hand 
either directly from cars or from the 
storage shed. With this arrangement 
a train of eleven cars was loaded in 
seven minutes. An Ohio locomotive 
crane with a 50-ft. boom and 1%-yd. 
bucket handled all aggregates from 
cars to bins. 

A plan of the switching arrange- 
ment at the mixer is shown in an- 
other illustration. By leaving the 
loaded cars on the uphill side of the 
mixer one man was able to push them 
to the mixer crane, thus relieving the 
locomotives of any waiting. Three 
7-ton Plymouth gasoline locomotives 
kept the mixer supplied. Fifty West- 
ern industrial trucks, 100 Western 
batch boxes and six miles of 24-in. 
track with steel ties, completed the 
hauling equipment. The average haul 
was SVz miles. 

The mixer was a 21-E Koehring 
with an attached crane for transfer- 
ring batches from the cars to the 
mixer skip. It also had a spreader 
bucket. The subgrade was trimmed 
by a subgrade machine, a Lakewood 
finishing machine consolidated the 
concrete and a 1-man belting device 
gave the final finish. Most of the 
pavement was cured with an earth 
covering kept wet by sprinkling, but 
on 1% miles calcium chloride was used 
for curing. The calcium chloride came 
in 100-lb. sacks and one man covered 
a day's run of concrete with it in half 




Arrangement at the Mixer. 

Loaded train from plant pulls on passing track "P". Empty train at mixer passes "P" and 
Koes to plant. Loaded train pulls onto E D and waits till oars at mixer are unloaded, then 
pushes empties onto E B, droi)pinp; at mixer 2 or 3 loaded cars which it pulled behind engine, 
to be used while switching. Shoves loadc<l cars onto A E, picks up empties on E B, then loadetl 
cars on A E, drops loaded cars on up-grade side of mixer and goes to plant. Loaded cars are 
pushed to mixer by one man. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



25 



a day. Then two men put on a thin 
earth covering which was found nec- 
essary to hold the moisture on the 
slab. These men also removed all 
forms. 

The following list shows the number 
of men employed on the job and their 
distribution about the various branch- 
es. The figures are based on an aver- 
age for the work period, as are all 
other figures given on yardage and 
personnel. A sketch also shows the 
disposition and arrangement at the 
mixer which greatly simplified the 
work at that point. 

The average crew was organized 
by the Empire Company as follows: 

Men About Mixer 

4 Curing concrete and removing forms. 

2 Finishers. 

1 Finishing machine operator 

4 Sprreading concrete. 

1 Placing reinforcement. 
1 Mixer man. 
1 Mixer fireman. 

1 Shifting cars. 

3 Dumping batches into mixer skip. 
3 Form setters. 

Finishing Subgrade 
10 Laborers. 
1 Rollerman. 
Men _ Hauling 

3 Locomotive drivers. 
3 Brakemen. 

5 On track maintenance. 

Proportioning Plant 

3 Dumping cement. 

2 At aggregate bins. 

1 Man and one mule switching cars. 
7 Unloading aggregates (two shifts). 

General 
1 Superintendent. 

4 Foremen. 

1 Timekeeper. 
1 Mechanic. 
1 Pumpman. 

1 Water line maintenance. 

2 Water boys. 

The average run per ten-hour dav 
was 1,220 sq. yds. 



Pennsylvania Contractors Must 
Speed Up. — Secretary Wright of the 
Department of Highways of Pennsyl- 
vania has written a letter to all con- 
tractors engaged in state highwav 
construction, notifying them that the 
department's policy hereafter will be 
rigidly to enforce the clause in con- 
tracts relating to the time limit for 
the work, and penalties will be en- 
forced where construction is unneces- 
sarily delaved. 



Trees and Hedges Replace Guard 
Rails. — The Division of Highways of 
the Department of Public Works of 
Massachusetts has adopted the policy 
of planting quick growing trees and 
hedges to replace guard rails. 



Gravel Road Maintenance 
With "Spring Scrapers" 

Method Employed in Kent County, 
Michigan, Described in Paper 
Presented Feb. 14 at 9th An- 
nual Michigan Conference on 
Highway Engineering 

By OTTO S. HESS, 

Road Engineer, Kent County. 

The system of maintenance which 
will be outlined in this paper has been 
developed in Kent county during the 
past two years, and the ensuing re- 
marks will apply more particularly to 
Kenty county rather than to the State 
as a whole. 

While this system would undoubted- 
ly operate to good advantage in a 
great many counties, it is not advo- 
cated by the writer as a cure-all for 
the many difficulties which are en- 
countered in the maintenance of gravel 
roads. 

Highways of Kent County. — At the 

present time, Kent county has 252 
miles of improved gravel roads on the 
county road system. Of this mileage, 
90 miles lie on the state trimk lines, 
and the remaining 162 miles are 
county roads. In the early mainte- 
nance season of 1920, all of this mile- 
age was taken care of by teams haul- 
ing light graders or floats. About this 
time, the county tried out a mainte- 
nance machine which was new at that 
time but which is quite well known 
throughout the state and even outside 
the state^ at the present time. This 
machine is the spring scraper which is 
used as a truck attachment and oper- 
ates as a blade scraper underneath the 
middle of any truck. 

The first "spring scraper" was so 
successful that the team patrols were 
gradually replaced by the so-called 
truck patrols, until at the beginning of 
the maintenance season of 1922, all of 
the teams had been replaced and the 
entire mileage of 252 miles of gravel 
roads was being kept smooth by nine 
trucks with scraper attachments, 
making an average of 28 miles per 
truck. 

Work of Truck Patrols.— Under the 
present system, Kent county is divided 
into four maintenance districts. The 
trucks _ are operated from a central 
point in each of these districts. A 
very thin layer of finely screened 
gravel is kept on the surface of the 
road at all times. By scraping this 
surface often enough it has been found 



26 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



impossible to maintain a surface 
which is smother to ride on than most 
pavements. The number of times per 
week or per day which is necessary to 
scrape the surface in order to keep it 
in this condition is dependent on the 
whether and the volume of traffic, but 
more particularly on the volume of 
traffic. The amount of scraping, and, 
consequently, the cost of maintenance 
has been found to be very nearly in 
direct proportion to the volume of 
traffic using the road. 

The type of trucks which has been 
found to be most economical in Kent 
county are those in the 2 to 3 ton 
class. These trucks carry a 10 ft. 
blade, which is placed under the truck 
in a diagonal position, and travel at a 
speed of 8 to 12 miles per hour. The 
blades are 10 in. wide to start with. 



roll of $16 per day per truck. Assume 
that the number of days worked dur- 
ing the season was 200 and we have: 
200 days X $16 X 9 trucks=$28,000 
which is the direct pay roll saving 
during 1922. As a matter of fact and 
record, the actual saving was about 
$30,000 for the reason that Kent 
county operated its own trucks at 
about $15 per day instead of hiring 
them at $20. As a further saving 
which is effected by the scrapers, it 
should be remembered that it is neces- 
sary to buy and maintain only one 
scraper as compared with six outfits 
of teams. Another advantage, which 
is by no means unimportant, is the 
fact that the trucks can haul gravel 
or other materials and scrape the 
roads at the same time. This is a 
feature which saves many thousands 



Table I — Maintenance 


Cost of Gravel Roads on State 


Trunk Line System in Kent County 


















Cost per 










Cost per 


Average 




Number 


Vehicle 


Sec. 


No. 


Mileage 


Total Cost 


per Mile 


Daily Traffic 


Vehicle Miles 


Mile 


13 


1 


7.50 


$ 9,139..59 


$1,218.60 


1,791 




2,686,500 


$.00340 


13 


3 


7.00 


10.634.76 


1,519.25 


1,810 




2,534,000 


.00419 


13 


4 


5.00 


8,235.54 


1,647.11 


2,025 




2.025,000 


.00460 


13 


5 


14.50 


12,077.29 


832.11 


838 




2,430,200 


.00496 


37 


8 


2.00 


1.414.41 


707.20 


594 




237.600 


.00595 


37 


10 


5.50 


3,819.89 


694.53 


594 




653.400 


.00584 


16 


14 


14.00 


17,358.33 


1,239.88 


1,305 




3.654.000 


.00475 


39 


16 


11.50 


5,836.71 


507.54 


594 




1.366.200 


.00427 


39 


18 


1.50 


446.22 


397.48 


680 




204.000 


.00218 


44 


20 


13.50 


12,380.47 


910.77 


1,079 




2.913,300 


.00425 


66 


15 


2.50 


958.55 


383.42 




No Traffic Count 




54 


23 


14.50 


9,610.89 


662.82 




No Traffic Count 




Totals, 


Averages 


99.00 


$91,912.64 


$928.31 






18,704,-?"'^ 


nod3K 



but are worn down with about two 
weeks steady use to a width of 3 or 4 
in. 

Each truck on scraping work is able 
to travel from 60 to 90 miles per day. 
Each truck scrapes a path approxi- 
mately 9 ft. wide. With reference to 
the quality of work done, it can truth- 
fully be said that the old team patrol 
system was never able to keep the 
roads as smooth as they have been 
maintained by trucks. In fact, the 
gravel roads of Kent county have 
never been in as good condition as 
they were in 1922, when they were 
maintained entirely by trucks. 

Saving Effected by Substituting 
Trucks for Teams. — Some idea of the 
saving which can be effected by substi- 
tuting trucks for teams can be ob- 
tained by comparing the daily costs of 
each. In actual practice is was found 
that one truck would, on the average, 
replace six team patrols. In 1922, 
teams with drivers cost $6 per day, 
making $36 per day for six team 
patrols. One truck could be hired, 
with driver, at $20 per day. This 
shows a direct daily saving on the pay 



of dollars in a year's time, and is not 
obtained by any other type of road 
maintenance equipment in use today. 

Cost of Maintenance. — In order that 
one may obtain some idea of what this 
maintenance work costs. Table I has 
been prepared, showing the cost per 
mile, volume of traffic, and cost per 
vehicle mile for all of the gravel roads 
on the state trunk line system in Kent 
county : 

In explanation of the table, the 
writer would advise that the total 
number of vehicle miles for any sec- 
tion was obtained by multiplying the 
average daily traffic (as determined 
by a traffic census taken in July and 
August) by 200, and then by the num- 
ber of miles in the section, assuming 
that 200 times the average daily 
traffic in the summer would represent 
the total traffic for the year. This 
shows that the average cost per ve- 
hicle mile on the state trunk line 
gravel roads was a little less than a 
half cent. 

It should be borne in mind that the 
above costs include nearly $15,000 
worth of dust layer (Calcium Chloride 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



27 



applied), which, if deducted from the 
total cost, would reduce the cost per 
vehicle mile to one-third of a cent. 

The above table covers the cost of 
all work of every description which 
was carried out on the roads listed. 
Let us carry this a little further and 
analyze the cost of maintaining the 
surface of the road only. An examin- 
ation of the records and accounts of 
Kent county shows that the total cost 
of gravel, dragging and patching, and 
equipment rental on the machinery 
used for 1922 on the roads listed 
above was $52,552. By dividing this 
amoimt by the total number of vehicle 
miles we get a cost per vehicle mile of 
$0.0028 or just slightly over ^4 ct. 

It is the belief of the writer that 
truck-scraper maintenance machines 
are quite largely responsible for the 
above costs, which appear to be ex- 
tremely reasonable, especially in view 
of the fact that all of the roads were 
kept in excellent condition practically 
all of the time. 



Motor Driven Power Lift Scarifier 

A scarifier attachment for the 
Avery 10-ton road roller, designed for 
operation by the power of the motor, 
has been brought out by the Avery 




Avery Scarifier Attachment. 

Co., Peoria, 111. The teeth of the scari- 
fier are raised or driven into the 
ground by the motor power direct and. 
controlled by one lever. A suitable 
reducing mechanism driven by a 
clut<;h on the motor crank shaft drives 
a crank shaft mounted under the aub- 
frame of the machine through a tim- 
ing clutch. This crank shaft drives a 
rock shaft at the rear end of the ma- 
chine through spring loaded pitman 
rods, which raise or lower the teeth. 
These springs act as shock absorbers 
to the mechanism. Teeth are driven 
into the ground by a toggle mechan- 
ism under great pressure. The tooth 
bar is 4 in. square steel turned down 
at ends for 20 in. gauge wheels. The 
teeth are carried in holders clamped 
to square bar, are adjustable as to 
side spacing, depth and angularity to 



ground. Seven teeth of 1% in. square 
tool steel, 32 in. long and pointed on 
both ends are furnished. AH pull 
strains are taken on the draw bar. 
When teeth enter ground 9 in., they 
will clear 11 in. when lifted. The dis- 
tance over gauge wheels is 83 in. 



Colonel Sawyer Appointed Secre- 
tary of the Associated 
General Contractors 

Colonel D. H. Sawyer has been ap- 
pointed secretary of the Associated 
General Contractors of America to fill 
the place of Mr. Eugene Young who 
recently resigned to enter business in 
Minneapolis. Bom in Mt. Pulaski, 111., 
Col. Sawyer graduated in engineering 
from the University of Illinois. Going 
East after graduation, he was en- 
gaged in engineering and building 
operations for about a year when he 
returned to his native state, becoming 
City Engineer of Paris, 111. Later, as 
chief engineer of the Illinois Traction 
system, he had charge of the construc- 
tion of most of the interurban lines of 
that company which connect the 
larger towns of Central and Southern 
Illinois. In 1908 Col. Sawyer joined 
his brothers in the Northwest, form- 
ing the firm of Sawyer Brothers, who, 
with offices in Seattle and Spokane, 
engaged in consulting and designing 
engineering owrk, covering fields of 
municipal improvement, irrigation, 
drainage and kindred work. Sum- 
moned to Washington late in May, 
1917, he was soon commissioned a 
major in the Quartermaster Corps and 
assigned as Construction Quarter- 
master to build the original Camp 
Grant. Upon the completion of this 
assignment and during the remainder 
of the War, Col. Sawyer was engaged 
in building a nitrate plant near Cin- 
cinnati, Camp Bragg, and in a super- 
visory capacity was in charge of con- 
struction of quartermaster storage 
projects throughout the East and Cen- 
tral West. Following his resignation 
from the military service, he became 
associated with the James Ste>yart 
Company being engaged on various 
building enterprises. Col. Sawyer 
brings to his new position years of ex- 
perience in the engineering and con- 
struction fields which peculiarly fits 
him for the secretaryship of the Asso- 
ciated General Contractors with its 
large opportunities for furthering the 
interests of the general contractors of 
the country. 



28 



Roads and Streets July, 

ELducation of Highway Engineers 



Demand in Canada and Specialized Studies Discussed in Paper Pre- 
sented June 12, at Annual Convention of Canadian Good 
Roads Association 



By R. de L. FRENCH, 

Professor of Highway Engineering, McGill University, 



Montreal, Que. 



The year 1900 might be said to 
mark the birth of highway engineer- 
ing, as we think of it now. Pretty 
much all that we know, or think that 
we know, and I can assure you that 
there is a great deal which we do not 
know as yet. There is probably no 
branch of the engineering profession 
so closely related to as many others, 
so dependent upon economic studies 
for success, nor so beset by rule-of- 
thumb methods as highway engineer- 
ing. The economics of highway engi- 
neering is almost a science in itself, 
but one with which the road builder 
must be passing familiar, or he is sure 
to come to grief. Rule-of -thumb meth- 
ods are the curse of any profession 
and are like the disease of childhood, 
unavoidable and giving way to more 
scientific ones as the profession at- 
tains years of dignity and understand- 
ing. 

The Demand for Road Builders. — 
The training of road builders has be- 
come a matter meriting the most seri- 
ous consideration. Increasing traffic 
demands, new types of traffic and 
mounting costs have combined to make 
it necessary that the utmost care shall 
be exercised to secure a dollar's value 
for every dollar expended. In the 
United States, the Highway Education 
Board has been organized for the pur- 
pose of fostering the right type of 
training. It has estimated, roughly, 
of course, that at least 1,000 trained 
men per year are required there to 
take care of highway construction and 
administration as these should be 
taken care of. 

In Canada, we have no need of such 
a large number, but there is a very 
real and pressing demand for trained 
men, nevertheless. I should say that 
about 100 men could be advantage- 
ously absorbed every year by the Fed- 
eral and Provincial highway authori- 
ties, contractors and other interested 
organizations. In addition, there are 
many now employed in highway work 
who would be the better for some sup- 
plementary education. 

Classes of Men to be Considered. — 
To my mind, there are three classes 



of men who must be considered in dis- 
cussing any program of highway edu- 
cation. They are: 

1. The foreman, call him what you 
like, whose knowledge must be largely 
practical, but who would benefit by a 
better understanding of the funda- 
mentals underlying his work. 

2. The engineer not in highway 
work, who is, however, pretty sure to 
come into contact with it in some form 
sooner or later. 

3. The comparatively small class of 
those who feel a "call" to devote their 
professional lives to road building. 

The training of foremen and other 
similar subordinates can be and is be- 
ing quite successfully carried out by 
means of short courses, sometimes 
supplemented by laboratory work, and 
always planned to stimulate the inter- 
est of the student to the maximum and 
bring out as much discussion as pos- 
sible. Such courses are offered by 
some of our universities, and have 
also been conducted by the highway 
authorities themselves. The results 
have been so satisfactory that I think 
we may consider this particular prob- 
lem settled, except that provision for 
such training is needed in areas now 
without it. 

Nearly all our universities and col- 
leges giving engineering instruction 
provide for some undergraduate work 
in high way engineering and allied 
subjects. While there is little doubt 
but that the work along these lines 
will improve, I consider that, on the 
whole, it is fairly satisfactory, and 
meets the needs of the general stu- 
dent well. Thus we may justly feel 
that we have taken care of the inter- 
ests of the second class of man, or 
are in a way to do so in the not very 
distant future. 

Methods of Training. — Opinions dif- 
fer as to the best methods of training 
along specialized lines. Educators are 
divided into two camps — those who 
feel that it can be accomplished in the 
under-graduate years, and those who 
think that such training should be 
reserved for graduate work. I confess 
that I incline to the latter belief. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



29 



A rather careful analysis of the 
courses in ci%ul engineering given at 
seven of the leading Canadian univer- 
sities shows that the division of time 
between "fundamental" and "special" 
studies during the four years to be 
about as follows, on the average: 

Fundamental Special 

Year of Hours subjects subjects 

course in year Hours % Hours % 

1 875 745 85 130 15 

2 875 745 85 130 15 
8 876 675 80 200 20 
4 875 635 75 240 25 



All 



1.500 



2,800 



80 



700 



20 



For a thorough-going course in 
highway engineering we have, there- 
fore, apparently about 700 hours avail- 
able, or the equivalent of a little less 
than the average academic year. I 
say "apparently," as in reality I do 
not believe that there is this much 
time which may be used. 

Specialization in 3rd and 4th Tears. 
— No specialization of value can be at- 
tempted in the first two years of an 
undergraduate course, for the reason 
that at this time the student has not 
yet acquired enough "fundamental" 
education to profit by special teaching. 
Thus, we should deduct 260 hrs. from 
our 700, leaving 440 hours in the third 
and fourth years. Included in the lat- 
ter figure is the time used for in- 
struction in special subjects which 
should form part of a real highway 
engineering course. 

An examination of the calendars of 
the universities referred to will show 
that approximately 50 per cent of this 
time is so occupied, leaving only 50 
per cent for other purposes. We are 
cut down, then, to 220 hours in which 
we must impart a sound knowledge of 
road design, location, construction, 
maintenance, finance, economics and 
administration. This is the equivalent, 
say, of six lectures of one hour and 
four drafting room or laboratory 
periods of three hours each per week 
for the common 12-week t«rm. 

There may be those who would un- 
dertake to give a comprehensive train- 
ing in this limited time, but I am not 
among them. There are also, to my 
mind, other objections to much spe- 
cialization for undergraduates. As a 
rule the student is immature, and, I 
am sorry to say, many are not enough 
in earnest to profit greatly thereby. 
There is generally little opportunity 
for the correlation of classroom and 
laboratory work with the conditions 
of actual practice. Much time may be 
devoted to extra-curriculum acti^^ties, 
which is as it should be, and of which 



I, for one, am heartily in favor, since 
I believe that often much of the value 
in a collegiate training is obtained 
through contact with one's fellows 
and participation in student affairs. 

Advantages of Graduate Work. — 
Most of the objections urged against 
imdergraduate specialization do not 
apply at all, or at most apply with 
very much diminished force, to grad- 
uate work. More stringent admission 
regulations may be enforced, with the 
result that the unfit and the lazy may 
be barred out. Since numbers should 
be, and are, small, it is not necessary 
to adhere to a definite schedule, hence 
the "punishment fits the crime," and 
each man can get instruction adapted 
to his mental peculiarities, so far as 
it is possible for his teachers to pro- 
^^de it. 

The puU of student activities is 
much lessened when one's former close 
associates are no longer at hand. 
Since the class is now replaced by the 
individual, its restrictions disappear, 
and with them the feeUng, wrong but 
common, that getting an education is 
a battle, and the instructor and the 
class the combatants. In short, a 
graduate student must stand on his 
ovra feet, must show a genuine inter- 
est in his work, cannot shirk, and of- 
fers far less of a problem to his teach- 
ers than the undergraduate. 

You may agree with me that the 
advantages of graduate courses are 
manifold and obvious: then your ques- 
tion will naturally be, "How can we 
provide the facilities for such work, 
and how can we induce men to utilize 
them once they are provided?" This 
is where the rub comes. After four 
years of expense in a university, the 
average man cannot be expected to 
face the prospect of an additional year 
or two of the same sort of struggle 
with pleasure. Often, the inclination 
to continue study is present, but funds 
to make continuation possible are ab- 
sent. 

Providing the Funds. — I believe that 
the provision of an adequate number 
of properly trained highway "experts" 
can be assured only by the provision 
of opportunity for graduate work. 
Suitable courses should be established 
in, say, four of our universities, stra- 
getically located from the geographic- 
al standpoint. The cost of operation 
should be met by those most inter- 
ested in getting the proper type of 
men jnto highway work — the prov- 
inces primarily, with perhaps some as- 
sistance from the Federal Govern- 



30 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



ment, producers of road-building ma- 
terials, contractors and others. I be- 
lieve that admission to such a course 
should be restricted, if possible, to 
men with a year or two of practical 
experience. To attract such men, the 
value of the scholarships should range 
from $500 to $750 per year, exclusive 
of tuition fees, etc. 

Here, it seems to me, is an oppor- 
tunity for somebody. To those of 
you who are in the business of spend- 
ing public money for highways, I need 
not mention the advantages of having 
a body of trained men to choose from. 
To those of you who are trying to 
make some money for yourselves or 
your stockholders out of the "road 
game," I would add the lure of possi- 
ble research in helping to solve some 
of your problems. 

Our universities are, I think, rea- 
sonably well-staffed for such work, 
and the larger ones are well equipped. 
What we all lack is funds. If you 
gentlemen really believe that there is 
a need for trained men, you will have 
to see that the money to educate them 
is provided from some source. In 
comparison to the amount of money 
being spent on roads in this Dominion 
and the amount which is sure to be 
spent within the next few years, the 
sums required for proper education 
are trifling, and the results obtained 
should many times outweigh them in 
value. 



Pavement Construction With- 
out Sub-base Treatment 



Relative Mileage of Federal-Aid Roads 

The following figures given by the 
Bureau of Public Roads of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, 
apply only to Federal-aid roads. They 
represent 25,000 miles of road now in 
use and include roads built in every 
State. The 25,000 miles is divided by 
types as follows: 

Per cent 

Gravel 39.1 

Graded and drained „ 20.6 

Cement concrete _... . 18.3 

Sand clay „„ 10.8 

Bituminous macadam .„.„ 4.0 

Bituminous concrete 3.1 

Water-bound macadam 2.7 

Briclc 1.4 

Complete figures covering all, roads 
constructed and now in use would un- 
doubtedly show somewhat higher per- 
centages of the lower types of road, 
since the more important roads have 
been selected for improvement with 
Federal aid. 



Practice at Worcester, Mass., De- 
scribed in Paper Presented Feb. 21 
Before Boston Society of Civil 
Engineers 

By J. C. BLAKE, 

Street Commissioner, Worcester, Mass. 

We hear a great deal of engineer- 
ing talk about foundations and sub- 
grade preparation for pavements, but 
in my city there is but one piece of 
pavement which has ever been given 
sub-base construction treatment. 

Our city has the usual New England 
sub-soil conditions, our valleys many 
of them showing gravel deposits and 
our hills being of hardpan. This hard- 
pan of course is a very difficult sub- 
soil in the spring months and also 
during the summer rains. 

Use of Road Oil on Hill Side Sur- 
faces. — One of our greatest life savers 
has been the application of light road 
oils to hillside surfaces which previous 
to this application we would usually 
find in the valley below after heavy 
thunder showers but which, subse- 
quent to its application, would usually 
shed any quick rain thereby saving us 
many thousands of dollars of street 
maintenance each year. It is, how- 
ever, more desirable to retain these 
surfaces in a more permanent manner 
and consequently the idea was intro- 
duced of a 4-in. cobble stone penetra- 
tion of either tar or asphalt. This 
pavement was applied direct to the 
hardpan surface. We have many miles 
of it in Worcester. It is the only 
thing that we have ever found which 
would cheaply and successfully tack 
down the hillside street and not allow 
it to run away into the valley in the 
springtime and under heavy down- 
pours continuing for a long period. 

The stone we use brings smiles to 
the faces of engineers who look over 
our crushed stone piles. This stone is 
manufactured in the winter time, pro- 
viding a great amount of winter labor, 
stacked in piles and handled by steam 
shovel into carts or auto trucks in the 
spring. The crusher jaws are open, 
much wider than is usual, in this man- 
ner allowing the damp gravel to go 
through without choking, and the 
product is usually what would be con- 
sidered a 3-in. .stone, many of the cob- 
bles passing through as large as the 
size of my fist. I believe that the 
entire success of penetration work de- 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



31 



pends on a large size stone being used 
as the first course, allowing a pene- 
tration which goes clear to the bottom 
of the stones and makes on final com- 
pletion a solid pavement from top to 
bottom. That there has been no neces- 
sity for any sub-grade preparation is 
indicated by many of these streets 
which are today 6 to 12 years old and 
are still showing no signs of final dis- 
integration and no deterioration of 
riding quality. 

Pavement Construction Without 
Subgrade Preparation. — No cement 
concrete pavement constructed in the 
city of Worcester has ever had any 
preparation of sub-grade other than 
the natural sub-soil of the street on 
which it was placed. Many of these 
are on hardpan. Some are at least 15 
years old. Only one of these pave- 
ments has been replaced up to the 
present time, that being one of the 
first, constructed at a time when little 
was known of the penetration method 
of cement concrete construction,^ and, 
due to excessive roller action, which is 
now omitted in such construction, 
more than to action of frost or traffic, 
this street got into such shape that it 
was spiked up, rolled and covered 
with an asphalt concrete top. The 
others are in existence today, and giv- 
ing excellent service. 

Last year the city constructed a sec- 
tion of 8-in. reinforced-concrete pave- 
ment on one of its heaviest-travelled 
streets — this was laid on natural soil 
over a section of muck swamp on 
which a sewer once settled and broke 
apart. Naturally I realized that this 
is against all precedent of construc- 
tion on the Massachusetts state high- 
way work, but I have been given to 
understand that in New York state 
highway work construction less than 
10 per cent of their state highways 
are constructed on anything other 
than the natural sub-soil occurring in 
the section where the road is to be 
constructed. 

In the one case as above indicated 
we have used a plastic style of pave- 
ment on the natural sub-soil, in the 
other case w^ have used a rigid type 
of pavement on the natural sub-soil, 
and I cannot see that in either case 
over a long period of years through 
which these highways have been con- 
structed that the frost action has been 
of any material damage to the pave- 
ment. Naturally if it would affect a 
rigid pavement like cement concrete it 
would also affect a rigid pavement 
like granite block. 



Cement Grouted Granite Block 
Pavement. — The city of Worcester 
possesses the best cement-grouted 
granite-block pavement in the United 
States. This statement I will not 
qualify and it is recognized by engi- 
neers throughout the country. No 
single piece of this pavement has ever 
received any sub-grade treatment and 
it is all deposited on the natural sub- 
soil whether it be a grouted granite- 
block pavement on a concrete base or 
on sand cushion on a natural sub-soil. 
It may be that you are going to ques- 
tion this last statement, due to the 
fact that some of our pavements are 
deep granite blocks cement grouted 
laid on a sand cushion without a ce- 
ment concrete base, but the cushion 
used was simply for the purpose of 
bedding the blocks for ramming and - 
not as a provision for sub-grade con- 
struction. 

New Type of Monolithic Granite 
Block Pavement. — I have in mind a 
new style of pavement which I wish 
to try out in connection with these 
deep blocks which will be a novelty 
in construction which I do not think 
has ever before been attempted. The 
process will be as follows: 

On a sub-soil properly graded will 
be placed the thickness desired of ce- 
ment concrete mixed in the following 
proportions: One part cement, 2 
parts sand, 3^/^ parts of ^/2 in. to inch 
crushed stone or clean screened peb- 
bles. These will be mixed moist or 
damp. On this the granite blocks will 
be bedded and immediately rammed. 
Following this the granite blocks will 
be wet down previous to the applica- 
tion of a 1 to 1 cement grout. The 
application of the water and the ap- 
plication of the wet grout will suffi- 
ciently moisten the concrete base 
course as it is a well kno\vn fact that 
in general practice concrete is mixed 
too wet and that an application of as 
little as 15 per cent too much water 
will decrease the strength of the con- 
crete from 30 to 50 per cent. The 
grouting shall immediately follow the 
ramming and will complete a mono- 
lithic pavement making it one unit 
from top to bottom which I am confi- 
dent will stand heavier traffic, if the 
old style 6 to 7-in. block is used, than 
any modem type of granite block 
pavement constructed today, as it will 
form a monolithic arch across this 
street which no present day traffic will 
break down; there will be no joint 
which would not bond as there is in 
granite-block-paved streets where the 



32 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



base is constructed and allowed to set, 
followed by either cement mortar or 
sand cushion and grouted, where there 
is a line of cleavage and the pave- 
ment is not monolithic. 

We have also our own asphalt plant 
and have constructed many successful 
asphaltic concrete tops for worn out 
macadam streets and also tops for 
cement concrete base. I may state 
also that all of these pavements con- 
structed on concrete base have been 
constructed on a natural sub-soil and 
are giving excellent service. 



Portable Gyratory Crushing Plant 

A complete portable gyratory 
crushing plant for producing finely 
crushed product for road building and 
other purposes is illustrated. The 
crusher is mounted on a strong I beam 
frame with heavy wheels having tires 
of ample width. The back gear drive 
is substantial, and so arranged that 
the power unit is located at right an- 
gles with the plant where it is out of 
the way of teams or cars bringing the 
stone or gravel from the pit or quarry. 
Numerous combinations of crusher, 




Austin Portable Gyratory Crusher With Gravel 

Feeding Conveyor, Grizzly Screen 

and Elevator. 

elevator, screen and conveyor, each 
adapting itself to some particular 
local conditions are available. The 
illustration shows the outfit for han- 
dling gravel. It consists of a crusher, 
portable gravel feeding conveyor, 
grizzly screen, and folding elevator. 
The conveyor is made in lengths from 
30 to 50 ft. and has a belt 18 in. in 
width. The lower end of the conveyor 
is set in a shallow excavation and 
a trap built over the hopper. The 
gravel can then be brought directly to 
the trap by wagons, wheelers, drags 
or fresnos. The belt conveyor pro- 
vides a uniform continuous feed to the 



crusher, thereby greatly increasing its 
capacity. The conveyor is raised and 
lowered by means of a crank and 
worm wheel raising device. It is easily 
portable by attaching its lower end to 
the rear of a truck or wagon. The 
outfits described above are made by 
the Austin Manufacturing Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 



Illuminated Flash Signals for 

Pennsylvania Grade 

Crossings 

Representatives of numerous rail- 
road corporations in Pennsylvania 
within ten days will confer with Wil- 
liam H. Connell, Deputy Secretary of 
Highways, relative to the co-operation 
of railroads and the Pennsylvania De- 
partment of Highways in the erection 
of illuminated flash-signals at grade 
crossings. A few years ago the Pub- 
lic Service Commission suggested that 
the Department of Highways co-oper- 
ate with the railroads of Pennsylvania 
in the erection of advance warning 
signs at grade crossings. Signs 
erected as result of that cooperation 
have been of great value, but because 
of increased traffic on primary high- 
ways it is the thought of the Depart- 
ment that additional safety measures 
should be taken as soon as possible at 
important grade crossings. The De- 
partment of Highways has been in- 
vestigating various flashing devices 
which work continuously day and 
night. Two of the signals will be 
necessary at each grade crossing. 
Deputy Secretary Connell in a recent 
letter to the heads of all railroad cor- 
porations suggested that before July 
10 these companies advise whether or 
not they will co-operate to the extent 
of paying 50 per cent of the initial 
cost of the flash-signals, with the un- 
derstanding that maintenance after 
erection will be by the Department. A 
number of railroad heads have notified 
Mr. Connell that they will be in Har- 
risburg within the next few days for a 
conference. The proposed signal auto- 
matically flashes a red light day and 
night, and gives warning of the prox- 
imity of a dangerous crossing at a 
grade. 



Improved Road Mileage and Auto- 
mobiles in Pennsylvania. — From 1911 
to 1922 the mileage of improved road 
on the Pennsylvania State Highway 
system increased 502 per cent. From 
1911 to 1922 the number of motor ve- 
hicles in Pennsylvania increased 1917 
per cent. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



33 



Truck Operating Costs 

Part U 
An Analysis of the Factors Entering Into Trucking Costs, With Expla- 
nations of Errors Which Have Lead to Many Unsuccessful 
Ventures in This Field 

From Bulletin No. 10 of the Engineering Experiment Station of Purdue 
University, February, 1923 

By BEN H. PETTY, 

Assistant Professor of Highway Engineering 



I^Part I of this bulletin containing general 
discussions and explanations together with con- 
densed data was published in the Roads and 
Streets issue of Engineer and Contracting for 
June.] 

Systems Used in Recording Oper- 
ating Cost Data. — Many different sys- 
tems of recording truck cost data are 
in use by different operators. Some 
are satisfactory but may of them are 
inadequate, leaving out different es- 
sential items of cost. 

One of the best and most complete 
systems is the National Standard 
Truck Cost System put out by the 
Truck Owners' Conference of Chicago. 
This system is the result of careful 
study of a great many existing cost 
systems by a number of men inter- 
ested in truck transportation. This 
standard system has been thoroughly 
tested and many thousands have been 
sold to truck manufacturers and oper- 
ators since its origin in 1919. The use 
of a standard system of this type en- 
ables owners more readily to compare 
their truck costs and to derive the 
benefit of a wider knowledge of truck- 
ing costs. 

Costs kept on this standard system, 
or a similar type, and intelligently an- 
alyzed, enable the user: 

1. To compare one truck against 
the other as to detailed performance 
and itemized costs, thus determining 
which unit size and type of truck is 
best suited to his particular trucking 
conditions. 

2. To decide which drivers are giv- 
ing best service by checking them on 
repair costs, gasoline consumption, 
etc. 

3. To pick out types of trucks that 
are making the most profit. 

4. To rent out trucks at a safe 
margin of profit. 

5. To prove where it is cheaper to 
ship by truck than by rail. 

Daily Service Record. — Fig. 1, 
(Form 4) shows the daily service 
record of the National Standard Truck 
Cost System. This is to be filled out 
by the driver and turned in dailv. It 



is very important that the type of 
road be noted. This can be recorded 
on the back of card with any other 
special information. Improvement 
could be made in this form by provid- 
ing space for the latter information 
on its face. 

Monthly Service Record. — Fig. 2, 
(Form 1) shows the monthly record 
on which the data from the daily 
record is entered each day. It will be 
noted that this sheet is divided and 
records both operating data and cost 
data. If the owner is not interested 
in analysis of operation, then the data 
under the heading "Time in Hours and 
Minutes" can be omitted. 

It will be noted that this sheet pro- 
vides a final column for recording sub- 
stitute vehicle rental. Some concerns 
prefer not to charge substitute vehicle 
expense against a truck. If so 
charged, it should only include rental 
necessitated by ordinary repair and 
overhaul. Where the truck is charged 
with this expense it should be credited 
with the work performed by the sub- 
stitute truck. 

Monthly Analysis of Operation. — 
Fig. 3, (Form 2), provides for a 
monthly analysis of operation using 
the totals from the monthly record 
sheet, Fig. 2. Spaces are provided for 
twelve months on the one sheet. This 
analysis of operation is very import- 
ant. Many an operator has been dis- 
agreeably surprised, on making his 
first analysis of operation, to find his 
trucks have stood idle or have been 
laid up for repair for a large percent- 
age of the time. However if only a 
cost analysis is desired this form sheet 
can be left out entirely. 

Monthly Analysis of Costs. — Fig. 4, 
(Form 3), provides for a record of in- 
vestments and fixed charges at the top 
of the sheet. The bottom half pro- 
vides for a yearly record of costs 
as transferred from the totals on the 
monthly record. Fig. 2. 

Analysis of Truck Cost. — Fig. 5, 
(Form 10), provides for a compact an- 



34 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



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Fig. 1 — ^Daily Service Record Blanlc. 



alysis of costs on one sheet. The data 
for this analysis can be secured from 
the preceding forms or it can be gath- 
ered from the operators records. It 



also provides for an accurate analysis 
of specific runs over individual routes, 
and under conditions which vary from 
the usual. It is a very convenient 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



35 





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form for making out estimates on 
truck costs. This form has been keyed 
throughout in such a way as to make 
it self-explanatory. Comprehensive 
experience in truck cost analysis is 
not essential to the intelligent appli- 
cation of this form to specific haulage 
requirements. Complete instructions 
for using the form are printed on the 
back of the sheet. 



Some actual cost figures have been 
entered on Fig. 5 covering the opera- 
tions of a 1% ton truck over city 
streets. The total cost per day, item 
(61), is $12.79 which is reasonable for 
this size of truck. The average truck 
operator will hardly believe that a 1% 
ton truck could cost 47 cents per mile 
to operate. When all the cost items 
are included, as they have been in this 



36 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



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Fijt. 4 — Cost Record and Monthly Analysis of Cost Blanks. 



case, there will be very few operators 
who can display costs per mile as low 
as 15 to 20 ct. (figures frequently 
used on estimates) for a similar truck 
under similar operating conditions. 

Conclusion. — Someone is bound to 
suffer if motor haulage rates are 
based on misleading cost data. In the 
case of the successful operator, who 
prospers by virtue of excessive rates, 



the public is the loser. On the other 
hand the operator, who attempts to 
haul freight at less than actual cost 
of operating, must sooner or later go 
out of business. 

Accurate cost data on truck opera- 
tions will enable operators to fix just 
prices for hauling commodities and 
convince the "rate cutter" of the 
error of his ways. Obviously the 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



37 



OVVItATmO OATA 



CO«TOATA 



4 "! I I r "n~ I ' IT " 

T«t*4 ! 



Fig. 



-Daily Record Monthly Blank. 



cxai souNcca or d«» 



taB« wT i oi HL trjMOMK THICK oa«T tmuL n«jcx oanna u» >n«j i ct : inc. s s <Mai»< w^ cxtcuo 

ttJA3/lZl ANALYSIS OF TRUCK COST 

ommm JJohn D^& — — -^ *,. o« Truck ii surt o» p«wj ^^Jidonihs_ 

M*m» /oo Tr i/c k Ave. Bal timore , M cLfm^to.<nA Jl /)^ps.M_^^^i-^L 
ot,ae,mJiau//ag^miachinery and_ rnJJLiSi/pplLes^ 

Truck CjOKay/XTo/? Mak. /\ UcM /9ZO Boi, Mfr.. No. ^^■#.9_Tn«* N«_/_ _ 



/u.1,..^ . K\H,.^^o^o,>,n>^Z80 c \tSr^u^ J90Z Je. T.t.i uni^.^55^^^.5^T: 



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(1) S «»« U Surafc flMttn r<<«r 
(M) rMl <!<« TVm •>< Btlkria] -, 



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Total Utk«id/Zc'.j5 ' OutJ F. MilMTraMM J^^d 



38. HMdEipOTM 



(IDVurnl. ftm («t5rra. • 7 % 

(13) I«sur (5hlt, Cikb «^) 

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fla*MrOuotoAcbdant: (Xa(C<«nrft«/»Mnwr): (>7)* ^ar (T) Jfiin-(38/l . r«r Mm 

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Banar Ranawab and MaMonanc*: (4») I /<r (W . lf*«-{SO) I . . ftr MiU 

Total Var;ab;aE«»a.>»a: far Pcncd (51) t/80/- ^('ttaiuli^ tfritf^^a'l Fw (F} y^jf6&,MJa-(i3) t . ^33/ Par MiU 

ToUiruodEnMRM: far PrrvJ (i:«)l 65^.ZJ ftr{ri.7S£t^ ifda>(U) t .0S04FtrU^ 

To«alDri,.r-aWag«: far frrW (M) I /<?5<5>^(?i8 (i5. 1^.9/^ D.,' for (f) 7.5<i ^- «^.;S«) I .I^Sfall^ 



Uir).3J8/.63 



far ,n 7.5^6. irdM-(58) I .47J4f<'IHi 



Coat per Day, Variablo Eipa n aa 

Fixad Exponae 

Ornarli Wase<: 

Total Coal per Day 



K7)l -JL^dL rtr MJcXAt„a«t MiU, fcr D^ ii»', ZJ -(Mil .6.4Z37FBDm, 

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laSrT- 



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IVdCW JTttil-ftr ferial (C3) -^/4 fiff-bjU . .^ - K Tat^ Jliia (7)x ilHra»r Laa< p<r Tri, {"^t v (j x^'i. 



'^-•^M^T I Oi-S/.49 



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Fig. 5 — Special Analysis of Track Cost Blank Containing Actual Record of Operatins Costs. 



38 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



keeping of complete and accurate cost 
records by those engaged in truck 
transportation will go a long way to- 
ward putting the business on a sound 
economic basis. 

Motor Truck Production. — Fig. 6 
(not reproduced herewith) shows the 
variations in annual production of 

CuRV£ Showing Relation or Siz£ or Truck 
TO Gi^soLiHC Co/Gumption. 



o-l'. 


•/• IZ 












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O ZOOO 400O 60OO 6000 lOOOO /20CO 

fiafeU Capac/tv of Trucks in Fbunds 

Tig. 8 — Relation of Truck Size to Gasoline 
Consumption. 

motor trucks in the United States. 
The curve rises rapidly during the war 
period reaching the peak in 1920. The 
folloMdng- year witnessed a drop of 
practically 50 per cent and the 1922 
production totaled 242,975. This drop 
is a reflection of business conditions 
since 1920. 

Fig. 7 (not reproduced herewith) 
shows the production of trucks by ca- 
pacities during 1921 and illustrates 
very clearly the great demand for the 
smaller sized trucks. More one-ton 
trucks were manufactured than all 




Fig. 9 — Variation of Annual Fixed Charges for 
Trucks of Different Tonnage. 

other sizes combined. The % ton or 
less ranks next. The 5 ton size ex- 
ceeds both the 2% and 3% ton size, 
probably due to its increased use in 
hauling such commodities as coal, 
gravel, sand, cement, etc. 



Fig. 8 illustrates the increased con- 
sumption of gasoline with capacity of 
truck. This is evidently not a straight 
line increase, but a curved line con- 
cave upward. It would require the 



iMtimi 


cnkM4 


J/titt^f ihn truck whtck co 


vers apMMt */* ytmrs. 


r 


i<t.>vr. 












\ 


^.. 


^ 


"nI 


















V 
















\ 


^*f i. 


fty*0fi. 




* * / 


'* ^ 




3i 5 i. 



I Tonnage of Trvck 

Fig. 10 — Actual Hauling Costs per Cwt. for 
Trucks of Different Sizes. 



average of many more trucks than are 
indicated on this figure to fix the 
limits of such a curve. 

Fig. 9 shows the variation of an- 
nual fixed charges with variation in 
truck tonnage. Up to the 3% ton size 
this is apparently quite close to a 
straight line variation. In this figure 
the deviation of the % ton and 1 ton 
sizes is probably due to some special 
case consideration and should not be 
taken as typical. Above the 3^/^ ton 




Fig. 12 — Curves Showing Increased Cost per 
Mile with Age of Truck (Gasoline). 

size the line will flatten out as the in- 
crease in fixed costs are not directly 
proportional to capacity above that 
point. For instance the cost of a 5 
ton truck is only slightly greater than 
the cost of a 3^/i ton truck. 

Fig. 10 shows the decrease in haul- 
ing costs per cwt. for an increase in 
truck capacity. Obviously the cost 
for cwt. hauled on a six ton truck 
loaded to capacity would be less than 
on a % ton truck at capacity load. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



39 



Not enough trucks are averaged in 

this figure to fix a definite variation. 

Fig. 11 (not reproduced herewith) 

shows increase in gasoline consump- 



Track'NK 1—2, ^i Too. B. 





Total 


ToUl 


ToUl 


Cost 


Cntper 


Yev 


Milex< 


roaiMb 


Expense 


porMae 


100 lb*. 


ttUm 


3.549 


65S.732 


882.81 


102488 


S 01350 


IM7» 


13.143 


1,542.921 


2,583 34 


.I96C 




IM8 


10.691 


994,108 


3,050.71 


.2863 


3075 


I9I» 


10.464 


708. 4M 


3,544.32 


.3387 


5003 


1920. 


9.912 


873,156 


3,625 8! 






1921 


8.232 


1.063,540 


2,871 65 


.3488 







TnKk No 1—3. X Ton, B. 






1916a 


.5.092! 395.447 


943 02 


.1851 


.2385 


1917...,. .. 


11.118 1.057.201 


2.890 90 






1918 


8.737 l.ZS.OOi 








1919 


8.106 834.357 


3.165 21 






192D 


8.522 1.210.8W 


3.515 61 






1921...:... 


4,6601 609.825 


2.444.8C 


52461 





Tmck No. 1—6, K Ton, B 



1917c 


i 8,546 


784,602 


1,863 1« 


.2179 


.2373 


1918 


lO.Stt 


1.4.55.951 


2,915.08 


.2795 


2022 


1919 


1 ■ 9.67? 


9SJ.401 


3.439.91 
3.795 09^ 
2,734 2S1 






1920 


1 9.232 


1,127.3.% 


.4111 




1921 


1 5.S32 


987. 42S 


■ 4069 


.2789 



Trwsk No. 1—13, Ji-Ton. B, 



931 89-j, 

933) 911, 
888' 1.677. 



2.571 9a 
3.52^.93l 
3.22i 501 



.3711 
.3937 
.3833 



.2872 
.3822 
.1924 





Tom* No. 1- 


7, 1 Ton, E. 






I9I7« 




1.559,084 


1,963.86 


.4041 


.1^ 


m»:.... 




2,291,876 


3,II6.0S 






ma 




1.567,681 


3,5e2.C« 


'.4993 


.2272 


MM 




1,450,098 


3.489.33 


.SOU 


.2406 


nai 




1,3S6.I0S| 


-3.066. 9« 







m. 4 Months. 

t. Tenrendinc Oct. Slit. 

c 8 Months. 

J. 9 Montb*. 

c. 7 Months. 

Variations in Operatinfr Costs with Age of 

Gasoline Tracics. 

Truck No. 1—2 3 2 Ton B. 





Tniek No. 1— 


1. 1 Ton. B. 




T«u 


1 

1 Total 
MilMco 


Total 
Pounds 


Total 
Expense 


Cort Cost p«r 
per Mile lOO lbs. 


itu*. .. 

t»M 

I«» 

1931 


.! 2.387 
8.336 

1 5.429 
6.690 


820.854 
3.057.438 
1.000.599 
1.862.171 


793.78 
3,400.10 
3,268.74 
3,085.83 


10.3325' $0 0967 
.40791 1112 
.eCOa 3025 
.46121 1657 



Truck No. 1—10, IH Ton, B. 



my. . 

1919. . 
1930.. 
1931.. 



8,054 
8.294 
8,243 
7,359 



2,493,287 
2,778,170 
1,884,596 



2,535 40 
3,788.20 
3,888.01 
3, 568.301 



1017 
1363 
.2051 
.2548 



Tlp<k No. 1—4, 2 Too, O. 



1916f... . 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 



1,271 


1, 147,54ft 


732 09 


.5759 


7,63S 


4,424,787 


2.649.49 


.3527 


5,64e 


3,908,205 


2.990.01 


.5294 


5,684 


3,624,493 


3,560.33 


.6280 


8,284 


2,993, 58e 


4,153.86 


.5014 


5.926 


4.067. 4^ 


2.739.961 


.4657 



0637 
0609 
.0852 
.0985 
.13*7 
.0678 



. Tniek No. 1—14, 2 Ton, B. 



1919t. 
1930.. 
1931.. 



2.57M 1.318.22* 1,590 75 
10,201 3.558.2821 3.492 70 
7.6 4) 1.797.6791 3.395 15 



.1207 
.1010 
.1889 



Tnwk No. 1—15, 2 Ton, B. 



1919k. 
1920.. 
1921 



2.840 1.320.15a 1. 6166a 
11,011 3.555.027 3.536 4« 
8.437I 2.869.5511 3.578 m 



5674 
3203 
4241 



.1225 
0095 
.1247 



1914s 
1915 . . 
1916.. 

1917 . 

1918. . 

1919. . 

taoo.. 

1931.. 



1.888 


5.906,298 


1,245.12 


.6501 


4.786 


18,919, ISt 


3,859.39 


.8064 


5.683 


18.7541,e9« 


4.403.96 


.775C 


4.871 


12.305,781 


3,054.81 


.6271 


3,428 


8,918,236 


3.251. og 


.94S( 


3,234 


10,409,851] 


3,198 33 


.9896 


2,51S 


8.414.472 


2,763 64 


1.098S 


2.456 


7,247.886 


3.493. Ill 


l.OISl 



to. 0210 
.02tVt 

0235 
.0246 

0385 

0807 
.0328 

0344 



a. 4 Months. 

/. 10 Months. 

(. 3 Months. 

A. 5 Months. 



Variation in Operating Costs with Age of 
Gasoline Trucks. 
Truck No. 1—11. 1 Ton, E. 



tion with age of truck. While there is 
some fluctuation on individual curves, 
the general tendency is towards a 
much greater consumption of gasoline 
per mile as the truck grows older in 
service. This is to be expected. In 
some cases this increased consumption 
amounts to practically 50 per cent. 

Fig. 12 shows the increase in oper- 
ating cost per mile with age of trucks. 
Here again there is fluctuation in the 





No. 1- 


-M. 2 Ton, (\) Ekelric 






Year 


Tolal i 
MilMcr 1 


Total 
Pounds 


Total 
Expense 


Cost 
per Mile 


Cost per 
lOOIbsT 


1915 

1916 


7.381 
6,467 


1.709.100 
2.019, loS 


S2,90t 17 
2. SB.-. 8a 


to 3934 
.4478 


SO. 1641 
.1434 





No. 1—83. 2 Too. 


(Zl Electne 






1915 


7.2151 1.623.430 


3,041 42) 
2.474 43^ 


,4215 


a873 


1916 


7.528, 1.774.400 
7.0081 1,796.710 


.3287 


,1394 


1917 


2,657.271 


.3791 


»1479 


1918 


5.21Qt 1,181.700 


2,094 47 


.4000 


.1772 


1919 


4.9aS 1.27.-..58C 


3.650.31 


.745S 




19r20 


D.53 1,397,275 


3.298 091 


.teoil 


.2360 




No. 1—86. 2 Ton. 


(Z) EIretrie 







1917 
1918.. 
1919. .- 
19iO . 
1921 

191.-... 
1916 . . 

1917 . 

1918 . 
1919.. 
1920 . 
1921.^ 

1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 

1915 
1916 
J917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 

191S. 
191S 
1917 

1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 

1915 
1916 
1917 
1913 
1919 
1920 
1921 



. So. 1— IC 2 Ton. (Y) EIretrk 



1,717,800 
1,»1S.9U0' 
2.:117.7-»0' 
l.7tW.40O 
1.42.-.. 700 
I.TOI.ISJO: 
2.342.370! 



2,912 81 
2,C1J r 
2.8.-« 1 
3.172 7 
3.8CM 57 
4.333.7W 
3,865.13! 



,4004 
.3630 
.4691 
.4553 
.7482 
1.1213 
.7927 



.1864 
.2721 
.25^ 
.1650 



4.697 


5.133.036 


2.308 78 


5.928,' 
4.856^ 
4.2411 


5.081.514 


3,317 73 


3.615.314 


3,483 89 


3.253.296 


3,998.07 


4.4571 


3.722J66 


3,052.26 


3,513' 


3.387.806 


3.997 86 


3.214: 


2.9X8.926 


3,464.65 



.705fl .0019 

.6»4S .0834 

1.1374^ .1180 

1.07801 .1150 



No. 1—84. Hi Ton, (Z) Elortri 



4.229 


10.252.431 


4.334 


9.640.087 


5,138 


8.003,135 


4,992 


7,9*0,069 


5.424 


9,345,376 


5.563 


7,525,404 


3.1^ 


S.On,314 




.0262 
.0265 
.0300 
.0357 
.0344 
.0480 
.0729 



No. 1—85. 3H Ten, (Z[ Eleetrie. 



4.128 


10.943.053 


2.706 39 


.6656 


4.415 


9.032.723 


2,379 83 


.5390 


4.279 


7.356.^6 


3.403 81 




5.026 


7,723,143 


3,881.28 


.6733 


4.964 


8,230,345 


3,008.03 


•S»2S 


5.041 


6,875,889 


3,607 21 


.71W 


2.86i 


6,449,536 


3,733.69 


1 3082 



.0247 
.0263 
. 0837 
.0873 
.09(8 
.0637 
.0579 



Variation in Operating Costs with Age of 

Electric Trucks. 

No. 1—81, 2 Ton (Y) Electric 

various curves but the general cost 
tendency is upward. The period cov- 
ered is from 1916 to 1921 except in the 
case of the 6 ton truck which covers 
the period from 1914 to 1921. Neces- 
sarily these costs are influenced by the 
high price period from 1918 to 1921. 

Fig. 13. (not reproduced herewith) 
is similar to figure 12, but covers oper- 
ating costs of electric instead of gaso- 
line trucks. The rapid rise in the 
right half of these curves is a result 
of the high prices prevailing after the 
war period. 

Method of Calculating Cost for 
Operation of Trucks. — Keep two ac- 
counts on your books for each ma- 
chine: 

First, the truck account, to which 



40 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



Purdue 
Number 


Purchased 
New 


Make 


Size 


Kind of 
Tires 


1921 

Period 

Covered 


Total 
Mile- 
age 


Total 
Gals. 
Gaso- 
line 


Miles 
per 

Gal. 

Gaso- 
line 


Total 
Cost 


Cost 
per 
Mile 


2-8 


T 


D 


HT 


Pneumatic 


5Mo8. 


4,147 


471 


8.8 


$1,034.30 


$0.25 


2-7 

3-11 

2-13 

2-16 

i-\7 


Sept. 1918 
Mar. 1916 
Mar. 1920 
July 1918 
Aug. 1920 


I 

I 
I 

I 
I 


IT 
IT 
IT 
IT 
IT 


Pneumatic 
Pneumatic 
Pneumatic 
Pneumatic 
Pneumatic 

Averages 


l2Mo8. 

8Mos. 
12 Mos. 
12 Mos. 

2 Mos. 

for 1 Ton Tr 


4.447 
3,324 
5,395 
5,609 
1,074 

uck . . . 


856 
487 
876 
962 
155 


5.2 
6.8 
6.2 
5.8 
6.9 

6.2 


2.406.49 
1.293.99 
2,563.24 
3.025.12 
384.26 


0.538 
0.390 
0.476 
0.540 
0.358 

0.460 


2-12 


April 1918 


I 


IJ^T 


SoBd 


12 Mos. 


1,804 


550 


3.3 


2,322.79 


1.29 


2-14 

3-15 


July 1920 
July 1919 


I 
I 


2HT 


Cushion 
Pneumatic 


12 Mos. 
11 Mos. 


3,359 
7,823 


742 
1.064 


4.5 

7.4 

5.9 


3.162.76 
3,291.36 


0.944 
0.420 




Averages for 214 Ton Truck . 


0.682 


2-10 


July 1919 


I 


3}^T 


Solid 


12 Mos. 


1.329 


412 


3.2 


3,095.39 


2.33 



Operating Costs of Gasoline Trucks in Baking: Industry. 





















Cost 




Purdue 


Purchased 






Kind 


1921 


Total 


Total 


Total 


per 


Cost 


Number 


New 


Make 


Size 


of 
Tires 


Period 
Covered 


Mileage 


Pounds 
Hauled 


Cost 


100 
lbs. 


per 
Mile 


2-1 ... . 


May 1917 


X-Electric 


HT 


Solid 


12 Mos. 


3.906 


242,983 


$2,447.50 


$1.01 


$0,627 


2-2.... 


May 1917 


X-Electric 


HT 


Solid 


12 Mos. 


4.654 


345,800 


2,726.66 


.79 


.585 


2-3.... 


May 1917 


X-Electric 


HT 


Solid 


12 Mos. 


4.651 


241 ,506 


2.357.94 


.98 


.506 


2-4.... 


May 1917 


X-Electric 


m 


Solid 


12 Mos. 


4. 036 


183,736 


2,171.69 


1.18 


.538 


2-5.... 


May 1917 


X-Electric 


MT, 


Solid 


3 Mos. 


931 


51,545 


509.45 


.99 


.547 


2-6.... 


May 1917 


X-Electric 


HT 


SoUd 


8 Mos. 


597 
le last tru 


ck 


497.00 




.833 




1 
Averages omitting t1 


.99 


.561 



The Ugh coet per mile on Tru;k No. 2-6 is due to the low total mileage 

Operating Costs of Electric Trucks in Baking Industry. 



debit the original cost of the truck and 
any equipment in the form of perma- 
nent improvement that may be pur- 
chased and any new tires that are 
purchased at any time, also the an- 
nual cost of Insurance, Licenses, 
Taxes, etc., and cost of any extensive 
repairs or repainting which amounts 
to more than $75.00. Credit to this 
account each month the charges for 
depreciation on chassis, tires, insur- 



ance, overhauls, etc. The balance of 
this account at any time shows the 
value of the machine. 

Second, the maintenance account, to 
which charge the monthly items for 
depreciation and all expenses such as 
renewal of parts, gasoline, oil, electric 
current and other operating expenses, 
with the exception of general overhaul 
as specified above. Each month charge 
off the debit balance of this account to 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



41 



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1,710 
1,539 
1,369 
1,348 
1,219 
1,347 
1,581 
1,417 
1,516 
1.545 
1,725 
1,669 
1,726 
1,732 
1,743 
1,729 
1,465 
1,047 

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1,240 

1,286 

1,020 

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824 
1,697 
1,296 
1,664 
1,235 


9,05 
27.11 
91.41 
122.98 
42.71 
136.60 
120.00 
150.12 
148.52 
166.96 
97.81 
103.59 
144.71 
142.69 
148.92 
152.94 
1,33.90 
137.70 
131.97 
166.08 
144.72 
139.47 




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136.92 

10.50 

84.61 

38.24 
133.33 
208.25 
291.20 

87.50 
183.62 
424.15 
293.01 
250 93 
308.97 
340.00 
319.68 
332.92 
125.76 
273.44 
288.50 
154.00 

39.95 
318.27 
260.17 
216.00 
107.03 

51.60 




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1923 



Roads and Streets 



43 



the department in whose service the 
delivery is made. This amount bal- 
ances the Maintenance Account each 
month and shows the cost of operation 
for the month which should be figured 
out on the basis of miles run and 
weight hauled. If the truck is in the 
service of more than one department, 



monthly until the amount of the orig- 
inal purchase is written oflF, except the 
cost of the machine, which should not 
be written down below $5.00. 

Interest Charges: — Charge against 
each truck, so long as it is in the Com- 
pany's possession, interest at the rate 
of 5 per cent per annum, beginning 



(Operator No. 1) 





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NOTE: ThKIOBlradalBni 

Tke 1 lad l-)i taa bMta hm SnnI tiiH. 

TV I loa tract* Wi* iiiiMilili <■ but wtnb ud Se«dl tiro oa mr. 

Truclu Making Store Door Deliveries Year Ending Oct. 31, 1921. 



figure the proportion in which the 
total operating cost will be divided, on 
the basis of the mileage run in the 
service of each department. For this 
purpose a record must be kept of the 
drivers' cards, (individual for each 
load), which shows the weight hauled, 
the mileage run and the department 
chargeable for each load. 

All items of expense must be 
charged to each individual truck as in- 
curred by that truck. 

A low cost per 100 lb. shows that 
the truck is being kept busy and used 
to capacity and vice versa. 

A low cost per mile shows that the 
truck is economical to operate. 

How to Figure Depreciation. — Com- 
pute depreciation as follows: 
Gasoline Truck: 

Truck: — Divide the value of chassis 
and body less value of tires by ^\k. 
Divide the resultant figure by 12 to 
give the monthly charge. 

Solid Tires: — Divide the value of 
original tires by 18, the result being 
the monthly charge. Treat any new 
tires in the same manner when 
bought. 

Pneumatic Tires: — Divide the value 
of original tires by 6, the result being 
the monthly charge. Treat any new 
tires in the same manner when 
bought. 

Overhaul, Repainting, etc.: — Divide 
the total amount by 12, which gives 
the monthly charge. 

Credit all the above monthly 
charges to the Truck Account and 
debit to the Maintenance Account 



with the original cost and every 
month thereafter on the value at 
which the machine stood in the books 
at the first of the month. 



Traffic Inspection Officers for 
Pennsylvania Highways 

The Pennsylvania State Highway 
Department will shortly place traffic 
officers on the highways. These men 
are provided for in the section of the 
Act of 1923 which amends Section 12 
of the Act of 1919, governing motor 
traffic. This amendment authorizes 
the Secretary of Highways to employ 
such men as in his discretion are 
deemed necessary to the enforcement 
of the penal provisions of the motor 
laws. "Our traffic officers will pay 
particular attentionr to the overloading 
of trucks; speed of motor vehicles — 
and particularly the speed of trucks; 
the misuse of headlamps. No truck 
will be permitted to use Pennsylvania 
highways when it carries a load 
greater than that specified for the 
particular class in which it is regis- 
tered. No truck will be permitted 
to travel faster than the rate specified 
for the class in which it is registered. 
The traffic inspection force is to be 
uniformed. The force will be mounted 
upon motor cycles. Certain members 
engaged in enforcing the law relating 
to truck weights will use motor cars 
in which their road scales will be car- 
ried. The number of men in the new 
force has not been decided. The law 
did not fix a limit, saying merely that 
the Secretary of Highways may em- 
ploy such men "as in his discretion are 
necessary." 



44 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



Equitable Distribution of Cost of Construction, Interest on 

Bonds, Replacements and Maintenance of 

State Highways 



Paper Presented at the Joint Sessions of the North Central Division 

of the National Highway Traffic Association and the 

Michigan State Good Roads Association 



Vice President, Kational 



BY ROY D. CHAPIN, 

Automobile Chamber of Commerce, and President 
Hudson Motor Car Co. 



We can be assured that the prem- 
ises upon which we are laying the 
foundation for vast highway systems 
are intrinsically sound. This need is 
not a temporary one and we are justi- 
fied in large expenditures, so long as 
we can be assured that the policies 
which we lay down for the control of 
those expenditures are wisely shaped. 

The task which confronts us, then, 
is one that requires the wisdom of 
the statesmen, the vision of the social 
economist, the acumen of the finan- 
cier and the efficiency of the engineer. 

At the outset it places a heavy bur- 
den upon all responsible authorities, 
with a sure compensation ahead for 
those who proceed with the needs of 
all in mind, and with just as sure a 
reaction against those who give heed 
to special as opposed to the general 
welfare. 

Manufacturing Problem Presented. 
— In any analysis which I have made 
of the subject of highway finance, I 
have been impressed with the fact 
that what we are concerning our- 
selves with is fundamentally a busi- 
ness proposal. After all we are not 
dealing merely with the building of 
roads. We are dealing instead with 
the production of transportation, 
which is just as much of a manufac- 
turing process as is the building of 
the motor vehicle itself. 

Accordingly, the business analogy 
presents itself as a sound rule for 
highway policies, since in its adoption 
we return to principles which have 
been tested and found practical over 
a long period of years. 

The first item then is to analyze 
the need. This we have done. Next 
we must determine just what roads 
are essential to earn the income 
which shall justify our expenditure, 
how rapidly these roads shall be built, 
which ones shall take precedence. 

Analysis of Financial Resources. — 
Knowing these factors which can only 
be surely determined by careful and 



accurate surveys, not alone of traffic 
but of economic possibilities, we must 
then proceed to analyze our financial 
resources, determine our possible in- 
come and then proceed to select that 
type of administration which will 
build our highways most carefully and 
most economically, with due regard 
for the purposes for which they are 
intended. 

Policies Will Vary. — The first ques- 
tion, then, which confronts us is a de- 
termination of the present stage of 
development of this manufacturing 
plant which we are taking over. If it 
is a going concern, with ample fa- 
cilities in the shape of already im- 
proved highways, then we will prob- 
ably find that we can draw sufficient 
revenue to meet our requirements 
from current operating income. We 
may need a short term bond issue 
here or there to take care of a spe- 
cial extension such as a widened road 
or improvement from an inferior to 
a superior type of pavement, but in 
the main we can pay-as-you-go. 

Of all of the states in the Union, 
Maryland is perhaps the best example 
of this kind which we have and one 
of the very few, since Maryland has 
already improved most of its main 
system througl; long term bonds and 
is now concerned chiefiy with the 
maintenance of these highways to 
meet the traffic requirements. 

If we are discussing a state such 
as Michigan, however, we will find a 
somewhat different situation. A $50,- 
000,000 state bond issue, coupled with 
county and federal funds, will com- 
plete all of the state system except 
the 400 miles added by the last legis- 
lature. That completion, however, 
does not include improvements of a 
number of gravel roads which must 
be raised to a higher type because of 
increased business or traffic, and 
consequntly, the situation may present 
the need for new manufacturing fa- 
cilities or roads which may require a 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



45 



supplementary bond issue, the extent 
of which will depend upon the actual 
growth of traffic in the interim. 

Virginia Example of New Territory. 
—Then we turn to a state such as 
Virginia, only now upon the threshold 
of a venture in the production of 
transportation. Here the plant is in 
such shape that if we hope to care for 
the business which is awaiting us 
now, we must immediately turn to a 
bond issue as the means of raising 
the initial capital outlay, as otherwise 
the drain on our current income would 
be so great that while we might be 
able to construct our roads, we could 
not maintain them. And it is just as 
absurd to build roads and not main- 
tain them as it would be to build a 
factory and allow it to go to pieces. 

Beyond that, however, we have ac- 
cepted theories in business finance 
which apply definitely to the ca^e 
at hand. No large business organiza- 
tion today, or few small ones, will at- 
tempt to finance capital expenditure 
out of current income. The reasons 
are obvious. If for example, a manu- 
facturer should say, "I " need a new 
factory. It will cost me $50,000 and 
will produce 10,000 tires." He could 
not then say, "I will distribute that 
cost $5 per tire over my next year's 
output." Business competition would 
not permit such practice, but he could 
distribute that cost over a period 
equivalent to the length of life of the 
factory, and then assess each con- 
sumer accordingly. 

Wliat Is Life of Highway?— The 
question which then arises is, "What 
is the life of this factory?" You will 
hear men say that our roads are going 
to pieces and that the analogy be- 
tween business and engineering prac- 
tice breaks down at this point. 

If this question arose in a business 
plant, the executive would call in his 
research men and put the question to 
them. Suppose we call upon the re- 
search men of the U. S. Bureau of 
Public Roads, or, taking a short cut, 
turn directly to the report of the chief 
of the bureau, T. H. MacDonald. 

"Much that we have known about 
highways is not so," we read, and 
summarizing an official viewpoint we 
find that a close survey made by the 
Bureau shows that 40 per cent of all 
of the Federal Aid projects costs has 
gone into permanent features of the 
highway, such as location, drainage, 
gradients, curvatures, shoulders and 
engineering costs. Of the remaining 
60 per cent allotted to surface costs, 



we find that when the time for recon- 
struction of the highway comes all 
but a percentage equivalent to the 
cost of interest and sinking fund is 
salvaged as bedding for the new sur- 
face. 

In a word, we find that we have 
been led into the fallacious belief that 
to lose the surface has been to lose 
all. 

Lack of Maintenance Funds Costly. 
— But this is not all. The executive 
searching for still further supporting 
data finds that in many cases the 
actual reason for surface deteriora- 
tion has been a lack of adequate main- 
tenance, an overloading of equipment 
in times of seasonal strain. Expert 
opinion tells him that the engineer 
can build the road to handle the 
traffic and that all that is required is 
absolute maintenance. 

The judgment then is that we are 
justified in distributing our capital 
costs, provided we require mainte- 
nance, and we can proceed knowing 
that what we are doing is to provide 
as expeditiously as possible a network 
of highways which we shall have the 
use of in our life-time and which we 
shall pass on to our children for their 
use in turn, each generation paying a 
fair rental charge in the form of main- 
tenance costs plus amortization costs. 

Will it cost us more to follow this 
plan than to pay the charge from cur- 
rent operating expense? Yes. Are 
we justified? Yes. How? By these 
two facts, either of which is sufficient. 
First, we are supplying a universal 
human need — adequate transportation 
for all. Second, the increased use of 
the highways by the public in our 
own lifetime will more than offset the 
amortization charges, even if we 
could deny the increased valuations 
which will accrue to urban and rural 
properties, which we cannot. More- 
over, if we built from current funds, 
we should have an average of only 
50 per cent of the use of a given 
mileage in, say, a 10-year program, 
while by paying as we use we shall 
have practically a 100 per cent usage. 
Yet the difference in cost is only 
found in the amortization charge. 

Rigorous Limitations Necessary. — 
We shall not make these statements, 
however, without imposing certain 
rigorous limitations. One, that of 
maintenance funds, has been men- 
tioned and it cannot be stressed too 
emphatically. 

Further, state bond issues should 
not be sought for roads of purely local 



46 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



use. Generally speaking, these will 
carry only a light traffic and main- 
tenance costs will suffice. State issues 
should be concentrated on those high- 
ways which traffic and economic sur- 
veys show are of first importance 
from the state point of view. If this 
system is carefully laid out, it will be 
found that there are few points more 
than 15 miles from a main road and 
the policy of financing these feeders 
will depend upon the character and 
extent of the traffic. 

Again, the administration is an im- 
portant element. The leaders must be 
men of vision who will deal with this 
problem as with any major issue of 
public welfare. Control should be 
centralized in their hands, as the 
local man cannot be expected to, nor 
should he, consider state needs first. 
Any departure from such a program 
as this is likely to result in discon- 
nected highways and the question of 
maintenance becomes a highly uncer- 
tain equation. 

Traffic Regulation Paramount Issue. 
— The question of traffic regulation is 
another where only the state official 
can act with due regard for the eco- 
nomic'needs of the community. We 
have indicated that overloading of the 
plant has been a partial cause for its 
breakdown in the past. Power should 
be lodged with the state authority so 
that he can prohibit overloading the 
vehicle in normal times and can make 
such restrictions as to loads as will 
safeguard the general welfare at sea- 
sonal periods. 

By the same act the commissioner 
should have power to permit over- 
loading in emergency. The only pur- 
pose for road construction is to serve 
traffic and situations such as the pres- 
ent railroad congestion may make it 
cheaper at times to break down an 
inadequate highway surface than to 
permit unemployment, hunger or cold 
to come to a community. 

This brings us logically to a discus- 
sion of what kinds of highways we 
shall construct. The answer is found 
solely in economics. That type of 
highway should be constructed which 
will care not only for the present but 
for the future needs of traffic. No 
highway improvement Is justified if it 
does not satisfy a human need or un- 
less the cost of improvement is more 
than cared for In the saving effected 
to the public through better and 
cheaper service. The problem is so 
large, the needs so many and diversi- 
fied, that over-development is just as 



serious an economic error as under- 
development. 

Construction and Maintenance De- 
fined. — How are we going to pay for 
this improvement? In a general way 
we have said that original construc- 
tion is a matter of capital outlay; so 
also is any extension or any replace- 
ment of an inferior by a superior type 
of pavement to the extent of the dif- 
ference in cost. The analogy is that 
of a new factory building or the re- 
placement of old machinery by im- 
proved units. 

Maintenance then becomes all of 
the remaining charges or in effect the 
constant making of needed repairs up 
to and including reconstruction, in 
order that the plant may give service 
at all times. 

At this point we are faced squarely 
by the need for saying from what 
sources we are to draw our income in 
order that our finances shall be 
equitably levied so that the public 
may buy its transportation at the 
lowest possible cost. 

Answer Varies with Locality. — The 
answer will vary in detail according to 
the stage of development of the sys- 
tem or plant with which we are deal- 
ing. It will vary according to popula- 
tion, square miles in area, mileage of 
roads under consideration. But still 
we have before us definite principles 
based upon studies of fact which well 
may be taken as sign posts. 

It is a safe principle to say that 
those who benefit from the highway 
shall pay for its construction and 
maintenance. Who is it that benefits? 
Definite economic surveys made by 
the Bureau of Public Roads show that 
in the initial improvement of the 
highway there is found an accretion 
in the value of land in the vicinity 
which ranges anywhere from 300 to 
1,000 per cent. More important, there 
is the fulfillment of a human need 
which, while it may not be directly 
susceptible to economic treatment, is 
none the less a large factor in road 
construction, particularly in the agri- 
cultural regions. 

Urban Valuations Increased. — Ur- 
ban valuations are also increased by 
the construction of rural highways, 
because not only does the highway 
bring new buying power to the city 
but It also brings about a tremen- 
dous suburban development which is, 
as yet, only in its infancy. 

Finally, the man who uses the high- 
way finds his costs lessened as it Is 
Improved, or better, as it is main- 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



47 



tained in a constant condition of ser- 
vice. 

Taken in sum, these three elements 
represent all of the tax-paying ele- 
ments of the community; hence it 
may be fairly said that capital charges 
for highway construction should be 
provided for from general taxation 
whether these payments are made in 
the form of amortization charges for 
a long term bond issue, which spreads 
the charge over this and succeeding 
generations of beneficiaries, or 
whether it be a special levy. 

When we come to the question of 
maintenance, however, the problem is 
not as clear, as we have not had suf- 
ficient research to determine accurate- 
ly all of the secondary influences of 
improvements upon valuations. 

We do know, however, that the 
user of the highway is one who ob- 
tains the first service from it, that 
his costs are affected as the highway 
is kept in condition or allowed to go 
to pieces, and finally, that much of 
its depreciation is due to use. 

Provides Annual Revenue. — It thus 
appears that the user should be 
charged with the upkeep of the road, 
a principle which is sound from a 
financial standpoint in that our pres- 
ent system of motor registration is a 
recurrent annual charge which auto- 
matically produces the revenue nec- 
essary to maintenance. For this rea- 
son it is fair to insist that motor fees 
should be set aside for maintenance 
rather than diverted into construc- 
tion, and further, it is reasonable to 
demand that the administration of 
these funds shall be so controlled as 
to make the highway of the utmost 
service. 

In conclusion, then, I should say 
that we cannot solve the highway 
finances of a country so diversified 
as this by any detailed formula, but 
we can proceed to adopt certain defi- 
nite principles which may be ex- 
pressed somewhat in this way. 

Principles Suggested for Adoption. 
— Highway systems should be laid out 
by state highway departments, with 
a definite view to meet the social and 
economic needs of the commonwealth. 

The needed revenue for construc- 
tion should be secured from long term 
bond issues based upon general taxa- 
tion, while current operating expenses 
should be secured from the user and 
should be adequate to maintain the 
highway once constructed. 

Centralized administrative control 
is essential to a proper development 



of these systems as well as to the 
regulation of their use, and broad 
powers should be granted the state 
department in charge, to insure an 
economic flow of traflBc. 

It is hardly necessary to emphasize, 
in closing, that the need for general 
bond issues will be dependent upon 
the degree of present improvement of 
the system. 

The problem which confronts us is 
one of statisfying a proven human 
need, the elemental desire for indi- 
vidual transportation, the fulfillment 
of which is a social as well as an eco- 
nomic necessity to our further prog- 
ress. 

The more rapidly our finances can 
be placed upon such a basis as this, 
the more rapidly will the states, as a 
whole, afford new opportunity for 
those who, living in city or country, 
have found themselves deprived of 
opportunity for free communication 
which should be the right of all. 



Statistical Methods of the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics 

The methods followed by the 
United States Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics in procuring and computing sta- 
tistical information relating to labor 
forms the subject of Bulletin No. 326 
recently published by the Bureau. 
The purpose of this bulletin is to de- 
scribe the principal acti\ities of the 
Bureau, the functions of which are 
purely educational and not adminis- 
trative, and to outline the methods 
used in making its investigations and 
preparing its reports. 

The bulletin takes up the different 
subjects covered regularly in the in- 
vestigations of the Bureau, giving ex- 
amples of questionnaires and sched- 
ules used by agents in collecting ma- 
terial relating to wages and hours of 
labor, cost of li^ing, retail and whole- 
sale prices, volume of employment, 
strikes and lockouts, industrial acci- 
dents, and workmen's compensation 
and insurance. The methods used in 
making computations are also de- 
scribed and the extent of the work 
done in the different fields of study is 
given together with the sources from 
which this information is drawn and 
the scope of the various investiga- 
tions. The publication of the Monthly 
Labor Review by the Bureau since 
1915 has afforded a means of bringing 
much of this information before the 
public without the delay involved in 
the preparation of special bulletins. 



48 



Roads and Streets July, 

Use of Timber in Highway Bridges 



Standard Specifications for Timber Structures of U. S. Bureau 
of Public Roads 



Specification for Timber Structures 

Description. — T i m b e r structures 
shall be built where shown on the 
plans or directed by the engineer and 
shall be constructed in accordance 
with the plans and specifications. This 
item shall include only such timber as 
is a part of the completed work. All 
timber for erection purposes, as false- 
work, forms, bracing, sheeting, etc., 
shall be furnished by the Contractor 
at his own expense. 

Quality. — All timber shall be cut 
from sound trees, sawed standard size, 
straight, and out of wind and shall be 
free from defects such as decay, worm 
holes, injurious shakes, checks and 
crooked, cross or spiral grain, large 
loose or unsound knots, knots in 
groups, large pitch pockets, or other 
defects that might impair its strength 
and durability. Wane may show on 
only one corner of a piece. Wane shall 
not exceed one-half the length of the 
piece nor measure more than 1 in, 
across the face of the wane. Not more 
than 10 per cent of the pieces of one 
size may show any wane. 

Size. — Rough timbers when sawed 
to standard size, shall mean that they 
shall not be over % in. scant from ac- 
tual size specified. For instance, a 
12 by 12 in. timber shall measure not 
less than 11% by 11% in. 

Dressed. Standard dressing means 
that not more than M in. shall be 
allowed for dressing each surface. For 
instance, a 12 by 12 in. timber shall, 
after dressing four sides, not measure 
less than IIV2 by ll^^ in. 

Dense Timber. — Dense timber shall 
be used for truss members, floor 
beams, stringers, caps and flooring. 

a. Dense timber of longleaf pine, 
shortleaf pine and Cuban pine shall 
show at one end or the other an aver- 
age of at least six annual rings per 
inch and at least one-third summer 
wood, all measured over the third, 
fourth and fifth inches on a radial line 
from the pith. Wide ringed material 
excluded by this rule shall be accept- 
able provided the amount of summer 
wood as above measured shall be at 
leai?t one-half. Summer wood is the 
hard, dense and darker colored por- 
tion of the annual ring. 

(1) In cases where timber does not 
contain pith, and it is impossible to 



locate it with any degree of accuracy, 
same inspection shall be made over 3 
in. in an approximate radial line be- 
ginning at the edge nearest the pith in 
timbers over 3 in. in thickness and in 
the second inch of the piece nearest to 
the pith in timbers 3 in. or less in 
thickness. 

(2) In dimension material contain- 
ing the pith but not a 5 in. radial line, 
which is less than 2x8, which is in 
section, or less than 8 in. in width, 
that does not show over 16 sq. in. on 
the cross section, the inspection shall 
apply to the second inch from the pith. 
In larger material that does not show 
a 5 in. radial line the inspection shall 
apply to the 3 in. farthest from the 
pith. 

b. Dense timber of Coast Region 
Douglas fir shall be strong timber of 
medium rate of growth and show on 
one end or the other an average of at 
least six annual rings per inch and at 
least one-third summer wood meas- 
ured over 3 in. on a line located as 
hereinafter described. Wide ringed 
material, excluded by this rule, shall 
be acceptable provided the amount of 
summer wood as above measured sahll 
be at least one-half. Material in which 
the proportions of summer wood is 
not clearly discernible shall not be 
used. 

(1) Any timber whose least dimen- 
sion is less than 5 in. shall not show 
the pith on the inspection end; pieces 
whose least dimension is 5 in. or more 
may contain the pith. 

(2) When the least dimension is 5 
in., or more, the pith being present, 
the line over which the rate of growth 
and percentage of summer wood 
measurements shall be made, shall run 
from the pith to the corner farthest 
from the pith. The 3 in. line shall 
begin at a distance from the pith equal 
to 2 in. less than one-half the least 
dimension of the piece. 

(3) For all pieces not having the 
pith present the center of the 3 in. line 
shall be at the center of the end of 
the piece and the direction of the 3 in. 
line shall be at right angles to the 
annual rings. 

(4) If a radial line of 3 in. cannot 
be obtained, the measurement shall be 
made over the entire radial line that 
is available. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



49 



Dense Timber of Other Species. — 

Dense timber of other species shall be 
close grained, solid and strictly first 
quality. 



Cuban pine 

White oak 

Spanish oak from lowland 

Tanbark oak. 



Permissible Stresses of Structural Timber 

(Revised April, 1923) 
When used with this specification the following stresses in pounds per square 
inch are permissible for structural timbers. 



NAMK 



Hori- 
zontal . 

Beiding i l^*Yi ™ i End 
Stress , ^^^^i i Bearing 



I Tension 
and 



Compression Psrsllel 
to the Grain 



a Locust, black 



Maple, sugar or hard 

Oak, Spanish (lowland).... 

Oak, tanbark 

Oak, white 

Pine, Cuban 

Pine, longleaf 

Fir, Douglas (Coast Region) \ 

Pine, shortleaf 

Larch, western 

Oak, Pacific post 

Oak, burr 

Pine, loblolly 

Pine, table mountain . 
Tamarack 



Cypress, bald 

Fir, Douglas (Mountain 

Region) 

Hemlock, western 

Hemlock, eastern 

Pine, Norway 

Pine, pitch 

Redwood 



Cedar, western red. 

Chestnut 

Pine, western yellow. 

Spruce, red 

Spruce, sitka'. 

Cedar, white 

Pine, Lodgepole 

Spruce, En^lemann. . 
Spruce, white 



2,200 



\ 1,000 
1,600 



1,400 



1400 



800 



220 
150 

120 
100 

100 



1400 
1400 

1,200 
1400 

1.100 



L/D 
OtolO 



1,600 
1,000 
1,000 



L/D 
10 to 30 



1800-251^ 
D 

1200-25?L 
D 

1200-25t 



Com- 
pression 
Perpen- 
dicular 
to Orain 



TOO 



1,000 


1200-25?L 

D 


000 


1100-25?L 
D 


soo 


1000-25^ 
D 


700 


300-25^ 
D 


600 


MO-25^ 
D 



000 

350 

250 
250 



IM 



160 



m 



Shear 
Parallel 
to Grain 



350 
220 

180 
150 

150 



130 



120 



100 



L e<]uals length of column, and D equals least side or diameter, both dimensions in the same unit either 
feet or inches. The unsupported length of wooden columns and comDre«!ion members shall not ex?eei 33 
times the diameter of least side. 

a Very durabie. b Durable. c Perishable. 



Sound Timber. — Timber for col- 
umns, sills, wheel-guards, bulkhead 
sheeting, bracing and timber for other 
purposes, unless otherwise specified, 
shall fulfill the foregoing require- 
ments except the density rules given 
in paragraph No. 4. 

Heart Requirement. — All untreated 
timber shall show at least 85 per cent 
heart wood on any girth. 

Untreated Timber. — For designs 
based on a fiber stress in bending of 
1,500 to 1,600 lb. per sq. in., one of 
the following species of timber shall 
be used. 

Douglas fir from Pacific Coast 
Region 

Longleaf pine 

Shortleaf pine 



Treated Timber. — For designs based 
on a fiber stress in bending of 1,500 
to 1,600 lb. per sq. in., one of the fol- 
lowing species of timber shall be used. 
(See accompanying table for unit 
stresses.) 

Douglas fir from Pacific Coast 
Region 

Longleaf pine 

Cuban pine 

Shortleaf pine 

White oak 

Spanish oak from lowland 

Tanbark oak 

Willow oak. 

Timber treated by pressure method 
to retain 8 to 12 lb. of oil per cu. ft. 
and so treated that all sapwood is en- 
tirely impregnated with creosote oil 



50 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



shall fulfill the requirements for un- 
treated timber except that there shall 
be no heartwood requirement. 

Construction 
Handling Treated Timber.— Treated 

timber shall be carefully handled 
without sudden dropping, breaking of 
outer fibers, bruising or penetrating 
the surface with tools. It shall be 
handled with rope slings. Cant dogs, 
hooks or pike-poles shall not be used. 

Cuts in Treated Timber. — All places 
where the surface of treated timber is 
broken by cutting, boring or other- 
wise, shall be thoroughly coated with 
hot creosote oil and then with a coat- 
ing of hot tar pitch. 

Pile Caps. — Pile caps shall be level 
and have full even bearing on all piles 
in the bent and be secured to each pile 
by a % in. diameter drift bolt extend- 
ing at least 9 in. into the pile. Parts 
of pile-heads projecting beyond the 
cap must be adzed off to a slope of 45 
degrees. 

Framing. — Truss and bent timbers 
shall be accurately cut, and framed to 
a close fit in such manner that they 
will have even bearing over the entire 
contract surface of the joint. No 
blocking or shimming of any kind will 
be allowed in making joints, nor will 
open joints be accepted. Mortises 
shall be true to size for their full 
depth and tenons shall make snug fit 
therein. 

Bolt Holes. — All bolt holes shall be 
bored with an augur 1/16 in. smaller 
in diameter than the bolt. Mortises 
and tenons shall be "draw bored." 

Stringers. — Stringers shall be sized 
at bearings. Outside stringers may 
have butt joints but interior stringers 
shall be framed to bear over the full 
width of floor beam or cap at each 
end. The ends shall be separated at 
least ^4 in. for the circulation of air 
and shall be securely fastened to the 
timber on which they rest. 

Floor Plank. — Roadway floor plank 
shall have a nominal thickness either 
of 4 or 3 in, as specified, and an actual 
width of not less than dVz in. Side- 
walk floor plank shall be surfaced to 
uniform thickness. It shall have an 
actual minimum width of 5% in. and 
thickness of 1% in. 

Laying Floor Plank. — Floor plank 
shall be laid heart side down with % 
in. openings and be spiked to each 
stringer or nailing strip with at least 
two 7 in. spikes for 4 in. plank and two 
6 in. spikes for 3 in. plank. Rough 
plank shall be carefully graded as to 
thickness before laying, and be laid so 



that no two adjacent planks vary in 
thickness more than 1/16 in. All floors 
shall be cut to a straight line along 
the sides of the roadway and walk- 
way. 

Wheel-Guards. — Wheel-guards, as 
shown on the plans, shall be con- 
structed on each side of the road. 
They shall be raised from the floor by 
blocks 8 in. thick by 1 ft. long, spaced 
about 5 ft. apart center to center, and 
be fastened in place by a % in. bolt 
passing through the wheel guard, each 
block and the floor plank. 

Railings. — Railings shall be built in 
accordance with the designs shown on 
the plans, and shall be constructed in 
a workmanlike and substantial man- 
ner. Unless otherwise noted all rail- 
ing material shall be dressed on four 
sides (S4S). 

Pins. — Pins may be turned or split 
and drawn, from clear, sound wood of 
the kind specified on the plans. They 
shall be made 6 in. longer than the 
required finished length, and when 
driven into place shall have their ends 
sawed off flush with the surface of the 
member. 

Turned pins shall be made from 
square stock sawed parallel to the 
grain. One end shall be left square 
for about 1 in. and the other shall 
have a dull point. The body of the 
pin shall be uniform in diameter and 
1/16 in. larger than the diameter of 
the hole. The finished pins shall be 
free from knots, knot holes, pockets, 
splits or flaws which might impair 
their strength. 

Split and drawn pins shall be made 
from straight grained green lumber 
and be allowed to season. One end 
shall be hardened and pointed by 
charring. They shall be octagonal in 
shape and when seasoned the diameter 
between parallel faces shall be the 
same as the diameter of the holes in 
which they are to be driven. 

Bolts. — Bolts shall be of the sizes 
specified and must be perfect in every 
respect. They shall have square 
heads and nuts and screw threads 
shall make close fits in the nuts. All 
bolts shall be effectually checked after 
the nuts are adjusted. 

Washers. — Washers shall be used 
between all bolt heads and nuts, and 
wood. Cast washers shall have a 
thickness equal to the diameter of the 
bolt and a diameter of four times the 
thickness. For plate washers the size 
of the square shall be equal to four 
times, and the thickness equal to one- 
half, the diameter of the bolt. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



51 



Preservative Treatment 
Description. — Whenever specified 
timber and piles shall be treated for 
preservation, prior to treatment the 
piles shall be trimmed and peeled and 
the timber cut and framed. No cut- 
ting or trimming will be allowed after 
treatment except the boring of neces- 
sary holes. 

The timber shall then be impreg- 
nated with the preservative specified 
using any standard process approved 
by the Engineer so that from 8 to 12 
lb, of creosote oil per cu. ft. is re- 
tained and all sapwood is thoroughly 
penetrated. 

Material. — The preservative shall 
be one of the following grades of creo- 
sote oil or creosote oil tar solution as 
directed by the Engineer, or indicated 
on the plans and shall meet the fol- 
lowing requirements: 



wire. After the cover is in place the 
cap shall be placed as described in 
Article No. 11. 

Untreated Timbers. — In structures 
of untreated timber the following sur- 
faces shall be thoroughly coated with 
a thick coat of red lead paint, hot tar, 
hot asphaltum, or hot creosote resi- 
duum before assembling. Heads of 
piles, ends, tops, and all contact sur- 
faces of pile caps, floor beams, and 
stringer ends, joints and all contact 
surfaces of truss members, laterals, 
and braces. 

The back face of bulkheads and all 
other timber in contact with earth 
shall be thoroughly coated with one 
of the materials specified above, or a 
carbolineum. 

Railings. — Unless otherwise speci- 
fied railings shall be made of un-* 
treated dressed lumber and shall be 



Preserrative Specifications 





CreoMte Oil 


Creosote 




Grade 1 


Grade 2 


Grades 


Coal Tar 
Solution 


1— It shall not contain wat«r in ezMss of 

2— It shall not contain matter insolubU in bsAzol in sxMsa 

of. 


»% 
• ■5% 

in 

5% 


#.5% 

5% 
2% 


s% 

• ■5% 
1«3 

m, 

5% 

2% 


2.«% 
l.«6— 112 

«% 


3-Sp«s«c jrafity of oU at S«°/15.5<'C, shall not b« lass than . 
4— The distillate based on water-fr«« oU shall b« within ths 

following limita: 
Up to 210=C, not more than 


Up to 235-C, not more than 

5— The float teat of residue above 35S"=C shall not exceed 50 

sec. at 70 -C, if the distillation residue above 355°C exceeds 

C — Coke residue of oil not more than 

7— The foregoing tests shall be made in atvordance with 

standard methods of A. S. T. M. Designation D3S-18. 



Painting 
Treated Timbers. — Hot creosote oil 
shall be poured into the bolt holes be- 
fore the insertion of the bolts, in such 
a manner that the entire surface of 
the holes shall receive a coating of oil. 
After the necessary cutting and slop- 
ing of projecting parts has been done 
to receive the cap, the heads of piles 
shall be given three coats of hot creo- 
sote oil. They shall then be covered 
with a coat of hot tar pitch over which 
shall be placed a sheet of 3-ply roofing 
felt or galvanized iron, or a covering 
may be built up of alternate layers of 
hot tar pitch and loose- woven fabric 
similar to membrane waterproofing 
using four layers of pitch and three of 
the fabric. The cover shall measure 
at least 6 in. more in each dimension 
than the diameter of the pile and shall 
be bent over the pile and the edges 
fastened with large headed nails, or 
secured by binding with galvanized 



painted with two coats of paint com- 
posed of 85 per cent pure white lead 
and 15 per cent zinc white mixed in 
pure raw linseed oil. 

Bolts. — All bolts passing through 
non-resinous wood shall be painted 
with two coats of red lead paint at 
least 85 per cent pure. 

Basis of Payment. — This work will 
be paid for at the contract unit price 
per thousand feet board measure for 
untreated timber or treated timber, as 
the case may be, complete in price ac- 
cording to the plans or as directed by 
the Engineer, which place will include 
all materials, excavation, equipment, 
tools, labor, painting, preservative 
treatment and all work incidental 
thereto. No additional allowance will 
be made for spikes, nails, bolts, wash- 
ers, drift bolts, etc. 

In computing the quantity of tim- 
ber, nominal sizes will be used. 



52 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



Sheet Asphalt Construction in 
Little Rock, Ark. 

By W. E. FORD, 

Ford & MacCrea, Consulting and Supervising 
Engineers, Gazette Bldg., Little Rock, Ark. 

Street Improvement District Num- 
ber 313, embracing the paving of 
about nine blocks in the southern part 
of the city of Little Rock, Ark., was 
inaugurated principally to connect up 
several streets which had already 
been paved, and to accommodate the 



measuring 1^^ in. before rolling and 1 
in. after rolling. The wearing surface 
measured IM, in. before rolling and 
was reduced to 1 in. by rolling. 

The stone used in the concrete base 
was blue trap rock furnished in sizes 
ranging from Vz to l^A in. Sharp, 
coarse sand taken from the Arkansas 
River was used to complete the min- 
eral aggregate of the base. Blue trap 
rock in a smaller size was used in the 
binder course, and selected sand from 
the Arkansas River was used in the 




Twenty-first St., Little Rock. Ark., Paved in February, 1923, With Sheet Asphalt. 



residents of this section which is the 
centre of many attractive homes. 

The new construction is sheet as- 
phalt throughout and measures 36 ft. 
between curbs. The street corners 
have been changed to an 8 ft. radius 
so as to facilitate the turning of long 
wheel base cars and to give ample 
parking space on the street. 

As it was not expected that these 
streets would receive very much of the 
extremely heavy traffic of the city, 
and since the sub-soil was of a more 
or less stable character, with drain- 
age very well taken care of, the con- 
crete base was made 5 in. thick with 
a uniform 1:3:6 mix, and was slightly 
roughened on the surface to receive 
the asphalt binder. 

The writer has observed that the 
most successful asphalt pavement is 
the one that receives maximum com- 
pression. In order to obtain a tightly 
compacted sheet asphalt pavement in 
this district, we chose a binder course 



wearing course. Texaco No. 54 asphalt 
paving cement was used in the con- 
struction of binder and top for the 
entire job. 

The contractor who handled the con- 
struction of base, curb, drainage, etc., 
was the Oliver Construction Co., and 
the Standard Paving Co. of Little 
Rock laid the asphalt top. 



Street Railway Track in 26 ft. Park- 
way. — In paving 7th East St. at Salt 
Lake City, Utah, a new departure in 
paving design was used in the center 
parking for the tracks of the Utah 
Light & Traction Co. between 5th and 
9th South. By this method the car 
company maintains its right-of-way 
within a 26-ft. park sown in grass, 
and in the construction of the pave- 
ment pays for the cost of the park, 
curb and sidewalk landings at each 
end of the park. This way of paving 
Quite materially reduces the cost of 
wie improvement. 



1923 



Roads and Streets 

Patrol Method of Road Maintenance 



53 



System of Michigan for State and County Roads Described in Paper 

Presented June 12 at Annual Convention of Canadian 

Good Roads Association 

By L. H. NEILSON, 

Deputy State Highway Commissioner of Michigan. 



This paper is written from the 
standpoint of practices developed 
from the experience of Michigan in 
handling the maintenance of her state 
trunk line road system through the 
county road organizations and in the 
methods developed by the Michigan 
counties in handling their state aid 
county systems. Opinions expressed 
and methods suggested are those best 
adapted to Michigan's soil, climate, 
traffic and other conditions. 

Michigan Plan of Maintenance. — 
Under our laws the counties pay from 
5 per cent to 25 per cent of the cost of 
construction and from 10 per cent to 
50 per cent of the cost of mainte- 
nance. The state highway department 
lets the contracts for construction, and 
the counties handle the maintenance 
of the state line highways under an 
agreement providing for the return of 
the state's share based on quarterly 
statements of the cost of doing the 
work. The couijty maintenance organ- 
ization handles the upkeep of both the 
state trunk lines and the county roads, 
thus saving duplication of overhead 
and equipment expense. 

The present maintenance organiza- 
tion is headed by the state highway 
commissioner through his mainte- 
nance department which supervises 
the county organizations handling the 
work. The state is divided into nine 
engineering districts with a district 
engineer in charge, who handles all 
the work of the department in the 
group of counties under his super- 
vision. He has assistants, one of 
whom is especially charged with sup- 
ervision of maintenance work. The 
county road work is handled by a 
board of county road commissioners 
consisting of three members whose 
duties are administrative and who 
must hire an engineer or superintend- 
ent skilled in roadbuilding to handle 
all construction and maintenance. 

The roads must lie on a county sys- 
tem approved by the state highway 
commissioner if state aid is desired. 
The qualifications of the county high- 
way engineer must be approved by the 
state highway commissioner. The en- 



gineer must also be registered under 
the state law, providing for registra- 
tion of engineers. 

Where the county road system is 
extensive enough and the expendi- 
tures are large enough to warrant it 
a superintendent of maintenance, re- 
porting to the county engineer is em- 
ployed. Sometimes a county is 
divided into several districts with an _ 
overseer over each district who has 
direct charge of the patrolmen. 

Agreement with County.— Under 
the system now in effect in Michigan 
a contract or agreement is drawn up 
with the county authorities covering 
the work for the ensuing calendar 
year. Each patrol section is listed 
with the men, equipment, material 
and money required to properly main- 
tain it. To the total cost shoAvn for 
the several sections is added the prop- 
er super\'isory or overhead cost, the 
salaries of the superintendent and 
overseers and equipment rental or al- 
lowance. The agreement shows the 
share provided by law which shall be 
refunded by the state on the receipt 
and audit of the quarterly statements. 
Any extraordinary or emergency ex- 
penditure which would run the co^ 
of any section or sections above the 
amount budgeted in the agreement 
must be approved by the district en- 
gineer and by the maintenance depart- 
ment before the work is done in order 
to be audited and approved in a quar- 
terly statement. 

Marking the trunk line routes with 
the proper numbers, direction and 
warning signs is done by the depart- 
ment crews and the cost charged back 
to the counties. Certain bridge re- 
pairs and steel bridge painting are 
handled by department gangs. 

Each year estimates are gathered 
covering the amount of tars, asphalts 
and calcium chloride to be used for 
the season and bids taken for sup- 
plying the needs of the country or- 
ganizations for these materials. Pur- 
chases are made for both county roads 
and state trunk line highways. Large 
savings have been made possible by 
this method. Another feature which 



54 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



is extremely important is that this 
blanket letting enables the setting up 
of a standard specification which all 
bidders, whatever may be the trade 
name of their product, are forced to 
meet. Tests are then made of the 
materials as furnished and it has been 
possible to secure uniform materials 
for the several kinds of work, such as 
surface treatment, penetration ma- 
cadam, cold patch and joint fillers for 
concrete pavements. 

Maintenance and construction work 
are now supervised by a landscape 
engineer with special reference to the 
preservation and planting of trees, 
shrubs, etc., so as to make the road- 
sides more pleasing to the eye. 

Maintenance of Gravel Roads. — In- 
asmuch as 50 per cent of the 6,045 
miles of the trunk line system, under 
maintenance in 1922, are gravel sur- 
faced and more than 70 per cent of 
the state roads are of the same char- 
acter, it follows that gravel road 
maintenance is of primary importance. 

On earth and gravel surfaces par- 
ticularly, the patrolman is the funda- 
mental unit upon which the whole or- 
ganization is built up. He is placed 
in charge of a section, the length of 
which depends on the character of the 
improved road and the amount and 
kind of traffic to be carried. The 
usual section is 3 to 5 miles. He is 
responsible to his superior for the 
condition of the road surface, for the 
safety of the traveling public, for the 
legibility of markers, warning and di- 
rection signs and for the general ap- 
pearance of the roadside. He should 
live near the center of his section if 
possible. The endeavor should be to 
secure and retain men who will stick 
to the job. Compensation should be 
on a monthly basis and should be 
based on results and increased with 
length of service. Work of this char- 
acter cannot be done according to rigid 
specifications laid down in advance be- 
cause of the widely varying nature 
of the soils, road surfaces and kind 
and character of traffic. It is there- 
fore very essential that the job be 
made attractive to the man who will 
be observing and resourceful as well 
as a willing worker. 

All necessary equipment should be 
furnished to the patrolman, who must 
be responsible for it while assigned to 
his section. 

The first care of the patrolman 
must be to keep the road surface as 
near perfect as possible. He should 
begin work as soon as the frost is 



coming out of the ground in the 
spring. Early in the season it is often 
advisable to supplement his efforts 
with some gang work involving the 
use of heavy graders drawn by trac- 
tors to shape the road surface at the 
time it is most easily handled. Sod 
ridges formed on the shoulders 
through the preceding summer can 
easily be removed and the true cross 
section restored. All oversize stone 
should be removed before new mate- 
rial is added. 

The early gravel roads were built 
without much regard for the size of 
stone or the sand, loam or clay con- 
tent of the material. A large amount 
of oversize makes it next to impossi- 
ble to keep a smooth surface. The 
present specifications call for a maxi- 
mum size of %-in. with 75 per cent 
retained on a screen having eight 
meshes to the linear inch. The prob- 
lem of keeping a smooth surface on 
such roads is very much simplified. 
Too large a percentage of clay has 
resulted in roads that mud up and be- 
come rutted and rough. The maxi- 
mum clay tolerance is 10 per cent and 
there must be no lumps. In pits with 
a large amount of oversize the bank 
gravel is usually crushed so as to util- 
ize all the material handled. All de- 
pressions and ruts should be kept 
filled. The gravel should be shovelled 
out of the truck or wagon unless a 
considerable amount is required when 
it can be best dumped out of an end 
dump truck. 

New material should be available 
along the roads if the source of sup- 
ply is at a considerable distance. 
Stock piles should be placed outside 
the shoulder lines and back of the 
ditches. 

Dragging Essential. — D ragging 
should be done with a patrol grader 
or truck scraper. Good results can 
be secured with mechanical power but 
care must be taken to keep the speed 
down. Teams are very satisfactory 
because the speed can be kept down 
but often are too expensive because 
they can cover only limited mileage in 
a given time. Material must be added 
as fast as it is worn away and in suf- 
ficient amounts to leave a little to be 
moved into the ruts and depressions 
as the grader moves over the road. 
Where traffic is heavy it often becomes 
necessary to drag once or even twice 
a day regardless of weather condi- 
tions. 

With an adequate patrol mainte- 
nance system in operation the crown 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



55 



should be kept from 4 to 6 in. in 24 
ft. This may be made a little higher 
as fall rains come and flattened out 
after the spring rains are over. 

Resurfacing is required periodically 
and care should be taken to use clean, 
properly prepared material, free from 
clay or loam, with a maximum size of 
^A in. or % in. The large amount of 
pleasure car traffic on our main trav- 
eled highways is making the elimina- 
tion of dust imperative. Good clean 
patching and resurfacing helps to ac- 
complish this. 

Heavy resurfacing work should be 
done early in the spring or late in the 
fall so that the traveling public will 
be as little inconvenienced as possible. 

Calcium chloride has been used with 
very good success as a dust layer both 
in the flake and the granulated form. 



Income from Long Term 
Contracts 



Methods of Reporting for Income Tax 

Purposes Described In The 

Constructor 

By E. J. BROSNAN, 

Assistant Treasurer, Associated General 
Contractors 

The construction industry presents 
some peculiar difficulties in the calcu- 
lation of net income from contracts 
extending over a period of more than 
one year. 

While the Treasury Department 
permits the filing of income tax re- 
turns in accordance with the account- 
ing methods employed by taxpayers, 
provided such method clearly reflects 
the net income, in the case of con- 
tractors whose income is largely de- 
rived from contracts extending over a 
period of years, it goes a little further 
and suggests other methods for re- 
porting net income which is optional 
on the part of the contracts to follow. 

Two Suggested Methods. — The sug- 
g<?sted methods for the determination 
of income from long-term contracts, 
are as follows: 

a. On the basis of percentage of 
completion. 

b. Income may be reported in the 
year in which the contract is finally 
completed. 

If a taxpayer decides to file his re- 
turn on the basis of percentage of 
completion there should accompany 
the return certificates of architects or 
engineers showing the percentage of 
completion during the taxable year, of 
the entire work to be performed under 



the contract. Deduction from the 
gross income thus determined should 
be made of all expenditures made 
during the taxable year in connection 
with the contract, including reason- 
able allowances for depreciation and 
other losses on machinery and equip- 
ment. 

Adjustments should be made on ac- 
count of nny materials or supplies re- 
maining on hand at the beginning and 
end of the taxable period for use in 
connection with the contract. 

If, after the contract is completed 
and it is found that the net income 
has not been clearly reflected for any 
one year or years, it is permissible to 
amend the returns so as to show the 
correct income accruing from the con- 
tract. The Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue may, if in his opinion the net 
income is not clearly reflected under 
this method, requir that amended re- 
turns be filed. 

The above method is probably the 
most complicated and one that would 
require many supporting statements 
and a great deal of correspondence 
with the Treasury Department, which 
it is desirable to avoid. The other 
method suggested by Regulation 62. 
on the completed contract basis, is 
probably the most logical to follow. 

Completed Contract Method. — The 
completed contract method provides 
for the reporting of income only after 
the completion and acceptance of the 
contract. Contractors are advised to 
choose this method for filing their re- 
turn of net income, for it is the most 
accurate and precludes the mistakes 
incident to filing on a percentage of 
completion basis. At best, the income 
thus reported would have to be esti- 
mated, resulting in later adjustments 
either by request of the Treasury De- 
partment or voluntarily by the tax- 
payer in case the estimated income is 
found to be incorrect. 

On the completed contract basis, a 
return of income is not made until all 
work has been completed. This affords 
the taxpayer ample time to make all 
the necessary adjustments in his ac- 
counts, to include all expenditures 
made at any time, in connection with 
the particular contract, and to arrive 
at an accurate profit or loss arising 
from the contract. 

The regulations on the subject re- 
quire the deduction from gross income 
of all expenditures made in connection 
with the contract, adjustment being 
necessary for any materials and sup- 
plies originally charged against the 



56 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



contract but remaining on hand at the 
time of completion. 

An Example. — A question which 
should be of interest to contractors 
has arisen in connection with a case 
in which the writer is interested. A 
contractor engaged on a State con- 
tract expending over a period of three 
years, finished the physical work in 
the fall of 1918. A final estimate was 
not received, however, until 1919. The 
taxpayer in question, having elected 
to file his return on a completed-con- 
tract basis, contends that the contract 
was not completed until the work had 
been approved and a final estimate 
made by the State Engineer. In this 
particular case it would appear that 
the terms of the contract and the 
method of bookkeeping employed by 
the taxpayer would be the determin- 
ing factors. Assuming that there was 
no provision in the contract as to the 
final approval of the work, and the 
taxpayer, following a consistent prac- 
tice of keeping his books on an annual 
basis, had set up as an accounts re- 
ceivable, the amount of the contract 
then, in accordance with Office Deci- 
sion 6B, quoted below, the income 
would be taxable in the year in which 
the book entry was made. 

Office Decision No. 1147, dealing 
with this subject, reads as follows: 

"A taxpayer, reporting income on 
the completed contract basis, who 
keeps his books of account on an an- 
nual basis, and who, upon completion 
of the contract extending over a term 
of years, receives a part payment 
called for therein, the balance being 
represented by an accounts receivable, 
should return the full amount of the 
contract price as income for the year 
in which the contract was completed." 

No decision has as yet been ren- 
dered by the Bureau of Internal Rev- 
enue in the case cited above, and a de- 
cision in favor of the taxpayer should 
be of vital interest to contractors on 
account of the reduction in the rates 
of tax in the year 1919. 

Any contractor who has previously 
filed his return in accordance with his 
method of bookkeeping may change to 
either of the methods above outlined. 
In case a change is made, the Govern- 
ment requires a statement showing 
the composition of all items appearing 
upon his balance sheet and used in 
connection with the method of ac- 
counting formerly employed by him. 

Warrants. — In some localities it is 
the practice to issue warrants in pay- 
ment of work performed on contracts 
with cities, towns, etc. In such cases. 



the regulations provide that the fair 
market value of such contracts should 
be returned as income. If, however, 
upon conversion of the warrants into 
cash the value thus returned is not 
realized, a deduction of the difference 
is permissible from the gross income 
for the year in which the warrants 
were converted into cash. In case a 
greater amount is realized, such 
amount should be included as income 
for that year. 



Concrete Road Surfacing by 
"Rhoubenite" Process 



Experiences in Belguim Described in 
Paper Presented May 9 at 4th In- 
ternational Road Congress, 
Seville, Spain 

By MESSRS. CLAEYS, GOORIECKY 
and MULHEN 

Ingenicurs Principaux des Fonts et Chausees, 
Belgium 

The inventor of Rho'i^ ^' -^ '■ 
deavored principally to arrive as a 
better impermeability. For quick set- 
ting cement the contraction produces 
the formation of pores and voids, 
w^hich, although small, however allow 
the humidity to penetrate. Water in 
the interior prevents the free expan- 
sion and contraction of the concrete 
and if it freezes it breaks the cohesion 
of the cement and causes cracks and 
crevices. In order to obtain imper- 
meability, a coat of cement or tar 
could be applied, but if the traffic is 
heavy it would deteriorate rapidly 
without counting that it would con- 
stitute a very costly element for this 
kind of surfacing which is already 
very high priced. With a view to 
finding this impermeability the inven- 
tor of Rhoubenite adds to the con- 
crete very fine sawdust chemically 
neutral but compressible and of a con- 
siderable power of absorption, to 
which a tarred mixture is added, the 
impermeability of which is carefully 
studied. 

It results from laboratory tests, 
which practice has proved that the re- 
sistance to compression of Rhoubenite 
concrete is sensibly equal to that of 
ordinary concrete of the same propor- 
tions and consequently, it appears 
proven that Rhoubenite powder does 
not provoke chemical reactions which 
would oppose the setting. This prop- 
erty it seems may be explained in the 
following way: at the moment when 
the powder is incorporated with the 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



57 



concrete and during the first period of 
setting, the tarred product remains 
impregnated in the sawdust and does 
not inten-ene in the setting. Later 
the tarred product, under the action 
of expansion and contraction partially 
excedes the sawdust and fills the pores 
which were produced by the evapora- 
tion of the water and the completion 
of the setting, what is more, the saw- 
dust acts as an elastic body in the 
concrete. 

By using Rhoubenite powder, mix- 
ing it well, satisfactory impermeabil- 
ity is attained and the tendency to the 
formation of cracks is considerably 
reduced. The rolling of the sawdust 
is not to be feared because it is com- 
pressed in the mass, sheltered from 
the inclemencies of the weather and 
saturated as it is with tar. 

Rhoubenite Powder. — The exact 
proportion of the elements and the 
mixing temperatures are the secrets 
of the inventor. 

The powder has the property of not 
agglomerating, even if it rests for a 
long time in heaps. With time it not 
only does not lose its qualities but it 
improves. 

Making the Concrete and Execution 
of the Rhoubenite Surfacing. — The 
proportions are: 



Gravel 


. _ . 1.100 dcm*. 


Sand or dost 


450 dcm'. 


Cement 


._ .. 400 kgs. 


Rhoubenite powder .. 


60 liters. 



The quantity of water is approxi- 
mately 160 liters; an excess of water 
should be avoided, as this might pro- 
duce voids in the mass w^hen evapo- 
rating. The mixture is made in con- 
crete mixers, taking the precaution 
not to add the Rhoubenite powder be- 
fore the concrete is thoroughly mixed. 
The old macadam having been picked 
and rolled the concrete is spread on a 
thickness of 12 cm., so that after 
ramming it preserves a thickness of 
10 cm. The ramming is carried out 
by means of square iron rammers or 
■with a light roller, preferably of the 
tandem type with 5-ton wheels, exer- 
cising a pressure of 20 kilos per cm' 
of width of rim. 

Traffic must be stopped during two 
or three weeks. 

Interruption Joints in the Work. — 

The junction of the fresh concrete 
with the hard concrete of the day be- 
fore was made during the first appli- 
cations at right angles to the axis of 



the road. These joints by reason of 
the setting constitute weak points and 
because of alternate periods of dry 
and damp weather and more espe- 
cially because of frost the form hol- 
lows very trying for the traffic. By 
making these joints obliquely it is 
easier for the traffic but the real dif- 
ficulty is not overcome. The authors 
of this paper think that a good result 
"would be obtained by making provi- 
sional joints formed by a line of 
bricks or wooden blocks until the def- 
inite setting of the concrete, and then 
taking them away and filling the 
space \\ith Rhoubenite rich in cement 
or with asphaltic mixtures. 

Crevices. — Although Rhoubenite 
possesses properties of elasticity su- 
perior to those of ordinary concrete, it 
is not, however, possible to prevent 
certain stresses from arising which 
localize and give rise to tensions sur- 
passing the elastic limit. Thus crevices 
are produced, fairly rare during the 
first applications of the system, Mr. 
Mulhen's opinion being that as the 
execution of the work was carried out 
on sections very slightly longer than 
the width of the roadway, the inter- 
ruption joints had the effect of local- 
izing the contraction stresses due to 
the setting. The methods of rapid 
construction haWng been improved 
the length of the day's w^ork is con- 
siderable and the crevices are much 
more frequent and because of this 
provisional joints have been used al- 
ways with the object of preventing 
the formation of cracks. 

Repairs. — Besides the joints and the 
cracks which constitute the weak 
points, disaggregations are produced 
resulting sometimes from the pres- 
ence in the gravel of soft or porous 
elements, sometimes from accidental 
defects in the mixing of the concrete 
or again the dilution of the Rhou- 
benite recently placed by sudden rain, 
or else by the setting being upset by 
a sudden frost. The disaggregations 
are more important when the gravel 
is calcareous; they are also important 
when it is sandy by reason of its lack 
of homogeneity. Consequently a hard, 
not porous and homogeneous gravel 
should be chosen. 

The repairs of the cracks like those 
of hollows must be carried out by cut- 
tine the surface on the whole of its 
thickness, trimming and cleaning the 
old concrete before filling in with thp 
fresh concrete, which should be well 
rammed. 



58 



Roads and Streets 



July, 



Standard Tests for Non-Bi- 
tuminous Material 

In its report submitted at the an- 
nual convention of the American So- 
ciety for Municipal Improvements, 
the committee on "Standard Tests for 
Non-Bituminous Materials," of which 
Prof. Arthur H. Blanchard is chair- 
man, recommended that the society 
adopt the following fifteen methods 
of testing, as standards of the So- 
ciety: 

Apparent specific gravity of sand, 
stone and slag screenings, and other 
fine non-bituminous highway mate- 
rials, as described in the Am. Soc. 
Test. Mat., 1921 Standards, pages 715- 
718, and designated D 55-19. 

Apparent specific gravity of coarse 
aggregates, as described in the Am. 
Soc. Test. Mat., 1921 Standards, pages 
713, 714, and designated D 30-18. 

Mechanical analysis of sand or other 
fine highway material, as described in 
the Am. Sos. Test. Mat, 1921 Stand- 
ards, pages 721, 722, and designated D 
7-18. 

Mechanical analysis of mixture of 
sand or other fine material with brok- 
en stone or broken slag, as described 
in the Am. Soc. Test. Mat, 1921 Stand- 
ards, page 724, and designated D 19-16. 

Mechanical analysis of broken stone 
or broken slag, as described in the Am. 
Soc. Test. Mat., 1921 Standards, page 
723, and designated D 18-16. 

Abrasion of road material, as de- 
scribed in the Am. Soc. Test. Mat., 
1921 Standards, page 710, and desig- 
nated D 2-08. 

Toughness of rock, as described in 
the Am. Soc. Test Mat, 1921 Stand- 
ard, pages 711, 712, and designated D 
3-18. 

Crushing strength of rock or slag, 
as described in the Am. Soc. C. E. 
Trans., Vol. 82, 1918, page 1442. 

Cementation of rock, slag, and grav- 
el powders, as described in the Am. 
Soc: C. B. Trans., Vol. 82, 1918, pages 
1441, 1442. 

Quantity of clay and silt in gravel 
for highway construction, as described 
in the Am. Soc. Test Mat, 1921 Stan- 
dards, page 719, and designated D 72- 
21. 

Organic impurities In sands for ce- 
ment concrete, as described in the 
1921 Report Com. C-9, Am. Soc. Test 
Mat., page 12, and designated C 40- 
21 T. 

Tests for Portland cement, as de- 
scribed in the Am. Soc. Test. Mat., 



1921 Standards, pages 530-547, and des- 
ignated C 9-21. 

Compression test of cement con- 
crete, as described in the 1921 Report, 
Com. C-9, Am. Soc. Test. Mat, pages 
6-11, and designated C 39-21 T. 

Paving brick rattler test, as de- 
scribed in the Am Soc. Test. Mat., 

1921 Standards, pages 567-574, and 
designated C 7-15. 

Absorption of water by wood blocks 
after treatment, as described in the 
Am. Soc. C. E. Trans., Vol. 82, 1918, 
page 1447. 

The Committee also recommended 
that the Society tentatively adopt, un- 
til the 1923 Convention, the following 
methods of testing: 

Decantation test for sand and other 
fine aggregates, as described in the 

1922 Annual Report of Committee D-4, 
Am. Soc. Test. Mat., and designated 
D 136-22 T. 

Consistency of Portland cement con- 
crete for pavements or for pavement 
base, as described in the 1922 Annual 
Report of Committee D-4, Am. Soc. 
Test Mat., and designated D 138- 
22 T. 

Sampling stone, slag, gravel, sand 
and stone block for use as highway 
materials, as described in the Am. 
Soc. Test. Mat., Proc. Vol. XX, Part 
I, 1920, pages 789 to 795, and desig- 
nated D 75-20 T. 

Mechanical analysis of subgrade 
soils, as described in the 1922 Annual 
Report of Committee D-4, Am. Soc. 
Test Mat., and designated D 137-22 T. 



Trade Publications 

Tractor Operations. — A portfolio of snap 
shots sliowing Tioga tractors at work on jobs 
of various kinds has been issued by The Tioga 
Tractor Co., Arlington, Baltimore, Md. The 
illustrations show the tractors on excavating 
jobs, in road grading and special hauling jobs. 
Some interesting hitchups are shown. 

Paving Mixers. — A 48 page catalog devoted 
to description and illustrations of Koehring 
heavy duty pavers has been published by the 
Koehring Co., Milwaukee, Wis. The catalog 
describes the various features of mixers and 
gives their specifications. It includes photo- 
graphs of interesting construction operations 
on which the mixers are being used. 

Road Building and Earth Handling Ma- 
chinery. —The Russell Grader Mfg. Co., Minne- 
apolis, Minn., has issued a 64 page catalog 
illustrating and describing its line of road 
building and earth handling machinery, in- 
cluding road machines, scrapers,_ elevating 
graders, conveyors, culverts, drag lines, crush- 
ers, screens, gravel equipment, etc., etc. 

Mixers, Trenchers, Bucket Elevators, Etc. — 
A condensed catalog of the Austin Line of 
construction equipment has been issued by the 
Austin Machinery Corp., Toledo. O. It in- 
cludes, illustrations and concise description of 
mixers, trenching machines, road tamper, 
asphalt plant, back filler, wagon loader, crane- 
shovel, and drag lines. Operating data and 
dimensions of each machine are given. 



Water Works 

MONTHLY ISSUE OF 

ENGINEERING AND CONTRACTING 

Published by Engineering & Contracting Publishing Co. 
221 East 20th St., Chicago 

Halbekt p. Gillette, President and Editor 

Lewis S. Loueb, Vice-President and General Manager 

New York Office: 904 Longacre Bldg., 42d St. and Broadway 

RiCHASD £. Bkown, Eastern Manager 

The specialized publishing plan of Engineering and Contracting provides 
four rotating monthly magazines, each of which is $1 a year. All four 
may be subscribed for at $4 a year, and thus taken they provide a weekly 
service completely covering the construction field. 

Roads and Streets — 1st Wednesday, 91 Railways — 3rd Wednesday, $1 

(a) Road Con- (c) Streets (a) Steam Rail- (b) Electric Rail- 
Etraction (d) Street clean- way Ck>nstrac- way Constmc- 

(b) Road Main- ingr tion and tion and 
tenance Maintenance Maintenance 



Water Works— 2nd Wednesday, tl 

(a) Water Works (c) Sewers and 

(b) Irrieration and Sanitation 
Drainage (d) Waterways 



Baildincs — tth Wednesday. $1 

(a) Boildinsn (d) Miscellaneoos 

(b) Bridges Stractures 

(c) Harbor Structures 



Copyright, 1923, by the Engineering and Contracting Publishing Cmapaay 



Vol. LX. 



CHICAGO, ILL., JULY 11, 1923 



No.l 



"Why Not Meter Air?" 
Asks AW. Byrne 

At last the leading newspapers of 
Chicago have begun advocating the 
metering of all water consumers. 
The mayor has advised this action, 
and Alderman Eaton has introduced 
a motion to effect city-wide installa- 
tion of water meters. Whereupon 
up rises Alderman Byrne to protest 
in behalf of his constituents, and 
thus he speaks: 

"Where is all this going to stop? 
Aid. Eaton (Fifth ward, who spon- 
sored the motion) comes from a gold 
coast ward where every family has 
its icebox. In my ward we don't and 
can't have iceboxes because we're too 
poor. Are you going to stop the 
kiddies from having a drink of water 
or keep the poor mother from cooling 
her food in this hot weather. 

"You've taken away our beer and 
now you want to take away even 
our drinking water. You've got the 
biggest lake in this part of the coun- 
try right at your door and yet you 



want to meter it. You might as well 
meter the air." 

To which last thrust the Chicago 
Evening Post replies that it would 
be wise to meter the air if it were 
as expensive as water. Uninten- 
tionally, perhaps, Aid. Byrne gives 
a clue to the cause of much of the 
water waste when he says "we can't 
have ice boxes because we're too 
poor," for it is the practice of many 
water consumers to keep the faucets 
open continuously in the summer in 
order to get cold water. But if the 
taxpayers wish to furnish cold water 
to those who can not afford to buy 
ice, it will be found cheaper to fur- 
nish free ice to that part of the 
population than to continue the gen- 
eral waste of water. 

Alderman Byrne does not oppose 
metering gas, yet Chicago has huge 
coal deposits almost at its door. He 
realizes that it costs money to mine,> 
transport and deliver coal, not to 
mention manufacturing it into gas 
and piping it to consumers. He 
evidently does not realize that it 
costs a huge sum of money to pump 
and transport water to consumers. 



60 



Water Works 



Juh 



Every Town Should 
Chlorinate Its Water 

There are 2,800 cities in America 
having a population of 2,500 or more, 
and 7,500 having a population of 1,000 
or more. The total number of incor- 
porated towns is 13,000. Before these 
figures are considered it is impres- 
sive to read that there are 2,000 
chlorinating machines in use in Amer- 
ica, but since every incorporated 
town should chlorinate its water to 
prevent typhoid it is evident that 
chlorination is only just beginning to 
receive adequate recognition. 

In an article entitled "Official Man- 
slaughter" the reader will find refer- 
ence to a recent court decision holding 
a city liable for damages because of 
typhoid infection caused by the use 
of "raw water." A few more such 
salutary decisions may hasten the day 
when every water supply is chlo- 
rinated. The cost of chlorination is 
nominal, and there is no valid excuse 
for failure to use this precaution 
against typhoid. 



Politics in Government 
Engineering 

Editorial In Chicago Journal of Commerce 

The dismissal of Arthur P. Davis, 
director of the United States reclama- 
tion service, is discouraging to busi- 
ness men, to friends of reclamation 
and conservation and to all ac- 
quainted with the facts involved, 
except, of course, the politicians who 
engineered that dismissal. 

Mr. Davis has served the Govern- 
ment faithfully for 40 years. He has 
achieved a world-wide reputation as 
an engineer. He has worked for a 
pittance and for the love of the work 
— encouraged in no small degree, of 
course, by the fact that his has been a 
civil service position and its perma- 
nency unquestioned. The problems of 
his department are entirely engineer- 
ing problems and its work is done 
solely by engineers. 

Some indefinite and intangible force 
suggested the appointment to the 
place of a country banker from Idaho, 
a man who had once been governor 
of his State, who undoubtedly is an 
estimable gentleman, but whose train- 
ing and experience no more qualify 
him to succeed Arthur P. Davis than 
they do to understudy for Muratore. 

Mr. Davis could not be discharged, 
so resort was had to the device of 



abolishing his position. Appropria 
tion for and legal designation of z 
director of the United States reclama- 
tion service was discontinued and the 
title of commissioner was substituted 
The gentleman from Idaho was ap- 
pointed to fill the place. 

Humiliating as the incident must be 
to Mr. Davis, it is a blessing to him, 
He has now lost all his illusions and 
is free to enter the larger field of a 
consulting practice for corporate 
clients who will pay him many times 
the meager salary provided by the 
Government. It is, however, a de- 
structive blow at Government service. 
It undermines confidence and removes 
the incentive that has inspired thou- 
sands of technical men to remain true 
to their ideals and give their best to 
government service for beggarly 
salaries. 

It is too late for President Harding 
to correct this particular blunder. It 
is highly probable that he knew noth- 
ing of the change and that, had he 
known of it, he would have counselled 
against or forbidden it. It is not his 
manner of doing business. He can, 
however, send his Cabinet members 
and department heads a brief message 
that will forefend against a repetition 
of the incident. 



Metering Chicago's Water 
Supply 

Editorial in Chicago Evening Post 

Aid. Byrne voiced the reaction of 
the unthinking when he rose to pro- 
test indignantly against the proposal 
to meter water in Chicago. "Why 
not meter air?" he asked, with the 
obvious rhetorical appeal. 

Probably if air had to be pumped 
through mains and pipes into every 
house, apartment and business build- 
ing in the city, we would find it nec- 
essary to meter it in order to insure 
everybody at all times a sufficient 
supply at a fair cost. We may be 
thankful that is not necessary. Each 
human being is his own pumping sta- 
tion for air, and can make direct 
connection with the source of supply. 

A parallel between water and air 
does not exist. 

Let Aid. Byrne and colleagues of 
like prejudice do their constituents 
the justice of giving a little thought 
to this problem. It may require more 
effort, but it will serve better the in- 
terests of the men and women who 



1923 



Water Works 



61 



voted for them than mere indulgence 
in oratory. 

The experience of big cities in 
which the meter system has been 
adopted shows that the result is not 
limitation of use, but limitation of 
waste; not increase of cost to the con- 
sumer, but reduction of cost to con- 
sumers and taxpayers. 

Faucets carelessly left running, 
neglected leaks in plumbing and 
mains, loss through friction induced 
by the necessity of attempting to 
force through the mains a larger vol- 
ume of water than they can properly 
carry, are all occasions of waste 
which rvms into immense sums of 
money coming out of the pockets of 
the people. 

The Chicago bureau of public effi- 
ciency, in an exhaustive report com- 
piled in 1917, showed that under ef- 
fective control, such as may be 
obtained through metering, a reduc- 
tion could be effected in ten years' 
time from the 1916 pumpage of 645,- 
000,000 gals, a day to 425,000,000 
gals, a day. In other words our 
waste, as estimated then, was 220,- 
000,000 gals, a day, or more than one- 
third of the total pumpage. One-third 
of what Chicago was paying for 
pumpage was being paid for water 
nobody was using. 

This proportion holds good today. 
_ The point that needs to be empha- 
sized is that metering is not intended 
to reduce the quantity of water ac- 
tually used, but to eliminate the 
expense of constructing, enlarging, 
maintaining and operating plants to 
supply the more than one-third which 
is wasted. 

_ Many Chicago neighborhoods expe- 
rience the annoyance of low water 
pressure. It is not only an annoy- 
ance; it is a peril. In case of fire it 
is likely to result in disaster. 

This low pressure, which gives but 
a trickle on floors above the first, is 
not due to lack of supplv. As Aid. 
Byrne says, "There is Lake Mich- 
igan!" It is not due, primarily, to in- 
adequate equipment. It is due to 
waste. It is due to the fact that an 
equipment which would be adequate 
to maintain all needed pressure at a 
pumpage of 425,000,000 gals., is un- 
able to pump efficiently the extra 
220,000,000 gals, which are wasted. 

If this waste is not eliminated more 
pumping stations, cribs, tunnels and 
like equipment must be provided in 
order to get the pressure which is nec- 



essary for satisfactory service and 
for the safety of property. That 
means immense expenditure which 
must be paid for out of rates and 
taxes. 

Chicago must choose between con- 
sei-vation and waste. 

Conservation means having all you 
need when you need it, and paying 
only for what you use. 

Waste means the mere enjoyment 
of the liberty to be thriftless, with 
the inconvenience and peril of low 
pressure, and the high cost of paying 
for the hundreds 'of millions of gal- 
lons which merely drip, trickle and 
run away. 

This is the real issue. Intelligent 
aldermen will discuss it; intelligent 
citizens ^vill support such aldermen. 

Mayor Dever is to be thanked and 
congratulated upon putting the ques- 
tion squarely up to Chicago. 



Official Manslaughter 

Editorial in The Canadian Engineer 

Failure of municipal officials to 
safeguard their water supply may re- 
sult in civil suit for negligence, now 
that a California case establishes 
precedent for such legal actions. 

In June and July, 1920, there were 
about 150 cases of typhoid fever in 
Pittsburgh, Calif. Investigation es- 
tablished the fact that due to lack of 
a stock of liquid chlorine, the water 
supply from the Sacramento River 
was pumped into the mains for at 
least one day without being sterilized, 
and an epidemic followed. Eighteen 
of the typhoid victims pooled their 
interests and sued the city for dam- 
ages, accusing the officials of neglect 
in failing to take reasonable precau- 
tions to purify the water supply. Tlie 
plaintiffs were awarded $32,821, the 
largest individual amount being 
$12,500. 

There will undoubtedly be an in- 
creasing number of successful dam- 
age suits of this nature against mu- 
nicipal officials and water companies. 
In cases where the supply is common- 
ly known to be of a dangerous or 
potentially dangerous character, and 
where the danger has been called to 
official attention, it would seem that 
not only civil suits but even suits for 
criminal negligence would be well 
founded. Surely the official who 
knowingly permits a questionable 
water supply to be served to a com- 
munity, without having taken every 



62 



Water Works 



July 



possible step to remove danger of 
death from typhoid, is just as crim- 
inal in his negligence as is ';he reck- 
less motor driver who is jailed for 
manslaughter. 

Engineers Protest Removal of 

Davis as Director of U. S. 

Reclamation Service 

Engineers are protesting strongly 
against the removal of Arthur P. 
Davis as Director of the U. S. Rec- 
lamation Service. . Secretary Work's 
action is characterized as prejudicial 
to the public interest, and the Secre- 
tary is described as pursuing a dan- 
gerous course. 

The Federated American Engineer- 
ing Societies have raised formal and 
vigorous objection to the displace- 
ment of Director Davis. The posi- 
tion of the federation is explained 
in the following statement by Execu- 
tive Secretary L. W. Wallace: 

"The Federated American Engi- 
neering Societies has a membership 
of 28 engineering societies. They 
are local, state and national in scope 
and have headquarters in 24 cities 
of the United States. The combined 
membership of these 28 societies is 
50,000 engineers. The engineers 
represented through the 28 societies 
formed the Federated American En- 
gineering Societies in order that they 
might have an agency through which 
to give expression to the views of 
engineers regarding the public ques- 
tions of an engineering aspect. 

"The sole purpose for which the 
organization was formed is that of 
enabling engineers of the United 
States to render an essential public 
service. Its reports on 'Waste in 
Industry' and 'The Twelve-Hour 
Shift in American Industry' are ex- 
pressions of the way in which the 
organization has been functioning in 
the interest of the public. It has 
also functioned in relation to certain 
national legislation and activities of 
Governmental bureaus, all of which 
has been done for the sole purpose 
of being of service to the American 
public. 

"The recent change made in the 
Director of the Reclamation Service, 
therefore, comes within the purview 
of this organization and many other 
engineering and technical groups. 
The officers of the Federated Ameri- 
can Engineering Societies, as well as 
the officers and members of many 



engineering and technical groups, 
are much concerned with the recent 
announcement relative to the dis- 
placement of the Director of the 
Reclamation Service and appointing 
in his stead a man who apparently 
is not technically trained and fitted 
to direct an important technical 
service of the Government. 

"This procedure is looked upon 
with grave concern by the engineers 
and technical men of the United 
States, because such summary action 
as discharging an eminently success- 
ful employee after 35 years of serv- 
ice without a hearing or adequate 
explanation, and with a request to 
hand in his resignation to take effect 
within two weeks will undermine the 
morale of all the technical agencies 
of the Government and may lead the 
most competent men to more readily 
accept of engagements with commer- 
cial and industrial agencies, thus 
interfering with the efficient opera- 
tion of the technical bureaus of the 
Government. 

"If it is true, as has been reported, 
that certain Governmental officials 
believe that a man not technically 
trained and fitted is more competent 
to direct a technical bureau than one 
so trained is correct, then, indeed, 
such action as has taken place 
regarding the Reclamation Service 
might be reasonably expected to 
occur in other technical branches of 
the service, such as the Bureau of 
Mines, the Bureau of Standards and 
the Geological Survey as examples. 
"Members of engineering and tech- 
nical bodies are not willing to believe 
that such policy is a wise one and 
is in the best interest of the Ameri- 
can people. Many technical directors 
of large works both within and with- 
out the Government Service, have 
ably directed such projects both from 
a business point of view as well as 
from a technical one. 

"One of the marked tendencies in 
recent years has been the placing of 
technical men in charge of large 
industries and commercial enter- 
prises. The managing directors or 
presidents of many large public 
utility companies, railways and in- 
dustrial organizations are technically 
trained men. Therefore, the step 
taken in connection with the Recla- 
mation Service is contrary to the 
policy of many industrial organiza- 
tions. 
"Because of the far-reaching re- 



1923 



Water Works 



63 



suits that might ensue and because 
of the seriousness of the situation, 
the organized engineers and techni- 
cal men of the United States are 
preparing to make a thorough search 
into the considerations that led to 
the action taken in regard to the 
Reclamation Service. The American 
Society of Civil Engineers has ap- 
pointed a special committee to 
investigate the matter. The Public 
Affairs Committee of the Federated 
American Engineering Societies, of 
which J. Parke Channing of New 
York is chairman, has already ad- 
dressed a letter of inquiry to the 
Secretary of the Interior concerning 
the action. 

"This is being done not from the 
standpoint of questioning the right 
of a Governmental official to dis- 
charge anyone that he may elect, but 
from the point of view of the wis- 
dom of the announced policy that a 
technical bureau can be more effect- 
ively directed by a man not techni- 
cally trained and fitted in compari- 
son with one so technically trained 
and fitted. 

"The work of the Reclamation 
Service is essentially engineering and 
technical. There are business as- 
pects, to be true, but so far as is 
known there has been no criticism 
of the business direction of the 
Service, other than perhaps by cer- 
tain interests in the West who have 
endeavored to secure a reduction in 
or have endeavored to repudiate pay- 
ments for reclaimed lands purchased. 
"Should this demand prevail, the 
fundamental principle of the enabling 
act will be displaced and the revolv- 
ing fund for the continuation of the 
work will be dissipated, so that other 
needed projects cannot be carried out 
unless there be additional drains 
upon the Treasury of the United 
States. Furthermore, should such 
an eventuality ensue public confi- 
dence in the integrity of the direc- 
tion of such work would be so 
shaken as to make it difficult to 
secure appropriations from Congress 
to extend the work of reclaiming the 
arid lands of the West. 

"In the main, the support for such 
has come from the West, but should 
there be a question as to the wisdom 
with which the projects are selected 
and executed then it is entirely prob- 
able that the West would not receive 
support from other sections of the 
country. Therefore, not only is the 



morale of the technical service at 
issue, but also the larger thing, per- 
haps reclamation itself. 

"It is these considerations that are 
causing organized engineers and 
technical men to make a thorough 
study of the situation. Undoubtedly 
pronouncements will be forthcoming 
as the result of such study. The 
evident interest and concern among 
engineers and technical men regard- 
ing this situation, as well as their 
views, may be gleaned from the 
strong editorials that have and are 
appearing in the technical publica- 
tions regarding it." 



Iodine Treatment of Water to 
Prevent Goitre 



Plan of Rochester, N. Y., Described in 

Paper Presented May 23 at Annual 

Convention of American Water 

Works Association 

By BEEKMAN C. LITTLE 

Superintendent of Water Works, Rochester, 
N. Y. 

The Water Bureau and Health Bu- 
reau of Rochester, working together, 
believe they have evolved a plan for 
successfully treating and preventing 
goitre. With great emphasis on the 
latter, for prevention is the high ideal 
we seek. 

The Disease. — The extent to which 
goitre prevails is seldom appreciated. 
In the entire world there are but few 
countries free from goitre districts, 
and sporadic cases of goitre exist in 
every section and in every nationality 
in the world. In North America, 
goitre is endemic, that is, especially 
and continually prevalent, in the 
whole of the Great Lakes region and 
in the basin of the St. Lawrence and 
in the Northwest Pacific region. 

The seriousness of the disease itself 
can be learned with but little investi- 
gation. There is an emphasized rela- 
tion between goitre and cretinism or 
idiocy, marked by physical deformity 
and degeneracy. Statistics are not 
always reliable, but it is safe to say, 
for instance, that in this region along 
the Great Lakes, here in Detroit or 
in Rochester, that seven out of every 
hundred school children are afflicted 
with goitre, and further, it is con- 
servative to say, that a large propor- 
tion of all the women consulting 
physicians, have the disease. 

Iodine Treatment. — Now, iodine is 
a natural constituent of the normal 



64 



Water Works 



July 



thyroid gland. It is essential to nor- 
mal thyroid activity. The amount of 
iodine required is exceedingly small, 
but when this amount is absent, the 
thyroid gland seeks by increase in 
size and surface to make up for this 
lack in iodine, and goitre is the result. 
In fact, goitre has been described as 
an adaptation to "Iodine-deficient" 
nutrition. It follows therefore that 
the treatment for goitre now pretty 
generally practiced is the giving of 
very small dosages of iodine. An 
accredited prescription is: 1/10,000 
of a gram of iodine taken daily over 
a period of 15 or 20 days. This given 
twice a year, once in the spring and 
repeated again in the fall. 

A recent study from the laboratory 
of the University of Minnesota, by 
Dr. J. F. McClendon, shows very 
clearly the inverse ratio between the 
amount of iodine in surface water 
and the distribution of goitre. In the 
neighborhood of the sea, the air and 
water contain very much more iodine 
than in inland places, and these places 
distant from the sea, have the goitres. 

Now, what we propose to do is 
really very simple, namely, to intro- 
duce into our drinking water a very 
minute quantity of iodine and thus 
bring to the human system and the 
thyroid gland, that which it needs, 
and otherwise lacks, to function prop- 
erly. 

This idea of dosing every one willy- 
nilly is startling, but not unknown, 
so that it is not altogether revolution- 
ary. For instance, in Switzerland, 
where goitre is very prevalent, it was 
decided last February in one canton, 
to incorporate a small amount of 
iodine in all the table salt used. All 
civilized persons take daily, a certain 
quantity of salt, and as it is inexpen- 
sive, and the Swiss Government can 
control this article of food, it seemed 
to be the proper carrier for the iodine. 
This way of doing it — even if it were 
possible in this country, does not seem 
to contain, however, the advantages 
that does the water supply method. 

The Rochester Plan. — In the rec- 
ommendation of our plan in Roches- 
ter, Dr. Goler, the Health Officer, 
makes, among other, the following 
points: 

"1 — We always have in Rochester, 
among our children, more than 2,000 
cases of preventable goitre. 

"2 — We have so much simple goitre 
because of the absence of minute 



quantities of iodine in our food and 
drink. 

"3 — We may prevent this goitre by 
the addition of minute quantities of 
iodine to the drinking water 2/10,000 
of a gram to a gallon, in the form of 
iodide of soda. 

"4 — Iodine seems to be required by 
the body and it is when taken into 
the body in these minute quantities — 
fixed by the thyroid gland and so pre- 
vents its enlargement, and consequent 
goitre. 

"5 — If we put iodine in the water, 
it will only be necessary to dose the 
water twice a year, for two weeks. 
This would require daily 13.3 lbs. of 
Iodide of Soda for two weeks, or 372 
lbs. at $4.80 per lb., or $1,785 a year. 

"6 — Goitres of course, we only get 
after they have developed. We 
should like to prevent them. To pre- 
vent these goitres would cost less 
than $2,000 a year. The addition of 
this minute quantity of iodine would 
also affect favorably, young persons 
already having goitres. It would not 
affect that form of goitre known as 
'Graves Disease' or exophalmic goi- 
tre. It would not affect the older 
goitres." 

The water bureau has already 
started this treatment of the water. 
At one of our reservoirs, from which 
is drawn all of the water entering the 
city mains, we have dissolved daily — 
for a period of two weeks — 16 lbs. of 
Iodide of Soda, a slightly greater 
amount than first suggested. 

Our consumption of water during 
this period was approximately 25 mil- 
lion gallons per day. In the labora- 
tory of the Health Bureau and 
checked up by chemists in the Univer- 
sity of Rochester laboratory, close 
track was kept, and it was found that 
the Iodine content in the water in- 
creased from one part in a billion 
parts of water before the experiment, 
to twenty parts in a billion. Next 
fall the dose will probably be in- 
creased, as it is planned to get about 
50 parts of iodine to one billion parts 
of water. 

Such a water, prevailing for two or 
three weeks, twice a year, will it is 
calculated, give to those drinking of 
it freely, approximately the necessary 
addition of iodine needed to close the 
story of simple goitre in Rochester 
and perhaps from this point, its ex- 
tinction even throughout the world 
will begin — Who knows? 



1923 Water Works 65 

Water Works and Sewer Contracts Awarded 
During the Last 41 Months 

The accompanying tables show: each year shows a gain over its prede- 

First, that the waterworks and sewer cessor in the volume of contracts 

contracts awarded during the last half awarded in this "hydraulic field." 
of each year exceed in volume those 

awarded during the first half; second, The volume of irrigation and drain- 
that there is not a month in the year age contracts will surprise any one 
without a very large volume of water- who has not followed closely statistics 
works and sewer contracts; third, that of this sort. 

WATERWORKS CONTRACTS EXCEEDING $25,000 IN SIZE. 



January ~ 
February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August — 
September 
October — 
November 
December 



1920 
$ 1.144,000 


1921 
$ 519,000 
2,927.000 
2,028,000 
3,342,000 
4,944,000 
3,485,000 
3,106,000 
2,404.000 
1.487.000 

900.000 

4.698,000 

10,752,000 


1922 
S 1.727.000 

652,000 
1,093,000 
2.673,000 
3.568,000 
5.124,000 

811,000 
4,494,000 
3,906,000 
7,686.000 
2,161,000 
1,835.000 


1923 
$ 4.720.000 


2,172,000 
2,213,000 
2.719.000 
- 1.382.000 
1.461.000 
3.793,000 
775,000 


2.730.000 

15.149.000 

8.544.000 

7.329.000 


743,000 




11.169.000 
2.151.000 
1.051.000 










Total „ $30,773,000 $40,602,000 $35,730,000 

Note. — About 100 per cent must be added to the annual totals to give the errand total of 
contracts awarded in the United States. 

A great deal of waterworks construction is done by directly hired labor and is not included 
above. 

Waterworks buildings are not included above. 

SEWER CONTRACTS EXCEEDING $26,000 IN SIZE. 

1920 1921 1922 1923 

January .._ _ $ 1,864,000 $ 3,147,000 $ 2,267,000 $ 3,322.000 

February 623.000 2.445.000 2.462.000 2,131,000 

March 1.283.000 2.862.000 3,796.000 4,477,000 

April 4.124,000 3,817,000 2,794,000 5.497,000 

May 2.315.000 2,162,000 5,722,000 9.052,000 

June 2.349,000 3,802,000 5,158.000 

July 3,163.000 3,986,000 ' 1.869.000 

August 2.437,000 ^,988,000 3.450.000 

September .„ 2,319.000 5,064,000 3.340.000 

October 8.052.000 2,829,000 4,996,000 

November 4.572,000 2.733,000 5,349,000 

December 2.967.000 2.549.000 2.381.000 



Total - _ $36,068,000 $39,384,000 $43,584,000 

^ Note.— About 100 per cent must be added to the annual totals to give the grand total of 
contracts awarded m the United States. 

!— I ■^J°"^'»?''**'v *™0"nt o* «e^er construction is done by directly hired labor, which is not 
included in the above totals. 

IRRIGATION, DRAINAGE AND EXCAVATION CONTRACTS EXCEEDING $25,000. 

1920 1921 1922 1923 

t-tSlJ^^ ' 1,542,000 $ 1,266,000 $ 2,091,000 $ 548,000 

\fo^^ 787.000 306,000 419,000 365.000 

A^fl ~ 3,151.000 1.626,000 608,000 28,993,000 

Apru 416,000 580.000 1.736,000 2,506.000 

T^^\. 404,000 2.632.000 776,000 3.553.000 

June enc AAA 1 njn n/>/\ n ..no /./</> 

July 



,„,„ 605.000 1.240.000 2.628.000 

4^,L<;; 1,942,000 609.000 1.498,000 

W^^K^; 4.179.000 89,000 6,920.000 

Or?ntrJ^ 859,000 9,025.060 876.000 

Nov«^L;' 1.086.000 373.000 2.390.000 

ol^m^r • "2.000 726.000 1.741.000 

uecember _ 477,000 707,000 864,000 

'^**' — $16,220,000 $19,179,000 $22,547,000 

contr^cuTwSi 'to t^e' U^i^"sutS. "^^"^ "^ *^' "'^'"^ "^^ *" "^^^ *^* "^""^ *^ °^ 



66 Water Works July 

Design of Water Works Pumping Stations 



General 



Principles and Examples of Recent Construction Cited in 
Paper Presented May 25 at Annual Convention of 
American Water Works Association 

By CHARLES B. BURDICK, 

Of Alvord, Burdick & Hawson, Consulting Engineers, Chicago, 111. 



The average water works involves 
an investment not less than $35 per 
capita or say $3,500,000 in a city of 
100,000 people. Of this large invest- 
ment often not more than 25 or 10 
per cent represents structures visible 
to the eye of the ordinary citizen. To 
the casual observer water works 
buildings present the only visible evi- 
dence of the excellence of the plant, 
except the water delivered, and his 
impression as to the property is likely 
to be based upon what he can see. 

Water Works Station Should Be 
Attractive. — Fundamentally there is 
no reason why the water works sta- 
tion should not present the same at- 
tractive appearance as the city hall or 
any other municipal building. It 
should be permanent, clean, and_ as 
easily kept clean as a modern hospital, 
for it handles a commodity used in 
every home. An ornate design justi- 
fied in a city hall or a courthouse 
would be out of place in a pumping 
station. Rather it should represent 
the masculine in architecture without 
undue pretention, strong and perma- 
nent in its lines and materials, frankly 
adapted to its purpose, and presenting 
an appearance agreeable to the eye. 
This will require compliance with laws 
of good architecture. Appearance 
must not be neglected in structures 
likely to live a long time. 

Providing for Expansion. — ^Water 
works construction is now sufficiently 
standardized so that it is possible to 
lay out pumping plants subject to en- 
largement in such manner that the 
buildings may be useful indefinitely. 
The pumping and power equipment 
should be arranged with the idea of 
expansion. It is usually practicable to 
build only for a moderate time in the 
future, but it costs little to lay down 
the indefinite future additions on 
paper, and so to locate the building, 
and so to arrange the equipment that 
extensions may be made without de- 
stroying the usefulness of important 
parts of the plant. 

It is all too common to find layouts 
that have expanded piecemeal accord- 
ing to the path of least expense, which 



must be torn out and rebuilt, because 
further expansion is impracticable. 
We can see farther into the future to- 
day than was possible a generation 
ago. There may be radical improve- 
ments in water works equipment here- 
after, but if the general plan of ex- 
pansion has sufficient elasticity, the 
probable future can be accommodated. 

The Heart of the Plant. — In the or- 
dinary water works plant, steam oper- 
ated, there is, first, the heart of the 
plant, so to speak, consisting of the 
main entrance, offices, and possibly a 
laboratory which may be grouped, and 
will need little further expansion. The 
engine room and the boiler room after 
providing for the present and the im- 
mediate future may be expanded along 
parallel lines without necessarily 
spoiling the architectural symmetry. 
It is wise to be liberal in selecting di- 
mensions. This tends toward per- 
manency. 

If the water is filtered, it is desir- 
able in small pumping stations to cen- 
tralize the "business end" of all the 
station operations on account of facil- 
ity in supervision. This complicates 
the design, especially the provision for 
future expansion, and centralization is 
not always possible when filtration is 
added to an old water works. 

In the layout of a new plant, how- 
ever, it is practicable so to co-ordinate 
the expansion of pump room, boiler 
room, filter plant, coagulation basin, 
and clear well, that each may be en- 
larged in an orderly manner with con- 
venience of access between the operat- 
ing parts and the administrative cen- 
ter of the group. Basins and reser- 
voirs may expand, if necessary, for- 
ward from the building, utilizing a 
space covered over by lawn. 

Plants in cities up to 100,000 popu- 
lation, or somewhat more, mav thus 
be designed without the necessity for 
separating the pumping and filtration 
plants. A compact arrangement is 
quite necessary for economical opera- 
tion in a small city where it mav be 
desirable to operate filters without 
adding to the number of employes. 

Fireproof Construction. — The mod- 



1923 



Water Works 



67 



em water works station is fireproof 
throughout for obvious reasons. 
Permanency requires it. It should be 
the last building to bum in any com- 
munity. Many water works stations 
are practically fireproof except for the 
roof construction, windows and the 
doors. It is practicable to build sta- 
tions today without using a stick of 
wood, and at moderate costs as com- 
pared to wood. Millwork has in- 
creased in price to such extent that 
there is little difference between wood 
and metal frames, and concrete and 



water from extremes of temperature. 

For superstructures, brick and 
stone are the most satisfactory mate- 
rials for exteriors; terra cotta may be 
useful upon the interior or exterior. 
Upon the interior the surface should 
be clean and non-absorbent. Concrete 
floors are satisfactory only in the 
cheaper structures where they may be 
successfully used if covered with a 
heavy non-absorbent paint especially 
adapted to concrete. In the better 
stations terrazzo or tile is justified. 

Walls, particularly where damp, as 




Pumping Station of D*s Moines, la., Water Works. 



tile construction is generally used for 
for roofs in the most modem stations. 
Construction Materials. — For under- 
ground structures or for other struc- 
tures, more or less concealed and pro- 
tected from the weather, concrete 
gives excellent service. Where exposed 
to view or subjected to the action of 
the elements, it is not proving a sat- 
isfactory building material. Wher- 
ever possible it is wise so to design 
reservoirs that they may be filled over 
and sodded, thus protecting the con- 
crete from the expansion and contrac- 
tion of hot sun and winter cold, and 
mcidentally better protecting the 



in the pumping pits, should be faced 
with a non-absorbent substance such 
as enamel brick built at least head 
high. Above this plane pressed brick 
is satisfactory. At present a rock 
plaster is available almost as hard as 
stone which con be worked into very 
attractive panel designs at moderate 
cost. 

The Roofs. — For the roof, exposed 
steel trusses are generally used with 
steel purlins and a roof covering of 
reinforced concrete or tile. In order 
to prevent sweating in cold weather 
a double ceiling is desirable. This 
may be accomplished by rock plaster 



68 



Water Works 



July 



on metal lath hung from the purlins. 
Thin concrete roofs usually become a 
nuisance at certain times from drip- 
ping. A single thickness of 5 ins. is 
usually sufficient to prevent the se- 
rious collection of drops. A double 
ceiling completely eliminates the 
trouble and costs comparatively little 
more. Skylights and ventilators must 
be guarded with gutters for satisfac- 
tory results. 

It is proposed to cite a few exam- 
ples of recent pumping station con- 
struction with figures of cost. Prac- 
tically all of this work has been done 
in co-operation with Mr. Victor A. 
Matteson, architect, Chicago. 

Des Moines Pumping Station. — The 
new 21st street pumping station at 
Des Moines is a steam station. It 
pumps the entire water supply of the 
city in one operation from the ground 
water collecting galleries into the pipe 
system against direct pressure. The 
rates of pumpage at the present time 
are as follows : 
Minimum night rate M. G. D... 6.5 

Average Day M. G. D 10.0 

Momentary peak 18.0 

Maximum fire demand 24.0 

The pumping plant consists of three 
DeLaval turbo-centrifugal geared 
units, two of 15, and one 25 million 
gallons capacity. These pumps oper- 
ate at 269 ft. total head with 200 lbs. 
boiler pressure and 100° superheat. 
The two smaller of these pumps de- 
veloped duties on test ranging from 
150 to 114 million foot pounds per 
1,000 lb. of steam at full capacity and 
half capacity respectively. The larger 
pump is guaranteed to deliver 161 
million duty at full capacity, 164 at 
three-fourths capacity and 144 at one- 
half capacity. 

Boiler Plant at Des Moines. — The 
boiler plant consists of four 323 H. P. 
Springfield water tube boilers. One 
boiler is served by a LaClede-Christy 
natural draft chain grate stoker. 
Three boilers are equipped with Har- 
rington chain grate stokers operating 
on natural draft up to 125 percent 
rating, and forced draft up to 200 per- 
cent rating. The plant burns a low 
grade of bituminous screenings (Poke 
County, Iowa), ranging from 8,000 to 
10,000 B. T. U. The individual "boil- 
ers and stokers in this plant developed 
on test from 72 to 74 percent effi- 
ciency when operating on natural 
draft slightly above boiler rating, and 
70 percent on forced draft at slightly 
under 200 percent rating. 



This boiler and pumping plant 
serves the city on about half the ton- 
nage of fuel per unit of water 
pumped required by the old pumping 
station, served by hand-fired tubular 
boilers and compound crank and fly- 
wheel pumps. The greater part of 
the saving is secured by the improved 
boiler plant. 

Coal Handling. — The matter of 
handling coal is a difficult one in a 
water works boiler plant by reason of 
the magnitude of the peak load as 
compared to the comparatively small 
average load. Coal handling equip- 
ment of the type adapted to electric 
lighting practice often fails to show 
economy when applied to the small 
tonnage burned by water works, on 
account of fixed charges. The device 
adopted at Des Moines consists of a 
gantry crane feeding from cars or 
coal pocket to an overhead bin in the 
boiler room. It also picks up ashes 
dumped to the ash pocket by hand, 
loading the same into cars or trucks. 
By the use of this crane one man un- 
loads all cars not dumped, and han- 
dles all coal and all ashes for a 24 
hour shift in three hours or less. The 
coal handling scheme at Des Moines 
at the present price of labor a little 
more than "breaks even" with hand 
coal handling labor, fixed charges con- 
sidered. Its installation was consid- 
ered warranted in view of the 
probable future increased cost of 
labor. 

Building Group at Des Moines. — 

The group of buildings comprising 
the new water works pumping station 
at Des Moines consists of the main 
pumping station and boiler room, a 
shop and garage building for the ac- 
commodation of all automobiles and 
trucks used by the Water Depart- 
ment, a warehouse, with pipe yard 
adjoining, for storing pipe, fittings 
and miscellaneous supplies; also a 
group of cottages housing four fam- 
ilies of water works employes. 

The main pumping station consists 
of a pump room containing space for 
eighty million gallons in pumping 
capacity. Fifty-five million gallons 
capacity is at present installed. The 
boiler room contains 1,300 H. P. in 
boilers and space is provided for en- 
largement that may be required after 
1940. 

Adjoining the main entrance to the 
pumping station are located an office 
for the chief engineer, a laboratory, 
and toilet accommodations for the 



1923 



Water Works 



69 



public. Employes' toilet rooms are 
located between the pump room and 
boiler room. Galleries are provided 
in the pump room for the accommo- 
dation of visitors, so that the pump 
room may be seen without interfering 
with the operation of machinery. 

All foundations are constructed of 
heavy reinforced concrete. The 
pumps are set 13 ft. below the high 
water line, thus necessitating a heavy 
pump pit floor and walls to resist up- 
ward and inward pressure. The 
pumps are thus located in order to 



halls are floored with terrazzo, and 
provided with terra cotta walls. The 
exterior of the building is of dark red 
tapestry brick with Bedford stone 
trim. 

The shop and garage building exte- 
rior flnish is similar to pump house. 
The interior is finished with concrete 
floors and common brick walls, and 
the whole is surmounted by a timber 
mill construction roof, slow burning 
type, and covered with composition 
roofing. Steel window sash are used. 
The remaining millwork is of wood. 




Pump Room of Station at Water Works of Des Moines, la. 



draw from the gallery system in ex- 
treme low water. 

The pump room is finished with 
terrazzo floors and white enamel brick 
walls up to the top of the wainscot at 
grade line. Above this point the walls 
are paneled and coated with rock 
plaster. The roof is supported by 
steel trusses carrying Federal cement 
tile with a composition roof covering. 
Steel windows, doors and trim are 
used throughout. 

The boiler room is finished with 
concrete floors, with walls of common 
brick painted. The entry way and 



This building provides all facilities 
for the maintenance of the water 
works motive power and contains a 
wood shop, machine shop, paint shop 
and in the rear a stable for the ac- 
commodation of one team. 

The warehouse building resembles 
a small freight house in general plan 
with an office space in the front where 
all water works labor is handled and 
assigned to its daily tasks. A siding 
runs parallel with the warehouse with 
platforms on both sides, so that 
freight unloaded may be wheeled 
through the storeroom and loaded on 



70 



Water Works 



July 



wagons or trucks. Heavy freight 
such as pipe and large fittings may 
be unloaded from the opposite side of 
the cars and stored in the pipe yard. 
This building is surmounted by a mill 
construction wood roof. Floors are 
of concrete and the office walls are 
plastered. Wood millwork is used 
throughout this building. 

Three wood and stucco English cot- 
tages provide for four families. One 
cottage contains five rooms, one cot- 
tage six, and one double cottage con- 
tains two six-room apartments. Each 
apartment is provided with concrete 
cellar, furnace heat, plumbing, maple 
floors, plastered exteriors and shingle 
roofs. These apartments are rented 
to employes at cost. The rent 
charged is $30 per month per apart- 
ment exclusive of heating and light. 

Water Works and Light Plant at 
Orlando, Fla. — At Orlando, Fla., the 
new station is now nearing comple- 
tion. This accommodates the water 
filtration plant of four million gallons 
capacity, electrically driven centrifu- 
gal pumps of 12 million capacity aug- 
mented by four million of steam 
pumping capacity in another station. 
The generator room contains 4,000 
K. W. in turbo-generators with space 
for 2,500 additional K. W. The boiler 
room contains 1,500 H. P. in boilers, 
oil fired. 

The Spanish type of architecture 
was used, as especially adapted to a 
warm climate. The boiler room is 
open on the rear, the boiler fronts 
being protected by open archways. 
The walls are of brick with exterior 



cement plaster. Roofs are supported 
on steel trusses with concrete slabs 
and composition surface. Red tile is 
used for sloping roofs and wall caps. 
The interior of the pump room is 
plastered. All other wall surfaces are 
of common brick painted. Floors are 
of red quarry tile. 

Table I shows the cost of the Or- 
lando building, including filter house 
and concrete filter beds; also clear 
reservoir underneath the filters, but 
does not include cost of filter equip- 
ment or any other equipment of the 
plant except as stated 'in the tabu- 
lation. 

Manistique, Mich., Tower. — The op- 
portunity was afforded at Manistique, 
Mich., to combine a small electric 
driven pumping station and a water 
tower. The water supply at Manis- 
tique is delivered by gravity, substan- 
tially at ground height, to the center 
of the town, where it is pumped elec- 
trically into a steel elevated tank 
surmounting the pump house. 

The land occupied by the pumping 
station was donated by a public spir- 
ited citizen upon condition that an 
attractive station and to'wer should be 
built. Manistique is a small city with 
a population about 7,000. A plan was 
worked out which accommodated the 
necessary electrically driven pumps in 
the base of the tower, and the saving 
thus effected permitted enclosing the 
tower in an attractive envelope. The 
cost of the structure thus built is ap- 
proximaljely equivalent to an uncov- 
ered steel elevated tank plus a sepa- 
rate building of fireproof construction. 



Table I — Cost of PnmpinK Station BaildinKs 

♦Present 
Cu. ft. Cost *Cost Price **Present 
Contract — (Thou- per Price Base Cost per 
Cost Date sands) cu. ft. Base (Mar., 1923) cu. ft. 
PUMPING STATIONS- 
DCS Moines. Iowa $220,479 1920-23 810 27.0c 178 198 30.0c 

Ashland, Ky 34,194 Oct., J921 130 26.4 169 198 32.8 

Orlando, Fla 91,800 Sept., 1922 510 18.0 180 198 19.8 

Ironwood, Mich. ,._ „„ . 

Main Station 29,155 July, 1920 65 44.8 269 198 33.0 

Sub Stations 9,644 July. 1920 7.5 64.2 269 198 47.6 

Manistique, Mich 71,379 Sept., 1921 140 51.0 156 198 66.0 

La Crosse, Wis 60,834 Nov., 1912 484 10.6 100 198 20.8 

Prairie du Chien, Wis... 21,017 Sept., 1921 77.8 27.0 156 198 34.3 
AUXILIARY BUILDINGS— 

Des Moines Garage 51,027 May, 1922 890 13.1 160 198 16.2 

Des Moines Warehouse.. 18,754 May. 1922 111 16.8 160 198 21.0 

Des Moines Cottages _ „_ ^ . .„ , „. „. „ 

3 Cottages, 4 Fam 20,430 May, 1922 18 29.2 160 198 36.0 

22 Rooms 

Ironwood Cottages .^ „ ^ .„„ .,„ . 

2 CotUges, 2 Fam 16,900 July, 1920 1« 44.5 269 198 33.0 

12 Rooms 

•Building materials U. S. Dept. of Labor. ^ , »• * 

—Each building where more than one — Contents based on outside meaeurements footing to 
average roof. 

•♦As of Date April 1, 1923. 



1923 



Water Works 



71 



The steel tank contains 200,000 gal. 
The top is located 107 ft. above the 
ground. It has a hemispherical bot- 
tom and is supported on the brick 
work 64 ft. above ground by means of 
eight short legs horizontally braced. 
The tower is constructed of brick with 
red tapestry face brick. The trim- 
ming on the lower portion of the 
tower is Bedford stone and the cor- 
nice is constructed of reinforced con- 
crete cast in place. The dome is of 
zinc supported on wood trusses. 

The tower is octagonal outside and 
16-sided inside. The brick cross-sec- 



Tower. — The Gary pumping station 
and water tower, although built a 
number of years ago, is an example 
of what is possible in the use of 
concrete. 

The water tower is simply a hous- 
ing for a steel elevated tank sup- 
ported on vertical steel legs entirely 
independent from the envelope. This 
plan was followed on account of the 
necessity for haste in providing a 
water supply for the city during the 
building period. The concrete en- 
velope was added later. The shaft 
of the tower is of reinforced concrete 










'v» *t. --:..>. ^3.; 



Water Works Station and FUter PUnt of Ashland. Ky. 



tion is sufficient to support the super- 
imposed load with a unit pressure not 
exceeding 175 lb. per square inch. 

The 16-sided pump room is 33 ft. in 
inscribed diameter. It is floored with 
terrazzo with white enamel brick 
wainscot, and rock plaster walls and 
ceiling. A false roof is provided over 
the pump room with drains to catch 
any drip or leakage from the elevated 
tank. A cellar under the pump room 
accommodates all pipes, heating and 
plumbing equipment. 

The electric pumps are pressure 
controlled from the tank and start 
and stop automatically. No attendant 
is required in the operation of the 
plant except for periodical visits for 
inspection and oiling. 

Gary, Ind., Station and Water 



with a concrete dome roof. The base 
of all cornices and the facing on the 
lower one-fifth of the tower is of pre- 
cast concrete applied in the usual 
manner where stone is used. The 
shaft proper is of reinforced concrete 
with a reinforced concrete dome roof. 

The pumping station has concrete 
foundations. The pump room is de- 
pressed below the ground level and is 
lined with white enamel brick. Above 
g^rade walls are of brick with buff 
pressed brick interior face, and pre- 
cast concrete exterior face. The ex- 
terior face blocks are of two colors, 
gray and dull red. 

Ashland, Ky^ Installation. — The 
Ashland, Ky., plant exemplifies con- 
struction for a small city. It includes 
an electric driven pumping station 



72 



Water Works 



July 



with gasoline reserve pump; also a 
water filtration plant. Construction 
throughout is entirely fireproof and of 
good appearance, but no extra money 
was spent for the sake of appearance. 

The entrance to the plant is 
through the operating floor of the fil- 
tration plant. The filter beds produce 
a terrace effect. 

Upon the Ohio river the intake 
problem is important on account of 
the extreme variation between high 
water and low water. The low lift 
pumps are located in a pit 26 ft. in 
diameter and 43 ft. deep. They con- 
sist of two motor driven centrifugals 
and one high speed gas engine cen- 
trifugal, each 2^^ M. G. D. against 65 
ft. head. Three pumps of the same 
kind of capacity operate against 275 
ft. head when pumping to the city. 
These pumps and the filters are in- 
stalled on the roof of the clear well. 

The filtration plant consists of four 
beds, total capacity 2 2-3 M. G. D. 
High velocity of .wash is used from a 
35,000-gal. steel wash tank set on the 
roof of the pump pit. 

Ironwood, Mich., Plant. — This plant 
develops a ground water supply from 
driven wells and pumps it against a 
head of 650 ft. through a four-mile 
pipe line of 16 ins. diameter. The 
water is developed from three shallow 
well groups, each sub-station contain- 
ing a 2 M. G. D. pump. The main 
pumping station contains two three 
million gallon electric driven cen- 
trifugals and one and one-half million 
gallon high speed gas engine driven 
centrifugal. One gasoline driven cen- 
trifugal is also installed for reserve 
low lift pumping. 

The buildings connected with the 
Ironwood water works are all con- 
structed from boulders picked up on 
the water works lot. The saving thus 
effected as compared to brick was 
nominal, but it is believed that these 
buildings present better appearance 
than would brick structures in the lo- 
cality where built. 

The main pump house has >yalls of 
boulder stone plastered inside on 
metal lath and painted, floors of con- 
crete painted, and the roof is slate on 
wood with matched and beaded ceiling 
oiled, and exposing steel trusses. 
Three similar sub-pumping stations 
were built and as the plant is located 
some distance from habitation, it was 
necessary to construct two six-room 
dwellings also built of boulder stone. 

Prairie Du Chien, Wis., Plant. — 



This plant represents the practicabil- 
ities in a small town where the funds 
available for water works construc- 
tion were quite limited. This pump- 
ing plant consists of a concrete pit 45 
ft. inside diameter by 24 ft. deep sur- 
mounted by a mill construction 
wooden roof with a small brick build- 
ing attached to the pit at the ground 
level for office and shop purposes. 

This plant is electrically operated. 
Water is sucked directly from four 
driven wells immediately outside the 
pit wall and discharged into the pipe 
system which is connected to an ele- 
vated reservoir on the adjoining 
bluffs. The pumping installation con- 
sists of one motor driven centrifugal 
500 G. M., 340 ft. head, one 600 G. M. 
high speed gasoline engine centrifu- 
gal, and one 600 G. M. motor driven 
triplex pump moved from an old 
pumping station. Space is provided 
for a fourth pump at some time in the 
future. 

All foundations are of reinforced 
concrete. The superstructure and the 
parapet around pumping pit is com- 
mon brick with moderate priced face 
brick. All sills, lintels and caps are 
built of precast concrete. All roofs 
are of wood construction. The com- 
position roof covering of the pit is 
concealed by the brick. The roof of 
the office and shop structure is fin- 
ished with cement interlocking tile. 
Concrete floors are used throughout. 
Interior walls of brick are painted. 

Cost of Pumping Stations. — The 
cost of the pumping stations that 
have been described and several 
others are shown in Table I. As the 
prices of labor and material have 
fluctuated quite materially during the 
period in which these stations were 
built there is shown in the table the 
date of the contract, the price basis 
at the time and the price basis at the 
present time. The table also shows 
the cubic foot cost of the stations as 
of the time when let and as of the 
present time. In computing cubic 
foot cost the contents of the building 
have been figured based on outside 
measurements and taking the height 
from the footing level to the average 
outside surface of the roof for each 
part of the building. 

The tabulated price basis is the 
average cost of building materials as 
published by the U. S. Department 
of Labor. This refers to the average 
prices of 1913 as 100 per cent. The 
use of this price base presupposes a 



1923 



Water Works 



n 



fluctuation in labor equal to the 
fluctuation in material price. The 
price of labor generally fluctuates less 
than the price of material. However, 
it is true that the efficiency of labor 
enters into contract cost and it is 
generally true that when materials 
are high labor is scarce and its effi- 
ciency decreases, therefore tending to 
make labor cost more nearly fluctuate 
with the prices of materials. Appar- 
ently the assumption made regarding 
labor does not seriously affect the 
comparisons of cost, for the unit 



feet squares, but the difference is 
small for an ordinary rectangular 
building. Miscellaneous details such 
as plumbing and heating are consid- 
ered to vary directly with cubic 
contents. 

Upon the above basis the cost per 
cubic foot of an ordinary pumping 
station is decreased about 14 per cent 
in doubling its contents and it is in- 
creased about 13 per cent when its 
contents are cut in half. 

It has been noted that the cost of 
box type reinforced concrete reser- 




Pnmpins Station of Water Works of La Crosse, Wis. 



prices appear to line up very well in 
the comparison of buildings. 

Comparison of Costs. — In compar- 
ing the costs of buildings there are 
innumerable factors that might be 
considered. Pumping stations, how- 
ever, are generally similar in type 
and vary principally in dimensions 
and in the degree of finish. In theory 
the cost of roofs and floors varies 
directly as to area and that the cost 
of walls increases 43 per cent in 
doubling the area or decreases 14 per 
cent when the area is cut in half. 
These proportions hold only for per- 



voirs follows closely the cost of mod-' 
erate priced buildings. 

Co-operation With Architect. — It 
would be well if all engineers would 
utilize the services of an architect in 
the planning of conspicuous engfineer- 
ing works. A good architect pos- 
sesses a knowledge of orderly ar- 
rangement, and the selection and 
grouping of materials, not possessed 
by most engineers. On many classes 
of structure the architect should be 
and is the master builder, and the en- 
gineer is properly a subordinate. 
Upon such special structures as water 



74 



Water Works 



July 



works buildings, the engineer must be 
the master builder, but he is wise if 
he fully utilizes the services of one 
skilled in architectural design. This 
must be done by co-operation; the 
engineering plans should be worked 
out together, step by step, as a unit. 

The water works manager should 
not ignore public approval relating to 
his work and his plant. Self-respect 
engenders respect from others. Capa- 
ble operators say that employes take 
better care of their machinery and 
are more contented when working in 
attractive surroundings. A good 
plant is an important element of good 
service. The time has come when 
water works designers can safely plan 
for the future and build for per- 
manence. 



Rapid Sand Filtration Plant 
Operation 



Electric Public-Utility Power Plants 

Increase Production 

A. remarkable increase throughout 
the United States in efficiency in the 
use of fuel and the production of elec- 
tricity during the past four years is 
seen in a statement just issued by the 
Department of the Interior, through 
the U. S. Geological Survey. 

The statement indicates that elec- 
tric public-utility power plants pro- 
duced more electricity in 1922 than 
ever before, and that over one-third 
of the total amount produced was 
generated at water-power plants, 
thereby conserving over 20,000,000 
tons of coal in 1922. New York is 
the leading state in the production of 
electricity by public-utility power 
plants and California is the leading 
State in the production of electricity 
by the use of water power. One-fifth 
of the total amount of electricity pro- 
duced by water power in the United 
States is produced by California 
hydroelectric power plants. 

Reports on the monthly production 
of electricity and consumption of fuel 
by electric public-utility power plants 
in the United States are now being 
published by the Geological Survey. 

A summary of the monthly reports 
has been prepared and is now avail- 
able for general distribution, and can 
be obtained on application to the 
Director of the Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 



Process Described in Non-technical 
Manner in Paper Presented May 19 
Before Canadian Section of Amer- 
ican Water Works Association 

By WILLIAM D. HATFIELD 

Superintendent of Filtration, Highland, Park, 
Mich. 

In presenting a non-technical paper 
which would be interesting to the 
water works superintendent, who is 
interested in water purification but 
not a chemist, I have tried to avoid 
all unnecessary technical terms which 
are familiar only to the specialized 
chemist or sanitary engineer, though 
in so doing I will lose much of the 
accuracies of technical terminology. 

General Layout of Plant. — First I 
will describe the general layout of a 
rapid sand filtration plant and the 
steps in the purification. Naturally 
the first step is to get the raw water 
to the plant. In some places it is pos- 
sible to run the raw water to the 
plant by gravity, but usually it is 
pumped into the chemical mixing 
chamber by low service pumps. In 
some places where the water is heav- 
ily laden with silt, it is first settled 
in a reservoir to remove this heavier 
material before the water goes to the 
mixing chamber. As the raw water 
enters the mixing chamber, a solution 
of the correct amount of aluminum 
sulphate is usually added and mixed 
with the raw water by passing 
around, over and under baffle walls. 
In some cases iron sulphate and lime 
are used instead of aluminum sul- 
phate. This mixing process usually 
lasts from 15 to 45 minutes, and in 
that time the chemical has got a good 
start toward bringing the dirt and 
bacteria together in groups. After 
leaving the mixing chamber the water 
flows slowly through the coagulation 
or sedimentation basin in which the 
groups grow in size and about 75 per 
cent of them settle out carrying with 
them most of the dirt, color and bac- 
teria. The time of sedimentation 
varies in different plants from two to 
eight hours. 

This coagulated and settled water 
then passes through the sand filters 
which remove the remaining amount 
of added aluminum, turbidity, and 
practically all the bacteria. The 



1923 



Water Works 



75 



water in the process of filtration 
passes down through from 20-30 in. 
of filter sand and then through from 
12-24 in. of graded gravel; the small 
gravel first and the larger gravel at 
the bottom. The filtered water is col- 
lected in the bottom of the filter in a 
network of pipes into which are in- 
serted brass strainers with small 
holes. The filtered water then flows 
through rate controllers which keep 
the filters operating at a constant rate 
of flow within certain limits of allow- 
able flow. This control is necessary 
or the clean, freshly washed filter will 
allow the water to pass too fast for 
efficient filtration. From the rate 
controllers the filtered water passes 
to the filtered water reservoir usually 
called the clear well. 

In a properly designed and operated 
plant, this filtered water should be 
safe to drink, but we have a very 
effective "safety valve" in the use of 
liquid chlorine which sterilizes the 
few bacteria that may slip by in the 
filtration process, and the cost of such 
treatment is so small that we cannot 
afford to be without the added pro- 
tection. The chlorine is usually added 
to the filtered water as it flows to the 
clear well. However, in some cases 
it has been found more efficient to add 
the chlorine either before the alum 
treatment or just before filtration. 
The high serxice pumps are the last 
step in the filtration plant proper, for 
after that it is purely a matter of dis- 
tribution of the tap water. 

Chemistry of Treatment With 
Aluminum Sulphate. — In as non-tech- 
nical a way as possible, I will try to 
explain the "How and Why" behind 
the chemistry of the treatment with 
aluminium sulphate. As rain drops 
pass through the air they dissolve, 
among other gases, carbon dioxide, 
and as the water runs off of and 
through the ground, it picks up more 
of this carbon dioxide which is a 
product of decomposition of both ani- 
mal and plant life. This rain water 
containing the carbon dioxide has a 
dissolving action on the different 
forms of lime-stone in the earth. 
This dissolved lime-stone that exists 
in natural waters is called by the 
chemist calcium magnesium bicarbo- 
nate, but we will call them the alka- 
line salts because they make the water 
alkaline. 

When the chemical aluminium sul- 
phate is added to this alkaline water, 
the aluminium and the alkalinity 



unite to form sticky white masses in 
the water. This is called the "floe" 
by the operator, and aluminium 
hydroxide by the chemist, and resem- 
bles the white of a soft boiled egg. 
This sticky white material which at 
first forms in milUons of minute par- 
ticles in the water, sticks to the dirt 
and bacteria, and as these particles 
come together, they stick to each 
other forming larger particles, 75 per 
cent of which become so heavy that 
they settle out in the settling basin 
before the water reaches the filters. 
The settled water as it goes on the 
filters carry the remainder of this 
sticky material which then forms a 
sticky blanket on the surface of the 
sand. It is this sticky blanket 
through which the settled water fil- 
ters, that removes the last traces of 
the added aluminium and dirt or tur- 
bidity from the water; it also removes 
practically all the bacteria. Without 
this sticky blanket on the sand, the 
turbidity and bacteria removal would 
be very poor. 

From time to time since treatment 
with aluminium sulphate began we 
have had agitation regarding alumi- 
nium getting through the filters in a 
soluble form. In all probability if 
part of it did get through one would 
have to drink a barrel of water to get 
a medicinal dose, and it is doubtful if 
aluminium has any physiological ef- 
fect on the concentrations used in 
water purification. However we need 
not worry about this, for results on 
plant operation show that within a 
wide range of treatment, the added 
aluminium is not only all removed but 
also some of the naturally dissolved 
aluminium which was already in the 
raw water is removed. If the treated 
water is too acid or too alkaline, the 
aluminium floe is soluble, but this 
zone of insolubility between the "too 
acid" and "too alkaline" points is 
very broad in many surface waters, 
and the operator of a plant would be 
inefficient if any aluminium gets into 
the filtered water. Some soft waters 
do not contain enough of the alkaline 
salts to react with the amount of 
aluminium necessary to clarify the 
water. In these cases artificial alka- 
linity must be added by using lime or 
soda ash. 

Filter Plant Operation. — In the 
operation of a filter plant, close ob- 
servation must be kept on the quan- 
tity as well as the quality of the raw 
water used. If the plant is designed 



76 



Water Works 



July 



with a relatively small clear well, the 
only safe method of operation is to 
keep the clear well full at all times. 
This necessitates changing the rate of 
flow of the raw water, and rate of fil- 
tration, to parallel that of the high 
service pumps; it also means a close 
watch on the alum dosage which must 
be regulated with each change of raw 
water rate. It is much more satis- 
factory and convenient to have a 
larger clear well so that it can be al- 
lowed to drop a few feet during the 
day and catch up during the night. 
In such a case the raw water rate and 
chemical treatment can be kept rela- 
tively constant for long periods of the 
day. 

There are two common methods of 
adding the chemical. The older 
method is to dissolve a known amount 
of the alum in a tank of water of 
known capacity and to run this solu- 
tion through orifice into the raw 
water. The newer method is to add 
the dry ground alum by means of ma- 
chines which mechanically drop a 
known quantity of the chemical in 
running water which dissolves it and 
carries it to the mixing chamber. The 
machines may be checked for delivery 
by holding a container under the ma- 
chine and weighing the ounces of 
chemical delivered per minute. This 
method is much more accurate and 
satisfactory than the former method. 
The amount of alum necessary to 
coagulate a raw water must be deter- 
mined by an experienced man. This 
amount is dependent on the alkalin- 
ity, turbidity, bacterial pollution, and 
the much talked of hydrogenion con- 
centration. The chemical feed should 
be checked up hourly in any plant. 

As the floe blanket builds up on the 
filters, it gradually clogs the sand 
surface and decreases the pressure of 
the water flowing through the beds. 
This decrease in pressure is called 
loss of head, and will continually de- 
crease while the filter is in operation. 
When the loss of head has reached a 
certain predetermined point which 
varies from 4 to 12 ft. on different 
filters, they must be washed. Wash- 
ing the filters when the loss of head 
reaches a certain point is the usual 
method, but recently some operators 
have been running the filters until a 
very slight turbidity comes through 
regardless of the loss of head. The 



amount of wash water will vary from 
day to day, but will usually average 
from 0.5 to 3.0 per cent of the total 
water filtered. 

The hours of service which a filter 
runs before it must be washed is an 
important item because it shows the 
efficiency of the chemical treatment 
and of the sedimentation. A plant 
should always run so that the coagu- 
lation and sedimentation does most of 
the work and the filters only finish 
up the job. Hourly records should be 
kept of the filter operation. 

Chlorination. — In most cases the 
filtration process as a whole should 
always be operated so that the fil- 
tered water is satisfactory for drink- 
ing purposes, but even where this is 
possible the filtered water should be 
chlorinated with a minimum amount 
of chlorine to sterilize any bacteria 
which might slip through the process 
under some extraordinary condition. 
This chlorination is our safety valve 
and a very valuable one, but like a 
safety valve it should be there only 
for the unusual occasions and should 
not be relied on to do the work of the 
filtration process. 

It is easily seen that water treat- 
ment is a chemical process and that 
laboratory control would be essential 
to efficient operation. It is too bad 
that in so many cases cities will build 
expensive plants and then fail to 
economize by running the plant with- 
out the trained supervision of a chem- 
ist or a sanitary engineer that thor- 
oughly understands the chemical side 
of operation. Laboratory control tells 
us the quality of the raw water, the 
efficiency of coagulation, sedimenta- 
tion, filtration and chlorination. The 
number and kind of chemical and bac- 
teriological determinations necessary 
at different plants will vary greatly. 
With one water certain tests will be 
absolutely necessary while with an- 
other others will be of more value. 
For example, I have never heard of a 
plant where the determination of dis- 
solved oxygen or air in the water was 
of any value until I took charge of 
the Highland Park plant. At certain 
times of the year, this is the most im- 
portant test we make for the efficient 
operation of the plant. 



1923 



Water Works 



77 



Sewer Trenching With Drag- 
line Excavator 

A combined sanitary and storm 
water sewer system is now being con- 
structed by Booth & Flinn, Ltd., in 
25th St., North Beach, for the Bor- 
ough of Queens, City of New York. 
This work is part of the modern 
sewage disposal project recently 
adopted by the City of New York as 
a necessary step in the development 
of this borough. The section now un- 



bracing, the trench is 35 ft. wide. 
The maximum depth is 38 ft., with an 
average depth of about 26 ft., and 
the material excavated is sandy clay 
on top with fine hard sand below, with 
the trench bottom from 5 to 7 ft. be- 
low high water. 

This work is located in an undevel- 
oped section, 25th St. being a pro- 
posed thoroughfare at this point, with 
ample room for casting the excava- 
tion on the trench bank. With this 
condition in mind, the contractors 




Dragline Excavating in 25th St., Queens Borough, New York City, for Sanitary and 

Storm Sewers 



der construction consists of a concrete 
cut-off chamber, junction chamber, 
overflow chamber, and screen cham- 
ber, the latter equipped with two 14- 
ft. Rinsh Wurl revolving screens; to- 
gether with 1250 ft. of reinforced 
concrete storm water sewer, 14 ft. 
7 in. X 8 ft.; and 1100 ft. of rein- 
forced concrete sanitary sewer, 9 ft. x 
9 ft. 

The two sewers are located side by 
side and are being' constructed in a 
single trench, excavated by the open 
cut method. The design provides a 
space of 3 ft. 8 in. between the two 
sewers so that, with sheeting and 



have adopted a method of excavation 
that is seldom practiced in this sec- 
tion of the country, especially within 
the City of New York on sewer 
trenches, that of the dragline exca- 
vator. For this purpose an Osgood 
•''i-yd. heavy duty dragline is being 
used, operated by steam power and 
equipped with a 45-ft. boom and a 
%-yd. Page dragline bucket. This 
dragline is fitted with continuous 
tread traction and rides on top of the 
cut and within the lines of excava- 
tion, somewhat to one side, and in 
operation drags the excavation in a 
circular fashion, with and across the 



78 



Water Works 



July 



cut. The material is loaded into 
motor trucks without any spilling and 
between trucks is cast on the bank, 
well back from the cut. The excava- 
tion is cast only on one bank, the 
opposite one being kept clear for pas- 
sage of a traveling derrick for use in 
excavating the trench bottom. 

The dragline excavation is 40 ft. 
wide at the top, 35 ft. wide at the bot- 
tom, and digs from 13 to 21 ft. deep, 
depending on the stiffness of the soil, 
as the trench is not sheeted until 
after the dragline excavation has been 
made. This dragline has also been 
used in excavating, with a drag 
bucket, for the bottom in the sheeted 
sections, in sand and water, working 
between the bracing. The average 
progress has been about 350 yds., in 
place, for an 8-hour day. 

The two sewers are being concreted 
by means of Blaw-Knox steel forms, 
with a traveling mixer plant located 
on top of the trench, while the back- 
fill is placed from the cast spoil on 
the opposite bank. 

This work is under the direction of 
Frank Perrine, Engineer of Sewers 
for the Borough of Queens, and Mr. 
M. L. Quinn, General Superintendent 
for Booth & Flinn, Ltd., and Mr. Wil- 
liam Griff, Resident Superintendent. 



Water Power Investigations to Be 

Made By the Interior 

Department 

During the field season of 1923 ex- 
tensive river surveys will be made by 
engineers of the Department of the 
Interior, Geological Survey, to de- 
termine the possibility of developing 
power on streams in practically all the 
public-land states. These surveys will 
be made by plane-table methods and 
will include a plan and profile of the 
river and contours to a height of 200 
ft. or more above the water surface. 
Where the conditions are favorable to 
the construction of dams or reservoirs, 
special surveys will be made for 
mapping on a relatively large scale. 
Hydraulic engineers will select the 
dam sites and geologists will examine 
and report upon the geologic features 
of those that appear to be the most 
favorable. 

These surveys and the records of 
stream flow collected by the Geologi- 
cal Survey form the basis for the 
classification of public lands with ref- 
erence to their value as power sites. 
Most of the maps made will be pub- 
lished and will be available for pur- 



chase at moderate prices. Many of 
the reports prepared as a result of 
such surveys are published as water- 
supply papers or are kept open for 
public inspection at the district offices 
of the Geological Survey as well as at 
Washington, D. C. A complete in- 
ventory of the water-power resources 
of the public-land States is thus being 
prepared. The program for 1923 in- 
cludes the following work: 

In Oregon 300 miles of Rogue River 
and tributaries will be mapped and 
surveys of dam sites will be made. 

In northern California and Oregon, 
the survey of Klamath River from 
Keno, Ore., to its mouth will be com- 
pleted. This work will involve 100 
miles of additional surveys. 

In Utah, surveys covering 100 miles 
will be made on East or Yellowstone 
Fork of Lake Creek, West Fork of 
Lake Creek, Rock Creek, Duchesne 
River, and Uinta River. 

In Idaho, surveys of a dam and res- 
ervoir site will be made on Salmon 
River. 

In Montana, a dam site on the South 
Fork of Flathead River will be sur- 
veyed and a reconnaissance will be 
made to determine the possibility of 
using Missouri River and its tribu- 
taries above Great Falls, Mont., for 
power purposes. 

In Colorado, surveys will be made 
on South Boulder River, Clear Creek, 
Chicago Creek, St. Vrain Creek, Left 
Hand Creek, Big Thompson River, 
North St. Vrain Creek, South St. 
Vrain Creek, and Middle Boulder 
River, all tributaries of South Platte 
River. 

In Wyoming, surveys will be made 
on Sweetwater, North Platte, and En- 
campment rivers. 

In Arizona and Nevada, 300 miles 
of Colorado River will be mapped. 

In Washington, investigations of 
the Columbia Basin irrigation project 
are now being made. 

Public lands reserved for use in 
connection with power sites and shown 
by these surveys to be without power 
value will be recommended for restor- 
ation to entry. Lands that may be 
used in connection with power sites 
but that are well adapted to other 
uses will be recommended for restora- 
tion to entry with a reservation of the 
ri|rht of the United States or its per- 
mittees to use them as power sites. 
Public lands that are found to be val- 
uable as power sites and that are not 
already reserved will be classified as 
power-site lands and withdrawn from 
entry. 



1923 Water Works 79 

British Developments in Activated Sludge Process 



Recent Work Reviewed in The Surveyor, London 

By H. C. H. SHENTON 



Bulking of Sludge at Manchester. — 

In the report of the City of Manches- 
ter Rivers Department, dated March 
31st, 1921, the following important 
statement is made: — "Reference has 
been made previously to the occasion- 
al difficulty which has been experi- 
enced in the efficient settlement of the 
sludge, due, apparently, to sudden al- 
teration in the physical character of 
the sludge, which at frequent inter- 
vals has shown a tendency to increase 
in bulk to an abnormal extent. At- 
tention has been paid to this problem 
during the last year, and observations 
made under working conditions, to- 
gether with periodic microscopic ex- 
amination of samples of sludge, tend 
to confirm the previously expressed 
opinion that this abnormal condition 
of sludge is due primarily to low air 
supply. It would appear that a low 
air supply over a prolonged period 
brings about conditions, probably 
arising from the incomplete activa- 
tion of fresh sewage solids, favour- 
able to the growth of the higher or- 
ganism." It is important to note that 
bulking has only been experienced in 
the diffused air method when the air 
has been reduced in volume; on the 
other hand, it has been shown in Fair- 
brother and Renshaw's paper, read 
before the Royal Society of Arts, that 
at the time of bulking protozoa are 
exceptionally numerous, and it is sug- 
gested that they may interfere with 
normal purification, and it was fur- 
ther ascertained that by adding a 
chemical that had a slight bacteri- 
cidal action, but a powerful lethal 
action on protozoa, that the trouble 
was removed. The paper has been 
referred to already in The Surveyor, 
and it is unnecessary to give further 
details. This use of disinfectant 
ought to be particularly useful in 
cases where the aeration cannot be 
easily increased to deal with the 
trouble. It appears that this difficulty 
will arise, and that the process will be 
more useful in the case of mechanical 
agitation than in the case of the dif- 
fused air method. 

Irrigation With Sludge Effluent. — 
In a recent letter from Professor 
Fowler, which the author is at liberty 
to quote, referring to Jamshedpur, in 



India, he says that he was "delighted 
to see the really marvellous results of 
irrigation of practically desert land, 
with the effluent from the activated 
sludge installation containing activ- 
ated sludge in suspension. There 
are 40 acres of all kinds of garden 
stuff, as well as large crops of sugar- 
canes nearly 15 ft. high, and there 
was no nuisance of any sort. I have 
seldom felt so gratified with an ex- 
periment; there are nearly 1,000 acres 
available for further extension of the 
farm as soon as finances permit. The 
plant itself was working all right, es- 
pecially as it was taking about 50 per 
cent more than its calculated load." 
This statement bears out what was 
stated in an article written by the 
present author two years ago. It was 
then pointed out that activated sludge 
is a most valuable liquid manure, 
ready for immediate application to 
crops, that it can be conveyed to the 
land through pipes either by gravita- 
tion or by pumping. We have had in 
the past many efforts made in the 
direction of sewage irrigation, and 
some of them have been attended 
with a considerable degree of success. 
We have had irrigation with crude 
sewage, irrigation with partially 
purified effluent. Crude and digested 
sludge is applied to the land, some- 
times with good results; but irriga- 
tion with a fully purified sludge hav- 
ing a high content of nitrate is an 
entirely different matter. If we have 
had partial success with land treat- 
ment by the older methods we ought 
to achieve complete success by the 
newer method. 

Use of Sludge as Fertilizer. — The 
activated sludge process shows the 
possibility of conserving nitrogen and 
of accomplishing a thing that econ- 
omists and sanitarians have had be- 
fore them for many years past — 
namely, the full use of the sewage as 
a fertilizer; yet one sees that at such 
places as Sheffield, Birmingham and 
Bury the aim is merely purification. 
There is undoubtedly at the present 
time a general feeling that the 
process of purification ought to con- 
vert all organic matter into a fer- 
tilizer. It should be noted that Mr. 
Coombs, replying to the discussion 



80 



Water Works 



July 



which followed the reading of his re- 
cent paper before the Institution of 
Sanitary Engineers, said: — "I am un- 
der the impression that in ten or 
twenty years time people will be 
smiling at us for having made such a 
bother about dealing with the sludge, 
because there is no engineering diffi- 
culty in the pumping problem, even 
of pumping 50 miles if necessary. . . . 
Mr. William Clifford has proved at 
Wolverhampton that there is no diffi- 
culty in dealing with the ordinary 
sludge in the neighbourhood of the 
sewage works by pumping it on to 
farms. If ordinary sewage, which has 
very little fertilising value, can be 
dealt with in that way, surely acti- 
vated sludge can be dealt with even 
better. From September to May 
there would be no difficulty in irriga- 
tion in wet state; from May to Sep- 
tember, which are the best drying 
months, there would be no difficulty 
in drying out on beds at Worcester. 
. . . The first big town which pumps 
activated sludge over a sufficient area 
of distribution will be pioneers of a 
practice which will be copied else- 
where." 

Future Possibilities of Use of 
Sludge on Farms. — It seems reason- 
able to suggest that if wet sludge 
were pumped on to farms each farm 
might be supplied through a stand- 
pipe, which would be opened by offi- 
cials of the sanitary authority as and 
when required. Naturally certain 
difficulties arise, such as wayleaves 
and easements owing to different 
ownerships, but the problem does not 
appear to be greater than in the case 
of sewers and water mains. It is pos- 
sible that the sludge distribution 
problem on a very large scale might 
be taken over by the county council. 
No doubt every sewage works man- 
ager wants to make his works self- 
supporting, and wants to turn his 
sludge into a fertilizer, while every 
engineer wants to leave his scheme 
compact and self-contained. At pres- 
ent preliminary settlement has to be 
adopted in large towns so as to limit 
the volume of activated sludge pro- 
duced. Small towns more conveni- 
ently placed may deal with their wet 
sludge by irrigation. The present is 
not the final condition. To pump the 
whole of the organic matter in Lon- 
don sewage to the country would 
naturally be a vast problem, but it is 
conceivable that this problem might 
be faced at some time in the future 



after smaller schemes have proved 
the method to be suitable and econom- 
ical. Birmingham is situated at con- 
siderable elevation above the Severn 
Valley, and it would be easier to ap- 
ply the method in this case, as the 
very wet sludge, which has a viscos- 
ity a little greater than that of water, 
could gravitate to the land. If the 
method is once proved to be econom- 
ical and profitable for small towns, 
the larger cities may some day con- 
sider the matter seriously. 

Variations of Activated Sludge 
Process. — It is interesting to note 
that the activated sludge process is 
appearing under different forms, and 
new names are given to what is really 
merely a combination of the activated 
sludge process with older methods. 
Mention has already been made of the 
"Sept-aer-sed" process in America, 
merely an adaptation of an older 
process tried in this country and ap- 
parently superseded. Mr. O'Shaugh- 
nessy, of Birmingham, takes tank 
liquor, aerates this for one hour, re- 
aerates the sludge, and then passes 
the partially treated effluent over fil- 
ter beds. This is called the "flocu- 
lated sludge process" — a name which 
might produce the impression that it 
is a new process which has nothing to 
do with the activated sludge process. 
This work at Birmingham is interest- 
ing and valuable, but it is merely an 
application of the activated sludge 
process, the floculation of sludge 
being an essential feature of this 
process, and the Activated Sludge 
Company have always taken the view 
that the floculation of the sludge is 
all-important. This one feature, how- 
ever, of the old process is taken as 
giving a new name to the Birming- 
ham method. In the case of Sheffield, 
where the sewage is aerated and agi- 
tated by means of paddles we are 
becoming used to the name of bio- 
aeration, which name may be quite 
useful in describing a special process, 
but it would be equally applicable to 
the diffused air method or the method 
used at Bury, which is called "surface 
aeration." Finally, the Ministry of 
Health seem to have recently adopted 
the practice of referring to the 
method of Activated Sludge, Limited, 
as air blowing, although it appears 
that this company is not tied to the 
diffused method. These names may 
be useful, but it is open to question 
whether they are not merely one and 
the same process — namely, that of 



1923 



Wafer Workf^ 



81 



purifying sewage in a tank by means 
of agitating and aerating the sewage, 
which work is done sometimes by dif- 
fusers and sometimes by various 
kinds of mechanical appliances. 

Unnecessary Confusion. — It seems 
that various persons, notably in 
America, seem determined to make as 
much or perhaps as little as possible 
of the process. We read, for in- 
stance, that there is a growing ten- 
dency to give sewage a preliminary 
treatment before sending it through 
an activated sludge plant, and in gen- 
eral towards the adoption sooner or 
later of supplementary processes. 
Mr. Lee Peck, of New York City, 
boldly states that plant design should 
include preliminary treatment by 
sedimentation and skimming, shallow 
aeration, rapid removal of surface 
film, mixing it with the body of the 
liquor, agitation by mechanism, and 
acidulation of surplus sludge. He 
suggests aerating the skimmed and 
settled sewage before mixing with 
the activated sludge, and the use of 
catalysts to reduce power consump- 
tion, all of which may be of great in- 
terest and usefulness under special 
circumstances, but is not in agree- 
ment with the latest and best designs 
for works under normal conditions, 
and conveys the impression that what 
is really a very simple process is ex- 
tremely complicated. From the 
chemical and bacteriological side the 
problem may be very involved. No 
doubt it is in many cases, and the 
work of the chemist may have an im- 
portant bearing upon the design of 
the plant, upon the horse -power re- 
quired, and upon the size of the 
tanks. From the engineering side the 
matter needs equal attention, and 
there are many possibilities, but cer- 
tain facts are fairly obvious. It is 
useless to attempt to make out that a 
certain appliance will produce a result 
which we know very well it will not 
produce. 

If a certain quantity of water has 
to be lifted to a certain height the 
horse-power can be calculated, and 
engineers pay no attention to claims 
for an impossible efficiency. If pad- 
dles, diffusers or other mechanical 
appliances are to be used we can tell 
what aeration can be obtained and 
what horse-power will be required. 
We know that with a given degree of 
aeration a certain tankage capacity 
is needed. Further, we know that if 
we have sufficient aeration we can 
treat all the organic matter. 



A Water-Bome Typhoid Out- 
break of Unusual Character 



Pure Water Contaminated by Leaky 
Valve on Special Fire Service Connec- 
tion Described in "Public Health 
News," Bi-monthly Publication 
of the Department of Health 
of the State of Ne%v Jersey 

By CECIL K. BLANCHARD 

Assistant Epidemiologist, Bureau of Local 

Health Administration, New Jersey State 

Department of Health 

The outbreak of typhoid fever in 
Franklin, N. J., in November and De- 
cember, 1922, due to the infection of a 
potable water supply after filtration 
and chlorination, again proves the 
danger of connecting a public water 
supply to any other system containing 
water unsafe for drinking purposes. 
The cause and results of this outbreak 
should indicate to any thoughtful per- 
son the folly of giving the protection 
of property against fire precedence 
over the protection of human Life 
from disease and death. 

Franklin has a population of 4,000 
and with some reason has claimed to 
be the ideal mining town of the coun- 
try. Here is located one of the cele- 
brated mines of the New Jersey Zinc 
Co., and great efforts have been made 
to protect the life and limb of the 
mine employees and to provide proper 
housing and recreational facilities, a 
safe water supply, unusual education- 
al opportunities and public health 
service. The board of health employs 
a licensed health inspector who is also 
the school nurse, and three visiting 
nurses are employed by the zinc com- 
pany. The water filtration and chlo- 
rinating plant has skilled supervision 
and its operation is checked by lab- 
oratory tests. 

The local health department first 
recognized the presence of an epi- 
demic on Nov. 18, 1922, and imme- 
diately requested the assistance of 
the State Department. One hundred 
and forty cases of illness had been 
estimated with tentative diagnoses of 
intestinal influenza, pneumonia and 
typhoid fever, but no cases had been 
reported to the board of health. The 
physicians were accordingly requested 
and agreed to submit lists of cases 
recently attended, with tentative diag- 
nosis of each, thus providing within a 
few hours a record of all cases of 
severe illness in the vicinity. This 



82 



Water Works 



July 



procedure is recommended, as it does 
not commit the physician to a re- 
ported diagnosis at a time when he 
still may be in doubt, and yet notifies 
the health department of the cases of 
suspected typhoid or otjier disease 
under investigation. Cases were later 
reported in the usual way. 

While the early symptoms were not 
typical, there were a few cases which 
were evidently typhoid. Accordingly, 
specimens of blood from twelve cases 
in the third or fourth week after on- 
set were examined at the State Lab- 



tended into the mine yard to a fire 
hydrant (A). On another branch (Y) 
connected to the street main about 15 
or 20 ft. south of this point, and sup- 
plying a number of houses and a 
large public school, no cases were re- 
ported. The presumptive evidence, 
therefore, pointed to this 4-in. 
pipe as the probable point at which 
pollution entered the mains, since the 
flow past this branch is always north- 
ward. Investigation showed that this 
pipe in the mine yard of the zinc 
company was connected to a 6-in. 



OETAIL OF PIPING AND VALVES 
AT POINT OF POL UTIOM 




LEGEND - MAP DETAIL 

WATER MAINS OF BOROUGH 

INDUSTRIAL WATER MAINS 

CASES OF TYPHOID FEVER ••• 



Distribution of Typhoid Cases Along Water Mains and Detail of Piping and Valves at Point of 
PoUntion. A — Fire Hydrant in Mine Yard. B — Raw Water Industrial System. C — Gate Valve, 
Found Open. D — Check Valve, Found Leaking. E — Gate Valve Found Closed and Locked. 
S— Standpipe. X — Point Where Infection Entered Street Main. Y — Branch Not Affected by 

Pollution. 



oratory and found to give the typhoid 
reaction. On Nov, 23 clinical diag- 
noses of typhoid were made by a 
pathologist called by the zinc com- 
pany and by a number of the local 
physicians. 

The Water Supply Is Suspected. — 
The case histories indicated that the 
public water supply was the only com- 
mon vector of infection and that the 
cases followed the water mains from 
a point (X) near the center of the 
town northward. On the accompany- 
ing map of the water mains of the 
Borough the distribution of cases 
along these mains is clearly shown. 
At the point (X) a 4-in. pipe ex- 



line (E) containing raw water, drawn 
from the Walkill River for fire pro- 
tection purposes. A gate valve sepa- 
rating the two systems was found 
closed, locked and covered with dust. 
A test with dye and 120-lb. pressure 
for two hours failed to indicate a leak 
at this point. 

Failure of Check Valve. — Extensive 
excavation in this vicinity (A) later 
revealed the 4-in. pipe mentioned 
above to be connected to a 3-in. line 
(B) containing raw river water for 
fire protection and industrial use. 
The two water supplies were sepa- 
rated in this case by a gate valve (C) 
on the treated water side of which 



1923 



Water Works 



83 



was a check valve (D) designed to 
allow potable water to be used in the 
mine yard but to prevent polluted 
water from entering the street mains. 
Investigation proved that this gate 
valve was open, leaving the check 
valve as the only means of separation 
between a safe and a dangerous water 
system. Should this check valve 
leak, and the pressure of the raw 
water exceed that on the other sys- 
tem, there was nothing to prevent the 
pollution of the drinking water for 
the town with the dangerous river 
water. A test to prove this valve was 
at once arranged. 

The plan was to introduce a green 
dye, uranine, on the raw water side 
of the gate valve (C) set all the 
valves as they had been when discov- 
ered, open the fire hydrant (A) on 
the treated water system and observe 
whether or not the green dye passed 
the valve (D) and colored the town 
drinking water. Night came before 
the test was ready for trial, but in 
the glare of automobile headlights, 
preparations were completed and the 
group of Health Department investi- 
gators. Company officials and work- 
men gathered about the hydrant as 
the water was turned on. The minute 
of silence and suppressed excitement 
was relieved by the gush of a bright 
green stream from the hydrant. Each 
witness saw before him the proof of 
pollution of the town water supply 
and the presumptive cause of the ty- 
phoid outbreak. The theory devel- 
oped from the epidemiological evi- 
dence ^ was fully supported by the 
conditions revealed by this test. It 
was later shown by calculation that 
the pressure on the industrial water 
system at the point of connection with 
the filtered supply exceeded the great- 
est possible pressure afforded by the 
standpipe (S) so that the flow would 
always be from the raw to the treated 
supply. 

The conditions just described sug- 
gest the wisdom of taking samples 
for testing a water supply at several 
points, preferably near the distant 
ends of the distributing system. All 
attempts to determine when and for 
what reason the gate valve (C) was 
opened and by whom have been un- 
successful, partly due to the critical 
condition of one of the persons who 
was best acquainted with the opera- 
tion of the water system who has not 
yet recovered from tj^jhoid. 

The officials of the New Jersey Zinc 



Co. rendered the greatest assistance 
and co-operation in discovering the 
source of the outbreak and applying 
effectual measures for its control. 
The company maintained a central of- 
fice and clearing house for reports, 
records and information, and assumed 
entire charge of the hospitalization 
and home nursing of patients, the 
care of families afflicted by the epi- 
demic, and the many similar problems 
which arose daily. 



Bids Asked for Construction of 

Ocean Outfall Sewer for 

Los Angeles 

Plans and specifications are now 
ready for bidders for the construction 
of the Ocean end of the new outfall 
sewer at Hyperion, bids for which will 
be opened by the Board of Public 
Works of Los Angeles, Calif., at 10 
A. M. July 30th. This work consists 
of the installation, complete in place, 
of 429 12-ft. lengths of pipe having 
an internal diameter of 84 in. and 46 
12-ft. lengths having an internal 
diameter of 60 in. Alternate pro- 
posals will be received for the in- 
stallation of either Class D cast iron 
pipe of the standard bell and spigot 
type or submarine reinforced concrete 
pipe having special bell and spigot 
joint. The 84 in. pipe will be used 
for the first 5,145 feet from shore 
where the depth is about 50 feet. 
Here the 84 in. pipe will divide into 
two 60 in. branches at right angles 
to each other and 45 degrees from the 
main line axis. These 60 in. branches 
will extend 283 ft. farther from shore 
where the depth is approximately 56 
ft. Special fittings for the pipe at the 
lower ends of these two branches XKall 
be made so that the sewage will dis- 
charge upward at a point about 4 ft. 
above the ocean bottom. Tlie pipe 
will be laid just below the ocean bot- 
tom, which according to the borings 
consists almost entirely of sand and 
which has a slope of about 1 per cent 
from high tide outward. Piling is 
specified for a distance of 700 ft. 
through the surf and concrete aprons 
will be required around each of the 
two special outlet fittings. All pipe 
required will be furnished free of cost 
by the city at the Hyperion siding. 

John A. Griffin is City Engineer 
and W. T. Knowlton is Engineer of 
Sewers of Los Angeles, Calif. 



84 Water Works July 

How the Water Works Coal Pile Can Be Reduced 



Methods for Cutting Down Coal Consumption at Pumping Plants Out- 
lined in Paper Presented May 25 at Annual Meeting of 
American Water Works Association 

By DONALD H. MAXWELL, 

Principal Assistant Engineer, Alvord, Burdick & Howson, Consulting Engineers, Chicago 



The recent increased cost of coal 
and the troubles experienced in get- 
ting a sufficient supply and of the 
right quality have brought the coal 
pile forcibly to the attention of the 
water works superintendent. 

There is no doubt but that the 
water works coal pile, taken as a 
whole, can be very much reduced. 
The consulting engineer is in a posi- 
tion to note many instances where 
pumping plant efficiency might be in- 
creased and others where pumpage 
might be reduced. 

Developments in Steam Plant Econ- 
omy. — The first requisite to coal econ- 
omy is efficient equipment. Great 
strides have been made in the devel- 
opment of pumping plant economy 
since many of our older water works 
plants were equipped. In contrast to 
the hand fired return tubular boiler of 
small horsepower delivering saturated 
steam at 80 lb. pressure to duplex 
pumps of very low duty, modern 
practice calls for stokers, water tube 
boilers in large units, with super- 
heaters and with good accessory 
equipment for maintaining high effici- 
ency, and delivering steam at from 
200 to 300 lb. pressure and super- 
heated 100 to 200 degrees. The steam 
is utilized in cross-compound or ver- 
tical triple pumps with test duties 
ranging from 120 to 180 million foot 
pounds per 1,000 lb. steam. 

The effect of this change on the coal 
pile is shown in part (except for su- 
perheat) by Fig. 1. This diagram 
does not take account of such auxil- 
iary equipment as boiler feed pumps 
and the incidental uses of coal station 
heating, etc. nor does it allow for va- 
riation in load The station duty for 
a given set of equipment would, 
therefore, be less than indicated by 
the coal rates shown on this diagram. 
The diagram is based on coal having 
12,000 B. T. U. per pound. 

By inspecting the diagram we see 
that vertical triple expansion engines 
of 160 million duty using saturated 
steam supplied by boilers operating at 
70 per cent efficiency would require 0.3 
tons of coal to pump one million gal- 



lons 100 ft. high. On the other hand 
with compound direct-acting low duty 
pumps of 30 million duty using steam 
supplied by boilers of 50 per cent 
efficiency would require 2.2 tons of 
coal to accomplish the same result. 
One plant would consume seven times 
as much coal as the other to do the 
same pumping and it is a fact that 
many of our smaller steam plants 
compare no more favorably than this 
with the more modem high duty sta- 
tion. 

Advantage of High Pressure and 
Superheat. — To understand the ad- 




lONSCoAL PER MlLUION GALLONS 100 fT. HlttH 

Fig. 1. Effect of Efficient Equipment on the 
Coal Pile. 

vantage in high steam pressure and 
superheat, it should be borne in mind: 

1st. That steam engine efficiency 
increases with the steam pressure, 
amount in turbo-centrifugal pumps 
for example to about 1 per cent de- 
crease in steam consumption for each 
10 lb. increase in steam pressure. 

2nd. That, in general, it does not 
take more coal (to an appreciable ex- 
tent) to generate steam at relatively 
high pressure than at low pressure. 

3rd. That engine efficiency in- 
creases with superheat, the gain with 
turbo-centrifugal pumps for example 
being approximately 1 per cent de- 
crease in steam consumption for each 
12° increase in superheat. The great 
advantage of superheated steam in 
reciprocating engines is that it does 
away with cylinder condensation (if 
superheated enough), so that all of 
the steam entering the cylinder is 



1923 



Water Works 



85 



available to do useful work through- 
out the stroke. 

4th. That the additional heat re- 
quired to superheat steam is much 
less than the heat saved by the en- 
gine so that there is a saving of coal. 
Assuming 100° superheat, this fuel 
saving amounts to about 4 per cent 
with a turbo-centrifugal unit, 8 per 
cent with a triple expansion engine 
and much more with compound and 
with simple engines. 

Limitations of Water Works Plants. 
— The water works plant is long-lived 
compared to the industrial and elec- 
tric power plant. The opportunities 
of business expansion, particularly in 
electric power production, make it 
good business policy to use only the 
most modem and efficient equipment. 
The coal bill in these plants is a rela- 
tively large part of the cost of power 
and accounts for the wholesale dis- 
carding of comparatively new equip- 
ment and even entire plants to make 
way for more efficient units of larger 
capacity in great central stations will 
enable the utility to command more 
business. 

The water works plant cannot be 
rejuvenated in this sweeping way. 
The business of selling water is in 
most cities fully developed and can 
only increase in proportion to the 
growth of the city. The water works 
pumping station represents a compar- 
atively small part of the total plant 
investment and the coal bill is also a 
small part comparatively speaking, of 
the total annual cost of the entire 
plant, including fixed charges. Fur- 
thermore the requirements for fire 
protection make it necessary, particu- 
larly in the small plant to carry a 
relatively large reser\'e boiler and 
pump capacity which is idle most of 
the time. 

From these facts it is seen that the 
water works plant must move slowly 
in the procession of increased plant 
efficiency. Only occasionally when an 
entirely new plant is built to replace 
an outgrown and obsolete plant does 
the engineer have the joy of doing 
what he would like to do in making 
the plant up to date in efficiency of 
equipment. The more usual case in- 
volves more or less important addi- 
tions to existing equipment, the lim- 
itations of this old equipment influenc- 
ing at times very largely the char- 
acter and efficiency of the new. It is 
not always financially practicable to 
change over to 200 lb. boiler pressure 
and 100° superheat, for instance, in a 



plant with heavy investment in low 
pressure pumps and boilers that are 
still good. The fixed charges on pro- 
posed new equipment must always be 
weighed against the estimated sa^ing 
in cost of coal, and coal is not high 
enough yet to warrant the sweeping 
replacements in the average water 
works plant that have been good busi- 
ness policy in some electric power 
plants. 

Planning for the Future. — Even 
though radical changes in pumping 
station equipment may not be justified 
when renewals are necessary, the 
superintendent has an opportunity at 
such times which should not be lost 
sight of, to map out an improvement 
program invohing the entire plant. 
It would be most desirable, for in- 
stance, in replacing a boiler to make a 
sur\ey of the plant and its future re- 
quirements and as a result, perhaps 
find it worth while to install a boiler 
at comparatively slight increased cost 
capable of withstanding a future 
higher steam pressure and arranged 
for the installation at a later date of 
superheaters. Then when the time 
comes to make pump replacements or 
additions the boilers will not be a 
handicap. Judicious provision for the 
future in this way will do much in the 
course of time to improve the small 
water works station efficiency without 
sacrificing useful equipment. 

Boiler Plant Operation. — Meantime 
the water works operator must be 
contented to make the best use of the 
equipment now in hand. Even though 
the low pressure plant with low duty 
machinery must continue operating 
on this basis for some years a great 
deal can often be accomplished in 
these plants to reduce coal consump- 
tion by close attention to the details 
of operating that make for efficiency. 
The watch-word throughout the plant 
should be: "save the heat units." It 
might be said that intelligent and 
conscientious operation of a hand- 
fired low efficiency boiler installation 
is even more important for coal econ- 
omy than in a plant with high effi- 
ciency equipment. 

Coal saving is not possible without 
measuring and recording the internal 
workings of the plant. Between the 
heat input and measure of work out- 
put, there may be a very large pre- 
ventable waste of energy amounting 
to from 25 per cent to 50 per cent of 
the coal pile in a poorly maintained 
plant. So it is not sufficient to know 
merely the tons of coal purchased and 



86 



Water Works 



July 



the plunger displacement, and yet, 
astonishing as it may seem, plants are 
occasionally met with in which even 
this meagre information is not obtain- 
able in a satisfactory manner. 

The efficient operator must know 
the pounds of coal burned per hour 
for a given heat output in steam. He 
must know whether hfs customary 
methods of firing give the best results 
with the fuel at hand. He must know 
the effect of his practice in draft reg- 
ulation as to whether the boiler is be- 
ing unnecessarily cooled by too much 
excess air on the one hand, or on the 
other hand whether unburned gases 
are being wasted up the stack from 
insufficient supply of air to the fum-i 
ace, and among other things he must 
know the effect of removing soot and 

Comparison of Cokl CONauMPrtoN 
OP Stations Ooino 
Double. Pompino 
Plant Av^OailV TitTM. Coal Coal PtR Mil. Gals. 100" Ht*M 
PuMPAGC HtAO Ions 



5,Sl7 

Ma 

1,768 
VOO 
I l,MO 
S.40I) 
7.0S0 




• 7 MoMthi P«n«tf 

Fig:. 2. Difference in Coal Consumption Be- 
tween Stations of Same General Type. 

boiler scale and how often it pays as 
a practical proposition to do this. 

In a word, the, operator should 
know whether he is wasting coal in 
the boilers. To find this out he needs 
the equipment and the interest to 
make routine boiler tests and periodic 
flue gas analyses. 

An intelligent boiler room force and 
careful training in efficient methods 
are essential to economical operation. 
Furthermore, a suitable bonus system 
based on coal saved would be a valu- 
able stimulus to interest in a coal sav- 
ing program, if the possible savings 
seem sufficiently great to warrant it. 

Pump Room Operation. — Pump 
room operation has a very large in- 
fluence on the coal pile. The coal 
robber in this part of the plant is 
pump slip, though the preventable 
loss at the steam end may also be con- 
siderable. 

The output of every pump room 
should be metered at the station un- 
less there is some other convenient 
method of checking up on the pump 
slip, at frequent intervals. The use 
of venturi meters on discharge lines 
has become quite general, but there 
are still many plants which lack 
proper equipment of this kind. These 



plants are as a rule paying heavily 
for it in the coal pile. 

The writer has had occasion to ob- 
serve some startling results from high 
pump slip, and there is good reason to 
believe that this is one of the principal 
causes of coal waste in many of the 
stations that lack proper means of 
measuring the water delivered by the 
pumps. 

Table I shows the result in one 
plant of reducing pump slip. The 
records of this plant for several years 
shows a continual increase in the tons 
of coal burned per million gallons 
pumped. The coal bill finally became 
so high that it was decided to have 
the pumps rebuilt. The effect of im- 
proved efficiency of the steam end and 
of reducing the pump slip is very 
strikingly illustrated by a reduction 
in the coal consumption amounting to 
67 per cent of the coal burned in 
1922. Comparison of the 1922 pump- 
age with that of the two preceding 
years shows a very marked reduction 
in pumpage as indicated by plunger 
displacement. 

Table II shows the effect on the coal 
pile of introducing a high duty pump 
to do the work formerly carried on 
by low duty pumps. In this plant un- 
der the same conditions of operation 
the high duty pump accounted for a 



Table I — Effect of Redncing Pump Slip on the 
Coal Pile 

Plunger 
Displacement, 
Year Million Gals. 

1919 „ 268.1 

1920 299.9 

*1921 S04.8 

1922 287.9 



Coal Burned 
Tons 
1.124 
1.288 
1,264 
770 



* Rebuilt pump back in service in November. 
Coal saved in 1922. 518 tons==67% of 1922 
coal pile. 

Table II — Effect of HiRher Duty Pump on the 
Coal Pile 

Per Cent of Coal Per 

Time New Mil. 

Pumpage Pump Coal Gals. 100 
Year Mil. Gals. Used Tons ft. High 

1910 „ 1,839 4,626 1.01 Tons 

♦1911 1,919 4,878 1.01 

1912 2.090 60.9 4,749 0.965 

1913 2,241 90.7 4,403 0.842 

1914 2,272 92.6 4,562 0.810 

Coal saved in 1914: 1.030 tons=2G% of 1914 

coal pile. 



♦Cross-Compound pump of 142 million test 
duty installed. 

Table III— Value of Testing Pump Slip aa 
Measured by the Coal Pile 

Average Daily Pumpage 12,000,000 Gallons 

Slip 8,750,000 

Slip reduced to 700,000 

Total head 153 ft. 
Coal per Mil. Gals., 100 ft. High.. 0.923 Tons 
Coal Saved per Year 1,670. 



1923 



Water Works 



87 



sa\dng of over 1,000 tons per year 
amounting to 25 per cent of the 1914 
coal pile. 

Table III is a rather striking illu- 
stration of the very large coal sa\'ing 
sometimes possible in a comparatively 
small plant by eliminating excessive 
slip in a high test duty cross-com- 
poimd pump. The saving in this case 
was at the rate of approximately 
1,600 tons per year, although inspec- 
tion of the records tended to show that 
the excessive slip found on test had 
lasted only about four months. The 
record of plunger displacement indi- 
cated, however, that up to within one 
week of the test the slip had been 
materially higher than indicated by 
the test, and had been partly cor- 
rected by replacing pump valves. 

Figure 2 illustrates the great differ- 
ence in coal consumption between sta- 
tions of the same general type. These 
are all double pumping stations in 
small or moderate sized cities oper- 
ating for the most part under direct 
pressure. Plant "A" is an eastern 

CoMPMtiMM OF Com. CoNSuunvM 
or S-TXTio»*5 Do*« 

StN«l-C PUMPIW* 



Puka<-r AvOi&v ' 1«iM. C«iu. Coal f 



iwu-6m^ na' 



(Zt 


til J 


1V5* 


ft*W 


■ 






SH 


t4«. 


(,M0 


dn 


*■ 






Its 


Il» 


IM" 


»51t 


^ 






IM 


nu 


V17* 


UM 


■IB 






tn 


1»41 


l«Ot* 


out 


^^ 




CIS 


T51 


AS" 


Mie 


■^H 




ats 


tv. 


770 

ISOO 


iT9 


^■" 





Fig. 3. Comparison of Coal Rate for Modern 
and Old-Fashioned Stations. 

plant burning Pennsylvania coal. The 
others are western plants burning In- 
diana or Illinois coal. The high coal 
consumption of plant "G" may be 
partly attributed to wide range in low 
lift pump head. In plant "H" it is 
due partly to poor plant design. In 
Station "I" the poor showing is due 
in part to very inefficient low lift 
pumping from the use of over-sized 
electric centrifugals, the low lift 
pumping being accomplished at an 
overall efficiency of 15 per cent for 
pumps and motors. 

Figure 3 indicates the typical low 
coal rate that expected of well de- 
signed and operated modem stations 
doing single pumping, and to contrast 
with them the old fashioned stations 
with low pressure boilers and low 
duty pumps. Plant "A" is the North 
Point station at Milwaukee equipped 
with vertical triple expansion engines 
of high test duty of about 180 million 
foot pounds. Plant "B" is an efficient- 



ly operated small station burning 
Pennsylvania coal in hand-fired boil- 
ers and pumping with cross-compound 
engines against constant head. "C" 
represents the newest and most effi- 
cient of the Chicago pumping stations, 
pumping direct pressure with vertical 
triple and turbo-centrifugal pumps 
against a total lift of about 115 ft. 
Steam is generated by water tube 
boilers operating at 175 lb. pressure. 
"E" represents the average of all Chi- 
cago stations considering steam 
pumping only. At three of the Chi- 
cago stations a large amount of 
pumping is done by motor driven cen- 
trifugals using central station current. 
At these stations the coal duty has 
been greatly decreased from their 
former performance which is probably 
to be accounted for by the unfavorable 
load on the steam plant. 22nd St. 
now shows a coal rate of 1.41 tons per 
million gallons, 100 ft. high compared 
with .83 in 1910 and 68th St. shows a 
coal rate of 1.3 tons compared to .85 
in 1910. 

Plant "D" is the new Des Moines 
station with stoker fired boilers 200 
lb. steam pressure and 100° superheat 
pumping with turbo-centrifugals of 
143 million foot pounds test duty. It 
should be noted that this plant oper- 
ates on Iowa coal containing from 
8,300 to 8,800 B. T. U. per pound. 
The boilers on test showed 75 per cent 
efficiency at full load and 66.5 per cent 
at 168 per cent overload. The plant 
operates direct pressure. It should 
be noted particularly that this plant 
bums a much lower grade of coal than 
the Illinois steam coal used at Chi- 
cago. 

Station "F", the old Des Moines 
pumping station should be compared 
with Station "D". This station, with 
hand-fired return tubular boilers and 
a cross-compound pump of 140 mil- 
lion test duty operating on 125 lbs. 
steam pressure required 20 per cent 
more fuel than the new station to ac- 
complish an equivalent amount of 
pumping. 

Station "G" indicates good perform- 
ance in a fairly well maintained plant 
operating under 90 lbs. steam pres- 
sure and duplex compound pumps in 
good condition operating direct-pres- 
sure under a high head. Station "H" 
in contrast to "G" represents very 
poor performance in a plant having 
equipment of the same general char- 
acter and burning just as good coal. 
This latter plant showed 50 per cent 



88 



Water Works 



July 



boiler efficiency on test and 25 per cent 
pump slip. 

These few illustrations show that 
although some pumping plants are 
operating on a highly efficient basis, 
there are others where large quanti- 
ties of coal are being wasted. In some 
of these instances the fault lies in the 
plant installation, and can only be 
overcome by putting in better equip- 
ment. In others a great deal can be 
accomplished to improve the plant ef- 
ficiency by systematically checking up 
on pump slip, boiler firing methods, 
draft regulation, and all the other de- 
tails of operating that affect the size 
of the annual coal pile. 



Public Utility Rates for Kansas Cities 

A compilation of water, electric 
light and power, gas and telephone 



Moving 18,000 Cu. Yd. of 

River Saind by Hydraulic 

Elevator 

By R. FRANKLIN MUNDORFF 

Following the construction of the 
concrete dam at Decatur, 111., it was 
desired to pack sand under the edge 
of a horizontal concrete apron. The 
particular job presented the problem 
of moving 18,000 cu. yd. of sand in 
a river to a new location 400 ft. 
away in a deep hole in the river 
bed. 

The hydraulic elevator method 
was adopted, as there was available 
the amount of high-pressure water 
required for its operation and be- 
cause all the wear on the equipment 
would be centered entirely on the 
manganese steel throat of the ele- 
vator, and a small inexpensive barge 
would accommodate all necessary 




View of Pipe Line and Arrangement fur Supporting Suction Nozzle. 



rates for 542 Kansas cities has been 
published by the League of Kansas 
Municipalities, of which John G. 
Stutz, Lawrence, Kan., is secretary. 
The bulletin contains considerable 
information regarding the utilities 
in addition to that on rates. For 
the water works it gives the source 
of the supply, its treatment, meter 
service, the capacity of the plant, 
the rates for city service, minimum 
bills, and whether the plant is a 
paying proposition or not. Similar 
data are given for the electric light 
and power plants. 



equipment and the pumping unit 
could be mounted on the shore. 

The elevator was placed horizon- 
tally on a small barge and the water 
pressure line was brought aboard on 
barrel pontoons. This line was fitted 
with 10-in. by 10-ft. rubber sleeves 
at both the shore and barge ends. 

The suction consisted of a 10-ft. 
length of 8-in. rubber hose and two 
lengths of 8-in. pipe. This was sup- 
ported by block-and-tackle extending 
was raised and lowered by a hand 
winch. 

The discharge line, varying from 
350 to 400 ft., was supported by 



1923 



Water Works 



89 



barrel pontoons, the discharge end 
being submerged to eliminate a 
static head against the elevator. 

A large reciprocating pump with 
valve gear was used to supply the 
pressure water. The actual results 
obtained were from 50 to 60 cu. yd. 
of sand per hour, exclusive of the 
time used for changing the location. 
The pressure at the pump was 80 
lb. per square inch, which gave a 
pressure of 70 lb. at the elevator 
nozzle. 

The elevator would begin to pick 
up sand at 25-lb. nozzle pressure 
and would work well at 40-lb. pres- 



Locating Leaks in Underground 
Pipe Lines With the Geophone 

Mr. H. A. Ward gives the follow- 
ing information in Mechanical Engi- 
neering regarding the use of the 
geophone, an instrument developed 
during the war for detecting vibra- 
tions of the earth due to tunneling, 
etc., in locating leaks in underground 
piping systems of an eastern univer- 
sity: 

The first leak was in the return 
of the heating system and was 
located accurately under 4 ft. of 
cover. 

The second leak was in a domestic 



(10" RueeERSteevt io'lonc 







iPlKAL. 

Rivereo PitessuRE 
u»fr boO' Lone 






"SKi^ 



Arrangement of Equipment for Moving 18,000 Cu. Yd. of Sand. 



sure. No improvement was noticed 
above 70-lb. nozzle pressure. 

The installation was made by 
George B. Massey of the Randolph- 
Perkins Co. of Chicago, 111., for the 
city of Decatur, 111. 



Activated Sludge Studies 

The results of the investigations 
of the activated sludge process of 
sewage disposal carried on by the State 
Water Survey Division of Illinois, of 
which A. M. Buswell, Urbana, 111., 
is chief, has been published in the 
form of a bulletin. The bulletin 
gives a brief historical survey of 
progress in the development of the 
activated sludge process of sewage 
disposal, and with this historical 
view as a background presents the 
chemical and biological data which 
have been collected during the past 
year's experimentation with low air 
operation of an activated sludge 
plant treating 75,000 gal. per day. 



hot-water pipe encased in a concrete 
duct packed with mineral wool and 
under 4 ft. of cover. The line ex- 
tended from a tunnel to a building 
250 ft. away. The evidence of the 
leak appeared as warm water from 
the underdrain into the tunnel. The 
leak was located 200 ft. from the 
tunnel and proved to be a pit hole 
in the pipe about Vi« in- i" diameter. 

The third case was in a 5-in. steam 
line carrying 10 lb. steam pressure. 
The line is encased in a concrete 
duct. Thee leak was located at a 
point which proved to be 9% ft. 
underground. 

In all these cases the leaks were 
plainly audible for ten or more feet 
each side of the point at which it 
was finally decided that the disturb- 
ance was loudest. In each case the 
first excavation put down centered on 
the leak. 

The instrument and some of its 
applications are described in Techni- 
cal Paper 277, Department of the 
Interior, Bureau of Mines, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



90 



Water Works 



July 



Assumptions for Sewer Design in 
New York City 

Sewer design is now to a large ex- 
tent uniform in the five Boroughs of 
New York City. Certain rules relat- 
ing to outlets were adopted by the 
Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment in 1917, but there are also vari- 
ous assumptions adhered to by mutual 
consent in the preparation of sewer 
plans. Some of these assumptions 
are given as follows in a special sew- 
age disposal bulletin issued recently 
by the Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment of New York City: 

The average dry weather flow from 
the resident population of any section 
is taken to equal the average water 
supply plus a certain allowance for 
average leakage or infiltration of 
ground water. The maximum rate of 
dry weather flow is then assumed to 
be 1^/^ times the average. 

Infiltration depends on the depth 
below the ground water level. Where 
the sewer invert lies above the ground 
water, infiltration will be absent. 
Where the invert is from to 5 ft. 
below the ground water level, infil- 
tration is estimated at 20,000 gals, 
per mile of sewer per day, and where 
the invert is at a greater depth infil- 
tration is estimated at 40,000 gals, 
per mile, or about 1,560 gals, per acre, 
per day. 

Sanitary sewers in which the dry 
weather flow will amount to 10 cu. ft. 
per second or more are designed large 
enough to carry twice the mean dry 
weather flow, with an added allow- 
ance, where necessary, for transients 
and industrial wastes. 

Intercepting sewers are designed to 
carry from 2 to 3 times the estimated 
average water consumption plus l'^ 
times the average infiltration. 

In computing the capacity of sewers 
by the Kutter formula, the coefficient 
of friction is assumed at: 

.012 for wood stave pipe 

.013 for cast iron and vitrified pipe 

.013 to .015 for concrete and brick- 
work. 

Minimum velocities are provided, 
where practicable, of at least 2.25 ft. 
per second in separate sewers and 2.5 
ft. per second in combined sewers. 

Sanitation Project in Peru. — The 

so-called Peruvian sanitation loan of 
$25,000,000, it is reported, has been 
arranged. The Banco Italiano at 
Lima is representing the banking in- 
terests. 



Criteria for Earth Dam Design 

In a paper, "The Design of Earth 
Dams," presented May 2 before the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, 
Joel D. Justin summarized the prac- 
tical criteria for the design of earth 
dams as follows: 

"An earth dam should be designed 
so that: 

"(1) The spillway capacity is so 
great that there is no danger of over- 
topping; 

"(2) The line of saturation is well 
within the down-stream toe; 

"(3) The up-stream and down- 
stream slopes must be such that, with 
the materials used in the construc- 
tion, they will be stable under all 
conditions; 

"(4) There must be no opportunity 
for the free passage of water from 
the up-stream to the down-stream 
face; 

"(5) Water which passes through 
and under the dam, must, when it 
rises to the surface below the toe, 
have a velocity so small that it is in- 
capable of moving any of the material 
of which the dam or its foundation is 
composed; 

"(6) The freeboard must be such 
that there is no danger of overtopping 
by wave action. 

"All rules have their exceptions, 
and it cannot be stated positively that 
any dam which does not meet fully 
all the foregoing criteria will be un- 
safe. It will be found, however, that 
with the few safe dams which do not 
fully meet all these criteria, some 
special means have been adopted to 
overcome the difficulty. For instance, 
the writer knows of one earth dam, 
60 ft. high, founded on ledge rock 
Avith practically no soil cover. The 
engineer recognized that the down- 
stream toe would be saturated, under 
these conditions, and placed a heavy 
rock fill against the toe. A small 
quantity of water issues from the toe 
of the rock fill, but the velocity is so 
low that the material of which the 
dam is composed is not disturbed. 

"An earth dam, designed and built 
to meet these criteria, will prove as 
permanent as any of the works of 
man if proper attention is given to 
important details during construc- 
tion." 



Sewer Systems in Kansas. — Of the 
542 incorporated places in Kansas, 
147 have sewer systems. 



1923 



Water Works 



91 



Engineering Work for L2trge British Irrigation 

Project 

Method of Making Surveys and Designs for Murrumbidgee Scheme, 
New South Wales, Described in Paper Read Before Leeton 
, (N. S. W.) Bremch of Water Conservation and 

Irrigation Commission 

By J. M. S. WOORE 



The following brief notes on sur- 
veys and the design of subdivisions 
and minor works in connection with 
an irrigation scheme are mostly based 
on experience and practice with re- 
gard to the Murrumbidgee irrigation 
scheme. It must be borne in m ind 
that every irrigation scheme is more 
or less in the nature of an experiment 
and has its own problems to solve m 
a manner best suited to local condi- 
tions. As an illustration of this it 
may be stated that considerable areas 
of what would otherwise be consid- 
ered as first-class irrigation land are 
being excluded from settlements on 
the Murray on account of danger an- 
ticipated from injurious salts. On 
portions of the Murrumbidgee irriga- 
tion scheme there are difficulties of 
an opposite nature, and problems in 
connection with an impervious subsoil 
have to be dealt with. 

Contour Surveys. — Assuming that 
preliminary surveys have been com- 
pleted and sites located for the head- 
works and dam, or pimiping station, 
a very carefvil major contour, feature 
and classification survey is then nec- 
essary to serve as a basis of design. 
To provide a framework for the sur- 
vey, main lines are set out at right 
angles to each other so as to form a 
chess board system with squares of 
about one mile on the side, any con- 
venient sur\^eyed line being taken as 
a base line. According to the prac- 
tice now in force, a heavy post is 
placed at each intersection to ser\'e as 
a connection for the chamiel surveys 
and numbered so as to identify the 
comer. A bench mark is cut on the 
nearest suitable tree, or if there are 
no trees available the bench mark is 
formed on the intersection post and 
specially carved with the surveyor's 
disting^shing letter. 

When the main lines are set out, 
pegs are driven at intervals of 900 ft. 
or as necessary, preferably on the 
east and west lines so as to form tem- 
porary bench marks when the cross 
sections are taken. The bench marks 



and temporary bench marks forming 
the foundation of the survey are then 
carefully levelled and checked lev- 
elled, any small errors being adjusted. 
It is preferable that the bench marks 
should first be established over a fair- 
ly large area comprising a group of 
the squares referred to. Sections are 
then run from peg to peg and spot 
levels taken each side so as to form 
a system of levels 300 ft. apart, or 
as required to suit the coimtry. The 
surveyor should also pick up any 
marked irregularities of the ground 
between the regular spot levels. 

All natural features, nature of tim- 
ber, improvements such as fences, 
buildings, dams, etc., are located and 
described, and it is important that 
comer posts of any existing surveys 
should be connected with the contour 
survey. 

A classification of the soil is carried 
out simultaneously with the major 
contour survey, the nature of the soil 
and subsoil being carefully recorded 
in the field notes. Trial holes are 
sunk about 2 ft. 6 in. deep on the 
section lines about 900 ft. apart, or as 
necessary, and the classification of 
soils shoixld be carried out in a uni- 
form manner. All boundaries defin- 
ing changes in the nature of the^ soil, 
areas of rocky patches, and the limits 
of land unfit for irrigation through 
any cause should be clearly defined in 
the field notes. 

It should here be mentioned that 
after the subdivisions have been sur- 
veyed and the land cleared of timber, 
a minor contour survey of each farm 
is made with spot levels 1 chain apart, 
the intersections being located by a 
system of flagging which is described 
in the commission's regulations. 
From the minor contour survey a plan 
of each farm is prepared showing 
contours at 3-in. intervals*. This plan 
is supplied for the information of the 
settler, and so that a design of each 
farm may be prepared if necessary, 
showing location of farm ditches and 
other information. 



92 



Water Works 



July 



Returning to the major contour 
survey; when the field notes are com- 
plete the levels and other information 
are plotted to a scale from 8 chains 
to 4 chains to the inch, according to 
the nature of the country, the plot of 
any existing subdivisions serving as a 
ground work for the plan, and con- 
tours are then drawn in at intervals 
of 1 ft. in level. 

Subdivision Designs. — The major 
contour plan forms the basis of de- 
sign for the new subdivisions for irri- 
gation farms, but it is customary first 
to estimate whether the section under 
consideration is suitable for dairy 
farming, fruitgrowing, or other pur- 
pose, and then prepare a preliminary 
design on a reduced scale, the areas 
of the farms being fixed approximate- 
ly according to the classification and 
general knowledge of the country. 
With the help of this plan it is now 
the usual practice for a preliminary 
inspection to be made with the agri- 
cultural expert for the commission 
and the areas reduced or increased 
according to this officer's advice. The 
detail design is then prepared on the 
large scale plan. 

There are two main systems for 
subdivision designs, the strictly rec- 
tangular system, where the land is 
subdivided on a regular plan into 
rectangular blocks and the location of 
the channels in relation to the farms 
is considered as a secondary matter, 
and the more scientific system as 
adopted here and elsewhere in Aus- 
tralia, where the channel system is 
considered of first importance and the 
farms are designed to suit the con- 
tours, and so that they may be 
watered in the most convenient man- 
ner; intersections of farms by chan- 
nels being avoided as far as possible. 

At Mildura, in Victoria, the settle- 
ment has been laid out on a strictly 
rectangular plan which does not cor- 
respond with the contours, the chan- 
nels being located without reference 
to the subdivisions and crossing the 
farms in all directions. In later irri- 
gation schemes in Victoria the rec- 
tangular plan has been abandoned 
and subdivisions designed to suit the 
contours. In India and the United 
States of America the rectangular 
plan is adored, but the minor chan- 
nels are located as far as possible so 
as not to intersect the farms. 

Over comparatively small areas 
where the slopes are regular, a rec- 
tangular plan can be obtained even 



when the general design is based on 
the contour system, but no attempt is 
made to sacrifice other advantages for 
this plan. The main principles are 
that the cost of works and waste 
space should be reduced to a mini- 
mum, and the farms laid out on as 
regular plan as possible, consistent 
with ease of watering; intersections 
of farms by channels and drains 
should be avoided as far as possible. 

All such matters as number, width 
and direction of roads, width of re- 
serves required for channels and 
drains, grades and costs of main con- 
tour channels, etc., cost of bridges and 
other works, provision for railways, 
village sites and public utilities have 
to be kept in mind, as well as many 
other matters which, like the "other 
articles" of the auctioneer's advertise- 
ment, are "too numerous to mention," 

Speaking generally, the method 
adopted is to locate the main channel 
lines on the higher ground or ridges 
and drains on the lower contours or 
in the depressions or water-courses. 
Where the slopes flatten out and the 
ground is fairly regular the smaller 
channels may cross the contours in 
parallel straight lines. In country 
where there is an even step slope one 
way it is economical and probably 
more convenient for watering and 
drainage to provide for parallel con- 
tour channels with tiers of farms be- 
tween them. Where the slopes flatten 
out and there is still a fairly even 
fall, it seems more advantageous to 
run parallel laterals nearly at right 
angles to the main feeding channel or 
branch canal. This design is prob- 
ably more economical in the case of 
flat slopes, as the laterals can usually 
be of smaller capacity and often a 
better grade can be obtained. The 
grade of a canal or main contour 
channel is an important matter and 
depends mostly on the slope of the 
country and the value of the land. 
Where the slopes flatten out and first- 
class land is met with it may be ad- 
visable to reduce the grade very con- 
siderably so as to take in a larger 
area — the annual return expected 
from the extra land taken in should 
balance the interest and depreciation 
charges on the extra cost of con- 
struction. It will be found that as 
the size of a channel increases the 
extra cost of construction due to in- 
creasing the sectional area or flatten- 
ing grade decreases. 

Grades of main canals and contour 



1923 



Water Works 



93 



channels usually vary between 2 ft. 
and 6 in. to the mile. On account of 
the higher cost of construction the 
grades of concrete or mortar lined 
channels should be made as steep as 
possible. The location and grades of 
contour supply channels is a matter 
which has to be carefully considered 
in connection with the subdivision de- 
signs. There is not much choice as a 
rule as to grades of drains, which are 
generally located so as to obtain the 
best fall possible. 

Subdivision and Channel Surveys. — 

When the subdivision design has been 
approved the channel lines and sub- 
divisions are set out and sur\'eyed on 
the ground. When setting out supply 
channels and drains the surveyor 
should take the contour plan as a 
guide, and not work from the plan by 
scale only, and it is necessary that all 
corner posts and intersections of the 
major contour survey should be 
picked up when locating the channels, 
so that the latter will be in their cor- 
rect position in relation to the con- 
tours. In setting out contour chan- 
nels considerable judgment is re- 
quired, so that a reasonably straight 
line may be obtained without too 
much cut or fill. In broken country it 
is a mistake to endeavor to follow the 
contour too closely, as the cost of con- 
struction is involved in the extra 
length of channel and additional 
cur\'es might easily counterbalance 
any saving in earthwork, especially if 
the channel is to be lined. The sub- 
division sur\'eys must be carried out 
to correspond with the channel lines, 
and the channel surveys should either 
be completed beforehand or the two 
sur\'eys worked together. 

Grading and Capacity of Supply 
Channels. — On completion of the 
channel surveys the sections are 
plotted, sectional areas and capacities, 
fixed, and channels graded in the most 
economical manner as regards actual 
construction. Assuming the capacity 
to be constant, the condition for 
minimum sectional area is that the 
depth should be twice the hydraulic 
radius, but this rule can be seldom 
realized in practice, as the depth 
would be too great and side slopes too 
steep for economical construction by 
the ordinary methods. The condition 
is nearly fulfilled in our small lined 
channels with slopes of 45 deg. and 
depths equal to the bed widths. For 
average size earth channels of the 
usual proportions the depth is about 



1^/^ times the hydraulic radius, and 
for main canals with a bed width of, 
say, 50 ft., the depth is nearly equal 
to the hydraulic radius. 

In order to obtain as regular de- 
sign as possible the majority of the 
smaller channels or laterals are lo- 
cated in straight lines and are not de- 
signed to any fixed grade, the method 
adopted being as follows: — 

The full supply level at each farm 
outlet is fixed at a certain margin 
above the highest point of the farm 
which it is considered economical to 
water; this margin is usually taken 
as from 3 in. to 6 in., and depends on 
the loss of head in the meter, grade 
of farm ditches, contours of farms, 
and other factors. The flow line is 
then fixed so as to allow for the full 
supply levels already determined and 
so as to balance the earthwork quan- 
tities as nearly as possible, any spoil 
required being provided by enlarging 
the section of the channel, borrowing 
from banks of adjacent drains, or in 
extreme cases from tanks excavated 
within the farm boundaries. Side 
cuts are avoided as far as possible, 
as they tend to harbour noxious weeds 
and are objectionable from other 
points of \iew. 

The draftsman engaged in grading 
supply channels and drains should 
continually refer to the contour plan, 
and as the grading proceeds should 
show on a copy of this plan, the ap- 
proximate areas assumed to be not 
commanded, too low to be drained or 
subject to flood, together with full 
supply level at farm outlets and bed 
levels of drains. This information is 
afterwards checked and utilized in 
the preparation of particulars for 
gazettal of farms. In many cases the 
size of the smaller earth channels or 
laterals is governed by the amount of 
spoil required for the banks and not 
the actual capacity. 

In concrete or mortar lined chan- 
nels, however, where saving of mate- 
rial is the first consideration, the sec- 
tional areas should be reduced to a 
minimum and the best grades possible 
obtained. On account of the great 
expense of channel lining the capac- 
ities of the individual channels should 
be reduced to a minimum, consistent 
with economy in working and conve- 
nience to the settler. 

The general method recommended 
is as follows: — A convenient district 
is assumed for a water bailiff, con- 
taining, say, 50 to 70 farms, if the 



94 



Water Works 



July 



original system is a large one it may 
be assumed as divided into two dis- 
tricts. The stream required to water 
the district in the given rotation 
period will then be in cusecs: — 

Total irrigable area in acres X 

assumed depth of watering in ft. 

Rotation period in days X 2. 

and allowance should be made for 
losses, say, 10 per cent, in the case of 
lined channels. 

The total flow is then considered to 
consist of a number of unit streams 
of one cusec, and each class of farm 
is assumed to take one or more or a 
fraction of such stream according to 
its irrigable area and the purpose for 
which it was designed. Thus a 20- 
acre horticulture farm may take one 
unit stream of 1 cusec, a 250-acre 
dairy farm with a water right of 80 
acre ft. may take three unit streams, 
and so on. The main branch or feed- 
ing channel should obviously be of the 
full capacity until a point is reached 
where the number of unit streams re- 
quired is equal to the total flow; the 
capacity can then be reduced as re- 
quired after passing each farm outlet. 
The laterals feeding from the main 
branch are designed so as to be grad- 
ually increased in capacity from the 
last outlet downstream until the full 
designed capacity is reached. 

This system assumes, of course, 
that as far as possible the water dis- 
tribution from each lateral will be 
completed before past^ing on to the 
next one, so that a minimum number 
of offtakes will be in operation at the 
same time. This method is the most 
convenient and economical as far as 
water distribution is concerned, but 
somewhat increases the cost of the 
channels. If it were permissible to 
dodge about from one lateral to an- 
other over a wide area so as to have 
a large number of offtakes in opera- 
tion at the same time, the size of the 
channels could be considerably re- 
duced, but the cost of operation and 
inconvenience to the settler would be 
correspondingly increased. When a 
number of short isolated lined chan- 
nels are taken off a main branch or 
main canal at frequent intervals no 
very definite system can be followed 
out. It is usually sufficient to fix a 
reasonable maximum capacity, say, 12 
cusecs, and then deal with each lat- 
eral as explained above. 

Surface Drainage. — A complete sys- 
tem of surface drainage for storm 



waters and waste water from irriga- 
tion is provided. So far, except in 
isolated cases, there has been no se- 
rious trouble due to rise of water 
plane or undue accumulation of in- 
jurious salts, and it is hoped that the 
question of deep subsoil drainage may 
be deferred for many years. Wher- 
ever possible, main drains are taken 
right through to the Murrumbidgee 
River or Mirrool Creek. There is 
usually a difficulty in obtaining suffi- 
cient fall, and owing to the flat nature 
of the country, grades of 6 in. to the 
mile over long distances are often 
necessary. 

It is assumed generally that a sur- 
face drainage system cannot be pro- 
vided of sufficient capacity to run off 
water due to heavy rainfall as quickly 
as it falls, and some temporary accu- 
mulation of flood waters is unavoid- 
able. Structures such as culverts and 
subways should be designed so as to 
be roughly proportioned to the catch- 
ment areas, and drains and struc- 
tures should be increased in size 
where the slopes are steep or in the 
vicinity of a range of hills. This pre- 
caution is specially necessary where a 
large body of water is concentrated 
at a few points by means of contour 
drains skirting the hills. Drains are 
located as far as possible on road or 
special reserves outside the farm 
boundaries, and where the intersection 
of farms cannot be avoided, the chan- 
nels should not pass through small 
swamps or depressions which are too 
low to be drained, but should be de- 
viated so as to pass round them. 

Structures. — On every irrigation 
scheme there is a very large number 
of structures to be provided for, such 
as bridges, regulators, checks, cul- 
verts, subways, offtakes, farm outlets, 
etc., as well as special structures such 
as pumping stations, factory build- 
ings and works in connection with 
roads, streets, town water supply, 
sewerage, etc. It is of course of 
great importance that the design of 
irrigation structures should be as eco- 
nomical as possible, the best use being 
made of the most suitable materials 
obtainable in the district. 

Sufficient supplies of suitable tim- 
ber being now unobtainable at a rea- 
sonable cost, it has been found more 
economical to adopt reinforced con- 
crete as the standard form of con- 
struction in almost every instance. 
This form of construction is practi- 
cally permanent and has the ad- 



1923 



Water Works 



95 



vantage of requiring very little 
expenditure in maintenance. It is 
essential of course that sufficient steel 
be provided at all places where ac- 
cording to calculation or judgment 
tensional stress in the concrete is 
likely to develop, and careful atten- 
tion should be directed to such mat- 
ters as providing sufficient area for 
bond and ample length of steel for 
proper anchorage of bars in retaining 
walls and similar structures. As the 
cost of form work is often about 25 
per cent of the total, every endeavor 
should be made to design structures 
so that forms may be easily removed 
and their cost reduced to a minimum. 

The standard tj^pe bridge for the 
main canal may be taken as an exam- 
ple of simple design, and consists of a 
plain slab deck in several spans of not 
more than 12 ft. 6 in. On account of 
the comparatively low cost of forms it 
has been found that this structure is 
more economical than a bridge with 
longer spans of tee beam and slab 
construction. 

The question of foimdation and 
floors to bridges and regulators is 
important, especially if the soil is of 
a porous nature and sufficient length 
of floor and cut off walls should be 
provided to reduce the rate of perco- 
lation and the upward pressure on the 
downstream portions of the floor to a 
safe limit, when the water is held up 
on the upstream side only. The ques- 
tion of the design of reinforced con- 
crete is so intimately connected with 
constructional methods that it is dif- 
ficult to separate the two subjects. 
If the engineer responsible for de- 
signs is not also in charge of con- 
struction he should at least frequently 
confer with the construction engineer 
and make inspections of works in 
progress, and only by co-ordination 
of this kind can economical and suc- 
cessful reinforced structural work be 
carried out. Such matters as mixing, 
placing and consistency of concrete, 
setting up and removal of forms, ty- 
ing reinforcement and securing the 
bars in place in correct relation to. the 
forms, and many other questions, a 
knowledge of which is so necessary 
for drafting a specification, can only 
be learned by practical experience. 

Pumping Schemes. — Where large 
areas of first-class land at a reason- 
able distance from the head works are 
not commanded by gravitation, it be- 
comes a question for consiaeration as 
to whether such lands should not be 



watered by pumping, rather than ex- 
tend the gravitation scheme to the 
utmost Limit required to dispose of 
the available water rights. One such 
scheme comprising about 3,000 acres 
is already in operation on the Mur- 
rumbidgee Irrigation Area, and others 
are proposed. 

A pumping station should be lo- 
cated so that the length of rising 
main is as short as possible and 
should be in a convenient position for 
the transmission of power or trans- 
port of fuel. If steam or suction gas 
be adopted the station should, if pos- 
sible, be adjacent to a railway to 
avoid expense in carting coal, etc. 
Centrifugal pumps are now almost 
generally adopted for irrigation pur- 
poses, and can be designed with a 
high efficiency both for low and high 
heads; they have few parts which are 
likely to get out of order and require 
very little attention. They are 
cheaper and occupy less space than 
reciprocating pumps. The type with 
horizontal split casing should be 
adopted for irrigation works, as this 
pump can easily be opened up and 
cleaned of floating woods and other 
trash. Centrifugal pumps are spe- 
cially adapted for electric power, and 
very high efficiencies can be reached 
with direct coupled sets. When con- 
sidering the pumping station careful 
design of the suction pipe and con- 
nections is necessary so that the 
water might enter with a low velocity 
which should gradually increase as 
the eye of the pump is approached. 
In order to avoid air locks the upper 
line of the suction pipe and any re- 
ducing pieces should be level or have 
a slight fall towards the suction well. 
It should be borne in mind that if two 
or more centrifugal pumps are in- 
tended to deliver into a common ris- 
ing main they should be of exactly 
the same design with similar head- 
speed curves, otherwise the pressure 
developed by one pump would be 
liable to stop the others. 

Speaking generally as regards the 
design of all structures and plant, the 
most economical design is that for 
which the annual charges, consisting 
of cost of operation, maintenance and 
interest and depreciation on capital 
cost are a minimum, but another very 
important matter is the actual pro- 
vision of the capital required. An 
engineer often has to be satisfied with 
a cheaper design as regards capital 



96 



Water Works 



July 



cost, with correspondingly increased 
annual charges. 

Various Matters in Connection 
With Irrigation Design. — In addition 
to the subjects already dealt with 
there are many other matters in con- 
nection with the design of an irriga- 
tion area, such as town planning, the 
design of ornamental parks and 
plantations; municipal work, such as 
roads, streets, town water supply 
and sewerage disposal works, factory 
buildings, etc., etc. 

The provision of railway facilities 
is an important matter which affects 
the welfare of an irrigation settle- 
ment, and in the preparation of sub- 
division designs and town planning, 
ample provision should be made for 
main trunk lines, spur lines, station 
yards and sidings to factories, etc. 
As on an irrigation area, it is usual 
to group together allotments reserved 
for industrial purposes; considerable 
care should be exercised in designing 
a system of sidings which will be 
convenient and economical in opera- 
tion, and due allowance should be 
made for future large increases in 
traffic. 

The two main points to be consid- 
ered are that the system of sidings 
should have direct access to the near- 
est station yard without unnecessary 
shunting, and that running or traffic 
roads should be provided distinct from 
the sidings on which trucks will stand 
for loading or unloading, so that the 
engine will be able to drop or pick up 
trucks from any part of the system 
without interference with loading 
operations. 

Among the many subsidiary mat- 
ters connected with irrigation design 
the agricultural aspect of the. work 
should not be neglected, as it is 
closely connected with the design of 
subdivisions and works. Sorne ac- 
quaintance with soil classification in 
relation to irrigation is necessary, 
and a knowledge of the various crops 
and products which can be profitably 
grown in the district, together with 
the amount of water recjuired for each 
and the approximate average returns 
to be expected per acre. Some prac- 
tical knowledge of irrigation may also 
be very useful, and will assist the en- 
gineer in dealing with the numerous 
applications and requests from the 
settlers in a sympathetic and intelli- 
gent manner. 



Work of the U. S. Reclamation 
Service 

The Reclamation Service of the In- 
terior Department has completed a 
summation of its work conducted since 
the reclamation act went into effect 
20 years ago. The following summary 
from the May Reclamation Record 
shows that operations of the depart- 
ment in irrigating arid lands have 
reached great proportions. 

The water-storage capacity of irri- 
gation project reservoirs of the De- 
partment of the Interior in Western 
States has now reached 10,000,000 
acre-feet, or enough to cover the en- 
tire State of Connecticut with 3 ft. of 
water. 

The number of projects now under 
way or completed embrace upward of 
3,000,000 acres of land that may ulti- 
mately be irrigated and divided into 
70,000 farms, ranging from 10 to 160 
acres. Water is already available for 
over 2,000,000 acres on more than 
44,000 farms. 

The construction of irrigation proj- 
ects has included over 12,500 miles of 
canals, ditches, and drains; tunnels, 
with an aggregate length of over 27 
miles; masonry, earth, rock-fill, and 
crib dams, with a total volume of 14,- 
000,000 cu. yd.; over 8,000 bridges; 
560 miles of pipe line; 130 miles of 
flumes; 1,000 miles of wagon road; 83 
miles of railroad; 3,000 miles of tele- 
phone lines; 970 miles of transmission 
lines; and 1,450 buildings, such as 
offices, residences, power plants, 
pumping stations, barns, and store- 
houses. The excavation of rock and 
earth amounts to about 200,000,000 
cu. yd., equivalent to an excavation 1 
mile on a side and nearly 200 ft. deep. 
Excavation during 1922 exceeded 
1,000,000 cu. yd. a month. 

The Reclamation Service has used 
over 3,000,000 bbl. of cement and has 
manufactured over 1,500,000 bbl. of 
cement and sand-cement. It has mined 
140,000 tons of coal. The irrigation 
works incidentally develop approxi- 
mately 64,000 h.p. 



Compensation for Typhoid Fever 
Under Workmen's Compensation Act. 

— Typhoid fever contracted by an 
employee of a hotel as the result of 
drinking impure well water furnished 
by the hotel has been held compen- 
sable as an accident within the mean- 
ing of the workmen's compensation 
act by the Supreme Court of Mich- 
igan. 



Water Works 



97 



Construction of Water Works Intakes 



rious Factors Including Types of Cribs, Protection of Intakes and 
Size of Intake Pipe Described in The Canadian Engineer 

By ROBERT W. ANGUS, 

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto 



lere are many sources of supply, 
and it will not be possible to discuss 
this phase of the question under the 
title of this article, but it may be said 
that only the supplies obtained from 
certain rivers and large ponds or lakes 
are of interest in this connection, be- 
cause in these cases many peculiar 
and special problems present them- 
selves. More especially is this the 




Figr. 1. — lorm of Visible Crib Used in Great 
Lakes. 

case in exposed places, where, due 
either to rough weather or s^\^ft flow- 
ing water, there is difficulty in keep- 
ing the structures in place. 

In such cases as these, an intake of 
good construction must be built which 
must have the important properties of 
being able to draw an ample supply 
of water as free as possible from tur- 
bidity and impurities of various kinds, 
and always fully dependable. Natu- 
rally, where the supply is drawn from 
the great lakes, the intake must be 
very well built and its location very 
carefully selected. 

Intakes in the great lakes are used 
by many large cities such as Toronto, 
Chicago, Cleveland, etc., and in every 
case the end of the intake pipe or 
tunnel must be protected by a crib. 
For these larger supplies two types of 
crib have been used, those rising above 
the water surface and briefly referred 
to as visible cribs, and those which are 
entirely below the surface, or sub- 
merged cribs. The general arrange- 
ment of the former class is shown in 
Fig. 1, which is broadly typical of 



this class, while Fig. 2 shows the sub- 
merged type of crib. Visible cribs 
are in use in Chicago, Cleveland and 
other places and are located in from 
35 ft. to 50 ft. depth of water, the 
deeper water being the more pre- 
ferred. Frequently they have no in- 
tegral connection with the intake pipe, 
their main function being to protect 
the end of this pipe or tunnel from 
damage and to aid it in drawing a 
satisfactory supply. 

Visible Cribs. — Visible cribs are al- 
ways made high enough to prevent 
water washing over the top of them 
into the intake pipe, because surface 
water is not as satisfactory as that 
taken from lower down. As will be 
seen in Fig. 1, the crib consists of an 
annular ring of stone work of concrete 
filled inside with permanent timber 
or steel forms, the part above the 
water surface usually being of stone- 
work or concrete of extra strong con- 
struction. The larger cribs are over 
100 ft. diameter outside and rise as 
much as 20 ft. above the lake. 
Through the annular ring, ports are 
left through which the water enters, 
these ports being as near the bottom 
as possible, and yet not low enough 
to draw in material from the bed of 
the lake. 

Cribs of this kind are very expen- 
sive to build and also to maintain, 




Fig. 2. — Typical Large Submerged Crib. 



since lights must be kept on them dur- 
ing the season of navigation, and they 
be able to resist the effects of floating 
ice during the winter. It is the desire 
of their designers to keep them from 
drawing ice through the ports in win- 
ter, but this has always proved an ex- 
ceedingly difficult matter and ice gives 
very serious trouble at times by block- 
ing up the supply; some of the cribs 



98 



Water Works 



July 



are equipped with large boilers to use 
in such an emergency. Ice is one of 
the greatest menaces, and even with 
cribs in deep water, with the ports 
well below the surface, ice is drawn 
down to them from the surface, due 
to too high a velocity of water 
through the ports since the draft of 
water to a port seems to be concen- 




Atj aM^ff^ 






Fig:. 3. — Strainer on Intake Pipe. 

trated in a small cone. In this con- 
nection it should be pointed out that 
what is called the mean velocity 
through the ports, found by dividing 
the area of them into the volume of 
water, is always kept low so as to re- 
duce the tendency to draw ice, but 
even if the average velocity of flow 
is low, and the distribution of the 
water through the port has not been 
properly adjusted, it may be found 
that the swiftest flowing part of the 
water entering the port will readily 
draw in ice that would not be affected 
by the water if it all moved at the 
same rate which would be equal to 
the average velocity. 

Submerged Cribs. — Submerged 
cribs are now finding very much 
favor both for small and large sup- 
plies, and indeed, the cost prevents 
the use of anything else for the 
smaller quantities of water. The fact 
that Milwaukee and Cleveland have 
recently constructed cribs of this de- 
scription is very interesting, even 
though the latter place already had its 
first crib of the visible type. Con- 
trary to what might at first sight ap- 
pear to be the case, the original cost 
of such a crib for a city like Cleve- 
land would not be much less than that 



of the visible one, for in such cases 
the intake pipe takes the form of a 
tunnel, and in order that the outer 
end of this may be built, protection 
must be secured against rough seas. 
This necessitates the use of a visible 
crib during construction, and the up- 
per part of the crib is afterward re- 
moved, leaving only the lower part as 
a protection to the finished intake. 
The annual cost of upkeep of sub- 
merged cribs is small for evident rea- 
sons. Both Toronto intakes are of 
this type. All such cribs have a ten- 
dency to draw from the surface to 
some extent the water coming down 
in a cone as suggested in Fig. 2, again 
causing a concentration of flow 
through a part of the screen. 

For the smaller places the sub- 
merged crib is the only one practi- 
cable, and as these intakes usually 
consist of iron or steel pipe, laid on or 
just below the bed of the lake or 
river, the usual practice is to con- 
struct the main part of the crib on 
shore, tow it out to place and, after 
sinking, filling it with stones or con- 
crete; the pipe is then connected to it 
bv divers. In the design of such cribs 
one important problem is to keep out 
foreign matter from the intake, be- 
cause there is no real isolation of sur- 
face water from the intake pipe as is 
evident from inspection of Fig. 2. The 
tendency for foreign matter to enter 




£^D3e0 Time - Seconaa 



Fig. 4.— Surge Study— 24 in. Intake, S.OOO f«. 

Long to a Well 4 ft. Diam. Sadden 

Demand from Rest of 9.42 

C. F. S. 

depends on the maximum velocity 
through the intake, and hence the 
draft of water must take place over a 
large area so as to prevent concen- 
tration. But in view of the fact that 
the axis of the intake pipe is fre- 
quently vertical where it passes into 
the crib, the flow is liable to be con- 
centrated as already mentioned in re- 



1923 



Water Works 



99 



ferring to Fig. 2, and some form of 
protection must be devised which will 
keep substances from dropping di- 
: rectly into the intake, and the writer 
believes that both of the above fea- 
tures may be combined in a most sat- 
isfactory manner and to better ad- 
vantage than is possible with the 
I screen placed horizontally. 

Screening the Water. — Most of the 
: cribs put down some years ago were 
made in the form of "strainers" or 
had screens of a more or less perfect 
. construction, so as to prevent fish or 
> debris entering the intake pipe. One 
; arrangement used was to perforate a 
I few leng:ths of the intake pipe with 
holes about % in. diameter, placed 
close together in the upper half of the 
pipe. Another plan was to have the 
intake terminate in a steel strainer 
of the general form shown in Fig. 3. 
In the writer's opinion such an ar- 
rangement is a mistake, because it 
forms a suitable means of starting 
anchor ice, which will block up the 
openings and close the ir.take, and 
! again, it is always difficult to find the 
position of the intake strainer and 
; to remove an obstruction in ordinary 
, weather, and is impossible to do so in 
inclement weather. The openings to 
the intake should never be small and 
thrre does not seem to be any objec- 
tion to having them 9 in. to 12 in., or 
even more if desired, in their smallest 
dimension, but if this construction is 
employed the velocity of the water 
should be the smallest where it first 
enters the crib and it should increase 
to a maximum in the pipe, so that 
whatever does enter the crib will pro- 
ceed into a region of higher velocity 
and will thus be driven through the 
pipe with certainty. 

Such a design necessitates the use 
of a screen-well on shore, through 
which the water must pass on its way 
to the pumps, and this well must be 
of ample size so that the velocitv 
through it will be small. The well 
must contain screens, which may be 
removed for cleaning and which 
may be removed for cleaning and 
which should be fine enough to pre- 
vent any objectionable substance, such 
as fish, entering the pumps. To facil- 
itate cleaning, duplicate screens 
should be provided so that one set 
may be drawn out for cleaning with- 
out leaving the pumps unprotected. 

Intake Pipe. — The intake pipe 
should be amply large and laid to 
proper depth and grade. In regard 



to the size, it should be noted that the 
capacity of a pipe increases at a very 
much greater rate than its diameter, 
and also at a greater rate than its 
area, while it is roughly true that the 
initial cost of the pipe varies as its 
diameter. The following figures, 
based on similar pipes in all respects 
except size, will be instructive in this 
connection, and are only g^iven to 
stress the point mentioned; they are 
only given to stress the point men- 
tioned; they are based on velocities 
somewhat above 2 ft. per second in 
the smallest pipe. 





Relative 


Relative 


Relative 


Size pipe 


diameter 


area 


capacity 


12 in. 


1 


1 


1 


16 in. 


1.33 


1.78 


2.1 


24 in. 


2.00 


4.00 


6.2 


36 in. 


3.00 


9.00 


18.0 



A glance at the table shows that a 
16 in. pipe has a great advantage over 
a 12 in. pipe, in that its cost would 
only be about 33 per cent, higher, 
while it could carry twice the water, 
and the 36 in. pipe shows a similar 
fact in a more forcible way. 

It is, therefore, good economy to 
make an intake pipe amply large, and 
this should be borne in mind very 
carefully. 

One misfortune about too many in- 
take pipes is that they do not slope 
upward all the way from the crib 
to the well, and, therefore, have pock- 
ets for air to collect, while another 
thing that is frequently neglected is 
to place the shore end deep enough. 
Should proper allowance not be made 
for the variation in lake levels, it may 
be found that an intake will have 
almost no capacity at times. Thus, 
the level of Lake Ontario has an ex- 
treme variation of approximately six 
feet, so that a 12 in. 1,200 ft. long, 
laid with the shore end at lowest 
water level, would have no capacity 
when the lake was at its lowest eleva- 
tion, and a capacity of 1,330,000 gals, 
per day when at highest level. Such 
an intake is of no value under low 
water conditions, and low water may 
easily occur at a time when a large 
supply is demanded. 

Surges in Intakes. — With further 
reference to the proper depth at which 
pipes should be laid, the writer had 
occasion to study the effect of surges 
in the pipe in this connection, and Fig. 
4 is presented as an illustration, 
although the proportions there stated 
would be a clear indication of poor 
desig^i. 



100 



Water Works 



July 



The curve shows the case of a 24 
in. intake pipe 2,000 ft. long supplying 
water to a 4 ft. well on shore. From 
this well the pumps draw water, and 
it was assumed in the problem that 
when the pumps were started they 
would instantly begin to deliver water 
at the rate of 9.42 cu. ft. per sec. 
or five million gallons per day. The 
curves show in a clear way how the 
velocity in the pipe gains its final 
value by first exceeding it, and then 
dropping back again, but the main 
point has to do with the water levels 
in the well and a history of them is 
also given. Assuming an amply deep 
well and sufficiently deep suction pipe, 
the intake pipe would have to be laid 
to a depth of 12.6 ft. below low water 
at the shore end, instead of the 4 ft. 
required for the steady flow, if it 
were desired to avoid possibility of 
the pipe emptying at the shore end. 
The size of well is a very material 
element in this last case and if the 
well has been made larger the water 
level would have fallen a much small- 
er distance, but the point made clear 
by the curve is that the size of well 
partly determines the depth at which 
the pipe should be laid, and that it 
should always be laid lower than is 
required to overcome friction losses. 

The curves also are interesting in 
showing the type of phenomenon that 
occurs if the intake pipe is connected 
directly to the pumps, or if the pump 
suction pipe is very long. 



Garbage and Refuse Disposal at 
New York City. — The Boroughs of 
Manhattan, Brooklyn and The Bronx 
of New York City produce daily ap- 
proximately 9,000 tons of ashes, 900 
tons of rubbish, 1,500 tons of garbage, 
and 1,000 tons of street sweepings. 
Garbage is dumped 20 miles south- 
east of Scotland Lightship, off Sandy 
Hook, at a cost of about 45 ct. per 
cubic yard, or 75 to 80 ct. per ton. 
The ashes, rubbish and sweepings are 
deposited in dumps, largely on Rikers 
Island, where the rubbish is burned, 
leaving a fairly solid fill. 



Swimming Pools. — A bulletin de- 
voted to the water supply for swim- 
ming pools has just been issued by 
the Graver Corporation, East Chi- 
cago, Ind. In addition to containing 
data on swimming pool design, con- 
struction and operation, the bulletin 
gives actual layouts of three installa- 
tions. 



Movement of Bacillus Coli in 
Ground Water With Result- 
ing Pollution of Wells 

Abstract of Report Presented May 17 

to Conference of State Health 

Officers 

By C. W. STILES and 
HARRY R. CROHURST 

Pi'ofessor of Zoology, Hygienic Laboratory, 

and Sanitary Engineer, U. S. Public 

Health Service 

The pollution of the ground-water 
(or phreatic water) by privy wastes, 
and the possibility and method of ex- 
tension of this pollution to wells, 
springs, and other water supplies, 
have been subjects of discussion, ex- 
periment, and public health legisla- 
tion for many years and in various 
parts of the world; but the opinions 
the sanitarians have held on the 
general subject have been far from 
uniform, the results of experiments 
have been largely negative, and legis- 
lative policies have been distinctly 
contradictory. 

Experiments of U. S. Public Health 
Service. — In connection with investi- 
gations by the U. S. Public Health 
Service into methods of disposal of 
privy wastes in rural districts, exten- 
sive and rigorously controlled experi- 
ments have been made which bear 
upon the subject at issue and espe- 
cially upon the movement of bacteria, 
of fecal origin, in the ground-water. 
These studies have involved the ex- 
perimental pollution of the ground- 
water (namely, the water in the satu- 
rated zone, which supplies wells and 
springs), have been correlated with 
the rise and fall of the ground-water 
table, the flow of ground-water, and 
the rainfall. Natural can material 
(human excreta from can type priv- 
ies) was used as pollution material, 
Bacillus coli was taken as the bacte- 
rial test, and a dye (uranin) was 
utilized in tracing the movement of 
the water from the dosing trenches to 
the more than 400 experimental pipe 
wells which were arranged at inter- 
vals from the trenches and at various 
depths into ground-water. 

The examination of thousands of 
water samples from the wells during 
a period of more than a year has re- 
sulted in very definite data which 
seem to express practically a natural 
law as applied to the movement of 
the bacteria in the field of fine sand 



1923 



Water Works 



101 



!in which the sxperiments were con- 
^lucted. The results to date may be 
Ismmmarized as follows: 
I Results of Experiments. — Pollution 
with fecal Bacillus coli has up to date 
i)een definitely and progressively fol- 
lowed in the ground-water for dis- 
|i:ances of 3, 6, 10, 15, 25, 35, 45, 50, 
|;>5, 60, and 65 ft. from the trench in 
["vhich the pollution was placed; ura- 
piin has been recovered from these 
isame wells and has spread to other 
Veils at 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 
110, and 115 ft. from the pollution 
trench. The soil in question is a fine 
sand with an effective size of 0.13 

tn. 

2. The pollution has traveled these 
distances within a period of 187 days, 
or about 27 weeks, and only in the 
direction of the flow of the ground- 
water; no convincing evidence is pres- 
ent that the pollution has traveled 
against the flow of the ground-water 
or at right angles to it. 
I 3. The pollution has traveled only 
in a thin sheet at the surface of the 
zone of saturation; there is no evi- 
dence at present that it has dispersed 
radially downward, and even when 
heavy pollution is recovered at the 
top, water from lower levels (in near- 
by deeper wells) is negative both for 
uranin and for B. coli. 

4. As the ground-water level falls, 
owing to dry weather, the pollution 
tends to remain in the sand above the 
new (lower) ground-water level, 
iiamely, in the new capillary fringe. 

5. There is no e%'idence which 
would justify a conclusion at present 
that either the bacteria or the uranin 
is carried or moves to any appreciable 
distance in the capillary fringe itself, 
and there is neither theoretical reason 
nor experimental evidence to justify 
a conclusion that either the bacteria 
)r the uranin progresses in the dry, 
lerated intermediate belt (between 
:he capillary fringe and the upper soil 
belt). All present evidence is to the 
liff^ect that when the ground-water 
level falls the pollution remains prac- 
tically stranded in the capillary fringe 
or in the intermediate belt — according 
to the degree of fall of the ground- 
water. 

^ 6. A rainfall of 1 in. results in a 
rise of 5 to 6 in. in the ground-water 
table (in the particular experimental 
area in question); and if this rise is 
sufficient to reestablish the zone of 
saturation up at the level of the 
stranded pollution, the bacteria and 



the uranin are again picked up and 
carried along farther in the direction 
of the ground-water flow until dry 
weather again intervenes to cause an- 
other fall of the ground-water level. 

7. Thus the progressive (passive) 
movement and the stasis (stranding) 
of the pollution are intimately con- 
nected vsith, are dependent upon, and 
alternate with the rise and the fall of 
the ground-water level, and this lat- 
ter factor is dependent upon the al- 
ternation of wet weather (rainfall) 
and dry weather (lack of rain at the 
intake area of the ground-water 
table). Experiments are now under 
way to determine, if possible, whether 
pollution placed directly into a deeper 
level of the ground-water will travel 
up to the surface of the saturated 
zone. 

8. In explaining these results, cap- 
illarity, filtration, and gravity seem to 
come up for special consideration. 

9. In one experiment the pollution 
traveled only 45 ft. from Sept., 1922, 
to May, 1923, and remained stranded 
at this distance. Study of the forma- 
tion of the ground revealed that under 
the belt of pollution there is an im- 
pervious or nearly imper\nous stratum 
of peatlike material, which gradually 
tilts upward distally from the pollu- 
tion pit and forms a ground-water 
dam; the pollution traveled out on 
high ground-water to the dam, the 
ground-water level fell below the 
crest of the dam, and the pollution is 
now stranded, pending a rise of the 
ground-water table sufficient to pro- 
duce a ground-water cascade which 
will carry the pollution over the crest 
of the dam. 

10. The ultimate distance to which 
the pollution will be carried is de- 
pendent upon a number of complex 
and interlocking factors, namely, wet 
and dry weather, with resulting rise 
and fall of the ground- water; the 
length of each of these periods; the 
rate of the ground-water flow (de- 
pending upon the "head," which, in 
turn, is dependent upon the rainfall); 
and, obviously, also the factor of the 
viability of the organisms under con- 
ditions of moisture, pH, food supply, 
etc., ad finem. 

11. In another series of experi- 
ments human feces were buried in 
pits, in a locality of high ground- 
water, and covered with sawdust. Of 
five samples taken three years and 
two months after burial all were both 
macroscopically and microscopically 



102 



Water Works 



July 



recognizable as feces, but the odor 
had become somewhat musty; three of 
these samples were positive and two 
were negative for Bacillus coli; ova 
of Ascaris lumbricoides were recog- 
nizable in all iive samples, but all 57 
ova found were dead. 

12. The bearing of the foregoing 
results upon the intermittent pollu- 
tion of wells, the location of water 
supplies, and the location of camps in 
peace or in war, will be evident to 
persons who are called upon for tech- 
nical advice in these matters; the 
justification of the laws forbidding 
the use of abandoned wells for the 
disposal of excreta is self-evident; 
the possible effect of the custom (in 
some localities) of digging pits into 
ground-water (as advised by some 
persons) is obvious. 

13. In protecting wells, special at- 
tention should be given not only to 
surface protection as is now generally 
recognized but also to a new element, 
namely, the danger zone which exists 
from the highest water level to about 
a foot below the lowest water level. 
A leak in the pipe in this region is 
potentialy very dangerous, and all 
wells unprotected in this danger zone 
are to be considered as potentially 
unsafe. 



Effect of Size of Filter Sand on 
Operation 

Comparison of Performance of Indi- 
vidual Filters Given at Ohio Con- 
ference on Water Purification 

By E. E. SMITH, 2ND 

Superintendent of Filtration, Lima, O. 

The six units at the Lima filtration 
plant have separate outlets to the 
clearwell, so that it has been custom- 
ary to collect separate samples at 
times of general sample collection for 
plant control, using the average bac- 
terial count from separate plates as 
the estimate for filtered water prior 
to disinfection. During the year 1921, 
all bacterial counts were made with 
an incubation temperature of 37° C; 
during the year 1922 a change was 
made to an incubation temperature of 
20° C, all counts being made with 
"Standard Methods" agar. Exact 
measurement of initial and final loss 
of head have been made and other 
engineering data have been collected, 
the summaries of which are herewith 
presented. The mechanical analyses 



of sand samples were made at the 
laboratory of the State Department 
of Health in December, 1921. 

The filters may be divided into two 
groups according to differences in 
physical characteristics of the filter 
sand. Filters 1, 3, and 5, located on 
the west side of the filter gallery have 
a sand of smaller size and greater 
uniformity than filters 2, 4, and 6, on 
the east side. Those filters having 
the finer and more uniform sand also 
have a slightly thinner sand layer, or 
at least a greater distance between 
the sand line and the tops of the 
wash-water troughs. During the two 
years' observations the rate of wash- 
ing has been uniformly the same — 24 
to 25 in. rise of wash water — applied 
for one minute at a low rate, then the 
remainder of the recorded time of 
wash at full opening of the wash 
water valve. The time of wash has 
been fixed to maintain as nearly as 
possible the same volume of wash 
water passing through the filter at 
each wash. 

A study of the figures recorded 
shows that the filters with the finer 
sand require approximately one-half 
minute longer to pass the same quan- 
tity of wash water; they have con- 
sistently higher initial loss-of-head; 
and always shorter runs, requiring 
higher percentages of total wash 
water. The figures for bacterial re- 
movals do not indicate any such con- 
sistent differences, but show practi- 
cally the same removals. For the two 
periods the removal of B, Coli has 
been practically the same, — 93 per 
cent. 

All of the filters show sand of size 
and uniformity falling within the lim- 
its suggested by Mr. Dittoe in No- 
vember, 1921, — less than 0.45 mm. 
During 1922, the filters were allowed 
to reach a final loss-of-head of ap- 
proximately 8.5 ft., while in 1921 they 
were permitted to reach the practical 
limits of loss-of-head, — 11 feet; and 
the total percentages of wash-water 
for the two periods, — 4.1 for 1922 and 
2.8 for 1921 — result from such change 
in operation. Other conditions have 
also caused the increase in percent- 
age; namely, poor coagulation in cold 
weather, filter growths in warm 
weather, as well as the attempt to 
consistently produce a filter effluent 
below a confirmed B. Coli index of 2 
per 100 cc. 

Filter runs for those filters with 
the coarser sand were approximately 



1923 



Water Works 



103 



Table I — Description of Filters 

Filter number 1 3 5 2 4 6 1.3.5 2.4.6 

Effective size (mm.)— 0.37 0.37 0.38 0.44 0.42 0.42 0.37 0.43 

Uniformity coefficient 1.22 1.27 1.21 1.36 1.38 1.43 1.23 1.39 

Distance of top of sand to top of 

trough (in.) __ 29.62 29.88 29.75 28.38 27.00 29.00 29.75 28.15 

Table II — Comparison of Performance of Filters as Measnred by 37 ° C. Bacterial Count, Year 1921 

Filter number „ _ 1 3 5 2 4 6 1,3.5 2.4,6 

Filter efficiency (bacterial removal).. 81% 81% 82% 77% 77% 80% 81% 78% 

Average wash water used (gals.) ....28,900 28.900 28,500 28,800 28,100 28.500 28.800 28,500 

Time of wash (minutes) _ 4:40 4:34 4:51 4:12 4:15 4:11 4:42 4:13 

Length of run (hours) 25:00 22:44 25:50 30:46 30:10 30:21 24:31 30:26 

Initial L-of-H (ft.) 1.45 1.27 1.38 1.23 1.12 1.35 1.37 1.23 

Final L-of-H (ft.) 11.00 11.10 11.00 10.90 10.90 11.10 11.03 10.97 

Table III — Comparison of Performance of Filters as Measured by 20° C. Bacterial Count, 

(Jan.-Oct., 1922) 

Filter number 1 3 5 2 4 6 1.3.5 2.4.6 

Filter efficiency (bacterial removal).. 64% 59% 72% 69% 68% 71% 65% 69% 

Average wash water used (gals.).. -26.100 25.300 26,100 25.400 24,800 25.600 25.800 25,200 

Time of wash (minutes) 4:26 4:05 4:18 3:41 3:40 3:48 4:12 3:43 

Length of run (hours) 16:00 14:29 15:07 18:32 19:24 18:01 15:13 18:39 

Initial L-of-H (ft.) 1.44 1.35 1.59 1.32 1.21 1.52 1.46 1.35 

Final Lrof-H (ft.) 8.46 8.53 8.45 8.36 8.50 8.47 8.48 8.44 



24 per cent longer than those with 
the finer sand. Had all filters been 
equipped with filter sand of 0.43 mm. 
effective size, it is probable that the 
average percentage of washwater 
would have been reduced possibly half 
of this difference, or instead of 2.8 
for 1921 it might have been 2.5 per 
cent, and instead of 4.1 for 1922 it 
might have been 3.6 per cent. Al- 
though these conclusions are based 
upon small differences in size of filter 
sand, they are also based upon many 
observations. They serve to indicate 
that small differences in size of sand 
are important, and that careful atten- 
tion to size and grading of filter sand 
may have far-reaching results in 
operation. 



Expressing Results of Water 
Analyses 

I Graphic Scheme Described at Ohio 
Conference on Water Purification 

By C. p. HOOVER 

I Chemist in Charge Columbus, O.. Water 
1 Purification and Softening Works 

The routine determinations made 

1 at Columbus to determine the proper 

I treatment of the water are (1) total 

alkalinity, (2) phenolphthalein alka- 



linity, (3) caustic alkalinity, (4) 
incrustants, (5) total hardness, (6) 
magnesium and (7) calcium. These 
tests are satisfactory for routine 
purposes, but are not as adequate for 
studying water softening reactions 
as a graphic scheme recently ex- 
plained by Mr. W. D. Collins, Chief 
of the Quality of Water Division of 
the U. S. Geological Survey. 

The scheme consists in dividing 
the parts per million of each radical 
shown in the analysis by the com- 
bining weight of such radical. The 
result gives an arbitrary figure, 
which, for the purpose of plotting, 
may be called inches or spaces on 
section paper. The combining weight 
of any element is obtained by divid- 
ing the atomic weight by the valence. 
Tables are herewith given showing 
how combining weights or equiva- 
lents of elements and compounds 
determined in water analyses are 
computed. 

The hypothetical combinations are 
based on the theory that the total 
alkalinity should first be calculated 
to calcium. If the carbonates exceed 
the necessary amount of calcium, the 
rest of the alkalinity may be calcu- 
lated to magnesium carbonate; and 
sulphates, chlorides, etc., combined 
with magnesium until the latter is 



Calci um 



Magnesium 



rr 



Bicarbonate Sulphate 

Graphic Scheme for Expressing Results of Water Analyses 



104 Water Works July 

Table I. — Combining Weights Computed 

Element or Compound Atomic Valence Combining Weight 

Weight or Equivalent 

Calcium „.. 40 2 20 M 

Magnesium 24 2 12 ^^ 

Sodium 23 1 23 ^M 

HCO3* 61 1 61 ^1 

Sulphates (SOJ 96 2 48 |^| 

Chlorine 35 1 35 ^H 

♦HCO, is obtained from the alkalinity by multiplying by 1.22. (See Standard Methods of^J 
Water Analyses, page 38.) 

Table II. — Example from Actual Experience in the Analysis of Scioto River 
Water at Columbus, Ohio 

Calcium 96 divided by 20 = 4.8 

Magnesium 35 divided by 12 = 2.9 

Alkalinity 200x1.22 divided by 61 = 4.2 

Sulphate (SO.) 168 divided by 48 = 3.5 



exhausted. But if the calcium ex- 
ceeds the amount necessary to take 
care of the alkalinity there is no 
magnesium carbonate, and the excess 
of calcium may then be calculated to 
sulphate first, then chlorides and 
nitrates until exhausted; and the 
magnesium is combined with the 
remaining acid radicals until ex- 
hausted. Any remaining chlorides, 
nitrates or sulphates may be calcu- 
lated to sodium and potassium salts. 



Municipal Use of Water at 
Springfield, Mass. 

The total municipal use of water in 
1922 at Springfield, Mass., was valued 
at $71,027, according to the 49th an- 
nual report of the water commission- 
ers. The report states: 

The following tabulation in custom- 
ary form shows the consumption of 
water during the year past by the 
various municipal departments of the 
city, v/ith its prescribed values, or 
accrued earnings to the water works 
from same, as properly credited on 
its books. This amount is annually 
entered on the water works books and 
charged off as uncollectible in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of city 
ordinance. 



Municipal Use of Water — 1922. — Un- 

metered quantities in gallons are esti- 
mated from amounts on basis of 6 2/3 
ct. per 1,000 gal., or equivalent to 5 
ct. per 100 cu. ft. 



Water Works for Malaga, Spain. — 

The municipality of Malaga, Spain, is 
preparing for a large bond issue to 
improve the municipal water works 
system. It is stated that a Spanish 
bank will probably take the bonds and 
that the contract will probably go to 
Spanish firms. 



Water Works in Kansas. — Practi- 
cally 50 per cent of the 542 incor- 
porated cities of Kansas have water 
systems. Of 261 systems 255 are 
owned and operated by the munici- 
pality. 



Federal Investigations for Reclama- 
tion Projects. — Plans for the expendi- 
ture of $225,000 appropriated by Con- 
gress for the fiscal year 1924 to 
investigate possible reclamation proj- 
ects in Western states have been 
made public by the Secretary of the 
Interior. The money will be used to 
examine into reclamation areas in 11 
Western states and cover some 18 
proposed projects. 



Classification. .\mount.s. (Gallons. 

Schools $ 8,335.80 125.037,000 

Public buildings (other than schools) 2,931.8,5 43,977.750 

Public parks 2,808.15 42.122,250 

Public playgrounds 452.95 6,794.250 

Building purposes (Streets and Engineer- 
ing Department) 286 80 4,302,000 

Sewer Department (flushing) 2,578.60 38,679,000 

Snow removal (via sewers) 1.301.33 19,520,000 

Street washing and sprinkling 1,481.86 22,228,000 

Total of above $20,177.34 302.660,250 

( (Not reducible ) 

Fire hydrant service 50,850.00 ( to quantities) J 



Memo. 

92% metered 

90.2% metered 

67.8% metered 

4.8% metered 

Unmeteredj 

Unmetered j 

Metered ^ 

Unmetered" 



At $25 per] 
hydrant. 




,»^' 



Railways 



MONTH I.V ISSl'E OF 

ENGINEERING AND CONTRACTING 

Published by Engineering & Contracting Publishing Co. 

221 East 20th St., Chicago 

Halbert p. Gillette, President and Editor 

Lewis S. Looer, Vice-President and General Manager 

New York Office: 904 Longacrc Bldg., 42d St. and Broadway 

Richard E. Brown, Eastern Manager 

The specialized publishing plan of Engineering and Contracting provides 
four rotating monthly magazines, each of which is $1 a year. All four 
may be subscribed for at $4 a year, and thus taken they provide a weekly 
service completely covering the construction field. 



Road and Streets- 

(a) Road Con- 
struction 

(b) Road Main- 
tenance 



-Ist Wednesdar. II 

(c) Streets 

(d) Street clean- 
ing: 



Water Works — 2nd Wednesday, $1 

(a) Water Works (c) Sewers and 

(b) Irrigation and SaniUtion 
Drainage (d) Waterways 



Raflways — 3rd Wednesday. $1 

(a) Steam Rail- (b) Electric Rail- 

way Construe- way Construc- 

tion and tion and 

Maintenance Maintenance 

Buildings— 4th Wednesday, $1 

(a) Buildings (d) Miscellaneous 

(b) Bridges Structures 

(c) Harbor Structures 



Copyright. 1923, by the Engineering and Contractins Pablishing Company 



Vol. LX. 



CHICAGO, ILL., JULY 18, 1923 



No. 1 



What Is Wrong With the 

Interstate Commerce 

Commission? 

For 17 years the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission has had regulatory 
power over railway rates. During that 
period investments in railway stocks 
have become less and less attractive. 
The present market value of all rail- 
way securities has been estimated at 
$13,000,000,000, although the I. C. C. 
itself estimates that the actual invest- 
ment in the railway plant is fully $19,- 
000,000,000. The common stock of 
many of the leading railway systems 
IS selling at a small fraction of its 
par value, and the par value is less 
than the actual investment. Consider 
Rock Island selling at $25 a share 
when its par value is $100, and when 
the I. C. C.'s appraisal at original 
costs (not at i-eproduction costs) less 
depreciation shows that the capital- 
ization is less than the appraised 
value! Consider New York, New 
Haven and Hartford at $10 a share. 



under conditions corresponding to 
those just named for the Rock Island. 
Glance down the stock market report 
column any day and ask yourself 
why railway stocks that were once 
gilt-edged are now fray-edged. Pon- 
der the fact that no new railway com- 
mon stock issued for extensions or 
improvements is salable at all. 

Political attacks upon railway rates 
are primarily responsible for this 
state of affairs, and the I. C. C. has 
been, in the main, a political tool. Its 
members have been politicians, for the 
most part, trained to listen to the 
voice of the people. Since it is always 
popular to reduce passenger and 
freight rates, the I. C. C. has usually 
favored rate reduction. 

There never will be satisfactory 
regulation of railway rates until the 
members of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission are as free from political 
influence as are members of the U. S. 
Supreme Court. That is the first es- 
sential, and it seems to involve at 
least three things: First, appoint- 
ment of professionally skilled men in- 



106 



Raihvays 



July, 



stead of politicians. Second, long 
tenure of office. Third, liberal salaries. 

Doubtless we are biased in favor of 
engineers, but it is our belief that the 
majority of the members of the 
I. C. C. should be engineers who have 
had broad executive and economic ex- 
perience. Such men as Herbert 
Hoover, Gen. George Goethals, Eu- 
gene G. Grace (president of the Beth- 
lehem Steel Co.), John Hays Ham- 
mond and Samuel Rea (president of 
the Pennsylvania Ry.) 

The members of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission should be com- 
pletely insulated from the fire of 
popular prejudice and from the ice of 
public disapproval. Their's should 
be the task of being wisely fair in 
railway regulation, without fear of 
criticism or of loss of position if their 
decisions prove to be temporarily ob- 
jectionable to any "bloc" in Congress 
or any selfish coterie elsewhere. 



Shall Original Cost or 

Present Value Be the 

Baise for Rates? 

In a decision handed down May 21, 
the U. S. Supreme Court again rules 
that the rates charged by public util- 
ity companies must be based on pres- 
ent costs. In the Southwestern Bell 
Telephone case the Supreme Court of 
Missouri had supported a decision of 
the Public Service Commission of 
Missouri, in which the original cost of 
the plant, $20,000,000, had been used 
as the rate base. The U. S. Supreme 
Court reversed this decision, saying: 

"Obviously, the Commission under- 
took to value the property without 
according any weight to the greatly 
enhanced costs of material, labor, 
supplies, etc., over those prevailing in 
1913, 1914 and 1916. As matter of 
common knowledge, these increases 
were large. Competent witnesses es- 
timated them as 45 to 50 per centum. 

"It is impossible to ascertain what 
will amount to a fair return upon 
properties devoted to public service 
without giving consideration to the 
cost of labor, supplies, etc., at the 
time the investigation is made. An 
honest and intelligent forecast of 
probable future values made upon a 
view of all the relevant circumstances, 
is essential. If the highly important 
elements of present costs is wholly 
disregarded such a forecast becomes 



impossible. Estimates for tomorrow 
cannot ignore prices of today. 

Witnesses for the Company asserted 
— and there was no substantial evi- 
dence to the contrary — that excluding 
cost of establishing the business the 
property was worth at least 25 per 
cent more than the Commission's esti- 
mates, and we think the proof shows 
that for the purposes of the present 
case the valuation should be at least 
$25,000,000." 

This 25 per cent added to the orig- 
inal cost by the U. S. Supreme Court 
is a net increase after deducting de- 
preciation. 

Seven of the nine judges concurred 
in the entire opinion, but two dis- 
sented as to the rate base. Justices 
Brandeis and Holmes held that the 
rate base should be the "prudent in- 
vestment." Justice Brandeis' main 
argument for original cost is founded 
upon the expedience and justice of es- 
tablishing once and for all a rate base 
that not only will not shift with every 
change of prices or wages, but also 
one that is not a matter of judgment 
or opinion but of fact. His argument 
is quite convincing if sight is lost of 
the fact that if the purchasing power 
of a dollar changes there is no stabil- 
ity in the "real" income even where 
the rate base is stabilized. It is curi- 
ous to note that although Justice 
Brandeis argues soundly for stability 
of income, he always speaks in terms 
of money income and never in terms 
of "real" income, namely the goods 
and services that money will buy. The 
investors in German bonds have had a 
stablized money income, but a worth- 
less "real" income. It is our belief 
that the U. S. Supreme Court deci- 
sions in favor of reproduction cost, 
less depreciation as a base for rates 
give a far closer approximation to 
stability in "real" income than would 
exist were original cost used as the 
rate base. 



The Set Fare in Seattle 

Editorial in A. E. R. A. 

Now Mayor Brown of Seattle says 
that "it has been proved that the 
5-cent fare is not practical under pres- 
ent conditions" in Seattle. He said 
that after he had vetoed an ordinance 
restoring the 10-cent fare when the 
5-cent fare was causing a deficit of 
about $4,775 a day; when the city was 
not getting enough money out of the 
municipal railway to pay its operat- 
ing expenses; when the railways had 



1923 



Railways 



107 



taken to issuing warrants instead of 
paying cash. 

What made him change his mind? 
The fact that the banks would not 
honor the warrants, the banks know- 
ing that a continuation of losses such 
as were piling up would bring about 
a chaotic financial situation. There 
was not enough money to pay the 
trainmen's wages, so the mayor sign- 
ed a new ordinance restoring the 10- 
cent fare on June 15. 

All that Seattle has as a result of 
its political manipulation of the mun- 
icipal street car system is a loss of 
some $500,000 during the 107 days 
the 5-cent fare was played with. This 
money must be obtained from future 
earnings of the system — a burden that 
well might have been avoided if the 
street car fares had not been made a 
political football. 

If any sane person needed addi- 
tional proof that municipal ownership, 
demagogy and financial disaster go 
hand in hand, this latest development 
in Seattle furnishes it. 



How To Deal With the 
Railroads 

Editorial in Chicago Tribune. 

Recently a conference on railroads 
was held in Chicago. It was dominated 
by the politics which finds it profit in 
attacks upon the railroads and which 
asserts drastic conclusions on an as- 
sumed knowledge of conditions in 
which fair and conservative minds 
have little confidence. 

We are now hearing from a confer- 
ence of a very diflferent character — 
namely: that of the American isociety 
of Civil Engineers. Its attendance is 
composed of men who can find no 
profit in political assumptions, who 
are not fishing for votes, whose train- 
ing is expert, whose method of rea- 
soning is exact, whose object is the 
ascertainment of facts and the estab- 
lishment of principles which are sound 
and conducive to public benefit. 

The discussion and conclusion of 
such a gathering deserves the respect- 
ful and thorough consideration of the 
public and that of the representatives 
of public interest in every legislative 
body which proposes to deal with the 
problem of regulation of transporta- 
tion agencies. The American people 
will be wise to prefer the advice of 
such men to that of politicians whose 
main interest is to exploit evils rather 
than to correct them. The engineers' 
interest is to perfect our transporta- 



tion, not to ride into ofiice by i»itt»ck- 
ing its imperfections or alleged imper- 
fections. Their interest, in other 
words, is that of the public. 

There is no more important interest 
in our public life. Transportation, 
especially by rail, is the arterial sys- 
tem of the country, and the health of 
that system is vital to our prosperity 
and growth. There is nothing which 
could deal a deadlier blow at the wel- 
fare of us all, from the poorest to the 
richest, than blundering treatment of 
transportation; treatment born of lack 
of knowledge, of prejudice fomented 
by selfish politics, of imperfections 
and evils misunderstood and diag- 
nosed unwisely. The effects of such 
treatment would reach into every 
home and into every occupation. It 
would hurt the farmer, the mA:hanic, 
the business man, the producer, and 
the consumer. 

There is, therefore, nothing more 
important than that the problems of 
the railroads should be worked out on 
a plane of knowledge, justice, and 
sound judgment, and not in an atmos- 
phere of prejudice and narrow self- 
interest. A leading speaker at the 
engineers' conference states the key of 
the situation when he says that "the 
successful solution of the railroad 
problem will depend upon scientific re- 
search to the end that essential engi- 
neering, accounting and economic data 
shall be determined, analyzed and pre- 
sented to the interestate commerce 
commission." 

We would add one other essential — 
namely: that scientific judgment shall 
govern, not prejudice fomented for 
political ends. It will not govern un- 
less public opinion resists appeals to 
prejudice and keeps clear in its de- 
termination to know that truth and to 
support only such action as is funda- 
mentally just to all interests involved 
and which is constructive in the devel- 
opment and maintenance of the most 
efficient transportation. 



Cost of Automobile Operation at 
Salt Lake City.— During 1920 the City 
Engineer's Department of Salt Lake 
City, Utah, in connection with the 
woi c operated five automobiles. The 
avei ige mileage per car was 7,587, at 
an a/erage gasoline consumption of 
14.4 miles per gallon. The total cost 
per mile was 7V2 ct., made up of a 
labor cost of 2.3 ct., and a mainte- 
nance cost of 5.2 ct. 



108 



Railways 



July, 



Method of Boostiitg Rail Joints 

A modification of the plan of placing 
a length of rail underneath the joint 
and connecting it at the ends of the 
angle bars by clips, so as to permit the 
driving of steel bars underneath the 
joint to boost it, is used by the Lehigh 
Valley Transit Co., Allentown, Pa, 
The method is described in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal from which the 
matter following is taken. 

This plan was used with an inverted 
rail, without supporting ties, the old 
ties having been cut out at approxi- 
mately the center line of the track 
and the bracing rail, clips, etc., im- 
bedded in a dry concrete to a depth of 
some 6 in. below the bracing rail. 
Good results have thus been secured 
for inftividual joint repairs where ex- 
tensive rehabilitation of tracks was 
not made. 

Where an extensive stretch of track 
was entirely rehabilitated, a support- 



steel bars, these are spot welded to 
prevent shifting. The bolts of the 
angle bars are renewed and the nuts, 
together with those on the clips, are 
spot welded. No lock washers are 
used. Cupped rail heads are welded 
and ground off to complete the joint. 



The Deepest Mine in the World 

In a paper presented May 3 before 
the New York Section of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Engineers, Thomas T. Read, 
Supervising Engineer, U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, gave the following informa- 
tion regarding deep mines: 

The St. John del Rey mine, in 
Brazil, has reached a vertical depth 
of 6,726 ft. below the top of its shafts- 
miners enter it, however, through an 
adit which intersects the shaft 324 ft. 
below its top, wherefore it might be 
said that the mine is really only 6,400 
ft. deep. In the Kolar gold field of 
India there are a number of deep 



stiff mortar 
If'Sana tacking, y: 



^-'i' . Brck^ 




SIDE ELEVATION 



Joint Repairs with Bracing Rail Supported on Ties and Fastened to Operating Rail by Cast 

Steel Clips. 



ing tie construction was preferred. 
Where the rail was found to promise 
from 5 to 6 years longer life, the ex- 
pense of installing new crossties and 
a filler block under the rail opposite 
the joint was thus considered advis- 
able. The accompanying line cut 
shows this type of construction. The 
bracing rail is placed with the head 
side uppermost, of such a length that 
the repair clips can be placed just 
outside the end of the angle bar. 

A 6-in. X 10-in. filler block, long 
enough to span two joint ties, is used 
on the opposite rail, and crossties are 
installed underneath the entire con- 
struction. Stone ballast to a depth 
of 6 in. is used underneath these 
crossties. After the joint had been 
boosted by driving in the supporting 



shafts, one of which reaches to a ver- 
tical depth of 6,140 ft. below surface. 
In South Africa also there are a num- 
ber of deep shafts, the Village Deep 
being 6,100 ft. early in 1921. The City 
Deep, Ltd., proposes to sink to a depth 
of 7,000 ft. but presumably by the 
time it does so the St. John del Rey 
will be deeper than that, since it has 
been increasing in depth at an aver- 
age of about 150 ft. per year. The 
deepest shaft in the United States, 
the Tamarack No. 5, although it is 
only 5,308 ft. deep, actually ap- 
proaches nearer to the center of the 
earth (4,100 ft below sea level, as 
against 3,958 ft. at St. John del Rey.) 
The deepest workings in the Calumet 
& Hecla go down to 4,000 ft. below 
sea level. 



1923 



Railways 



109 



Improved Type of Steam 
Roller Wheel 



Used in Paving Department of the 
Pacific Electric Railway Co. 

By CLIFFORD A. ELLIOTT, 

Engineering Department, Pacific Electric Ry. 

For some years the maintenance of 
wheels on the steam rollers used in 
the paving work handled by the En- 
gineering Department of the Pacific 
Electric Railway Co., Los Angeles, 
Calif., has been quite a problem. 

The wear and tear on the wheels 
when coming in frequent contact with 
the rails of the tracks, striking the 
granite blocks and running over spe- 



After considerable study and expe- 
rience in repairing the old type 
wheels, it was found more economical, 
as well as in interest of efficient work, 
to design in the Engineering Depart- 
ment an improved-type of wheel, thus 
overcoming the difficulties experienced 
in the past. The plans called for the 
rim to be 4^/^ in. thick as compared 
with old thickness of 2 in. 

In adding more thickness and 
weight in metal to the new type of 
wheels it was essential to reinforce 
the hubs and spokes of the wheels. In 
the front wheels the old wheels had 8 
spokes, while the new have ten. While 
the two rear wheels each had 12 spokes 
in the old type; and in the new 14 
spokes are provided for each wheel. 




Steam Roller Wi;h New Type Wheel Used By Paving Department of Pacific Electric Ry. Co. 



cial work layouts, has been quite no- 
ticeable. In the past the wheels were 
usually renewed by securing them 
from eastern manufacturers or by 
having them repaired in local foun- 
dries. The old type of wheel has al- 
ways been renewed in kind as to class 
of metal and design; that is, only one 
pattern was used, wheels were fabri- 
cated of cast iron and a thickness of 
2-in. rim obtained as existed on old 
type of wheel. Also when molded at 
foundry only one molding was made 
for the fabrication of an entire wheel. 
The main fault of the old type 
wheel was in the class of metal and 
the thickness of the rim. Hard usage 
of the steam rollers around the rails 
caused the thin metal to wear away 
and niche out at times, thus providing 
an uneven surface on the roller wheel, 
with consequent poorly rolled pave- 
ment. 



The rollers equipped with the new 
type of wheels are 10-ton Monarch 
3-wheel steam rollers. The new wheels 
are fabricated out of 40 per cent alum- 
inum steel and 60 per cent Roman pig 
iron, which has proved more durable 
than the old style of cast iron wheels. 
In designing these wheels the plans 
call for two patterns, which naturally 
requires two moldings. 

The specifications require that the 
foundry first mold the rim of the new 
wheels; then after molding the rims 
they are laid in the pig bed for two to 
three days. Later the newly-molded 
rims are placed on a lathe and the face 
of the rim is planed down, leaving a 
smooth and uniform bearing surface. 

The second molding involves the 
hubs, which are molded separate from 
the rims. 

In having roller wheels made dur- 
ing former years it was found that a 



110 



Railways 



July, 



very unsatisfactory job was accom- 
plished by casting the wheels under 
one patterrfat the foundry, as non- 
uniform results were always obtained 
especially in the molding of the hubs, 
as the expansion in the hubs and 
spokes when molded in one casting 
with the rim did not satisfactorily re- 
tain so that the spokes would obtain 
the true position as called for in the 
plans, nor give the proper support to 
the wheel. In reality it resulted in an 
unbalanced wheel. Under the new 
plans, this new wheel is practically 
true in all its parts, due to the sep- 
arate members being molded inde- 
pendent of each other. 



Hcxw To Avoid Railroad Crossing 
Accidents 

Supreme Court Justice Charles C. 
Van Kirk, of the Appellate Division 
of the Supreme Court, of the State of 
New York, sitting in the Third De- 
partment, has just pointed out in 
clear, unmistakable language in one of 
his opinions how motorists can avoid 
railroad crossing accidents with their 
inevitable death toll. 

In this opinion, which is regarded 
by railroad men as worthy of wide cir- 
culation among motorists. Justice Van 
Kirk said : "The safe limit to speed in 
approaching a crossing is that speed 
at which the driver of an automobile, 
as he arrives at a point where he can 
see an on-coming train, when it is 
near enough to render crossing ahead 
dangerous, can stop his car if neces- 
sary before he reaches the track. It is 
futile to look when one cannot see. If 
he cannot see without stopping he 
must stop." 

The language of the opinion handed 
down by Justice Van Kirk was in the 
case of James W. Horton versus the 
New York Central Railroad; the out- 
growth of a railroad crossing accident, 
in which the Appellate Division re- 
versed a judgment obtained by the 
plaintiff and dismissed the complaint 
against the railroad company. 

The case presented to the Appellate 
Division and the elements that usually 
are brought forth in a crossing acci- 
dent. The motorist killed w^s driving 
over the state road in an automobile 
and was struck by a train on a grade 
crossing. There were warning signs 
on the highway approaching the cross- 
ing, and the controversy taken on ap- 
peal centered on the interpretation of 
Section 53 A of the railroad law in re- 
lation to these signs. 



In his decision Justice Van Kirk 
said : 

"A new vehicle has come into gen- 
eral use, which has occupied our high- 
ways to the exclusion almost of horse- 
drawn vehicles. Not only are more 
people exposed to danger because 
many more now travel on highways, 
but because those riding in trains like- 
wise are put in jeopardy by the motor 
car; an automobile often carries five 
or six persons rather than one or two, 
a bus may carry a dozen and a train 
often carries scores. 

"Because of its weight, its momen- 
tum, its inertia, its strong metal con- 
struction and its speed it wrecks 
trains. On the other hand when prop- 
erly driven and maintained in good 
condition, it is under complete control; 
it may be stopped or started at will; 
it will stand without hitching and may 
be safely left unattended; it will not 
take fright at a train, however close 
to its nose." 

Having distinctly pointed out that 
the automobiles as a machine has no 
responsibility for accidents, the Jus- 
tice continuing in his opinion holds the 
driver to his responsibilities saying: 

"Having provided for a disc sign 
and how and by whom it shall be 
placed the statute in perempty 
language provides 'It shall be the duty 
of the driver of any vehicle using such 
a street or highway and crossing to 
reduce speed to a safe limit upon pass- 
ing such sign and to proceed cautious- 
ly and carefully with the vehicle under 
complete control." 

"It is our view" continues the opin- 
ion "that if the drivers of automobiles 
obey this statute to its letter and its 
intent, seldom if ever will injuries be 
suffered at grade crossings. The price 
of safety by obendience to this statute 
means no more than three or four 
seconds of time — a small price for a 
life and in any event we believe the 
legislature was more interested in 
preserving life and limb than in pre- 
serving the right to recover damages 
for life and limb lost." 



Towing Canal Barges With Tractors 

The substitution of an American 
tractor for the barge horses common- 
ly used in towing has been success- 
fullv carried out at Colwick, near Not- 
tingham, England. A tractor weigh- 
ing a little over a ton was used for 
hauling a loaded gravel barge with a 
total tonnage of 80 tons for a distance 
of about 3 miles. The trip was com- 
pleted in 55 minutes. This method 



1923 Railways 111 

of hauling a barge is quite unique in Mine Fatalities Due to Explosives 

£%Kfenf Sfn'c^^tl"c'o.^'^lh^^^ , Mine fatalities due to explosives 

riment was quite successful, as the ^'"""^^ q^ ^^^ I ^T'^n i^^vf?"^^? 
tractor was abl« to make five round ^.^ to 5.9 per cent of all fatalities at 
trips a dav, compared with about 2^^ bituminous coal mines, 4.1 to 8.9 per 
trips made with 3 horses towing one cent at anthracite mines, 9.3 to 14.2 
barge, thus practically doubling the per cent at metal mines, and 13.6 to 
capacity of the old system. 26.6 per cent at quarries, according 
to figures prepared by W. W. Adams, 

Blasting to Loosen Up Material Ijj"^ ^^"^^"J statistician Bureau of 

£ c • T^ J • Mines, Department of the Interior. No 

tor bucbon Dredging data are available regarding nonfatal 

Dynamite was effectively used re- accidents at coal mines, but the record 

centiy at the city of Kissimmee, Fla., shows that only 1.1 to 2 per cent of all 

where a dredge had been engaged to injuries at metal mines and from 1,7 

pump material from the bed of Lake *« ^-^ P^^ cent of those at quarries 

Tohopekaliga to fill in back of a bulk- I^^'^'^ ^^^" d"® to t^e use of explosives. 

head, and make ground which it is K"""" ^^17. ^^^^^^^y due to explosives 

intended to use for park purposes, f "^^ }^}^'. *^^^f ^^T^ ^^^J^ '^•5 non- 

The ground in back of the bulkhead ^^^^J injuries at metal mines and 8 

was a marsh of some 7 or 8 acres "^^/f ^l/."^""^^ ^^ quarries. A study 

which had to be raised from 1 to 5 ft' f, fatalities to underground employes 

according to grade, with material fqi5rIhnwffLr"4% «1 (omitting 
»>„w,«„j ^ „ *i, 1 1 fin. V. 1.x lyiy) shows that 37 to 61 per cent of 
pumped from the lake. The bottom ^^^ fatalities occurred at the anthra- 
of the lake consisted of heavy clay ^ite mines in Pennsylvania which have 
and marl, and was so stiff that un- produced from 14 to 18 per cent of the 
satisfactory progress was being made coal tonnage of the United States, 
until Otho OB. Strayer, a d>Tiamite The anthracite mines normally con- 
expert of the duPont Company, was sume from 52 to 67 per cent of all dy- 
consulted, and he advised breaking namite and other high explosives used 
the hardpan with dynamite and thus at the coal mines in this country, 21 to 
making it easv to get at the lower ^^ P^'* cent of all permissible explo- 
strata in the lake bottom. Under Mr. l^^^f: and 11 to 17 per cent of all black 
Strayer's directions, two rows of holes ^f f V'f. P^^der. In 1919 the number 

on iioiec in all fv.r. ^/^«'^ c ft- «^„^ o* fatalities at anthracite mines was 

«nr1 I^lL^o J Tn J ^ J^ abnormally high (149, or 72 per cent), 

and the holes spaced 10 ft apart, due to a powder explosion in Balti- 

wereput down and loaded with 2% lb. more Tunnel No. 2, at WilkesBarre, 

of 50 per cent straight dj-namite each. on June 5, which caused the death of 

The holes were put in from a pontoon 92 men. 

and a 4 in. casing was used as a guide 

for hose nozzle and for loading pur- Locomotive Shipments 
poses. The work had to be done The U. S. Department of Commerce 
1 through water from 2 to 4 ft. deep. announces May shipments of railroad 
' The blast was a complete succes-? and locomotives from the principal man- 
reports show that after the use of the "facturing plants, based on reports 

1 explosive, the dredge pumped out J^J^'T^^^-^' j^^-?"^^'^ m-*!^ ^?^"^ 

mnro m-ito^i-oi I'r, t-\.^ c^Z^ i ^i/ \e "^"^ tn^ individual establishments. 
«m?fTf "f V!^ same length of The following table compares the 

i ;i Wo f^ A^ ^■11'' handled prior May, 1923, figures with the previous 

to blasting and with half as much month and with the corresponding 

' P°^e^- month last year. 

■ . May April May 

1923 1923 1922 

I A 375,000 H. P. Hydro-electric De- Shipments: 

! velopment in Latyia.-Reports from ^^^^ -;:::=■ '^ ''rl H 

Latvia state that the cabinet has al- 

located large sums for the building ,, J°t/' - v 238 2i7 70 

of hydro-electric stations on the River llfft ^^ 

Dvina. It is said that the total avail- Domestic 2.045 2.111 497 

able power at four sites is 375,000 foreign — 105 ^ 93 124 

ToUl 2.150 2,204 621 



112 



Railways 

Current Material Prices 



July, 



Iron and Steel Prices 

(From the Iron Age, July 5, 1923) 

Prices as of July 2, f . o. b. Pittsburgh : 
Open hearth rails, heavy, per gross, 

ton $43.00 

Light rails (25-45 lb. section), per lb. 2.25 
Track spikes, 9/16 in. and larger base, 

per 100 lb $3.15 to 3.25 

Track spikes, % in., 7/16 in. and % in., 

100 lb ; $3.25 to 3.75 

Track spikes, 5/16 in 3.75 

Spikes, boat and barge, ba.se, per 100 

lb $3.50 to 3.75 

Track bolts, % in. and larger, base, per 

100 lb $4.00 to 4.50 

Track bolts, % in. and % in., base, 

per 100 lb $4.25 to 5.50 

Tie plates, per 100 lb 2.55 to 2.60 

Angle bars, base, per lb 2.75 

Finished Iron and Steel 

Per lb. to 

large buyers. 

Cents 

Iron bars, Philadelphia 2.72 

Iron bars, Chicago 2.50 

Steel bars, Pittsburgh 2.40 

Steel bars, Chicago 2.60 

Steel bars. New York 2.74 

Tank plates, Pittsburgh 2.50 

Tank plates, Chicago 2.80 

Tank plates. New York 2.84 

Beams, Pittsburgh 2.50 

Beams, Chicago 2.70 

Beams, New York 2.84 

Steel hoops. Pittsburgh 3.30 

Freight Rates 

All rail freight rates from Pittsburgh on 
domestic shipments of finished iron and steel 
products, in carload lots, to points named, per 
100 lb., are as follows: 

Philadelphia „ $0,325 

Baltimore 0.315 

New York 0.34 

Boston 0.365 

Buffalo _ 0.26 

Cleveland 0.21 

Cleveland, Youngstown, comb 0.19 

Detroit 0.29 

Cincinnati 0.29 

Indianapolis 0.31 

Chicago 0-34 

St. Louis 0.43 

Kansas City 0.735 

Kansas City (pipe) 0.705 

St. Paul 0.60 

Omaha 0.735 

Omaha (pipe) 0.705 

Denver ^'^Ir 

Denver (pipe) 1.215 

Pacific Coast 1-50 



Pacific Coast, ship plates 1.20 

Birmingham 0.69 

Memphis 0.385 

Jacksonville, all rail 0.50 

Jacksonville, rail and water 0.415 

New Orleans 0.515 

Rails and Track Supplies at Chicago 

Standard Bessemer and open-hearth rails, $43 : 
light rails, rolled steel, 2.25c, f. o. b. makers' 
mills. 

Standard railroad spikes, 3.25c mill track 
bolts with square nuts, 4.25c mill ; iron tie 
plates, 2.85c steel tie plates, 2.60c, f. o. b. 
mill ; angle bars, 2.75c, f . o. b. mill. 

Jobbers quote standard spikes out of ware- 
house at 3.90c base and track bolts, 4.90c base. 

Cement Prices 

Recent quotations, per bbl., in carload lots, 
exclusive of package: 

Pittsburgh $2.24 

Cincinnati 2.54 

Detroit ._ 2.47 

Chicago 2.20 

Milwaukee _ 2.37 

Duluth 2.14 

Minneapolis 2.39 

Davenport, la 2.43 

Cross Tie and Lumber Prices 

(From Lumber, July 6, 1923) 

White Oak Ties 
F. o. b. cars, Chicago, July 3. 

No. 5—7x9x8 $1.85 

No. 3 — 6x8x8 1.55 

No. 1—6x6x8 1.35. 

No. 4—7x8x8 1.75' 

No. 2—6x7x8 _ 1.451 

Red oak ties, 10@15c less than white oak. 
Sap pine and sap cypress, 10c less than red 
oak. 

White oak switch-ties, per M. ft $55 to $58 

Red Oak switch-ties, per M. ft 49 to 51 

White Oak Ties 

F. o. b. cars, St. Louis, July 5. 

No. 5—7x9x8 $1.65 

No. 4—7x8x8 1.45 

No. 3—6x8x8 1.35 

No. 2—6x7x8 1.25 

No. 1—6x6x8 1.15 

Red oak ties, 10c per tie less than white oak 
prices. Heart pine and heart cypress, same 
prices as red oak. Sap pine and sap cypress, 
25c less than white oak. 

White oak switch ties, per M. ft $48.00 

Red oak switch ties, per M. ft 45.00 

Bridge and crossing plank, same prices as 
switch ties. 



Market Prices of Lumber 

Flooring, 2x4, 

1x4, 16 ft.. 

No. 1 common No. 1 common 

Boston — Yel. Pine 

New York— Yel. Pine $54.25 $46.75 




Buffalo — Yel. Pine 

Chicago — Yel. Pine 

St. Louis — Yel. Pine 

Seattle, Wash.— D. Fir. 



59.00 

50.00 39.00 

80.00 39.00 

57.00 

Southern Mill Prices 
Flooring, 

1x4. 2x4, 

No. 1 flat 16 ft.. No. 1 

Alexandria— So. Pine $45.00 $31.25 

Birmingham— So. Pine 45.07 80.83 

Hattiesburg- So. Pine 45.68 32.84 

Kansas City— So. Pine 80.81 



Timbers, 

No. 1. 
4x4 to 8x8 



Timbers. 

12x12 

$65.00@70.00 

60.00@67.50 

49.50@53.50 

$58.00 

41.50 

26.00 

Timbers, 

No. 1. 

3x12 to 12x12 



$28.31 
35.32 



$50.75 



I 




Railways 113 

Coordination of Rail and Motor Service 



How Private Company Handles L. C. L. Traffic at St. Louis Described 

in Railway Age 



The handling of less than car load 
freight to and from freight houses of 
the roads terminating at St. Louis, 
Mo., and East St. Louis, 111., and in in- 
terchange between these roads, has 
been developed in a way that is both 
unique and efficient. It consists of a 
cartage system, supplemented by off- 
track union freight stations at which 
freight is handled for all roads. This 
service is rendered by the Columbia 
Terminals Co., a private corporation 
which operates under contracts with 



acter are received in a comparatively 
small percentage of cases. Unless di- 
rected to make the delivery, notice is 
sent by the Terminal Company to the 
consigTiees and the freight is hauled 
from its stations by their draymen. 

Transfer Co. Assumes Full Respon- 
sibility of Common Carrier. — In the 
performance of this service, the Ter- 
minals Company assumes full re- 
sponsibility as a common carrier. It 
participates in the settlement of 
claims while the charges for its serv- 




Tractor and Loaded Trailer Leaving Station. 



the roads and in accordance with pub- 
lished tariffs. 

Five off -track outbound stations are 
maintained by the Columbia Company 
in different localities in the business 
section of St. Louis at which freight is 
received from shippers, for all rail- 
roads terminating at East St. Louis 
and St. Louis. In no case does the 
company call at the shipper's door for 
freight. Three inbound stations are 
also maintained for the accommoda- 
tion of freight brought to East St. 
Louis by the railroads for St. Louis 
consignees. In cases where the con- 
signee directs the company to make 
delivery to his place of business, it 
^''^es so, but directions of this char- 



ices are fixed in published tariffs 
which apply imiformly to all off-track 
stations. Its revenue averages $2.14 
to $2.25 per ton for outbound traffic 
and $2.34 to $2.75 per ton for inbound 
traffic. The average rate received on 
interchange freight is $1.90 per ton. 
For these rates, the Terminals Com- 
pany provides the facilities at the off- 
track stations, and assumes all ex- 
pense of handling the freight at these 
points and to or from the houses 6f 
the individual roads. It makes out all 
waybills, issues receiving notices, etc. 
It also pays all freight charges to the 
roads and collects from consignees and 
shippers. 
While this freight was handled 



114 Railways July, 

originally by horse-drawn wagons, for average load on a trailer is six tons, 

which a maximum of 300 teams were As a trailer is loaded a central truck 

in service at one time, the Columbia dispatcher is notified who sends a 

Company began to experiment with tractor for it. The driver of the trac- 

motor trucks in 1914. In adapting tor is given a manifest of the load, en- 

them to this service, it was found pos- abling over or under loading to be de- 

sible to transfer a considerable pro- tected quickly. The terminal company 

portion of the traffic directly from the has a representative in each freight 

shippers' trucks to those of the ter- station, while a general superintend- 

minal company, thus saving labor, ex- ent is in charge of operations on each 

pense and platform space. side of the river. 

Development of Trailer System.— At the present time this company is 

Because of the necessity of holding handhng m excess of 6,000,000 lb. of 

the motor trucks during this transfer, freight per day, compnsmg about 

they did not prove economical and at- 15,000 mdividual shipments. As mdi- 

tention was then directed to the de- cative of the distribution of this traf- 

velopment of a system of trailers fie, the following statistics refer to 

which could be loaded "dead" and operations during March, 1923. 

moved by tractors. In 1909, a tractor Tonnage outbound delivered to all 

and three Lapeer trailers were pur- roads on both sides of river .72,990,211 

chased and they proved so satisfactory "^ttado^s^^f ! J."!!!!. ...^1.1!!!.!! !20,540,208 

that others have been added until to- Tonnage received at west side sta- 

day 63 tractors and 197 10-ton trailers tions for St. Louis 7.473.694 

Qvo in aowiVo art/\ mnrn will hp nrlrJpd Tonnage received at west side sta- 

are in service and more wui oe aaaea ^j^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^g^. ^j^^ ^^^^j^ 6,001,502 

regularly until the remaining dOO Tonnage received at west side sta- 

horses now employed are relieved. It tions for the east side roads . 7,065,012 

is anticpated that 125 tractors and 400 '^°4lj*s°""!!l!'!'!!I!^.. !°™ .!!!^!!^^^^^ 

trailers will enable all of the horses to Tonnage received from east side 

be eliminated. The tractors are of roads for St. Louis 26,484.053 

Pjiplrnrrl Mark nnH Piprpp Arrow Con- Tonnage received from east side 

racKara, iviacK ana rierce Arrow con ^^^^^ f^^. ^^^ eastern roads 6.191,827 

Struction, while the trailers are all 01 Tonnage received from east side 

the type originally purchased. roads for the west side roads 37,190,952 

This tractor-trailer system permits Of the outbound traffic originating 

one tractor, which involves the heav- at St. Louis practically all is loaded 

iest investment, to handle three or out of the railway stations on the 

four trailers as fast as they can be same day it is delivered to the Ter- 

loaded and unloaded, thereby reducing minals Company, while about 87 per 

its non-productive time to the mini- cent of that handled in interchange is 

mum and securing the maximum re- delivered to the connecting line on the 

turn from the investment. The trac- same day it is unloaded at the station 

tors make an average of 25 miles per of the incoming road. This compares 

day. From the standpoint of the rail- with an average interval of five days 

ways, a surplus of trailers ^ at the for interchange movement by rail, 

freight houses enables a considerable The value of this prompt movement in 

amount of freight to be trucked direct taking freight from the roads is indi- 

from cars to the trailers, while as the cated by the fact that there has been 

trailers stand in the streets or drive- no congestion at any freight house in 

ways they do not interfere in any St. Louis or East St. Louis during the 

with operations within the house. recent periods of heavy traffic, a con- 

This system of cartage is adapted dition which stands out in marked con- 
to the conditions existing at the 21 trast with those prevailing in most 
freight houses in St. Louis and East other large cities. This has been 
St. Louis, which were built for deliv- made possible by the Columbia Ter- 
ery of freight by teams. The trailers minals Company diiving the con- 
require no additional expense for signees harder than the roads are able 
equipment on the part of the roads, to remove their freight as a result of 
neither do they encroach on the floor which it gets quicker action than an 
area in the houses. As the trucks de- individual road competing with others, 
liver full loads to each house, the team This is indicated by the fact that this 
congestion is reduced greatly. company handles an average of 2.68 

Operation of System.— In the opera- tons of freight in and out per square 
tion of this system only freight for foot of floor space per year, as corn- 
one freight house is loaded on a trail- pared with an average of 1.73 tons in 
er, although no attempt is made to the railroad houses. Furthermore, 
concentrate it beyond that point. The when a road is handling a large 



1923 



Railways 



U5 



amount of freight inbound, as many 
as 50 to 60 trailers are loaded fre- 
quently after the regular closing time 
in order to release cars. 

As stated above, the Terminals 
Company participates with the roads 
in the settlement of all claims. To 
eliminate overs and shorts, drivers are 
held at the stations whenever discrep- 
ancies are discovered until the con- 
signor is communicated with, thereby 
clearing up most errors promptly, ^y 
this and other similar measures, 
claims of all kinds embracing short- 
ages, damages, concealed losses, etc., 
are kept down to an average of less 
than $1,400 per month or below 1 per 
cent of the revenues. 

In making this plan effective atten- 
tion has been given to the enlisting of 
the co-operation of the employees, spe- 
cial attention has been given to their 
education and the importance of han- 
dling freight carefully and a bonus is 
offered all employees to stimulate the 
output of their work. 



Selecting the QusJified 
Contractor 



Spotting a Gravel Barge With a Crane 

A simple and ingenious method of 
moving a barge loaded with gravel 
was observed recently on the water- 
front of a Hudson River town, state 
Successful Methods. The barge had 
been moored to the dock at a point 
where it was inconvenient to unload 
and it had to be pulled along about 50 
or 60 ft. A crane movmted on crawler 
traction and equipped with a clamshell 
bucket was handling the work of un- 
loading, so it made its way along the 
dock to where the barge was moored 
dropped its bucket into the gravel, 
letting it dig in far enough to get a 
firm hold, and then started back to the 
unloading point where the trucks were 
waiting. By avoiding a sudden jerk 
in starting which might have pulled 
the bucket loose, the crane operator 
managed to pull the barge along 
against the tide until he had it where 
he wanted it. Then he closed the 

cket tight hoisted out the first load 
i began filling up the nearest truck. 



^ A $30,000,000 Railway Project in 

I, Canada. — Press reports state that the 
' Canadian Pacific Ry. is planning the 
' construction of a direct outlet for the 
I Peace River country in Northern Al- 
berta at an approximate cost of $30,- 
: 000,000, and that survey parties are 
now engaged in preliminary work. 



Questionnaire for Determining Skill 
and Responsibility of Bidders 

Bids were taken early this month 
on a flood protection job at Vicks- 
burg. Miss. The work being of a 
somewhat special tj'pe, the engineers, 
the Miller Butten^'orth Co., of Little 
Rock, Ark., decided to use the plan 
adopted sometime ago by the Ken- 
tucky State Highway Department of 
requesting the bidders to submit ans- 
wers to a questionnaire covering their 
skill and responsibility. The ques- 
tionaire follows: 

The work contemplated is of a 
special nature, care will be taken to 
secure a contractor who has the nec- 
essary skill and ability to handle such 
work. To this end an effort will he 
made to eliminate inappropriate bid- 
ders before their proposals are open- 
ed, by having each bidder make satis- 
factory answers to the following ques- 
tionnaire before his bid will be ac- 
cepted. The information given will be 
treated in strict confidence, will be 
returned immediately after it has 
served its purpose and no copy will 
be kept, in fact, the questionaire sub- 
Chief Engfineer will be returned un- 
opened. 

The decision reached will not nec- 
essarily be one of fact as to the abil- 
ity of the person submitting the ans- 
wers, but simply the opinion of those 
called upon to select an appropriate 
contractor for this particular job; 
other or fuller information might 
change this opinion. A rejection in 
this case will reflect in no way what- 
ever, on the proponent, in any further 
work. 
SKILL: 

1. How long have you been in busi- 
ness as a contractor? 

2. How long have you been in re- 
sponsible charge of work? • 

3. What training in school, college, 
or elsewhere have you had to fit you 
for this business? ; — 

4. Give a concise outline of sim- 
ilar work you have done, with ex- 
amples and dates from your start in 
the contracting business. ■ — 

5. Give a list of similar work to 
that in view, with brief description, 
size, location and date, that you have 
executed. 

6. Have you a skilled superintend- 
ent now in your employ competent to 
be entrusted with executing the work 



116 



Railways 



July, 



in your view : — 

7. State the training and experi- 
ence of the man you propose to put in 
charge of this work. ■ — - 

8. Have you now in your employ 
the principal assistants to the works' 
superintendent for the work in view? 

9. State their position, training 
and experience. — 

10. Do you propose to sublet any 
parts thereof, if contract is awarded 
to you, or execute it all yourself? 

11. What part or parts do you 
propose to sublet if contract is not 
executed by you? '■ 

INTEGRITY 

12. Give the names and address of 
the last five engineers and the owners 
of the work, with address, for whom 
you have completed contracts. 

13. Will you give them as refer- 
ences. — - 

14. Have you any objection to my 
inquiring of any or all of them about 
you? ■ 

15. If so, why? 

16. Give any other reference you 
care to. — — 

17. Has any work been taken out 
of your control because of dissatisfac- 
tion of engineer or owner ? 

18; If so, describe the case. -^ — 

19. Have you had controversies 
with your subcontractor or with im- 
provement districts? 

20. If so, state the nature of them. 

21. Have any of your contracts 
resulted in lawsuits? 

22. If so, describe the cases. 

RESPONSIBILITY 

23. I estimate that if you fulfill 
the requirements of plans, specifica- 
tions and contract as to progress, the 
amount of cash and credit exclusive 
of equipment required of contractor 
before the first substantial payment 
is made will be $20,000.00, and that 
the maximum requirements of_ cash 
or credit in the most active period of 
the work between payments will be 
$30,000.00. 

24. Have you the required re- 
sources in cash or credit? 

25. Give a condensed statement of 
assets and liabilities. 

26. Will the above condensed fi- 
nancial statemeilt favorably compare 
with the detMled statement you will 
render a surety company when apply- 
ing for a bond ? 

27. What volume of work have you 
unfinished ? $ 

28. How much cash or credit does 
this require? $ • 



29. How much cash or credit does 
this leave free for other work ? $ 

30. I estimate approximately that 
the following plant will be the mini- 
mum amount needed to properly 
handle this work. Locomotive Crane, 
Clam Shell Bucket, Steam pile driver, 
Concrete Mixer, 200 Lineal Feet of 
Forms, Unloading Crane with Bucket, 
Bins for Materials, Means for Trans- 
porting Materials. 

31. Have you this amount of j^our 
own available for the work? 

32. If not, do you know that you 
can get it as and when needed ? 



Rail Maintenance and 
Conservation 



A Paper Presented June 13 at An- 
nual Meeting of American Asso- 
ciation of Railroad Superin- 
tendents 

By F. W. CURTIS, 

Superintendent, Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault 
Ste. Marie Ry. 

The proper maintenance and con- 
serving of rail is of considerable im- 
portance to a railroad in maintaining 
the track at the necessary standard 
to insure safety and economy in oper- 
ation of its trains and the upkeep of 
the track. If it is good economy to 
buy the best quality of rail, which I 
think all will agree is so, it is cer- 
tainly poor economy to neglect the rail 
after laid in track and allow it to be 
damaged by unfair usage and lack of 
proper care. When such is the case 
the life of the steel is shortened, with 
the result that it has to be removed 
from track before it should be changed 
out, thus causing loss and unnecessary 
expense. 

Proper Care of Rail Important. — 
Many section foremen and roadmas- 
ters fail to realize that rail is a very 
heavy item in the cost of building and 
maintaining track and that the proper 
care of it is a very important matter 
and that lack of care and misuse will 
result in unnecessary expense in main- 
tenance of track for their company 
which could have been prevented by 
the exercise of care on their part. 
Frequent and careful inspection of the 
rail on their sections by the foremen 
for defects which may be of serious 
nature and result in a derailment is 
very necessary. In many cases fore- 
men will go over their track day after 
day and not notice signs of defect 
and deterioration in a rail that should 



1923 



Railways 



117 



have been apparent to anyone familiar 
with the proper aspect of rail. 

Roadmasters are often remiss in 
this respect and do not develop the 
presence of defective rails in track 
which are liable to give out under 
traffic and cause a serious accident, 
with loss and damage to the company 
by reason of damage to freight and 
equipment and possible injury or death 
to passengers and employes. 

Roadmasters Should Regularly In- 
spect Main Line Rail. — There should 
be intelligent inspection given to rail 
in main line track at regular inter- 
vals by roadmasters, the frequency of 
such periodic inspection depending on 
the density of traffic, weight of roll- 
ing stock, and nature of the roadbed 
in order to prevent the continuing of 
defective rails in the track or pre- 
vent conditions which result in deteri- 
oration of rail. Such inspection as is 
necessary in order to insure this can- 
not be made from the rear end of a 
rapidly moving train but must be 
made by either walking over the track, 
or by riding on hand car or motor car 
at such rate of speed that the condi- 
tion of rail can be noted properly. 

Too often roadmasters think they 
must try and get over as much of their 
track in a day as they possibly can 
when making an inspection trip on 
motor car, which is undesirable from 
the standpoint of safety and also 
thorough inspection not being afford- 
ed. It is not possible to cover 100 
miles in a day on motor car on a 
rail inspection trip and give rail the 
proper degree of attention to develop 
defects. I have known roadmasters to 
do so and claim they gave the steel 
close and careful attention. Such in- 
spection as they could give under such 
conditions would be only superficial 
and of little value. 

Conditions That Cause Deteriora- 
tion. — I will briefly call attention to 
some of the defects which develop in 
rail and conditions that cause deteri- 
oration. The flattening or battering 
of the rails at ends due to joints not 
being kept up to proper surface, and 
neglect in keeping the bolts tight is a 
common source of damage, it is very 
apt to be prevalent on inside of curves 
and in the majority of cases is charge- 
able to negligence and lack of proper 
attention. 

When joints become battered thev 
cannot be overcome by raising and 
the only way that the damage can be 
satisfactorily repaired is to either saw 
off the battered end and re-drill the 



rail or build up the battered surface 
by welding. The latter remedy is 
preferable to the first, as it is not as 
expensive as resawing, and has been 
proven to be a success and an abso- 
lutely safe method of reclaiming of 
rail by the railroads that have adopted 
the welding process. 

The flange wear on head of rail is 
a condition that should not be ne- 
glected, especially on the head of the 
outside rail on curves of three de- 
gress or over and when rails have 
become worn so that the limit of 
safety has been reached, they should 
be replaced without delay. 

The flange wear on head of rail 
should not be allowed to exceed %-in. 
as wear in excess of this constitutes 
an unsafe condition which should not 
prevail, particularly where speed of 
trains is high. It is economy to trans- 
pose rails on curves from the inside 
to the outside and vice versa after the 
limit of flange wear is apparent. This 
should be done before the inside rail 
becomes battered to any extent. 
Transposing of the rail, if properly 
done, will give an additional life of 
five or six years on curves of 3 deg. 
or over and longer life on curves of 
less degree of curvature. 

Gauge of Curves Important Feature. 
— The gauge of curves is an important 
feature of maintenance of track and 
it is very essential that proper gauge 
be maintained on all curves. Im- 
proper or wide gauge on curves re- 
sults in damaging the inside rail as 
with wheels that are worn so there 
is a ridge or flange on the outside of 
the wheel, particularly with worn 
driving wheels on engines that will 
ride on the head of the rail if the 
gauge is wide, which will result in 
damage to the rail. 

The presence of piped rails in track 
is a serious condition and extremely 
unsafe and liable to result in derail- 
ment in case the ball of rail should 
break out. The piping rail is indi- 
cated by a dark streak lengthwise on 
top of the head of rail and whenever 
this exists it will be found that there 
is a red streak underneath the head 
of the rail resembling a red pencil 
mark. This is caused by the moisture 
from the top of rail soaking through 
the seam or defect and forming a cor- 
rosion under the head of the rail. A 
piped rail can often be detected also 
by a dropping down or depression in 
the head of the rail over the piping. 

The Danger from Internal Fissures. 
— Another defect in rail whieh is very 



118 



Railways 



July, 



serious and a great menace to safety 
is the internal fissure. This defect 
is such that it is practically impos- 
sible to detect it as the rail does not 
show any external sign of defect and 
there is nothing that can be done to 
discover its existence and the first in- 
timation of such defect is when the 
rail breaks under traffic. When a rail 
breaks and it is apparent the break- 
age is due to internal fissure, steps 
should be taken to obtain the heat 
number of the rail and the only safe 
thing to do is to remove all rails of 
such heat number from the track and 
not take chances of having other rails 
break due to such defect. 

The internal fissure rail is extreme- 



Combined Electric Welder and 
Grinder 

By mounting welding and grinding 
outfits on a 2-ton Ford chassis, Walter 
Uffert, Master Mechanic, New York & 
Harlem R. R., New York, has pro- 
duced a portable unit that can be han- 
dled by two men. The arrangement 
is described in the Electric Railway 
Journal, from which this note is taken. 

Both welding and grinding opera- 
tions can be carried on simultaneously. 
Welding leads of 100 ft. in length are 
provided, so that the welder can work 
on joints for this distance ahead of 
the truck. The grinding operation is 
performed at the rear of the truck so 




Welding and Grinding Operations Under Way at Same Time. 



ly dangerous to have in track and lia- 
ble to result disastrously if allowed 
to remain in the track. 

When rails develop broken bases it 
is economy to drill them and reinforce 
with angle bars and so continue them 
in the track instead of taking them 
out. This can be done with perfect 
safety where there is one crescent 
break not more than 20 in. long, rails 
with two or more such breaks in the 
base should be taken out of main track 
and used for side tracks. 

Where rails "break 5 ft. or less from 
end of the rail they should be taken 
out of track. Rails that break at a 
distance of more than 5 ft. from the 
end of the rail should be examined 
closely. If the break is found to be a 
square break and shows no sign of 
any visible defects, the rail should 
be drilled and a pair of angle bars 
applied and full bolted and kept in 
track. In case of a rail breaking in 
more than one place it should be re- 
moved from track at once. 



that this can follow the welding with- 
out interference. 

The welding and grinding equip- 
ment is mounted on a substantial 
angle-iron framework in the rear of 
the driver's cab. Six frames of grid 
resistance are mounted in two tiers 
immediately behind the cab. Circuit 
breakers are placed in the welding cir- 
cuit ahead of the equipment and the 
current graduations are obtained by 
knife switches. 

The New York & Harlem R. R. uses 
the underground conduit contact sys- 
tem, and current for welding is ob- 
tained directly from the contact rails 
by use of a plow. Four receptacles 
are provided on the left-hand side of 
the truck. Two of these are for the 
plow leads and the other two for the 
welding leads. Plugs with substantial 
wooden handles are used for plugging 
in to obtain the necessary connections. 
Copper rods with substantial porcelain 
insulators are used for all connections 
to the resistor grids and to the 
switches and circuit breakers. There 



1923 



Railways 



119 



is thus no danger of charring insula- 
tion from too much heat and at the 
same time this method of construction 
is neat and compact. 

In mounting the grinding wheel, 
special attention was given to flexibil- 
ity so that the grinding wheel can be 
removed from one rail to the other 
and can be pushed backward and for- 
ward without the necessity of .shift- 
ing the truck. A 3 h.p. 600-v. G. E. 
belted to a countershaft mounted just 
motor is used for driving. This is 
behind the grid resistors. 



New Features of I. C. R. R. 
Water Softening Plants 

The Illinois Central R. R. has re- 
cently completed nine new water 
treating plants and has converted 
three old intermittent plants into 
plants of the continuous type and in- 
creased their capacity about 75 per 
cent. In addition this road now has 
eight new plants under construction. 
When these plants are completed all 
water used from Clinton, 111., through 
Freeport, to Omaha, Neb., a distance 
of 600 miles, will be treated, and a 
total of 40 water softening plants 
will be in service on the system. The 
new plants are all of the continuous 
type and represent a new design of 
water treating plant in the construc- 
tion of the tanks and housing. We 
are indebted to an article by C. R. 
Knowles, Superintendent Water Serv- 
ice, Illinois Central R. R. in Railway 
Engineering and Maintenance, for the 
following information regarding the 
plants. 

The tanks are of conical bottom 
type with riser pipe and are built in 
three sizes for plants having hourly 
capacities of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,- 
000 gal., respectively. They are built 
in two heights, 35 ft. and 50 ft., the 
35-ft. tanks being employed for re- 
handling plants and the 50-ft. tanks 
for gravity plants. Five hours' re- 
action time is provided in all cases, 
the capacity of the tanks being 50,- 
000, 100,000 and 150,000 gal. Each 
tank is built with a conical bottom 
and standard 6 ft. riser pipe, the 
height of the riser pipe varving from 
12 ft. on the 50,000 gal. tank to 8 
ft. on the 150,000 gal. tank. 

The treating plant houses are of 
a uniform design and are built in two 
sizes, 20 ft. by 40 ft. and 20 ft. by 
60 ft., depending upon the capacity of 
the plant and the amount of storage 
space required. A space of 20 ft. by 



20 ft. is reserved for the chemical 
equipment, filters, etc., and the re- 
mainder is used for storage of chem- 
icals, the smaller house having stor- 
age space for two cars of chemicals 
and the larger house for four cars. 
That portion of the house reserved 
for the equipment has a 12-ft. ceiling 
to allow the necessary headroom for 
tanks, shafting, etc., which the stor- 
age room has a 10-ft. ceiling, as it is 
impractical to pile the chemicals dn 
storage higher than 8 ft. 

Conical Bottom Tank a N^w De- 
velopment for Water Treatment. — The 

outstanding feature of these new 
plants is the conical bottom tank 
which is a radical departure from the 
commonly accepted practice of build- 
ing flat bottom steel tanks of the 
standpipe type resting upon a con- 
crete ring filled with broken stone or 
elevated wood tanks of similar de- 
sign. A great deal of attention was 
given to the tank in designing these 
softening plants, and the conclusions 
reached, which have been borne out 
in practice, may be of interest. 

While the conical bottom steel tank 
has been used extensively for the past 
15 or 20 years as a roadside storage 
tank and in one or two isolated cases 
as a combined storage and settling 
tank, the Illinois Central treating 
plants are believed to be the first 
examples of its application purely as 
a water treating tank. It is true that 
water treating plants have been built 
with a cone within the settling tank, 
and some designs still embody the 
cone, either in an upright or in an 
inverted position, but it seems that 
the conical bottom principle is ap- 
plied to the outer shell or bottom of 
the tank with a riser or mud drum 
has not been given serious considera- 
tion by designers of water treating 
plants. 

It is generally conceded that this 
type of tank presents a more pleasing 
appearance than the flat bottom stand- 
pipe type of tank commonly used as 
a treating tank, and it is claimed to 
be more efficient and economical in 
many other respects. While some of 
the points claimed for it may be open 
to question, the Illinois Central tanks 
are proWng a very satisfactory and 
practical design of tank for water 
softening. 

Principal Advantage of Conical Bot- 
tom Tank. — The principal advantage 
of the conical bottom tank in water 
softening is found to be in the collec- 



120 



Railways 



July, 



tion and removal of the sludge and 
the resultant saving in water used for 
sludging over the flat bottom tank. 
This feature alone will pay a good 
return on the cost of the tank. In 
the flat bottom tank the sludge is 
distributed over the entire bottom of 
the tank and its removal necessitates 
the construction of an expensive 
sludge collecting system, usually con- 
sisting of pipe with openings placed 
at intervals over the bottom of the 
tank, the most efficient of which are 
so arranged that the system may be 
operate in sections with from two t© 
four sludge valves for each tank. 
Another type of sludge system is so 
constructed that the collecting pipes 
may be rotated over the bottom of the 
tank. None of these systems have 
been found entirely satisfactory, how- 
ever, as they will not completely re- 
move the sludge and are wasteful of 
water, as the sludge nearest the out- 
let is the first to be picked up and 
from two-thirds to three-fourths of 
the openings are discharging clear 
water long before the sludge near the 
outer edge of the tank is disturbed. 

The sludge falls to the bottom of 
the conical bottom tank and accumu- 
lates in the mud drum or riser where 
it is easily removed through a single 
opening and with a minimum waste 
of water. Actual tests to determine 
the amount of water in removing 
sludge show that the flat bottom tank 
requires from four to eight times 
more water than a conical bottom 
tank, depending on the efficiency of 
the sludge system and the amount of 
sludge deposited. 

Tests of Flat Bottom and Conical 
Bottom Tanks. — A test was made to 
determine the amount of water re- 
quired to remove the sludge from a 
flat bottom tank 22 ft. in diameter 
after 12 hours operation, during which 
time 120,000 gal. of water had been 
treated, the sludge amounting to ap- 
proximately 520 lbs. About 5,000 gal. 
of water was wasted and while a 
great deal of the sludge was removed, 
the tank was not clean by any means 
and repeated opening and closing of 
the sludge valve brought quantities 
of sludge, the stream of water being 
clear with streaks of sludge through 
it. The tank was drained of all water 
and it was found that the openings 
in the sludge system collected the 
sludge for a short distance around 
the openings and the sludge had ac- 
cumulated to a depth of 3 ft. all 



around the edge of the tank. There 
was also a great deal of sludge be- 
tween the sludge lines. Examination 
of the tank proved conclusively that 
the removal of sludge in a flat bottom 
treating tank is very expensive in the 
use of water and in most cases is 
inefficient and incomplete so far as the 
complete removal of the sludge is con- 
cerned, 

A similar test was made with a con- 
ical bottom treating tank 28 ft. in 
diameter. After 60 hours' operation, 
during which time 1,000,000 gal. of 
water had been treated, and the sludge 
deposits amounted to over 4,000 lb,, 
it was found that 2,300 gal. of water 
was sufficient to remove the sludge 
completely. The practice on the Illi- 
nois Central is to wash the sludge out 
twice a day and the water required 
for this purpose rarely exceeds 1,200 
or 1,500 gal. daily, while to do the 
same work in a flat bottom tank would 
require 8,000 or 10,000 gal., a con- 
servative estimate of the amount of 
water saved daily being 7,500 gal., 
which, at the low rate of 15 cents 
per thousand gallons for pumping and 
treating, means an annual saving of 
over $400 per year or six per cent 
on an investment of over $6,500. 

The conical bottom tank also has a 
decided advtantage over the flat bot- 
tom tank for water softening in the 
rate of upflow. For example: a 30,- 
000 gal. per hour treating plant will 
require a tank of 150,000 gal. capac- 
ity (based upon Illinois Central prac- 
tice which provides five hours' reac- 
tion and settling time). Assuming a 
height of 50 ft. for the softening 
tank a flat bottom tank of the de- 
sired capacity will have a diameter of 
22 ft. 6 in. and a rate of upflow of 
8 ft. 4 in. per hour. A conical bot- 
tom tank will have a diameter of 28 
ft. 8 in. or a rate of upflow of 5 ft, 
4 in. per hour. If the reaction time 
is only four hours, which is common 
practice, the rate of upflow in a flat 
bottom tank is over 12 ft. per hour 
while the rate in a conical bottom is 
less than 8 ft. 

Other advantages found in the coni- 
cal bottom tank are greater conven- 
ience for location of piping, valves, 
etc. The inaccessible portion of the 
bottom is reduced to a minimum 
which permits better maintenance as 
there is only a small portion of the 
bottom that cannot be painted. This 
design also permits better foundation 
design and distribution of load. 



1923 



Railways 

The Design of Radlway Terminal Stations 



121 



Principles to Be Considered In Evolving Proper Plan Outlined In Paper 

Presented July 12 at 53rd Annual Convention of 

American Society of Civil Engineers 

By ALFRED FELLHEIMER, 

Consulting Architect and Engineer, New York City. 



A passenger terminal improve- 
ment represents perhaps the largest 
single expenditure the railroad makes 
for an individual improvement, and 
the degree of skill with which it is 
planned to a great extent predeter- 
mines its future as an asset or a 
liability. 

In addition to the obvious railroad 
necessities, the designer is usually 
confronted with numerous important 
conditions, such as the economic 
soundness of the project and civic or 
other requirements for the present 
and future. As each problem pre- 
sents controlling features peculiar to 
itself, a plan carried out elsewhere 
cannot be successfully copied. The 
designer must, therefore, rely upon 
his ingenuity, skill and vision in devis- 
ing a plan which will completely 
achieve the desired objective and sat- 
isfy all requirements with due regard 
to their relative importance so that 
when the details have been correctly 
applied, a vitalized, successful plan 
will result. 

THE CREATION OF THE 

BASIC PLAN 
Preliminary Considerations 

The terminal in its broadest sense 
should provide an efficient instrument 
of service for the handling of railroad 
traffic, — permit the full utilization of 
the by-products for revenue, — satisfy 
the requirements of city develop- 
ment, — and render public service in 
the largest measure. 

Certain tendencies, such as (1) 
Electrification, (2) Relation of Rapid 
Transit Systems to the Long and 
Short Haul Passenger Traffic, (3) 
Merging of Terminals, and (4) Iden- 
tity of Interest between Railroad and 
Community, — are controlling elements 
affecting Terminal Station Design. 

Electrification. — Electrification with- 
in the strictly terminal zone of some 
of our large cities, has received a dis- 
tinct impetus in recent years. Its ad- 
vantages from a purely railroad oper- 
ating standpoint would not ordinarily 
be sufficient to justify the scrapping 
of existing plant and equipment. On 



the other hand, when the terminal is 
located in a part of the city which is 
already desirable or may be poten- 
tially so for commercial Jbuilding de- 
velopment, electrification permits of 
an intensive use of the property which 
is not possible with steam operation. 
The use which may be made of over- 
head or air rights to produce revenue 
without serious effect on the operating 
facilities which may be placed at or 
below the street level may, in con- 
junction with such other advantages 
as electrification may bring to the 
specific problem under consideration, 
be sufficient to justify its fixed charges. 
One of the most striking illustrations 
of the intensive use of all property in 
and about a passenger terminal, is the 
development at the Grand Central 
Terminal in New York City. 

Relation of Rapid Transit Systems 
to the Long and Short Haul Passenger 
Traffic. — As most railroad terminals 
are inspired primarily by the neces- 
sity of providing for long-haul passen- 
ger traffic, the handling of short-haul 
(suburban) traffic should not be al- 
lowed to become a limiting factor in 
the life of the Terminal. Suburban 
traffic generally develops faster than 
through traffic and often threatens to 
absorb an undue proportion of the ter- 
minal facilities. This situation is ag- 
gravated by the modern tendency of 
long-haul through travel to attain its 
peak load coincidently with the short- 
haul peak. 

Serving nearby suburban or urban 
traffic is logically the function of rapid 
transit systems, which have in general 
failed to keep pace with the unprece- 
dented growth of many of our large 
cities. In consequence, an undue share 
of this traffic is forced into the rail- 
road terminals. 

To the extent that the volume of 
this nearby suburban or urban traffic 
is reduced its terminal service facili- 
ties may be restricted, — unremunera- 
tive business eliminated, and capital 
expenditure lessened, making avail- 
able more space and capital, if needed, 
for greater development of the long- 
haul traffic terminal service. 



122 



Railways 



July, 



In view of these circumstances, it is 
clearly an advantage to divert as much 
as possible of the urban and nearby 
suburban traffic from the terminal, 
consequently, definite consideration 
should always be given to the feasibil- 
ity of arranging or providing for co- 
operative trackage rights and physical 
connections between Railroad and 
Rapid Transit Systems, existing or 
proposed, outside the terminal liniits, 
thus assuring relief of the terminal 
from the burden of this concentrated 
service, and affording the public in the 
greatest degree door to door trans- 
portation. 

Merging of Terminals. — As serious 
public thought is now being given to 
large consolidations of railroad prop- 
erties, consideration should be given 
to the anticipation of them and the 
changes involved in their accomplish- 
ment, including merging of terminals. 

This involves broad questions of 
policy and economics of operation. The 
value of the land which may be re- 
leased is often one of the major points 
advanced in favor of such a project. 
Before deciding in its favor, however, 
due weight should be given to the 
possibility, under electrification, of the 
railroad use and commercial develop- 
ment jointly, through the utilization 
of the air-rights thereby made avail- 
able. 

It has been demonstrated that, 
given the opportunity, business activi- 
ties will center about an electrified 
railroad passenger terminal, to take 
advantage of the accessibility of trans- 
portation and the potential business 
possibilities created by the movement 
of large numbers of passengers 
through the various approach thor- 
oughfares. In addition the desirability 
of the air-right space is increased by 
the continuous control of a single 
ownership. 

Through the mutual reaction of 
these favorable elements, it is not un- 
likely that the values thereby created 
will be greater than those following 
the full release of the same property 
for non-railroad use. 

Identity of Interest Between Rail- 
road and Community. — In principle, 
the interests of the railroad and the 
community it serves are in the last an- 
alysis the same, anfl the Terminal plan 
should express such identity of in- 
terest. 

Municipal and other public officials 
should therefore approach the solution 
of these problems as far as the ele- 
ments they themselves represent are 



concerned, in the spirit of whole- 
hearted cooperation. And so too, the 
railroads, not only as concerns the 
public interest but also as between 
themselves where the terminal pro- 
ject affects directly or indirectly more 
than one railroad. 

General Requirements. — The pre- 
liminary examination must determine 
that the project satisfies the following 
conditions : 

That the improvement at the pro- 
posed site as compared with other 
available locations, is desirable from 
the viewpoints of construction and 
operating costs, including car unit 
costs. This is particularly important 
for locations so restricted in area that 
double-deck structures may be neces- 
sary to secure required capacity. 

That suitable development can be 
made in stages to meet the expected 
normal growth in the services in- 
volved for a sufficient term of years to 
justify the project. 

That the proposed improvement is 
desirable from the viewpoint of the 
municipality and in harmony with its 
plans for development. 

That the advantages offered to the 
public are sufficient to justify such 
concessions as may be required from 
the municipality. 

That the project in its entirety, pre- 
sents a sufficiently favorable economic 
aspect, free from insurmountable 
prior obligations, to insure its com- 
plete financing along rational lines. 

That the by-products of the develop- 
ment such as the overhead or air- 
rights can be utilized in a practical 
and profitable way so as to absorb, or 
at least substantially reduce, the 
carrying charges of the improvement. 

That the project as planned is so 
sound and free from imposing burden- 
some conditions upon the railroad, 
that controlling or governing bodies 
will readily approve same. 

That the improvement is of such 
type that adequate enhancement of 
land values within the terminal area 
will necessarily follow. 

Specific Requirements. — The fore- 
going broad principles being satisfied, 
the basic idea must be in harmony 
with the following: 

Transition from Existing Conditions 
to Proposed Plan. — Except at new lo- 
cations, the plan must, in its general 
conformation, fit in with existing con- 
ditions to a sufficient extent to permit 
of gradual transition into the com- 
plete or final plan without serious dis- 
turbance of operation, and in such 



i 



1923 



Railways 



123 



stages as \vill conform with the de- 
velopment of railroad traffic and con- 
tiguous property. Obvious economic 
and practical reasons make this im- 
perative. 

Balance Between Benefits to Pub- 
lic and Cost. — It must strike a proper 
balance between the public comfort 
and convenience on the one side, and 
economy in both first cost and sub- 
sequent operation on the other. This 
insures good will on the part of the 
public, and efficient and liberal service 
on the part of the railroad. 

Simplicity of Plan Insuring Direct- 
ness. — The general layout must be 
orderly and direct in the placement of 
its principal parts, because in a pro- 
ject of large dimensions and scope, 
freedom from disorder and confusion 
is in direct proportion to the simplic- 
ity of the plan. 

Street Arrangement and Railroad 
Facilities Coordinated. — The railroad 
facilities provided must coordinate 
with the complete development of 
streets and blocks throughout the ter- 
minal, conforming with the civic plans 
for unrestricted expansion of the city 
adjacent to or across the terminal 
area. This will benefit both the rail- 
road and the public. 

Flexibility in Adjustment to Future 
Requirements. — Facility of adjust- 
ment to future requirements must be 
arranged for, because the useful life 
of railroad facilities is limited by ob- 
solescence rather than by physical de- 
cay. ^ Such facilities, therefore, can be 
considered stable or permanent only 
insofar as they are adjustable to 
changing conditions. This applies with 
special force to terminals which must, 
in their initial stages, be operated by 
steam. 

Adequate Trackage in Approaches, 
Throats and Yards. — Definite determ- 
ination must be made of the adequacy 
of approaches, throats and yards, to 
assure ample capacities of trackage, 
all in proper balance, thereby making 
possible a high degree of operating 
eflFectiveness. 

Selection of Characteristic Basic Types 
After the plan has been proven to 
be^ in accord with the preceding re- 
quirements, determination must be 
made of certain characteristic basic 
types, as follows: (A) Through or 
! Stub type of track facilities, as affect- 
j ing train operation, and (B) Head- 
j House type of station facilities, as af- 
I fecting station operation. 
i The designation "Terminal" while 
i strictly applying to a rail or operating 



"Terminus" only, is, in this paper, 
used as referring to a station of either 
the stub or through type of track fa- 
cilities. 

Through Type. — This layout, where 
the track facilities provide in part or 
whole for through train operation, is 
concededly best adapted for efficient 
and rapid train handling, and is 
therefore, where choice can be made, 
the type to be selected unless a careful 
investigation of all the elements af- 
fecting the correlated and dependent 
facilities, fails to disclose the neces- 
sary preponderance of factors in its 
favor. 

Stub Type. — This type, where the 
train operation terminates at the sta- 
tion, can, where the conditions permit, 
be given some of the special advan- 
tages of the through type by provid- 
ing a loop or engine release arrange- 
ment. 

In the stub type of terminal, except 
in cases where there is a difference be- 
tween street and track level, the plat- 
forms and other facilities can be ar- 
ranged at one level. This results in 
advantages as follows: 

Highest total effiicency in operation 
and the greatest convenience to the 
public. 

Freer and faster travel on plat- 
forms, unencumbered by stairs or 
ramps. 

Practical elimination of vertical 
travel of passengers between streets 
and platforms. 

Economy in construction cosft, 
maintenance and operation. 

The short haul (suburban) traffic 
with its intensive service requirements 
should, wherever possible, be provided 
with means for through or continuous 
train operation. 

A definite selection must be made 
of one of the three general types of 
Head-house before proceeding with 
the consideration of the arrangements 
of the detail features : 

Waiting Room Type of Head-House. 
— Where the Waiting Room is made 
the focal center of the Station, with 
all dependent facilities such as ticket 
office, baggage and check rooms open- 
ing directly therefrom and with separ- 
ate passenger concourse for access to 
train platforms. The Washington 
Union Station is an example. (This 
arrangement tends to make the main 
waiting room a thoroughfare between 
the street and the trains.) 

Concourse Type of Head-House. — 
Where a large general passenger con- 
course is provided for the mass move- 



124 



Railways 



July, 



ment of passengers, with ticket office 
and other dependent facilities opening 
directly therefrom, the Waiting Room 
with its auxiliary facilities being 
placed adjacent to but separate from 
the Concourse. The Grand Circuit 
Terminal, New York City, is an ex- 
ample. (This type tends to minimize 
conflict of foot passenger tralRc.) 

Composite Type of Head-House. — 

Where a large room is provided ex- 
clusively for the sale of tickets, check- 
ing baggage and like dependencies, 
with separate waiting rooms and pass- 
enger concourse. The Pennsylvania 
Station, New York City, is an ex- 
ample. (This type tends to create 
cross-currents of travel between the 
various station facilities.) 

ELABORATION OF THE DESIGN 
Traffic Considerations 
Extreme Peak Conditions of Traffic 
Not to Govern. — While station facili- 
ties should be planned to accommodate 
anticipated traffic, including normal 
frequently recurring peaks, it is not 
essential to provide for occasional ex- 
treme peak conditions, since, in a well 
planned station, an overload can be 
carried by all facilities for short per- 
iods without undue operating stress or 
inconvenience to the public. 

Foot Traffic Channels — Natural and 
Direct. — The general arrangement 
should invite movement of foot traffic 
along natural and direct channels so 
that passengers may, as far as prac- 
ticable, avoid crossing the main travel 
routes and the retracing of steps. 

Where established lines of city foot 
traffic are permanently interrupted by 
the terminal construction, provision 
should be made to accommodate this 
traffic without interfering with the 
normal use of the Station. 

Separation of Suburban and 
Through Foot Traffic. — The separation 
of suburban and through traffic should 
be effectively accomplished in order to 
avoid confusion and expedite the 
movement of both classes of traffic. It 
is not essential that entirely separate 
Concourse, Waiting Room and general 
facilities be provided. It is necessary, 
however, that the main channels of 
circulation be completely separated. 

Separation of Inbound and Out- 
bound Traffic. — While it is desirable 
to separate the passenger foot traffic 
channels and allocate sections of the 
terminal facilities to inbound and out- 
bound traffic, no physical division 
should be planned in the track layout 



that will limit interchangeability and 
elasticity. 

The baggage facilities for receiving, 
delivery and storage should be separ- 
ated. Trucking subways, bridges and 
other passageways may be used in 
common. 

Adequate provision should be made 
for the public and private vehicular 
traffic in suitable relationship to sta- 
tion facilities. 

In addition to access to streets, con- 
venient entrances and exits should be 
provided for interchange of passen- 
gers with surface car lines or other 
local transportation systems. 

The plan should provide for direct 
contact with all natural points of en- 
trance and exit rather than force the 
diversion of traffic to points dictated 
purely by the necessities of the Archi- 
tectural Composition. 

Provision should be made for direct 
traffic contact by means of trucking 
and elevator facilities, with the pass- 
enger platforms. 

Where this traffic is in solid trains, 
consideration should be given to its lo- 
cation outside the terminal. 

Segregation of Freight Traffic. — 
Where the terminal plan includes pro- 
vision for freight traffic, this portion 
of the layout should be entirely segre- 
gated from the passenger facilities 
and, as far as possible, all freight 
driveways should be separate from the 
main streets or thoroughfares, in or- 
der to minimize the interference in 
the operation of these facilities with 
passenger and public traffic. 

Station Facilities 

General Requirements. — The vari- 
ous facilities comprising the Station 
proper must be placed in the natural 
and orderly grouping which their logi- 
cal related uses dictate. The individual 
sizes of adjacent facilities should per- 
mit modification, if future require- 
ments so dictate, without seriously] 
disarranging the general coordinatior 
of the plan. , , 

The Passenger Concourse. — This 
should be roomy and entirely enclosed 
with weather-tight gates at the train 
platforms. These train gates should 
preferably be in a continuous line on 
one side of the Concourse. The Con- 
course should be free from confusing 
changes in direction; ample and direct 
access should be provided from the 
Concourse to strategic street points 
and the various Station facilities. 

The Waiting Room. — These should 
be arranged to be conveniently acces- 
sible for patrons from the street and 



1923 



Railways 



125 



station facilities without inviting 
usage as a thoroughfare, with all fa- 
cilities for the comfort and accommo- 
dation of waiting passengers located 
adjacent and readily accessible. The 
location should permit of adequate 
ventilation and daylighting. 

The Ticket Office and Checking Fa- 
cilities. — These should be placed in 
contact with, but not encroaching upon 
the main routes of travel between 
streets and trains, so that persons not 
requiring these facilities may pass 
without conflict with passengers buy- 
ing tickets or checking baggage. 

All working facilities should be pro- 
vided with conveniences and equip- 
ment required to insure the full work- 
ing efficiency and comfort of the em- 
ployes. 

Concessions. — Revenue producing 
facilities conducive to the comfort and 
convenience of the passengers should 
be located along the main arteries of 
travel, placed so as not to reduce the 
effectiveness of Station operation. 
Their arrangement should insure max- 
imum patronage from the general pub- 
lic and railroad patrons, thereby en- 
hancing their rental value. 

Architectural Objective of the De- 
sign. — The elaboration of the Archi- 
tectural features of the design should 
reasonably express the purpose of the 
improvement and emphasize the rela- 
tive importance of entrances, exits 
and like features. Attention should 
be paid to mass effect which attracts 
the notice of the general public rath- 
er than to details which are seen or 
appreciated only by a few. Econom- 
ical consideration should be a definite 
aim throughout including the avoid- 
ance of especially elaborate construc- 
tional detail. 

The station plan should impose on 
the office building no limitations which 
will exclude any essentials needed to 
assure successful competition with 
similar commercial buildings. 

Where the character of overhead 
buildings can be predetermined, as re- 
quiring contact with the station, 
freight or other facilities, it should 
be provided for; otherwise, flexibility 
should be given, making possible fu- 
ture conversion to suit the require- 
ments. 

Platforms and Ramps 

Platforms. — These should be level 
with the car floor, especially for sub- 
urban service. If conditions compel 
the use of low platforms, provision 



should be made for future conversion 
to the high type. 

Where the width of platform is re- 
stricted by the need for intensive de- 
velopment of the property, the mini- 
mum should permit passengers to pass 
freely between loaded baggage trucks 
when placed along either side of the 
platform. 

Means should be provided to avoid 
trucking across platforms and tracks. 

Baggage elevators should not be lo- 
cated in narrow platforms except at 
the outer end. When placed at the 
Concourse end they should not ob- 
struct circulation. The enlargement of 
platforms at the Concourse end laiown 
as the "Midway" provides space for 
the location of elevators, stairs and 
similar facilities without encroach- 
ment upon the Concourse or interfe- 
rence with public circulation, and per- 
mits the use of several train gates at 
one time in speeding the exit of arriv- 
ing passengers. 

Separate baggage platforms are not 
ordinarily necessary. The handling of 
baggage on passenger platforms 
causes slight interference with pass- 
enger traffic. Suburban trains carry 
practically no baggage. Inboimd long- 
distance trains normally occupy the 
platforms for a considerable period 
beyond the short inter\-al required to 
discharge the passengers. Passengers 
for outboimd long-distance trains are 
so thinly distributed that no appreci- 
able interference results. However, if 
such platforms are provided at all, 
they should be of ample width, as nar- 
row ones will be useless. 

The spacing of platforms and 
tracks, particularly if lines of columns 
are necessary, should be designed to 
permit ready rearrangement of plat- 
form widths to meet future needs. 

Column lines for superimposed 
structures in the absence of controll- 
ing conditions to the contrary, should 
be located in the platforms instead of 
between tracks thereby reducing dan- 
ger to overhead structures, increasing 
the view for operation, adding to safe- 
ty and facilitating maintenance. Col- 
umns in platforms interefere but 
slightly with passenger movement, 
with small loss of space, whereas, 
when between tracks, the space is en- 
tirely lost. I 

Ramps. — Where the tracks and 
streets are necessarily at different 
levels, the vertical travel, if possible, 
should be by means of ramps, rather 
than by stairways. 

In general, ramps permit more 



126 



Railways 



July, 



rapid circulation, cause less fatigue 
and minimize accidents. 

Where the foot of ramp extends 
several car lengths or more from the 
Station end of a narrow platform, pro- 
vision should be made to avoid back- 
ward travel of arrivmg passengers. 

Track Facilities. — A reasonable pro- 
portion only of the station tracks need 
be of sufficient length to accommodate 
the longest trains that present power 
can handle, plus an allowance for in- 
crease. 

Excessive rates of curvature and 
grades should be avoided as interfer- 
ing with effective and safe operation; 
and tracks along platforms, especially 
of the high type, should as far as pos- 
sible, be straight. 

Where overhead building construc- 
tion is contemplated, the track spac- 
ing and location of special work 
should afford reasonably free oppor- 
tunity for placing of columns and 
avoidance of long building spans. 

Where conversion from steam to 
electric power in the future is a possi- 
bility, provision should be made to 
permit the installation of electrical 
features affecting the track and plat- 
forms. 

Special Structural Requirements. — 
In addition to the usual provisions for 
changes due to temperature, all build- 
ings whose rental value or use is ad- 
versely affected by excessive vibra- 
tion should, as to their foundations 
and other structural parts, be entirely 
separated from similar parts in other 
buildings or structures through which 
directly or indirectly the vibration due 
to rolling or live load may be trans- 
mitted. 

Columns at track level where neces- 
sary should be protected by suitable 
collision piers to prevent failure 
through derailment, and should never 
be located in the direct line of the 
track immediately beyond a bumping 
post. 

The choice of type of future electri- 
fication, if initial operation is by 
steam, should not be hampered by any 
structural limitations, such as insuf- 
ficient headroom. 

Auxiliary Facilities. — P r o v i s i o n 
should be made for the location of all 
auxiliary operating facilities such as 
signaling, central plants, sub-stations 
and equipment, entirely separate from 
the station facilities wherever possible 
but accessible to same. In determin- 
ing the proper location, due weight 
should be given to the influence of all 



economic elements such as land values, 
economy in handling supplies and 
waste material, and load distribution. 

CHECKING OR PROOF OF THE 
ADEQUACY OF THE DESIGN 

General Considerations. — Averages 
and statistics derived from other ter- 
minals, while interesting and helpful, 
have no final determining value. The 
facts of record at the Terminal under 
consideration must finally govern. 
Each facility must be tested oy the 
actual local requirements. 

Load Co-ordination. — Consequently 
when the general design has been ac- 
complished, it is imperative that the 
final^ test as to load co-ordination be 
applied to determine: 

That all parts are in balance, 

That no individual feature is under 
or over developed, and 

That all features will simultane- 
ously reach the saturation point. 

Analysis of Operating Capacities. — 

To accomplish this, an analysis should 
be made of the operating capacity of 
the approach tracks, throat tracks, 
and body tracks, as a proper balance 
of these facilities is of vital import- 
ance. Likewise the relative values of 
practically all supporting facilities in 
the plan should be measured and bal- 
anced to safe-guard the successful fu- 
ture of the development. 

As an example, the ticket office size 
and number of selling windows, can be 
definitely arrived at as they have a 
fixed relation to the number of out- 
bound passengers of all classes han- 
dled which is, in turn, determined by 
the ultimate saturation point of the 
track facilities used in handling out- 
bound cars. 

It should be here specially noted 
that failure to check or prove the 
Adequacy of the Design along these 
lines, accounts for many of the faults 
and weaknesses in our terminals. 



Increased Use of Permissible Explo- 
sives. — In 1912 tne quantity of per- 
missible explosives consumed in the 
United States represented about 5 per 
cent of the total quantity of all kinds 
of explosives produced in this coun- 
try, while in 1922 it was 10.1 per cent, 
according to W. W. Adams, mine acci- 
dent statistician of the Bureau of 
Mines, Department of the Interior. 
The total amount of explosives used 
for the production of coal in 1922 was 
220,457,647 lb., of which 18,2 per cent 
was of the permissible class. 



1923 



Railways 



127 



Traction Wheel Mountings for 

Railroad Type Steam 

Shovels 

The Osgood Co., Marion, 0. has re- 
cently built, and successful tests have 
been made of traction wheel movmt- 
ings for one of the heaviest railroad 
type steam shovels. The shovel, an Os- 
good 120, 6 cu. yd. has heretofore been 
mounted only upon standard railroad 
trucks. On account of the time nec- 
essary in laying track for moving the 
shovel, railroad truck mountings were 
slow in getting from one point to 
another. This size shovel is much 
used in big rock quarries and open 
mines and usually when blasting oper- 
ations were in progress it was nec- 
essarv to lav track and move the 



versible steering engine mounted 
above deck alongside the boiler, out of 
the way yet readily accessible. Re- 
versing the engine causes traveling 
nut to move in opposite direction. 
The engine is controlled and steering 
accomplished by means of a single 
lever from the engineers position in 
the for\\'ard end of the cab. 

In recent tests made in a lai^e 
Pennsylvania stone quarry the shovel 
was moved a distance in one day that 
under old track laying methods would 
have required at least ten days. 

The advantage claimed for traction 
wheels over railroad trucks for large 
railroad tjrpe steam shovels briefly 
summarized are: greater mobility of 
machine, elimination of pit crew, ea- 
sier accessibility to face of excavation, 
elimination of tracks and reduction of 




6 Cu. Yd. Shovel on Traction Wheels in Operation in Pennsylvania Quarry. 



shovel back from the face of the ex- 
cavation and then up again after the 
explosives had been set off. These 
operations were not only costly in 
time and labor consumed in making 
the changes, but also in decreased 
output through time lost. 

Giant traction wheels were designed 
that measure 6 ft. in diameter and 
have a face of 36 in. on the front or 
drive wheels and 30 ins. on the rear 
wheels. The front wheels are used 
as drivers and power is delivered 
through a series of gears from the 
powerful hoisting engines on the 
shovel. Steering is accomplished by 
turning the rear wheels by means of a 
screw shaft and traveling nut. The 
nut, to which is attached the axle 
tongue, moves along the screw shaft, 
slewing the rear axle and wheels in 
the direction desired. The screw 
shaft is operated by a separate re- 



side strains and racking to the ma- 
chine in general. Traction wheels also 
have a decided advantage over any 
other type of mounting in that the 
traction wheels are much less compli- 
cated, simpler to operate and have a 
much lower upkeep cost. 

Some idea of the size of the shovel 
can be gathered from a few figures. 
The shovel has an over all length of 
slightly more than 85 ft. and the over 
all width is 20 ft. -with a maximum 
height over the cab of 15 ft. while the 
boom extends to a height of 32 ft. 

A large stone company near Chi- 
cago has just installed an Osgood 73 
3^2 cu. yd. traction shovel for use in 
the quarry. The pit is about 80 ft. 
deep and is reached by a very steep 
incline. To get the new machine into 
the pit would ordinarily be quite a 
problem, but when equipped with 
traction wheels the problem was much 



128 



Railways 



July, 



simplified. With boom up and dipper 
and handle in place the shovel was 
backed down the steep declivity under 
its own power without difficulty. 

Shortly after this shovel had been 
placed in operation a cut of loaded 
dump cars was derailed when some 
distance from the shovel and on the 
way to the incline hoist. The Osgood 
traction shovel was thrown into gear, 
run down to the cars, a chain hooked 
over the dipper teeth and around the 
cars. In a few minutes the train was 
rerailed and on its way to the hoist 
while the shovel went back to the rock 
face ready for work. It would have 
been necessary to unload the cars to 



A Safe Method of Blasting Chutes 

Even experienced miners often use 
an iron bar for prying loose boulders 
which have hung up in chutes. If the 
boulders come down suddenly, the 
blaster or loader has no time to with- 
draw the bar he was using and seri- 
ous injuries frequently result. 

How this dangerous practice is 
avoided at a western mine by substi- 
tuting specially prepared blasting| 
sticks for iron bars, is told in The Ex- 
plosives Engineer. These blasting 
sticks, by means of which a small 
charge of dynamite is placed in a 
hung-up stope, pillar, or dumping 




A 31^ Cu. Yd. Machine on Incline Preparatory to Backing Into Pit. 



rerail them by hand, and then reload 
them. While this was being done the 
shovel and other cars would have been 
standing idle if the ready mobility of 
the shovel had not saved the day. The 
shovel has also been used about the 
quarry for handling boilers and other 
heavy machinery that would require 
the services of a locomotive crane. 

The Osgood Co. is prepared to fur- 
nish traction mountings for its 120 6 
cu. yd., 105 5 cu. yd., 73 S^^ cu. yd., 
and 69 ft. 2% and 3 cu. yd. railroad 
type shovels. Traction mountings on 
the 43 1% cu. yd. have been standard 
equipment for some time and their 
successful use led to experiments 
which have developed the traction 
wheels for all sizes of railroad type 
steam shovels. 



chute, are cut from a 1-in, plank and 
are 16 ft. long and 1 in. square. The 
sticks must be cut from straight- 
grained material; therefore, carefully 
sorted straight-grained boards are se- 
lected. At this time, where approxi- 
mately 650 men are employed under- 
ground, about 2,500 blasting sticks are 
used each month. The dynamite is 
tied to the end of the blasting stick, 
and the charge is then pushed up into 
the chute until it comes under the ob- 
struction to be removed. The chute 
blasters prefer the blasting sticks to 
iron chute bars, and by using the 
sticks they do not have to endanger 
their lives by crawling into the chuteJ 
If a boulder falls on the stick it| 
breaks without injuring the user. 



1923 



Railways 

'IP Planning Mass Transportation Facilities 



129 



Methods of Providing Local Common Carrier Passenger Service in 

Urban Districts Discussed in Proceedings of Engineers' 

Society of Western Pennsylvania 

By T. FITZGERALD, 

P'- CJonsulting Electric Railway Elngineer, Pittsburgh 

After various factors — present and The trackless vehicles have less 

prospective characteristics of traffic, capacity than street railways, cost 

topography, fares and political re- more to operate per vehicle mile and 

lations — have been estimated, plans require less investment per route mile, 

may be made to apply that type of The trackless trolley, which requires 

transportation facility best adapted to an overhead electric power distribu- 

each one of the different traffic prob- tion system, involves a greater invest- 

lems encountered. In a simple prob- ment per route mile than the gaso- 

lem invohijig a small community, one line bus, but its operating cost is less, 

tjrpe may suffice. In large commun- Its capacity is equal to that of the 

ities, there are included in the general gasoline bus. 

problem a number of different trans- The street railway, requiring both 

portation needs which may require power system and track, involves a 

different types of facility for the best greater investment per route mile 

general solution. than the trackless trolley, but its oper- 

The different types of transporta- ating cost is less and capacity greater, 

tion facilities to be considered are: Elevated and subway terminals for 

Trackless Vehicles. These include, street railway cars reduce operating 

gasoline buses and trolley buses. costs and increase capacity somewhat, 

Electric Railways. These include but greatly increase investment costs, 
surface street railways, elevated rail- The rapid-transit elevated obviously 
ways for surface cars, subways for requires much larger investment ex- 
surface cars; rapid transit elevated penditures. Its operating costs are 
roads and rapid transit subway. much less than street railways and its 

Railroads. These include railroads capacity is much greater, 

engaged primarily in through freight The rapid-transit subway requires a 

and passenger transportation service. still greater investment than the ele- 

Special Types. Among these may vated. The operating expenses are 

be mentioned, inclines, cable-cars, and somewhat less, and the capacity 

mo\ing platforms. slightly greater, than in the case of 

Relative Positions of Various Types. the elevated. 

— The relative postions of the bus, Railroads engaged primarily in 

surface car, elevated and subway are through passenger and freight service 

indicated by the following ratios must be considered in this problem, 

found by Mr. H. M. Brinckerhoff, a but the healthy expansion of their 

recognized authority on urban trans- urban passenger service appears most 

portation: difficult. 

Invest- ^ist i^r Special tjrpes of facility, such as in- 
Capacity Speed ment car mile clines, cable-cars, moving platforms, 
i^Vce-l^Z-.:: 1.7 1 2 18 f^:' "^^y^^ adapted to unusual con- 

Eievated 6 2 12 1.2 ditions of topography. 

Subway 7 2 36 1 The use of an incline to open up 

■p^^.v, fi,«r.« ^ ^^r. 1, J • J the development of an otherwise in- 

+;,; T f F^^ "^^^ ^^ ^^"^""^^ accessible area, by connecting that 

the relations of operating costs per a^ea directlv with street railwav or 

ftv foJf Tor^Stu''™"^ " '""' '^^^'- rapid-Ssif frciStifs 'marbe lusti- 

ity load for all tx-pes: Aed in special cases. The disadvantage 

o'*ff 1* is inconvenience of bodily transfer be- 

Hevat^ '^.J: Z "- If tween the incline and other t>T)es of 

Subway _1..!„.~Z!Z!!.!Z." ."""" Z i service. This bodily transfer has been 

-. avoided in some instances by operat- 
it must be remembered that such ing street-cars over inclines as a part 
statements are very general in their of their route. This method, how- 
nature and cannot be applied indis- ever, adds a large expense and sharp- 
cnminately to all situations. ly restricts the capacity of the route 



130 



Railways 



July, 



affected. Fifteen cars an hour in each 
direction is about the limit; and, un- 
less an unusually large incline is pro- 
vided, the cars must be small and 
operate in single units. 

Cable-cars are rarely used today 
and are limited to grade conditions 
beyond the ability of electric cars to 
negotiate safely. 

Sub-surface moving platforms have 
been seriously suggested for Forty- 
Second Street cross-town traffic in 
New York, for the purpose of reliev- 
ing the streets of pedestrian traffic 
and providing a convenient by-pass 
for traffic between rapid transit and 
other transportation facilities. 

Volume of traffic, length of haul, 
fares, and grade conditions all have 
a large influence upon the type of 
facility best adapted to any particular 
demand for transportation. 

The Bus. — The trackless vehicle, re- 
quiring less capital outlay than the 
railway, can be supported by a smaller 
number of passengers. Its limited 
capacity, however, restricts its use in 
the heavy rush-hour traffic of cities. 
In addition, the flat-fare system gen- 
erally in use in America restricts its 
use for long-haul traffic at the usual 
rate of fare. The increased operating 
costs per vehicle mile, as compared 
with rail facilities, wipes out the mar- 
gin between fares and costs when the 
average length of ride approaches tJie 
average of street railways, at the rail- 
way rate of fare. The advantage of 
investment charges lower than for 
railway is overcome before the length 
of haul approaches that of street rail- 
ways. Abroad, the zone-fare system, 
which adjusts fares to length of ride, 
maintains the advantage of low in- 
vestment charges. 

As opposed to this idea, the Fifth 
Avenue (New York) bus system is 
often cited as an example of success- 
ful bus operation. These buses, how- 
ever, operate along a densely traveled 
thoroughfare, a show place for the 
country, in a city which enjoys the 
greatest number of visitors of any 
American city, and where people go 
to spend money. The total cost per 
passenger carried in 1921 was 8.03 ct. 
The traffic carried was 2 per cent of 
the total mass traffic of metropolitan 
New York. The rate of fare is 10 
ct. as compared with a street rail- 
way fare of 5 ct. This operation, 
which has recently become very suc- 
cessful and prosperous, is unique and 
cannot be useful as an example of 
what can be accomplished by motor 



buses in other cities under conditions 
of traffic generally encountered. 

Field of Trackless Vehicles. — The 
usual field of the trackless vehicle lies 
in carrying traffic too light to justify 
the investment necessary for track 
construction. There are a number of 
instances, however, in which buses are 
doing a profitable business by taking 
away traffic which has been built up 
and served by the electric railways. 
Popular prejudice against street 
railways and the impulse to board the 
first vehicle offering service has fur- 
nished considerable traffic for buses. 
This has been reflected in higher street 
car fares or inferior street-car serv- 
ice, or both. In some communities 
a choice between buses and railways, 
made necessary by unprofitable street- 
car operation brought about by bus 
competition, has forced practical elim- 
ination of the bus. Des Moines at- 
tempted to supplant street-car service 
by buses. This was done for a time. 
During that time buses were entirely 
unsuccessful in furnishing transporta- 
tion service comparable to that of the 
street-cars, and the latter have re- 
sumed operation with bus competition 
practically eliminated. 

Special service may be properly sup- 
plied by buses over long distances in 
special situations. On the California 
highways, there are numbers of ap- 
parently profitable bus routes. Sev- 
eral street railways are operating 
buses into undeveloped suburban dis- 
tricts because of the popular demand 
for such service. Special service is 
also being rendered by high-speed 
limousine buses between cities forty 
to fifty miles apart, with speed 
greater than on interurban railways 
and comparable to steam railroad 
time. One electric railway is operat- 
ing such service probably on the 
theory that the short rider between 
the numerous small intermediate 
towns on the line is more profitable 
than the through rider, and that 
through traffic will be stimulated by 
faster time and more comfortable 
service. 

The principle field for the bus in 
urban mass transportation, however, 
seems for the present to lie in fur- 
nishing service for undeveloped sec- 
tions of the community where the 
traffic is too light to justify railway 
construction. There is also an op- 
portunity to use the bus to divert 
traffic from congested centers and 
shorten hauls by establishing a bus 
cross connection between two lines 



1923 



Railways 



131 



outside the congested centers. 

The futures of the trackless vehicle 
as a mass transportation agency is 
more or less vague. The enormous 
increase in the number of automotive 
vehicles within the past few years, 
however, strongly indicates that they 
may provide service to a greater ex- 
tent than is at present anticipated. 

A total of 5289 buses and gasoline 
cars are now operated in common- 
carrier passenger service. 

In tw^elve states and the District of 
Columbia, 357 trackless vehicles are 
operated by electric railways. 

According to Automotive Industries, 
there are over 10,000,000 automotive 
vehicles in this country. 

The Automobile as Factor in Trans- 
portation. — The importance of the au- 
tomobile as a factor in the urban mass 
transportation problem is indicated by 
the results of a recent survey made 
in Baltimore. In one day there were 
: movements in and out of the delivery 

district as follows: 
j 76,234 pleasure automobiles. 

37,024 commercial automobiles. 

21,036 street cars. 
4,224 buses and taxicabs. 

13,821 horse-drawn vehicles. 

Assuming an average of two pas- 
sengers for each pleasure automobile, 
bus and taxicab movement, 365 days 
I in the year, this traffic would amount 
I to about 59,000,000 passengers or 25 
per cent of the street railway traflSc 
of Baltimore in 1921. 

If a prediction of these facts had 
been made five or ten years ago, it 
would have been generally discredited, 
to say the least. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of 
Trackless Vehicle. — To offset the ef- 
fect of higher operating costs, there 
are some advantages in the trackless 
vehicle over street railway service: 

1. It is not seriously affected by 
many blockades which hamper street 
railway operation. This flexibility 
frequently perimts a higher scheduled 
speed which, in particular instances, 
may offset its normally higher oper- 
ating costs. 
I 2. The bus takes on and lets off 
I . passengers at the curb, making the 
' service in this particular more at- 
tractive. 

3. Stopping at the curb, the bus 
is out of the line of moving vehicles 
and does not so greatly interfere with 
other street traffic as does a street- 
1 car when it stops to take on or let 
off passengers. The gasoline bus is 
also applicable to special traffic move- 



ments, which cannot be served on reg- 
ular routes. 

The principal disadvantage of the 
trackless vehicle, as compared with 
the street-car, is its limited capacity. 
It cannot cope with the rush-hour 
problem of an ordinary American city. 

One hundred and fifty street cars 
(seventy-five two-car trains) would 
move 12,000 passengers in one direc- 
tion in an hour on one street. Two 
hundred and twenty-five platform men 
would be required. To move this same 
number by bus would reqmre, in good 
weather, about 200 buses of the Fifth 
Avenue type and 400 men to operate 
them. The element of cost involved 
in paying the 175 additional men for 
the rush-hour periods only (one of the 
grave problems of electric railway 
operation) shows the unsuitability of 
buses for this kind of service. The 
other operating costs of the type of 
bus required would also be greatly in 
excess of street-car costs, and for the 
ordinary length of street railway 
route on the usual flat rate of fare 
would more than wipe out profits. 

One point regarding the trackless 
vehicle is the damage to street paving 
caused by its operation. This cost 
is now borne by the taxpayer. Street 
railways, in the past, have been com- 
pelled to pay for large amounts of 
pa\ing not damaged or used up by 
their service. The bus may, in the 
future, face the problem of paying 
for the unusually large depreciation 
of paving due to its operation. 

Electric Railway Service Basic. — 
There seems to be little room for 
doubt that electric railways, either 
street or rapid transit, must form the 
trunk of any system of mass trans- 
portation for cities of any size, and it 
is becoming increasingly evident that 
they must be largely used to serve 
mass traffic, if the advantage of serv- 
ice cheap enough to stimulate com- 
munity development is to be retained. 

The field of the street railway lies 
between the bus and rapid transit; 
offering most economical and attrac- 
tive service for traffic too light to 
support expensive rapid transit facil- 
ities and too heavy, or to expensive 
on account of length of haul (or both), 
for the bus. 

The maximum labor demand for 
street railway operations in city rush- 
hour periods is materially below that 
of the bus, and is one of the largest 
elements in preventing the bus from 
being a real competitor of the street 
railway in the larger cities. Rapid 



132 



Railways 



July, 



transit has a similar advantage over 
the street railway in low labor de- 
mand, but the investment required for 
rapid transit is relatively much great- 
er as compared with the street rail- 
way than the investment for the street 
railway as compared with the bus. 

Street railways generally suffer 
from an adverse public opinion which 
is inflamed by annoyances arising 
from disadvantages inherent in sur- 
face street railway operation. Ad- 
verse public opinion has, in the past, 
operated to prevent the proper ad- 
justment of fares to the cost of serv- 
ice, and also other adjustments in 
facilities and service which would 
have benefited both the railways and 
the communities served. This feeling 
has had a great deal to do with the 
popular approval of the bus as a com- 
petitor of the street-car, and is a 
factor to be recognized in plans for 
mass transportation. One of the 
causes for this hostility has been the 
interference with street -car operations 
by other street traffic, bringing about 
irregularity and vexatious delays. The 
effect of this interference is aggra- 
vated by the inflexible routing which 
must be followed practically regard- 
less of obstacles. All cars operating 
over one track are necessarily delayed 
by a blockade on that track. 

Except where safety zones are es- 
tablished, the stoppage of a street- 
car to take on or let off passengers 
stops all vehicular traffic in the direc- 
tion of the car. This aggravates con- 
gestion. It is apparent to the users 
of other vehicles that traffic would be 
greatly expedited by the elimination 
of, or a reduction in the number of, 
street-cars on congested streets; and 
the feeling undoubtedly exists that by 
better routing or by separate grade 
facilities, the street railways could 
relieve a condition- which threatens at 
least partial paralysis of some impor- 
tant traffic arteries. There is no pres- 
ent complete substitute, however, for 
the surface street car. Expensive 
separate grade facilities, which can- 
not be supported by the street-car 
rider alone, offer the most effective 
means for relief. Withdrawing cars 
from congested streets and routing 
them over less crowded ones offers 
a remedy in situations where this 
amount of relief will meet the require- 
ments. Such re-routing usually in- 
volves a withdrawal of the service 
rendered by long lines, to the edge of 
the congested district. This creates 
public hostility and should not be re- 



sorted to unless it is offset by a gen- 
eral improvement of the service 
through more rapid and regular oper- 
ations. In any rerouting plan, serv- 
ice withdrawn should, if the demand 
justifies, be replaced to the limits of 
street capacity by short-routed cars 
connecting with the re-routed long 
lines by transfer. Delays to short- 
line cars in congested streets will not 
have such a generally demoralizing 
effect on service as will delays of the 
same duration to a number of long 
routes. 

To repeat, expensive, separate 
grade facilities offer the most effec- 
tive means for relief from street con- 
gestion. 

Separate Grade Terminals for Sur- 
face Cars. — In studying the question 
of separate grade facilities for sur- 
face street cars, due consideration 
must be given to the condition which, 
in many cities are rapidly depreciat- 
ing the value of the service rendered 
by street railways forced to operate 
through congested areas on the street 
surface. Delays to car operation are 
greatly increasing the cost and de- 
creasing the quality of the service. 
Increased cost increases fares and 
tends to drive away passengers. Those 
remaining must bear a larger part of 
the cost of service. Depreciated serv- 
ice, also, drives away passengers and 
increases fares. This product of in- 
creasing congestion — increased costs, 
increased fares, decreased traffic, back 
to increased costs — certainly presents 
a striking example of a vicious circle. 
In order to preserve the indispensable 
electric railway as a useful facility it 
may be necessary for the general com- 
munity to furnish adequate terminal 
facilities and distribute the burden of 
cost as nearly as possible in accord- 
ance with the benefits derived. The 
car rider should pay for whatever 
benefit he derives in the way of de- 
creased costs and improved service. 
In any event, separate grade terminal 
facilities for street railways should 
be given careful consideration in any 
general plans for large city mass 
transportation facilities. 

It should be borne in mind that 
there are two types of service per- 
formed by separate grade facilities. 
One, which is simply a terminal for 
street-cars in the congested district, 
takes them off the streets, thereby 
improving the quality and economy of 
operation of the service affected. The 
other type, generally adapted only to 
long-haul traffic, provides large-ca- 



1923 



Railways 



133 



pacity, high-speed electric railway 
service. 

Of these two tj^jes, the one which 
simply provides for separate grade 
terminals for surface street-cars, re- 
quires less investment cost, because 
of its shorter length and less elaborate 
equipment and station facilities. Rare- 
ly, however, can surface car terminal 
facilities be the economy in operation, 
stimulation to traffic, or in the benefit 
to the car rider for which he is willing 
to pay. The only way in which the 
large expenditure necessary for their 
construction in the most expensive 
location in the community can be 
justified, is by the general benefit to 
the community from the reduction in 
congestion in the central business area 
and from the speeding up and im- 
provement of transportation service 
and traffice generally. The speeding 
up and improvement of transportation 
produces a real benefit to the popu- 
lation and business institutions affect- 
ed, inasmuch as it increases the pro- 
portion of the whole population from 
which support for central business 
activities may be drawn, and makes 
the service itself more attractive. 

Generally, the volume of traffic 
which can be accommodated in sur- 
face street-cars operating in separate 
grade facilities is not sufficiently great 
to justify the addition of the interest 
charges to the fare particularly if a 
terminal extending considerably be- 
yond the central congested area were 
required to avoid congestion. The in- 
vestment cost of elevated railways is 
one-third that of subways, and they 
pro\ide almost the same amount of 
relief. 

In this connection, consideration 
must be given the fact that a rapid 
transit system which have six times 
the capacity for traffic that a separate 
grade street-car terminal would have. 
If a volume of traffic can be attracted 
from the street-cars, sufficient to load 
a rapid transit system to capacity, 
the principal requisite for that type 
of facility is supplied, and strongly 
indicates that the large capacity facil- 
ity is better adapted to the traffic than 
the separate grade surface car term- 
inal. 

Rapid Transit. — The most effective 
type of mass transportation facility 
for consideration is the separate-grade 
electric railway called rapid transit, 
on which large cars are operated at 
high speed. Its principal advantages 
are large capacity, high speed and 
low operating cost. Its disadvantage 



is high investment cost. This dis- 
advantage is not so great in the case 
of the elevated railway as in the case 
of the subway, which the advantages 
of large capacity and high speed are 
not so greatly in favor of the elevated 
as of the subway. Express tracks 
and loading facilities for elevated 
railways are not so readily provided 
as in the case of subways. 

Public antipathy to elevated rail- 
ways should not prevent the construc- 
tion of such facilities where justified, 
if financial considerations prevent 
subway construction. The general ad- 
vantages from better and more nearly 
adequate transportation service which 
can be rendered by elevated railways, 
offset their defects. Philadelphia has 
recently completed an up-to-date, ele- 
vated, rapid-transit line between Phil- 
adelphia and Frankford. The enorm- 
ous benefits to be derived from such 
a facility would seem to counteract 
all its disadvantages. 

A large volume of traffic consider- 
ably in excess of the utmost capacity 
of all of the other types of facilities 
available, is the prime requisite for 
a rapid-transit system. Interest 
charges upon the large investment 
necessary must be spread over a large 
number of indi^'iduals deriving bene- 
fits from the system. Passengers on 
rapid-transit cars are not the only 
beneficiaries, but, unless they are 
numerous, there will not be enough of 
general benefits to justify the neces- 
sary heavy expenditure. 

Rapid-transit systems generally 
may be expected to double the speed 
of service. This means a large in- 
crease in the distance and territory 
within which the population of the 
district served may support its in- 
dustries and institutions. If the rapid 
transit -serv'es under-developed terri- 
tory in a growing district, it will stim- 
ulate the development of that terri- 
tory for the use to which it is best 
adapted. 

As stated above, in those commun- 
ities in which development is prac- 
tically unobstructed by topographic 
conditions, such as rivers, hills, ra- 
\'ines, etc., the dispersion of popula- 
tion in all directions from the central 
business area prevents concentration 
of enough traffic in a single artery to 
justify expensive rapid-transit sys- 
tems. Chicago is an example. In such 
communities, not only is the demand 
for transportation distributed over a 
large number of arteries, but the 
comparatively short distances and 



134 



Railways 



July, 



correspondingly short time between 
traffic centers reduces the general de- 
mand for faster transportation. 

On the other hand, in some com- 
munities the development of indus- 
trial, commercial and residential 
areas, together with the number of 
connecting highways, has been re- 
stricted to topographic conditions. 
Development has naturally taken 
place in the restricted areas best 
adapted, at favorable points along the 
limited number of highways. Con- 
gestion in these highways has brought 
a heavy demand for passenger trans- 
portation service to relieve them and 
permit the orderly adjustment of 
housing, industrial and commercial de- 
velopments in areas best suited for 
their respective purposes. This de- 
mand for transportation, concentrated 
in a few highways leading in the same 
direction, has resulted in a heavy vol- 
ume of traffic justifying the construc- 
tion of expensive facilities. The 
distances between neighboring traffic 
centers, increased by the restrictions 
of development, has undoubtedly aug- 
mented the general demand for trans- 
portation. In this way, by proving 
a concentrated demand for passenger 
transportation capable of being sup- 
plied by a single artery, topographic 
conditions work to the advantage of 
expensive rapid-transit systems. The 
more congested the few highways be- 
come, the more insistent becomes the 
demand for relief which in large quan- 
tities can be afforded only by a rapid- 
transit facility of large capacity. 

If a system could be designed to 
connect adequate areas, developed and 
suitable for development for industrial 
purposes, with adequate areas devol- 
oped and suitable for development for 
housing purposes, there could be no 
question but that the passenger traffic 
now moving between those areas 
would avoid the slow and, in some 
cases, tortuous movements around 
natural obstacles and flow through the 
rapid-transit system. 

The diversion of passenger traffic 
from the more expensive service ren- 
dered by facilities other than rapid 
transit, would effect economies which 
would partially offset the larger in- 
vestment necessary. 

Relief of the other arteries of traf- 
fic would ensue. Adjustment of de- 
velopment, by the release of territory 
adapted to industrial use through the 
removal of residents to areas better 
adapted to housing development, 
would be stimulated and would in 



turn create new traffic for the mass 
transportation facilities. 

New York (Manhattan Island) is 
the most striking example of how 
traffic is affected by restricted expan- 
sion, stimulated by a rapid-transit 
system. Restricted in all directions 
except to the north, with distances 
between traffic centers creating a 
strong demand for fast transportation 
facilities and with its few traffic ar- 
teries taxed to the limit, the opening 
of rapid-transit outlets for this traffic 
has always brought a rush taxing 
their great capacity. 

Rapid-transit facilities, by them- 
selves, cannot be made as valuable 
to^ a community as if co-ordinated 
with other types of transportation. 
If buses, street-cars and rapid transit 
were all competing for the same busi- 
ness, service would be duplicated and 
all three types would probably oper- 
ate at a loss. If, however, the buses 
were used as a feeder to the railways 
or rapid transit, carrying short-haul 
traffic too light for railway invest- 
ment, and turning the long-haul pas- 
sengers over to the rail facility; and, 
in the same way, if the street railways 
were used to carry traffic too heavy 
for buses and too light for rapid 
transit, feeding to the rapid transit 
long-haul traffic, which would be un- 
profitable for the surface car, duplica- 
tion of expensive service could be 
avoided. Unnecessary traffic move- 
ments could be avoided by transfers 
and by-passes over auxiliary facilities 
short of congested centers. By this 
co-ordination, the best results for the 
community in good transportation 
service at the lowest possible rate 
could be most nearly accomplished. 

Conclusions. — The mass transporta- 
tion facilities of any urban district 
are vital factors in the life and pro- 
gress of that district. They must be 
adjusted in capacity and extent to the 
present and prospective development 
of the community served. 

Natural resources, external trans- 
portation facilities and topography 
are the principal material bases limit- 
ing community development. 

The principal object in planning 
mass transportation facilities is to 
provide for transportation service in 
and between industrial, commercial 
and residential areas, which will stim- 
ulate, to the degree justified by pres- 
ent and prospective conditions, the 
properly co-ordinated development of 
these areas for that use to which each 
is best adapted. 



1923 



Railways 



135 



Another important object is to pro- 
vide for transportation service which 
will stimulate the orderly develop- 
ment of educational, religious and 
amusement institutions and central 
community acti%ities, by making them 
available to the whole population. 

Mass transportation facilities for 
an urban district should include those 
types best adapted to the different 
traffic problems usually encoimtered 
in such a district. 

Generally : 

Trackless vehicles are best adapted 
to light-volume, short-haul, high-fare 
traffic. 

Street railways are best adapted to 
medium-volume, medium-haul, med- 
ium-fare traffic. 

Rapid transit (high-speed, large- 
capacity, separate-grade electric rail- 
way) is best adapted to large-volume, 
long-haul, low-fare traffic. 

Planning a mass transportation sys- 
tem involves the co-ordination of these 
types of facilities so as to apply to par- 
ticular traffic movements the most 
economical and attractive type. 

The various tjT)es of service must 
be auxiliary and supplemental to each 
other and not directly competitive. 

No general plan for the large ex- 
pansion of mass transportation facil- 
ities should be decided upon until 
after the most comprehensive and ex- 
haustive investigation by engineers^ of 
experience in the design, construction 
and operation of all types of facilities. 

Due consideration must be given to 
plans for community development 
adopted by representative bodies. 

The importance of the problem and 
the consequences for good or evil to 
the community, which may result 
from good or bad planning for this 
vital ser\uce, demand the construc- 
tive interest and co-operation of rep- 
resentatives of all the interests of 
the entire community; social, political 
and business. 



Automobile Grade Crossing 
Accidents 



$2,000,000 Branch Railway in Mexi- 
co. — A decree has been signed author- 
izing the Secretary ot Communica- 
tions of Mexico to expend the amount 
necessary for the construction of a 
railroad branch line to run from the 
station of Beristain, the state of 
Hidalgo, on the Hidalgo and North- 
estem Railroad to Fobero in the State 
of Vera Cruz. The line is to be 140 
kilometers in length and the cost is 
estimated at $2,000,000. 



Extract from Presidential Address De- 
livered June 13 at Annual Meeting 
of Amercian Association of 
Railroad Superintendents 

By W. S. WILLIAMS, 

General Superintendent of Illinois Central 
Railway Western Lines. 

A subject of great importance to- 
day, which I think should be given 
careful consideration and attention by 
our association, is the prevention of 
grade crossing accidents. For the six 
year period ending Dec. 31, 1922, there 
were 21,902 automobile grade crossing 
accidents reported to the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, in which 9,849 
persons were killed and 27,349 injured. 
The death cases do not include those 
who died from injuries over 24 hours 
after the accidents occurred. 

Experienced railway men, who have 
made a study of the subject, claim 
that automobile grade crossing acci- 
dent statistics prove that the crossings 
considered the most dangerous are 
actually the safest. In other words, 
that the majority of the accidents oc- 
cur at the outlying crossings where 
trains are not expected, and that com- 
paratively few accidents occur at the 
crossings considered the most danger- 
ous. That, of course, is because auto- 
mobilists use more care for their own 
safety at the dangerous crossings. 

Experienced men also claim that a 
bad accident in a community in which 
lives are lost, or people are seriously 
injured, is invariably the signal for a 
great hue and cry in that community 
for the elimination of the crossing 
where the accident occurred, or the 
protection of it by gates or electric 
warning bell, or a cross watchman.^ 

Crossing gates do not entirely elim- 
inate accidents for the reason that 
people become educated to rely upon 
the gates instead of upon their own 
faculties. If the man in charge of the 
gates errs, or if the gates getout of 
order, the danger of accident is very 
great. 

Electric warning bells do not en- 
tirely eliminate accidents. If they ring 
a great deal automobilists disregard 
them. In addition to that, there is al- 
ways the possibility that the bell may 
not be in order just at he moment of 
greatest danger. 

Crossing flagmen are not infallible. 
The human element enters into most 



136 



Railways 



July, 



accidents in one way or another, and 
crossing flagmen are like other human 
beings. Some of the very worst auto- 
mobile accidents that have occurred 
have been at crossings where flagmen 
were on duty. 

One of the effects of so-called cross- 
ing protection is to teach the public 
that the crossings are safe when, as a 
matter of fact, the opposite should be 
taught. 

It is clear that the policy of the past 
of trying to place the responsibility 
for safety at railway grade crossings 
upon the railways has not accom- 
plished the desired results. It has not 
prevented automobile grade crossing 
accidents. There is no definite way of 
telling whether it has even tended to 
reduce them. 

The grade crossing problem is 
usually considered from two view- 
points — that of the railways on the 
one side and that of the public on the 
other side. There is also the view- 
point of engineers and firemen, which 
has been almost entirely overlooked. 
At best their duties are nerve-racking, 
and the habit of automobilists in rac- 
ing to crossings and darting upon the 
track immediately in front of the loco- 
motives has a great tendency to 
shatter the nerves of these men. They 
ought to have some assurance that an 
automobile will be brought to a stop 
before it is permitted to cross a rail- 
way track. 

Reduction in the number of grade 
crossings by the relocation of high- 
ways should be considered wherever 
practicable. In plans for new high- 
ways, railway crossings should be 
avoided as much as possible. That 
this has not been done in the past is 
evidenced by the fact that the new 
hard-road trails seems to have been 
laid out and constructed without much 
thought as to railroad grade cross- 
ings. 

1. The adoption of a program for 
the gradual elimination of grade cross- 
ings, the expense to be borne by the 
tax-payers and the railways in pro- 
portion to the benefits received — this 
program to become effective imme- 
diately following the necessary en- 
largement of terminals, irnprovement 
of. roadways and acquisition of suffi- 
cient equipment on the part of the 
railways to enable them to take care 
of the traffic demands. 

2. Re-location of highways where 
by so doing it may be possible to re- 
duce the number of grade crossings. 



3. Avoid the crossing of railways 
as much as possible in plans for new 
highways. 

4. Require the railways to install 
and maintain proper warning signs at 
railway grade crossings. 

5. Require railway property at 
grade crossings to be kept as free as 
possible from obstruction to the vision. 

6. Require counties to remove all 3 
obstructions to the view, such as trees, i 
underbrush, and unnecessary build- ; 
ings, and other obstructions located 
on private property near railway 
grade crossings. 

7. The passage and enforcement by 
municipalities and the States of prop- 
er "Stop, Look and Listen" laws. 

8. Teach everybody, commencing 
with the children in the schools, that 
railway grade crossings are extremely 
dangerous — the "protected" as well as -, 
the unprotected crossings. 

9. Educate the public in regard to : 
the inability of the railways to elim- 
inate all grade crossings and the un- . 
fairness of some communities insist- 
ing upon the railways doing things for 
them that cannot be done for all. 

10. The launching of a great cru- 
sade, having the backing of the state 
governments, against careless driving 
of automobiles, particularly at railway 
grade crossings. 

I know we all agree that something 
will have to be done, and that soon, to 
materially reduce grade crossing acci- 
dents. This, again, is a problem that 
is daily confronting the division sup- 
erintendent more than anyone else, 
and I feel it is a proper subject for 
active handling by this association. 
We are represented by membership in 
every state in the Union, and our con- 
centrated efforts should go a long 
way toward having suitable laws 
enacted which will greatly reduce, if 
not entirely eradicate, these uncalled- 
for accidents. Some states have al- 
ready enacted laws requiring automo- 
biles to stop before crossing over rail- 
way tracks, and I personally favor 
this method more than any other. At 
the present time a "Cross Crossings 
Cautiously" campaign is being carried 
on throughout the country under the 
auspices of the American Railway As- 
sociation, and, until some more effec- 
tive method can be adopted, I want 
to urge the members of this associa- 
tion to lend their best efforts toward 
making this campaign a success. 



*23 R^iiUvays 

Tunnel or Coyote Method of Blasting 



137 



When It Should Be Used and the Proper Procedure Under Varying 
Conditions Described In The Explosives Elngineer 

By J. C. GUSHING 



During the past 10 years I have 
made 300 or more tunnel or so-called 
"coyote" shots. I ean safely say that 
no two have been loaded alike, and to 
have used the same methods in every 
shot would have been a most serious 
error. However, the knowledge ob- 
tained from making each of these 
blasts has helped in figuring the suc- 
ceeding ones more scientifically. The 
problems encountered in "coyote" hole 
shooting can be grouped under a num- 
ber of general heads, and if each of 
these points is considered separately 



method- The risk is too great, and 
the amount of explosive necessary is 
so much in excess of other methods 
that the cost is prohibitive. To obtain 
good results from tunnel blasting 
without taking too much risk, the rock 
should occur in mass formation or in 
vertical strata, and should not be too 
seamy. 

After the practicability of tunnel 
blasting has been established the ques- 
tion arises whether or not the cost of 
drilling and back-filling the tunnels 
will increase the cost over other meth- 








' >^f'W'''T',-^,'^ 






l-'^'W^ 



I i^-^'-' 






Luading a tojote Hole. On This Blast 50 Tons of Explosives Broke Down 365,000 Tons of Rock. 



there is much greater assurance of 
successful results. 

Factors To Be Considered for Tun- 
nel Shot. — In loading a well-drill shot, 
you can nearly always figure on a cer- 
tain amount of explosive to the yard 
with only slight deviations, depending 
upon the hardness or specific gravity 
of the formation; in loading a tunnel 
shot there are at least five factors to 
be considered. 

The first point to decide is whether 
or not the tunnel method can be used 
in the formation to be blasted. If the 
rock lies in horizontal planes, tunnel 
blasting is decidedly not the best 



ods. Several points must be consid- 
ered in deciding this. If the surface 
of the ground is uneven, and it is diffi- 
cult and expensive to move the well- 
drills aroxmd, tunnel blasting is 
usually advisable, or if the material 
is very seamy, which makes well- 
drilling unduly expensive, conditions 
are favorable for tunnel blasting. 

The third consideration is the desir- 
ability and importance of a uniform 
back-break. An even back-break is one 
of the principal advantages of well- 
drill blasting with column loading, 
and when from the nature of the ma- 
terial it is impossible to get a uniform 



138 



Railways 



July, 



back-break, a possible objection to the 
tunnel method is eliminated. 

Another point to be considered is 
the height of the bank. Obviously, in 
a low bank the cost of tunnel driving 
is excessive because of the small 
amount of material displaced. For 
successful tunnel blasting the bank 
has to be higher than the length of 
the main tunnel, because in tunnel 
shooting sufficient explosives are 
loaded to kick out the bottom of the 
toe, which permits the over-lying ma- 
terial to fall in and to break into small 
pieces while falling. 

The size of rock obtained by the 
various practicable methods should 
also be studied. If the material in 
the bottom of the ledge can be readily 
broken into small pieces, while that in 
the upper strata is likely to break un- 
usually large, I would hesitate to 
adopt the tunnel method, providing 
well-drilling could be used; because in 
tunnel blasting the explosives charge 
is all in the bottom, while in well- 
drilling the charge can be more or less 
distributed throughout the entire 
mass. Therefore, in most cases the 
rock can be more uniformly broken up 
by column loading in well-drill holes. 
However, if a steam shovel of large 
capacity is available this point is^ not 
so important, but if the material is to 
be loaded by hand or by small shovels 
it is decidedly important. 

Considerations Governing Choice of 
Explosives. — Assuming that all of 
these factors have received careful 
consideration, and it has been decided 
to adopt the tunnel method, the next 
step is to choose the proper grade and 
strength of explosive. There are at 
least three factors to be considered. 

First, is . it desirable to throw the 
rock a considerable distance out on the 
floor? If so, a low explosive such as 
black blasting powder or R. R. P. 
should be selected. If, on the other 
hand, it is desired to break the rock as 
small as possible without throwing it 
too far, dynamite should be used and 
the loading pockets placed closely to- 
gether. 

The second question is: how is the 
material to be handled after blasting ? 
If large power shovels are used, a low- 
er grade of explosive can be adopted 
as little secondary blasting will be re- 
quired. If, on the other hand, the 
loading equipment is small or the ma- 
terial is to be moved by hand, a higher 
strength explosive is necessary, be- 
cause in tunnel blasting, as in other 



methods, the quicker explosives break 
up the rock into finer pieces. 

The third important question is 
whether the material is so seamy or 
so broken up as to make this method 
more or less risky, particularly if 
black blasting powder is used. In some 
instances, the material is so seamy 
that there is a possibility of one or 
more of the explosives charges blow- 
ing out along the seams. Black powder 
is particularly apt to do this. This 
tendency can often be overcome by 
loading all of the powder below the 
floor with tamping between the pow- 
der and the roof inside the tunnel. 
The gases then work directly into the 
tamping before reaching the seam, 
and this slight delay gives them an 
opportunity to work against the rock 
itself and weaken the mass at other 
points, before the force of the explo- 
sion escapes through the seams. With 
R. R. P. of 5 per cent strength, which 
is generally used in large tunnel blasts 
in the West, there is much less likeli- 
hood of a blown-out shot, because the 
rate of detonation of R. R. P. enables 
it to throw out the toe before ^ the 
gases escape through seams, and it is 
usually not too fast to prevent its 
loosening the upper strata before the 
gases have been entirely expended in 
moving the toe. 

Proper Length of Tunnels and 
Cross-Cuts. — After deciding upon the 
best explosive to use, the next step is 
to determine the proper length of the 
main tunnel and cross-cuts. The ideal 
tunnel is one which penetrates the 
bank to a distance of about two-thirds 
of the height. However, it has been 
my experience where only one cross- 
cut is to be used, that to insure the 
toe being well broken up and thrown 
out on the floor, it is impracticable to 
have the main tunnel more than 60 ft. 
long. Where the bank is higher and 
the amount of explosives that can be 
used is not limited, several crosscuts 
can be driven; but best results at least 
cost are obtained by using the shorter 
tunnel and the single cross-cut. The 
length of the cross-cut is determined 
by the amount of material to be dis- 
placed, and also by the surface condi- 
tions of the quarry face. 

Several years ago I made a 50-ton 
shot in a bank 215 ft. high, in which I 
used two tunnels, each 140 ft. long, 
with three cross-cuts 150 ft. long from 
each tunnel. The first cross-cut was 
40 ft. back from the toe, the second 90 
ft., and the third was at the end of 
the 140-ft. main tunnel. The results 



1923 



Railways 



139 



from this shot were quite satisfactory. 

Size, Number, and Location of Ex- 
plosives Charges. — It is difficult to 
give any formula for computing the 
amount of explosives necessary, as 
conditions are different for each shot. 
A fair way to compute an average 
amount is to determine the yardage in 
the section included by the cross-cut 
and vertically over it, and to load 
about one pound of explosives to the 
cubic yard of material when using a 
low-grade dynamite and slightly 
smaller amount when loading with a 
dynamite of higher strength. If the 
explosive is to be black blasting 
powder a good average is about IV2 
lb. to the cubic yard. Actually, great- 
er yardage per pound of explosives is 
obtained in the blast, but this is the 
result of the back-break and side- 
break and varies according to local 
conditions. 

The next point to decide upon is the 
number, location, and size of the 
pockets to contain the powder charges. 
The number varies with the surface 
conditions and grade of explosive 
used; that is to say, you will ordi- 
narily require fewer pockets with a 
low-grade explosive than with a high- 
grade one, surface conditions being 
equal. The location of the pockets is 
determined by surface conditions, and 
the size of the pocket is determined 
by the charge it is to contain. The 
pockets are usually drilled below the 
floor of the cross-cut. This distance is 
generally obtained by figuring on 1 ft. 
below the floor for each 10 ft. of toe in 
front of the pocket. If the bank is 
nearly vertical it is not necessary to 
drill so far below the floor. 

Opinion varies as to the most eco- 
nomical size for the tunnels. I believe 
that what is known as the "wheel- 
barrow" size is the most economical. 
This is a tunnel about 3 ft. wide and 
4 to 5 ft. high; it gets its name from 
the fact that a man can readily oper- 
ate a wheelbarrow in taking muck in 
and out of the tunnel. Larger tunnels 
are an unnecessary waste and smaller 
ones make drilling, loading, and back- 
filling an awkward and tedious opera- 
tion. When the tunnel is driven by 
hand methods, the cost varies accord- 
ing to the skill of the labor employed. 
The average cost for a tunnel of the 
wheelbarrow size, where compressed 
air is used for drilling, is approxi- 
mately $5.00 per linear foot. The cost 
of back filling a tunnel of this size is 
on an average about $1.00 per linear 
foot. The best material for back-fill- 



ing is the rock which came out of the 
tunnel when it was driven. The first 
tamping for a depth of about 6 in. to 
1 ft. should be fine sand. This pre- 
vents the powder from being ignited 
by sparks during the back-filling. 

The Methods of Firing.— Either 
series or parallel connections can be 
used for detonating the blasts. If the 
shot is to be fired with a blasting ma- 
chine, it is, of course, necessary to 
wire in series. However, whenever 
there is sufficient current available, 
tunnel blasts are usually wired in 
parallel and from two to three detona- 
tors are placed in each powder charge. 

The main wires are usually fastened 
to the roof of the tunnel where they 
are least apt to be broken during 
back-filling or by the weight of the 
tamping itself. A good method is to 
drill short holes in the roof approxi- 
mately every 20 ft.; and to drive 
wooden blocks in these holes. The 
wires are then fastened to these 
blocks. 

Forty per cent dynamite is generally 
used for the priming charge. In most 
cases the dynamite priming charge is 
approximately 5 per cent of the total 
load of R. R. P. or black blastmg 
powder in the pocket. The blasting 
caps are embedded in the dynamite, 
which is in turn placed in the center 
of the charge. 

When sufficient current is not avail- 
able for electric firing, cordeau can be 
successfully used. The cordeau is run 
through the main tunnel to the first 
powder charge, then through each suc- 
ceeding powder charge, and back 
through the main tunnel to the sur- 
face. The cap is then connected to 
each end of the cordeau at the mouth 
of the tunnel. This affords double 
protection against misfires. However, 
I recommend electrical firing wherever 
possible because of the difficulty in 
protecting the cordeau when back-fill- 
ing the tunnels. 



Testing of Explosives. — Tests are 
being made by the Department of the 
Interior at the Pittsburgh experiment 
station of the Bureau of Mines to de- 
termine the temperature at which va- 
rious explosives will detonate or 
flash. A series of tests has just been 
completed to show the effects of crys- 
tal size and method of purification on 
the strength and sensitiveness of 
T. N. T. Apparently both factors have 
some effect on the explosive proper- 
ties of T. N. T., but the variation is 
within narrow limits. 



140 



Railways 



July, 



Construction News of the Railways 



Surveys Underway for S. P. Cutoff in 
Oregon 

New surveys are reported being 
made by the Southern Pacific Co., over 
the summit of the Cascade Mountains 
for the Natron extension into Klamath 
County, Oregon. 



I. C. to Spend $500,000 at Council 
Bluffs, la. 

The Illinois Central R. R, has plans 
for the expenditure of $500,000 in im- 
provement of the Council Bluffs yards, 
including expansion from avenue B to 
Big lake, and construction of a new 
18-stall roundhouse and jconcrete coal 
chutes, with cinder pits and automatic 
conveyors. At least $300,000 will be 
spent upon the extension of the yards 
alone, with the construction of new 
tracks, which will increase capacity by 
100 per cent. 



To Improve Hudson Bay Railway 

The Canadian Parliament has au- 
thorized an appropriation of $350,000 
for betterment on the Hudson Bay Ry. 



B. & O. Lets Contract for Pier Repairs 

The Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. has 
awarded a contract to Armstrong & 
Latta, Philadelphia, for repairs of all 
its piers on the Delaware River at 
Philadelphia, and the construction of a 
new freight float at Pier No. 62. This 
work will cost several hundred thou- 
sands of dollars. The same firm is 
making repairs to some the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. Co. piers on the Delaware. 



Work to Be Started Soon on Moffatt 
Tunnel 

Work on the new tunnel through the 
Continental Divide on the Moffatt road 
to be built by the of Colorado at a cost 
of $7,000,000 will start late this sum- 
mer. 



Canadian Railways to Spend 
$28,000,000 

The construction program of the 
Canadian National Railways calls for 
a total expenditure of over $28,000,- 
000. Out of the total nearly $18,000,- 
000 will be expended in the Prairie 
Provinces, over $3,000,000 in British 
Columbia, nearly $5,000,000 in the 
Maritime Provinces, about $2,000,000 
in Ontario, and less than $500,000 in 
Quebec. 



N. P. to Construct 30 Mile Line in 
Montana 

Authorization to construct a branch 
line 30% miles in Rosebud County, 
Montana, to the Rosebud coal fields 
where the Northern Pacific R. R. pro- 
poses to mine coal for its own use has 
been granted the road by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. The 
route branch line does not pass 
through any town or village. The 
commission requires that work be 
started not later than September 1 
and completed by July 1, 1924. The 
road was denied permission to retain 
the excess earnings. The branch line 
will cost $1,493,310. 



New Texas Road to Resume Grading 

According to reports from Fort 
Worth, Tex., work on the Stamford & 
Eastern R, R. will be resumed. The 
company was grading in 1917, but was 
stopped by war conditions. The line 
to run 145 miles, between Stamford 
and Fort Worth. 



O. S. L. to Build 1 1 Mile Line in Idaho 

The Oregon Short Line has been au- 
thorized by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission to proceed with the con- 
struction of an 11 mile branch run- 
ning from Ammon to Dumas, both 
points in Idaha to provide transporta- 
tion facilities for irrigation projects. 



Construction Underway on Mexican 
Line 

Construction of 98 miles of railroad 
in Mexico by the Southern Pacific 
R. R. of Mexico will be financed tem- 
porarily from the treasury of the Sou- 
thern Pacific Co. This improvement, 
which, it is expected, eventually will 
be paid for out of funds to be turned 
over by the Mexican Government in 
settlement of claims for more than 
$13,000,000 made by the railroad, will 
cost between $8,000,000 and $10,000,- 
000. The purpose of the construction 
is to connect the present line of the 
Southern Pacific with the National 
Railways of Mexico and complete a 
route between the United States and 
Mexico City. Fifteen miles of the line 
is being constructed by the railroad 
itself, and contractors are building 
about 85 miles from La Quemada to 
Tepic. All this work is well under 
way and progressing from both ends. 



"923 



Railways 



141 



D. & Rio G. Ry. to Spend $2,719,000 

Improvements amounting to $2,719,- 
700 are to be made by the Denver & 
Rio Grande Western R. R. at its shop 
facilities at Denver, Pueblo, Salida, 
Grand Junction, Alamosa and Salt 
Lake City. 



Northwestern Spending $5,000,000 for 
Improvements 
The Chicago & Northwestern Ry. 
has improvements underway that will 
involve an expenditure of approxi- 
mately $5,000,000. In Chicago a third 
main track is being laid from Elm- 
hurst to West Chicago. An addition to 
the Ravenswood Chicago office build- 
ing, four stories in height, is under 
way. Grade elimination on the Madi- 
son division at Layton Park, Milwau- 
kee, is being carried out. This work 
consists of elevation of tracks for a 
half mile and depression for two 
miles, involving three subways, eight 
viaducts and about one mile of con- 
crete retaining walls. Eleven grade 
crossings will be eliminated. A new 
station and team-yard at Layton Park 
will be built in connection with this 
improvement. Modem mechanical coal 
chutes are being erected at Chicago 
shops and at Milwaukee, Belle Plaine, 
Tama, Evansville, Huron, Waseca, An- 
toine and Stambaugh, to replace old 
types of coal plants. The increase in 
the production of petroleum products 
in Wyoming has made necessary ex- 
tensive track and yard improvements 
at Casper. There is also being built 
at Casper a 10-stall modern engine 
house and 95-ft. turntable. 



Contract Let for 8-Mile Logging 
Railroad 

Siems & Carlson Co., Spokane, 
Wash., has been awarded a contract 
by the Rose Lake Lumber Co., for the 
construction of an 8-mile logging rail- 
road from Pritchard, Wash. 



Atlantic Coast Line to Build 46 Mile 
Railway 

Permission has been given the Fort 
Myers Southern R. R., a subsidiary of 
the Atlantic Coast Line, by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission to build 
a 46-mile stretch of new railroad down 
the western coast of Florida. The line 
will be a southern extension of the 
present Atlantic Coast Line and will 
run from a point at or near Fort 
Myers through Bonita Springs to 
Marco. The company proposes to com- 
plete the line this year. 



L. & N. Awards 17 Mile Contract 

The Nichols Contracting Co., At- 
lanta, Ga., has been awarded a con- 
tract by the Louisville & Nashville 
R. R., for 17 miles of second track 
between Baileys and Walls End, Ky. 



U. P. to Spend $3,000,000 on Develop- 
ment at Kansas City, Kan. 

Expenditures aggregating $3,000,- 
000 will be made as the first step in 
the improvement program outlined by 
the Union Pacific R. R. Co. in the 
Fairfax drainage district, Kansas City, 
Kan. Prospective additional improve- 
ments, officials said, would aggregate 
$10,000,000. The major development 
contemplates approximately 16 miles 
of streets, 65 ft. wide; 5 miles of main 
artery streets 85 ft. wide; 32 miles of 
switch tracks; electric lights to con- 
nect with the Kansas City, Kan., mu- 
nicipal plant; sewers, gas mains, 
drainage ditches, and five miles of 
dikes around the river front. 



O. S. L. to Build 22 Mile Line 
The Oregon Short Line R. R. has 
taken bids for constructing 22 miles 
of line between Orchard and Perkins, 
Idaho. 



B. & L. E. R. R. to Build New Dock 

at Conneaut, O. 

The Bessemer & Lake Erie R. R. 

has opened bids for the construction 

of a $3,000,000 dock improvement at 

Conneaut, O. 



Santa Fe to Spend $600,000 at 
Dallas, Tex. 
The Santa Fe R. R. will build rail- 
road tracks between the main line of 
the railroad and the cement and oil 
plants in West Dallas. An expendi- 
ture of $600,000 is proposed. 



New Interurban Line at Houston, Tex 

The Seaboard Electric Ry. Co., ac- 
cording to reports will start construc- 
tion Oct. 1, on its new line. This com- 
pany, incorporated with a capital 
stock of $2,000,000 proposes to build 
and operate an electric interurban 
railway from Houston via Harrisburg, 
Pasadena, San Jacinto battle park, 
Morgan's Point, along the ship chan- 
nel, and thence along the bayshore to 
Seabrook. I. A. Cottingham, for many 
years chief engineer of the Atlantic 
system of the Southern Pacific lines, is 
the engineer in charge of the location 
and construction of the proposed in- 
terurban. 



142 



Railways 



July, 



M. C. Lets S-Mile Yard Contract 

The Dominion Construction Co., 
East Toronto, Ont., has been awarded 
a $500,000 contract by the Michigan 
Central Ry., for the construction of 5 
miles of new sidings at St. Thomas, 
Ont., yards. 



Logging Railroad Construction Near 
Kelso, Wash. 

Active construction of the Ham- 
mond Lumber Co.'s railway eastward 
from Kelso, Wash., is now in full 
swing all along the line. Copenhagen 
Bros., who have the contract for grad- 
ing of the east end of the line, have 
established their camp and started 
work a few days ago. A. A. Brynes, 
who has the contract for construction 
of 35 bridges and trestles on the line, 
has completed the first bridge and is 
working on the second. The Ham- 
mond Co. will raise and widen the dike, 
which will be used as a right of way. 
They have decided to do this work 
with a steam shovel and train distri- 
bution instead of with a dredge. 



New York Central Improvements at 
Bellaire, O. 

The New York Central R. R. Co., 
has acquired 25 small tracts in the 
Nickel Plate district eagt of Bellaire, 
0., in furtherance of the company's 
vast yard improvement project. 



Pennsylvania R. R. May Build Canadian 
Line 

It is reported that the Pennsylvania 
Ry. is planning the construction of a 
line from Bridgeburg to St. Thomas, 
Ont., where it will link with the Pere 
Marquette. 



New Terminal Facilities Proposed for 
Cincinnati 

A new railroad terminal and a ne\v 
union station for Cincinnati, 0., is 
proposed by the Cincinnati Railroad 
Terminal Development Co., organized 
last week. The development company, 
incorporated with a capital stock of 
$250,000, practically all of which has 
been subscribed, has the following 
officers : 

President, George D. Crabbs; Vice- 
President, John Omwake; Secretary, 
Robert A. Taft; Treasurer, Maurice J. 
Freiberg. It is stated that engineers 
will be secured and plans developed 
for a project that may call for an ex- 
penditure of $50,000,000, 



Chicago & Joliet Electric to Relocate 
Line 

The Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry. 
Co. will relocate its tracks between 
Lemont and Argo, a distance of 13 
miles, providing permission is granted m 
by the Illinois Commerce Commission. ^ 
Application for the permit has been 
filed asking that the company be al- 
lowed to locate its traction line near 
the right of way of the Chicago & 
Alton R. R., between the two cities. 
Options on the rights of way have 
been obtained and the work can be 
started this summer, according to 
J. R. Blackball, general manager of 
the electric line, who estimated the 
work would cost approximately 
$400,000. 



Alaskan Railroad Extension Proposed 

The Alaska Anthracite R. R. is 
planning an extension that will, it is 
stated, quadruple shipping facilities 
from the Bering river coal fields to 
the water. The banking firm of Har- 
ris, Ayres & Co., New York City, is 
understood to be financing the project. 



A $78,000,000 Transit Development 
for Philadelphia 

Suggestions for additions to Phila- 
delphia's high-speed transit system, 
making some important changes in 
existing plans, have been presented to 
the Councilmanic Transit Comrnission 
by engineers for the city, the Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Co. and central 
business interests. The first unit of 
the recommended plan calls for a 
two-track subway under Broad street 
southward from OIney avenue to Mc- 
Ferran street, thence a four-track 
tube as far southward as Ridge ave- 
nue. 

From there a two-track subway 
would continue to Spruce street, and 
another two-track subway from Broad 
street and Ridge avenue would run 
down the Ridge to Eighth street, 
thence under Eighth street to Walnut, 
westward on Walnut, crossing the 
Schuylkill by a bridge or tunnel. An 
elevated railway in Woodland avenue 
from the neighborhood of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania campus at Thirty- 
fourth street to Darby is another link 
in the suggested lines. The grand 
total cost IS placed at $78,000,000, of 
which sum $50,050,000 will be spent 
for structure, $3,830,000 for track 
work, $5,890,000 for equipment and 
$12,230,000 for cars. 



Railways 



143 



Inusual Culvert Construction 
On Castleton Cut-Off 

One of the heaviest and most diffi- 
cult pieces of earthwork on the Castle- 
ton Cut-off of the New York Central 
R. R., south of Albany, N. Y., is on 
the connection to Ravenna to replace 
the present Albany branch of the 
West Shore Line. This construction 
includes the crossing of Creyman's 
Creek on a fill about 75 ft. high. This 
crossing involved a difficult culvert 
problem, which was solved in the mat- 
ter noted below, the description and 
illustration being taken from the Rail- 
way Age. 

The creek is subject to heavy over- 
flows in the spring and the soil of the 



line of the track and in a position to 
form a straighter flow of water 
through the ravine at this location. 

Uniform bearing was secured by 
pouring the bottom of the culvert as a 
reinforced concrete slab, 3 ft. 9 in. 
thick for the full base area of the 
structure and carrying it upon piles 
driven on 3-ft. center. The bases of 
the side and intermediate walls were 
constructed of mass concrete keyed to 
the base slab and to the upper wall 
sections. The roof slab had a mini- 
mum thickness of 3 ft. and was heav- 
ily reinforced and tied in to the upper 
sections of the side walls. The meth- 
od of construction was about as un- 
usual as the structure itself. Because 
of the instability of the soil and the 
seepage of water, the area to be cov- 



«1 


BM 






■-■--/.^- > \ 


■• v.- , 







Driving the Piles to Support the Culvert at Creyman's Creek. 



valley is of a treacherous and unstable 
nature. Measurements of the maxi- 
mum flows indicated that an opening 
equivalent to a 50-ft. arch would be 
needed. However, because of the soil 
conditions at this point necessitating 
the use of piling, plus the height of 
the fill, the loading for a span of this 
size and likewise for two spans of an 
equivalent opening were prohibitive. 
It was, therefore, decided to erect a 
structure which would permit safe 
loadings and likewise be of such a con- 
struction that any possible failure due 
to uneven settlement, shifting, etc., 
would be obviated. The type of struc- 
ture utilized consists essentially of a 
large reinforced concrete box culvert 
having three openings approximately 
15 ft. wide by 22 ft. 6 in. high and 
overall dimensions exclusive of wing 
walls of 224 ft. by 71 ft. This culvert 
was loaded to one side of the existing 
creek bed, at right angles to the center 



ered by the structure was entirely en- 
closed with interlocking steel sheet 
piling. The soil was then excavated 
to well below the base of the concrete 
slab after which piling were driven on 
three feet centers each way except at 
the ends of the culvert where it was 
driven only under the haunches and 
retaining walls. All piling was then 
cut to the grade of the invert and cin- 
ders filled in between them and well 
tamped up to within three inches of 
the top of piles. Reinforcement was 
next placed and the 3-ft. 9 -in. slab 
poured, followed in turn by the side 
walls and the top slab. The sheet 
piling will be left permanently^ in 
place to form a retaining wall against 
possible disturbing soil actions. The 
flow of water is thus carried through 
the culvert entirely separate from any 
contact with any of the supporting 
soil and a maximum prevention of a 
possible soil saturation is secured. 



144 



Railways 



July, 



Accidents in Handling Elxplosives 

Investigations conducted by the De- 
partment of the Interior through the 
Bureau of Mines relative to the haz- 
ards involved in the handling of ex- 
plosives indicate that the number of 
accidents in handling and testing ex- 
plosives is relatively low; in fact, it 
is lower than in some supposedly less 
dangerous occupations. Workers who 
handle explosives, being aware of the 
danger, practice carefulness until it 
becomes a habit; in consequence ac- 
cidents are relatively few. 

Any feeling of nervousness by a 
man engaged in handling explosives is 
highly dangerous, as it may result in 
his dropping a batch of sensitive ma- 
terial or knocking over a piece of ap- 
paratus. Men subject to nervousness 
should overcome it or get out of the 
industry. All explosives should be 
treated with proper respect, but it is 
not necessary to feel that the slightest 
jar will be disastrous. 

The Bureau of Mines estimates that 
at least 75 per cent of all the indus- 
trial accidents with explosives are 
caused by hurrying the work and by 
taking chances where conditions are 
known to be dangerous; probably 20 
per cent are due to carelessness, the 
rest having at least fairly excusable 
causes. The great essential in avoid- 
ing accidents is that inexperienced 
men should be made fully conscious of 
every movement in handling explo- 
sives and should be trained to "play 
safe" until they are automatically 
careful all the time. 



Passing the "Buck" to the 
Roadmaster 

In an interesting article in the Rail- 
way Review on the railways of India 
E. S. Rice of the Santa Fe system, 
relates the following: 

At Trichinopoly, the week before 
we arrived the depot was overrun 
with monkeys. One little fellow got 
in through the ventilator and did such 
things to the agent's desk that it will 
take him a month of Sundays going 
to confession to get over the cussing 
the monkey caused. Now here come 
in the boys to whom I have always 
maintained they come when all else 
fails — the engineers! Of course no 
one else could suggest a remedy, but 
the engineers were used to blind 
tigers, etc., so they spread a trap and 
caught a whole box car full of mon- 
keys. Then again they demonstrated 
the fact that they know what to do 



in an emergency. They shipped them 
down to the next division, where they 
didn't like the roadmaster, and they 
had their reward double — first by 
cleaning up the pest in their own 
station and then getting even with 
their hereditary enemy, the road- 
master. 



New Atlas Gelatin 

The improved gelatin recently 
placed on the market by the Atlas 
Powder Co. is reported as giving ex- 
cellent results. One foreman advises 
that his men have reduced the num- 
ber of sticks to the hole and have 
stopped three fans as gas is no longer 
troublesome. A resident engineer on 
a large tunnel reports that his men 
could return to work in 12 to 18 min- 
utes, which with old-style gelatin it 
required at least 30 minutes before 
the men could return, and then they 
could not stay. In addition to these 
advantages, the manufacturer advises 
that the new explosive is extremely 
high in water resistance and also prac- 
tically perfect in plasticity. 



Street Railway Paving at Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

In a discussion last fall at a con- 
ference at Philadelphia of city and 
street railway engineers, J. A. Griffin, 
City Engineer, Los Angeles, Calif., 
gave the following information re- 
garding the practice in his city. 

The franchise or permit to use the 
street that is issued to the railway 
company contains a clause that they 
shall install and at all times maintain 
the same type of pavement on their 
right-of-way, which extends from 2 
ft. outside the outside rail of one 
track to 2 ft. outside the outside rail 
of the other track, as is used on the 
balance of the street, unless special 
permission is granted to do otherwise. 
This method works out very well and 
practically no friction occurs between 
the street railway corporations and 
the city. In some instances where ex- 
tensive paving programs have pro- 
gressed very rapidly, the railway 
companies were unable to pave their 
portion at or near the same time the 
other portions of the street were 
paved, but in each such instance they 
altered the grades of their tracks and 
covered the dirt surface with screen- 
ings and oil to make their portion 
passable until such time as they could 
follow with permanent paving. 



(<f^ 



/ 



Buildings 



MONTHLY ISSIK OF 

ENGINEERING AND CONTRACTING 

Published by Engineering & Contracting Publishing Co. 

221 East 20th St., Chicago 

Halbert p. Gillette, President and Editor 

Lewis S. Loueb, Vice-President and General Manager 

New York Office: 904 Longacre Bldg., 42d St. and Broadway 

Richard E. Brown, Eastern Manager 

The specialized publishing plan of Engineering and Contracting provides 
four rotating monthly magazines, each of which is $1 a year. All four 
may be subscribed for at $4 a year, and thus taken they provide a weekly 
service completely covering the construction field. 



■1st Wednesday. $1 
(e) Streets 
(d) Street clean- 
ing 



Road and Streets- 

(a) Road Con- 
struction 

(b) Road Main- 
tenance 



Water Works — 2nd Wednesday. $1 

(a) Water Works (c) Sewers and 

(b) Irrigation and Sanitation 
Drainage (d) Waterways 



Railways — 3rd Wednesday. |1 

(a) Steam Rail- (b) Electric Rail- 

way Ckinstruc- way Construc- 

tion and tion and 

Maintenance Maintenance 

Buildings— 4 th Wednesday. $1 

(a) Buildings (d) Miscellaneous 

(b) Bridges Structures 

(c) Harbor Structures 



Copyright, 1923. by the Engineering and Contracting Publishing Company 



Vol. LX. 



CHICAGO, ILL., JULY 25, 1923 



No. 1 



Prospective Wages and 

Prices in the Building 

Field 

Wage rates in the building trades 
are approximately 80 per cent above 
the pre-war level, and the average 
price of building materials, other than 
steel, is approximately 100 per cent 
above the pre-war level. The price of 
structural steel is about 60 per cent 
above the pre-war average. 

Since labor constitutes about half 
the cost of the average building, the 
average building costs about 90 per 
cent more than in 1913 where labor 
efficiency is the same as it then was. 
Our per capita gold is nearly 90 per 
cent above the 1913 amount, which 
leads us to anticipate that our average 
wages will gravitate toward a level 
about 90 per cent above that in 1913; 
for during the past 80 years our wage 
levels have always followed our per 
capita money levels, and our per cap- 
ita money has long tended to oscillate 



about a level that was twice the per 
capita gold. 

The safest prediction that can be 
made is this: So long as America re- 
tains the four billion dollars of gold 
that it now possesses, we may expect 
to have a wage level approximately 
90 per cent above that in 1913; and 
in any business where efficiency of 
production has not changed appreci- 
ably since 1913, we may expect to see 
the prices of products gravitate to a 
level about 90 per cent above the price 
level of 1913. 

In the building trades there has 
been no marked change in efficiency of 
production as compared with that in 
1913. We may therefore infer that 
there is nothing abnormal in the pres- 
ent level of building costs. Abnor- 
mality of price levels exists only when 
the price curv^e does not move parallel 
with the per capita currency curve, 
after making proper allowance for any 
change in efficiency of production. Of 
course where efficiency rises, prices 
tend to decrease to an equal extent; 
and the converse holds true. 



146 



Buildings 



July, 



Business Men Are Still 
"Jumpy" 

For a long time after a harrowing 
experience most people are apt to be 
startled by the slightest reminder of 
it. The panic of 1920 was such an 
experience, and the nerves of many 
business man are still on edge in con- 
sequence of the financial blows then 
received. Witness the recent slump of 
stocks in Wall Street following the 
warnings of banks that there was dan- 
ger of another inflation such as oc- 
curred in 1919 and the spring of the 
year following. 

Leading bankers began last March 
to utter warnings and draw long faces. 
Whereupon, much to their surprise we 
suppose, the warnees pulled still 
longer faces and began to curtail ac- 
tivities. It was a case of whispering 
fire in the ear of a man just recovering 
from jumping out of window of a 
burning hotel. Even the whisper 
gave him a severe shock. 

Now the same bankers, perceiving 
that their warnings were taken two 
seriously, are busy assuring us that 
there is really nothing to be alarmed 
about. The country never was on a 
sounder basis. There has been no 
overproduction, except perhaps of 
wheat. Europe is in a bad way, it is 
true, but it was in a worse way a year 
ago, and still worse two, three and 
four years ago. In short, the sun will 
rise tomorrow. 

Well, we that haven't a case of the 
"jumps" thank our banker friends for 
telling us what we already knew, for 
it is pleasing to have our judgments 
confirmed. But we beg our financial 
prophets not to forget that all busi- 
ness men have not entirely recovered 
from the shell-shocks of 1920. 



Weathering Tests of Stone 

During the past month, progress 
has been made by the U. S. Bureau 
of Standards on the freezing tests of 
sandstone and limestone. The studies 
being made on samples of sandstone 
from the old Government quarries at 
Aquia Creek, Va., indicate that by 
careful selection a reasonably good 
grade of stone can be obtained for 
ordinary structural uses. This de- 
posit has not been operated since the 
construction of the oldest Government 
buildings in Washington, such as the 
White House and the original portion 
of the Capitol. A new company is 
now preparing to work the qyarry. 



Economic Value of the Quan- 
tity Survey System 

Editorial in The Canadian Engineer 

In any discussion of ways and 
means of lessening waste in the con- 
struction industry, the merits of the 
quantity survey system should receive 
careful consideration. One of the most 
necessary reforms therein is the elim- 
ination of reduplication of estimate of 
quantities. According to the method 
now generally in vogue in this coun- 
try, there are as many estimates of 
quantities made for a piece of work 
as there are contractors bidding for it. 
Thus, although only one out of, say, 
six bidders is successful, the owner 
must pay in large measure the costs 
of the estimate prepared by all of the 
bidders. The owner may not be aware 
of this fact, and it appears difficult to 
convince him of its truth, but there 
are no uncertainties with respect to 
the matter amongst contractors them- 
selves. With any properly managed 
construction company, the necessary 
percentage for overhead is added to its 
bid to cover the cost, not only of the 
work which may be obtained as the re- 
sult of the bid, but also the cost of 
making bids on a number of other jobs 
which have gone elsewhere. If, for 
simplicity, it be assumed that there 
are six bidders on a given piece of 
work, and that a contractor is success- 
ful on the average in only one out of 
six bids, then, assuming a series of 
jobs all of the same magnitude, the 
owner would be paying to the success- 
ful bidder the cost of making up all of 
the six bids which had been submitted 
to him. Of course all jobs are not of 
the same size, and the percentage of 
unsuccessful bids varies with different 
contractors and with the class of work, 
but an idea of the real situation can 
nevertheless be gained from the above 
illustration. If it be further assumed 
that the cost of preparing a bid is 
0.5 per cent of the estimated cost, 
which is a figure on the low side, 
then it is seen that the owner would 
be paying for the entertaining of bids 
in the cases cited above, an amount 
equal to 3 per cent of the estimatd 
cost of the work. On complicated work 
where estimating costs are higher, this 
charge against the work might run up 
to as much as 10 per cent. 

With the introduction of the quan- 
tity survey system, whereby all bid- 
ders would submit their tenders on the 
same schedule of quantities prepared 



1923 



Buildings 



147 



either by the engineer or by an out- 
side quantity sur\'ey specialist, there 
is assurance of a higher class of work 
for the owner. If all bidders make up 
their own quantities, there are likely 
to be errors of interpretation as to 
what the engineer or architect v^ishes, 
and perhaps an assumption of inferior 
details where the plans are incom- 
plete. Due to this, and to the fact 
that differences in conventional meth- 
ods of estimating may exist as be- 
tween the various bidders, there is in- 
troduced into bidding what might be 
called a competition on quantities. 
Nothing could be more undesirable 
than this. The owner, or his technical 
adviser knows, presumably, exactly 
what he wants and has settled upon 
the minimum quantity and grade of 
work deemed admissible for the situa- 
tion. All bidders should consequently 
bid upon these quantities, and com- 
petition should be not on quantities 
or quality at all, but on the basis of 
eflSciency of plant methods and organ- 
ization. 

The quantity survey system is 
usually considered as based on the 
service offered by persons or firms 
who specialize in this kind of work 
and who offer their assistance to the 
owner, or to his architect or engineer, 
for a stipulated fee. Where the owner 
is a layman and prepares merely 
rough sketches for work, or where 
the architect or engineer does not 
wish to assume any responsibility for 
quantity, this method of handling the 
work is practicable. We do not see, 
however, the necessity for going out- 
side the office of the engineer or archi- 
tect for the preparation of schedules 
of quantities. No one is better fitted 
to prepare such schedules than the 
person who prepared the plans and 
specifications, and in the interest of 
speed, accuracy and simplicity, it 
would appear desirable for the engi- 
neer or architect on the work to carry 
out the quantity survey himself and 
to issue a schedule of quantities to 
each bidder. Additional work is in- 
volved, of course, for the engineer or 
or architect under this procedure. If 
the quantities are to be accurate and 
to form the basis for tender, more 
care will need to be taken in their 
preparation than in the taking off of 
approximate quantities for the rough 
estimating purposes of the engineer. 
For such additional services, conse- 



quently, the engineer or architect 
should receive a fee which will be 
passed on to the ovvner. While own- 
ers have been disposed to look askance 
at such a proposal, it ought to be pos- 
sible to show them that under such a 
plan there is an actual saving of 
money as compared with the current 
method of requiring every bidder to 
compute his own quantities and of 
forcing the owner to pay for all such 
computations in the price named by 
the successful bidder. 

Much discussion has arisen over the 
matter of possible errors in the sched- 
ule of quantities. Those who urge the 
quantity sur\'ey system outline two 
possible courses of action in this con- 
nection. First, the contractor might 
accept the quantities of the survey as 
accurate, and, if successful in his bid, 
sign a contract based upon such quan- 
tities. If on carrying out the work, 
these are found to be inaccurate, ad- 
justment can be made under the provi- 
sions covering extras and deductions. 
The second method proposed is to al- 
low the successfvd bidder to check the 
quantities at his own expense prior 
to signing the contract. If any errors 
are found, the contract could be based 
upon the adjusted quantities. As be- 
tween the two, the better method 
would appear to be the second. It is 
not advisable to admit beforehand pos- 
sible claims for extras, if such can 
be avoided. It has been suggested 
that the quantity surveyor guarantee 
personally the quantities submitted. 
This has the disadvantage of encour- 
aging the surs-eyor to report the quan- 
tities on the high side so as to be safe, 
and so as not to incur any loss under 
his guarantee. The assistance afforded 
in such a guarantee would probably 
be purchased at too great a cost 
through the temptation of the sur- 
veyor to estimate too liberally. 

With an economic basis that is gen- 
erally admitted as sound, the quantity 
survey system would appear as inevi- 
table. It is in vogue to a very consid- 
erable extent in Great Britain and has 
been adopted to some extent in the 
United States, notably in the states 
of Wisconsin and Michigan. There 
appears to be nothing preventing its 
more general adoption beyond the in- 
herent conservatism of those who pay 
for the construction of buildings and 
engineering works. 



148 



Buildings 



July, 



The Anonymous Architect Arbitration Clause in Contracts 



Editorial in New York Ti-ibune. 

In his address delivered before the 
Lincoln Memorial in honor of its archi- 
tect, Henry Bacon, Royal Cortissoz 
used the phrase "unsigned buildings." 
To be literally accurate they are some- 
times signed. But who ever turns to 
look at a cornerstone or read an in- 
scription? The author's name on the 
title page of a book is certain to pass 
under the reader's eye. The architect 
of a great building, so far as the gen- 
eral public is concerned, dwells in a 
state of complete anonymity. 

This is true not only in new Amer- 
ica. It has been a habit of the ages, 
most completely and strikingly illus- 
trated in the case of the great Gothic 
cathedrals. The historians have un- 
earthed evidence as to the masters 
who designed Chartres, Rheims, 
Bourges, Amiens. But not one in a 
thousand of those who visit or worship 
at these shrines of beauty and religion 
could give the name of one. To an 
extraordinary degree these great 
churches of the Middle Ages were 
community products. Yet there were 
unquestionably master minds to order 
so much soaring beauty, and fame has 
utterly passed them by. 

An odd trick of the world, surely. 
So far as length of time goes, the 
architect outlives all his fellow artists. 
He builds in the most enduring of ma- 
terials. Centuries are the unit of his 
influence and thousands of years often 
mark the beginning of his glory, as 
the fate of the Parthenon can testify. 
But the immortality is for his work, 
not for him or his name. He can die 
feeling that his labor may live for 
ages, perhaps meet its just praise 
among distant generations of alien 
races. Hope that his name will have 
an equal share of immortality is slight 
indeed!, 

Does the situation point to a law of 
compensation existing in nature, or a 
cynical distrust of good architects, or 
a tender heart toward the bad ones? 
It can be contended, in any event, that 
the world would be a more livable 
place if a similar state of modesty, of 
fame for the work and none for the 
artist, were enjoined upon all human 
creators. 



The following clause on arbitration 
has been included by the city of 
Wheeling, W. Va., in contracts involv- 
ing about $1,000,000 worth of work: 

"Article VIII. Should differences on 
questions other than the quality of 
workmanship and material arise be- 
tween the city or their engineers and 
the contractor, on which they are un- 
able to arrive at an amicable adjust- 
ment or understanding, they shall be, 
on the request of either the contractor 
or the city, made in writing upon the 
other, be referred to arbitration and 
if unable to agree upon a single arbi- 
trator, then the contractor shall choose 
one, the city one, and the two shall 
choose the third, which shall consti- 
tute a judicial body empowered to in- 
vestigate all features of the dispute 
and to render a decision in writing, de- 
livering a copy to each party thereto, 
which decision shall be final and bind- 
ing on both city and contractor, and 
the losing party of this contract shall 
pay the entire expense of such refer- 
ence. Should the two abitrators first 
chosen fail after five days to agree 
upon a third arbitrator, then said third 
arbitrator shall be designated by the 
presiding judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of Ohio County." 



Portland Cement Production in 
June 

June production of portland cement 
was about 12,400,000 bbls., according 
to figures just compiled by the United 
States Geological Survey. Although 
this represents a decline of about 500,- 
000 bbls. from the record output of 
May, it neverthless establishes a new 
high mark for the month of June by 
about 10 per cent. Production for the 
half year ending June 30, was more 
than 62,300,000 bbls.— an increase of 
33 per cent over the best previous 
record for a similar period. 

June shipments from the mills 
amounted to 13,300,000 bbls., or slight- 
ly under those of June last year, and 
about 7. per cent less than in May of 
this year. Shipments for the first six 
months of this year were 62,226,000 
bbls. as against 48,029,000 in the cor- 
responding period last year. 

Stocks of cement in manufacturers' 
hands at the end of June were 9,219,- 
000 bbls. — a decline of approximately 
9 per cent from those at the end of 
May. 



r 

^^ An "inrfpi 



Buildings 

Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices 



149 



An "index nnmber"' is really a per- 
centage, and in the case of an "index 
price" shows the relative price level 
at different times. In the accompany- 
ing table the price level, or "index 
price," is 100 for the year 1913; and 



1° 
Gei a 

1913 100 

January 98 

October 103 

1914 103 

January 103 

July 103 

October 101 

1915 104 

January 104 

April 104 

July 104 

October 106 

1916 123 

January 110 

April 113 

July 117 

October 136 

1917 190 

January 152 

April 184 

July 196 

October 207 

1918 218 

January 211 

April 213 

July 217 

October 225 

1919 231 

January 224 

April 230 

July 241 

October 227 

1920 218 

January 247 

April 243 

July 233 

October 187 

1921 124 

January 143 

February 133 

March 127 

April 117 

May 118 

June 114 

July 119 

August 123 

September 124 

October 124 

November 121 

December ^ 120 

1922 133 

January 122 

February 131 

March 130 

April 129 

May 132 

June 131 

July 135 

August 131 

September 133 

October 138 

November 143 

December 145 

1923— 

January 143 

February 1 42 

^'^arch 143 

Pril 141 

Jne 13S 

May 139 



the indexes for other periods are those 
calculated by the U. S. Department of 
Labor. 

The index for building materials is 
a weighted average of the principal 
building materials except steel. 





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101 


102 


97 


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177 


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138 


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164 


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129 


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231 


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142 


183 


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228 


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172 


215 


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156 


194 


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201 


164 


183 


161 


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184 


181 


220 


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184 


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228 


144 


152 


190 


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238 


175 


189 


177 


209 


159 


159 


196 


198 


245 


176 


192 


177 


211 


164 


163 


202 


207 


253 


181 


162 


201 


169 


184 


175 


206 


203 


220 


178 


175 


176 


181 


167 


166 


199 


205 


205 


177 


153 


169 


160 


167 


160 


199 


210 


262 


181 


160 


209 


167 


183 


177 


212 


205 


291 


189 


162 


229 


173 


194 


187 


211 


220 


295 


241 


192 


264 


200 


254 


196 


226 


231 


339 


194 


175 


274 


189 


239 


194 


233 


238 


336 


231 


203 


300 


210 


242 


206 


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238 


300 


269 


202 


269 


212 


275 


203 


241 


201 


245 


280 


191 


240 


198 


271 


188 


211 


144 


180 


199 


129 


165 


136 


195 


128 


147 


162 


196 


247 


153 


192 


153 


217 


164 


170 


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188 


225 


147 


180 


149 


217 


147 


160 


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183 


212 


140 


173 


143 


216 


139 


165 


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176 


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138 


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216 


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173 


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209 


126 


146 


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172 


191 


133 


163 


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196 


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142 


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172 


186 


124 


160 


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180 


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141 


146 


171 


184 


117 


156 


129 


179 


119 


142 


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178 


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116 


156 


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179 


118 


141 


140 


180 


189 


116 


159 


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180 


118 


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139 


180 


197 


114 


163 


129 


178 


119 


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136 


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199 


113 


158 


127 


178 


121 


140 


139 


180 


220 


122 


169 


124 


176 


117 


149 


131 


176 


195 


112 


157 


124 


178 


117 


138 


135 


174 


191 


110 


156 


123 


177 


117 


141 


137 


172 


191 


109 


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125 


175 


117 


142 


137 


171 


194 


113 


156 


124 


175 


116 


143 


138 


175 


216 


119 


160 


122 


176 


116 


148 


140 


179 


225 


120 


167 


122 


176 


114 


160 


142 


180 


264 


121 


170 


121 


173 


114 


155 


138 


181 


271 


126 


172 


122 


173 


115 


155 


138 


183 


244 


134 


180 


124 


173 


116 


163 


140 


188 


226 


135 


183 


124 


176 


120 


154 


143 


192 


218 


133 


185 


127 


179 


122 


156 


144 


194 


216 


131 


185 


130 


182 


122 


156 


141 


196 


218 


133 


188 


131 


184 


124 


166 


141 


199 


212 


139 


192 


132 


184 


126 


157 


143 


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206 


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135 


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200 


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126 


159 


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186 


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194 


131 


187 


123 


153 


144 


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190 


152 


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134 


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Buildings 



July, 



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152 



Buildings 



July, 



Respective Services of Constructor and Designer 



The performance of construction un- 
der the day labor plan by public offi- 
cials who underestimate the value of 
a constructor's managerial function, 
combined with the tendency of con- 
structors and designers to confuse 
their own respective functions, has in- 
dicated the need for a clean-cut state- 
ment of what service each of these 



agencies should rightfully perform for 
their clients. A clear definition of 
their respective services appears es- 
sential, and it is to develop such a 
definition that the accompanying 
statement of functions had been for- 
mulated by the Committee on Methods 
of the Associated General Contractors 
and printed in the June 16 News Let- 
ter of the Association: 



Declaration for Cooperation in Building 



The Constructor 

Will insure completion of project 

Will make quantity survey of plans 
Will submit bids at stated period 
Will bid freely in competition 
Will base bid on his previous unit costs 
Will submit evidence of responsibility 

Will guarantee cost of the work shown on 

plans and specifications 
Will warrant time of delivery of structure 
Will develop adequate financial credit 
Will supply adequate construction equipment 

Will furnish ample tools 

Will furnish bond for faithful performance to 

owner 
Will sign Joint Committee form of contract 

Will perform portions of work with his own 

construction force 
Will supply experienced superintendence 
Will protect owner against liens 

Will insure owner against all accidents 

Will be fair to subcontractors 

Will be always fair to labor 



Will keep quality standards high 

Will guard public interest in labor rates and 
conditions of employment 

Will cooperate through local chapter of con- 
tractors 

Will display skill in construction methods 

Will through integrity inspire business confi- 
dence 

Will support rulings of National Board for 
Jurisdictional Awards 

Will be loyal to designers 

Will help train apprentices 

Will assume responsibility for errors in con- 
struction 

Will develop sound commercial practices 

Will charge legitimate construction fees 

Will shake hands with Designer upon receipt of 
final estimate 

then 

the Constructor would not have time nor the DESIGNER would not have time nor the 
the trained professional technique to ade- experienced business organization to effi- 

quately design work. ciently undertake construction work. 

and 

The Owner 

would get the best possible construction service 

from Both. 

"Modern Construction embodies fine architectural symmetry and aesthetic design developed 

through past ages and now reared upon tested scientific engineering principles of strength and 

proportion of materials gathered throughout the world, stored for prompt delivery, fabricated in 

special shops, and speedily and economically erected with skillful methods by experienced artisans 

into a beautiful, practical structure for a useful purpose." 



The Designer 

1. Will design complete throughout, includ- 

ing structural design 

2. Will permit ample time for bidding 

3. Will open bids in public 

4. Will specify materials freely competitive 

5. Will award work at the bid price 

6. Will permit only responsible contractors 

to bid 

7. Will give complete information as to di- 

mensions, quantity, quality and design 

8. Will furnish detail plans without delay 

9. Will approve estimates promptly 

10. Will allow equipment rental on monthly 

estimates 

11. Will furnish ample details 

12. Will fearlessly demand justice from the 

Owner 

13. Will submit Joint Committee form of con- 

tract 

14. Will supervise work with his own force 

1.5. Will supply practical supervisors 

16. Will examine specified patented products 

for prescribed royalties 

17. Will allow insurance premiums as part of 

actual costs 

18. Will let General Contractor award all sub- 

contracts 
10. Will make specifications clear for all di- 
visions of work 

20. Will arrange for inspection of materials 
at source 

21. Will not urge continuance of work in case 
of strikes or lock-outs 

22. Will assist the local chapter of Architects 

23. Will be resourceful in design of structures 

24. Will reward square dealing 

25. Will specify in accordance with decisions 
of the National Board for Jurisdictional 
Awards 

26. Will respect loyalty of constructors 

27. Will encourage young workmen 

28. Will assume responsibility for errors in 
design 

28. Will permit arbitration as to dollars 

30. Will charge the A. I. A. designing fees 

31. Will pat Constructor on the back upon 
completion of the job 



Buildings 



153 



Unusual Design of Concrete 

Bridge 

In the design of the concrete high- 
way bridge at Watertown, N. Y., a 



the Black River and also across the 
railroad which parallels the river. 
The lower deck carries lighter traffic 
of River and Newell Sts., which are 
parallel to the river and north of the 



,'8, f Bars 



This Sechon Casf 
Same Time as 
Hanger 











l_.A 



'tX.. 



?,l'Bars, \\\. 

Sechon A-A 



Details of Hangers for Lower Deck. Note in Section A-A Method Used for Ponring Hangers to 

Prevent Cracks. 




Doable Deck Concrete Highway Bridge Over Black River at Watertoim, N. Y. 



clever use was made of the adapta- 
bility of concrete by making the 
bridge of double-deck construction. 
The upper deck carried the heavy 
traffic of Court and Coffeen Sts. over 



railroad. We are indebted to Con- 
tractor's Atlas for the following de- 
tail: 

The bridge is carried over the river 
on four reinforced arch ribs, the up- 



154 



Buildings 



July, 



per deck being supported by open 
spandrel construction and the lower 
deck being hung from the arch rib. 
The arch ribs are 6 ft. wide and 5 ft. 
deep, so spaced as to give two 12-ft. 
roadways and two 4-ft. sidewalks on 
the lower deck. The river span is 195 
ft. and the height of the arch rib 
above the springing line 38 ft. The 
lower deck is 22 ft. below the upper 
deck. The span across the railroad is 
86 feet. 

To avoid cracks in the hangers sup- 
porting the lower roadway, due to the 
difference in the moduli of elasticity of 
the steel reinforcing and the concrete 
an ingenious method was employed. 
When the arch ribs were poured 




Approach to Lower Deck. 

wedge-shaped openings were left at 
the points where the steel rods were 
hung to support the lower deck. After 
the lower deck was placed, the sup- 
ports were removed, permitting these 
rods to be stressed with the entire 
dead load of the lower deck, thus tak- 
ing the full deformation due to this 
dead load. Forms were then built 
around these hanger rods and the con- 
crete poured, embedding them. Thus 
the only additional elongation of the 
steel which may be expected will come 
from live loads which will not be suffi- 
cient to cause any appreciable crack- 
ing in the concrete. 

The Concrete Steel Engineering Co. 
of New York City were the designing 
and supervising engineers. The bridge 
was built by the Peckham Construc- 
tion Co. of Buffalo, and Atlas portland 
cement was used in its construction. 



Methods of Measuring the Properties 
of Electrical Insulating Materials 

Scientific Paper No. 471 of the 
Bureau of Standards, which can be 
obtained from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Of- 
fice, Washington, D. C, at 15 cts. a 
copy, describes methods of measuring 
the properties of electrical insulating 
materials. This paper gives a series 
of electrical, thermal, chemical, fend 
mechanical test methods which have 
been found useful in the study of solid 
electrical insulating materials. The 
several tests described are those used 
in obtaining the data previously re- 
ported in Technologic Paper No. 216 
of the Bureau of Standards entitled 
"Properties of Electrical Insulating 
Materials of the Laminated Phenol- 
Methylene Type." The several test 
methods described are radio-frequency 
phase difference or power loss, dielec- 
tric constant and flashover voltage, 
direct-current surface resistivity and 
volume resistivity, tensile strength, 
modulus of elasticity (tensile), pro- 
portional limit, modulus of rupture, 
modulus of elasticity (transverse), 
Brinell hardness, soleroscope hard- 
ness, resistance to impact, permanent 
distortion, density, moisture absorp- 
tion, machining qualities, thermal ex- 
pansivity, and the effects of heat, acid, ■ 
and alkali. The methods and appa- ; 
ratus are described in some detail; 
first, so that the data in Technologic 
Paper No. 216 will be definite and be 
capable of being correctly compared 
with other data; second, so that any 
of the tests may be reproduced by 
others. 



Tests of Parts of the New Delawar* 
River Bridge 

As mentioned some time ago, the^ 
U. S. Bureau of Standards is conduct- 
ing a co-operative investigation with 
the Joint Commission of Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey on the strength of 
certain members of the new bridge 
across the Delaware River between 
Philadelphia and Camden. The gen- 
eral problem in hand is the compres- 
sive strength of web plates; and it 
has been found, as might be expected, 
that the strengths are a function of 
the properties of the material. A 
special study is now under way on the 
relation between the properties and 
certain metallurgical phenomena 
which have been developed during the 
investigation. 



1923 



Buildings 

Analysis of **Two-Way'* Flat Slabs 



155 



Method Following Closely Joint Committee Report and Chicago 
Ordinance Described in The Architectural Forum 

By E. F. ROCKWOOD 



Floor slabs of reinforced concrete 
supported upon columns without 
beams or girders and extending two or 
more bays in each direction are com- 
monly known as flat slabs. The col- 
umns may be, and usually are, pro- 
vided with enlarged heads. In addi- 
tion, the slab may be thickened on the 
under side in the %icinity of the col- 
umns, forming what is known as a 
"drop" or a "depression." 

The sketches given here show the 
cracks that developed in four test 







panels of a flat slab floor in a build- 
ing built in Chicago in 1921. These 
cracks indicate the regions of high 
tensile stress where reinforcing steel 
is needed. Such reinforcing steel can 
be at right angles to the cracks, tak- 
ing the stresses directly, or by cross- 
ing the cracks at an angle can take 
components of these stresses. 

Systems of Arranging Reinforce- 
ment. — The writer knows of three 
common systems of arranging such re- 
inforcements, — the two-way system, 
the four-way system, and the S. M. I. 
system. The latter requires less steel 
than either of the others, but the steel 
in it is more complicated to design, 
bend and place, and if the system is 
used a royalty must be paid. The 
other two systems require approxi- 
mately equal amounts of steel, but the 
two-way system is simpler to place 
and has only two layers of steel over 
the column heads, which allows the 
concrete to be more readily placed. 
The writer therefore favors the two- 
way system. In this system all the 
rods run parallel with the column 
lines in two directions, and where they 
do not cross a crack line at right ang- 
les the stress causing that crack is 



carried by components of two rods at 
right angles to each other. 

Many theories have been advanced 
for the design of flat slabs, and engi- 
neers do not agree upon any one of 
these, but tests on floors that have 
been built furnish sufficient data for 
arbitrary methods of design, and one 
of the best of them is described by 
these specifications and is illustrated 
in Figs. 2 and 3. 

Capital. — Columns shall be provided 
with enlarged capitals, and the diam- 
eter (c) of this capital shall be the 
base diameter of the largest right cir- 
cular cone which lies entirely within 
the column (including the capital) 
whose vertex is 90 deg. and whose 
base is 2^2 in. below the bottom of 
the slab or the bottom of the dropped 
panel. The diameter of the capital 
shall not be less than 1/5 the distance 
center to center of the columns, and 
shall be such that the unit stresses 
specified elsewhere are not exceeded. 

Brackets. — Brackets or haunches 
shall be pro\ided on exterior columns 
when necessary to transmit the shear 
and bending from the slab to the 
column. 

Interior Columns. — The smallest di- 
mension of interior concrete columns 
supporting flat slabs shall be not less 
than 1/15 the span, center to center, 
of columns in the longer direction. 

Dropped Panel. — A thickening of 
the slab on the under side in the vicin- 



trrz:: _ : 



ii_ 



V ^ I ^camcAi. arnOKT 



ity of the columns is termed a dropped 
panel. Its width in any direction 
shall not be less than 1/3 the panel's 
length in that direction, and its thick- 
ening shall not be greater than 1.5 
times the slab thickness. 

Thickness of Flat Slabs and 
Dropped Panels. — The minimum thick- 
ness of floor slabs shall not be less 
than 1/32 and of roof slabs 1/40 of 
the distance center to center of 
columns in the longer direction. The 
thickness shall be such as to withstand 



156 



Buildings 



July, 



the shear around the column capital 
or around the dropped panel. 

Shear. — Shearing Stress. The shear- 
ing unit shearing stress shall not ex- 
ceed the value of "v" in the formula, 

v=0.02f'c (1+r) 
nor in any case shall it exceed 0.03 
f'c(f' c=ultimate compressive strength 
of the concrete at 28 days). 

The unit shearing stress shall be 
computed on: 

(a) A vertical section which has a 
depth, in inches, of % (ti — 1%), and 
which lies at a distance, in inches, of 
ti — 1^/^ from the edge of the column 
capital; and 

(b) A vertical section which has a 
depth, in inches, of % (tj — 1^/^), and 
which lies at a distance, in inches, of 
ts — l^'^ from the edge of the dropped 
panel. 

In no case shall "r" be less than 
0.25. Where the shearing stress on 

nC SMN LtN0TH3 lANO 
i| ABI INTEHOtMOlAgU. 

AccauaNO to mi an^ 
(ctiOM or TMt MCMorr 
imcEK. ccNaoaxnai 




section (a) is being considered, "r" 
shall be taken as the proportional 
amount of reinforcement crossing the 
column capital; where the shearing 
stress at section (b) is being consid- 
ered, "r" shall be taken as the pro- 
portional amount of reinforcement 
crossing entirely over the dropped 
panel. (For typical flat slab and des- 
ignation of principal design sections, 
see Figs. 2 and 3.) 

Moments. — In an interior panel the 
bending shall be taken thus: 

(a) Negative moment in middle 
strip: Extending in a rectangular di- 
rection from a point on the . edge of 

1. 
panel — from column center a dis- 
4 
1, 
tance of — toward the center of adja- 

2 
cent column on the same panel edge. 

(b) The maximum negative moment 
and the maximum positive moments in 
the middle strip and the sum of the 



maximum positive moments in the 
two column strips may each be greater 
or less than the values given in the 
table herewith by not more than 
O.OlMo. 

Moments for Slabs with Two-Way Reinforce- 
ment 

Flat 

Slabs without Flat Slabs with 

Dropped Panels Dropped Panels 

Nega- Posi- Nega- Posi- 

Strip tive tive tive tive 

Column strip..0.25 Mo 0.11 Mo 0.25 Mo 0.10 Mo 
Two-column 

strips 0.46 Mo 0.22 Mo 0.50 Mo 0.20 Mo 

Middle strip....0.16 Mo 0.16 Mo 0.15 Mo 0.15 Mo 

In flat slabs in which the ratio of 
reinforcement for negative moment 
in the column strip is not greater 
than 0.01, the numerical sum of the 
positive and negative moments in the 
direction of either side of the panel 
shall be taken as not less than: 

Mo=0.09 Wl (1—2/3—)' 
1 

Where Mo=sum of positive and nega- 
tive bending moments ir 
either rectangular direc- 
tion at the principal de- 
sign sections of a panetj 
of a flat slab. 
c = base diameter of the larg- 
est right circular cone 
which lies entirely withir 
the column (including the 
capital) whose vertex an- 
gle is 90 deg. and whose 
base is 1% in. below the 
bottom of the slab or the 
bottom of the droppec 
panel. (See Fig. 2.) 
1 =span length of flat slab,; 
center to center of col- 
umns in the rectangulai 
direction, in which mo-J 
ments are considered; anc 
W == total dead and live loac 
uniformly distributed ovei 
a single panel area. 

Wall and Other Irregular Panek 

— In wall panels and other panels iTil 
which the slab is discontinuous at the 
edge of panel, the maximum negative 
moment one panel length away frot 
discontinuous edge and maximur. 
positive moment between shall be 
taken thus: 

(a) Column strip perpendicular to the 
wall or discontinuous edge. IE 
per cent greater than that given| 
in table. 

(b) Middle strip perpendicular to] 
wall or discontinuous edge. 30i 
per cent greater than that giver 
in table. 



1923 



Buildings 



157 



In these strips the bars used for 
positive moments perpendicular to the 
discontinuous edge shall extend to the 
exterior edge of the panel at which the 
slab is discontinuous. 

Panels with Wall Beams. — In panels 
having a marginal beam on one edge, 
or on each of two adjacent edges, the 
beam shall be designed to carry the 
load superimposed directly upon it. 
If the beam has a depth greater than 
the thickness of the dropped panel into 
which it frames, the beam shall be 
designed to carry, in addition to the 
load superimposed upon it, at least 
one-quarter of the distributed load 
for which the adjacent panel or pan- 
els are designed, and each column strip 
adjacent to the parallel with the beam 
shall be designed to resist a moment 
1 at least one-half as great as that 
■specified in the table for a column 
I strip. If the beam used has a depth 
; less than the thickness of the dropped 
'panel into which it frames, each col- 
I umn strip adjacent to and parallel 
j with the beam shall be designed to re- 
sist the moments specified in the table 
jfor a column strip. Where there are 
I beams on two opposite edges of the 
If panel, the slab and the beam shall be 
I designed as though all the load were 
i carried to the beam. 

Flat Slabs on Bearing Walls.— 
Where there is a beam, or a bearing 
wall on the centre line of columns in 
vhe interior portion of a continuous 
5at slab, the negative moment at the 
oeam or wall line in the middle strip 
perpendicular to the beam or wall shall 
lie taken as 30 per cent greater than 
the moment specified in the table for 
a middle strip. The column strip ad- 
jacent to and lying on either side of 
the beam or wall shall be designed to 
resist a moment at least one-half of 
that specified for a column strip. 

Point of Inflection. — The point of in- 
Itlection in any line parallel to a panel 
i«jdge in interior panels of symmetrical 
|slabs without dropped panels shall be 
Ijiissumed to be at distance from the 
llcenter of the span equal to 3/10 of 
i!t;he distance between the two sections 
)\of critical negative moment at oppo- 
fi.site ends of the line; for slabs having 
fidropped panels the coefficient shall 
j|l)e H. 

(i Arrangement of Reinforcement. — 
a'rhe design shall include adequate pro- 
ijWsion for securing the reinforcement 
jin place so as to take not only the 
critical moments, but also the mo- 
ments at intermediate sections. At 
least two-thirds of all bars in each 



direction shall be of such length a^d 
shall be so placed as to provide rein- 
forcement at two sections of critical 
negative moment and at the interme- 
diate section of critical positive mo- 
ment. Continuous bars shall not all 
be bent up at the same point of their 
length, but the zone in which this 
bending occurs shall extend on each 
side of the assumed point of inflection, 
and shall cover a width of at least 
1/15 of the panel length. Mere sag- 
ging of the bars shall not be permit- 
ted. In four-way reinforcement the 
position of the bars in both diagonal 
and rectangular directions may be 
considered in determining the width 
of zone of bending. 

In general the negative bending mo- 
ment for a panel width along a sec- 
tion at and parallel to the wall col- 
umns shall be taken as 5/16 Mo. The 
bending in the exterior columns shall 
Wh 

be taken as 5/16 Mo. where "h" 

4 
is the thickness of exterior column. 

This method follows very closely 
that used in the latest report of the 
"Joint Committee" and the Chicago 
Ordinance, as it is practically a com- 
bination of both. 



Stucco Investigation 

For several years past, the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards has been study- 
ing stuccos, and many of its findings 
have been embodied in a "Recom- 
mended Practice for Portland Cement 
Stucco" which was formally adopted 
recently by the American Concrete In- 
stitute as one of its standards. The 
practice covers the application of 
stucco to all bases, and although a 
masonry base is probably capable of 
giving the most dependable results, it 
is recognized that there has been and 
probably will be for many years to 
come a larger use of stucco on frame 
houses than on masonry structures. 

The application of stucco to frame 
houses involves greater uncertainties 
in results than on masonry bases, and 
in order to solve some of these prob- 
lems, the Bureau proposes to carry 
out, in co-operation with some of the 
interested trade associations, a study 
involving about 30 test panels on the 
stucco test building. Considerable in- 
terest has been shown in this work, 
and a conference will probably be held 
in the near future. If the full co-op- 
eration of the interests involved is se- 
cured, it is planned to start work early 
in the Fall. 



158 Buildings July, 

Live Floor Load RequiremenU fi',\'„?|;ft"i2l1bt''ai?'p;a* 

in OChool rSuildingS cally demanding warehouse loading 

Some interesting information indi- for school rooms. They are wasting 
eating the wide variation in live floor money in their treasuries which is con- 
loads for school buildings is given by tributed by their own taxpayers 
Norman M. Stineman in the American Actual Live Floor Load in Buildings. 
Architect. The accompanying table, —A good way to obtain an estimate 
from his article, is based on building of the actual live floor load in school 
codes selected at random: buildings, or any other buildings for 

that matter, consists in actually 

Live Loads Lbs. per^sq. «. weighing or Computing the weight of^ 

Building Class and Assem"- the school furniture, adding the esti- 

Code Rooms biy Halls mated Combined weight of the people 

Milwaukee 40 60 occupying the school room, allowing 

Baltimore*^ .'...;;".'..""..".''..'."!". 50 75 additional weight for books and sim- 

Omaha Z"..Z!...' 50 75 Har objects, then dividing the total 

Seattle 50-75 '^gj*'*' Weight by the area of the school room. 

Porulnd (6reiy".!!!Z....Z 60 75 A fairly accurate estimate can be 
Ohio State Code 60 80 made without the necessity of conduct- 
Wisconsin State Code...... 60 80 jj^g ^^^ actual test. A standard class 

gSnaii ".":.".".:. .:....::. 60 so-Ioo room is 23 by 32 ft. in plan and has 

New Orleans 60 125 a Capacity of 45 pupils. The floor 

Memphis 70 100 ^j-ea is 736 sq. ft. The weight ordi- 

Chattanoogi; 'fenn."::.:::.::: 75 100 narlly imposed on the floor may there- 
Columbia, s. c 75 90 fore be estimated by assuming the 

Everett, Wash 75 125 average weight of the pupils and the 

nIwC mLs il I25 teacher at 100 lbs., making a total of 

New York City 75 100 4,600 Ibs. The weight of 45 desks at 

St. Louis 75 100 40 lbs. each is 1,800 lbs. The teacher's 

e^^afpa^lls^Mont:::::::::::: loo III desk, including the books and papers 

m it, will weigh hardly more than 400 

Commenting upon the table, Mr. i^g^ tj^^ ^j^^j^g ^^ ^^^ possession of 

Stineman says: In Detroit the speci- each pupil may average as much as 

fled floor load is 50 lbs. per sq. lo lbs. per pupil, making a total of 

ft. in class rooms with fixed seats, 450 lbs. Allowing 250 lbs. for a few 

and 60 lbs. with movable seats. In gmall charts or other minor objects, 

Cincinnati the required floor load is ^e obtain a total live floor load of 

80 lbs. in corridors and 100 lbs. in 7^500 lbs., or only slightly more than 

assembly rooms. In Seattle the speci- 10 lbs. per sq. ft. of floor area, 

fled load is 50 lbs. in class rooms seat- Ten lbs. per sq. ft. may therefore 

ing less than 100 pupils, 75 lbs. in be considered the average live floor 

class rooms seating more than 100 load in a cl^ss room. The maximum 

and in assembly rooms with fixed floor load may be estimated on the as- 

seats, and 100 lbs. in assembly rooms sumption that the room would occa- 

with movable seats. In Boston and sionally be filled with grown people, 

New Orleans the load of 125 lbs. per two persons occupying each seat and 

sq. ft. applies to assembly halls only. 30 people standing around the walls, 

A glance at the above table will making a total occupancy of 120 per- 

readily explain why it is that school sons having an average weight of 150 

buildings in some cities seem to cost lbs., or a total weight of 18,000 lbs. 

too much money. The table indicates The other items would remain as in 

also that the requirements of state the first estimate, so that the total 

building codes and those of large cities weight would be 20,900 lbs., or an 

are not so severe as those of medium average of 28 lbs. per sq. ft. This 

sized cities. The reason for the dif- figure can surely be accepted as the 

ference is that states and large cities extreme load likely to be imposed on 

have better facilities for revising their a class room floor, 

building codes and that on the average What, then, is the excuse for speci- 

they do revise them more frequently fying loads such as 100 lbs. per sq. 

than the smaller cities do; consequent- ft., as some cities do, or even 75 lbs., 

ly the code of the large city is kept specified in many large cities? The 

more nearly abreast of modern ideas. 60-lb. load specified by the state codes 

Cities that require school building of Ohio and Wisconsin, although in 

class rooms to be designed for a live line with modern practice, seems very 

floor load of 100 lbs. per sq. ft., conservative in view of the facts. 



1923 



Buildings 



159 



Webb Plate Compression Tests 

Tests were made by the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Standards to determine the 
value of Webb plates in compression, 
with special reference to the design of 
the main towers of the Delaware 
River bridge now being constructed 
between Philadelphia and Camden, 
N. J. The following note on these 
tests were given by Ralph Modjeski, 
Consulting Engineer, for the bridge in 
a paper presented last April before 
the Western Society of Engineers. 

The Main Towers are being made of 
silicon steel plates and angles with a 
specified minimum wield point of 45, 
000 lb. per square inch. The construc- 
tion is box shape or cellular, the webs 
var>lng in thickness from % in. to 3 
in. with a general thickness of 1^2 in. 
made up of two % in. plates stitch 
riveted together. The maximum un- 
supported width between the toes of 
the angles is 23 in. for the % in. webs 
and 46 in. for the 1^ in. webs, or in 
each case about 31 times the thick- 
ness. A imit stress of 24,000 lb. per 
square inch was used in the design of 
the tower for compression due to com- 
bined direct stress and bending. To 
establish the propriety of using this 
tinit stress with the grade of steel 
specified and with webs of the width 
and thickness planned, was therefore 
the specific object of the tests, the 
more general objects being to find the 
comparative strength and behavior of 
thick and thin webs and of webs of 
single or double plates. 

The Test Pieces. — For these tests 
fourteen silicon steel plate girders 
were made, 10 ft. long, 35 in. deep, 
with four 6 in. X 4 in. X % in. flange 
angles per girder, and with seven dif- 
ferent thicknesses or types of webs, 
there being two girders of each type. 
The different tj-pes of webs are shown 
in the following table, together with 
the ratios of unsupported width to 
thickness. The unsupported width be- 
tween the toes of the flangle angles 
was 23 in. so that the girders with the 
?i in. webs were practically segments 
taken from the towers of the bridge. 

Webs Width Radio 

One % in. plate 61 

One % in. plate 46 

One % in. plate_ 37 

One % in. plate 31 

One 1 in. plate 23 

Two % in. plates 23 

Two ?4 in. plates 15 

Plates thinner than any contem- 
plated for use in the powers were in- 
cluded in the tests in order to be sure 
of finding the comparative beha^ior 
of thick and thin plates. 



Method of Testing. — ^The girders 
were tested lengthwise in compression 
up to and well beyond the maximum 
load they would carrj\ The flanges 
were stayed against lateral deflection 
by means of stiffening girders which 
were fastened to them with lubricated 
clamps so that the stiffening girders 
would carry very little if any of the 
load, Ames dial compressometers were 
rigged to each flange angle of the test 
g^irders for the purpose of measuring 
the shortening, and similar compresso- 
meters were placed on the stiffening 
girders to detect any stress in them. 
Various other gauges were placed on 
the girders to measure local strains 
and lateral deflections, and a device 
was rigged up to measure the contour 
of the web surface before and during 
the test. 

Maximum Strength. — The maximum 
strength developed by the g^irders va- 
ried between 40,000 lb. and 46,400 lb. 
per square inch with an average of 
44300 lb. per square inch. Of the 
girders with webs % in. thick and 
over, which serve as a criterion for 
the towers, the maximum strength 
varied between 44,000 lb. and 46,400 
lb. per square inch, with an average 
of 45,300 lb. per square inch, or be- 
tween 90 per cent and 95 per cent of 
the average yield point of the material 
from which the girders were made, 
which was found to be about 49,000 lb. 
per square inch. 

Buckling of Webs. — ^The behavior of 
the web plates during the tests showed 
a marked difference as between thin 
and thick plates. The thin plates 
early in the tests formed into a series 
of waves or buckles in the lengrth of 
the girder, the full wave lengths being 
equal on the average to the depth of 
the girders, but varjring indi\idually 
in length and position dependent ap- 
parently upon the initial contour of 
the webs. As the tests progressed 
these waves increased more and more 
rapidly in amplitude but maintained 
the same node points. The thick plates 
on the other hand did not develop any 
waves, but maintained their initial 
contours until near the end of the test 
when buckling occurred at some one 
point. The dividing Une between thin 
and thick plates in this respect was 
between the ^s in. and the % in. 
webs. The % in. webs developed 
waves similar to, though less pro- 
nounced, than those of the hz in. and 
% in. webs, whereas the % in. webs 
remained stiff' to the end of the test 
like the 1 in. and 1^2 in. webs. 



160 



Buildings 



July, 



Wage Increase in New York Build- 
ing Trades Since 1916 

As a result of increases and bonuses 
granted recently to 115,000 workers in 
the building trades in New York City 
the New York Times estimates that an 
added labor burden of about $18,600,- 
000 will be borne by building construc- 
tion in that city during the next 6 
months. In discussing this estimate 
the Times states: 

Most of the workers received addi- 
tional compensation of $1 a day, but 
increases of $2 a day in the basic rate 
were awarded the bricklayers, plas- 
terers, hoisting engineers and one or 
two additional crafts. The estimated 
increases of $18,600,000 excluded over- 
time pay, which will probably increase 
the labor costs in the next six months 
an additional $1,400,000, making the 
total wage increase until Jan. 1, 1924, 
approximately $20,000,000. 

A comparison of building trades 
wages between 1903 and 1923 indi- 
cates that the highest percentage in- 
creases went to the composition roof- 
ers and the house shorers, whose rate 
of pay in twenty years has increased 
264 per cent. The rate of pay for 
mosaic workers has increased 186 per 
cent, and next come the bricklayers' 
helpers, whose rate has increased 185 
per cent. 

Of the major trades, eleven are re- 
ceiving more than double the wages of 
1916, six trades are receiving twice 
the amount they received in 1916 and 
the others are getting a substantial 
increase. Most of the trade are now 
being paid $8 to $10 a day with $12 a 
day for several crafts. Bricklayers, 
mosaic workers and tile layers are be- 
ing paid bonuses of $2 to $6 above the 
scale because of a shortage of workers 
in these trades. 

Increases Since 1916. — The cement 
and concrete laborers have had ten 
wage increases since 1916, beginning 
with $2.80 and going up to $7.20. They 
received $6.50 a day until a few days 
ago, when they demanded a dollar in- 
crease. The employers offered $7.20 
and the men went on strike. 

The following trades have obtained 
the largest of the daily wage increases 
since 1916: 

Bricklayers ; $6.00 

Stone masons „„„ .„ 7.00 

Plasterers „ „.....„.«. .. 6.00 

Stone setters „. 6.50 

Composition roofers .„„ 5.50 

Mosaic workers _.. ....._„. 5.25 

Painters 5.00 

One of the outstandfng features in 



the rise of building trade wages has 
been the value set upon the common 
laborer. A dollar an hour, or $8 a 
day, is the pay. now awarded common 
laborers, many of whom ordinarily 
earn higher wages than mechanics in 
the skilled trades, who are laid off fre- 
quently because of weather and other 
conditions. 

Bricklayers' helpers, who pile the 
brick and mortar on the scaffolds, re- 
ceive $1 an hour and have steadier 
employment than bricklayers, for 
when the skilled men are laid off on 
account of rain or shortage of ma- 
terial on the job the laborers are used 
in the interior of the building to clean 
up and do other odd jobs. It developed 
during the recent strike of bricklayers 
that the laborers assisting the 
mechanics were quite satisfied with 
their lot and had no desire to become 
bricklayers because of the time haz- 
ards in the skilled trade. The laborers 
receive $44 for a 44-hour week, ex- 
cluding overtime. 

Wages in 1903 and 1923.— Here is a 
comparison of building trades wages 
in 1903 with the present-day rates and 
the percentage increases during the 
last twenty years: 

Per Cent 
Increase 
— Wages — Since 

1903 1913 1923 1903 

Asbestos workers $4.00 $4.75 $10.00 150 

Bluestone cutters 4.40 4.50 10.00 127 

•Bricklayers 5.20 5.60 12.00 129 

•Bricklayers' laborers 2.80 3.00 8.00 185 

Carpenters 4.50 5.00 10.00 122 

Cement masons _. 4.40 5.00 10.00 127 

tCement and concrete 

laborers 2.80 3.00 7.20 164 

Composition roofers 2.75 3.25 10.00 264 

Electrical worlcers 4.00 4.50 10.00 150 

Elevator constructors 4.25 5.20 10.00 135 

Portable engineers 5.00 6.00 12.00 140 

Plumbers 4.25 6.00 10.00 135 

House shorers 2.75 3.68 10.00 264 

Metallic lathers 4.00 5.00 10.00 150 

♦Mosaic workers 3.50 4.50 10.00 186 

Painters 4.00 4.00 10.00 150 

♦Plasterers 5.50 5.50 12.00 118 

Plasterers' laborers 3.25 3.25 8.50 161 

Steamfitters 4.50 5.50 10.00 122 

♦Tile layers 5.00 5.50 10.00 100 



♦1923 wage is the minimum and excludes 
bonuses. 

tNow on strike for $7.50. 



"Submerged Bridge" in India. — A 

submerged bridge, said to be the 
largest in India, measuring about V^ 
mile long, was recently opened in Cen- 
tral India. The bridge, which has 
been erected across the Nerbudda, is 
situated between Bombay and Agra, 
and will be submerged only during 
high flood. 



1923 Buildings 161 

Specifications From the Contractor's Viewpoint 



Abstract of an Address Presented Before Illinois Society of Architects 

By WILLIAM F. WISCHMEYER 



I know of no subject of more vital 
interest to the profession, nor one that 
is approached from so many different 
angles, than the production of specifi- 
cations. I shall endeavor to tell you 
as briefly as possible what I have 
gained from my experience as chief 
draftsman and specification writer in 
the offices of Mauran, Russell & 
Crowell, and as an estimator and 
building superintendent in the offices 
of James Stewart & Co. 

I am going to talk on specifications 
from the viewpoint of a contractor, 
estimator and sub-contractor, who 
must estimate on them, as I feel that 
very few architects are able to obtain 
this viewpoint unless they have had 
actual experience in this work. My 
idea is to bring out the real value of 
the specification after it leaves the 
architect's office. 

In the contractor's office the estima- 
tors call specifications "the vaude^'ille 
side of architecture" because of the 
humorous expressions contained in 
them. The estimator invariably 
makes notes of the contradictory 
things he finds and with his friends 
gets together and has a good laugh 
over them. 

What Is a Specification? — First of 
all, what is a specification? Most 
specification writers define the docu- 
ments as a description of materials 
and workmanship entering into the 
production of a certain type of struc- 
ture. We learn from this that ma- 
terials and workmanship form the 
backbone of the document, while gen- 
eral divisions and notes govern re- 
quirements for certain specification 
work. In discussing the subject it 
might be well to follow the order in 
which the specifications are written. 
First — General Conditions; second — 
Materials; third — Workmanship. 

Speaking of general conditions, I 
have always liked to define general 
condition as "obligations" which must 
be assumed by the owner, architect, 
and contractor respectively. It has 
frequently been the case that general 
conditions were used as a club to 
brandish over the head of the con- 
tractor. Many architects use lengthy 
general conditions which incorporate 
much that rightly belongs to the con- 
tract agreements, and frequently the 



conditions of the tw^o documents clash. 

General Conditions and Contract 
Agreement. — The two instruments 
should be complementary to one an- 
other, and should agree in both spirit 
and letter. We have found that to in- 
corporate a phrase in our contract 
stating how monthly payments should 
be made, referring to such and such 
an article in the general conditions, al- 
ways takes care of the situation no 
matter what conditions govern. Often 
paragraphs are written into the speci- 
fications in which the architect binds 
himself to certain obligations he has 
no right to assume, later neglecting 
them, and as proceedings ensue he be- 
comes a burden instead of a protection 
to his client. 

Many architects insert in the gen- 
eral conditions paragraphs which 
safeguard against many errors or 
omissions on the part of the con- 
tractor, so that the contractor loses in- 
terest in work. In my opinion this is 
unjust, and I have known occasions 
while estimating when both sub-con- 
tractors and general contractors have 
refused to submit figures due to the 
unfairness and the confusion in the 
general conditions. Entirely frank 
and clear general conditions, without 
any intention of putting it over on the 
contractor, never fail to bring in a cor- 
rect bid. In other words, the general 
conditions should express the obliga- 
tions of the contractor and state what 
he is to include in his estimate in addi- 
tion to materials and workmanship 
under the various headings and sub- 
headings. 

I have taken from the office a set 
of general conditions Mr. Russell, Mr. 
Mauran and myself have labored over. 
I am not reflecting upon the A. I. A. 
general conditions. We have gone 
into them and are not using them, as 
we feel the general conditions of the 
A. I. A. are too lengthy. If you were 
employed in a contractor's office and 
coidd see the sub-contractors come in 
to take off quantities and never look at 
the general conditions, you would 
change your opinion. They turn over 
the pages to their work, take off quan- 
tities, make notes of their specifica- 
tion parts, and go on about their busi- 
ness, and then send in the estimate. 

We have analyzed many things in 



162 



Buildings 



July, 



condensing our general conditions to 
about four pages. At the outset we 
state what the owner is obligated to 
do under these general conditions. He 
reserves the right to reject any and all 
bids and to let the work to other con- 
tractors, and reserves the right to se- 
lect contractors, paying a preference. 
He is to make certain payments and 
take out and pay for fire and cyclone 
insurance, and to pay for fuel to heat 
the building only from the time the 
plaster is dry. 

Among other duties, the architect 
approves samples and materials, ex- 
amines shop drawings, and issues 
promptly certificates of payment. 

The Contractor's Obligations. — The 
obligations of the contractors are: He 
is required to sign a contract to per- 
form the entire work in a satisfactory 
manner. Where contractors are 
strangers in the office, we attach our 
contract form to the specifications, 
giving them a chance to see the con- 
tract they are to sign. 

The contractor must select capable 
sub -contractors only, and shall not 
settle without the consent of the archi- 
tect, and shall pay the sub-contractor 
to the extent of the sub-contractor's 
interest in the work; he must give the 
sub-contractor an opportunity to be 
present and submit evidence in any 
arbitration; he must be bound to the 
sub-contractor by all obligations that 
the owner assumes to the contractor 
under the general conditions, drawings 
and specifications; he must be solely 
responsible for the proper execution 
of the work and must furnish satisfac- 
tory surety bond for a certain per 
cent of the work; and when required 
must keep the building heated until 
the plastering work is completed; 
must take out and pay for all forms of 
insurance except fire and cyclone, 
which the owner will pay for, and be 
solely responsible for accident or in- 
jury to employees or the public. 

He must examine and check draw- 
ings and specifications, and if discrep- 
ancies are found report to architects. 
He must not require architects to in- 
spect materials out of the city except 
at the expense of the contractor. He 
must keep on the work at all reason- 
able hours a competent superintendent 
satisfactory to the architect, with full 
authority to direct the work, receive 
instructions and give all necessary in- 
formation that may be required. The 
contractor must not consider the issu- 
ance of certificates of payment as ac- 
ceptance of the work. 



He must keep the building reason- 
ably clean and collect and remove 
from the premises all rubbish caused 
by the trades under his contract. He 
must see that each branch of the work 
will be installed by persons whose 
ability to execute it has been satisfac- 
torily demonstrated to the architect. 
Then there are also paragraphs call- 
ing attention to permits, royalties, li- 
censes, fees, municipal ordinances, 
state laws, and fire insurance bureaus. 

That will give you an idea of the 
general conditions that we have built 
up in our office. We felt that in this 
way the contractor would be given the 
information that would obligate him 
in the work, and at the same time, 
wherever it would be necessary, he 
could make a charge against the con- 
tract for it, and I believe there is 
nothing I have mentioned which would 
conflict with the general contract. We 
have had these general conditions and 
our contract, as drawn up, turned over 
to lawyers, and they brought back the 
information that they could see no 
conflictions in our contract and gen- 
eral conditions. 

Next in order is materials. Of all 
the items in the specifications, I con- 
sider it of prime importance to men- 
tion the exact kind and quality of ma- 
terial desired by its trade name. An- 
other difficulty is the placing of ma- 
terials in their wrong classification so 
that there is confusion as to the trade 
name, and it often happens that the 
same kind of material is placed under 
several different headings. I recall 
once that when working as an esti- 
mator we had to tear down an entire 
specification and place the materials 
in their proper positions in order to 
make an accurate estimate. 

Qualifications of a Specification 
Writer. — Right here I might mention 
what I think to be some of the qualifi- 
cations a specification writer should 
have. He should be well versed in 
building construction. This requires 
constant study and a complete and 
comprehensive catalog file. An archi- 
tect or designer will have a superficial 
acquaintance with materials and will 
use certain materials in design which 
will not weather well, and it should be 
the privilege and duty of the specifica- 
tion writer to enlighten him on the 
subject and suggest proper materials. 
Such co-operation between designer 
and specification writer will produce 
the best results, as I know that de- 
signers have very little time to go into 
the quality of material. 



1923 



Buildings 



163 



Another important factor is the 
necessity of keeping in touch with the 
chief draftsman, gaining through him 
all of the information required, and 
seeing that no mistake is made in de- 
tailing the work. This supervision 
will allow the specification writer to 
investigate the conditions before the 
final rush to get out the specifications. 

The Specification Writer and Mate- 
rials. — The specification writer should 
keep in touch with new materials and 
should make it a point to investigate 
results of those he has used. He 
should never fail to visit buildings 
for which he has written specifications. 
He should fairly constantly keep in 
touch with the superintendent^ and 
consult him f recjuently about specifica- 
tions and drawings and seek informa- 
tion about how he might improve his 
work. He should consult with con- 
tractors and sub-contractors, and 
never refuse to give a few minutes of 
his time to all material men. 

In this connection a good catalog 
system is of great value. I fear that 
many of us neglect material men. I 
appreciate the fact that if we would 
allow it, they would come into our 
offices in droves and bother the life 
out of us. As a rule, I have these 
men come in to see me at a certain 
hour, which I have set aside during 
the day to get acquainted with new 
materials. The specification writer 
should know about materials because 
he writes about the grades and kinds 
of materials the designer or drafts- 
man places upon the drawing, and as 
a consequence he must know more 
about materials than anyone in the 
office. 

The Specification Writer and Work- 
manship. — Workmanship, as I under- 
stand it, means the skill and the 
knowledge in the placing of certain 
materials demanded of the workman 
in order that the work may be exe- 
cuted in a satisfactory manner. In 
this connection, the specification writ- 
er should discuss with the designer 
the way in which he wants the mate- 
rials prepared. For instance, the 
specification writer may say that the 
job is to be laid in cement mortar 
perfect to the line, all joints troweled, 
weather cut, etc. The designer goes 
out to the job and sees it and then 
rushes back to say that he had a cut 
joint in mind and the workmanship 
has practically destroyed his entire 
scheme. This does not mean that the 
designer should be hampered by the 
specification writer or chief draftsman, 



because the design should be studied 
from every angle before being con- 
demned as being impractical. 

How does the specification writer 
gain this information as to workman- 
ship? First of all, he must be fa- 
miliar with materials. He should 
have spent a few years drafting, sev- 
eral years as a superintendent, and 
should have made it his business to 
visit as many manufacturing plants as 
possible to acquaint himself with the 
manufacturing processes. Then he 
should place his confidence with re- 
liable contractors and sub-contractors 
so that he can obtain first-class in- 
formation from them. It is an excel- 
lent plan to visit buildings of high- 
grade contractors and architects and 
compare them with similar work of 
contractors of less ability. The speci- 
fication writer learns much of work- 
manship by observation, I think this 
covers most of the important aspects 
of materials and workmanship. 

Preparing Specifications from 
Working Drawings. — I want to talk 
about my method of building speci- 
fications from the working drawings. 
We might at this point consider care- 
fully that the specifications do not 
serve the architect particularly but 
that they concern the contractor, esti- 
mator, material man, architect's su- 
perintendent and manufacturer. 
Therefore, in writing specifications, 
these men should constantly be borne 
in mind. When plans and specifica- 
tions are ready, the contractor is sum- 
moned, given prints and specifications, 
and is requested to return with his 
bid at some near future date. If a 
satisfactory figure is to be obtained, 
every consideration must be given to 
the contractor to facilitate his work 
by describing the work in the most 
intelligent manner, and fully describ- 
ing materials in detail as to quality 
and construction, leaving nothing in 
doubt. I might mention that I go this 
far — I refer to catalogs and settle any 
doubts by referring to an article by 
its trade name. There have been some 
questions raised as to this method, but 
why not refer to an article by its trade 
name — it saves the estimator a lot of 
time in looking up catalogs for a thing 
that fits the general specifications. 

I keep in constant touch with the 
chief draftsman, and when the draw- 
ings are approximately 90 per cent 
completed, I secure a set of prints and 
a tablet, on which I make a list of 
general headings in alphabetical order 
as they occur, placing the name in the 



164 



Buildings 



July, 



lower right hand corner, and leaving 
about two or three blank sheets after 
each alphabetical heading, bearing in 
mind the trades engaged in the work, 
and freely consulting my pamphlet on 
Jurisdictional Awards in selecting the 
trades. 

In dealing with materials which 
enter into the work, I select my mate- 
rial and place a note on the drawings 
as to which material has been decided 
upon, making sure that the informa- 
tion is placed on all sections and in 
plans and elevations to explain the 
work more thoroughly. I do not allow 
draftsmen to place notes on the draw- 
ings; in fact, it is absolutely forbidden 
in our office unless they are requested 
to do so by me. These sheets of notes 
which I make are to be kept as record 
sheets, and my idea in doing this is to 
avoid conflict after collecting mate- 
rials in their proper headings on these 
sheets. After collecting these various 
materials properly, I assemble the 
sheets in the order I wish to classify 
the specifications, numbering with red 
pencil the notes in the order I wish 
to call attention to them. I then pro- 
ceed to dictate the first draft of the 
specifications, requesting the stenog- 
rapher to leave plenty of margin for 
corrections and additions. These 
sheets I treasure. 

In the first paragraph of each head- 
ing I call attention to the general con- 
ditions. Following this are notes such 
as alternates, allowances, etc., calling 
the contractor's attention to items 
specified in other branches of the 
work, and under these particular notes 
the question of hoisting materials is 
decided. We usually specify that the 
contractor must hoist all materials at 
the building or furnish hoist and 
power, and the sub-contractor is to 
place the material on the hoist and re- 
move it at the proper floor level. The 
sub-contractor readily sees he has 
nothing to do with his material but 
bring it there and deliver it to the 
hoist. 

The question of work, or scope of 
work, or work included, is next dis- 
cussed. The estimator's attention is 
called to all work specified under this 
particular heading, placing it in the 
order as I have numbered the items in 
red pencil on my notes. The various 
materials are assembled in order so 
that when the contractor takes off his 
quantities he finds his materials all 
listed in one place and not scattered 
throughout the specifications. 



I next mention workmanship, stat- 
ing the quality of work we expect in 
the type of building to be erected, and 
bearing in mind that a warehouse is 
not a hotel or a residence and should 
not require the same quality of work- 
manship. 

Following workmanship, I treat the 
items under extent of work and de- 
scribe in detail materials and methods 
of construction. In carpentry I in- 
clude the work in general pertaining 
to carpentry specifications; then from 
my list of notes explain in detail ma- 
terials and workmanship in various 
items. I may discuss the joists and 
describe them in detail, but I try as 
much as I can to follow the job 
through as the work progresses in the 
building. The estimator likes best to 
take it off that way. 

Under cabinet work, marble work, 
tile work and similar materials, I 
specify general items under their pro- 
per heading, such as trim, base, archi- 
traves, picture moulds, etc. Then when 
it comes to certain specially designed 
rooms, I specify that room complete, 
going on to the next special room for 
its treatment. 

Above all, I avoid the words "or 
equal" as I find them a bugbear. I 
never use them in my specifications 
as I have invariably found there is no 
"or equal." 

During the time I am preparing 
these preliminary specifications the 
draftsmen are completing the draw- 
ings. When the drawings are practi- 
cally completed 1 make sure that all 
materials are properly noted, selec- 
tions properly made, and should any- 
thing have been added, I make pencil 
notes on the drawings and have them 
completed. At the same time I correct 
the specification draft and turn it over 
to the stenographer for final writing. 

I avoid the practice of sending out 
letters after plans are issued calling 
attention to errors, for fear that some 
contractor may not be reached and 
will submit his bid without correc- 
tion. The specification writer should 
be well versed and accurate and should 
be responsible for any error in judg- 
ment or selection of material. 

There is one point I want to em- 
phasize. The architect should realize 
that the specification writer should 
really be the man at the head of the 
drawings. The chief draftsman should 
control the men and constantly work 
with the specification writer. 



1923 



Buildings 

Roofing said StructuraJ Slates 



165 



Properties, Principal Feahu-es smd Suggestions on Standards and Tests 

Discussed in Paper Presented at 26th Annual Meeting of 

American Society for Testing Materials 

By OLIVER BOWLES, 

Mineral Technologist, U. S. Bureau of Mines 



PROPERTIES ON WHICH USE 

DEPENDS 

Roofing Slate 

Splitting Properties. — True and 
easy splitting is one of the important 
properties of a roofing slate. It is 
generally recognized that slate splits 
more freely when it is first quarried 
before the "quarry water" or "sap" 
has evaporated. For this reason, 
water is thrown over a block, or it is 
protected from evaporation by some 
other means, imtil splitting is com- 
pleted. It is claimed, and has been 
successfully demonstrated, that sea- 
soned slate may be readily split with 
a slate splitting machine invented by 
Vincent F. Lake. It would appear, 
therefore, that when mechanical split- 
ters are employed, the cleavage of 
slate may be regarded as a more per- 
manent and more stable property ^an 
it is now generally considered. The 
actual physical effect of seasoning on 
the cleavability is a field of study that 
has not yet been adequately covered. 

Cur\-ature of cleavage planes is not 
uncommon in slate deposits and is an 
undesirable feature. Slight curvature 
may not condemn slate for manufac- 
ture into small squares, but prevents 
its utilization for blackboards and 
similar products of large surface area. 
Advantage has been taken of curved 
cleavage for roofing round towers, but 
this use is exceptional. 

Resistance to Weathering. — Slate 
consists essential of insoluble and sta- 
ble minerals that will withstand 
weathering for hundreds of years. 
However, small percentages of less re- 
sistant minerals may be present. Cal- 
cium, magnesium or iron carbonates 
are slowly soluble in water containing 
carbon dioxide, and their presence 
may hasten deterioration. As a rule, 
a determination of the carbonate pres- 
ent would indicate fairly well the 
probable resistance of a slate to 
weathering when exposed on a roof. 
Some slate in Pennsylvania contains 
ribbons which consist of narrow orig- 
inal beds usually containing carbon, 
and darker in color than the main 
body. There is a tendency for some 



ribbons to contain an excessive 
amount of the less resistant minerals 
and they should not appear on ex- 
posed svufaces. 

Color Stability. — Slate colors may 
be fast or changing. The fast colors 
are due in the main to the presence 
of iron oxide and other stable oxides. 
As indicated in the preceding para- 
graph a change in thevcolor may be 
due to the oxidation of disseminated 
carbonates. The terms "fading" and 
"unfading" are unfortunate, as fading 
always conveys the implication of in- 
feriority. In some instances the 
change in color is ^uite undesirable, 
in others very pleasing tones of color 
result. The terms "fast" and "chang- 
ing" are more appropriate. 

Spots and blotches are of common 
occurrence in the slates of Vermont 
and New York. Careful chemical and 
microscopic studies as recorded by 
Dale indicate that variations in color 
are due to differences in the propor- 
tion of carbonates, pyrite and hema- 
tite present. It is probable that de- 
caying organisms embedded in the 
orginal shale have reduced the Feid 
to FeO, and the latter has been re- 
moved in solution. Usually in the 
centers of the spots there is an ex- 
cess of carbonate which may have or- 
iginated from the shells of the organ- 
isms. In general the spots are per- 
manent features that are practically 
as stable and unchangring as the col- 
ors in the main body of the slate. 

The oxidation of iron carbonate or 
of the mixed carbonates of iron, Ume 
or magnesia may cause rusty stains. 
If the carbonates are evenly distrib- 
uted they may on weathering change 
the general color of the entire surface. 
Stains are also caused by the oxida- 
tion of iron pyrite. However, the 
presence of pjTite is not a sure indi- 
cation that the slate will stain upon 
exposure, for some forms of pyrite 
will remain unaltered for many years. 
The whole question of the oxidation 
of pyrite in building stones has been 
fully discussed by the author in an- 
other publication. 

Strength. — As slate consists of 



166 



Buildings 



Jifly, 



overlapping scales firmly cemented 
under intense pressure, it is remark- 
ably strong. If slates are not split 
excessively thin they possess sufficient 
strength for any roofing demands. 

STRUCTURAL SLATE 
Porosity. — Slate is w^idely used for 
sanitary purposes, and for such uses 
a low porosity is requisite. An aver- 
age of results obtained by the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards from many 
slates indicates a porosity as low as 
0.38 per cent. Thus, average slate 
is well adapted in this respect for 
sanitary uses, and rejection of slate 
on the basis of high porosity would 
imply the attempted use of a very in- 
ferior grade, such as slate from a 
weathered ledge. 

Strength. — ^For certain uses such as 
steps, lintels, window sills or window 
and doorcaps, a high transverse 
strength is required. The peculiar 
sheet-like structure of slate gives it 
remarkable strength, a strength far in 
excess of that possessed by nearly all 
other building stones. Sandstones are 
very variable because some are firmly 
cemented while others tend to be loose 
and friable. Expressed as the modu- 
lus of rupture, the transverse strength 
of sandstones varies from 350 lbs. per 
sq. in. for the friable types 6,500 lbs. 
per sq. in. for dense quartzites, 1,000 
to 1,500 being a fair average. A 
series of marbles shows an average 
of 2,410 lbs. per sq. in. across the bed. 
An average of 72 limestones recently 
tested by the U. S. Bureau of Stand- 
ards indicates a modulus of rupture 
perpendicular to the bed of 1,253 lbs. 
per sq. in. The modulus of rupture 
of a series of roofing slates recently 
tested in 8,216^ lbs. per sq. in., about 
five or six times the strength of 
average sandstone or limestone and 
three or four times that of average 
marble. Thus, slate more than satis- 
fies all reasonable requirements for 
building purposes. 

There has been some hesitancy on 
the part of architects to use ribboned 
slate for structural purposes, because 
the clearly defined borders of the rib- 
bon suggest planes of weakness. The- 
oretically, there should be no weak- 
ness along the line of the ribbon, for 
it represents an original bed, and the 
complete recrystallization of the mass 
has developed structures that are en- 
tirely independent of the bedding. To 
obtain definite information on the 
question, slabs of ribboned slate were 
recently tested for transverse strength 
at the Bureau of Standards, and it 



was found that when breakage oc- 
curred the fractures were never coin- 
cident with the ribbons but crossed 
them at various angles. This proves 
conclusively that the ribbons do not 
constitute planes of weakness. 

Abrasion. — For floor tile or steps, 
resistance to abrasion is an important 
requisite. In so far as this Bureau is 
informed, a limited amount of work 
has been done in determining the ac- 
tual resistance of slate to abrasion. 
Where ribboned slate is used in side- 
walks, some of the ribbons, through 
solubility are worn way as grooves, 
while others containing an excessive 
amount of silica stand up as ridges. 
Such non-uniformity in ribboned slate 
is an objection to its use, where sub- 
jected either to weather conditions or 
to excessive wear. 

SUGGESTIONS ON STANDARDS 

AND TESTS 

Roofing Slate Standards 

Standard Thickness. — In free-split- 
ting slate there is a tendency to make 
slates thin in order to obtain a maxi- 
mum production from each ton of 
rock. In consequence, the breakage 
loss in transit may be high and break- 
age on the roof may be frequent. 
This is an unsatisfactory condition 
for the user, as broken slates are not 
easily or satisfactory replaced, and 
new slates may not match in color 
with the old roof. This reacts on the 
producer, for broken slates may preju- 
dice the user against slate in general. 
It is generally regarded that 3/16 in. 
should be the minimum thickness al- 
lowed, and if this were established as 
a standard it is highly probable that 
greater satisfaction would exist 
among consumers, and that the repu- 
tation of slate would thereby be en- 
hanced. The thickness should, of 
course, be a factor of the transverse 
strength, but until full information is 
available on the average strength of 
slates in various regions it would 
seem advisable to establish a fixed 
minimum that would cover all slates 
of reasonable quality. 

In fixing minimum thickness, it is 
not presumed that every slate snail be m 
exactly 3/16 in. thick. Slates are split ^ 
from natural blocks and are not milled 
to exact thickness. Slight irregulari- 
ties may cause the split to run one 
way or another causing small varia- 
tions which any specifications should 
permit. The splitter's chisel with 
which he measures and determines the 
thickness should, however, be stand- 
ardized for 3/16-in. slates. 



192S 



Buildings 



167 



Standards for Size. — Roofing slates 
are now made in about 29 standard 
sizes. It might appear at first sight 
that the number of sizes is too great 
and that a reduction in the number 
would be an advantage to both pro- 
ducer and consumer. There is a wide- 
spread movement to reduce production 
costs by simplif jing manufacture, but 
in the slate industry conditions are 
entirely different from those that exist 
in industries where products are 
molded or built up into finished form. 
Roofing slates are trimmed to size, 
and the size is largely governed by 
the qualities or imperfections of the 
natural slabs. It may be foimd that 
a slate if perfect would trim to 10 by 
20-in. size, but on account of some 
imperfection it may be necessary to 
trim it to a smaller size. It is note- 
worthy that if there is a small range 
of standard sizes, the gaps between 
them will be relatively large and the 
waste in trimming down from one size 
to another will be correspondingly 
great. A wide range of sizes is, 
therefore, of definite advantage to the 
slate manufacturer for it permits him 
to utilize his raw material to best ad- 
vantage with a minimum of waste. 

A variety of sizes is also an advan- 
tage to the roofer. Windy cities re- 
quire small sizes, also large and mas- 
sive structures demand larger sizes 
than are best adapted for small dwell- 
ings. Even for the same style of 
structure quite different sizes are de- 
manded in different cities. Thus in 
Cincinnati, O., and Galveston, Tex., 
the principal demand is for 10 by 12- 
in. slates; in Chicago, 10 by 16-in.; in 
Columbus, 0., 12 by 24-in. A large 
variety of sizes permits the manu- 
facturer to cater to the demands of all 
localities. 

It is evident, therefore, that nothing 
is to be gained by inaugurating any 
movement toward reducing the num- 
ber of standard sizes of roofing plates. 

Standards for Color Stability. — It is 
unfortunate that some of the trade 
names applied to slates mask the per- 
manence of their colors. Slate deal- 
ers understand the peculiarities of 
each type, but slate users who are 
not so well informed are entitled to 
a set of terms that are descriptive in 
character and that represent actual 
qualities. Thus, terms should be em- 
ployed that clearly distinguish be- 
tween fast and changing colors. 

Standards of Endurance. — The En- 
durance of slate may be measured ap- 
proximately by the percentage of car- 



bonates present, but other factors 
such as porosity may influence it. 
Where the ribbon is less enduring than 
the clear slate, standards shouJd be 
established on this basis. Slate from 
the zone of weathering near the sur- 
face of a deposit should not be used. 
While slate has been known to en- 
dure exposure on a roof for several 
hundred years, it is imreasonable to 
expect that material which has been 
more or less exposed to the ravages 
of weathering agencies in its natural 
bed for several thousand years, may 
give as satisfactory service on a roof 
as that obtained from the deep-seated 
deposits. Architects have lately de- 
veloped great enthusiasm for varie- 
gated, highly colored, thick, heavy 
slates known as architectural grades. 
The author has obser%-ed such slates 
taken from the zone of weathering 
where the attractive red, yellow and 
orange colors were due to excessive 
oxidation of the iron bearing miner- 
als. Thus endurance was sacrificed 
for an attractive color. No slate of 
this character would stand a chem- 
ical or microscopic test for enduring 
qualities, and thus the need is em- 
phasized of establishing definite tests 
that will protect the user, and inci- 
dentally the producer. 

Standards for Placing Slate on the 
Roof. — A product perfect in quality 
and faultless in manufacture may fail 
through improper application. Many 
instances have occurred where good 
slate has given unsatisfactory service 
through improper laying. A 3-in. 
head lap should be the universal stand- 
ard. While this is generally recog- 
nized, some roofers cut down the lap 
to 2 in. in order to make a square of 
slate cover more than 100 sq. ft. of 
roof. 

There is a wide difference of opin- 
ion as to the best type of nail to use 
with roofing slates. The nail should 
be as permanent as the slate, and 
standards should be fixed for length, 
diameter, and point, both for new 
roofs and for roofing over wooden 
shingles, composition or other mate- 
rials. 

The strength and spacing of sup- 
ports, the nature of the sheathing, 
and the use of paper beneath the 
slates are all matters that have a defi- 
nite bearing on the quality of the com- 
pleted roof. 

Structural Slate Standards 
Absorption. — Slate for sanitary uses 
shpuld be graded according to its 
porosity, and satisfactory service 



168 Buildings July, 

would be promoted by fixing a maxi- Trade Schools for Relieving 

mum ratio of absorption. Shortage of Building 

Strength.— There is a dearth of in- Mechanics 

formation on the crushing strength of In a statement issued June 16 James 
slate, and except for recent tests made Baird, president of George A. Fuller 
at the Bureau of Standards there is a Co., contractors, and chairman of the 
similar lack of data on transverse emergency committee of the Mason 
strength. As already stated the lat- Builders' Association, declared that 
ter figure is exceptionally high. Wider the problems attendant on the short- 
publicity of this feature would bene- f^e of mechamcs m the building 

%. .,„ „!„+ J ,„„^ A „4- +!,« ^ow,.^ trades in New York would be solved if 

fit the slate producer, and at the same ^j^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ $100,000,000 building 

time encourage the builder to use slate projects now delayed by scarcity of 

with advantage as a substitute for skilled labor would invest $500,000 to 

weaker materials. It is not uncom- establish schools for training mechan- 

mon to see fractured stones in large ics. In an analysis of the present sit- 

structures. Where the strain is ex- uation, coupled with a survey of the 

cessive it is desirable to establisn a number of bricklayers now at work, 

high standard which only the strong- made by the Mason Builders' Associa- 

est natural products such as slate can tion, Mr. Baird said that the extent of 

successfully meet. ^^^ building that can be done at any 

time in New York is limited by the 

Abrasion. — More definite knowledge amount of work that can or will be 
of the resistance of slate to abrasion done by 3,500 or 4,000 resident brick- 
is desirable. Some slate stairways layers. Mr. Baird's statement follows : 
long in use are greatly worn, others The Emergency Committee of the 
resist wear remarkably well. The Mason Builders' Association has just 
first step in establishing abrasion completed a careful survey covering 
standards would involve a long series feJ'fo^i^thn.arnnmhe^'h^^^^ 
of abrasion tests upon slate from vari- rj^^y ^j^ig ^^^rvey has developed the 
ous localities on the basis of the f^ct that the total number of brick- 
French coefficient of wear. The quali- layers working in Greater New York 
ties should as far as possible be ex- on June 1 was 4,642. 
pressed in terms that represent actual Further inquiries indicated that ap- 
wearing conditions in comparison with proximately 500 men were not work- 
other standard materials used in steps ing, due either to illness or lack of in- 
and floors. clination. This demonstrates that the 

number of available bricklayers at 

Structural Designing. — The best present in Greater New York is ap- 
work that has yet been accomplished proximately 5,000. Of this number, 
in slate standards has appeared in a the reports indicate that from 1,000 to 
series of bulletins by D. Knicker- 2,000 are transients. In other words, 
bocker Boyd of the Structural Service ^^^ building that can be done in New 
Bureau of Philadelphia, working in York is limited by the amount of woi-k 
co-operation with the Structural Slate ^^^} f^^ofe'n^'^^.^nnn °"^ ^^ ^.P^- u" 
Co. of Pen Argyl, Penn. These pam- {^f/r/ thoSeh^L times'likeX P^^^^ 
phlets give detailed specifications ^^^^ ^'^^^ bonus payments are added 
with plans and elevations of wain- to the basic wage, an increment known 
scots, stairways, toilet enclosures, as "floaters," to the extent of 1,000 to 
laundry tubs, sinks, etc. The object 2,000 (depending upon the amounts of 
has been to so standardize sizes and the bonus paid) comes to the city, 
designs that ordering may be facili- The Need for More Bricklayers. — 
tated, that manufacturing may be The entire country has a shortage of 
simplified, and that standard mate- trained men in the building trades, 
rials may be kept in stock. The lat- The records of the Department of La- 
ter feature is an advantage to both ^^^ ^o^ a 10-year period are: 

producer and consumer, for it saves Classes of Mechanics— 1910 1920 

time in fiUino- nrdf^rtj nnH PnnhlPQ tViP ^"•''^ *"** ^t°"^ masons 161.000 131.000 

Linie in niiing oraers, ana enaoies tne Plasterers 47.000 38.ooo 

producer to operate and accumulate Roofers and slaters i4,ooo ii.ooo 

stock during slack periods. It has also stonecutters 35.000 22.000 

the advantage of giving steady em- Pa'"ters, glaziers. varni8he 3..278.ooo 248.ooo 

ployment to mill and quarry workers. Total _ 530.000 45o.o<>o 



Buildings 



169 



The table shows a decline of 80,000 
skilled workmen when there should 
have been an increase of at least 
100,000 to keep pace with the growth 
of population. One of the chief rea- 
sons for this shortage of mechanics 
lies in the policy of labor unions of en- 
forcing onerous rules and conditions 
which have had the effect of restrict- 
ing the number of apprentices. 

The result has been that the re- 
quirements for building construction 
in Greater New York (as well as prac- 
tically throughout the country) are 
not regulated by the needs of the in- 
dustry and of the public, but by a 
small group of workers, the number 
governing the situation in New York 
being certainly not more than 4,000, 
since the bricklayer is the key to the 
building situation, and the shortage in 
this trade controls the program. 

This group has followed the prin- 
ciple that it will not materially add to 
its number and will fill just as much 
of the building requirements as the or- 
ganization is pleased to do and at 
rates and under conditions that it is in 
position largely to regulate. 

This is a condition that can and 
must be corrected. And how? Sim- 
ilar situations are now being met in 
many cities throughout the United 
States, particularly in the West, 
where schools for training building 
mechanics are in operation, notable 
examples being Cleveland, Chicago, 
Los Angeles and San Antonio. In 
San Francisco there are seven such 
schools. While there are a few very 
small, inadequate schools scattered 
through the East, there is none of 
anytlmig like sufficient capacity. 

The method of expediting work in 
New York has been for a builder who 
requires men to go across the street to 
a competitor's job and offer a higher 
wage. One of the leaders in- labor 
comments on this by asking, "What 
could be expected of a workman when 
a contractor meets him coming off 
work and invites him to come across 
the street to his job for twice as much 
money and half as much work?" 

This gets no more building done, but 
it adds to the cost to the public, and 
some other remedy must be found. 

The Training School Plan. — Besides 
the 2,000 to 4,000 additional bricklay- 
ers needed in New York there are pro- 
portional added requirements in other 
trades. Training schools are needed. 
I may suggest a way in which the 
necessary schools could be supplied. 



A committee of public-spirited citizens 
could raise the necessary funds (the 
amount needed certainly not exceeding 
$500,000) to secure quarters and in- 
structors competent to train the neces- 
sary number of young men much more 
easily and expeditiously than it was 
during the war to train a much small- 
er number of young men as soldiers. 
Young men can become fairly good 
working machanics, in most of thein- 
dustries, within a six months' period, 
after which they can be further in- 
structed in the finer details for a 
period of perhaps two years, and dur- 
ing this time they can also be working 
producers at good pay. 

The fact is so obvious that there is 
a shortage of trained mechanics in 
New York that in all probability the 
unions would not contend against tak- 
ing trained men into their organiza- 
tion as fast as they are developed. If 
the imions should refuse, then, of 
course, the young men that are 
trained would of necessity have to un- 
dertake work on their own account, 
following which the unions would 
without doubt take them into their or- 
ganizations immediately. 

As there is at present work in New 
York to the extent of, say, $100,000,- 
000 help up waiting an adequate sup- 
ply of mechanics, it can readily be 
seen that an investment of $500,000 
to establish training schools would be 
money well invested. I would urgent- 
ly suggest that the situation be con- 
sidered by a committee appointed by 
the business interests of New York 
now affected by the shortage of men. 

As to stability of employment at 
good wages, it is obvious that if an 
adequate supply of mechanics were 
continuously available in the City of 
New York, wages would remain 
stable, for there would be no unneces- 
sary bidding among the contractors 
on a "snowballing" basis. Nor would 
there be the dissatisfaction and inclin- 
ation to strike among the workers. 

So far is the country behind in its 
building, so rapidly is the country de- 
veloping and its population increas- 
ing, and so great is the volume of new 
building needed to replace worn out or 
obsolete buildings, that employment 
would remain continuous indefinitely. 
The shortage problem can be solved in 
the very simple way suggested; but 
unless it is solved, the menace not only 
in the building industry but to all in- 
dustries will become perpetual. 



170 Buildings J«ly> 

How the Quantity Survey Works in Milwaukee 

Results From a Practical Survey Bureau Conducted By General Con- 
tractors Described in The Constructor 

By S. H. EIGEL, 

Manager, Bureau of Quantity Survey, General Contractors Association, Milwaukee 



This article has been written in re- 
sponse to numerous requests from 
contractors throughout the United 
States, who are members of the Asso- 
ciated General Contractors, and who 
are contemplating organizing a Sur- 
vey Bureau within their local associa- 
tions. 

It presents a practical survey bu- 
reau operated and maintained by gen- 
eral contractors in Milwaukee County, 
Wisconsin, which is successful and 
which has been in operation for the 
past 12 years and is still going strong. 

It is not the purpose in relating the 
facts as to the method of operation to 
have the readers presume that a bu- 
reau operated by contractors is ideal, 
but it is desired to convey the thought 
that the Milwaukee Bureau is prac- 
tical, successful, and in a healthy 
financial condition. The fact which un- 
doubtedly is most prominent and most 
worthy of consideration, is that we are 
helping to overcome prejudices which 
may exist and promoting the idea 
which is the forerunner in establishing 
the thought of quantity survey bu- 
reaus in the minds of all engaged in 
the building business, and eventually 
and finally placing all of the practical 
material in a position to be of use for 
further development. 

Quantity Survey Bureau. — Quantity 
surveys may truly be called one of the 
A-B-C's of the construction business. 
It is evident that contractors through- 
out the United States, particularly 
those affiliated with the A. G. C, are 
beginning to see the necessity of 
learning their A-B-C's well in this re- 
spect. Milwaukee contractors some 
12 years ago organized the General 
Contractors' Association and in con- 
nection with it established and have 
operated a survey bureau. The proof 
of its success is measured by its ex- 
istence today. A brief outline as to 
our method of operation will no doubt 
be of benefit to contractors who are 
contemplating a similar movement. 



The scope of our work has been con- 
fined to the following items: 

1. Excavation. 

2. Concrete (plain and reinforced). 

3. Reinforcing steel. 

4. Mason work. 

5. Accessories in conjunction with 
concrete and mason work such as set- 
ting of miscellaneous steel and iron, 
cut stone, terra cotta, etc. 

General contractors only who have 
been in business for at least two years, 
are admitted to membership. 

Service Charges. — An estimating 
fee has been established on all work 
in excess of $5,000. Thfese charges 
have been arranged according to a 
schedule and classified in percentages 
which are as follows: 

Size of Project.— $5,000 to $100,000, 
0.5 per cent to 0.3 per cent. 

$100,000 to $300,000, .3 per cent to 
0.2 per cent. 

$300,000 to $1,000,000, slightly less 
than 0.2 per cent to 0.1 per cent. 

$1,000,000 to $3,000,000, about 0.1 
per cent. 

A schedule of fixed charges has been 
adopted. The above percentages are 
a close approximation of them. 

The above charges consider only the 
amounts for excavation, concrete and 
mason work, and are payable 30 days 
after signing of contract by the suc- 
cessful bidder. 

Rules Followed. — It necessarily fol- 
lows that as a forerunner to main- 
taining a practical survey bureau in a 
contractors' association, certain rules 
must be definitely established which 
regulate the manner of taking off 
quantities. 

A fixed set of take-off rules is a first 
consideration for all those contem- 
plating a survey bureau to be oper- 
ated by a local association, in which 
all contractors in the association par- 
ticipate, and a committee or any per- 
son capable of drawing up a set, 
should be appointed to do so. After 
the rules have been temporarily estab- 



1923 



Buildings 



171 



lished final action should be taken in 
an open meeting in order that uiu- 
formity of take-off shall be estab- 
lished. Take-off sheets should be 
standardized, as well as the completed 
survey. 

The names or the number of bid- 
ders on any project must not be dis- 
closed from any source within the 
bureau. 

Accuracy Through Checking Back. 
— Our experience has clearly demon- 
strated that, though the greatest care 
is exercised in endeavoring to furnish 
quantities free from error, at inter- 
vals mistakes will occur and perfect 
quantities may be obtained only 
through a system of checking back. 

The membership of our association 
ranges between 15 and 20, and survey 
operations are principally in Milwau- 
kee County. On practically any job 
of consequence, there are at least four, 
five or six bidders who are members 
of the survey bureau figuring the 
project. 

Should a difference occur, or should 
one of the members figuring feel that 
error exists, he will call the bureau, 
notifying it of the difference. The 
bureau will then check back, and, if 
error exists, all contractors who have 
obtained the quantities will be noti- 
fied, whether they have been parties 
to the discovery of the error or not. 
A system of this kind practically as- 
sures correct quantities. 

Many errors, misinterpretations, 
omissions of material, etc., have been 
detected through the medium of the 
survey bureau, and we sincerely be- 
lieve that the bureau is partly an in- 
spiration for the furnishing for more 
complete plans and specifications, 
which in itself is an important factor. 

Only general contractors who have 
been invited to bid by the architect or 
owner are entitled to receive quanti- 
ties. 

We do not operate for profit, that 
is to say, all members in good stand- 
ing are entitled to a refund in propor- 
tion to the amounts which they have 
paid in, after all expenses for main- 
taining and operating the bureau have 
been deducted. These moneys are not 
distributed every year, but disbursed 
at the discretion of the board of di- 
rectors, usually after the accumulation 
of a surplus fund. 

At the close of 1922, we returned a 
portion of the accumulated moneys to 
the members. 



Cost of Bureau Operation. — From 
January 1, 1922, to January 1, 1923, 
the total number of surveys furnished 
to members by the Bureau for the 
items of execavation, concrete and 
mason work were as follows: 

Warehouses, factories and garages-— — 31 



Apartments 
Stores and offices- 
Schools 

Churches 



Hospitals, lodges and clubs — 

Residences 

Bank and theatre- 



Grading, bridge and foundation- 
Total 



13 
. 22 
. 17 
. 5 
. 9 
. 4 
. 2 
. 3 

.106 



Forty-one of these projects were ob- 
tained by bureau members, 44 obtained 
by contractors outside of the associa- 
tion and 21 jobs were postponed. 

The total volume of excavation, con- 
crete and mason work obtained by 
Bureau members, in dollars and cents, 
amounted to between $2,500,000 and 
$3,000,000. 

The operating cost to execute the 
volume of work mentioned amounted 
to about $10,000 — of this amount 
$7,000 to $7,500 applied to salaries 
and the balance was for general over- 
head, light, phone, rent, etc. The sal- 
aries mentioned are for two estimators 
and one stenographer. 

A calculating machine and mimeo- 
graph outfit for making take-off 
forms, completed survey sheets, etc., 
should be part of the office equipment. 

Opposition Overcome. — When our 
bureau was first organized, it met with 
opposition from many of the architects 
and engineers, but that day is past, 
and I daresay there is hardly an archi- 
tect or engineer doing business in Mil- 
waukee County who will not co-oper- 
ate with our survey bureau and who 
is not willing and ready at all times 
to give due consideration to it in the 
matter of plans and specifications and 
postpone the closing of bids, if neces- 
sary, if the Bureau has not had the 
plans. 

Architects and engineers are begin- 
ning to realize that survey bureaus 
are looming up as a necessary access- 
ory to the building business. Owners 
of building projects are beginning to 
take cognizance of it. In other words, 
we are helping every day to break the 
ice in the proper direction. 

To associations contemplating sur- 
vey bureaus, it will undoubtedly be 
easier to gain recognition from archi- 
tects and engineers on account of the 
pioneering which has been done, and 



172 



Buildings 



July, 



by reference to communities, where 
the custom is established. 

Agitation and propaganda are 
needed and where enough has been 
obtained, no doubt the work will be 
earnestly considered in the proper 
channel. The only way sufficient prop- 
aganda and agitation may be obtained 
is by starting something. 

We are not of the opinion that 
quantity surveys make new contract- 
ors, but are firmly of the opinion that 
they make better contractors of those 
already engaged in the field because 
of the fact that the detailed items are 
more fully covered. 

A quantity survey in itself is but 
one phase of the contracting business, 
and any man who contemplates going 
into the business because of the fact 
that he can obtain a survey is merely 
parting with his money. If it is his 
intention to venture into the business, 
he will do so regardless of that fact, 
and if he does, the contractors already 
in the field will undoubtedly have bet- 
ter competition because of the quan- 
tity survey. 

Safe Profits. — Considerable of the 
guess, gamble, litigation, misinterpre- 
tation of plans, specifications, mate- 
rial, etc., will be eliminated when we 
have reached the goal for which we 
are striving. A more sincere feeling 
of co-operation, a pleasanter and more 
congenial atmosphere, will prevail 
when we know that quantity surveys 
will accompany the plans and speci- 
fications, and with it eventually will 
come the guarantee which many are 
looking for. 

On a certain building project in Mil- 
waukee, the City Engineer's office fur- 
nished a set of guaranteed quantities 
with the plans and specifications, and 
un several other building projects 
quantities have been furnished as be- 
ing reliable but were not guaranteed, 
but served as a good basis for check- 
ing and feeling safe. 

If one really and truly wants a cer- 
tain anything in this world and feels 
that he earnestly needs it, should it 
be the custom to call in a third party 
to give a price on it without the third 
party having a definite detailed knowl- 
edge of the requirements. This may 
seem a crude way of putting it, yet 
that is a condition met with in many 
plans and specifications. The fact 
that one has a reputation of bein^ a 
good speculator and sport, and having 
taken losses before, does not consti- 
tute a reason for continuing in this 
path. 



Apprentices and Craftsman- 
ship in the Building Trades 

Remarks Made At the 56th Annual 
Convention of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

By D. KNICKERBACKER BOYD. 

At the many meetings which we 
have had of the Philadelphia Building 
Congress we have almost always come 
down to the one subject, that of the 
lack of apprentices, and the need of 
apprenticeship training in the build- 
ing crafts. These conditions seem 
more accentuated today than ever be- 
fore, because of the recent great in- 
crease in the amount of building con- 
struction. Notwithstanding this, the 
facts are that during the last 10 years 
the number of workers in the build- 
ing trades has constantly decreased, 
while, with the exception of the period 
following the war, building itself has 
greatly increased, so that you see the 
situation we are confronted with today 
is quite a natural one. But it should 
have been recognized long ago. 

Now, when we consider the problem 
of the apprentice in the building 
trades — or crafts, as I prefer to call 
them— and debate whether the fault 
lies with those who, it is often claimed, 
are endeavoring to restrict the num- 
ber of apprentices or with the employ- 
ers who it is also claimed are not will- 
ing to assume the responsibility of 
training young men, we have before 
us quite a large subject. And what 
we need, as architects, I firmly be- 
lieve, is to devote more attention to 
craftsmen and not give all our 
thoughts to draftsmen, although we 
do need still to do much for the 

The "White Collar" Day.— The dif- 
ficulty seems to be, notwithstanding 
the two claims made, that the boys 
do not exist in sufficient numbers who 
want to learn the crafts and trades. 
The young men of today do not seem 
to want to enter what they consider 
the "laboring" field. So why go into 
protracted academic discussions as to 
who is responsible for the lack of 
numbers? We need to discover the 
cause of the lack of interest on the 
part of the boys. 

We must inculcate the idea in the 
young men of America that the crafts 
do offer a future for them, and we 
must stimulate in their minds a desire 
to achieve something dignified and 



1923 



Buildings 



173 



definite with their hands. The crav- 
ing of every human being to create 
and accomplish can be satisfied 
through craftsmanship properly ap- 
preciated. 

The present difficulty does not rest 
so much with the boys, it seems to me, 
as it does with many of their parents, 
and with most of the educational sys- 
tems of the country. Traced back 
into the homes of the children, I really 
believe that the fault lies more with 
the mothers, sisters and sweethearts 
of the young men and boys, than it 
iloes with almost anyone else. These 
dear ladies, most of them, do not want 
to see their boys, brothers or "boy 
friends" dressed in overalls or the 
clothes of workingmen, and littered 
with mortar, plaster, sawdust, metal 
filings or paint. They do not seem to 
like that and they therefore use their 
persuasion on their relatives and 
friends to keep them from training 
for or engaging in this sort of work. 

We, therefore, feel as we see it in 
Philadelphia and as I have observed 
it throughout our movement else- 
where, that we can, as a group, ac- 
complish definite results, and as in- 
dividual architects, achieve something 
by directing our energies with equal 
force to the present journeymen prob- 
lem, as well as to the apprentice. 

"I Don't Want My Son to Follow 
My Trade."— After all, the greatest 
discourager of the boy who might 
want to become an apprentice in the 
building trade can be, and most fre- 
quently has been in recent years, the 
father who is now working in the 
trades. Fathers, uncles or relatives 
who are employed in the so-called 
building trades at this time will gen- 
erally not urge or encourage their 
sons, nephews or other young men to 
enter the same calling. 

The journeyman of the present gen- 
eration now working on the buildings 
we design realizes that he has lost 
much time in the Eastern and other 
sections of the country subject to cold 
climates, through seasonal losses of 
occupation. He has, in normal times, 
been subject to intermittency of em- 
ployment and he has been working at 
what is almost always rated a haz- 
ardous occupation. He is frequently 
working out doors, subject to attend- 
ant disadvantages as well as advan- 
tages. His task is often a very heavy 
one and involves a difficult piece of 
work, and in spite of the skill required 
and art he many times displays, he 
tells his boy not to learn that trade. 



These men can be the greatest enemies 
of the building crafts today. I think 
the fault lies partly with the construc- 
tion groups, the public and with us 
as individual architects. 

Locally and nationally, studies of all 
the difficulties involved can be made 
and conditions alleviated through co- 
operation of all, including the public, 
by a sensible distribution of its new 
construction and maintenance require- 
ments. 

The Architect's Part. — ^As for our 
part as individuals, if we architects 
recognize the fact that we are, as 
our very name implies, master crafts- 
men, it seems to me that we ought 
to be able each to accomplish our part 
in improving the status of other 
craftsmen by encouraging and giving 
recognition to the "workers on the 
job." It is these men who, as a mat- 
ter of actual fact, assume their part 
with us in securing the results which 
we are striving for when we design 
our buildings and write our sometimes 
hazy specifications. 

Many of us, if we look back through 
the years of our superintending, will 
perhaps realize all too suddenly that 
we have usually passed the worker by 
— that he has not been given sufficient 
recognition for services well per- 
formed. We all have to condemn 
work sometimes — but how much oft- 
ener, when it should be commended, 
do we do so ? That, it seems to me, 
is one of the faults to which we can 
address ourselves, and we can very 
readily correct it if we will give heed 
to the human side of our own indus- 
trial relations. If our contact with 
the workers on our buildings is such 
that they know that real interest and 
good work will cause favorable com- 
ment, we will encourage them and 
help them to believe that which they 
may often be justified in doubting, 
namely, that what each is doing is, 
if well done, an accomplishment 
worthy, often, to be called an art. 

How the Worker Can Be Given 
Recognition. — The consciousness on 
the part of each that what he does 
is something vitally important to the 
success of the whole design and fabri- 
cation will cause each to feel that he 
must qualify as a craftsman, and not 
be content to consider himself merely 
one of a "gang" working on a "job." 

I would like to give you one typical 
illustration of an actual experience in 
this direction: 

Just before I left Philadelphia I at- 
tended the opening of an exposition 



174 



Buildings 



July, 



there called the Palace of Progress. 
For this exposition there has been 
built under my direction one of the 
numerous buildings called the "model 
home." The management consented to 
issue a book descriptive of the mate- 
rials used, with which we should all 
be more familiar than we are. It 
was also decided to list the name of 
every man who worked efficiently 
night or day to make that building a 
success. 

In keeping the records to give this 
recognition to the craftsmen and 
workers, I asked some of the brick- 
layers what the names of the men 
were who worked with them in their 
particular craft. I said to them, "How 
about the mortar mixers and the hod 
carriers?" One of the bricklayers 
said, "My God! you don't want their 
names, do you?" (Laughter). I said, 
"Why certainly! You men must ad- 
mit that you can't successfully per- 
form your work, nor can the architect 
get the best results for the owner if 
you don't get good mortar and if you 
haven't got good, strong shoulders to 
carry the mortar and bricks to you 
and place them efficiently for you. I 
consider those men very important to 
the rest of us." 

The bricklayer said, "We only know 
them by their numbers, as 1, 2 and 3. 
That man over there is No. 2," (indi- 
cating). I had to go to the man and 
get his name personally, which I was 
glad to do, though it caused much 
astonishment on his part as to my 
purpose. 

As a result of that talk and others, 
and of the fact that these men were 
going to be given recognition in the 
book, many of them who had been 
working day and night during two 
weeks said, "We will not accept any 
excess pay for the overtime or the 
night work, because our efforts to 
please the public are being recog- 
nized." (Applause). 

The Advantages of Fair Recogni- 
tion of Workers. — I have often talked 
to workers collectively and individual- 
ly and asked them if, they should be 
requested to express one wish that 
they would like to have gratified more 
than any other, what that wish would 
be. They have all said, strange as 
that may sound to some, that what 
they wanted most was some fair rec- 
ognition for their work — or as they 
have put it — a few words of appre- 
ciation for work well done when they 
try to do their best. 

In that direction we, as architects. 



can take advantage of many of the , 
opportunities that our calling pre- 
sents. We can surely appreciate the 
human factor and stop and talk with 
the men. They can work with us and 
not for us, and we can both learn and 
teach if we say, "Well done, old man," 
or Tom or Dick or Harry, or whoever 
he may be, if his methods and results 
appeal to us. 

We may not always be in a position 
to say that they are doing their job 
well, for they may know it a great 
deal better than we do, but we cer- 
tainly can let them know at least that 
they are giving us the results that 
we have tried to provide for in our 
designs and that they are correctly 
interpreting what are sometimes, per- 
haps, vague specifications which 
could be much improved as Mr. Jones 
so well told us yesterday. 

It seems to me, therefore, that the 
problem can be rightly solved and in 
part almost immediately solved if we 
can begin at once to improve our spec- 
ifications, our methods and ourselves 
and by real human contact restore in- j 
terest and pride of craft. I 

If we make the workers feel that * 
we recognize their part as real factors 
in the success of any enterprise, that . 
their efforts and the results of their ■ 
work form a large part of the success % 
of our work, and the satisfaction of 
our client — if we do that, the appren- 
ticeship problem will largely solve 
itself. 

I would like to suggest, however, in 
view of the points raised during this 
convention on the apparent lack of 
apprentices, that some step might be 
agreed upon whereby the Industrial 
Relationship Committee could appoint 
a sub-committee on Apprenticeship. In 
its title I would, however, include Vo- 
cational Guidance, because the fault, 
it seems to me, lies largely with the 
lack of guidance toward manual labor 
in the schools. 

I believe that the Institute could 
do nothing of much greater value than 
to create such a committee if through 
it a new Document might be prepared 
which could well be entitled "The Ro- 
mance of Building," and be made 
available to the schools everywhere. 
In this booklet could be portrayed in- 
telligently and enthusiastically, the 
advantages of being a worker on a 
building and of having an opportunity 
to co-operate with architects and all 
other craftsmen in being of ever in« 
creasing service to the people of this 
country. 



1923 Buildings 175 

New Type of Pre-Cast Concrete Construction 



Results of Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams Given in The Carnegie 

Technical Journal 

By F. M. McCULLOUGH, 

Professor of Civil Engineering, Carnegie Institute of Technology 



The constantly increasing cost of 
forms, due to advances in the price of 
lumber and in wages of carpenters, 
has led many types of pre-cast con- 
crete construction in recent years. 

The pre-cast units usually consist of 
the following types: 

1. Beams, slabs, columns, etc., in 
which is embedded properly designed 
reinforcement. 

2. The ordinary tamped or poured 
concrete block which has no provision 
for reinforcement. 

The Henderson Corporation of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has recently devel- 
oped a unit out of this latter type. In 
October, 1922, three reinforced con- 




Fig. 1— Plan and Eleyation of 12x12x12 in. 
Block. 

Crete beams built of these units, which 
are called universal building blocks, 
were tested in cross-bending for the 
Henderson Corporation in the Ma- 
terials Laboratory of the Carnegie In- 
stitute of Technology by Professor 
F. A. Simmons and the writer. 

General Features of the Blocks. — 
As several new features are included 
in the shape, manufacture and use of 
the blocks, these features will be first 
described in order that the report of 
the tests may be more clearly under- 
stood. 

The units made under the Hender- 
son Construction System consist of 
blocks and specials. The blocks vary 
in size from 12 in. x 12 in. x 12 in. 
long to 4 in. X 4 in. x 12 in. long with 
a few 9-in. and 6-in. lengths. The 
specials include caps, reducers, 
brackets, angles, corners, etc. 

The units are made of portland ce- 
ment, and the ordinary fine and course 
aggregates of portland cement and 



pulverized blast furnace slag may be 
used. The mortar is placed in molds 
and in machine tamped to a pressure 
of about 500 lb. per square inch. After 
the molds are removed, the blocks are 
subjected to a steam-curing process. 

The block has a number of holes 
near its outside surface, the number 
of holes increasing with the size of 
the block. The holes extend between 
the two end faces and are parallel to 
the axis of the block. These holes 
may be used for steel reinforcement if 
it is required, and they are of suflfi- 
cient size so that the reinforcement 
may be surrounded by a rich portland 
cement grout. The oval shape of the 
hole provides for lapping the steel 
bars. In the end faces of the block 
and connecting the holes are recesses 
in which stirrups may be placed and 
grouted. Fig. 1 shows a 12-in. x 12-in. 
X 12-in. block in plan and in elevation. 

Construction of Beam. — In con- 
structing a beam, the required number 
of blocks is lined up on a flat surface, 
the stirrups are placed in the recesses 
at the ends of the blocks, and all sur- 
faces in contact are brushed with a 
grout. The horizontal steel is now 
placed, the T-shaped plates are put in 
a position on the two blocks at the 
ends of the beam, and the nuts on the 
horizontal steel bars tightened against 
the end plates to give an initial ten- 
sion in the bars. Grout is now poured 
around the horizontal steel and the 
stirrups through openings chipped 
through the blocks in the middle of 
their top joints. When the grout has 
set, the beam is hoisted in place, the 
end plates are bolted to plates in con- 
necting members and all exposed 
plates and nuts are grouted. Vertical 
members such as columns, poles, etc., 
are built in a somewhat similar man- 
ner. This construction may be carried 
on at the factory where the blocks are 
made or the blocks may be shipped to 
the site of construction where they 
may be assembled to form the differ- 
ent structural elements. 

Tests of the Beams. — The following 
is taken from a report of the tests of 
the beams which was mentioned in a 
previous paragraph: 



176 



Buildings 



July, 



The beams were built of Universal 
Building Blocks, 12 in. x 12 in. x 12 in., 
and were about 18 ft. long. The span 
varied from 16 ft. 8^^ in. to 16 ft. 10 
in., and the load was applied approxi- 
mately at third points. The amount 
and position of horizontal reinforce- 



ment, the cross-section of the beams, 
the span and position of the loads and 
the development of cracks during the 
test are all shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. 
The number of a crack agrees with the 
number of the load at which the crack 
appeared; thus crack No. 1 appeared 





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UNWCRJSAL BUILDING PLCXKS 



Load N? 



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Assembled Sept &, 1S?2 

Tested Sept Vl.Wll 



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UNIVERSAL BUILDING BLOCKS 




South Sopport 

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Tested Sept Ti. ig^l 



South Support 



North Support 



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North SuF»r»oFtT 
LoAoW Total Load In Lb%. 



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Load N? Total Load In Lbs 



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Tested Oct 13, i9?i 



BCAM Ns? 3 

■Reinforcement, Cross Section of Beams, Span and Position of Loads and 
Development of Cracks. 



iy23 



Buildings 



177 



at a load of 44,090 lb. in Beam No. 1, 
Fig. 2. The blocks were reported as 
having been made during the latter 
part of August, 1922. The weight of 
the 12 in. x 12 in. beams was assumed 
to be 2,700 lb. and that of the 12 in. x 
24 in. beam, 5,400 lb. This corresponds 
to a weight of 150 lb. per cubic foot. 
All computations are based on the or- 
dinary straight-line theory. 

Test of Beam No. 1. — This beam 
was 12 in. wide, 24 in. deep, and had 
single loop, ^2 in. round stirrups 
spaced 12 in. apart at the joints be- 
tween blocks. The beam was as- 
sembled Sept. 8, 1922, and tested Sept. 
22, 1922. The superimposed load at 
failure was 78,490 lb. and the weight 
of beam was 5,400 lb., giving a total 
load at failure of 83,890 lb. The bend- 
ing moment corresponding to this 
total load is 2,794,000 in. lb. 

The bending moment of an ordinary 
reinforced concrete beam ha\ang the 
same cross-section and the same rein- 
forcement, neglecting any effect of 
end plates, is 744,000 in. lb. for a 
working concrete stress of 650 lb. per 
sq. in. It seems reasonable to base 
the factor of safety for this beam on 
the ratio of its actual bending moment 
at the maximum load to this computed 
bending moment at a stress of 650 lb. 
per sq. in. in the concrete. On this 
basis, the factory of safety is equal to 
2,794,000 

or 3.8. 

744,000 

The maximum tensile stress in the 
steel corresponding to a stress of 650 
Jb. per sq. in. in the concrete is 11,820 
lb. per sq. in. This indicates that 
more tension steel was used than 
necessary. 

The failure was due to the crushing 
of a concrete block in the upper half 
of the beam and just outside of the 
third point load. (See No. 7 in sketch 
of West Side of beam. Figs. 2 and 5). 
Numerous diagonal tension (shear) 
cracks developed. (See No. 3, No. 4, 
and No. 7 on East Side and No. 6 on 
West Side). Inclined crack No. 3 
opened very wide during the latter 
part of the test and for a time it ap- 
peared that this crack might cause 
failure. Small cracks appeared at sev- 
eral vertical joints but did not in- 
crease in size to a greater extent than 
in an ordinary reinforced beam. A 
few horizontal cracks opened up be- 
tween the upper and lower layers of 
blocks. (See No. 3, No. 4, and 5 over 
north support on East, and No. 4 and 
No. 5 on West Side). These cracks 



did not affect any considerable area of 
the horizontal joint. 

Test of Beam No. 2. — This beam 
was 12 in. wide, 12 in. deep, and had 
single loop, %-in. round stirrups 12 in. 
apart at the joints between blocks. 
The dates of assembling and testing of 
the beam were Sept. 6, 1922, and 
Sept. 23, 1922, respectively. The sup- 
erimposed load at failure was 20,865 
lb. and the weight of beam was 2,700 
lb. giving a total load at failure of 
23,565 lb. The bending moment cor- 
responding to this total load is 763,500 
in. lb. 

The bending moment for an ordi- 
nary reinforced concrete beam having 
the same cross-section and the same 
reinforcement, neglected any "effect of 
end plates, is 172,900 in. lb. for a 
working stress in the concrete of 650 
lb. per sq. in. The factors of safety 
obtained as explained under Beam No. 
1 is 

763,500 

or 4.4, 

172,900 

The maximum tensile stress in the 
steel corresponding to a stress of 650 
lb. per sq. in. in the concrete is 9,150 
lb. per sq. in., thus indicating a 
greater amount of tension steel than 
necessary. 

The failure was due to the crushing 
of the upper part of two blocks just 
inside of the third point load. (See 
cracks No. 9 in sketches of East Side 
and West Side, Fig. 3). Only one in- 
clined crack was noted. A few small 
cracks at the joints were observed. 

Test of Beam No. 3. — This beam 
was similar in size to Beam No. 2 and 
had the same amount of horizontal 
reinforcement, but had no stirrups. 
The beam was assembled Sept. 5, 
1922, and tested Oct. 13, 1922. The 
superimposed load at failure was 20,- 
340 lb. and the weight of beam was 
2,700 lb., thus giving a total of 23,040 
lb. The bending moment at this total 
load at failure was 754,500 in. lb. and 
the factor of safety, computed as for 
Beam No. 2 was 

754,500 

of 4.4. 

172,900 

The maximum tensile stress in the 
steel for a stress of 650 lb. per sq. in 
in the concrete was 9,150 lb. per sq. 
in., thus indicating more steel than 
necessary, as was the case in Beam 
No. 2. 

The failure was caused by the 
crushing of the upper part of the two 
blocks at the center of the beam. ^See 



178 



Buildings 



July, 



crack No. 11 at the top of the beam, 
Fig. 4). No inclined cracks were ob- 
served. Several small vertical cracks 
appeared at the joints and one vertical 
crack was seen at the middle of each 
of two blocks. (See vertical cracks 
No. 10 and No. 11.) 

Conclusions. — The outstanding fea- 
ture of these tests was that the 
crushing strength of the blocks lim- 
ited the strength of the beams and 
that therefore an increase in the 
crushing strength of the blocks would 
increase the strength of the beams. 
This increased strength of the blocks 
might be obtained by increasing the 
proportion of cement, or by a more 
careful §election of the aggregate or 
by improving the methods of manu- 
facturing the blocks. (The ordinary 
materials and methods of manufactur- 
ing were used in making these blocks). 

It will be noted that the 12-in. x 24- 
in. beam showed a dangerous diagonal 
tension (shear) crack just before the 
concrete block failed by crushing. It 
would seem advisable for beams of 
this cross-section and span, providing 
the compressive strength of the blocks 
is increased, to also increase the 
amount of stirrup steel either by in- 
creasing the size of stirrups or the 
number of stirrups. 

A comparison of the loads at failure 
of the two 12-in. x 12-in. beams indi- 
cated that the stirrups did not appre- 
ciably increase the strength of Beam 
No. 2. This may be explained by the 
fact that no diagonal tension cracks 
appeared in Beam No. 3, and only one 
in Beam No. 2. The ratio of length to 
depth for these beams (No. 2 and No. 
3) was so great that the unit shearing 
stress was not sufficient to cause 
diagonal tension failure. However, if 
the strength of beams of this cross- 
section and span is increased by in- 
creasing the crushing strength of the 
concrete blocks, then stirrup reinforce- 
ment would be necessary. Further- 
more, these stirrups should be spaced 
at a distance apart not greater than 
one-half the depth of the beam. 

The factors of safety obtained by 
dividing the bending moment at 
failure by the bending moment corres- 
ponding to a unit stress in the con- 
crete of 650 lb. per sq. in. average 
about 4. The factor of safety for the 
ordinary type of reinforced concrete 
beam obtained by dividing the bending 
moment at failure by the bending 
moment corresponding to a unit stress 



varies from 4 to 4.5 for 1:2:4 concrete 
in the concrete of 650 lb. per sq. in. 
at an age of 28 days, and therefore it 
may be stated that the beams tested 
compare very favorably with ordinary 
reinforced concrete beams in regard to 
factor of safety. Any increase in the 
quality of the concrete blocks should 
increase the factor of safety. 

It was apparent that no serious 
movement of the upper layer along 
the lower layer of blocks occurred in 
Beam No. 1. While a few cracks ap- 
peared along the horizontal joint, they 
were not in any sense continuous over 
the length of the beam. Doubtless the 
stirrups and the surrounding grout as- 
sisted the brush coat of grout between 
the blocks in preventing a horizontal 
shear failure. 

It will be seen that the maximum 
tensile stress in the steel correspond- 
ing to a unit stress in the concrete of 
650 lb. per sq. in. varies from 9,150 to 
11,820 lb. per sq. in. Thus the beams 
are stronger in tension than in com- 
pression. Since these stresses are con- 
siderably less than the stress of 16,000 
lb. per sq. in., which is ordinarily used 
for steel, it is evident that these 
beams are too heavily reinforced and 
that some economy would result if the 
amount of tensile steel were reduced. 
However, if the strength of the con- 
crete blocks is increased by improved 
methods of manufacture, then it will 
be necessary to use a fairly high per- 
centage of reinforcement in order to 
secure a beam equally strong in ten- 
sion and compression. 

The vertical cracks which opened up 
between the blocks were no larger 
than those appearing during the test 
of an ordinary reinforced concrete 
beam. 



Fire Tests of Roofing Materials 

The U. S. Bureau of Standards has 
prepared a program of tests, equip- 
ment is being procured, and test speci- 
mens constructed for conducting a 
series of fire tests of roofing materials 
with particular reference to the rela- 
tive merits of wood shingles and pre- 
pared roofing. A conference has been 
held with representatives of the wood 
shingle manufacturers, the prepared 
roofing manufacturers, and the fire 
underwriters, at which agreement was 
reached on the methods of testing, and 
on an outline of the program of tests. 



1923 



Buildings 



179 






Models in Architectural Representation 



vantages of Cardboard Modeling Described in The Kansas City 

Engineer 

By GILBERT L. GEERY 



The position of the architect is 
peculiar, for it is the custom of his 
profession to sell first and then to 
produce. The masters in each of the 
allied arts invariably produce or cre- 
ate first, and then sell the product; 
but it is not so in architecture. The 
architect finds that he must sell to 
his client something yet to be erected 
or constructed from the usual plans 
and specifications. It is becaue of this 
peculiar situation that the architect 
finds it difficult to sell to his client. 
He must represent, to his client's sat- 
isfaction, the proposed work before 
lie can realize on his ideas. And it 
lb in this method of representation 
that he meets his biggest problem. 

The Diflferent Viewpoints of Archi- 
tect and Qient. — Now the architect is 
accustomed to thinking and drawing 
in three dimensions. The client most 
likely is not. The drawings appear 
to the architect as an expression of 
some actual structure, standing out 
from the paper in all its dimensions; 
whereas to the client they may appear 
only as a maze of lines that represent 
nothing. It is of course difficult for 
the architect to believe that what ap- 
pears to him as so simple a represen- 
tation should be vmintelligible to an- 
other, and yet that other is the man 
with whom he must do business. How, 
then, can the architect get his ideas 
* across?" How can he get the client 
to see the finished product as he him- 
self sees it? 

At present there are two ways. 
Perspective views enable the architect 
to give his client an idea of the ap- 
pearance of the building as viewed 
from a few defined station points, but 
at their best, perspectives fail. The 
model seems to be the ideal method of 
representation. Though the use of 
models is not new in architecture, it 
is only of comparatively recent date 
that cardboard models, easily and 
cheaply constructed, have been used 
successfully, and it is with this type 
of modeling that we shall be chiefly 
interested in this discussion. 

Scale Models from Cardboard. — 
Cardboard modeling is an art that is 
still in its infancy. It is receiving a 



lot of attention, and the near future 
will undoubtedly see a marked de- 
velopment. As soon as the public — 
the artistic public — learns that it is 
practical for architects to furnish 
scale models as a part of preliminary 
sketches, it will demand that they do 
so, and will choose the architects that 
furnish them, even if their fees are 
higher. It is important, therefore, 
that the architect of today consider 
the advantage of the cardboard model 
as a means of representation. 

In the first place the model is an 
exact replica of the building to be 
built, though at a smaller scale. It is 
as if the building were completed and 
suddenly dwarfed, yet the model is 
real in every aspect. The model is 
truth telling, and not dependent upon 
cleverness of line and color to give an 
effect of reality. It is an honest and 
obvious representation of the build- 
ing as it is actually to be built. It 
is concrete, is in three dimensions, 
and can be viewed from all angles and 
distances rather than from one or two 
carefully selected places that will 
show the design to best advantage, as 
is the case with the perspective sketch. 
The reduction in scale, practically the 
same in both cases, is as easily read 
off from the model as from the per- 
spective. Then, too, at times even the 
perspective sketches are hard for the 
client to understand. Furthermore, it 
is too often the case that sketches of 
poor designs are "faked," carefully 
rendered with a fairyland of entour- 
age to attract the client's eye, in 
which case of course the transaction 
is that of selling a picture rather 
than a building. The first and great- 
est advantage to the client, then, is 
that he may see exactly what he is 
getting. Form, color, relation, pro- 
portion, composition, and harmony — 
all are truthfully portrayed. 

Advantages of Models to Architect. 

— The use of models also offers some 
advantages to the architect. A model 
gives the architect an opportunity to 
study the design by assembling and 
changing parts. Defects in design 
that fail to show up in drawings or 
perspectives stand out glaringly in a 



180 



Buildings 



July 



model. If models were used in the 
study of the design of a building, such 
incongruities of design that might 
otherwise creep in could be cast out 
before the building were completed or 
under construction. 

The use of the model is the ideal 
method of securing harmony between 
parts of a design. For instance, 
dormers may be made to size, moved 
about on the roof until their best 
location is found, and then secured in 
place. Roofs can be tried on as one 
would try on hats in a shop. Thus 
the model offers the best chance to 
study the design of a structure in its 
elementary components, and their re- 
lation to the completed project. Models 
give the architect a chance to create 
first, and then market. Furthermore, 
by the use of models an architect may 
elfectually demonstrate his talking 
points. 

How much easier it is to lift the 
roof off a model and point out to the 
client the convenient arrangement of 
I'ooms, or some other desirable fea- 
ture; or perhaps to remove the side 
wall of a model that the client may 
see the inside of the proposed build- 
ing — how much easier it is to perform 
these slight operations than to spend 
time in explaining to the client the 
meaning of the floor plan, then that 
of the elevation, and perhaps an in- 
terior perspective, and in trying to fit 
them together in such a manner that 
he may get a picture of the completed 
building. The model is indeed a time 
saver for the architect. 

Cost of Models. — Nor must we for- 
get the cost. According to the stand- 
ards of practice adopted by the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, the archi- 
tect gets for his services 6 per cent 
of the cost of the building, and of 
this amount one-fifth is for pre- 
liminary studies. Let us see just what 
this means. Since the working draw- 
ings, specifications, and superin- 
tendence are almost entirely matters 
of engineering, it is in the preliminary 
studies that architecture has an op- 
portunity to express itself as an art. 
A little over 1 per cent is actually 
spent on architecture. Yet the thing 
that occupies the attention of the 
buyer of architectural set-vices is the 
G per cent. The result is almost in- 
evitable. Some unscrupulous architect 
gains, and the community in which 
the architectural misfit is erected, 
suffers. A colored cardboard model 
whose |)urpose is to show the general 



design, composition, proportion, mass 
central feature, color, etc., appeals tc 
the senses of the client, and tends tc 
get his mind away from the 6 pej 
cent. And who would not pay mor( 
if they knew exactly what they were 
buying, that is, if they could see wha1 
they were going to get, rather thar 
pay less, and run the risk of getting 
what the plans called for, and yet noi 
what they expected, or wanted. 

Then too, the actual' cost of the 
models is not very great. Mr. LeRoj 
Grumbine, who has had much experi 
ence in the construction of cardboart 
models, states in the American Archi 
tect that one model may be con 
structed for what two or three per 
spective sketches would cost. 

Use of Models in Competition. — Tc 
the men of the profession of archi 
tecture who really have the welfare 
of the profession at heart, the mode 
has another significant use — in com 
petitions. It is the one and onlj 
means by which the best design sub 
mitted in a competition may be choser 
entirely upon its own merits. Anc 
when, in the course of human events 
we reach the stage where such a selec 
tion is made — then America will begii 
to have all that is really good ir 
architecture. 

Since the public, when educated t( 
appreciate and demand models, wil 
require a colored model as a part ol 
the preliminary sketches, it is perti 
nent that the architect learn the 
easiest and most economical ways oi 
constructing models, which at th( 
same time will give the best results 

Models may be used to represen' 
buildings, formal gardens, or land 
scapes. The architect is primarilj 
interested in the first group. The 
second group may be used either bj 
the architect or the landscape archi 
tect, and the last is used only by the 
landscape architect, unless of course 
the nature of the project calls for the 
services of the architect. However 
the last two groups have more to dc 
with the entourage, shrubberies 
paths, walks, terraces, lakes, anc 
streams, and we shall not be con- 
cerned with them in this paper. 

Types of Models. — There are three 
main types of models of buildings 
each of different construction. There 
is the more common type constructec 
by extensive developed surfaces as- 
sembled in a permanent way. Thi^ 
type is used where the most interest 
is centered upon the external appear- 



i'j23 



Buildings 



181 



\ ance of the buildings, for instance 
; where several units are to be com- 
bined, or where some new buildings 
are shown in place with others already 
constructed, to give an idea as to 
how well they fit in with the sur- 
rounding buildings. Then there is the 
type which is constructed so that the 
roof may be taken off, or the walls 
removed, in order to get a view of the 
interior. This type is particularly 
adaptable to the study of churches 
and theaters or similar buildings in 
which the seating is an important 
element. Then there is the type 
■ known as "latero-sectional" models, 
; developed by a Boston firm, and 
unique in their origin, which was at 
a court proceeding. In order to show 
the damage done to a proposed ex- 
pansion of a hotel building by a sub- 
way tunnel cutting across the prop- 
erty, a model was submitted as court 
evidence. The part cut away by the 
tunnel was separate, and could be re- 
moved. The feature of this type is 
in the construction by sections. The 
stories are all separate pieces, placed 
one upon another, and held in place 
by small dowels. The body of each 
section is a plank, carefully planed 
to 1;he desired thickness, with the 
cardboard exterior pasted on. The 
plan of the floor is worked out on 
each section, and the plan of the ceil- 
ing of the next lower floor is drawn 
on the under side of the same piece. 
The advantage of this type is obvious. 
Besides seeing the building as it will 
be, the client may obtain a "look-in" 
at any floor. 

Methods of Constructing Models. — 

There are many methods of construct- 
ing models, and since each architect 
sooner or later develops a particular 
technique and style of execution, we 
shall not try, in this brief paper, to 
even summarize the methods of con- 
struction. However, in passing, it is 
of interest to notice some of the com- 
mon practices, and some of the dif- 
ferent materials. 

The architect must choose the 
proper scale; one that will leave out 
no details of importance, and one that 
will cause no excess in the work of 
execution. The scale of % in. to the 
foot is common, though Mr. Harvey 
W. Corbett, of the firm of Helmle & 
Corbett of New York finds that even 
small scales are advisable. In the 
smaller scales many of the projections 
that would otherwise have to be con- 



structed or built up are merely indi- 
cated by rendering. 

Though most any effect may be 
obtained by rendering, there are some 
papers that are especially adapted to 
the representation of type surfaces. 
Thus, corrugated cardboard with a 
little alteration makes good tile roof- 
ing. Certain tinted cardboards are 
ideal as slate roofings. Ordinary gray 
cardboard with the courses indicated 
gives a good effect of rough stone 
work. Shingles are represented by 
roughing the cardboard vertically 
with sandpaper and scoring hori- 
zontally. 

When coloring the parts, the archi- 
tect has to consider the fact that 
light has scale; that atmosphere and 
reflection do not miniature themselves 
to suit the model. Generally the color 
scheme should be keyed lighter in 
order that the model in a room will 
truthfully represent the completed 
building when viewed in normal sun- 
light. 

After all the parts have been com- 
pleted and assembled, the model is 
ready for mounting. If the grounds 
surrounding the building are very un- 
even and rolling, then the mount is 
made up of a grid similar to the 
sections of an egg case, with the sec- 
tions cut to the contour of the land. 
Over the whole grid a paper upon 
which the roadways, walks, and path- 
ways may be indicated, is mounted. 
The finer effects are obtained by the 
use of paper pulp. Life is added to 
the setting by the judicious placing of 
trains, automobiles, street cars, and 
pedestrians about the grounds. Trees 
and shrubbery add to the forceful 
presentation of a mounted model. 
These are made by dyeing bits of 
sponge and mounting them upon 
wires. 

Photographing the Model. — And, 
finally, when a model is completed it 
is often necessary to preserve a record 
of the model, if not the model itself. 
If the model is not preserved, then 
photographs of the models may be 
taken and filed. And in the use of 
composite photographs the architect 
has a means of showing the client 
how his completed building will look 
upon its building site. To do this, a 
photograph of the proposed site is 
taken, and the distance from the site 
to the exact position of the camera 
noted. At a corresponding distance 
from the model (measured to scale) 
another picture is taken. If the dis- 



182 



Buildings 



July, 



tance from the model is too small for 
the ordinary camera lens to function 
properly, then a pin-hole camera may 
be substituted. Now if these two 
photographs be combined, the result- 
ing composite photograph is an exact 
reproduction of the building in place. 

Application of Models in Engineer- 
ing Lines. — Though the discusion has 
thus far been confined to the use of 
models in architectural representa- 
tion, one can easily see the application 
of the use of models to any engineer- 
ing line. The engineering student, in 
his drafting room, learns to picture 
an object in straight orthographic 
projection, or possibly in isometric or 
perspective drawings. Since he is 
constantly working in this style of 
representation, he is accustomed to 
visualizing objects in this manner. 
And everyone recognizes the value of 
this type of representation for office 
and shop work. But when one stops 
to think how all thees drawings ap- 
pear to one outside the profession, to 
one uninitiated in the art of reading 
scale drawings, he can appreciate the 
position of those who wonder what it 
is all about. It is plain that another 
means of representation is needed. 

Of course when the project is of 
such a nature that it requires the 
services of an architect, then it is the 
place of the architect to furnish those 
models. But at times there are 
projects in which the predominating 
feature is some engineering feat, and 
not an architectural accomplishment. 
It is in these projects that the engi- 
neer may show his skill and origi- 
nality in constructing models. Just 
as the architect may study his design 
from the model, so may the engineer 
study his larger problems from the 
model. 



Building Construction to Be Taught 
at Yale.-*^A course in building con- 
struction is being offered at Yale as 
a development of the Civil Engineer- 
ing course. The move is being made 
upon the theory that building con- 
struction is looked upon more as a 
profession in itself than subordinate 
to architecture. The course is made 
possible by gifts from the trustees of 
the Louis J. and Mary E. Horowitz 
Foundation. 



Standard Abbreviations of 
of Terms Used in Lum- 
ber Industry. 

The Forest Products Laboratory of 
the U. S. Forest Service recommends 
as standard the following abbrevia- 
tions of terras used by the lumber 
industry. Most of the forms given 
correspond to those already in com- 
mon use. In a few cases new abbrevi- 
ations have been suggested where the 
old forms overlapped or were mis- 
leading. 

AD — Air-dried. 

a. 1. — All lengths. 

av. — Average. 

av. w. — Average width. 

av. 1. — Average length. 

a. w. — All widths. 
BIS — Beaded one side. 
B2S — Beaded two sides. 
BBS — Box bark strips, 
bd. — Board. 

bd. ft.— Board foot. 

bdl. — Bundle. 

bdl. bk. s. — Bundle bark strips. 

Bev. — Bevelled. 

B/Lr— Bill of lading. 

b. m. — Board (foot) measure. 
Btr. — Better. Also Bet. 

c. i. f. — Cost, insurance and freight. 

c. i. f. e. — Cost, insurance, freight and 
exchange. 

Clg.— Ceiling. Also C/G and Ceil. 

Clr.— Clear. Also CI. 

Com. — Common. 

Coop. — Cooperage (stock). 

CM — Center matched; 1. e., the tongue 
and groove joints are worked along the 
center of the edges of the piece. 

Csg.— Casing. Also C/S. 

Ctg. — Crating. 

cu. ft. — Cubic foot. 

Cust. — -Custom (sawed). 

D&CM — Dressed (one or two sides) and 
center matched. 

D&H — Dressed and headed; I. e., dress- 
ed one or two sides and worked to tongue 
and groove joints on both the edges and 
the ends. 

D&M — Dressed and matched; i. e.. 
dressed one or two sides and tongued and 
grooved on the edges. The match may 
be center or standard. 

D&SM — Dressed (one or two sides), 
standard matched. 

D2S&CM — Dressed two sides, center 
matched. 

D2S&M — Dressed two sides and (cen- 
ter or standard) matched. 

1)2S&SM — Dressed two sides and stand- 
ard matched. 

Dim. — Dimension. 

D.S.— Drop siding. Also D/S. Sy- 
nonymous with cove siding (C. S.), nov- 
elty siding (N. S. and Nov. Sdg.), and 
German siding (G. S.). 

E— Edge. Also Ed. and Edg. 

E&CBIS — Edge and center bead one 
side; i. e., surfaced one or two sides and 
with a longitudinal edge and center bead 
on a surfaced face. Also B&CBIS. 

E&CB2S — Edge and center bead two 
sides; i. e., all four sides surfaced and 
with a longitudinal edge and center bead 
on the two faces. Also B&CB2S. 

ECM — Ends center matched. 

R&CVIS — Edge and center V one side. 
Also V&CVIS. 



1923 



Buildings 



183 



E&CV2S — Edge Jind center V two sides. 
Also V&CV2S. 

EM — End matched — either center or 
standard. 

ESM — Ends standard matched. 

exp. — Export (lumber or timber). 

f. bk.— Flat back. 

FAS — Firsts and Seconds — a combined 
grade of the two upper grades of hard- 
woods. 

f. a. s. — ^Vessel (named port). Free along 
side vessel at a named port. 

Fcty. — Factory (lumber). Also Fact. 

P. G. — Flat grain. Synonymous with 
slash grain (S. G.) and plain sawed 
(P. S.). 

Fig. — Flooring. Also F/G. 

f. o. b. (named point) — Free on board 
at a named shipping point. 

f. o. k. — Free of knots. 

f. 0. w. — First open water. 

Frm. — Framing. 

ft. — Foot or feet. 

ft. b. m. — Feet board measure. 

ft. s. m. — Feet surface measure. 

Furn. — Furniture (stock). 

G. R. — Grooved roofing. 

h. bk. — Hollow back. 

Hdl.— Handle (stock). 

hdwd. — Hardwood. 

Hrt.— Heart. 

Hrtwd. — Heartwood. 

ls&2s — Ones and two — a combined grade 
of the hardwood grades of Firsts and 
Seconds. 

Impl. — Implement (stock). 

in. — ^Inch or inches. Also two accent 
marks ("). 

KI>— Kiln-dried. Also K/D. 

k. d. — Knocked down. 

Ibr. — Lumber. 

1. c. 1. — Less carload lots. 

Igth. — Length. 

Igr. — Longer. 

lin. ft. — Lineal foot; i. e., 12 inches. 

Lng. — Lining. 

LR — Log run. 

LR, MCO. — Log run, mill culls out. 

Lth.— Lath. 

M — Thousand. 

M b. ra. — Thousand (feet) board mea- 
sure. 

MCO— Mill culls out. 

Merch. — Merchantable. 

m. 1. — Mixed lengths. 

Mldg. — Molding. 

MR— Mill run. 

M s. m. — Thousand (feet) surface meas- 
ure. 

m. w. — ^Mixed widths. 

Xo. — Number. 

Ord. — Order. 

P. — Planed — used synonymously with 
dressed and surfaced as P2S&M, mean- 
ing planed two sides and matched. 

Pat.— Pattern. 

Pky.— Pecky. 

Pn. — Partition. Also Part'n. 

Prod. — Production. Also Prod'n. 

Qtd. — Quartered — when referring to 
hardwoods. Also see V. G. 



rd m .—Random . 

Rfg. — Roofing. 

res. — Resawed. 

rip. — Ripped. 

Rfrs. — Roofers. 

r. 1. — Random lengths. 

rnd. — Round. Also rd. 

R. Sdg. — Rustic siding. 

r. w. — Random widths. 

S&E — Surfaced one side and edge. 

SIE: — Surfaced one edge. 

S2E — Surfaced two edges. 

SIS — Surfaced one side. 

S2S — Surfaced two sides. 

SISIE — Surfaced one side and one 
edge. 

S2S1E — Surfaced two sides and one 
edge. 

S1S2E — Surfaced one side and two 
edges. 

S4S — Surfaced four sides. 

S4SCS — Surfaced four sides with a calk- 
ing seam on each edge. 

S&CM — Surfaced (one or two sides) 
and center matched. 

S&M — Surfaced and matched; i. e., sur- 
faced one or two sides and tongued and 
frooved on the edges. The match may 
e center or standard. 

S&SM — Surfaced (one or two sides) and 
standard matched. 

S2S&CM — Surfaced two sides and cen- 
ter matched. 

S2S&M — Surfaced two sides and (center 
or standard) matched. 

S2S&SM — Surfaced two sides and stand- 
ard matched. 

Sap. — Sapwood. 

SB — Standard bead. 

• Sd. — Seasoned. 

Sdg.— Siding. Also Sidg. and S/G. 

SeL— Select. 

S. E. Sdg. — Square -edge siding. 

s. f. — Surface foot; i. e., an area of one 
square foot. 

Sftwd.— Softwood. 

Sh. D. — Shipping dry. 

Ship. — Shipment or shipments. 

Ship. — Shiplap. Also S-L and S/L. 

s. m. — Surface measure. Synonymous 
with face measure (f. m.). 

SM — Standard matched. 

smkd. — Smoked (dried). 

smk. stnd. — Smoke strained. 

s. n. d.— Sap no defect. 

snd. — Sound. 

sq. — Square. 

Sq. E&S — Square edged and sound. 

Sqrs. — Squares. 

Std. — Standard. 

stnd. — Stained. 

stk.— Stock. 

Stp. — Stepping. 

S. W. — Sound wormy. 

T&G — Tongued and grooved. 

TB&S — Top. bottom and sides. 

Tbrs. — Timbers. 

V1& — V one side; i. e., a longitudinal 
V-shaped groove on one face of a piece 
of lumber. 

V2S — ^V two sides; i. e.. a longitudinal 
V-shaped groove on two faces of a piece 
of lumber. 

V. G. — Vertical grain. Synonymous 
with edge grain (E. G.), comb grain 
(C. G.), quarter-sawed (Q. S.), quartered 
(Qtd.), and rift-sawed (R. S.). 

w. a. 1. — ^Wider, all lengths. 

Wth.— Width. 

wdr. — ^Wider. 

Wgn. — ^Wagon (stock). 

wt. — ^Weight. 



184 ^ Buildings July, 

Architecture and the Spirit of the Community 

Paper Presented Before Washington State Chapter of American 
Institute of Architects 

By CARL F. GOULD, 

President Washington State Chapter, A. I. A. 



The American Institute of Archi- 
tects, composed, as it is, of local chap- 
ters distributed throughout the entire 
United States, has a cohesive strength 
and is of value to the various com- 
munities and to the country at large 
just to the extent that each individual 
is impelled by that apparently inde- 
finable impulse to create in our physi- 
cal necessities, orderliness and beauty. 
Just what is it that puts the spirit 
into the architect and keeps him at his 
work day by day when he knows from 
the beginning to the end of his pro- 
fession that he cannot obtain what 
all the world seems most to desire — 
worldly increment. 

To an outsider who may happen to 
be present at one of our conventions 
such subjects as building ordinance, 
competition codes, employment or la- 
bor, schedule of charges, etc., would 
appear to be those which are upper- 
most in our minds. 

These subjects are always discussed 
with a fervor and intensity of feeling 
by cultured and intelligent men, while 
the very inner reasons for our exist- 
ence are apparently ignored. T^-is 
may be due to the fact that the inti- 
mate things of the spirit we never 
allow to appear in the foreground of 
our consciousness; it may be we can- 
not find words that adequately give 
our feelings expression. We hesitate, 
while the most obviously secondary 
things slip easily into words and in- 
hibit an expression of our real feel- 
ings. 

Beauty the Soul of the Profession. 
— We cannot easily describe the fervor 
of feeling of bringing into being some- 
thing that the world wants — ^whether 
it is a shelter for a family or a place 
in which to worship or a bridge for 
our traffic to cross upon — but there is 
a fundamental impulse which when 
expressed and we see its accomplish- 
m.ent gives a sense of satisfaction. 
When, however, to these creations we 
add an element of what is recognized 
as beauty, the pleasure of creation is 
greatly intensified. This ingredient of 
beauty, which is the very soul of our 
profession, we seldom or ever allow 
ourselves to consider. 



I remember so well some years ago 
at a convention held in Washington, 
D. C, an address by Lloyd Warren, 
who died recently, in which he said 
that the artist in the architect must be 
in command. I recall also an inspir- 
ing statement made at the close of our 
convention two years ago by Dr. Suz- 
zallo, president of the University of 
Washington, that we, the architects, 
were the custodians of beauty, a 
thought which places an uplifting re- 
sponsibility upon us and one which we 
should treasure. It must be just this 
desire of creation in terms of beauty 
that puts the spirit into our profession 
and makes it possible for us to endure 
its' hardships and the frequent lack 
of public esteem. 

Inherent Elements in a Building. — 
I am going to try to analyze for a 
moment a few of the ingredients of 
which this term "beauty" in archi- 
tecture is composed. I realize my 
utter incapacity for doing this, and 
beg you not to grow impatient. I 
shall limit myself to the discussion of 
a few of the inherent elements in a 
building which are not usually con- 
sidered factors in determining its 
beauty, I shall not discuss proportion 
or the charm and quality of detail, 
which we so often think of as the only 
medium of expressing architectural 
beauty. 

These can be best illustrated by tak- 
ing you for a moment upon a trip to 
a far country. The very wonder of 
the Egyptian pyramids draws us to 
them. We are lifted out of the monot- 
ony of our own life into the realm of 
the spirit of universal man in their 
presence. No people ever^ strove 
harder to divert more of their hard- 
earned economic wealth to make ef- 
fective and give beauty of expression 
to their belief in the life of the soul 
than the Egyptians. In the presence 
of the sheer size of these pyramids 
an emotion is aroused just as were 
aroused the emotions of the Egyptians 
5,000 years ago. Realize for a mo- 
ment that their mass laid down upon, 
for instance, the 40-story Smith Build- 
ing, would completely encompass it 
and rise many feet beyond its height. 



1923 



Buildings 



185 



I It is by the very extent of the mass 
; alone that we are impressed. 

The wonder which is engendered by 
this external mass may also be en- 
gendered by internal space, such as 
the interior of St. Peter's at Rome, 
the Pennsylvania Station at New 
York, and to a less degree by the inte- 
rior of the Forestry Building at the 
university. Sheer size is one of the 
means by which the architect caji 
create an emotional appeal, and it 
; must be taken into account as a factor 
or element of beauty. The Egyptians 
expressed the spirit of their race in 
; terms of horizontality, the stability of 
line of their temples, of the unbroken 
i silhouette against the sky, of the un- 
I pierced walls, of sturdy columns with 
j their flat roofs and sombre interiors. 
I Stability, endurance, finality, are the 
i feelings we have in the presence of 
' these big hypostyle halls. These were 
1 the architectural elements to which 
i the Egyptians attached importance, 
I and to them these were the essence 
j of their life, and it is these appealing 
emotions of the ages which we travel 
I many thousands of miles to obtain. 

The Spirit of Mediaeval Architec- 
! ture. — For a moment let us enter into 
the spirit of the mediaeval architec- 
tural expression, and we develop a 
series of entirely different emotions. 
The moment we set foot in the most 
! marvelous of all buildings, a cathedral 
1 of the Gothic period, the eye does not 
I travel horizontally as in Egypt, but 
! follows up the attentuated clustered 
! supports into the mysterious maze of 
pointed forms overhead. The whole 
I seems not borne by earth, but some- 
thing hung in the air. The weight of 
tradition is not upon us; a precedent 
plays no part. A vibrant atmosphere 
grips us. Imperfect in its incom- 
pleteness, maybe, but aspiring to in- 
finity. Such is the emotional appeal 
that the great architects of the middle 
ages gave to the world a thousand 
years ago and to which we still re- 
spond. 

The cool splendor of Greek archi- 
tecture neither attempts to impress us 
by its sheer mass nor by its aspiring 
quality, but through the intellectual 
relationship of its parts and the ex- 
quisite refinement of all its elements, 
which can only be perceived and en- 
joyed by the highest type of mind; 
while beauty to the Roman was not 
primarily expressed in terms of re- 
finement of parts, but by sumptuous- 
ness of detail and by a variety of 



forms, principally by the use of the 
arch and the vault. 

These are all qualities which we 
usually do not consider as pertaining 
to beauty, but without which the 
monuments of the past could not have 
emotionalized the world down through 
the ages. 

Until we can in our present forms 
of building attain to something which 
in its inherent mass expresses an in- 
tention which is a natural outcome of 
our present life and civilization, can 
we really hope to give to the world 
an architecture which vdll be of per- 
mament beauty. At the present time 
we are so overlaid with a confusion 
of impressions and emotions that we 
have apparently no dominating one 
which gives a direction to our thought 
and from which the architect can ob- 
tain positive inspiration. On the one 
hand we find a structure like the 
Woolworth Building, piercing the air 
with a vibrant vertical effect, appar- 
ently satisfying all the elements which 
make for beauty, an inspiration which 
one would think would be followed. 
A new office building, however, is con- 
structed in its vicinity, notably the 
new telephone building, the most 
costly office .building in the world, 
made up of a series of superimposed 
Greek marble temples, having no ap- 
parent intention of and totally con- 
tradicting its magnificent neighbor. 

Lack of Coherent Relationship. — We 

have our court houses, post offices and 
our libraries expressing calm horizon- 
tality; we have our institutions of 
learning, expressing verticality; our 
city streets are made up of contra- 
dicting elements, and beauty exists 
only in isolated buildings here and 
there, not in the coherent relationship 
of a building to its neighbor. An 
eminent Frenchman in a recent inter- 
view states that "it is disconcerting to 
turn from manifestations of Amer- 
ican architectural genius to the un- 
sightly streets nearby, in the building 
of which all consideration apart from 
the strictly utilitarian would seem to 
have been banished. Houses big and 
small, handsome and hideous, preten- 
tious and insignificant, ornamental 
and sordid, huddled sideby side in jar- 
ring promiscuity, mute testimony of 
the stem material necessities and the 
preoccupations of the past. One is 
tempted to liken New York architec- 
tur^ly (he continues) to a garden 
overgrown with gigantic weeds, 
cleared in parts to make room for fair, 
well-trimmed avenues. Yet on all 



186 



Buildings 



July, 



sides I see such strong evidence of a 
swiftly developing national artistic 
temperament that I am convinced the 
present blemishes will in due course 
be swept away." 

The Selection of the Type. — The se- 
lection of the type of architecture 
with which we express a building for 
our client is seldom if ever based on 
a deep conviction, rarely if ever does 
the client bring any intelligent reason 
to bear on why he wants one type of 
building rather than another; the only 
demand he makes is that it be entirely 
dissimilar to any building in the vicin- 
ity. How, then, is it possible for us 
to obtain beauty in the total effect of 
our buildings if we cannot agree on 
any singleness of purpose. Is it not 
true that in this Northwest corner of 
the United States, with Canada touch- 
ing us on the north, here is a certain 
individuality apparent which might be 
translated and expressed in architec- 
tural terms ? Are we not as a group 
quite different in feeling and senti- 
ment from the people of California? 
Is it not the habit of mind of our peo- 
ple different from that in the south? 
Are not the variations in our climatic 
conditions a partial cause for this dif- 
ference? What little historic back- 
ground we have is not the same. Do 
not our conditions more closely ap- 
proximate those of Northern Europe, 
whereas California approximates the 
conditions of the Mediterranean 
basin? If this is true, the horizon- 
tality, the calmness, and the massive 
walls belong to California, while the 
vibrant verticality, the small extent 
of wall with large window area, are 
characteristic of us. Therefore, it 
seems to me that if our clients do not 
help to bring unity out of chaos, is 
it not our duty to attempt to do so by 
conscious agreement ? However beau- 
tiful an individual building may be, if 
it does contain the fundamental ele- 
of the community in which it is placed 
it does contain the fnudamental ele- 
ments of beauty. Even if the most 
beautiful building in the world, such 
as the Taj Mahal, were transported 
to the British Isles, it would be an 
exotic thing, just as an objet d'art 
would be in a museum case. 

It seems to me that we architects 
should strive to discover or evolve or, 
transport an architectural type which 
most nearly seems to fit our condi- 
tions and accept it as a basic point 
of departure, and each one of us as 
best we can evolve and apply such a 
type, until either we or those who 



come after us are able to wield it into 
a form which perfectly expresses our 
community, as did the temples of the 
Egyptians and the churches of France 
each express the spirit of their com- 
munities. 



Changes in Retail Cost of Food 

The U. S. Department of Labor, 
through the Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, has completed the compilations 
showing changes in the retail cost of 
food in 23 of the 51 cities included in 
the Bureau's report. 

During the month from May 15, 
1923, to June 15, 1923, 18 of the 23 
cities showed increases as follows: 
Newark and Washington, D. C, 3 per 
cent; Cleveland, Detroit, and Norfolk, 

2 per cent; Atlanta, Bridgeport, Butte, 
Denver, Los Angeles, New Haven, 
New York, Portland, Ore., and Rich- 
mond, 1 per cent; and Birmingham, 
Charleston, Manchester, and Scranton, 
less than five-tenths of 1 per cent. 
There was a decrease in the following 
5 cities: Boston, Portland, Maine, St. 
Louis, and St. Paul, 1 per cent, and 
Philadelphia, less than five-tenths of 1 
per cent. 

For the year period, June 15, 1922, 
to June 15, 1923, 22 of the 23 cities 
showed increases. Bridgeport, 7 per 
cent; Cleveland, Manchester, Newark, 
and New Haven, 6 per cent; Boston, 5 
per cent; Birmingham, Los Angeles 
and Portland, Maine, 4 per cent; Butte, 
Denver, Detroit, New York, Norfolk, 
Philadelphia, and Washington, D. C, 

3 per cent; Portland, Ore., and Scran- 
ton, 2 per cent; Charleston and St. 
Louis, 1 per cent; and Atlanta and 
Richmond less than five-tenths of 1 
per cent. In St. Paul there was a de- 
crease of 1 per cent. 

As compared with the average cost 
in the year 1913, the retail cost of food 
on June 15, 1923, was 56 per cent 
higher in Richmond; 54 per cent in 
Washington, D. C; 51 per cent in De- 
troit and New York; 49 per cent in 
Birmingham, Philadelphia, and Scran- 
ton; 48 per cent in Charleston; 46 per 
cent in Boston, Cleveland, and Man- 
chester; 45 per cent in Newark and 
New Haven; 43 per cent in St. Louis; 
42 per cent in Atlanta; 39 per cent in 
Los Angeles; 35 per cent in Denver; 
and 31 per cent in Portland, Ore. 
Prices were not obtained from Bridge- 
port, Butte, Norfolk, Portland, Maine, 
and St. Paul., in 1913, hence no com- 
parison for the 10-year period can be 
given for these cities. 



1923 Buildings 

The Professional Status of Engineering 



187 



Address Before Engineers* Club of Philadelphia 

By JOHN LYLE HARRINGTON 
Consalting Engrineer; President American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



I am disposed to talk on a subject 

that has been in all our minds for a 

great many years — and we have done 

very little about it. I don't know how 

we are going to do very much about 

1 it, except by individual eflFort here and 

! there. But the engineering profes- 

; sion has occupied throughout history 

; a very singular place. The history of 

the early centuries of the human race 

has been devoted almost entirely to 

the doings of the King; then to the 

doings of the Warrior, and a little 

later to the professional man of a 

kind. In the time of Hammurabi they 

I wrote about the doctor, for the King 

laid down laws for the punishment of 

I the doctor if he failed to perform the 

j duties of his office loyally and well. 

In the days of their power the Greeks 

i gave especial honor to the philosopher 

j and the poet and the sculptor. The 

\ priest has been well known through- 

i out history. But the engineer has 

been back of the scene — furnishing 

the fundamental knowledge upon 

which civilization has been developed 

all the time, but has not been known 

I at all. He has been content to occupy 

; a singularly secluded sort of place. 

1 So far as I recall there was no men- 

i tion of the work of Leonardo de Vinci 

I as an engineer vmtil comparatively 

recent times. He was known as an 

■ zation of engineers there were only 

two kinds, the civil and the military. 

The civils very shortly were unable 

to agree among themselves, and they 

split into one class and then another, 

until today we have literally hundreds 

of engineering societies. Someone in 

the Mechanical Society has taken the 

trouble to make a list of the different 

societies of engineers, and he found 

more than thirty organizations in the 

United States devoting themselves 

simply to mechanical lines of work. 

! Engineers cannot get along with each 

I other in their professional work, and 

I they certainly do not get along with 

I each other in their business relations, 

I for today the ethics of the profession 

of engineering is very much lower 

I than the ethics of the medical pro- 

j fession or of the law. 

' Engineers contest with eng^ineers in 

I public and in private in a way that 



the members of other professions do 
not do. Sometimes I think they show 
each other very much less ethical con- 
sideration than do the men in ordi- 
nary business. 

Must Acquire Professional Con- 
sciousness. — In order to acquire a 
professional consciousness which will 
give unity as a profession, which will 
enable us to present a xmited front 
to the world and present our claims 
for consideration, we must first real- 
ize the position in which we now 
stand. In our public affairs today the 
engineer furnishes the knowledge 
while the lawyer or the public official 
does the talking; and the honor and 
the consideration of the public go to 
the official or the lawyer who does the 
talking, even though the engineer 
furnishes the energy and knowledge 
for accomplishment. 

Our governments, particularly of 
our cities, depend upon engineers to 
carry out their projects; but the gov- 
ernments themselves are not operated 
by engineers, they are not operated 
by the men who know best how to 
operate them; that is left to the men 
who make more or less of a profession 
of politics — while the engineers be- 
hind the scenes furnish the special 
knowledge and ability necessary to 
conduct a modem city. 

We have come to spend a large por- 
tion of our income from taxation on 
public works and the operation of 
public works. Today the direct tax- 
ation in the United States is approxi- 
mately $80 per capita, a very large 
proportion of the total value of the 
nation's production; but the engineer, 
who directs the expenditure of the 
great bulk of this money, has a very 
small part in the actual control, a 
very small part in saying how it shall 
be spent — because he does not work 
to get such control, because he can- 
not get on with his fellows, cannot 
agree with his neighbor; and, there- 
fore, he cannot secure the part in this 
work that really belongs to him. 

I don't know how we are going to 
overcome the difficulty. We are to- 
day, of course, educating our engi- 
neers as never before (something like 
5,000 men a year graduating from 



188 



Buildings 



July, 



our universities), giving them as high 
ideals as the faculty can give them — 
and that says a great deal for the 
men who go out from the engineering 
schools, but it does not give them the 
ability to work with others, they do 
not go out of school with any well- 
defined degree of professional con- 
sciousness. 

Older Engineer Responsible for 
Views of Younger Men. — We older 
engineers are in some measure re- 
sponsible for the fact that the young 
men do not gain a proper view of 
their profession. It is too commonly 
the practice of the older men to tell 
the recent graduate he is a "cub" and 
doesn't know anything yet about the 
profession, is a nuisance to the place, 
has to be taught, and in a mental 
sense kick him and cuff him and lead 
him to believe he is of a lower order 
and has some years to go before he 
achieves a position in the profession 
— instead of taking him in immedi- 
ately on graduation and giving him 
something of the professional view- 
point, something of professional con- 
sciousness, something of a willingness 
to stand up with his fellows and 
esteem his profession highly, he is 
given a rather low viewpoint. 

And you will find among the 
younger men in the country a good 
deal of fretting against that position, 
and justly so. In the railroads and 
other large corporations, particularly, 
it is true the young men have been 
given a place far beneath that which 
belongs to professional men; and we 
older men owe to the young men an 
education in their professional status, 
an education in the way of a view- 
point regarding the high character of 
the profession they are entering. 

Not Enough Attention Given to 
Ethical Side. — In our national socie- 
ties we are not giving enough atten- 
tion to the ethical and professional 
side of our work; we are dealing pri- 
marily with the scientific side, we are 
dealing somewhat with the business 
side, with economics, to some extent 
with accountancy. We are aiding the 
young men to a broader understand- 
ing of business. Older engineers are 
taking an increasingly higher place in 
business, and there is an astonishing 
number of engineers who have be- 
come presidents of railroads, of 
manufacturing companies, even of 
banking corporations, and in various 
works of that kind. I have acquaint- 
ances in New York who are devoting 



themselves entirely to the reshaping 
of the finances of corporations in 
difficulty, using their engineering 
knowledge as a basis for their ac- 
count and financial ideas. They are 
doing splendid work along that line. 

We find engineers undertaking a 
good many lines of work that hereto- 
fore were not considered engineering 
work at all, but which are based on 
engineering work, and which are 
fundamentally dependent upon the en- 
gineer. But as a profession we are 
not taking cognizance of the fact that 
the individual engineer is doing that 
kind of work; we are not showing the 
younger graduates that that is a part 
of the engineering field, and we are 
not fitting them in any way, in our 
national societies, to deal with the 
business problems built on engineer- 
ing knowledge. I think it is high time 
we should give a broader understand- 
ing and training to the men who grad- 
uate from our engineering schools. 

Engineers Have Public Service to 
Perform. — We have for some years 
been trying to establish the fact en- 
gineers have a public service to per- 
form, that they owe the public a cer- 
tain amount of professional service 
for which they are not paid — a gratu- 
itous service such as the lawyer ren- 
ders when he goes into politics and 
takes a vigorous part in shaping the 
policies of our country, and such as 
the doctor renders when he serves in 
public health movements. 

The engineer has done astonishingly 
little in the way of performing public 
service. We must take the onus of 
giving public service — for there is an 
onus attached to it: the moment you 
perform public service, gratuitously or 
otherwise, you are subject to attack 
by those politically inclined and op- 
posed. But we have to pay the price 
of our "place in the sun" and take a 
part in public work, regardless of the 
mud that is slung, regardless of the 
broadsides of calumny that sometimes 
come to the public official. 

Must Take Greater Part in Public 
Service. — We must take our part in 
public affairs in a much broader way, 
if we are to convince the world that 
we are truly professional men. We 
are still looked on as a species of ar- 
tisan. Coming from California the 
other day I met a new kind of engi- 
neer, an "Exhibition Engineer." He 
told me he had been sent over to Ger- 
many particularly to study how the 
Hagenbeck people erected their tents, 
and that he had then been brought 



1923 



Buildings 



189 



back and given charge of handling the 

tents and arranging the stalls in the 
food shows given by The National 
Cash Register Company and the To- 
ledo Scale Company. He was an "Ex- 
hibiting Engineer." 

Recently one of my friends, a grad- 
uate of "Tech," explained he had been 
down South looking at some coal prop- 
erties, and the man who drove him 
around in the Ford was a rather pecu- 
liar individual, who wore a long beard, 
didn't look particularly intelligent, and 
was generally of the backwoods type. 
But he told my friend he was an en- 
gineer. My friend asked him how he 
became an engineer, and this was his 
story: Some time ago he went to the 
Pacific Coast and got a job as dish- 
washer in a construction camp. He 
afterward became assistant cook, and 
then cook. Still later they put him 
to driving a team, and he became a 
teamster. After he had been there 
quite a while he was put to firing the 
donkey engine, and in the course of 
time was put in charge of the engine. 
He said, "Yes, sir, I ran the engine, 
and from that time I have been a 
Civil Engineer." 

I confess the world looks upon us 
with just about that degree of under- 
standing. It is astonishing at times 
how little the work of the engineer is 
understood by the public, how often it 
is confused — and all because we have 
not agreed among ourselves as to 
what our profession is. The National 
Societies have split off into their own 
particular lines of work, because each 
society in turn has been unwilling to 
give scope to the individual groups 
who wanted scope in that particular 
line. The Engineering Institute of 
Canada has been able to keep the bulk 
of the engineers of that country to- 
gether by dint of a very great effort, 
but there are divisions even there; and 
I suppose we must expect divisions, 
but we should, in our separate organ- 
izations, be able to work together in 
harmony when it comes to matters of 
public interest and to matters of gen- 
eral professional interest. But we 
find that difficult to do, because we are 
civil, mechanical, electrical, refriger- 
ating or some other kind of engineer 
— I don't know how many there are 
these days — and do our work without 
regard to our fellows. 

Need for Collaboration in Matters 
of General Nature. — It is high time 
that we should think very seriously 
of collaborating in all matters of a 
general nature. We have, as engi- 
neers, looked with great interest on 



your efforts here to develop a World's 
Engineering Congress in connection 
with the World's Fair. We had a dis- 
cussion at New York recently regard- 
ing the scope the Congress should 
take, and I believe there were as 
many opinions as men present. That 
is commonly the case in engineering 
matters — that the opinions vary very 
greatly, and each man insists his pre- 
vail. How it will "wash out" I don't 
know; but there is an opportunity, if 
the Congress is held, for the engineers 
to show a united effort, not only to 
this country, but to the world, and to 
adopt a professional attitude; and I 
hope in the course of three or four 
years — possibly in that convention — 
we can develop a united professional 
position, and show the world how we 
think and what we do. And I hope, 
in that case, we will deal with the mat- 
ter so very broadly that the world 
v,'ill understand that the engineer's 
function is not to make drawings, not 
to wear high-topped boots and broad- 
brimmed hats and run lines with in- 
struments in the field, but that he is 
a scientific business man, that he is 
behind all the development in this 
country, the development that has 
only just beg:un, and that is depend- 
ent to a large and increasing extent 
upon the engineer. 

The banker and the business man 
each has his part to perform, but 
fundamentally it is a secondary part; 
the initial fight, the initial develop- 
ment, must rest upon the engineer; 
and I very much hope we can get to- 
gether and have our country as a 
whole know us, have our cities and 
our states and the United States know 
us as a unit, as a profession, and ap- 
preciate the part we play. 

We need to undertake a great deal 
more of governmental work. When 
the road development came it was ex- 
pected the work would be very largely 
in the hands of the engineers, but we 
are backsliding. Two of our states 
have recently kicked the engineer out 
and put the politician in; and the en- 
gineer sits quiet and lets it go. Un- 
less we wake up and act as a unit in 
our professional matters we have no 
real reason to object to having some- 
body else do our rightful work, and 
do it badly. That will be the result 
if we default in our responsibility. 

I don't know how we are going to 
arouse this professional consciousness, 
but until we do arouse it we are going 
to occupy a less desirable place in the 
affairs of the world, and of our own 
country in particular, than we deserve. 



190 Buildings July, 

Contract Between Architect and Owner 



Form of Agreement Adopted by the Illinois Society of Architects 



The following articles of agreement 
between architect and owner have 
been adopted by the Illinois Society of 
Architects, and published in the 
Monthly Bulletin of the Society, from 
which it is reprinted below. 

Articles of agreement between ar- 
chitect and owner: 

THIS AGREEMENT made the 

in the year One Thousand 

Nine Hundred and , by and be- 
tween , Architect located for 

the practice of his profession at 

Street, in the City of , 

County of and State of 

, doing business at , in 

the City of , County of 

, and State of , herein- 
after called the owner. 

Witnesseth: That the Architect and 
the Owner for the consideration here- 
inafter named agree as follows: 

Article I. The Architect agrees to 
render full and complete professional 
services, including the furnishing of 
Preliminary Studies, General Draw- 
ings, Specifications, Scale and Full- 
Sized Details and General Supervision 

of the Work, for a proposed 

Building, to be erected on lots owned 
by the said Owner, described as 

Article II. The Architect and Owner 
agree that it is the professional serv- 
ice of the Architect which is to he 
furnished hereunder and that the in- 
struments of service such as drawings 
and specifications are merely incident 
thereto and as such remain the prop- 
erty of the Architect; that the items 
of professional service are compre- 
hended and proportioned to the com- 
plete services as hereinafter stated, 
namely: 

(a) Preliminary Studies, amounting 
to Two-Tenths of the complete pro- 
fessional services, consisting of ^ the 
necessary conferences, inspections, 
studies and sketches modified and re- 
modified to determine the client's 
problem and illustrate a satisfactory 
general solution of same, both as to 
plan and elevation. Illustrative 
sketches for this purpose need not be 
to accurate scale, but should be ap- 
proximately correct as to general di- 
mensions and proportion. 

(b) General Drawings, amounting 
to Three-Tenths of the complete pro- 
fessional services, consisting of fig- 
ured scale plans of the various stories, 



elevations of all the fronts, such gen- 
eral vertical sections as may be neces- 
saryto elucidate the design, and such 
details, drawn to still larger scale, as, 
with the assistance of printed notes, 
and of the accompanying specifica- 
tions, may make the whole scheme 
clearly evident to the mind of the com- 
petent builder and give him a full and 
complete comprehension of all the 
structural conditions as they affect the 
vital questions of quality and quantity 
of materials, of character of work- 
manship, and of cost. 

(c) Specifications, amounting to 
One-Tenth of the complete profes- 
sional services, consisting of a supple- 
mentary statement in words, or at 
least all those items of information 
regarding the proposed building which 
are not set forth in the drawings. 

(d) Detail Drawings, amounting to 
One-Tenth of the complete profes- 
sional services, consisting of all the 
necessary supplementary drawings re- 
quired for the use of builders, to en- 
able them to provide and shape their 
material that it may be adjusted to its 
proper place of function in the build- 
ing with the least delay and the small- 
est chance for errors and misfits. If 
not prepared until after the contract 
for the building is let they must not 
impose on the contractor any labor or 
material which is not called for by the 
spirit and intent of the "General 
Drawings and Specifications," except 
with the consent and approval of both 
the owner and the contractor. 

(e) General Supervision of the 
Work, amounting to Three-Tenths of 
the complete professional services, 
consisting of such inspection by the 
architect or his deputy, of work in 
studios and shops or at the building 
or other work in process of erection, 
completion or alteration, as he finds 
necessary to ascertain whether it is 
being executed in general conformity 
with his drawings, specifications or di- 
rections. In acting in this capacity 
his authority and status will be as de- 
fined in the "General Conditions of the 
Contract" of the "Illinois Building 
Contract Documents," which Illinois 
Building Contracts Documents are by 
reference made an express part of the 
work which does not conform with the 
spirit and intent of plans and speci- 
fications and order its removal and 



1923 



Buildings 



191 



reconstruction. He has authority to 
act in emergencies that may arise in 
the course of construction, to order 
necessary changes and to define the 
meaning and intent of the drawings 
and specifications. He is not required 
to give continuous personal superin- 
tendence, but should the Owner re- 
quire this service, the Architect will 
employ a clerk-of-works or inspector 
to render such assistance under his 
direction, at the Owner's expense. 

Article III. Subject to additions 
and deductions as provided in Article 
V of this Agreement, the Owner 
agress to pay the Architect for the 
performance of the contract, a sum 

equal to per cent reckoned on a 

reasonable estimated total cost of exe- 
cuting the work herein required, to 
be designed, delineated, specified and 
supervised in construction by the Ar- 
chitect. Proportionate monthly pay- 
ments shall be made by the Owner to 
the Architect in current funds, on or 
before the 10th day of each month ac- 
cording to the proportionate amount 
of the various items of hereinbefore 
defined service which have been com- 
pleted by the Architect before the 1st 
day of that month. 

Note: Total cost, wherever herein 
used as base for determining the ulti- 
mate fee due the Architect, shall be 
interpreted as what would be the rea- 
sonable cost of all materials and labor 
necessary to complete the work re- 
quired to be designed plus contract- 
or's profit and expenses, as such cost 
would be if all materials were new and 
all labor fully paid at market prices 
current when the work was ordered. 

The Architect and Owner agree that 
the question of cost of executing de- 
signs for building is controlled by at 
least three factors: — (1) Fluctuating 
market conditions of labor and mate- 
rial which are beyond the control of 
either the Owner, the Contractor or 
the Architect. (2) Quantity and elab- 
oration of material and labor which is 
entirely within the control of the 
Owner with the advice of his Archi- 
tect. (3) Purchasing skill which is 
largely in the hands of the Architect. 
It is therefore mutually agreed that it 
shall be the duty of the Owner to 
choose between fixing limits on the 
character of design and quantity of 
materials or on ultimate cost, since at 
any time these two factors might be 
made incompatible by changing mar- 
ket conditions, or unforeseeable prac- 
tical difficulties, and if the Owner 
elects to fix an absolute limit on ulti- 



mate cost, the Architect shall always 
be at liberty to make such alteration 
in design, specification and size, or 
any of them, as shall make it possible 
to bring the cost within the restric- 
tions imposed by the Owner prescrib- 
ing ultimate cost. 

Article IV. The Architect and the 
Owner agree that the Illinois Building 
Contract Documents shall be used for 
the General Conditions to contracts 
between the Owner and Contractors, 
and the status of the Architect and 
relation between the Owner, Contract- 
ors and the Architect shall be as here- 
inafter especially enumerated, to-wit: 

(a) In the supervision of the work, 
if by any contract, the Architect is 
made the interpreter of the drawings 
and specifications forming a part of 
any contract between the Owner and 
any Contractor; as such, it is his duty 
to define their true intent and mean- 
ing without fear or favor. He is to act 
in this capacity as an expert untram- 
meled arbitrator licensed so as to act, 
by the people of the State of Illinois. 
In so acting, he is not the agent of 
the Owner, and while acting in that 
capacity the Owner shall have no right 
to command his acts or decisions or in 
any way threaten or intimidate him in 
the honest discharge of his duty as an 
arbitrator. 

(b) In cases of emergency only, the 
Architect has authority as a public 
officer to order extra work or mate- 
rials, in order to safeguard human life 
or property. 

(c) The Architect in his advisory 
capacity will not recommend by speci- 
fications or otherwise, any materials 
nor any contracting companies in 
which he has a financial interest, with- 
out fully informing the Owner of his 
connection or interest in same and ob- 
taining owner's consent so to do. In 
all such cases he shall be deemed in- 
competent to act as arbitrator on ques- 
tions between the Owner and the said 
Contractor, in any matters which may 
be disputed between them. 

(d) Since by the terms and condi- 
tions of this agreement it is made the 
duty of the Architect to advise the 
Owner as to design, construction and 
methods of procedure, the Architect, 
during the preparation or preliminary 
studies, general drawings, specifica- 
tions and details, shall not be consid- 
ered as being guilty of insubordination 
or failure to carry out the instructions 
of the Owner if he submits design for 
approval or makes recommendations 
contrary to the Owner's previously ex- 



192 



Buildings 



July, 



pressed instructions, for it is mutually 
understood between them that it is the 
duty of the Architect to give the 
Owner the full benefit of his skill and 
experience. 

Article V. The Architect and Owner 
agree that the following items of pro- 
fessional service are in addition to the 
services required by this Agreement, 
and if required by the Owner ur in 
the judgment of the Architect are nec- 
essary on account of unusual and pe- 
culiar complications of the work, are 
to be paid for as hereinafter stated, 
to-wit : 

(a) The Owner is to pay for the 
service of any specialists which may 
be required for additional service on 
unusual problems in Heating, Venti- 
lating, Mechanical, Structural, Elec- 
trical and Sanitary problems. Nothing 
in this clause, however, relieves the 
Architect from the requirement to 
carefully compute and prepare com- 
plete detail plans and specifications for 
these portions of the work, exercising 
technical skill and usual care in the 
preparation of same. The Owner is 
to pay for special chemical and me- 
chanical tests and service. 

(b) The Owner is to pay for all nec- 
essary traveling expenses other than 
between the Architect's office and the 
building site. 

(c) If the Owner requires a special 
clerk-of -works or inspector, he is to be 
selected by the Architect and work un- 
der his, the Architect's, direction, but 
his salary is to be paid by the Owner 
in addition to regular fee for pro- 
fessional service. 

(d) If, after a definite scheme has 
been approved, changes in drawings, 
specifications or other documents are 
required by the owner; or if the ar- 
chitect be put to extra labor or ex- 
pense by the delinquency or insolvency 
of a contractor, the architect shall be 
paid for such additional services and 
expense. 

(e) What are commonly known as 
"Shop-drawings" if necessary to the 
execution of the work are to be fur- 
nished by the contractor or otherwise 
and are not required to be furnished 
by the Architect. 

Article VI. (Here fill in any addi- 
tional conditions, which i^ay be re- 
quired.) 

"The Architect and the Owner, for 
themselves, their heirs, successors, 
executors, administrators and assigns, 
hereby covenant and agree that they 
will fully perform each and every con- 



dition of the above-mentioned agree- 
ment. 

"In Witness Whereof the parties 
have hereunto set their hands and 
seals the day and year first above 
written." 

Architect (Seal). 
Owner (Seal). 



Specifications for Metal Lath 
Construction 

Specifications for metal lath con- 
struction, the combined result of 
many months of investigation into the 
specifications of leading architects, in- 
spection of actual construction in all 
parts af the country, research into 
scores of building codes, circulating 
questionnaires among contractors and 
composing the views of the competing 
manufacturers, have been issued. The 
specifications are written upon the 
basis of weight only. This is the 
method adopted at the public confer- 
ence held by the U. S. Department 
of Commerce through its Bureau of 
Standards and used in the American 
Concrete Institute Stucco Report. 
Among other advantages to the archi- 
tect, this system has reduced the 73 
or more different styles, weights, 
gauges and combinations of lath, 
which the architect needed to be 
familiar with, to only 10 different 
weights distributed between expanded 
metal lath, flat rib lath and %-in. 
rib lath. The specifications have been 
approved by the Associated Metal 
Lath Manufacturers and the Ameri- 
can Specification Institute. The speci- 
fications cover the quality of materials 
and methods of application of all 
types of metal lath expanded from 
sheets used for the following con- 
structions : 

Wood stud and joist construction; 
back-plastered metal lath stucco con- 
struction; stucco on metal lath over 
sheathing; overcoating stucco on 
metal lath; metal stud partitions, 
solid or hollow (fireproof buildings) ; 
metal stud partitions, solid or hollow 
(non-fireproof buildings) ; wall fur- 
ring; standing furring; attached ceil- 
ings, steel floor beams; attached ceil- 
ings under concrete (removable 
forms) ; attached to concrete ceilings 
(permanent forms) ; suspended ceil- 
ings; beams and cornices; columns 
and pilasters; corner and jamb rein- 
forcement in block partition construc- 
tion; metal lath in steel joist con- 
struction; alternate specifications for 
maximum economy. 



1923 



Buildings 



193 



Permanence of Timber Work 
in Dikes 

An extensive investigation has been 
made recently in the First New York 
Engineer District to determine how 
far above the low water plane the per- 
manence of timber work in the dike 
can be counted on. Some interesting 
results of the investigation are given 
by John D. Myton, Assistant U. S. 
Engineer, First New York District, in 
the current issue of The Military En- 
gineer. 

As is generally known, the Hudson 
River, although of ample depth for 
navigation for many miles above New 
York, was originally very shoal for 
about 30 miles below Troy. Its im- 
provement was undertaken by the 
state as early as 1797, and by the 
United States in 1834. This was ef- 
fected by the construction of longi- 
tudinal dikes and by dredging. In all, 




Dike on West Shore of Coxsockie Island, 
Showing: Hole in Rock Fill 

31 miles of dike have been constructed, 
some of which date back to 1834. 
Many of the dikes consist of a double 
row of round piling, with square tim- 
ber walings on the front and back, tied 
together with iron or timber ties, the 
dike being filled with rubble stone to, 
or above, the top of the piles. Most 
of the piles are local pine and the 
square timber is yellow pine. 

The water in the river in the reach 
under improvement is fresh, but the 
level fluctuates with the tide during 
the low-water season. The average 
range of tide in the reach is 3.4 ft. 

In the older dikes the timber work 
is carried to about high tide elevation. 
The upper part of this timber work, 
which is exposed to the weather for 
the greater part of the time, has de- 
cayed and the bolts and tie rods have 
become loosened. The deterioration 



is shown on the accompanying photo- 
graphs, both of which are of dikes con- 
structed in 1893 with the top of the 
timber work at about high tide level. 

There is under contemplation an ex- 
tensive program for the repair and 
reconstruction of the dikes, including 
the construction of superstructures to 
raise all dikes to a grade line equiva- 
lent to the 10-ft. freshet stage at 




Dike on West Shore of Schermerhorn Island, 
Fill Washed Out 



Albany. In designing the work under 
this program it was necessary to de- 
termine the height above the mean 
low-water plane at which the timber 
would not be affected by decay. An 
examination of some 200 piles in the 
oldest of the existing structures was 
made, generally by boring into the 
piles from the top or, if the tie rods 
or spikes prevented this, by boring 
into the sides of the piles through the 
heart. In these tests, it was found 
that the wood was sound to heights 
generally between one and two feet 
above mean low-water. In but very 
few cases had the decay of the piles 
as a whole extended below the eleva- 
tion of one ft. above mean low- water. 

Tests of Timber Work in Hudson River Dikes 
Troy to Albany 

Elevation below 

Age iof Elevation of top which wood was 

Piles of pile above local found to be sound 

Yrs. M. L. W.-Ft. Local M. L. W. 

Ft. 

26 1.70 1.30 

27 1.65 1.45 

28 3.60 3.10 
28 3.70 3.20 
28 3.70 2.70 
28 3.60 2.70 
45 2.01 1.60 
45 2.01 1.85 
49 2.50 1.00 
49 2.45 1.95 
52 2.95 1.45 
52 2.85 1.05 . 
55 2.20 1.70 
55 1.60 1.20 



194 



Buildings 



July, 



Corrosion of Iron in Concrete 



Results of Some Swiss Investigations 

In a report on the corrosion of iron 
in concrete Mr. Bruno Zschokke, of 
the Zurich Institute for Testing Ma- 
terials, according to Concrete and 
Constructional Engineering, London, 
recommends the following precau- 
tions: 

(1) The concrete should not be too 
meagre, but should contain the best 
percentage of cement so as to make 
it impermeable to air. Thus, the pro- 
portion of calcium hydrate, which 
prevents oxidation, is increased, and 
the concrete is also more impermeable 
to carbonic acid, which neutralises the 
lime. 

(2) There must be no substances in 
the concrete such as locomotive cin- 
ders, often containing sulphur, which 
exert a cherriical action on iron. 

(3) Th3 layer of concrete covering 
the iron should be of sufficient thick- 
ness properly to coveir it, and should 
not crack under pressure or through 
shrinkage. 

The report states: 

The Gary Experiments. — It has 
been demonstrated by the experiments 
of Gary that a compact cement or con- 
crete in sufficient thickness will pro- 
tect iron against oxidation for a con- 
siderable length of time, provided that 
the cracks due to shrinkage do not 
reach the iron. 

The experiments also demonstrated 
that a coating of red lead on the iron 
will prevent rust during five years. 
It must, however, be noted that the 
concrete employed in the experiments 
was not of the composition usually 
used in building construction, but was 
a mixture of 1 part of cement to 4 
parts of sand, perfectly free from 
cracks. 

The problem of the prevention of 
the formation of creeks in shrinkage 
has not yet been solved, and as they 
make their apeparance in rich con- 
crete oftener than in meagre, the 
question arises as to whether oxida- 
tion cannot be more surely prevented 
by other methods than those specified. 

It has yet to be ascertained whether 
the action of solutions of chromates 
cannot be profitably applied to pro- 
tect iron in concrete. To elucidate 
this the point to be examined is 
whether the effect of these solutions 
when mixed with certain other saline 
solutions, or even solid substances, 
would not be more or less affected or 



even nullified. This is the case with 
alkaline sulphates, chlorides, and 
alkaline earth, e.g., sea salt, calcium 
chloride, magnesium chloride, Glauber 
salts, etc. Thus, when iron is exposed 
to the action of sea-water or salt 
marshes the use of chromates is out 
of the question. 

Rust Prevention System s. — The 
principal systems hitherto adopted to 
prevent rust consist in the production 
of a magnetic oxide film in coating 
the iron with another non-oxidable 
metal by galvanisation, electrolysis, 
spraying by the Schoop method, etc., 
ordinary varnishing, or coating with 
an oily substance. 

The Zschokke method, however, con- 
sists in the utilization of the known 
property of some salts which makes 
iron passive when immersed in aque- 
ous solutions concentrated to a de- 
gree exceeding a certain limit, usually 
very low. The most energetic of these 
salts comprise chromium salts, espe- 
cially sodium bichromate and mono- 
chromate. 

Experiments to Find Influence of 
Cement on Protective Chromates. — To 
ascertain the influence of cement on 
the protective chromates, especially in 
mixing, when the calcium hydrate is 
liberated, a small polished iron plate 
was dipped into a 0.5 per cent solution 
of potassium bichromate with 6 
grammes of portland cement under- 
neath. After a year the plate was 
covered with a pale grey film of cal- 
cium hydrate, without a trace of rust, 
a proof that the calcium hydrate dis- 
engaged by the cement had no action 
on the chromates. Moreover, the 
hydrate and potassium or sodium bi- 
chromate form a potassium or sodium 
mono-chromate and calcium chromate, 
the last mentioned possessing passive 
properties in a high degree, as demon- 
strated by the experiments. 

Then cements were made with solu- 
tions of chromates to test the protec- 
tive action, and also with ordinary 
water, for comparison. A polished 
steel plate was coated with this ce- 
ment, the weight of the coat being 
estimated dry and made equal for all 
the plates of the same series. The 
other side of the plate and edges were 
washed over with an asphalte varnish. 
It was noted, and this is a very im- 
portant point, that adhesion _ of the 
cement to the iron varies considerably 
with the amount of water. When the 
cement is too dry it separates from 
the metal in drying, whilst with a 
suitable quantity of water (40 per 



1923 



Buildings 



195 



cent to 50 per cent) a crust forms on 
the metal. When frequently covered 
with water during the first five or six 
days this crust adheres so firmly that 
it cannot be detached even by striking 
it repeatedly with a hammer. 

When the cement had hardened the 
plates were laid with the cement side 
uppermost in glass dishes containing 
a layer of water. Then .the plates 
were sprayed once daily with a mix- 
ture of equal parts of distilled water 
and Seltzer water, i.e., water contain- 
ing carbonic acid. The dishes were 
then closed with a glass lid, and kept 
at an ordinary temperature. After a 
few weeks or some months the plates 
with ordinary cement were spotted 
with rust, whereas the others were 
absolutely free from rust. 

How Iron Can Be Protected from 
Oxidation. — According to these experi- 
ments iron in concx-ete can be pro- 
tected against oxidation in two ways. 
In the first place it can be coated over 
with a chi'omate cement and, when 
this has set, embedded in concrete in 
the ordinary way, or, second, the con- 
crete can be mixed with the chromate 
water. 

The first method has the advantage 
of thoroughly protecting the iron, 
more so as the thin coat of cement 
cannot crack when properly applied, 
and the consumption of chromate is 
relatively small. Plates thus treated 
and kept for a year on the roof of the 
Zurich Institute for Testing Building 
Materials, exposed to all kinds of 
weather, were perfectly free from 
cracks and rust. There is no risk, 
in this method, of the water in the 
concrete affecting the chromate in the 
cement, as demonstrated by the fol- 
lowing test. Iron bars, 150 millimetres 
long and 18 in diameter, were coated 
with Portland cement and a concen- 
trated solution of calcium chromate, 
and other bars with the same cement 
mixed with a 5 per cent potassium bi- 
chromate solution, then left for 24 
hours to set. They were then put 
into an iron mould, which was after- 
wards filled with concrete made with 
1 part Portland and 3 parts of normal 
sand, mixed with 10 per cent of water. 
After eight days the two blocks were 
worked with a hammer and chisel 
until the thickness of the concrete on 
the bars was only two or three milli- 
metres. Finally the remaining con- 
crete was filed off from the coating 
of cement and the dust removed by 
lengthy immersion in hot water. The 



filtered water had not the least tint 
of yellow, a proof that the chromate 
cement was not affected by the wet 
concrete. 

In the second test the concrete 
mixed with the chromate solution was 
used. As yet the results of experi- 
ments on a large scale are not avail- 
able, but it may be taken for granted 
that the effect is the same and per- 
haps better than in the first method, 
as the quantity of chromate is rela- 
tively much greater compared with the 
mass of iron, an important point, al- 
ready noted by Heyn. 

A test was made which demonstrat- 
ed that chromates have no effect on 
the setting and resistance of cement. 

Only practical experiments, on a 
large scale, can show which of these 
two methods is preferable. Consump- 
tion of chromate, the price of which is 
not negligible, is much less in the first 
than in the second method; moreover, 
the cement coat protects the iron 
against rust much better than a 
meagre porous concrete. On the 
other hand, coating iron with chro- 
mate cement involves expense, whilst 
the second method requires a greater 
percentage of protective materials but 
has the advantage of greater simplic- 
ity as the chromate solution supplied 
by the maker in the proper percentage 
can be added to the water when mak- 
ing the concrete. The extra expense 
estimated on the basis of Zurich prices 
would be 3 to 4 per cent. As previous- 
ly observed, iron is thus only protected 
against ordinary atmospheric effects. 
Acid emanations, for example, would 
decompose chromates. 



Training School for Bricklayers 

A training school for bricklayers 
has been conducted by the General 
Contractors of St. Paul and Minneap- 
olis since March, 1921. A fund was 
subscribed for it, and a competent 
bricklayer hired as instructor. The re- 
sponse to public notices given has been 
quite ample, and the school is expected 
to be permanent. The course is for 
six months, at a tuition charge of $5, 
which is refunded to those who attend 
75 per cent of the sessions. There are 
no age restrictions, and the best stu- 
dents are found to be from 24 to 35. 
The cost of training a man is about 
?350; the average time required is five 
months, at an average cost of $7 a 
month; and 100 students are now 
enrolled. 



196 



Buildings 



•Tuly, 



Why Some Structures Fail 

Interesting Failures in Structural Work 
Cited in The Canadian Engineer 

By R. FLEMING, 

American Bridge Co., New Yorlc. 

Study of structural failures brings 
to mind such monumental disasters as 
the collapse of the Tay and Quebec 
bridges or the more recent one of the 
Knickerbocker theater, Washington. 
But the whole history of structural 
engineering is dotted with failures. 
Their varied nature may be inferred 
from the following titles taken from 
Engineering News-Record of the past 
three years: 

Ford Car Wrecks Steel Bridge; 

Floors Fall During Reconstruction 
of a Philadelphia Building; 

Rusted Columns of Tank Tower 
Buckle; 

Shallow Foundation Causes Build- 
ing Failure; 

Overloaded Wall Buckles; 

30-Ton Gantry Crane Blown Off 
Pier; 

Dust Explosion at Large Chicago 
Grain Elevator — Steel and Concrete 
Superstructure Wrecked; 

Bridge Accident at Chester, Pa., 
Causes 24 Deaths — Sidewalk Bracket 
Falls Under Weight of- Crowd When 
Cracked Gusset Plate Tears Apart; 

Column and Truss Bracing Blamed 
for Brooklyn Theater Collapse; 

Flat-Slab Reservoir at Canton, Ohio, 
Collapses; 

Trestle Collapse Due to Freshet; 

Part of Old Nine-Story Building 
Collapses During Reconstruction; 

Falsework Failure Wrecks Large 
Highway Bridge; 

Erection Derrick Falls with Steel 
Framework of School. 

The majority of failures, however, 
are not reported in the technical press. 
This is especially true if there are no 
serious results. And it is these minor 
failures that most interest the aver- 
age structural engineer because they 
come within the range of his own ex- 
perience. 

Typical Unrecorded Failures. — A 

dozen failures and near-failures that 
have been brought to the attention of 
the writer and not heretofore recorded 
will be mentioned in what follows. 



The latches and end supports of a 
railroad swing bridge were constantly 
getting out of order. The cause was 
finally attributed to long trains, most- 
ly of coal cars, passing one way over 
the bridge fully loaded while the 
trains passing the other way were al- 
most invariably of empty cars. 

A railroad bridge in New York was 
on a skew, one truss being fully a 
panel ahead of fie other. After the 
bridge had been in use two or three 
months, word came to the fabricating 
firm that the counters in one of the 
panels were stressed under certain 
conditions to 22,000 or 24,000 lb. per 
sq. in. Those were the days of iron. 
The erector on being asked where he 
had placed the counters wrote back, 
"I put the biggest diagonals where 
there was the biggest strain." The 
marking plan was none too clear, so 
he discarded it and used his own 
judgment with the result that he had 
interchanged the main and counter 
ties. An erection gang was sent at 
once to correct his mistake. Why did 
the structure stand during the few 
months before the change was made? 

A highway bridge in Texas rested 
on cylinder piers, consisting of iron 
cylinders filled with concrete. The butt 
end of a tree brought down the river 
by a freshet owing to an eddy in the 
swift current entered between the two 
cylinders at one end instead of pass- 
ing by them. It was soon stopped, the 
tree swung round and acting as a lever 
overturned one of the piers and the 
span dropped. 

Bull Topples Bridge. — Some cattle 
were being driven across a highway 
bridge in Connecticut. The bull balked 
and backed himself against the low 
pony truss with such force that it 
toppled over. The bull was killed and 
the bridge wrecked. 

A train shed with open sides and 
sheet metal covering on roof and 
gables was wrecked in a wind storm. 
The wind blew from beneath and so 
well was the covering fastened that 
the trusses were wrenched from the 
columns. In cup-shaped sections ex- 
posed to wind the pressure is proble- 
matical and a liberal assumption 
should be made in design. 

In one of the largest office buildings 
in New York City the superintendent's 
attention was directed to a certain 
floor that showed signs of distress. 
The tenant of the office in question 



1923 



Buildings 



197 



had filled it with steel shapes and 
models, greatly overloading the floors. 
This led to the employment of an en- 
gineer to examine the loads on the 
floors of every room in the building, 
with the result that three or four of 
more than ordinary weight were per- 
emptorily ordered to be removed. 

In another building a few blocks 
away, occupied mostly by jewellers, 
three or four columns were settling 
considerably and cracking the walls. 
It was found that on several floors 
heavy safes had been set against the 
walls in almost the same location. 

The upper story of an industrial 
building was used as an office. The 
roof trusses had been built with rather 
heavy bottom chords. So a light floor 
was built upon them, and the space 
gained used to store papers and rec- 
ords. This was continued for several 
years until a warning caused an inves- 
tigation of strength to be made. The 
haste with which boxes filled with 
books and papers were removed was 
quite remarkable. 

Dust Load Disastrous. — During a 
long dry season nearly an inch of dust 
collected on one of the roofs of a 
cement plant. A heavy shower came, 
a cloud-burst, the dust was carried 
into the valley gutter, making such 
a load that several trusses sheared off 
at the heel and dropped. 

A yard crane runway was thrown 
out of alignment by an outward move- 
ment of the columns. Lateral pres- 
sure was transmitted through the not 
very compact soil by the great heaps 
of scrap iron piled near the tops of 
piers, pushing them and the bases of 
columns sideways. The late James 
Christie for his own work insisted 
that out-of-door crane runways, espe- 
cially those on made ground, should 
have the supporting columns extended 
to carry a system of horizontal brac- 
ing above and across the runway. The 
reason he gave was that if any set- 
tlement of piers took place the rails 
and girders would be kept the same 
distance center to center. An instance, 
however, where this is not sufficient 
is a runway in a manufacturing build- 
ing where the crane girders are at- 
tached to the columns carrying the 
roof trusses. Raw material piled near 
the columns have pushed the piers 
laterally. The bottom chords of the 
roof trusses have buckled, throwing 
the crane rails and girders badly out 
of alignment. 



The concrete piers supporting a 
large tower of a transmission line 
were filled with cracks and beginning 
to disintegrate. The tower was of the 
common 4-leg type with angle diagon- 
als on each vertical face from the base 
of each leg. The owners claimed that 
the cracking of the piers was due to 
the absence of a horizontal tie or 
strut connecting the bottoms of the 
legs. The engineer sent by the firm 
fabricating the steel work to make an 
investigation found that the anchor 
bolts had been set in collars, that the 
spaces left by the collars after being 
withdrawn had not been filled with 
concrete and were filled with water. 
This gave the solution at once. Dur- 
ing the previous winter the water had 
frozen and cracked the concrete. 

Frost Failures. — Failures from' 
water freezing and bursting its con- 
fines are not uncommon. In one case 
a score of cast iron column bases that 
had not been embedded in concrete be- 
came filled with water and cracked 
during the first winter from the water 
freezing. They had to be replaced at 
considerable expense. "Weep holes" 
should always be provided for the 
closed portions of castings. If not 
done water is liable to collect at the 
foundry before shipment, during 
transportation, or at the site before 
erection. 

Can failures in structural work be 
prevented ? Not altogether. Acci- 
dents, which no amount of human 
forethought can avert, will continue to 
occur to the end of time. Even fail- 
ures due to faulty design, poor details, 
carelessness in erection, are prevent- 
able only in a measure. Experience is 
the great teacher. It is said that 
Brunei would congratulate his em- 
ployers upon the failure of a bridge 
on the score of its preventing the erec- 
tion of a hundred more on the same 
plan. The failure of the Tay bridge 
led to a new study of wind pressures 
and wind stresses. The Quebec bridge 
disaster led to a study of the latticing 
of compression members. The fre- 
quency of highway bridge failures un- 
der motor trucks is leading to an ex- 
amination of existing bridges. Sane 
building regulations with competent 
enforcement will undoubtedly do much 
in the way of lessening the number of 
failures and accidents but will not en- 
tirely abolish them. 



198 



Buildings 



July, 



Comparative Test of Haydite 

and Rock Concrete 

Beams 

On account of the proposal to use 
Haydite concrete in several important 
buildings in Oklahoma City, Okla., it 
was decided to make a comparative 
test, using concrete made with Hay- 
dite aggregate in one case, and con- 
crete made with the local rock and 
sand aggregate in the other case. The 
test is described in the Western Con- 
tractor by B. S. Myers, Chief Engi- 
neer, Capitol Steel & Iron Co., Okla- 
homa City. We quote from his ar- 
ticle as follows: 

The quantity of the Haydite available 
for this test was very limited, and 
the size of the test beams were re- 
stricted accordingly. The Haydite 
used was obtained from a local con- 
tractor who had been furnished the 
material from regular stock of The 
Haydite Co. of Kansas City, Mo. 

The beams tested were "T" section, 
being 6 in. deep and 5 in. wide, and 
the flange 2 in. thick and 12 in. wide. 
The beams were reinforced at the 
bottom by 2%-in. round rods with 
5/16-in. round stirrups at 5 in. centers. 

The test beams were reinforced 
sufficiently to guarantee failure in the 
concrete in compression. In both 
cases the concrete was proportioned 
carefully by volume, a 1:2:4 mixture 
being used. A minimum amount of 
water was used to secure a workable 
mixture, and the same care was used 
in mixing and placing the concrete 
in both cases. 

After the beams were poured, they 
were placed in a room in which the 
temperature was kept at about 70° 
day and night until the test was made 
on the tenth day. The test specimens 
were covered with sand and kept well 
wet down twice each day. 

How the Test Was Made. — The 
beams were supported on rocker bear- 
ings, consisting of two steel plates 
6 in. by i/^ in. by 1 ft. in. with a 
IVh in. round steel rod between the 
two plates. The loads were applied 
iq increments of 1,000 lbs. and IM^ 
in. square reinforcing bars were used 
for the loading. A wood block 5 in. 
by 2 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. was placed in 
the center of the beam to receive the 
load and to prevent any of the load 
being applied at the edge of the 
flanges of the beam. The first layer 



of bars had a total weight of 1,500 
lbs. and were placed on the beam with 
one end of the bars resting on a plat- 
form scale. The bars were shifted in 
position until the scale registered a 
weight of exactly 500 lbs. The addi- 
tional layers of bars, weighing 1,000 
lbs. each were placed in position on 
the beam so as to maintain the 500 
lbs. balance on the scale. 

Results of the Test. — The following 
table shows the theoretical stresses 
on the steel and the concrete, and 
the deflection of the beams 7 in. from 
the center line for the load indicated: 

Deflection. 
Stress, lb. per Stone and 

Load, sq. in. sand. Haydite. 

lbs. Steel. Concrete. In. In. 

1.000 .. 6,000 425 .11 .13 

2,000 ..12,000 850 .21 .24 

3,000 ..18,000 1,275 .32 .36 

4,000 ..24,000 1,700 .44 .48 

5,000 ..30,000 2,125 .59 .61 

6.000 ..36,000 2,550 .75 .75 

7,000 ..42.000 2,975 1.02 .93 

7.300 ..43,000 3,112 

8,000 ..48,000 3,400 .... 1.60 

The beam made of rock and sand 
concrete required a load of 7,300 lbs. 
to cause failure at which time the con- 
crete was stressed to 3,112 lbs. per 
square inch. The concrete in this 
beam was very dense, and the beam 
had a smooth, neat appearance when 
the forms were removed. When the 
forms were removed from the Hay- 
dite beam, the concrete appeared to 
be quite porous and of not as good a 
quality as the other beam. 

About 25 engineers and architects 
witnessed the test, and it was their 
unanimous opinion that the Haydite 
beam would fail under a considerable 
less load than the rock and sand con- 
crete beam. However, a load of 8,000 
lbs. was required to cause failure, 
at which time the concrete was 
stressed to 3,400 lbs. per square inch 
maximimi. The beams were weighed 
in order to determine the weight of 
the concrete per cubic foot in each 
beam. The Haydite concrete weighed 
108 lbs. per cubic foot and the rock 
and sand concrete 144 lbs. per cubic 
foot. 

Haydite is an artificial aggregate 
for concrete, made by burning clay 
or shale to a clinker in much the 
same way as the clinker is formed 
in the process of manufacturing ce- 
ment. This clinker is placed in stock 
piles and crushed to the desired sizes 
required for the making of concrete. 



1923 



Buildings 



199 



The California Day Labor Law 

The new law passed this year by the 
Legislature of California relating to 
public work done by day labor requires 
the filing of a certificate by public 
officials sho\\-ing the total cost of the 
work they do by day labor. The pro- 
visions of the law are as follows : 

Section 1. — It shall be the duty of 
the state highway engineer, the state 
engineer, the state architect and of 
! every county engineer, county _ sur- 
veyor, city and county engineer, 
county highway engineer, road com- 
missioner, city engineer, commissioner 
of public works, superintendent of 
streets, harbor engineer, flood control 
engineer, and the engineer of any 
reclamation, irrigation or other dis- 
trict, political subdivision or agency of 
the state directing, super\'ising or 
superintending the construction, or in 
charge of enginf ering work for or in 
connection with the construction of 
any bridge, road, street, highway, 
ditch, canal, dam, tunnel, excavation, 
building or structure within the state 
by day's labor or force account, except 
emergency and maintenance work and 
work costing le^^s than ten thousand 
dollars. 

(a) to keep accurate account of the 
cost of such work, 

(b) to prepare and file in his office, 
prior to the commencement of the 
work, full, complete and accurate 
plans and specifications, and an esti- 
mate of the cost thereof, except where 
other and adequate pro\-ision is made 
by law requiring the preparation and 
filing of such plans, specifications and 
estimates of cost by some other officer 
or in some other office; and, 

(c) upon completion of any work, 
to prepare and file in the office of the 
county clerk of the county in which 
the work is performed, or if any such 
reclamation, irrigation or other dis- 
trict maintains an office then in the 
office of his own such district instead 
of the office of the county clerk, a cer- 
tificate in writing verified by him, in 
the same manner as complaints in ci\'il 
actions, setting forth 

(d) the estimate of cost, 

(e) names of bidders with prices 
bid, 

(f ) changes in adopted or approved 
plans and specifications. 

(g) that the work performed has or 
has not been done in accordance with 
such plans and specifications, 

(h) a list of any publicly-owned 
equipment used in the work, and 



(i) an itemized statement of the 
actual cost of all labor, materials, 
rentals, repairs, compensation, and 
other insurance, transportation of 
labor, equipment and materials, engi- 
neering or architectural services in- 
cluding the services of public em- 
ployees in connection with the work, 
and any and all other cost entering 
into the work performed. 

(j) including a reasonable amount 
for depreciation of publicily-owned 
equipment used in the work and the 
cost of repairs thereon while so used. 

Section 2. — Such plans, specifica- 
tions and certificates shall be open to 
inspection and examination as a pub- 
lic record. 



Sales of Federal Timber 

Sales of timber from the national 
forests during the fiscal year ending 
June 30 were greater than in any like 
period, the Forest Service, United 
States Department of Agriculture, has 
announced. 

With the recent sale of 685 million 
board feet, mostly Douglas fir, from 
the Cascade National Forest in Ore- 
gon, the total for the 12 months is 
between 2,500 million and 3,000 
million board feet, according to pre- 
liminary figures. The estimated cut 
will be between 900 million and 1,000 
million board feet, the latter figure 
representing an increase of nearly 250 
million board feet over the cut of the 
preceding fiscal year. 

Management plans for the national 
forests provide for the cutting and 
removal of the matured crop of tim- 
ber in such a manner that reforesta- 
tion of the cut-over areas will insure a 
perpetual timber supply. Units of 
management called working circles are 
laid out and a limitation of cut fixed 
for each. 

In some areas the timber is clean 
cut, and a new stand is obtained by 
leaving seed trees; but in most in- 
stances the smaller trees left stand- 
ing constitute the next potential cut. 
Artificial restocking or planting of 
young trees is confined almost entirely 
to old burned-over areas upon which 
nature is exceedingly slow in estab- 
lishing tree growth. 

From 40 to upwards of 100 years 
are required to complete the cutting 
and removal of timber from the usual 
working circle, thus providing for a 
new growth of matured timber by the 
time the sawyer returns to the start- 
ing point. 



200 



Buildings 



July, 



Engineering Office Standards 

The need for universal standard for 
the drafting room is pointed out by 
Robert W. Shelmire in an article in 
the Professional Engineer, from which 
we quote the following: 

Every company has its own set of 
standards and how jealous they are of 
them. But why do not engineers see 
the desirability of universal standards 
rather than standards useful in one 
office only? Each plant must stand- 
ardize work to suit its own equipment, 
of course, but numerous things could 
be standardized and made universal at 
least throughout the English speaking 
world. 

Those who despise standards on 
general principles probably want to 
know, "What, for instance?" Threads, 
rails, building codes, the sizes of 
drawings and many other things. If 
engineers could come to some agree- 
ment on rail sections there would be 
millions saved in the manufacture of 
frogs, switches, angle bars, and at- 
tachments not to mention the saving 
in rolling-mill equipment. If engi- 
neers had cooperated years ago and 
adopted universal fire hose couplings, 
part of Baltimore burned in the great 
fire might have been saved. As it was, 
engines from adjacent cities had dif- 
ferent threads on their hose coup- 
lings. 

My present purpose, however, is not 
so broad. It is not necessary to scrap 
all the machinery now in use in order 
that the world may be standardized. 
It is only desired to call attention to a 
few things that would tend to simplify 
office details. To have a standard list 
of abbreviations for use on drawings 
among English speaking people would 
be very useful. It should not be a 
book containing all the words it is pos- 
sible to shorten for this would defeat 
the very object of simplicity. There 
are now too many miscellaneous words 
abbreviated. What we need is a short 
list of abbreviations, of the words 
used most frequently. 

An examination of drawings from 
various offices discloses a lack of uni- 
formity on this point, and many words 
are abbreviated in more than one way. 
"Plate" is usually shortened to pi. but 
sometimes to p. and pit. "Bottom"; 
bot., bott., btm. "Special"; sp., spc, 
spl. What is the sense of abbreviat- 
ing a word of only six letters to four 
letters and a period ? And how absurd 
to abbreviate such a word as "special" 
in order to save two or three letters 



and thereby interpose some doubt as 
to its meaning when the very nature 
of the word calls for particular atten- 
tion. If R. C. indicates "rain con- 
ductor" then it ought not to mean "re- 
inforced concrete." H. P. stands for 
"horse power." Therefore, it is best 
not to abbreviate "high pressure" or 
"hydraulic pressure" in the same way. 
No one but a lazy draftsman would 
abbreviate "steel" to stl. but it is often 
done just to save two small e's. 
T. C. D. according to one architect 
means "terra cotta drain." E. O. T. 
means "electric overhead traveling" 
(crane). There is no limit to abbre- 
viations such as these which cause no 
amount of trouble. 

Nearly every writer who gives a list 
of abbreviations limits its use to one 
particular branch of engineering. 
Drawings circulate among all the va- 
rious tradesmen and classes of engi- 
neers so there is no justification for 
limiting standards of this nature to 
one class of work. What must the 
carpenter and the plumber say when 
they compare drawings with different 
nomenclature on the same job ? The 
problem is not a local one though, for 
the work may be in Australia and the 
drawings come from both England 
and America. We need universal 
standards because drafting is a uni- 
varsal language. The world has 
shrunk in the last few years. Amer- 
ica is isolated no more. Methods of 
projection, symbols, abbreviations, 
systems of weights and measures and 
numerous fundamentals used in engi- 
neering and architectural office prac- 
tice must eventually be made common 
to all countries. Why not begin to 
think about it now ? 

Not the least of the benefits to be 
derived from a more uniform practice 
in the art of drafting is the greater 
efficiency which follows any simplify- 
ing process. Draftsmen who must 
shift frequently from office to office, 
instead of spending weeks and months 
leai'ning office standards each time, 
would have to learn them but once; 
that is to say, those things which 
would yield to a universal standard. I 
have known a good engineering 
draftsman to require four months to 
pick up his accustomed speed after 
shifting to a new office, much of this 
time being spent in learning different 
ways of doing the same things. 
Standards should only be adopted 
through a representative body. We 
have too many one-man standards 
now. 



Buildings 



201 



Tests of Kollow Tile and Rein- 
forced Concrete Floors 

Some time ago the U. S. Bureau of 
Standards conducted an investigation 
of the stresses in certain of the floor 
panels of the Arlington Building, 
Washington, D. C. This building was 
designed for use as a hotel, but was 
purchased by the Government and oc- 
cupied by a branch of the Treasury 
Department. This change of occu- 
pancy considerably increased the live 
load which was taken care of by an 
additional layer of concrete on top of 
the floor panels. These panels are 
constructed of hollow tile and rein- 
forced concrete supported on rein- 
forced concrete beams. The tests are 
of unusual interest because they were 
among the first made on this type of 
construction and because of the pro- 
vision above mentioned for carrying 
the additional load. 

The test loads, consisting of bags of 
cement, were designed to produce the 
maximum positive and negative mo- 
ments. Strain measurements were 
taken of the concrete and the rein- 
forcing steel of the slabs and girders. 
In addition the deflections of the slab 
were measured, and it was found that 
the maximum stresses were developed 
at the positions of negative moment 
in the vicinity of the supporting 
beams. The beams at the edges of 
the panels offered so little resistance 
to torsion that the stresses in the 
steel across these beams, due to nega- 
tive moment, were but little affected 
by transfer of load between adjacent 
panels. While under load, the effect 
of time was very pronounced during 
the first 20 hours and comparatively 
small later. The increase in the de- 
formation, due to continued loading 
was greater in the reinforcement than 
in the concrete. The cracking of the 
concrete and the resulting great in- 
crease of the stresses in the reinforc- 
ing steel show that at first the con- 
crete carried a considerable portion 
of the tensile stresses. 

The moment coefficients were gener- 
ally small, and the Bureau does not 
sugge.st them for use in design, but 
simply to show the relative amount 
of the bending moment carried in the 
two directions. The effect on the mo- 
ment coefiicient of an increase in ratio 
of length to \\idth of the panel was 
a rapid increase of both positive and 
negative moments in the direction of 
the short span and a less rapid de- 
crease of both moments in the direc- 



tion of the long span. The factor of 
safety in the structure was apparently 
greater than 2. 

This investigation is described in 
Technologic Paper. No. 236 of the 
Bureau of Standards which can be ob- 
tained from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Of- 
fice, Washington, D. C, at 15 cts. a 
copy. 



A. A. E. to Ask Congressional 

Investigation of Davis 

Dismissal 

Request for a Congressional investi- 
gation of the dismissal of Arthur P. 
Davis as Director of the United States 
Reclamation Service was decided upon 
by President Webster L. Benham of 
the American Association of Engi- 
neers when he was in Chicago on July 
14, and received reports on the situa- 
tion. The Civil Service Reform 
League has been requested to look into 
the circumstances of the dismissal and 
take appropriate action. 

"Information from several sources 
all point to this course as the wise 
one," said President Webster L. Ben- 
ham. "We admit at the outset that in 
the selection of an executive, the per- 
son directly responsible for the work 
is entitled to exercise his judgment in 
appointing his subordinates. While 
this is the essence of executive con- 
trol, we view with grave concern the 
dismissal without notice of an ad- 
mittedly capable engineer who has 
been in administrative charge of an 
important government service for 
many years. We are particularly con- 
cerned in that such discharge is pur- 
ported to have been accompanied by 
threats intended to intimidate Mr. 
Da\is into giving out publicly a state- 
ment that the resignation was in- 
itiated by himself." 

"As I see the Reclamation Service, 
in its present stage," continued Presi- 
dent Benham, "It is a question of ad- 
ministration, in which understanding 
of the engineering side is important. 
An engineering administrator is the 
kind of business man who can best 
ser\-e the public in an essentially en- 
gineering undertaking and many men 
of this kind have been developed in 
the Reclamation Service. 

"An insistent demand, it is true, is 
being made by farmers on the Re- 
clamation projects to escape making 
the low payments of principal without 
interest for the works they are buying 
from the Government. That the farm- 



202 



Buildivgs 



July, 



er has been badly off economically, 
every one knows, but I do not believe 
those on the Reclamation Projects are 
any worse off than farmers in Kansas, 
Iowa, Oklahoma, Illinois, or Ohio, or 
should be any more readily excused 
from paying their just debts, 

"The Reclamation Law requires the 
repayment of monies invested by those 
benefited. Those who try to escape, 
seek to discredit the work and thus 
avoid repayment. By cutting off the 
repayments, the large revolving fund 
provided by the law will be destroyed, 
and the whole work will stop, with the 
consequent loss of potential homes for 
the American people, 

"These considerations have caused 
the American Association of Engi- 
neers, with its 175 chapters and 15,000 
members, to instruct its Committee on 
Political Policies to ask for Congres- 
sional investigation." 



The Effect of Accelerators on 
Reinforcing Steel 

A number of 1:2:4 concrete and 1:3 
mortar specimens in which steel rods 
have been embedded were broken dur- 
ing the past month, and an examina- 
tion made of the rods by the U, S, 
Bureau of Standards, Calcium chlo- 
ride solutions had been used for some 
of the specimens as the gaging liquid. 
An examination was also made of ex- 
panded metal which had been embed- 
ded in small slabs prepared from mor- 
tar gaged with a proprietory com- 
pound of the accelerator type. 

Some of the foregoing specimens 
were 5 and others 6 years old and 
all had been stored out of doors and 
exposed to the weather. According to 
a Technical News Bulletin of the 
Bureau, from this examination, it is 
concluded that while calcium chloride 
tends to corrode the reinforcement, the 
corrosion does not seem serious or of 
a progressive nature with age, in 
cases where the reinforcement is com- 
pletely embedded in the concrete. 
However, when using accelerators care 
should be taken to completely coat and 
embed the reinforcement and avoid 
pockets near it. The strength of the 
specimens which had been exposed to 
the weather was considerably higher 
when calcium chloride had been used 
than when it had not been employed. 
Sufficient specimens remain to allow 
another examination at a later date, 
and a comparison of the rod condition 
and strength will be made at different 
ages. 



Seasonable Operation in the Construc- 
tion Industries 

A committee has been appointed by 
Herbert Hoover to make a study of 
seasonable operation in construction. 
Commenting on the work of this com- 
mittee a news letter of the Associate 
General Contractors says: 

"Previous surveys have indicated 
that most construction activity is con- 
centrated in seven to ten months of 
the year, which means that building 
trades workers cannot find work in 
their trade during several months and 
that contractors' organizations and 
equipment, architects, engineers, 
building material producers, and 
others connected with construction 
must usually remain idle for similar 
periods. This idle time represents 
waste and direct losses to the con- 
struction industries themselves, their 
workers, and the public. 

"The committee was formed in the 
hope that by examining the facts and 
proposed remedies it might be able to 
suggest sound solutions and obtain 
general cooperation in effecting them. 
It is the general impression that sea- 
sonal building has been due perhaps 
more to custom than to weather, and 
it is expected that the investigation 
will throw light on this and other im- 
portant points," 



Large Granite Block Quarried by 
Means of Wedges. — An unusually 
large split that separated a piece of 
stone from the main sheet, 267 ft. 
long, 20 ft, wide and an average depth 
of 8 ft,, was made recently at the 
quarry of the John L. Goss Corpora- 
tion, at Stonington, Me,, according to 
"Stone." Larger blocks have been 
started in the Goss quarries, but with 
powder, while this great shaft of 
granite was split with 3-in. wedges. 
A few deep holes were drilled in the 
long line to explode powder in order 
to loosen the split and save the 
wedges, as there were some 2,400 of 
them. The block is said to be perfect 
in every way. Report? from Carrara, 
Italy, state that there will shortly be 
moved there a single block of marble 
weighing 50,000 tons. It has taken 
eight months to quarry this enormous 
mass, it being necessary to construct a 
35-yd. gallery for its removal from 
the bed. 



1923 



Buildings 



203 



Monthly Statistics of the Building Industry 



The accompanying tabulations are 

taken from the Survey of Current 

Business, a publication of the U. S. 

Department of Commerce. They 

show (1) the building contracts 

awarded by thousands of square feet, 

and thousands of dollars, (2) the in- 

dex numbers for building contracts 

? awarded, (3) the building material 

price index for frame and bnck 

. houses, (4) the cost index for con- 

i structing factory buildings, and (5) 

t the index numbers of wholesale prices 

I for structural steel, iron and steel, 

composite steel and composite finished 

steel. 

The figures on building contracts 
are based on data compiled by the 



F. W. Dodge Co., covering small 
towns and rural districts as well as 
large cities in 27 northeastern states. 
Prior to May, 1921, the building 
figures covered 25 northeastern states 
and the District of Columbia. The 
states are those north and east of, and 
including. North Dakota, South Da- 
kota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, and 
Virginia, together with portions of 
eastern Kansas and Nebraska. Be- 
ginning May, 1921, North Carolina 
and South Carolina were added to the 
list, but this addition is stated to have 
little effect upon the total. 

The price indexes for frame and 
brick houses are from the U. S. De- 
partment of Commerce, Bureau of 



Grand Total Index 

Building Contracts Numbers 



Building 
Material 
Price Cost 

Indexes Index Wholesale Prices 



Year and Month 

1913 monthly av.. 

1914 monthly av.. 

1915 monthly av.. 

1916 monthly av.. 

1917 monthly av.. 



1918 monthly av 

1919 monthly av 46,683 

1920 monthly av 33,491 

1921 monthly av 32,267 

1922 monthly av 47,745 

1921 

January 15,513 

February 16,807 

March 26.709 

April 34,494 

May 35,751 

June 35,738 

July 31,717 

August 35,246 

September 41,702 

October 40,436 

November 37,818 

December 35,272 

1922 

January .30,261 

February 30,061 

March .51,957 

April 58,146 

May 59.639 

June 60,526 

July .-_ 51,705 

August 54,019 

September 44,275 

October 46,806 

November 46,946 

December 38,603 

1923 

January 38,947 

February 41,611 

March 64,920 

April _„ 64.527 









i 


o 


— 




2 






•O a 






3 




t 


■3E? 


■r. 


o 


=^^ 


C ^ 








c 












c8 a 


w 


"5 
> 


SJ 

u 




- it 


5 si 


C 
si 

§ 

i-4 


1 
^1 


i 

ax 
E-2 

o = 


S71,475 




33 


100 


100 





100 


100 


100 


100 


60.020 




2(i 






100 


83 


87 


88 


86 


78.341 




36 








93 


94 


95 


92 


113.082 




53 








177 


1.54 


163 


161 


134,086 




63 








269 


266 


259 


252 


140,770 




65 








202 


215 


220 


213 


214.990 


iob 


100 








174 


191 


193 


188 


211,102 


72 


98 








187 


249 


211 


222 


196.648 


69 


91 






179 


131 


155 


156 


1.52 


279.410 


102 


130 


182 


186 


170 


115 


144 


134 


134 


111.608 


33 


52 
















100.677 


36 


47 
















164.092 


57 


76 
















220.886 


74 


103 



















242.094 


77 


113 






176 


146 


165 


170 


166 


227.711 


77 


106 






172 


146 


159 


165 


1.59 


212.491 


68 


99 






167 


139 


145 


153 


148 


220.721 


76 


103 






161 


123 


137 


144 


141 


246.186 


89 


115 






160 


123 


134 


138 


136 


222.480 


87 


103 






157 


116 


135 


134 


134 


192.311 


81 


89 


166 


173 


154 


106 


132 


133 


128 


198.518 


76 


92 


173 


179 


153 


99 


129 


130 


127 


166.320 


65 


77 


174 


179 


152 


99 


127 


126 


124 


177.473 


64 


83 


169 


174 


152 


99 


125 


124 


121 


293,637 


111 


137 


169 


173 


152 


96 


125 


122 


122 


353,162 


125 


164 


168 


172 


152 


99 


131 


126 


125 


362.590 


128 


169 


173 


176 


157 


106 


139 


127 


127 


343,440 


130 


160 


178 


181 


169 


106 


140 


129 


130 


350,081 


111 


163 


181 


184 


171 


109 


142 


130 


131 


322,007 


116 


150 


189 


193 


174 


116 


151 


137 


138 


271,493 


95 


126 


193 


197 


190 


137 


166 


146 


146 


253.137 


100 


118 


196 


199 


192 


141 


166 


149 


148 


244.366 


101 


114 


196 


201 


192 


136 


160 


149 


146 


215,213 


83 


100 


192 


198 


192 


132 


154 


149 


147 


217.333 


83 


101 


195 


199 


192 


132 


156 


151 


149 


229.938 


89 


107 


198 


201 


197 


139 


162 


158 


157 


333.518 


139 


155 


209 


209 


197 


146 


179 


165 


163 


357.475 


138 


166 








204 














204 



Buildings 



July, 



Standards, Division of Building and 
Housing and Bureau of Census, and 
are based on prices paid for material 
by contractors in some 60 cities of the 
United States. The prices are 
weighted by the relative importance of 
each commodity in the construction of 
a 6-room house. 

The index number for constructing 
factory buildings is furnished by 
Aberthaw Construction Co., and is de- 
signed to show the relative changes in 
the cost of constructing a standard 
concrete factory building. The com- 
pany believes that the year 1914 gives 
a normal base and that July, 1920, 
with an index number of 265, repre- 
sented the peak of costs. 

The index numbers of wholesale 
prices for structural steel, etc., are ob- 
tained as follows: The prices for 
structural steel beams are the average 
of weekly prices from the U. S. De- 
partment of Labor, Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. The figures for iron and 
steel are the average of weekly prices 
compiled by the Iron Trade Review on 
the following 14 products: Pig iron, 
billets, slabs, sheet bars, wire rods, 
steel bars, plates, structural shapes, 
black galvanized and blue annealed 
sheets, tin plates, wire nails, and black 
pipe. Pig iron average in turn is aver- 
of 13 different quotations. 

The figures for composite steel are 
compiled by the American Metal Mar- 
ket and represent the average price 
per pound of steel products weighted 
as follows: 2*/^ lb. bars, l'^^ lb. plates, 
11/2 lb. shapes, 11/2 lb. pipe, 11/2 lb. 
wire nails, 1 lb. galvanized sheets, and 
V2 lb. tin plate. 

The composite price of finished steel 
products is compiled by the Iron Age. 
It includes: Steel bars, beams, tank 
plates, plain wire, open-hearth rails, 
black pipe, and black sheets. These 
products, according to the Iron Age, 
constitute 88 per cent of the United 
States output of finished steel. 



Record Book for Wire Rope Users 

Forms for keeping service records 
of wire rope are an important feature 
of a new reference book and catalog 
of the Williamsport Wire Rope Co., 
Williamsport, Pa. These forms en- 
able the user to keep an accurate his- 
tory of the rope. In addition the pub- 
lication contains useful information 
on the most common causes that 



shorten the life of wire rope in va- 
rious operations; it gives directions 
for splicing and data on finding break- 
ing strength, lengths required to make 
ropes endless, horsepower transmit- 
ted by wire rope, etc. It also con- 
tains numerous tables relating to the 
various uses of wire rope, and infor- 
mation on the various classes of rope 
made by the company. 



INDUSTRIAL NOTES 

The Ginsbcrg-Penn Co., Inc., 50 Church St., 
New York, sales representatives for construc- 
tion machinery, has recently been appointed, 
effective Aug. 1, by the Byers Machine Co., 
Ravenna, O., to take on exclusive distribution 
in their territory of its entire line of locomo- 
tive, auto and truckranes. The Ginsberg-Penn 
Co., Inc., consists of Frank I. Ginsberg, pres- 
ident, formerly with R. E. Brooks and Insley, 
and Hamilton O. Penn, formerly of the T. L. 
Smith Co., Milwaukee. 

The Portland Cement Association announces 
the appointment of James A. Hudson as dis- 
trict engineer in charge of a new association 
office just opened in Memphis in the Exchange 
building. This office will have charge of 
association activities in Tennessee. 

The Bucyrus Co., South Milwaukee, Wis., 
announces the appointment of E. J. Wilkie 
as northern sales manager to succeed E. R. 
Weber, resigned. Mr. Wilkie will have gen- 
eral charge of the sale of Bucyrus products 
in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North and South 
Dakota, Upper Peninsula of Michigan and 
Eastern Montana, with headquarters in South 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., 6-8 East 44th 
St., New York, announces the removal of is 
Philadelphia office and service department 
from 140 Market St. to 237 North 12th St. 

William C. Frye, for seven years president 
of the Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, Wis., has 
retired from active participation in its affairs 
and has been succeeded by C. R. Messinger, 
vice president and general manager since 1!)17. 
Mr. Frye is retiring after an active associa- 
tion with the company for 28 years. During 
this time he has occupied practically all the 
important executive positions and just prev- 
ious to his election as president in 1916 was 
treasurer. Under his leadership the company 
continued the steady growth inaugurated by 
C. W. Levally, founder and first president, 
and is today one of the largest and best known 
producers of chain, concrete mixers and con- 
voying machinery in the country, all of which 
are manufactured under the trade name of 
Rex. Mr. Messinger, who succeeds Mr. Frye, 
became associated with the Chain Belt Co. in 
1917 after eight years as general manager of 
the Sivyer Steel Ca.sting Co. He is also pres- 
ident of the Inter.state Drop Forge Co., vic3 
president of the Sivyer Steel Casting Co., 
vice president of the Federal Malleable Co.. 
all of Milwaukee, and a director in the Nugent 
Steel Castings Co. of Chicago and the First 
Wisconsin National Bank of Milwaukee. Dur- 
ing the term 1922-2.3 Mr. Messinger was pres- 
ident of the American Foundrymen's Asso- 
ciation and is also prominent in the affairs 
of the American Malleable Castinsrs Associa- 
tion. 



Roads and Streets 

MONTHLY ISSUE OF 

ENGINEERING AND CONTRACTING 

Published by Engineering & Contracting Publishing Co. 

221 East 20th St., Chicago 

Halbert p. Gilxette, President and Editor 

Lewis S. Louee, Vice-President and General Manager 

New York Office: 904 Longacrc Bldg., 42d St and Broadway 

RiCHABD E. Browk, Eastern Manager 

The specialized publishing plan of Engineering and Contracting provides 
four rotating monthly magazines, each of which is $1 a year. All four 
may be subscribed for at $4 a year, and thus taken they provide a weekly 
service completely covering the construction field. 



Road and Streets — Ist Wednesday. |1 
(a) Road Con- (c) Streets 

(d) Street clean- 



struction 
(b) Road Main- 
tenance 



ing 



Water Works— 2nd Wednesday. $1 

(a) Water Works (c) Sewers and 

(b) Irrigation and Sanitation 
Drainagre (d) Waterways 



Railways — 3rd Wednesday, $1 

(a) Steam Rail- (b) Electric Rail- 

way Construe- way Construc- 

tion and tion and 

Maintenance Maintenance 

Buildings — (th Wednesday. $1 

(a) Buildings (d) Miscellaneous 

(b) Bridges Structures 

(c) Harbor Structures 



Copyright. 1923, by the Engineering and Contracting Publishing Company 



Vol. LX. 



CHICAGO, ILL., AUGUST 1, 1923 



No. 2 



The Wall Street Myth 

So often has it been said that the 
price level of stocks is an infallible 
barometer of business conditions that 
most men have come to believe the 
statement. But a study of the curve 
of stock prices discloses nothing else 
than a sensitive weather vane which 
is as apt to swing violently under a 
puff of wind as under a hurricane. 
The weather vane may show that the 
direction of the wind has changed but 
fail to show either how long it will 
remain as it is or how violently the 
wind will blow. 
, Starting last March, the price level 
1 of stocks began to fall, and as the 
decline continued week after week, 
many business men began to worry, 
for the Wall Street m\i;h that stock 
prices are a trade barometer still con- 
trols many of the actions of many 
men. But about a month ago the 
wind veered and the stock market 
weather vane responded. Stock prices 
began to rise, and now the future 
looks less dismal for those who follow 
the ticker. 



Almost exactly four years ago a 
similar phenomenon occurred. Be- 
tween July 14 and August 7, 1919, 
stock prices declined from a level 
of 112 to 100, and there was a near 
panic among the mj-th believers. The 
great post-war depression was at 
hand, they said. But two weeks later 
stock prices began to rise rapidly, and 
by November 2 had reached a level of 
120. Thereupon loud cries of delight 
came from the stock myth worshipers. 
Now they were sure that no business 
reaction would occur for a long time. 
Yet by April, 1920, the stock price 
level had receded to 100, and the 
"panic" of 1920 had begun. 

Such experiences as this, and they 
are many, show that while the price 
level of stocks usually moves in ad- 
vance of the price level of commodi- 
ties, it furnishes no reliable criterion 
of the trend of business prosperity. 
In fact, so long as the price of stocks 
is regarded by many men as being a 
trade barometer it cannot act as a 
reliable barometer, for the very fear 
that a falling stock market forecasts 
business decline tends to promote such 



206 



Roads and Streets 



August 



a decline in some measure, and in still 
greater degree it promotes the decline 
of stock prices. If there has been no , 
great over-production of commodities 
in excess of the buying power of wage 
incomes, a serious business depression 
cannot occur; but even in the absence 
of this condition, a frightened flock of 
lambs, to whom the tickers' low tones 
are the growls of the wolf, will rush 
bleating away from stocks. It really 
is an amusing example of economic 
ignorance to attribute to such lambs 
a power of foresight that none of 
them individually dares claim and that 
all of them collectively obviously do 
not possess. 

Once the stampede of the specu- 
lative lambs has begun, its increasing 
violence is assured, for large blocks 
of stock are purposely thrown on the 
market by the canny wolves of Wall 
Street. The bleating increases in 
pitch and violence, for a time, but at 
last the lambs, wise prophets of future 
business conditions, fall exhausted 
and another world crisis ends. 

There is nothing more astonishing 
in the whole realm of economics than 
the wide swings of this weather vane 
of stock prices, so long miscalled a 
barometer of trade. Today stocks in 
companies having large surpluses and 
great earning power are selling at 
110; a month hence they may be sell- 
ing at 90; two months later at 120. 
And the average man who is buying 
and selling in such a squall is seri- 
ously said to possess business fore- 
sight! For if he possesses no fore- 
sight, then why dignify by the term 
trade barometer the prices that he is 
instrumental in creating ? Let us call 
these stock prices by a truer title, the 
stock market weather vane. And let 
us realize that the wind that moves 
it is very often only that caused by 
the fanning of the air by the lambs in 
panic flight. 



$7,500,000 for Forest Roads. — Con- 
gress has authorized the United States 
Department of Agriculture to spend 
$7,500,000 on roads serving the na- 
tional forests during the fiscal year 
ending July 1, 1924. Moreover, 25 per 
cent of the receipts from timber sales 
and grazing permits will yield around 
$1,325,000, according to advance esti- 
mates, which will be turned back as 
usual to the States for use on county 
schools and roads. 



Mark Twain on Adver- 
tising 

If a man were to make the best 
mouse traps in the world, and were 
his workshop in the center of a forest, 
the world would find him out and beat 
a path to his door. We have seen this 
anti-advertising sentiment ascribed 
by some to Emerson, by others to 
Hubbard, both idealists and ideal 
phrase makers. By way of contrast 
we may quote an anecdote about Mark 
Twain : As editor of a Missouri news- 
paper in his youth, he received a let- 
ter from a superstitious merchant 
who was a reader of Mark's editorials 
but not a buyer of his advertising 
space. The merchant opened his paper 
one morning and finding a spider 
crawling on the editorial page, wrote 
Mark asking whether it meant bad 
luck for him or for the editor. Mark 
printed this reply next day: 

"Old Subscriber: The spider was 
merely looking over our paper to see 
which merchant is not advertising, so 
that he can go to that store, spin his 
web across the door, and live a life 
of undisturbed peace ever after- 
wards." 



Weak Spots in Road Slabs 

Editorial in The Canadian Engineer 

One of the definite conclusions 
which may be drawn at the present 
time from the remarkable road tests 
that are being carried out on experi- 
mental roads in Illinois, California 
and Virginia, is that the edges and 
corners of slabs are important sources 
of weakness. It was found, for ex- 
ample, for the Bates road that for the 
edge close to which the traffic was al- 
lowed to run, the number of failures 
was very greatly in excess of those on 
the other edge of the pavement where 
traffic approached no closer than 2% 
ft. This suggested the advisability 
of thickening the edges of the road 
slab, and such is being done on the 
new standard slab design for Illinois 
roads, based on the Bates tests. An- 
other method of obviating edge fail- 
ure would be to widen the road slab 
and perhaps mark a longitudinal cen- 
tre line on the pavement so that the 
traffic would be coaxed away from the 
edges. Illinois highway officials, how- 
ever, regard the thickening of the 
edges as the more desirable solution. 

Corners of slabs are notoriously 
susceptible to rupture from concen- 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



207 



:rated loads. This fact was well 
■CTiown before large scale road tests 
iemonstrated its existence experi- 
mentally. If, for example, a wheel 
ioad chances to pass over a transverse 
joint near the edge of the pavement, 
there is liability of the two outside 
:orners being cracked off, unless the 
slab is well supported by the sub- 
^ade. If the temperature be low, 
and particularly if the pavement be 
dry, the comers will be curled up to 
a certain extent and \\'ill be in a posi- 
:ion of free cantilevers. It is only a 
question of the magnitude of the load 
and the impact produced as to 
A'hether the corners will stand up 
jnder this treatment. Since trans- 
verse cracks are likely to occur at al- 
tmost any cross-section of pavement 
[which is not heavily reinforced, many 
potential outside corners exist in a 
road slab, with the result that a large 
number of edge failures might be ex- 
pected during the course of cool 
weather or under night traffic. 
Thickening of the edges of slabs will, 
ito some extent, obviate the danger 
from corner breakages, and the use 
of a continuous rod dowel along the 
idge, as is proposed by the Illinois 
highway authorities, will mutually 
support the two adjacent cantilevered 
corners with a result that the 
strength of each is perhaps doubled. 

Observation and test have conNnnced 
nany highway engineers that a longi- 
:udinal joint in a wide pavement is 
iesirablc. For pavements 16 or 18 
"t. wide, it can hardly be expected 
;hat freedom from longitudinal crack- 
ng would be secured, having in mind 
Ae rising and falling of the slab at 
':he centre due to temperature and 
noisture effects. Given a longitudinal 
oint, there then arises the incidental 
lifficulty of rupture at interior cor- 
lers. Wherever a transverse joint 
ntersects a longitudinal joint, or 
vherever a transverse crack runs into 
t, corners are produced which act in 
some measure as cantilevers. The 
'llinois revised slab section provides 
'or transverse dowels every 5 ft., 
hus holding the edges of the slab 
:ightly together at the longitudinal 
oint and preventing free cantilever 
iction. It is believed that much diffi- 
>;ulty will be obviated by this simple 
, jlevice. 

; It is a matter of considerable sat- 
j^sfaction to the engineering profes- 
t^ion to find the problems of road slab 
pesign being rapidly solved by inten- 
sive experimental and theoretical 



study. Some thirteen years ago in- 
verted curbs or edge girders were 
adopted on the concrete road on 
Woodward avenue leading out of De- 
troit, under the belief that the edges 
were a source of weakness. Curiously 
enough, this was regarded by many as 
a bad design, and but few engineers 
had the courage of their convictions 
to thicken road slabs at the edges un- 
til large-scale research showed it to 
be desirable. However, it must be 
said that in both Arizona and Califor- 
nia, a number of pioneer engineers 
did adopt this sound feature of design 
before the days of large-scale tests. 
^^^^at was a strong belief of certain 
far-sighted engineers has become a 
demonstrated fact, due to the concen- 
trated efforts of scientific investi- 
gators. Highway construction is 
bound to benefit, and the people who 
pay for the roads to reap correspond- 
ing advantage, through the persist- 
ence and foresight of those \vho are 
attempting to solve the unknown ele- 
ments in road slab design. 



Pennsylvania Allows Low Bidders to 
Withdraw Bids Not Read 

The Pennsylvania State Highway 
Department will, in the future, make 
a practice of checking all bids re- 
ceived and announcing the low bidder 
immediately after the reading of bids 
on each project. Where a concern is 
announced, as being low, and desires 
to withdraw any proposal which has 
not been read, they will be given the 
option of so doing, by personal request 
from their duly authenticated agent. 

As has been pointed out before, re- 
marks the Highway Builder, whenever 
there is a large letting of state high- 
way work constructors who have 
equipment and organization idle, nat- 
iirally and quite properly inspect and 
prepare bids on a larger number of 
projects than they expect to be called 
upon to build. This is necessary in 
order for them to secure the amount 
of work desired. In future, in Penn- 
sylvania, when they find themselves 
low bidders on as many contracts as 
they feel capable of executing, they 
will have the privilege of withdrawing 
additional bids. This will protect them 
against overloading and will also pro- 
tect other bidders from losing work 
through rejection of all proposals on a 
particular job, on account of the in- 
ability of the low bidder to qualify. 



208 Roads and Streets Augus 

Motor Vehicle Production in June increased less than five-tenths of : 

The U. S. Department of Commerce Fifteen articles decreased in pric( 

announces June production of auto- as follows: Cabbage, 23 per cent; but 

mobiles and trucks, based on figures ter, 4 per cent; hens, 2 per cent; or 

received by the Bureau of the Census anges, 3 per cent; plate beef, lard 

m cooperation with the National sugar, coifee, prunes, and raisins, : 

Automobile Chamber of Commerce per cent; pork chops, bacon, cannec 

and covering approximately 90 pass- salmon, nut margarine, and whea 

enger-car and 80 truck manufacturers cereal decreased less than five-tenthi 

each month. of 1 per cent. 

AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION Fifteen articles showed on change 

(Number of Machines) in price during the month. They weri 

Passenger Cars Trucks ^^. f ol^ows : Fresh milk, evaporatec 

1923 1922 1923 1922 milk, oleomargarine, bread, flour, con 

January 223,706 81,693 19,398 9.416 meal, rolled oats, comflakes, macaroni 

February 254,650 109,171 21,817 13,195 ^;„„ naw hMTi<3 hnkpH hMTiis pnTiner 

March 319,638 152,959 34,681 19,761 "^^' "^^ Dcans, DaKea Deans, cannec 

April 344,474 197,216 37,527 22,342 com, canned peas, and canned toma 

May 350,180 232,431 *43,012 23,788 toes. 

J""^- 336,317 263,027 40,565 25.984 por the year period, June 15, 1922 

*Revised. to June 15, 1923, the increase in al 

articles of food combined was 3 pe] 

cent. 

Changes in Retail Prices of Food ^°^ *^^^ ten-year period, June 15 

v^nanges m i^eiau ''"ces or rooa ^g^g^ ^^ j^^^ ^5^ .^923, the increase ir 

in the United states all articles of food combined was 4i 

The retail food index issued by the P®^ cent. 

United States Department ©f Labor 

through the Bureau of Labor statis- Road and Street Contracts 

tics, shows that there was an increase \ j j r* • *.!_ i i. 

of 1 per cent in the retail cost of food Awarded Lluring the Last 

in June, 1923, as compared with May, 42 Months 
1923. In June, the index number was 

144, in May, 143. The iaccompanying table shows 
During the month from May 15, ^hree outstanding facts: First that 
1923, to June 15, 1923, 13 articles on highway contracts awarded during 
which monthly prices are secured in- the last half of each year have aver- 
creased in price as follows: Potatoes, \ged only 25 per cent less m volume 
19 per cent; round steak, 5 per cent; f*^an those awarded during the first 
sirloin steak, leg of lamb and onions, palf ; second, that there is not a month 
4 per cent; chuck roast and bananas, i" the year without a very large vol- 
3 per cent; rib roast and cheese, 2 per ume of road and street contracts 
cent; ham and fresh eggs, 1 per cent, awarded; third, that each year shows 
Vegetable lard and substitute and tea a substantial gam over its prede- 
cessor. 



ROAD AND STREET CONTRACTS EXCEEDING $26,000 IN SIZE 

1920 

January „ JS 12,204,000 

February 21,334,000 

March- 26,221,000 

April „ _ »:i.340,000 

May „ - 30,258,000 

June 31.441,000 

July..„ 29,353,000 

Augrust _ 18,565,000 

September _ _ 26,537,000 

October 12.894.000 

November 12,448,000 

December 10,884,000 



1921 


1922 


1923 


) $ 11.598,000 


$ 14,424.000 


$ 21.691.000 


) 12,049,000 


9,062,000 


18.781.000 


> 25.880,000 


39,669,000 


37.706.000 


) 31.026,000 


32,991.000 


29,641,')nn 


) 35,064.000 


42.284.000 


46.628,000 


) 56.777,000 


42.138.000 


38.040.000 


) 33,943,000 


26.087,000 


. 


) 28.693,000 


37,035,000 


__ 


) 23,257.000 


28,884,000 


„_. 


) 20.055.000 


23,162,000 




) 20.751,000 


20,892,000 


_ 


) 16,263,000 


18,096.000 








1 $316,356,000 


$334,714,000 






Total $265,424,000 

Note. — About 100 per cent must be added to these totals to grive the grand total of higrhway 
contracts in the United States. 

Bridges are not included, and bridge contracts average 16 per cent as much In value ns road 
and street contracts. A great deal of road and street work is done by directly hired labor and 
is not included above. 



1923 Roads and Streets 209 

Effect of Ref>eated Loads on Concrete Slabs 



Investigation of Fatigue Element of Cement Mortar Described in Paper 

Presented June 28 at 26th Annual Meeting of American 

Society for Testing Materials 

By R. B. CREPPS 

Assistant Professor of Testing Materials, Purdue University 



The investigation of the fatigue ele- 
ment with respect to cement mortar 
is being carried on in the Testing Ma- 
terials Laboratory of Purdue Uni- 
versity as a co-operative project of 
the Engineering Experiment Station 
and the U. S. Bureau of Public Roads. 

The.. Testing Apparatus — Deflec- 
tions of a concrete slab occur in the 
form of a wave action as a wheel 
passes over the surface. The direc- 
tion and nature of the resulting stress 
is constantly changing from tension 
of compression in the upper fibers to 
tension or compression in the lower 



tart 


St 

11 




^ \\ \ 






^ 


/ 




■ Hi 


Lm v> 


r 








li 


t Jt 






4o 


/ \ 






-1^ 




■ '^'A 


/v 








^ 








/ 






j 


f 






1 

1 










° 1 








I 


t 


1 1 




1 1 



Figr. 1. — Static Loading Curve. 

fibers. With these facts in mind the 
idea of investigating the effect of re- 
versed stresses upon concrete was 
conceived by W. K. Hatt and later in- 
corporated in the design of an appa- 
ratus with which to carry on the in- 
vestigation. The original device pro- 
vided for the inspection of only one 
specimen at a time, while the impro- 
vised machine allows four beams to 
be inspected simultaneously. 

The machine consists mainly of a 
steel frame supporting test specimens, 
a motor and the essential working 
units. The principle of the applica- 
tion of the loads to the test specimens 
lies in the operation of an eccentric 
cam, which raises and lowers a load 
upon the ends of a horizontal strain- 
ing member, supported in the center 
by a vertical test specimen. Four 
rocker arms, pivoted directly above 



the same number of test specimens, 
operate through a small angle by 
means of the cams rotated from a 
central line shaft. The U-shaped ends 
of the rocker arms fit around the 
cams. One end of a beam under test 
is clamped rigidly to the base of the 
steel frame and the upper end is 
clamped to the straining member. The 
operation of the machine subjects the 
outer fibers of the beam to alternate 
tension and compression at the rate of 
ten cycles per minute. A revolution 
counter attached to the machine in- 
dicates the actual number of reversals 
of stress for the separate beams. 

Ten-inch Berry strain gages pro- 
vided with Ames dials reading to 
0.0001 in. are attached to both sides 
of the specimen, and observations of 
the total deformation from tension to 
compression are taken at designated 
intervals throughout the period of 
tests. 

Test Specimens — The original speci- 
mens were 30 in. long and 4 by 4 in. 
in cross-section. It was found, how- 
ever, that beams of uniform cross- 
section usually failed outside of the 
strain gage range near the lower 
support. In order to localize the fail- 
ure within the strain gage points the 
cross-section, outside of the 10-in. 
gage length, was increased to 4 by 6 
in. 

Mortar specimens of a 1:2 mix have 
been used in the investigation up to 
the present time. 

Strength of Specimens — Figure 1 
illustrates the procedure used in de- 
termining the strength of the speci- 
mens. Duplicate test beams supported 
as in the fatigue machine are broken 
by the application of static loads in 
10-lb. increments on one end of the 
straining beam. The streng:th factor 
as determined by the static-load 
breaks is considered as representative 
of the particvilar series of beams un- 
der question. In spite of all possible 
precaution observed in the construc- 
tion of the test specimens, the max- 
imum variation in strength from an 
average of six beams was about 15 



210 



Roads and Streets 



August 



per cent. It is appreciated that this 
variation creates a source of consider- 
able error in the attempt to arrive at 
definite conclusions concerning fa- 
tigue of mortar. 

Stanton Walker* has indicated that 
a relation exists between the modu- 
lus of elasticity and the compressive 
strength of concrete. The method of 
load application in the fatigue tests 
has accentuated an exhaustive study 
of the modulus of elasticity in tension 
of the mortar beams. An analysis of 
the data on hand indicates, however, 
that the modulus of elasticity bears 
to consistent relation to the trans- 
verse strength which might be used 
to advantage in more accurately de- 



additional number of reversals nec- 
essary for complete failure is less. 
A parallel cycle of action is indicated, 
nevertheless, by the general trend of 
the deformation curves. 

It is apparent that rupture or fail- 
ure of the bond occurs first on the 
extreme outer fibers where the de- 
formation is a maximum. This action 
is progressive toward the center of 
the beam until complete failure is 
imminent. Continual progressive de- 
formation of the outer fibers is signifi- 
cant of the fatigue element. Pro- 
gressive deformation may occur in 
some cases for a certain number of 
reversals when it becomes evident 
from the flatness of the deformation 




Beam Ho 17 

Size ri>y4"l,yi0' 

M„ /.? 

Aqe af Beginning of Tesf (dop) Z8 

Gage Length, Inches 10 

Locahon of fradore Middle of Sage 

Pofe of Appttcafion of Load ' 10 per mi 

Number of Pe^rsahfo cause failure 144^825 

frqclure ■ Bond Failure Only o few of tht Softer 
PebbL failed in Shear. 



Reversals of Sircss. 

Fig. 2. — Typical Fatigue Curve. 



termining the strength of the individ- 
ual specimens. 

Discussion of Tests. — The curve 
shown in Fig. 2 illustrates the typical 
effect of reversed stresses which 
caused failure of the mortar speci- 
men. It is to be noted that there is 
a progressive deformation in the ex- 
treme fibers until failure of the test 
specimen takes place. A straight line 
of constant slope relation is indicated 
up to 110,000 reversals of stress. At 
this point, four cracks appeared on 
the outermost fibers of the specimen, 
and the slope of the line changed. An 
additional 35,000 reversals of stress 
were necessary to produce complete 
failure. The critical point in the pro- 
gressive deformation cycle is desig- 
nated as the premature failure limit. 

The curve is representative of the 
tests completed to date, although in 
many cases the premature failure 
limit is not so pronounced and the 

^Stanton Walker, "Modulus of Elasticity of 
Concrete," Proceedings, Am. Soc. Testing 
Mats., Vol. XIX, Part II. p, 510 (1919), 



curve that the material is showing no 
ill effects from repetitions of the load. 
The assumption is made that loads 
producing constant deformation are 
below the endurance limit or the safe 
working stress of the material. 

Recovery Phenomenon During a 
Period of Rest. — An interesting fea- 
ture of the fatigue tests, shown in 
Fig. 2 is that of the appreciable re- 
covery during a period of rest of the 
strength of mortar undergoing a fa- 
tiguing action. It has been necessary 
each night to stop the machine and, 
as a result, the strength recovery 
phenomenon is clearly illustrated on 
the curve. A parallel action is com- 
mon to many materials, such as, 
metals, wood and soils when they are 
stressed beyond a safe limit. The 
amount of recovery in the case of 
cement mortar is directly proportional 
to the duration of the period of rest. 
It is to be noted that no recovery oc- 
curs after the premature failure limit 
has been attained. 

Fig. 3 illustrates some peculiar as 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



211 



well as interesting features of a series 
of beams under test at the present 
time. During this series of tests^ it 
became necessary to stop the machine 
for five weeks, and as a result the 
effects of a prolonged rest period is 
clearly evident from the trend of the 
deformation curves. The beneficial or 
strengthening effect of the rest period 
is the most pronounced in the case of 
the specimen represented by curve D. 
In this instance it is believed that the 
induced stress approached the critical 
limit and that failure was imminent. 
The degree of deformation following 
the rest period indicates that the 
beam had fully recovered from the 
initial over-stressings. As these 



believed that the influence of the in- 
crease in strength due to age is neg- 
ligible, although the prevailing humid- 
ity and summer temperatures may 
have accentuated the apparent in- 
creasing resistance of the mortar. 

Fig. 4 shows the sequence of de- 
formation and the plastic set or fail- 
ure of the mortar to return to its 
original position in both tension and 
compression. A marked contrast can 
readily be detected in the magnitude 
of the plastic set occArring at 18,800 
and 23,760 reversals of stress, respec- 
tively. The broken line appearing in 
the cycle curve at 23,760 reversals 
shows the unit deformation after the 
beam had rested for a period of 16 













1 






































j 












C 


1 1 1 1 
ur^A- TO ftrctiit of Static Bftoting Load. 
. BW-..^- - ••_ 

~ C 50 

. D 5S 

. C 54 






1^ 




' 


> 


/ 


















8 

L-fl 


/ 


^ 


















. r 50 - 

. 10, 




- 


- 






>»! 


^ 


r- 






— ' 


D 




^ /?«/ 




! 










' 


^ 






















— 





^ 














--fei— H — 


£ 




__ '' ''■ \ ^ 









:;o: 


-"■"^ 






1 




ite/ 


\ \ F , . i ^ 























^1— 


6 


















Duration ofHef Ptr^od 5 netki 
1 1... .. J„ 1 1 















Fig. 3. — Curves Showing Effect of Prolonged Rest Period. 



beams were five months old, it is 
thought that the increase in strength 
due to age over the rest period ex- 
erted a minor influence upon the sub- 
sequent resistance of the mortar. 

This phenomenon seems to indicate 
that the rate or number of intermit- 
tent applications of load ranging in 
intensity above the endurance limit 
would have considerable bearing upon 
the life of the concrete structure. 

It is to be noted that the effect of 
the rest period is less pronounced in 
the case of the specimens represented 
by curves E, F and G. In these beams, 
however, the induced stresses were 
apparently below the endurance limit 
and no fatiguing action had taken 
place. The general trend of the de- 
formation curves after 140,000 re- 
versals seems to be in a downward 
direction. As previously stated, it is 



hours. These maximum deformations 
are less than those of the same beam 
just previous to the rest period, which 
shows a partial recovery from the 
fatigue action. This action is typical 
of all tests in that progressive plastic 
set simultaneously accompanies fa- 
tigue. 

Indications and Summary of Tests. 
— The purpose of this paper has not 
been at present finished data or to 
draw definite conclusions concerning 
the fatigue of mortar and concrete, 
but more to stimulate interest and 
discussion of the subject. There are, 
however, several indications of prom- 
inence which are emphasized by this 
investigation : 

1. (a) 28 Day Tests, 12 Beams, 1:2 
Mix. — Results of this series of tests 
indicate that no definite endurance 
limit between 40 and 60 per cent of 



212 



Roads and Streets 



August 



that load required to break the beam 
under a single application can be as- 
signed to cement mortar of this age. 

(b) 4 Month Tests, 8 Beams, 1:2 
Mix. — Results of this series of tests 
shown in Fig. 3 indicate that the en- 
durance limit is approximately 50 to 
55 per cent of the static load. 

(c) 6 Month Tests, 6 Beams, 1:2 
Mix. — Results of these tests shown in 
Fig. 5 indicate that the endurance 
limit is 54 to 55 per cent of the static 
breaking load. 

2. The number of reversals of 
stress necessary to cause failure de- 
creases in a proportion to the respec- 
tive increase of the percentage of 
stress above the apparent endurance 
limit. 

3. Stresses above the endurance 
limit cause continual progressive de- 
formation. 

4. Stresses below the endurance 
limit may cause progressive deforma- 
tion within certain limits. 

(In either 3 or 4, progressive de- 
formation is not significant of per- 
manent injury to the product unless 
actual rupture of the bond occurs on 
the extreme outermost fibers.) 

5. The effect of a rest period in- 
dicates that the rate and number of 
intermittent applications of load rang- 



l 




• /tfftrBtamhadrt'.*^ 



FIgr. 4. — ^Typical Cycle Curves. 

ing in intensity above the endurance 
limit would have considerable bear- 
ing upon the life of a concrete struc- 
ture. 

6. (a) The amount of recovery in 
strength in the case of cement mortar 
is directly proportional to the dura- 
tion of the period of rest. 

(b) Above the premature failure 
limit no appreciable recovery occurs. 

Future Investigations. — The effect 
of rest periods upon the endurance 
or life of cement products will be 
carried on at a future date. In sev- 



eral of these series of tests, it is 
planned to subject beams to a limited 
number of reversals of critical stress 
every 24 hours, the stresses being 
maintained above the endurance limit. 
In other investigations it is planned 
to determine the endurance limit when 
the beams are not given these rest 
periods. Specimens of concrete as 
well as mortar will be studied in 
fatigue. 

Authoritative results of the fatigue 
phenomena in mortar involve a time 



















[ 
















\ 




























•— 


Af/j 


/ 2 














Aqe 6 months 

0— •- Specimen noi Broken 

1 1 1 


• 







Peversats of Sfrtss 

Fig. 5. — Fatigue Endurance Limit of Cement 
Mortar Beams. 

element of considerable magnitude 
and although these tests have been 
conducted during the past two years, 
this field of investigation is only 
opened. Certain features of the fa- 
tigue phenomena have already been 
indicated, and it is thought, from this 
foundation, that valuable information 
will be secured from future tests to 
aid in the proper design of concrete. 



Road Material Survey Being Made 
in Kentucky. — A survey of Kentucky 
to locate and map road building ma- 
terials is now being made by Dr. 
Charles S. Richardson, head of the de- 
partment of mineralogy, Syracuse 
University. The department of State 
Roads and Highways is co-operating 
with the State Geological Survey in 
carrying out the work. The survey 
probably will be completed in Novem- 
ber, and the report published by Dr. 
Richardson. A recent survey of Ken- 
tucky by Dr. Richardson showed that 
there were 616 quarries in the State 
where building stones were produced. 

Use of Automobile for Business 
Purposes. — According to estimates of 
the Illinois Highway Commission 35 
per cent of the automobiles on Illinois 
roads are used for business purposes. 



Roads and Streets 213 

Gravel and Stone for Road Maintenance 



Points in Preparation and Use in Indiana Practice Outlined in Paper 
Presented at 1923 Road School, Purdue University 

By A. H. HIXKLE 
Superintendent of Maintenance, Indiana State Highway Commission. 



_ 1 Gravel as used in road work 
.L be classified as follows: 
llj Bank or bar run gravel. 

(2) Screened or prepared gravel. 

(3) Crushed gravel. 

Bank or Bar Run Gravel — This is 
o variable that the term means but 
ittle except in a particular job or as 
t applies to a particular bar or pit. 
'ifany pits or bars furnish native 
mixed material which is very satis- 
'actory for use In gravel road work. 
Where bank gravel is intended to be 
ised the specification should be made 
accordingly — the object of the speci- 
bcation being to secure the best grade 
of bank gravel which it is practical 
to secure in that particular locality. 
It is poor practice to specify a bank 
gravel and then draw a specification 
that cannot be met by any gravel iS 
nhe neighborhood. 

Carelessness in writing a specifica- 
tion and then even greater careless- 
ness in seeing that the specification 
is reasonably lived up to, has gotten 
many an engineer and contractor in 
o-ouble and occasionally the board of 
accounts is called in to "clear up the 
muss" and fix the responsibility for 
the specifications not being properly 
carried out. This carelessness in 
writing specifications and then the 
difficulty of getting them lived up to 
has encouraged, in some places, a 
specification which is in reality no 
specification at all. For instance, in 
one particular locality the only speci- 
fication for gravel to be used in grav- 
el roads and concrete work is, "It 
shall be a good cementing gravel." 
The specification might as well have 
said, "a good gravel" and stopped at 
that. 

I will very frankly admit that it is 
not the easiest thing in the world to 
prepare a definite specification for 
each particular locality, which will 
secure the best local material whicb 
it is practical to secure. However, 
after sufficient study of the subject is 
made by the engineer, he can arrive 
at a proper specification. The State 
Highway Department of one of the 
states, just a few years ago, found it 
so difficult in attempting to apply 



the same specification to every com- 
munity, that one of their representa- 
tives in explaining their troubles said 
that they finally became discouraged 
and threw away the specifications en- 
tirely and used such gravel as was 
available in each particular commu- 
nity. 

The specification should be definite 
enough that a good contractor would 
ordinarily know whether bank run 
or prepared gravel would be required. 
If it is impracticable to secure the 
gravel specified, greater care should 
be taken thereafter in preparing the 
specification. A practice which should 
be of assistance would consist in sub- 
mitting to a laboratory, for a test, 
samples of the local gravels which it 
is believed would be satisfactory for 
the road work, and then prepare a 
specification according to this test 
which would permit these gravels to 
be used. In this way the poorer local 
gravels would be eliminated and the 
best local gravels allowed. 

Owing to the small cost of the lit- 
tle equipment needed to make a 
screen test on gravel and the ease 
with which this test can be made, 
every county should be equipped to 
make this test. Quite frequently the 
governing factor will be the percent- 
age of gravel which will pass %-in. 
circular opening or a No. 8 or No. 10 
mesh sieve. With a little pair of 
scales and screen and two buckets, 
one can make this test in the field 
quite as well as in the laboratory. 

The gravel banks and bars of In- 
diana, are almost universally found 
with an excess of sand. Owing to 
this fact quite frequently a roadbed 
can be built up of the local material, 
and thereafter the wearing course put 
on and replenished py using a better 
grade of gravel or stone from the 
commercial plants. In this way a 
properly sized and good quality of 
material is furnished as a wearing sur- 
face and a large initial cost saved by 
using the bulk of the cheaper material 
for a foundation which of course will 
not be as good as the better grade of 
material which might be shipped, but 
which may be as good as the traffic 



214 



Roads and Streets 



August 



and finances available will justify 
using. 

Screened or Prepared Gravel. — This 
is quite as variable in its make-up 
as js the bank or bar run gravel. The 
product from any plant naturally de- 
pends upon the native supply and the 
degree of screening and washing that 
is done. 

Dry screening is satisfactory to 
take out the over-size gravel but it is 
seldom satisfactory to take out the 
fine sand because of the difficulty of 
the fine screens clogging. Even the 
shaker and vibrator screens appar- 
ently are not proving satisfactory for 
dry screening gravel. While a dry 
screening plant will work in a very 
few exceedingly clean gravels where 
the sand and gravel particles are ex- 
ceedingly hard and are almost totally 
free from clay and silt, such ideal 
conditions for its use are seldom 
found. 

A washing plant whereby the silt 
and clay are removed from the gravel 
by streams or sprays of water and 
the gravel and sand sorted by screens 
aided by the flowing water, is usually 
the most practical method of cleaning 
and sorting gravel and sand. 

To make clean aggregate for con- 
crete the washing is a necessity in 
most plants. However, while the 
coating of the pebbles and sand 
grains with silt or clay is objection- 
able when same are to be used In 
concrete, it is not objectionable where 
the gravel is to be used in a gravel 
road. On the other hand it is a real 
advantage provided, of course, there 
is not an excess of the silt or clay. 
Hence if it were practical to secure 
the dry screened material for gravel 
roads, it would frequently be more 
desirable than the washed material. 

Owing to the great variety of ma- 
terial than can be furnished by dif- 
ferent gravel plants. It may be neces- 
sary to vary the specifications in 
cases to accommodate the product 
from the various plants. It is quite 
easy to say that a definite specification 
should be prepared and universally 
used. Although a certain specifica- 
tion may produce best results on the 
road, it may be economy In many 
cases to depart from this specifica- 
tion, if you are going to pay dearly 
for using It. 

Crushed Gravel — Prepared gravel 
made by crushing the over-size boul- 
ders in the gravel makes a product 
superior to uncrushed gravel for road 



maintenance purposes. The mixture 
of any amount of the crushed gravel 
with the uncrushed gravel aids it in 
compacting. A mixture of Vz crushed 
and Yz uncrushed gravel is quite fre- 
quently used and produces a very good 
material. 

Sizes of Gravel. — The maximum 
sizes of gravel which it is desirable 
to use for various purposes may be 
listed as follows: 

Sub-base course 6 -In, 

Base course 2^ -In, 

Top course not less than 4-in. deep IVi-in 
Future maintenance . . . .1%-in. to 1 -in 

If the gravel runs exceedingly fine 
as it usually does in the Indiana pits, 
a 11/^ -in. maximum size for mainte- 
nance may be used very satisfactor- 
ily; however, if the gravel runs coarse 
or crushed gravel is used, 1%-in. or 
1-in. should be the maximum size used 
for general maintenance purposes 
Much trouble and annoyance has been 
caused by the use of too large a maxi- 
mum size of aggregate in the mainte 
nance of gravel roads. The large 
sizes do not permit tike drag to smooth 
up the surface so well as when the 
finer sizes are used, and the surface 
is inclined to wear rough and uneven 
more rapidly with the coarse gravels 
in the surafce. 

The minimum sizes that might be 
used are preferably not to exceed A0% 
through i/4-in. and 10% through a No, 
10 screen and 5% through a No. SC 
screen; although gravels containing 
as high as 60% through a %-in., 18% 
through No. 10 and 8% through a 
No. 30 screen are used frequently 
with very good results. The most 
objectionable material is the excess 
of very fine sand and even material 
practically all passing the %-in. with 
not to exceed 18% through No. 10 and 
8% through No. 30 screen, can be 
used as a skim coat in the mainte- 
nance of a gravel road with very fair 
results if the trsiffie is light. This 
brings us down almost to the sand- 
clay roads which give very fair re- 
sults under light trafiic, but which 
ravel quite badly during the dry sea- 
son and cut up quite badly during the 
thaws, where heavy traffic comes on 
them. 

If will thus be seen that the excess 
of v«ry fine sand Is the most objec- 
tionable part of many gravels and if 
this is controlled and the over-size 
gravel eliminated, we can allow a 
very large variation in the grading of 
the Internal sizes and still get a very 
good gravel road. While a gradation 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



215 



of the gravel and sand grains from 
the largest to the smallest is desir- 
able, especially where a heavy coat 
of gravel is placed, as this gradation 
makes a dense mixture and aids mate- 
rially in compacting the gravel, yet 
this requirement may be sacrificed 
to a very large degree if we elimin- 
ate the over-size gravel and the ex- 
cess fine sand, for these two latter 
requirements are the most essential. 

It must ever be remembered that 
the expense which we are justified in 
creating in specifying a better and 
more expensive grade of material, de- 
I pends upon the amount of traffic we 
are serving. Certain places in the 
State the local gravel is of such poor 
abrasion value that we find one yard 
of good gravel or stone which has to 
be shipped, is equal to 2 to 3 yd. of 
local material, besides the better 
grade of material produces much less 
dust during the dry season and much 
less mud and slop during the thaw- 
ing. Hence the use of the better ma- 
terial in these particular places, se- 
cures results which may far outweigh 
the additional cost where sufficient 
traffic is served. However, one should 
not be caught shipping material long 
distances and hauling at great ex- 
pense to build a road when a local 
material practically as good may be 
found near by. A departure from this 
economic law in road maintenance 
has frequently started the taxpayers 
grumbling. 

To determine which of such mate- 
rials to use is one of the responsibili- 
ties of the road official whoever he 
may be. We will find much ground 
tor a difference of opinion frequent- 
ly, but if our knowledge is based upon 
sufficient observation and investiga- 
tions, these opinions would not so 
frequently be at variance. 

Crushed Stone. — Crushed or broken 
stone has been used in the building 
and maintenance of roads for centur- 
ies. The method of its preparation 
might be classified as follows: 

(1) Hand broken. 

(2) By local (small portable) 
crushers. 

(3) By large commercial plants. 

Hand Broken Stone. — For road sur- 
faces and maintenance has almost 
entirely disappeared from use in this 
country. It is still quite extensively 
used in some of the foreign countries, 
especially the less civilized countries 
where the development of machinery 
has not progressed as in the United 
States. However, the hand breaking 



method is still used to some small 
extent in this State and in the hill 
portions of the country in general 
where small quantities of local stone 
are used for building and repairing 
light traveled roads. In such places 
shipping facilities are not available 
and it might not be economical to 
import a crusher owing to the small 
amount of stone that is used in any 
one place. 

We have found it practical to use 
this method ourselves m a few cases 
in filling holes with local stone and in 
one case we have several miles of 
foundation stone which was broken 
with sledges after the stone was laid 
on the road. In new country where 
out-crops of good quality of limestone 
prevail at the roadside, this method 
no doubt will still be continued in use 
in building road foundations, as the 
large stone can be laid cheaply and 
only a very limited .tmount of sledg- 
ing is required. Where limestone 
out-crops in the vicinity of the road 
and it becomes necessary to plug up 
breaks or mud holes in the road, I 
know of no more effective way to 
make a stable foundation hurriedly 
while the road is carrying traffic than 
by "sledging in" the large pieces of 
stone gathered from the field or local 
quarry. This coarse foundation stone 
must of course be covered with 
fine stone, preferably of two sizes, 
the last coat not exceeding 1-in. in 
size. 

Hand breaking caters more to the 
use of a coarser stone in the founda- 
tion which is exceedingly desirable, 
for if any great mistake has been 
made in modern road building to take 
care of the heavy traffic of today, it 
is in the use of too finely crushed 
stone for macadam foundation work. 
While hand breaking is a method of 
doing road work which in general be- 
longs to past history, it is surprising 
to note how rapidly the process of 
breaking stone by hand can be done 
by an experienced bunch of laborers. 
Under special conditions such as 
these mentioned above, it will still be 
economical to use hand breaking in 
building foundations where it is not 
necessary to reduce the stone to a 
small size. However, for surfacing a 
road and maintenance work, the use 
of a modern stone crusher to prepare 
the stone is imperative. 

Local (Small Portable) Crushers. — 
One of the advantages of the local 
or small portable crusher is 'that it 
can be transported to districts where 



216 



Roads and Streets 



August 



out-crops of limestone are available 
and the stone crushed near the road- 
side and thus one of the expensive 
features of all road work, namely, 
that of the long haul, is reduced to a 
minimum. The disadvantages of the 
local crushers are (a) That it is more 
expensive to produce stone with a 
small crusher than with a large crush- 
er; (b) It is difficult to produce the 
sizes that are frequently desired and 
the sizes that are absolutely neces- 
sary for certain classes of first-class 
macadam work. Of course it must 
be understood that the local crusher 
is only practical where suitable stone 
is found in the local community and 
an expensive haul or freight rate is 
saved. 

If a sufficient sized crusher and 
proper screening plant is installed, 
any desired size and grading of stone 
can be produced from a portable out- 
fit. We must weigh the cost, how- 
ever, of such production, against the 
cost of the shipped material. With a 
local plant there is also only a lim- 
ited demand for any one grade of 
stone and more difficulty will usually 
be experienced in disposing of the 
off sizes than from a commercial 
plant with shipping facilities, where 
there is a wider range of market. 

Large Commercial Plants. — Inas- 
much as the bulk of the stone we use 
is prepared at the large commercial 
plants, it is dealing with their output 
that we are mostly concerned. Large 
commercial stone plants should be 
equipped to produce any size of stone, 
and stone with any degree of free- 
dom from dusk. 

Perhaps one of the defects in many 
plants is that they are not made so 
that they are sufficiently adjustable 
to different conditions, that is, so that 
they can shift from one size of grad- 
ing of stone to anotner size without 
an expensive operation. This lack 
of adjustability in the plant is fre- 
quently caused by the lack of suf- 
ficient study and consideration being 
given the details of the operation of 
the machinery in designing the plant. 
It is best that the superintendent of 
every stone plant and the mechanic 
who may have direct charge of the 
designing of the machinery, should 
have emphasized to him, the impor- 
tance of being able to shift from one 
grade of material to another when 
the demand of the output oS the 
quarry makes it necessary, instead of 
restoring to the expensive method of 
storing stone or sometimes, as has 



been done, in shutting down the plant 
because all of the product of the 
quarry cannot be disposed of. 

I one time happened upon a piece 
of macadam work where the specifi- 
cation provided that the maximum 
size of stone should go through a 4-in. 
circular opening. Some of the stone 
that arrived on the job was so large 
that it was quite evident that it had 
not gone through a 4-in. circular open- 
ing. I called by long distance 'phone 
the stone company's office and they 
assured me, after calling the plant 
and talking to their superintendent, 
that the stone was going through a 
4-in. screen. I told them that I would 
be down to the plant that afternoon. 
After making a 60-mile drive across 
country and arriving at the stone com- 
pany's office, I was told that they had 
made a further investigation and that 
it was possible that the screen was 
a 41^ -in. screen. We drove to the 
plant, which is several miles out In 
the country, and after going up some 
70 ft. in the air and looking at the 
screen in operation, the superintend- 
ent agreed that it might be a 5-in. 
screen. I prevailed upon him to shut 
down the plant so that we could meas- 
ure the size of holes whereupon we 
found that the screen was a standard 
5%-in. screen and being an old screen 
badly worn in some places the open- 
ings In it measured as much as 5%-in. 
across. My experience on numerous 
occasions of this kind has led me to 
believe that too frequently the man- 
ager of a plant and even the superin- 
tendent does not give enough atten- 
tion to the details of the screening, 
which is so important a feature of 
stone production In the preparation 
of stone for the building of the higher 
types of road. 

Overloading of Screens. — It Is not 
uncommon to see stone coming in 
from a screen with 20 to 50 per cent 
of the material that would readily go 
through the openings in the screen 
over which it passes. This is usually 
due to the overloading of the screen. 
While the angle of the screen, size 
of openings and rate of revolution of 
a screen determines the amount of 
"fines" left in the product, yet every 
screen has a capacity, which, if ex- 
ceeded, will greatly increase the 
amount of undersized stone left in 
the product. Sufficient screen ca- 
pacity Is just as important a part of 
the plant as crusher capacity. 

Removal of Dust and Clay from 
Small Size Stone. — While use of the 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



217 



revolving circular screen is almost 
universal in stone producing plants, 
' the separation of the dust from the 
; finer sizes of material where it is im- 
I perative that those sizes be free and 
i clean from dust, is now being done 
' quite extensively by shaker and vi- 
brator screens which perhaps clean 
the material better than by any other 
process. The ease with which the 
dust and fine material is removed 
from crushed stone depends very 
largely upon: (a) The percentage of 
I clay that it permitted to go into the 
; crusher and mix with the stone; (b) 
the moisture in the stone and clay; 
and (c) the hardness of the stone. 
It is very difl&cult to eliminate clay 
from the fine stone when it is damp 
as happens during a rain on the quar- 
ry, and when the clay has been put 
into the crusher with the stone. 
Where it is imperative to produce 
clean stone, as when the stone is 
used in concrete and bituminous 
roads, it is very imperative that 
great pains be used in stripping the 
quarry. During periods right after a 
rain if a little care is used in filling 
the cars in the quarry, frequently the 
freedom of the finer stone from clay 
will be very favorably affected. It is 
not uncommon to happen in a quarry 
after a rain in small plants where 
hand loading is done, and find the 
shovelers scooping up dirt, clay, stone 
and all into the small dump cars. 
One thing we can positively state is 
that if clay does not go into the 
crusher it will not come out in the 
fine stone. The harder and flintier 
stones naturally produce a cleaner, 
small size product than the softer 
stones. 

Sizes of Aggregate top Various Pur- 
poses. — There is such a large variety 
of sizes of aggregate used for various 
purposes, that it would almost make 
one dizzy to enumerate all of them. 
For this reason a number of years 
ago an attempt was made to stand- 
ardize on the size of aggregates. This 
was done fairly satisfactorily. How- 
ever, it seems that owing to the fact 
that difference in various city, county 
and state specifications and the dif- 
ferent ideas of various stone crush- 
ing companies as to what size they 
should make, has caused us not to 
make much progress in this standard- 
ization of sizes. It is a fact, too, how- 
ever, which must be taken into con- 
sideration, that stones of different 
hardness will permit the use of a lit- 
tle different size; that is, generally 



speaking, in macadam work the hard- 
er the stone the smaller should be 
the maximum size used for any par- 
ticular purpose. 

A general principle in the sizing of 
stone for macadam work might be to 
use as coarse a stone as can be used 
without causing an objectionable 
roughness of the particular type of 
surface in which the stone is used. 
The thickness of the surface course 
may determine the maximum size 
that can be used; that is, within cer- 
tain limits a thin course will require 
the use of smaller size stone than a 
thick course. As a general guide the 
following might be taken as a limita- 
tion of sizes for various purposes: 
Waterbound Macadam Top Course. 

(a) If surface is to be maintained in. 
the future by the applying of fine 
stone and dragging, 1%-in. to %- 
in. size. 

(b) If surface is to be maintained in 
the future with the use of bitumi- 
nous surface treatments, 3^-in. 
to 2^-in. 1-in. to dust for soft 
stone. 

(c) For filler %-in. to dust for me- 
dium stone; %-in. to dust for 
very hard stone. 

Bituminous Macadam. 

(a) Covering stone for first applica- 
tion of tar or asphalt, 1%-in. to 
%-in. size. 

(b) Covering stone for last applica- 
tion of tar or asphalt, %-in. to 
14-in. size. 

Bituminous Surface Treatments of 
Tar or Asphalt. 

(a) Treatments %-gal. per square 
yard, i^-in. to ^^-in. size. 

(b) Treatments %-gal. per square 
yard, %-in. to %-in. size. 

(c) Treatments 2-5-gal. per square 
yard, 1-in. to %-in. size. 

Stone road maintained with light 
covering of stone and dragging op- 
erations: 

(a) Very light application of stone — 
Hard stone, %-in. to %-in. size; 
medium, 1-in, to %-in. size; soft 
stone, 1%-in. to %-in. size. 

(b) Heavy application of stone — 1%- 
in. maximum size may be used, 
preferably to be covered with one 
of the above sizes. 

Cold Bituminous Mix for Patching. 

(a) To be put down with a roller or 
under very heavy traffic, 1%-in. 
to %-in. 

(b) To be put down by hand tamp- 
ing, %-in. to %-in. 

While the above tabulated sizes are 
more or less the ideal sizes, quite a 



218 



Roads and Streets 



August 



variation from these can be permit- 
ted in some cases, and yet flrst-class 
results be secured. In fact there may 
be certain conditions where a de- 
parture from these sizes would be de- 
sired. For instance: Where a com- 
paratively soft stone is used in bitu- 
minous and waterbound macadam to 
be later maintained by surface treat- 
ment, the larger size stone might bet- 
ter be a maximum size that will go 
through a 4-in. circular opening in- 
stead of a 3l^-in. 

While for foundation stone, in or- 
der to accommodate the quarry, fre- 
quently 2-in. or smaller stone has 
been used, it undoubtedly would be 
better to use a much coarser stone.- 
even as large as would go through a 
6-in. opening, if the stone is to be 
rolled and waterbound. 

Wise Location of Gravel and Stone 
Plants Necessary. — Proper selection 
of quarry sites and location of gravel 
plants both for the local plants and 
large commercial plants, is very im- 
portant. Before capital is invested 
in such a plant, the gravel and stone 
should be tested for all depths and 
areas over which it is contemplated 
to develop the plant. Capital cannot 
be wisely invested unless this is done. 
Too frequently a quarry or gravel 
plant has been located only because 
it was considered an economical 
place to strip the stone or gravel. The 
saving in this respect in a particular 
location may be only a very small 
part of the cost of production which 
small saving might have been coun- 
teracted several times by the better 
quality of stone or gravel at some 
other location. One thing is certain, 
that if the quality of stone or gravel 
is not present to start with, a good 
product cannot be produced. In many 
places a plant would not have been 
opened up at all had sufficient exam- 
ination been made. A plant that can 
economically produce good gravel or 
good stone is an asset to the state 
and the taxpayers profit thereby. A 
plant that produces poor grade ma- 
terial and does not operate econom- 
ically is a disturbing factor to good 
society. A poor grade stone can fre- 
quently be produced cheaper per ton 
than a good hard stone. This cheap- 
er cost of production is too frequent- 
ly used in maintaining a big lobby 
to force the sale of the poorer grade 
material to the road officials. In such 
cases the road official needs our sym- 
pathy. Here is where a laboratory 
test on the material may come to 



your relief. The good material sells 
itself and only necessitates a large 
promotional expense when the other 
fellow gets the best of the situation. 
Let us hope that everything possible 
will be done to overcome the over- 
promotion of poorer grades of mate- 
rial and material that is not econom- 
ical to use. We can assist in this 
somewhat by being fair to the legiti- 
mate commercial plants which pro- 
duce good material. Much capital is 
invested in them. They are an asset 
to the state and should be encour- 
aged. We should not encourage the 
establishment of local plants because 
these can produce material about as 
cheaply on the road. The local plants 
should be encouraged only when be- 
yond a doubt they can produce ma- 
terial on the road cheaper than the 
commercial plants, taking into con- 
sideration the 'quality of the material. 
The commercial plants have been hit 
an awful blow the past few years be- 
cause of the unstable situation of our 
railroads and some of them will need 
nursing if they survive another simi- 
lar condition. However, the economic 
law of production of road materials 
must prevail and if this fluctuating 
condition of our railroads is to con- 
tinue in the future, the shipping of 
road material will have to harmonize 
with it. 

Talent Needed in Manufacture of 
Road Materials. — Although the road 
material producers, and we in the 
road maintenance and construction 
work, may feel too proud and bigoted 
to admit our work is not being done 
to the maximum efficiency, we will 
have to admit as part truth the state- 
ment some one has made, namely, 
"The brains of the world is now em- 
ployed in the automotive industry!" 
This industry has paid bigger salaries 
and has offered greater inducement 
to our young men than the road work. 
Let us hope that we may stem the 
tide eventually, and direct back into 
the channels of road production some 
of the talent that has been going into 
the automotive industry. The advance 
that this industry has made over 
road production is too great. The 
road work should keep abreast, if not 
a few years ahead, of the industry 
which wears out the roads. The pub- 
lic must be made to see the truth. It 
is not consistent that an automobile 
owner should pay 12 ct. for operation 
expense for every mile he drives his 
car, and then object to paying 2 ct. 
gasoline tax which on an average 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



219 



amounts to 1.6 ct. per mile, in order 
to have good roads over which to 
joperate the car. Any man who con- 
itinues to study any subject and has a 
treasonable education, eventually be- 
f3omes more or less of an expert in 
ithat subject. Certainly with more 
talent directed into the production of 
road materials, and doing road main- 
itenance and road construction work 
the industry would be benefited. 



Test Road in Kentucky. — The Ken- 
tucky State Highway Department is 
ito build a 1-mile test road, divided 
'into a number of sections, each built 
under a separate specification. Local 
material ■will be used on a majority 
of the sections. 



Forest Road and Trail Construction. 

— During the calendar year 1922 the 
amount of Federal funds spent on 
highways by the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture totaled 
§5,603,100, which constructed 2,420 
miles of forest roads and 4,190 miles 
of forest trails. An additional $950,- 
000 was secured for this construction 
work from State and county authori- 
ties. During this same year 4,550 
miles of roads and 19,600 miles of 
trails were maintained at a cost of 
$500,000. 



Effect of Center Lines on Traffic 
Safety. — The National Highway 
Traffic Association estimates that a 
center line on a highway increases its 
safety from 25 per cent to 50 per cent. 




Copyright: 1923. By Tke Chicago Tribune. 

A Safety Saggestion for Highway Construction. 



220 Roads and Streets Augus 

Progressive Construction of Highways 



Practice in Iowa and North Carolina Described in Papers Presente 

at 20th Annual Convention of American Road 

Builders' Association 



Practice in Iowa 

By C. COYKENDALL, 

Assistant Chief Engineer, Iowa State 
Highway Commission. 

No single problem Is provocative of 
more difference of opinion than that 
of the proper policy for the develop- 
ment of a highway transportation sys- 
tem. Nor is it surprising that such 
should be the case, for there is no 
one proper solution to the problem. 
Obviously, the proper solution of 
Rhode Island's highway problem will 
not apply equally well to the highway 
problems arising in Texas, nor can a 
solution that is proving effective in 
Pennsylvania be unqualifiedly recom- 
mended for Wyoming. The problems 
arising in connection with the building 
of a system of highways are manifold, 
and fortunate indeed is the state 
which has highway laws flexible 
enough to fit all conditions within the 
state, and officials in charge of high- 
way work possesesd of sufficient 
vision, courage and authority to apply 
the proper solution to the various 
problems confronting them. If such a 
state there be, let it be known, in 
order that the lawmakers and highway 
officials of other states may journey 
thence and become enlightened. 

Iowa's road building problems are 
not exactly duplicated elsewhere. The 
state has 56,000 square miles in area 
and more than 104,000 miles of rural 
highway, with practically every one 
of these miles, to a greater or less 
degree, an essential part of the state's 
highway transportation system. Every 
section of the state is productive, and 
consequently is inhabited. Excluding 
the population resident in cities and 
towns, it is found that the density of 
rural population is remarkably uni- 
form throughout the state, with a cor- 
respondingly uniform need for a 
usable system of rural highways 
throughout the state. 

Traffic on Iowa Highways. — Let us 
consider for a moment the sources 
and kinds of traffic that the roads of 
Iowa are called upon to carry. The 
surplus products of all sections of the 
state must be hauled over rural high- 
ways to the shipping and market 



points, and from these same shippin 
and market points, coal, machiner; 
lumber and other materials and su] 
plies must be hauled back to the farn 
Heavy tractors for operating threshin 
machines, corn shellers and silo fil 
ers must be able to move from far] 
to farm, and for this purpose, sul 
stantial bridges are necessary. A coi 
stantly increasing percentage of tb 
children of the state are being edi 
cated in modern, consolidated school 
and the school busses in which thes 
children ride to and from school 9 < 
every 12 months of the year, mui 
have safe and usable roads an 
bridges over which to travel. In thos 
sections of the state within a radit 
of 50 miles of great meat packing cei 
ters such as Sioux City, Omaha an 
Nebraska City, it is found highly ec 
nomical to market livestock by true 
instead of train, as it is found thj 
the increased transportation cost b 
truck haulage is much more than ol 
set by the small shrinkage in weigl 
of the live stock hauled by truck, s 
compared to the shrinkage Whe 
hauled by train. In the vicinity ( 
all considerable centers of populatioi 
slow and costly railway and expres 
service is being supplemented by m^ 
tor transport. Two of the nation 
best marked and most widely-know 
transcontinental highways, and man 
other important but less widely-know 
interstate highways, cross the stat 
Yearly the interstate traffic on thes 
highways is increasing. Traffic coun1 
taken during the past season at 
point east of Ames, where for a shoi 
distance the Lincoln Highway and th 
Jefferson Highway use the same roai 
show that of a total average dail 
traffic amounting to 1,036 vehicles, U 
vehicles, or 14.3 per cent of the toti 
traffic, was motor cars with foreig 
licenses. And last but by no mear 
least, the 500,000 motor cars owne 
in Iowa are decidedly active orgai 
isms, penetrating every nook and co 
ner of the state, on business or plea 
ure bent, and requiring roads — usabl 
roads. 

Highway Construction Has Lagge 
Behind Traffic Development. — Froi 
the foregoing, it will be seen that th 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



221 



various classes of roads in Iowa are 
called upon to carry almost every 
known variety of modern highway 
traffic, and the suddenness with which 
most of this traffic has developed is 
the element that makes the problem 
of providing adequate highways so 
stupendous. If the development of 
highways in Iowa during the past dec- 
ade were to have kept pace with the 
development of traffic using those 
highways, there should have been con- 
structed during that time at least 2,500 
miles of paved road, at least 25,000 
miles of graveled or similarly sur- 
faced roads, another 25,000 miles 
graded and drained, and the remain- 
ing mileage maintained in usable con- 
dition and safely bridged. Such a 
program of improvement would have 
cost approximately $500,000,000, 
whereas the actual total highway ex- 
penditures during this period amount- 
ed to approximately $195,000,000, or 39 
per cent of what would have been 
necessary had highway improvements 
kept pace with the development of 
highway traffic. 

On the other hand, during the same 
period of time the people of Iowa have 
invested more than $750,000,000 in au- 
tomobiles, thus showing a much 
greater liberality in the financing of 
privately owned rolling stock than in 
the financing of publicly owned road 
beds. 

Iowa's Highway Policies Always 
Conservative. — In most respects the 
citizens of Iowa .are conservative 
Having no great centers of population, 
her policies as a state are formulated 
largely by the people of the rural 
communities — people whose personal 
prosperity has resulted from conserva- 
tism in their personal affairs and who 
naturally are wont to apply the same 
policies to public affairs. Logically 
enough, therefore, Iowa's highway pol- 
icies have always been conservative. 
Until 1904, Iowa as a state took no 
part whatever in road building activi- 
ties. All such work was under the 
supervision of county and township 
officials. Bridges of 16 ft. span or 
more were known as county bridges 
and were built and maintained by the 
county. In addition to this, county 
boards of supervisors had authority 
to levy a small tax, known as the 
county road tax, the proceeds from 
which could be spent on road work 
by the county supervisors at their own 
discretion as to location and type of 
improvement. As the condition of 
roads and bridges was a matter al- 



most wholly of local concern, logically 
enough the administration of highway 
matters had remained vested in local 
officials. 

About 20 years ago, when it first 
began to occur to some of the more 
forward-looking that the existing 
method of handling matters pertain- 
ing to roads and bridges might not 
be all that could be desired, it was 
natural that bridges and culverts re- 
ceived first consideration. Travelers 
on the roads at that time could usually 
choose favorable weather conditions 
for making their trips, but the bridges 
and culverts had to be crossed. Fur- 
ther, about this time the heavy steam 
tractor was coming into more general 
use and was playing more or less 
havoc with flimsy bridges. Naturally 
the owners of these tractors wanted 
better and safer bridges built, and 
these same owners, though their 
state threshermen's association, later 
proved to be one of the most effective 
agencies in securing progressive road 
legislation. 

Early Work of State Highway Com- 
mission — The state highway commis- 
sion, created by legislative enactment 
in 1904, was vested with only advisory 
powers. Such counties as desired could 
avail themselves of the commission's 
engineering services and advice, al- 
though there was nothing obligatory 
that such advice must be followed. 
Accomplishments during the period 
that this system was effective — 1904 
to 1912, inclusive — were entirely along 
the line of progressive construction. 
A large number of counties com- 
menced building bridges and culverts 
of permanent construction and cut- 
ting down hills and filling hollows 
adjacent thereto. Toward the close of 
this period the use of large blade 
graders drawn by gasoline tractors be- 
came quite general, resulting in the 
building of a considerable mileage of 
dirt roads to a natural grade, and to 
sections closely approaching present 
day standards. Very little surfacing 
work of any kind was undertaken ex- 
cept for short stretches of gravel sur- 
facing here and there in progressive 
communities where an abundance of 
local gravel was available. 

The Highway Legislation of 1913. — 
In the spring of 1913, radical highway 
legislation was enacted by the state 
legislature, which resulted in a com- 
plete change in the method of handling 
highway work. This legislation reor- 
ganized the state highway commission, 
clothing it with drastic supervisory 



222 



Roads and Streets 



August 



powers, and providing adequate funds 
for its support. Under this statute the 
state continued its policy of non-par- 
ticipation in the cost of road building, 
but required all highway construction 
work, both road and bridge, to be done 
in accordance with plans and specifica- 
tions either prepared by or approved 
by the state highway commission. 
Other outstanding features of this leg- 
islation were the requiring of each 
county to employ a county engineer to 
supervise road and bridge construc- 
tion work, and the classification of 
highways into a county system and a 
township system, the former being 
placed entirely under the supervision 
of county officials, and the latter re- 
maining under the jurisdiction of 
township officials, with the restriction 
that any construction work upon the 
township road system must be done 
in accordance with plans prepared by 
the county engineer and approved by 
the state highway commission. 

Under this scheme of operation, real 
strides were made in the way of pro- 
gressive road construction, particu- 
farly upon the county road system. By 
the end of 1916, approximately 1,600 
miles had been built to established 
grade in accordance with approved 
plans; approximately 25,000 bridges 
and culverts had been constructed of 
so-called permanent construction; 
practically the entire mileage of the 
county road system — some 15,000 
miles in all — had been constructed to 
natural grade and standard section 
and was being rather systematic- 
ally maintained; in fact, Iowa had 
acquired a reputation for having a 
remarkable system of dirt roads — 
remarkably good under favorable 
weather conditions and remarkably 
muddy during rainy weather. Still but 
little surfacing work had been under- 
taken, road building efforts and reve- 
nues as yet being devoted to the 
building of earth roads and substan- 
tial bridges and culverts, with here 
and there a few rather desultory at- 
tempts at gravel surfacing. 

Results of Federal Participation. — 
The coming of federal participation in 
highway building necessitated further 
changes in Iowa's highway laws. Such 
changes were brought about during 
the legislative sessions of 1917 and 
1919. A further classification of high- 
ways was made, a limited trunk line 
system of approximately 6,600 miles 
being designated as the Primary Road 
System, upon which all Federal Aid 
allotted to the state, as well as all 



revenues derived from the licensing 
of motor vehicles, must be expended. 
The remaining mileage of highways 
was classified as secondary roads, ap- 
proximately 11,000 miles. of which con- 
stitute the county road system, and 
the remaining 87,000 miles still being 
under the supervision of the township 
officials. 

Improvements on Primary Road 
System. — Under this revised legisla- 
tion the policy of progressive con- 
struction persists. The primary road 
fund — Federal Aid and revenues de- 
rived from the licensing of motor ve- 
hicles — is divided among the various 
counties of the state in proportion to 
their area, providing a fund of approx- 
imately $90,000 annually to the aver- 
age county for improving and main- 
taining approximately 67 miles of 
primary road. Obviously this fund is 
not sufficient to make possible any 
considerable progress in building 
roads having a high type of surfacing, 
and except in those few counties that 
have taken advantage of a provision 
of the law which allows anticipation 
of future allotments of primary road 
funds through the issuance of county 
bonds, the improvements undertaken 
on the primary road system consist 
largely of completing the construction 
of roads to established grade, provid- 
ing the necessary drainage and drain- 
age structures, and when this has 
been completed, surfacing with gravel 
or sand-clay construction. In addition 
to the inadequacy of funds heretofore 
mentioned as restrictive to a paving 
program, the law imposes further re- 
strictions in requiring the question as 
to wether or not the primary roads of 
a county shall be hard surfaced to be 
submitted to a vote of the people of 
the county. The further provision that 
when hard surfacing is authorized, 25 
per cent of the cost thereof is as- 
sessed to abutting and adjacent prop- 
erty, acts as an additional deterrent 
in getting a hard surfacing program 
under way. 

Accomplishments toward the im- 
provement of the primary road system 
since its establishment are therefore 
largely along the line of progressive 
construction. On Dec. 1, 1922, of the 
3,653.5 miles of the primary road sys- 
tem that had been constructed to es- 
tablished grade and the necessary 
drainage and drainage structures pro- 
vided, 334.4 miles had been paved and 
1,558 miles had been gravel surfaced, 
leaving 1,761.1 miles without surfac- 
ing of any kind. A large percentage 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



223 



;)f the mileage that has been gravel 
mrfaced will reed to be paved some 
Lime within the next decade if traflGIc 
is to be adequately served. In tl^e 
meantime, however, traffic on these 
l,55S miles of gravel surfaced high- 
s^ays is getting reasonably efficient 
lighway service, whereas the same 
unds invested in pavement would 
lave given traffic a high grade of 
lighway service on only approximately 
.50 miles. 

It will thus be seen that up to the 

present time road building in Iowa 

aas been hedged about with restric- 

; ions that make ^ny policy other than 

hat of progressive construction, en- 

irely impractical. Neither is it be- 

ieved that Iowa is the loser on that 

Lccoimt, nor that the opposite policy 

)f highway improvement; that is, the 

concentration of available highway 

•evenues upon a limited mileage of 

ligh type roads, would have given 

raffle upon the highways in Iowa a 

lervice comparable to the service that 

las been given. The dirt roads that 

lave been constructed to established 

prade and the necessary drainage and 

Jrainage structures provided, give 

astly better service than do the un- 

^■aded, undrained and poorly bridged 

iighways. Also, the highway that has 

>een graded several years in advance 

>£ the time that it is to be hard sur- 

aced is in much better condition for 

Lard surfacing than is a newly graded 

Jghway, particularly so in locations 

There the topography is rolUng. To 

old to 6 per cent maximum grades 

m some primary roads in Iowa re- 

luires upward of 30,000 cubic yards of 

arthwork per mile. EJxperience 

eaches that the resulting fills under 

hese conditions require two or three 

ears to become stabilized and that a 

igid type of surfacing should not be 

ttempted on these fills until they 

lave become thoroughly stabilized. 

In conclusion, it may be said that 

he policy of progressive construction 

f highways in Iowa is a logical result 

f its traffic needs and its highway 

aws, which after all are in a measure 

eflective of traffic needs. Under this 

olicy, substantial progress has been 

lade. If highway traffic is to be given 

nything like the service it deserves, 

lOwever, there must be no undue hes- 

r.ation about taking the succeeding 

teps so necessary to the success of 

uch a policy. Based on present costs, 

t least $100,000,000 must be spent 

luring the next five years on con- 

tmcting and maintaining the primary 



road system alone, if traffic is to be 
only reasonably well served. An 
equally large expenditure should be 
made during that period on secondary 
highways. It is not a case of the state 
not being able to afford such expendi- 
tures; rather it is a case of the state 
not being able to afford to do without 
the highway service that will result 
from such expenditures. 



Practice in North Carolina 

By C. M. UPHAM, 

State Highway Engineer of 
Xorth Carolina. 

If a state had an unlimited supply 
of money it would be a simple prob- 
lem to construct a state highway sys- 
tem, but practically all states are 
limited in the amount of money they 
have to spend in the construction of 
their road systems. 

The function of a state highway 
commission is to provide a means of 
transportation for the state, and not 
the mere building of a few miles of 
hard surface roads and bridges at a 
few selected places throughout the 
state. For a state to develop as a 
whole, it is necessary that a connected 
system of highways should be avail- 
able for the purpose of providing a 
means of transportation for the state's 
development. 

Traffic is concerned with the road- 
way only to the extent of being pro- 
vided with a 'smooth highway over 
which it may travel at a minimum of 
operation cost. The selection of the 
type of highway to construct is the 
problem of the engineer, after due 
consideration of all affecting elements, 
and should be a highway which will 
adequately and efficiently carry the 
traffic at a minimum maintenance ex- 
pense. 

It is absolutely essential that the 
road should be selected and so con- 
structed that the money invested in 
the system of highways will at all 
times be a minimum. To best do this, 
means the construction of progressive 
tj'pe roads, in which all the standards 
of construction are the same, and by 
the use of which the lighter traffic is 
provided with a road suitable to its 
needs, and the heavier traffic with a 
hard surface road, which is the ulti- 
mate surface of all progressive type 
roads. 

Method of Solution Differs in Differ- 
ent States. — The solution of provid- 
ing a means for traffic or the construc- 
tion of a highway system in every 



224 



Roads and Streets 



August 



state necessarily depends upon the 
local conditions in that state, and con- 
sequently, the method of solution will 
be different in the different states and 
depends on the economic, industrial, 
and social conditions throughout the 
state. 

Practically every state in the Union 
has its cities and counties of high and 
intensive development, as well as its 
sparsely developed sections. To build 
immediately a system of hard surface 
roads throughout an entire state, 
when the demands for such roads are 
only within the highly developed sec- 
tions, would be money wantonly 
wasted. 

Within the highly developed sec- 
tions, no doubt the construction of a 
hard surface pavement is the correct 
and only answer. In the urban and 
outlying districts, where the traffic is 
less intense, a lighter and less expen- 
sive road may adequately serve the 
needs of traffic. This less expensive 
road should be located, graded and 
drained upon the same standards cus- 
tomary with hard surface construction, 
so that when the country through 
which the road passes develops to the 
extent that traffic requires a heavy 
duty road, there will only be the nec- 
essity of adding the hard surface in 
order to adequately provide for the 
heavy traffic which may at some fu- 
ture time make demands on this high- 
way. Still farther from the highly 
developed centers, and far out into the 
less developed country, there are still 
lesser traffic demands. Few vehicles 
and light loads generally constitute 
the pioneers in transportation. Quite 
often graded roads, with the proper 
drainage structures, constructed upon 
hard surface standards, will suitably 
take care of this rural traffic. 

After the construction of the graded 
road provides a means of development, 
and the traffic demands become great- 
er, a higher type surface, possibly a 
sand-clay, topsoil or gravel, can be 
added to the previously graded road, 
and when the locality still grows and 
the sections become more highly devel- 
oped and the traffic demands are 
greater, there only remains for the 
road builder to surface these progres- 
sive roads with a hard surface. This 
will efficiently provide for the heavy 
traffic, which ultimately makes de- 
mands on the roads in the developed 
localities. 

Conditions in Nortli Carolina. — North 
Carolina has, three distinct geographi- 
cal divisions. The mountain section 
Is made up of farming and mining sec- 



tions with numerous resorts so located 
as to take advantage of the wonderful 
scenery; the piedmont section or 
foothills, with its farms and industries 
highly developed; and the flat coastal 
plain, with its excellent farms and in- 
dustries claiming great attention for 
their transportation needs. These 
three great geographical divisions are 
divided into one hundred counties, and 
many more centers of population. It 
is the work of the state highway com- 
mission to connect these centers with 
a highway system or a means of trans- 
portation which will adequately pro- 
vide for the class of traffic which now 
exists and is expected in the near fu- 
ture. The problem of selecting the 
type of progressive road is somewhat 
reduced when it is seen that hard sur- 
face roads are immediately required to 
efficiently and economically care for 
traffic demands in connecting the de- 
veloped industrial centers. This is also 
true in the highly developed farming 
sections. The remainder of the prob- 
lem is to provide suitable and con- 
tinuous roads to connect up the cen- 
ters in a manner which will satisfac- 
torily provide for the needs of trans- 
portation, at the same time keeping 
the money investment always at a 
minimum. 

The distances are long and it is 
practically always the fact that the 
state's development and the intensity 
of traffic will not justify the construc- 
tion of hard surface roads throughout 
the entire system. The answer to the 
problem of providing the state with a 
means of transportation lies in the 
construction of progressive type roads 
so constructed on high standards that 
they may be ultimately turned into 
hard surface roads by the addition of 
a higher type standard surface. 

North Carolina Metiiod. — The North 
Carolina method of progressive type 
construction is to grade the road, using 
the same standards for line and grade 
that are used in hard surface con 
struction. Only one standard of drain 
age structures is used regardless ol 
whether the road is merely graded or! 
is to be covered with a hard surface; 
This construction of graded road wi! 
care for the light traffic which gener 
ally exists in all newly developed lo 
calities. This graded road is at al 
times maintained and when the in 
creased traffic creates a high cost o 
maintenance, then it is indicated tha 
it is time to construct the next hipli 
er type of road surface. The next st 
in the progressive type road is 
cover the graded road with a selectee 



923 



Roads and Streets 



225 



)il material, such as sand-clay, top- 
oil or gravel. This material is gen- 
rally of higher bearing value than 
le natural soil, and is a material 

hich is less affected by moisture and 
lerefore more suitable for use as a 
jad surface. This selected surface 
laterial is maintained as a subgrade 
ighway until such time as the main- 
mance cost becomes excessive and 
le increased traffic indicates that a 
ard surface roadway is necessary. 

The cost of grading and the drain- 
ge structures generally constitutes 
bout one-sixth of the ultimate cost of 
! hard surface road. To add a select- 
id soil surface adds very little differ- 
nce to the cost of this construction; 
onsequently about six times as much 
cad, with a selected soil surface, may 
e constructed for the same money as 
hough the money was spent for the 
mmediate construction of hard sur- 
ace roads. This makes it possible for 
ransportation to be benefited to a 
much greater extent and the state to 
levelop at six points rather than in 
tne. 

It will be noted that the construe- 
ion of the selected soil surface is an 
iddition to the graded road, and no 
irevious step in the grading or con- 
truction of drainage structures has 
leen lost or fhrown away in the con- 
truction of this selected soil surface 
oad. 

In the progressive type road all 
teps taken In its construction include 
lie utilization of all previous construc- 
ion when transforming the road to 
he next higher type, and each step 
nay be considered as a subgrade for 
|:he next higher type surface. This in 
Itself justifies the expenditure of a 
jiufficient amount of money to select 
iioils of a character which may, with 
proper maintenance, be used as a sur- 
face material until such a time as 
i raffic demands, or the cost of mainte- 
lance makes it necessary to construct 
:he next higher type of hard surface. 
liJy this method of construction the 
"nTaded road or the selected soil sur- 
face can truly be called a subgrade 
lighway, and is often the economic 
l-iolution for road construction over a 
Sarge portion of a sfate system. 
! The Ultimate Siep. — The ultimate 
^tep in progressive type construction 
|is the addition of the hard surface. 
After the maintenance on the selected 
^oil surface becomes excessive or when 
the country and traffic develops to the 
[extent that a hard surface road is nec- 
essary, the next step is to construct 
[the hard surface pavement directly on 



the selected soil surface. This 
method of progressive construc- 
tion utilizes advantageously the se- 
lected soil surface as a stabilized sub- 
grade for the hard surface pavement, 
and on account of the complete settle- 
ment, and on account of the character 
of the selected soil surface, the sub- 
grade is stabilized sufficiently to aid 
the hard surface in carrying the loads. 

Therefore it may be seen that with 
the construction of the progressive 
type road, light traffic or a small ton- 
nage is cared for by a graded road of 
comparatively low cost. As the traffic 
demands and tonnage increase, the 
road is increased in strength, and the 
increase of the investment is justified. 
As the traffic and tonnage increase to 
the maximum, a hard surface road is 
constructed. The construction of 
roads on progressive principles means 
that the greatest percentage of the in- 
vested money is in permanent con- 
struction, and justifies the expendi- 
ture of bond money in any progres- 
sive type road. 

North Carolina has constructed many 
progressive type roads. It has already 
completed its cycle by placing hard 
surfaces on roads which were pre- 
viously graded and stabilized with a 
selected soil material, although at 
present it has a reasonable mileage of 
graded roads in the newly developed 
localities; it is maintaining as sub- 
grade highways' a large mileage of se- 
lected soil roads and thus affording a 
means of traffic to a great portion of 
the state. The completion of about 
400 miles of hard surface construction 
in 1922, many miles of which was hard 
surface, added to progressive type 
roads, demonstrates the complete and 
satisfactory manner, in which the pro- 
gressive road is carrying for the traf- 
fic in North Carolina and shows that 
this method of road construction is no 
longer in the experimetal stage, but 
that this means of constructing a high- 
way system is economically and prac- 
tically sound and is highly recom- 
mended where the geographical, in- 
dustrial, social and economic condi- 
tions are as found in North Carolina. 



Street Qeaning Officials to Meet at 
Chicago. — The annual conference of 
the International Association of Street 
Sanitation Officials will be held in 
Chicago on Sept. 27 and 28, with head- 
quarters at the Hotel LaSalle. W. J. 
Galligan of the Bureau of Streets of 
Chicago is president of the association 
and A. M. Anderson, 10 South LaSalle 
St., Chicago, 111., is secretary. 



226 



Roads and Streets 



August 



Street and Highway Lighting 

Proper Illumination as a Means of Pre- 
venting Accidents Discussed in 
Paper Presented April 30 Be- 
fore Allied Motor Com- 
merce of Indiana 

By CHARLES J. STAHL, 

Manager Illuminating Engineering Bureau, 
The Westinghouse Companies. 

Street lighting has had a fascinat- 
ing development which up to about 20 
years ago was impelled almost entire- 
ly by man's desire for safety, comfort 
and peace of mind. The fundamental 
motive was crime prevention. Today 
it is still the fundamental considera- 
tion but other motives have grown 
to be of almost equal importance. 
Briefly stated these other considera- 
tions are: 

1. Accident prevention. 

2. The "City Beautiful" idea. 

3. Business stimulation. 

Traffic Requirements and Lighting. 
— I am mentioning this to show that 
up to recent times the requirements 
of traffic were almost entirely neglect- 
ed in the lighting of streets and as 
for highways what little has been 
done is hardly a beginning on the 
thousands of miles of intercity high- 
ways which along with the automobile 
have grown to such great importance 
in our national life. Fortunately the 
requirements of good street lighting 
from the standpoint of preventing 
crime are to quite an extent the re- 
quirements for safe and comfortable 
traffic, except that the latter requires 
higher intensities of lighting. But 
unfortunately no national or civic or- 
ganizations have consistently advo- 
cated and fostered the use of ample 
and efficient street lighting. 

Our first thought is that the electric 
light companies should be its advo- 
cate, but they unfortunately are very 
often forced to enter into contracts in 
which the rates allow no profit and 
not infrequently the street lighting 
business is actually taken at a loss to 
the electric light company supplying 
the power. Naturally they make no 
effort to increase unprofitable busi- 
ness. 

For its value as a business stimu- 
lator merchants have here and there 
fostered local improvements but no 
highway association, or other allied 
societies, have so far undertaken ex- 
tensive propaganda or educational 
work on the value of good street and 



highway lighting which in comparison 
with most other public services is 
high in proportion to its cost. 

Street Traffic Accidents Due to 
Automobiles. — The time has come 
when in connection with our street 
lighting we must recognize that we 
have entirely different problems to 
face than ten or even five years ago, 
and the cause is the automobile. To 
the development of modern high speed 
traffic brought about by its extensive 
use must be charged practically all of 
the increase in street-traffic accidents. 

According to the latest surveys the 
total annual fatal accidents on the 
railways of this country are 7,800 
as against 15,500 fatalities due to 
traffic accidents. Therefore, the loss 
of life in traffic accidents is twice as 
great as in railway accidents. As to 
an evaluation of the annual personal 
and other property loss from auto- 
mobile accidents. Dr. F. S. Crum, sta- 
tistician for one of the large insur- 
ance companies of this country, states 
that while an accurate computation is 
not possible, the annual sacrifice i.^ 
fully $1,000,000,000. 

In 1906 there were less than 400 
deaths in the United States from au- 
tomobile accidents while in this year 
the total will exceed 15,000 which is 
an increase of about 3,800 per cent 
and the total is steadily mounting 
higher. 

Proper Illumination a Factor in Ac- 
cident Prevention. — Stringent traffic 
regulations and educational publicity 
work have brought good results in 
many districts but they cannot over- 
come the effects of faulty vision 
caused by inadequate and improper 
street lighting. To determine how 
much value should be attributed to 
the proper illumination of accidents, a 
survey was made in a representative 
group of cities. In order to obtain 
uniformity in the reports, blank 
forms were prepared by the Engi- 
neering Department of the National 
Lamp Works providing for a charting 
or accurate tabulation of all traffic 
accidents in a given city during the 
period of one year. On these data 
forms returns were obtained fi-om 32 
representative cities such as Philadel- 
phia, Boston and others, with a com 
bined population of over 7,000,000 
The period covered by the return.^ 
was in most cases from the middle of 
1919 to the middle of 1920. Some of 
the essential facts derived from the 



1923 



Roads and Streets 



227 



data compiled are in condensed form 
iis follows: 

1. That of the 31,475 accidents re- 
ported, 1,678 or 17.6 per cent were 
night accidents due to the inadequate 
lighting, 

2. Applying this rate to all cities 
[if the U. S. we find that no less than 
i>67 fatal accidents occur annually due 
to inadequate lighting. 

3. In addition to the suffering and 
loss of life an evaluation of the eco- 
nomic loss gives us the substantial 
Eimount of $54,000,000 chargeable to 
the lack of light and according to cen- 
sus reports the total annual expendi- 
:ure for street lighting in the United 
States does not exceed $50,000,000. 

The percentage of 17.6 arrived at 
iS the proportion of night accidents 
ivhich may be attributed to lack of 
ight is undoubtedly an extremely con- 
servative figure, for the streets of the 
:ities covered by the survey were il- 
uminated at night by artificial light- 
ng of varying degrees of effective- 
less. So in an indi\idual city where 
;he need for better street lighting is 
!specially evident, night accidents 
chargeable to lack of light may run 
IS high as 50 per cent. 

Night Use of Streets in Trucking. — 

Among manufacturers it is realized 
hat great sa\ings in the cost of pro- 
uction are brought about by a dou- 
le-shift which spreads the overhead 
r fixed charges over 24 hours as 
gainst 8 or 12 hours. This practice 
nay be followed with equal economies 
y applying the double-shift to truck- 
ng which, according to reports, has 
n some cases reduced trucking costs 
Imost one-half, due to the increased 
itilization of equipment and terminal 
acilities. This night use of streets 
an be fully developed only by pro- 
iding improved street lighting. The 
louble utilization of crowded thor- 
ughfares is advocated not only be- 
ause of its economy from the oper- 
tor's point of view, but to relieve day 
ime congestion and to postpone the 
ime when expensive duplicate thor- 
ughfare construction will be required 
)y the increasing volume of trafl[ic. 

In driving at night, whether it be a 
ruck, passenger bus, or private car, 
lie driver's \ision depends upon the 
airly constant illumination from the 

ttreet lights, his own headlights, and 
be spasmodic, violent influence of ap- 
iroaching headlights. Excepting 
:rade crossings, the greatest danger 
automobile drivers is from glaring 
eadlights and with the growth in au- 



tomobile traffic it is evident that some 
solution of the headlight problem 
must be brought about. Apparently 
there are only two really effective 
solutions, namely: 

1. The establishment of one way 
streets and interurban or trunk high- 
ways. 

2. The lighting of trunk highways 
so that with dirmned headlights cars 
may be operated with safety and in 
cornfort at the customary cross coun- 
try speeds. 

The Lighting of Highways. — Effi- 
cient highway lighting fixtures have 
been developed and their use is be- 
ing advocated by the leading manu- 
facturers of street lighting equipment, 
and is sponsored by the Illuminating 
Engineering Society after considera- 
ble study and experimenting. 

The cost of lighting a highway 
usually does not exceed 5 per cent 
of the cost of duplicating the high- 
way in order to provide for one way 
traffic, so it is obvious that the sec- 
ond method is more economical than 
the first. 

Many states have put into effect 
very definite regulations requiring 
the use of improved headlight lenses, 
goveraing their adjustment and va- 
rious other details. Some have em- 
ployed illuminating engineers and 
maintained a substantial force of 
traffic officers especially trained for 
competency in enforcing headlight 
legislation, but the most conscientious 
and persistent supervision has met 
with very little and imstable success. 
The solution lies in applying sufficient 
illumination to our main highways so 
that drivers will not need their head- 
lights except as markers to define the 
width of the car or the limits of the 
area to be avoided in passijig, and on 
city streets to make the approach of 
automobiles readily apparent to the 
pedestrian. 

The precautions taken to protect 
the motoring public by posting all 
sharp curves, narrow bridges, steep 
grades and the like may be made to 
serve their full usefulness by proper 
highway lighting. At present this 
protection does not extend adequately 
beyond the hours of daylight. 

Trucks as a rule operate at fairly 
low speed and at slow speeds head- 
lights often afford little illumination 
so the driver is likely to strike ob- 
structions or holes and do damage to 
both truck and highway. Many a 
load has been delayed for hours and 
sometimes for days because the driver 



228 



Roads and Streets 



August 



misjudged the edge of the road bed 
and sank into soft ground. In addi- 
tion to disrupting schedules and low- 
ering the equipment utilization factor 
the road is injured when heavy loads 
ride on the very edge of the road 
bed. 

The cost of good highway lighting 
is justified by these considerations 
alone and apart from thoughts of 
comfort and fear of holdups. 



Effect of Irregular Binds on 
Concrete Test Cylinders 

Some months ago the results of a 
laboratory investigation made by D. 
V. Terrell, testing engineer of the 
Kentucky State Road Department, of 
the effect of irregular ends of con- 
crete cylinders on compressive test 
were published in Engineering and 
Contracting. Since that time the in- 
vestigation has been carried further, 
the idea being to arrive at a reliable 
method of evening up the ends on 
poorly-made cylinders in such a way 
that the results of compressive tests 
will be correct. This set of tests, 
comprising a second series, is de- 
scribed by Mr. Terrell in the Ken- 
tucky Road Builder, from which the 
notes following are taken: 

In the first series the following re- 
sults were obtained: 

Per cent 

Perfect ends 100 

Sheet lead bearing...... 51 

Beaver board bearing 64 

Plaster of Paris bearing 74 

No bearing uneven end 59 

In this series the cylinders were 
made 12 in. long, 1:2:4 mix Ohio 
River sand and gravel. 

AGE 28 DAYS 
First — Three ends perfect finished. 

Results. 

Pounds per square inch 3,310 

Pounds per square inch 3,160 

Pounds per square inch 3,200 



Mean— Pounds per square inch _ 3,223 

Second — Three made as above with 
the exception that the ends were left 
rough 14 days before the test was 
run; we put on a 1 in. cap oh each 
end. 

Results. 

Pounds per square inch 3,280 

Pounds per square inch 8,410 

Pounds per square inch 2,900 



Mean — Pounds per square inch 3,196 

Third — Three made the same as 
above, 1 in. cap added on each end 7 
days before breaking. 



Results. 

Pounds per square inch 2,980 

Pounds per square inch 3,225 

Pounds per square inch 3,540 



Mean— Pounds per square inch 3,248 

Fourth — Three made same as 
above; caps put on 4 days before test 
was made. 

Results. 

Pounds per square inch 2,900 

Pounds per square inch 2,870 

Pounds per square inch 2,950 



Mean — Pounds per square inch 2,906 

It was then thought that there may 
be some difference in the cylinder 
being 14 in. long instead of 12 in. 
Another set of cylinders were made 
10 in. long with the idea of putting a 
1 in. cap on each end. All cylinders 
were made with the same material. 

First — Three 12 in. long, capped 
when made. 

Results. 

Pounds per square inch 2,760 

Pounds per square inch 2,740 

Pounds per square inch 2,800 



Mean — Pounds per square inch 2,766 

Second — Three same as above, but 
10 in. long and rough 1 in. cap on 
each end. Tested when cap was 21 
days old. 

Results. 

Pounds per square inch 2,730 

Pounds per square inch 2,820 

Pounds per square inch 2,770 



Mean — Pounds per square inch 2,773 

Third — Three same as above. 
Tested when cap was 14 days old. 

Results. 

Pounds per square inch _2,720 

Pounds per square inch 2,660 

Pounds per square inch 2,910 



Mean— Pounds per square inch 2,763 

Fourth — Three same as above. 
Tested when cap was 7 days old. 

Results. 

Pounds per square inch 2,770 

Pounds per square inch 2,880 

Pounds per square inch _.2,740 

Mean — Pounds per square inch 2,796 

Both of these experiments proved 
to be very satisfactory. It is now 
recommended : 

(1) That in the future all field cyl- 
inders be made 10 in. 

(2) That no attempt be made to fin-; 
ish the ends. | 

(3) That they be capped after they 
reach the laboratory. 1 

(4) That all caps be at least 7 days| 
old. 

It is believed that we will comt 
nearer getting the actual strength oil 
the specimen in this way than we havt t 
in the past. \ 



923 Roads and Streets 229 

Methods of Constructing Concrete Pavements 



lodem Developments Described in Paper Presented at the 9th 
Annual Michigan Conference on Highway Engineering 
at University of Michigan. 

By E. G. WILLEMIN 

District Engineer, Michigan State Highway Department 

The scarcity of labor and the un- 
jrtainty of material delivery have 
sen prime factors in inducing the 
ighway construction industry to em- 
oy more highly developed machin- 
•y. The tendency is to more closely 
andardize the product and in turn 
crease its rate of production. In 
"omoting this tendency we approach 
ae industrial plant idea to place the 



eration of supply and transport of 
material is interlocked with local 
aspects of the job such as soil, grad- 
ients, width of subgrade, water sup- 
ply, condition of adjacent roads, 
length of the project, supply of com- 
mon and skilled labor, length of live 
and dead haul, availability of local 
materials, time limit of the contract 
and his capital investment. 




Preparation of Sabgrade by Means of Sobgrader. 



'oduct on a quantity production 
isis 

A new perspective has been gained 
the consideration of a road project 
i a co-ordinated entirety, rather 
lan a conglomertaion of its parts, 
he bidder now views a prospective 
■b by analyzing its parts and then 
Jsembling the parts into a whole, 
he vital parts receive first consid- 
■ation, his organization may be the 
^art of his job, it makes the job go, 
Ut his transportation facilities and 

is material supply are equally as 
tal to his well being as a builder 
1 his arteries and life blood are to 
;is personal well being. His consid- 



The experience gained so far in the 
design and fabrication of road equip- 
ment has led to types that are labor 
saving devices, dependable at all 
times. Present construction demands 
sturdy, heavy duty types. Standing 
beside a modern mixer while in op- 
eration, one can well experience the 
same thrill, a feeling of awe, of sur- 
plus power and strength that one gets 
from the modern locomoti^. The 
certainty of mechanical performance 
is eliminating a source of risk to the 
builder. Time-study analysis can well 
be applied with profit to each of the 
more costly major mechanical opera- 
tions. Minor operations can then be 



230 



Roads and Streets 



Augv 



co-ordinated with the major opera- 
tions to give a well balanced plant 
and organization. In glancing over 
a season's record, a sensational run 
on a single day is striking, but to the 
experienced builder the average runs 
per day spread over the season's 
work tells whether financial returns 
will be written in black or red ink. 
There are certain features with which 
road building must always contend, 
such as variable working location and 
lack of protection from the weather. 
The tendency now is to eliminate the 
factor of seasonal work as much as 
possible by starting work earlier. In 
any event the factor that counts is 
continuous production. 

Economic and Social Aspects. — I 



sidered absolutely necessary in go 
practice. For convenience the si 
ject will be handled in the sequen 
of operation, that is, the metho 
employed in (1) the preparation 
the flat subgrade or earthgrade 1 
the slab; (2) the movement and ma 
pulation of material; (3) the finis 
ing of the concrete surface. The si 
ject of construction details will al 
be considered as to their effect up 
the builders' and users' viewpoints 

Preparation of Subgrade. — In t 
preparation of the flat subgrade 1 
the slab, it is the practice in Mic 
gan to channel out sufficient ear 
from the full width of the slab to su 
depth as to give the proper crc 
section and volume of earth to co 




Subgrade Prepared for Pavement Section, 9 in. at Side, Tapering to 6 in. in 2 ft. 



have spoken of the physical and 
mechanical aspects as they may affect 
present methods. The economic and 
social aspects also show signs of 
recent development. Large contract- 
ing firms, with unlimited capital, are 
being attracted to this field of con- 
struction. Due to the larger plant 
investments and necessity of closer 
supervision there is a decided im- 
provement in the personnel of the 
organizations. From the social stand- 
point the use of more highly devel- 
oped machinery tends toward a gen- 
eral improvement of the class of 
labor formerly employed. 

In the consideration of the present 
methods of construction of cement 
concrete pavements, it will be as- 
sumed that the foundation, subgrade 
or earthgrade and the drainage fea- 
tures of the road have received the 
painstaking care that is now con- 



plete the shoulders at the edge of t 
slab. On fresh subgrade or up« 
loose soils a grader serves well 
remove the excess earth outside t 
shoulder line for future use. On si 
grades well packed by trafllc or 
stiff soils it becomes necessary to u 
heavier equipment in such tools 
the plow, scarifier and grader. The 
h|as been and still is consideral 
discussion as to the merits of chj 
neling for the slab. From the en 
neering standpoint in controUi 
volumes of earthwork it is necessaj 
to use the surface of the fiat sij 
grade or earthgrade as the pla 
which eliminates the item of exca" 
tion from further considertaion. ' 
the other hand, it means that t 
earth channeled from fills Is hand! 
twice. This fault is partly remedJ 
by building our earthgrades 6 1 
wider on each side than the finish 



923 



Roads and Streets 



231 



ndth with the idea of using the 
/edge of earth of the inner ditch 
lope as a source of filling material 
or shoulders. In flat sandy country, 
hanneling may be almost dispensed 
.•ith while in rolling country it be- 
omes more difficult for the engineer 
balance the deficiency that may 
xist in cuts and fills to avoid endwise 
aul. In practice it has been found 
dvantageous to have the engineer 
ctually channel out a strip several 
eet wide to the cross section as 
hown on the plans to demonstrate 
•hat in that class of soil sufficient 
|epth has been reached, with or with- 
out the wedge of earth on the should- 
r, to adequately fill out the shoulders 



usually guarantees a decreased cost. 
Each time material is picked up to 
move, costs rise also, due not only 
to the cost of movement, but waste 
of material as well. Yard layouts 
are now designed to elevate raw 
material but once, if possible, and to 
take advantage of gravity movements 
thereafter. 

The Location* of the Mixer. — We 
find that in general two classifications 
may be made as to the location of 
the mixer, viz.: (1) the mixing op- 
erating on earthgrade fed by trans- 
portation units; (2) the mixer operat- 
ing off the grade and delivering a 
wet batch to the transportation units. 
Under the first classification we may 









1 


J ^ 


i^SS^ 


M 


■^ ^ 


^:-\- ■■ 



Delivering Material to Mixer from Central Plant by Industrial Railway. 



»n the edge of the slab to its proper 
lope and section. The present ten- 
Lency is to eliminate side ditches as 
iiuch as possible, but still provide 
dequate drainage and yet leave no 
hastly borrow pits on the back 
lopes. These restrictions imposed 
pon the engineer makes close con- 
rol of earth work necessary at all 
imes. 

The vital importance of the supply 
ind transportation of material has 
ilready been touched upon. The sup- 
ily should always be at least equal to, 
'Ut never less than consumption re- 
uirements to insure continuous pro- 
luction with a well balanced plant. 
The facilities of unloading materials 
rom a source involving railroad haul 
ind for its proper storage is there- 
fore given careful consideration. A 
ayout that gives a minimum handling 



subdivide into three types, the wheel- 
barrow or stocking of subgrade sys- 
tem, the central proportioning plant 
or a type not used to any consider- 
able extent, which consists of a mixer 
over which storage bins are erected, 
the bins being filled by a hoisting ar- 
rangement and the whole cumber- 
some affair mounted on rails. Due to 
the fact that the transportation ele- 
ment must also be considered with 
each type of mixer layout, I will con- 
tinue the enumertaion of types of 
mixer layouts not operating on the 
subgrade, then return to a closer 
study of each type of layout in its 
relation to transportation as well as 
its peculiar advantages over other 
types. Under the classification in 
which the mixer does not operate on 
the grade we have two types: (1) 
central mixing plant with mixer fixed 



282 



Roads and Streets 



Augus 



and set up adjacent to main source 
of material supply; (2) a modified 
central mixing plant where the mixer 
requires one or more set ups usually 
adjacent to the road, its location de- 
termined by stock pile or source of 
supply. It will be noted that the 
essential difference in types as far 
as transportation is concerned is the 
hauling of a dry 8r a wet batch. 
There are other considerations pre- 
viously mentioned, however, that 
largely determine the location of the 
mixer in respect to the road and the 
methods of transportation. I will 
repeat them, assoil of subgrade, grad- 
ients, width of subgrade, water sup- 
ply, condition of adjacent roads, 



be made to the subgrade after th 
aggregates are placed, are very costlj 
For this reason unusual care must b 
taken to correct all ruts and unevei 
ness of the subgrade prior to stocl 
ing.