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Full text of "Engineering Journal 1939"

-LIE Y 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXII 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1939 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



19, 83, 121, 180, 232, 278, 

323, 368, 409, 445, 478, 
Davies, The Thousand Islands 



Methods and Equipment, 



Page 

525 

216 

423 
464 

221 

412 

275 

56 

172 

122 
25 
24 

91 
132 



Adams, P. E. and G. V 
International Bridge . . . 

Advances in Construction 
J. A. McCrory 

Aerial Navigation, Radio Aids to, J. R. Dunn 

Aeroplane, Steps in the Design of a Bush Transport, 
Richard Young 

Airways, Imperial 389 

Aluminum, Structural, E. C. Hartmann 

American Industry Looks at Canada, Marvin W. Maxwell. . . . 

Anderson, Dan., The Baie Comeau Electrical Installation 
of the Quebec North Shore Paper Company 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-third, 

Ottawa 

Programme 

Chairmen of Special Committees 

Distinguished Visitors at the Annual Meeting 

Editorial 

On to Ottawa (Editorial) 88 

Annual Meeting Speakers T iscuss the Fngineer — 

The Engineer Faces a New World, Col. Willard 

Chevalier 187 

The Practical Side of Life. Dr. R, C. Wallace 188 

Annual General and Professional Meeting, Fifty-fourth, 

Toronto " 529, 530 

Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, Pro- 
posed Agreement between the Institute and 534 

Automobile, The Place of Research in the Evolution of 

the, T. A. Boyd 170 

Baie Comeau Electrical Installation of the Quebec 

North Shore Paper Company, Dan Anderson 172 

Batt, William L., Business and Government 230 

Bennett, Harry F., The Institute and the Young 

Engineer 299 

Bennett, William, Welding in Ship Construction — Dis- 
cussion 179 

Boese, G. P. F., Concrete Surfaces Faced with Glazed Tile. . 364 

Book Reviews 249, 544 

Boyd, T. A., The Place of Research in the Evolution of 

the Automobile 170 

Briggs, H.. L., Typical Operating Problems in an Electric 

Power System 308 

British-American Engineering Congress at New York 237 

Programme 283, 330 

Canadian Hospitality in New York 374 

Cancellation 412 

On to New York (Editorial) 374 

Post-Congress Canadian Tour (Editorial) 374 

Post-Congress Canadian Tour Programme 375 

Business and Government, William L. Batt 230 

By-laws, Proposed Amendments to 535 

By-laws 32 and 35 and New By-law 77, Results of Ballot 

for Amendments of 284 

Branches, Abstracts of Reports from 72 

Branches, Membership and Financial Statements of the 76 

Branches, News of — 

Border Cities 34, 94, 144, 241, 286, 

Calgarv 34, 

Edmonton 94, 197, 242, 

Halifax 34, 94, 

Hamilton 35, 94, 197, 242, 

Kingston 

Lakehead 94, 

Lethbridge 35, 

London 36, 95, 145, 243, 287, 

Moncton 

Montreal 36, 96, 146, 197, 

Niagara Peninsula 96, 146, 244, 288, 

Ottawa 37, 96, 198, 244, 289, 

Peterborough 38, 97, 198, 

Saguenay. 

Saint John 



337, 489, 540 
144, 242, 489 

286, 490, 540 

144, 197, 242 

287, 338, 540 
.... 242, 540 

243, 381, 490 

145, 197, 490 

338, 381, 491 
.... 288, 340 

244, 491, 541 
340, 492, 541 
340, 492, 541 

245, 289, 542 
290, 381 

290 



Page 
Branches, News of — (Continued) 

St. Maurice Valley 38, 199, 341 

Saskatchewan 97, 146, 199, 290, 342, 492, 543 

Sault Ste. Marie 200, 245, 342, 493, 543 

Toronto 98, 200, 245, 290 

Vancouver 38, 147, 201, 381, 493 

Victoria 291, 494 

Winnipeg 39, 201, 246, 494 

Cailloux, M., The Domes of St. Joseph's Basilica, Mont- 
real 435 

Calcium Chloride in Construction, J. A. Knight 360 

Camsell, Dr. Charles, Progress in the Northwest Territories. . 163 
Canada., Some Problems Involved in the Expansion of, 

C. A. Magrath 5 

Canadian-Built Fighting Plane, A, 185 

Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Council 

Entertains President of (B. L. Thorne, m.e.i.c.) 185 

Canadian Nickel, Its History, Production and Uses, K. H. J. 

Clarke 505 

"Caribou", Imperial Airways Flying Boat (Photograph) 389 

Challies, Dr. J. B., Address of the Retiring President 135 

Challi^s Dr. J. B., A Message from the President 3 

Chevalier, Col. Willard, The Engineer Faces a New World. . . . 187 

Chevrier Commission Report, Norman D. Wilson 351 

Chloride in Construction, Calcium, J. A. Knight 360 

Clarke, K. H. J., Canadian Nickel, Its History, Production 

and Uses 505 

Columbia University, Greetings to 530 

Columbia University, Illuminated Address Presented 531 

Comments on Concrete Restoration, J. A. McCrory 321 

Compton, Karl T., The Influence of Technical Progress 

upon Social Development 406 

Concrete, Deterioration of 328 

Concrete Restoration, Comments on, J. A. McCrorv 321 

Concrete Surfaces Faced with Glazed Tile, G. P. F. Boese 364 

Construction, Calcium Chloride in, J. A. Knight 360 

Construction Methods and Equipment, Advances in, 

J. A. McCrory 423 

Co-operation Overseas, Engineering 90 

Correspondence 90, 329, 377, 485, 530 

Mr Durlev Expresses his Appreciation 133 

Council for 1938, Report of 60 

Council Meetings 28. 89, 137. 189, 238, 332, 450, 485 

Crankshafts, The Sandcasting of, Ralph E. Edson 224 



Davies, G. V. and P. E. Adams, The Thousand Islands 
International Bridge 

Defence, Economics in Modern, D. J. F. Morton 

Defence, Regulations for (Editorial) 

Defence, The Military Engineer and Canadian, Maj.- 
Gen. A. G. L. McNaughton 

Development of Meteorological Science, Charles Pickering. . . . 

Discussions — 

Welding in Ship Construction, William Bennett 

Domes of St. Joseph's Basilica, Montreal, M. Cailloux 

Domestic Uses of Electricity in Canada, Advances in the, 

Dr. O. O. Lefebvre 

Dominion Council, Luncheon to Member of 

(P. Burke-Gaffnev). 

Dominion Council of Professional Engineers 

Dove, A. B., The Manufacture of Wire for Use in Wire Ropes. 

Drought, A National Problem, G. A. Gaherty 

Dunn, J. R., Radio Aids to Aerial Navigation 

Durlev, R. J. — Correspondence 

Illuminated Address 



216 
517 

482 

443 
399 



179 
435 

428 
184 

484 
520 
53 
464 
133 
133 



Ecole Polytechnique Takes the Lead 329 

Economics in Modern Defence, D. J. F. Morton 517 

Editorials — 

Achievement 

Annual Meeting 

Cancellation 

A Comparison 

Economics and the Engineer 



412 
132 
412 
184 
132 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1939 



Page 

Editorials — (Continued) 

The Engineer in High Places 26 

Engineers in the News 328 

finance 184 

The Importance of Basic Water Resource Data 88 

Institute Prizes 184 

The Journal 26 

The Journal Comes of Age 236 

National Voluntary Registration 282 

Regulations for Defence 482 

War 448 

War, From Peace to 448 

The Young Engineer 236 

Edson, Ralph E., The Sandcasting of Crankshafts 224 

Elections and Transfers . 33, 93, 143, 196, 239, 336, 377, 451, 486, 539 
Electric Power System, Typical Operating Problems in, 

an, H. L. Briggs 308 

Electrical Fire Loss Record, Maintenance as Affecting, 

The, G. S. Lawler 440 

Electrical Installation of the Quebec North Shore Paper 

Company, the Baie Comeau, Dan Anderson 172 

Electrical Production of Musical Tones, Sidney T. 

Fisher 264 

Electricity in Canada, Advances in the Domestic Uses 

of, Dr. O. O. Lefebvre 428 

Employment Service Bureau, 

46, 107, 156, 207, 250, 295, 345, 385, 417, 455, 499, 547 

Engineer, Annual Meeting Speakers Discuss the 187 

Engineer in Canada, The Civil, C. R. Young and R. F. Legget. 512 

Engineer Faces a New World, Col. Willard Chevalier 187 

Engineering Co-operation Overseas 90 

The Engineering Journal 26, 246 

Entrance and Annual Fees of Various Engineering Societies. . 186 



Farmer, John T., The Willans Law in the Analysis of 

Steam Plant Performance 

Fees, Annual 

Fees of Various Engineering Societies, Entrance and Annual . 

Fellowships in Traffic Engineering 

Field, R. H., Instrumental Aids to Photogrammetry 

Fire Loss Record, Maintenance as Affecting the 

Electrical, G. S. Lawler 

Fisher, Sidney T., The Electrical Production of Musical 

Tones ..." 

Foundation Engineering, Soil Mechanics in, William P. 

Kimball 

Fraser, J. P., Manitoba Power Commission Transmission 

System 

Fundamentals of Pile Foundations, I. F. Morrison 



Gaherty, G. A., Drought, A National Problem. 
Golden Gate International Exposition 



Hartmann, E. C, Structural Aluminum . . . 
Hays, D. W., Irrigation Development, 

and Limitations 

Headquarters (Photograph) 

Highways, Modern, R. M. Smith 



Its Possibilities 



311 
154 
186 
237 
391 

440 

264 

113 

301 
431 

53 
120 

• 275 



459 
461 



Imperial Airwavs Flying Boat "Caribou" (Photograph) 389 

(Editorial) 412 

Industrial Harmony, Public's Concern in, W. A. White 366 

Industrial News 45, 104, 155, 206, 294, 344, 384, 416, 500, 550 

Industrv, Looks at Canada, American, Marvin W. Maxwell. . . 56 
The Influence of Technical Progress upon Social Develop- 
ment, Karl T. Compton 406 

Inspection of Oil Refinery Equipment, Andrew Russell 474 

Instrumental Aids to Photogrammetry, R. H. Field 391 

The Institute and the Young Engineer 299 

Institution of Civil Engineers (Presidential Address) 26 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Publications of the 284 

International Engineering Congress at New York, see 
British-American Engineering Congress, New York 
Irrigation Development Its Possibilities and Limitations, 

D. W. Hays 8 



Kenyon, A. F.. Recent Trends in Steel Mill Electrification. 
Kimball, William P., Soil Mechanics in Foundation 

Engineering 

Knight, J. A., Calcium Chloride in Construction 



356 

113 
360 



Lawler, G. S., Maintenance as Affecting the Electrical 

Fire Loss Record 440 

Lawton, F. L., Operating Experience with Steel-Tower 

Transmission Lines in the Saguenay District 257 

Lefebvre, Dr. O. O., Advances in Domestic Uses of 

Electricity in Canada 428 

Legget, R. F. and C. R. Young, The Civil Engineer in Canada 512 

leMay, Tracv D., Regulation of Traffic in a City 317 

Lew, C. G., Unit Substations 402 

Library Notes, 42, 101, 151, 204, 247, 292, 342, 382, 414, 454, 495, 544 



Page 

Lion's Gate Bridge, Vancouver, B.C. (Photograph) 161 

Looking Forward, President H. W. McKiel HI 

Low Memorial Library, Columbia University (Photograph).. . 349 

Magrath, C. A., Some Problems Involved in the Expan- 
sion of Canada 5 

Maintenance as Affecting the Electrical Fire Loss 

Record, G. S. Lawler 440 

Manitoba Power Commission Transmission System, 

J. P. Fraser 301 

The Manufacture of Wire for Use in Wire Ropes, A. B. Dove. 520 

Maritime Professional Meeting 328, 374, 412, 449 

Programme 373 

Maxwell, Marvin W., American Industry Looks at 

Canada 56 

McCrory, J. A., Advances in Construction Methods and 

Equipment 423 

McKiel, Harold Wilson, m.e.i.c. (A Biography) 134 

McKiel, President H. W., Looking Forward Ill 

McNaughton, Maj.-Gen. A. G. L., The Military Engineer 

and Canadian Defence 443 

Message from the President, Dr. J. B. Challies 3 

Meteorological Science, The Development of, Charles 

Pickering 399 

Military Engineer and Canadian Defence, Major-General 

A. "G. L. McNaughton 443 

Modern Highways, R. M. Smith 461 

Morrison, I. F., The Fundamentals of Pile Foundations 431 

Morton, D. J. F., Economics in Modern Defence 517 

Mountain Water for Prairie Grassland, F. H. Peters 8 

Musical Tones, The Electrical Production of, Sidney T. 

Fisher 264 

National Organization for Research, 483 

National Research Council in Engineering, The Work of 378 

National Voluntary Registration 282, 503 

National War Memorial (Portrait) 255 

Navigation, Radio Aids to Aerial, J. R. Dunn 464 

Neuf eld, C, A. Photoelastic Investigation of Stress Con- 
ditions , 228 

Neutrality, Benevolent [a letter] 531 

News of Other Societies 26, 40, 90, 100, 147, 185, 186, 202, 246 

Niagara District Technical Council 484 



Nickel, Canadian, K. H. J. Clarke. 

Nominees for Officers of the Institute for 1940 

Northwest Territories, Progress in the, Dr. Charles 

Camsell 

Nova Scotia, Association of Professional Engineers of. See 

Proposed Agreement 



Officers of the Institute, Nominations for 1940, Newly Elected 

Oil Refinery Equipment, Inspection of, Andrew Russell 

Operating Experience with Steel-Tower Transmission 

Lines in the Saguenay District, F. L. Lawton 

Operating Problems in an Electric Power System, Typical, 

H. L. Briggs 

Obituaries — 



505 
450 

163 



450 
474 

257 

308 



Boast, Richard Griffith, a. m.e.i.c 286 

Bonnell, Mossom Burwell, a.m.e.i.c 240 

Boulian, Job Ivan, a.m.e.i.c 380 

Bourbonnais, Paul Emile, a.m.e.i.c 538 

Bridges, Fitz James, a.m.e.i.c 33 

Casgrain, Senator Joseph Philippe Baby, a.m.e.i.c 92 

Cassidy, John Francis, a.m.e.i.c 241 

Coxworth, Thomas Walker, a.m.e.i.c 143 

Crealock, Archie Burgess, m.e.i.c 32 

Cripps, Bernard Harold, a.m.e.i.c 538 

Cross, George Esplin, a.m.e.i.c 380 

Dancer, Charles Henry, m.e.i.c 486 

Dow, John, m.e.i.c 452 

Emra, Lieut.-Col. Frederic Harcourt, m.e.i.c 241 

Evans, George Edward, a.m.e.i.c 380 

Gill, Lt.-Col. James Lester Willis, m.e.i.c 452 

Grant, William Roy, m.e.i.c 286 

Harvey, David William, m.e.i.c 33 

Japp, Sir Henrv, m.e.i.c 241 

Jones, Frank Percv, Affil. e.i.c 193 

Kaelin, Frederick Thomas, m.e.i.c 380 

Landry, Joseph Honoré, a.m.e.i.c 143 

Macallum, Andrew Fullerton, m.e.i.c 453 

McKenzie, Bertram Stuart, m.e.i.c 486 

McLean, Norman Berford, m.e.i.c 414 

McMartin, Ida Lillian 414 

Murrav, Robert Roy, a.m.e.i.c 133, 193 

Newell, Joseph Pettus, m.e.i.c 33 

Nicholson, Thomas Herbert, a.m.e.i.c 194 

Reid, John Garnet, m.e.i.c 194 

Ridgway, Robert 33 

Risley, Wilfred Carey, m.e.i.c 194 

Ross, Donald William, m.e.i.c 195 



December, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Page 
Obituaries — (Continued) 

Smith, Julian Cleveland, m.e.i.c 331 

Spencer, Raymond A., m.e.i.c 538 

Stadler, John Charles, a. m.e.i.c 195 

Taché, Joseph Charles, m.e.i.c 195 

White, Thomas Henry, m.e.i.c 195 

Wilkie, Edward Thomson, m.e.i.c 380 

Yorston, William Gardiner, m.e.i.c 93 

Perry, P. C, Stream Control in Relation to Droughts 

and Floods 269 

Personals 30, 92, 142, 192, 240, 285, 335, 379, 413, 452, 487, 536 

Peters, F. H., Mountain Water for the Prairie Grassland 8 

Photoelastic Investigation of Stress Conditions, C. Neufeld. . 228 

Photogrammetry, Instrumental Aids to, R. H. Field 391 

Place of Research in the Evolution of the Automobile, 

T. A. Boyd 170 

Plane, A Canadian-Built Fighting 185 

Pickering, Charles, The Development of Meteorological 

Science 399 

Pile Foundations, The Fundamentals of, I. F. Morrison 431 

Power Commission Transmission System, Manitoba, 

J. P. Fraser 301 

Power Svstem, Typical Operating Problems in an Electric, 

H. L. Briggs 308 

Practical Side of Life, Dr. R. C. Wallace 188 

Prairie Grassland, Mountain Water for the, F. H. Peters 8 

Preliminary Notice, 

47, 105, 157, 208, 251, 296, 346, 386, 418, 456, 498, 548 

President, Address of the Retiring, Dr. J. B. Challies 135 

President, A Message from the, Dr. J. B. Challies 3 

President Completes his Tour 530 

Presidential Remarks of 1918 213 

Presidential Visit to the Western Branches 374, 412, 484, 530 

(see Branch News, p. 489-495) 

Prize Awards 1939, The Engineering Institute of Canada 333 

Prize Winners, Institute 140 

Prizes, Rules Governing the Award of Institute 190 

Problems Involved in the Expansion of Canada, C. A. Magrath 5 

Progress in the Northwest Territories, Dr. Charles Camsell. . . 163 
Proposed Agreement between the Institute and Association 

of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia 534 

Public's Concern in Industrial Harmony, W. A. White 366 

Quebec North Shore Paper Company, The Baie Comeau 
Electrical Installation of the, Dan Anderson 



Radio Aids to Aerial Navigation, J. R. Dunn 

Radio Broadcasts 

Reading Room Hours 

Refugee Problem, Canada and the 

Registration, National Voluntary 

Registration Bureau, Voluntary 

Regulation of Traffic in a City, Tracy D. leMay 

Research in the Evolution of the Automobile, The Place 

of, T. A. Boyd 

Reserve Occupations 

Roy — The Engineers' Friend (The Hon. Mr. Philippe Roy). . 
Russell, Andrew, Inspection Of Oil Refinery Equipment 



St. Joseph's Basilica, Montreal, The Domes of, M. 
Cailloux 

Sandcasting of Crankshafts, Ralph E. Edson 

Settlement Analysis of Engineering Structures, A. W. 
Skempton 

Ship Construction, Welding in, William Bennett — Dis- 
cussion 

Skempton, A. W., Settlement Analysis of Engineering 
Structures 



170 

464 
449 
449 
27 
282 
503 
317 

170 

421 

89 

474 



435 
224 

117 

179 

117 



Page 

Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers 177 

Smith, R. M., Modern Highways 461 

Social Development, The Influence of Technical Progress on, 

Karl T. Compton 406 

Societies, News of Other, 

26, 40, 90, 100, 147, 185, 186, 202, 246, 284 
Soil Mechanics in Foundation Engineering, William P. 

Kimball 113 

Steam Plant Performance, The Willans Law in the 

Analysis of, J. T. Farmer 311 

Steel Mill Electrification, Recent Trends in, A. F. Kenyon. . . . 356 
Steel-Tower Transmission Lines in the Saguenay Dis- 
trict, Operating Experience with, F. L. Lawton 257 

Steps in the Design of a Bush Transport Aeroplane, 

Richard Young 221 

Stream Control in Relation to Droughts and Floods, 

P. C. Perry 269 

Stress Conditions, A Photoelastic Investigation of, C. 

Neufeld 228 

Structural Aluminum, E. C. Hartmann 275 

Structures, Settlement Analysis of Engineering, A. W. 

Skempton 117 

Student's Duty in War-time 449 

Substations, Unit, C. G. Levy 402 

Technical Progress upon Social Development, The 

Influence of, Karl T. Compton 406 

The Thousand Islands International Bridge, G. V. 

Da vies and P. E. Adams 216 

Tile, Concrete Surfaces Faced with Glazed, G. P. F. Boese 364 

Traffic Engineering, Fellowship in 237 

Traffic in a City, Regulation of, Tracy D. leMay 317 

Transmission Lines in the Saguenay District, Operating 

Experience with Steel-Tower, F. L. Lawton 257 

Transmission Svstem, Manitoba Power Commission, 

J. P. Fraser.' 301 

Transport Aeroplane, Steps in the Design of a Bush, 

Richard Young 221 

Transportation, Ontario, Royal Commission on. See 
Chevrier Commission Report. 

Tweedsmuir, Hon. m.e.i.c, His Excellency the Governor- 
General, the Right Honorable the Lord (Portrait) 51 

Typical Operating Problems in an Electric Power System, 

H. L. Briggs 308 

Unit Substations, C. G. Levy 402 

Vaughan, H. H., Presidential Remarks of 1918 213 

Voluntary Registration Bureau 503 

War-time, The Student's Dutv in 449 

Wallace, Dr. R. C, The Practical Side of Life 188 

Water for the Prairie Grassland, Mountain, F. H. Peters 8 

Water Resources Data, The Importance of Basic 

(Editorial) 88 

Welding in Ship Construction — Discussion, William Bennett. . 179 

White, W. A., Public's Concern in Industrial Harmony 366 

Willans Law in the Analvsis of Steam Plant Performance, 

J. T. Farmer ' 311 

Wilson, Norman D., Chevrier Commission Report 351 

Young, C. R., and R. F. Leggett, The Civil Engineer in Canada 512 
Young, Richard, Steps in the Design of a Bush Transport 

Aeroplane 221 

Young Engineer, President H. W. McKiel 236 

Young Engineer, The Institute and the, Harry F.Bennett 299 

Young Engineer in England 412 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL December, 1939 



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IV 



December, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 22 



JANUARY 1939 



NUMBER 1 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



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THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 

J. B. Chatties, C.E., D.Eng., M.E.I.C 3 

SOME PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN THE EXPANSION OF CANADA 

C. A. Magrath, LL.D., Hon. M.E.I.C 5 

MOUNTAIN WATER FOR THE PRAIRIE GRASSLAND 

F. H. Peters, D.L.S., A.L.S., M.E.I.C. ...,„... 8 

IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT, ITS POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITA- 

TIODiS - D. W. Hays, M.E.I.C 13 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 19 

ANNUAL GENERAL AND PROFESSIONAL MEETING .... 24 

EDITORIAL COMMENT 26 

The Journal 

The Engineer in High Places 

Institution of Civil Engineers, Presidential Address .... 

Canada and the Refugee Problem 

Council Meetings 

Presidential Activities 

PERSONALS 30 

Obituaries 

Elections and Transfers 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 34 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 40 

LIBRARY NOTES 42 

INDUSTRIAL NOTES . 45 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 46 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE OF APPLICATIONS FORJ^ADMISSION OR 

TRANSFER 47 



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J. B. CHALLIES, Montreal, Que. 

VICE- PRESIDENTS 

tE. V. BUCHANAN, London, Ont. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

E. A. CLEVELAND, Vancouver, B.C. 

COUNCILLORS 

tR. H. FINDLAY, Montreal, Que 

tA. B. GATES, Peterborough. Ont. 

*L. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 

tJ. HADDIN, Calgary, Alta. 

*F. S. B. HEWARD, Montreal, Que 

tO. HOLDEN, Toronto, Ont. 

•A. C. JOHNSTON, Arvida, Que. 

*H. S. JOHNSTON, Halifax, N.S 

tJ. L. LANG, Sault Ste Marie, Ont. 

tA. LARIVIERE, Quebec, Que. 

*K. S. LeBARON, Three Rivera, Que. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



*J. A. McCRORY, Montreal 

tR. L. DUNSMORE, Dartmouth, N.S. 

G. J. DESBARATS, Ottawa, Ont. 



tH. A. LUMSDEN, Hamilton, Ont. 

tW. R. MANOCK, Fort Erie North, Ont. 

♦F. NEWELL, Montreal, Que. 

*E. J. OWENS, Saint John, N.B. 

*R. A. SPENCER, Saskatchewan, Sask. 

tA. J. TAUNTON, Winnipeg, Man. 

tA. P. THEUERKAUF, Sydney, N.S. 

♦J. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 

tE. VIENS, Ottawa, Ont. 

tJ. T. WATSON, Lethbridge, Alta. 

•For 1938. tFor 1938-39. ÎFor 1938-39-40 

SECRETARY EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



FINANCE 

J. A. McCRORY, Chairman 

J. L. BUSFIELD 

de GASPE BEAUBIEN 

A. DUPERRON 

F. NEWELL 



STANDING COMMITTEES 

LEGISLATION 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

J. B. D'AETH, Chairman 
H. MASSUE 
A. J. C. PAINE 
B R. PERRY 
E. A. RYAN 



A. LARIVIERE, Chairman 
J. R. FREEMAN 
S. YOUNG 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman 
H. S. CARPENTER 
R. L. DUNSMORE 
H. O. KEAY 
J. A. McCRORY 



PUBLICATION 

J. L. BUSFIELD, Chairman 
R. W. BOYLE 
A. DUPERRON 
R H. FINDLAY 
F. S. B. HEWARD 



PAST-PRESIDENTS' PRIZE 

J. T. JOHNSTON, Chairman 
G. A. LINDSAY 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
S. S. SCOVIL 
J. J. TRAILL 

GZOWSKI MEDAL 

H. CIMON, Chairman 
A. O. DUFRESNE 
C. V. JOHNSON 
L. B. KINGSTON 
J. O. MARTINEAU 

LEONARD MEDAL 

S. C. MIFFLEN, Chairman 

G. V. DOUGLAS 

G. E. COLE 

J. McLEISH 

A. P. THEUERKAUF 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE 

A. H. HARKNESS, Chairman 
J. R. GRANT 
P. L. PRATLEY 

PLUMMER MEDAL 

A. STANSFIELD, Chairman 
J. R. DONALD 

C. K. McLEOD 

G. St. G. SPROULE 

C. R. WHITTEMORE 

MEMBERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT 

R. A. SPENCER, Chairman 
V. C. BLACKETT 
P. H. BUCHAN 
R. L. DOBBIN 

D. A. R. McCANNEI. 
R. R. MURRAY 

B. R. PERRY 
P. M. SAUDER 
A. J. TAUNTON 
J. A. VANCE 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

C. J. MACKENZIE, Chairman 

I. M. FRASER 

A. P. LINTON 

W. E. LOVELL 

P. C. PERRY 

E. K. PHILLIPS 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 
R. W. ANGUS 
P. L. PRATLEY 
JOHN MURPHY 

F. P. SHEARWOOD 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 
C. H. ATTWOOD 
CHARLES CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
J. M. WARDLE 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 
E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 
C. L. CATE 

A. G. FLEMING 
W. G. GLIDDON 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
J. A. McCRORY 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
J. H. McKINNEY 
R. M. SMITH 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
H. W. McKIEL 



STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' 
PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 

H. N. Ruttan Prize 

H. S. CARPENTER, Chairman 
I. C. BARLTROP 
R. M. DINGWALL 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 

John Galbraith Prize 

E. V. BUCHANAN, Chairman 
R. W. BOYLE 
O. HOLDEN 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 

Phelps Johnson Prize 

(English) J. A. McCRORY, Chairman 
J. B. D'AETH 
R. H. FINDLAY 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province 
of Quebec) 

(French) H. O. KEAY, Chairman 

A. DUPERRON 
K. S. LeBARON 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

R. L. DUNSMORE, Chairman 

B. E. BAYNE 

H. S. JOHNSTON 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VOLUME 22 



JANUARY 1939 



NUMBER 1 



4i To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT 



The Engineering Institute of Canada enters another year with greater oppor- 
tunities than ever for serving the engineering profession, and it is better able 
to take full advantage of such opportunities than at any other period of its long 
and distinguished career. All that is necessary is a general appreciation of these 
opportunities by our membership and a properly directed progressive programme 
that will permit full advantage being taken of them. No one familiar with the 
personnel of the 1939 Council can doubt either its capacity to evolve an appropriate 
programme, or its ability to see that it is properly inaugurated. 

As to the opportunities. First and foremost, I would urge the continuation of 
the 1938 Council's policy of promoting closer relations with the provincial associa- 
tions. Having visited each of the twenty-five branches of The Institute, and having 
conferred at length with their executive committees, I can say definitely that the 
great bulk of the profession, both within and without The Institute, desires some 
corporate co-operative arrangement between The Institute and the provincial 
associations. For the time being, in some of the Provinces they will be content 
with an informal entente cordiale, but only as a means to an end. Undoubtedly 
this end is an eventual agreement that will provide a COMMON MEMBERSHIP. 

Thanks very largely to the wise policy pursued on behalf of Council by the 
Committee on Professional Interests, there is now a real prospect that the forward- 
looking agreement completed at Regina last October will be a forerunner of similar 
agreements in several other provinces. 

The second important opportunity for serving the profession is of such basic 
importance that I intend emphasizing it in my valedictory address. Therefore, I 
merely mention it now. The Institute must without further delay evolve some 
better method than is now available to it for assisting the young engineer — the 
undergraduate and the recent graduate. 

The third important opportunity for service is the promotion of closer relations 
with the Founder Societies of the United States. One of the most enthusing and 
helpful experiences of my year in office has been the many practical evidences of 
an earnest desire by those in authority in the American engineering bodies to 
understand the aims and ambitions of The Institute, and what is of particular 
significance, their very ready willingness to assist The Institute in achieving its 
desire to be a worthy centre for all branches of the profession. 

There are, of course, many other, and important, opportunities open to The 
Institute for aiding the profession, but in my humble opinion they are ancillary 
to the three main opportunities to which I have briefly referred. 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, E. M. KREBSER 

Vice-Chair., B. CANDLISH 

Executive, D.T.ALEXANDER G.E. MEDLAR 

W. J. CAMPBELL 
(Ex-Officio), C. F. DAVISON 

H. J. A. CHAMBERS 
Sec.-Treas., J. F. BRIDGE, 

641 Partington Ave., 

Windsor, Ont. 

CALGARY 

Chairman, E. W. BOWNESS 

Vice-Chair., S. G. COULTIS 

Executive, J. J. HANNA R. S. TROWSDALE 

F. J. HEUPERMAN 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. TOOKER H. J. McLEAN 

jas. McMillan j. haddin 

Sec.-Treas., B. W. SNYDER, 

215-6th Ave. West, 

Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, I. W. BUCKLEY 

Executive, C. M. ANSON M. F. COSSITT 

J. A. MacLEOD S. G. NAISH 

(Ex-Officio) A. P. THEUERKAUF 

M. R. CHAPPELL 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, W. E. CORNISH 
Vice-Chair., C. E. GARNETT 
Executive, E. NELSON D. A. HANSEN 

E. L. SMITH J. W. PORTEOUS 
E. SKARIN 
(Ex-Officio), J. D. BAKER R. M. DINGWALL 
Sec.-Treas., F. A. BROWNIE, 
11009-86th Ave., 

Edmonton, Alta. 

HALIFAX 

Chairman, I. P. MacNAB 

Executive, S. BALL J. H. M. JONES 

H. R. THEAKSTON S. W. GRAY 

G. T. MEDFORTH 

(Ex-Officio) J. R. KAYE H. S. JOHNSTON 

R. L. DUNSMORE 
Sec.-Treas., R. R. MURRAY, 

c/o Wm. Stairs Son & Morrow Ltd., 
Halifax, N.S. 



HAMILTON 

Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



W. J. W. REID 
V. S. THOMPSON 
R. E. BUTT 
J. R. DUNBAR'W. 



E. P. MUNTZ 
, A. T. GILMOUR 
(Ex-Officio), H. A. LUMSDEN E. G. MacKAY 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD, 
354 Herkimer St., 

Hamilton, Ont. 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, H. W. HARKNESS 
Vice-Chair., G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 
Executive, A. JACKSON V. R. DAVIES 

R. A. LOW 
(Ex-Officio), H. H. LAWSON L. F. GRANT 

Sec.-Treas., H. G. CONN, 
376 Earl St., 

Kingston, Ont. 



LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, E. L. GOODALL 
Vice-Chair., K. A. DUNPHY 
Executive, 3. R. MATHIESON 
D. BOYD 
B. A. CULPEPER 
S. E. FLOOK 
(Ex-Officio), G. R. DUNCAN 
Sec.-Treas., H. OS, 



H. OLSSON 

M. GREGOR 

E. A. KELLY 

A. T. HURTER 

R. J. ASKIN 



423 Rita St., Port Arthur, Ont. 



LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, R. F. P. BOWMAN 

Vice-Chair., J. T. WATSON 

Executive, WM. MELDRUM P. M. SAUDER 

(Ex-Officio), J.M.CAMPBELL W.D.McKENZIE 

C. S. DONALDSON G. S. BROWN 
Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE, 
916-8th St. S., 

Lethbridge, Alta. 



C. G. CLINE 

P. E. BUSS 

E. C. LITTLE 



LONDON 

Chairman, A. O. WOLFF 
Vice-Chair., H. F. BENNETT 
Executive, W. E. ANDREWES D. M. BRIGHT 
V. A. McKILLOP W. C. MILLER 
J. R. ROSTRON 
(Ex-Officio), E. V. BUCHANAN J. A. VANCE 
Sec.-Treas., D. S. SCRYMGEOUR, 

London Structural Steel Co. Ltd., 
London, Ont. 

MONCTON 

Chairman, B. E. BAYNE 

Vice-Chair., F. L. WEST 

Executive, F. O. CONDON A. S. GUNN 

G. L. DICKSON, C. S. G. ROGERS 
R. H. EMMERSON G. E. SMITH 

(Ex-Officio) E. B. MARTIN 

Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, B. R. PERRY 

Vice-Chair., C. K. McLEOD 

Executive, W. F. DRYSDALE K. O. WHYTE 

R. E. JAMIESON R. E. HEARTZ 

P. E. BOURBONNAIS 

J. A. BEAUCHEMIN 
(Ex-Officio), J. B. D'AETH A. DUPERRON 

F. S. B. HEWARD J. L. BUSFIELD 

F. NEWELL J. A. McCRORY 
R. H. FINDLAY J. B. CHALLIES 
H. MASSUE 

Sec.-Treas., E. R. SMALLHORN, 
P. O. Box 132, 

Station Hochelaga, 

Montreal, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. G. MOON 
Vice-Chair., A. W. F. McQUEEN 
Executive, A. L. McPHAIL 

M. H. JONES 

D. W. BRACKEN 

C. H. McL. BURNS 
(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK L. C. McMURTRY 
Sec.-Treas., G. E. GRIFFITHS, 

Box 385, Thorold, Ont. 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, W. F. M. BRYCE 
Executive, R. A. STRONG R. M. STEWART 
W. H. MUNRO A. FERRIER 

P. SHERRIN 
(Ex-Officio), E. VIENS G. J. DESBARATS 

J. G. MACPHAIL R. W. BOYLE 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, W. T. FANJOY 

Executive, B. I. BURGESS I. F. McRAE 

B. OTTEWELL R. L. DOBBIN 

G. A. CUNNINGHAM 
(Ex-Officio), V. R. CURRIE A. B. GATES 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 

QUEBEC 

Hon. Chair., A. R. DECARY 

Chairman, R. B. McDUNNOUGH 

Vice-Chair., PHILIPPE METHE 

Executive, J. J. O'DONNELL M. BOURGET 
L. MARTIN A. O. DUFRESNE 

C.H.BOISVERT E. GRAY-DONALD 

(Ex-Officio), A. B. NORMANDIN H. CIMON 
A. LARIVIERE 

Sec.-Treas., JEAN SAINT-JACQUES 

Quebec Power Co., P.O. Box 730, 

Quebec, Qu e 

SAGUENAY 

Chairman, M. G. SAUNDERS 
Vice-Chair., ADAM CUNNINGHAM 
Executive, F. L. LAWTON R. H. RIMMER 
A. B. SINCLAIR G. F. LAYNE 

(Ex-Officio) A. C. JOHNSTON 
Sec.-Treas., F. T. BOUTILIER, 

Box 101, Arvida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, H. W. BLAKE 

Vice-Chair., H. F. MORRISEY 

Executive, H. P. LINGLEY G. N. HATFIELD 

G. G. MURDOCH 
(Ex-Officio) E. J. OWENS S. HOGG 

Sec.-Treas., F. A. PATRIQUEN, 

10 Manawagonish Rd., 

FairvUle, N.B. 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, H. J. WARD 

Vice-Chair., F. W. BRADSHAW 

Executive, N. J. A. VERMETTE H. G. TIMMIS 
A. H. HEATLEY W. B. SCOTT 

L. B. STIRLING J. FREGEAU 

(Ex-Officio) H. O. KEAY J. F. WICKENDEN 
K. S. LeBARON 

Sec.-Treas., L. B. STEWART, 

Shawinigan Water & Power Co., 

Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, J. W. D. FARRELL 

Vice-Chair., I. M. FRASER 

Executive, R. W. ALLEN S. R. MUIRHEAD 
H. S. CARPENTER W. E. LOVELL 
A. R. GREIG R. A. McLELLAN 

H. I. NICHOLL J. E. UNDERWOOD 

(Ex-Officio), R. A. SPENCER 

Sec.-Treas., J. J. WHITE, 

City Hall, Regina, Sask. 



SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, J. S. MACLEOD 
Vice-Chair., A. E. PICKERING 
Executive, WM. SEYMOUR G.B.ANDERSON 
C. O. MADDOCK C. R. MURDOCK 
(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG C. W. HOLMAN 

Sec.-Treas., N. C. COWIE, 
15 Hearst St., 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 



TORONTO 

Chairman, C. E. SISSON 
Vice-Chair., A. E. BERRY 

Executive, N. MacNICOL W. E. P. DUNCAN 
H. E. BRANDON G. H. ROGERS 

D. D. WHITSON M. B. WATSON 
(Ex-Officio), W. E. BONN O. HOLDEN 

A. U. SANDERSON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engrg. Bldg., University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 

VANCOUVER 

Chairman, ERNEST SMITH 

Vice-Chair., C. E. WEBB 

Executive, V. DOLMAGE C. A. DAVIDSON 
A. PEEBLES G. O. JOHNSON 

W. O. C. SCOTT P. H. BUCHAN 

(Ex-Officio), J. P. MACKENZIE 
JAS. ROBERTSON 

Sec.-Treas., T. V. BERRY, 

3007-36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 

VICTORIA 

Chairman, K. MOODIE 

Vice-Chair., H. L. SHERWOOD 

Executive, S. H. FRAME E. I. W. JARDINE 

E. W. IZARD R. E. WILKINS 
(Ex-Officio), J. C. MacDONALD 

I. C. BARLTROP 
Sec.-Treas., KENNETH REID, 

1336 Carsew St., Victoria, B.C. 

WINNIPEG 

Chairman, W. D. HURST 
Vice-Chair., L. M. HOVEY 
Executive, G. C. DAVIS C. H. ATTWOOD 

V. H. PATRIARCHE J. T. ROSE 

J. A. MacGILLIVRAY 
(Ex-Officio), A. E. MACDONALD H. L. BRIGGS 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., J. HOOGSTRATEN, 

University of Manitoba, 

Fort Garry, Man. 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SOME PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN THE EXPANSION 

OF CANADA 

C. A. MAGRATH, LL.D., HON. ME. I. C* 

Past Chairman, International Joint Commission 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Ganada, 

at Ottawa, Ontario, on February 15th, 1939 



SUMMARY — The author develops a theme whereby the inter- 
est of men of the "Empire Builder" type could be obtained as 
a means of helping to solve the western dry areas problem. 
Engineering investigations should be advanced and some 
definite move forward must be made without loss of time as 
there is a limit to the courage of even the best of a fine people. 
As an instance of other major problems in Canada requiring 
immediate solution, he also refers to the railway problem, 
advocating a unified management. 

"Wherever I travel I try to point the vision of men and 
women to the great domain that lies beyond the reach of 
rails and roads and cities as the foremost of all Canada's 
possessions. What has been our attitude? What but to 
exploit and plunder for an individual's bank account! The 
common interest, the good of the nation, the legacy to the 
future — these have been handy bits of banquet oratory, 
but they have had little to do with the actual economic 
management of the country's natural resources." 

Grey Owl's Message. 

The above arresting statement by an amazing man, whose 
life was almost entirely spent in the wilds of our interior, 
was made in an effort to awaken the vision of our people. 
There is some excuse for those with "bank accounts," 
which includes our most capable business minds, not getting 
"beyond the reach of rails and roads," but none for not 
knowing more about the rural life of our country and its 
problems. The successful man in our large enterprises 
only became so through digging into the very vitals of the 
work he was expanding. The countryside is largely 
"known" to most of our prosperous men as seen from the 
windows of railway carriages or from motor cars. 

Many can go abroad from time to time for a month or so, 
but would it occur to any to spend a few weeks in driving 
through large portions of our country, developing contact 
with people on the land — the real makers of a nation — and 
using that fine capacity of theirs to see in what way the 
condition of our people could be bettered? I quite under- 
stand that many would feel that they had no right to 
interfere in the affairs of others, but their object would soon 
become evident to and be appreciated by the people. 
Contact between what I will call the centre and the cir- 
cumference should result before long in greater contentment 
in our rural sections, and it is certainly necessary. I believe 
that was the basic thought in the mind of Grey Owl when 
penning that message to our people. 

The building of a country is largely the task of engineers, 
and in addressing the members of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada, I propose dealing with the subject in a large 
way — a fitting method for a country of Canada's dimen- 
sions. My main object is to bring to your attention a major 
problem on our western plains, a problem which calls for 
immediate consideration. 

The European situation appears to be clearing up, and 
let us hope that a very definite improvement is but a 
short way ahead, so that we may pull ourselves together 
and courageously face some of the larger development 
problems involved in our expansion. It at once brings to 
my mind the necessity of reviving the "Empire Builder." 
Canada owes its foundation to the empire builders of the 
French regime; their descendants to-day are a splendid 
people, whom to know is to appreciate. Sometimes I 
express the wish that another Company of Gentlemen 

*See page SO. 



Adventurers would come along with a further supply of 
that stock brought to us via the Hudson's Bay. Then a 
little over half a century ago, a few Scots took hold of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway project, which turned out to be 
a great piece of empire building. 

I fear our people do not appreciate what that project 
has meant to our country — an undertaking to extend a 
railway across the Continent, when Canada had less than 
five million people! I was out on our western plains all 
through the period when that road was being built. I be- 
lieve I am well within the mark when I say that within the 
territory between Winnipeg and the Pacific Ocean — a 
distance of 1,400 miles — the total value of improvements, 
such as Hudson's Bay Posts, etc., did not at that time 
exceed a value of $1,000,000. That group of Scots had to 
contend with difficulties in crossing our mountain ranges 
greater than any other transcontinental railway. Look at 
the development to-day to be found in that territory, and 
largely due to the courage of those empire builders! Not 
only has their enterprise left us a great railway system, but 
a fleet of ships which are to be found sailing the "Seven 
Seas." It is true we gave them a considerable cash subsidy, 
as well as a large land grant. I believe their expenditures in 
promoting the settlement of those lands, and otherwise 
aiding in opening up our country, have been double the 
grant of money they received from Canada. 

If we have no obligation to that Company, as some appear 
to think, we certainly have to our own pockets, which we 
do not seem to understand. I say this in view of our indif- 
ference to the necessity of bringing our two railway systems 
into one operating organization. I am absolutely against, 
not only our buying the Canadian Pacific Railway, but am 
equally opposed to our selling to that Company our 
National Railways, because it would be utter madness to 
attempt the former, and nothing short of disgraceful to do 
the latter, without obtaining for it some reasonable measure 
of its cost, which is well beyond the horizon of the present 
generation. 

I am aware Great Britain had its "rotten boroughs" in 
the past. To-day its political system is second to none in 
the world, and it has a great public service as well. The 
reason largely is, that its people have a proper appreciation 
of their responsibilities to the public servant, which I 
regret to say is not yet properly understood in Canada, and 
to the detriment of our own fine service. I am aware our 
parliamentary methods are making good headway, though 
the principles of the cricket field would be helpful to us all, 
including political life. My definition of political partyism, 
made in a moment of levity, has a measure of truth in it. 
It is, that should the government of the day decide on a 
policy urging the people to work heavenwards, those in 
opposition would dissent, claiming that due to our rigorous 
Canadian winters, an occasional visit to Hades would have 
its advantages. 

Such an attitude has destroyed in me any confidence in 
political party control of a business organization, no matter 
how absolutely fair the government may be to the manage- 
ment. In a privately owned property, the directors are 
behind their organization, in foul as well as in fair weather, 
but in the case of a publicly owned property, the moment 
the wind changes, be it a gentle zephyr or a wild hurricane, 
there are those amongst the opponents of the government 
on the alert to start a campaign against the property, even 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



through an attack on the management of the property. 
In the meantime the public does not interest itself in the 
problem, apparently on that unsound assumption, "that 
which is everybody's business is the business of none." 

If these two transportation organizations, operating in 
the same territory, were owned by the country they would 
quickly be brought under one management and the same 
thing would happen if they were privately owned. Both 
reached their present expansion largely before Canada 
started out to spend millions in the construction of high- 
ways. No one will criticize the expansion of our highways 
but we should not forget that they exist for transportation 
purposes, and consequently a revision of our railroad 
activities seems absolutely necessary. 

In my time in Parliament, railway charters could be had 
for the asking, the doctrine being that competition would 
regulate railway rates. It failed in that respect, and left 
us overburdened with railroads. Is it unreasonable to say 
that if the State finds itself operating a public service — 
fairly recently acquired — in the same field as one it had 
authorized many years before, and is unwilling to have the 
two services reach common ground for the benefit of both, 
that it should be willing to come to the financial assistance 
of the privately owned one as well as its own? 

As a result of my long experience as a member of The 
International Joint Commission, dealing with issues between 
Canada and the United States, I am not alarmed about 
"unification." Each country has been represented on this 
organization by three members, and with equal voting 
strength, it was astonishing how quickly confidence 
developed between the two groups. I have confidence in 
the capacity and integrity of the managements of our two 
railway systems, and I believe if they were brought together, 
on a basis of equal representation, the time would soon 
come when they would find themselves working as one 
unit, just as satisfactorily as they are now separately, and 
to the benefit of our country, which means the employees 
as well. 

The development of our vast country, with our quite 
inadequate population, will at times force upon us large and 
difficult problems. Let me remind you that Canada's 
population moved forward about 6,000,000 in the last 
37 years, and stands to-day at 11,000,000, while our good 
neighbours increased in the same period about 53,000,000, 
with a total now of about 129,000,000. I am quite satisfied 
that Canada has great natural wealth. It is not amiss, 
however, to occasionally bring together a few figures and 
give some play to our imagination as to our future. 

It was the terms of British Columbia's entry into Con- 
federation that forced upon us the construction of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, which was only made possible by 
the use of some of our natural resources. Could they be 
put to better use than in helping to expand our country's 
opportunities, especially as we will still have the advantage 
of such wealth as they may afterwards produce? 

Instead then of continuing the policy of handing over 
large blocks of our northern territory to our Provinces, with 
populations of but a few people per square mile, and 
nothing being done with the added territory, except by 
Ontario, which built a railway to James Bay, would it not 
be much better for our Dominion Government to retain 
the balance of that northern country, and see if it is not 
possible to work out a plan, by which some of its resources 
could be used in helping to finance large development 
projects, which our governments, Dominion and Provin- 
cial, are unable to further under existing conditions. I am 
not suggesting that it is an easy task to find such a plan, 
but it is our responsibility to make a determined effort to 
that end. Negative attitudes will not make Canada. 

I cannot emphasize too strongly the necessity of our best 
business minds dropping that apparent indifference, when 
anything out of the ordinary, looking to an improvement 
in our national methods, is brought to their attention. 

I now propose discussing a major problem, the one which 



is responsible for my undertaking this paper. The subject 
is the improvement of land settlement conditions on that 
area in our Mid- West frequently referred to in the past 
few years as the "drought area," and to others in the long 
past as "the treeless plains," fully 100,000 sq. mi. in extent. 
I find F. H. Peters, m.e.i.c, Surveyor General and Chief 
of our Hydrographie Service, has prepared a very interesting 
paper* on irrigation, the main agency for improving con- 
ditions in that territory. No one is better qualified to do 
so, as some years ago he was our Commissioner of Irriga- 
tion. I will therefore endeavour to develop my views on 
the same subject, without duplicating his arguments. 

While I have never lost my interest in that western 
country, my close contact with it was during the thirty 
years ending in 1910. In the latter third of that period, 
settlers could not be kept off our public lands. Hardships 
did not deter them. Their sod huts were a common sight 
scattered throughout the country. To-day land settlement 
is shunned — another national problem that has to be faced 
at an early date. 

I was on those plains shortly before the buffalo dis- 
appeared. Grass — much of it being a short curly variety and 
known as "buffalo grass" — was to be found everywhere for 
our horses, but this was not the case with water. My theory is 
that a territory with good soil and ample moisture in the 
state of nature will be found covered with timber; whereas 
if without timber, and the soil is good, then there must 
have been a shortage of moisture. Regardless, however, of 
theories, that particular area in the last sixty years to my 
knowledge has had its periods of insufficient rainfall, and 
towards the end of every such period, an agitation would 
develop for putting to use the available water for irrigation ; 
especially was that true in the western end of the area. 
Then with the return of the "wet" seasons, the past would 
be quickly forgotten. 

And so it continued until the recent drought period, 
probably the longest and certainly the most severe since 
those lands have been occupied. And now the subject of 
reclamation is again to the fore, and everyone interested 
in that western country knows that some definite move 
forward must be made, and without further loss of time, 
as there is a limit to the courage of even the best of empire 
builders. 

The following rough estimates will give some idea of the 
situation in our so-called drought area, as well as in the 
area outside of it in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Probably 
6,000 sq. mi. in south-western Manitoba have suffered 
from drought, but I am unable to give any details respecting 
that territory. 

In the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, the 
drought area is about 100,000 sq. mi., and in this area 
there is a population of 788,829, and 6,691 mi. of railway. 
Outside of the drought area, there are 81,000 sq. mi. in 
which there is some settlement. Of this area 57,000 sq. mi. 
is partially wooded, and 24,000 sq. mi. is covered with bush. 
There are 914,866 people in this outside area, and 7,620 
mi. of railway. 

The above figures indicate that the drought area carries 
practically half of the entire development that has taken 
place in those two provinces since they were opened for 
settlement over fifty years ago. All things in life are more 
or less uncertain, but when uncertainties become abnormal, 
as for instance in the capacity of land to produce, it must 
be expected that it will lead to a lessened use of that land — 
hence in the interests of our Canadian Confederation we 
must do everything that is possible to vitalize that central 
link in our four separate settled areas extending across the 
continent — a link that in the past has produced a vast 
amount of wealth for Canada. 

In 1904 I urged the late Sir Clifford Sifton, very shortly 
before he retired from public life, to have an intensive 
examination made of that "dry area" in order to see to 
what extent those waters wasting into Hudson Bay could 

*See page 8 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



be used. While I have brought forward the suggestion at 
odd times since, I have never been dogmatic as to how far it 
would be possible to make use of the waters of those major 
streams, including the North Saskatchewan River, that 
flow out from the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. 
I believe it would be necessary to reservoir their spring 
freshets, if practicable in the river valleys, otherwise the 
amount of water available would not, I fear, justify such 
a large enterprise being undertaken. 

I am aware that a couple of irrigation projects in Southern 
Alberta have been disappointing. One reason may be that 
the full "duty" of water was allotted to each land holding, 
whereas the rolling nature of those plains is such that only 
a percentage of the total area could be reached with water. 
Apart then from the objection of promoting large irrigation 
enterprises in rolling country, there is the objection in the 
case of the drought area of confining the very limited supply 
of water to a small area, with the water in wet seasons 
doing a minimum of service. 

I therefore agree with Mr. Peters that the available 
water should be distributed over the widest possible area 
for stock purposes, tree culture, irrigation of small plots 
of land. In wet years the water should be conserved in 
reservoirs as far as practicable in order to supplement the 
supply in dry years. The evaporation, I appreciate, 
would be quite heavy. 

What then is to be done about the drought area? I 
believe the Government has been doing excellent work in it 
during the past few years by making use of the water that 
falls within the territory, also in the treatment of soils, 
and otherwise helping the settlers. I was pleased to learn 
quite recently that the Reclamation Service of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, which operated at Calgary some years 
ago, had accumulated a great deal of information regarding 
the surface of the drought area, thereby materially reducing 
the field work necessary to determine the possibility of 
distributing water throughout the territory. 

My opinion is that, in the interests of those within the 
area, the Government should have the engineering investi- 
gations pushed forward to completion as early as possible, 
thereby putting an end to the discussions as to what is or 
is not possible in the way of stabilizing and increasing the 
production of the drought area through the use of water. 
I know the cost figures will be very large, and possibly so 
large that the undertaking would be impossible, but where 
so much is involved we are not justified in making any 
assumptions. My hope is that with maps and other details 
of a great project showing very definite benefits to the 
drought area, that it would appeal to the imagination of the 
empire builder type, and through the use of some of 
our resources in our north-land, the project could be 
financed, as was done in the case of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. While in London last year, I tried to interest a 
few men in our expansion, drawing their attention especially 
to our drought area, and failed. I fear our Canadian 
independence, to which I will refer presently, had something 
to do with it. 

We Canadians might as well realize that Canada is still 
very much in the making, and in a country of its vast 
dimensions great development projects are ahead of us 
if we are to succeed. Such development cannot be financed 
by our governments alone, especially under present condi- 
tions. This situation should not deter us from expounding 
these developments in such a way as might interest others in 
them. After all, that is our present day method of window 
dressing without which those in business would soon have 
to close their doors. 

I will close with a reference to our British connection. 
At times we seem to go out of our way to claim that Canada 
is an independent nation, notwithstanding the fact that 
we are part of a great family. The more independent units 
this old world is broken up into, the wider the base of 
international distrust becomes. While I am unquestionably 



a Canadian, I also regard myself as British, even if I have not, 
so far as I know, a drop of English blood in my veins. 
I fear that sensitiveness about our independence may have 
been responsible for my experience in London to which I 
have referred — an unwillingness to intrude in the affairs 
of another nation. I sincerely hope I am wrong as to that. 

Not only have we Canadians major undertakings which, 
due to our small population, cannot be financed in the usual 
way, but I believe it will be found that Australia and South 
Africa are in the same position, and probably New Zealand 
as well — each being under-populated. Great Britain, on the 
other hand, carries an excess of people. Assuming it would 
take say two or three billion dollars expended over a term 
of years, on major projects, to start our overseas 
Dominions on the up-grade again, enabling all of them to 
take many of their idle people away from their drab sur- 
roundings in centres of population, and place them, as 
well as others from Great Britain, out on land, are we going 
to admit that through team-play on the part of the members 
of the British Commonwealth, and the use of some of 
our territory with resources, we cannot find funds for a 
great movement of that character? Not to-day, I will 
admit, but what about to-morrow? This question may 
soon be urgent. Meanwhile let us list our major develop- 
ment problems, and bring together all details as to possible 
solutions, so as to be ready for the "Empire Builder." 

I appreciate that many will say that there is no place for 
further agriculturalists in Canada to-day. I am not thinking 
of wholesale farm production through the use of machinery, 
but of the type of farming carried on in eastern Canada in 
my boyhood days, when it was a common expression "the 
farmer is the most independent man in the country," 
who produced probably 90 per cent of what he consumed 
and most of his clothing as well. The bright lights and other 
conveniences drew people from the land to the city. Now 
through electricity all that the city offered can be brought 
to those in and about rural communities out on the land. 
It is a problem that must be solved. Let us try and get 
away from the idea that our over-worked governments 
must find solutions for all our difficulties. I am aware of 
the efforts to revive British emigration to this country, and 
wish them every success. Real effort to find sound methods 
cannot fail to make progress. 

I have gone far afield in this paper, as I am aware that 
none know better than the members of The Engineering 
Institute that Canada offers splendid opportunities to the 
exploring mind, and that great works are the outcome of 
that type of mentality plus the knowledge and capacity of 
the engineer. 




Annual Meeting, Ottawa, Ont., Feb. 14, 15, 1939 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



MOUNTAIN WATER FOR THE PRAIRIE GRASSLAND 

F. H. PETERS, D.L.S., A.L.S., M.E.I.C.* 

Surveyor General and Chief, Hydrographie Service, Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Ottawa, Ontario, on February 15th, 1939 



SUMMARY — The author expresses the opinion that irrigation 
waters should be spread over as large an area as possible, 
providing the maximum number of grain farms with sufficient 
water to ensure each year a good kitchen garden, and a suffi- 
ciency of fodder instead of looking for the maximum number 
of irrigable acres in any concentrated block. The argument is 
developed following a description of the dry grasslands, rivers 
and water supply with references to lack of rainfall, and to 
the absence of an organized plan. In conclusion, the benefits 
to be derived from the suggested plan are presented. 

The official map titled Forest Classification of Canada 
outlines the grassland formation of southern Alberta and 
Saskatchewan. It includes the area known to westerners as 
the bald-headed prairie and with the exception of a few 
patches there is no natural growth of trees. Roughly, with 
a depth of two hundred and thirty miles north of the inter- 
national boundary, the area stretches from the foothills of 
the Rocky Mountains, on the west, easterly to Regina and 
then tails off southeasterly to the west side of Manitoba. 
The measure of the area is 105,000 sq. mi. or 67,000,000 
acres, and is equivalent to twice the combined area of New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. The 
area includes or borders the following cities: in Alberta, 
Calgary, Lethbridge, Medicine Hat, Drumheller; and in 
Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatoon, Moose Jaw, Swift Cur- 
rent and Weyburn. 

From time to time opinions have been expressed as to 
the limits or boundaries of the dry area in the West. In 
the writer's opinion the grassland formation is nature's 
delineation of the dry area. 

It is outside the limits of this paper to undertake any 
description of the grasslands in detail. Speaking broadly 
from the viewpoint of agriculture and animal husbandry, 
the grasslands have many good attributes. There is sun- 
shine aplenty, a length of growing season sufficient to ripen 
the newer varieties of best milling wheat, good soil and the 
general smoothness of the surface with freedom from stones 
greatly facilitates the tilling of the soil. But one thing is 
lacking and that is an adequate natural supply of water to 
ensure successful crop-raising over a period of years. Sub- 
ject to cycles of wet and dry years the natural precipitation 
is insufficient for permanent agriculture. To repeat, the 
natural precipitation over the grasslands is insufficient 
because this is the predominant condition of nature affect- 
ing the welfare of this country. 

Over the grasslands the normal total annual precipitation 
ranges from 11 inches to 17 inches. It may be fair to quote 
a general figure of 15 inches. For comparison the total 
annual precipitation is, at Winnipeg 20 inches, at Ottawa 
and Toronto 33 inches, at Montreal 40 inches, at Saint 
John, N.B. 46 inches and Halifax 55 inches. 

What has been written above draws attention to the fact 
that over the prairie grasslands there are cycles of wet years 
and dry years, but on the whole the natural water supply 
is insufficient. A number of things have been done and can 
be done to ameliorate this condition. The intention of this 
paper is to discuss some of these things which would require 
the undertaking of large engineering works. 

The prairie grasslands are flanked on the west by the 
high Rocky Mountains where there is a plenitude of natural 
precipitation and the natural drainage of the eastern slopes 
is down through the foothills to the grasslands which con- 
tinue to slope gently away to the east. These high mountain 
snow lands give birth to a number of large rivers which 
discharge a great volume of water and it is possible to 



*See page 30. 



handle this water so that it can be put to beneficial use 
on the grasslands. The general condition is that these rivers 
cataract down the mountains and flow swiftly through the 
foothills on top of the land but immediately they reach the 
very deep soil of the grasslands they cut into it and there- 
after course away to the east in deep wide troughs with the 
river beds far below the general level of the land. If these 
rivers are controlled they can be diverted at the edge of the 
foothills into artificial channels so constructed that the 
water will be carried through the dry areas on top of the 
land where it can be used to augment the natural supply 
which is insufficient. 

The natural physiography of the country limits the 
extent to which this can be done. From the interna- 
tional boundary north to Medicine Hat the adverse 
slopes of the Cypress Hills bar the way farther east and 
from Medicine Hat to Saskatoon the valley of the South 
Saskatchewan river is in general the easterly limit of the 
area over which the mountain waters can be conducted. 
For the purposes of this paper, then, the prairie grasslands 
should be divided into a westerly portion and an easterly 
portion by a line running north from the international 
boundary through the middle of Pakowki lake to a point on 
the South Saskatchewan twelve miles west of Medicine Hat 
and thence following the river northerly and easterly to 
Saskatoon. The area of the westerly portion is 50,000 sq. 
mi. or 32,000,000 acres and of the easterly portion 55,000 
sq. mi. or 35,000,000 acres. 

Considering water supply, the difference between the two 
portions is that in the easterly portion it is only possible to 
conserve the scanty natural precipitation falling within the 
area itself, but in the westerly portion, in addition to con- 
serving the natural precipitation, it is possible to augment 
the water supply by utilizing the plentiful run-off from the 
eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. 

The average annual discharges in acre-feet of the large 
mountain rivers are: Oldman river near Lethbridge 
2,660,000; Bow river near Bassano 3,200,000; Red Deer 
river at Red Deer town 1,530,000; North Saskatchewan 
river near Rocky Mountain House 3,750,000. The total of 
these is 11,140,000 acre-feet, which indicates the measure of 
the total amount of mountain water available and flowing 
down to the westerly portion of the grasslands. 

The easterly portion is not devoid of possibilities of 
irrigation but compared to the westerly portion they are 
small, as indicated by the following average annual dis- 
charges in acre-feet of a number of streams arising in the 
highlands of the Cypress Hills from which water is diverted 
for irrigation: Lodge creek 29,200; Battle creek 33,200; 
Frenchman river 90,200; Maple creek 19,200; Swift Current 
creek 58,200. The total of these is 230,000 acre-feet.The 
South Saskatchewan Project should be noted here because 
it would utilize mountain waters from the South Saskatche- 
wan river. It has been investigated and reported on with 
alternative points of diversion near Riverhurst and The 
Elbow, but it is a pumping proposition with a high lift and 
comes in a somewhat different category from the other large 
works or projects which divert by gravity canals. It has, 
however, the distinction of being the oldest project. 

The idea of utilizing the mountain waters on the prairie 
grasslands is not a new one, as anybody will discover for 
himself who undertakes to review the bibliography on 
irrigation in western Canada which goes back to 1859 when 
Professor Hines suggested the possibilities of diverting water 
from the South Saskatchewan river to the Moose Jaw- 
Regina district. There is an abundant literature mainly in 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



the old reports of the Department of the Interior and the 
Western Canada Irrigation Association discussing the pros 
and cons of irrigation. Many small and several very large 
irrigation works have been constructed and operated and 
provide a history of practical experience. With the facts 
available concerning the reclamation projects undertaken 
in the western United States there is ample knowledge 
available of the economic and human problems which have 
to be faced in undertakings of this kind. 

The first Irrigation Act dates from July 23, 1894, in 
which year the Canadian Irrigation Surveys were com- 
menced by the Department of the Interior. Since 1894 a 
great deal of topographical knowledge has been accumulated 
through surveys which have been conducted, and since 
1908 hydrometric surveys to measure the flow of the rivers 
and streams have been on an organized basis. Further 
detailed surveys, particularly for reservoiring, are required, 
but sufficient accurate and reliable information is now 
available to indicate what the physical possibilities are for 
further development in supplying water to the land. 

It is impossible, within the limits of this paper, adequately 
to describe in words all the irrigation works which have 
been constructed and all the irrigation projects which have 
been surveyed. A study of the map, pp. 10 and 11, together 
with the schedule which is referenced to it, gives a fairly 
good picture of the whole situation the highlights of which 
are as follows: 

The map shows large blocks of land which can be sup- 
plied with the mountain waters, and fairly well distributed 
over the westerly portion of the grasslands extending, south 
of the Red Deer river as far east as Medicine Hat, Alberta, 
and north of the Red Deer as far east as Saskatoon about 
one hundred and forty miles into Saskatchewan. In the 
whole area there are 32,000,000 acres of land of which 
3,000,000 acres, or about 10 per cent, may be supplied with 
water by artificial means by utilizing about 7,500,000 acre- 



feet of water, or about two-thirds of the annual supply of 
mountain water. Under the constructed and operating 
works there are about 1,000,000 acres which can be irri- 
gated, all in Alberta, and under the surveyed projects 
there are an additional 2,000,000 acres which might be 
supplied with water, of which 925,000 acres are in Sas- 
katchewan. 

It will be appreciated from what has been set forth that 
the possibilities of ameliorating the natural conditions by 
supplying water have by no means been exhausted. There 
is still a great quantity of water available and there are 
still large areas of land where it can be utilized. Insofar as 
engineering is concerned the situation is clear; there are no 
problems of peculiar difficulty and the present day know- 
ledge of engineering is adequate to deal with all of them. 
In the field of economics and the humanities there are, 
on the contrary, many problems demanding most careful 
consideration before further work on any large scale is 
undertaken. 

Before leaving this part of the paper it is important to 
note that a large proportion of the mountain water runs 
off in the spring floods and to conserve sufficient water for 
the total acreage mentioned large primary reservoirs would 
be necessary. Particularly in the southern parts where most 
of the low water river flow has already been appropriated, 
the prime necessity for further development is inherently 
one of large reservoirs in the mountains or in the foothills 
capable of receiving and storing large portions of the high 
and flood flows of the main rivers. 

It is very difficult to make any brief and generalized 
statement describing the times and the circumstances under 
which the presently constructed and operated irrigation 
works were developed, but it is true that none of them 
were designed as part of any organized plan to produce 
the greatest good for the grasslands as a whole. Each scheme 
was undertaken as a separate entity with the necessity of 



Principal Irrigation Projects Surveyed or Constructed in the Grasslands 



Number 

(See 
Map) 



Name 



Con- 
struct- 
ed 



Sur- 
veyed 



Source of Supply 



Acres in 
Tract 



Irrigable 
Acres 



Approx. 
Cost per 
Irr. Acre 



Western Portion 



16 
17 
18 
22 
21 

20 

7 

8 

9 

11 

12 

13 
14 
19 
26 
23 
30 
29 

32 



35 

37 
38 
40 
41 



Magrath District 

Raymond District 

C.P.R. Lethbridge Section 

Taber District 

Lethbridge South Eastern 

Warner 

Mountain View District 

United District 

South Macleod 

Lethbridge Northern District 

Barons-Carmangay 

Little Bow District 

Highwood River 

Retlaw-Lomond 

New West District 

Canada Land and Irrigation 

Eastern Irrigation District 

C.P.R. Western Section 

North Saskatchewan Project 

Medicine Hat Eastern^- g^Creek 

Maple Creek Valley 

South Saskatchewan Project 

Val Marie District 

East End District 



St. Mary river 

St. Mary river 

St. Mary river 

St. Marv river 

Waterton, Belly, St. 
Mary, Milk rivers. 

Milk river 

Belly river 

Belly river 

Waterton river 

Oldman river 

Oldman river 



Highwood river . 
Highwood river. 

Bow river 

Bow river 

Bow river 

Bow river 

Bow river 



N. Saskatchewan and 
Red Deer rivers 



89,600 

128,000 
28,800 

553,600 

89,600 

9,600 

57,600 

112,000 

236,800 

73,600 

38,400 
134,400 
288,000 

281,600 

1,244,800 
665,600 



3,200,000 



Eastern Portion 



Ross Creek 

Bulls head Creek 

Maple Creek 

South Saskatchewan 
Frenchman river . . . . 
Frenchman river . . . . 



Pumping project 



6,980 

15,130 

100,000 

21,500 

315,000 
17,000 
4,200 
34,170 
52,963 
96,870 
30,000 

3,090 

52,460 

55,514 

4,560 

130,000 

400,000 

218,980 



1,411,000 



1,338 
1,600 
5,870 



4,500 
1,570 



19 
13 

40 
37 
10 
15 
30 
54 



10 
39 
41 
46 
50 
30 
25 



75 



13 

7 
9 

30 

50 



For additional information see "Report on Proceedings under the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1938." 
Acres in tract were measured from the map and are approximate. The figures showing irrigable acres and cost per irrigable acre are taken 

from official reports. Small private schemes have been built to irrigate a total of 56,000 acres in Alberta, and 50,000 acres in Saskatchewan 

by diverting from the smaller streams. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



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INTERNATIONAL Vj 3 M 2 „ 
BOUNDARY' -' **■ 



10 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



25 24 23 22 21 20 1» 18 17 16 IS 14 13 12 1 1 10 f 8 7 6 S 4 .< 2 I 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 I» IS 17 16 IS Rg.14 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



11 



showing a satisfactory financial statement to secure the 
construction costs. 

It is the fact common to each scheme that the object 
striven for was to gain the maximum number of irrigable 
acres at the minimum cost per acre. The natural result was 
the selection of a concentrated block of land as near as 
possible to the source of water supply with provision made 
at the outset to deliver water to every possible acre under 
the ditches. This is the orthodox irrigation scheme as 
proved successful in a desert country where irrigation is 
necessary every year to raise a crop, but it may be ques- 
tioned, for the future, whether this method of development 
is that best suited to the prairie grasslands which are not a 
desert area and where irrigation is not necessary to raise 
a crop in every year. 

It is suggested that for the future there should be a 
re-orientation of ideas and the question should be studied 
in the light of the situation which has to be faced in western 
Canada, and not in the light of conditions which exist in 
Egypt, British India or California. 

The situation is that the present day development of the 
prairie grasslands is founded on grain farming and it is 
likely that grain farming will continue to be the major 
agricultural industry of this country. If this forecast of the 
future is correct, then from a national aspect the predomi- 
nant need is for something to help the grain farmer to tide 
over the lean periods of the dryer years. The suggestion is 
that for the future the aim should not be to look for the 
maximum number of irrigable acres in any concentrated 
block but instead to endeavour to spread the water over as 
large an area as possible and strive to provide the maximum 
number of grain farms with sufficient water to ensure each 
year a good kitchen garden and sufficient fodder for the 
cow and the pig and the work horses. 

Without intending to state precisely the unit which would 
best suit this purpose we might consider thirty or forty 
acre-feet or sufficient to water twenty or twenty-five acres 
on each homestead. If twenty-five acres were selected as 
an average unit it might be utilized as follows. One and a 
half acres for a kitchen garden, including small fruits and 
perhaps a few crab apple and plum trees. Eight acres of 
permanent hay, preferably alfalfa which could be counted 
on to yield around three tons to the acre of cured hay 
annually. Eight acres of grain which if planted to oats 
would yield from 40 to 70 bushels to the acre. The remaining 
seven and a half acres as a permanent pasture would have 
a carrying capacity of one and a half to two mature head 
of stock per acre from early June until stubble fields were 
available in the fall. 

If future development were planned on the suggested 
basis of spreading the water over as large an area as possible 
then what would be the limits of its application ? This 
question is answered by consulting the accompanying map. 
The additional areas which might be helped and stabilized 
by the water are included in the outlines of the surveyed 
projects. The gross area included is approximately 4,451,000 
acres. The gross area included in the constructed works is 
approximately 2,781,000 acres. If we add the two together 
the resultant 7,232,000 acres represent 23 per cent of the 
whole area of the westerly portion of the prairie grasslands. 

This paper approaches a great problem in suggesting a 
practical method to help and to stabilize a large portion of 
the prairie lands in two provinces of the Dominion. If the 
idea is worthy of consideration, it must naturally undergo 
much probing and examination, and the author would use 
the concluding words to reiterate that the examination 
should be from a broader viewpoint than that of irrigation, 
as it has usually been discussed in the past. 

Perhaps the first point of examination might be as to 
the cost. This question cannot be answered here because 
the estimates made have all been on the basis of supplying 
water to the maximum number of acres and it requires 
reconsideration and re-estimation to determine any definite 
cost figures. Two things, however, are obvious, the one is 



12 



that to supply each homestead on a project with a limited 
amount of water will greatly reduce the total cost of the 
project and the other is that it will increase the cost of 
each irrigated acre. If the cost per irrigated acre is to be 
the test of the undertaking, as it has been for the orthodox 
irrigation scheme referred to before, then the suggestion to 
spread the water as far as possible will be condemned; 
putting the same statement in other words, it would not be 
acceptable to private enterprise charging all the cost 
against the acres actually irrigated. But if the problem is 
viewed from the broader aspect of helping the great areas 
of dry land which occupy such a strategical position in the 
national domain — then it is different because other factors 
than that of investment to yield immediate interest at 
commercial rates enter into the question. Especially during 
the dry cycles of years which will reoccur in the future as 
they have occurred in the past, every drop of water that 
can be carried on to the grasslands will help to turn the 
dead brown that follows drought into a live green and the 
accruing benefits will not be confined to the irrigated fields 
alone but will invisibly spread out and fortify the roughly 
estimated two billions of dollars of national wealth we now 
have in the western grasslands. 

The idea of getting more water on to the dry lands has 
occupied the minds of many people in the west for a long 
time; this paper suggests a new method of approach and 
urges a careful study of available water supplies and the 
areas which need them in order to ascertain where a com- 
bination of conditions would make the application of the 
suggested ideas economically feasible. 




Annual Meeting, Ottawa, Ont., Feb. 14, 15, 1939. 
January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT, ITS POSSIBILITIES 

AND LIMITATIONS 

D. W. HAYS, M.E.I.C* 

General Manager, Canada Land and Irrigation Company, Medicine Hat, Alberta. 

Paper to be presented before the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Ottawa, Ontario, on February 15th, 1939 



SUMMARY — Mr. Hays deals with the subject largely from an 
economic and humanitarian point of view, and after discussing 
the costs, and the benefits, direct and indirect, of irrigating 
dry areas, he reaches the conclusion that the cost of irrigation 
development is warranted as a national undertaking, but it is 
not a matter for private enterprise. 

The paper gives an historical sketch and a physical descrip- 
tion of the drought area. It discusses problems which arise in 
dealing with the farmer, and the necessity for the adaptability 
of settlers. 



About seventy years ago, Captain John Palliser explored 
the prairie regions of our present western provinces and 
reported his findings to the British Government. In what 
respects his reports may have been taken into account in 
the development of the prairies, is a 
matter of history. 

He reported varying conditions of 
natural prairie growth in trees, bush 
or grass which by direct inference 
had a bearing on the suitability of 
the areas for habitation. He out- 
lined what has since been called the 
"Palliser Triangle" which included a 
large area of land situated in Sas- 
katchewan and Alberta. 

In this area he saw conditions of 
natural growth which indicated a 
scarcity of rainfall and a general 
deficiency in streams and water re- 
sources. It appears from information 
on the subject that he was not 
favourably impressed. He had no 
records of rainfall for preceding 
years and it is not probable that 
any such records taken by him during 
his travels would have been of any 
use. But as a practical man he 
gauged past conditions of rainfall by 
what he saw in natural growth on 
the land. To this day the same 
practical methods apply. Accord- 
ingly the principal points for con- 
sideration are the possibilities of 
agriculture in: — 

(1) The heavy wooded sections 
where rainfall is adequate. 

(2) Intermediate park lands where 
wheat can be grown success- 
fully in most years and 

(3) The grassland areas lacking 
trees and bush, in most parts 
too dry to grow wheat com- 
mercially although abundant 
crops have occasionally been 
harvested. 

Insofar as divisions (1) and (2) are 
concerned, it is only necessary to 
have a knowledge of their locations 
and potentialities as a possible refuge, 
opportunities permitting, for the in- 
dividuals now living in drought 
areas where nothing can be done to 
improve the existing conditions. 



The Grasslands or Drought Areas 

Early settlement of the grasslands, except for a few small 
and isolated areas, dates back some thirty years, say, to 
1908, from which date estimates of crop returns are con- 
tinuous to the present time. In the course of the following 
fifteen years, to 1922, a large amount of settlement took 
place. For ten years of this period, to 1917, rainfall in the 
prairie provinces was generally above normal. Good crops 
were grown and optimism prevailed. Then followed a period 
of nine years during which average rainfall was below normal 
but prices were generally high, which compensated for the 
reduced yields. 1927 was the wettest year of record since 
1908, excepting 1915 in Alberta. During these ten years 




$3 



$2" 



"5*1 
> 





(Normal) 
Rainfall 

Yield in Bushels per Acre-' 



Yield Value of Wheat 
Price per Bushel 



CHART 



SHOWING RAINFALL, YIELD, PRICE AND YIELD VALUE OF 

WHEAT IN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES 

1908 to 1937 



*See page SO. 



Note *■ Rainfall includes previous fall, August to October inclusive and months April to July inclusive. 
November 1 to March 31 not included. Price per bushel is net to farmer all grades. 
(Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 

Fig. l 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



13 



occurrence of either good crops or high prices taken as an 
average for the prairie provinces, resulted in a reasonable 
degree of prosperity in the grain growing areas. The west 
was settled, built and bonded on this basis. 

There have since followed ten years of low average rainfall 
and crop yields, with prices for most of the period at 
abnormally low figures. The results during these years have 
been difficult enough in the best grain growing areas and 
calamitous in those areas where rainfall was least. With 
regard to the six year period 1917 to 1922 inclusive, it is 
pertinent to state that had the average yields of wheat been 




SASKATCHEWAN 



PRECIPITATION 

Over 13" [^ 

From 11.5" to 13 .^ 
From 10" to 11.5". .(EHÏ 

Below 10' [Z] 



••'Lalgar 

1 



<flflr i * 




LONG TIME 

which occurred durin3 the gro 

Records obtained from 187 points varying from 61 to 10 years. 



AVERAGE ANNUAL PRECIPITATION 

ng season April 1 to July 31 and previous fall August 1 to October 31 



l Dun 



"ALBERTA 



ëÊÊùÊ, 

•'•"•a'-1"i 

..•Athabask 



MANITOBA 




n^najiona^Bound^ _ 



understanding is obtained of the deficiencies in rainfall and 
crop production which beset individuals in certain areas in 
the business of farming. The price factor is a result of world 
conditions and can only be altered by bonus or pegged price 
at the expense of the public. Even these attempts to alle- 
viate misfortune are of little value if crop production is low 
or negligible. 

The research department of the Searle Grain Company 
Limited has compiled extensive data on rainfall for various 
crop districts in the prairie provinces, records for which 
were obtained from the Meteorological Service of Canada 
and other reliable sources. The 
two maps in Fig. 2 are compiled 
from data supplied by this company. 
The upper map of Fig. 2 shows the 
long time average annual precipita- 
tion which occurred during the 
growing season April 1st to July 31st 
inclusive and the previous fall, 
August 1st to October 31st inclusive. 
Precipitation, mainly snowfall, No- 
vember 1st to March 31st is not 
included. The records of rainfall are 
from 187 points and vary in dura- 
tion from 61 years to 10 years. 

The lower map in Fig. 2 shows the 
percentage of drought years, or 
years with less than a total of 8 
inches of precipitation, which have 
occurred in a long period of time. 

In connection with its data, the 
Company states: 

"Our conclusion, based on these 
studies and arrived at purely in an 
empirical fashion, is that in areas 
which have less than 10 inches of 
precipitation for the annual periods 
mentioned, wheat yields will be such 
that farmingfamilies, engaged mainly 
in wheat production, will probably 
find difficulty in maintaining for 
themselves what is often spoken of as 
a Canadian standard of living." 

"We conclude also that in such 
areas, i.e., those with less than 10 
inches of rainfall, where in addition 
the proportion of 'drought' years 
exceeds 35 per cent, it will be almost 
impossible for farming families to 
maintain themselves decently, over 
a period of years, without consider- 
able assistance from Government or 
from other sources." 



DROUGHT YEARS 

Under 10 r < 5 

From 10',t to 20% . 
From 20','< to 35%,Urj] 
Over 35',; □ 



■*•"• •/Winnipeg 



PERCENTAGE OF "DROUGHT" YEARS IN 

Years with less than a total of 8" of precipitation which hav 

Records obtained from 187 points varying from 61 to 6 years. 

Reduced from maps compiled by the Research Department of Searle Grain Company Limited 



THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES 

occurred in a long period of time 



Fig. 2 

sold at prices comparable with those obtaining from 1931 to 
1936 inclusive, the economic conditions in this period would 
have been quite as difficult as they have been during the 
past six years. It was the price which saved the situation at 
that time. 

The above general comments relate to average conditions 
for the western provinces. Figure 1 represents these average 
conditions for the period 1908 to 1937 inclusive. It is obvious 
to all who live in the west, and to those who have studied 
western conditions, that averages of rainfall or crop produc- 
tion for the provinces at large give no indication of the 
disturbing conditions which prevail in certain areas which 
make up the totals. Details are needed, by which a clearer 



Having regard to the large amount 
of data which has been compiled by 
the Searle Grain Company, the im- 
portance of the above quotations is 
significant, and the experience of 
many people living in the drought 
areas confirms them. 
Climatic conditions change from time to time in some 
degree, but in the light of existing information, there is 
no prospect of such improvements in rainfall as will war- 
rant a continuation of dry farming in some of the more 
adversely situated areas. 

Something should be done to provide for permanence in the 
use of these areas. 

Various adjustments will be required with the probable 
need for a considerable shuffling of people and occupations. 
Much land should go back to grass for grazing and stock 
raising. Certain lands can be irrigated. Other land may fill 
an intermediate position where, with good soil and some 
known advantages in rainfall conditions together with im- 



14 



January. 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



proved farming methods, a fair prospect remains for suc- 
cessful operation. These marginal areas neither warrant 
irrigation nor can they be classed as good dry-farming 
lands. They are likely to go into large scale farming opera- 
tions where by use of modern large power machinery and 
ability to do work cheaply, low average yields will pay 
profits. These adjustments are necessary or the country 
must continue to suffer the consequence of an impaired and 
disheartened citizenship and huge costs in various forms of 
relief. 

Irrigation Development 

As a premise to what may follow, it should first be stated 
that the views expressed herein are on the presumption that 
irrigation shall be paid for by the settlers on a fair basis 
according to the benefits they can receive from it, that the 
costs for development of irrigation projects shall be partly 
self-liquidating, and that the projects once built shall be 
self-sustaining. It must be recognized that the costs for 
irrigation development are generally in excess of the 
amount that can be repaid by production from the land 
handicapped as it is by our northern climate. Moreover, the 
costs for operation and maintenance on any irrigation 
project are in excess of what the farmer can pay during the 
early stages of development. It costs as much to operate and 
maintain a main canal to supply 2,000 acres of land as it 
would to supply 50,000 acres. Every irrigation project will 
operate at a deficit until the growth of settlement is sufficient 
to offset certain overhead costs. It may be argued at this 
point as to whether any irrigation development is worth- 
while. The owners of every company project, based on the 
questions of revenues and profits, would say no. But from 
a national viewpoint a very different position arises in the 
general worth of these projects, namely, their results in 
greater national wealth, in new industries, in increased 
taxable land, in indirect taxation and excise duties, in the 
growth of towns and cities, and in the general business 
activity of the urban and rural population extending 
through railways to remote centres of industry. On these 
grounds irrigation is worthwhile. Irrigation costs money 
but so does relief. 

If Governments are to undertake development work in 
irrigation and achieve the results and benefits indicated, 
then some references to the various problems affecting 
company projects and irrigation districts may be in order. 
On this assumption it is the purpose of the author to deal 
with some of the difficulties experienced in the development 
of irrigated lands. These relate to settlement, to the adapta- 
bility of settlers to irrigated lands, to the advice and 
direction which new settlers require, to the effect of market 
facilities on the success of irrigation projects and in general 
to the economic needs for future irrigation developments. 

Settlement 

Early undertakings in the development of irrigation 
projects seem to have consisted of locating an area of land 
suitable as to soil, topography and water supply, building 
the irrigation works and then looking for settlers. The 
result has been large expenditure for works (in which dams, 
reservoirs, and main canal make up 60 to 80 per cent of the 
total cost) to be followed by the lapse of years of time and 
the addition of sundry overhead expenses in interest charges, 
colonization and maintenance costs before the works were 
even partly utilized. The larger the project the greater the 
disparity in the ratio of costs versus settlement and revenue. 

In more recent years irrigation districts have been formed 
where the lands were already partly occupied or were at 
least in private ownership. In these districts, the settlement 
problem was partly solved and perhaps in some degree 
market facilities were available either through local centres 
of business and in surrounding grazing lands and livestock 
occupations. The success of these irrigation districts has 
varied according to the degree to which settlement was 



completed, to the development of markets and to the 
adaptability of those on the land to the changes from their 
previous occupations to that of irrigation farmers. These 
advantages have put irrigation districts a long step ahead of 
projects which had to start with raw and unpopulated 
lands. 

In the colonization of irrigation projects and districts, 
some care has been taken in the selection of settlers, but in 
the problem at hand where groups of people in these drought 
areas are under consideration having various capabilities 
and resources, it is apparent that something more than the 
usual facilities for help and direction will be necessary if 
most of them are to attain reasonable success, should irriga- 
tion be provided for them. 

As a general policy in the settlement of irrigated land, a 
trial of a prospective settler's capability or adaptability 
should be obtained before any final agreement for permanent 
land tenure is entered into. To this end a form of lease- 
option for purchase is advised for a stated period, sufficient 
for a man of ordinary attainments to prove himself. The 
following is quoted from the preamble of lease-option agree- 
ments in use on two projects: — 

"And whereas irrigation farming is a very specialized 
type of farming and it is not proposed to enter into an 
agreement for sale of irrigated land unless and until the 
lessor is satisfied as to the ability of the lessee to success- 
fully carry on farming operations thereon and unless and 
until the lessee has fulfilled the terms and conditions of this 
lease to the satisfaction of the lessor." 

The terms and conditions as a measure for a reasonable 
showing in farm operations may be varied to suit the pecu- 
larities of different projects. 

The lease-option gives certain advantages to the prospect- 
ive settler in getting started on the land without the handi- 
cap of book charges in water rental, taxes and land charges 
which will occur under any usual land or water contract. It 
has a psychological effect on the attitude of the individual 
in his knowledge that he is on trial but with some security 
beyond that of a renter. On the other hand, it safeguards 
the project against misfits whereby in the fair discretion of 
the project or district, the lease-option may be allowed to 
terminate at its date of expiry and not be renewed. 

Adaptability of Settlers to Irrigated Lands 

The individuals who have settled on irrigated lands in 
recent years are very largely farmers who have been pre- 
viously engaged in growing wheat by dry farming methods 
and generally come from the drought areas. Practically no 
farmers leave good dry-farming areas and go to the irrigated 
districts. They are successful and satisfied to remain where 
they are as wheat growers. Those who come from the 
drought areas have suffered the handicaps common to 
farming operations in those areas and in consequence of this 
they are usually poorly equipped to start farming anew 
anywhere, least of all under irrigation concerning which 
they have had no experience. Irrigation presents many new 
problems to these farmers. They are advised that their 
lands should be prepared for irrigation and that they may 
grow various kinds of crops. They encounter problems in 
irrigating the land which differ in every quarter section. 
They are advised to irrigate the land sufficiently and 
uniformly and are told not to put on too much water as it 
will wash out plant foods and water-log the land. They are 
confronted with new weed problems and are advised to 
rotate crops and carry on mixed farming. They become 
somewhat bewildered. 

The Dominion and provincial governments have carried 
out experimental work extensively for dry farming and live- 
stock operations and less extensively for irrigation farming. 
The work done, in a general sense, has been experimental 
and to a less extent demonstrative, particularly as it may 
relate to general farm economics. Various illustration 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



15 



stations have also been used here and there, where demon- 
strations are obtained on small tracts of land in the hands of 
farmers having some capabilities and perhaps particularly 
a tractability to advice given. These things are necessary if 
these stations are to show commendable results. 

The capable and practical farmer looks to the govern- 
ment agricultural station as a place from which he may 
obtain advice and from time to time he will visit the station. 
He is able to absorb what he sees and put into practice what 
he considers to be to his economic benefit. The less capable 
farmer neither visits the station nor enquires nor does he 
read. He looks on the station as experimental. If by chance 
he should visit it he may be impressed by the volume of 
buildings, equipment, lawn, trees and good crops which he 
attributes to the amount of money back of it all and 
promptly dismisses any idea of putting into practice most or 
all of what he sees because of his lack of resources. It is 
probably not unfair to state that 75 per cent of all farmers 
react in this manner. 

If successful irrigation farmers are to be created out of a 
miscellaneous group and this is to be accomplished within a 
reasonable time, it is essential that advice and demonstra- 
tions not only must be virtually brought to them, but for 
economic reasons, the farming operations demonstrated 
must be limited and carried out on a basis comparable with 
that of a farmer having average resources in his possession 
or available to him if reasonably assisted. 

To this end it is advised that irrigated farms, on a unit in 
size best adapted to the peculiarities of any project and its 
market facilities, should be started and carried on under the 
auspices of the Dominion or provincial governments. The 
work done should be capable of copy by the average farm 
settler with his limited resources and have as its objective 
farm and livestock profits and a comfortable farm home. 

If the test proves successful and good results are obtained, 
the demonstration would be self-sustaining and profitable 
both directly and indirectly to the governments: — profitable 
directly, because it would return more money than is spent 
on it, but what is more important, profitable indirectly, 
because these farms by close contact, would aid and speed 
up hundreds of irrigation farmers in their business of making 
a successful living, resulting in increased business activity 
in other lines of industry throughout the country. 

Makkets for Irrigated Farm Products 

The growing of wheat has been and is the primary farming 
industry of the prairie provinces. The farmer who goes from 
the drought areas to the irrigated districts continues to have 
wheat growing foremost in mind. He knows how and when 
to plant and harvest wheat and that he will have a cash 
market for it as soon as it is in the elevator. He will con- 
tinue to grow wheat on irrigated lands but in the course of 
a few years he will find that his lands have become weedy, 
that soil fertility is depleted because of continued grain 
growing and that yields are becoming less and less. He is 
advised that crop rotation in alfalfa or hoed crops will clean 
the land and that soil fertility will be improved by alfalfa, 
sweet clover or other legumes. Hoed crops involve a con- 
siderable amount of work which is more than the individual 
farmer can undertake over a large area, moreover hoed crops 
require a market. 

Industries designed to take the products and by-products 
of farms lag behind production on new irrigation projects. 
Dairies, sugar beet factories, canneries and other industries 
used in processing and handling the products of irrigated 
farms, are not built until there is a demand for them and 
until it is evident that when built they can be operated at 
fair working capacity. 

An irrigation project will care for the feed requirements of 
stock from a very large area of range land but there is a 
limit to the availability and accessibility of range lands by 
which irrigated areas can be benefited. One irrigation project 
of 125,000 acres, all irrigated, grows hay crops on about 



20,000 acres or one-sixth of the gross area. A part of the 
hay is required for farm use and there is surplus hay for sale. 
The remainder of hay, plus stubble pasture from the 
project at large, meets the feed requirements for 3^2 
million acres of range. In the crop requirements for wheat, 
the growing of which will continue, one-fourth to one- 
third of the gross area of land should be under crop 
rotation, or roughly, excess hay considered, twice the area 
mentioned in the above example. But there is not another 
33^2 million acres of available and accessible range land. 
On another project 4,000 acres of hay out of 35,000 acres 
irrigated, more than meet the requirements of about 
400,000 acres of range. 

There is a direct and mutual advantage in the relation of 
the irrigated farms and the range up to a point, but insofar 
as the irrigated lands are concerned, that point is too 
quickly reached, at least under present range conditions, 
for want of range area. No large project can properly suc- 
ceed in any fair relation to its costs if dependent only on the 
stock which can be grazed on accessible range lands. 

It is probable that by good conservation of the range, 
more stock may be pastured on it. It is also possible and 
advisable that more stock should be raised on irrigated 
pastures of domestic grasses and sweet clover, and more 
extensive feeding operations carried on, subject to advice to 
the individual farmers regarding the business of feeding and 
marketing livestock, about which the grain farmer has little 
knowledge. No effort should be spared to create larger and 
more active livestock markets by which prices may be bet- 
ter stabilized and greater encouragement given to the 
business of fattening stock. 

Another irrigation district is an example of well-balanced 
agriculture. This district contains about 21,500 acres all 
irrigated. Approximately one-third of the area is in grain. 
Another one-third is in crops of sugar beets and canning 
products, one-sixth in hay crops and the remaining one- 
sixth in seed crops, pasture, etc. The average farm unit is 
69 acres, although by competent authority, the most 
economic unit for this district is considered to be 80 acres. 
An average of 10,000 sheep and 500 cattle are fed here per 
year. Approximately 450 field hands are employed alter- 
nately on lands growing canning products and sugar beets 
and 250 are employed in the canning factory itself during the 
factory run. The car loading of produce out of the district 
in the year 1937 approximated 1,240 cars including as a side- 
line to irrigation, 5 cars of honey. Approximately 125,000 
per year is paid as sales tax on canning products. 

It is axiomatic that outgoing shipments create a large 
import movement in foodstuffs, textiles, machinery, etc. 
Thus transportation and employment is created reaching 
distant points. The project has been operating about 20 
years, its people are contented and are making money and 
good homes. 

Still another example is that of a small irrigation project 
in a ranching district situated in the foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains. The surrounding area is devoted to summer 
pasture for cattle and sheep. Winter feed for breeding stock 
is an essential requirement and a needed protection during 
winter storms and deep snow. Irrigation is used on the 
natural prairie from which good crops of hay are obtained, 
and also on fields planted to timothy, red top, clover, etc., 
and oats for green feed. The lands are rolling and steep and 
there is little other than hay crops and small garden produce 
by which the district as a whole can materially benefit by 
irrigation. The project is nevertheless a valuable asset to 
the livestock industry of the neighbourhood. Thus does 
another factor enter into the value and use of irrigated 
lands, where such lands can be irrigated within reasonable 
limits of cost. 

In the older irrigation projects industries for processing 
farm products are established or may be reached with per- 
missible transportation costs. They provide a dual advant- 
age to the irrigation farmer. For example — sugar beets 
produce a high yield-value in the crop itself and high yield- 



16 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



value for other crops the subsequent year. The crops have 
been rotated and the land kept clean. Canneries provide a 
similar advantage. Dairies provide for diversification and 
rotation of crops of hay, coarse grains, vegetables and 
pasture. These advantages accrue to the farmer and indirect 
benefits accrue to the country in increased taxes on the 
land and in excise duty and sales taxes of processed goods. 
Transportation and employment are increased. 

The sale of sugar bears an excise duty of one cent per 
pound, concerning which the following figures are of in- 
terest. The amount of excise duty on sugar from two 
factories at Raymond and Picture Butte, Alberta, in 1936, 
was $653,991. The area of land planted to beets was 18,326 
acres, hence the excise duty in one year was the equivalent 
of $35.68 per acre. This is considerably above the total sale 
value of the land and water on which the beets are grown. 
The excise duty paid on sugar from the Raymond factory 
in five years, 1932 to 1936, and in one year from the Picture 
Butte factory (this factory having first started in 1936) was 
over $2,792,000. This sum would build two factories. In 

1936, 2,850 men were employed in the fields and 650 in the 
factories during the factory run. The average yield-value of 
beets per acre was $73.95 and production costs $40.46. In 

1937, these two factories paid out $386,000 for coal, lime 
rock, coke, bags and boxes and $545,000 for railway freight. 
It is estimated in the United States that a factory of 1,000 
to 1,200 tons capacity per day will directly and indirectly 
give a living to 10,000 people. 

Thus there exists a variety of conditions in the use to 
which irrigated lands may be put. Conditions may lend 
themselves to the growing of specialized products according 
to location and markets. Variations will occur in the size of 
economic farm units according to use and kinds of products 
grown. While the growing of wheat will be largely continued 
on irrigation projects, it is the side lines of agriculture and 
livestock that make the difference between farming by 
irrigation and dry-farming methods. It is in the diversifica- 
tion of crops that a step is taken toward that balance 
between agricultural and livestock production which the 
prairie provinces so sadly need. It is in securing the indirect 
benefits of increased national wealth, in taxation direct and 
indirect, in transportation and employment, and in a busy 
and self-sustaining citizenship, that the cost for irrigation 
development is warranted as a national undertaking. It is 
not a matter for private enterprise. 

Economic Limits in Irrigation Development 

In the history of irrigation development during the past, 
contentious problems have arisen as to the price for land 
and water, together with costs for operation and main- 
tenance (or water service charges) which can be paid for by 
farmers out of the products of the land. It is evident that 
this may vary according to crops, markets and not least of 
all to the capabilities and resources of the individual farmers. 

In the Province of Alberta in 1936, a commission was 
formed to inquire into various phases of irrigation develop- 
ment in all irrigation projects. The commission consisted of 
one appointee each, chosen by the Dominion and provincial 
governments respectively, with a chairman to be selected by 
the appointees of the two governments. 

The Order-in-Council listed for enquiry various things, 
among which were the following : — 

(1) the value of land with water right, as determined by 
the possibilities for production of crops and livestock on 
irrigated land of good quality. 

(2) the ability of farmers of average attainments in 
resources, industry, management and agricultural know- 
ledge to pay for land with water right, having regard to 
economic conditions over a period of years. 

The Commission made exhaustive enquiry over all 
projects in the province. In dealing with item (1) in its 
report the Commission stated : — 



"It is apparent that the potential possibilities for the 
production of crops and livestock depend upon many 
varying conditions and upon many variable factors. Some 
of these are as follows: — 

(a) The quality of the soil. 

(b) The production of specialized crops and elimination 
of straight grain growing. 

(c) Proper rotation of crops. 

(d) Maintenance of high soil fertility by recognized 
methods. 

(e) The skill, business methods, and willingness of the 
individual farmers." 

Under item (2) the Commission stated: — 

"The Commission has endeavoured to arrive at an average 
ability to pay, based upon average production having in 
mind average capacity and average conditions." 

With respect to the value of land with water right, the 
Commission fixed a price for several irrigation projects at 
$20 per acre for land having a rating of 70 per cent. This is 
equivalent to a value of $28.57 per acre for land having a 
rating of 100 per cent. Rating is established by soil, topo- 
graphy, location and water-area factor. Where a division is 
made in the value of land and water right, water is valued, 
according to location, at four-sevenths to six-sevenths of 
the combined value for land and water. 

With respect to "ability to pay," the Commission based 
its findings on the production of wheat, oats and hay or 
pasture, subject to yearly crop shares to be delivered by the 
farmer. The Commission stated, "According to this assump- 
tion the crop share would equal $3.16 per acre." 

With respect to development costs the following comment 
was made: "The Commission has been made fully aware 
that irrigation authorities now agree that the full capital 
costs of an irrigation project should not be charged up to 
the land immediately benefited. The conversion of a non- 
productive area into lands intensively farmed benefits not 
only the irrigation farmer but also the community, the 
province and the Dominion, as well as many private enter- 
prises such as railways and factories." 

Future Irrigation Development 

In the general scheme of things which must be brought 
about to rehabilitate the drought areas of the prairie 
provinces, it is apparent that irrigation will take a prom- 
inent part. Irrigation is the only means by which certain 
areas of land can be made product ive and habitable with 
any degree of success to the people, rural and urban, who 
now occupy these areas or who may move to these areas 
from localities which cannot be irrigated. Reference has 
already been made to the need of a shuffling of people and 
occupations in an effort to get all of them into gainful 
pursuits. 

In these circumstances there arise various important lines 
of investigation in deciding upon future action and policy: — 

Firstly — What areas of land can be irrigated within 
practical limits of costs for construction and maintenance 
coupled with relative advantages or disadvantages in 
colonization, markets, etc., and on what areas can no 
rehabilitation of the existing conditions be made, so that 
their inhabitants must be moved to other localities or left 
to shift for themselves with continued problems of relief ? 

Secondly — What is to be the disposition of the people in 
these latter areas who will move or can be moved to other 
localities, and if to irrigated lands, where ? For example, are 
they to be moved to new projects to be built or to existing 
projects or extensions thereof which are already under way 
and which provide relatively immediate opportunities ? 

Thirdly — Existing irrigation projects in Canada have 
struggled along for the past fifteen to twenty-five years, but 
not one of them operating as an irrigation district or a 
private company will recover the investment costs nor reach 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January. 1939 



17 



a position of being 100 per cent completed, if that point can 
ever be reached. These projects have been financed and built 
by private funds, the repayment of which, in the case of 
irrigation districts in Alberta, is guaranteed by the province. 
No one suggests that these debts owing to individuals 
should be dishonoured. It would be in the interest of the 
community if these projects were brought to a better state 
of self-sufficiency and by the same act save costs for future 
irrigation requirements by the amount of developments 
already made. 

Fourthly — Inasmuch as water resources are an important 
national asset to the needs of the present and in the years to 
come, no effort should be spared to retain these assets. 
Canada is jointly interested in certain international water 
resources. It is indeed fortunate that this joint interest exists 
between two friendly countries. In both countries use of 
water is a perquisite to the right of use and our friendly 
neighbour to the south is not neglecting to use its available 
water resources. Tenure of right is guaranteed by treaty 
but it is not inconceivable in the course of time that dili- 
gence in the use of water on the one hand may abrogate a 
potential right weakened by negligence and non-use. The 
water resources of the St. Mary's and the Milk rivers 
and their tributaries are points in question in which 
Canada's potential use of water lies largely if not wholly 
in irrigation. 

In conclusion, no better or apt statements and contrasts 
to the needs of the problem in Canada could be made than 
are contained in an address entitled "Conquering Climate," 
delivered by the Hon. Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the 
Interior for the United States, at the banquet of the Seventh 
Annual Convention of the National Reclamation Associa- 
tion held at Reno, Nevada, October 13th, 1938. 

The following paragraphs are quoted from this address: — 

"One of the celebrated quips of Mark Twain, who once 
lived in an historic camp near Reno, was that everyone 
talks about the weather but no one ever does anything 
about it. Here in the West so very much has been done 
through the conservation storage and control of water and 
irrigation to mitigate the effect on an arid climate that Mark 



Twain's wisecrack is no longer in point. We are doing some- 
thing about it; we are conquering an arid climate." . . . 

"Even during more recent times, now happily on their 
way out, many in other sections that are blessed by nature 
with a humid climate, did not understand the need for 
irrigation. . . . There was no clear and general understanding 
of the conditions that make irrigation essential to habitation 
of much of this region which constitutes one-third of all the 
United States. There was little sympathy with the titanic 
efforts to make the West livable; to make it contribute to 
the wealth of the country ; a sturdy block in our up-building 
nation. With a clearer understanding of the national benefits 
of irrigation that time has all but gone." . . . 

"Federal Reclamation has resulted to date in providing 
water for 3,000,000 acres of land that formerly was so dry 
as not to be usable. On this irrigated land 51,834 farms and 
254 towns with a combined population of almost 900,000 
persons have been created. When completed, projects now 
under construction will add another 2,500,000 acres to 
lands irrigated in the West. On this new land another 
800,000 or more persons eventually will live." . . . 

"These and the other smaller but still important projects 
now under construction hold a great promise for the West. 
In years to come the power from their dams and the water 
from their reservoirs will work side by side in arid valleys 
to create new empires rivaling those which already in like 
manner have sprung from the sage brush. They will support 
homes, farms and cities and bring renewed hope to hundreds 
of thousands. Prosperous new communities will take their 
place within these states and pour additional wealth into 
the trade channels of the whole nation." . . . 

"Adhere to a sound and wise reclamation programme and 
you will protect the future of the West. Abuse it to satisfy a 
present greed, either for land at a reckless cost or for political 
power, and you will drive your children and their children 
out into the waste lands instead of sheltering them in safe 
homes on projects yet unbuilt. To-day engineering skill, 
science and public approval are ready to support a reclama- 
tion policy that is economically sound and socially 
desirable." 




Chateau Laurier, Ottawa 

Headquarters for the Annual General 
and General Professional Meeting, 
February 14th and 15th, 1939. 

(See announcement, pp. 24 and 25) 



18 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



THE CONTROL OF DIESEL RAIL CARS 

By Major W. G. Wilson, Diesel Railway Traction, Supplement 
to the Railway Gazette, November 25th, 1938 

Abstracted by J. L. Busfield, m.e.i.c. 

This article is abbreviated from a paper read before the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers on November 13th, 
1938. There are two alternative systems of transmitting 
power from the Diesel engine to the wheels of a rail car, 
namely electric transmission, or mechanical transmission. 

Some of the electrical control systems keep the output 
of the engine constant at a certain position of the controller. 
The main generator exciting windings in most of these 
systems are so arranged that as the voltage changes the 
current is varied to keep the generator load constant. In 
other systems the generator voltage is regulated through 
the engine governor in such a way that output for each 
working cylinder is maintained constant. 

The author describes in some detail the Brown Boveri- 
Sulzer system of electric control, and the English Electric 
torque control system. 

Under mechanical transmissions various types of gearbox 
are described, first is the Wilson epicyclic gearbox, which is 
pre-selective and by the rotation of the cam shaft the driver 
can set the mechanism in such a way that when the gear 
engaging lever is operated the selected gear will be picked up 
and engaged. Either electric or compressed air operated 
mechanism may be used. 

The Mylius gearbox is a constant-mesh spur gear drive 
pneumatically operated. The gear control is pre-selective 
and electro-pneumatic valves are used for both pre-selection 
and gear engagement. 

The Ganz mechanical system is a constant-mesh all-gear 
transmission employing plate clutches and operated by 
compressed air. With the change speed gear neutral, no air 
can be applied to any of the gear operated systems. When 
the gear lever is moved to the first position air is admitted 
to the cylinder which disconnects the drive friction clutch 
attached to the engine. The arrangement is such that it is 
impossible for two gears to be engaged simultaneously as 
the valves have an overlap and provide a neutral speed 
between the gears. 

Reference is also made briefly to the application of fluid 
couplings and variable torque hydraulic transmission. 



POLAROID WINDOWS IN PASSENGER TRAINS 

From an article "Electric Heat and Controlled Daylight," the 
Railway Electrical Engineer, December, 1938. 

Abstracted by R. G. Gage, m.e.i.c. 

An interesting application of polaroid has been made in 
the windows of an observation car of a recent train put into 
service by the Union Pacific Railway. Each of the windows 
consists of two polaroid discs 27 inches in diameter. The 
outer disc is stationary and the inner one may be rotated 
through 90 deg. by turning a small handle or knob. Dehy- 
drated sash are also installed in each window, consisting of 
an exterior plate glass and an interior safety glass. A 
complete cycle from minimum to maximum transmission of 
the windows occurs with 90 deg. rotation of the inside 
circular plate. 

To visualize this action of polaroid each light ray can be 
thought of as being something like a tiny metal rod and the 
polaroid can be thought of as a slot that flattens the rod 
into a ribbon when the rod has passed through it. In every 
inch of a sheet of polaroid, there are billions of optical slots 
formed by tiny parallel crystals embedded in the polaroid 
material. When the slots in the second sheet of polaroid are 
parallel to the slots in the first the ribbons of light will pass 



Contributed abstracts of articles appear- 
ing in the current technical periodicals 



through unchanged. If the slots of the second sheet cross 
those of the first at a slight angle, some light passes but 
part of the ribbon is shaved off. But if the slots in the second 
sheet are turned at right angles to those of the first, the 
light is blocked altogether. 

In the open position the polaroid screens pass about 30 
per cent of the total light flux, the equivalent of light shade 
sun glasses. In the closed position the screens pass only .5 
per cent of the light; 99.5 per cent is cut off. The colour 
change is barely noticeable in the open and intermediate 
positions. It is approximately neutral with a barely notice- 
able absorption of the blue. In the closed position the colour 
is deep purple-black. The ultra-violet absorption is sub- 
stantially complete below 3,800 Angstrom units including 
those bands generally considered undesirable in vision. 

The use of a polaroid screen in the window tends to make 
the sky look dark. This is because a large portion of the 
sky light is reflected light and hence polarized. The same is 
true of light reflected from the surface of water. Total 
energy consumption is about 73 per cent, including infra- 
red radiation in the dark position. This means that the air- 
conditioning system is relieved of somewhat more than two- 
thirds of the sun heat through the windows when the screens 
are closed. 

TRANSPORTING THE GRAIN HARVESTS 
OF THE WORLD 

Abstract of paper by Mr. Cecil Bentham in Engineering, 
November 11, 1938 

There are some 2,000,000,000 of people on this planet 
who have to be fed, and for a large proportion of the world's 
population bread is a staple food. The production and dis- 
tribution of the grain harvests of the world is therefore a 
matter of universal interest, and one with which virtually 
every form of transport by land and water comes into 
contact. 

There would be great advantage in free interchange of 
wheat not only from the point of view of quantity but also 
from the point of view of quality. Geographical conditions 
have imposed upon Great Britain the necessity of importing 
wheat ; moreover, the home-grown product cannot compete 
in all respects with wheat imported from other countries. 
Wheat is the most important of the grain crops and its 
cultivation is spread very widely over the surface of the 
world. This ensures a continual supply, which is of great 
importance to the British Isles, and simplifies the overseas 
transport by creating a more uniform factor for shipping 
and other transport services. The total world production 
of wheat, maize, barley, oats and rye amounts to some 
400,000,000 tons annually, all of which has to be transported 
to the consumer, who may be situated in industrial districts 
remote from the harvest fields, or in a foreign country. 
Approximately 370,000,000 tons of grain are consumed in 
the country of origin or in adjacent countries available by 
road, rail or water transport. An average quantity of about 
30,000,000 tons of grain is transported annually across the 
ocean from one continent to another. It will be observed 
that this amount is only 7^o P er cent, of the total produc- 
tion, and although there is a tendency for this exportable 
percentage to receive major attention in Great Britain, it 
is unwise to lose sight of the fact that practically all grain 
is transported some distance in the country of origin — in 
some cases over thousands of miles. The British Isles is by 
far the largest single importing country in everything 
except rye. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



19 



The great bulk of the world's grain is produced in those 
countries which neither export nor import any large quan- 
tities of grain. On account of their relatively small popula- 
tions, Canada, the Argentine and Australia are able to rank 
as the world's greatest exporters of grain, although their 
actual production is less than that of many other countries. 
Canada, for example, with a crop representing only 5.5 per 
cent of the world's total wheat production, is, nevertheless, 
able to provide nearly half the total world exports of wheat. 
The Argentine, with only 8.4 per cent of the world's maize 
production, supplies 71 per cent of the total world exports 
of maize. At the same time, all three of the great grain 
exporting countries possess enormous undeveloped reserves 
of production. When studying the problem of grain trans- 
port, the relative importance of bag and bulk handling 
necessarily arises; although there is a world-wide tendency 
to change from bag to bulk, progress is slow. Approximately 
300,000,000 tons are still transported in bags and, at some 
stage, are stored in this manner. Approximately 110,000,000 
tons are transported in bulk throughout or at some stage 
of transit. 

THE COKE AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CANADA, 1937 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa 

Abstracted by A. A. Swinnehton, a.m.e.i.c. 

This publication gives detailed statistical information 
regarding the production of coke and gas, imports and ex- 
ports, distribution, costs, wages, rates, etc. A brief summary 
is as follows : — 

Coke produced during 1937 amounted to 2,570,385 tons 
with a factory selling price of $18,466,068, and gas manufac- 
tured amounted to 46,131,322 M ft., valued at $19,922,809, 
and other products worth $3,314,052. The total value of 
products, $41,702,929, was 4.6 per cent greater than that 
of 1936. 

Thirty coke and gas works were operated in 1937, of 
which 17 were in Ontario. Approximately 90 per cent of 
the coke was produced in by-product and beehive coke 
ovens, and about 10 per cent from gas works. Of the 2J/2 
million tons of coke produced, approximately one million 
was sold for domestic use, the remainder being used for 
metallurgical purposes, for fuel and water gas production 
at the works, or for other purposes. 

Coke imports dropped from 610,000 tons in 1936 to 
420,000 tons in 1937, while coke exports increased from 
18,000 tons in 1936 to 37,000 tons in 1937. 

Of the 46 million M eu. ft. of gas produced, approximately 
76 per cent were from by-product ovens and 24 per cent 
from gas works. Of the 15 million M eu. ft. sold, about 55 
per cent was from by-product ovens and the remainder 
from gas works. Most of the remaining gas was used as fuel, 
either at the producing plants or at their associated metal- 
lurgical works. 

The number of customers served with manufactured gas, 
in 1937, amounted to 476,965, the total length of distribut- 
ing mains was 3,729 miles, the average calorific value of gas 
ranged from 450 to 533 B.t.u. per cu. ft., and the price 
varied from $2.50 to $0.65 per M eu. feet. 

THE DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF COAL 

Melchett Lecture to the Institute of Fuel by Prof. R. V. 

Wheeler, Journal of the Institute of Fuel, October, 1938, 

also Engineering, October 21, 1938 

Abstracted by A. A. Swinnerton, a.m.e.i.c. 

This lecture is a review of the work carried out by Prof. 
Wheeler and his associates, from 1908 onwards, for the 
purpose of elucidating the constitution of coal, a subject 
which has proved to have direct application to two problems 
of safety in coal mines — coal dust explosions and spontan- 
eous combustion of coal. 



The work commenced, in collaboration with M. J. Bur- 
gess, with some observations upon the volatile products 
evolved from coal at carbonizing temperatures from 500 to 
1,100 deg. C. These preliminary experiments indicated a 
definite decomposition point between 700 and 800 deg. C, 
below which paraffins were evolved from the coal, and above 
which a great increase in the evolution of hydrogen. A study 
of the composition of the gases evolved led to the conclusion 
that coal contains two types of compounds, and that the 
hydrogen-yielding constituents were derived from the 
celluloses and the paraffin-yielding constituents from the 
resins and gums of the coal-measure plants. 

In 1913, in association with A. H. Clark, it was found pos- 
sible to separate the "resinic" and "cellulosic" fractions by 
treating coal with pyridine and chloroform. While the 
deductions from these early experiments were not entirely 
in accord with the results of later work, this investigation 
indicated the possibility of resolving coal into a number of 
simpler units. 

Attention was, therefore, next directed to the liquid 
products, and by 1914 a technique had been developed for 
distilling coal in a vacuum, which enabled the liquid pro- 
ducts to be collected and examined. The tar was found to 
consist of a mixture of hydrocarbons and phenols, and in 
order to determine the origins of these various classes of 
compounds, the fractions of the coals, separated by solvents, 
were separately distilled. It was found that the "cellulosic" 
fractions yielded phenols, while the "resinic" fraction 
yielded paraffins, olefines, and naphthenes. 

The course of the investigations was then profoundly 
influenced by the recognition by Dr. Marie Stopes, of the 
banded constituents of bituminous coal, viz., clarain, 
vitrain, fusain, and durain. Her recognition of these four 
types of materials and her insistence on the difference 
between them has profoundly influenced the course of coal 
research throughout the world. 

Careful separation by hand of each of the banded con- 
stituents was followed by distilling each sample separately, 
and the volume temperature curves for hydrogen, paraffins, 
etc., were found to follow one another closely, but in definite 
gradation for vitrain, clarain, and durain. This led to the 
conclusion that the coal substance contains "reactive" and 
relatively "inactive" bodies, and that the difference 
between these three banded constituents lay in the propor- 
tion of each that they contain. 

Similar studies with dopplerite, a black jelly occurring 
in peat and apparently bearing the same relation to peat as 
vitrain does to coal, suggested an explanation of the nature 
of the reactive material in coal, and thus enabled the 
observed differences between vitrain, clarain, and durain 
in the same seam of coal to be explained. Old peat is found 
to be permeated with ulmins, and this material was believed 
to have its analogue in coal, in the amorphous cementing 
material in which the numerous plant structures are im- 
bedded. It was concluded that the reactive material in 
the clarain and durain consisted of a derivative of the 
ulmins. Moreover, chemical examination of the ulmins 
showed that they were the same whether they were derived 
from clarain, vitrain, or durain from the same coal, so that 
the ideas obtained from destructive distillation were con- 
firmed. The investigation was in this way divided into two 
lines, viz., a study of the ulmins and a study of the struc- 
tured plant entities. 

A comparison of the distillation products of the plant 
remains obtained from coal with those of similar portions 
of modern plants, showed the similarity in character 
between the cuticles in each case. With the information 
obtained in this way, it became possible to trace the con- 
tributions made by the major constituents of the coal con- 
glomerate to the various volatile products of distillation of 
coals of widely varied type. Reference is made to the 
"rational" analysis of coal whereby the proportions of 
ulmins, plant entities, hydrocarbons, and resins in coal can 
be. determined, and it is considered that this method of 






20 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



analysis should prove of greater value than the proximate 
and, even possibly, than the ultimate analysis of a coal. 

An apparatus and method of distillation in a vacuum has 
been developed, by which it is possible to ascertain the 
contribution of each type of compound to the distillates. 

The general conclusions drawn from this work upon the 
destructive distillation of bituminous coal are as follows: — 
No active decomposition occurs below 300 deg. C, but the 
major part of the free hydrocarbons distil unchanged. 
Slightly above 300 deg. C, the plant entities begin to de- 
compose, giving water and heavy oils. Around 365 deg. C, 
the ulmins start decomposing, yielding gaseous paraffins 
water, and oils; the decomposition being completed within 
some 25 deg. C. of the initial decomposition point. Above 
this active decomposition temperature of the coal ulmins, 
the plant entities and the resins decompose and distil 
simultaneously, yielding a complicated mixture of liquid 
products. The amount of resins distilled unchanged is 
usually less than that which can be extracted from the coal 
by solvents, but it may approach that quantity if the coal 
also contains a fairly high percentage of plant remains, and 
it is presumed that some of the resins may be "vapour- 
distilled" by the hydrocarbon oils evolved from the plant 
entities. 

In conclusion, Prof. Wheeler stated that a knowledge of 
the constitution of coal was necessary for its efficient 
utilization, because there are so many problems in the use 
of coal that cannot be solved without a knowledge of its 
composition. 

HIGH-PRESSURE BOILERS FOR MARINE 
SERVICE 

Abstract of an article in Engineering 

At the present time there is available a considerable 
variety of marine boiler types, more or less in the experi- 
mental stage, designed to operate at pressures, steam tem- 
peratures, or evaporative ratings to which the overworked 
epithet "high" may be deservedly applied. Neither the small 
tube marine boiler nor the latest form can be considered as 
a separate type, both being merely developments of the 
water-tube principle; but whereas the small-tube boiler 
originated as a marine boiler, the modern "high-pressure" 
boiler of the small-tube variety has been developed primarily 
as a land unit, although the inherent special features have 
naturally caused its sponsors to pay attention to marine 
possibilities as well. 

The small-tube marine boiler was hampered from the 
outset by considerations of space, and was unable to con- 
sume efficiently the quantities of fuel that could be thrust 
into its cramped combustion chamber, even though the firing 
was by hand throughout the initial development period. The 
present high-pressure boiler is usually free from this restric- 
tion. It is fired mechanically, whether with coal or oil, and 
knowledge of combustion and heat transference is now both 
more exact and more widely diffused, so that a skilled 
designer can predict with some certainty the performance 
to be expected under normal operating conditions. Professor 
A. L. Mellanby, in a paper on "Service Results with 
High-Pressure Boilers," which he delivered recently before 
the Institute of Marine Engineers, commented specially on 
this aspect, observing of the six types reviewed that there 
was "no particular reason why one type should be more 
efficient than another, well-designed boilers of all classes 
being equally capable of transforming the heat of the fuel 
into steam production." Any eventual elimination of com- 
peting types, or broad subdivision such as evolved in the 
case of the marine water-tube boiler, is likely, therefore, to 
be governed by qualities other than steaming capacity. 

The six boilers considered in Professor Mellanby's paper 
were the La Mont, Velox, Loeffler, Schmidt, Benson and 
Sulzer designs, and except that all employ tubes of small 
diameter, there is not much that is common to all six. The 
first four retain steam and /or water drums as an essential 
feature, and therefore satisfy one main requirement of those 



who insist on the necessity for some reserve capacity; al- 
though, at the high rates of steaming which these boilers 
are designed to maintain, the reserve is only small. Only 
one of all the six, the Schmidt boiler, relies on natural 
circulation. In two of the remaining types, the Benson and 
the Sulzer designs, the water is pumped but has a unidirec- 
tional flow which can hardly be described as "circulation." 
The Loeffler boiler uses a pump, primarily to circulate steam, 
a portion of the superheated steam thus circulated being 
combined with the pumped flow through the economizer 
section, causing it to evaporate, and as it is this steam 
which the pump circulates, the Loeffler boiler may be con- 
sidered to be in the same category as the La Mont and 
Velox types, in which a pump circulates the boiler water. 

SOIL EROSION 

Abstract of a paper by Dr. H. Chatley in Engineering 

The calamitous deterioration of the prairie lands in the 
United States of America and Canada, due to the removal 
by rain and wind of the humus layer, has drawn serious 
attention to the effects of human activities on erosion. In 
China, similar changes have long been in progress and the 
extension of grain cultivation to the forest and grass lands 
in North China, Inner Mongolia and Manchuria has been 
followed by similar excessive erosion there. It is probable 
that this same process is partially responsible for the deteri- 
oration of many other areas, such as Mesopotamia, where 
the demand for grain led to an imprudent extension of agri- 
culture. The problem is to some extent interlinked with that 
of deforestation and its possible inter-relation with rainfall. 

The simple facts appear to be that the breaking up of 
ground by ploughing on a sloping surface inevitably leads 
to perceptibly increased run-off which is accompanied by 
very greatly increased erosion. The land is thereby deprived 
of humus, presently becomes sterile, and finally becomes a 
fan of gullies. The eroded material generally passes into 
rivers and so to deltas or the sea bed, but in so far as it 
may fill up swamps or raise flood plains there may be a 
little compensation. As, however, the eroded material in its 
later stages is sterile subsoil this may be of no immediate 
benefit and in any case can only in the rarest cases be com- 
parable with the loss experienced on the sloping lands. In 
the natural state, prairie lands are covered with a mat of 
roots which holds back an appreciable fraction of the rain, 
and, except on very steep slopes, there is very little erosion. 
Similarly in the forests, the leaves retain a good deal of rain 
and the soil beneath is covered with scrub, moss, etc., which 
serves the same purpose as grass in reducing erosion. 

PLYWOOD MAKES A BUILDING 

By E. H. Horn in Engineering News Record, November 3rd, 1938 
Abstracted by D. S. Laidlaw, a.m.e.i.c. 

A gymnasium was recently built for a school at White 
Salmon, Washington, in which the roof and wall panels 
were of plywood supported on plywood arches. The building, 
of cruciform shape, contained twelve rigid frame arches of 
43-foot span, three in each wing, and two intersecting arches 
of 61-foot span, all resting on concrete footings, having a 
clear height in the centre of 20 feet, and legs, all of the same 
section, 20 feet in length to the eaves. 

The arch ribs consisted of a core, 10 inches thick, made 
up of laminations of 9/16 inch rough sheathing grade 
plywood, to the edges of which were attached layers of 
9/16 inch Douglas fir to take the bending stresses. In these 
layers, four on the tension and two on the compression side, 
the 10-inch width was made up with 4-inch and 6-inch 
strips. All joints were carefully staggered, and the wood 
was bonded together with glue. Both nails and clamps were 
used to hold the pieces together until the glue set. 

Wall and roof panels, each of a size capable of being 
handled by four men, consisted of a frame, having verticals 
at 16-inch centres, and longitudinals top and bottom, all 
of %-inch by 1%-inch clear Douglas fir, to which was 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



21 



glued, inside and out, surfacing of 5/16 inch unsanded 
plywood. Rock wool insulation was placed in the panels as 
they were fabricated. 

In erection, the arches were set up in halves, joined with 
connectors and steel gussets, and temporary tie rods were 
inserted for bracing. The wall and roof panels were set to 
marks on the arches and glued in place. Blind nailing was 
used to hold the panels until the glue set. Horizontal joints 
in the walls were used for architectural effect. Vertical 
joints were routed out and filled in with a spline set in glue 
and sanded off smooth, this being a patented process. 

Frames for windows and doors were set in openings 
provided, and trimmed in the usual manner. The building 
was finished with two coats of a synthetic resin base 
plastic-type paint, sprayed on at a cost of 5^2C. per square 
yard, giving a surface comparable to that of good stucco or 
masonry. The building has proved economical to heat, and 
has displayed remarkable acoustical efficiency. 

The building was designed by Walter H. Roth, Architect, 
of Yakima, Washington, and the general contractor was 
the Speedwall Co., of Seattle, who make a business of pre- 
fabricating plywood buildings. The design principles are 
similar to those developed at the Forest Products Labora- 
tory, Madison, Wisconsin. 

THE BELL SYSTEM MEETS ITS 
GREATEST TEST 

By J. S. Bradley, Bell Telephone Quarterly, October. 1938 

Abstracted by Trevor C. Thompson, a.m.e.i.c. 

This article is the story of the destruction caused by the 
storm of September 21, 1938, in New York and the New 
England States, and the mobilized effort of the Bell System 
to bring order out of chaos and to restore service. It is 
illustrated by over 100 photographs showing awesome havoc 
and conditions under which emergency service and repairs 
were effected. 

The disaster started on September 17, when steady rain 
commenced in New England and Eastern New York. 
Suddenly, there were floods; the smaller streams and rivers 
became torrents inundating all the low land of the terri- 
tory. Though great damage was done by the high water of 
the two great rivers, the Merrimac and the Connecticut, 
yet, fortunately, neither reached the level attained in 1936. 

Simultaneously, on Sunday, September 18th, a tropical 
hurricane was born near the West Indies. It raced across 
the Atlantic, striking the northeastern seaboard and sweep- 
ing a path of destruction north as far as Canada. Sustained 
wind velocities of 90 to 120 m.p.h. were reported, and one 
gust of 186 m.p.h. was recorded at Harvard University. 

This hurricane swept through the flooded country, leaving 
a path of levelled trees and buildings. The falling trees tore 
down the utility circuits, isolating whole areas from electric 
light and power and communication. 

Then following the wind came a tidal wave (properly 
speaking — a "storm wave") some 15 to 30 ft. high which 
completely destroyed hundreds of buildings and homes, and 
left parts of the seacoast almost unrecognizable. 

Finally came the last tragedy — fire ! Although a holocaust 
threatened, the fire remained localized, but added to the 
damage to plant. Its effect raised the already incredible 
traffic load being handled by crippled facilities. 

Eight states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York and New 
Jersey, and four telephone companies of the Bell System: 
New England Telephone and Telegraph Co., Southern New 
England Telephone Co., New York Telephone Co., and the 
New Jersey Bell Telephone Co. were directly affected. 

Half a million telephones were out of service — in N.J. 
35,000, N.Y. 56,000 (of which 30,000 were on Long Island 
and 15,000 up-state), Connecticut 105,000. Even after a 
number had been restored, new out of service reports kept 
coming in reporting trouble caused by damage to plant in 
clearing other wreckage such as trees from highways, etc. 



The New England Co. had some 79,000 such cases. To 
repair the damage the two New England companies esti- 
mated the pole requirements at 20,000 poles. 

Most of the central offices were able to carry on operations 
through stand-by power equipment — gasoline engines per- 
manently provided for emergency purposes or portable 
motor generator units set outside the central offices to charge 
the batteries within. Measures that had been developed 
during the 1936 floods were again brought into use and 
effectively proved their worth. In Hartford, Conn., bulk- 
heads for ground floor windows and doors allowed operations 
to continue without interruption from abnormal water level 
alone. 




Re-routing "Patches" in Long Distance Building, New York 

The failure of the bridge at Chicopee Falls, Mass., carried 
away important long distance cables. A line was finally shot 
across the 700-foot wide torrent by a coast guard Lyle gun 
and crew, brought to the scene by airplane from a Long 
Island station. The coast guard again provided a similar 
service near Occum, Conn. 

Ultra short wave radio telephone service provided the 
only telephone communication between Cape Cod and the 
rest of the world. Over the Keene, N.H. -Boston radio link, 
composed of apparatus flown from Florida, traffic averaging 
more than 50 messages per day was handled, reaching peaks 
of more than 100 messages per day. 

In New London, where a brick building next to the 
telephone exchange was blown to bits, and fire threatened 
the telephone building, a truck was held in readiness to 
demolish a fence at the rear should emergency escape be 
necessary. 

Only the complete standardization of materials, tools, 
records, construction practices, specifications, trained per- 
sonnel and organization made it possible to cope with the 
critical situation and to restore service to the half million 
stations out of service in the record time of two weeks. 

Assistance was provided from far and wide in the system, 
and, no matter whence they came, men could do their 



22 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



work without detailed instructions, and materials and tools 
would fit all requirements. 2,385 men and 615 trucks were 
mobilized from 14 Bell System companies to supplement 
the staff of 3,700 men of the New England companies. 
These men came from many states, Virginia, Nebraska, 
Arkansas, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, with their own trucks, 
their own tools, their own supervisors, and did a job as 
familiar to them as if they were effecting repairs in their 
own home town. Operators from Philadelphia, Cleveland, 
Detroit, were entrained to New York and flown to Boston. 
Enormous quantities of materials were required to restore 
service in the storm area. Here again it was possible to meet 
these demands for supplies and equipment only because of 
standardization and the organization of the manufacturers 
and suppliers for the companies concerned. 

THE FIELD FOR LOW HEAT CEMENT 

By H. S. Meissner and W. T. Moran in Engineering News 
Record, November 10th, 1938 

Abstracted by D. S. Laidlaw, a.m.e.i.c. 

The authors describe low-heat Portland cement as a 
special product developed from the research undertaken for 
the Boulder Dam, containing less lime and more silica and 
iron, and being ground slightly finer, than standard Portland 
cement. Up to the present time, the U.S. Bureau of Recla- 
mation has used 4,860,000 barrels of it in four dams, and, 
at Boulder Dam, the average mill price was $1.46 per barrel 
as compared to $1.40 for standard cement. 

The article reviews the considerations that led to the 
development of low-heat cement, refers to the experimental 
program that developed it and to several papers (notably 
one by J. L. Savage, entitled "Special Cements for Mass 
Concrete," containing an extended treatment and excellent 
bibliography of the subject, delivered at the Second Congress 
of the International Commission on Large Dams, World 
Power Conference), and presents the principal results of 
the research. 

Low-heat cement generates about one-third less heat 
than standard, and that more slowly and over a longer 
period of time, with the result that its benefits are to a 
certain extent dependent on the shape of the structure in 
which it is used, as well as on the speed of construction. 
The growth of strength is shown to be roughly parallel to 
the production of heat, with a final strength at one year 
practically the same as that of standard cement. Low-heat 
cement required considerably longer curing, shows slightly 
less permeability, and shows better resistance to cracking, 
than standard cement. 

Modified cement is a by-product of the research with 
low-heat cement, developed to retain the initial strength 
of standard cement while reducing slightly its heat of 
hydration. It is fast replacing standard cement on all work 
for the Bureau of Reclamation, and has been used for some 
mass concrete work. Modified cement may show no higher 
final internal temperatures than low-heat cement in mass 
work, if the construction schedule is such that the next 
lift is poured before the latter has developed a considerable 
temperature rise. The resistance to cracking of modified 
cement is intermediate between that of standard and low- 
heat cements. 

The first low-heat cement was used on the Morris Dam 
for the city of Pasadena, and it has since been used on the 
Rodriguez, Boulder, Bartlett, Parker, and Marshall Ford 
Dams, sometimes for its low heat-producing qualities, 
sometimes for its resistance to cracking. It was found pos- 
sible to produce the same slumps with less water, when 
low-heat rather than standard cement was used, but it 
was sometimes necessary to blend the two to obtain enough 
initial strength in the concrete to maintain the construction 
schedule. It was found possible to produce low-heat cement 
in ordinary cement mills without material change, except 
that it was necessary to grind to a fineness giving 92 
per cent passing the No. 200 sieve. Manufacturing experience 
from three mills is quoted. 



UNUSUAL CONCRETE RIGID FRAME TEST 

Engineering News Record, November 17th, 1938 

Abstracted by D. S. Laidlaw, a.m.e.i.c. 

When it became necessary, owing to channel improve- 
ments, to demolish and replace the Central Avenue Bridge 
at Glendale, California, a well-designed reinforced concrete 
rigid frame structure only two years old, the city engineer, 
J. C. Albers, decided to carry out full-scale loading tests. 

The dimensions of the bridge were as follows: 

Clear span, face to face of legs, short distance 43 ft. 

Width, on centre-line of channel, out to out of slab 60 deg. 

Skew angle 25 -24 min. 

Length of leg, bottom of footing to top of slab .... 18 ft. 

Thickness of slab at haunch 3 ft. 

crown 18 in. 

Width of footing 6 ft. 

Depth of footing 2 ft. 6 in. 

The bridge was designed for an H-20 loading on each of 
the six traffic lanes, following very closely the method of 
analysis first proposed by A. G. Hayden of the Westchester 
County Park Commission with 2,000- pound concrete and 
structural grade steel. No consideration was given to the 
effect of the approach fills against the abutments. Longitu- 
dinal reinforcing steel was placed parallel to the sides of 
the bridge. 

Loading was effected by placing 3,000 pound steel ingots 
on timbers placed parallel to the centre-line of the channel 
in a strip about three feet wide at the centre of the span. 
Stresses were measured on the longitudinal and transverse 
steel with 10-inch Whittemore strain gauges, or, where there 
was not room for these, a 2-inch Berry strain gauge. 
Gauge points were taken on 40 top longitudinal bars at 
each haunch, and on 40 bottom bars at the crown, as well 
as at 18 other places on the transverse bars. In addition, the 
deflection at the crown was taken at three points, and, by 
means of horizontal and vertical gauges set on timbers 
cantilevered out from the approach fills, the vertical and 
lateral movements of bolts set in the slab at the four 
corners were determined. 

The ingots were placed on one-half of the roadway until 
a load of 129 tons had been reached, and, after a rest of 
three hours, the same load was placed on the other half of 
the bridge. The following day, loading was continued on 
one-half of the bridge until that half carried 231 tons, mak- 
ing a total of 360 tons for the whole structure. After a rest 
of one hour, loading was continued until an almost uniform 
load of 430 tons had been placed. The following day, one- 
half of the bridge was unloaded completely, leaving 250 
tons on the structure, which was shortly after removed. 
Deflection gauges were read while loading progressed, and 
all the gauge lengths measured at the beginning and end of 
each loading operation, and again 12 hours after unloading. 
To test the properties of the materials, several bars and 
four-inch by eight-inch cores of concrete were cut out. 

In the article, some of the test results are given in 
graphical form. With one side loaded with 129 tons, the 
stress in the haunch steel was found to be fairly uniform, 
except that in the loaded obtuse angled corner it rose 
slightly. The uniform load of 430 tons produced differences 
in stress in the haunch steel, at one abutment of about 3,000, 
at the other of about 7,000 pounds per square inch, between 
the obtuse and acute angled ends, showing that there were 
definite concentrations of stress at the obtuse angled 
corners of the bridge. The stresses at the crown showed a 
definite falling off at the edges, probably due to the influence 
of the concrete handrails. The movements of the four 
corners were found to be generally in the same direction, 
but some of these observations were felt to be of questionable 
accuracy. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



23 



Chairmen of Special Committees 

for the Annual Meeting 




Photos— Left 

J. W. LUCAS, A.M.E.I.C. Chairman of Dinner and Dance Committee 

Centre 

S. H. de JONG, A.M.E.I.C. Chairman of Luncheon Committee 

Right 

H. E. TREBLE, A.M.E.I.C. Chairman of Registration Committee 




Photos— Bottom— Left 

J. H. IRVINE, A.M.E.I.C. 

Centre 

R. C. PURSER, A.M.E.I.C. 

Risht 

S. D. LASH, A.M.E.I.C. 



Chairman of Finance Committee 

Chairman of Publicity Committee 

Chairman of Closing Social Function 
Committee 








24 



Fifty-third 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 



and 



GENERAL PROFESSIONAL MEETING 

Under the Distinguished Patronage of 
THEIR EXCELLENCIES THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND LADY TWEEDSMUIR 




OTTAWA 



9.00 a.m. 
10.00 a.m. 
12.30 p.m. 

2.30 p.m. 



7.30 p.m. 



10.00 p.m. 



PROGRAMME (PRELIMINARY) 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 14th 

Registration, Château Laurier. 

Opening of Annual Meeting. 

Luncheon. 

Resumption of Annual Meeting. 
Reception of Special Guests. 
Report of Scrutineers. 
Retiring President's Address. 

Annual Dinner — 

Guests of honour, Lord and Lady Tweedsmuir. 

Guest speaker, Colonel Willard Chevalier, "Th« 

Engineer faces a New World.'' 

Presentation of Honorary Membership and Prizes. 

Dance. 



TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY 
FEBRUARY 14 and 15, 1939 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 15th 

Technical Sessions, Chateau Laurier. 
Papers on Western Drought Problems. 
American Industry Looks Towards Canada. 
The Canadian Malartic Mine. 

Luncheon — Guest speaker, The Hon. J. G. Gardiner, 
Minister of Agriculture. 

Resumption of Technical Sessions. 

Social gathering (members and ladies) with enter- 
tainment. 

This meeting will be notable on account of the representation from 
the Founder Societies of the United States. It is anticipated that the 
presidents and secretaries of the major societies and of the Engineers 
Council of Professional Development will all be present. 

Photo— top left 

J. L. RANNIE, M.E.I.C. Chairman of General Committee 

Photo — bottom right 

H. V. ANDERSON, M.E.I.C. Vice-Chairman of General Committee 



10.00 a.m. 



12.30 p.m. - 

2.00 p.m. - 
8.00 p.m. - 




25 




£éïtosuGd 

Gosnmettt... 

THE JOURNAL 

Some time ago the members of The Institute answered a 
questionnaire expressing their opinions regarding The 
Engineering Journal, and supplying data in connection with 
their technical reading. The information obtained in this 
way was very carefully studied by the Publication Commit- 
tee, and in due course a report was presented to Council 
recommending certain changes which it was felt would have 
the effect of modernizing the Journal and of making it 
more acceptable to the membership. It was not possible to 
make the changes overnight, nor was it desirable to make 
any sweeping transformation which would have the effect 
of altering the character of the publication which has been 
firmly established for over twenty years. 

There have been improvements in the past few issues, 
but advantage has been taken of the opportunity in this, 
the first number of a new volume, to bring into effect 
additional features which it is hoped will better meet the 
requirements of the readers. 

The size of the Journal has for many years been a subject 
of discussion. A happy solution has now been reached, 
whereby it is reduced slightly, thereby facilitating filing, 
especially of clipped articles, without introducing any of 
the difficulties which arise in connection with a major 
reduction in size. 

As previously announced a number of very attractive 
designs for a new cover were submitted by members, but 
after serious consideration it was finally decided to retain 
the fundamental character of the present design but with 
some improvement in typographical detail. In this way the 
cover has been improved without in any way detracting 
from the value of its well established character. A new 
weight and texture of paper has been employed for the 
cover material. 

Certain of the inside pages which have had an established 
form for many years, such as contents, officers of The 
Institute, branch officers, also have been changed, with the 
hope that the use of more modern type and format will 
have an increased "eye appeal." Similarly, changes in 
form of types have been introduced with the definite know- 
ledge that there will be a greater facility in reading. Owing 
to the comprehensive character of Institute activities and 
the wide scope of professional interests of its members, it 
has been very difficult in the past to provide sufficient 
technical papers to meet the needs. It is anticipated that 
the introduction of the section headed "Abstracts of 
Current Literature" will agreeably broaden the interest 
and increase the diversification of the contents. 

Perhaps it would be appropriate at this point to remind 
members that the Journal does not just "happen," nor does 
it spring from the editorial mind, but to make it effective 
there must be a degree of support from the membership at 
large. Advisory members of the Publication Committee 
devote much time to the selection and preparation of 
material for the abstracts; news of the Branches can only 
be published through the co-operation of Branch officers; 
the personal columns depend on news submitted by mem- 
bers from all parts of the country; and the technical papers 
themselves are the result of effort on the part of members. 
Without such support, the Journal could not be maintained 
at the high level which has already been established. With 
continued co-operation it is hoped that even new levels 
may be reached in the future. 



THE ENGINEER IN HIGH PLACES 

The frequent recent announcements of the appointment 
of engineers to high executive positions, serve to emphasize 
the great width of the field in which our profession practises. 
In Canada, as in other countries, the engineer has satisfac- 
torily filled a great variety of positions, all the way from 
the humblest in his calling to the most exacting in the land. 
The proportion of executive positions occupied by engineers 
is steadily increasing, which would seem to prove that such 
men are well qualified for the responsibilities of leadership. 

It must be inspirational for students and young engineers 
to read such announcements. To see men who have had 
just the same professional education as theirs, who started 
in the same unpretentious manner, and who have attained 
outstanding success in executive positions, must give them 
great hope for the future, because it indicates that their 
education is right, and that the chosen profession offers a 
field so wide that it will never restrain them if they have the 
merit and ability to become big men in it. 

Karl T. Compton, President of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, gives some interesting figures on 
this subject in Mechanical Engineering of November, 1937. 
After explaining that he has based his calculations on a 
census and survey of American industry made by Dr. R. H. 
Spahr, director of instruction and curricula at the General 
Motors Institute of Technology, he says: "If we examine 
the influence of the type of college in which the education 
was secured, we find the following results which, at first 
glance, are decidedly startling. In one group we consider 
those who were educated at an engineering or technical 
college, and in the other group those who attended any 
other type of college such as liberal arts, law, business, and 
the like. Here we find that an engineering-college man is 
12 times more likely to be found in the presidential position 
than if he had attended a non-engineering college. He is 5 
times as likely to be treasurer, 30 times as likely to be in 
production, 174 times as likely to be in engineering, and 24 
times as likely to be in sales. Grouping all offices together, 
any engineering-college graduate is 30 times as likely to 
find himself an officer in American industry as is a graduate 
of a non-engineering college." 

He goes on to say that in a study of the Alumni of his 
own Institution, he finds that "70 per cent of the graduates 
of 14 years standing are now holding positions that involve 
some jurisdiction over the policies of their employing com- 
panies. While complicating uncertainties of interpretation 
are present, I believe that figures such as these must be 
accepted as evidence that the colleges of the country are 
making a significant contribution to business leadership." 

Up until fairly recent times it has seemed that of the 
professions only the legal profession had offered the oppor- 
tunity to reach the better fruit which is at the top of the 
business tree. It is comforting to know that day by day 
senior members of our profession have been changing this 
situation, and proving for us as for the public, that the 
engineer is capable and competent and much at home in 
these high places of distinction and responsibility. 

THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

Presidential Address 

Abstracted by P. L. Pratley, m.e.i.c. 

The presidential address of William James Eames Binnie, 
M.A., President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, dealt 
with engineering work in the far past, commencing with 
the great fire at Alexandria, which must have destroyed a 
vast store of engineering records as well as other contents 
of that famous library, as much engineering had been done 
in Egypt and Phoenicia in the previous centuries. One only 
has to speculate as to how the pyramids were constructed, 
to realize that engineering principles were understood and 
applied in those days. The quarries from which the granite 



26 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



came for the various temples inside the pyramids are situ- 
ated close to the present Aswan Dam, some two hundred 
miles away from Thebes, and there are evidences from which 
it can be ascertained that the material was quarried in 
substantially the same manner as is used to-day. 

Mr. Binnie made reference to the engineering of the 
Romans in pre-Christian times, and to their ideas regarding 
the nature of materials and forces. Archimedes, who lived 
between 287 and 212 B.C., is well known to most engineers 
as the originator of the screw system and also as one who 
appreciated the practical value of the lever. He is also sup- 
posed to have discovered the means of determining the 
specific gravity of solids by immersing them in water; but 
in addition to this he was apparently a capable military 
engineer and actually built cranes with swinging booms 
which were used for grabbing the prows of galleys when 
the fleet of the Roman general Marcellus attacked his 
native town of Syracuse. Mr. Binnie also referred to his 
own sphere of engineering, that of water supply, when 
dealing with the exploits of Sextus Julius Frontinus, who 
was born about A.D. 35, was Governor of Britain in A.D. 80 
and was given the office of chief engineer in charge of 
aqueducts in Rome on being returned from military service 
abroad. He wrote a book in connection with this work of 
supplying Rome with water and was evidently much im- 
pressed with the importance of the undertaking, and in his 
introductory sentence makes a statement which might well 
be remembered by modern engineers, — "I therefore consid- 
ered it to be the first and most important thing to be done, 
as has always been one of my fundamental principles in 
other affairs, to learn thoroughly what it is that I have 
undertaken." Mr. Binnie then goes on to describe many of 
the aqueducts which were either repaired or reconditioned 
or constructed by Frontinus during his very active career 
and quotes him in another place as having been able to 
increase the capacity of various aqueducts by the simple 
method of blocking up the illicit branch pipes through 
which they were secretly despoiled. 

Another interesting quotation which Mr. Binnie repro- 
duces is taken from the report of the hydraulic engineer of 
the third legion, Nonius Datus, who was transferred to 
Algeria to supervise the construction of rock tunnels where 
he found everyone "sad and despondent," as it appeared 
that the two ends of the tunnel, having been begun from 
different sides of the mountain, had each been excavated be- 
yond the middle without effecting a junction. Nonius Datus 
proceeds as follows: "As always happens in these cases, the 
fault was attributed to the engineer, as though he had not 
taken all precautions to insure the success of the work. What 
could I have done better ? I began by surveying and taking 
the levels of the mountain; I marked most carefully the 
axis of the tunnel across the ridge : I drew plans and sections 
of the whole work, which plans I handed over to Petronius 
Celer, the Governor of Mauritania; and to take extra pre- 
caution, I summoned the contractor and his workmen, and 
began the excavation in their presence, with the help of two 
gangs of experienced veterans, namely, a detachment of 
marine infantry and a detachment of Alpine troops. What 
more could I have done ? Well, during the four years I was 
absent (on other work), expecting every day to hear the 
good tidings of the arrival of the water at Saldae, the 
contractor and his superintendent had committed blunder 
upon blunder; in each section of the tunnel they had 
diverged from the straight line, each towards his right, and 
had I waited a little longer before coming, Saldae would 
have possessed two tunnels instead of one." It would appear 
from this that the engineer had a sense of humour in the 
old Imperial days and was also an expert at drawing up 
reports that would place the blame where it belonged, 
namely, on the contractor. 

Truly our noble profession reaches back into the ages, and 
the practice of it, like human nature, has not changed so 
very much. — P.L.P. 



CANADA AND THE REFUGEE PROBLEM 
A Subject of Real Interest to Engineers 

The civilized world has been profoundly moved by the 
pitiable condition of thousands of refugees who are being 
forced to leave their countries in Europe, and for whom no 
adequate help is yet available. Their paths are beset with 
difficulties as diverse as their classes and circumstances. 
Canada is being called upon to shoulder her share of the 
burden of their rehabilitation, and it therefore becomes 
necessary to give consideration to ways and means. 

Actually the problem is not simply one of dealing with 
unskilled workers, agriculturalists or small shopkeepers with 
their dependents. It involves skilled craftsmen, technicians 
and members of the recognized professions, and should 
therefore receive the attention of all members of profes- 
sional or industrial organizations whose interests seem 
likely to be affected. For this reason, The Institute becomes 
particularly interested and it seems desirable that readers 
of The Engineering Journal should have before them some 
account of the general situation and the steps which are 
being taken in Canada to deal with it. 

With the authorization of the League of Nations Society 
in Canada there has been recently established a"Canadian 
National Committee on Refugees and Victims of Political 
Persecution." Its purpose is to seek to co-ordinate all 
efforts in Canada on behalf of those refugees in Europe and 
Asia, both Aryan and non-Aryan, who are being exiled from 
their homes and deprived of their means of livelihood. This 
committee held its first meeting in Ottawa on December 
6th and 7th, 1938, and The Institute was one of the many 
organizations which were asked to send representatives. 
At the request of President Challies, Messrs. M. F. Coch- 
rane and W. H. Munro, mm. e. i.e., of Ottawa, attended the 
meeting on behalf of The Institute. The organizations 
represented also included the Royal Architectural Institute 
of Canada, the League of Nations Society in Canada, the 
principal religious denominations, the National Council of 
Women, the Social Service Council of Canada, the Canadian 
Welfare Council, and other bodies interested in sociological 
and philanthropic questions. 

After prolonged discussion the meeting adopted a main 
resolution, which commended the Dominion Government 
for its participation in the recent refugee conference at 
Evian, which was called by President Roosevelt. Apprecia- 
tion was also expressed of the Dominion Government's 
further actions looking to amelioration of the lot of re- 
fugees or potential refugees in Europe. The committee 
considered that humanitarianism and loyalty to democratic 
principles make it imperative for Canada to render all 
possible help in the distressing situation in which these 
unhappy people find themselves. The meeting further 
believed that the immigration of carefully selected indivi- 
duals or groups of refugees to Canada would prove of value 
by introducing skilled workers and new arts, crafts and 
industries, and also urged that the Government consider 
the possibility of making appropriations, in concert with 
other nations, towards the cost of rehabilitation of such 
refugees as may be established in other countries. 

After this point had been reached, a delegation from the 
meeting waited upon the Prime Minister and laid its con- 
clusions before him and members of the Cabinet. The 
interview was cordial, but Mr. Mackenzie King did not 
commit himself as to the Dominion's course of action. 

At a further meeting of the National Committee it was 
decided that the formulation of an effective educational 
programme should be a primary duty of the committee, 
and that a campaign for raising funds must be launched. 
In order to carry out these objects an executive committee 
was named, with Senator Cairine Wilson as chairman, 
and an executive secretary was appointed. 

From the discussions which took place at the meeting, 
and from many communications received by the committee, 
it seems clear that the Canadian public does not yet realize 
either the importance of the problem, the urgent need for 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



27 



action, the number of refugees involved, or the effect which 
a wrong or mistaken course of action in this matter may 
have upon the future of Canada. 

The nature and extent of the emergency were eloquently 
described by Lord Baldwin in a radio broadcast which he 
gave on December 8th. He pointed out that there are some 
500,000 Jews and more than 100,000 so-called non-Aryan 
Christians who are being driven from their homes in Ger- 
many and deprived of their possessions, and who seek a 
refuge where they may be permitted some means of exist- 
ence. There are at least 50,000 children whose parents are 
appealing to the British Refugee Committee, of which Lord 
Baldwin is chairman, to take them out of Germany even 
though the parents may never see them again. And there 
are many Christian husbands or fathers who have married 
women of Jewish faith or descent, and who refuse to 
abandon their wives and their children. 

The potential number of refugees during the next five 
years is much greater than the above figures indicate, since 
the non-Aryan populations of Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, 
Rumania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Greece, numbering 
in all nearly a million souls, would be affected by the pres- 
sure upon the whole non-Aryan population of central and 
eastern Europe which is generally regarded as an inevitable 
consequence of German ascendancy in those countries 

This multitude of refugees, actual and potential, natur- 
ally consists of people of the most varied character and 
calling. But they are largely urban dwellers, some of whom 
have been engaged in technical or professional work. In their 
new homes those who have such professional or technical 
qualifications must either be permitted to compete with the 
professional men of their adopted countries or some other means 
of livelihood will have to be found for them. Such difficulties 
as these make it imperative that plans for migration should 
be properly co-ordinated and have the support of the public 
as well as the government in each of the various countries 
that may be able to offer some sanctuary to the refugees. 

The conditions affecting the participation by Canada in 
this task were outlined to the National Committee by Miss 
Charlotte Whitton, of the Canadian Welfare Council, in a 
memorandum in which she urged the necessity for great 
care and restraint in any action which may be undertaken. 
In her opinion the committee should not permit itself to be 
carried away by impetuous action no matter how humane 
the motive. There were other refugees than those driven out 
of Germany — refugees in Spain, Poland, Italy, parts of 
Russia, the Baltic States and in China. As to the Canadian 
economic problem and the possibilities of absorption, a 
distinguished Royal Commission had been appointed to 
make an extensive investigation. The National Committee 
should confine itself to the very broad principles and not 
deal with details on which it was not competent to act. 
Nothing would be worse than to concentrate increasingly 
larger groups of people in our larger centres of population. 
The Government should be asked to survey present 
occupational possibilities in Canada. It should be remem- 
bered that only one-third of Canada's land was available 
for agricultural purposes, the greater part of this was 
occupied, and a good deal of the remainder was far from 
roads and other necessary services. Even in the professions 
there was already bitter opposition to certain forms of 
immigration regarded as competitive. Finally, attention 
should be given to the possibility of the Government giving 
money for the establishment of refugees elsewhere. 

Fortunately the press is now beginning to devote space to 
the refugees and their treatment, and the public is beginning to 
learn something of the implications of the question. There is a 
special reason for this interest so far as Canada is concerned. 
We may well ask whether this vast country, capable of sup- 
porting many more inhabitants than at present, can long 
escape the attention of aggressor nations. How can we effec- 
tively defend a huge area which is inadequately populated ? 

Perhaps our idealism should be helped out by a moderate 
admixture of self-interest. R.J.D. 



COUNCIL MEETINGS 

Another "away-from-headquarters" Council meeting was 
held at Peterborough, Ont., on Saturday, November 26th, 
1938, at which there were present: President J. B. Challies 
in the Chair; Past -President A. J. Grant (St. Catharines); 
Vice-Presidents J. A. McCrory (Montreal), E. V. Buchanan 
(London), and R. L. Dunsmore (Halifax) ; Councillors W. E. 
Bonn (Toronto), J. L. Busfield (Montreal), P. H. Buchan 
(Vancouver), R. H. Findlay (Montreal), A. B. Gates (Peter- 
borough), L. F. Grant (Kingston), O. Holden (Toronto), 
H. A. Lumsden (Hamilton), J. A. Vance (Woodstock), 
E. Viens (Ottawa) and the General Secretary. There were 
also present by invitation officers of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Ontario and of the Peterborough 
Branch of the Institute and others, who were cordially 
welcomed by the President. 

It was decided that the Annual General Meeting of 
the Institute should be convened at Headquarters at eight 
o'clock p.m. on Thursday, January 26th, 1939, and then 
adjourned to reconvene at the Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, 
on Tuesday morning, February 21st, 1939. (Note: This has 
been changed to February 14th, 1939). 

A discussion took place with regard to the general nature 
of the programme and as to progress with regard to the 
papers being prepared for the General Professional Meeting 
to be held on the second day (Feb. 15th) of the meeting. The 
President reminded members that there would be a very 
important Council meeting held on the Monday previous 
to the opening of the Annual Meeting and that the Presi- 
dent's dinner would be held on the Monday evening. 

A proposed change or addition to section 76 of the 
Institute's by-laws providing for the name "Component 
Association" to be applied to a provincial professional asso- 
ciation entering into an agreement with the Engineering 
Institute was approved. 

It was also decided to submit to the membership changes 
to sections 32 and 35 of the by-laws; the former providing 
for the entrance fees to be as follows : Members and Associate 
Members or Affiliates $10.00, Juniors $5.00; the latter pro- 
viding for a pro rata application of the first annual fee. 

A discussion took place regarding the proposals for a 
change in the nomenclature of the Institute membership, as 
advanced by the committee on Membership and Manage- 
ment, and it was decided that every member of Council 
should be asked to discuss this matter with his Branch 
Executive and then come to the Council meeting at Ottawa 
in February prepared to voice the opinion of his Branch on 
this important matter, or to communicate such opinion in 
writing prior to this meeting. 

The question of re-organization of the Council which had 
also been thoroughly investigated by the committee on 
Membership and Management, also received serious con- 
sideration, and it was decided to confirm the decision of the 
Regina meeting to the effect that for the present it would 
be inadvisable to make any changes in the constitution of 
Council. 

The desirability, or otherwise, of re-establishing pro- 
vincial divisions of the Institute, especially for the purpose 
of facilitating negotiations with professional associations, 
was discussed at some length, and proposals for setting up 
such divisions in Alberta and in Ontario were referred to 
the Institute's Committee on Professional Interests. 

The President reported briefly on the plans for a joint 
meeting with the American Society of Civil Engineers, 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Institution of 
Civil Engineers, and Institution of Mechanical Engineers 
in New York during the week of September 4th, 1939. 

The President reported that under the aegis of the Com- 
mittee on International Relations, he had visited a number 
of branches of the Founder Societies during his return trip 
from the West Coast, particularly at Seattle, Chicago and 
Detroit. 

At the request of the Toronto Branch it was decided to 
make special recognition in the way of prizes for their papers 



28 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



on engineering subjects to four students attending the 
University of Toronto. 

A meeting of the Council of The Institute was held at 
Headquarters on Friday, December 16th, 1938, with Presi- 
dent J. B. Challies in the chair. There were also present 
Vice-Presidents J. A. McCrory, (Montreal), and H. 0. Keay, 
(Three Rivers), Councillors W. E. Bonn, (Toronto); 
J. L. Busfield, (Montreal) ; J. B. D'Aeth, (Montreal) ; A. Du- 
perron, (Montreal); R. H. Findlay, (Montreal); F. S. B. 
Heward, (Montreal) ; A.Lariviere, (Quebec) ; W. R. Manock, 
(Fort Erie North); F. Newell, (Montreal); J. A. Vance, 
(Woodstock), and E. Viens, (Ottawa), Treasurer deGaspe 
Beaubien, Secretary-Emeritus R. J. Durley and the General 
Secretary. 

A resolution was passed recording the great regret of 
Council at the death of Past-President Colonel J. S. Dennis. 

Past-President J. M. R. Fairbairn, chairman of The 
Institute Committee on International Relations, attended 
the meeting at the President's request, and described the 
arrangements which are being made for the participation 
by The Institute in an engineering congress in New York 
to be held next September under the auspices of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, and the Engineering Institute of Canada. 
He pointed out that a visit to the United States at that 
time was also being contemplated by the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers, and that in arranging for the joint 
meeting, that Institution and the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers were also being consulted. 

Together with the President and the General Secretary, 
Dr. Fairbairn had had several meetings with the officers 
of the Societies in New York. Dr. Fairbairn was himself 
proposing to visit London in January and discuss the matter 
with the-British Institutions, after which final arrangements 
could be decided upon. 

Dr. Fairbairn also explained that the question of Canadian 
papers to be presented at these meetings was receiving 
attention, and he hoped soon to be able to present a further 
report. The President briefly thanked Dr. Fairbairn for his 
valuable efforts in the matter. 

Mr. Busfield reported that it had been found advisable 
to change the dates for the Annual General Meeting from 
those previously announced, February 21st and 22nd, to 
February 14th and 15th. This change was approved. 

With reference to the suggestion regarding the setting 
up of a Provincial Division in Alberta, which had been 
received from the Calgary and Edmonton Branches, it was 
pointed out that immediate compliance with this request 
might lead to some conflict with the activities of the existing 
Alberta sub-committee of The Institute Committee on Pro- 
fessional Interests. It was noted also that a similar situation 
would exist in Ontario should a Provincial Division be set 
up there. After considerable discussion it was decided that 
the chairman of The Institute Committee on Professional 
Interests should take the matter up further in regard to 
Alberta, and that, with two Ontario councillors, he should 
confer with President Muntz, who had suggested a Pro- 
vincial Division in Ontario, with regard to the best method 
of having the Ontario members of The Institute represented 
in any conference which might take place with the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of Ontario. 

Four resignations were accepted; one Member was rein- 
stated, and three Life Memberships were granted. 

The Secretary presented a list of members of all classes 
who are in arrears for three years or more, and from whom 
no reply had been received to various communications, in- 
cluding a special letter on July 21st, 1938. On the recom- 
mendation of the Finance Committee it was unanimously 
resolved that these members be advised that unless a remit- 
tance or some communication is received from them by the 
end of the year their names will be removed from the list 
of members. 

The names of the newly elected officers of the Vancouver 
Branch were noted. 



A resolution was presented from the London Branch 
deploring the apparent absence on the engineering staff for 
the proposed Falls View Bridge at Niagara Falls of any 
Canadian consulting engineer. Mr. Vance having explained 
the somewhat complicated situation which now exists 
regarding the construction of this bridge, it was decided 
that the President should take the matter up with the 
Minister of Highways of Ontario. 

A letter was presented from Mr. R. C. Chapman, the 
Secretary of a Joint Committee on Engineering Co-operation 
Overseas, which has been established by eight of the prin- 
cipal British engineering institutions. This letter suggested 
that if co-operation with the Engineering Institute could be 
arranged, the purposes of the Joint Committee regarding 
the members of British institutions who may be resident 
in Canada would be materially furthered. The chairman of 
the Joint Committee, Mr. F. Gill, could come to Canada 
during February next, following a visit he is making to 
New York. After discussion the General Secretary was 
directed to write inviting Mr. Gill to attend the Annual 
Meeting of The Institute in Ottawa, and Dr. Fairbairn kindly 
undertook to discuss the whole question with the institu- 
tions when he is in London, assuring Mr. Chapman that 
the Engineering Institute will welcome any opportunity for 
co-operation. 

Council noted with appreciation that Lieut. -Colonel C. G. 
DuCane, o.b.e., m.e.i.c, had presented to The Institute 
library a facsimile reproduction of the first minute book of 
the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, which is believed 
to be the oldest engineering society in the world, and which 
is still active. The thanks of the Council were accorded to 
Colonel DuCane for this valuable addition to the library. 

A letter was presented from Mr. C. A. Magrath accepting 
Honorary Membership in The Institute and expressing his 
thanks to Council for the honour. 

A number of applications were considered, and the fol- 
lowing elections and transfers were effected: 

Elections Transfers 

Members 2 Assoc. Member to 

Assoc. Members 3 Member 3 

Juniors 4 Junior to Assoc. Member 1 

Students admitted 15 Student to Junior 3 

PRESIDENTIAL ACTIVITIES 

At noon on Tuesday, December 6th, 1938, the President 
and Past-President J. M. R. Fairbairn attended a meeting 
in New York of a committee of members of the Board of 
Direction of the American Society of Civil Engineers which 
is arranging a programme for the congress of British and 
American engineers in New York between September 4th 
and 9th, 1939, under the auspices of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers and 
The Engineering Institute of Canada. The same evening 
these representatives of The Institute were guests at a 
dinner at the Engineers' Club, New York, of the Board of 
Direction of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
prior to that Society's Honours Night. The next evening 
they were guests at the Annual Banquet of the same Society. 

The President presided at the regular December meeting of 
Council at Headquarters on Friday evening, December 16th. 

Accompanied by Councillor Newell, chairman of the 
Council's Committee on Professional Interests, and by the 
General Secretary, the President spent the 18th of December 
at Arvida, as guests of the Saguenay Branch. The following 
evening the same party were guests of the Quebec Branch 
at dinner at the Chateau Frontenac. 

At Ottawa on December 22nd, and at Toronto on De- 
cember 28th, the President, Past-President Fairbairn and 
the General Secretary had important conferences with 
Government officials and members of The Institute regard- 
ing arrangements for Canadian participation in the congress 
of engineers that will take place in connection with the 
World's Fair in New York next September. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



29 



Personals 



HONORARY MEMBERSHIP 

Charles Alexander Magrath, ll.d., f.r.s.c, hon.m.e.i.c, 
d.t.s., o.l.s. This distinguished name has been added to the 
roll of Honorary Members of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada, by unanimous ballot of Council, as required by the 
Institute's by-laws. 

Mr. Magrath was born in North Augusta, Ontario, in 
1860, and has lived to enjoy an international reputation as 
an expert in the conservation and use of water resources. 
He was a pioneer in the development of the West ; a promi- 
nent surveyor with a commission to practise in every 
province; and a successful engineer specializing in irrigation 
practice, and in general water resources investigations. In 
view of these phases of his career, it is very appropriate 
that Mr. Magrath has prepared a paper for presentation at 
the Annual General Meeting to be held in Ottawa, February 
15th, on the subject of "The Development of Canada's 
Natural Resources," which is reproduced on page 5 of this 
issue of the Engineering Journal. 




C. A. Magrath, Hon.M.E.I.C. 

While Mr. Magrath was engaged on Dominion Land 
Survey work from 1878 to 1885, his actual commission was 
issued in 1881, and was followed by Ontario Land Surveyor 
in the same year, Quebec in 1882, British Columbia in 1897, 
Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia in 1915, Alberta 
and New Brunswick in 1930. 

From 1885 to 1906 he was engaged in general engineering 
work with the Gait interests, developing irrigation enter- 
prises in Southern Alberta, retiring from the managership 
of the Alberta Irrigation Company at the end of this period. 

Mr. Magrath became distinguished in the public life and 
in the public service of Canada, including municipal, pro- 
vincial and federal activities. He entered public life in 1892 
when he became a member of the Northwest Territories 
Legislature, retiring therefrom in 1898, in which year he 
vecame a Minister without portfolio in the administration 
of Sir Frederick Haultain. He became Mayor of Lethbridge, 
Alberta, in 1901, and represented the constituency of 
Medicine Hat in the Dominion House of Commons from 
1908 to 1911. 

From 1911 to 1915 Mr. Magrath was a member of the 
International Joint Commission, and chairman of the 
Canadian Section from 1915 to 1936. In 1913 he was ap- 
pointed chairman of the Advisory Committee created by 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



the Government of Ontario to report upon a comprehensive 
system of highways for that province. 

During the great war Mr. Magrath was a member of 
the War Trade Board, and of the Patriotic Fund executive. 
He was also appointed Fuel Controller in 1917, and ap- 
pointed a member of the Advisory Fuel Committee of 
Canada in 1922. In the year 1920 he was appointed chair- 
man of a special committee to investigate and report upon 
the agricultural conditions in Southern Alberta. 

Perhaps one of the most important public positions held 
by Mr. Magrath was that of chairman of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario between the years 
1925 and 1931. 

He retired from active work in 1937 and is now living in 
Victoria, B.C. 

F. H. Peters, m.e.i.c, author of the paper "Mountain 
Water for Prairie Grassland," which appears on page 8, 
was born at Quebec. He received his early education at 
Victoria, B.C., and later attended Upper Canada College 
and the Royal Military College. Upon graduating from the 
latter institution in 1904 with honours, he became first 
assistant engineer on an Upper Ottawa survey party. The 
following year he commenced his services with the Georgian 
Bay Ship Canal survey, which continued for three years. 
He then entered the Department of the Interior and in 1910 
was appointed to make special investigations of all inter- 
national streams in Alberta and Saskatchewan for advisory 
purposes in regard to the Waterways' Treaty between 
Canada and the United States. In 1927 he was promoted 
to Surveyor General of the Department of the Interior and 
in 1937 received the title of Chief of the Hydrographie 
Service of the Department of Mines and Resources. Mr. 
Peters has been an active member of The Institute since 
1904. 

David Walker Hays, m.e.i.c, author of the paper "Irriga- 
tion Development, Its Possibilities and Limitations" which 
appears on page 13, was born at Bridgeport, California. He 
received his technical training at the Mackay School of 
Mines, Nevada, obtaining the degree of b.s. there in 1900. 
After a period in charge of a party making preliminary 
surveys for irrigation works in California and Nevada and 
in making hydrographie surveys of rivers and constructing 
irrigation systems, he entered the U.S. Reclamation Service 
in 1903 as assistant engineer. In that capacity, and as 
engineer, he was employed on the Truckee Carson Project 
until 1909. He retained his appointment as engineer in the 
U.S. Reclamation Service until 1916, and at the same 
time was permitted to engage in private work in con- 
nection with irrigation projects in Nevada and elsewhere. 
From 1912 to 1917 he held the position of chief engineer 
for the Southern Alberta Land Company. He then became 
associated with the Canada Land and Irrigation Company 
as general manager, the position which he holds to-day in 
Medicine Hat. 

J. M. R. Fairbairn, d.sc, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, retired on December 31st, 1938, 
after 38 years with the company. Mr. Fairbairn was born 
at Peterborough, Ont., and graduated from the University 
of Toronto in 1893, which presented him with the degree 
of d.sc. in 1921. Following several years spent with the 
Department of Railways and Canals and in private practice, 
Mr. Fairbairn joined the staff of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway in 1901. His promotion was rapid and his ability 
recognized by his appointment as principal assistant en- 
gineer, followed by engineer, maintenance of way, in 1910, 



30 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



later assistant chief engineer and in 1918 chief engineer. 
When Mr. Fairbairn joined the company it had only about 
8,500 miles of line. He played a major part in building the 
mileage to more than 17,000 miles. He is an active and 
valuable member of The Institute, having served as a 
member of Council, vice-president and president. He is at 
present Chairman of the International Relations Committee. 
(See page 44-) 

John E. Armstrong, a.m.e.i.c, has succeeded J. M. R. 
Fairbairn, m.e.i.c, as chief engineer of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, having been assistant chief engineer since 1928. 
Born in Peoria, III., Mr. Armstrong graduated from Cornell 




lease agent in the same year, and right of way and tax 
agent in 1916. 

J. H. Forbes, a.m.e.i.c, has been promoted from assistant 
right of way agent to right of way and lease agent of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. Mr. Forbes graduated from 
McGill University in 1908 with the degree of b.sc. in civil 
engineering and immediately entered the service of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway. He has served in the capacities 
of division engineer at Smith's Falls, Ont., division engineer 
Montreal terminals, assistant district engineer, Quebec dis- 
trict and assistant district engineer, Montreal. 

J. L. Rannie, m.e.i.c, is chairman of the Ottawa Branch 
committee responsible for the arrangements for the Annual 
Meeting being held in Ottawa on February 14th and 15th 
(see pp. 23 and 24). He has had many years experience in 
Institute affairs and has held such offices as Branch chair- 
man, councillor and chairman of a number of special com- 
mittees, with great credit to all concerned. 

Mr. Rannie is a graduate of the University of Toronto, 
and now occupies the position of chief of the Triangulation 
Division of the Geodetic Service of Canada. 

Major F. L. C. Bond, m.e.i.c, has been appointed vice- 
president and general manager of the central region of the 
Canadian National Railways, succeeding W. A. Kingsland, 
retired. Major Bond graduated from McGill University in 
1898 and shortly thereafter entered the service of the Grand 
Trunk Railway as assistant to the resident engineer of the 
Eastern Division. He was soon promoted to the position of 
resident engineer, which he held until he went overseas with 
railway construction troops. At the conclusion of the war, 
he was cabled the appointment of chief engineer of the 
Grand Trunk Railway System. 



John E. Armstrong, A.M.E.I.C. 



University in 1908 and was subsequently until 1912 assistant 
on the engineer corps of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh 
Division of the Pennsylvania Company at Cleveland, Ohio. 
He joined the engineering department of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway in 1912, since which time he has been en- 
gaged on many important works including the Quebec joint 
terminals, the waterfront development at Saint John, rail- 
way revision during the war, and the construction of the 
Toronto viaduct from 1924 to 1930. 

In 1927 Mr. Armstrong was a director in the American 
Railway Engineering Association, in the following year he 
became second vice-president, and in 1934 was elected to 
the office of president. 

F. W. Alexander, m.e.i.c has been appointed assistant 
chief engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway with 
headquarters in Winnipeg, Man. Mr. Alexander was born 
in New Brunswick and after a number of years of general 
railway engineering experience entered the service of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway in 1903 as a transitman, from 
which time he has received successive promotions in the 
engineering department in Western Canada. In 1917 he 
was district engineer with headquarters at Winnipeg, then 
he moved to a similar position at Calgary. In 1927 he was 
appointed engineer, maintenance of way for western lines, 
with headquarters at Winnipeg, which appointment he has 
held to the present time. Mr. Alexander was admitted to 
The Institute as an Associate Member in 1907 and transfer- 
red to the class of Member in 1917. 

Frank Taylor, m.e.i.c, has retired from the position 
of right of way and tax agent of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. He had been employed by the railway for 49 years, 
having joined the company in 1889 in the division engineer's 
office, Montreal. He was promoted to draftsman in 1893, 
assistant engineer in 1899 and resident engineer in 1902. 
In 1905 he was transferred to the chief engineer's office, 
Montreal, as assistant engineer and in 1908 went to 
North Bay as division engineer. In 1912 he returned to 
Montreal as division engineer, became right of way and 




F. L. C. Bond, M.E.I.C. 

Upon the formation of the Canadian National Railways, 
Major Bond was transferred to the position of chief engineer 
of the central region with headquarters in Toronto, while 
in 1924 he received an appointment as general superintend- 
ent with headquarters in Montreal. In 1936 he was promoted 
to the position of general manager, central region, Toronto, 
which position he still holds in conjunction with the vice- 
presidency. 

Henry E. Ewart, m.e.i.c, has been appointed Master of 
the Royal Canadian Mint in Ottawa, succeeding J. H. 
Campbell, who retired last April. The announcement by 
the Department of Finance of the appointment of Mr. 
Ewart to this position has caused very favourable comment 
as he is the first Canadian to be appointed to this office. 

Mr. Ewart entered the service of the Government in the 
Department of Public Works in 1894 and joined the staff 
at the Mint when it opened in 1908, since when he has been 
continuously connected therewith. In recent years he has 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



31 



had great responsibility in supervising extensions to the 

Mint. 

Charles E. Nix, Jr. e. i.e.. formerly assistant engineer to the 

cost accountant with the Shawinigan Water and Power 

Company, Montreal, is now managing director of Consumers 

of Canada, Inc., Box 134, Montreal, and is located in 

Maxville, Ont, 

C. E. Webb, m.e.i.c., district chief engineer, Dominion 
Water and Power Bureau, Department of Mines and 
Resources, was elected President of the Association of 




C. E. Webb, M.E.I.C. 

Professional Engineers of British Columbia at their annual 
meeting on December 3rd. Mr. Webb graduated from the 
University of Toronto in 1910 with the degree of b.a.sc, 
and since 1913 has been in the service of the Dominion 
Government, In 1925 he was promoted to his present 
position. 

Fred. J. Ryder, jr. e. i.e., has accepted a position with the 
Canadian Bridge Company in Toronto. Since graduating 
from McGill University in 1929 he has been associated 
with Motor Products Corporation, Walkerville, Ont., and 
with Taylor and Gaskin, Detroit, Mich. 
. Mr. Ryder has been an active member of the Border 
Cities Branch and has rendered valuable service as Branch 
News Editor. 

F. W. Taylor -Bailey, m.e.i.c, vice-president and general 
manager of Dominion Bridge Company Ltd., has been ap- 
pointed recently to the board of directors of the company. 

H. G. Welsford, a. m.e.i.c., general manager of the Dom- 
inion Engineering Company Limited, has been added 
recently to the board of Directors of the company. 

Dr. Charles Cam s ell, c.m.g., ll.d., m.e.i.c., Deputy Min- 
ister of Mines and Resources, has been elected a director 
of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineers for 1939. 

Brig. -General C. H. Mitchell, C.B., c.M.G., D.ENG., 
m.e.i.c., has recently been appointed director of the Con- 
sumers' Gas Company of Toronto. 

Lt.-Col. E. V. Collier, d.s.o., m.e.i.c., formerly general 
manager of the Simplifix Couplings Limited, London, 
England, is now a director of Victor Collier and Company 
Limited, civil and mechanical engineers, 57 Victoria 
Street, London. Mr. Collier spent considerable time with 
the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Limited, in Persia, 

J. B. Bryce, Jr. e. i.e., is now junior hydraulic research 
engineer with the National Research Council, Ottawa. Mr. 
Bryce, who graduated from the University of Toronto with 
the degree of b.a.sc. in 1935 and that of m.a.sc. in 1936, 
has been previously employed by the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario. 



Julian C. Smith, ll.d., m.e.i.c, President of the Shawini- 
gan Water and Power Company and a past president of 
The Institute, has been appointed Vice-President of the 
Royal Bank of Canada. 

T. R. Durley, a. m.e.i.c, has entered the Inspection Depart- 
ment of the Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company, Boston. At a later date Mr. Durley will be trans- 
ferred to Montreal. Prior to accepting this position he was 
with the Canada Cement Company, Montreal. 
Bruce B. Shier, a. m.e.i.c, has been transferred recently to 
the Head Office Sales Department of the Canadian Tele- 
phones and Supplies Limited, Toronto, with the position of 
assistant to the sales manager. 

Fraser S. Keith, m.e.i.c, former General Secretary of The 
Institute, (being in the South at the time), represented the 
Institute at the request of the International Relationship 
Committee at the annual meeting of the American Society 
for the Advancement of Science, which was held at Rich- 
mond, Va., during the week of December 16th, 1938. 



Obituaries 



It is with deep regret and sympathy to relatives that the 
following deaths are recorded: 

Archie Burgess Crealock, m.e.i.c, consulting engineer, at 
his home in Toronto on December 21st. He was born in 
Toronto on January 9th, 1893, and received his education 
there, attending the Parkdale Collegiate Institute and later 
the University of Toronto. He received the degree of b.a.sc. 
from the latter in 1915 and began work with the Civic 
Transportation Committee of Toronto, drafting and esti- 
mating on radial railway entrances. The next year the 
Imperial Ministry of Munitions engaged him for work on 
brass inspection. In 1917 he was made chief inspector on 
this work and remained in this position for a" year, when he 
was transferred to the aeronautical engine division as metal- 
lurgist. In March, 1919, he entered the Bridge Department 
of the Ontario Department of Highways and held the 
position of bridge engineer until 1929 when he and the late 




Archie B. Crealock, M.E.I.C. 

E. V. Deverall, a. m.e.i.c, entered into partnership in 
Toronto as consulting structural engineers. This partnership 
was dissolved in 1932 by Mr. Deverall's death. 

Mr. Crealock designed and supervised the construction 
of many bridges. Recently he completed his work on the 
Keewatin Channel Bridge near the Lake-of-the-Woods, an 
important link in the Trans-Canada Highway. 

Mr. Crealock has held a membership in the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Ontario for fifteen years and 
from 1933 to 1936 was a member of the council of that body. 
At one timehe served as vice-president and at the time of death 
occupied the position of registrar and secretary-treasurer. 

Entering The Institute as a student in 1915, Mr. Crealock 
had always been active in its affairs. He transferred to 



32 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Associate Member in 1923, becoming a Member in 1935. 
He has also served on the Council. 

David William Harvey, m.e.i.c, general manager of the 
Toronto Transportation Commission, at Toronto, on 
December 6th, 1938. 

Mr. Harvey was born at London, Ont., on February 24th, 
1887. He received his early technical training at the London 
Collegiate Institute and later attended the University of 
Toronto, obtaining the degree of b.a.sc. in 1910. Upon 
graduation he entered the employ of the Ontario Power 
Company at Niagara Falls, Ont., and in a year's time joined 
the works department of the City of Toronto. Later he 
was placed in charge of the construction and operation of 
the civic street car system which became a part of the 
Toronto Transportation Commission's system on Sep- 
tember 1st, 1921. At this time he was made assistant man- 
ager and acted in that capacity until 1924, when he became 
general manager, retaining this position until his death. 

Mr. Harvey's professional career closely followed the 
development of municipal transportation in Toronto. 
He was responsible for the introduction of the new stream- 
lined street cars in Toronto when they were first being de- 
signed. It is of interest to note that Mr. Harvey invented 
the three-door trailer. Tribute was paid to his ability when, 
in 1928, he was selected as a consultant to aid in reorganizing 
the unified metropolitan transport system of London, 
England. 

In 1927 he became president of the Gray Coach Lines 
Limited. 

Mr. Harvey joined The Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers as a student in 1909, became an Associate Mem- 
ber in 1914 and a Member of The Institute in 1932. 

Joseph Pettus Newell, m.e.i.c, on December 5th at his 
home in Portland, Oregon. 

Mr. Newell was born on May 11th, 1866, in Portland, 
Oregon. From 1884 to 1887 he followed the civil engineering 
course at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 
shortly after graduation returned to Portland, to begin a 
long period of service for the old Oregon Railway and 
Navigation Company, now a part of the Union Pacific 
system. For ten years he worked on the construction of the 
road as assistant engineer. From 1904 to 1907 he was 
division engineer of the Oregon Division in charge of main- 
tenance of way. From this time until the date of his death 
he was engaged in private practice. 

During his career Mr. Newell was a recognized authority 
in his field. He was an expert witness in hearings before the 
U.S. Reclamation Service, the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, Oregon State Highway Department and various 
courts. Mr. Newell was at one time construction engineer 
for the Oregon Public Service Commission. In 1918 he was 
associated with the Department of Railways and Canals in 
the Canadian Northern Arbitration and later in the Grand 
Trunk Arbitration. 

Mr. Newell joined The Institute in 1921 as a Member. 

Fitz James Bridges, a. m.e.i.c, at Riverside, Ont., on 
November 23rd, 1938. 

Mr. Bridges was born at Windsor, Ont., on July 20th, 
1887. He was educated at the Windsor Collegiate Institute 
and at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. From 1905 
to 1907 he worked as draughtsman in the office of a patent 
attorney in Windsor, Ont. The years from 1909 to 1912 
he spent in Detroit, Mich., in the head office of the 
Trussed Concrete Steel Company, drawing, estimating and 
designing various reinforced concrete structures. In 1912 
he began a long connection with the Department of Public 
Works of Canada, in the office of the district engineer in 
London and later in Windsor. For a short time before he 
retired from active work he was employed by the Ford 
Motor Company at Windsor, Ont. 

Mr. Bridges joined The Institute in 1918 as a Junior, 
becoming an Associate Member in 1922. He was for years 



an active member of the Border Cities Branch until his 
health forced him to give up many of his former activities. 

Robert Ridgway, Past President and Honorary Member 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers, on December 
19th in New York. He was an expert in subway construction 
in New York, San Francisco, Chicago and Japan. His various 
activities throughout the country and his fine character 
endeared him to all members of the profession. He was 
well known in Canada and made many friends in The 
Institute in 1925 when the American Society of Civil 
Engineers met in Montreal under his presidency. About 
one thousand engineers attended his funeral on Decem- 
ber 23rd. 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on December 16th, 1938, the follow- 
ing elections and transfers were effected: 

Members 

Gregor, Michael, chief aeronautical engr., Canadian Car and Foundry 

Company, Fort William, Ont. 
McHenry, Morris James, b.a.sc. (e.e.), (McGill Univ.), director, 

sales promotion, Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, 

Toronto, Ont. 

Associate Members 

Mitchell, Keith Weston, b.sc, (Queen's Univ.), engr., Canadian 

Western Natural Gas, Light, Heat and Power Co. Ltd., Calgary, 

Alta. 
Ross, Donald Kenneth, b.sc, m.sc, (Univ. of Man.), mgr., Montreal 

and Maritime District, Donald-Hunt Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Weir, Charles Victor Fraser, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), field engr., 

city of Edmonton power plant dept., Edmonton, Alta. 

Juniors 

Dernier, Herbert Clarence, b.sc (ce.), (Univ. of N.B.), instr'man, 

Dept. of Public Works of N.B., South Devon, N.B. 
Drake, Edward Michael, b.eng., (McGill Univ.), sales engr., Northern 

Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Fair, John Lowther, b.a.sc (e.e.), (Univ. of Toronto), Can. Gen. Elec. 

Co. Ltd., Peterborough, Ont. 
Smith, Donald Sinclair, b.a.sc, m.a.sc, (Univ. of B.C.), sales engr., 

Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Associate Member to that of Member 

Dawson, William Ash, B.sc (Mech.), (Queen's Univ.), plant mgr., 
E. Long Ltd. Engineering Works, Orillia, Ont. 

Mechin, Frederick Charles, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), mgr., Mont- 
real Refinery, Imperial Oil Limited, Montreal, Que. 

McCammon, John White, b.sc. (e.e.), (McGill Univ.), controller, 
Provincial Electricity Board, Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Associate Member 

Crossland, Charles Wilfred, b.sc, (McGill Univ.), m.sc, (Mass. Inst. 
Tech,), senior asst. engr., Dept. of National Defence, Ottawa, Ont. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 

Brown, Ralph Cuthbert Chisholm, b.sc (Mech.), (Queen's Univ.), 
junior aeronautical engr., Dept. of National Defence, Ottawa, Ont. 

Desmarais, Jean René, b.a.sc, ce. (Ecole Polytechnique), Can. Gen. 
Elec. Co. Ltd., Peterborough, Ont. 

Stephenson, Stephen, (Oundle School), engr., Whiting Corpn. 
Canada, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Students 

Ingram, Wallace Wellington, (Univ. of Man.), 681 Cathedral Ave., 

Winnipeg, Man. 
Malmgren, Harvey R., (Univ. of Man.), 292 Union Ave., Winnipeg, 

Man. 
Papik, Edward, (Univ. of Man.), 343 Redwood Ave., Winnipeg, Man. 
Ripley, Herbert Angus, (Univ. of Alta.), P.O. Box 74, University of 

Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. 
Tait, Eric, (McGill Univ.), 463 Mount Stephen Ave., Westmount,Que. 

Students at the Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Que. 

Amyot, Jean, 222 St. Georges St., St. Josaphat de Chambly, Que. 

Dauphinais, Ernest, 1072 Berri St., Montreal, Que. 

Dufresne, André, 4040 Sherbrooke Street East, Montreal, Que. 

Joncas, Louis, 4525 Boyer St., Montreal, Que. 

Lavigueur, Alex. Bernard, 980 Cherrier St., Montreal, Que. 

Manseau, Marcel, 5173 Gamier St., Montreal, Que. 

Mercier, Charles Edouard, 120 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Que. 

Quintal, Robert Henri, 374 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Que. 

Ravary, L. Robert, 3447 Berri St., Montreal, Que. 

Rousseau, Jean Melville, 4145 Marlowe Ave., Montreal, Que. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



33 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

J. F. Bridge, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

That character counted more in the engineering profes- 
sion than in any other, was the theme of an address given 
at a dinner meeting of the Border Cities Branch on Novem- 
ber 18, 1938, by Roy E. McFee, engineer of design of the 
Grand Trunk Western Railroad. 

The speaker suggested that lawyers and doctors get paid 
for trying, but the engineer is judged only by results, and 
expressed the opinion that there is no reason why men from 
other professions should outnumber engineers in public life. 
The opinions of men who are not engineers are being quoted 
regarding matters about which engineers only are competent 
to speak. 

The importance of mathematical training was stressed by 
Mr. McFee and he stated that specialization in this line 
could give one good opportunities in the engineering field, 
but that it was also necessary for the engineer to be able to 
write better reports and to present his views more fluently 
when given orally. 

The situation now existing, however, will not endure. 
Engineers are entering a wider field and becoming city 
managers, custodians of public health and heads of indus- 
trial corporations. The engineer is the guardian of nature's 
resources. He must preach conservation of her mineral wealth 
and raw materials. At the conclusion of Mr. McFee 's address 
many of those present took part in a lengthy discussion. 

At the conclusion of the meeting, the Chairman, E. M. 
Krebser, a.m.e.i.c, paid tribute to the services of F. J. 
Ryder, jr.E.i.c, as Branch News Editor since 1934, and 
expressed the gratitude and appreciation of the Branch. 
Mr. Ryder is taking over a new position and will be trans- 
ferred to the Toronto Branch of the Engineering Institute. 

CALGARY BRANCH 

B. W. Snyder, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
J. S. Neil, a.m.e.i.c. - - Branch N ews Editor 

Dean C. J. Mackenzie, m.e.i.c, of the University of Sas- 
katchewan, addressed a meeting of the Calgary Branch held 
in the Palliser Hotel on the evening of November 18th on 
the subject "World Revolution by Science." An excep- 
tionally interesting and instructive evening was held, the 
speaker being an outstanding figure in public life as well as 
in the engineering profession. 

The Dean pointed out that owing to lack of experience 
the world runs along in a baffled state, both economically 
and politically. He told, for example, of recent findings of 
scientists to the effect that two parallel lines will finally 
meet, gravity is only curved space, length is only relative, 
the circumference of a circle is not equal to 2-ky, the angles 
of a triangle do not add up to 180 degrees and mass and 
energy are interchangeable. In view of such discoveries, 
are we really as sure as we were exactly what democracy 
means? Are we as sure as we were of our responsibilities 
towards unemployment? He said, "Socially, economically 
and politically, we do not know where we are, because we 
have not had enough experience in working out the various 
new forms of government by which we have completely 
changed the world during the past few years. Political figures 
are continually speaking in figures of speech which are a 
carry-over from the dark ages. The masses of the people 
have been taught to fit themselves into a society where 
existence becomes impossible without constant and uninter- 
rupted activity." 

More and still more industrial regulation was the answer 
in the Dean's opinion, and he thought that we should not 
allow ourselves to become too pessimistic over our difficul- 
ties. "Is it not possible," he asked, "that society two hun- 



Activities of the Twenty -five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



dred years from now, may not be just as far ahead of ours, 
as ours is ahead of that of two hundred years ago?" 

Delving into population statistics, Dean Mackenzie said 
that the population of the world in 1800 was only 640 mil- 
lions, while to-day it is approximately 3,000 millions. But 
only two hundred years ago, he showed, the production rate 
was only one-fifth what it is to-day. In this regard, he 
pointed out, the population of the United States, between 
1900 and 1937, had increased only from 70 millions to 120 
millions, while the production rate had increased from 20 
million mechanical horsepower to 1,200 million horsepower. 
If the ordinary man worked eight hours in a day he would 
be worth about one-seventh of a horsepower, hardly enough 
to run an electric fan. In the year 1900, each person of the 
population was assisted by approximately one-third of a 
mechanical horsepower, while in 1937 he had ten, proving 
that man was becoming more dependent on mechanics as 
the years pass. 

At the conclusion of the address the speaker was tendered 
a hearty vote of thanks by the chairman, E. W. Bowness, 
m.e.i.c, on behalf of those present, and all expressed the 
wish to hear Dean Mackenzie again, in the not too distant 
future. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 

R. R. Murray, m.e.i.c. - - Secretary -Treasurer 
A. D. Nickerson, a.m.e.i.c. - Branch N ew 'S Editor 

At the November meeting held at the Halifax Hotel on 
November 24th, J. J. Doolan, General Superintendent of 
the Light and Power division of the Nova Scotia Light and 
Power Co. spoke on "Rural Electrification." 

In the more sparsely settled rural areas electrification had 
been made possible only by government aid rendered 
through the Rural Electrification Act. This Act in Nova 
Scotia provides aid (under certain conditions) in cases where 
a company can secure an average of three contracts per mile, 
and there is a potential average of six customers per mile. 
Similar acts in some of the other provinces had likewise 
stimulated the electrification of rural areas in those 
provinces. 

In a great many rural areas government aid was not 
necessary since the line was self-supporting. The majority 
of rural mileage built by the Nova Scotia Light and Power 
Co. in the past year had not required government aid. 

How to reduce the capital cost of rural distribution lines 
had been the problem that faced all utilities attempting 
rural coverage. Lighter and stronger conductors making 
possible greatly increased pole spacings, improved line hard- 
ware, and lower capacity transformers of a simplified type, 
had all helped to reduce capital costs in recent years. Al- 
though costs vary widely in different areas, a figure of $1,200 
per mile could be considered a fair average cost of rural line 
construction. 

A survey of appliances used by rural customers had indi- 
cated a fair proportion of the smaller wattage units in use. 
Considerable advertising and propaganda work was still 
necessary to make the average rural customer fully aware 
of the many benefits which electric power offered. 

In spite of the large mileage of rural lines built in recent 
years, Nova Scotia, and Canada as a whole, still lagged 
behind many European countries. The speaker pointed out 
that rural areas in Holland were completely electrified, in 
Germany 90 per cent and in Sweden 60 per cent. This more 
intense coverage was possible because European farms are 
generally small and the customer density large. In Canada 
farms are large and the customer density is consequently 
small. 



34 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The address was followed by a thorough discussion in 
which many public utility engineers and executives took 
part. Comparisons between the type and amounts of 
government aids to rural electrification in the various prov- 
inces were brought out. It was felt that the average capital 
cost per mile in Nova Scotia compared very favourably with 
costs elsewhere. Most rural areas are within reasonable 
transmission distance of a backbone network of generating 
stations and high-tension lines. In isolated areas, however, 
small generating stations (usually of the Diesel type) have 
been necessary. Such stations greatly increase the cost of 
serving any territory. 

The enthusiasm with which electrical supply was greeted 
in some communities was a very encouraging factor to the 
utilities. In certain rural areas the citizens had offered to 
give their labour free for construction of the line if their 
community could be assured of service. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 



A. R. Hannaford, a.m.e.i.c. 
W. E. Brown, jr. e. i.e. - - 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Another successful joint meeting between the Hamilton 
Branch of the Institute and the Hamilton members of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers was held at 
McMaster University on Tuesday, Dec. 13th. W. J. W. Reid, 
a.m.e.i.c, was in the chair. 

A newspaper report in connection with the new bridge 
at Niagara Falls occupied the attention of the meeting and 
after careful discussion the following motion on behalf of 
the Hamilton Branch of the E.I.C. was unanimously carried: 
"That this meeting deplores the apparent absence of any 
Canadian consultant as evidenced in the newspaper report 
regarding the appointment of consulting engineers by the 
Niagara Bridge Commission for the Falls View Bridge at 
Niagara Falls, this resolution to be forwarded to Dr. Challies 
to be used as he sees fit." 

E. P. Muntz, m. E.i.c, introduced the speaker of the 
evening, W. P. Dobson, m. e.i.c, chief testing engineer of 
the Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario. Mr. 
Dobson's subject was "Testing and Research in an 
Electrical Utility," the paper being illustrated by lantern 
slides. 

The speaker outlined the work done by the commission 
for testing and inspection of all materials and equipment 
purchased by the commission, including field tests. Of par- 
ticular interest was the testing of concrete and the develop- 
ment of methods of controlling concrete in order to maintain 
a predetermined quality. The Hydro Electric Power Com- 
mission was the first large organization to adopt strength 
specifications for concrete and to use the "water-cement 
ratio" as the method of controlling quality. Another phase 
of the work was the testing and inspection of materials in 
service and the resultant information which dictates the 
necessity for special treatment or replacement. 

Mr. Dobson then described the work of the research 
committee. This committee is composed of 14 sub-com- 
mittees, each having its own particular project, and the 
laboratory staff performs the bulk of the experimental work. 

One of the major problems investigated was the vibration 
of line conductors. The problem first came to the attention 
of power companies about 1923 when longer spans and 
higher mechanical tensions gained favour among designers 
in their endeavour to make the most economical use of 
materials. The vibration due to wind in these longer spans 
was of such a magnitude as to cause actual fatigue breaks 
of the conductor material at the clamps. Much valuable 
work has been accomplished (1) by finding materials more 
capable of withstanding the vibration, and (2) by finding 
means of reducing the vibration to harmless proportions. 
One method is to clamp a torsional damper to the con- 
ductor just in front of the clamps and this damper absorbs 
a large portion of the vibration. 



The speaker outlined other research work carried out on 
insulating materials, concrete, wood poles to prevent ground 
decay and the testing of paints. 

Another subcommittee is studying rural applications of 
electricity in agriculture and floriculture, and its problems 
have been soil heating, the effect of artificial illumination 
on the growth of flowers and the development of electrically 
heated pig brooders. 

In conclusion the speaker pointed out that testing and 
research in the Hydro Electric Power Commission had 
accomplished: improved methods of construction and 
operation; improved methods of treating materials to 
prolong life; development of new specifications or improve- 
ment of existing specifications for the purchase of materials, 
and the development of new equipment for special appli- 
cations. 

C. A. Price moved the vote of thanks to the speaker for 
his very interesting lecture. The attendance was 153. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 



E. A. Lawrence, s.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



A ladies' night was held by the Lethbridge Branch on 
November 5th, 1938, and was attended by forty-three 
members and guests. R. F. P. Bowman, a.m.e.i.c, chair- 
man of the Branch, presided over the meeting which com- 
menced at 6.30 p.m. with a dinner. The Entertainment 
Committee later took charge of the meeting and community 
singing together with a number of solos was enjoyed. 

The chairman called on C. S. Clendining, a.m.e.i.c, to 
introduce the speaker for the evening, Miss Hazel Watson, 
who addressed the gathering on her trip to Europe, illustrat- 
ing her talk with a series of photographs in natural colour. 

E. A. Lawrence, s.e.i.c, moved a vote of thanks to Miss 
Watson for her most interesting talk, which was thoroughly 
enjoyed by all present. 

The regular meeting of the Lethbridge Branch was held 
in the Marquis Hotel on Saturday, November 19th, 1938, 
at 6.30 p.m. 

R. F. P. Bowman, a.m.e.i.c, was chairman at the dinner, 
which was attended by 27 members and guests. An instru- 
mental quartette rendered many delightful selections during 
the dinner, which was followed by community singing and 
vocal solos. 

After a few introductory remarks the chairman called on 
Major F. G. Cross, m. e.i.c, to introduce the speaker of the 
evening, C. J. Mackenzie, m. e.i.c, Dean of Engineering, 
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, who gave a splen- 
did talk entitled "World Revolution by Science" 
(see Calgary Branch News) which brought forth questions 
from many of the audience. 

J. Haimes, a.m.e.i.c, moved a hearty vote of thanks to 
the speaker for his excellent talk. 

The regular dinner meeting of the Lethbridge Branch 
was held at the Marquis Hotel, Saturday evening, Dec. 3rd, 
under the chairmanship of R. F. P. Bowman, a.m.e.i.c 

The speaker of the evening, John P. Liebe, b.a., ph.d., 
Instructor, Lethbridge Technical School, was introduced 
to the meeting by W. Meldrum, a.m.e.i.c 

Dr. Liebe gave a very interesting address on the history 
of the development in Germany of the rigid airship by 
Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin and said that his interest in 
lighter-than-air craft was first aroused after having witness- 
ed the first major flight of a craft of this type at Dresden 
in 1908. 

Of particular interest were Dr. Liebe's remarks concern- 
ing the fate of the airships constructed during the war years. 
Of the fifty airships constructed for the army, thirty-four 
being Zeppelins, twenty-five were lost, either shot down or 
wrecked by storms, and the other twenty-five were dis- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



35 



mantled. Of the seventy-eight constructed for the navy, 
sixty-five being Zeppelins, fifty-two were lost, nine were 
dismantled, four were used as training ships and thirteen 
were left in 1919. Of the fifteen that were left in 1919, in- 
cluding two under construction, four were destroyed by 
soldiers, one was dismantled to show vital parts, three were 
turned over to France, three to Italy, one to Japan, two to 
England, and the records do not reveal the fate of the last 
one. 

Dr. Liebe stated that he concurred with Dr. Hugo 
Eckener's opinion that airships were not suitable for war- 
fare, being too easy a target for aeroplane attack. He said 
that airships had not been developed yet to a point where 
they could be considered as a commercial success, but voiced 
the belief that they could be made so under international 
sponsorship, with no country having the majority of control. 
He used the record of the Graf Zeppelin as an illustration of 
the performance that might be expected of airships in the 
future. Since the Graf Zeppelin made its world cruise in 
1929, covering a distance of 21,300 miles in 301 hours, it 
has made 505 flights, including 100 ocean crossings, without 
accident. He also stated that non-inflammable gas was 
essential to the success of airships. 

LONDON BRANCH 



D. S. ScRYMGEOUR, A.M.E.I.C. 
J. R. ROSTRON, A.M.E.I.C. 



- Secretary -Treasurer 

- branch News Editor 



The regular November meeting was held on the 23rd in 
the Public Utilities Board Room, City Hall. The speaker 
was Lt. R. M. Crowe, r.c.r., and his subject "Chemical 
Warfare." 

In the absence of Mr. Wolff, the chair was taken by 
H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, who introduced the speaker. 

Mr. Crowe, who has completed a course on gas warfare 
at Kingston, pointed out that chemical warfare, both offen- 
sive and defensive, is the responsibility of the military 
engineer. 

In 1925 certain nations agreed not to use gas, but as 
many have chemical units it is necessary to be prepared. 
Britain has such a unit but does not intend to use it unless 
forced to do so and is concentrating her activities in this 
direction on defensive measures. 

The chief kinds of gas are tear gas, nose gas, mustard 
gas, and Lewisite. About 3,000 tests of various gases have 
been made, of which only about 17 or 18 were found to be 
practical and only seven useful. One factor, that of persist- 
ency, is very essential. 

Chlorine and phosgene gas attacks all the air passages 
and lungs as a choking irritant and come under the heading 
of nose gas. Both of them are three times as heavy as air 
but phosgene may be said to be stronger, and although its 
action is delayed it will affect the heart in 24 hours. Chlorine 
was used in the Great War and out of 15,000 casualties 
5,000 were fatal. These gases can be dispelled by the wind. 

Tear gas causes a profusion of tears and temporary 
blindness from that cause. It is very persistent and clings 
to the clothes and person. Once clear, however, its effect 
passes off. 

Mustard gas and Lewisite — the action of both of these is 
similar but the latter is more severe. These are oily liquids 
which freeze at 58 deg. F. and boil at 350 deg. Above freezing 
point they vaporize. The liquid is poisonous, soluble in fat 
and absorbed by the flesh. It will sink through clothing 
and even through brick or concrete. One drop on the back 
of the hand is not felt for some hours, then it begins to 
redden and itch. In 24 hours a large blister forms and this 
must receive medical attention; if it should burst a second 
infection will follow. If it gets into the eye a gritty sensation 
is experienced, reddening follows, the eye closes and sight 
is lost. The vapour acts in the same way but covers a 
larger area. From four to six weeks under treatment is 
required for healing. 



Persons exposed to these gases must go at once to a 
decontamination camp and immediately discard all their 
clothing. 

Several means of discharging these gases were described 
hicluding gas released from cylinders under pressure and 
gas dispersed by wind, projectors worked electrically and 
throwing drums of gas and mortars fixing bombs and shells. 

Aircraft are employed for discharging explosive, incen- 
diary and gas bombs. Tanks of gas are carried under each 
wing, the contents being released at the rear and dispersed 
by the slip stream from the propellors. Mustard gas will lie 
in a layer on low ground for six months. Troops marching 
over an area of this kind three months after it was formed 
have been burnt. 

Defence Measures — The most important of these is the 
gas-mask. The speaker described the latest type consisting 
of face piece with goggles and tube with inlet and outlet 
valves down to the container. The contents of the latter are 
not generally known — one of the materials used, however, 
is charcoal. Special clothing and boots are needed for pro- 
tection. Troops are supplied with yellow pieces of special 
paper as "detectors." If these become spotted then it is 
known that they are in a gas zone and must be treated by 
the decontamination platoon which forms a unit of all 
regiments. 

Active work is being done in Britain in the way of defence 
measures. These include detailed arrangements for evacuat- 
ing city dwellers to the country by train and car — billeting 
at country houses and arrangements for food from the 
various stores in villages and towns, the construction of 
trenches in back yards and open spaces, black curtains for 
windows, sand in attics, with long-handled shovels for put- 
ting out fire. A city is divided up into sections and trained 
instructors are placed in each area to tell the people what 
to do in case of an air raid. Stores of gas masks are established 
ready for distribution. A balloon barrage is under construc- 
tion and trial round London. This consists of a series of 
captive balloons at a height of some 20,000 feet. The fear 
of these in night raiding is expected to be an effective 
deterrent. 

The following points were brought out in the discussion 
which followed. To clear the streets of mustard gas they 
had to be well hosed, then covered with bleaching powder 
and then scrubbed. The mixing of gases was not considered 
feasible as some are heavier than others. 

Contaminated soldiers entering dugouts would pass 
through a series of air-locks formed with gas-proof curtains 
on their way to the wash-up. 

In the case of air raids on cities it is desirable to avoid 
congregating with others; about as safe a place as any is 
in one's own house, as the streets and open spaces between 
the houses form a much bigger target than the houses 
themselves. 

A vote of thanks to the speaker was proposed by W. C. 
Miller, m.e.i.c, and unanimously carried. 

MONTREAL BRANCH 

E. R. Smallhorn, a.m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

On Wednesday, October 26th, a meeting under the 
auspices of the Civil Section discussed "Some Practical 
Considerations of Concrete." J. A. Freeland, a.m.e.l.c, 
presided, and the principal speakers were J. M. Breen, of 
the Canada Cement Co.,W. G. Hunt, of W. G. Hunt & Co., 
and W. A. Cook, of Ready Mix Concrete Limited. 

On Thursday, October 27th, a paper by Wm. Bennett, 
Principal Surveyor for Lloyds for the U.S. and Canada, on 
"Welding in Ship Construction," was read in the 
absence of the author by Alex. Hislop, Montreal Inspector 
for Lloyds. During the course of the paper it was explained 
that the swing to welding was probably due to the saving of 
about 10 per cent in the ultimate weight of the vessel as 
compared with a rivetted ship. During the discussion, it was 



36 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



stated that Canada was leading the world to-day in the 
construction of wholly or partially welded ships. 

A meeting of the Junior Section of the Branch was held 
on Monday evening, October 31st, on which occasion H. W. 
Johnston, ph.d., a.m.e.i.c, gave an address on the subject of 
"The Engineer in the Pulp and Paper Industry." 

On Thursday evening, November 3rd, W. B. Cartmel, 
m.e.i. a, of Montreal, addressed the Branch on the 
"Michelson-Morley Experiment and the Theory of 
Relativity." Mr. Cartmel stated that no problem has been 
so exhaustively studied, and at the same time so misunder- 
stood as the Michelson-Morley problem. Theorists chose to 
believe that the careful measurements of Michelson and 
Morley were erroneous, but a lifetime of work by Dayton C. 
Miller has completely verified what they found. 

On November 10th, D. Anderson, a.m.e.i.c, electrical 
superintendent of Quebec North Shore Paper Company, 
gave a description of the "Baie Comeau Electrical Instal- 
lation," including the high tension switching, full details of 
the mill sub-station, the mill power distribution system, the 
paper machine drives, mill lighting, town distribution 
system, telephone and fire alarm systems, and so forth. 

H. A. Terreault, m.e.i. a, former City Engineer of the City 
of Montreal, and now chairman of the Town Planning 
Commission, addressed the Branch, on November 17th, on 
"Town Planning Achievement in Montreal," cov- 
ering the work done by his commission, ways and means 
of eliminating traffic congestion, grade separation, ward 
zoning, the slum question, etc. 

The collapse of the Falls View Bridge at Niagara was 
dealt with by P. L. Pratley, m.e.i. a, on November 25th, 
in a very interesting address. 

A forerunner of the annual meeting papers dealing with 
the drought situation in Western Canada was the paper by 
Dr. E. S. Archibald, Director of the Experimental Farms 
at Ottawa, presented on December 2nd. Dr. Archibald 
explained the work carried out in prairie farm rehabilitation 
during the past five years, and stressed the benefit which 
was resulting from organized crop rotation and strip farming. 

On December 9th, Warren Worthington, Consulting 
Engineer of Pittsburgh, described the new Merchant Mills 
of the Steel Co. of Canada recently installed in Montreal, 
and dealt with the general practice of rolling steel from 
billets into round, square and flat sections. The members 
of the Branch had visited the plant of the Steel Company 
on the previous evening. 

"Power Line Carrier Communication" was the sub- 
ject of a paper by S. Sillitoe, jr. e. i.e., presented on Dec- 
ember 15th. Mr. Sillitoe's paper dealt with development in 
power line carrier telephony since 1922, with special refer- 
ence to equipment which he had designed. The author 
recounted experience with this equipment in Canada. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



R. K. Odell, a.m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



At the noon luncheon on December 1, at the Chateau 
Laurier, a most interesting address was given before the 
Ottawa Branch by Haanel Cassidy of Toronto, Ont., his 
subject being "Impressions of Japan". Mr. Cassidy, who 
was born in Japan, the son of a professor in a Japanese 
university, graduated in 1930 from the University of British 
Columbia and went to Japan on an H. R. MacMillen 
scholarship, intending to remain for a year only. Actually 
he has been there until very recently, teaching English for 
the Japanese Government. 

Dr. J. B. Challies, Montreal, President of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada, was a guest at the meeting and ex- 
tended thanks to the speaker. Other Montreal guests 
included Past-President J. M. R. Fairbairn, m.e.i. a, and 
J. L. Busfield, m.e.i.c. W. F. Bryce, m.e.i.c, chairman of 
the Branch, presided. 



Mr. Cassidy's address contained many interesting ob- 
servations on the life, customs, and viewpoint of the Japan- 
ese people. His position had not allowed him to take any 
interest in politics or economics while in Japan and he also 
had to be discreet in taking photographs. Practising photo- 
graphy as a hobby, he had, nevertheless, to abide by the 
government regulations regarding picture-taking, which are 
stringent in many ways. The Japanese have an acute fear 
of espionage, a fear that has been immeasurably increased 
during the past few years, and that has given rise to these 
regulations. 

The Japanese people, in assimilating a new culture, as 
they are now doing, place great emphasis in their educa- 
tional system upon memory work. They are endeavoring 
to adopt many of the physical and material advantages of 
western culture without taking over the western philosophy. 
The speaker gave a brief outline of the present set-up of the 
government and the educational system, with the changes 
that had come about during the past several decades. The 
general feeling about current Sino-Japanese military activ- 
ities is one of "reluctant acquiescence." The idea of war 
does not appeal to the people, he felt, but they are willing 
to endure it if that is the wish of the leaders. The critical 
thing in the present situation is economic. "Whatever 
Japan may do in China in a military sense," stated Mr. 
Cassidy, "it will take several generations to catch up 
financially." 

Japanese tradition placed the army at the top of the 
social scale, and business men at the bottom. This was the 
system that was given a constitution in Japan in the nine- 
teenth century. The Cabinet was responsible to the 
Emperor and not to the Diet. The war and naval ministers 
were completely independent of the government's authority 
and had extraordinarily strong influence. 

Mr. Cassidy displayed a unique collection of mounted 
photographs of Japanese scenes. Most of these he had taken 
himself during the earlier part of his sojourn in Japan. 
They were of an artistic rather than a factual nature and 
formed a very interesting exhibit at the meeting. 



Dr. Charles Camsell, c.m.g., m.e.i.c, deputy minister of 
the Department of Mines and Resources, spoke at the noon 
luncheon on December 13, and described recent mineral 
developments in the Northwest Territories, where he had 
recently been on an inspection trip. Dr. Camsell is convinced 
that these territories have a future so far as mining is con- 
cerned. The work of opening up the country and carrying 
on these operations will, however, have to be carefully done. 

Dr. Camsell traced the history of the region with partic- 
ular reference to the Yellowknife area. Wide attention was 
focussed upon this region as a result of the intensive 
geological investigations undertaken under the "million 
dollar scheme" for such investigations throughout Canada 
undertaken by the Dominion Government in 1935. 

As a result of these investigations it was indicated that 
some three or four thousand square miles of territory in 
that general locality were promising from a point of view 
of mineralization and were favourable to prospecting. This 
and later work by the Government have stimulated pros- 
pecting and last year many, including some from United 
States, were in the country. The country itself was easy to 
prospect. About 40 per cent of it is not covered by any 
overburden, timber is sparse and small and, travelling 
over the area by plane, the geological structures are easy to 
spot from the air. Many of the more recent and spectacular 
finds have been made in this manner. After sighting what 
looks like a favourable formation the plane merely has to 
fly to the nearest lake and land while the prospectors 
examine the formation on foot. Prospectors have ranged 
widely and claims so far have been staked over 6,000 sq. mi. 
of territory, even to the headwaters of the Coppermine 
river. With about 5,000 claims already recorded the record- 
ing staff have at times been almost swamped. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



37 



Actually the cost of mining operations in the district, 
estimated the speaker, would be from 25 to 30 per cent 
higher than those in northern Ontario, for instance. In 
addition to distance from the base of supplies and costs of 
transportation, other problems will have to be faced such 
as availability of power and fuel. There are power sites on 
the Yellowknife and other nearby rivers but so far these 
have not been developed. At the moment oil from Norman 
on the Mackenzie river is brought in by tank barge and 
wood is also used. 

In the opinion of the speaker, the use for fuel of the wood 
of the forests of the district was a decided mistake. It will 
have a far more valuable use in building and for mining 
construction. He was shocked to see the vast amount of 
devastation caused by forest fires. The danger from fire in 
the country was great and such fires are likely to have a 
serious effect upon the native population. When the caribou 
moss is burned up as well as the trees the course of migration 
of the caribou is sure to be altered with disastrous results to 
the natives. It takes, furthermore, about 20 years for the 
moss to grow again to its former state. 

PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 



A. L. Malby, Jr. e. i.e. 

J. L. McKEEVER, Jr.E.I.C. 



- Branch Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



The outstanding function of the season, the annual din- 
ner of the Branch, was held on Saturday, November 26th, 
at the Kawartha Golf and Country Club. This year the 
dinner was particularly outstanding due to the presence of 
the President of the Institute, Dr. J. B. Challies, and a 
large delegation of Councillors, who honoured the Peter- 
borough Branch by holding their regular Council meeting 
in the afternoon in the rooms of the Peterborough Club. 

Among those present at the Council meeting and later at 
the dinner were President J. B. Challies; General Secretary 
L. Austin Wright; Vice-Presidents E. V. Buchanan of Lon- 
don, J. A. McCrory of Montreal, and R. L. Dunsmore of 
Dartmouth, N.S.; Councillors W. E. Bonn and O. Holden 
of Toronto, H. A. Lumsden of Hamilton, J. A. Vance of 
Woodstock, R. H. Findlay and J. L. Busfield of Montreal, 
P. H. Buchan of Vancouver, and A. B. Gates of Peter- 
borough. Representatives of other Branches included Past- 
President A. J. Grant, of St. Catharines; Lt.-Col. L. F. 
Grant and H. G. Conn, Kingston; E. P. Muntz, of Hamil- 
ton; Prof. D. S. Ellis, of Queen's University; W. E. Ross, 
C. E. Sisson, W. P. Dobson, and John Spence, of Toronto, 
and W. H. Munro, of Ottawa. 

W. T. Fanjoy, a.m.e.i.c, chairman of the Branch, spoke 
a few words of welcome to the members of Council, 
after which he called upon R. L. Dobbin, m.e.i.c, to intro- 
duce Dr. Challies, the principal speaker of the evening. 

Dr. Challies took as the subject of his discourse his ex- 
perience on his recent trip to the West, in the course of 
which he visited the various branches of the Institute across 
the country. Dr. Challies stressed particularly the spirit 
of co-operation that is growing among the Branches and the 
various Professional Associations across Canada and ex- 
pressed himself as very optimistic for the closer association 
of these organizations in every province. (Ed. Note: — 
Details of the President's Western trip which formed the 
subject of the foregoing address appeared in the December 
issue of The Engineering Journal.) 

At the conclusion of Dr. Challies' address, the chairman 
called for a few words from each of the three vice-presidents 
in attendance and the meeting also had the pleasure of 
hearing a few words from Past-President Grant, a former 
resident of Peterborough, a man widely known for his work 
on the Welland canal, and held in high esteem by the whole 
profession. At the conclusion of these remarks the local 
member of the Dominion Parliament, J. J. Duffus, M.P., 
made a few remarks adding to the welcome Mr. Fanjoy had 
already extended to the visitors. 



The Chairman then called the attention of the meeting 
to the novel decorations which had been arranged. These 
included, among other things, a large "e.t.c" Neon sign, 
and working representations of various types of electrical 
machines, including a direct current generator, an alter- 
nator, an induction motor, and a high frequency generator. 
In between times a little nonsense was provided for the 
amusement of the gathering, largely centering around a 
push-button which the President was requested to operate, 
in keeping with the times, and emulating the example of 
many famous people. The effect was, of course, a spectacular 
and nerve shattering "surprise" to those present. 

The evening concluded with a comedy skit, or burlesque, 
presented by the Junior Section of the Branch. 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 

L. B. Stewart, s.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

A dinner meeting of the Branch was held at the St. 
Maurice Hotel, Three Rivers, on Saturday, December 10th, 
under the chairmanship of H. J. Ward, a.m.e.i.c. 

The guest speaker at the meeting was E. R. Jacobsen, 
a.m.e.i.c, of the Dominion Bridge Co., Lachine, P.Q., who 
gave an illustrated address on "The Use of Rigid Frames 
in Building Construction." Mr. Jacobsen's paper was 
based on the construction of four churches, recently com- 
pleted, in which all-welded frames of rigid design were used. 
He outlined the problems which had been met with in the 
design and analysis of this new type of construction, and 
stated that the type had been found to be very satisfactory 
both from the economic and the aesthetic points of view. 
Colored slides were used to illustrate very effectively the 
points brought out by the speaker. 

H. O. Keay, m.e.i.c, of Three Rivers, moved a vote of 
thanks to the speaker. There were 64 members and friends 
present at the dinner. 

Previous to the dinner the film, "Steel — Man's Ser- 
vant," was shown at the Rialto Theatre, Three Rivers, to an 
audience of over four hundred. This film was produced by 
the U.S. Steel Corp. and was loaned to the Branch, for this 
showing, by the U.S. Steel Products Co., Montreal. The 
picture was greatly enjoyed by all who saw it, and the 
Branch wishes to express its thanks to the owners for the 
privilege of showing it. 

VANCOUVER BRANCH 



T. V. Berry, a.m.e.i.c. 
J. B. Barclay, a.m.e.i.c. 



- Secretary-Treasurer 

- Branch News Editor 



Forty-two members and friends sat down to the annual 
dinner in the York Room of the Georgia Hotel on Monday, 
November 21st. At the head table with the Branch chair- 
man, Lieut. -Col. J. P. MacKenzie, d.s.o., m.e.i.c, sat Past- 
Presidents Geo. Walkem, m.e.i.c, and Dr. E. A. Cleveland, 
m.e.i.c, Past Chairman H. N. Macpherson, m.e.i.c, 
Councillor-elect James Robertson, m.e.i.c, and Mr. K. M. 
Cameron, m.e.i.c, of the Ottawa Branch, Chief Engineer 
of the Department of Public Works, who was visiting in 
Vancouver. 

Following dinner the annual business meeting was held, at 
which time reports by the chairman and the secretary- 
treasurer showed the Branch affairs to be in a healthy 
condition. 

The election of officers resulted in Ernest Smith, 
a.m.e.i.c, being elected Branch chairman for the year 
1939. 

The guest speaker for the evening was Ivor Jennings, 
m.a., ll.b. (Cantab), ll.d. (London), Reader in English 
Law at the London School of Economics (University of 
London), and Exchange Professor at the University of 
British Columbia. He chose as his subject "Some Prin- 
ciples of British Public Finance." Professor Jennings 



38 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



outlined the factors contributing to the strength of the 
British Government financial system. Ever since the British 
nation became the predominant factor in world finance, the 
permanent officials of the British Treasury have been the 
foundation of that system. Well trained in the many phases 
of public finance, these men, true to the traditions of con- 
servative British finance, have resisted all attempts to 
introduce many of the newer but untried palliatives for 
world economic ills. 

The outstanding reason for British financial solidarity 
during times of world financial and economic stress has been 
the determination to carry on the pay-as-you-go plan as far 
as possible. 

A substantial part of the cost of the great war was financed 
by taxation. This enormous burden resulted in a post-war 
period of very high taxes when the income tax rate rose to 
5/6 in the pound. During this time Great Britain was 
forced off the gold standard by world financial conditions, 
but despite this further handicap the country was able to 
escape the disastrous effects of inflation. France, on the 
other hand, financed the whole cost of the great war by loan, • 
with serious consequences during the post-war period, during 
which the franc fell from an equivalent of 25 to the £ to 180 
to the £ Sterling. 

The burden of unemployment relief from 1920 to 1932 
was partly covered by borrowing, but after investigation by 
a Royal Commission the benefits were reduced so that now 
the fund is more than paying its way. Funded debt has been 
retired and extensions of benefits can now be made. 

The vast rearmament effort of the last two years cannot 
be all financed from increases in taxation, loans in excess of 
£200,000,000 having already been made. 

Great Britain has been a low tariff country for many 
years. The control of the tariff structure is vested in the 
hands of an independent group known as the Import Duties 
Advisory Committee. It can be said of this committee that 
it is biased in favor of tariffs as a principle but not politically 
biased. Before this committee must be presented in public 
any representations on the part of interested groups for 
tariff changes, with the consequence that lobbying of private 
members of Parliament for their influence in such matters 
does not exist. 

The placing of government contracts is in open competi- 
tion whenever possible. In cases where the public interest 
or other circumstances prevent this, as in the placing of 
certain contracts for the Air Ministry, Admiralty or War 
Office, contracts are awarded without open competition, 
the prices being fixed by the government after comparison 
with detailed unit costs of the costs of production gathered 
over a number of years and a fair profit allowed on the prime 
cost. This was the practice with the contracts awarded 
during the last war for war material, when the Ministry of 
Munitions investigated the costs of every factory making 
munitions. 

In the realm of municipal finance, the British people have 
every reason to be proud of their record. Municipal borrow- 
ing can only be made with the permission of a government 
department, usually the Ministry of Health. Loans may be 
rejected by this department if in their opinion they are 
extravagant, undesirable or for the undertaking of a wrong 
project. The Ministry of Health sets the period of the loan 
and this period is in no case longer than the life of the 
structure to be built with the proceeds of the loan. Sinking 
fund payments for the amortization of the loan are rigidly 
insisted upon, and of recent years it has been the policy of 
the Ministry of Health not to permit borrowing against 
any but tangible assets. 

As a result of this rigid control of municipal borrowing 
there have been no defaults whatsoever during the post-war 
period by municipalities, and consequently municipalities 
enjoy comparatively low rates of interest. Recently the 
London County Council borrowed on the London market 



£10,000,000 at a rate of 3J^ per cent which was only yi per 
cent higher than the government rate at that time. 

Naturally the rigid so-called Treasury control of govern- 
ment finances, be they federal or municipal, comes in for its 
share of criticism. It is charged that Treasury control dis- 
courages the expansion of industry and is too conservative 
in its outlook. However, the solid foundation on which 
British Government finance has been built, as evidenced 
by the nation's ability to withstand war and economic stress, 
has been the envy of the nations of the world, and is an 
example which younger countries might do well to study 
and apply to their own problems. 

A vote of thanks proposed by J. N. Finlayson, m.e.i.c, 
Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science, University of 
British Columbia, to Dr. Jennings for his interesting and 
informative address was heartily applauded. 

The meeting ended with the showing of two interesting 
talking films loaned by the Department of Visual Educa- 
tion, Vancouver School Board. 

WINNIPEG BRANCH 

J. Hoogstraten, a. m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

At a joint meeting of the Winnipeg Branch and the 
Association of Professional Engineers, held on Nov. 17th, 
J. W. Dorsey, Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering, 
University of Manitoba, gave an interesting paper on 
"Electrical Precipitation." 

In discussing the theory, Prof. Dorsey divided the process 
into the following stages: Charging the particle, attracting 
the particle to the collecting electrode, discharging, and 
mechanical removal. The characteristics of various voltage 
sources were discussed, the types being tubes or mechanical 
rectifiers, voltage doubling circuit and three-phase full wave. 

The actual process of precipitation was very efficiently 
demonstrated by apparatus set up for the purpose, and 
several voltage source units, ionizer models, and new 
rectifier tubes were exhibited. 



At a joint meeting held on Dec. 1st, Mr. G. R. Fanset, 
Manager for Manitoba, Ducks Unlimited Inc., spoke on 
the reclamation of lands for waterfowl breeding purposes, 
under the title "Weeds to Waterfowl." 

Mr. Fanset pointed out that many of the lakes in duck 
breeding country have been considerably reduced in size, 
and in many cases completely dried up. Lakes with only 
a few inches of water in the spring are particularly danger- 
ous, for they dry up in early summer before the ducklings 
are large enough to fly in search of water. Dried-up lake 
bottoms are covered with weeds, and the peaty soil has a 
low fertility that makes it practically useless for other 
purposes. 

In preliminary field inspections, the areas involved, and 
the possibility of raising the water level are studied, in addi- 
tion to surveying the quantity and quality of the food 
suitable for raising ducks. At Big Grass Ditch, for instance, 
two dams will flood 30,000 acres of land; in Saskatchewan, 
12,000 acres are being flooded and another 24,000 are 
planned for. 

In the "no man's land" lying between the agricultural 
areas and the Pre-Cambrian Shield, many of the lakes are 
reduced in size, from 5 to 90 per cent. A decrease in the 
number of beaver in this area is held partly responsible for 
the early run-off, resulting in dried-up peat beds, large 
areas of which are being consumed by fire, resulting in 
large tracts of land incapable of sustaining life for many 
years to come. 

It is proposed that large areas of this land be set aside 
as game reserves, especially on the southern fringes, im- 
plying a necessity for dams, look-out towers and restoration 
of beaver. It is hoped in this connection, that the resident 
Indians will be able to take over some of this work in return 
for the privilege of taking off muskrat under supervision. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



39 



News of Other Societies 



THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

For the third time within the history of the Institution, 
a son of a Past-President occupies the chair once associated 
with his father's name. At the recent annual meeting William 
James Eames Binnie, m.a., was introduced to the presi- 
dential chair by the retiring incumbent, Sydney Bryan 
Donkin. Mr. Binnie is the distinguished son of a distin- 
guished father, Sir Alexander Binnie, whose name is known 
through the Empire, and who was President of the Institu- 
tion in 1905. 

The four Vice-Presidents elected to office were Sir 
Clement D. M. Hindley, k.c.i.e., m.a., M. F. Wilson, 
Sir Leopold H. Savile, k.c.b., and Professor Charles E. 

Inglis, O.B.E., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Unlike procedure in The Engineering Institute, the 
President's address is given at the inauguration of his year 
of office, rather than at the termination. On this occasion, 
Mr. Binnie, whose reputation is widespread in connection 
with major engineering works in the field of water supply, 
made the theme of his address, engineering of the Egyptians 
and Romans, largely in pre-Christian days. An abstract of 
Mr. Binnie's address is reproduced on page 28. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

Plans are nearly completed for four days of technical and 
social activity, comprising the Society's 86th annual 
meeting, which will be held in New York City, January 
18th to 21st, 1939. A final programme of the meeting with 
complete details will be published in the January issue of 
Civil Engineering. The annual meeting, which will be held 
on the opening day, will have as its principal feature the 
impressive ceremonies that accompany the conferring of 
honorary memberships, and the awarding of prizes. The 
second day will be devoted to sessions of the technical 
divisions, while the third and fourth days are to be taken 
up by inspection trips to engineering works. At the con- 
clusion of the meeting a cruise to Bermuda has been 
organized. 

The Board of Direction has unanimously adopted a 
proposed change of the Society's by-laws, establishing a 
Committee on Professional Objectives, the functions of 
which shall be to recommend, and upon approval put into 
effect, methods and procedures calculated to encourage the 
discussion of problems of a general professional nature, 
public relations, social responsibilities of the engineer, the 
development and maintenance of high standards of practice 
and ethics, thus to increase the usefulness of the profession 
to society. It shall also give particular consideration to the 
economic and social status of the engineer. 

ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF 
BRITISH COLUMBIA 

At the nineteenth annual meeting of the Association, 
which was held on December 3rd, 1938, the retiring presi- 
dent, C. V. Brennan, after referring in feeling terms to the 
loss sustained by the Association in the death of its Regis- 
trar, E. A. Wheatley, m.e.i.c, reviewed the progress of 
the organization during the past year, noted the recent 
work of the Dominion Council, particularly in regard to 
the question of uniformity in requirements for admission 
to the profession, and discussed the possible improvement 
of the British Columbia Engineering Act. The Association 
has to-day 847 members, 382 engineers-in-training and 312 
engineering pupils. He questioned the desirability of any 
definite relationship between the professional association 
and the "specialized voluntary societies." 

In his address, the incoming president, C. E. Webb, 
m.e.i.c, drew attention to the strengthening of the 
position of the profession in British Columbia which will 



Items of interest regarding activities of 
other engineering societies or associations 



result from the passing of the Association's amended Act. 
He urged the importance of proper publicity, making the 
general public familiar with the professional engineer's 
status and achievements. To effect this the closest co-oper- 
ation between all branches of the profession would be 
necessary. 

In Mr. Webb's view the recent visit to British Columbia 
of the headquarters delegation of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada had done much to remove misconceptions re- 
garding the movement for closer relations between the 
Institute and certain provincial professional associations. 
He pointed out that The Institute's attitude on this matter 
had been defined by President Challies, as the wish to 
develop a co-operative understanding with any provincial 
association if and when that association so desires. 

Mr. Webb congratulated the Association in securing as 
its new Registrar so able and efficient an engineer as 
J. C. Oliver. 

The following members took office in the Council of the 
Association for the ensuing year: President, C. E. Webb, 
m.e.i.c; Vice-President, E. Redpath; Members, J. N. 
Finlayson, m.e.i.c, F. W. MacNeill, H. R. Younger, 

A. M.E.I.C 

THE SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 

The Perkin Medal for 1939 was presented on January 6th 
to Dr. Walter S. Landis, Vice-President of the American 
Cyanamid Company, at a joint meeting of the American 
Section of the Society of Chemical Industry and the 
American Chemical Society, held at The Chemists' Club, 
New York City. Mr. Victor G. Bartram of Montreal, 
President of the Society, presided over the meeting. Dr. 
Wallace P. Cohoe, Chairman of the American Section, 
opened the programme with a commemoration of former 
medallists. After a talk on Dr. Landis, the man, by Mr. 
Floyd Parsons, and a talk on the scientific accomplishments 
of the medallist by Dr. C. M. A. Stine, the medal was 
presented to Dr. Landis by Professor Marston T. Bogert. 
After the presentation Dr. Landis gave his medal address 
entitled "Argon." 

THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS, AUSTRALIA 

During the month of September, 1938, an engineering 
conference was held by Australian engineers at the city of 
Canberra, Australia's national capital. All divisions of the 
Institution of Engineers, namely, Adelaide, Brisbane, 
Canberra, Melbourne, Newcastle, Perth, Sydney, and 
Tasmania, were well represented. On the opening day the 
conference was welcomed by the Rt. Hon. J. A. Lyons, 
Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia, follow- 
ing which there was an inspection of Parliament House. In 
the evening His Excellency the Rt. Hon. Lord Huntingfield, 
K.c.M.G., acting Governor General, addressed the gathering. 

Following the opening ceremonies, the period of the con- 
ference was then largely devoted to tours and visits of 
inspection, as for example to the electricity supply generat- 
ing station, broadcasting stations, to the Canberra airdrome, 
the Royal Military College, Canberra water supply pumping 
station, the Cotter Dam, Mount Stromlo Solar Observatory, 
sewage treatment works, brick works, forestry school, re- 
search laboratories, Lake George mines, and other places. 

An extraordinary general meeting of the Institution was 
also held under the chairmanship of the Hon. F. P. Knee- 
shaw, o.b.e., m.i.e.Aus 1 ., President, at which resolutions 
were passed ratifying the action of the Council in accepting 
the Royal Charter granted to the Institution by His 
Majesty the King, Honorary Patron of the Institution. 



40 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL 
ENGINEERS 

Latest developments in the field of mechanical engineering 
were presented and discussed at the Fifty-Ninth Annual 
Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
which was held in New York City from December 5th to 9th. 

Approximately 2,500 engineers and guests from all parts 
of the United States and Canada attended to present or to 
listen to reports of results of studies and researches in a 
dozen allied fields, particular emphasis being given to the 
subjects dealing with aeronautics, applied mechanics, fuels, 
graphic arts, hydraulics, iron and steel, machine shop prac- 
tice, management, oil and gas power, steam power, process 
industries, railroads, and textiles. Delegates from the 
Society's seventy-one local sections in the United States 
and Canada met to consider methods of increasing the 
usefulness of the organization to the individual member and 
to his community. For the first time in many years, a 
conference of representatives from the seventeen profes- 
sional divisions of the Society was held for the purpose of 
correlating division activities so as to better promote the 
art and science of mechanical engineering as a whole. 

In addition to meeting in twenty-eight technical sessions, 
members and guests gathered at the annual dinner, which 
was attended by about 900 persons, including J. B. Challies 
and J. M. R. Fairbairn, representing the E.I.C., and at 
the traditional Honors Night, awards were conferred 
upon a number of the Society's distinguished members and 
Gerard Swope, president of General Electric, delivered the 
Towne Lecture on "Mechanical Engineering — Materials, 
Methods and Men." Awards presented and recipients 
thereof were: Holley Medal to Francis Hodgkinson for his 
work in connection with the steam turbine; Worcester Reed 
Warner Medal to Lawford H. Fry, railway engineer; 
Melville Medal to Alphonse I. Lipetz, American Locomotive 
Co.; Pi Tau Sigma Medal to Wilfrid E. Johnson, General 
Electric Co.; Charles T. Main Award of $150 to Edward W. 
Connolly, of Detroit; and Junior and Student Awards to 
Arthur C. Stern, Marshall C. Long, and Donald C. McSorley. 
Canadian-born Alexander Graham Christie, professor 
of mechanical engineering at Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md., was elected president of the Society and 
formally took office on Friday, Dec. 9, at the first meeting 
of the 1939 Council, which also included the following new 
officers: Henry H. Snelling, Wm. Lyle Dudley, Alfred Iddles, 
and James W. Parker, vice-presidents; and Clarke Freeman, 
William H. Winterrowd, and Willis R. Woolrich, managers. 

THE AIR RAID PROTECTION INSTITUTE 

The inaugural meeting of the Air Raid Protection Insti- 
tute was recently held at the Royal Society of Arts, Adelphi, 
London. In opening the proceedings, the President (Mr. 
O. E. Simmonds, M.P.) said that the Institute had been 
started to provide a common forum for the discussion of 
the complicated and urgent technical problems connected 
with air raid protection. It would follow other learned bodies 
in granting the qualifications of Fellow and Associate Fellow 
to those who reached the appropriate standard and would 
welcome as members those whose interest in the matter was 
less technical. Several panels to study special aspects of the 
question had already been formed, and he appealed to 
architects in particular to consider the advantages and draw- 
backs of the structures they designed from the point of view 

of air raid protection. ,_, 

— Engineering 

THE INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM 

With the object of widening its scope, the Institution of 
Petroleum Technologists, which was founded in 1913, has 
recently changed its name to the Institute of Petroleum, 
and its main object will now be "to encourage and co-or- 
dinate all aspects of the study of petroleum and its allied 
products." In order to inaugurate the Institute in its new 



form, a conversazione was held on Tuesday, November 8, 
at the House of the Royal Geographical Society in Ken- 
sington Gore, London, the members and guests being re- 
ceived by the President, Lt.-Col. S. J. M. Auld, o.b.e., 
m.c, and Mrs. Auld, and also by Captain H. F. C. Crook- 
shank, m.p., H.M. Secretary for Mines. The greater part 
of the evening was occupied with a lecture on "The Search 
for Oil in Britain," by Mr. G. W. Lepper, technical adviser 
to the Government Petroleum Department. 

— Engineering 

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERS 

Edison Medal Award 

Doctor Dugald C. Jackson, professor emeritus of electrical 
engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has 
been awarded the 1938 Edison Medal of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers "for outstanding and in- 
spiring leadership in engineering education and in the fields 
of generation and distribution of electric power." The pre- 
sentation will be made on the evening of Wednesday, 
January 25, during the annual winter convention of the 
Institute, which will be held in the Engineering Societies 
Building, New York. 

Doctor Jackson was born at Kennett Square, Pa., in 1865, 
and received the degree of Civil Engineer from the Pennsyl- 
vania State College in 1885. He spent two years in graduate 
study in electrical engineering at Cornell University. 

In 1891, he formed a consulting engineering firm with 
his brother, W. B. Jackson, and also became professor of 
electrical engineering at the University of Wisconsin, which 
position he retained until 1907, when he was appointed 
professor and head of the department of electrical engineer- 
ing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in which 
position he notably wove research into the fabric of engin- 
eering education. 

The consulting engineering firm of Jackson and Moreland, 
organized in 1919, specialized in the fields of electric power 
production and distribution of railway electrification with 
a nation-wide and international list of clients. Doctor 
Jackson continued as senior partner until .1930. He retained 
his position at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
until 1935, when he retired as professor emeritus. 

Doctor Jackson joined the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers in 1887, and became president in 1910. His 
keen interest and highly effective participation in profes- 
sional and educational activities have been continued to 
the present time. 

Doctor Jackson's broad vision, his untiring efforts, and 
his outstanding qualities as a leader of men have not only 
produced a high reputation in both engineering practice 
and education, but have also made him the recipient of 
many notable honors, including the Lamme Medal of the 
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education in 1931, 
and election as president of that society for 1905-06. He 
accepted an invitation from the Institute of Electrical 
Engineers of Japan to give a series of lectures in Japan, in 
1935, under the Iwadare Foundation. 

He is a Chevalier, Legion of Honour (France) and Presi- 
dent of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fellow 
of the American Philosophical Society, the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Physical Society, 
Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers (London), the Société 
Française des Electriciens (Paris), and the American Insti- 
tute of Consulting Engineers (President 1938), Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development, and other important 
societies. 

Doctor Jackson is the author of a number of books on 
electrical engineering and many articles related to engineer- 
ing projects and engineering education. Columbia University 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Science 
and Northeastern University, the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Engineering. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



41 



Library Notes 



BOOK NOTES 



The following notes on new books appear 
here through the courtesy of the En- 
gineering Societies Library of New York. 
As yet the books are not in The In- 
stitute Library, but inquiries will be 
welcomed at Headquarters, or may be 
sent direct to the publishers. 

AIR CONDITIONING 

By J. A. M oyer and R. U. Fittz. 2 ed. New 
York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1988. 455 
pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $4.00. 
A full and practical treatment of air con- 
ditioning, both on its theoretical side and in 
the selection and operation of equipment for a 
wide variety of applications. This second 
edition contains data on sun effect and on 
methods for calculating and selecting unit air- 
conditioners. Useful tables and a group of 
practical problems are appended. 

AIR CONDITIONING FOR COMFORT 

By S. R. Lewis. 3 ed. Chicago, Keeney Pub- 
lishing Co., 1988. 285 pp., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $2.50. 
A general treatment of the field, covering 
thermodynamical and physical fundamentals, 
heat transmission, heating and air condition- 
ing systems, refrigeration systems and refrig- 
erants, air distribution and noise control. A 
final brief chapter includes certain codes and 
regulations. 

AIR NAVIGATION 

By P. V. H. Weems. 2 ed. New York and 

London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1988. 

587 pp., illus., charts, maps, tables, 9x6 

in., lea., $5.00. 
The beginning chapters are devoted to 
fundamental concepts, types of maps and 
charts, map reading and compasses. The later 
chapters take up the equipment, methods and 
practice of navigation by dead reckoning, 
blind flying, and the various systems of 
celestial navigation, including both prepara- 
tory work and actual flight operations. 
There is considerable information on meteor- 
ology and airways. 

AIR PILOTING, Manual of Flight In- 
struction 

By V. Simmons. New York, Ronald Press 
Co., 1988. 284 PP-, illus., diagrs., tables, 
8x6 in., cloth, $3.00. 
This book aims to supply in detail the 
instructions needed by student pilots prepar- 
ing for the examinations for flying certificates, 
and by pilots who aspire to certificates of 
higher grades. Included are lists of questions 
taken from official examinations, with answers 
that have been accepted as correct. 

THE CAUSES OF ECONOMIC FLUCTU- 
ATIONS 

By W. I. King. New York, Ronald Press 
Co., 1938. 853 pp., charts, tables, 8x6 in., 
cloth, $3.50. 

Business depressions are considered from the 
economic viewpoint. The author, after de- 
scribing the characteristics of depressions, dis- 
cusses various misleading or inadequate ex- 
planations of their origin and offers a further 
explanation, a resume of forces which in- 
fluence depressions, and possible ways to 
forecast and minimize depression. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ECONO- 
MICS 

By C. Tyler. 2 ed. New York and London, 

McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 241 pp., 

diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $3.00. 

In describing the application of economic 

principles to chemical engineering practice the 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 
ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



author considers the following topics: organ- 
ization, research and development, project 
analysis, plant location and design, unit 
operation costs, fuels and energy, operation 
and control, sales problems, cost accounting, 
patents, and the general industrial setup. 

A COURSE OF STUDY IN CHEMICAL 
PRINCIPLES 

By A. A. Noyes and M. S. Sherrill. 2 ed. 

rewritten. New York, Macmillan Co., 

1988. 554 PP-, diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 

in., cloth, $5.00. 
The subject matter consists mainly of a 
development of the atomic, kinetic and ionic 
theories through consideration of the physical 
properties directly related to them, and a 
treatment, with the aid of these theories, of 
the principles relating to the rate and equili- 
brium of chemical reactions from mass-action, 
phase, and thermodynamic viewpoints; 
accompanied by practical, illustrative prob- 
lems. 

COMBUSTION, FLAMES AND EXPLO- 
SIONS OF GASES 

By B. Lewis and G. von Elbe, Cambridge, 
England, University Press; New York, 
Macmillan Co., 1988. 415 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $5.50. 
A co-ordinating and critical appraisal of the 
literature concerning the numerous investi- 
gations in combustion phenomena of recent 
years. The material is considered under four 
main headings: chemistry and kinetics of the 
reactions between fuel gases and oxygen; 
propagation of flames; state of the burnt gas; 
problems in technical combustion processes. 
Various thermochemical and other tables and 
diagrams are appended. 

DIESEL ENGINEERING 

By J. W. Anderson. New York and 

London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 

269 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 

in., cloth, $8.00. 
This college textbook on the fundamentals 
of the subject emphasizes the theory and 
principles of thermodynamics, combustion, 
mechanics of engine design, and installation 
principles. Such subjects as governing, cooling 
and lubrication are also considered. 

ECONOMICS FOR ENGINEERS 

By E. L. Bowers and R. H. Rowntree. 

2 ed. New York and London, McGraw-Hill 

Book Co., 1938. 591 pp., diagrs., charts, 

tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $4.00. 
This is a practical presentation of economic 
principles for engineers and engineering stu- 
dents, in which the subject is treated as con- 
cisely as possible and the engineering aspects 
of economic theory and business activity are 
emphasized. This new edition has been entirely 
rewritten and several chapters have been 
added. 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, a Practi- 
cal Study Course on Installation, 
Operation and Maintenance 

By F. A. Annett. 2 ed. New York and 
London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 
429 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., cloth, $8.00. 

This well-known book aims to provide a 
course of home study for electricians, power- 
plant men and others who work with electrical 
machinery. Theory and practical applications 
are explained in clear, simple language, begin- 
ning with the fundamentals of electricity and 
continuing through the usual equipment. This 
new edition has been considerably enlarged 
and thoroughly modernized. 



ESTIMATES AND COSTS OF CON- 
STRUCTION 

By F. W. Stubbs. New York, John Wiley 
& Sons, 1938. 234 PP-, illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $3.00. 
The purpose of this book is to outline some 
of the important steps in the development of a 
construction project, especially the prelimin- 
ary financial investigations and the studies 
that must be made before and during the 
actual construction. Only enough cost data to 
illustrate the discussion are included. There 
is a bibliography. 

FORMULAS FOR STRESS AND STRAIN 

By R. J. Roark. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 826 pp., 
diagrs., tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $3.00. 
The book brings together the formulas, 
facts and principles pertaining to the strength 
of materials which are required in the more 
precise and accurate methods of stress analysis 
imposed by modern engineering trends. Part 
one contains definitions of terms. Part two 
discusses general principles, methods of stress 
analysis and the behavior of material under 
stress. Part three discusses the behavior of 
structural elements under various conditions 
of loading and gives extensive tables of for- 
mulas for the calculation of stress, strain and 
strength. Numerous lists of references are 
included. The volume should be a very useful 
reference book for the designing engineer. 

GASEOUS ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS 

By E. L. E. Wheatcroft, Oxford, England, 
Clarendon Press; New York, Oxford 
University Press, 1938. 265 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 10 x 6 in., cloth, 
21s., $6.50 U.S.A. 
This book for the technical man interested 
in vacuum tubes and similar apparatus dis- 
cusses first the fundamental facts of atomic 
structure, ionization and emission. Succeeding 
chapters cover modern views on the nature of 
glow, corona, arc and spark, and the final 
chapters deal with the application of the prin- 
ciples to various types of apparatus, such as 
vacuum and gas-filled tubes, rectifiers, circuit- 
breakers and lamps. 

GETTING A JOB IN AVIATION 

By C. Norcross. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 374 PP-, 
illus., 8x6 in., cloth, $2.50. 
Designed for young men in search of a 
vocation, this book describes the kinds of jobs 
available in aviation and the ways to get 
them. What workers do, their pay and work- 
ing conditions, the requirements and oppor- 
tunities are explained. Advice is given con- 
cerning training and its cost, and the future 
of the industry is considered. 

GREAT BRITAIN— Dept. of Scientific 
and Industrial Research. Building 
Research Technical Paper No. 23. 
Studies in Reinforced Concrete VI. 
The Strength and Deformation of 
Reinforced Concrete Columns under 
Combined Direct Stress and Bending 
By F. G. Thomas. London, His Majesty's 
Stationery Office, 1938. 42 pp., ilius., 
diagrams, charts, tables, 10 x 6 in., paper 
(obtainable from British Library of In- 
formation, 270 Madison Ave., New York, 
$0.80). 
While considerable study has been made of 
strengths of reinforced-concrete members in 
pure bending or axial compression, this pam- 
phlet claims to be the first publication for the 
intermediate case of combined compression 



42 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



and bending. Two series of experiments were 
made, one under constant, the other under 
continuously changing eccentricities of 
loading. 

GREAT BRITAIN— Dept. of Scientific 
and Industrial Research. Fuel Re- 
search Technical Paper No. 47. The 
Production of Active Carbon from 
Bituminous Coal 

London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
1938. 55 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
10 x 6 in., paper {obtainable from British 
Library of Information, 270 Madison 
Ave., New York, $040). 
A report on the production from lump coal 
of an active carbon which is suitable for use in 
gas respirators. Discusses the choice of coal, 
the laboratory method, the transfer of the 
process to semi-technical and full technical 
scale, and the application of carbons to in- 
dustrial processes. 

HANDBOOK OF REFRIGERATING EN- 
GINEERING 

By W. R. Woolrich, New York, D. Van 
Nostrund Co., 1938. 425 pp., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 7x5 in., cloth, $5.00. 
Information concerning all phases of the 
refrigeration field for the use of those desiring 
to take up or now engaged in that work. 
Covers fundamental definitions and thermody- 
namic principles, refrigerants, systems and 
equipment, air cooling and conditioning, pre- 
servation of foodstuffs, and special units. 

HEROES OF THE AIR 

By C. Fraser, rev. ed. New York, Thomas 
Y. Crowell Co., 1938. 808 pp., maps, 8x5 
in., cloth, $2.50. 
A popular account of famous flights pro- 
vides a record in considerable detail from the 
first crossing of the Atlantic, in 1919, to the 
year 1937. The book is a readable addition to 
the history of aviation. 

INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY 

By W. T. Read. 2 ed. New York, John 
Wiley & Sons, 1938. 605 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., tables, 10 x 6 in., cloth, $5.00. 

A comprehensive survey of the chemical 
industries. The opening chapters deal with 
such general considerations as the relation of 
chemistry to industry, organizations, liter- 
ature, analytical control, chemical economics, 
unit operations, and materials of construction. 
The last seventeen chapters consist of brief 
discussions of the main principles used in the 
various major fields and descriptions of 
methods and equipm*ent. 

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE 

By L. B. Chenoweth and W. Machle, with 
a foreword by H. Schneider. New York, 
F. S. Crofts & Co., 1938. 235 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $2.00. 

This is a simple, practical manual of hygiene 
and toxicology intended for use by engineer- 
ing students, works engineers and plant 
managers. Information is given upon the 
various hazards to which workmen may be 
exposed and to acceptable means for prevent- 
ing them or treating those affected. 

INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL 
MANAGEMENT 

By F. E. Folts. 2 ed. New York and Lon- 
don, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 566 
pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, 

$4.00. 

A presentation of the essentials of industrial 
management by means of actual cases exemp- 
plifying major management topics, followed 
by discussion of the principles involved. Each 
topic is accompanied by from one to four 
problems which necessitate the application of 
these principles. The intention has been to 
emphasize the business aspects of manage- 
ment. 



LUMBER, Its Manufacture and Distri- 
bution 

By R. C. Bryant. 2 ed. New York, John 
Wiley & Sons, 1938. 535 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, 
$5.00. 
This book is intended as a text and refer- 
ence book for instructors and students in 
forest schools. The text discusses equipment 
for manufacturing lumber, methods of manu- 
facture and markets and marketing. There is a 
bibliography and a glossary. The new edition 
has been revised and brought up to date. 

McRAE'S BLUE BOOK and Hendrick's 
Commercial Register 

4.6th Annual Edition, 1938-39. New York 
and Chicago, MacRae's Blue Book Co., 
1938. 3,604 PP-, illus., 11 x 8 in., cloth, 
$15.00. 
The forty-sixth annual issue of this well- 
known directory follows the established pat- 
tern, but has been thoroughly brought up to 
date. It provides an index of manufacturers 
and wholesalers and their local distributors, 
with addresses; a carefully indexed classified 
list of manufacturers; a directory of commer- 
cial bodies, banks, railroads and warehouses in 
towns of one thousand or more population; 
and a list of trade names. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF LABOR RE- 
LATIONS 

By G. S. Watkins and P. A. Dodd. New 
York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
1938. 780 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., cloth, $4-00. 
The subjects considered in the six parts of 
this book are as follows: The nature and 
development of personnel and labor relations, 
and the general functions of personnel man- 
agement; psychological aspects of labor rela- 
tions; technique of selection and placement, 
including job analysis and intelligence and 
ability tests; labor turnover, attendance pro- 
blems, transfers and promotions, incentives, 
executive training, and health and disability 
problems; civil service personnel; employee 
representation, collective bargaining, and 



MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 

By P. G. Laurson and W. J. Cox. New 

York, John Wiley & Sons, 1938. 408 pp., 

illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 

cloth, $3.75. 

The fundamental treatment of general 

stresses, joints, torsion members, beams, 

columns and combined stresses is covered in 

the first fifteen chapters. The next eight 

chapters discuss more specialized material, 

elastic energy, webs, eccentric loading, etc. A 

large number of problems are included, and 

various derivations and tables are appended. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO METALLURGY 

By J. Newton. New York, John Wiley & 
Sons, 1938. 537 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, 
tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $4-00. 
A presentation of fundamental metallur- 
gical principles to serve as groundwork for 
advanced courses. Discusses structure, shap- 
ing and heat-treatment of metals and alloys, 
ores and ore dressing, hydrometallurgy and 
electrometallurgy, sampling, and the produc- 
tion of industrial metals. 

MODERN FURNACE TECHNOLOGY 

By H. Etherington. Phila. & New York, 
J. B. Lippincott Co., 1938. 524 PP-, 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., lea., $12.00. 
An explanation of the scientific principles 
underlying the various phases of modern fur- 
nace design and operation, and their applica- 
tion in achieving operating improvement. 
Combustion, gas flow, heat transfer, and 
physico-chemical theories are covered, and 
there is a long chapter on refractory materials. 
Diagrams and tables of practical data are 
included to assist in the practical application. 



OXYACETYLENE WELDING 

By R. J. KM, rev. by M. H. Potter. Chi- 
cago, American Technical Society, 1939. 
180 pp., illus., diagrs., tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $1.25. 
A practical elementary text dealing with 
the equipment and technique of oxyacetylene 
welding as applied to different metals and 
under varying conditions. Certain special 
applications of the equipment, as for solder- 
ing, cutting, etc., are also discussed. 

PRACTICAL DESIGNS FOR DRILLING 
AND MILLING TOOLS 

By C. W. Hinman. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 171 pp., 
illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $2.50. 
The object of this treatise is to reveal some 
of the principles involved in the design of chill- 
ing jigs and milling fixtures and to cite 
practical applications for them. The treatment 
is concise and practical, and the book should 
be of value to all designers. 

PRACTICAL OIL GEOLOGY 

By D. Hager. 5 ed. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 466 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, maps, tables, 8 x5 in., 
lea., $4.00. 
A presentation, in handbook form, of prac- 
tical information on the occurrence of oil and 
its geology. Subjects covered include strati- 
graphy, structural geology, prospecting and 
mapping, factors in oil-well drilling and oil 
production, water and its relationship to oil, 
natural gas and, in this revised edition, 
geophysics and paleontography. 

PRACTICAL SEISMOLOGY AND SEIS- 
MIC PROSPECTING 

By L. D. Leet. New York and London, 
D. Appleton-Century Co., 1938. 430 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $6.00. 
The first four chapters are devoted to a com- 
prehensive discussion of earthquake phen- 
omena, the laws governing the propagation of 
elastic waves in the materials of the earth 
and the instruments and methods for record- 
ing vibrations. The last chapter describes the 
commercial and scientific use of elastic vibra- 
tions to investigate rock structures. There is a 
list of patents. 

THE PRINCIPLES OF CANE SUGAR 
MANUFACTURE 

By J. G. Dairies. London, Norman Rodger, 
1938. 144 PP-, Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
10 x 6 in., cloth, 10s. 

The manufacture of cane sugar is presented 
for the non-technical reader. The book is 
mainly concerned with the processes and 
machinery for raw sugar production, but 
there are chapters covering the manufacture of 
direct consumption sugars and fancy molasses 
and on transport problems. 

PUBLIC UTILITY RATE MAKING AND 
THE PRICE LEVEL 

By E. M. Bernstein. Chapel Hill, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Press, 1987. 142 
pp., tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $2.50. 
The purpose of this study is to show how the 
rate making rule and its procedure were de- 
veloped, to consider the difficulties experienc- 
ed under this rule, to discuss the new me- 
thods of rate making that commissions used 
during the period of rapid fluctuation in 
prices, and to offer a reasonable solution for 
the problem of rate making. 

THE RAILWAY AGE 

By C. B. Andrews. London, Country Life, 

Ltd.; New York, Macmillan Co., 1938. 

145 pp., illus., 10x7 in., cloth, $3.00. 

An introduction to the study of the early 

British railways, and of the various reactions 

that followed. Interest is lent to the brief 

historical treatment of the trains, stations, 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



43 



passengers, and the changing attitude of the 
general public by the numerous illustrations, 
reproduced from contemporaneous prints, 
woodcuts and sketches. 

STANDARDS ON TRANSMITTERS AND 

ANTENNAS, 1938 

New York, Institute of Radio Engineers, 

1938. 4% pp., diagrs., 9x6 in., paper, 

$0.50. 

Pertinent terms are defined, graphical 
symbols are depicted, the factors to be con- 
sidered in various methods of testing trans- 
mitters and antennas are discussed, and there 
is a brief section on the propagation of radio 
waves. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

By H. J. Burt and C. H. Sandberg. Chi- 
cago, American Technical Society, 1939. 
438 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9x6 in., cloth, S3. 50. 
This practical text on structural steel 
framework design contains such explanations 
of underlying principles as are essential to 
proper use of the facts and formulas given. 
Many pictures and figures supplement the 
information, including sets of structural plans 
for a power house and a four-storey school 
building. Various codes and specifications are 
appended. 



PROCEEDINGS, TRANSACTIONS, ETC. 
The Engineering Society of Detroit: 

Membership Directory, 1938. 
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers: 

Proceedings Vol. 139, April-May, 1938. 
The Institution of Naval Architects: 

Transactions, Vol. 80, 1938. 
The Royal Society of Canada: 

List of Officers and Members and Minutes 
of Proceedings, 1938. 

REPORTS, Etc. 

Aluminum Research Laboratories: 

Column Strength of Various Aluminum 
Alloys; Model Tests of Latticed Structural 
Frames (Technical Paper Nos. 1 and 2). 
The Association of Professional Engineers 
of Manitoba: 
The Engineer and the Public. 



TENTATIVE RECOMMENDED GOOD 
PRACTICE CODE AND HANDROOK 

on the Fundamentals of Design, 
Construction, Operation, and Main- 
tenance of Exhaust Systems 

Developed by A. F. A. Industrial Hygiene 
Codes Committee. Chicago, American 
Foundrymen's Association, 1938. 141 pp., 
charts, diagrs., tables, 12 x 9 in., lea., $4.00. 
This code prescribes rules for systems used 
in foundries and allied departments for the 
removal of dust, refuse, fumes, vapors, etc., 
for health protection, safety and good house- 
keeping. The code was developed by the In- 
dustrial Hygiene Codes Committee and has 
the approval of the Board of Directors of the 
Association. 

TEXT BOOK OF APPLIED HYDRAU- 
LICS 

I y H. Addison. 2 ed. rev. and enl. New 
* York, John Wiley & Sons, 1938. 435 pp., 

Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9 x 6 in., 

cloth, $5.50. 
A compact summary of the fundamental 
principles of hydraulics, and of the manner in 
which they are applied by the engineer. The 
book is intended particularly for readers, such 
as electrical engineers, whose work is not 
directly connected with hydraulics, but who 
need to know the main outlines of hydraulic 
practice. Two-thirds of the text is devoted 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

Bell Telephone System: Focussing an 
X-Ray Beam by a Rocksalt Crystal; 
Loudness, Masking and Their Relation 
to Hearing and Noise Measurement; 
Variable Equalizers; Studies of Telephone 
Line Wire Spacing Problems; Radioac- 
tivity — Artificial and Natural; the Com- 
n.on Battery Anti-sidetone Subscriber 
Set; the Occurrence and Effect of Lockout 
Occasioned by Two Echo Suppressors; 
Characteristic Time Intervals in Tele- 
phonic Conversation; Thyratrons for 
Grid-Controlled Rectifier Service; Ar- 
rangement of Molecules in a Single Layer 
and in Multiple Layers; Stability of Two- 
Meter Waver; Certain Guided Waves in 
Slightly Noncircular Tubes; Diffraction 
Produced by Obstacles and Plates; 
Spectrochen.ical Analysis in Comrrunica- 
tion Research; Magnetic Shielding of 



to turbines, pumps, hydraulic transmissions 
and other practical applications. The new 
edition has been revised and slightly en- 
larged. 

TIMBER, ITS STRUCTURE AND PRO- 
PERTIES 

By H. E. Desch. London and New York, 
Macmillan & Co., 1938. 169 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tablss, 9x6 in., cloth, 
$4.50. 
The aim of this work is to present a sum- 
mary, in simple, concise language, of the 
knowledge of the structure, properties and 
proper handling of wood which has resulted 
from the scientific investigations of the 
various research laboratories which are 
studying wood. 

WELDED STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

By R. S. Hale, New York and Chicago, 

Pitman Publishing Corp., 1938. 170 pp. 

Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, 

$3.00. 
The aim of this work is to provide a simple, 
concise presentation of welded steel construc- 
tion, adapted to the needs of engineers, con- 
tractors and others familiar with structural 
engineering who are interested in the pos- 
sibilities of welding in that field. The design of 
such structures is explained and the principles 
illustrated by examples of their application. 



Transformers at Audio Frequencies; 
(Monographs B1065, 1067, 1069-1081, 
1083, 1084.) 

Canada Department of Transport: 
Annual Report, 1938. 

Engineers' Council for Professional De- 
velopment : 
Sixth Annual Report, 1938. 

Oregon, State Board of Engineering 
Examiners: 
Ninth Biennial Report, 1988. 

University of California: 

The Burge Fauna, a Lower Pliocene Mam- 
malian Assemblage from Nebraska, by 
Paul 0. McGrew. 1938. 

University of Oklahoma: 

Proceedings of the Second Annual High- 
way and Street Conference November 18, 
19, 20, 1987. 




Sir Edward Beatty, Chairman 
and President of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, honoured J. M. R. 
Fairbairn, m.e.i.c, retiring Chief 
Engineer, at a dinner at the Mount 
Royal Club, Montreal, on Decem- 
ber 29th, 1938. Sir Edward person- 
ally reviewed the career of Mr. 
Fairbairn from the time he joined 
the Canadian Pacific, and stressed 
the great recognition accorded him 
as an outstanding engineer. 

D. C. Coleman, the Company's 
senior Vice-President, presented 
Mr. Fairbairn with a tray bearing 
the engraved signatures of the fifty 
officers present. 

Congratulations were extended 
to John E. Armstrong, who suc- 
ceeds Mr. Fairbairn as Chief 
Engineer. 



Photo Aliociatid Scrim News 

Sir Edward Beatty pays tribute to J. M. R. Fairbairn, M.E.I.C. 



44 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Industrial News 



BOILER METERS 

A new bulletin, No. 46, issued by the Bailey 
Meter Co. Limited, 980 St. Antoine St., Mont- 
real, describes the construction, installation 
and operation of Bailey boiler meters. 

The Bailey boiler meter is primarily a boiler 
operating guide which enables the operator to 
get best results from each unit with respect 
to combustion efficiency, heat absorption 
efficiency, maintenance and capacity, reveal- 
ing how the boiler is performing at every 
instant and furnishing information necessary 
to correct faulty conditions when they occur, 
so that maximum steam generating economy 
may be secured continuously. 

ELECTRIC UNIT HEATERS 

A four-page pamphlet of reference data has 
been issued by Canadian General Electric 
Company describing and illustrating the G-E 
Electric Unit Heaters. These units are avail- 
able in capacities up to 20 kw. and can be 
operated on 550 volts or below, 60 or 25 
cycles, and three-phase or single-phase. They 
are complete self-contained heating units. The 
data includes features of the design and con- 
struction of the heater and tables of ratings 
and required heater capacity under various 
conditions. Similar information is given cover- 
ing the G-E Portable Heater. 

INDUSTRIAL AIR HEATERS 

The G-E Industrial Air Heaters are de- 
scribed in a four-page bulletin just issued by 
the Canadian General Electric Company, 
which contains illustrations of various models, 
standard ratings, dimensions and a gênerai 
description of the design, application and con- 
trol equipment. These heaters are of the 
natural convection type for circuits of 550 
volts and below and in capacities from 1 kw. 
to 10 kw. 

MODERN COMPRESSOR DESCRIBED 
IN NEW BULLETIN 

A new catalogue recently printed by the 
Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Company Limited 
illustrates and describes their new line of 
Class "ES" horizontal, belt driven air or gas 
compressors. 

"ES" compressors are the modern version 
of the company's straight-line "EL" and 
"ER" compressors, and incorporate the sound 
structural features of the earlier types, but in 
addition are equipped with anti-friction roller 
bearings and channel valves. 

A series of cylinder sizes has been developed 
for each stroke size in which the compressor 
is built. These combinations give an extensive 
range of pressures and capacities, with piston 
displacements as follows: 138 to 686 cubic feet 
per minute at standard one hundred pounds 
pressure; 180 to 2,000 c.f.m. at various pres- 
sures of 75 pounds and below, and a few sizes 
of pressures above 100 lbs. Units for special 
high pressures, vacuum conditions, and steam 
drive are also described. 

Copies of the new bulletin, No. K-328, can 
be obtained from any of the company's 
branches or from the head office in the New 
Birks Building, Montreal, Quebec. 

ALGOMA PRODUCING GRINDING 
BALLS 

Grinding balls for the mining trade are now 
being produced at Sault Ste. Marie by the 
Algoma Steel Corporation. The new plant 
went into operation about a week ago and 
is now in regular production. 

A forecast of this development was contain- 
ed in a statement issued by the Corporation 
earlier in the year when plans for construction 
of a tinplate mill and oil storage tanks were 
also announced. 

The plant which has been established at 
Sault Ste. Marie for the production of grinding 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 



balls is completely up to date. The product is 
a forged steel ball which is designed to meet 
the highest requirements of the trade. The 
present range of sizes is lYi to 5 ins. inclusive, 
but it is intended to cover later the entire 
range of sizes 2 to 5 ins. inclusive. 

NEW TWO-STAGE REGULATORS 

Dominion Oxygen Company Limited, 
Toronto, Ont., announces three new regula- 
tors: the Purox Oxygen Regulator,Type R-201 
(for ordinary welding and light cutting); the 
Purox Oxygen Regulator, Type R-202 (for 
heavy-duty cutting); and the Purox Acetylene 
Regulator, Type R-203. 

These regulators utilize the principle of 
two-stage regulation. A fixed "first stage" re- 
duces the pressure of oxygen or acetylene from 
cylinder pressure to a moderate figure, below 
which it is regulated by the variable second 
stage of regulation. Stem-type valve mechan- 
isms insure a uniform flow of oxygen and 
acetylene at the lower pressures at which the 
gases are used and in quantities sufficient for 
practically all welding and cutting operations. 

CRANES AND HOISTS 

The Northern Crane and Hoist Works Ltd., 
Walkerville, Ontario, have issued a 56-page 
loose-leaf catalogue describing and illustrating 
their various types of equipment. 

NICKEL ALLOY STEELS 

International Nickel Co. of Canada Ltd. are 
distributing a revised edition of Section No. 3 
for insertion in the "Nickel Alloy Steels Data 
Book," which they have compiled and sup- 
plied to users of these products. The revised 
section deals with properties and uses of some 
cast nickel alloy steels. 

MATERIAL IN STEAM SPECIALTIES 

An interesting eight-page pamphlet, en- 
titled, "The Third Essential in Steam Special- 
ties," has been published by the International 
Nickel Co. of Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ont., and 
deals with the use of Monel for the vital parts 
of steam specialties. 

AERIAL TRAMWAY TO BE ERECTED 

Immediate start on the construction of an 
aerial tramway for Algoma Ore Properties 
Ltd. of Ontario is announced by Col. J. P. 
Mackenzie, m.e.i.c, general manager of Ham- 
ilton Bridge, Western Ltd. of Vancouver, for- 
merly Western Bridge Co. Ltd. 

The tramway will carry iron ore from the 
Helen Mine of the Algoma company to Wawa 
station, a distance of about three miles, 162 
miles from Sault Ste. Marie. It will have a 
capacity of 165 tons per hour, 122 buckets 
carrying a load of 2,500 pounds each. Three 
hundred thousand tons of 50 per cent Sidarite 
ore will be moved per year. 

Hamilton Bridge, Western Ltd., has for 
some years specialized in mine tramway de- 
sign and equipment and has made several 
successful installations including those at Gold 
Mountain, Red Buck, Base Metals and Spud 
Valley Mines. 

WEATHERPROOF PUSH BUTTON 
STATIONS 

A new line of weatherproof, heavy-duty, 
momentary-contact push-button stations for 
use in the control circuits of magnetic control- 
lers, is announced by Canadian General 
Electric. These new stations are of rugged 
construction and are designed to materially 
reduce installation and maintenance costs. 
They employ cast enclosures, and are available 
in one-, two-, three-, and four-button forms. 



STURTEVANT APPOINTMENT 

The B. F. Sturtevant Co. of Canada Lim- 
ited, Toronto, announce the appointment of 
H. V. Hagborg as sales engineer. Formerly 
district manager for the Detroit Stoker Com- 
pany, Mr. Hagborg is well known in heating 
and ventilating circles. 

EXCAVATING EQUIPMENT 

Priestman Brothers Limited, of Hull, Eng- 
land, have issued an attractive six-page pam- 
phletentitled "Priestman Knows No Bounds," 
which contains many illustrations of Priest- 
man excavating and material handling equip- 
ment in use throughout the world. 

COMBUSTION CONTROL 

Bulletin No. 102-B, entitled, "Air Operated 
Combustion Control," has been published by 
Bailey Meter Co. Limited, Montreal, and in 
its 32 pages contains much useful and interest- 
ing information dealing with the principles of 
automatic combustion control and its appli- 
cation. 

CHEMICAL STONEWARE TOWERS 

Doulton & Co. Ltd., Lambeth, London, 
England, have published a 16-page booklet 
of illustrations, diagrams and dimensional 
tables dealing with their chemical stoneware 
towers, connecting pipes, cocks, tower pack- 
ing, etc. 

NEW OXY-ACETYLENE CUTTING 
ATTACHMENT 

A new oxy-acetylene cutting attachment is 
announced by Dominion Oxygen Company 
Limited, Toronto, Ont., which will be useful 
for shops where the amount of cutting does 
not justify the purchase of a separate cutting 
blowpipe, and for those operations in the field 
where incidental cutting is to be done or where 
a minimum of equipment is desired. 

The new attachment will cut any thickness 
of steel up to eight inches. Due to an improved 
injector principle, it operates with exception- 
ally accurate control of gases, and performs 
equally well with low-pressure or medium- 
pressure acetylene. It can be used with either 
the W-17 or W-22 Oxweld welding blowpipes. 

MONTREAL APPOINTMENT BY C.G.E. 

According to a recent announcement by 
Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Lyman I. 
Playfair has been appointed Assistant District 
Manager, Montreal District. Mr. Playfair is 
well known throughout the electrical industry. 
In 1925 he was transferred from Toronto 
office to Montreal, and for several years has 
been Manager of the Apparatus Sales Divi- 
sion, Montreal District. 

NICKEL IN THE BRASS FOUNDRY 

Canadian Nickel Products, Ltd., 25 King 
St. West, Toronto, have issued a circular chart 
listing some twenty-seven of the more gen- 
erally used brass and bronze foundry mixtures 
to which the addition of nickel has proved to 
be commercially advantageous. 

The chart is conveniently designed, utiliz- 
ing the revolving disc principle, and provides 
data covering the chemical composition and 
mechanical properties for castings intended 
for specific applications. 

SKIP-PIPE UNDERDRAIN 

The Robinson Clay Product Company of 
Akron, Ohio, and Toronto, Ont., are distribut- 
ing a six-page leaflet dealing with Robinson 
Skip-Pipe for sub-drainage. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



45 



Employment Service Bureau. 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employ- 
ing technically trained men — without charge to either party. Notices 
appearing in the Situations Wanted column will be discontinued after 
three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon request after a lapse 
of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to THE 
EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

SALES ENGINEERING REPRESENTA- 
TIVE wanted in Toronto district, on com- 
mission basis, to handle a complete line of 
material handling equipment, built in 
Canada by an established and responsible 
manufacturer. It can be handled with other 
lines of industrial equipment if desired. 
Apply to Box No. 1821-V. 

COMBUSTION ENGINEER, experienced in 
heat balance calculations and in the design 
of modern steam generating equipment and 
general boiler construction. Apply giving 
full details of training and experience to 
Box No. 1822-V. 

DRAUGHTSMAN, experienced in detail de- 
sign and construction of all types of steam 
boilers. Apply giving full details of training 
and experience to Box No. 1823-V. 

BOILER OPERATING ENGINEER, hold- 
ing second-class papers and experience in 
installing, starting and servicing modern 
steam boilers and firing equipment. Apply 
giving full details of training and experience 
to Box No. 1824-V. 

DESIGNING DRAUGHTSMAN, capable 
of acting as group leader in design of 
boilers and combustion equipment with 
ability to handle routine correspondence 
and calculations. Applicants should state 
education, experience in detail and also • 
age, when available and salary expected. 
Apply to Box No. 1828-V. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

PAPER MILL ENGINEER, a.m.e.i.c Mar- 
ried. Ten years experience in the design, 
construction, maintenance and costs of pulp 
and paper mills, is seeking a permanent 
position. Available on short notice. Apply 
to Box No. 150-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, m.a.sc, a.m.e.i.c. Eight 
years survey and municipal engineering 
experience, and three years draughting, de- 
tailing steel, concrete, and timber structures 
Apply to Box No. 467- W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc. (McGill '20), 
a.m.e.i.c. Married. Twelve years experience 
in pulp and paper mill design, and six years 
general construction. Available immedi- 
ately. Location immaterial. Apply to Box 
No. 547- W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.a.sc. (Toronto '27). 
Age 34. Married. Five years railway and 
construction work as building inspector and 
instrumentman. Level engineer and on con- 
struction of a long timber flume for a pulp 
and paper mill. Field engineer for a sulphite 
company, in charge of the following mill 
buildings, acid, digester, blow pit, barker 
room, chip storage and acid towers. Avail- 
able immediately. Apply to Box No. 714-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc. '31 
(U.N.B.), jr.E.i.c. Age 30 years. Single. 
Experience in electrical wiring, construction 
of concrete wharves, inspection of piling, 
rip rap, concrete reinforcing, forms, and 
dredging. Also junior engineer. Available at 
once. Apply to Box No. 722-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc, m.sc, r.p.e.; 
Lieut. c.E., r.o. Sixteen years municipal, 
highway and construction. Five years over- 
seas. Married. Read, write and talk French. 
Will go anywhere. Apply to Box No. 737- W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc '31, 
jr.E.i.c. Age 31. Experience includes: eight 



months on installation of power and lighting 
equipment; three years as supervisor of an 
electrical and service dept.; seven months 
testing power and radio equipment; one 
year as inspector on electrical equipment 
and control. At present employed. Available 
on one month's notice. Location immaterial. 
Apply to Box No. 740- W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, a.m.e.i.c Experienced 
in general construction, buildings, gravel 
and asphalt roads. Acting in charge P. W.D. 
West Africa. Chief field engineer refinery 
construction. Survey Angola Rly. West 
Africa. General Office work. Apply to Box 
No. 765-W. 

TECHNICALLY TRAINED EXECUTIVE. 

General experience administrative, organiz- 
ation and management in business and in- 
dustrial fields, including: business, plant, 
property and estate management; plant 
maintenance, modernization, production 
and personnel; economic studies, company 
reorganizations and amalgamations, valua- 
tions; railroad, highway, hydro, pulp, 
newsprint, housing, industrial surveys, in- 
vestigations and construction; B.Sc. degree 
in engineering, age 49, married, Canadian. 
Apply to Box No. 1175-W. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEER, grad. McGill '34, 
experienced in meter repairs, control work; 
and also chemical laboratory experience. 
Apply to Box No. 1222- W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc '31. Age 
35. Experience in oil field work and railway 
construction survey. Two years on installa- 
tion and maintenance of mine equipment, 
and two years industrial plant engineering 
on design and layout of equipment. Avail- 
able immediately. Will go anywhere. Apply 
to Box No. 1249- W. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, B.Eng. 
(McGill). Age 25. Experience includes: one 
year marine engineering, Diesel and steam; 
over two years general engineering work in 
paper mills including draughting, building 
and equipment layouts, power plant work, 
mill maintenance planning and costing. 
Seeking permanent position to acquire 
thorough knowledge of operation and main- 
tenance. Available immediately. Apply to 
Box No. 1272-W. 

FIELD ENGINEER AND DRAUGHTS- 
MAN, a.m.e.i.c Age 36. Married. Fifteen 
years experience in civil engineering, general 
draughting and instrument work. Experi- 
ence covers office and layout work on con- 
struction of sewers, water mains, gas mains, 
6" to 30" dia.) and transmission line struc- 
tures; topographic and stadia surveys. 
Draughting covers general civil, reinforced 



concrete and steel design, mechanical detail- 
ing and arrangements, and mapping. Pre- 
sent location Montreal, but willing to locate 
anywhere. Available at once. Apply to Box 
No. 1326-W. 

CIVIL AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, 
jr.E.i.c. (Univ. of Man.). Married. Age 25. 
Good draughtsman. Four months draught- 
ing, one year instrumentman on highway 
location and construction, inspection and 
miscellaneous surveying and estimating. Six 
months as field engineer on pulp and paper 
mill construction. Prefer electrical or struc- 
tural design. Available at once. Apply to 
Box No. 1633-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, jr.E.i.c, b.sc 
Age 25. At present employed, but desiring 
change of location. Three years mainten- 
ance and test work, toll and automatic 
telephone equipment; two years sales en- 
gineering, telephone and electrical equip- 
ment. Prefer to remain in telephone field, 
but would be interested in any opportuni- 
ties in electrical engineering. Apply to Box 
No. 1817-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.e., jr.E.i.c, age 28. 
Married. Desires position with reliable 
construction firm. Intends to make con- 
struction, life work. Over five years ex- 
perience on permanent highway construc- 
tion, inspection, estimates and instrument 
work. Available on short notice. Apply to 
Box No. 1820-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.a.sc '33. 
Age 27. Married. jr.E.i.c One year's exper- 
ience in power plant operation and over 
three years experience in hydro-electric 
development and construction. Expert 
draughtsman and instrumentman, including 
experience in steam gauging, and reinforced 
concrete design and construction. Available 
at once. Apply to Box No. 1829-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.a.sc (Toronto '35), 
jr.E.i.c Age 26. Experience in highway lay- 
out and construction, concrete bridge con- 
struction, draughting, office work, and sur- 
veying. Further details on request. Good 
references. Available immediately. Location 
immaterial. Apply to Box 1832-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc (Mani- 
toba '36), s.e.i.c Practical and theoretical 
experience in radio. Have done experimental 
work. At present doing radio service work. 
Available at once. Apply to Box No. 1833-W 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc '37, s.e.i.c Age 22. 
At present employed, desires position with 
construction firm. Experience includes field 
instructing of transit and chain survey 
crews, draughting for geologist, instrument 
work and general supervision on highway 
construction work, purchasing in paper mill. 
Available on few weeks' notice. References 
and details on request. Willing to locate 
anywhere that offers required class of work. 
Apply to Box No. 1840-W. 



FOR SALE 

PRISMATIC COMPASS, 3in. diameter, 
made by Stanley, London; Box Sextant, 
3in. diameter, made by W. & S. Jones, 
London; Steel Tape, 50 ft. Location 
Montreal. Apply to Box No. 25-S. 



COMING MEETINGS 

The Engineering Institute of Canada, annual general and general professional meeting, 
Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, February 14th and 15th, 1939. 

Hamilton Branch, annual meeting and banquet, January 13th, 1939, in the Rock Garden 
Lodge. Guest speaker Mr. Frank Dowsett, Advertising Manager of the Gutta Percha & 
Rubber Limited, subject, "The Buttress of Humor." 

London Branch, annual meeting January 25th, 1939, followed by an address on "Modern 
Application of Diesel Engines," by J. L. Busfield, m.e.i.c 

Montreal Branch, smoking concert at the Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Thursday, February 
2nd, 1939. (Regular Thursday night meetings every week.) 



46 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



December 23rd, 1938. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of The Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing a 
concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of 
his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
February, 1939. 

L. Austin Wi ight, General Secretary. 



•The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at least thirty-five years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office, or a term of instruction in 
a school of engineering recognized by the Council. The term of twelve years may, 
at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years in the case of a candidate 
for election who has graduated from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. 
In every case the candidate shall have held a position in which he had responsible 
charge for at least five years as an engineer qualified to design, direct or report on 
engineering projects. The occupancy of a chair as a professor in a faculty of applied 
science of engineering, after the candidate has attained the age of thirty years, shall 
be considered as responsible charge. 

An Associate Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have 
been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may 
include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruc- 
tion in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate 
for election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven years, shall be considered as 
professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to pass an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the Rules and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sectione 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty -three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high School 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which case he shall pass an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he shall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special cir- 
cumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits- 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers, 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

BLACK — ROBERT, of 4440 Lafontaine St., Montreal, Que. Born at Saltcoats, 
Ayrshire, Scotland, Dec. 14th, 1902; Educ.: Junior Matric, 1920; evening courses, 
Ardrossan Academy, 1920-25; Assoc. Member (by examination, 1938), Inst. Struct'l. 
Engrs. (Great Britain) ; 1920-24, dftsman., shipbldg., Ardrossan Dry Dock&Shipbldg. 
Co.; 1927-29, dftsman., struct'l. steelwork, Redpath Brown, Edinburgh; 1929-33, 
checking & design, struct'l. steelwork, Canadian Vickers, Montreal; 1933-34 and 
1936-37, asst. to plant engr., Canadian Copper Refiners, Montreal East; 1935-36, 
overbridge & constrnl. engrg., London, Midland & Scottish Railway, London; 1937 
to date, dftsman, engr. dept.. Canadian Industries Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

References: I. R. Tait, E. B. Jubien, D. A. Killam, R. C. Flitton, M. W. Kerson. 

BLACK— WILLIAM STEELE, of 17 Williamson Apte., Regina, Sask. Born at 
Weyburn, Sask., June 19th, 1909; Educ: B.Eng. (Civil), Univ. of Sask., 1933; 
1935 (summer), geol. survey party; at present, dftsman. and estimator. Imperial 
Oil Limited, Regina, Sask. 

References: C. J. Mackenzie, W. O. Longworthy, T. S. McKechnie, J. J. White, 
H. A. Jones. 

DUGAS— ALEXANDRE, of Montreal, Que. Born at Montreal, Sept. 1st, 1909; 
Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1933; 1929-30-31, (summer), 
chainman, instr'man., Quebec Streams Comm.; 1932-33, asst., Geological survey, 
Quebec Bureau of Mines; 1935 (6 mos.), representing Town of LaTuque's consltg. 
engr. in constrn. of a wood stave pipe 7J4 miles long, 43 in diam.; 1936-38, technical 
secretary to the chief engr., and at present engr. on inventory staff, Provincial 
Electricity Board, Montreal, Que. 

References: O. O. Lefebvre, A. Frigon, J. A. Beauchemin, A. Plamondon, J. R. 
Desloover, E. M. Van Koughnet, J. W. McCammon, R. Laplante. 

GAYMER— JOHN EDWARD IVENS, of 5549 Queen Mary Road, Montreal, 
Que. Born at North Walsham, Norfolk, England, Jan. 22nd, 1909; Educ: 1927-31, 
Faraday House Electr'l. Engrg. Course, Diploma, 1st Class Honours, 1931; 1927-28, 
pump assembly and testing. Slather & Piatt, Manchester, England; 1928 (2 mos.), 
switchgear and turbine assembly Metropolitan Vickers Co., Manchester; 1930-31, 
engrg. test course, General Electric Company, U.S.A.; 1931-36, production engr., 
Peterborough, and 1936 to date, apparatus sales engr., Montreal, Can. Gen. Elec 
Co. Ltd. 

References: L S. Patterson, K. 0. Whyte, A. N. Budden, A. D. Ross, R. A. Yapp. 

HAMELIN— DOUGLAS FRANKLIN, of 2319 Cornwall St., Regina, Sask. 
Born at Melita, Man., Mar. 4th, 1903; Educ: B.Sc, Univ. of California, 1928. 
1929, one year post-graduate at Stanford Univ.; 1925, asst. to the geologist, Mclntyre 
Mines, Schumacher, Ont.; 1929, supt., Flintoba Mines (exploration company), and 
exam, of mining claims in B.C.; 1929-30, geologist, Hudson Bay Mining & Smelting 
Co., Flin Flon; 1936 to date, water administration engr., Water Rights Br., Dept. 
of Natural Resources, Regina, Sask. 

References: C. J. McGavin, B. Russell, M. H. Marshall, H. J. deSavigny, T. Hogg. 

MACNAMARA— WILLIAM STAFFORD, of 130 Ontario Ave, Hamilton, Ont. 
Born at Hamilton, Ont., Sept. 4th, 1896; Educ: 1910-14, one year High School, 
three years, Hamilton Technical School. 1920-24, struct'l. design course, three years 
night school at Technical School; Home study since 1929; 1914-16, ap'tice, and 
1920-25, detailer, Hamilton Bridge Co.; 1925-26, detailing and checker, Heyl & 
Patterson Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa.; 1926, checker, Moss Iron Works, Pittsburgh; 
1926-27, checking and designing, Heyl & Patterson Inc.; 1927-29, checker, and 1929 
to date, estimating and designing, and at present struct'l designer, Hamilton Bridge 
Company, Hamilton, Ont. 

References: R. K. Palmer, O. E. Léger, G. A. Colhoun, V. S. Thompson, H. B. 
Stuart, A. Love, N. Wagner. 

NICOL— WILLIAM BROWN, of 84 Martha St., Burlington, Ont. Born at 
Bon'ess, West Lothian, Scotland, Jan. 28th, 1906; Educ: 1920-27, Heriot Watt 
College, Edinburgh, seven years' study, evening classes, certs, in civil and mech'l. 
engrg.; 1920-21, ap'tice engr. (shop), 1921-25, ap'tice dftsman., 1925-27, dftsman., 
Scottish Oils Ltd.; 1927-28, dftsman. Mechans Ltd., Glasgow; 1928-34, designer 
(struct'l. steel), Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal; 1934-36, designer (struct'l. steel), 
Sir Wm. Arrol & Co. Ltd., Glasgow; 1937 to date, designer (struct'l. steel), Hamilton 
Bridge Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. (Also during the periods 1928 to 1934 and 1937 to 
date, on loan to the following firms for the purposes given: Canada Cement 
Co. Ltd., Montreal, design of steelwork for Montreal plant; Canadian Copper 
Refiners Ltd., Montreal, design of steelwork for refinery extensions; John Stadler, 
M.E.I.C., Montreal, design of steel work for pulp mill.) 

References: O. E. Léger, R. K. Palmer, J. Stadler, G. A. Colhoun, V. S. Thompson, 
A. Love, F. L. Smith. 

OULTON— ROGER REYNOLDS, of 39 Y 2 Edward St., Halifax, N.S. Born at 
Sackville, N.B., July 19th, 1913; Educ: B. Eng., N.S. Tech. Coll., 1938; 1933-37 
(summers), asst. on surveys, and 1937, and two mos. 1938, instr'man., Town of Truro, 
N.S. ; July 1938 to date, head of inventory party for Engineering Service Co., 
Halifax, N.S. 

References: J. R. Kaye, P. A. Lovett, G. V. Ross, G. H. Burchill. 

SARGENT— ALBERT ELBRIDGE, of 4675 Victoria Ave., Montreal, Que. Born 
at Montreal, Dec. 15th, 1887; Educ: B.Sc, M.E., McGill Univ., 1913; 1913-14, air 
conditioning engrg., Warren-Webster & Co., Camden, N.J.; 1914-19, Overseas, 
C.F.A.; 1919-24, in partnership with brother, Frick Ice & Refrigeration Co., design 
and installn. of equipment; 1924 to date, with the National Breweries Ltd., as 
follows: 1924-25, i/c constrn. of new Dow brewery incl. installn. and testing of all 
equipment; 1925-27, mech. supt., and 1927 to date supt. of Dow Brewery. 

References: J. G. Hall, F. S. B. Heward, B. R. Perry, C. K. McLeod, G. K. 
McDougall, F. J. Friedman, R. E. Jamieson, I. R. Tait. 

SHARPE— RUSSELL NEVILLE, of 121 Sherburn St., Winnipeg, Man., b.sc 
(Civil), Univ. of Man., 1938; 1933-36 (summers), chainman, axeman and concrete 
mixer: 1938 (two mos.), asst. to engr. i/c Morden-Sprague Road; 1938 (June-Oct.), 
inspr. foreman, intermediate airport, Rivers, Man. 

References: S. E McColl, G. Affleck, A. E. Macdonald, G. H. Herriot, D. N. Sharpe. 

SMITH— MAURICE HOWIE, of 93a Roncesvalles Ave, Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Edholm, Nebraska, Dec. 20th, 1901; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Man., 1935; 1936 
(seven mos.), elect'l. constrn. and mining engrg., Argody Gold Mines Ltd., Cassumit 
Lake, Ont.; 1937 to date, factory course, Massey-Harris Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

References; J. S. Campbell, R. E. Smythe, E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, N. M. Hall, 
G. H. Herriot. 

THURSTON— ARTHUR MUNROE, of Montreal West, Que. Born at Toronto, 
Ont., July 7th, 1912; Educ: B. Eng., McGill Univ., 1936; 1936-38, student ap'tice, 
and at present, engr., dept. of development, Shawinigan Water & Power Company, 
Montreal, Que. 

References: F. S. Keith, J. B. Challies, J. M. Evans, C. V. Christie, R. W. Hamilton, 
A. L. Patterson, J. M. Crawford, G. R. Hale. 

MORTON— PHILIP S. A., of 3670 Lome Crescent, Montreal, Que. Born at 
Barrie, Ont., Oct. 4th, 1903; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1928; Test Course, 
C.G.E.; with the Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., as follows: 1929-30, asst. 
foreman, test dept., and 1930-32 engrg. dept., Peterborough; 1935 to date, asst. to 
district service engr., Montreal Office. (Jr. 1931.) 

References: L. DeW. Magie, W. E. Ross, W. M. Cruthers, V. S. Foster, H. R. Sills, 
S. J. Hayes. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL January, 1939 



47 



McALPINE— ROBERT FRASER, of 101 Cromarty St., Sydney, N.S. Born at 
Sydney, N.S., March 7th, 1903; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1928; 
1923-27 (summers), shop work, etc., Dom. Coal Company; 1929-37, sales engr., 
Wm. Stairs Son & Morrow Ltd., Halifax, N.S. Work included selling, installing and 
servicing boilers, stokers, pumps, heaters, evaporators and general boiler plant 
equipment, tractors, plows, road equipment, Diesel engines, lighting plants, and 
accessory equipment. 1928 to date. Cape Breton Manager of engrg. dept. of same 
company at Sydney, N.S. Responsible for management and operation of new sales 
engrg. branch. (Jr. 1929.) 



References: R. R. Murray, S. C. 
Russell. 



Mifflen, W. S. Wilson, Y. C. Barrington, J. A. 



McINTYRE— DOUGLAS VALLANCE, of 60 Evan St., Welland, Ont. Born at 
High River, Alta., April 28th, 1903; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Alta., 1931; 
1931-32, asst. on hydro-electric constrn., Can. Gen. Elec. Co.; 1929 and 1933, 
instr'man. and dftsman., C.N.R.; 1936-38, Electro Metallurgical Co. of Canada Ltd., 
Welland, Ont., i/c layout and constrn. of bldg. additions and kilns, and layout of 
mech'l. and elect'l. equipment. (St. 1930, Jr. 1936.) 

References: H. D. Davison, J. C. Street, W. K. Leach, W. E. Cornish. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT 

CADRIN— PAUL EMILE, of St. Anselme, Que. Born at Victoriaville, Que., 
July 16th, 1911; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1936; 1936-37, 
mtce. engr., A. E. Marois Ltd.; June, 1937, to date, road engr., and at present asst. 
divn. engr., Quebec Road Dept. (St. 1935.) 



References: A. Frigon, 
S. A. Baulne. 



J. A. Lefebvre, A. Paradis, J. Saint Jacques, A. Gratton, 



TATHAM— WILLIAM CARLYLE, of 3647 University St., Montreal, Que. Born 
at Guelph, Ont., July 3rd, 1911. Educ: B.Eng., McGill Univ., 1935; 1932 (summer), 
in charge placer operations, Fort McLeod, B.C.; 1935-36, East Geduld Mines Ltd., 
Springs, South Africa, res. engr's. dftsman., layout and design of mine machy., 
bldgs., associated apparatus, equipment, etc.; 1936-38, with the Grootulei Proprietary 
Mines Ltd., Springs, S.A., as follows: 1936-37, asst. to chief engr., i/c all excavations, 
foundations and erection of all mach'y. at new six-compartment shaft; 1937 (Apr.- 
Nov.), i/c all underground constrn. and mtce.; 1937-38, ventilation officer and i/c 
of study department; at present, asst. engr., Courtlands (Canada) Limited, Cornwall, 
Ont. (St. 1935.) 

References: E. Brown, C. M. McKergow, W. G. McBride, A. R. Roberts, R. DeL. 
French. 

WEATHERBIE— WESTON EWART, of 36 Young St., Truro, N.S. Born at 
Tatamagouche, N.S., April 19th, 1905; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), N.S. Tech. Coll., 1931; 
1929 (summer), prospecting in Labrador; 1930 (May-Dec), res. engr. i/c constrn. 
at Halifax Municipal Airport; 1931 (May-Sept.), inspr. i/c laying of asphalt pave- 
ment, Halifax, N.S., for the city engr.; 1931-32, res. engr. i/c concrete paving, 
Sackville, N.B., for J. T. Donald & Co., Montreal; 1933 (Sept. -Oct.), instr'man., 
Beauharnois Light, Heat & Power Co. Ltd., Montreal; 1934-35, asst. divn. engr. on 
mtce., 1935-36, instr'man. on constrn., 1936, asst. res. engr. on constrn., and at 
present, acting res. engr. on constrn., Dept. of Highways of Nova Scotia. (St. 1931, 
Jr. 1932.) 

References: E. A. Crawley, H. W. B. Swabey. 



FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER TO THAT 
OF MEMBER 

FRASER— ISAAC MATHESON, of Saskatoon, Sask. Born at Pictou, N.S., 
Nov. 1st, 1890; Educ: B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1919; 1920-21, dftsman., Dominion 
Engrg. Works Ltd., 1921-26, asst. professor of mech'l engrg., 1926 to date, professor 
of mech'l engrg., and at present, head of dept., University of Saskatchewan, Saska- 
toon, Sask. (Jr. 1920, A.M. 1928.) 

References: C. J. Mackenzie, R. A. Spencer, A. M. Macgillivray, H. S. Carpenter, 
C. M. McKergow, A. R. Roberts. 

McQUEEN— ANDREW WILLIAM FRASER, of Niagara Falls, Ont. Born at 
Lowestoft, England, Feb. 7th, 1898; Educ: B.A.Sc, 1923, Civil Engr., 1932, Univ. 
of Toronto; R.P.E. of Ont.; 1923-27, asst. engr. of tests, H.E. P.C. of Ontario; 1927-32, 
asst. engr., and 1933 to date, hydraulic engr., H. G. Acres & Co. Ltd., Niagara Falls, 
Ont. (St. 1920, Jr. 1927, A.M. 1929.) 

References: H. G. Acres, R. L. Hearn, T. H. Hogg, O. Holden, J. J. Traill, 
A. U. Sanderson, J. A. Aeberli, H. S. VanPatter. 

WILLIAMS— GUY MORRIS, of Saskatoon, Sask. Born at Crete, Nebraska, 
Jan. 12th, 1888; Educ: B.S. in CE., Univ. of Nebraska, 1911; 1911-20, with U.S. 
Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1913-20, in charge of investigations and 
bldg. constrn., and various studies; 1920 to date, professor of civil engr., University 
of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., (A.M. 1920.) 

References: C. J. Mackenzie, W. E. Lovell, R. A. Spencer, I. M. Fraser, W. G. 
Worcester, A. R. Greig. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF JUNIOR 

BROWNELL— HAROLD ROSS, of 96 Burnside Drive, Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Truro, N.S., Aug. 28th, 1903; Educ: B.Sc. (Mech.), McGill Univ., 1929; 1930 to 
date, with Bailey Meter Co. Ltd. of Montreal, 1930-33, located in western Canada, 
and 1932 to date, representative in Toronto and Northern Ontario, engaged in 
sales, service and application of metering ai.d combustion control equipment, incl. 
automatic control of combustion and process. (St. 1927, Jr. 1932.) 

References: E. W. R. Butler, F. A. Becker, T. C. Main, N. M. Hall, W. L. 
Thompson. 

GIBBON— HUBERT S. V., of 101 Ruskin Ave., Ottawa, Ont. Born at Saint 
John, N.B., May 21st, 1904; Educ: 1921-23, Mt. Allison Univ., engrg. course; 
1923-24, partial student, Sch. of Arch'ture, 2nd year subjects McGill Univ.; 1922-23 
(summers), asst. on precise levelling party; 1924, asst. field engr., 1924-25, engrg. 
asst. in office, E. G. M. Cape Co. ; 1925-26, asst. field engr., Foundation Co. of Canada; 
1926-27, field engr. i/c survey party, Duke-Price Power Co.; with the Bell Telephone 
Company of Canada as follows: 1927-37, field engr., transmission and outside plant 
design, 1937, traffic asst., dial equipment problems, and at present, field engr. on 
preparation of outside plant estimates. (Jr. 1927.) 

References: G. S. Ridout, L. N. Moore, J. B. Stirling, J. H. Irvine, C. B. Bate, 
J. E. Clark, J. A. Loy. 

LOCKHEAD— STUART GEORGE, of 66 Strathearn Ave., Montreal West, Que. 
Born at Montreal, May 18th, 1905; Educ: B.Eng. (Civil), McGill Univ., 1938; 
1927-28, dftsman., Dominion Bridge Co.; 1928-29, chief of party and instr'man., 
forest surveys dept., Canada Power and Paper Corpn.; 1929-36, engr., City of 
Westmount, gen. municipal engrg.; Summer 1937, and 1938 to date, dftsman., 
Dominion Bridge Company, Montreal. (St. 1928, Jr. 1931.) 

References: F. J. McHugh, R. E. Jamieson, P. G. Delgado, D. C Tennant, 
A. Peden, M. Wolff. 



GEAR TRANSMISSIONS 

An analysis of the mechanical action of the now univer- 
sally applied synchronizers in gear transmissions of auto- 
mobiles is given by Professor George B. Upton of the 
Sibley School of Mechanical Engineering in Bulletin No. 25 
of the Cornell University Engineering Experiment Station, 
just off the press. "It is offered," says the preface, "as 
showing the type of analytical work which automotive 
engineers perform in connection with every detail of the 
vehicles which so many people now use, and are interested 
in knowing about." 

The bulletin first discusses the problems of shifting gears 
without special synchronizing devices. In "up-shifts," as 
from low to second and from second to high, he points out, 
the oil in the transmission tends to aid synchronizing, since 
it slows the speed of the engine clutch. In "down-shifts," 
however, as from high to second and second to low, the 
engine clutch needs to be speeded up. To do this with hand 
or foot accelerator and to mesh the gears without clashing 
is an operation requiring considerable skill. 

Successful synchronizers have "balking elements," which 
prevent gear meshing, either on up-shifts or down-shifts, 
until the gears mesh without clashing. Such synchronizers 
are so constructed that impatience on the part of the 
driver, expressed by greater pressure on the gear shift lever, 
hastens the action of the synchronizers. 



MORE WORK FOR ENGINEERS 

The January issue of Mechanical Enginerring contains a 
statement under the above heading by the president of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Alexander 
Graham Christie, in which he reviews modern trends and 
developments in mechanical engineering leading to the 
conclusion that more work for the engineer is indicated. 

Mr. Christie expresses the opinion that business is slowly 
but steadily improving, which means more work for 
mechanical engineers, which may be still further increased 
if they are encouraged to proceed with new developments. 
There are new products to be made in present plants, new 
services for the public, and greater comforts to be made 
available to all our population. 

The present movement in utilities will call for many 
turbine generators and boilers of large capacity, with the 
trend towards higher pressures and temperatures, and to 
the use of hydrogen cooling of generators. Certain develop- 
ments are also proceeding to the point where oil engines 
will have even greater application in transportation and in 
small power developments than they have to-day. 

Much less has been said lately, says Mr. Christie, con- 
cerning technological unemployment, . . . "what is needed 
now is the encouragement of new ideas and their industrial 
applications. Thus, as in the past, technology will provide 
the means of creating new jobs." 



48 



January, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 22 



FEBRUARY 1939 



NUMBER 2 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, a.m.e.i.c. 
Editor 

N. E. D. SHEPPARD, a.m.e.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

J. L. BUSFIELD, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. W. BOYLE, m.e.i.c. 

A. DUPERRON, m.e.i.c. 

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ADVISORY MEMBERS 
OF PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

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Price 50 cents a copy. $3.00 a year, in Canada, 
British Possessions. United States and Mexico. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates. 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
— Entered at the Post Office. Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL, THE RIGHT 
HONORARLE THE LORD TWEEDSMUIR, P.C., G.C.M.G., 
C.H., Hon. M.E.I.C (Portrait) . . 51 

DROUGHT, A NATIONAL PRORLEM 

G. A. Gaherty, M.E.I.C 53 

AMERICAN INDUSTRY LOOKS AT CANADA 

Marvin W. Maxwell, M.E.I.C 56 

REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1938 60 

Treasurer's Report ............ 

Finance Committee 

Library and House Committee 

Papers Committee 

Publication Committee 

Legislation Committee 

Committee on Western Water Problems 

Committee on Membership and Management 

Committee on Professional Interests 

Committee on International Relations . 

Membership Committee 

Roard of Examiners and Education 

The Canadian Chamber of Commerce 

Prize and Medal Ctnnmittees 

Employment Service 

ARSTRACTS OF REPORTS FROM RRANCHES 72 

MEMRERSHIP AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE RRANCHES . 76,'77 

ARSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 83 

EDITORIAL COMMENT 88 

On to Ottawa 

The Importance of Rasic Water Resources Data 

The Engineer and the Commission 

Roy, the Engineer's Friend 

Council Meeting 

Presidential Activities 

Engineering Co-operation Overseas 

Letter to the Editor 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS TO THE ANNUAL MEETING ... 91 

PERSONALS 92 

Obituaries 

Elections and Transfers 

NEWS OF THE RRANCHES 94 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 100 

LIRRARY NOTES 101 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 104 

PRELIMINARY NOTICES 105 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE RUREAU 107 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 

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GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



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•For 1938. tFor 1938-39. JFor 1938-39-40 

SECRETARY EMERITUS 

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J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN, Chairman 

E. A. ALLCUT 
R. W. ANGUS 
P. L. PRATLEY 
JOHN MURPHY 

F. P. SHEARWOOD 

WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 
C. H. ATTWOOD 
CHARLES CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 
S. G. PORTER 
J. M. WARDLE 

DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 
E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 
C. L. CATE 

A. G. FLEMING 
W. G. GLIDDON 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
J. A. McCRORY 
C. J. MACKENZIE 
J. H. McKINNEY 
R. M. SMITH 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 
H. W. McKIEL 



STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' 
PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 

H. N. Ruttan Prize 

H. S. CARPENTER, Chairman 
I. C. BARLTROP 
R. M. DINGWALL 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 

John Galbraith Prize 

E. V. BUCHANAN, Chairman 
R. W. BOYLE 
0. HOLDEN 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 

Phelps Johnson Prize 

(English) J. A. McCRORY, Chairman 
J. B. D'AETH 
R. H. FINDLAY 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province 
of Quebec) 

(French) H. O. KEAY, Chairman 

A. DUPERRON 
K. S. LeBARON 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

R. L. DUNSMORE, Chairman 

B. E. BAYNE 

H. S. JOHNSTON 



50 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VOLUME 22 



FEBRUARY 1939 



NUMBER 2 



"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 




HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA 
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE, THE LORD TWEEDSMUIR, 

P.C., G.C.M.G., C.H., Hon. M.E.I.C. 

who is honouring the Institute by his presence together 

with THE LADY TWEEDSMUIR 

at the Annual Dinner on Tuesday Evening 

February Fourteenth, Nineteen Hundred-Thirty-nine 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, BOYD CANDLISH 
Vice-Chair., F. J. BRIDGE 
Executive, H. L. JOHNSTON 

W. J. FLETCHER A. E. WEST 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 

H. J. A. CHAMBERS 
Sec.-Treas., GEO. E. MEDLAR, 

1548 Dougall Ave., Windsor, Ont. 

CALGARY 

Chairman, E. W. BOWNESS 

Vice-Chair., S. G. COULTIS 

Executive, J. J. HANNA R. S. TROWSDALE 

F. J. HEUPERMAN 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. TOOKER H. J. McLEAN 

jas. McMillan j. haddin 

Sec.-Treas., B. W. SNYDER, 

215-6th Ave. West, 

Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, I. W. BUCKLEY 

Executive, C. M. ANSON M. F. COSSITT 

J. A. MacLEOD S. G. NAISH 

(Ex-Officio) A. P. THEUERKAUF 

M. R. CHAPPELL 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, W. E. CORNISH 
Vice-Chair., C. E. GARNETT 
Executive, E. NELSON D. A. HANSEN 

E. L. SMITH J. W. PORTEOUS 
E. SKARIN 
(Ex-Officio), J. D. BAKER R. M. DINGWALL 
Sec.-Treas., F. A. BROWNIE, 
11009-86th Ave , 

Edmonton, Alta. 

HALIFAX 

Chairman, A. D. NICKERSON 

Executive, E. L. BAILLIE S. BELL 

A. G. MAHON S. W. GREY 

C. ST. J. WILSON 

H. R. THEAKSTON 
(Ex-Officio), I. P. MacNAB H. S. JOHNSTON 

R. L. DUNSMORE 
Sec.-Treas., R. R. MURRAY, 

c/o Wm. Stairs' Son & Morrow Ltd., 
Halifax, N.S. 

HAMILTON 

Chairman, J. R. DUNBAR 
Vice-Chair., V. S. THOMPSON 
Executive, W. A. T. GILMOUR C. H. HUTTON 
S. SHUPE N. WAGNER 

(Ex-Officio), H. A. LUMSDEN W. J. W. REID 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD, 
354 Herkimer Street, 

Hamilton, Ont. 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, H. W. HARKNESS 
Vice-Chair., G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 
Executive, A. JACKSON V. R. DAVIES 

R. A. LOW 
(Ex-Officio), H. H. LAWSON L. F. GRANT 

Sec.-Treas., H. G. CONN, 
376 Earl St., 

Kingston, Ont. 

LAKEHEAD 



Chairman, E. L. GOODALL 
Vice-Chair., K. A. DUNPHY 
Executive, J. R. MATHIESON 
D. BOYD 
B. A. CULPEPER 
S. E. FLOOK 
(Ex-Officio), G. R. DUNCAN 
Sec.-Treas., H. OS, 



H. OLSSON 

M. GREGOR 

E. A. KELLY 

A. T. HURTER 

R. J. ASKIN 



423 Rita St., Port Arthur, Ont. 



LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, R. F. P. BOWMAN 

Vice-Chair., J. T. WATSON 

Executive, WM. MELDRUM P. M. SAUDER 

(Ex-Officio), J.M.CAMPBELL W.D.McKENZIE 

C. S. DONALDSON G. S. BROWN 
Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE, 
916-8th St. S., 

Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, H. F. BENNETT 
Vice-Chair., W. E. ANDREWES 
Executive, H. A. McKAY V. A. McKILLOP 
W. C. MILLER W. H. RIEHL 

J. R. ROSTRON 
(Ex-Officio), E. V. BUCHANAN J. A. VANCE 
Sec.-Treas., D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 

London Structural Steel Co. Ltd., 
London, Ont. 

MONCTON 

Chairman, B. E. BAYNE 

Vice-Chair., F. L. WEST 

Executive, F. O. CONDON A. S. GUNN 

G. L. DICKSON, C. S. G. ROGERS 
R. H. EMMERSON G. E. SMITH 

(Ex-Officio) E. B. MARTIN 

Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, C. KIRKLAND McLEOD 
Vice-Chair., J. A. E. GOHIER 
Executive, J. A. BEAUCHEMIN 

G. J. CHENEVERT 

R. E. HEARTZ R. S. EADIE 

K. O. WHYTE G. McL. PITTS 
(Ex-Officio), J. B. D'AETH A. DUPERRON 

F. S. B. HEWARD J. L. BUSFIELD 

F. NEWELL J. A. McCRORY 
R. H. FINDLAY J. B. CHALLIES 

B. R. PERRY 
Sec.-Treas., E. R. SMALLHORN, 

P. O. Box 132, Hochelaga Station, 
Montreal, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. G. MOON 

Vice-Chair., A. W. F. McQUEEN 

Executive, A. L. McPHAIL C. G. CLINE 

M. H. JONES P. E. BUSS 

D. W. BRACKEN E. C. LITTLE 

C. H. McL. BURNS 

(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK L. C. McMURTRY 
Sec.-Treas., G. E. GRIFFITHS, 

Box 385, Thorold, Ont. 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, W. F. M. BRYCE 
Executive, R. A. STRONG R. M. STEWART 
W. H. MUNRO A. FERRIER 

P. SHERRIN 
(Ex-Officio), E. VIENS G. J. DESBARATS 

J. G. MACPHAIL R. W. BOYLE 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, W. T. FANJOY 

Executive, B. I. BURGESS I. F. McRAE 

B. OTTEWELL R. L. DOBBIN 

G. A. CUNNINGHAM 
(Ex-Officio), V. R. CURRIE A. B. GATES 
Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 



QUEBEC 

Hon. Chair. 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair. 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



A. R. DECARY 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 

PHILIPPE METHE 

J. J. O'DONNELL M. BOURGET 

L. MARTIN A. O. DUFRESNE 

C. H. BOISVERT E. GRAY-DONALD 

A. B. NORMANDIN H. CIMON 

A. LARIVIERE 

JEAN SAINT-JACQUES 

Quebec Power Co., P.O. Box 730, 

Quebec, Que 



SAGUENAY 

Chairman, M. G. SAUNDERS 
Vice-Chair., ADAM CUNNINGHAM 
Executive, F. L. LAWTON R. H. RIMMER 
A. B. SINCLAIR G. F. LAYNE 

(Ex-Officio) A. C. JOHNSTON 
Sec.-Treas., F. T. BOUTILIER, 

Box 101, Arvida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, H. W. BLAKE 

Vice-Chair., H. F. MORRISEY 

Executive, H. P. LINGLEY G. N. HATFIELD 

G. G. MURDOCH 
(Ex-Officio) E. J. OWENS S. HOGG 

Sec.-Treas., F. A. PATRIQUEN, 

10 Manawagonish Rd., 

Fairville, N.B. 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, H. J. WARD 

Vice-Chair., F. W. BRADSHAW 

Executive, N. J. A. VERMETTE H. G. TIMMIS 
A. H. HEATLEY W. B. SCOTT 

L. B. STIRLING J. FREGEAU 

(Ex-Officio) H. O. KEAY J. F. WICKENDEN 
K. S. LeBARON 

Sec.-Treas., L. B. STEWART, 

Shawinigan Water & Power Co., 

Shawinigan Falls, Que. 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, J. W. D. FARRELL 

Vice-Chair., I. M. FRASER 

Executive, R. W. ALLEN S. R. MUIRHEAD 
H. S. CARPENTER W. E. LOVELL 
A. R. GREIG R. A. McLELLAN 

H. I. NICHOLL J. E. UNDERWOOD 

(Ex-Officio), R. A. SPENCER 

Sec.-Treas., J. J. WHITE, 

City Hall, Regina, Sask. 



SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, A. E. PICKERING 

Vice-Chair., A. M. WILSON 

Executive, G. B. ANDERSON N. C. COWIE 

C. R. MURDOCK 
E. W. NEELANDS 

(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG J. S. MACLEOD 

Sec.-Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

179 Denis St., Sault Ste Marie, Ont. 

TORONTO 

Chairman, C. E. SISSON 
Vice-Chair., A. E. BERRY 

Executive, N. MacNICOL W. E. P. DUNCAN 
H. E. BRANDON G. H. ROGERS 

D. D. WHITSON M. B. WATSON 
(Ex-Officio), W. E. BONN O. HOLDEN 

A. U. SANDERSON 
Sec.-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engrg. Bldg., University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 

VANCOUVER 

Chairman, ERNEST SMITH 

Vice-Chair., C. E. WEBB 

Executive, V. DOLMAGE C. A. DAVIDSON 
A. PEEBLES G. O. JOHNSON 

W. O. C. SCOTT P. H. BUCHAN 

(Ex-Officio), J. P. MACKENZIE 
JAS. ROBERTSON 

Sec.-Treas., T. V. BERRY, 

3007-36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 

VICTORIA 

Chairman, K. MOODIE 

Vice-Chair., H. L. SHERWOOD 

Executive, S. H. FRAME E. I. W. JARDINE 

E. W. IZARD R. E. WILKINS 
(Ex-Officio), J. C. MacDONALD 

I. C. BARLTROP 
Sec.-Treas., KENNETH REID, 

1336 Carnsew St., Victoria, B.C 

WINNIPEG 

Chairman, W. D. HURST 
Vice-Chair., L. M. HOVEY 
Executive, G. C. DAVIS C. H. ATTWOOD 

V. H. PATRIARCHE J. T. ROSE 

J. A. MacGILLIVRAY 
(Ex-Officio), A. E. MACDONALD H. L. BRIGGS 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., J. HOOGSTRATEN, 

University of Manitoba, 

Fort Garry, Man. 



52 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



DROUGHT, A NATIONAL PROBLEM 

G. A. GAHERTY, M.E.I. C. 

President, Montreal Engineering Company, Limited, Montreal. 

Paper to be presented at the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Ottawa, Ontario, on February 15th, 1939 



SUMMARY — The author outlines the position of the drought 
area in our national economy and the activities of the Govern- 
ment under the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act with par- 
ticular reference to the work of the engineer in providing 
water supply. The problems of water conservation are dis- 
cussed and the importance of the fundamental data gathered 
by the technical services of the Government is stressed. 

The author points out the interdependence of agriculture 
and industry and shows that prosperity can only be brought 
about through the co-operation of all sections of the com- 
munity. 

In the drought area of the three prairie provinces hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars of Canadian money are invested 
in railways, utilities and other facilities. It is this very area 
that produces the world's best wheat and wheat is the most 
valuable single item in our export trade. With building 
construction on the prairie at a standstill for years past 
and with deferred replacements of farm machinery piling 
up, it offers a large potential market for the products of 
Canadian industry. With more really fertile land in this 
area than in all the rest of Canada combined, and with 
almost all of the good land in eastern Canada already under 
cultivation, the efficient utilization of this very area will 
determine in a large measure the future prosperity of 
Canada. 

The prairie in the first instance was settled haphazardly 
without much regard to or knowledge of the rainfall or 
of the wide variations in fertility. The following years of 
more than average rainfall and high prices of wheat resulted 
in the land being overvalued, particularly in the less fertile 
sections. To start with, few of the settlers had any capital. 
They mortgaged the land up to the hilt to provide farm 
buildings and machinery. In this they were encouraged by 
some of the lending institutions and by the high-pressure 
salesmen of the implement companies. Many of the farmers 
applied their profits to the reduction of their debts, but 
others acquired at inflated prices more land than they 
could handle to advantage and a few made no provision 
against the day when conditions might not be so favour- 
able. Of late years the combination of low wheat prices and 
of poor yields, as a result of drought, rust or grasshopper 
damage, has made it hard for the farmer. Even so, the 
skilful and thrifty farmer on dry but fertile land has been 
able to make a good living, although his less competent 
neighbour on similar land may be destitute. 

Optimism is justified, — there is no occasion for pessimism; 
the means whereby a prosperous and stable agricultural 
economy in the drought area can be brought about are 
well known to many and are being applied currently under 
the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act. Soil moisture can be 
retained from one season to the next by summer fallow, 
and the spring run-off can be conserved in the soil by 
contour ploughing. Even in extreme cases soil drifting can 
be brought under control by listing and can be kept under 
control by strip farming. Crop yields can be increased by 
agricultural research and by the dissemination of informa- 
tion through the experimental farms. The population can 
be made more nearly self-sustaining in times of drought 
through providing water for domestic and stock watering 
purposes and for farm gardens, by sinking wells where 
suitable ground water is available and by conserving the 
scanty local run-off in "dugouts" and small reservoirs. 
Even the poorer lands can be put to beneficial use by con- 
verting them to c'ommunity pastures and reseeding them 
with suitable grasses. In conjunction with adjacent fertile 
lands and minor irrigation projects for raising feed such 



lands help build up a balanced and stable agriculture 
economy. 

As regards irrigation the day will come when every drop 
of the limited water supply will be conserved and utilized 
for this purpose. While the most prosperous agricultural 
communities in the whole of the prairie, and those most 
free from relief, are situated in irrigated territory, large 
scale irrigation does not offer an immediate means of 
rehabilitation. Its place lies in the gradual development of 
those areas too dry to raise wheat commercially as suitable 
settlers trained in the radically different type of farming 
become available, and as markets can be obtained for the 
specialized crops that can only be grown to advantage on 
irrigated lands. On account of the relatively small acreage 
required per family and consequent ease of supervision, 
irrigation projects offer favourable resettlement prospects 
for farmers now attempting to raise field crops on land 
suitable only for grazing. These lands might also lend them- 
selves to colonization schemes for the unemployed or for 
selected groups of immigrants. Irrigated land with the in- 
tensive cultivation of high priced crops will support ten 
times the population that wheat land will, but the markets 
for such crops are slow to develop and will depend to a 
large extent on the industrialization of the prairie, which, 
judging by what has happened in California, is only a 
question of time. 

Except in favoured localities, the cost of providing water 
for irrigation is beyond the capacity of the average farmer 
alone to bear, but the benefits of irrigation are so wide- 
spread that the expenditure of Government funds, either 
directly or as subsidies to irrigation co-operatives or com- 
panies, is in most cases justified, as the Government will be 
reimbursed through the increase in taxable wealth of the 
community at large. With one or two exceptions there is 
no immediate need, however, of constructing further major 
irrigation works. The projects on the Bow River between 
Calgary and Medicine Hat and those on the St. Mary's and 
Oldman River north and east of Lethbridge with whatever 
enlargements or extensions may be necessary or feasible 
have plenty of vacant land that can be irrigated and the 
sensible thing to do is to concentrate on completing the 
colonization of these before undertaking new major pro- 
jects. 

It would be far cheaper to move settlers who cannot make 
a living out of dry farming to these areas, than it would 
be to provide their present farms with water for irrigation. 
Furthermore, much of the land that can be successfully 
worked under proper dry farming methods does not lend 
itself to irrigation, the soil constituents or topography being 
unsuitable. 

Storage works are urgently required in connection with 
St. Mary's and Milk Rivers. Both rise on the eastern slope 
of the Rockies in northern Montana and flow northward 
into Canada, but the St. Mary's River drains into Hudson 
Bay whereas the Milk doubles back into the States to find 
its way via the Missouri and the Mississippi to the Gulf 
of Mexico. On the American side of the line a canal has 
been in operation for a number of years diverting a portion 
of the flow of the St. Mary's into the Milk, the water again 
being diverted out of the Milk after passing through 
Canada, while on the Canadian side only the waters of the 
St. Mary's are being used to any extent. Each country 
under the International Waterways Treaty is entitled to a 
definite share of the natural flow and the necessary gauging 
stations are maintained jointly by the U.S. Geological 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



53 



Survey and the Dominion Water Power and Hydrometric 
Bureau. 

The thriving towns of Cardston, Magrath, Raymond and 
Taber, and to a large extent the City of Lethbridge itself, 
owe their very existence to the irrigated area supplied from 
the St. Mary's. Settled originally in the most part by 
Mormons, who are irrigation minded, this prosperous dis- 
trict can be extended to advantage provided reservoirs are 
constructed to store the flood and winter flow of the St. 
Mary's. Effecting as it does so vitally the future of this 
important district we should put to beneficial use our share 
of the flow of this international stream before it is too late. 

The natural flow of the other important rivers is at some 
seasons barely sufficient for present requirements and the 
full utilization of even the irrigation projects now in 
existence will entail the development of extensive storage 
works. On the most important stream, the Bow River, 
150,000 acre feet of storage has already been developed for 
power purposes. When the occasion arises the power com- 
pany concerned would no doubt be willing to make available 
such storage as is necessary provided it is compensated for 
any additional steam power that has to be generated by 
reason of such use of its storage, and this would at the 
outset be a far cheaper way of obtaining storage than by 
constructing reservoirs expressly for irrigation. While there 
is naturally some conflict in the use of storage for irrigation, 
for power and for flood control, it is not so serious as would 
at first appear. Reservoirs having a large capacity in 
relation to the water supply tributary to them would in 
any event be impounding the entire flow at the time the 
river is in flood and so would be fully effective for flood 
control purposes. The remaining ones could in most cases 
be held down or lowered in anticipation of the flood without 
much risk of there not being enough surplus water to fill 
them in the remainder of the high water season. In the use 
of the stored water the problem is not so simple. The streams 
rising in the Rockies are characterized by low winter flow 
and high flow from melting snow and ice throughout the 
summer. Thus the release of stored water for power purposes 
is required in the very season the farmers do not irrigate. 
However, the irrigation projects almost without exception 
draw water through long main canals on which are situated 
secondary reservoirs, from which the water is supplied to 
the farmer in accordance with his needs. As the draught on 
these secondary reservoirs increases with the fuller exploit- 
ation of the projects, it will be necessary either to enlarge 
the main canals at great expense or to utilize them for the 
winter filling of these secondary reservoirs. If this latter 
course proves feasible, the irrigation projects will auto- 
matically benefit by storage created and used for power 
purposes. 

A more serious difficulty in the storage and use of water 
lies in the conflict in interests between the Dominion and 
the various provinces. The principal river, the Saskatche- 
wan, derives a large part of its supply from national park 
areas on the eastern slope of the Rockies. On its course to 
Lake Winnipeg it traverses first Alberta, then Saskatchewan 
and finally Manitoba, Lake Winnipeg draining into Hudson 
Bay via the Nelson River. All three provinces are interested 
in the regulation of the flow from the standpoint of flood 
control, Alberta, and to a lesser extent Saskatchewan, from 
the standpoint of irrigation, and Alberta and Manitoba 
from the standpoint of power. The consumption of water 
for irrigation in Alberta commensurately reduces the supply 
available for Saskatchewan and irrigation in both provinces 
would be somewhat detrimental to Manitoba's interests in 
the important undeveloped power sites on the Nelson. The 
situation will be further complicated if the National Park 
officials continue their uncompromising opposition on senti- 
mental ground to any further storage development within 
the parks. As some of the largest and most economical 
storage sites lie within the parks, the ban on storage devel- 
opment would increase the cost of extending the existing 
irrigation works as well as reducing the area that can ulti- 



mately be irrigated. It is to be hoped that by the time this 
question becomes acute machinery will have been set up 
to deal with it on broad national lines. 

The possibilities of electric pumping should not be over- 
looked. Cheap and efficient pumps are now available and 
in the Eastern Irrigation District at Brooks they are being 
used with great success, both for supplying land above 
ditch level and for reclaiming drainage. Where cheap power 
can be secured water can in some instances be pumped for 
less than the carrying charges on the alternative of gravity 
canals. Canals have to be built for the ultimate capacity 
whereas the pumping charges are low initially and increase 
only as the project becomes colonized, usually a long pro- 
cess. Lands can be supplied by pumping that it would 
otherwise be impracticable to irrigate and this has the 
advantage that small projects can be dotted around to 
provide green feed in grazing areas. The power companies 
have shown a disposition to co-operate. In Saskatchewan 
"off peak" power is sold for this purpose at six-tenths 
of one cent per kilowatt hour, which barely covers the cost 
of fuel, and in Alberta it is available for the irrigation 
season at ten dollars per horsepower. 

So far the projects under the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation 
Act have been small but numerous. Even these require 
engineering advice and supervision is required. With minor 
dams where a washout would not be disastrous, engineering 
judgment is needed to determine just how far the sections, 
the spillway capacity and the rip-rap can be cut down to 
save cost. With small earth fill dams as with large ones, 
the water has to be raised gradually so as to allow the fills 
to consolidate, and after their completion they should be 
frequently inspected and their maintenance supervised by 
engineers, if costly washouts are to be avoided. Major pro- 
jects such as the St. Mary's River storage require months 
of field investigation by engineers and geologists, and 
engineering skill of the highest order is indispensable in the 
design and construction of the requisite works. The dams 
in many cases would be high, the foundation conditions are 
as a rule none too good, necessitating earth fill dams, and 
high flood flows have to be contended with. The problems 
of unwatering and of providing spillway capacity are there- 
fore difficult. The grave consequences of the failure of a 
large dam make it imperative that the best engineering 
advice in Canada be sought. 

The engineer is dependent upon the fundamental data 
collected by the various technical departments of the 
Government. Ground water studies by the Geological 
Survey show whether or not a potable water supply is 
likely to be obtainable from wells and geological maps are 
highly informative in studying foundation conditions for 
important structures. Good topographical maps save ex- 
pense on reconnaissance surveys, and often reveal possi- 
bilities of development that might otherwise pass unnoticed. 
Long term meteorological and stream flow records and soil 
surveys are indispensable in the sound design of irrigation 
projects, however small. It is imperative that the collection 
of such data be continued and enlarged by the departments 
concerned. 

The attitude of provincial and federal agricultural 
agencies to date may quite fairly be described as con- 
structive and worth while. While a few of the projects 
currently carried out under the coordinating influence of 
the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act may be open to 
criticism, it cannot but be admitted that there has been 
provided an admirable framework for a sound national 
policy of rehabilitation and agricultural expansion. The 
agricultural side of the programme has received due promi- 
nence. Through the establishment of the experimental sub- 
stations in conjunction with the Experimental Farms of the 
Dominion Government, considerable progress has been 
made in having the farmers adopt recommended practices. 
Regrassing projects have been successful in helping to 
restore areas to grass which had previously been a menace 
to the community at large. Community pastures offer 



54 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



promise in connection with the breeding of western yearling 
cattle for refinishing in the east. The work of publishing 
the findings of the technical branches of the governmental 
services has also been greatly extended. Through the 
formation of agricultural societies the wider dissemination 
of proven agricultural methods has been aided. 

Insofar as the water development programme is con- 
cerned, it may be stated that the programme as a whole 
has been admirably conceived, concentrating as it does upon 
the smaller water projects. Showy projects of little moment 
have been largely avoided. In aiming to promote, through 
the smaller farm or community projects, a greater measure 
of self-sustenance in good years and bad, the work has been 
such as to convey permanent benefit to the maximum 
number of people. Throughout the greater part of the area, 
the sound projects are all small and most of them are 
already completed, but confined to certain localities there 
still remain important major projects that can be proceeded 
with to advantage. It is of the utmost importance to the 
future of the country that this highly desirable work be 
continued and it is to be hoped that a programme so well 
conceived and so ably initiated will not be marred by 
unwise interference. 

Owing to depressed world trade and unsettled political 
conditions, Canadian wheat has had to compete in a 
restricted market in recent years. All transactions, whether 
internal or external, are by nature barter, money serving 
merely as a means whereby goods and services can be con- 
veniently exchanged, and we can only sell our wheat abroad 
provided foreign countries want it or are unable to do with- 
out it. That the policy of European countries to raise their 
own wheat has been aided to no small extent by a series 
of extremely favourable crop years cannot, however, be 
denied. While no immediate relief may be expected, the 
long term future should favour Canada by reason of its 
high quality wheat and the ease with which it can in most 
years be produced. In the meantime it would seem prudent 
to explore the possibilities of expanding our home markets 
for agricultural products by increasing our population, and 
by developing through research better means of preserving 
and storing our own fruit and vegetables for the season of 
the year in which we are now largely dependent upon 
imports. 

A wider appreciation of the difficulties the western wheat 
farmer has to contend with will lead to a more tolerant 
and constructive attitude in dealing with his problems. The 
direct cause of much of his distress is that a bushel of wheat 
today, even at the government pegged price, which applies 
only to wheat, will purchase for him only two-thirds of 
what it would before the war (Searle Grain Co. letter, Dec. 
20th, 1938), and debts contracted under one set of circum- 
stances may work a hardship when widely different con- 
ditions prevail. With transportation and marketing charges 
relatively inflexible, a small change in the price to the con- 
sumer makes a large difference in what the farmer receives, 
whereas the price of manufactured articles is comparatively 
stable due to the rigidity of wages and the upward trend 
of taxes in a depression. Industry of course suffers through 
loss of markets resulting in unemployment and elimination 
of profits, the construction industry being particularly 
affected. The fact stands out that agricultural prosperity is 
an indispensable prelude to better times in industry and in 
other fields of our economic endeavour. 

The departments of agriculture, in striving to increase 
the efficiency of farm operations, have gone to the root of 
our troubles and this very plan extended to other fields of 
endeavour would further speed up the return to normal. 
The higher the efficiency with which goods can be produced 
and their exchange effected, the larger will be the volume 
of such exchange, and as a result unemployment will be 
decreased and all will enjoy a higher standard of living, 
which after all should be the aim of our national economy. 
The chief impediments to the free exchange of goods and 



services are perhaps the cost of government and transport- 
ation, and in both these fields too many men are engaged in 
unproductive activities. As high wages are essential for a 
high standard of living, it is not the wages of the railway 
running trades that are objectionable but rather those con- 
ditions of employment imposed by the unions that render 
efficient operation impossible. The unions should be per- 
suaded that the best interests of the men would be served 
by gradually working around to a condition whereby the 
numbers would be reduced to those required for efficient 
operation and these men would be assured of a good annual 
income, for which they would render a full year's work 
instead of being employed as at present intermittently and 
at high hourly rates. In the transportation field there is 
plenty of room for constructive co-operation between capital 
and labour, as well as between the various transportation 
interests. 

One phase of our economic problem in which the engineer 
is vitally interested is the stagnation in the construction 
industry, arising from the lack of inducement under pre- 
sently prevailing legislation to invest money in house build- 
ing or industrial expansion. The excessive real estate taxes, 
the high sales tax, municipal and provincial income taxes 
on top of the double Dominion taxation on profits derived 
through companies, in contrast to the system in England 
of taxing all income only once, the multiplicity of statistical 
returns required by law, the forcing of shorter hours in 
seasonal employment, the petty restrictions imposed under 
the guise of regulation, the legislation favouring the debtor 
at the expense of the creditor, the duplication of govern- 
mental activities, the harassing of business by political 
investigations and the fear of competition from tax-free 
state enterprises are all having their effect and unemploy- 
ment with reduced demand for agricultural products is the 
result. 

During the latter part of 1937 and the early months of 
1938, the "Rowell" Commission collected in its travels a 
curious conglomeration of controversial opinion and sec- 
tional grievances. While this complicated the task of the 
Commission, there can be no doubt but that it has brought 
to every section of the country a realization that no other 
section is without its own peculiar problems. A greater 
measure of national co-operation on mutual problems and 
farsighted compromise with respect to questions of sectional 
interests remains as ever Canada's primary need. 

In this connection, the record of our efforts to alleviate 
the problems of drought distress have perhaps been a 
striking object lesson to all of Canada. Governmental action 
has been confined, generally speaking, to its proper sphere. 
Leaving farming to the farmer, it has nevertheless been of 
inestimable service in supplying co-ordination and guidance 
through technical and experimental branches strikingly 
qualified to render such assistance. It has also been both 
prompt and successful in drawing upon the knowledge and 
ability of corporate officers and engineers experienced in 
dealing with the problems involved. Real progress would be 
made in fields no less important if the same foresight and 
constructive thought were being applied to our national 
economy as a whole. Our industrial corporations must 
receive tolerance and co-operation if they are to bear their 
full share in the restoration of normal conditions and the 
free exchange of goods and services. 

As an example of what can be accomplished by working 
together, most of the country elevators in Alberta were 
electrified in the very depth of the depression through the 
co-operation of the elevator companies, the electrical manu- 
facturers, labour, and the power company concerned. If 
industry at large would work with agriculture, capital with 
labour, and the east with the west, our basic difficulties 
would quickly resolve themselves. The engineer, by reason 
of his education and experience, can make a definite con- 
tribution to the solution of our economic problems, and in 
this he can be of real service to the country as a whole. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



55 



AMERICAN INDUSTRY LOOKS AT CANADA 

MARVIN W. MAXWELL, B.Sc, A.M.E.I.C. 

Industrial Commissioner, Canadian National Railways, New York 

Paper to be presented at the General Professional Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

at Ottawa, Ontario, February 15th, 1939. 



SUMMARY — The author deals with the factors which have a 
bearing on the establishment of American branch factories in 
Canada, and frankly discusses the attitude of the American 
businessman towards Canada. He makes a strong plea for 
concrete action on the part of Canada and Canadians for the 
organization and administration of a nationally undertaken 
study of the natural wealth of the country, its practical appli- 
cation and utilization. "The collectivists may have taught us 
something, might we not show them what voluntary collective 
action can accomplish in a democracy?" 



My work is industrial engineering as applied to the 
development of railway traffic through the extension of 
industrial activity along the lines and in the areas served 
by the railway system and more particularly those develop- 
ments based on capital originating in the United States. 
I have assumed that a more-or-less first-hand report as to 
what our nearest neighbors think of us industrially and 
commercially, the extent to which they are observing and 
participating in our progress, and their view of Canada as 
a field for expansion might be of interest. To this, there 
will be added some observations bearing on national de- 
velopment in Canada. 

It seems unlikely that the average Canadian living at 
home fully realizes how sharply the eyes of the world are 
regarding his country to-day, or that he is fully awake to 
the position that Canada may be called on to occupy in 
world affairs. Furthermore it is doubtful if many of us have 
yet given much thought to setting our economic stage for 
responsibilities that may be in store for us. 

It is not necessary to sketch the new political patterns 
that are shaping in the world picture, the re-grouping that 
is being brought about in the European and Asiatic coun- 
tries, and the sharp political and economic divisions 
developing between the authoritarian and the democratic 
schools of thought. How far these re-groupings may proceed 
and in what direction no one can do more than speculate, 
but it seems inevitable that events will cause a closer bond 
of sympathy and co-operation amongst the remaining 
democracies and that this action will tend to centre in that 
group of common origin, language and culture — the English- 
speaking nations. 

This movement is in progress. A triangle of tariff treaties 
has been set up between the United States, Canada and 
the British countries with a purpose, and current move- 
ments looking to closer understandings amongst the coun- 
tries of North and South America are also not without 
significance. 

Geographically and commercially we occupy a pivotal 
position in the Anglo-American group. Our peculiar 
resources on the one hand, complement and supplement 
the natural wealth of the Empire; and on the other, they 
round out an almost perfect economic picture in North 
America. The commercial strategy of this situation is 
obvious, and furnishes in part, the reason for Canada's 
remarkable industrial growth since the beginning of the 
century. 

Canada began to attract world attention as a producer 
of manufactured goods following the long depression which 
ended in 1897 and, concurrent with and largely a function 
of her industrial rise, has been the movement of American 
industry into the Canadian field. That movement was slow 
in its early stages, accelerated somewhat after 1910, inter- 
rupted by the war and resumed on an increasing scale after 
1920. By 1930 one of our government departments had 



listed 957 Canadian operations of United States companies. 
In 1929 the Secretary of Commerce department of the 
United States Government, in an estimate of American 
investments abroad, had given a figure of 524 American 
branch plants, with an investment of American capital 
amounting to $541,000,000. This was exclusive of pulp and 
paper operations in which it was stated a further $279,000,000 
American capital was invested, making a total of roughly, 
$820,000,000 at that time. It will be understood that this 
sum represented direct investment of American money in 
fixed assets, and does not include the many Canadian cor- 
porations, some of the capital stock of which may have 
been owned by Americans. It also makes no account of the 
numerous manufacturing arrangements by United States 
companies with existing Canadian manufacturers. 

It is hard to offer any positive picture of the American 
branch plant movement. In 1933 we made a list, for the 
use of our local traffic officers, of over fifteen hundred 
American companies with manufacturing representation in 
Canada, which included many of the more important manu- 
facturing arrangements. Some of these have since retired 
or consolidated. Another list I have seen, but not checked, 
runs over two thousand. We can conservatively add one 
hundred to our 1933 figures, bringing the current figure to 
1,600 or thereabouts. This is probably low. 

Estimates of this character are apt to vary a good deal 
because it is hard to draw the line between genuine manu- 
facture and some types of assembly that may involve little 
more than packaging. In any event, conservative authorities 
agree that of the 156,000 manufacturing companies in the 
United States, upwards of 1,000 have established branch 
operations in Canada in the past 20 years or at an average 
rate of 50 per year, and that the investment of American 
capital in Canadian manufacturing might currently be 
placed at around $1,000,000,000. These may seem high 
figures to the small Canadian town that has been striving 
to secure even one of these industries. 

The figures are impressive in that they reflect a move- 
ment almost unique in the economic history of countries. 
It is true that American industrialists have been active in 
other countries, but in 1929, for which we have the Secre- 
tary of Commerce estimate, their industrial investment in 
Canada was greater than in all the rest of the world com- 
bined. No such sustained and steady movement has, to the 
best of my knowledge, been recorded elsewhere. 

The prime consideration that has led American industry 
into Canada has been the ability to serve directly, two 
additional markets, the Canadian domestic and the British 
Empire market, through the reduction of tariff, distribution 
cost and other handicaps. Their Canadian market has 
usually been fairly well established through previous pene- 
tration over the tariff, demand being stimulated in many 
cases through the penetration of American advertising and 
national proximity. Since the British market either has been 
previously established as an export market or is capable of 
promotion only through manufacturing in a British country, 
it follows that manufacture for British distribution repre- 
sents sound business for Canada. 

Other considerations are: the entry of a competitor who 
can thus undersell him; cutting of distribution cost by 
getting production closer to his customers; appeal to 
national sentiment through being able to offer a "made-in- 
Canada" product; domestic developments, such as the rise 
of the mining industry, stimulating demand for certain lines 



56 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



of producers goods; the protection of patent rights; neces- 
sity of establishing servicing facilities to hold or extend 
existing business; advantage in control and administration 
of having plant serving the British Empire as near as 
possible to the parent plant and, of course, for some indus- 
tries, availability of materials, natural facilities, such as 
cheap power, and the adaptability of Canadian labour. 

A recent development which is interesting is the estab- 
lishment of Canadian plant by European interest as a hedge 
against possible unfavourable happenings abroad. A large 
plant is now being built in Canada in order to take up the 
slack should plants abroad have to suspend production 
through acts of war. 

Similarity of business methods and the absence of un- 
familiar conditions have been strong factors. Our trade 
practices are identical, corporation legislation has developed 
along parallel lines, income tax plans are similar, our cur- 
rency is in the same denomination and normally inter- 
changeable, advertising and distribution practices are 
identical, industrial technique and standards, equipment, 
labour all similar and our sales methods are one hundred 
per cent American. The transportation systems of the two 
countries cross and recross the border and enjoy inter- 
change, and there are no rail tariff complications. The 
American manufacturer experiences little more difficulty in 
establishing and operating a factory at Montreal or Toronto 
then he would at Jersey City or Pittsburgh. 

We have found consistently that firms who have never 
been able to sell in Canada have generally no interest in 
Canada — to them it has been and remains a closed market. 
It is only the man who has been able to develop some 
Canadian sales who starts to weigh its possibilities, com- 
bined with the British market, if the tariff differential were 
eliminated. 

There is no doubt that the Canadian public and our com- 
mercial and financial institutions generally have welcomed 
this supplementing of our machinery of production. If the 
competition of chambers of commerce and civic officials to 
attract these industries to their towns express the desires 
of their citizenry then they most certainly are wanted. 

On the question of any possible apprehension that Cana- 
dian enterprise might become dominated by these outside 
interests, I think we have only to regard some of our large 
industries of United States origin, note their personnel, 
their officers and directors, the part they play in the develop- 
ment of the community. Mark your own hesitation in 
deciding whether any one that comes to mind is, in fact, 
one hundred per cent American. We have a way of absorbing 
these industries — of making them a part of ourselves; we 
also have a way of acquiring them as the present list of 
stockholders of more than a few would indicate. 

Canada wants these industries because they provide 
immediately the thing that we need and desire most, jobs 
for men and women. To the extent that their production 
replaces goods formerly imported or formerly shipped from 
the United States to British or other countries, there has 
been a corresponding transfer of man-labour-hours from the 
United States labour market to the Canadian labour market. 
The replacement, by these new Canadian goods, of goods 
formerly imported, swings our trade balance to the favour- 
able side and the transfer to Canada of export business 
further adjusts it. Other advantages are obvious such as 
increased use of our raw mterials, power, transportation 
and the broadening of our export field through the intro- 
duction of new "made-in-Canada" lines in the markets of 
the world. 

Canadians always wonder why American businessmen 
appear so little impressed with the fact that Canada is their 
largest export market. Perhaps the reason lies in their prac- 
tice of handling Canadian business through the domestic 
rather than the export department. Our large exports to the 



United States, outside those items that have been the 
centre of tariff controversy, do not really give them much 
concern. They figure a large part of it is raw materials for 
their factories or bullion. They are largely right. 

A thing that does give them concern is competition from 
Canada in the British Empire markets (substantially from 
Canadian branches of United States companies). They have 
a notion that Canada is difficult territory for distribution — 
they see the huge expanse and the small population, not 
realizing that two-thirds of our people live in a concen- 
tration similar to New England. 

They have a high regard for the integrity of our business 
houses and a great admiration for our banking system. 
They sometimes tell us that they think our capital resources 
are concentrated in too few hands but commend our respect 
for capital which they couple with our reputed conserva- 
tism. They think our freedom from the capital gains tax 
is a wonderful idea. They admire some of our political 
leaders — they seldom remember their names — but feel that 
under such leadership radicalism will find the going rough. 

In brief, they look on Canada as a stronghold of "free 
capitalism" and point to her "steady upward swing" while 
their own figures were nose-diving. They seldom have any 
figures, they just offer impressions, though they do see the 
figures for their own Canadian sales. Perhaps the thing that 
has impressed some of them most has been the activity of 
the Canadian Stock Exchanges when trading was slack in- 
New York. 

This praise of our institutions by the American business- 
man may have in it not a little of nostalgia for the good old 
days of what he would call the "free competitive economic 
system." I think he undervalues our weight in world com- 
merce and world affairs generally and he doesn't worry 
much about our competition. He over-rates our conserva- 
tism. In moments of enthusiasm he points out sagely that 
Canada is in the same position to-day that the United States 
was 20 years ago and predicts a parallel rise in our popula- 
tion and wealth. 

I have tried to give you a sort of impressionistic idea of 
the viewpoint of the average American businessman 
towards Canada, representing no single view but perhaps 
the sharper because it is impressionistic. But it is hardly 
necessary to add that these are as finely-trained, and in 
their lines of responsibility as able men as we will find in 
the world of business to-day. They may be unconcerned 
with matters not immediately touching them, but they 
know how to make goods and sell them. Also they are 
probably the most approachable businessmen in the world. 
This is partly natural friendliness and courtesy, partly the 
salesman instinct and partly the native instinct never to 
pass up a possibility. They are not sure what you have 
in the bag, but if it is anything, they do not want to miss it. 

Basic Canadian data on which industrial analyses can 
be founded is not generally available in the United States, 
at least not through the channels through which their 
domestic data is developed. Some Canadian statistics and 
departmental reports, of course, are found in the public 
libraries and at New York City in the Trade Commis- 
sioner's office, but the marshalling and application of the 
underlying data to individual problems and its interpreta- 
tion and amplification in the light of experience and know- 
ledge gained on the ground represents the work of the 
Canadian development man in this field. It is unnecessary 
to outline the method of preparing an industrial report or 
to detail the numerous analyses, chartings and graphs 
through which it labours to draw its conclusions, or to 
suggest that the technique of factory location is as definite 
as structural design. 

Home-made methods of plant location have been respon- 
sible for a good many industrial tragedies, and that this is 
being increasingly recognized in the United States is 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



57 



apparent irom the expansion of government departmental 
activities in the field of industrial service, and the increasing 
demand for this service. 

Fortunately for Canadian development men working 
abroad, our own federal and provincial government depart- 
ments have set up some of the best servicing machinery 
that is supplied by any country I know. As example, I 
would say that our Dominion Bureau of Statistics offers 
better-arranged and more comprehensive statistical data 
than any corresponding service we have occasion to consult. 
The available data in our Bureau of Geology and Topo- 
graphy and the Bureau of Mines pretty well exhausts what 
is presently known, publicly, about our mineral resources, 
and I know of no service anywhere corresponding with the 
Foreign Tariffs Division of our Department of Trade and 
Commerce. 

I would not say that all services, federal and provincial, 
are on a par with these highly organized bureaus, but our 
government services are generally good and highly co- 
operative. 

But it is one thing to establish facts and another to 
interpret and apply them to the solution of a practical 
problem, particularly when your range of activity extends 
over a couple of thousand miles of foreign territory, and 
the result is that a good deal of possible contact work is 
sacrificed to the necessity of developing economic studies 
• on the ground. Moreover, the contact programme is not a 
business of chasing prospects, as popularly supposed, but 
definitely developed through studies designed to uncover 
opportunity in the Canadian field. We call it "Uncovering 
bare spots in the Canadian picture." Our problem then is 
that we have to make our snowballs as well as throw them 
— correspondingly limiting our field effectiveness. 

And so it has been the feeling of some of us that there 
is to-day something that might be accomplished nationally 
in the organization and correlation of Canadian develop- 
ment effort. The organizations promoting industrial de- 
velopment represent and are responsible to corporate or 
civic interests whose development aims, from their nature, 
are either regional or local. I am inclined — and I hope I am 
free from bias — to except the railways, to some extent, 
because both our leading Canadian roads have nation-wide 
interests and broad national policies, and while they do 
compete for added sources of traffic, their development 
efforts have been largely co-operative and directed to the 
broad interests of the Dominion they serve. 

I offer the thought that the time may be ripe for Cana- 
dians generally to take a wider interest in the subject of 
our economic future. That now, while radical changes, 
political and economic, are sweeping almost the entire 
world, changes that are affecting our mother country, our 
neighbors to the south and that must affect us, we Cana- 
dians might do well to study how we may best adapt our 
economy to whatever world conditions emerge from to-day's 
turmoil; how we may turn to best account our natural 
gifts; how best overcome our deficiencies, that our arm 
may be strong on a day when a strong arm may be our 
salvation. 

I have no definite proposals, and would not presume to 
offer any, but I have made bold to set down some thoughts 
in the hope that something would emerge that might sug- 
gest a possible line of concrete action. 

Briefly, the thought is this: that some technically com- 
petent body with nation-wide affiliations might initiate the 
organization and administration of a nationally undertaken 
study of the natural wealth of Canada, the practical pos- 
sibilities in the application or utilization of each of its many 
items, industrially or otherwise productively, and the 
market or field in which its resultant might find an outlet 
or be applied to the end that our people, our industrial, 
civic, commercial and financial organizations may gain a 
clearer knowledge of what we have and what might be 



done with it and that those interests promoting Canadian 
development may have an organized instrument ready to 
their hands. That the organizing body enlist in this under- 
taking every available fact-finding and research source in 
the Dominion right down to the individual; every educa- 
tional institution, bureau, technical society, trades and 
business association, industrial corporation, public utility, 
railway — on to the college undergraduate, to the academy 
and high school, to labour and farmer organizations, boys' 
and girls' agricultural clubs, women's societies, to the man 
on the street. 

The collectivists may have taught us something. Might 
we not show them what voluntary collective action can 
accomplish in a democracy? 

A suggestion is that a broad syllabus or programme of 
national economic research or enquiry might be prepared 
under the direction of a central council and amplified into 
a series of annual or continuing working programmes dis- 
tributed from coast to coast, possibly through local coun- 
cils representing each section. The central council would 
control and correlate the work and examine and evaluate 
the findings to form the basis of a set of memorials or 
reports with exhibits, argument, and conclusions on each 
problem studied. These reports would be directed imme- 
diately to recommend channels of action and copies filed 
at a central point — logically the headquarters of the spon- 
soring organization — in conjunction with and as a part of 
a central library, which would carry every obtainable 
reference to the natural wealth of Canada. All work done, 
outside office help at headquarters, would be submitted 
free of cost to the council as a contribution to the national 
welfare. 

The federal and provincial government departments, 
with their splendid facilities, would perhaps lend their 
weight, the National Research Council, the Canadian 
Manufacturers Association, the Canadian Chamber of 
Commerce, the banks and insurance companies, all of whom 
employ economists, and who have such a heavy stake in 
the Dominion, the railways who have departments of 
research and development, the power companies, chemical 
industries with research departments, the big metallurgical 
and mining interests with their fine laboratory facilities. 
Organized labour should have much to offer, social welfare 
groups, and so on. 

I leave to the last what I suggest as the most important 
of all — the students pursuing undergraduate, post-graduate 
and other studies in our schools, and the thought was that 
these might furnish much of the primary fact-finding, fact- 
gathering and reporting machinery. That was what I meant 
by enlisting the best brains in the Dominion. Long ago, in 
reviewing a list of subjects proposed as theses for under- 
graduate and graduate work, it struck me, perhaps wrongly, 
that the aim must have been more to set up a requirement 
of wide reading and the development of mental discipline 
than to achieve creative work, and I rather thought the 
student might feel so too. And the thought occurred to me: 
"What if we could take these alert young minds, this youth- 
power, and apply it while fresh and untired, in the direction 
of some of the real problems that face our country and 
that they will come to face soon — if they stay here?" 

I suggest, as random but perhaps typical projects, the 
following from the hundreds that offer: 

An analysis of the British Empire market for chemical 
products, and parallel with this 

An analysis of the British Empire market for electro- 
chemical and electro-metallurgical products. 

A report on the vacant farm situation in the Maritime 
Provinces, giving the physical picture by counties and 
working out the agronomy by zones. 

A survey of the vacant factory situation throughout 
the Dominion by towns, filing, as exhibits, photographs, 



58 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ground plans and structural data, with recommendations 
as to type of industry to which plant is adapted. 

A report on the possible effect on Canadian enterprise of 
current policies of the United States government in the 
development and control of hydro-electric power. 

A recompilation of all data bearing on the electric 
reduction of iron ore and its possible application to the 
direct production of specification steel to determine 
whether developments to date would warrant our re- 
study of its application to certain iron ore deposits in 
Canada. 

A report on (a) the small wild fruit (blueberries and 
cranberries) resources of Eastern 
Canada, with charting of areas re- 
commended for development. 

(b) markets or outlets for wild fruit pro- 
ducts. 

A ground survey and charting of grazing and wild hay 
areas throughout the central plateau between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Coast Range. 

A survey of the freshwater fisheries of Canada — 

(a) present fishing waters. 

(b) potential fishing waters. 

(c) the United States market for fresh- 

water fish. 

(d) analysis of United States channels of 

distribution, etc. 

These rough suggestions cover a very wide range but will 
serve to indicate the range of opportunity. 

It may be said that many of these things have been done. 
We know they have, we have done some of them ourselves. 
A good deal has been done in the Universities, McGill has 
done a lot of this work and published some of it, and one 
of the banks offered prizes for theses on some Canadian 



economic subjects and printed the winning papers. But 
there has been, so far as I know, no central organization 
of this fine effort and no clearing house for the results; 
also, all students are not in schools and it seems to me that 
if the student power of our country, wherever it might be 
found, could be marshalled, from the University right 
down to the village school, and its work organized in a 
broad comprehensive study with the collaboration and 
leadership of the established research machinery of the 
country, public and private, the personnel, technical equip- 
ment and cost factors in such a plan as I have visualized 
would be taken care of. As a prominent Canadian business- 
man said in a recent public address — "We have enough 
brains to give Canada the finest future of any country in 
the world, but we must use them." 

With such a background of broad national effort and 
practical support, your development men selling Canadian 
opportunity in the capital markets abroad and at home 
may proceed, confident that they are armed with equip- 
ment that is weighted not only with fact but with the 
ambitions and hopes of our people. 

So far I have only suggested the value in such a plan 
of supplying our national need for a continuing inventory 
of our natural wealth and for conclusions as to how we 
may best promote its development to the national advant- 
age, but I am sure that it must have been apparent, if you 
have had patience to follow along, that underlying this 
there has been a deeper thought. The doing of a job may 
be worth more than the job. We have in this country 
upwards of 2,400,000 youngsters attending our schools and 
colleges. How many of this class of native-born Canadians 
have we lost in the past, how many of this 2,400,000 will 
leave us and what mind would dare to set a monetary 
valuation against this loss of our blood and brain? 

These young men and women leave to seek opportunity. 
May they not stay to seize opportunity if they themselves 
find opportunity, like the bluebird in the tale, in the cherry 
tree at their door ? 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



59 



REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1938 



Your Council has pleasure in reporting upon a year in 
which all activities of the Institute continued under gener- 
ally favourable conditions. An examination of the technical 
papers and the records of branch activities published in the 
past year's issues of the "Engineering Journal" will show that 
the principal object of the Institute — the interchange of 
professional knowledge — has been well promoted. The year 
has, in fact, been notable for the quality of the papers 
contributed by our members. 

At the last Annual General Meeting unanimous approval 
was given to a new enabling by-law sponsored by Council 
and designed to clothe Council with wide power to enter 
into co-operative agreements with the provincial profes- 
sional associations. It was endorsed by the largest favour- 
able vote ever recorded by an Institute ballot. This over- 
whelming support for a Council proposal is significant. It 
means that the membership of the Institute in every pro- 
vince desires closer relations with the provincial association, 
and, what is very important, the membership desires that 
the responsibility for effecting this closer relation, and for 
determining its character, shall rest squarely on Council. 
Realizing this, Council set up a special Committee on 
Professional Interests to take supervisory charge of all 
negotiations between the Institute and the associations. 
Council also arranged that the branches should be visited 
by the strongest possible delegation from Headquarters, 
with the President, the Chairman of the Committee on 
Professional Interests and the General Secretary as a 
nucleus. Each of the twenty-five branches has been so 
visited, and wherever possible, in addition to round table 
duscussions with branch executives and past councillors, 
there have been well attended open discussions on Institute 
affairs, during which the President emphasized the desire 
of the Council to proceed with the negotiations in each 
province just as soon, just as fast, as the provincial associ- 
ations desired. 

During the year the traditional close relations between 
the provincial professional associations and the Institute 
has grown more cordial. This is evidenced by the unique 
event at Regina in October when the first agreement between 
the Institute and an association under the provisions of the 
new enabling by-law was completed. Saskatchewan engin- 
eers have shown how the interests of the engineering pro- 
fession in one province can be constructively served and 
with a concomitant strengthening of both the Institute 
and the Association. 

Grateful acknowledgment is now made to the President 
and Council and Registrar of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Saskatchewan for their courteous consideration 
of the interests of the Institute prior to, during, and since 
the memorable week-end at Regina last October during 
which the signing officers of the Institute and the Associa- 
tion completed the formal agreement between the two 
bodies. It is confidently believed that the nearly Dominion- 
wide broadcast of the addresses of the two presidents during 
the signing ceremony was a fitting conclusion for "another 
engineering triumph". 

Due very largely to the initiative of the Committee on 
International Relations, the Institute's relations with the 
engineering organizations of Great Britain and of the United 
States have become very cordial. True, with certain of the 
Institutions, and also with some of the Founder Societies, 
the Institute has enjoyed all through its history very 
friendly relations. During 1938, however, these good rela- 
tions have notably grown more general and much more 
intimate, to the great good fortune of the Institute. Very 
special mention should be made of the inspirational help 
derived from contact with the Engineers' Council for Pro- 
fessional Development. The Institute cannot do better than 
profit by the successful and often pioneering efforts of this 
unique professional organization to benefit in particular the 



young American engineer and in general the entire profes- 
sion. The activities of the Institute in this regard, though 
creditable, can be and should be both improved and 
extended. 

At the suggestion of Dr. Fairbairn, the Headquarters 
delegation conferred at Seattle with the officers of the local 
sections of certain of the Founder Societies, and en route 
home from his western trip the President spoke to three 
important groups of engineers at Chicago and Detroit. In 
every case a surprisingly friendly interest in the Institute 
and its aspirations was evidenced. 

In connection with the Committee on International 
Relations, special mention should be made of the visit to 
Headquarters of the President of the Institution of Chemical 
Engineers, Dr. W. E. Cullen; the President-Elect of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers, Dr. A. P. M. Fleming; 
a councillor of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Dr. R. E. 
Stradling, and Mr. Spencer G. Scoular, a member of the 
New Zealand Institution of Engineers. 

The chairman of the Committee on International Rela- 
tions, Past-President J. M. R. Fairbairn, visited London, 
England, early in the year to represent the Institute, as 
well as the American Society of Civil Engineers, in consult- 
ations regarding the programme for the conference of British, 
American and Canadian engineers in New York, September 
4th to 9th next. 

Another feature that has made weight for friendly atti- 
tude towards the Institute by the general public, and at 
the same time has contributed to the better understanding 
between members of the Institute, has been the receptions 
which the President, assisted by the past-presidents and 
the vice-presidents and their ladies, has held at London on 
January 30th, at Halifax on May 1st, and at Regina on 
October 30th. 

As to matters of internal economy, brief mention should 
be made of the refurbishing and modernizing of Headquar- 
ters. All members of the Institute are urged, when in 
Montreal, to take time to visit their own Headquarters. 
They will be warmly welcomed by the Headquarters 
personnel and will be interested in the improved appearance 
and facilities. 

The "going" of a tried and true official of the Institute, 
who served it well and worthily for almost fourteen years, 
and the "coming" of a new General Secretary was accom- 
plished with a minimum of lost motion, and on a basis that 
has greatly pleased Council because of the cordial co-opera- 
tion between the parties directly concerned. To meet a 
desire expressed to the President throughout his visits to 
the branches, Council has arranged appropriately to recog- 
nize at the Annual General Meeting in Ottawa the services 
of former General Secretary Richard John Durley, m.e.i.c. 

The work of the Committee on Professional Interests 
cannot be too highly commended, nor can its importance 
to the profession be over-estimated. The chairman, Mr. 
Fred Newell, m.e.i.c, has been indefatigable in his efforts, 
first, to clarify the position of the Institute in respect of 
the provincial associations, and then to simplify their inter- 
relation, all leading, of course, to eventual co-operative 
agreements pursuant to the new enabling by-law 76. On 
the advice of this committee, an informal dinner, at the 
University Club of Montreal, was tendered in April to the 
President and members of the Dominion Council, when the 
attitude of the Institute to this potential body was declared. 
The timely enunciation of Institute policy then made was, 
by direction of Council, published in the May issue of the 
"Engineering Journal." 

In an earnest effort to promote cordial relations with the 
Dominion Council, its President was invited to attend the 
Halifax regional meeting of Council and to accompany the 
Institute President upon his visit to the Western branches. 
Special invitations were issued to the representatives of 



60 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



provincial associations on the Dominion Council to par- 
ticipate freely in the regional meetings of Council and in 
the functions incidental to the visit of the Headquarters 
delegation to the Institute branches in their respective 
provinces. Acknowledgment is now made of the advice 
and assistance received from these Dominion Council mem- 
bers throughout the Dominion. Particular mention is made 
of the valuable help of Colonel F. W. W. Doane, m.e.i.c, 
of Halifax, H. Cimon, m.e.i.c, of Quebec, the late A. B. 
Crealock, m.e.i.c, of Toronto, D. A. R. McCannel, m.e.i.c, 
of Regina, and P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c, of Lethbridge. When 
in Winnipeg the President urged the advisability of Mani- 
toba being represented upon the Dominion Council. Word 
has recently been received that the Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers of Manitoba will be represented by its 
President, Mr. P. Burke-Gaffney. 

The work of the Committee on Membership and Man- 
agement, under the able chairmanship of Professor R. A. 
Spencer, a.m. e. i.e., of Saskatoon, has been progressing 
satisfactorily. It is expected that this committee will shortly 
be in a position to submit to Council a final report on the 
seven questions remitted to its care early in 1937. 

The work of the Publication Committee is best evidenced 
by the steady improvement in the Journal, which culmi- 
nated in a substantially new publication in the month of 
January. Whether separate Transactions will be found feas- 
ible is still problematical. 

During the year several innovations regarding Council 
proceedings have been tried out with satisfactory results. 
The routine minutes of Council are no longer marked 
"confidential." Minutes are now sent regularly to members 
of Council, to past-presidents, to ex-councillors for one year 
following their term of office, and to all chairmen of branches. 
This procedure, along with a brief précis of Council minutes 
inserted in the "Engineering Journal," broadcasts Council 
business to a much wider circle of Institute membership, 
and undoubtedly results in a greater interest in Institute 
affairs. 

Several regional meetings of Council have been held; the 
first in London in February, the next in Halifax in May, 
when all Maritime councillors and the Maritime Branch 
chairmen met with the President and a Headquarters 
delegation. Senior, actively interested local members of the 
Institute and the executive committee of the local branch, 
were invited to sit in as observers and to participate in the 
discussions. Other regional meetings of Council were held 
in Toronto on April 22nd, following which was a joint dinner 
at the Royal York Hotel between the members of the 
Council of the Institute and the Council of the Ontario 
Provincial Professional Association, who sat at a round 
table discussion presided over by Eric Muntz, m.e.i.c, 
President of the Association, who undoubtedly paved the 
way for closer co-operation between organized engineering 
bodies centring in Toronto. A regional meeting of Council 
was held in Ottawa on June 24th, and in Peterborough on 
November 26th. The one in Regina on October 30th enabled 
all the councillors and the chairmen from the prairie pro- 
vinces to meet with the President and his delegation from 
Headquarters. The Saskatchewan Branch executive com- 
mittee and the members of the Council of the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan were invited to 
attend as observers and to participate in the discussions. 

Invariably these enlarged Council meetings have awak- 
ened a renewed interest in Institute affairs by furnishing 
councillors with a better and wider cross-section of Institute 
opinion and activity. They have enabled Council to function 
more quickly and in greater accord with the general desires 
of the membership. It is earnestly believed that these prac- 
tices should be continued. All the regional meetings of 
Council held this year have been much less expensive than 
would one Plenary Meeting at Headquarters, and in the 
opinion of many, more good was accomplished. 

No report of Council work would be complete without a 
well deserved tribute to the outstanding services rendered 



without exception by the five vice-presidents. Vice-President 
McCrory, in his capacity as chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee, has been continuously assiduous in his efforts to 
keep expenditures well within anticipated income. His 
attendance at the regional meetings of Council at Halifax, 
Ottawa, Toronto and Peterborough, often at considerable 
inconvenience, has been greatly appreciated. Vice-President 
Dunsmore, of Halifax, has been present at several regional 
meetings of Council and has attended to important special 
duties in the Maritimes. Vice-President Keay has been a 
regular attendant at Council meetings throughout the year. 
His long experience in Institute affairs, his contribution to 
the profession while on the staff of McGill University and 
since, have made him a valuable member of Council. Vice- 
President Buchanan has been particularly helpful to the 
President, and has been present at most of his visits to the 
Ontario Branches. In addition, he represented the Institute 
at the International Engineering Congress in Glasgow. Vice- 
President Carpenter, one of the senior members of the In- 
stitute in the west, has rendered yeoman service to the 
profession, and in particular has guided the Council well 
in connection with the strategically important negotiations 
which have led to the compact between the Institute and 
the Saskatchewan Association. 

Wherever possible throughout the year the Headquarters 
delegation when visiting the various branches, also address- 
ed the undergraduate bodies in engineering of the local 
universities. Judging by the keen interest shown by the 
undergraduates in every case, there can be no doubt about 
the great importance of giving special attention to these 
groups of young men from which future members of the 
Institute are to be recruited. 

Early in the year, the way opened for an entente with the 
Canadian Chamber of Commerce, a Dominion-wide organ- 
ization for the promotion of the general economic welfare 
in all of the provinces. The Chamber has a splendid record 
of constructive contribution to national unity. It is bril- 
liantly led and ably managed. A member of the Council 
selected by it is now permitted to sit on the governing 
body of the Chamber. Council is convinced that this affili- 
ation affords the Institute an opportunity to participate, 
on behalf of the engineering profession, in the evolution of 
a movement which promises much for interprovincial accord 
and national progress. 

The Fifty-second Annual General Meeting convened at 
Headquarters on January 20th, 1938, and was adjourned 
to the Hotel London, London, Ontario, on January 31st. 
This was followed by the General Professional Meeting 
where technical papers dealing with highways and flood 
control occupied the major portion of the programme. 

Roll op the Institute 

During the year 1938, three hundred and twenty candi- 
dates were elected to various grades in the Institute. These 
were classified as follows: — Twenty-nine Members; eighty- 
four Associate Members; fifty-six Juniors; one hundred and 
forty-eight Students, and three Affiliates. The elections 
during the year 1937 totalled three hundred and twenty. 

Transfers from one grade to another were as follows: — 
Member to Honorary Member, one; Associate Member to 
Member, twenty-seven; Affiliate to Member, one; Junior to 
Associate Member, thirty-two; Student to Associate Mem- 
ber, thirty-three; Student to Junior, sixty-five — a total of 
one hundred and fifty-nine. 

The names of those elected or transferred are published 
in the Journal each month immediately following the 
election. 

Removals from the Roll 

There has been removed from the roll during the year 
1938, for non-payment of dues and by resignation, seventeen 
Members; fifty-six Associate Members; seventeen Juniors; 
one hundred and nine Students; and five Affiliates. A total 
number of two hundred and four. Twenty-eight reinstate- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



61 



ments were effected, and twenty-one Life Memberships 
were granted. 

Deceased Members 

During the year 1938 the deaths of forty-nine members 
of the Institute have been reported as follows: 

Honorary Member 

His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, k.c, g.c.m.g. 

Members 

Barber, James Henry Latham, Richard L. 

Burke, John William Mailhiot, Adhemar 

Caldwell, Frederick William McAll, Henry Wardlaw 

Cartwright, Conway Edward McMath, Francis C. 

Crealock, Archie Burgess Newell, Joseph Pettus 

Craig, John Cormack Robb, David Wentworth 

Dennis, John Stoughton Ross, Charles Cathmer 

Duchastel de Montrouge, Jules Smith, J. Warren 

Alexandre Strauss, Joseph Baermann 

Dufresne, Alexander Ritchie Sullivan, John G. 

Ervine-Grim, Walter Atkyns Swan, Hamilton Lindsay 

Fleming, David Howard Thompson, William Thomas 

Forward, Edwin Albert Thornton, Kenneth Buchanan 

Harvey, David William Trost, Paul Anthony 

Haycock, Richard LaFontaine Waddell, John Alexander Low 

Hopkins, Marshall Willard Wheatley, Edward Augustus 

James, Edward Henry Yorston, William Gardiner 

Associate Members 

Aldred, John James Porter, Cecil George 

Baily, Paul Ritchie, Alan Bruce 

Bridges, Fitz James Ross, Othmar Wallace 

Galea, Arthur Frederick Stephen, Charles 

Macaulay, Harry Donald Thompson, John Henry 

McDougall, Stewart Robertson Turley, Edward James 

McLaren, William Alfred Wright, George R. 

Affiliate 
Burpee, Frederick Demille 

Total Membership 

The membership of the Institute as at December 31st, 
1938, totals four thousand, six hundred and thirty. The 
corresponding number for the year 1937 was four thousand, 
five hundred and thirty-six. 

1937 

Honorary Members 16 

Members 1,041 

Associate Members 2,152 

Juniors 422 

Students 860 

Affiliates 45 

4,536 
1938 

Honorary Members 16 

Members 1,053 

Associate Members 2,218 

Juniors 496 

Students 806 

Affiliates 41 



4,630 
Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council, 

J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, President. 

L. Austin Wright, a.m. e. i.e., General Secretary. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

The President and Council: 

The Auditor's Report shows your Surplus Account at the 
end of the year increased by $3,718.62 over last year; 
$2,453.58 of this sum represents the turning-over to the 
General Account of the excess of the War Memorial Fund 
and $915.04 is excess revenue over expenditures. 

It is gratifying that there is a favourable balance at the 
end of a period of such activity and changes as the Institute 
has undergone. 

The Institute's buildings have been renovated and are 



in a good condition, but their value is carried in the books 
at cost, without depreciation, so that their value as an 
asset is uncertain. 

Apart from the value of the buildings, the assets amount 
to $32,547.99; the excess of the assets in the hands of the 
Institute over the current liabilities is $22,123.31 and the 
excess of the assets over the current liabilities and the 
liabilities of the Institute to its own Special Funds is 
$10,109.69. 

Respectfully submitted, 

de Gaspe Beaubien, m.e.i.c. Treasurer. 
FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The Financial Statement for the year 1938, which is 
presented herewith, is encouraging in that the year's oper- 
ations resulted in a balance of receipts over expenditures 
amounting to $1,674.70. From this amount $409.66 has 
been written off as depreciation on furniture, and $350.00 
has been set aside as a building maintenance reserve, leaving 
a net surplus of $915.04. That this result was achieved in 
spite of a decrease in receipts from fees and the added 
expense of printing a membership list in the December issue 
of the Journal is due in no small part to the loyal co-opera- 
tion of the General Secretary and of the Headquarters' staff. 

Certain items in the Comparative Statement of Revenue 
and Expenditure for the two years 1937 and 1938 must be 
interpreted in the light of changes that were made at the 
beginning of the year. The receipts from Journal Advertising 
for instance, show an apparent decrease of some $3,000. 
During 1937, as in previous years, advertising for the 
Journal was procured by a staff at Headquarters and their 
salaries charged against the Journal. In 1938, however, this 
work was done by an outside organization on a commission 
basis so that the receipts shown in the statement for this 
year are net and represent a greater net return to the 
Institute than for the preceding year. 

It will be noted that there is no item in this year's state- 
ment under the heading of "Catalogue." At the beginning 
of the year, on the recommendation of the Publication 
Committee, it was decided by Council to dispose of this 
publication. This action was taken after a thorough investi- 
gation and the receipt of an offer that would reimburse the 
Institute for the amount expended up to that time on the 
preparation of the 1938 issue. 

Another item on which comment should be made is the 
large increase this year in Secretary's Travelling Expense. 
The benefit derived by the Institute in having the General 
Secretary accompany the President on his visits to the 
Branches indicates that this expenditure was well worth 
while and that future budgets should provide an amount 
sufficient to enable the General Secretary to keep in close 
personal touch with the Branches. 

That the upward trend in membership fees remarked in 
last year's statement was not maintained is disappointing 
not only from a financial standpoint, but even more so as 
reflecting the business recession that developed toward the 
end of 1937 and that affected adversely so many of our fel- 
low engineers. It is hoped that the improvement shown so 
far in 1939 marks the beginning of a long period of pros- 
perity for the profession. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. A. McCrory, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LIBRARY AND HOUSE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

During this year your committee has done considerable 
renovation and repair work to the Headquarters building. 
For the past twenty-five years only unavoidable repairs 
had been made, and consequently the building was in an 
unsatisfactory state. Early last spring, the committee was 
requested to draw up a list of the repairs and renovations 
most urgently required. Unfortunately, due to our limited 



62 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



financial resources, some things which badly need attention 
had to be curtailed, or left undone. 

The chief items undertaken are: 

A new roof surface on the front portion of the building. 

Redecoration of the lecture hall, including new curtains 
at thé rear of the platform, drapes for the windows, a new 
central hall carpet, and new light contact. 

Reflooring the main hallway. 

Redecorating the reading room, council room, secretary's 
office, and general office. The latter has been rearranged to 
give a more efficient and convenient layout. The secretary's 
office has been greatly improved by the addition of new 
drapes, lighting fixtures, and carpet. 

Larger radiators have been installed in the secretary's 
office, council room, reading room, and lower hallway. Metal 
weather stripping has been placed around the windows, and 
the frames have been caulked with mastic. 

All outside woodwork and iron work has been repainted. 

In general, the building has been greatly improved, and 
it is now more in keeping with the handsome war memorial 
which it houses. 

An amount of $250.00 was contributed by the Montreal 
Branch towards the cost of redecorating the Headquarters 
premises, and the committee is glad of this opportunity to 



acknowledge this donation, and to express appreciation of 
the action of the branch. 

Library and Information Service 

Tabulated below is a summary of the requests that have 
been made to the librarian for data and information during 
the last three years. It will be noted that, in general, there 
have been fewer inquiries this year than in 1936, but more 
than in 1937. It is possible that the renovation of the build- 
ing, with the consequent inconveniences, was partly re- 
sponsible for this. 1938 1937 1936 

Requests for information 727 516 861 

Requests for textbooks, periodicals, 

etc 285 360 577 

Technical books borrowed 125 130 153 

Bibliographies compiled (number of 

pages) 56 27 40 

Photoprints furnished (number of 

pages) 129 158 119 

Accessions to library (largely reports, 

etc.) 429 554 665 

Books presented for review by pub- 
lishers 35 19 32 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 
For the Year Ended the 31st December 

expenditurk 

Building Expense: 

Property and water taxes 3 

Fuel 

Insurance 

Light, gas and power 

Caretaker's wages and services 

Maintenance and repairs 





Revenue 










1937 


1938 


Membership Fees: 








Arrears 




$ 3,427.20 


$ 2,404.50 


Current 




25,210.39 


25,766.28 






512.65 


545.15 


Entrance 




1,557.00 


1,438.00 






S 30,707.24 


$ 30,153.93 


Publications: 








Journal subscriptions and sï 
Journal advertising 




% 7,052.75 
17,714.98 


$ 7,041.60 
©14,710.43 




Catalogue advertising (net) 




1,331.69 
$ 26,099.42 


— 




$ 21,752.03 


Income from Investments 




$ 452.06 


$ 448.21 


Refund of Hall Expense. . 




610.00 


485.00 


Sundry Revenue 




10.80 


26.69 



1937 

2,035.48 
280.80 
165.45 
277.78 
878.00 
496.23 



1938 

2,031.73 
373.81 
189.32 
314.90 
878.00 
653.95 




Total Revenue $ 57,879.52 $ 52,865.86 



$ 4,133.74 $ 4,441.71 



Publications: 

Journal — Salaries $ 5,821.65 

Expense ©20,217.18 

Sundry Printing 452.75 



2,246.15 

16,028.85 

769.61 



$ 26,491.58 $ 19,044.61 



Office Expense: 

Salaries 

Telephone, telegrams and postage .... 

Office supplies and stationery 

Audit and legal fees 

Messenger and express 

Miscellaneous 

D preciation — Furniture and Fixtures. 



General Expense 

Plenary Meeting of Council 

Annual and Professional Meetings (Net) 

Round Table Conference 

Meetings of Council 

Travelling 

Branch Stationery 

Students' Prizes 

E.I.C. Prizes 

Gzowski Medal 

Library — Salary 

Expense 

Interest, discount and exchange 

Examinations and Certificates 

Committee expenses 

National Construction Council 



10,800.51 

1,750.28 

1,511.65 

300.00 

83.02 

362.97 

463.74 



11,453.64 
1,736.28 
1,265.29 
315.00 
111.67 
808.85 
409.66 



$ 15,272.17 $ 16,100.39 



1,116.50 


— 


969.92 $ 


1,873.77 


755.46 


— 


155.10 


432.88 


111.20 


1,267.61 


244.70 


201.23 


77.76 


69.79 


288.75 


288.45 


17.25 


17.25 


666.55 


600.00 


378.18 


401.95 


297.18 


225.43 


40.72 


11.66 


732.68 


445.83 


100.00 


150.00 



$ 5,951.95 $ 5,962.53 



Rebates to Branches $ 6,270.22 $ 6,401.58 



Total Expenditure S 58,119.66 $ 51,950.82 

Surplus or Deficit for Year 240.14 915.04 



$ 57,879.52 $ 52,865.86 



©Journal advertising revenue in 1938 is net after deduction of commissions. 

©Journal expense for 1937 included the sum of $5,836.60 for the cost of the Semicentennial number. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



63 



All the additions made to the library were presentations. 
In recent years, few technical books have been purchased, 
and consequently the library is sadly deficient in up-to-date 
books on engineering subjects. We feel that a policy should 
be adopted whereby each year a certain number of well 
selected, up-to-date, technical books should be purchased. 

On behalf of the committee, I wish to express to the 
General Secretary and his staff our appreciation of their 
collaboration and assistance. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. D'Aeth, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PAPERS COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The Papers Committee, this year, is composed of the 
chairman and the three following vice-presidents: R. L. 
Dunsmore, m.e.i.c, Vice-President Maritime Provinces, 
Dartmouth, N.S., H.O.Keay, m.e.i.c, Vice-President for 
Quebec, Trois Rivières, Quebec, and H. S. Carpenter, 
m.e.i.c, Vice-President Western Provinces, Regina, Saskat- 
chewan. 

This Committee has carried on a large amount of corre- 
spondence and put forth some effort to assist smaller 
branches but with only partial success. It is not difficult 
for the larger branches to secure speakers, papers, or motion 
picture films for their meetings and they are frequently able 
to arrange the entire season's programme at the beginning 



of the year. Many of the smaller branches, however, are 
isolated and handicapped financially. Most of them have 
exhausted the supply of available speakers near at hand 
and it is more difficult to secure speakers from the larger 
places. 

The chairman of this committee recommends that steps 
be taken by Headquarters to assist branches, particularly 
the smaller ones, in the following ways: 

1. Arrange for prominent members of the Institute, when 
travelling to other parts of Canada, to visit and speak 
at one or more branches. 

2. Arrange and pay expenses for a suitable speaker to 
address a group of branches on a pre-arranged schedule. 

3. Secure a list and arrange for distribution of motion 
pictures on engineering subjects to the branches. (Manu- 
facturers are often glad to supply a copy of their films 
to the Institute for exhibition at branch and other 
meetings.) 

4. On every occasion encourage joint meetings of branches, 
inter-branch visiting, and generally more personal con- 
tacts among the membership. 

Distance and lack of funds make it very difficult for any 
such committee as this to function effectively and be of 
much benefit, and your chairman regrets that the com- 
mittee has been unable to accomplish more during the 

Respectfully submitted, 

James A. Vance, a. m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 



As at 31st December, 1938 



Assets 
Current: 

Cash on hand and in Savings Bank 

Accounts receivable 

Less: Reserve for uncollectible accounts . 

Arrears of fees — estimated 

Balance due on Catalogue contract 



Special Funds — Per Statement attached: 
Investments ($3,000.00 pledged with Bank) 

Cash in Savings Bank 

Due by Current Funds 

Investments — At Cost: 

$100 Dominion of Canada 4%% 1946. . . . 

200 Dominion of Canada 4^% 1958 

4,000 Dominion of Canada 4^% 1959. . . 
500 Prov. of Saskatchewan 5% 1959 



2,000 Montreal Tramways 5% 1955 

2 Shares Canada Permanent Mortgage 

Corporation 

40 Shares Montreal Light, Heat & Power, 

N.P.V 

(Approximate Market Value $9,100.00.) 

Advances to Branches 

Advance — Travelling Expenses 

Deposit — Postmaster 

Prepaid and Deferred Charges — 

Stationery and Office Supplies 

Unexpired Insurance 



Gold Medal 

Library — at cost — less depreciation .... 
Furniture — at cost' — less depreciation . 



Land and Buildings — At Cost (Assessed 
value $57,200) 



3,172.56 
273.67 



7,285.14 
1,413.50 
3,314.98 



96.50 
180.00 

4,090.71 
502.50 
950.30 

2,199.00 

215.00 
324.50 



481.08 
121.10 



$ 115.82 

2,898.89 
2,500.00 

378.82 

$ 5,893.53 



$ 12,013.62 



8,558.51 



100.00 
100.00 
100.00 



602.18 

45.00 
1,448.13 
3,687.02 

91,495.22 



$124,043.21 



Liabilities 



Current: 

Bank Overdraft — Secured 

Accounts payable 

Rebates due to Branches 

Library deposits 

Amount due to Leonard Medal Fund. 
Amount due to Past-Presidents' Fund. 



500.00 
,814.98 



Special Funds: 

Leonard Medal $ 645.29 

Plummer Medal 657.27 

Fund in Aid of Members' Families 2,470.89 

Past-Presidents' and Prize Fund 5,683.48 

Duggan Medal and Prize Fund 2,556.69 

War Memorial Fund 



$ 3,210.94 

3,248.08 

645.68 

5.00 

3,314.98 

$10,424.68 



Reserve for Building Maintenance 

Surplus: 

Balance as at 1st of January, 1938 $97,886.29 

Add: Excess of Revenue over Expenditure 

for year per Statement 915.04 

Transfer to Surplus of Balance of War 
Memorial Fund disposed with in accord- 
ance with Minute No. 8747 



$12,013.62 
350.00 



,453.58 $101,254.91 



$124,043.21 



Audit Certificate 

We have audited the books and vouchers of The Engineering Institute of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1938, and have 
received all the information we required. In our opinion, the above Statement of Assets and Liabilities and attached Statement of Revenue 
and Expenditure for 1938 are properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the Institute's affairs as at 31st December, 1938, 
and of its operations for the year ended that date, according to the best of our information and the explanations given to us and as shown by the 
books. 

(Sgd.) Ritchie, Brown & Co., 
Montreal, 21st January, 1939. Chartered Accountants. 



64 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

In accordance with instructions of Council, the Publica- 
tion Committee added to its duties as a standing committee, 
the function of the former Committee on Publications, 
which had been dealing with problems in connection with 
The Engineering Journal and the Engineering Catalogue. 
There was no change in the personnel of the committee, 
which consisted of the following councillors: R. W. Boyle, 
A. Duperron, R. H. Findlay, F. S. B. Heward, and J. L. 
Busfield (Chairman). 

Early in the year, the committee had recommended to 
Council that the Institute should cease publishing the 
Engineering Catalogue, and transfer all rights therein to 
N. E. D. Sheppard, a.m.e.i.c, on the understanding that 
he would continue the publication with no connection 
with The Engineering Institute. At the same time it was 
recommended that a contract be made with Mr. Sheppard 
whereby his organization would be responsible for all 
Journal advertising on a commission basis. These recom- 
mendations were approved by Council, and the committee 
put them into effect. 

Late in the year 1937, a questionnaire was issued to all 
members of the Institute, seeking information on various 
points pertinent to the publications of the Institute. The 
response to the questionnaire was very gratifying and 



brought to light the fact that the membership felt that 
there was room for improvement in the Journal. Under 
the system of publishing about 36 papers per annum, and 
taking into consideration the wide diversification of inter- 
ests of the membership at large, it was perhaps only to be 
expected that the majority of members would point out 
that they were not getting very many papers in their own 
line of engineering. There was also a definite indication 
that the majority of members favoured short pithy articles, 
rather than long papers full of technical detail. 

To meet this particular phase of the situation, the com- 
mittee recommended that a reasonable proportion of the 
Journal be set aside for the publication of abstracts of 
articles appearing in other technical publications. In order 
to accomplish this, it was decided to ask a number of 
members to assist the committee by (a) giving advice on 
technical editorial matters, (b) by preparing abstracts of 
technical papers. The response to this request was very 
gratifying to the committee. Names of advisory members 
of the Publication Committee are now published on the 
contents page. These are the members who have undertaken 
to review technical literature and prepare abstracts of 
worth-while articles. 

The committee submitted a report to Council during the 
early summer, indicative of the general lines along which it 
was working towards an improved Journal. However, 



SPECIAL FUNDS 
As at 31st December, 1938 



Leonard Medal Fund: 

Balance as at 1st January, 1938 

Add: Bank interest 


$ 


654.34 
.70 

7.50 




Interest on amount loaned to Cur- 
rent Funds 








Deduct: Cost of Medal 


$ 


662.54 
17.25 






$645.29 


Plummer Medal Fund: 

Balance as at 1st January, 1938 

Add: Bond interest 




656.30 

22.50 

.72 


Bank interest 








Deduct: Cost of Medal 


$ 


679.52 
22.25 






657.27 


War Memorial Fund: 

Balance as at 1st January, 1938 

Add: Bond interest 




2,131.15 

45.00 

.52 

276^91 


Profit and Interest on Bonds Sold 




Deduct: Amount realized on sale of bonds 
Balance taken from Savings Ac- 


$ 2,453.58 
2,276.91 

176.67 




Fund in Aid of Members' Families: 

Balance as at 1st January, 1938 

Add: Bond interest 




2,379.02 

90.00 

1.87 




Bank interest 






2,470.89 


Past Presidents' Prize Fund: 
Add: Donation 


$ 


5,684.45 

50.00 

150.00 

1.53 

34.50 


Bond Interest 




Bank Interest 




Interest on amount loaned to Cur- 
rent Funds 








Deduct: Cost of Prizes 


$ 


5,920.48 
237.00 






5,683.48 


Duggan Medal and Prize Fund: 

Balance as at 1st January, 1938 

Add: Bond interest 




2,450.88 
103.50 

2.31 


Bank interest 


2,556.69 










$ 12,013.62 



Represented by: 

Cash in Savings Bank 

Amount due by Current fund* . 



145.29 
500.00 



$645.29 



$500.00 Dominion of Canada 4^% 1959 

Bonds 500.00 

Cash in Savings Bank 157. 27 



657.27 



$1,000 Province of Ontario 4y 2 '/o 1964 

Bonds 1,022.17 

$1,000 Dominion of Canada 4 l A% 1959 

Bonds 972.97 

Cash in Savings Bank 475.75 



$3,000 Montreal Tramways 5% 1955 Bonds 2,490.00 

Cash in Savings Bank 378.50 

Amount due by Current Funds 2,814.98 



2,470.89 



$2,300 Dominion of Canada 4^% 1959 

Bonds 2,300.00 

Cash in Savings Bank 256.69 



5,683.48 



2,556.69 
$ 12,013.62 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



65 



THE HEADQUARTERS BUILDING 

See Report of Library and House Committee on page 62 






The General Office 




Entrance Hall 



FiRôT Floor Plan 



66 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



changes could not be made over night, and it was not until 
the preparation of the January, 1939, issue (Volume 22, 
No. 1) that it was found possible to implement the previous 
recommendations. 

During the early part of the year, two members of the 
committee visited New York, and spent some time with 
officials of the American Societies, from whom a great deal 
of most useful information was obtained. The committee 
has pleasure in recording its appreciation of the courtesies 
received, and of time so freely devoted by these officials to 
help a sister organization. 

A competition was held for a new cover design, the results 
of which have already been reported through these columns. 

To the membership at large, the January issue of the 
Journal may be looked upon as the visible expression of 
the work of the Publication Committee for the past year. 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. L. Busfield, M.E.i.c, Chairman. 

LEGISLATION COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your Legislation Committee begs to submit the present 
report concerning its activities in 1938: 

(a) The committee has not been called upon to consider 
any suggestion or report concerning legislation which 
might have been made by a branch or a provincial 
division. 

(b) In regard to legislation, either actual or proposed, which 
is likely to affect the interests of the Institute or of 
its members, the committee submits the following 
information : 

1. In Nova Scotia, a bill was presented to the Legis- 
lature in 1938 to amend "The Nova Scotia Engin- 
eering Profession Act" in order to allow the 
Association of Professional Engineers of Nova 
Scotia to enter into any agreement with The En- 
gineering Institute of Canada for the purpose of 
securing greater co-operation between the two 
bodies. This bill was defeated. 

2. In Quebec, no legislation was passed in 1938 
affecting the interests of the Institute or of its 
members but notice was given recently in the 
Official Gazette that a bill will be presented to 
the Legislature at its next session by the Associa- 
tion of Architects for various purposes mentioned 
in the said notice. So long as the details of this 
bill remain unknown, it is impossible to determine 
up to what extent the interests of the engineering 
profession or of the engineers may be affected thereby. 

3. In New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, 
Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan and 
British Columbia, no legislation was enacted in 
1938, to the knowledge of the committee, which 
might affect the profession or the engineers and 
no legislation is proposed for 1939 in said provinces 
with the exception of British Columbia where the 
committee has just been apprised that a bill will 
be presented to the Legislature by the Association 
of Professional Engineers of British Columbia. 

The purpose of this bill is as yet unknown to 
the committee. 

Respectfully submitted. 

A. Larivière, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

The President and Council: — 

During the past year your Committee has studied work 
that is being done under the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation 
Act, and has been actively engaged in obtaining the papers 
which are forming part of the programme of the General 
Professional Meeting being held in Ottawa in February, 
1939, the subjects of which have already been announced. 
Respectfully submitted, 

G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



COMMITTEE ON MEMBERSHIP AND 
MANAGEMENT 

The President and Council: 

This committee was appointed by the Plenary Meeting 
of Council on June 14, 1937. It is composed of a chairman 
and a representative from each of the provinces (two in 
the case of Ontario). The work assigned it was to examine 
into and report on the following questions: 

1. Is more local autonomy in the provinces advisable ? 

2. Would the setting up of provincial divisions be advisable ? 

3. Can the present organization of Council be improved 
and is the conduct of Institute affairs efficient and 
economical ? 

4. What are the standards of admission and fees in other 
engineering organizations ? 

5. Ar the present qualifications for admission to the 
Institute best suited to existing conditions ? 

6. Are the present classifications of membership in the 
Institute best suited to existing conditions ? 

7. Can ways and means be provided under which better 
knowledge of Institute affairs will be disseminated 
throughout the membership and particularly with regard 
to conditions obtaining in the respective provinces ? 

The committee has been working under considerable diffi- 
culty, particularly because of its scattered membership 
representing the various provinces, necessitating the carrying 
out of the work entirely by correspondence. 

The investigation of the above questions has entailed a 
large amount of time and correspondence. As a result, 
however, we have gathered together and compiled much 
relevant and valuable information. To reach the desired 
finality has necessitated the consideration of many pro- 
posals. The scope of our investigations covering several 
subjects has required recommendations and opinions from 
the branches as well as individuals on several major 
questions. 

It being our desire to report fully on all matters referred 
to us, we regret as yet we are unable to report on reclassi- 
fication or reorganization of Council. In regard to reclass- 
ification necessary information requested by Council from 
the various branch executives has not yet come to hand 
but is expected at an early date. Regarding possible reorgan- 
ization of Council opinions secured for our committee by 
Headquarters from branch executives have only recently 
come to hand and are now under consideration by the 
committee. 

Due to the foregoing we regret the committee are unable 
to make the desired full report at this time. Anticipating 
that information now at Headquarters on reclassification 
can be studied by our committee at an early date, we feel 
assured a full report can be submitted in time for considera- 
tion at the Annual Meeting in February. 
Respectfully submitted, 

R. A. Spencer, a. m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

The President and Council: 

At the beginning of 1937 Past-President Dr. F. A. Gaby, 
m.e.i.c, who was Chairman of the above Committee, resign- 
ed on account of ill health. Thereupon Councillor Fred 
Newell was appointed Chairman, the other two members 
being Dean H. W. McKiel, m.e.i.c, and Past-President 
Dr. 0. O. Lefebvre, m.e.i.c 

The Provincial Sub-Committee chairmen are as follows: 

P. H. Buchan, m.e.i.c — British Columbia. 

R. M. Dingwall, m.e.i.c — Alberta. 

R. A. Spencer, a. m.e.i.c — Saskatchewan. 

A. J. Taunton, m.e.i.c — Manitoba. 

J. A. Vance, a.m.e.i.c — Ontario. 

J. A. McCrory, m.e.i.c— Quebec. 

E. J. Owens, a.m.e.i.c — New Brunswick. 

H. S. Johnston, m.e.i.c — Nova Scotia. 

The Chairman of your Committee had the privilege of 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



67 



accompanying the President on both his Maritime and 
Western trips, visiting all the branches in the Maritimes, 
the Prairies and on the Pacific Coast, discussing with them 
their problems and explaining the willingness of Council, 
under By-law 76, to enter into negotiations and formulate 
agreements with the Professional Associations for the 
mutual benefit of the Institute and the Associations. 

There was ample evidence of a strong desire among the 
members of all branches for a close co-operation between 
the Institute and the Associations. Conditions varied 
throughout the Dominion, causing special problems in each 
province, but it is believed that these problems can be 
solved by sympathetic discussion and a free exchange of 
views. The enthusiastic interest taken by Institute members 
in all of the branches in the problems of organized engineer- 
ing speaks well for the future of the Institute and the pro- 
fession. 

The following brief summary of the situation in each of 
the provinces is submitted for general information. 
Nova Scotia 

It was expected in the early part of this year that the 
President would have the privilege, on behalf of the 
Institute, of signing an agreement with the Professional 
Association of Nova Scotia during his Maritime visit in 
the spring. 

It is regretted that this was not possible, owing to certain 
misunderstandings which arose when the Association was 
seeking new legislation to enable it to sign a previously 
agreed upon co-operative agreement with the Institute. 

The President and the Chairman of your Committee 
studied this question during their visit to Halifax, and, 
acting on the advice of a number of representative members 
of the profession in Nova Scotia, concluded that most diffi- 
culties would disappear if the Institute secured a new 
by-law which would obviate the necessity of the Associa- 
tion applying for new legislation. This solution has been 
decided upon and a new by-law will be submitted to the 
membership of the Institute for approval. This should be 
secured early in April. 

In the meantime, active negotiations are taking place in 
the province and modifications in the proposed agreement 
have been suggested which are now being studied by your 
Committee. It is hoped that these negotiations will result 
in an agreement that will prove acceptable to both the 
Association and the Institute. 

New Brunswick 

Progress is being made towards an agreement in this 
province, so that it is quite possible that a conclusion will be 
reached during the coming year under the able guidance 
of the President-elect, Dean H. W. McKiel, and with the 
sympathetic co-operation of Mr. C. C. Kirby, President of 
the Dominion Council, who resides in Saint John, N.B. 

Manitoba 

The engineers of this province have for some years shown 
themselves to be leaders in the movement for a closer co- 
operation between the Professional Association and the 
Institute and it is regretted that local difficulties did not 
allow of a more speedy solution of the matter. 

The whole of the engineering profession in the west has 
suffered very severely during the recent years of depression 
and far more so than their fellow-engineers in the east. 
This in itself presents a temporary barrier to any movement 
which might call for an increase in the financial obligations 
of many of the members of the profession. 

Agreement in principle between the Manitoba Profes- 
sional Association and the Institute is quite general in 
Winnipeg but there are a great many engineers in the out- 
lying parts of the province who belong only to one of these 
bodies and can see little need for membership in both. This 
state of affairs can only be overcome by personal contact, 
which, of necessity, would take considerable time. Never- 
theless the Winnipeg members of the Institute have under- 
taken to do what they can, with the assistance of the Head- 



quarters staff, to inform the engineers in the outlying dis- 
tricts of the advantages to them of their support to both 
the Association and the Institute. 

Saskatchewan 

As is generally known, Saskatchewan has led the way 
so far as action under the new enabling By-law 76 is 
concerned. At Regina, on October 29th last, an agreement 
between the Institute and the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Saskatchewan was signed, sealed and delivered. 
This agreement guarantees that the resident members of 
the national body will gain the privileges and assume the 
responsibilities that go with the right to practise as a pro- 
fessional engineer in Saskatchewan. Reciprocally, the mem- 
bers of the Association will obtain the advantage of partici- 
pating in all the social and technical activities of the 
national body, which enjoys great prestige, not only on 
both sides of the international boundary, but abroad as well. 
Following the completion of this agreement, the secretariats 
of both bodies have been busily engaged in the work involved 
in having the members of the Association properly classified 
as corporate members of the Institute. The President and 
General Secretary of the Institute have written personal 
letters to each member of the Institute resident in Saskat- 
chewan who is not a member of the Association, urging 
that advantage be taken of the provision in the Saskatche- 
wan agreement which permits corporate members of the 
Institute to be granted membership in the Association 
without the payment of an entrance fee. It is hoped that 
such members of the Institute will be prompt in taking 
advantage of this provision. 

Alberta 

Discussions with the officers and members of the 
Edmonton, Calgary and Lethbridge Branches indicated a 
strong desire for the opening of active negotiations with the 
Association of Professional Engineers of Alberta. 

The interests of the large number of mining and geological 
engineers in the Province of Alberta, many of whom are not 
members of the Institute, and many of whom are members 
of the Association, will have to be very carefully considered 
in any negotiations respecting a co-operative agreement 
between the Institute and the Association. This situation, 
however, should not offer serious difficulty. It is hoped that 
during the year, the representatives of the three Alberta 
Branches, acting in consultation with the Committee on 
Professional Interests, may be in a position to initiate 
active negotiations with the Alberta Association. 

British Columbia 

In this province the profession is particularly favoured 
by having a strongly organized and well operated Profes- 
sional Association admirably serving all grades of member- 
ship in the profession, including students and engineers in 
training. The position regarding Alberta mining members 
is very similar to that which exists in the Province of British 
Columbia. 

During the Presidential visit to the coast, a meeting with 
the President and officers of the British Columbia Associa- 
tion was held, at which Past President Cleveland, Councillor 
Buchan, the General Secretary and the chairman of your 
Committee were present. A full discussion of the position 
of the Association and the Institute in this province took 
place. The President of the Institute explained the wide 
authority of council under the new enabling By-law 76, 
insofar as negotiations for co-operative agreements with 
Provincial Professional Associations. He made it plain that 
while the council was ready and willing to open negotiations 
with any association, it did not wish to go any faster nor 
any further in these matters than the associations themselves 
desire. 

Ontario 

Your provincial sub-committee under the guidance of 
Councillor J. A. Vance, has done excellent work during the 
year in promoting a spirit of co-operation among the several 



68 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



engineering bodies functioning in the province of Ontario, 
insofar as the Institute and the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Ontario are concerned. 

In these efforts, the President of the Association, Mr. 
Eric Muntz, m.e.i.c, has rendered invaluable advice and 
assistance to the Institute. 

In the early part of the year, when a meeting of the 
Council of the Institute and a meeting of the Council of the 
Association in Toronto were being held on the same day, 
President Muntz invited the Past Presidents, the President 
and Council of the Institute to a joint dinner with the same 
officers of the Association. On this occasion, the President 
of the Institute stated the position of the Institute with 
respect to the registration and licensing movement in the 
various provinces. He emphasized the earnest desire of the 
Council of the Institute for close co-operative agreements 
with the Associations which the Institute had been prim- 
arily responsible for bringing into being. 

It is the opinion of the chairman of your committee that 
a definite and sympathetic understanding exists between 
the Institute and the Ontario Association, which should 
permit the present entente cordiale being translated into 
some sort of a co-operative agreement at least as regards 
those members of the Institute and the Association who 
reside outside of the capital city of Toronto. In Toronto, in 
addition to a branch of the Institute, there are several 
ably managed, strong, influential groups of engineers 
affiliated actively with certain of the Founder Societies of 
the United States. It is confidently believed that when these 
bodies understand fully the aspirations of the Institute 
and its record throughout the Dominion, they will be willing 
eventually to support a co-operative agreement between 
the Institute and the Ontario Association, that will cover 
the entire province of Ontario. 
Quebec 

The relationship between the Corporation of Professional 
Engineers of Quebec and the Engineering Institute has at 
all times been most cordial. 

The Chairman of your Committee takes this opportunity 
publicly to express his sincere thanks to the President for 
his unremitting help and counsel in the work of your 
Committee. 

In conclusion, your Committee desires to thank the 
Chairman of the Provincial Committees and all members 
of the Institute and the Professional Associations whose 
assistance has made possible such progress as your Com- 
mittee has accomplished. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fred Newell, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

The President and Council: 

The Committee on International Relations has had during 
the year 1938, and particularly during the latter part of 
the year, quite a busy time. 

In the early part of the year one member of the Institute, 
Vice-President Buchanan of London, Ont., went overseas 
to attend the Engineering course at the Glasgow Exhibition. 

Your Committee a little later in the year dealt with the 
question of a joint meeting of the Canadian Institute of 
Sewage and Sanitation, the American Water Works 
Association (Canadian Section) and the Engineering 
Institute of Canada, which meeting is to take place at 
Winnipeg in 1939, and the arrangements for which are not 
yet complete, but we have been advised by the Secretary- 
Treasurer of the Winnipeg Branch that he is in touch with 
the matter and will keep us advised of any matters that 
require attention. 

In April last, our General Secretary, Mr. L. Austin 
Wright, accompanied the writer to New York, where the 
latter had the opportunity of introducing Mr. Wright to 
Mr. Geo. T. Seabury, Secretary of the A.S.C.E., Mr. 
Clarence E. Davies, Secretary of the A.S.M.E., Mr. H. H. 
Henline, Secretary of the Am. Inst, of Elec. Engrs., and 



Mr. A. B. Parsons, Secretary of the A.I.M.M.E., all of whom 
were kind enough to accord Mr. Wright every opportunity 
of discussing the affairs of our respective societies, and of 
looking over the plant and processes with which they carry 
on their work in the New York headquarters of the four 
societies. Particularly the publication procedures and 
policies were fully discussed with Mr. Wright and by the 
various secretaries. We were also introduced to Dr. Craver, 
librarian of the Engineering Societies Library, and to Mr. 
Otis Hovey, Treasurer of the A.S.C.E. and Director of the 
Engineering Foundation. 

In August, the Council of our Institute accepted the 
invitation of the A.S.C.E. to participate with them and 
the Institution of Civil Engineers in a joint meeting to be 
held in New York in 1939, and as there was being planned 
by the A.S.M.E. a joint meeting with the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers for the same time, in September, 
1939, we have since, through the good offices of our President 
and Secretary, undertaken to join with the two American 
societies in helping to entertain their visitors from overseas, 
as well as to participate with them in the joint proceedings 
at New York during the World's Fair next September. 

These arrangements were brought about as the result of 
a meeting in New York on October 21st, attended by 
President J. B. Challies; the Presidential nominee for 1939, 
Dean H. W. McKiel; General Secretary L. Austin Wright 
and the writer. At that time we discussed quite frankly 
and freely with the committee of the A.S.C.E. the arrange- 
ments which they were making, and agreed to meet them 
later to go into further particulars. 

This we did, President Challies and the writer going to 
New York on the 5th December and meeting on the 6th 
the committee of the A.S.C.E. under Vice-President 
Malcolm Pirnie, where we discussed fully the general ar- 
rangements for the September gathering. Tentative sugges- 
tions were made as to some of the papers to be read, and 
also as to the various meetings and entertainments of one 
sort and another to be held in New York during the week 
of September 3rd. Then discussion was had as to the post- 
congress trips, it being generally agreed that it would be 
most desirable if, when the visiting delegates had concluded 
the Congress in New York and have done a little touring 
in the United States, they should come to Canada, arriving 
at Niagara Falls and proceeding to Ottawa, thence to 
Montreal, Shawinigan Falls, Grand'Mere, etc., ending up 
either at Montreal or Quebec to take steamer to Great Britain. 

In the meantime, President Challies and the writer had 
an interview with the Hon. C. D. Howe, Minister of Trans- 
port at Ottawa, Dr. T. H. Hogg at Toronto, Mr. Gordon 
Gale at Ottawa and Dr. Julian C. Smith and Dr. Oliver 
Lefebvre at Montreal, with the result that we have been 
enabled to suggest a very interesting trip, with some de- 
lightful entertainment, for the visitors. 

A meeting of your Committee on International Relations 
was held at Montreal on Friday, 16th December, at which, 
unfortunately, only three members of the Committee — Mr. 
P. L. Pratley, Mr. F. P. Shearwood and the writer — were 
able to attend, but Past-Presidents Lefebvre and Surveyer 
and President Challies were kind enough to sit in with the 
committee and listen to a report of recent events consider- 
ably more in detail than the present report, and all gave 
their unqualified approval to what has been done. Also 
letters were received from Messrs. Angus, Allcut and 
Murphy, generally concurring in the work of the committee. 

At the moment there is nothing definite to report in 
regard to detailed arrangements for the meeting, other than 
to say that both the A.S.C.E. and the A.S.M.E. have ad- 
vised their confreres on the other side not to make definite 
commitments until the writer has had an opportunity of 
discussing with them, when he reaches London about the 
14th or 15th January, the tentative programmes which 
have been prepared. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. R. Fairbairn, m.e.i.c, Chairman 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



69 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

In order that a proper picture of the membership con- 
ditions over a number of years be known a comprehensive 
study has been prepared showing membership of the 
Institute from 1910 up to and including 1937. The state- 
ment also gives the membership of the various professional 
engineering associations of the provinces and other import- 
ant engineering bodies operating throughout Canada. 

With these data plotted in graphical form your com- 
mittee noted the various fields from which we could hope to 
recruit new members. It indicated the need of the transfer 
of a great number of members to a higher grade and also 
the lack of membership in the class of students as compared 
to the great increase in engineering students in our colleges. 

It was also apparent that there was a lack of enthusiasm 
amongst the present members, probably a marking of time 
during the period when reorganization has been so much 
to the fore and the outcome of negotiations with the pro- 
fessional bodies has been uncertain. 

The activities of President Challies, the sending of the 
minutes to the Branch Chairmen, the agreement with the 
Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan and the coming 
agreement with Nova Scotia have all played a large part 
in alleviating this apathy. 

President Challies has cemented the co-operation of the 
branches by his visits and brought the universities to see 
the benefits to be derived by, not only the faculty, but the 
students, from membership in the Institute. His interest in 
and co-operation with the Founder Societies of the States 
will in the near future have beneficial results to the mem- 
bership at large. 

We are happy to report an awakening interest by the 
student bodies, the formation of a student division of the 
Toronto Branch now being under way. 

We feel that employment facilities play a most important 
part in the minds of prospective members especially the 
student group and that every effort should be made to 
arrange as soon as possible some Dominion-wide employ- 
ment service possibly working through the Technical 
Service Bureau in Ontario and similar bodies in other 
provinces or the universities. This service should be capable 
of preparing information showing the long term demand for 
engineers of various types, such information to be available 
for students leaving high schools in order to help them 
select the best course to pursue. It should also prepare data 
concerning the spending of public funds for public works as 
a relief to unemployment; the placing of students in suitable 
employment during the summer months; education of em- 
ployers to the advantages of using technically trained help 
and the advantages to be derived from technical research. 

The following changes have taken place in the membership 
during the year 1938: 

1937 1938 Difference 

Hon. Members 16 16 

Members 1,041 1,052 12 

Associate Members 2,152 2,218 66 increase 

Juniors 422 496 74 increase 

Students 860 806 54 decrease 

Affiliates : 45 41 4 decrease 

Life Members 11 21 10 increase 

Resignations 61 69 8 increase 

The committee is especially grateful to H. Massue, 
A.M.E.i.c, for his work in preparing statistics dealing with 
membership studies and the graphical representation thereof. 
This work is of a comprehensive nature and wide in scope 
and it is recommended that it be maintained as a permanent 
record of the Institute's progress. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. E. Bonn, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND EDUCATION 

The President and Council: 

Your Board of Examiners and Education for the year 
1938 has had prepared and read the following examination 
papers with the results as indicated: 



May Examination : 

Schedule B 

I. ■ — Elementary Physics and 

Mechanics 

II A. — Strength and Elasticity of 

Materials 



Number of Number 
Candidates Passing 



Schedule C 

II. ■ — Civil Engineering 

■ — General Civil Engineering. 
4 — Railway Engineering 

-Mining Engineering 

— General Mining 

1— Metal Mining 

-Structural Engineering 



A. 
B. 

VI. 
A. 
B. 

VII. 



A. —General Structural Engineer- 

ing 

B. 2 — Reinforced Concrete Design. . 

November Examination : 

II. — Civil Engineering 

A. — General Civil Engineering. . . 

B. 1 — Highway Engineering 

III. — Electrical Engineering 

A. — General Electrical Engineer- 

ing. 

B. 1 — Electrical Machine Design. . . 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. J. Mackenzie, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

THE CANADIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

The President and Council: 

I have the honour to submit the first Annual Report to 
Council under the arrangement whereby the Council of the 
Institute is represented on the Executive Committee of the 
Chamber. 

The Chamber is basically a voluntary association of 117 
Boards of Trade and Chambers of Commerce from coast to 
coast and also contains within its membership over 350 
business enterprises in the Dominion, the activities of which 
are, for the most part, of a national character. 

As an institution embracing a substantial part of all 
phases of Canadian commercial life in the nine provinces, 
the Chamber believes that the voice of sectionalism is not 
the voice of the Canadian people and that it is only by 
renewing and re-emphasizing the ideals expressed by the 
Fathers of Confederation that the people of Canada can 
continue to maintain their destined national existence. 

In its Submission to the Royal Commission on Dominion- 
Provincial Relations the Chamber summarized its views on 
the current national problems, as follows: 

1. Removing and preventing sectional barriers to business. 

2. Balancing of governmental budgets by: 

(a) Solving the railroad problem; 

(b) Making relief entirely a federal matter; 

(c) Arresting the increase in public debt; 

(d) Co-ordinating public services; 

(e) Reducing the number of: 

(i) Elected representatives; 
(ii) Local administrations. 

3. Collecting personal and corporation income taxes by the 
Dominion. 

4. Abolishing corporation capital taxes. 

5. Unifying and simplifying the collection of Succession 
Duties. 



70 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



6. Reducing real estate taxes. 

7. Unifying and simplifying government returns. 

8. Giving the Dominion jurisdiction over: 

(a) Insurance; 

(b) Security Frauds Prevention; 

(c) Labour Regulations; 

(d) Old Age Pensions. 

9. Making Provincial Companies' Acts uniform; 

10. Supervising the borrowings of provinces obliged to lean 
on the Dominion for financial support by means of a 
Loan Council. 

11. Determining subsidies by a Grants Commission. 

12. Setting up uniform accounting systems and fiscal 
periods on the part of the provinces. 

13. Making provincial control over municipal borrowing 
more strict. 

14. Encouraging selected immigration. 

The 1938 Convention of the Chamber was held at the 
Seigniory Club, P.Q., from 27th September to 1st October, 
and the Institute was represented by its President, Dr. 
J. B. Challies, its General Secretary, L. Austin Wright, 
and the undersigned. 

The Executive Committee of the Chamber was convened 
on 47 occasions during the past year with an average 
attendance of 20. 

The importance to the Institute of closer association 
with so prominent and outstanding a body as the Canadian 
Chamber of Commerce will readily be appreciated. It is only 
by maintaining a national unity without sectional discrim- 
ination that the prosperity of Canada may be expected 
to endure. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. S. B. Heward, a.m.e.i.c. 

GZOWSKI MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The Gzowski Medal Committee consisting of Messrs. 
A. 0. Dufresne, C. V. Johnson, L. B. Kingston, J. A. 
Martineau, mm. e. i.e., and the chairman, beg to recom- 
mend that the Gzowski Medal be awarded to A. W. F. 
McQueen, a.m.e.i.c, and E. C. Molke, a.m.e.i.c, for their 
paper entitled "The 18-Foot Diameter Steel Pipe Line at 
Outardes Falls." 

Respectfully submitted. 

Hector Cimon, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS' PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

The Past-Presidents' prize Committee for the year 
1937-38 was comprised as follows: 
O. 0. Lefebvre, m.e.i.c, Montreal, P.Q. 
G. A. Lindsay, a.m.e.i.c, Ottawa, Ont. 
S. S. Scovil, m.e.i.c, Ottawa, Ont. 
J. J. Traill, m.e.i.c, Toronto, Ont. 
J. T. Johnston, m.e.i.c, (Chairman), Ottawa, Ont. 

Only two papers were submitted on the subject of the 
competition, "Stream Control in Relation to Droughts and 
Floods"; one by Dr. A. E. Berry, m.e.i.c, Toronto, Ont., 
and the other by P. C. Perry, m.e.i.c, Regina, Sask. 

After careful study of these papers the majority of your 
committee recommend the award of the Past-Presidents' 
prize to P. C. Perry, m.e.i.c, of Regina, Sask. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. T. Johnston, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

LEONARD MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee appointed to consider an award of the 
Leonard Medal for the current year have given careful 
thought to all papers eligible and have reached the unani- 



mous conclusion that the medal should be awarded for the 

paper, "The Prevention of Silicosis by Metallic Aluminum," 

as published in the September, 1937, issue of The Canadian 

Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin, and by the following 

authors: 

J. J. Denny, m.ci.m.m. 

Metallurgist, Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Limited, Schumacher, Ont. 

W. D. Robson, 

Chief Surgeon, Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Limited, Schumacher.Ont . 

Dudley A. Irwin, 
Associate Professor, Department of Mining Research, University of 
Toronto, Toronto, Ont. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Sydney C. Mifflen, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

PLUMMER MEDAL COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

Your committee has pleasure in recommending that the 
Plummer Medal for the year 1937-38 be awarded to H. I. 
Knowles, Chief Chemist, Atlantic Sugar Refineries, Saint 
John, N.B., for his paper, "Building Invisible Edifices," 
which was published in the August, 1938, issue of The 
Engineering Journal. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alfred Stansfield, m.e.i.c, Chairman. 

DUGGAN MEDAL AND PRIZE COMMITTEE 

The President and Council: 

For the year 1937-38 there were no papers submitted to 
the Institute for the Duggan Medal and Prize. Your Com- 
mittee, however, has taken into consideration a number of 
papers published in The Engineering Journal and has reach- 
ed the conclusion that no award should be made this year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. H. Harkness, m.e.l.c, Chairman. 

STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' PRIZES 

The reports of the examiners appointed in the various 
zones to judge the papers submitted for the prizes for 
Students and Juniors of the Institute were submitted to 
Council at its meeting on January 16th, 1939, and the 
following awards were made: 

H. N. Ruttan Prize (Western Provinces) — To C. Neufeld, 
B.E.I. c, for his paper, "A Photo-Elastic Investigation of 
Stress Conditions in an End Block of the Borden Bridge, 
at Ceepee, Sask." 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario) — To R. E. 
Edson, s.e.i. c, for his paper, "The Sandcasting of Crank- 
shafts." 

Phelps Johnson Prize (Province of Quebec, English) — 
to S. G. Lochhead, jr.E.i.c, for his paper, "The New 
Westmount Trunk Sewer, 1935." 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Province of Quebec, French) — to 
J. G. Belle-Isle, s.e.i.c, for his paper, "Projet de Dévelop- 
pement Hydro-Electrique". 

Martin Murphy Prize (Maritime Provinces) — No papers 
received. 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

The President and Council: 

The Employment Service Bureau of the Institute reports 
an active but less effective year than in 1937. This change 
is due largely to the absence of an assistant to the secretary, 
who normally gives the Bureau a large portion of his time. 
Although the staff has carried on with satisfactory results, 
it should be kept in mind that this activity is an extremely 
important phase of Institute work, and should not be 
neglected. 

Toward the latter half of the year there was a decided 
falling off in the number of unemployed engineers registered 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



71 



with the Bureau. An increase in positions vacant also 
developed, so that at the end of the year most of the names 
still on the register represented members who were em- 
ployed but desired better positions if any should develop. 
The list of members seeking positions now contains only 
150 names, most of whom are already employed. 

For many months there has been a shortage of electrical 
and mechanical engineers. Several openings of this kind 
have developed for which we were not able to find suitable 
applicants. 

In reading the figures for the report it should be kept in 
mind that usually many positions are secured from leads 
given in this office, upon which no report is made by the 
applicant or the employer after the transaction is com- 
pleted, although each is asked to keep the Bureau posted. 

An endeavour has been made to enlarge the usefulness 
of the Bureau by means of affiliations or working agree- 
ments with similar organizations doing the same work in 
other parts of Canada. It is the desire to extend the field in 
such a way that equal benefits may be made available to 
members in districts far removed from Headquarters. These 
negotiations are still under way, and it is hoped that sub- 
stantial progress will be made this year. 

The following figures show the placements effected during 
the past six years: 



Vacant positions registered 112 275 

Vacancies advertised in The Journal 33 69 

Replies received to advertised positions 146 380 

Men's records forwarded to prospective em- 
ployers 345 701 

Men notified of vacancies 90 355 

Placements definitely known 61 181 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE, 1939 



1933 



1934 1935 



1936 



1937 



1938 



50 70 77 110 181 61 

The extent of the Bureau's work for 1938, as compared 
with 1937, is shown as follows: 

1938 1937 

Registered members 71 132 

Registered non-members 42 74 

Number of members advertising for positions 79 68 

Replies received from employers 25 40 



Chairman: A. 

Branch 

Halifax Branch 

Cape Breton Branch 

Saint John Branch 

Moncton Branch 

Saguenay Branch 

Quebec Branch 

St. Maurice Valley Branch 

Montreal Branch 

Ottawa Branch 

Peterborough Branch 

Kingston Branch 

Toronto Branch 

Hamilton Branch 

London Branch 

Niagara Peninsula Branch. 

Border Cities Branch 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch . . 

Lakehead Branch 

Winnipeg Branch 

Saskatchewan Branch 

Lethbridge Branch 

Edmonton Branch 

Calgary Branch 

Vancouver Branch 

Victoria Branch 



L. Bishop, m.e.i.c. 

Representative 
. .C. A. Fowler, m.e.i.c. 
. . J. R. Morrison, a. m.e.i.c. 
. . J. H. McKinney, a. m.e.i.c. 
. .E. B. Martin, a.m. e. i.e. 
. .G. F. Layne, a. m.e.i.c. 
. .P. Methé, a. m.e.i.c. 
. .A. C. Abbott, a. m.e.i.c. 
. R. E. Jamieson, m.e.i.c. 
. .A. K. Hay, a.m. e. i.e. 
. .W. M. Cruthers, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .D. S. Ellis, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .W. E. P. Duncan, m.e.i.c. 
. .W. Hollingworth, m.e.i.c. 
. .D. S. Scrymgeour, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .W. Jackson, m.e.i.c. 
. . C. G. R. Armstrong, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .A. M. Wilson, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .E. L. Goodall, a.m.e.i.c. 
. T. C. Main, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .S. Young, m.e.i.c. 

.J. M. Campbell, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .R. M. Dingwall, m.e.i.c. 

. F. J. Heuperman, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .G. L. Tooker, a.m.e.i.c. 
. .F. C. Green, m.e.i.c. 



Abstracts of Reports from Branches. 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met eight times during the 
year for the transaction of Branch business. 

Eight regular monthly meetings were held during the 
year 1938, as follows, attendance being given in brackets. 

Jan. 14 — The Manufacture and Testing of Shot Gun Shells, 

by Major J. W. Holden (31). 
Feb. 18 — Some Improvements in Modern Turbine Practice, 
by Chas. Hopper, of C. A. Parsons Company (40). 
18 — Meters and Combustion Control, by W. L. Thompson 



Mar. 
Apr. 



(30). 



29 — The Mysteries of Electrical Science, by Prof. H. O. 
Warner of the University of Detroit (22). 
May 27 — Flying Technique of Commercial Aviation, by J. W. 

Candless of American Airlines, Inc. (30). 

May 28— The President of the Institute, Dr. J. B. Challies, was 
present and addressed the meeting on "Institute Affairs." 
A pipe was presented to W. H. Baltzell, a member of the 
Border Cities Branch, on his leaving to take up residence 
at Pittsburg, Pa. (18). 

Sept. 24 — A successful joint meeting with the London Branch was 
held at Sarnia. An inspection of the Imperial Oil Com- 
pany plant was held in the morning and inspection of the 
new Blue Water highway bridge held in the afternoon, 
followed by a dinner. The President, Dr. J. B. Challies, 
was present with the Secretary, L. Austin Wright. The 
speaker of the evening was R. M. Smith, a.m.e.i.c, 
Deputy Minister of Highways of Ontario. (104). 

Oct. 21 — Conveyor Economics, by Jesse McBride, Vice-President 
of Palmer Bee Co. of Detroit (29). 

Nov. 18 — Engineering among the Professions, by Roy E. McFee 
of Grand Trunk Western in Detroit (28). 

Dec. 9 — Annual Meeting and election of officers for the year 1939. 
Practical Experiences of an Engineer, by Geo. 
McCubbin, m.e.i.c, of Chatham, a member of the Border 
Cities Branch. Mr. McCubbin was presented with a gold 
membership pin in recognition of his forty-three years 
of service to the engineering profession (14), 



Note — Tor personnel of Executive Commit- 
tees see p. 52. For Membership and 
Financial Statements see pp. 76 and 77 



The Border Cities Branch was grieved by the passing of 
F. J. Bridges, a.m.e.i.c, in the last week of November. Mr. 
Bridges was an active member of the Border Cities Branch 
in 1919, and acted as Secretary-Treasurer during 1919, 1923 
and 1924. 

CALGARY BRANCH 

Thirteen general and special meetings of the Branch were 
held during the year 1938. The following summary shows 
the dates, speakers, subjects, and attendances (in brackets) 
at these meetings: — 

Jan. 17 — An Amateur Tries to Understand Our Weather, by 

A. W. Haddow, a.m.e.i.c, city engineer, City of Ed- 
monton (39). 

Feb. 3 — Modernized Main Street, by L. H. Hunt of the Calgary 
Power Co., and Transmission Line Relays, by A. W. 
Howard, s.e.i.c. (51). 

Feb. 24— Air Conditioning, by D. G. Tapley, jr.E.i.C. (37). 

Feb. 26 — Annual joint dinner with the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Alberta and the Rocky Mountain Branch, 
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 
Guest Speaker — D. E. Cameron, Extension Dept. Univer- 
sity of Alberta (86). 

Mar. 12 — Annual meeting, following luncheon. Proceedings at the 
Round Table Conference, the Semicentennial 
Meetings, and a special meeting re consolidation, 
in Montreal, June 14-16, 1937, by J. McMillan, 
a.m.e.i.c, Branch Secretary-Treasurer (30). 

Mar. 17 — Sound film — The Golden Gate Bridge, through courtesy 
of the Bethlehem Steel Co. (100). 

Sept. 10 — Annual Golf Tournament (50). 



72 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Oct. 7 — Informal dinner and entertainment provided by The Cana- 
dian Western Natural Gas, Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany, Ltd. (58). 

Oct. 20 — The Operation of Calgary's Natural Gas System, by 
B. W. Snyder, a.m.e.i.c. (38). 

Nov. 2 — Luncheon meeting with President Challies and Head- 
quarters party (25). 

Nov. 2 — Reception and dinner in honor of President Challies. 

Speakers — President Challies, General Secretary Wright, 
Councillor Newell and G. A. Gaherty (94 inc. ladies). 

Nov. 18 — World Revolution by Science, by Dean C. J. Mackenzie, 
M.E.i.c, School of Engineering University of Saskatche- 
wan (64). 

Dec. 8 — Problems of the City Engineers, by J. R. Wood, m.e.i.c. 
(28). 

During the year, the Branch Executive Committee met 
nine times for the purpose of conducting the business of the 
Branch, and the other committees held meetings as required 
for their work. We are pleased to report that interest in the 
activities of the Branch is being well maintained, the aver- 
age attendance at regular functions showing an increase 
over the previous year. This, we believe, is due, at least in 
part, to the efforts of the executive and programme com- 
mittees to secure speakers on topics of general interest in 
addition to talks on more technical subjects. 

Obituary 

On September 12th, 1938, the death occurred of the Hon. 
C. C. Ross, m.e.i.c, former Minister of Lands and Mines 
in the Government of the Province of Alberta, and an 
esteemed member of the Calgary Branch. 

CAPE BRETON BRANCH 

During the Year 1938 the Branch held five general 
meetings : 

An American Engineer's Experience in Soviet Russia, by Win .Von 

Meding. 
Pre-Stressing and Erecting of the Isle of Orleans Suspension 

Bridge, by D. B. Armstrong, a.m.e.i.c. 
Heat Control, by F. E. Hawker. 
Inside Story of Lubrication and Safari on Wheels — -Moving 

pictures. Presented by J. R. McLelland. 
Reception to the President, General Secretary and Councillor Newell. 

The average attendance at these meetings was 58. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held six meetings during the 
year to transact the regular business of the Branch and one 
special luncheon meeting to discuss Institute affairs with 
President Challies and other members from headquarters. 

The Branch held six general dinner meetings during the 
year as follows: — 

Jan. 20 — Oil Sand Coring in Trinidad, by Dr. K. A. Clark. 

Feb. 25 — Expert Evidence, by W. Dixon Craig, K.C. 

Mar. 15 — The Building of the Golden Gate Bridge, Sound motion 
picture. 

Apr. 2 — An Amateur Tries to Understand the Weather, by 
A. W. Haddow, a.m.e.i.c. 

Nov. 1 — Joint dinner, with members of the Canadian Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgy and the Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers of Alberta and ladies present, in honour 
of President J. B. Challies and other members of a party 
from headquarters. 

Dec. 15 — The Use of Models in Engineering, by Prof. H. R. 
Webb, m.e.i.c. 

HALIFAX BRANCH 

The Branch has held six meetings during the Year 1938 : 

January — Joint dinner with Association of Professional Engineers. 
February — A Review of the Relationship Between the Institute 
and Professional Associations, by Dean H. W. 

McKiel, m.e.i.c. 
March — Steam Electric Generating Plant at Sydney, by 

W. S. Wilson, a.m.e.i.c. 

April — Visit from President J. B. Challies, Vice-President J. A. 

McCrory, Councillor Fred Newell, and General Secre- 
tary L. Austin Wright. 

November — Rural Electrification, by J. J. Doolan. 

December — Annual meeting. 



Jan. 


12- 


Feb. 


16 


Mar. 


16 


Apr. 


8- 



HAMILTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held eleven business meetings 
during the year with an average attendance of seven. 

Meetings and Papers, during 1938, with attendance 
figures in brackets. 

Annual general meeting and banquet. Guest speaker, Cap- 
tain Rev. Norman Rawson. Entertainment (68). 

The Practical Significance of Laboratory Tests of 
Lubricating Oils, by Dr. R. K. Stratford, chief research 
chemist of the Imperial Oil Limited. Held at McMaster 
University (75). 

The Uses of Aluminum in Industry, by A. K. Jordon, 
sales engineer, the Aluminum Company of Canada. Held 
at McMaster University (33). 

Joint meeting of the Branch and the Toronto Section of 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Mercury 
Arc Rectifiers and Ignitrons, by Dr. Joseph Slepian, 
associate director of research, The Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh. Held in 
the Canadian Westinghouse Auditorium (245). 

Patent Laws for Engineers, by Charles E. Church, 
a.m.e.i.c, patent engineer, Hamilton. Held at McMaster 
University (69). 

Why Bridges, by R. K. Palmer, m.e.i.c, chief engineer, 
Hamilton Bridge Company Limited. This was followed by 
the sound motion picture Erection of the Golden Gate 
Bridge, arranged by the Bethlehem Steel Company. 
Held at McMaster University (97). 

Annual joint meeting of the Hamilton Branch, E.I.C., 
Grand Valley Group of Registered Professional Engineers, 
London Branch, E.I.C., and Niagara Peninsular Branch, 
E.I.C., Golf and trap shooting in the afternoon and 
Dinner at Brantford, in the evening. Guest Speaker, 
President, J. B. Challies. Entertainer, George Leacock. 
(162). 

Joint meeting of the Hamilton Branch E.I.C., and the 
Hamilton Group of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers. The Place of Research in the Evolution 
of the Automobile, by T. A. Boyd of the research de- 
partment, General Motors, Detroit. The meeting was 
held at McMaster University (218). 

•Special meeting held in honour of President J. B. Challies. 
During the afternoon visits were made to the Steel 
Company of Canada, the Burlington Steel Company and 
the Dominion Foundries and Steel Limited. A reception 
was held for President Challies, followed by a dinner, 
which he addressed on Affairs Relating to the En- 
gineering Profession (122). 

The Story of Dynamite and Power in Industry, by 
G. C. Grubb, B.Sc, manager of the explosives division 
of Canadian Industries Limited, Montreal. The lecture 
was illustrated and held at McMaster University (48). 

Joint meeting of the Hamilton Branch, E.I.C. and the 
Hamilton Group of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers. Testing and Research in an Electrical 
Utility, by W. P. Dobson, m.a.sc, m.e.i.c, chief testing 
engineer of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario. Held at McMaster University (106). 

A. B. Dove, a.m.e.i.c, Chairman of the Papers Com- 
mittee moved to Montreal during the year and the duties 
were taken over by J. R. Dunbar, a.m.e.i.c. The Branch is 
indebted to these members for the valuable and interesting 
papers they arranged for presentation at our meetings. 

We wish to express, through The Engineering Journal, 
our indebtedness to the management of McMaster Univer- 
sity for the splendid assistance given to us throughout the 
year. 

Publicity 

The Executive wishes to record sincere appreciation for 
the courtesies extended by the Press, especially the Hamil- 
ton Spectator and the Daily Commercial News. 

Obituary 

We record with deep regret the passing away of R. L. 
Latham, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of the Toronto Hamilton 
and Buffalo Railway, on November 13th, 1938. 

General 

At this time the Executive Committee wishes to thank 
members of all grades of the Branch for their help in making 
the work of the year a success in spite of the difficulties 
faced by so many. We also thank the other engineering 



Apr. 12- 
May 10- 

May 27- 

Oct. 6- 
Oct. 14^ 

Nov. 15—' 
Dec. 13- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



73 



societies that have co-operated with us during the year. 
We close this report with an expression of most sincere 
appreciation for the active interest taken in the work of 
this Branch by the President and General Secretary. 

KINGSTON BRANCH 

The Branch held seven dinner meetings during 1937-1938. 

Oct. 25 — Annual meeting for reports and election of officers for 
1937-38, followed by Lochaber (Scotland) Water 
Scheme, by R. F. Legget, a.m.e.i.c. 

Nov. 12 — First public lecture, given by Dean S. C. Hollister, Cornell 
University, on Boulder Dam in Convocation Hall, 
Queen's University. Over 300 students and cadets at- 
tended. 

Jan. 25 — Post War Developments of the Royal Air Force, by 
Squadron-Leader F. G. Wait, r.c.a.f. 

Mar. 11 — Inspection tour under Dr. W. L. Malcolm, m.e.i.c, of the 
new Sanitary Engineering Laboratory, Queen's Univer- 
sity. 

Mar. 17 — Second public lecture, Canadian Conservation Prob- 
lems, by Robson Black, in the Sir Arthur Currie Mem- 
orial Hall, Royal Military College. A large number of 
cadets were present. 

Apr. 27 — The Problem of Russian Development, by Dr. E. L. 
Bruce. 

Oct. 22 — A tribute dinner to Dr. W. L. Malcolm and to welcome the 
president, Dr. J. B. Challies, was held at the Kingston 
Badminton Club. 

Membership — The Branch regrets the loss of two very 
active members, Dr. W. L. Malcolm, m.e.i.c, and R. F. 
Legget, a.m.e.i.c, through change of residence. Our student 
membership has fallen off somewhat and every effort should 
be made to increase it. 

Council — Lt.-Col. L. F. Grant, m.e.i.c, replaced J. E. 
Goodman, m.e.i.c, resigned, while Professor D. S. Ellis, 
m.e.i.c, replaced Lt.-Col. Grant on the nominating com- 
mittee. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

The following meetings were held during the year 1938. 

Jan. 26 — Ladies night. 

Feb. 16 — Dinner meeting at Port Arthur. Moving picture, Heat 
and its Control, by A. Sinclair of the Canadian Johns- 
Manville Corporation. 

Apr. 13 — Dinner meeting at Fort William. Discussion of change in 
By-laws 44 and 51. 

June 22 — Annual meeting at Port Arthur. Election of officers. 

Oct. 25 — Luncheon meeting at Fort William. An informal discussion 
of Institute affairs between officers of the Institute and 
members of the Branch executive and prominent local 
members of the Institute. The guests were Dr. J. B. 
Challies, m.e.i.c, President of the Institute, F. Newell, 
m.e.i.c, Councillor, and L. Austin Wright, a.m.e.i.c, 
General Secretary. 

Oct. 26 — Dinner meeting at Port Arthur, in honour of the visiting 
President and Officers of the Institute and their ladies. 

Dec. 21 — Dinner meeting at Port Arthur. Manual and Automatic 
Telephone Systems, by R. B. Chandler, manager, 
Public Utilities Commission, Port Arthur. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 

Since January 1st, 1938, 8 regular meetings with an 
average attendance of 35; 2 meetings of corporate members 
with an average attendance of 21 ; and 6 executive meetings 
with an average attendance of 7 have been held. 

All regular meetings have been preceded by a dinner 
during which musical numbers were rendered, followed by 
community singing. 

The list of meetings during 1938 with subjects and 
speakers follows, attendance being indicated by the figures 
in brackets. 

Jan. 22 — Radio Aviation, by A. K. Bayley, Esq., Department of 
Transport, Aviation Radio Branch, Lethbridge (31). 

Feb. 5 — Generating Power by the Losses Method, by W. E. 
Ross, Calgary Power Co., Lethbridge. The Rise of Early 
Modern Civil Engineering, by E. A. Lawrence, s.e.i.C, 
Irrigation Branch, C.P.R., D.N.R., Lethbridge. Elec- 
trical Equipment of a Sugar Plant, by R. W. Craig, 
jr. e. i.e., Canadian Sugar Factories Ltd., Picture Butte, 
Alberta. 



Feb. 19 — Art, by Major F. G. Cross, m.e.i.c, supt. of operation and 
maintenance, Irrigation Branch, C.P.R., D.N.R., Leth- 
bridge (36 inc. ladies). 

Mar. 5 — Annual meeting for corporate members only. No speaker. 
(11). 

Mar. 12 — Training for the Royal Air Force, by Pilot Officer Wilson 
Donaldson, r.a.f. (40 inc. ladies). 

Mar. 19 — Joint meeting with the Association of Professional En- 
gineers of Alberta, and the Rocky Mountain Branch of 
the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. A 
Journey to the Arctic, illustrated with motion pictures, 
by C. E. Garnett, m.e.i.c, President of the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Alberta (40). 

Nov. 3 — Corporate Members Meeting. Institute Affairs, by Dr. 
J. G. Challies, President of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada. Accompanying President Challies were L. Austin 
Wright, General Secretary, Fred Newell, Councillor for 
the Montreal District and Mr. G. A. Gaherty, general 
manager for the Calgary Power Co. Montreal (30). 

Nov. 5 — My Trip through Europe, by Miss Hazel Watson (43 
inc. ladies). 

Nov. 19 — World Revolution by Science, by C. J. McKenzie, 
m.e.i.c, Dean of Engineering, University of Saskatche- 
wan (28). 

Dec. 3 — The Story of Rigid Airships, by Dr. John P. Liebe, 
b.a., Ph.D., instructor, Lethbridge Technical School (25). 

LONDON BRANCH 

During the year 1938 the following meetings were held; 
attendance given in brackets. 

Jan. 31, Feb. 1 & 2 — Annual General Meeting of The Engineering 
Institute. 

Feb. 23 — Election of officers and regular meeting was held in the 
Council Chambers, County Building, London. Babcock 
Integral Furnace Boiler, by W. A. Osbourne, vice- 
president, Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie McCullough Ltd., 
Gait (53). 

Mar. 30 — Ladies night, Dinner (34). 

Sept. 24 — Joint meeting with Windsor Branch at Sarnia. Inspection 
of Imperial Oil Refineries plants, and International Blue 
Water bridge (114). 

Oct. 26 — Regular meeting held jointly with the Military Engineers 
Association in the National Defence Building, London, by 
kind permission of Lt.-Col. W. M. Veitch. Two sound 
pictures were shown and sponsored by the Bethlehem 
Steel Corporation represented by C. G. Lamb. The pic- 
tures were entitled: The Production of Structural 
Steel; The Golden Gate Bridge. (60). 

Nov. 23 — Regular meeting was held in the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion board room, London. Chemical Warfare, by Lt. 
R. M. Crowe of the Royal Canadian Reg't. (34). 

Dec. 14 — Regular meeting was held in the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion board room, London. Vice-President E. V. Buchanan, 
m.e.i.c, gave a description of his recent trip to Europe. 
The meeting was also honoured by the presence of Eric 
P. Muntz, m.e.i.c, President of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Ontario (16). 

Average attendance of all meetings excepting Annual 
Meeting— 52. 

In addition to the above 7 Executive meetings were held 
with an average attendance of 8. 



MONCTON BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held five meetings. Four meet- 
ings of the Branch were held during the year 1938, at which 
addresses were given and business transacted as follows: 

Jan. 26— Supper meeting. The Pre-stressing and Erection of 
Island of Orleans Bridge, by D. B. Armstrong, 
a.m.e.i.c, chief designing engineer, Dominion Bridge Co. 
Ltd., Montreal. 

May 4 — Supper meeting. Dr. J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, President, En- 
gineering Institute of Canada, gave an address on 
Institute Affairs. 

Mav 19 — A meeting was held for the purpose of nominating Branch 
Officers for 1938-39. 

May 31 — The annual meeting was held on this date. 

It is with regret that we record the death of William 
Alfred McLaren, a.m.e.i.c, which occurred on January 5th, 
1938. 



74 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



MONTREAL BRANCH 

Papers and Meetings Committee 

The Papers and Meetings Committee of the Branch had 
the following personnel: — 



R. E. Jamieson, m.e.i.c. 

Chairman 



I. S. Patterson, a.m.e.i.c. 

Vice-Chairman 



Civil Section 



L. H. Burpee, a.m.e.i.c. 

Chairman 



J. A. Freeland, a.m.e.i.c. 

V ice-Chairman 



Electrical Section 



S. H. Cunha, a.m.e.i.c. 

Chairman 



J. H. Wilson, a.m.e.i.c. 

Vice-Chairman 



Industrial and Management Section 
T. M. Moran, a.m.e.i.c. C. A. Peachey, a.m.e.i.c. 

Chairman V ice-Chairman 

J. E. Dion, a.m.e.i.c. 



Mechanical Section 



E. Poitras, m.e.i.c. 

Chairman 



A. B. Dove, a.m.e.i.c. 

V ice-Chairman 



Municipal Section 



Comeau, a.m.e.i.c. 

Chairman 



J. M. 



Breen, a.m.e.i.c. 

Vice-Chairman 



Radio and Communications Sections 



S. Sillitoe, Jr.E.i.c 

Chairman 



D. N. McLeod, s.e.i.c. 

Vice-Chairman 



Junior Section 



L. Jehu, a.m.e.i.c. 

Chairman 



L. Trudel, a.m.e.i.c. 

Vice-Chairman 



The question of adequate reporting of papers and dis- 
cussions has not been settled to the satisfaction of the com- 
mittee, although an attempt has been made to develop 
along the lines suggested in the last annual report. In this 
connection, C. E. Frost, a.m.e.i.c, is preparing a study of 
this subject and will report to the incoming executive com- 
mittee. 

Some expansion of activities took place in the Industrial 
and Management Section, and the Civil Section, each of 
which held meetings to discuss subjects of special interest. 

Following is a list of the papers and meetings for the 
calendar year 1938, with attendance in brackets: 

Jan. 6 — Annual Meeting of the Branch (50). 

Jan. 13 — The Network Analyzer, by R. G. Lorraine (60). 

Jan. 20 — Technical Men in Industry, 2nd of Series (125). 

Jan. 27 — Construction of Suspension Cable on Golden Gate 

Bridge. (A moving picture from the J. H. Roebling Co.) 

(200). 
Feb. 3 — The Willans Law in the Analysis of Steam Plant 

Performance, by J. T. Farmer, m.e.i.c. (55). 
Feb. 10 — Welded Steel Pipe, Centrifugally Cement Lined, by 

C. R. Whittemore, a.m.e.i.c. (75). 
Feb. 17 — Branch Smoker. 

Feb. 24— Waves, Words, and Wires, by Dr. J. 0. Perrine (300). 
Mar. 3 — Electro-Galvanizing, by A. R. Weisselberg (70). 
Mar. 10 — Heat and its Control. (A moving picture from the Johns- 

Manville Co.) (60). 
Mar. 17 — Housing Surveys for Montreal, by R. Bélanger (55). 
Mar. 24 — Transmutation, by Dr. K. K. Darrow (130). 
Mar. 31— Soil Mechanics, by Prof. W. P. Kimbal (145). 
Apr. 7 — The Design and Construction of Pie IX Bridge, by 

Dr. S. A. Baulne, a.m.e.i.c. (170). 
Apr. 14 — Technical Men in Industry, 3rd of Series (80). 
Apr. 21 — Railways Progressing towards Continuous Rails, by 

H. G. Drake (100). 
Oct. 6 — Joint Meeting with American Society of Heating and Ven- 
tilating Engineers (160). 
Oct. 13 — Psychological Aspects of Industrial Management, by 

L. P Alvin, of Paris, France (150). 
Oct. 20 — Steel — Man's Servant. (A moving picture from U.S. Steel 

Corporation) (250). 
Oct. 26 — Civil Section. Some Practical Considerations of Con- 
crete (45). 
Oct. 27 — Welding in Ship Construction, by W. Bennett, Chief 

Surveyor of Lloyd's, New York (120). 
Nov. 3 — Relativity, and the Experiment on which it is based, 

by W. B. Cartmel (125). 
Nov. 10 — The Baie Comeau Electrical Installation of the Quebec 

North Shore Paper Co., by D. Anderson, a.m.e.i.c 

(110). 



Nov. 17 — Town Planning Achievement in Montreal, by H. A. 

Terreault (80). 
Nov. 21 — Civil Section. Structural Aluminum, by E. C. Hartmann 

(80). 
Nov. 24— The Collapse of the Falls View Bridge, by P. L. Pratley, 

M.E.I.C. (95). 
Dec. 1 — A Permanent Cultural Plan to Combat Drought and 

Control Soil-Drifting, in the Agriculture of the 

Prairie Provinces, by Dr. E. S. Archibald (50). 
Dec. 7— Visit to New Rolling Mill, Steel Co. of Canada (200). 
Dec. 8 — A Description of Merchant Mills, by W. Worthington, 

of Pittsburgh, Pa. (95). 
Dec. 15 — Power Line Carrier Communication, by S. Sillitoe, 

Jr.E.I.C. (50). 

Branch Sections 

Early in the year the membership was canvassed to 
ascertain the numbers interested in the various sections of 
engineering. Forty-five per cent of the members replied, 
and this information has been tabulated and is available 
for the guidance of Branch section organizations. It is felt 
that there should be more specialized activity in these sec- 
tions, which should function within themselves as far as 
possible. An attempt has been made to organize these sec- 
tions where the demand was most evident, and some success 
has resulted. It is anticipated that this work will develop 
further during the next two or three years. 

Membership Committee 

The Membership Committee was organized under the 
chairmanship of K. 0. Whyte, a.m.e.i.c, After some study 
by the committee, and at their request, the executive con- 
firmed the appointment of this committee for two years, 
because it was felt that considerable time would be required 
to organize. The committee has prepared a detailed plan 
of organization for obtaining new members in which there 
will be an easy means for all members to assist. Results in 
the way of increased membership should be marked in 1939. 
In addition, twelve new members were obtained this fall, 
with six more names assured. Particular thanks are due to 
Mr. Whyte and his assistants for their work in the rather 
difficult task assigned to them. 

It is with sincere regret that we record the names of the 
following members deceased during the year. 

Jules Alexandre Duchastel de Montrouge, m.e.i.c. 

Alexandre Ritchie Dufresne, m.e.i.c. 

Edwin Albert Forward, m.e.i.c. 

Adhemar Mailhiot, m.e.i.c. 

Kenneth Buchanan Thornton, m.e.i.c 

Paul Baily, a.m.e.i.c 

Stuart Robertson McDougall, a.m.e.i.c 

Cecil George Porter, a.m.e.i.c 

John Henry Thompson, a.m.e.i.c. 

Edward James Turley, a.m.e.i.c. 

Reception Committee 

A very active committee has co-operated with the chair- 
man, R. E. Heartz, m.e.i.c, by an average attendance of 
over 80 per cent at all of their meetings. 

The fall season was inaugurated on September 17th, with 
an interesting visit to Shawinigan Falls by 60 members of 
the Branch, who were joined by 30 members from the St. 
Maurice Valley Branch, at a luncheon, as guests of the 
Shawinigan Water and Power Company, represented by 
J. A. McCrory, m.e.i.c, Vice-President of the Institute. 
After luncheon, a visit was made to several of the important 
local industries; this inspection was made possible in the 
short time available by a particularly well organized and 
carefully scheduled plan for which thanks and credit must 
go to the officers of the St. Maurice Valley Branch. 

On April 27th, the committee arranged a special meeting 
to welcome L. Austin Wright, a.m.e.i.c, the new general 
secretary of the Institute, and to make a presentation to 
R. J. Durley, m.e.i.c, Secretary Emeritus, as a token of 
appreciation of his services to the Montreal Branch during 
his fourteen years as general secretary. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



75 













MEMBERSHIP AND 


FINANCIAL 


Branches 




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s 




MEMBERSHIP 
Resident 

Hon. Members 


12 

36 

5 

8 
1 


17 
47 
14 
10 


9 

12 
3 
3 
1 


20 
28 
10 
23 


24 
52 
10 
16 
1 


33 

44 
17 

27 
2 


1 
11 

21 

5 

26 


10 

20 

3 

5 

1 


3 

18 

2 

1 


i 


Members 


Assoc. Members . .... 


Juniors 

Students 


Affiliates 


Total 


62 


88 


28 


81 


103 


123 


64 


39 


24 


52 




Non-Resident 

Hon. Members 


4 

7 
4 

7 


4 

11 

6 

1 


4 

12 

3 

9 


1 
5 

2 


S 
19 

8 
11 


5 

12 

3 


4 
1 
3 


4 
8 
3 
1 


1 

5 
1 

5 


3 
3 
1 
1 


Members 

Assoc. Members 


Juniors 


Students 

Affiliates 




Total 


22 


22 


28 


8 


46 


20 


8 


16 


12 


8 




Grand Total December 31st, 1938 

" December 31st, 1937 


84 
79 


110 
124 


56 


89 

87 


149 


143 
163 


72 
59 


55 


36 
69 


60 
























FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

Balance as of December 31, 1937 

Revenue 

Rebates 


$ 
249.78 

153.90 


$ 
216.85 

208.50 
25.00 
48.14 


$ 
208.40 

111.55 


$ 
216.15 

161.70 


S 
350.94 

275.75 


666.09 

276.00 
36.00 
68.09 


$ 
50.65 

120.75 


% 
194 . 72 

100.00 


$ 
33.32 

100.00 

22.00 

.14 


$ 

82. ie 

104. 7C 


Interest 








1.87 


.49 


.74 


Special Appeal 








Miscellaneous 


3.30 








6.82 


6.60 








7.83 
















Total Revenue 


157 . 20 

98.72 
40.80 
56.05 


281.64 

31.13 
92.82 
134.86 
16.35 
10.00 


111.55 

33.13 
13.50 


161.70 

7.10 

41.01 

102.15 

50.00 


284.39 

68.49 
15.00 
125.48 
50.00 
10.00 

10.03 


386.69 

125.82 
98.60 
56.40 
50.00 


121.24 

13.92 
54.83 


100.74 

16.70 
104.62 


122.14 

1.55 

89.81 

6.14 


112.53 
34.7C 


Expenditure 

Printing, Notices, Postage© 


General Meeting Expense© 


4. OC 


Special Meeting Expense® 


62. 3Ï 


Honorarium for Secretary 


25.00 






Stenographic Services 






2.50 
13.95 


5.0( 


Travelling Expenses© 




26.35 


41.78 










Subscriptions to other organizations. . . 








©15.00 






Subscriptions to The Journal 




















Special Expenses 














©25.00 








Miscellaneous 


25.75 


41.80 




5.03 


9.00 


25.35 






9.3S 












Total Expenditure 


221.32 

64.13 

185.65 


326.96 

45.32 
171.53 


72.98 

38.57 

246.97 


247.07 

85.37 

130.78 


288.00 

3.61 

347.33 


356.17 

30.52 

696.61 


133.75 
le. 51 
38.14 


121.32 

20.58 
174.14 


113.95 

8.19 

41.51 


115. 4j 


Surplus or Deficit 


2 81 


Balance as of December 31, 1938 


79.2$ 



©Includes general printing, meeting notices, postage, telegraph, telephone and stationery 

©Includes rental of rooms, lanterns, operators, lantern slides and other expenses. 

©Includes dinners, entertainments, social functions, and so forth. 

©Includes speakers, councillors or branch officers. 

©Chamber of Commerce. 

©Repayment of loan from Headquarters. 



76 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



STATEMENTS OF THE BRANCHES 




























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CS • 

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CS 

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44 

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- ^» 

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3 




3 
















1 




1 




3 


213 


14 


83 


8 


21 


6 


12 


4 


18 


9 


131 


68 


22 


31 


17 


555 


50 


196 


23 


66 


32 


19 


20 


53 


12 


215 


58 


18 


82 


3 


96 


12 


21 


11 


11 


9 


11 


14 


8 


8 


56 


7 


6 


21 


4 


292 


10 


17 


25 


16 


10 


8 


8 




4 


63 


3 


5 


37 




14 


6 


2 






2 


1 








4 


1 




3 


27 


1,173 


92 


322 


67 


114 


59 


51 


46 


79 


33 


470 


137 


52 


174 


2 


3 


1 


13 


2 


1 




6 




10 


9 


"l 


1 
17 


2 


3 


4 


36 


5 


38 


18 


8 


3 


14 


4 


49 


32 


7 


29 


4 


13 


2 


10 




10 


4 


2 




11 




7 


14 


2 


4 


1 


4 


8 


21 


2 


12 


4 


1 


1 


16 


4 


4 

1 


13 


2 
1 


7 




4 


16 


70 


8 


73 


28 


12 


4 


47 


8 


71 


68 


19 


58 


7 


24 


43 


1,243* 


100 


395 


95 


126 


63 


98 


54 


150 


101 


489 


195 


59 


198 


58 


1,163 


119 


418 


105 


126 






46 


104 


102 


460 


204 


64 


205 



*For voting purposes only there should be added to Montreal Branch, an additional 337 members, 189 being resident in the United States, 
20 in British Possessions and 28 in foreign countries. 



$ 

149.61 

105.40 
30.00 


% 
1,445.70 

1,754.30 

94.85 

4.32 


'$ 
299.41 

190.80 
18.00 


$ 
1,781.33 

569.10 
57.00 
44.94 


$ 
121.45 

151.20 

35.00 

.24 


$ 
53.48 

228.90 


$ 
230.89 

120.00 


$ 
231.75 

141.60 


$ 
71.06 

108.10 


$ 
58.87 

219.50 


$ 
482.51 

149 . 70 

28.25 
1.02 


$ 
482.80 

644.20 


$ 
199.45 

387.50 


$ 
71.66 

125.50 
3.00 


$ 
633.64 

302.00 
11.00 


.72 




1.08 








10.61 

84.00 

7.00 


.90 


22.50 














2.71 


31.70 




2.50 












10.00 


























136.12 

8.99 
22.30 

25.00 


1,856.18 

846.09 
98.00 
228.53 
300.00 
120.00 

141.90 


240.50 

11.40 

102.73 

32.29 

75.00 

5.00 

15.50 


671.04 

233.81 

360 . 52 

40.00 


188.94 

10.15 
53.80 
23.26 


228.90 

9.95 

63.25 

20.42 

100.00 


121.08 

22.39 
25.52 
62.40 


141.60 

62.02 
33.80 
10.75 
25.00 
1.50 


108.10 

27.43 
50.60 
52.78 


219.50 

65.77 
39.09 

75.00 


188.97 

27.69 
57.01 
40.41 
25.00 
.35 


745.81 

186.45 
72.25 
59.90 

115.98 
40.00 

28.60 
10.00 


388.40 

98.30 
147.21 
81.63 
50.00 
20.00 


128.50 

23.58 
15.55 
35.05 
25.00 
8.25 


335.50 

33.43 
153.83 
128.17 

20 00 




25.00 














4.80 




36.50 


























30.00 

©250.00 

58.19 




6.00 

®102.40 
19.49 


19.30 












10.00 




















®85.00 
34.30 






@20 . 00 


27.51 


4.00 




10.00 








5.60 


11.00 


12.35 


5.00 












83.80 

52.32 

201.93 


2,072.71 

216. 53 

1,229.17 


241.92 

1.42 

297.99 


787.23 

116.19 

1,665.14 


110.51 

78.43 

199.88 


193.62 

35.28 
88.76 


120.31 

.77 
231.66 


133.07 

8.53 

240.28 


135.61 

27.51 
43.55 


179.86 
39.64 
98.51 


166.06 

22.91 

459.60 


632.48 
113.33 
596.18 


408.14 

19. 7 J, 

179.71 


119.78 

8.72 

80.38 


396.93 

61.48 

572.21 



©Contribution to cost of rehabilitation of Headquarters building. 
©Honorarium to R. J. Durlev, Students' Prizes, Grant to Aeronautical Section. 
©Students' Prizes, $25.00; Publicity, $60.00. 
©Students' Prizes. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



77 



Arrangements have been completed by the committee for 
a smoker to be held on February 2nd, 1939. 

Junior Section 

The executive committee for the Junior Section consisted 
of L. Jehu, a.m. e.i. c, chairman; L. Trudel, a.m.e.i.c, vice- 
chairman; P. E. Savage, a.m.e.i.c, secretary; R. N. War- 
nock, a.m.e.i.c; R. Boucher, jr.E.i.c; C. Craig, Jr. e. i.e.; 
G. N. Martin, jr.E.i.c.; C. E. Frost, a.m.e.i.c; J. F. Plow, 
a.m.e.i.c The following thirteen meetings were held, includ- 
ing three visits to plants; the total attendance was 485, 
which is slightly below the average for last year. 

Jan. 18 — Annual Meeting. Address Applying for an Engineering 

Job — The Interview (65). 
Jan. 31 — Westniount Trunk Sewer, by S. G. Lochhead, jr.E.i.c. 

(11). 
Feb. 14 — Concrete in the Field, by E. McKinstry (19). 
Mar. 9 — Modern Treatment of Asbestos Ores, by Guv Bélanger, 

S.E.I.C. (18). 

Mar. 28— Oil Refining, by G. Henderson (25). 

Apr. 23 — Visit to Crane Company Ltd. Montreal (80). 

Oct. 17 — Scientific Property Management, by A. J. Farrell, 

a.m.e.i.c, also a Sound Film on Rolling Structural 

Steel Shapes (38). 
Oct. 31 — The Engineer in the Pulp and Paper Industry, by 

H. Wyatt Johnston, -Ph.D., a.m.e.i.c. (46). 
Nov. 14 — The Manufacture of Cement, by T. R. Durley, a.m.e.i.c. 

(31). 
Nov. 26 — Visit to Canada Cement Co. Plant, Montreal (40). 
Nov. 28— New Uses for Rubber, by H. H. Marcou (36). 
Dec. 3 — Visit to Dominion Rubber Co. Plant (45). 
Dec. 12 — Theoretical Considerations of X-Rays, and their 

Uses, by L. Cartier, s.e.i.c, and Radiography as 

applied to Industry, by F. Dugal (31). 

Nominating Committees 

At a special general meetings of the Branch on November 
10th, E. V. Gage, a.m.e.i.c, P. E. Poitras, m.e.i.c and I. S. 
Patterson, a.m.e.i.c, were elected as members of the Branch 
nominating committee, to act with the chairman and 
secretary who were appointed by the executive, to nominate 
candidates for Branch officers. 

The executive committee appointed R. E. Jamieson, 
m.e.i.c, as representative from the Montreal Branch on the 
Institute nominating committee for 1939. 

Special Meetings 

At the request of the necessary number of members of 
the Branch, a special general meeting was called on May 
9th, to discuss the location and other considerations of the 
proposed Trans-Island Boulevard. Several engineers quali- 
fied to discuss this matter were especially invited to attend 
so that a complete presentation could be made. The 
Minister of Roads delegated a qualified assistant to outline 
the various aspects of the problem as it had been presented 
to the Department. After lengthy and interesting discus- 
sion, the meeting adopted resolutions expressing the senti- 
ment of the majority in attendance, which were transmitted 
to the authorities in Quebec. 

On October 6th, a regular meeting was held in conjunc- 
tion with the American Society of Heating and Ventilating 
Engineers who were holding their general council meeting 
in Montreal. This sister society has made all arrangements 
for a group of speakers who covered various phases of 
heating and ventilating work suitable to their membership 
but also of great interest to a large number of members of 
the Institute. This marked the first time that the society 
has held such a meeting in Montreal, and it was a privilege 
to have the opportunity to co-operating with a sister 
organization on this occasion. Dr. J. B. Challies, President 
of the Institute, welcomed the American Society of Heating 
and Ventilating Engineers to Headquarters and expressed 
the congratulations of the Institute to Holt Gurney, their 
President, the first Canadian to occupy that position. 

Special Lectures 

A third series of lectures on economics by Dr. D. M. 
Marvin was completed in April. About 25 members par- 



ticipated in this series of 12 lectures, which will unfortunate- 
ly not be continued, as Dr. Marvin has gone to the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. Such study groups, either in economics, or 
in any branch of engineering or science, form a legitimate 
field for the activities of the Branch, but can be established 
only if there is a demand for them from the membership. 

In general the Montreal Branch has completed a very 
satisfactory year. Some new ideas have been initiated which 
should eventually increase the activity in the Branch, and 
while results obtained to date have not been as great as 
was hoped for, they have provided a very good fund of 
experience for future operations. To obtain adequate support 
for such efforts on the part of your Executive, and the 
various groups to whom they delegate a great deal of work, 
it is essential that the membership should realize the great 
amount of time and effort that is expended by the various 
committee members. The Executive Committee is sincerely 
grateful for their help and constructive co-operation. It is 
also desired to thank the staff at Headquarters, the Institute 
officers, the Press, and those among our membership who 
have assisted in keeping the affairs of this Branch operating 
satisfactorily during the past year. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

The Branch Executive held nine business meetings, and 
the Branch held the following dinner meetings during the 
year 1938, attendance being given in brackets. 

Jan. 11 — At Niagara Falls, Ont. Hydraulic Power Development 
at Raie Comeau, Quebec, by Dr. H. G. Acres, m.e.i.c, 
Consulting Engineer, Niagara Falls. Dr. T. H. Hogg, 
m.e.i.c, Chairman of the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario, was an honoured guest and delighted 
the members with a talk on reminiscences of his engineer- 
ing activities. (90). 

Feb. 9 — At St. Catharines, Ont. Manufacture of Steel Wire for 
Cables, by A. B. Dove, a.m.e.i.c, chemical engineer, 
Steel Company of Canada (25). 

Mar. 10 — At Welland, Ont. R. L. Hearn, m.e.i.c, of the Dominion 
Construction Corporation presented a sound film on the 
Abitibi Canyon Power Development (80). 

Apr. 5 — Joint meeting with the Niagara District Chemical & Indus- 
trial Association at St. Catharines, Ont. Earth Structure 
as Revealed by Seismology, by Dr. E. A. Hodgson, 
m.e.i.c, Dominion Seismologist (90). 

May 14 — Annual meeting at Niagara Falls, Ont. Dr. J. B. Challies, 
the President, and L. Austin Wright, the General Secre- 
tary, favoured the branch with a visit and presented a 
discussion of Institute affairs. After the dinner A. E. 
Hay of the Pratt & Lambert Co., Buffalo, N.Y., gave a 
very interesting address (50). 

Oct. 5 — General business meeting at St. Catharines, Ont. Councillor 
W. R. Manock, m.e.i.c, introduced the subject of pro- 
posed changes in classification, followed by open dis- 
cussion. Ex-councillor W. Jackson, m.e.i.c, outlined some 
principles of branch management (18). 

Oct. 27 — At Niagara Falls, Ont. Dr. Speakman of the Ontario 
Research Foundation gave an illustrated talk on the 
Work of the Ontario Research Foundation (42). 

Nov. 18 — Afternoon inspection trip through the Fleet Aircraft Plant, 
Fort Erie, Ontario, followed by dinner meeting, after 
which Mr. Young, chief engineer of Fleet Aircraft, gave 
a very interesting paper on Problems in Aircraft Design 
and Manufacture (95). 

Dec. 8 — Joint meeting with the Niagara District Chemical & Indus- 
trial Association at St. Catharines, Ont. Sound film on 
Heat and Its Control, by A. D. Hopkins of the Can. 
Johns-Manville Co. who explained many features of 
research work carried on by the Johns-Manville Co. on 
insulation and heat control. 



OTTAWA BRANCH 

During the year the Managing Committee held nine 
meetings for the transaction of general business. 

The Proceedings Committee arranged 16 meetings, in- 
cluding the annual meeting of the Branch. Of these, 12 were 
luncheon meetings and 4 evening meetings. The luncheon 
meeting held on June 24th marked an outstanding event, 
namely, the meeting of Council of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada, which took place here on that date. The luncheon 



78 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



was attended by the President, members of Council, and 
several distinguished guests. It was addressed by the Pre- 
sident, who also took occasion to introduce the new General 
Secretary, L. Austin Wright, a.m. e. i.e., successor to R. J. 
Durley, m.e.i.c. Mr. Wright made a short and apt address 
to the assembled members and guests. 

It is with deep regret that we report the deaths of two 
of our members: R. L. Haycock, m.e.i.c, and Charles 
Stephen, a. m.e.i.c. 

As in previous years the Branch donated two sets of 
draughting instruments to the Ottawa Technical School 
for presentation as prizes for proficiency in draughting. A 
copy of 'Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers' was 
presented to the Hull Technical School to be awarded to 
one of its students. 

The following is a list of meetings held during the year 
1938, with attendance figures in brackets. Unless otherwise 
stated meetings were luncheon meetings. 

Jan. 13 — Evening meeting, National Research Council Bldg. annual 
meeting, Ottawa Branch. Also display of illuminated 
addresses sent to the Institute on the occasion of its 
Semicentennial, by sister institutions throughout the 
world. Maj.-Gen. McNaughton, m.e.i.c, president of the 
National Research Council, had the Museums of Aero- 
nautics and Surveys thrown open for the benefit of mem- 
bers of the Branch, and he with members of the staff very 
kindly explained features of the exhibits (69). 

Jan. 27 — Sanitary Engineering Laboratory at Queen's Univer- 
sity, by Professor W. L. Malcolm, m.e.i.c, Queen's 
University (83). 

Feb. 10 — Turner Valley — A Major Oil Field, by George S. Hume, 
Ph.D., Geological Survey, Dept. of Mines & Resources 
(96). 

Feb. 24 — Pax Nipponica, by C. A. Bowman, m.e.i.c, Editor, 
Citizen, Ottawa, also presentation of Gzowski medal to 
Dr. J. H. Parkin, m.e.i.c, by the President, Dr. J. B. 
Challies. 
(122). 

Mar. 10 — What Canada is doing with the aid of Camera and 
Airplane, by A. C. T. Sheppard, B.A.Sc, d.l.s., Bureau 
of Geology & Topography, Dept. Mines & Resources 
(100). 

Mar. 24 — Trans-Canada Air Lines, by P. G. Johnston, vice- 
president, Trans-Canada Air Lines (121). 

Apr. 7 — Electronic Devices, by Jos. T. Thwaites, b.sc, Westing- 
house Company, Hamilton (56). 

Apr. 12 — Evening Address, National Research Council Bldg. Auto- 
mobile Parking in Ottawa, by R. M. Simpson, En- 
gineer, Citizens' Parking Committee, Ottawa (15). 

Apr. 21 — Seismology, by Dr. E. A. Hodgson, m.e.i.c, Dominion 
Observatory, Ottawa (50). 

May 5 — Sun Spots, by Dr. R. E. DeLury, Dominion Observatory, 
Ottawa (76). 

Mav 19 — Roads in the Sky, by Professor R. DeL. French, m.e.i.c, 
McGill University (60). 

June 24 — Meeting of the Council of the E.I.C. (See opening para- 
graph) (97). 

Oct. 12 — Evening Address, National Research Council Bldg. Com- 
mercial Speed: A Common Problem for Rail, Road, 
and Water, by L. P. Alvin, Paris, France (40). 

Nov. 17 — Evening Meeting, Can. Govt. Motion Picture Bureau. 
Steel — Man's Servant, by A. W. Allyn of United States 
Steel Products Company, Montreal (150). 

Dec. 1 — Impressions of Japan, by E. Haanel Cassidv, Toronto. 
(95). 

Dec. 15 — Recent Mineral Developments in the Northwest 
Territories, by Dr. Chas. Camsell, C.m.g., m.e.i.c, 
Deputy Minister, Dept. Mines & Resources (115). 

Membership 

With several adjustments during the year the member- 
ship roll now shows an increase of 7 during the year, the 
total now being 339 resident and 86 non-resident members. 

Aeronautical Section 

Six evening meetings were held, when technical papers 
dealing with aeronautical or related subjects were read and 
discussions held. The average attendance was 34. 

Officers for 1939 

The Annual Meeting of the Branch will be held on the 
12th of January when the officers and members of the 
Managing Committee for 1939 will be elected. 



PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 

The following meetings were held during the year 1938, 
with attendance in brackets. 

Jan. 20 — Manufacture of Carborundum Abrasive and Refrac- 
tory Material, by F. D. Bowman, Canadian Carborun- 
dum Co (54). 

Feb. 24 — Air Conditioning, by J. H. Daynes, Canadian General 
Electric Co., Toronto (59). 

Mar. 10 — Annual Student and Junior night. Sand Casting of Crank 
Shafts for the Automobile Industry by R. E. Edson, 
S.E.I. C; Water Purification, by J. R. Desmarais, 
s.e.i.c; Metallic Arc Welding, by M. F. Carrière, 
s.E.i.c (38). 

Mar. 24— The Long Road, (Sound Film), by P. B. MacEwan, Ethyl 
Gasoline Corporation (57). 

Apr. 14 — The Inside Story of Lubrication (Sound Film), by A. G. 
Scott, chief lubrication engineer, Imperial Oil Co. Ltd. 
(48). 

May 5 — Annual meeting and election of Executive (41). 

May 19 — The Building of the Golden Gate Bridge and The 
Manufacture of Structural Shapes and Related 
Products (sound films), by Bethlehem Steel Corporation. 
(400). 

May 27— Visit to the new Globe and Mail Bldg., Toronto (100). 

Sept. 29 — Supper and social gathering (49). 

Oct. 13 — Manufacture of High Voltage Wet Process Insulators, 
by J. M. Somerville, Canadian Porcelain Co. (35). 

Oct. 27 — Color Photography, by r J. W. McFarlane, Eastman Kodak 
Co., Rochester (650). 

Nov. 10 — Canada's Contribution to Aerial Photographic Map- 
ping, by A. C. T. Sheppard, d.l.s., Bureau of Geology 
and Topography, Dept. of Mines and Resources, Ottawa. 
(33). 

Nov. 26 — Annual Dinner, attended by the President, Dr. J. B. 
Challies, L. Austin Wright, and Councillors (85). 

Dec. 8 — New Developments in Lighting, by J. W. Bateman, 
Canadian General Electric Co., Toronto (25). 

Number of Executive Committee meetings held during 
the year — 11. 

Special Sub Committees: — 
Meetings and Papers Committee — B. I. Burgess, a.m.e.i.c; 

S. O. Shields, a.m.e.i.c. 
Branch News Editor — J. L. McKeever, jr.E.i.c. 
Membership and Attendance Committee — H. R. Sills, 

a.m.e.i.c; E. Prête, Branch Affiliate. 
Social and Entertainment Committee — R. L. Dobbin, 

m.e.i.c; A. L. Killaly, a.m.e.i.c; B. Ottewell, a.m.e.i.c, 

E. R. Shirley, m.e.i.c 



QUEBEC BRANCH 

Five meetings of the Branch Executive Committee were 
held during the year. The last meeting, held on December 
19th, 1938, was the occasion of the President's and General 
Secretary's visit to the Branch. The Executive were hosts 
at a luncheon given to President Challies. At this meeting 
the affairs of main import to the Institute such as the 
co-ordination of the Institute and the Associations were 
discussed. 

Six Branch meetings were held during the year 1938, as 
follows :— 

Jan. 21 — Gasoline for Today's Automobile, by Gordon M. 
Connor, b.sc, field representative of the Ethyl Gasoline 
Corporation. 

Feb. 17 — Luncheon n eeting. The Two New 50-KiIowatt Stations 
of the C.B.C., by John C. Stadler, a.m.e.i.c, executive 
assistant, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 

May 2 — Luncheon Meeting. Life Saving with Light, by E. D. 
Gray-Donald, a.m.e.i.c, assistant general superintendent, 
Quebec Power Company. 

June 17 — Annual meeting and election of officers. 

Nov. 14 — Le chauffage électrique dans l'industrie, by Leo Roy, 
jr.E.i.c, power sales engineer, Quebec Power Co.; Le 
chauffage à l'air climatisé, by Jean Marie Paquet, 
jr.E.i.c, engineer, J. A. Y. Bouchard. 

Dec: 19 — Dinner Meeting. The Status of the Engineer in Canada, 
by President J. B. Challies. Councillor Fred Newell also 
spoke on the position of the movement for closer relations 
between the Institute and provincial professional asso- 
ciations. General Secretary L. Austin Wright reported on 
proposals for a conclave of British, Canadian and Ameri- 
can engineers at the World's Fair in New York. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



79 



Committees 
The Branch Committees are as follows: — 



Nominating 
A. Gratton, m.e.i.c. 
G. W. Cartwright, a.m.e.i.c. 
A. O. Dufresne, m.e.i.c. 

Legislation 
J. O. Martineau, m.e.i.c. 
O. Desjardins, a.m.e.i.c. 
J. G. O'Donnell, a.m.e.i.c. 

P. Methé, a.m.e.i.c. 

R. Dupuis, a.m.e.i.c. 

T. M. Dechêne, a.m.e.i.c. 



Membership 
H. Cimon, m.e.i.c. 
T. M. Dechêne, a.m.e.i.c. 
Jean Saint-Jacques, a.m.e.i.c. 

Excursions 
T. M. Dechêne, a.m.e.i.c. 
E. D. Gray-Donald, a.m.e.i.c. 
W. R. Caron, a.m.e.i.c. 

Library 

J. O. Martineau, m.e.i.c 
B. Pelletier, a.m.e.i.c. 



22 



13- 
5- 



SAGUENAY BRANCH 

The Executive Committee held nine meetings during the 
year for the transaction of Branch business. 

In addition to the above, twelve general meetings were 
held during the year 1938 as follows: — 

Feb. 11 — Technical Men in Industry, by T. M. Moran, a.m.e.i.c, 

factory manager Dominion Rubber Company, Ltd., 

Montreal; Chairman Industrial Management Section of 

the Montreal Branch. 

Feb. 25 — Paper Unloading Facilities at Port Alfred, by Frank 

Calder, Aluminum Company of Canada, Ltd., Arvida. 
Mar. 25 — Operating Experience with Wood Pole Transmission 
Lines in the Saguenay District, by N. D. Paine, 
a.m.e.i.c, general electrical supt. Price Bros. Company, 
Kenogami, Que.; Operating Experience with Steel 
Tower Transmission Lines in the Saguenay Dis- 
trict, by F. L. Lawton, m.e.i.c, chief engineer, Saguenay 
Power Company, Arvida, Que. 
4 — Wood Preservation, by G. E. LaMothe, A.M.E.I.C, 
logging division Engineer, Price Brothers Company, 
Chicoutimi, Que. Also sound pictures Structural 
Shapes and Golden Gate Bridge. 
13 — Latest Applications of Grid Controlled Mutators, by 
A. Leuthold, engineer for Brown Boveri Company, 
Switzerland. 
Manufacture of Electric Furnace Abrasive, by R. H. 
White, vice-president and general manager of Canadian 
Abrasives Company, Ltd., Arvida, Que. 
Dinner and annual meeting held at Arvida, Que. 
Operating Experience with Rotary Converters, by 
William Fraser, Aluminum Company of Canada, Ltd., 
Arvida, Que. 
7 — Sound pictures, The Inside Story and Design for Power, 
supplied by Imperial Oil Company. 
14 — Sound picture Flow supplied by Crane Limited. 
25 — Modern Electric Arc Welding, by Gordon Cape, Do- 
minion Bridge Con pany, Montreal, Que. 
18 — Visit of Dr. J. B. Challies," President, Mr. L. Austin Wright, 
General Secretary, and Mr. F. Newell. Councillor, who 
were also the speakers. 

SAINT JOHN BRANCH 

Seven meetings of the Executive Committee were held 
during the year 1938 and eight meetings of the Branch as 
follows : 

Jan. 27 — Annual joint dinner with the Association of Professional 
Engineers ot New Brunswick. Pre-stressing and Erec- 
tion of the Isle of Orleans Bridge, by D. B. Arm- 
strong, a.m.e.i.c, chief designing engineer of the Do- 
minion Bridge Company. 

Feb. 17— Heat and its Control, illustrated by motion pictures, by 
a representative of the Canadian Johns-Manville Co. 

Mar. 24 — Building Invisible Edifices, by H. I. Knowles, chief 
chemist of the Atlantic Sugar Refineries. 

Apr. 12 — Joint meeting with the Engineering Society of the Univer- 
sity of New Brunswick at Fredericton. The Manufac- 
ture and Uses of Nickel and its Alloys, illustrated by 
motion pictures, by Wm. J. Brown, foundry engineer of 
the Robt. W. Bartram Company. 

May 5— Annual dinner meeting and election of officers of the Branch. 
President J. B. Challies, General Secretary L. Austin 
Wright and Councillor F. Newell were guests of the 
Branch. 

Oct. 13 — Supper meeting. Research in Manufacturing, by L. W. 
Simms, president of the T. S. Simms Brush factory. 

Nov. 16 — Engineering in Broadcasting, by H. M. Smith, design 
and construction engineer of the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation. 

Dec. 8 — Supper meeting. The September Crisis in Britain, by 
T. C. McNabb, m.e.i.c, superintendent of the Atlantic 
division of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 



May 

May 
June 



July 
Aug. 



Sept, 

Oct. 
Nov. 

Dec. 



ST. MAURICE VALLEY BRANCH 

It is with pleasure that we welcome to the Branch those 
members resident in LaTuque and Rapide Blanc, who were 
formerly attached to the Quebec Branch. 

Six general meetings were held during the year 1938, 
four at Shawinigan Falls and two at Three Rivers. Four of 
these were dinners. A summary of the meetings with attend- 
ance in brackets is as follows: — 

Feb. 23 — At Three Rivers, a dinner in honor of H. O. Keay, m.e.i.c, 
newly elected Vice-president of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada (32). 

Mar. 29 — At Shawinigan Falls, in conjunction with the Shawinigan 
Falls Chemical Association. Cellite, the Story of the 
Diatom, a talking picture supplied bv Canadian Johns- 
Manville Co. (85). 

Apr. 12 — At Shawinigan Falls. Observations on the Probable 
Causes of Disintegration of Concrete Structures, 
by T. C. Creaghan, Western Waterproofing Co., Mont- 
real (54). 

May 20 — At Shawinigan Falls, a dinner meeting, The Development 
of Design and Construction of Guns, by Lieut. -Col. 
Norman C. Sherman, m.e.i.c, ordnance mechanical en- 
gineer, Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps (48). 

Oct. 8 — At Shawinigan Falls, a dinner to welcome the presidential 
party, including President J. B. Challies, the General 
Secretary, L. Austin Wright, and the chairman of the 
Committee on Professional Interests, Fred Newell (32). 

Dec. 10 — At Three Rivers, Steel — Man's Servant, the United 
States Steel Corp.'s talking picture (400); and a dinner 
meeting, The Use of Rigid Frames in Building Con- 
struction, by E. R. Jacobsen, a.m.e.i.c, Dominion 
Bridge Co., Lachine, P.Q. (64). 



SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

Meetings 

There were five regular meetings of the Branch, each 
being preceded by a dinner, at which the average attendance 
was sixty-one. In addition, general meetings were held dur- 
ing the months of February and October, under the auspices 
of The Association of Professional Engineers of Saskatche- 
wan. 

The new system which was inaugurated late in 1937 with 
regard to the monthly meetings which are now being held 
jointly by the Saskatchewan Branch of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada, The Association of Professional 
Engineers of Saskatchewan and the Saskatchewan Section 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers has again 
proved to be of general interest. A common committee, 
representing the three organizations, was again established, 
being known as a Papers and Meetings Committee. The 
Chairman of each association again alternated monthly in 
charge of the meeting and all expenses were pooled. The 
identity of each organization is still retained with annual 
meetings being conducted as in the past. Elections for the 
Branch have been dispensed with due to the new co-opera- 
tive agreement recently signed. 

The Standing Committees of the Branch are as follows — 

Papers and Meetings — H. A. Jones, a.m.e.i.c, Convener. 

Nominating — H. R. Mackenzie, a.m.e.i.c, Convener. 

Membership — J. J. White, a.m.e.i.c, Convener. 

The programme for the year 1938 was as follows: — 

Jan. 21 — The Mining Industry in Manitoba and Western 
Ontario, by M. C. Lowe. 

Feb. 18 — Branch members met with The Association of Professional 
Engineers of Saskatchewan in annual meeting. 

Mar. 18 — Annual meeting of Branch, election of officers. Animated 
pictures of Boulder Dam. 

Apr. 22 — Photographic Registration of Lightning Discharges, 
by L. M. Howe. 

Oct. 29 — Meeting under the auspices of The Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers of Saskatchewan in semi-annual meeting. 
Signing of co-operative agreement between The Saskat- 
chewan Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada 
and The Association of Professional Engineers of Saskat- 
chewan. 

Nov. 25 — Irrigation in Saskatchewan, by E. E. Eisenhauer, 
a.m.e.i.c 

Dec. 19 — Scientific Crime Detection, by R.C.M.P. Surgeon 
Maurice Powers. 



80 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SAULT STE. MARIE BRANCH 

The Executive Committee met on Jan. 14, 1938, and 
appointed standing committees. The committees and the 
chairmen are as follows : — 

Papers and Publicity — Hugh J. Leitch, a.m.e.i.c. 

Entertainment — John L. Lang, m.e.i.c. 

Membership — A. H. Russell, a.m.e.i.c. 

Legislation and Remuneration — F. A. Smallwood, m.e.i.c. 

The Executive Committee met seven times during the 
year to discuss and promote the activities of the Branch 
and the Institute. 

Seven dinner meetings were held during the year. The 
average attendance at the meetings was 31 members and 
guests. As customary the meetings were held at no set time 
during the month but were arranged for dates that suited 
the convenience of the speakers. 

The Branch was honoured during the year by visits from 
President J. B. Challies, and the General Secretary L. 
Austin Wright. Mr. Challies was in Sault Ste. Marie in 
July and Mr. Wright in November. 

Programmes of the meetings held were as follows: — 

Mar. 4 — Development of Helen Mine, by E. M. MacQuarrie, 

m.e.i.c, o.l.s., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
Apr. 29 — The Oxy-Acetylene Process in Industry, by R. J. 

Anderson, Dominion Oxygen Company, Montreal, P.Q. 

May 27 — Visit to the Sault Structural Steel Co. under the direction 
of the general manager, Hugh J. Leitch, a.m.e.i.c. 

July 20 — Visit of the President of the Institute, J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c. 

Sep. 30 — Montreal River Lower Falls Power Development, by 
K. G. Ross, m.e.i.c, Lang and Ross, Construction En- 
gineers. 

Nov. 18 — Visit of the General Secretary of the Institute, L. Austin, 
Wright, a.m.e.i.c 

Dec. 16 — Annual meeting for 1938. 

A feature of the current year which might be mentioned 
is the pleasing increase in the resident membership from 33 
to 41 during the year. One Associate Member, 5 Juniors, 
one Student and one Branch Affiliate made up the increase. 

The movement of members during 1938 is summarized 
as follows: — 

In Out Transfer 

Elected to membership 8 

Moved out of Branch 17 

Moved into Branch 20 

Resignations, suspensions 2 

Transfer to higher grade 5 

Total 28 19 



TORONTO BRANCH 

The Annual Meeting of the Branch was held at the 
Canadian Military Institute on Thursday, May 12th, 1938, 
at which the officers for 1938-39 were elected. The meeting 
was preceded by a dinner at which the President of the 
Institute, Dr. J. B. Challies; L. Austin Wright, General 
Secretary; E. V. Buchanan, Vice-President, Zone B.; J. 
Vance, Woodstock; W. J. W. Reid, Hamilton; R. L. Dobbin, 
Peterborough; Prof. R. W. Angus; Prof. C. R. Young; Dr. 
P. A. Gaby; Dr. A. H. Harkness and some sixty others were 
present. Willson Woodside was the speaker of the evening. 
Dr. J. B. Challies and L. Austin Wright added a few words 
and expressed their pleasure at being present. 

The undermentioned were named as chairmen of the 
Standing Committees: 

Papers — A. E. Berry, m.e.i.c. Membership — W. E. P. Dun- 
Meetings — W. E. P. Dun- can, m.e.i.c. 

can, m.e.i.c. Branch Editor— D. D. Whit- 
Finance— C. E.Sisson,M.E. i.e. son, a.m.e.i.c. 
Social — H. E. Brandon, Student Relations— M. Bar- 

a.m.e.i.c. ry Watson, a.m.e.i.c. 

During the year the executive committee has held four- 
teen meetings with an average attendance of about ten at 
each meeting. 



The following regular meetings were held during the year 
1938, attendance figures being given in brackets. 

Jan. 10 — Heat Insulating Materials, by Prof. E. A. Allcut, m.e.i.c 
This was a joint meeting held in conjunction with the 
American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers 
(Toronto Chapter) and the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers (Ontario Section). The paper was 
preceded by a dinner attended by members and friends. 
(168). 

Jan. 20 — Application of the New Science of Seeing to Lighting, 
by W. J. Bateman, Canadian General Electric Co. 
Limited, and chairman of Toronto Chapter, Illuminat- 
ing Engineering Society (25). 

Jan. 22 — Social evening held at the Engineer's Club for members and 
ladies. Preceded by dinner and followed by entertain- 
ment, music, cards and billiards (92). 

Feb. 24 — Annual students nightat which the following took part: De- 
velopment and Role of Aviation in Mining, by M. R. 
Brown; Flying in the Stratosphere, by K. R. Busby; 
Advantages of the Trolley Bus in Municipal Trans- 
portation, by T. L. Cooke; The Engineer in Society, 
by B. Etkin; High Temperature Steam, by J. L. 
Hemphill; Arc Welding of Cast Iron, by I. W. Smith. 
The papers were preceded by a talking picture loaned 
by the Bethlehem Steel Co. and showing the Golden Gate 
Bridge, San Francisco (275). 

Mar. 17 — Outardes Falls Power Development, by A. W. F. 
McQueen, m.e.i.c (40). 

May 12 — Annual Branch meeting. Germany Would Lose, by Will- 
son Woodside (68). 

Sept. 20 — Golf Tournament, followed by dinner (45). 

Oct. 13 — Technical Aspects of Attack and Defence in Modern 
Warfare, by Lieut.-Col. E. J. C. Schmidlin, M.C, 
director of Engineering Services, Dept. of National 
Defence, Ottawa (150). 

Nov. 3 — Recent Developments in Synthetic Rubber, by B. K. 
Read, Canadian Industries Limited, Montreal (80). 

Nov. 17 — The Regulation of Traffic in a City, by Tracy D. 
LeMay, Town Planning Commissioner, Toronto (100). 

Dec. 1 — Some Problems of a Research Laboratory, by Dr. Saul 
Dushman, b.a.sc, Ph.D., assistant director of the Re- 
search Laboratory, General Electric Company, Schnec- 
tady, N.Y. (170). 

Previous to each regular meeting well attended dinners 
have been held at Hart House and enjoyed by all who 
availed themselves of the opportunity to attend. 

The branch loan fund established some six years ago has 
a balance of $300.00. No applications for loans have been 
received during the past year. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death of the 
following members of the Branch during the year: Victor 
Topping, a.m.e.i.c; A. T. C. McMaster, m.e.i.c; H. W. 
McAll, m.e.i.c; J. H. Barber, m.e.i.c; D. W. Harvey, 
m.e.i.c; A. B. Crealock, m.e.i.c Our sincere sympathy is 
extended to their families in their loss. 



VANCOUVER BRANCH 

We have just passed through a very successful and in- 
teresting year. Two large projects were carried out in Van- 
couver and Victoria which stimulated a great interest in 
the engineering profession: the Lions' Gate Bridge and the 
National Defence programme. Both of these projects were 
very fine examples of engineering and our Branch is very 
fortunate in having these works so close that frequent visits 
could be made to the different projects. 

One of the most interesting and important things that 
happened this year, as far as the Institute was concerned, 
was the visit of the President, Dr. Challies, and the Chair- 
man of the Committee on Professional Interests, Fred 
Newell, also the General Secretary, L. Austin Wright, to 
Vancouver in November. The visit of these gentlemen to 
this Branch will go a long way towards bringing the Asso- 
ciation of Professional Engineers and the E.I.C. into closer 
relationship. 

During the year the Branch held 10 meetings and two 
luncheons, as follows: 

Jan. 5 — Farewell Luncheon to Percy Sandwell, m.e.i.c. 
Jan. 20 — The Grand Coulee Dam, by Major S. E. Hutton, En- 
gineering Staff of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



81 



Mar. 16 — Modern Manufacture of Lubricating Oils, by Dr. W. F. 

Seyer, Department of Chemistry, University of British 
Columbia. 

Apr. 13 — Mining in B.C. and the Function of the Department 
of Mines, by Dr. John F. Walker, Deputy Minister of 
Mines. 

May 5 — The Steel Industry in Canada, by Lt. Col. J. P. Mac- 
kenzie, M.E.I.C. 

June 1 — The Cables of the Lion's Gate Bridge, by S. R. Banks, 

June 13 — Complimentary Luncheon to Sir Godfrey Rhodes. 

Sep. 13 — Joint Meeting — Board of Trade Engineering Bureau and 
Engineering Institute. The Collapse of the Niagara 
Arch Bridge, by P. L. Pratley, m.e.i.c. 

Oct. 26— Why the Weather, by A. R. McCauley, Chief Meteorolo- 
gist, Sea Island Airport. 

Nov. 8 — Public Meeting. The Status of the Engineer, by Dr. J. B. 
Challies. Meeting also addressed by Fred Newell and 
L. Austin Wright, Representatives of the Association, 
a.i.e.e., Architects, c.i.m.m., and construction industries 
present. 

Nov. 10 — Meeting with student body (Applied Science) University 
of B.C. Speakers— Dr. Challies, Mr. Newell and Mr. 
Wright. 

Nov. 21- — Annual dinner and meeting. Some Principles of British 
Government Finance, by Dr. Ivor Jennings. 

The Executive held nine meetings during the same period. 

The Executive Meetings have been quite important, 
matters of great interest to the Profession being discussed, 
the result of deliberations being sent to the Institute in 
Montreal. Some of the more important discussions were: 

Membership Classifications — This matter is now before 
Council and in due course we shall be notified of their 
position in the matter. 

Representation on Council — This appeared to your 
Executive to be a very important matter and we strongly 
recommend that this Branch be permitted to retain its 
present representation on Council. 

The proposed new section 76 which gives Council 
authority to proceed with negotiations and enter into an 
agreement between the Institute and any Provincial Asso- 
ciation for the furtherance of their mutual interests. 

In addition to the Executive Meetings the Committee on 
Professional Interests held three meetings during the year. 

The members of this committee are as follows: 



VICTORIA BRANCH 

During the year four general meetings of the Branch were 
held, two being dinner meetings and one a luncheon meet- 
ing with an average attendance of 23. The outstanding of 
these was on November 5th when the Branch entertained 
President Challies and Mrs. Challies, Councillor Fred 
Newell and Mrs. Newell, L. Austin Wright, general secre- 
tary, and some 45 members and friends of the Branch and 
their families at a formal dinner. Following the dinner many 
of the distinguished guests addressed the meeting, including 
C. A. Magrath, the recipient of honorary membership an- 
nounced by President Challies on this occasion. At noon 
on the same day President Challies made the presentation 
of the Sir John Kennedy medal to Col. J. S. Dennis at the 
Jubilee Hospital. It was much regretted that Col. Dennis, 
who has since deceased, was too ill to permit his being 
present at the dinner held that evening. 

Three meetings of the Executive Committee were held 
during the year, much of the business of the Branch being 
left in the hands of the chairman and the secretary for 
attention. 

Membership 

The membership of the Branch stands at 62, a reduction 
of two over the preceding year. One new member was 
received and one was transferred to this Branch, also one 
Junior member was transferred to this Branch member- 
ship. Resignations were received from one Member and one 
Associate Member. One Junior was transferred to other 
parts of Canada. The Branch had the misfortune to lose by 
death during the year one of its life members, namely, Col. 
J. S. Dennis, also H. L. Swan, who died shortly after his 
transfer to the Vancouver Branch. 

• Annual Meeting 

The annual meeting of the Branch was held on December 
16th, and took the form of a dinner meeting followed by 
the election of officers for the year 1939. 

In conclusion the Executive Committee of the Branch 
wishes to sincerely thank the General Secretary and the 
staff at Headquarters for their generous assistance and 
unfailing courtesy throughout the year. 



P. H. Buchan, m.e.i.c, Chairman 
H. N. McPherson, m.e.i.c. 



E. A. Cleveland, m.e.i.c. 
J. P. Mackenzie, m.e.i.c. 



The deliberations of this committee were sent direct to 
Institute Headquarters in Montreal. 

The Membership Committee of the Branch has not been 
particularly active. This was due to the unsettled state of 
affairs in connection with co-operation and co-ordination 
between the Institute and The Professional Association. 
This matter is now on an improved basis and the Member- 
ship committee for next year will have a better opportunity 
of making headway. 

We are sorry to report the death of four of our members : 
H. L. Swan, m.e.i.c, C. E. Cartwright, m.e.i.c, George 
Wright, m.e.i.c, and Capt. E. A. Wheatley, m.e.i.c 

Our relations with the student body in engineering at 
the University of British Columbia are very much closer 
than they have been for which thanks are due to Dean 
Finlayson and Archie Peebles. It is important that attention 
is paid to the problems of the young engineer and the time 
to start is during his college days. At one meeting which 
we held at the University while the President was here, the 
student body turned out in force and we should lose no 
opportunity of encouraging these young men to become 
Institute-minded. 

The Papers committee have done excellent work as is 
shown by the number and calibre of the meetings, and the 
Secretary has been untiring in his efforts on behalf of the 
Branch. 



WINNIPEG BRANCH 

Meetings 

Acting upon a resolution passed at the Annual Meeting, 
Feb. 3, 1938, an agreement with the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Manitoba whereby all general meet- 
ings are held under the joint auspices of the Branch and the 
Association, was consummated. All meetings of the fall 
season have been held in accordance with this agreement. 

There were 12 general meetings throughout the year 1938, 
the average attendance being 61. (Attendance given in 
brackets). In addition there were 11 meetings of the Execu- 
tive Committee. 



Jan. 6- 
Feb. 3- 
Feb. 17- 

Mar. 3- 
Mar. 17- 

Apr. 7- 



Apr. 21- 

Oct. 13- 

Oct. 27- 

Oct. 27- 

Oct. 27- 



Nov. 
Dec. 



-Air Conditioning, by D. C. Brooking (77). 

-Annual Meeting. 

-Modern Methods of Sludge Treatment, by A. L. 
Genter (59). 

-Polar Exploration, by Capt. Innes-Taylor (58). 

-The Handling of Grain in Large Elevators, by P. C. 
Watt (38). 

-The Effect of Boundary Layer Control on the Efficien- 
cy of the Draft Tube, by J. W. McBride, s.e.i.c. 
Features of the Design of a Power Unit, by R. T. 
Harland (31). 

-Air Transportation in Canada, by V. H. Patriarche, 

A. M.E.I.C. (47). 

-Keeping the Lines Alive, by H. L. Briggs, a.m.e.i.C. (70). 
-Luncheon. Delegation from Headquarters (76). 
-Dinner. Delegation from Headquarters (43). 
-President Challies, Councillor F. Newell, L. Austin Wright 

General Secretary, Institute Affairs (66). 
-Electric Precipitators, by Prof. J. W. Dorsey (53). 
-Weeds to Waterfowl, by G. R. Fanset (43). 



82 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



FUEL TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Engineer, December 2nd, 1938 
Abstracted by A. A. Swinnerton, a.m.e.i.c. 

An investigation in the United States by the National 
Bituminous Coal Commission has shown that anthracite 
production has declined 48 per cent since 1918 and bitu- 
minous coal production has declined 25 per cent. In the 
same period there was a 186 per cent increase in water 
power, a 224 per cent increase in natural gas, and a 230 
per cent increase in petroleum. It was also found that 
anthracite coal furnished only 5.4 per cent of the energy 
produced in the country in 1937, as compared with 22.1. 
per cent in 1899, and bituminous coal furnished only 45.3 
per cent of the energy output in 1937, as compared with 
68.2 per cent in 1899 — a total decline in the coal energy 
from 90.3 per cent in 1899 to 50.7 per cent in 1937. During 
the same thirty-eight years the energy contributed by water 
power increased from 1.8 to 9.4 per cent, the energy from 
natural gas increased from 3.3 to 9.5 per cent, and that 
from petroleum from 4.6 to 30.4 per cent — a gain in the 
relative position of water power, natural gas, and petroleum 
from 9.7 per cent in 1899 to 49.3 per cent in 1937. 

EXHAUST STEAM HEATS MOTOR CAR PLANT 

By F. O. Jordan, in the Heating and Ventilating Journal, 
November, 1938. 

Abstracted by L. M. Ashley, m.e.i.c. 

This heating plant is unique in that while the unit heater 
has become standard equipment for heating large structures 
of this kind here is a system of hot water heating that has 
been operating with great satisfaction for ten years. The 
author claims inexpensive operation of the plant because 
of the use of exhaust steam from trip hammers; this steam 
is so foul with oil and grease that it is usually wasted, but 
by the design of special water heaters with short tubes of 
large diameter so arranged that the oil and dirt are blown 
through quickly, water has been heated satisfactorily for 
this job. The building is heated entirely by means of pipe 
coils through which the hot water is circulated by means of 
motor driven centrifugal pumps. The roof and all monitors 
are blanketed with heating coils many of them 1,000 feet 
long; coils are also installed on the walls and under the 
windows. Coils are hooked up with 90 deg. turns and are 
supported on roll hangers. There is separate heater and 
pump room and the usual expansion tank to keep the system 
full of water. Over-sized mains with plugged outlets have 
made it easy to supply heat for building changes and 
additions, and the upkeep required for maintaining the 
system in good condition has been very small. When it has 
been necessary to supply outside air for ventilation, air 
supply systems have been installed on the roof. These 
systems are made up of air circulating fans, blast heaters 
for heating the outside air to be introduced, ductwork and 
registers for delivery into the building. 

In designing the system conventional methods were used. 
For example the usual overall transmission coefficients were 
used in estimating the heat loss from the building, the heat 
for heating the outside air entering the building by natural 
leakage or infiltration was estimated by assuming one 
change of air per hour in outside bays and one half of this 
for inside bays. The hot water distribution systems were 
designed so that the pressure drop through all parallel cir- 
cuits or water paths was the same. Pipe coils were based on 
delivering 240 B.t.u.'s per hour per square ft. of heating 
surface. 

The author has one paragraph headed "A 30-Day Won- 
der" in which he writes of the building for which this 
heating system was designed. "In the late '20's Walter P. 
Chrysler thought he saw a market for a large number of 
low priced high performance cars, but realized the need for 



Contributed abstracts of articles appear- 
ing in the current technical periodicals 



quick action. Orders were given to start work immediately 
on an automotive plant of mammoth dimensions as this 
plant was to be ready to start production within sixty days. 
He visited architect Albert Kohn's place of business and 
asked when footing drawings could be delivered on the site 
of his proposed factory. The answer was that they would 
be delivered in the morning. The next morning saw footing 
drawings delivered and waiting steam shovels begin action, 
and thirty days later a Plymouth's horn tooted and the 
first car rolled from the assembly line under its own power, 
followed by an endless procession which has never been 
stopped." 

DUAL PARSHALL FLUMES MEASURE 
WIDE RANGE OF FLOWS 

By H. S. Biesbol, Jr., Am. Soc. CE., in Civil Engineering, 
January, 1939 

Abstracted by A. C. D. Blanchard, m.e.i.c. 

The use of Parshall (Venturi) flumes for the measurement 
of flow of water has been greatly extended during the past 
few years, and this type of measuring device has now been 
developed to cover, with a single installation, the complete 
range in discharge between zero and 800 sec. feet. 

The Parshall flume, originally devised for the measure- 
ment of silt-laden water in irrigation canals, is now being 
utilized by the Soil Conservation Service of the U.S. 
Government for run-off determinations of relatively small 
watersheds. 

It is pointed out that no practicable hydraulic device will 
measure accurately the extreme ranges of discharge which 
occur on small watersheds, the immediate conclusion in order 
to secure accurate results being to pass the flow through a 
series of measuring units, each having a range such that the 
error will remain within the desired limits. It is inferred, 
however, that the dual Parshall flume will obviate the 
necessity of installing more than one measuring unit for 
ranges in discharge within the limits previously mentioned. 

Any device for this purpose should have a minimum 
susceptibility to velocities of approach and must be capable 
of handling flows that carry silt and debris. These require- 
ments preclude the use of measuring weirs, either sharp or 
broad-crested. 

The flume is adapted to handling debris-laden water 
better than most other hydraulic measuring devices because 
the velocities through the flume are accelerated until the 
critical velocity is reached. This is ordinarily sufficient to 
maintain the flume in a clean and unobstructed condition. 

The most recent development introduces an installation 
of two flumes side by side, the smaller of which is intended to 
measure base flows of from zero to eight second feet, while 
the other, of much greater dimensions, will measure all 
higher flows. 

A drawing showing a typical dual installation appears 
with the text and shows, in addition to the plan and profiles 
of the two flumes, the location of the recording device. The 
general arrangement is simple, as only one head measure- 
ment is required for each flume. 

The theory of design is not discussed in this paper, nor are 
any definite statements made as to the degree of accuracy 
to be expected by this form of measuring device. For the 
theoretical hydraulic principles involved and the results of 
tests carried out with Venturi flumes as applied to measure- 
ments of sewage, reference may, however, be made to a 
paper by H. K. Palmer and F. D. Bowlus in the 1936 Trans- 
actions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, which 
deals with the adaptation of Venturi flumes to flow measure- 
ments in conduits. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



83 



CRACK DETECTIVE 

By T. C. Rathbone, in Power, November 1938 

Abstracted by C. R. Whittemore, a.m.e.i.c. 

F Examination of turbine blades for fatigue cracks (1) 
by the "whiting" test, (2) by change in vibration frequency, 
(3) by change in the sound or "ring", (4) by visual inspec- 
tion with the aid of mirrors and lights have proved unre- 
liable. Where the blades are of alloy-steel magnetic methods 
of testing for cracks has proved itself in determining fatigue 
cracks. The Magnaflux process depends on the tendency of 
fine magnetic powder to adhere to the line of an apparently 
invisible crack when properly magnetized. Flux lines are 
forced into the air and the magnetic powder tends to 
bridge the path. Magnaflux powder is finely divided iron 
particles coated with an inert oxide to prevent cohesion and 
increase their mobility. 

The surface under examination need not be cleaned of 
thin light scale or oxide. Thick, loose deposits should be 
removed by wire brushing or sand blasting. Oily deposits 
should be cleaned with a solvent. The surface under test 
must be dry for the dusting method. The powder is dusted 
on by a salt shaker or by a spray bulb with a non-ferrous 
nozzle. Tapping the blades lightly assists the powder to 
collect at a crack. 

Ferrous parts may be magnetized (1) by passing current 
directly through the part, (2) by applying permanent 
magnets or electromagnets and (3) by winding energized 
cables around the object. 

Blades and buckets assembled in the rotor are magnetized 
by wrapping the rotor body with cables carrying current 
from a portable welding set, using 500 to 2,000 or more 
ampere-turns. Segments of one or more rows may be mag- 
netized by means of magnets or external solenoids applied 
at the periphery of the rows. From 300 to 600 ampere- 
turns is sufficient. Feeble magnetization in the proper 
direction is more effective than heavy magnetization. 

The bulk of the powder drops off when the magnetizing 
current is broken and with the normal blowing out and 
cleaning there should be no harm from residual powder. 
Journals and bearings should be reasonably protected. 

PRESSURE CHARGING HIGH SPEED 
FOUR-STROKE ENGINES 

By J. H. Pitchford in The Oil Engine of December 1938 

Abstracted by J. L. Busfield, m.e.i.c. 

This article directs attention to an original paper read 
before the Institution of Automobile Engineers. 

The article deals entirely with the application of pressure 
charging to four cycle engines only, and points out that as a 
means for temporarily increasing the power, pressure 
charging is of unquestioned value, but for obtaining 
permanently higher outputs it has to compete with a number 
of other methods of obtaining the same result. Different 
forms of pressure charging blower and their advantages and 
disadvantages are discussed, such as the mechanically 
driven centrifugal type, which is best adapted to marine and 
industrial work, while the exhaust turbo driven centrifugal 
blower is best from the point of view of overall thermal 
efficiency. The Roots positive displacement type has a high 
mechanical efficiency and may be run at high speed, and has 
simple lubrication. The vane type blower has a relatively 
high compressing efficiency, but mechanical losses rise 
rather rapidly as speeds rise. 

For high altitude sites a larger unblown engine is needed, 
and users are reluctant to pay for it, but the small extra cost 
of a blower is much more readily faced. Reduced weight, 
which affects transport installation and maintance costs, 
will also be in favour of a forced induction engine. 

The article has a number of diagrams indicating the 
response to pressure charging under a number of various 
conditions, and also tables giving comparative data on 10- 
litre six-cylinder engines for automotive and industrial pur- 
poses with and without super charging. 



NEW PRODUCT FROM PICKLING LIQUOR 

Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, August, 1938 

Abstracted by F. G. Green, a.m.e.i.c. 

Disposal of some 2,000 tons per day of pickling liquor has 
long been a problem of the steel industry. 

This liquor contains for the most part a saturated solution 
of ferrous sulphate together with, in most cases, several per 
cent of free acid. It cannot be pumped into streams. It 
corrodes metals. Neutralization with lime is only a tem- 
porary palliative as subsequent hydrolysis slowly returns it 
to the corrosive stage. It can be converted to copperas but 
the demand for this material falls far short of its potential 
production. 

A recent development, however, now produces with little 
equipment and at small cost a building material said to have 
remarkable insulating properties. A plant to produce 25 tons 
per day of this new material is being built at Sharon, Pa. 

This material is largely a precipitated iron oxide and 
calcium sulphate. It is tan in colour and extremely porous. 

In one stage of. its manufacture it is plastic and can be 
moulded into any desired shape. Later it sets to a hard rigid 
mass by a combined process of drying and oxidation. 

It resembles wood in many ways but is fireproof, termite- 
proof and warp-proof. It is like plaster but has over five 
times its insulating value and can stand higher temperatures. 
It resembles brick but weighs only one third as much. It can 
be made into wallboard and used as a pipe covering, will 
insulate at temperatures up to 900 deg. F. It will remove 
hydrogen sulphide from gases and liquids ; may be used as a 
filter medium and, according to tests now in progress, shows 
promise as a soil conditioner and a secondary fertilizer. 

MACHINE CRISIS 

By Garet Garrett, in the Saturday Evening Post, 
November 12, 1938 

Abstracted by E. R. Jacobsen, a.m.e.i.c. 

Mr. Garrett recently wrote an anti-New Deal article for 
the "Post" which should be of particular interest to en- 
gineers. He developed the thesis that the crisis in western 
civilization is not due to the machine but rather to the 
suspension by human agencies of the laws which regulate a 
machine age. 

The modern pessimists, he says, claim that the machine 
throws people out of work — this is called technological un- 
employment. Those who remain employed must support 
the unemployed and there is not enough money left to 
purchase the goods produced. The result is called overpro- 
duction. The solution, says the pessimists, lies in shorter 
working hours, a planned and managed economy and in a 
sort of "birth control" of the machine. 

Mr. Garrett claims that the history of the last hundred 
and fifty years gives the lie to this static view of our pro- 
ductive system. He says emphatically that there is no such 
thing as absolute overproduction. There is only relative 
overproduction because the machine does not increase the 
production of all goods equally. This has always resulted in 
a temporary crisis. A further cause of crisis in the past lies 
in the fact that the machine destroys old capital. This is 
in its very nature. The steamship destroyed the capital in 
the sailing ships; the railroads destroyed the capital in 
canals; the Bessemer steel process destroyed the capital of 
the old iron industry. Then, too, machines destroy one 
another — a new machine rendering an old one obsolete long 
before it is worn out. Such is the law of the machine. But 
so long as it operated— so long as the creative genius of 
mankind was allowed free rein — the curve of production, 
the standard of living, the population, and the number of 
gainfully employed all rose steadily. And this happened in 
spite of, or perhaps because of, temporary crises and the 
destruction of old capital. 

But now that we have glimpsed the more abundant life, 
we have grown soft. We are afraid to trust the inventive 



84 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



genius of man — afraid of the future — afraid to face the 
destruction of old capital which machine progress involves. 
So, in the interests of present privilege, monopoly, obsolete 
capital, and even immediate profit, we propose to suspend 
the law of the machine and invent a new social system to 
control our present productive capacity as though it were 
a static thing. And for the first time the curves of produc- 
tion, standards of living, wages and employment have been 
dropping steadily. 

But this is not all. The machine is loose in the world. The 
white peoples have complacently offered to all the world 
the technical knowledge which constituted their greatest 
asset. And the new lords of the machine are willing to 
accept its law. They know that it means more work, not 
less work. They are willing that it should destroy capital, 
custom and usage. The author quotes Spengler — "The privi- 
lege of the white race has been thrown away, squandered, 
betrayed. The centre of gravity of production is shifting 
away from them. This is the real and final basis of unem- 
ployment in white countries. It is no mere crisis, but the 
beginning of catastrophe." 

Mr. Garrett concludes — "With the earth flattening under 
the weight of armaments ... a nation which will limit its 
work, limit its machine power, limit its production, under 
the delusion that it may arrive thereby at the more abun- 
dant life, must be walking in its sleep." 

THE ENGINEER AND THE COMMUNITY 

By Robert F. Legget, A.M.E.I.C., in the Dalhousie Review 

At the celebrations of the fiftieth anniversary of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada, the late Harrison P. Eddy 
of Boston, a distinguished American engineer, commented 
upon the social and economic changes due to the activities 
of the engineer and inquired as to the use which the com- 
munity will make of the increased leisure which will be 
available in the future. He also considered that definite 
educational development, leading to a greater interest in 
social, economic and governmental progress, would be 
needed. 

The question thus arises, whether the social conscience 
of the engineering profession is being aroused, or are 
engineers still concerned solely with their own technical 
affairs ? Such an awakening might well affect profoundly 
the future trend of social developments. 

In Great Britain the engineering institutions have done 
little towards this end, either singly or collectively. The 
Engineering Public Relations Committee, which they have 
established, is rather intended to bring to the attention 
of the public the achievements of engineers in the modern 
world. But an Engineers' Study Group on Economics has 
been formed under the presidency of Sir Richard Gregory, 
which proposes to study and discuss such matters as the 
relations between the actual standards of living and leisure 
and the advances in these directions which science has made 
possible. It is a non-political body of engineers and associ- 
ated technical workers. 

In the United States the leading engineering societies 
have confined their own activities almost entirely to tech- 
nical work, but several co-ordinating bodies, notably the 
American Engineering Council and the Engineers' Council 
for Professional Development, have been instituted under 
their auspices. The principal functions of the former body 
are the unification of the engineering profession as regards 
social and economic questions, the dissemination of infor- 
mation, and the promotion of clear thinking amongst en- 
gineers about public matters. Some of the major engineering 
societies have commenced to give some publicity in their 
journals to social questions of importance to engineers and 
at their meetings some discussions have taken place on 
technical subjects which have a political background. 

In our own country the Canadian Society of Civil Engin- 
eers did something towards submitting briefs to the Dom- 
inion Government on national matters. Of recent years, 



however, The Institute has been concerned largely with 
internal problems of the profession and has done little in 
matters of national social concern. So far engineers in 
Canada have not been prominent in public administration. 
Only two members in recent federal cabinets have been 
engineers; the engineering profession is represented by only 
three members in the House of Commons as contrasted with 
seventy lawyers. 

Two important questions at issue are, how can the 
technical qualifications of engineers who are fitted for public 
life be utilized for valuable public service of an adminis- 
trative character, and how can the active interest of the 
general body of engineers in social questions be awakened? 
The answer of these questions must be based on a proper 
development of engineering education, so that the young 
engineer will fully realize the social implications of his work. 

In 1936 the President of the United States addressed a 
message to the American engineering colleges, recommend- 
ing that the training of young engineers should be such as 
to prepare them more effectively to meet social responsibil- 
ities, particularly those arising from the effect of techno- 
logical advances upon the daily life of the community. The 
need for this becomes more vital in view of the misuse of 
scientific progress. Sir James Ewing, in his James Forrest 
Lecture in 1928, "saw that the wealth of products and ideas 
with which the engineer has enriched mankind might be 
prostituted to ignoble use" and continued "surely it is for 
the engineer as much as any man to pray for a spiritual 
awakening, to strive after such a growth of sanity as will 
prevent the gross misuse of his good gifts. For it is the 
engineer who, in the course of his labours to promote the 
comfort and convenience of man, has put into man's un- 
checked and careless hand a monstrous potentiality for 
ruin." 

POSITION DETERMINATION OF ARCTIC 
COAST LINES 

By C. H. Ney, in Canadian Surveyor, October, 1938 

Abstracted by R. H. Field, a.m.e.i.c. 

Mr. C. H. Ney, of the Geodetic Service of Canada, gives 
an interesting account of the work of the geodetic engineer 
in determining the astronomical latitude and longitude of 
points in the Arctic. Such operations are the sole means open 
to the surveyor in fixing positions on the earth's surface 
pending the extension of a geodetic triangulation net to the 
area in question. Mr. Ney's paper reveals yet one more 
branch of our profession in which adventure is to be found, 
and also contains several interesting facts regarding Fro- 
bisher Bay — now unknown to many, but in the 16th 
century the centre of keen financial speculation in which 
even Queen Elizabeth participated. 

Mr. Ney has done important work in fixing astronomical 
positions in Canada, e.g. the point where the Ontario- 
Manitoba boundary meets Hudson Bay, and the northerly 
boundary of Saskatchewan. A result of the work described 
was to show that Hudson Bay is some 46 miles wider than 
indicated on exisiting maps. 

Apparently after three or four hours, work with a Wild 
type precision theodolite the astronomical position can be 
fixed to a precision of 100 ft. while with more elaborate (and 
of course, heavier) astronomic equipment, the figure is 
reduced to 20 ft. after three nights' observations. Radio is 
used to receive standard time signals, and Mr. Ney also 
employed two-way communication with the aid of a small 
portable transmitter. At one time the Nascopie was "work- 
ed" when 700 miles away. 

The paper is full of interest. Among other items it is 
recorded that the Eskimo engineer of a motor-schooner, 
faced with the replacement of a broken cylinder-head bolt, 
proceeded to cut a thread in a piece of iron with the help of a 
file — and actually produced a very satisfactory and good- 
looking job. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



85 



THE DEWATERING AND DRYING OF COAL 

By J. R. Cudworth and E. S. Hertzog, U.S. Bureau of Mines 
Information Circular No. 7009. 

Abstracted by A. A. Swinnerton, a.m.e.i.c. 

The problem of drying and dewatering coal is important 
for the coal industry, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines has 
prepared a report on the subject, with information on 
current American and European practice. 

Excessive moisture is undesirable on account of extra 
freight charges and difficulty in unloading and storage. For 
gas and coke manufacturing, the control of moisture con- 
tent is necessary to maintain standard conditions of coking 
and quality of products. The proper practice depends chiefly 
upon the size of coal and the moisture reduction required. 
For dewatering coarse sizes, say over 3^2 inch, ordinary 
drainage suffices, but for fine sizes, mechanical equipment 
is necessary. 

Compared with other drying devices, the capacity of 
centrifugal dryers is large and the space occupied small. 
They produce a dryer product than any other method not 
employing heat. In the United States the machines most 
used are the Carpenter, Elmore and Wendell. The first 
named consists of a truncated cone made up of a series of 
sieve bands on a vertical shaft. These are of increasing 
diameter from top to bottom, so that the centrifugal force 
applied to the coal increases as the coal descends. The 
average capacity of a Carpenter centrifuge is 100 tons per 
hour per unit, the power required being 75 H.P. In one case, 
the reduction is from 19.9 to 5.5 per cent moisture content. 
The Elmore centrifuge is also cone shaped. The basket has 
smooth sides, and scrapers are provided to keep the coal 
moving down the sieve. This unit has a capacity of 80 tons 
of coal per hour, with a power requirement of about 
30 H.P. 

The Reinefeld and Wedag centrifuges are much used in 
Germany, the former somewhat resembling the Elmore, but 
using perforated steel plates instead of screens. The latter 
is somewhat similar in design, but more attention is paid 
to interchangeability and replacement of worn parts. The 
Altpeter centrifuge is designed for dewatering slurry and 
fine coal. The coal is thrown against the walls of a drum 
rotor, and the water flows out through orifices projecting 
into the coal, the main advantages of this type being the 
reduction of the amount of coal in the effluent, and the 
absence of screens which require periodical replacement. 

Filters are used for dewatering fine coal sludge and froth 
flotation products. Among the best known are the Oliver, 
Dorco, American vacuum, etc., in America, and the Wolf, 
Groppel, and Bloomco, in Europe. Froth-flotation of coal 
has been carried farther in Europe than in America. 

Heat dryers are usually of the rotary type heated by 
steam or hot flue gases. In America, the Ruggles-Cole, 
Christie, and Rotary Louvre are of this kind; in Europe 
there are the Buttner, Rheinland, and Pherson. The chief 
difference between these types is in the method of bringing 
the drying medium into contact with the moist coal. In the 
D.L.O. drier, also used in the United States, the coal is 
moved on a conveyor through a hot oven (counter current). 
The vertical type of dryer is used largely in Europe, the 
H.H., Lopulco, and Universal being examples. Generally, 
they have horizontal shelves over which the hot air passes, 
with rabble arms to stir up the coal and cause it to pass 
from top to bottom. 

Lastly there is the pneumatic type which includes the 
Buhler, Koon, Buttner Rapid, and Rema Rosin driers. 
These consist of long steel tubes through which the coal is 
blown by the hot gases. They are used largely in Europe 
in briquetting plants and for drying coal sludge, but suffer 
from the difficulty of ensuring a uniform feed and low 
drying efficiency in the discharge section of the tube. 



ULTRA-SHORT-WAVE TRANSMISSION AND 
ATMOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES 

By C. R. Englund, A.B. Crawford, and W. W. Mumford, in The 
Bell System Technical Journal, October, 1938 

Abstracted by J. L. Clarke, m.e.i.c. 

Results of an ultra-short-wave fading study are here 
reported. Transmission was carried out in the range of 1.6 
to 5.0 meters, over a 70 mile (112.6 kilometer) ocean path, 
on 106 days during a period of two years. Both horizontal 
and vertical polarizations were used and during part of the 
time a 6-megacycle amplitude, 120 cycle, frequency modu- 
lated transmission was added, for the cathode-ray tube 
observation of the frequency characteristics of the radio 
path. On 45 mornings records were taken, on vertically 
polarized radiations, during the flight period of the Mitchel 
Field Weather Bureau plane. 

Fading was found present practically all of the time. 
Amplitude changes up to 40 db. and fading rates up to 5 
fades per minute were found. Simultaneous transmission of 
the same wave in two polarizations, and of two waves of 
different wave-length in the same polarization showed that 
the horizontally polarized component was practically 
always, and the shorter wave-length one was usually the 
worse fader of the pair. The greater part of the time there 
was no correlation between the fading of these radiation 
pairs; occasionally, however, and for the slow, smooth 
amplitude, undulating type of fading, coincidence was 
observed. The frequency sweep patterns showed multiple 
signal components to be present, with various degrees of 
relative phase retardation. 

A tentative explanation is proposed for these phenomena. 
This theory assumes the presence of a refracted-diffracted 
signal component, transmitted along the earth's surface and 
calculable in the manner of Wwedensky, Van der Pol and 
Gray, and one or more signal components reflected from air 
mass boundaries. The air-plane results are shown to be in 
reasonable agreement with the frequency sweep observa- 
tions. Boundary heights from 5.5 kilometers down to 1.9 
kilometers are measured; below 1.9 kilometers other boun- 
daries are indicated. The receiver band, flat over two 
megacycles, sets the low height limit of resolution of 
reflecting boundaries at 1.9 kilometers. 

A discussion is given of some observations of signal fading 
at various wave-lengths which have been reported by other 
observers, and which are apparently referable to the same 
mechanism as is here proposed. 



SEVEN -FREQUENCY RADIO PRINTER 

By. L. Devaux and F. Smets in Electrical Communication, 
July, 1938 

Abstracted by J. L. Clarke, m.e.i.c. 

ff Printing telegraph systems on wire lines use a telegraph 
code signal consisting of combination of (usually five) 
"marking" or "spacing" elements of equal duration. Such 
systems are not well adapted for radio use owing to the dis- 
torting effects of superimposed atmospherics. 

The system described in this article employs a method of 
"scanning" or analyzing the printed character into a num- 
ber of elementary lines consisting of dashes and spaces of 
varying length. The "lines" are differentiated by the fre- 
quencies of the currents used for their transmission. The 
system is thus not unlike facsimile transmission and is well 
suited to radio circuits since interference cannot change one 
letter into another which is totally dissimilar. The only 
effect of interference is to print small extra elements or to 
suppress small elements of the transmitted letters but as is 
well known a large amount of "bad" printing is possible 
without any impairment of intelligibility. The characters 
are more or less accurately reproduced depending on the 
strength of the interfering static. The system may be 
arranged to operate on the "start-stop" principle and is 
suitable for unattended operation. 



86 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SULPHATE OF AMMONIA IN 1937-38 

The Colliery Guardian, December 30, 1938 

Abstracted by A. A. Swinnerton, a.m.e.i.c. 

The eighteenth annual report of the British Sulphate of 
Ammonia Federation, Ltd., for the year ended June 30, 
1938, states that the world production of pure nitrogen for 
the fertilizer year ended June 30, 1938, was 2,880,000 metric 
tons, and the consumption was 2,872,000 metric tons. Both 
these figures were the highest ever reached, and represented 
increases of 6.8 per cent and 5.2 per cent respectively over 
the previous year. The production in Chile increased by 
18,000 tons, or 9 per cent, and output in other countries in- 
creased by 165,000 tons, or 7 per cent. As in the previous 
year, the most marked increases in the output of manufac- 
tured nitrogen have been in Germany and the Japanese 
Empire, but in the U.S.A. there was a decrease. Synthetic 
nitrogen plants have on an average operated at only about 
53 per cent of capacity during the year: the world produc- 
tion capacity for synthetic nitrogen, including cyanamide, is 
estimated at roughly 4,100,000 tons of nitrogen. The in- 
crease in fertilizer nitrogen consumption was 123,000 metric 
tons, or 5.2 per cent, as compared with 12.5 per cent in the 
previous year. Each main class of fertilizer showed an in- 
crease; ammonium sulphate (including ammonia for mixed 
fertilizers) increased by 59,421 tons of nitrogen, or 5.1 per 
cent over the 1936-37 figure. In individual countries the 
largest tonnage changes in fertilizer nitrogen consumption 
have been increases in Germany, the Japanese Empire, Spain 
and Italy, and decreases in the U.S.A. and China. 



THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN 
CANADA, 1937 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Abstracted by A. A. Swinnerton, a.m.e.i.c. 

Forty-four petroleum refineries were in operation in 1937, 
seventeen in Saskatchewan, eight in Alberta, five each in 
Ontario and Quebec, three each in Manitoba and British 
Columbia, and one each in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
and the Northwest Territories. These refineries had an 
operating capacity of 168,220 barrels per day, of which 
Quebec accounted for 41% and Ontario 24%. Fifteen 
establishments reported cracking units in use, with an 
aggregate capacity of 80,450 barrels per day. 

In 1937, these refineries used 1,344 million gallons of im- 
ported crude oil and 90 million gallons of Canadian oil, a 
total of 1,434 million gallons, which was equal to about % 
of refinery capacity. About 70% of the crude oil refined 
came from the United States, 24% from other countries, 
and 6% from Canadian sources. The total cost of crude oil 
and naphtha charged to the stills was 75 million dollars. 

Gasoline production in 1937 amounted to 640 million 
gallons, of which about 57% was straight run and 43% 
cracked. This production was the highest on record, being 
13% greater than that in 1936, and was valued at the 
refinery at 59 million dollars. In addition, some 72 million 
gallons of gasoline were imported. Exports were negligible. 

The production of gas and fuel oils amounted to 544 mil- 
lion gallons (almost equal to the gasoline production). In 
addition some 49 million gallons were imported and 11 
million exported. Production of lubricating oils amounted 
to 24 million gallons, and imports to about 15 million 
gallons. 

The capital employed in the refining industry was re- 
ported at 64 million dollars, the average number of em- 
ployees at 5,047, and the total wages and salaries at 8 
million dollars. The cost of raw materials and fuels was 84 
million dollars, and the value of the products was 98 mil- 
lion dollars at the works. 

The average wholesale tank-wagon price of medium grade 



gasoline varied from 14 cents per gallon in Montreal to 
22.4 cents in Regina. 

Over 38 million dollars were collected in gasoline taxes 
in 1937, of which 17.5 million dollars came from Ontario and 
7 million dollars from Quebec. The gasoline tax was 10 cents 
a gallon in the three maritime provinces, 6 cents in Ontario 
and Quebec, and 7 cents in the other provinces. 

The total of all motor vehicles registered in Canada was 
approximately 1,300,000 in 1937. 

INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AS A CAREER 

In the course of an address on "Industrial Research as a 
Career," which he delivered recently before the Birmingham 
University Engineering Society, Mr. H. Warren, Director 
of Research, British Thomson-Houston Company, Limited, 
said that manufacturing and designing engineers had clearly 
defined aims upon the materialization of which the assess- 
ment of their success depended. The industrial research 
worker was largely engaged in discovering, trying out and 
establishing the practical feasibility of novel objectives 
suitable for the processes of development and production; or 
in working out better processes or overcoming difficulties 
concerned with existing objectives. Thus he, too, to a 
degree, had definite aims and not only the roving commis- 
sion to prospect among the forces and elements of nature 
with which the profession of research was traditionally en- 
dowed. Nevertheless, the head of an industrial research 
laboratory knew well that future progress would be served 
most effectively by scientific discovery and was personally 
proud of his staff, who now and then had new knowledge 
to impart to scientific and technical men. Proof that a young 
man could execute specific jobs effectively and with initia- 
tive would best qualify him to follow a line of original re- 
search which might arise out of his work or to assist other 
more experienced men already engaged in such research. 
There was hardly a field of science or technology that was 
not included in the activities of a large industrial electrical 
research laboratory, and hardly a cultured realm to which 
its staff had not ready access or a class of scientific worker 
not represented among its visitors. 

The practical commencement of a research job was a 
mental marshalling of what was already known about the 
subject. The beginner would probably have some relatively 
straightforward job of construction, observation or measure- 
ment to do for a senior man, who would explain what was 
required and help with the work. He would thus become 
interested in the main problem and would find much to 
learn. He should read, ask questions, and enter into the 
general objective, thus gradually becoming more useful. He 
should make contacts with the various technical depart- 
ments of the company, attend and contribute to meetings of 
learned societies, and exchange visits with men in other 
laboratories. He should cultivate the arts of discussing 
and of expressing his thoughts clearly and briefly in writing; 
and should master the presentation of clear and inform- 
ative reports. One of the most appreciated attributes of an 
assistant was the ability to get things done. At best, the 
efficiency of a research laboratory was bound to be low 
because only a small percentage of its ventures could be 
successful and even those that were rarely yielded the 
precise results that were sought. However, they provided 
information for future reference and were generally amply 
justified in time by the practically successful work. 

As regards conditions of employment, a review of the 
salaries of average engineering, manufacturing, commer- 
cial and research men, of one to ten years' service, showed 
that there was no financial sacrifice attached to research 
work. In a concern with a long-sighted research policy, there 
was a prospect of continuous employment, special opportun- 
ities to acquire the latest scientific and technical knowledge, 
relative freedom of activity, and chances to develop 
originality, to make contact with a varied panorama of new 
ventures and to travel frequently. — Engineering. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



87 




ON TO OTTAWA 



About the time this issue of the Journal is delivered the 
Annual Meeting of the Institute will be in session at Ottawa. 

It is going to be an unusual meeting in many ways. The 
Governor General and the Lady Tweedsmuir are to grace 
the occasion, and to take part in certain presentations. One 
of Canada's senior engineering statesmen will be awarded 
an Honorary Membership. The presidents and secretaries 
of four leading engineering bodies from across the border 
are to be our guests. One of the finest speakers — if not the 
finest — in our entire profession in North America is the 
speaker at the banquet. The Journal joins with the entire 
membership in welcoming these visitors to Canada and to 
the annual meeting. 

The principal papers make up a symposium on one of 
Canada's greatest problems — drought on western farm 
lands. The problem is of more than western interest. It 
affects every citizen of Canada, and its solution in whole 
or in part will contribute untold millions to all parts of the 
country from coast to coast. It is hoped that the study 
sponsored by the Institute will result in a real contribution 
towards a solution. 

The old proverb about "all work and no play" has not 
been forgotten. Many functions of a lighter nature have 
been arranged, as well as an elaborate programme which 
will be placed before the ladies. The Ottawa Branch is living 
up to its reputation as host and has prepared a two days 
programme which will establish a record that may not be 
equalled for a long time. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF BASIC WATER 
RESOURCE DATA 

The securing of dependable and systematic stream-flow 
and river run-off records is a matter of cardinal importance 
in the studying of the control of water for all the uses to 
which it can be put. This was recently emphasized by the 
drought problem in the west which forcibly brought home 
to those in authority in the service of the governments of 
the United States and Canada the tremendous importance 
of accurate, reliable and complete information regarding 
available water resources. It is fortunate that the methods 
adopted by the Water Resources Division of the United 
States Geological Survey and by the Dominion Water and 
Power Bureau of the Canadian Department of Mines and 
Resources are identical — the instruments of measurement 
are standardized; the same field and office systems are in 
use; and the same procedure is adopted for publication and 
distribution of the results. For this reason anyone interested 
in studying water resource problems is in the fortunate 
position of being able to depend on data that are reliable 
and uniform throughout all the provinces of the Dominion 
and all the states of the Union. 

It is impossible to over-emphasize the value of the avail- 
able information regarding the run-off and the capacities 
of the rivers of Canada and, in particular, those which flow 
through the area where precipitation has been temporarily 
low during the past few years. There is at least one fortunate 
phase of the drought problem which will form the subject 
of a symposium of papers before the 53rd Annual Meeting 
of the Institute, namely, the fact that the governments on 
both sides of the boundary have established similar basic 



systems of water analysis and measurement. It is of out- 
standing importance to the solution of some of the most 
vital problems in Canada, that the securing of this inde- 
spensable record of the character and extent of her water 
resources be aggressively carried on without any interrup- 
tion whatever. 



THE ENGINEER AND THE COMMISSION 

Much has been written about the various phases of 
public service in which engineers may or should participate. 
"Their name is legion," and fortunately more and more 
engineers are contributing substantially to the welfare of 
society by active participation in public business. 

One way in which the engineer may contribute effectively 
to the solution of public problems is through service on 
Royal Commissions. His training and outlook, involving, 
as they do, the habitual, systematic and unprejudiced 
weighing of formidable masses of apparently unrelated and 
conflicting facts and opinions and his uncompromising atti- 
tude where the truth is concerned are qualifications that 
should not be set aside lightly by governments. It is not too 
much to say that in the public interests any commission 
appointed to deal with a situation having a technological 
aspect, or one tinged with both technology and economics, 
should include in its membership an engineer. 

The attitude has often been taken that the most valuable 
equipment for service of this kind is a knowledge of law. 
While this may be true where the matters in question are 
predominantly legal in character, many investigations by 
commissions require that the commissioners have a know- 
ledge of technology or economics much more than that of 
law. This is apparent from the fact that Royal Commissions 
are not required to adhere strictly to court procedure and 
are privileged to obtain information from any source and 
in any manner that they see fit. 

A recent instance of an important service of this type is 
afforded by the work of the Royal Commission on Trans- 
portation of the Province of Ontario. One member of 
the Institute sat as a member of the three-man commission 
and another member served as its engineer-economist. 

The nature of the reference in this instance made it 
imperative that engineers should have an important part 
in dealing with the questions at issue. The commission was 
required to investigate and report upon all matters per- 
taining to the transportation of freight by motor vehicles, 
whether for gain, or not, and passengers by motor vehicle 
for gain, and to compare such operations with those of all 
competing forms of transport. This involved considerations 
for all forms of transport, of the magnitude of the tolls 
and rates charged and the manner of fixing them; taxes, 
licence fees or other imposts; wages and hours of labour; 
subsidies and grants. 

Moreover, the commission was required to report upon 
the provisions that appeared necessary in order to ensure 
that just and reasonable service should be furnished to the 
people of the province and that there should be no unfair 
competition within the motor transport industry or with 
other forms of passenger and freight transportation. In 
addition, it was charged with determining the annual cost 
of constructing, maintaining and administering all public 
roads in Ontario, the part of such cost contributed by the 
municipalities and the extent to which the cost of such 
public roads should be met by the owners and operators of 
commercial motor vehicles. 

In undertakings of this kind engineers of judicial tem- 
perament who possess a sound knowledge of the technical 
and financial matters involved may take part with definite 
advantage to the state. It is the earnest desire of all thinking 
citizens, that the recent example of the Province of Ontario 
may be followed in all similar investigations that may be 
decided upon from time to time in the future. 



88 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ROY— THE ENGINEERS' FRIEND 

Members of the Institute who have had occasion while 
in Paris to call at the Canadian Legation will recall many 
kindly courteous considerations extended them by the 
retiring Canadian Minister to France. Following the First 
World Power Conference in London in 1924, the Hon. Mr. 
Philippe Roy entertained at a notable luncheon at the 
Cercle Interallie, many members of the Institute and 
their professional friends from the Continent. This perhaps 
was the first occasion on which the Institute participated 
in an important official function in Europe proper. As a 
result of this function, the Hon. Mr. Roy became a warm, 
interested friend of the Institute, and ever since he has 
been ready to advise and assist its members in either their 
professional or personal pursuits while in France. 

The Journal therefore gladly voices the congratulations 
of the Institute to the retiring Minister to France upon the 
bestowal by the Municipal Council of the French Capital 
of the rarely-given distinction: "An Honorary Citizen of 
Paris." The bestowal of this distinction was one of the last 
of many functions given on the occasion of the departure 
of M. Roy from Paris. It was handed to him at a dinner 
in the historic Lauzon Residence of the City of Paris, in the 
presence of some 30 guests, representative of all aspects 
of the Capital's government, including Gaston le Provost 
de Launay, president of the municipal council, who presided; 
Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet; the Prefect of the Seine, 
Achille Villey-Desmesarets; Maurice Loze, Chief of Protocol 
at the Foreign Ministry; Senator Andre Honnorat and 
Professor Emile Sergent. 

COUNCIL MEETING 

A meeting of the Council was held at Headquarters on 
Monday, January 16th, at 8.00 o'clock. 

There were present: President J. B. Challies, in the Chair; 
Vice-President J. A. McCrory (Montreal) ; Councillors R. W. 
Boyle (Ottawa), J. L. Busfield (Montreal), J. B. D'Aeth 
(Montreal), A. Duperron (Montreal), R. H. Findlay (Mont- 
real), F. S. B. Heward (Montreal), W. A. Manock (Niagara 
Peninsula), F. Newell (Montreal), E. Viens (Ottawa); 
Treasurer de Gaspe Beaubien; Secretary Emeritus R. J. 
Durley/and the General Secretary. Dr. F. W. Gray, m.e.i.c, 
of Sydney, N.S., Past- President of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Nova Scotia was present by invita- 
tion and was welcomed by the President. 

The President made a report of progress being made for 
the joint engineering conference in New York in September, 
and a tentative programme for a three-day visit by the 
members of the British Engineering Institutions and their 
ladies, to points of engineering interest in Central Canada 
was discussed. While the general programme as submitted 
was approved it was decided to point out to the Committee 
on International Relations that consideration might be 
given to the possibility of the Institute acting as host to 
the visitors at some function while they are in Canada. 

Mr. Newell, chairman of the Committee on Professional 
Interests, submitted a revised draft of the proposed agree- 
ment with the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Nova Scotia. Some minor modifications had been introduced 
since the last discussion and Council unanimously approved 
of the agreement with these modifications. 

Vice-President McCrory submitted a draft of the report 
of the Finance Committee, and Treasurer de Gaspe Beaubien 
a draft of the Treasurer's report, both of which were ap- 
proved for presentation to the annual meeting. 

Reports of the various standing and Institute committees 
and of the Prize and Medal committees were submitted and 
accepted by the Council for presentation at the annual 
meeting. The President drew attention to the desirability 
of the student prizes being presented by Dean McKiel during 
his visits to the branches in such cases as had not been 
presented at the annual meeting. Mr. Newell expressed 
regret that it had been found impossible to recommend an 
award for the Duggan Medal and Prize, and thought some- 



thing should be done to stimulate the presentation of papers 
by members of the Institute. Messrs. McCrory, Newell and 
the General Secretary were appointed a committee for this 
purpose. 

The General Secretary made a report on progress re- 
garding the registration of technically trained men for the 
Department of National Defence, the preliminary work in 
connection with which was being done by The Canadian 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, The Canadian Institute 
of Chemistry, and The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

A communication was received from the National Con- 
struction Council advocating some plan of action for creat- 
ing public opinion favourable to a reduction of taxation on 
real estate, and it was decided that the question was one 
which might well be taken up with the Canadian Chamber 
of Commerce, and the matter was therefore referred to 
F. S. B. Heward, a. m.e.i.c, our liason director with that 
organization. 

The General Secretary was appointed The Institute's 
representative upon the National Canadian Committee of 
the World Power Conference. 

The General Secretary reported a discussion with the 
publisher of the Financial Post regarding a special supple- 
ment entitled "Builders of Canada" which would be pub- 
lished without cost to the Institute, about the time of the 
International Engineering Congress in September. The 
Council approved of the proposal. 

In accordance with provisions of the agreement with the 
Association of Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan, 
Council classified a number of members of the Association 
who had now become corporate members of the Institute. 
Twelve were placed in the class of Member, and thirty-four 
in the class of Associate Member. In addition there were 
three engineers "in training" who were classed as Juniors. 

A number of applications were considered and the follow- 
ing elections and transfers effected: 

Elections 

Members 3 

Associate Members 9 

Juniors 4 

Students 11 

Affiliates 1 

Transfers 

Associate Member to Member 3 

Junior to Associate Member 4 

Student to Junior 1 

PRESIDENTIAL ACTIVITIES 

The presidential visits to the twenty-five branches of 
the Institute were completed on January 10th, when Dr. 
Challies, Councillor Newell and the General Secretary 
addressed the members of the Headquarters' Branch follow- 
ing the installation of its 1939 Chairman, Mr. Kirkland 
McLeod, a son of a greatly esteemed former general secre- 
tary of the Institute, the late Professor C. H. McLeod of 
McGill University. 

The President and Mrs. Challies were guests of the 
Toronto Branch at its annual Ladies' Night reception, 
dinner and dance at the Engineer's Club on Saturday even- 
ing, January 14th. 

All forenoon at Headquarters, and through luncheon at 
the University Club, on January 15th, the President and 
President-elect, Dean McKiel, who came up from Sackville 
for the purpose, conferred with the committee in charge 
of arrangements for the 53rd Annual General Meeting. 
During the afternoon, they conferred at length with the 
Committee on Professional Interests regarding certain new 
proposals for a co-operative agreement with the Association 
of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia. 

On Monday evening, January 16th, the President presided 
at the regular meeting of Council, when the report of Council 
for 1938, and the reports of the Standing and Special 
Committees were prepared for presentation at Ottawa. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



89 



On Wednesday, January 18th, he attended the 86th 
Annual Meeting in New York of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, when he was accorded a seat on the plat- 
form among the past presidents during the honorary mem- 
bership ceremony, at the conclusion of which, President 
Riggs, m.e.i. a, formally presented him to the meeting, 
when Dr. Challies took advantage of the opportunity briefly 
to express the satisfaction and appreciation of the Council 
for the very cordial relations which exist between the 
Institute and the Society. During the evening of the same 
day, the President was the guest of Vice-President Malcolm 
Pirnie and of Director Carleton Proctor at the dinner and 
reception to the Society's new president and honorary 
members. 

On Friday, January 27th, the President presided at a 
luncheon at the University Club when Past- President H. H. 
Vaughan and a few resident members of Council had an 
opportunity to meet Mr. F. Gill, of London, England. An 
account of Mr. Gill's purpose in visiting Headquarters is 
reported elsewhere. 

At the Annual Smoker of the Montreal Branch on 
February 2nd, the President was afforded an opportunity 
to call attention to the special preparations that are being 
made to welcome at the Annual Meeting of the Institute 
at the Chateau Laurier, in Ottawa, on Tuesday afternoon, 
February 14th, a distinguished engineering delegation from 
the United States, including the President, the Past Presi- 
dent and the General Secretary of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers; the President and General Secretary 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; the 
President and General Secretary of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, also the Chairman and the Assistant 
Secretary of the Engineers' Council for Professional Devel- 
opment. 

On February 4th, in Toronto, the President was privileged 
to respond to the toast to the engineering profession at the 
annual banquet of the Association of Professional Engineers 
of Ontario. It is fitting that this was one of his last important 
official outside duties inasmuch as President Challies had 
much to do with the establishment of the Ontario Associa- 
tion. 

ENGINEERING CO-OPERATION OVERSEAS 

The Institute has received a communication from the 
Joint Committee on Engineering Co-operation Overseas, on 
which is represented — 
The Institution of Civil Engineers. 
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 
The Institution of Naval Architects. 
The Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
The Institution of Municipal and County Engineers. 
The Institute of Marine Engineers. 
The Royal Aeronautical Society. 
The Institution of Structural Engineers. 

And reading as follows: — 

"Consideration has been given recently by the British 
Engineering Institutions mentioned at the head of this 
letter, to the question as to whether there were any means 
whereby they could render greater service to those of their 
members who were resident abroad, and it is felt that 
something could be achieved in this direction by fostering 
co-operation between the overseas members of these insti- 
tutions and where there is a local Engineering Institution 
in existence, between these members and that Institution. 

"As a result a special joint committee, known as the Joint 
Committee on Engineering Co-operation Overseas, has been 
set up by these British Engineering Institutions charged 
with the duty of exploring the position in the various 
countries and promoting co-operation on the lines indicated 
wherever possible. 

"At the last meeting of this joint committee consideration 
was given to the question as to whether anything could be 
done to foster such co-operation with the Engineering Insti- 
tute of Canada. The committee realize that any such co- 



operation in Canada could only be attained through the 
kind assistance of your Institute and the committee will 
therefore be very grateful if your Council could, in the 
first instance, consider this matter with a view to suggesting 
what means, if any, they feel could be adopted to bring 
about some measure of co-operation between your Institute 
and the members of the British Engineering Institutions 
resident in your country. 

"The chairman of the committee (Mr. F. Gill, who met 
the members of your Council some years ago) asks me to say 
that he expects to be in New York during February next 
and if it would be agreeable to your Council he would try 
to make it convenient to visit Montreal to discuss the 
matter." 

(Ed. note: The President, Vice-President Vaughan and 
some of the officers of the Institute met Mr. Gill at lunch on 
January 27th, and a very interesting discussion took -place. 
The President assured Mr. Gill that the Institute would en- 
thusiastically support any movement towards co-operation 
with the British Institutes). 

LETTER TO THE EDITOR 

Sir: 

As a Branch Non-Resident who has been employed for 
some time in the rural sections of Canada and consequently 
not in a position to take part in the discussions of the 
various branches, the writer finds the Engineering Journal 
to be very interesting. It has done much to further the 
interests of the young graduate engineer not only in the 
employment section but also through the discussions of 
papers relating to various branches of the profession. 

A scheme has been in the writer's mind for some years, 
and unless released may turn into an obsession. The writer 
would therefore like to bring forward the suggestion now 
and would ask some one active in one of the branches who 
agrees, to present it in the form of a motion. 

The idea is the introduction of an "Apprenticeship in 
Engineering Trades" for young Canadians somewhat on the 
lines of the training of artisans in the British Isles. Probably 
this has been discussed already in Montreal. 

To-day the skilled artisan from the Old Country is not 
coming to Canada possibly due to better conditions pre- 
vailing in his own country. 

At any small wayside station there are gathered youths 
watching the daily train, who have gone as far educationally 
as local schooling will allow them and who at present are 
being demoralized through lack of employment. 

To gainfully employ these young men after a period of 
qualifying training, to rescue them from parents accepting 
gratuitous relief, would make useful citizens of them, and 
also fill in a gap in our industries. Engineering in Canada 
is rapidly approaching the state of a certain country the 
writer has in mind — too many generals and an insufficient 
number of sergeants. 

The writer has discussed the situation with a resident 
engineer of Consolidated Mining and Smelting, which com- 
pany has a praiseworthy scheme of apprenticeships, and 
also with old country artisans. The scheme would require 
some modification in Canada, but the discipline enforced 
in the English indentures is a fine feature. 

In the writer's opinion the Institute as the foremost power 
in Canadian engineering is the logical body to sponsor the 
training of skilled mechanics. The Institute with its contact 
with Government and with industry is in a position to set 
the standard for skilled workmen to their mutual advantage, 
individually and collectively. 

There is no doubt several members have given thought to 
this problem. In our country the great grandfather was 
behind the plough. The grandfather was a professional man, 
the father was a soldier, and the son is standing on the 
street corners. The son should be taught a trade. 

Your very truly, 

W. S. E. Morrison, a.m.e.i.c. 



90 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



DISTINGUISHED VISITORS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING 





A. G. CHRISTIE 

President 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



DONALD H. SAWYER 

Preside"' 

American Society o( Civil Engineers 




JOHN C. PARKER 



President 
Amencan Institute of Electrical Engk 




,.i Council tor r> 
Engineers ^ evelo( , me nt 




COL. WILLARD CHEVALIER 

Vice-President 

McGraw Hill Publishing Company 




H. H. HENLINE 

National Secretary 

American Institute of Electrical Eng.neers 




C. E. DAVIES 

Secretary 
American Society of Mechanical 'Engineers 




CE v*?_ E . T :«AB Wi y 



Ame 



AW 



'°«a< Secret, 



r '-Socie lyo ; c -- sin£ 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



91 



Personals 



I. C. Barltrop, a.m.e.i.c, who has been assistant engineer 
with the Department of Public Works, British Columbia 
since 1935 has been transferred to the Highway Transport 
Branch of the Department and is now located in Vancouver. 
H. J. Vennes, a.m.e.i.c, development engineer of the 
Northern Electric Company Limited, Montreal, has colla- 
borated with Professor E. Godfrey Burr of the Engineering 
Department of McGill on the construction of the apparatus 
now being used in connection with research on deafness. 
This research work is being carried on at the Montreal 
General Hospital. 

R. W. Dobridge, a.m.e.i.c, has recently been appointed 
district engineer for Alberta and British Columbia of the 
Canadian Pacific Telegraphs with headquarters at Calgary, 
Alta. Prior to accepting this position Mr. Dobridge was 
transformer engineer with the Canadian Marconi Company 
in the Town of Mount Royal, Que. 

Reginald Mudge, a.m.e.i.c, for a long time assistant 
engineer in the chief engineer's office, Canadian Pacific 
Railway, has been appointed assistant engineer of track. 
Mr. Mudge has been with the Canadian Pacific Railway 
since 1910 when he entered the construction department as 
instrumentman. He was promoted to the positions of resi- 
dent engineer and assistant engineer successively, and later 
to the position from which he is now promoted. 
R. B. Jones, a.m.e.i.c, is the newly appointed engineer of 
track of the Canadian Pacific Railway. He has been with 
the company since 1910 when he entered as draftsman and 
transitman under J. E. Armstrong, a.m.e.i.c He was pro- 
moted to the position of assistant engineer in 1919, which 
position he has ably filled to the time of his recent pro- 
motion. 

C. R. Young, m.e.i.c, Professor of Civil Engineering at 
the University of Toronto, and Norman D. Wilson, 
m.e.i.c, consulting engineer, Toronto, have been engaged 
in the work of the Royal Commission on Transportation 
of the Province of Ontario, which has recently reported 
upon basically important problems of commercial highway 
transportation in the province. The former sat as one of 
the three commissioners; the latter rendered valuable 
service as the commission's engineer-economist. 
Brian T. O'Grady, m.e.i.c, has received the appointment 
of superintendent of Brokers' Office, Department of Mines, 
British Columbia, and will be located at Victoria. He has 
been with the British Columbia Government since 1919 in 
the positions of highway locating engineer, assistant resident 
mining engineer, resident mining engineer and on the Coast 
District Mineral Survey. 

Dr. F. D. Adams, Hon. m.e.i.c, emeritus vice-principal of 
McGill University, former dean of the Faculty of Applied 
Science and Graduate Studies and Logan Professor of 
Geology, has been awarded the Wollaston Gold Medal by 
the Geological Society of Great Britain. This is the highest 
distinction which the society can award for geological work 
and is in recognition of the work of Dr. Adams over a long 
series of years, which has just culminated in the writing 
of an exhaustive history of geology. 

The Honorable Michael Dwyer, a.m.e.i.c, has recently 
accepted the presidency of the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal 
Company. Throughout his professional career, Mr. Dwyer 
has been associated with Nova Scotia's coal and steel in- 
dustry, having been for many years with the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Company previous to his becoming a member 
of the Provincial Legislature. He occupied the positions of 
mechanical superintendent, manager of the Princess colliery, 
manager of the wash plant and coke ovens, assistant works 
superintendent and general superintendent. In 1924 Mr. 
Dwyer was appointed president of the Indian Cove Coal 
Company at Sydney Mines, N.S., which office he held until 
1932 when he entered on his political career. 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



W. E. MacLennan, a.m.e.i.c, has been appointed building 
inspector and inspector of weights and measures by the 
City of Fort William, Ont. Mr. MacLennan was formerly 
assistant resident engineer of Lake Sulphite Pulp Company 
at Red Rock, Ont. 

Past Presidents J. M. R. Fairbairn and H. H. Vaughan, 
Secretary Emeritus R. J. Durley and Dr. J. B. Porter, 
mm.e.i.c, have been accorded Honorary Life Memberships 
in the Canadian Engineering Standards Association in 
recognition of valuable services which have been given by 
them during the past twenty years. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

We were pleased to see G. R. Duncan, a.m.e.i.c, Past 
Chairman of the Lakehead Branch, and also to note that 
the Montreal Star gave prominence to an interview with 
him dealing with the shipment of grain on the Great Lakes. 
On two occasions recently C. C. Kirby, m.e.i.c, President 
of the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers, visited 
headquarters and we had the opportunity of discussing 
many matters of mutual interest, especially on his second 
visit when the Registrar of the Corporation of Professional 
Engineers of Quebec, C. L. Dufort, was also present. 
Dean H. W. McKiel, m.e.i.c, President-Elect, spent the 
week-end of January 14th in Montreal meeting a number 
of officers and generally discussing matters of importance 
to the Institute, such as the negotiations with the Associa- 
tion of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, arrangements 
for the annual meeting, and so forth. 
Reginald W. McColough, m.e.i.c, chief engineer, Depart- 
ment of Highways for Nova Scotia, was in Montreal on 
January 28th and found time to visit Headquarters to dis- 
cuss Institute affairs in his province. 

H. J. A. Chambers, a.m.e.i.c, Councillor from the Border 
Cities Branch, visited headquarters and also had a con- 
ference with the President. 

L. McK. Arkley, m.e.i.c, Professor of Mechanical Engin- 
eering of Queen's University, Kingston, visited us during the 
holiday season and as Professor Arkley is one of the 
advisory members of the Publication Committee we had 
many matters of mutual interest to discuss. 
Among other recent visitors who have taken the opportunity 
of looking over the redecorated headquarters have been 
W. E. Cooper, s.e.i.c, J. M. McCarey, jr. e. i.e., F. L. 
Lawton, m.e.i.c, K. R. Chestnut, M.E.I.C, Allan R. 
Crookshank, m.e.i.c, and Col. W. C. Sherman, m.e.i.c 



Obituaries 



It is with deep regret and sympathy to relatives that the 
following deaths are recorded: 

Senator Joseph Philippe Baby Casgrain, a.m.e.i.c, 
at his home in Montreal on January 6th. He was born at 
Quebec on March 1st, 1856, and educated at the Seminary 
of Quebec from which he graduated in civil engineering. In 
1874 he entered the employment of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway on survey work, and after a year on location and 
construction he went to Philadelphia as assistant secretary 
of the Canadian Department of the Philadelphia Centennial 
Exposition. When he returned to Canada he began work on 
the design of the St. Lawrence and Pacific viaduct and 
railroad ferry from He Ronde to Longueuil for connection 
with the railways on the south shore of the Island of 
Montreal. 

In 1879 he was engaged on extensive surveys for the 
Quebec Government and later in Newfoundland for the 



92 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



government railway there. He had already received his 
commission as Quebec Land Surveyor in 1878 and in 1881 
he qualified as a Dominion Land Surveyor and later was 
admitted to the practice of land surveying in Ontario and 
Manitoba, where he was engaged in work for the Dominion 
Government. 

On the completion of this work he became chief engineer 
of the Montreal Turnpike Trust Company and for four 
years he was in charge of bridge building and other works 
on the Island of Montreal. 

In 1892, he became chief engineer of the Montreal and 
Pacific Junction Railroad which position he retained for 
some years. 

In 1900 Senator Casgrain was summoned to the Senate 
representing the district of deLanaudiere, Quebec, and two 
years later was appointed a member of the Ottawa Improve- 
ment Commission. He had the distinction of being one of 
the representatives of the Canadian Senate at the coronation 
of Their Majesties King George V and Queen Mary in 
June, 1911. 

The late Senator was well-known for his interest in various 
aspects of modern transportation, and in 1910 he wrote a 
book entitled, "The Problems of Transportation in Canada." 
He frequently contributed to the debate in the Senate when 
the subject of transportation matters was under consideration. 

Senator Casgrain was on the board of a number of 
transport and industrial concerns. He was president of the 
Northern Montreal Land Company, the Northern Montreal 
Centre Company and the Birnham Realty Company, of 
the Montreal Herald Publishing Company, and a director 
of the following concerns: Montreal Light, Heat & Power 
Consolidated; Canada Steamship Lines; Dominion Steel & 
Coal Company; Canada Cement Company; Montreal 
Tramways & Power Company; Quebec Power Company, 
and the Montreal Life Insurance Company. 



Senator Casgrain joined the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers in 1895 as Associate Member, and was made a 
Life Member of The Engineering Institute of Canada in 1936. 

William Gardiner Yorston, m.e.i.c, at Nevada, Mo., on 
October 5th, 1938. Born at Truro, N.S., on February 7th, 
1867, he received his early education at Pictou Academy. 
Upon graduating from the Royal Military College in 1886, 
he was the recipient of the Governor-General's Gold Medal 
and the Sword of Honour. During his career as an active 
engineer from 1887 to 1918, Mr. Yorston remained in 
Nova Scotia where he built up an enviable reputation as an 
engineer of high attainment. 

He spent the first three years after graduation in railway 
work, being employed by the Gatineau Valley Railway, the 
Springhill and Oxford Railway and the Newfoundland Gov- 
ernment Railways successively. He then became engaged in 
various municipal work and surveys for water supply. In 
1892 he was placed in charge of construction of water and 
sewer systems in the town of Dartmouth, and later those 
in the Town of Parrsborough. In 1899 he went to Sydney, 
having been assigned to the construction of a water supply 
for the Dominion Steel Company, which had commenced 
operations in that city. Upon the completion of this work 
he became city engineer of Sydney, N.S., which position he 
retained until 1908 when he became engaged in general 
engineering practice, principally hydraulic work in the 
design and construction of water power plants. By 1913 he 
was generally acknowledged as the leading hydraulic en- 
gineer in the province and received the appointment of 
chief engineer of the Public Works Department of the 
Province of Nova Scotia. In 1918 he was transferred to 
the newly created Highway Board as chief engineer, but he 
was compelled to resign shortly after owing to ill health. 

Mr. Yorston joined the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers as a Member in 1914. 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 



At the meeting of Council held on January 16th, 1939, the following elections and transfers were effected: 



Members 
Bird, William Lister, vice-president and general manager, Kaminis- 

tiquia Power Co. Ltd., Fort William, Ont. 
German, Horace Henry, (Royal Naval College, Greenwich), consltg. 

naval architect, Lambert, German & Milne, Montreal, Que. 
Hull, Arthur Harvey, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), acting chief elect'l. 

engr., H. E. P. C. of Ontario, Toronto, Ont. 

Associate Members 
Bird, William Henry Stephenson, Bach. Aero. Engrg., (Univ. of 

Minnesota), chief dftsman., aviation divn., Canadian Car & Foun- 
dry Co., Fort William, Ont. 
Carrière, Jean P., asst. engr., Public Works of Canada, London, Ont. 
Kay, William, (Bury Municipal Technical School), master mechanic, 

Price Bros. & Co. Ltd., Riverbend, Que. 
*Kemsley, Sydney Hyde, surveyor, Public Works Department, 

Hamilton, Bermuda. 
Morrison, Robert Laurance, b.a.sc, (Univ. of B.C.), mech. designer, 

Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. of Canada Ltd., Trail, B.C. 
Proudfoot, W. Bradley, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), engr., Railway 

and Power Engineering Corpn. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Spencer, Brian Roff, Lieut. -Commander(E), R.C.N., (Royal Naval 

Engrg. Coll., Devonport), Engineer Officer, H.M.C.S. "Saguenay," 

c/o Dept. of National Defence, Naval Service, Ottawa, Ont. 
Taylor, Willard Davidson, b.sc,. (McGill Univ.), engr., Railway and 

Power Engineering Corpn. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
Young, Loyola Currie, b.sc, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), elect'l. engr., Nova 

Scotia Light & Power Company, Halifax, N.S. 

Juniors 

Ball, Elmer Langdon, B.Eng. (Civil), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), junior engr., 
Engineering Service Company, Halifax, N.S. 

Inglis, William Leishman, b.a.sc, (Civil), (Univ. of B.C.), struct'l. 
steel detailer, Western Bridge Company, Vancouver, B.C. 

Russell, Earl Albert, b.a.sc (Civil), (Univ. of Toronto), demon- 
strator in surveying, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. 

Taylor, Thomas Franklin, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), dftsman., 
Richards- Wilcox Canadian Company, London, Ont. 

Affiliate 
Beckett, Russell MacDonald, electrician in charge at Port of 
Churchill, National Harbours Board, (Home), 327 So. Mark St., 
Fort William, Ont. 
*Has passed the Institute's examinations. 



Transferred from the class of Associate Member to that of Member 
Dunsmore, Robert Lionel, b.sc (Civil), (Queen's Univ.), supt., 

Halifax Refinery, Imperial Oil Limited, Dartmouth, N.S. 
Pitts, Gordon MacLeod, b.sc, m.sc, b. Arch., (McGill Univ.), partner 

of firm, Maxwell & Pitts, Montreal, Que. 
Wilson, Harry Alton, (Grad. S. P. S., Univ. of Toronto), charge of 

engrg. sales, Canada Foundries & Forgings Ltd., Welland, Ont. 
Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Associate Member 
Duchastel de Montrouge, Leon Alexandre, b.a.sc, ce., (Ecole 

Polytechnique, Montreal), power sales engr., Shawinigan Water & 

Power Company, Montreal, Que. 
Regan, Francis Edward, (Associate, Royal Salford Tech. Coll.), 

Ontario Manager, Bepco Canada Limited, Toronto, Ont. 
Timleck, Curtis James, b.a.sc, (Univ. of B.C.), sales engr., Canadian 

Ingersoll Rand Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Man. 
Yeomans, Richard Henry, b.sc, (McGill Univ.), asst. dial apparatus 

engr., Northern Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Student to that of Junior 
Hart, Herbert Trench, B.Eng. (Elec), (McGill Univ.), asst. mgr., 

Jamaica Theatres Ltd., Kingston, Jamaica, B.W.I. 
Students Admitted 
Campbell, John Graham, (Queen's Univ.), 1841 Chilver Rd., Wind- 
sor, Ont. i 
Davis, Harold Arthur, b.sc, (Queen's Univ.), laboratory instructor, 

Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. 
Dixon, Howard Henry, (Univ. of Man.), 246 Dromore Ave., Winni- 
peg, Man. 
Duncan, Frederick Robert, (McGill Univ.), 3653 University St., 

Montreal, Que. 
Furanna, Anthony L., (Queen's Univ.), 732 Wellington St., London, 

Ont. 
Gregory, Arthur Herbert, (Univ. of Man.), 451 Dominion St., Win- 
nipeg, Man. 
Gusen, Aaron, (Univ. of Man.), 432 Aikins St., Winnipeg, Man. 
Hunt, George Robinson Myers, (R.M.C.), Royal Military College, 

Kingston, Ont. 
Mitchell, Earl Roe, (Queen's Univ.), 161 Connaught Ave. No., 

Hamilton, Ont. 
Porter, Earle Fredrick, B.Eng. (E.E.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), student 

ap'tice., Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamilton, Ont. 
Swan, Andrew M., (Univ. of Man.), 728 Warsaw Ave., Winnipeg, 

Man. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



93 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



G. E. Medlar, a.m.b.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



The Annual Meeting and election of officers of the Branch 
was held on December 9th, following a dinner in the Prince 
Edward Hotel. 

Following branch custom at annual meetings, the 
chairman then presented Geo. A. McCubbin, m.e.i.c, with 
a Member's gold button. Mr. Krebser paid tribute to Mr. 
McCubbin's contributions to the profession — Forty-three 
years a surveyor, engineer, expert in drainage, irrigation, 
and hydraulics, Mr. McCubbin had given of his time and his 
thought to his profession — the highest exemplification of 
professional engineer. 

Mr. Newman introduced Mr. McCubbin, his friend of 
many years' standing, referring to the scope of Mr. 
McCubbin's practice, and described him as an outstanding 
authority in the Province of Ontario in his specialty of 
drainage engineer and in the law of municipal engineering. 

Mr. McCubbin then spoke, giving many reminiscences 
on his years of practice. He recalled his first trip to Windsor 
by stage-coach to try his entrance examinations, his 
apprenticeship to land surveying and the early years of 
his practice. He commented on the prejudice of the older 
engineers to acceptance of theory and mathematics and the 
gradual break from empirical methods of hydraulic design to 
the present accepted methods of rational mathematical 
design. There followed descriptions of survey expeditions to 
Lake Abitibi in the early days of the century illustrated by 
lantern slides. The development of land drainage under the 
two Ontario Statutes, the Ditches and Watercourses Act and 
the Municipal Drainage Act was explained and illustrated 
by his work for the Canada Company's drain at Grand 
Bend on the Au Sable River, the Raleigh Plains Drain, the 
Vespra Swamps Drain on the Nottawasaga River, and the 
evolution of the various methods for land drainage projects 
on large scale, gravity schemes, dyking and pumping, 
together with the advance of mechanical equipment for 
prosecuting the work, dredges, drag lines and steam shovels. 

He concluded his sketch of his experiences by showing a 
number of very beautifully executed coloured slides illus- 
trating some of the many lectures he has given on literary 
subjects. These slides depicted many scenes from the English 
classics, of Milton, Tennyson, Mallory, the Scottish Poet 
Burns, and his own researches into the classical mythology 
of Homer and the ancient Greeks — revealing the scholar and 
philosopher and humanist in addition to his role of civil 
engineer. 

EDMONTON BRANCH 



F. A. Brownie, a. m.e.i.c. 

J. W. PoRTEOUS, Jr. E. I.C. 



Secretary- Treas urer 
Branch News Editor 



A dinner meeting of the Edmonton Branch was held in 
the Macdonald Hotel on Thursday, December 15, at 
7.00 p.m. There were about 24 members present. W. E. 
Cornish, a. m.e.i.c, the branch chairman, introduced the 
speaker, Professor H. R. Webb, m.e.i.c, who gave a very 
interesting paper on "Engineering Models." 

The first part of the paper was taken up with the con- 
sideration of the mathematical background necessary for 
the proper scaling of models. Following this, pictures of a 
great number of models were shown and discussed. These 
included Boulder Dam, Grand Coulee Dam and the par- 
ticularly interesting model of the Rangoon Harbour. 

This model, constructed in London, covers the territory 
surrounding Rangoon, Burma, which is located at the 
mouth of the Rangoon river. The most interesting point to 
most of those present seemed to be the fact that this model 
was used to predict how deposit and erosion would affect 
the harbour in future years. Corrective measures could 
then be adopted. 



HALIFAX BRANCH 

At the annual meeting of the Halifax Branch which was 
held in December, 1938, the retiring chairman, I. P. Macnab, 
m.e.i.c, reviewed the activities of the branch during the 
year 1938. He made a special reference to the visit of 
G. J. Desbarats, hon. m.e.i.c, as this was the first occasion 
on which the President of the Institute had been present at 
the annual meeting of the branch. 

Mr. Macnab also referred to visits to the branch by 
Dean H. W. McKiel, m.e.i.c, Vice-President; President 
and Mrs. J. B. Challies, Vice-President J. A. McCrory, 
Mr. F. -Newell, and Mr. L. Austin Wright, and expressed 
his appreciation of the good accomplished by such visits. 

HAMILTON BRANCH 



A. R. Hannaford, a. m.e.i.c. 
W. E. Brown, jr. e. i.e. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Eianch Neus Editor 



The annual meeting and dinner of the branch was held 
at the Rock Garden Lodge on Friday, January 13th. There 
were 61 members and guests present and the visitors in- 
cluded C. E. Sisson, m.e.i.c, chairman of the Toronto 
Branch; C. G. Moon, a. m.e.i.c, and G. E. Griffiths, 
a. m.e.i.c, Chairman and Secretary of the Niagara Peninsula 
Branch; W. P. Dobson, m.e.i.c, President, and E. P. Muntz, 
m.e.i.c, Past President of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Ontario. The dinner was presided over by 
the retiring chairman, W. J. W. Reid, m.e.i.c 

An address on The Buttress of Humour was given by 
Frank Dowsett, advertising manager of the Gutta Percha 
and Rubber Company. The many prolonged laughs were a 
tribute to the humourous side of the subject, but the author 
also had a serious message to deliver. He defined humour as 
the ability "to laugh with people rather than at people." 
Humour, like gold, has an intrinsic value; in times of adver- 
sity, happy the man with a sense of humour, which was the 
backbone of the ranks in the front lines during the Great 
War. With the aid of many clever and often amusing stories 
the speaker proved that a keen sense of humour was a 
necessary asset to our business, family and national life, 
and as food for thought closed his talk with this equation, 
"Enthusiasm minus Humour equals Fanaticism." 

Following this address a delightful entertainment was 
given by eight little girls, the bell ringers of West Hamilton 
Public School. Bell ringing is an old English village custom 
and this recital proved that the art is by no means lost. 
L. L. Merrill, Branch Affiliate, also gave an amusing reading 
on "The Art of Golf." 

At the subsequent business session the election of officers 
for the Year 1939 took place and J. R. Dunbar, a. m.e.i.c, 
was elected Chairman. (Ed. Note: For other officers of the 
Branch see Page 51.) 

A vote of thanks was moved by Mr. Muntz to McMaster 
University for their work in the community and for the 
courtesies extended to the Hamilton Branch of The Insti- 
tute. Mr. Dobson expressed his appreciation to the branch 
for the work being done to further the usefulness of the 
engineering profession. 

LAKEHEAD BRANCH 

H. Os, a. m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 

The regular monthly dinner meeting of the branch was 
held at the Prince Arthur Hotel, Port Arthur, December 
21st, 1938. 

The speaker of the evening was R. B. Chandler, m.e.i.c, 
manager of the Public Utilities Commission, City of Port 
Arthur, giving an address on "Manual and Automatic 



94 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Telephone Systems." Mr. Chandler briefly outlined the 
history of the telephone since its invention by Alexander 
Graham Bell in 1876, to the present day. "There are two 
types of central telephone equipment available to-day," he 
said, "manual and dial or automatic telephone. The auto- 
matic system is the progressive system of to-day and where 
conditions are such that it can be proved in for any com- 
munity, the installation of any other system would be 
retrogressive and not in trend with the times," he contended. 
Mr. Chandler further mentioned that several cities in 
Canada with a population of only around 1,000 stations 
had automatic telephone installations. 

A short discussion followed, various members asking 
questions and voicing their opinion of the relative merits 
of the two systems. 

E. L. Goodall, a.m.e.i.c, chairman of the Branch, pre- 
sided. 

LONDON BRANCH 



D. S. ScRYMGEOUR, A.M.E.I.C. 

Jno. R. Rostron, a.m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 

Branch News Editor 



The regular monthly meeting was held on the 14th 
December in the board room of the Public Utilities Com- 
mission at the City Hall. The speaker of the evening was 
Vice-President E. V. Buchanan, m.e.i.c, who gave a de- 
scriptive talk on his trip to England and Scotland while 
attending the International Engineering Congress at the 
Glasgow Exhibition and at Torquay and London in 1938. 
The Chair was taken by J. Ferguson, a.m.e.i.c. 

Mr. Buchanan pointed out that his talk would be a 
personal and social one as the main matters in connection 
with his visit to the International Engineering Congress 
had already been embraced in his report to Council, and 
which was published in the October number of the Engin- 
eering Journal. 

Speaking of the exhibition itself he described it as a very 
fine show and well managed. It was situated in a park just 
outside Glasgow and covered 225 acres. The grounds were 
well laid out and made beautiful by a profusion of flowers; 
at many points fountains had been installed throwing jets 
of aerated water many feet into the air and adjusted to 
give various geometrical curves of fine spray which when 
illuminated at night with different colours gave a wonderful 
show. The exhibition buildings were coloured and illumin- 
ated also, the whole presenting a beautiful and entrancing 
spectacle. 

The engineering pavilion was the largest and full of 
machinery of all kinds. An amusing feature was the instal- 
lation of a number of models without attendants to explain 
them — however, the mystery was solved when he found 
that by inserting a penny in the slot the model worked 
and a gramophone described it. 

In Colonial Avenue the largest pavilion was the Canadian. 

Regarding Glasgow itself, he described some of the slum 
areas which were terrible in their squalor; however, great 
progress had been made in the clearance of many of these 
areas and in a re-housing scheme of which almost full 
advantage was being taken by the former slum dwellers. 
He also spoke of the return of the Kilt which is now being 
extensively used for sports wear. 

His visit to the Electrotechnical Session at Torquay is- 
fully described in his report in the October number of the 
Journal. Outside of this he recounted a conversation he had 
with one of the Germans who was present and this man 
spoke in high praise of the efficiency of his own country 
and advised a visit to see it, but, he explained, Germans 
were not allowed to visit other countries in their holidays. 
When business — such as the present — necessitated a visit 
to another country they were not allowed to bring their 
wives and were limited to very meagre expenses. 

At London, Mr. Buchanan gave a humourous account of 
the officialdom which prevailed and seriously hampered him 
in doing what he had to do in a short time. However, he 
said there was no doubt that they did things well. 



He and his wife and daughter greatly enjoyed their visit 
to Buckingham Palace in response to the King's invitation 
to the Colonial visitors. They were presented to His Majesty 
and had a short chat with both the King and Queen Mary, 
who was entertaining in Queen Elizabeth's absence, en- 
forced by the death of her mother. The reception was held 
in the Gardens of the Palace and was enlivened by the 
music of the Scots Guards. The King addressed the visitors 
in a short speech. 

He also attended the British Standards Institution dinner 
at the Guild Hall where the delegates were received by the 
Lord Mayor and Sheriffs. The guest of honour at the head 
table was H.R.H. the Duke of Kent. It gave one a thrill to 
take part in a function of this kind within the walls of 
London's historic Guild Hall some 700 years old. 

Mr. Buchanan related many incidents, some of them 
against himself, in his customary humourous style and his 
talk was much enjoyed. 

A conversational discussion followed the speaker's address 
and one of the points brought out was the high taxation 
levied in the Old Country on real estate as well as income. 

A vote of thanks to the speaker was proposed by J. R. 
Rostron, a.m.e.i.c, seconded by W. R. Smith, a.m.e.i.c, 
and unanimously carried. 

Sixteen members and guests were present, amongst the 
latter being E. P. Muntz, m.e.i.c, President of the Ontario 
Association of Professional Engineers. 

The annual meeting of the branch was held on Wednesday 
evening, January 25th, and was preceded by a dinner at the 
Glen Allen Restaurant, Glendale, attended by over fifty 
members of the branch and their friends, including His 
Worship Mayor Johnston of London. Owing to his unfor- 
tunate indisposition the retiring chairman of the branch, 
A. O. Wolff, m.e.i.c, was unable to be present and the 
chair was ably filled by H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, who was 
subsequently elected to the office of Branch Chairman. 

Following the dinner the Mayor welcomed the gathering 
in a few well chosen words. Vice-President E, V. Buchanan, 
m.e.i.c, presented the valedictory of the retiring chairman 
Mr. Wolff (and incidentally joined in a little repartee with 
the chairman over the quality of the street lighting of the 
City of London) and received from the Branch Secretary a 
gold membership badge for presentation to Mr. Wolff in 
recognition of his services to the branch. 

Mr. Bennett expressed the sense of loss that the branch 
sustained through the transfer of Mr. Wolff to Toronto, 
and referred in particular to the able way in which the annual 
general meeting of the Institute held in London in February, 
1938, had been organized. 

The gathering was addressed by J. L. Busfield, m.e.i.c, 
managing director, Gardner Engines (Eastern Canada) 
Limited, of Montreal, on the subject Diesel Engines and 
Their Modern Applications. The speaker first of all 
explained that in general the use of the diesel engine was 
an economic problem, rather than mechanical or engineer- 
ing, and gave some examples to show that both capital and 
operating costs had to be taken into proper consideration. 
Mr. Busfield then presented a number of lantern slides 
illustrating applications of the diesel engine in stationary 
installations, in boats, in automotive vehicles, locomotives 
and railcars, following which there was a general discussion 
in which many of the members and visitors present took 
part. 

At the subsequent Annual Meeting of the branch, H. F. 
Bennett, m.e.i.c, was elected Chairman, W. E. Andrewes, 
a.m.e.i.c, Vice-Chairman. (Ed. Note: For other officers 
elected, see page 52.) 

Mr. Busfield in his capacity as Chairman of the Publica- 
tion Committee of the Institute was asked to say a few 
words about the changes in The Engineering Journal. The 
meeting passed a resolution expressing its appreciation of 
the improvements which have been made. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



95 



MONTREAL BRANCH 



E. R. Smallhorn, a. m. e. i.c. 



Secretary-Treasuri r 



On Thursday, January 5th, H. F. Lambart, m.e.i.c, 
addressed the branch on "Exploration and mapping of 
the hitherto little known mountains of the South 
Nahanni River, N.W.T., by the Harry Snyder Can- 
adian Expedition of 1937." He explained the difficulties 
involved in sending a survey expedition to the rugged and 
little known sections of Canada. Having been attached to 
the Department of the Interior, Ottawa, as one of the 
surveyors of the Alaska- Yukon boundary, and having 
accompanied the Harry Snyder Canadian Expedition of 
1937, Mr. Lambart was fully qualified to speak on this 
subject and to make it a most interesting one to the 
audience. Lantern slides and moving pictures illustrated 
the lecture. 

C. C. Lindsay, m.e.i.c., presided at this meeting which 
was preceded by a courtesy dinner at the Windsor Hotel. 

The annual general meeting of the branch was held 
January 12th, at which the general business of the branch 
was discussed, the report of the retiring executive and the 
financial statement presented and the new officers installed. 
C. K. McLeod, a. m.e.i.c, was elected chairman for 1939 
and Ernest Gohier, m.e.i.c, vice-chairman. Vacancies on 
the committee were filled by R. S. Eadie, m.e.i.c, J. G. 
Chenevert, m.e.i.c, and Gordon McL. Pitts, m.e.i.c 

At this meeting President Challies made his official visit 
to the branch and in a most interesting manner, outlined 
the trend of organized engineering in Canada, as indicated 
by his recently completed visits to the 25 branches of the 
Institute and his discussions with the Founder Societies 
of the United States. Councillor Fred Newell also addressed 
the branch, explaining the progress towards a closer rela- 
tionship between the Institute and the eight provincial 
associations. 

Through the courtesy of Imperial Oil Limited a motion 
picture, "Safari on wheels," was shown to the branch. 
Refreshments were served at the close of the meeting. 

On January 19th the Montreal Branch was addressed 
by James Mclsaac on the subject of "Fire Prevention in 
Montreal." Mr. Mclsaac has been chief of the Fire Pre- 
vention Bureau of the City of Montreal since 1921. This 
organization reports that the number of fires per 100,000 
population has decreased from 476 to 240 per year, during 
the years since 1913 when the Bureau was organized. The 
lecture covered fire hazards found in Montreal, and partic- 
ularly those arising due to cold weather. Special references 
to fire prevention during construction, for various types of 
heating systems, and in public buildings, etc., were made. 
A. J. Farrell, a. m.e.i.c, presided. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 



G. E. Griffiths, a. m.e.i.c. 
J. G. Welsh, s.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



On December 8, 1938, the Niagara Peninsula Branch 
met with the Niagara District Chemical and Industrial 
Association for the annual joint meeting at the Leonard 
Hotel, St. Catharines. 

C. G. Moon, a.m. e. i.e., chairman of the branch, presided. 
Paul Buss, A.M.E.i.c, introduced the speaker of the evening, 
A. D. Hopkins of the Canadian Johns-Manville Company. 
Mr. Hopkins presented a sound film on the subject, Heat 
and Its Control. 

Heat is transferred in three ways. In the first place, by 
radiation. This was exemplified by the open fire. Heat was 
accompanied by the acceleration of the molecules of which 
the substance was composed. As the molecules near the fire 
were accelerated, they bombarded those in contact, thus 
imparting energy, and thus radiating the energy, heat. It 
was shown that heat followed the laws of light. 

The second manner of heat transfer was by convection. 



A box with one side cold and the other side heated portrayed 
the fact that warm air flows up and cold down, and that 
still air is set in motion by differences in temperature in 
different regions. 

The third manner of heat transfer was by conduction. 
This is motion of heat similar to radiation but in the sub- 
stance itself. There was a great variation in the thermal 
conductivity of substances. Thus some lent themselves to 
use as conductors while others as insulators. 

A heat insulator must have resistance to shock, that is, 
it must not be injured by sudden changes in temperature; 
it must not have excessive expansion or contraction. In 
some cases it must be resistant to weathering, vermin, 
vibration, water absorption, or mechanical abrasion. But 
in all cases it must be a poor conductor, and be very porous 
and the cell walls thin. The smaller the pores the better. 
This reduced the convection and radiation losses and offered 
greater resistance to conduction by reducing the area. As a 
result four basic materials make up practically all insulators. 
These are asbestos, magnesium carbonate, diatomaceous 
silica (celite), and rock or mineral wool. 

Rock wool is the most widely used for low temperature 
work. It may be formed into batts for application in new 
construction or into nodules for blowing under pressure into 
the normally hollow walls of existing structures. Four inches 
of this rock wool are as effective an insulator as eleven feet 
of solid stone. Tests have shown that a home thus insulated 
will be up to 15% cooler on the hottest summer days, and 
savings on fuel bills up to 30%. In railroad passenger and 
refrigerator cars another inherently water-repellant insu- 
lator in the form of chemically cleaned cattle hair, felted 
between fabrics of various types is used. Its high insulating 
efficiency is due to the interlacing of the hair to form 
minute air pockets. 

The standard insulation for steam lines, and general work 
up to about 600°F. has been a combination of asbestos 
fibre and magnesium carbonate. This 85% magnesia insula- 
tion can be molded or in slab form to suit requirements. 

Another insulating material with an asbestos base is 
available for temperatures up to 700 F., where immunity 
to the effects of vibration and rough handling, sustained 
high insulating effectiveness in service, and unusually high 
salvage value is desirable. Known as asbesto-sponge felted, 
and produced in sheet, block or pipe insulation form, this 
material is built up of felts composed of asbestos and small 
particles of spongy cellular material. It owes its remarkable 
insulating efficiency to the great amount of entrapped dead 
air and the many surfaces interposed in the path of heat flow. 

For temperatures up to 1,900 °F. a carefully selected and 
calcined celite is blended and bonded with asbestos fibres, 
whose inherent strength and permanence due to their min- 
eral composition, gives the celite and asbestos the qualities 
necessary to allow its molding into blocks and pipe insulators 
of any desired size and thickness. 

For temperatures up to 2,500 °F. the pure celite is ground, 
pugged, pressed and fitted in kilns, and then molded as 
desired. 

OTTAWA BRANCH 



R. K. Odell, a.m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



The Annual Meeting of the Ottawa Branch was held on 
Thursday evening, January 12, 1939, at the auditorium of 
the National Research Laboratories. Reports for the past 
year were presented and officers elected for the ensuing 
year. W. F. M. Bryce, a.m.e.i.c, retiring chairman, pre- 
sided. 

The secretary-treasurer's report, presented by R. K. 
Odell, stated that the branch was in a sound financial 
condition, and that the total membership is now 339 resident 
and 86 non-resident members. Feeling reference was made 
to the loss suffered through the death during the year of 
R. L. Haycock, m.e.i.c, and Lieutenant Commander 
Charles Stephen, a.m.e.i.c 



96 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



In accordance with the motion passed at the last Annual 
Meeting the branch as usual donated two sets of draughting 
instruments to the Ottawa Technical School for presentation 
as prizes for proficiency in draughting. F. H. Peters, m.e.i.c, 
personally presented the prizes to the successful students. 
A copy of "Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers" 
was also sent to the Hull Technical School to be awarded 
to one of its students. 

Thanks were expressed to B. H. Segre, a.m. e. i.e., for 
his work as auditor. 

P. Sherrin, a. m.e.i.c., reported for the membership com- 
mittee and Squadron Leader A. L. Ferrier, a. m.e.i.c, out- 
lined the work of the Aeronautical Section. J. L. Rannie, 
m.e.i.c, also reported in connection with the work of his 
special committee on arrangements for the forthcoming 
Annual General Meeting of the Institute to be held in 
Ottawa. 

The report of the Proceedings Committee, by W. H. 
Munro, m.e.i.c, stated that 16 meetings, including the 
annual meeting of the branch, were held during the year. 
Of these, twelve were luncheon meetings and four were 
evening meetings. The luncheon meeting held June 24, 1938, 
marked the first meeting of the Council of The Institute 
to be held in Ottawa apart from any that may have been 
held during Institute annual meetings. 

As a result of the elections, officers for the ensuing year 
are: chairman, J. H. Parkin, m.e.i.c; secretary-treasurer, 
R. K. Odell, a. m.e.i.c, re-elected; members of Managing 
Committee: N. Marr, m.e.i.c, H. V. Anderson, m.e.i.c, 
and W. L. Saunders, a.m. e. i.e., newly-elected to serve two 
years; and R. A. Strong, a. m.e.i.c, and Dr. R. M. Stewart, 
m.e.i.c, who were elected at the 1938 annual meeting and 
have one remaining year to serve. 

After the business part of the meeting was over, Mr. 
Munro read an interesting paper prepared by Sydney 
March, one of the sculptors of the National War Memorial. 
The paper explained the various technicalities of construc- 
tion of the memorial. Sydney March and his brother, 
Walter, were at the meeting as honoured guests and the 
former answered many questions from the floor after his 
paper was read. 

PETERBOROUGH BRANCH 



A. L. Malby, jr. e. i.e. - 
D. R. McGregor, ji-.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The sixth meeting of the Branch during the current season 
was held on December 8th, when J. W. Bateman, of 
Toronto, manager of the Lighting Service Department of the 
Canadian General Electric Company, gave an address on 
New Developments in Lighting. 

Mr. Bateman opened his address by pointing out that 
electric lighting as we know it today has been in existence 
only a relatively short time — less than sixty years. 

For the first half of this period, the carbon lamp of the 
same general form as the first electrical incandescent lamp 
invented by Edison, was the standard light source. In this 
time, lamps improved in efficiency and in quality from the 
early lamps, which had efficiencies of the order of 1.4 lumens 
per watt and lives of about 40 hours, to lamps of three times 
this efficiency and many times the life. 

The tungsten lamp has held sway for the second half of 
this period. Likewise, improvements have been made; 
efficiencies have doubled, quality has improved, and prices 
have been lowered. Electrical distribution systems have 
improved and rates have decreased until today we get about 
twelve times as much electric light for one dollar as could be 
had just thirty years ago. 

In the early nineteen-thirties, things were fairly stable as 
regards electric lamps. However along about 1932, practical 
sodium gaseous conductor lamps were developed, which 
were found to have efficiencies about 2J^ times those of the 



equivalent tungsten lamps. Then followed the high intensity 
mercury vapour lamp, another electric discharge lamp hav- 
ing about double the efficiency of the incandescent lamp. 
Just recently the fluorescent Mazda lamp has been developed ; 
this lamp in some colours is as much as 120 times as efficient 
as the equivalent coloured tungsten lamp, and it appears to 
open up a new field in lighting practice. 

One of the outstanding developments in electric discharge 
lamps is the new 1000 watt capillary mercury vapour lamp. 
The light source itself, which is in a quartz bulb which must 
be water-cooled, is about the diameter of a lead pencil and 
about one inch in length. This 1000 watt lamp has a light 
output of 65,000 lumens — three times that of a 1000 watt 
incandescent lamp. The intrinsic brilliancy of the source is 
almost equal to that of the sun itself. It is expected that this 
new lamp will meet with quite a wide application in the 
projection and photo-engraving fields. 

The standard tungsten lamp is now appearing in a new 
type of bulb; this bulb is shaped not unlike a small spotlight, 
and has a reflecting surface hermetically sealed inside it. 
The lamp provides a powerful floodlight beam without the 
use of auxiliary reflectors; and can be obtained made of 
ordinary glass, for indoor use, or of a special glass for outdoor 
use. It is probable that this lamp will find a wide use for 
amateur theatricals, store window lighting, garden lighting, 
and many other applications. 

The recently developed Mazda fluorescent lamps are 
revolutionary light sources. These lamps are primarily 
mercury arcs of low pressure. The ultraviolet rays given by 
the mercury arc are converted into visible light by means of 
powders, known as phosphors, applied in the form of a 
coating on the inside of the glass tubes of the lamps. These 
lamps are similar in appearance to the tungsten 'Lumiline' 
lamps; however they run at only 10 watts per foot of tube 
length, with efficiencies ranging from 3 to 70 lumens per 
watt. These are at present available in seven colours — green, 
blue, gold, red, pink, daylight, and white. The green lamp 
burns with an efficiency of from 60 to 70 lumens per watt, 
providing green light at an efficiency from 100 to 200 times 
that of the tungsten lamp. The white and daylight lamps 
give about 30 to 35 lumens per watt, about double that of 
the ordinary 200 watt tungsten lamp. 

Mr. Bateman closed his address by stating that years of 
research had proved the desirability of high levels of lighting 
of the proper quality to provide easy seeing conditions and 
to minimize eye strain and nervous tension. The develop- 
ment of new light sources and new methods of lighting will 
continue to make possible in the future, better light for 
seeing. 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 



J. J. White, m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



On November 25th the Saskatchewan Branch held its 
monthly meeting when 57 members and friends had dinner 
at the King's Hotel, Regina. R. W. Jickling, a.m.e.i.c 
chairman of the Saskatchewan Section of the a.i.e.e. 
occupied the chair. 

After dinner Mr. Jickling introduced E. E. Eisenhauer, 
a.m.e.i.c, irrigation specialist with the Provincial Govern- 
ment, who spoke to the gathering on Irrigation in Saskat- 
chewan. 

The speaker traced the development of irrigation in the 
world from Biblical times up to the present. In the Biblical 
days the Martians were supposed to have built a dam on the 
Arabian Desert. This dam was supposed to have failed, the 
result being the flooding of the old world. He mentioned that 
in many instances on present sites of devlopment, relics of 
old drainage ditches and other evidences of irrigation were 
found. 

The reason for The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act 
coming into the picture was to better spread the cost over 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



97 



Canada, for everybody benefits by irrigation. The Govern- 
ment buys the land from the farmer at a nominal price, 
develops it and resells it to him at a slightly higher figure 
guaranteed free from speculative prices. At the present time 
in Saskatchewan the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation has 60,000 
acres under ditch and it is possible to irrigate about a 
maximum of 250,000 acres. In Alberta there are more than a 
million acres. Due to the drought only, in Saskatchewan, the 
large schemes may make money, otherwise they do not pay. 

He suggested that proper development of irrigation in 
Saskatchewan will take care of a larger population due to the 
reason that projects in Saskatchewan are scattered over dry 
lands where the small farmer has a security of income due to 
his ability thus to provide for lean years. Irrigation is a 
profitable affair in dry years and he stated several cases 
where $300.00 or $400.00 expenditure for a dam saved a cost 
of $3000 or $4000 for feed. 

The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act helps to the extent 
of $350.00 and if possible, every farmer should take advant- 
age of this opportunity to develop his own farm. It is the 
duty of every engineer to give this work all the publicity 
possible. The farmer is not tied down to any restrictions and 
can sell the land immediately if he wishes to do so. 

In the sugar beet industry, at least a parcel of 20,000 
acres is needed for a factory, that is, there would be 10,000 
acres under crop and 10,000 under cultivation the same year. 
Due to the restrictions in the production of sugar, the com- 
parative cost of raw sugar processed elsewhere, freight and 
insufficient demand, another factory in the west would not 
be economical. The crop for Saskatchewan is the small grain 
such as alfalfa. 

The question period was inaugurated by Mr. Linton and 
Mr. Norman McLeod, while several others joined in asking 
questions. 

The last half of the programme was taken up by a sound 
picture produced by the Ford Motor Company of Canada 
Limited, at Windsor. This was a very interesting picture and 
followed the making of a car from raw product to shipment. 
About sixty per cent of the cars manufactured in Canada 
were sold in other parts of the Empire. 

TORONTO BRANCH 



J. J. Spence, a.m.e.i.c. 

D. D. Whitson, a.m.e.i.c. - 



Secretary - Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



Regulation of Traffic in a City 

Offences against traffic laws will have to be made anti- 
social before the ultimate in traffic safety can be reached, 
Tracey D. LeMay, Commissioner of City Planning, City 
of Toronto, told the Toronto Branch at Hart House on 
Thursday, November 17th. Observation of traffic rules, he 
said, must cease to be a matter of convenience, and be 
regarded as a social duty and matter of conscience. 

Commenting on the beneficial changes in living conditions 
brought about by the automobile, he stated that "at the 
same time it has created a death toll and caused personal 
injury and suffering and an economic loss that in its mag- 
nitude vies with the horrors of war and of pestilence." One 
person in every 160, he said, would be killed or injured by a 
motor car on Toronto's' streets within the next twelve 
months. He cited carelessness, inattention and even wilful 
disregard as major factors in the accident record. 

Mr. LeMay deplored the fact that "the driver who breaks 
a traffic law does not feel that he has committed a crime 
against society or that in doing so he has been guilty of 
depriving some other driver of his fair share of the use of a 
public highway. A man who pilfers a pair of socks from a 
departmental store is looked upon as a criminal, but the 
motorist who drives from here to Barrie in sixty minutes, 
endangering his own and scores of other lives, is considered 
a hero, or at worst a crazy fool," he observed. 



There should be some form of international tie-up that 
would make for continent-wide uniformity in traffic rules, 
he said. It was reasonable, he pointed out, that matters of 
this kind should be placed under the jurisdiction of the 
Federal authorities both in Canada and the United States. 

An overall speed of twelve miles per hour was as fast as 
safety would allow in city driving, the speaker stated. Such 
a speed on main-travelled streets, however, seemed to be 
generally unattainable because of street car interference 
with steady and continuous progress. In the congested 
section of the Toronto downtown area tests had shown 
that a little more than nine miles was the average overall 
speed to be expected on a continuous run on car line 
thoroughfares. The average speed in the outer parts of the 
business section was higher. The condition was not ideal, 
but it was not sufficiently acute to cause concern. 

"Intersections are the greatest single cause of traffic 
delay," the planning commissioner continued. Nothing 
much could be done except to provide expensive traffic 
circles or grade separations, he pointed out. Mid-block 
prohibition of parking, with prohibition of all stopping in 
the vicinity of an intersection, appeared to him to offer the 
best chance of improvement. Referring to opposition of 
merchants to a general prohibition of parking on business 
streets, he declared that "it seems physically impossible 
that the disastrous effects which they predict would 
materialize." He cited results of surveys on Yonge Street 
which indicated that fewer than one per cent of customers 
who entered fifteen leading retail stores came from cars 
parked in the same block. 

Synchronizing or retaining of traffic signals could only 
speed up traffic in one direction due to the unequal length 
of city blocks, he said. "No automatic traffic signal, even 
those embodying the latest traffic actuated developments, 
can fully take the place of an efficient police officer who is 
able to utilize every second of intersection time," he 
added. 

The speaker doubted the wisdom of too general pro- 
hibition of left turns. Every left turn prohibited meant two 
left turns and a right turn elsewhere, he said, pointing out 
that such prohibition added to congestion and defeated its 
own purpose if it increased the vehicle-miles travelled on 
the streets. 

He urged citizens to store their cars in driveways or 
garages when not in use. Automobiles parked on residential 
streets were a definite hazard, especially at night. Parking 
on both sides of a pavement less than thirty feet wide, he 
said, left insufficient room for moving vehicles to pass. 

Pointing out that an era of a few years, prosperity might 
add 50 per cent to Toronto's 140,000 automobiles, Mr. 
LeMay declared that it was inevitable that municipal action 
must be taken to meet the need for parking accommodation. 
Parking on vacant lots was, he added, not an economic use 
of land. "The time will come, sooner or later, when these 
properties will be required for building operations, leaving 
the streets still less able to provide accommodation, he 
predicted. 

There was, he said, no golden rule in traffic regulation. 
Each individual case had to be separately studied and 
planned for. "Any solution must maintain the relative 
traffic fluidity over the whole route or area. A very careful 
analysis of the possible effect of proposed regulations should 
be made, based on engineering data obtained by engineering 
methods," he asserted. 

On December 1st, 1938, the branch held its semi-monthly 
regular meeting at Hart House. C. E. Sisson, m.e.i.c, 
occupied the chair and made the important announcement 
that a committee had been formed to consider the advis- 
ability of forming a junior section of the branch, and that 
some progress had already been made. The action had been 
taken on the request of a number of the junior members. 



98 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



The speaker of the evening was Dr. Saul Dushman, 
assistant director of the Research Laboratory, General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, New York, and a graduate 
of '04, University of Toronto. Dr. Dushman spoke on the 
Problems and Organization of a Research Labora- 
tory, and succeeded remarkably in presenting to the 
members in an interesting way how the really tough prob- 
lems in physical, chemical and electrical research had been 
tackled and solved. He pointed out that from the time of 
the formation of the Research Laboratory in 1900 the 
results obtained have been of such a nature that they not 
only continued to justify the existence of the laboratory 
from the point of view of scientific achievement but also 
from that of actual benefits to the company as a manufac- 
turing organization. Naturally the efforts of the Research 
Laboratory have been directed largely from the point of 
view of the practical activities of the company. However, 
the laboratory did not hesitate to carry on a certain amount 
of purely scientific research, where it was felt that an in- 
creased knowledge of fundamentals in a given field might 
be of value towards future practical developments. 

The G.E. Research Laboratory at Schenectady is only 
one of sixteen laboratories maintained by the Company, 
and after the Schenectady laboratory has evolved the funda- 
mental principle, and possibly the initial device or mechan- 
ism resulting from the application of the principle, it usually 
hands over the results to the particular laboratory con- 
nected with the division of the company that will be 
manufacturing the device for further development. It has 
been found best to carry on all research of a fundamental 
character at Schenectady rather than in the separate Works' 
laboratories, whose staffs do not have the advantage of 
association and discussion of problems with other research 
workers in widely different fields, and whose overlapping 
experience has often been of greatest value. The laboratory 
staff consists of about 100 technically trained men, 40 of 
whom have Ph.D. degrees, and their assistants, machinists 
and glass blowers, etc., and since the inception of the 
laboratory have carried on innumerable investigations. 

From 1900 to 1934, the laboratory was directed by Dr. 
Willis R. Whitney, and since then by Dr. Coolidge. The 
method of selection of new men for the staff has been 
evolved over a period of years and recently has consisted 
of inviting men who are studying for Ph.D. degrees to 
work on a temporary basis in the laboratory, and to move 
them around among the senior researchers who make recom- 
mendations concerning their aptitudes. In this manner it is 
hoped that fewer mistakes will be made in selecting men 
who will fit satisfactorily into the organization. 

Dr. Dushman then proceeded to take his audience on a 
tour of the laboratory. Research group number one were 
engaged on investigating what is known as monomolecular 
film. The film was produced on a glass slide by thrusting 
the slide into a vessel of clean water, on whose surface had 
been placed a drop of the material being studied. The 
first layer of film was deposited on the glass slide on its 
first up-journey through the water, second layer on the 
next down-journey and so on. It was found that the mole- 
cules deposited themselves in opposite orientation in the 
different layers, and one practical application was the fact 
that reflection was eliminated from glass surfaces treated 
with the films. 

Research group number two were investigating the 
magnetic properties of silicon steel. It was discovered that 
there are directions of easiest magnetization which are 
oriented in definite directions with respect to the orientation 
of the crystals. Through learning to control the grain size 
in the steel structure of silicon steel transformer sheets, 
reducing magnetostriction by increase in silicon, and by 
orientation by cold reduction, transformer sheets have been 
produced in which the power loss has decreased over a 
period of years from 0.7 watts per lb. in 1918 to 0.4 watts 
per lb. at the present time. The estimated saving to North 



American power users due to the above increase in efficiency 
is estimated in millions annually. 

Research group number three discovered that a heat re- 
sistant alloy of nickel, aluminum, cobalt and iron, could by 
heat treatment be made into excellent material for small 
permanent magnets which would lift 60-80 times its own 
weight. Research group number four were working on 
special glasses to seal electrodes into metal radio and power 
control tubes, and high-voltage multi-sectional x-ray tubes. 
Research group number five were studying arcs, with 
mercury switches being the ultimate object in mind. 
Research group number six were studying vapor discharge 
lamps, fluorescent materials and lamps and the mechanism 
of fluorescence, and also phosphorescence, and cathode- 
luminescence used in television. 

Dr. Dushman said television had not yet reached the 
practical stage for home use but appeared to be definitely 
on the way to successful solution, but did not care to say 
how soon. Another group were working on x-ray tubes up 
to 800,000 volt rating in several sections, and still another 
on chemical and metallurgical problems such as compounds 
for use in plastics, mercury vapor detectors in connection 
with mercury boilers, and plastic flow in metals at high 
temperatures, with the practical application being the life 
of blades in high temperature steam turbines. 

It is no exaggeration to say that Dr. Dushman gave one 
of the most interesting addresses the branch has heard in 
recent years, and it is also a fact that the members were all 
left with a new appreciation of the increasing difficulties 
encountered by those who would open new doors of know- 
ledge to mankind, and a new conception of the extent of 
the knowledge, training and keenness necessary for an 
individual to have any success at this type of work. 

On January 14th the branch held its annual social evening 
at the Engineers' Club, when over 125 of the members, 
wives and friends enjoyed dinner, singing, billiards, dancing 
and cards. This year's attendance was higher than on any 
previous occasion, and it appears that in future years larger 
accommodations may be necessary. The guests were received 
by C. E. Sisson, m.e.i.c, Branch Chairman, and Mrs. Sisson, 
and Dr. J. B. Challies, President of the Institute, and Mrs. 
Challies. Mr. Sisson and Dr. Challies spoke briefly at the 
conclusion of the dinner. The social committee handled their 
duties in excellent style and was headed by Mrs. C. E. 
Sisson, Mr. Harry Brandon and Mr. Nicol MacNicol. 

On January 19th the Toronto Branch held its regular 
semi-monthly meeting at Hart House, University of Toronto, 
with C. E. Sisson, m.e.i.c, in the chair. This was the opening 
meeting for 1939, and it was devoted to a speaking competi- 
tion for Engineering Students on engineering subjects. 

There were six contestants and the winning talk was on 
"Cavitation" by A. D. Smith, fourth year student at the 
Faculty of Applied Science. The second prize went to 
M. D. Stewart for his talk on "Geared Turbine Drives for 
Marine Propulsion." The third prize was taken by G. T. 
Perry, who spoke on the "Future of Pulp in Northern 
Ontario," and fourth prize went to R. N. Boyd for the 
subject, "Diesel Electric Buses." Interesting talks were also 
given by W. M. Walkinshaw on "Soil Stabilization" and by 
F. C. Read on "The Engineer in the Plant." The judges 
were Col. C. S. L. Hertzberg, m.e.i.c, R. B. Young, m.e.i.c, 
and A. O. Wolff, m.e.i.c All the winners received a student 
membership in the Institute, and a year's subscription to 
The Engineering Journal, with cash prizes added of 
$10.00, $7.50, $5.00 and $2.50. The speakers made use of 
large diagrams, models, and slides to illustrate their addresses 
and all had obviously prepared their addresses with great 
care, and the style of their presentation reflected great 
credit on both themselves and their instructors. 

Films on western Canadian scenery were also shown 
through the courtesy of the Canadian National Railways. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



99 



News of Other Societies 



THE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION COUNCIL 
OF CANADA 

The revival of prosperity in the Canadian construction 
industry which did nearly $600 millions of business in 1929 
— the amount falling of recent years to less than 40 per 
cent of that figure — cannot be a matter of indifference to 
the general public and is of special interest to members of 
the engineering profession. 

In the opinion of the National Construction Council, if 
the existing position of the industry is to be improved, 
it is absolutely "necessary to relieve real estate of a portion 
of the present heavy burden of municipal taxation." It is 
felt that the impending publication of the Rowell Commis- 
sion's report, and the holding of the announced Dominion- 
Provincial conference, will furnish an opportunity to impress 
the urgency of the situation upon the various municipal, 
provincial, federal and private interests whose uncoordi- 
nated actions are believed to have contributed materially 
to the present state of affairs. 

It is hoped that the Construction Council's recent repre- 
sentation to the Royal Commission on Dominion- Provincial 
Relations will result in a recommendation for constructive 
action, but this will not necessarily follow unless the 
"powers that be" are shown that a body of public opinion 
is in favour of the change in policy. 

In a letter presented to the Institute Council at its last 
meeting, the executive of the N.C.C. asked for the fullest 
co-operation of the Engineering Institute in bringing this 
about; the Council was entirely in sympathy with the sug- 
gestion, and directed that the present reference should be 
made to the matter in the columns of the Journal. 

Institute members will realize that in giving their support 
to the policy of reduction in taxation on real estate (basing 
such reduced taxation on income, not on assessed capital 
value) and in endeavouring to form public opinion along 
such lines, they will be acting in accordance with the views 
of their own Council, and helping to rehabilitate the con- 
struction industry in this country. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

At the annual meeting of the society held at the Engin- 
eering Societies' Building, New York, on Wednesday, 
January 18th, Donald Hubbard Sawyer, of Washington, 
D.C., was elected President. Since 1935 Colonel Sawyer has 
been a special assistant to the Director of Procurement, and 
Chief of the Section of Space Control with the U.S. Federal 
Government, involving the preparation of an inventory of 
all Federal real estate and improvements, as well as the 
presidency of the U.S. Housing Corporation. 

One of the features of the meeting was the presentation 
of Honorary Memberships to five members of the Society, 
namely, C. Frank Allen, long associated with engineering 
works in Boston and New England ; Anson Marston, a Past- 
President of the Society, and Dean Emeritus of Iowa State 
College; Arthur S. Tuttle, Past-President of the Society, 
with 48 years of continuous engineering service to the City 
of New York; Edward E. Wall, with 50 years of engineering 
service to the City of St. Louis; and Frank E. Weymouth, 
General Manager and Chief Engineer of the Metropolitan 
Water District of Southern California. 

Following the ceremony of conferring the Honorary 
Memberships, the President of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada, Dr. J. B. Challies, was formally introduced to 
the meeting by the President of the Society, Dr. H. E. 
Riggs. Dr. Challies spoke as follows: 

"This dignified ceremony of conferring honorary mem- 
berships upon five engineer statesmen of America, which 
I have been privileged to witness from a seat of honour 
among the distinguished Past-Presidents of this great 



Items of interest regarding activities of 
other engineering societies or associations 



Society, is easily the most impressive and the most in- 
spiring event of a very busy presidential year. 

"Canadian engineers will greatly appreciate this 
courtesy to The Engineering Institute of Canada — a 
strictly professional engineering body that embraces all 
branches of our profession and which earnestly endeavours 
to maintain the splendid traditions of its mother society, 
the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great Britain, and 
may I say, also of its mother-in-law society, the American 
Society of Civil Engineers. 

"It has been a matter of great satisfaction to the Council 
of the Institute that its relations with the Founder 
Societies of the United States, and, in particular, with the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, each year grow more 
cordial. As President of the Institute, I am glad to acknow- 
ledge the priceless privilege which it has enjoyed in being 
permitted to lean heavily upon the advice and assistance 
of the officers and the secretariat of this Society. 

"It is perhaps a happy circumstance that while the 
President of the Institute should be permitted today to 
participate in the 86th Annual Meeting of the American 
Society of Civil Enginerrs, only a few weeks hence the 
President of this Society will honour the Institute by 
attending its 53rd Annual Meeting in the capital city of 
the Dominion. 

"To this Institute meeting at Ottawa, all members of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers will be as welcome 
as the flowers in May." 

THE INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS 

A. P. M. Fleming, c.b.e., D.Eng., m.sc, has recently been 
elected President of the Institution. Dr. Fleming was a 
visitor to Canada during 1938 and met many members of 
the Engineering Institute. 

The following is an extract from the annual report of the 
Council of the Institution: 

"With reference to overseas members of the various 
institutions the Engineering Joint Council have recently, 
at the request of this Institution, considered what steps 
can be taken further to bring these members together, the 
suggestion being that the schemes of co-operation already 
in existence in China and the Argentine might be the 
basis of similar co-operation elsewhere overseas. A report 
of a special committee set up by the Joint Council to 
discuss this matter is now available giving details of a 
suggested scheme for carrying out the object in view." 

THE ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 
OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 

The following is the constitution of the Council of this 
Association for the year 1939: President, C. E. Webb, 
M.E.i.c, Civil Engineer; Vice-President, E. Redpath, 
Mechanical Engineer; Past-President, C. V. Brennan, 
Mining Engineer. 

Council, elected by the Profession: J. N. Finlayson, 
M.E.i.c, Civil Engineer; P. B. Freeland, Mining Engineer; 
F. W. MacNeill, Electrical Engineer; H. R. Younger, 
a. M.E.i.c, Civil Engineer. 

Appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council: 
S. J. Crocker, Mechanical Engineer; W. H. Hill, Chemical 
Engineer; P. L. Lyford, Forest Engineer; H. J. MacLeod, 
M.E.i.c, Electrical Engineer. 

President C. E. Webb is the representative of the 
Association on the Dominion Council. 






100 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Library Notes 



BOOK NOTES 



Book notes, Additions to the Library of the Engineer- 



The following notes on new books appear 
here through the courtesy of the En- 
gineering Societies Library of New York. 
As yet the books are not in The In- 
stitute Library, but inquiries will be 
welcomed at Headquarters, or may be 
sent direct to the publishers. 

A.C.MOTORS OF FRACTIONAL HORSE- 
POWER 

By H. H. Jones. New York, Chemical Pub- 
lishing Co., 1938. 189 pp., Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 8x5 in., cloth, $3.00. 
The working principles of fractional horse- 
power A.C. motors are described and informa- 
tion is given for the construction, coil winding, 
testing and repair of such motors. A special 
chapter is included on silencing and the sup- 
pression of radiated interference. 

A.M. FUEL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT 

By B. Demlchenko, with an introduction by 
P. Dumanois; translated from the French 
by M. E. Boname. Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 
1938. Illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 10 x 6 
in., cloth, 90 frs. 
A translation from the French, this book 
discusses the general technique of feeding an 
engine, the layout of a fuel system including 
installation rules, the factors influencing the 
flow of fuel, mechanical and gravity feed 
systems, and the calculation of the efficiency 
of a fuel system. Several chapters are devoted 
to diagrams of fuel systems for various hypo- 
thetical cases. 

A.S.T.M. STANDARDS ON COAL AND 
COKE 

Prepared by Committee D-5 on Coal and 
Coke, Oct., 1938. Phila., American Society 
for Testing Materials. 152 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., paper, 
$1.25. 
Standards and specifications, as developed 
by the special committee on coal and coke, 
covering sampling methods, chemical analy- 
sis, methods of testing, coal classification, and 
definitions of terms, are here brought together 
in convenient form. 

CHEMICAL STUDIES OF P. J. 
MACQUER 

By L. J . M. Coleby. London, George Allen 
& Unwin; New York, Nordemann Pub- 
lishing Co., 1938. 132 pp., tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $1.75. 

Macquer (1718-1784), occupied a command- 
ing position in French chemistry. He wrote 
the first "Dictionary of Chemistry," which 
was translated into many languages. He car- 
ried out important researches, especially on 
technical questions, and was Director of the 
Dyeing Industries and Superintendent of the 
Sevres porcelain factory. This book gives a 
sketch of his life and an account of his re- 
searches and writings, with a bibliography. 

DIFFERENTIAL UND INTEGRALRECH- 

NUNG, 3 Vol. . (Goschens Lehrbii- 
cherei, Bd. 24, 25 and 26) 

By 0. Haupt and G. Aumann. Berlin, 
Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1938. diagrs., 
tables, 9x6 in., cloth, Vol. 1, 196 pp., 11.20 
rm.; Vol. 2, 168 pp., 9.80 rm.; Vol. 3, 
183 pp., 10.60 rm. 

Of the three volumes in this set, the first 
provides an introductory discussion of series 
and real functions of one or more variables. 
The second covers the differential calculus of 
functions of one or more variables, including 
both theoretical discussion and applications. 
In the third, the major portion, on the theory 
and applications of integrals, is preceded by 
an introduction to the theory of measurement. 



ing Institute, Reviews of New Books and Publications 



DIE DISPERSION ELASTISCHER WEL- 
LEN IM BODEN 

By A. Ramspeck and G. A.Schulze. Berlin, 
Julius Springer, 1938. 27 pp., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 12 x 9 in., paper, 4-80 rm. 
In soil mechanics and foundation research 
much attention is now being paid to elastic 
waves. Examples and interpretations of data 
are presented in this publication with refer- 
ence to dispersion and interference pheno- 
mena, and practical applications are given. 

DIE ELEKTROLYTISCHE OXYDATION 
DES ALUMINIUMS UND SEINER 
LEGIERUNGEN, Grundlagen und 
Richtlinien fur die praktische Durch- 
fiihrung der Eloxalverfehren. (Tech- 
nische Fortschrittsberichte, Bd. 42, 
1938) 

By A. Jenny. Dresden and Leipzig, Verlag 
vonTheodorSteinkopff, 1938. 224 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., paper, 
10.50 rm. 
The purpose of this work is to give a general 
account of current methods of protecting 
aluminum and its alloys from corrosion. The 
text is divided into two sections. The first 
surveys the electrochemical reactions in- 
volved, the reactions of aluminum when ex- 
posed to gases, and the anodic phenomena at 
metal electrodes. The second section is con- 
cerned with the protective film, the chemical 
reactions at the electrodes and in the bath, 
bath control and the technique of the cloxal 
process. A chapter is devoted to chemical 
processes of protection. 

ELEMENTS OF YACHT DESIGN 

By N. L. Skene, New York, Kennedy 
Bros., rev. ed. 1938. 252 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 10 x 6 in., cloth, 
$3.50. 
The fundamental considerations in yacht 
design are discussed and the practical opera- 
tions involved are carefully presented, with 
many descriptive illustrations. Attention is 
given to the problems of power equipment, 
and various rules and regulations are included. 

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF 
AERIAL AND TERRESTRIAL PHO- 
TOGRAMMETRY 

By B. B. Talley. New York and Chicago, 
Pitman Publishing Corp., 1938. 612 pp., 
illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $10.00. 
Photogrammetry, the science of measure- 
ments from photographs, is treated with the 
full detail merited by its increasing importance. 
Photographic fundamentals, types of equip- 
ment, serial photography, stereoscopy, and 
map projections are discussed. The various 
methods of photographic mapping, their uses, 
and the special instruments required are fully 
described with a wealth of useful illustrations. 

ENGINEER'S MISCELLANY 

By G. Bathe. Philadelphia, Patterson & 
White Co., 1938. 136 pp., illus., diagrs., 
maps, tables, 11x9 in., cloth, $4.50. 
In this very attractive volume Mr. Bathe 
has collected ten contributions to engineering 
history: The early artisan as depicted in art; 
The commercial toy steam engine of fifty years 
ago; The decorative era in machinery design; 
A Digest of Fitch's Steamboats, 1786-1792; 
The first high pressure steam engine in 
America; The old Cornwall furnace; The 
antiquity of the inclined plane on canals; 
Three Cornish engineers; The lift wheel 
pumping plant of the Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware canal ; Christopher Colles and the steam 
engine. These pleasantly written essays show 
the results of careful study and are illustrated 
by many reproductions of photographs and 
contemporary prints. 



FOUNDRY WORK 

By W. C. Slimpson and B. L. Gray, rev. 
by J. Grennan. Chicago, American Tech- 
nical Society, 1939. 216 pp., illus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, $2.00. 
A practical handbook on standard foundry 
practice, including hand and machine molding 
with typical problems, tools and equipment, 
casting operations, melting and pouring equip- 
ment, and the metallurgy of cast metals. 

FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRONICS AND 
VACUUM TUBES 

By A. L. Albert. New York, Macmillan Co., 
1938. 422 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
9x6 in., cloth, $4.50. 

The material contained in this textbook is 
primarily for beginning study and can be de- 
scribed briefly as covering the following sub- 
jects: Fundamental principles of electronics 
and related phenomena; the electronic prin- 
ciples of vacuum (including gas) tubes; the 
use of vacuum tubes as circuit elements; 
photoelectric devices, cathode-ray tubes, and 
measurements. References and suggested 
assignments are given. 

DIE GLEICHRICHTERSCHALTUNGEN, 
ihre Berechnung und Arbeitsweise 

By W. Schilling. Munich and Berlin, 
R. Oldenbourg, 1938. 279 pp., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 10 x 7 in., cloth, 17.50 rm. 
Rectifier connections are discussed compre- 
hensively, both from the mathematical and 
the graphical viewpoints. Both single and 
polyphase connections are considered under 
varying conditions of control, inductance, and 
counter-current loading. Practical examples 
are included, and numerous useful tables 
and graphs are combined in the last section. 

GREAT BRITAIN. Dept. of Scientific and 
Industrial Research. Fuel Research 
Technical Paper No. 48. The Hydro- 
genation-Cracking of Tars. Part IV, 
by H. E. Newall 

London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
1938. 55 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
10 x 6 in., paper, {obtainable from British 
Library of Information, 270 Madison Ave., 
New York, $40). 
Part IV of a series on the hydrogenation- 
cracking of tars, this publication describes 
experiments on the conversion of low tempera- 
ture tar acids into aromatic hydrocarbons by 
treatment with hydrogen at atmospheric pres- 
sure. The design and operation of a small- 
scale plant are included. 

GREAT BRITAIN. Dept. of Scientific and 
Industrial Research. Report of the 
Road Research Board with the Report 
of the Director of Road Research for 
the Year Ended 31st March, 1938 
London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
1938. 191 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
10 x 6 in., paper, {obtainable from British 
Library of Information, 270 Madison 
Ave., New York, $1.20). 
This report gives the results of the re- 
searches upon road problems carried on during 
the year. Particular attention has been given 
to the study of bituminous surfacing materials, 
of concrete road materials, to skidding and 
to the forces between vehicle and road surface. 

GREAT BRITAIN, Mines Dept. Fire at 
Dumbreck Colliery, Stirlingshire, 
Reports by T. Ashley and J. A. B. 
Horsley. 

London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
1938. 27 pp., illus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
10 x 6 in., paper, {obtainable from British 
Library of Information, 270 Madison Ave., 
New York, $45). 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



101 



This official publication comprises two 
special Jreportsjconcerning the causes of and 
the circumstances attending a colliery fire. 
The colliery is briefly described and the elec- 
trical system discussed with reference to the 
event. Plans and diagrams are included. 

GREAT BRITAIN. Mines Dept. Safety in 
Mines Research Board Paper No. 101. 
The Analysis of Mine Dusts, by 
A. L. Godbert 

London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
1938. 20 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 
10 x 6 in., paper, {obtainable from British 
Library of Information, 270 Madison Ave., 
New York, $.30). 

The methods and procedure are given for 
two analyses: I. Determination of carbon 
dioxide in mine dusts containing carbonates; 
II. Determination of free and combined water 
in mine dusts containing gypsum. A nomo- 
gram is included for the carbon dioxide calcu- 
lation. 

GRUNDZUGE DER SCHWEISSTECH- 
NIK, Kurzgefasster Leitfaden 

By T. Ricken. Berlin, J. Springer, 1938. 
63 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., paper, 3.90 rm. 

The various methods of welding by gas, 
thermite and electricity are described in this 
brief treatise, including auxiliary equipment. 
The plans, calculations and procedures for 
welding construction members are covered, as 
well as other special applications. The two 
final chapters discuss the distinctive and non- 
distinctive testing of welded seams, with a 
brief note on seam welding cost estimates. 

HOT-DIP GALVANIZING PRACTICE 

By W. H. Spowers, Jr. Cleveland, Ohio, 
Penton Publishing Co., 1938. 194 PP-, 
Mus., diagrs., tables, 9x6 in., lea., 7 
drawings in pocket, $4.00. 

Principles, methods, mechanical equipment, 
pyrometers, and fluxes and other necessary 
chemicals are discussed. Descriptions of var- 
ious types of galvanizing jobs, wire, pipe, sheet 
metal, etc., increase its practical value. 

DIE HUTTENWERKSANLAGEN, Bd. 1. 

Anlagen zur Gewinnung und Erzeu- 
gung der Werkstoffe 

By H. Hoff and H. Netz. Berlin, Julius 
Springer, 1938. 4-68 pp.. Mus., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 11x8 in., cloth, 66 rm. 

This is a useful book, which gives a com- 
prehensive account, with considerable detail, 
of the methods and equipment used in metal- 
lurgical works and the other industrial plants, 
such as glassworks and brickworks, where the 
problem is essentially that of converting raw 
materials into useful products through large 
amounts of heat. A great deal of space is given 
to furnaces and methods of heating. The pre- 
paration of fuels and ores, iron smelting and 
steel making, the smelting of non-ferrous 
metals, foundry equipment, lime and cement 
burning, ceramic factories and glassworks are 
discussed. Metallurgists and mechanical en- 
gineers will find the book of interest. There 
is a bibliography, confined almost exclusively 
to German publications. 

J. & P. SWITCHGEAR BOOK 

By R. T. Lyihall. 3 ed. London, Johnson & 
Phillips, Ltd., Oct. 1938. 431 pp., Mus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., cloth, 
10s. 6d. 
This handbook for the user and operator is 
intended as an outline of modern switchgear 
practice. Subjects covered include descrip- 
tions of apparatus and instruments for both 
indoor and outdoor switchgear, busbars and 
connections, protective gear, and various 
problems connected with the selection, oper- 
ation and maintenance of switchgear instal- 
lations. 



MAKING AND MOULDING OF 
PLASTICS 

By L. M. T. Bell, rev. ed. 1938. New York, 
Chemical Publishing Co., 1938. 242 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $5.00. 

The fundamental materials and the import- 
ant processes of plastic molding are briefly and 
simply discussed, together with hydraulic 
plant and equipment, mold design and con- 
struction, inspection and testing. Probable 
future developments are suggested. 

MINERAL INDUSTRY, Vol. 46, 1937, ed. 
by G. A. Roush 

New York and London, McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., 1938. 778 pp., tables, 10x6 in., 
cloth, $12.00. 

This annual summary of statistical and 
technical progress in the mineral industries 
covers both metals and non-metallic minerals. 
Production, prices, trade, uses and markets 
are given for the important items, and tech- 
nological and bibliographical information is 
also given in some cases. 

PROBLEMS IN PUBLIC UTILITY ECON- 
OMICS AND MANAGEMENT 

By C. 0. Ruggles. 2 ed. New York and 
London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 
772 pp., diagrs., charts, tables, 9}4 x 6 in., 
cloth, $6.00. 

Important problems that arise in public 
utility management are presented for analysis 
and illustrated by actual cases. The questions 
considered include the economic character- 
istics of public utilities; their production 
problems; management, organization and 
finance; wholesale marketing of service; retail 
marketing; valuation, rate making and fair 
return; and regulation and management. 

LA REPARATION DES PUITS DE MINE 

By P. Baudart. Paris, Dunod, 1938. 192 
pp., Mus., diagrs., tables, 8x5 in., paper, 
45 frs. 

A concise practical manual, based largely 
upon French experience in rehabilitating the 
mines of northern France after the World 
War. The first chapter discusses various 
methods of shaft repair. Chapter two describes 
in detail a number of notable examples. 
Chapter three discusses methods for unwater- 
ing mines and for repairing flooded shafts. A 
final chapter gives the author's conclusions. 

TECHNOLOGY OF SOLVENTS 

By 0. Jordan, translated by A. D. White- 
head for Technical Service Library, Lon- 
don; distributed by Chemical Publishing 
Co., New York, 1938. 351 pp., diagrs., 
charts, tables, 10 x 6 in., cloth, $10.00. 

The general section of this translated Ger- 
man work discusses fundamental definitions 
and classification, physical properties, sol- 
vents for various kinds of materials, solvents 
for extraction, platicisers, solvent recovery, 
and the analysis, manufacture and physiolog- 
ical action of solvents. The special section 
describes individual solvents and plasticisers. 
There are many useful tables, a key to pro- 
prietary names, and a patent index. 

SERVICE CHARGES IN GAS AND ELEC- 
TRIC RATES 

By H. F. Havlik. New York Columbia 
University Press, 1938. 234 PP-, tables, 
9x6 in., cloth, $2.75. 

A study of the theory and practice of gas 
and electric rate making, specifically con- 
cerned with the problem of service charges. 
Consideration is given to the case for and 
against the service charge, to the costs on 
which charges are and should be based, and 
to alternatives to the service charge, as well 
as the history of the development of these 
charges. 



STEEL and Its Heat Treatment. Vol. 1 
Principles, Processes, Control 

By D. K. Bullens. 4 ed- rewritten. New 
York, John Wiley & Sons, 1938. 445 pp., 
Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $4.50. 

This edition represents a thorough revision 
and an extension of this well-known text, 
carried out by the staff of the Battelle Memor- 
ial Institute. The work now appears in two 
volumes, of which the first discusses the metal- 
lurgical principles that underlie the heat treat- 
ment of steel, the surface-reaction processes in 
use and the control of heat-treating operations. 
The work aims to give a broad, practical 
picture of the heat treatment of steel and the 
principles involved. Each chapter has a 
bibliography. 

STREET CLEANING PRACTICE, by the 
Committee on Street Cleaning of the 
American Public Works Association 

Chicago, Amer. Pub. Works Assoc, 1938. 
407 pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 
in., cloth, $4.00. 

The street cleaning problem is considered 
in all its aspects. Subjects covered include 
methods and equipment, planning and organ- 
ization, local conditions, catch-basin and inlet 
cleaning, snow and ice removal, personnel, 
and records. Anti-litter ordinances of partic- 
ular cities are appended, together with a 
bibliography. 

RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF 
FIRE ISLAND, Suffolk County, Long 
Island 

By W. E. Andrews. New York, W. E. 
Andrews, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 1938. Mus., 
maps, charts, diagrs., tables, 11 x 8 in., 
paper, apply. 

A plan to restore and protect the Fire Island 
barrier reef is presented in this report, includ- 
ing construction of a parkway over the fill 
section and a boat channel through a dredged 
section behind the reef. There are many illus- 
trations. 

PATTERN MAKING 

By J. Ritchey; rev. by W. W. Monroe, 
C. W. Beese and P. R. Hall. Chicago, 
American Technical Society, 1939. 233 
pp., Mus., diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $2.00. 

The essentials of pattern making are fully 
considered, covering tools and equipment, 
simple and complicated patterns for typical 
cases, the use of green and dry sand cores, 
and metal pattern making. Certain special 
problems of design are treated. 

THEORETICAL MECHANICS, a Vec- 
torial Treatment 

By C. J . Coe, New York, Macmillan Co., 
1938. 555 pp., diagrs., tables, 9x6 in., 
cloth, $5.00. 

The basic principles of vector analysis are 
explained and applied to classical mechanics, 
and through it to mathematical physics, the 
simple postulates on which these are based 
having first been made clear. Starting with 
simple geometry the subject matter carries 
through concepts of increasing difficulty up 
through potential theory. 

THEORY OF EQUATIONS 

By J. M. Thomas. New York and London, 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. 211 pp., 
diagrs., tables, 8x6 in., cloth, $2.00. 

A textbook for a course in the theory of 
algebraic equations for advanced under- 
graduate and graduate students. The treat- 
ment, though elementary, is in accord with 
"modern algebra". It covers certain topics 
seldom found in texts on the subject, and 
forms an approach to the Galois theory and 
other more advanced phases of algebra. 



102 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THORPE'S DICTIONARY OF APPLIED 
CHEMISTRY, Vol. 2 

By J. F. Thorpe and M. A. Whiteley. 4 ed. 

New York and London, Longmans, Green 

& Co., 1938. 711 pp., illus., diagrs., tables 

9x6 in., lea., $25.00. 
A continuation of the fourth edition of this 
valuable work, covering the section" Bl- 
Chemical Analysis." Although the subject 
matter is arranged in dictionary style, the 
more important subjects are treated in mono- 
graph form with bibliographic references. The 
intention is to give a concise and readable 
account of the condition of modern chemistry 
which will be of use to both expert and layman. 



WELDING ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1938 

Compiled and edited by L. B. Mackenzie 
and H. S. Card. 9 ed. Chicago, Welding 
Engineer Publishing Co., 696 pp., illus., 
diagrs., charts, tables, 9x6 in., lea., $5.00. 
In this new revised edition the subject 
matter is arranged alphabetically with cross 
references. The principal topics covered in- 
clude the main types of welding, the most 
important fields of use, metals and alloys, 
metal spraying, rules, codes and specifications, 
tables and charts of engineering data, testing 
methods, and operator training. Company 
names are included with a listing of the trade 
names of their products. 



WOOD PULP 

By J. Grant. Leiden, Holland; Chronica 
Botanica Co.; New York, G. E. Stechert & 
Co., 1938. 209 pp., diagrs., tables, 10 x 6 
in., paper, 7 guilders (about $4-50). 

A work on wood pulp and the uses to which 
it is put, which affords an accurate, compre- 
hensive view of the subject, without attempt- 
ing to be exhaustive. The properties of cellu- 
lose, methods of identifying and evaluating 
pulping woods, the preparation of wood, pulp- 
ing processes, pulp bleaching and purifying, 
by-products, testing and uses are discussed. 
There is a bibliography. 



Notice: The membership list of the Institute, as published in the December, 1938, issue 
of The Engineering Journal, may be obtained in bound copies at the price of $2.00 



PROCEEDINGS, TRANSACTIONS, ETC. 

American Society of Civil Engineers: 

Transactions, Vol. 103, 1938. 
Royal Society of Canada: 

Transactions, Section II, May, 1938. 

REPORTS, Etc. 

Canada Department of Labour: 

Report for the Fiscal Year ending March 
31, 1938. 
Canada Department of Mines and Re- 
sources Division of Economics: 

Metallurgical Works in Canada, Part II, 
Non-Ferrous and Precious Metals, 1938. 

Canada Department of Mines and Re- 
sources Geological Survey : Rice Lake- 
Gold Lake Area, Southeastern Manitoba; 
Geology and Mineral Deposits of Free- 
gold Mountain, Carmacks District, Yu- 
kon; Laberge Map-Area, Yukon. 
(Memoirs 210, 21%, 217). 

Canada Department of Public Works: 
Report of the Minister . . . for the year 
ending March 31, 1938. 

Canada Department of Trade and Com- 
merce Construction Rranch: 
Report on the Construction Industry in 
Canada, 1937. 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation : 
Annual Report, 1938. 

Cooper Union for the Advancement of 
Science and Art: The Non-Technical 
Aspects of Engineering Education (a 
bibliography). 

Edison Electric Institute: Combustion, 
1938: A Report of the Combustion Sub- 
committee of the Prime Movers Com- 
mittee, Edison Electric Institute. 

Electrochemical Society: The Electro- 
deposition of Silver Alloys from Aqueous 
Solutions; Preparation of Polyvinyl 
Chloride Plastics for Electrical Measure- 
ments; Fabricated Porous Carbon; The 
Adherence of Thick Silver Plate on Steel; 
A Study of the Viscosity and Dielectric 
Dispersion of Methacrylate Resins in 
Benzene Solutions; Cold Welding of 
Silver; Effect of Solution Concentration 
in Electrodeposition of Manganese; Bene- 
ficiating Ferruginous Bauxites Through 
Chlorination; The Classification and 
Chemical Genetics of Organic Plastics; 
Ethyl Cellulose Films and Plastics; The 
Binary Alloys of Indium and Tin; The 
Dezincification of Alpha Brass with 
Special Reference to Arsenic; (Preprints 
Nos. 74-27 to 74-36, 75-1 to 75-3). 

Institution of Civil Engineers: Papers set 
for the Preliminary and Associate Mem- 
bership Examinations, October, 1938. 

Institution of Structural Engineers: Re- 
port on Reinforced Concrete for Build- 
ings and Structures, Pt. I, Loads. 1938. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology: 
Structural Analysis Laboratory Research 
1937-38. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

McGill University: 

Annual Report, 1937-38. 

Ohio State University: Physical Theory in 
Engineering Language; Measuring the 
Growth and Scale Resistance of Cast 
Iron (the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion Circular No. 35, Bulletin No. 100). 

Panama Canal, Governor of the: 
Annual Report, 1938. 

Purdue University: Making Barium 
Chloride from Barium Sulfate; Me- 
thods and Equipment for Testing Safety 
Glass; Adhesion of Bituminous Films to 
Aggregates; Report of the Research and 
Extension Activities (Research Series 
Nos. 60-63). 

U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau 

of Mines: Metallurgical Developments 
at Mercur, Utah (Technical Paper 588). 

U.S. Geological Survey: Lexicon of Geo- 
logic Names of the United States, Pt. 1, 
A-L, Pt. 2, M-Z; Spirit Leveling in 
Missouri, Pts. 2, 3 and 4; The Brown 
Iron Ores of Eastern Texas; Geology of 
the Slana-Tok District, Alaska; Geo- 
physical Abstracts 92, January-March, 
1938 (Bulletins 896, 898-B, 898-C, 898-D, 
902, 904, 909-A). 

The San Junan Country: A New Upper 
Cretaceous Rudistid from the Kemp 
Clay of Texas (Professional Paper 188, 
193-A). Surface Water Supply of the 
United States 1936, Pts. 1, 3, 4 10, 12, 
13, 14; Inventory of Unpublished Hydro- 
logic Data; Quality of Water of the Rio 
Grande Basin Above Fort Quintman, 
Texas (Water-Supply Paper 801, 803, 
824, 830, 832, 833, 834, 837, 839). 

TECHNICAL BOOKS, Etc. 

ABREGE DE MINERALOGIE (extrait de 
La Minéralogie du Prospecteur) 

By J. M. A. Bleau. Montreal, DeLasalle, 
1938, 67 pp. 7Y 2 x5 in., cloth. 

AUTOGRAPHIC INDICATORS FOR IN- 
TERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 

By J. Okill. London, Arnold, 1938. 88 pp. 
illus. figs, diagrs. 7 x /2 x 5 in. cloth $1.50. 

THE CANADIAN RAILWAY PROBLEM 

By Lesslie R. Thomson, M.E.I.C. Toronto, 
Ont., MacMillan, 1938. 1080 pp. tab. 
charts, 10 l A x 7 in. cloth, $12.00. 

ECONOMIC TRENDS IN MANUFAC- 
TURING AND SALES 

By William M. Vermilye. Reprinted from 
the Journal of The Franklin Institute of 
Pennsylvania, 1938. 32 pp., 9%x6}4 in., 
paper. 

FAILURES OF LOCOMOTIVE PARTS 

By Fred H. Williams. Montreal, 1938. 

10^2 x 9 in. leather binder, $5.00. 
These articles (reprinted from the Railway 
Mechanical Engineer), describe in some de- 
tail the results of some years experience in the 



examination of locomotive parts which have 
failed in service or which on periodic inspec- 
tion have had to be condemned. 

The importance of fatigue cracks, the pro- 
per use of fillets, the necessity for fine and 
smooth finish, the effect of stress and corro- 
sion are among the points dealt with. Half 
tone illustrations of over fifty broken parts 
are given in sixteen plates. 

THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION EN- 
GINE 

By C. Fayette Taylor and Edward S. Tay- 
lor. Scranlon, Pa., International Textbook 
Company, 1938. 322 pp. illus. charts 
diagrs. plates, 9% x 6 in., $3.50. 

STRUCTURAL ALUMINUM HAND- 
BOOK 

Pittsburgh, Pa., Aluminum Co. of Ameri- 
ca, 1938. 196 pp., illus. tab. diagrs. 
8^2 ^ b~ l A *«• leather. 

NEW AND REVISED SPECIFICATIONS 

American Society of Testing Materials: 

Tentative Standards, 1938. 

Canadian Engineering Standards Asso- 
ciation: C10-1938 Standard Specifica- 
tion for General Service and Street Series 
Tungsten Incandescent Lamps (2nd ed.); 
C50T-1938 Tentative Specification for 
Insulating Oils. 

Canadian Government Purchasing Stan- 
dards Committee: Specification for 
Varnish Vehicle for Aluminum Paint 
(Type 1, for Exterior and Marine Use on 
Metal); Varnish Vehicle for Aluminum 
Paint (Type 2, for Exterior Use on 
Wood); Varnish Vehicle for Aluminum 
Paint (Type 3, for High Temperature 
Use); Aluminum Pigment for Paint 
(Type 1, Dry Powder); Aluminum Pig- 
ment for Paint (Type 2, Paste); Interior 
Paint, Flat, White and Tinted (Tenta- 
tive) ; Graphite Paint, Black (Tentative) ; 
Interior Varnish (Tentative); Exterior 
Paint, Flat, Dark Grey (Tentative); 
Enamel Undercoating, Interior, White 
and Grey (Tentative); Enamel Under- 
coating, Exterior, White Lead, Zinc 
Oxide Type, White and Grey (Tenta- 
tive); Scouring Compounds; Methods of 
Sampling and Analysis of Soaps; Liquid 
Metal Polish. 

U.S. Department of Commerce National 
Bureau of Standards: Building Ma- 
terials and Structures Report BMS4 
Accelerated Aging of Fiber Building 
Boards; Report BMS5 Structural Pro- 
perties of Six Masonry Wall Construc- 
tions; Report BMS8 Methods of Investi- 
gation of Surface Treatment for Corro- 
sion Protection of Steel; Report BMS9 
Structural Properties of the Insulated 
Steel Construction Company's "Frame- 
less-Steel" Constructions for Walls, Par- 
titions, Floors, and Roofs. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



103 



Industrial News 



ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF 
NICKEL 

Bulletin No. T-15, "Engineering Proper- 
ties of Nickel," of the series of Technical Infor- 
mation regarding Monel, Nickel and Nickel 
Alloys, has been released by the Development 
and Research Division of The International 
Nickel Company. The bulletin contains 
eighteen pages of tables and other useful data 
under the main headings of composition, 
physical constants, mechanical properties, 
corrosion resistance, working instructions, mill 
products, castings and special nickel-alloys. 

ELECTROSTATIC VOLTMETER 

A sturdy and accurate portable electro- 
static voltmeter has been announced by 
Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd. for 
measurements of a/c or d/c voltage on systems 
where one line is grounded. Available in rat- 
ings of 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kilovolts, the new 
instrument is designed for fast response and 
ability to hold its calibration. Further features 
include the light-beam pointer, magnetic 
damping, and a specially designed high-volt- 
age terminal with a current-limiting resistor 
for increased safety. Typical applications are: 
measurement of applied voltage in di-electric 
tests; study of electrostatic phenomena such 
as the generation of charges by moving belts 
or other objects; determination of peak volt- 
age by the vacuum-tube method; and measure- 
ment of exceptionally high voltages, when 
used in conjunction with a voltage divider. 

INTAKE AND EXHAUST QUIETING 

A new type of noise-quieting device which 
is non-acoustic and can be placed at any point 
in the intake or exhaust system of an engine 
or compressor, has recently been developed 
by the Acoustic Division of the Burgess 
Battery Company, 500 W. Huron Street, 
Chicago. Since it eliminates the cause of noise 
produced by the pulsating gases by snubbing 
the peak velocities and pressures and thereby 
produces a smooth flow of gas, this new device 
is called the Burgess Snubber. 

The effect of the Burgess Exhaust Snubber 
is to prevent the sudden impact of the slug 
of vented gas with the atmosphere and also 
to stop the usual inrush of air into the exhaust 
pipe, after the discharge of the slug. Therefore, 
the sharp noise of the slug impact and the 
rumbling noise of the vibrating air column in 
the exhaust pipe are eliminated. 

The same type of unit is applicable to intake 
and output lines of reciprocating and rotary 
compressors. Burgess Snubbers are available 
in a wide range of sizes for standard, heavy 
duty, and spark arresting service. 

PORTABLE MEDIUM-PRESSURE 
ACETYLENE GENERATOR 

Dominion Oxygen Company Limited has 
announced a new, portable acetylene gener- 
ator, developed for the user of small quantities 
of acetylene for oxy-acetylene welding and 
cutting. This new generator, the Carbic 
Medium-Pressure Acetylene Generator (Type 
CMP-2), utilizes the advantages of Carbic 
processed calcium carbide. Like all Carbic 
generators it makes available a dependable 
supply of acetylene, generated as required. 

TEMPERATURE-COMPENSATED 
INSTRUMENTS 

Reducing temperature errors over a wide 
range of conditions, General Electric has 
developed two specially compensated Type 
AP-9 voltmeters as additions to the standard 
line. Using the same terminal arrangement as 
the standard instruments, the new units differ 
in ohms-per-volt sensitivity, temperature 
coefficient, and accuracy. They are listed in 
ratings of 150 and 150-300 volts and are ex- 
pected to find their major applications in 
voltage-survey work. 



Industrial development — new products — changes 
in personnel — special events — trade literature 



DOSCO APPOINTMENTS 

Arthur A. Cross, president of the Dominion 
Steel and Coal Corporation Limited, an- 
nounces that A. M. Irvine, vice-president in 
charge of coal sales, is retiring from the cor- 
poration at the end of January. Effective im- 
mediately, O. P. Stensrud, at present assistant 
to vice-president, is appointed general man- 
ager of steel sales, and T. S. McLanders, 
superintendent of terminals, is appointed 
general manager of coal sales, both reporting 
to C. B. Lang, vice-president. 

Mr. Stensrud and Mr. McLanders have 
been connected with the organization over a 
term of years, filling several important posi- 
tions and have acquired a wide knowledge of 
the company's business. Mr. Stensrud entered 
the service of the corporation as cost clerk 
and timekeeper at the Halifax Shipyards, 
after his return from overseas in January, 
1920. He was transferred to the Sydney office 
in September, 1924, taking the position of 
superintendent of yards, and was later pro- 
moted to the positions of manager of the 
order department and district supervisor of 
steel sales. In May, 1932, he was transferred 
to Montreal, taking over the duties of super- 
intendent of terminals. In September of 1937 
he was appointed assistant to vice-president 
of steel sales. 

Mr. McLanders, who now takes the position 
of general manager of coal sales, also entered 
the service of the corporation through the 
Halifax Shipyards, as clerk in the purchasing 
department, on his return from overseas. In 
1927 he was appointed purchasing agent of 
that company and served in that capacity 
until transferred to the Sydney office as 
assistant purchasing agent of the corporation. 
On January 1, 1938, he was transferred to 
Montreal as superintendent of terminals, 
which duties required full supervision over 
the distribution and transportation of coal. 

15,000- VOLT RECLOSER 

A new 15,000-volt oil circuit recloser for 
maintaining service on suburban and rural 
lines is now available from Canadian General 
Electric Company Limited. Designated Type 
FP-119, the device reduces outages and gives 
low-revenue lines the protection previously 
afforded only by large automatic reclosing 
circuit breakers. It is low in cost, easily and 
inexpensively installed and maintained. 

The FP-119 is enclosed within a wet-pro- 
cess porcelain housing providing 15-kv in- 
sulation and protection. It is suitable for 
cross-arm mounting and is provided with an 
operation counter and an oil gage which can 
be easily read from the pole without touching 
the recloser. 

In operation the new recloser is instantane- 
ous on over-current, provides a three-second 
time-interval before reclosing, and operates 
through a cycle of three reclosures before 
lockout. 

READY-RULED SHEATHING 

A pamphlet, BCP-59, issued by British 
Columbia Plywoods Limited, Vancouver, 
B.C., describes and illustrates the Company's 
"Sylvaply Ready-Ruled Sheathing" for use in 
wall sheathing, sub-flooring, roof decking and 
as a base for interior panelling. The pamphlet 
gives tables of roof decking loads, nail sizes 
and labour costs. 

COLOURING CONCRETE FLOORS 

A four-page illustrated folder has been 
issued by The Masterbuilders Co. Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont., describing the new Colormix 
Method of laying and finishing coloured con- 
crete. This entails the treatment of the fresh 
floor with KuroKrome, which is a coloured 
penetrating surface-sealer. 



MULTIBREAK INTERRUPTER 

A faster operating time for many con- 
ventional tank-type oil circuit breakers now 
in use can be achieved through application 
of a new multibreak interrupter developed by 
Canadian General Electric Co. Limited. 
Recently subjected to interrupting tests on 
138 kv and 230 kv systems, the new devices 
consistently cleared short circuits as high as 
2,000,000 kva in less than 5 cycles. In each 
series, carbonizing of the oil and erosion of 
the contacts were very moderate. 

The new multibreak interrupter utilizes the 
oil blast principle. Pressure created by the arc 
forces oil across the arc and out through ports 
in the cylindrical housing. This principle is 
responsible for the new interrupter's ability 
to obtain performance, on circuit breakers of 
the conventional type, that approaches the 
impulse designs for voltages of 115 kv and 
above. 

The interrupter is contained in a thick- 
walled, cylindrical housing of insulating ma- 
terial of high dielectric and mechanical 
strength. As the housing is easily removed, 
contact parts may be readily exposed for 
inspection. 

TRACTOR DESIGN 

A 35-page booklet, entitled "Digest of 
Features of Design," showing the design 
features of Cletrac Crawler Tractors, has been 
issued by the Cleveland Tractor Co. of Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Each component part of the 
tractor has been indicated by an arrow and 
marginal note on a series of illustrations 
covering all the major parts of the tractor. 

TRAFFIC COUNTING RECORDER 

A portable automatic traffic counter and 
recorder is described in a four-page folder 
issued by the Paver-Sills Co., 4101 Ravens- 
wood Ave., Chicago, 111. The instrument is 
known as the "Trafi counter" and is said to 
provide automatic continuous counting for 
seven days without attention and to provide 
printed hourly records of traffic on both paved 
and unpaved thoroughfares. 

CAR-PULLERS, HOISTS AND WINCHES 

Stephens-Adamson Mfg. Co. of Aurora, 111., 
and Belleville, Ont., have just released a new 
eight-page catalogue illustrating and describ- 
ing their car-pullers, hoists and winches which 
gives specifications, dimensions and other 
necessary engineering information on how to 
select, the proper car-puller. Copies of this 
catalogue may be obtained by applying to 
any of the Company's offices. 

ALCOHOL IN INDUSTRY 

An interesting story of the production of 
industrial alcohol and its utilization in indus- 
try is contained in a 26-page book recently 
issued by Gooderham & Worts Limited, of 
Toronto, Ont. The story is well illustrated 
and is prefaced by a history of the develop- 
ment of the company. 

TEN-INCH SENSITIVE PRECISION 
LATHE 

The Monarch Machine Tool Company, of 
Sidney, Ohio, has just introduced a new and 
entirely different 10-inch by 20-inch sensitive 
precision lathe which was developed as a 
result of research conducted over a period of 
years among large users of tool room lathes, 
making clear the fact that a large part of the 
work being done on 12-inch, 14-inch, and 
16-inch geared head tool room lathes could 
be effectively handled on a small 10-inch 
lathe of a maximum 2 h.p. capacity 



104 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRELIMINARY NOTICE 

of Applications for Admission and for Transfer 



January 20th, 1939. 

The By-laws provide that the Council of The Institute shall approve, 
classify and elect candidates to membership and transfer from one 
grade of membership to a higher. 

It is also provided that there shall be issued to all corporate members 
a list of the new applicants for admission and for transfer, containing a 
concise statement of the record of each applicant and the names of 
his references. 

In order that the Council may determine justly the eligibility of 
each candidate, every member is asked to read carefully the list sub- 
mitted herewith and to report promptly to the Secretary any facts 
which may affect the classification and selection of any of the candi- 
dates. In cases where the professional career of an applicant is known 
to any member, such member is specially invited to make a definite 
recommendation as to the proper classification of the candidate.* 

If to your knowledge facts exist which are derogatory to the personal 
reputation of any applicant, they should be promptly communicated. 

Communications relating to applicants are considered by 
the Council as strictly confidential. 



The Council will consider the applications herein described in 
March, 1939. 

L. Austin Wright, General Secretary. 



*The professional requirements are as follows: — 

A Member shall be at leaBt thirty-five years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least twelve years, which period may include 
apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office, or a term of instruction in 
a school of engineering recognized by the Council. The term of twelve years may, 
at the discretion of the Council, be reduced to ten years in the case of a candidate 
for election who has graduated from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. 
In every case the candidate Bhall have held a position in which he had responsible 
charge for at least five years as an engineer qualified to design, direct or report on 
engineering projects. The occupancy of a chair as a professor in a faculty of applied 
science of engineering, after the candidate has attained the age of thirty years, shall 
be considered as responsible charge. 

An Associate Member shall be at least twenty-seven years of age, and shall have 
been engaged in some branch of engineering for at least six years, which period may 
include apprenticeship or pupilage in a qualified engineer's office or a term of instruc- 
tion in a school of engineering recognized by the Council. In every case a candidate 
for election shall have held a position of professional responsibility, in charge of work 
as principal or assistant, for at least two years. The occupancy of a chair as an 
assistant professor or associate professor in a faculty of applied science of engineering, 
after the candidate has attained the age of twenty-seven yearB, shall be considered as 
professional responsibility. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council shall be required to paBS an examination before a board of examiners 
appointed by the Council. The candidate shall be examined on the theory and practice 
of engineering, with special reference to the branch of engineering in which he has 
been engaged, as set forth in Schedule C of the RuleB and Regulations relating to 
Examinations for Admission. He must also pass the examinations specified in Sections 
9 and 10, if not already passed, or else present evidence satisfactory to the examiners 
that he has attained an equivalent standard. Any or all of these examinations may 
be waived at the discretion of the Council if the candidate has held a position of 
professional responsibility for five or more years. 

A Junior shall be at least twenty-one years of age, and shall have been engaged 
in some branch of engineering for at least four years. This period may be reduced to 
one year at the discretion of the Council if the candidate for election has graduated 
from a school of engineering recognized by the Council. He shall not remain in the 
class of Junior after he has attained the age of thirty-three years, unless in the opinion 
of Council special circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

Every candidate who has not graduated from a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council, or has not passed the examinations of the third year in such a course, 
shall be required to pass an examination in engineering science as set forth in Schedule 
B of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for Admission. He must also 
pass the examinations specified in Section 10, if not already passed, or else present 
evidence satisfactory to the examiners that he has attained an equivalent standard. 

A Student shall be at least seventeen years of age, and shall present a certificate 
of having passed an examination equivalent to the final examination of a high School 
or the matriculation of an arts or science course in a school of engineering recognized 
by the Council. 

He shall either be pursuing a course of instruction in a school of engineering 
recognized by the Council, in which case he shall not remain in the class of student 
for more than two years after graduation; or he shall be receiving a practical training 
in the profession, in which caBe he Bhall paBS an examination in such of the subjects 
set forth in Schedule A of the Rules and Regulations relating to Examinations for 
Admission as were not included in the high school or matriculation examination 
which he has already passed; he Bhall not remain in the class of Student after he has 
attained the age of twenty-seven years, unless in the opinion of Council special 
circumstances warrant the extension of this age limit. 

An Affiliate shall be one who is not an engineer by profession but whose pursuits, 
scientific attainment or practical experience qualify him to co-operate with engineers 
in the advancement of professional knowledge. 



The fact that candidates give the names of certain members as reference does 
not necessarily mean that their applications are endorsed by such members. 



FOR ADMISSION 

BARRIE— ALEXANDER OGILVY, of Kumasi, Ashanti, British West Africa. 
Born at Dumfries, Scotland, May 6th, 1910; Educ; B.Sc. (Civil), Queen's Univ., 
1934; 1931 (5 mos.), Beauharnois Construction Co.; 1933, Canadian Relief Camp, 
Dept. of National Defence; 1934-38, executive engr., É. H. Engineering Ltd., London, 
England; at present, executive engr.. Public Works Department, Gold Coast, Africa. 

References: W. P. Wilgar, D. S. EIUb, D. M. Jemmett, C. E. Pigot, R. O. Sweezey. 

BISHOP— EDGAR RICHARD, of 24 Fairleigh Crescent, Hamilton, Ont. Born 
at Barry, Glamorgan, England, Sept. 12th, 1898; Educ: 1920-24, Univ. of South 
Wales & Monmouth, Cardiff, England. Diplomas in elect'l. and mech'l. engrg., 1924; 
Associate Inst. E.E.; 1913-17, elect'l. ap'tice, Guest, Keen, & Nettlefolds Ltd., 
Cardiff; 1917-19, electrical improver, elect'l. dept., of Admiralty Dockyard, Devon- 
port; 1919-20, erection engr., McWhirter & Sons Ltd., Cardiff, erection of elect'l. 
equipment in industrial concerns; 1927-29, engr. officer i/c of main engines and boilers 
on regular watch, W. E. Hinde Steamship Co. Ltd., Cardiff; 1929-31, teacher to 
bldg. trade apprentices evening class courses, in elect'l. installn., under Ont. Dept. 
of Labour, Hamilton Technical Institute; 1929 to date, dftsman., Canadian Westing- 
house Company, Ltd., Hamilton, Ont., mech'l. design of transformers and heating 
equipment. 

References: D. W. Callander, J. R. Dunbar, W. L. Millar, J. C. Nash, G. M. Bayne. 

COOCH— HAROLD AUSTIN, of Hamilton, Ont. Born at Toronto, Ont., July 
19th, 1888; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1910. R.P.E. of Ont.; 1909-10-11 
(summers), Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co.; 2 years, demonstrator, elect'l. engrg., 
Univ. of Toronto; 1916-19, overseas, Capt., Can. EngrB. ; with the Canadian Westing- 
house Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont., as follows: 1912-16 and 1919-23, sales engr., 1923 
to date, sales executive, and at present, vice-president. 

References: J. B. Challies, L. A. Wright, T. H. Hogg, W. D. Black, J. B. Carswell. 

FOOTE— SAMUEL DAVID, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Stouffville, Ont., Oct. 7th, 
1914; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1937; 1937 to date, rodman, constrn. dept. 
C.N.R., Toronto, Ont. 

References: W. B. Redman, A. A. Baldwin, C. R. Young, W. J. Smither. 

GREBER— JACQUES, of 10 rue Pergolèse, Paris, France. Born in Paris. Mr. 
Greber is the well-known town planning expert. His most important works and 
assignments include the following: At present city planning consultant for the 
Federal Government of Canada for the plan of Ottawa; technical consultant of the 
High Commission for the Regional Plan of Paris; official consultant for the City 
Planning Commission to prepare the comprehensive plan of the City of Philadelphia; 
consultant city planning architect of St. Joseph, Missouri; town planner for many 
cities and garden-cities in France; also private and public parks in Paris, in the 
Nord dept., on the French Riviera, in Italy, Holland, Portugal, the New York 
region, near Philadelphia, Detroit, Florida and California; associated with various 
architects for the execution of memorials and chapels in the battlefields and war 
cemeteries of France; winner of many prizes incl. first prize in the competition for 
the general plan of the City of Paris, Section III, concerning the planning of the 
grounds for the fortified zone; 1937, architect in chief of the International Exhibition 
held in Paris; at present, consultant for the New York World's Fair, 1939. 

References: A. Surveyer, J. B. Challies, A. Cousineau, O. O. Lefebvre, H. Massue. 

HELLSTROM— CARL AXEL, of 140 Banning St., Port Arthur, Ont. Born at 
Ljusdal, Helsingland, Sweden, June 2nd, 1899; Educ: 1917-22, Orebro Tekniska 
Gymnasium (Tech. High School), diploma in meeh. engrg.; 1916-17 and 1922-25, 
ap'ticeship in sawmills, pulp and paper mills and steel mills in Sweden, incl. dfting.; 
1925 (July-Dec), tech. asst. in groundwood mill and sawmill, Hellesfor Bruks A.-B.; 
1925-26, designing 6-gang sawmill, A.-B. Otto Hellstrom; 1926-27, Kippawa mill. 
International Pulp & Paper Co.; 1927-30, dfting and design, and field work, C. D. 
Howe & Co. ; 1932, designing gang-sawmills, planning mill, log sorter and lumber yard, 
and 1933-34, i/c constrn. work, Pigeon Timber Co. Ltd., Port Arthur, Ont.; 1935-36, 
divn. dftsman., Dept. Northern Development; 1937-38, dfting and designing, Pro- 
vincial Paper Limited; Aug. 1938 to date, supervision of constrn. work and special 
dfting work, Public Utilities Commission, Port Arthur, Ont. 

References: C. D. Howe, R. B. Chandler, E. L. Goodall, J. M. Fleming, G. R. 
Duncan, H.Os., S. E. Flook. 

JEFFREYS— CHARLES JOHN, of Westmount, Que. Born at Harrow, England, 
Mar. 18th, 1902; Educ: 1919-23, London Polytechnic (England); scholarship to 
Willesden Poly. Junior Institute Engrs., London, England; 5 years, gentleman 
ap'tice., British Thomson Houston Co., Rugby & Willesden; 1924-26, dftsman., 
Charles Walmsley Co.; 1926-27, mtce. engr., Canadian International Paper Co.; 
1927-28, designing mill extension, Abitibi Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd.; 1928-29, i-c Minton 
dryer, Charles Walmsley Co.; 1929, chief dftsman., Riley Engrg. Co.; 1929-30, 
designing, hydraulic dept.. Dominion Engrg. Works Ltd.; 1930-32, estimating and 
dfting., Fraser Paper Companies; 1933-35, production mgr., Beatty BroB. Ltd.; 
1935-36, chief designer, Canadian International Paper Co.; 1936-37, estimating, 
designing (i-c process), Ontario Paper Co.; 1937-38, estimating, designing and pro- 
cess, i/c dfting. office, mech'l. equipment and layout, John Stadler, M.E.I.C., 
consltg. engr., Montreal; at present, asst. res. engr., Powell River Company, Powell 
River, B.C. 

References: J. Stadler, J. A. Freeland, H. Anvik, W. H. Cook, E. L. Goodall, 
K. O. Elderkin. 

KERR— JAMES WINSLOW, of 118 Melrose Ave. South, Hamilton, Ont. Born 
at Hamilton, March 11th, 1914; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1937; 1931-37 
(summers), in various depts., 1937-38, engrg. ap'tice. course, and from August, 1938 
to date, correspondent apparatus divn., Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamil- 
ton, Ont. 

References: J. R. Dunbar, D. W. Callander, E. M. Coles, G. W. Arnold. W. L. 
Miller. 

LINNELL— VINCENT A., of 504 Grosvenor Ave., Westmount, Que. Born at 
Montreal, Aug. 20th, 1898; Educ: High School, Dublin, Ireland, 1906-16; group 
study of steel manufacture in 1936, and lectures on steel at McGill, 1938; 1916-17, 
apprenticed in office of R. Sharpe, consltg. engr., Dublin; with the Grand Trunk 
Western Rly. as follows: 1917-18, chainman and rodman; 1918-19, levelman and 
dftsman., 1919-20, track and bldg. estimator, all on valuation and location; 1926 to 
present, estimator for Kendall BroB. Inc., also, 1927-29, for Verochio Constrn. Co., 
Wilson Excavation Co., Ott & Co., Poupore Constrn. Co., covering office bldgs., 
stores, residences, grain elevators, reservoirs, collector Bewers, general grading, etc; 
with the Montreal Tramways Company as follows: 1921-24, instrumentman; 1924-28, 
trackwork designing; 1928 to date, engr. of special trackwork, responsible for track- 
work layouts and design. Annual inspection of track to recommend renewals. General 
design and alterations to castings. Specifications for all track materials, concrete in 
track structures, and welding technique. Special reports regarding trackwork, etc. 
Inspection of track layouts and materials. Reports and inspection of rails. Insurance 
values of all bldgs. 

References — P. H. Buchan, A. Duperron, J. M. R. Fairbairn, W. McG. Gardner, 
B. R. Perry, W. M. Reid. 

MARSHALL— JAMES LAWRENCE, of 4812 Grosvenor Ave., Montreal, Que. 
Born at Winnipeg, Man., July 13th, 1913; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Man., 1935. 
Graduate Member, Inst. E.Ë. (Britain); 1929-33 (summers), rodman, etc., on land 
surveys; 1934-35 (8 mos.), gen. service, hydrographie survey, Lake Winnipeg; 1935-36 
(7 mos.), student ap'tice., English Electric Company, Stafford, England; 1936-38, 
mtce., engr., British Broadcasting Corporation, London; at present, engr., trans- 
mitter dept., R.C.A. Victor Co. Ltd., Montreal. 

References: E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, G. H. Herriot, N. M. Hall, A. E. Macdonald. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



105 



McCAFFREY— WALTER RAYMER, of Ottawa, Ont. Born at Markham, Ont., 
June 23rd, 1894; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1915; 1915-16, hydrometric 
engr., irrigation office, Dom. Govt., Calgary; 1919-27, sales mgr. & engr., National 
Fireproofing Co. of Canada, Toronto; 1927-31, sales mgr., Don Valley Brick Works, 
Toronto; 1931-32, engr., Toronto Brick Co. Ltd., Toronto; 1932-36, mgr. -engr., 
Brick Mfrs. Assn., Toronto; 1936-37, asst. regional mgr. (Eastern Canada), West 
Disinfecting Co.; 1937 to date, secretary, Canadian Engineering Standards Associa- 
tion, Ottawa, Ont. 

References: T. R. Loudon, C. S. L. Hertzberg, J. M. R. Fairbairn, A. H. Cowie, 
B. S. McKenzie. 

NICKLE— HUGH DICKSON, of the Town of Mount Royal, Que. Born at 
Kingston, Ont., Nov. 14th, 1900; Educ: S.B., Mass. Inst. Tech., 1924; 1924-26, 
cadet engr., Public Service Corpn. of N.J.; 1926-28, shop practice and test engr., 
Wheeler Condenser & Engrg. Co., Carteret, N.J.; with the Foster Wheeler Corpn., 
New York, as follows: 1928-29, asst. to mgr., steam generator dept.; 1929-33, mgr. 
i/c prelim, design and estimating, incl. responsibility for all prelim, layouts and 
proposals for complete steam generating units; 1933-36, engr., asst. to vice-president 
i/c sales; 1936-37, sales engr., American Flange & Manufacturing Co.; 1937 to date, 
mgr., service and erection dept., Combustion Engineering Corporation Ltd., Mont- 
real, Que. 

References: J. S. Misener, R. L. Weldon, H. C. Karn, I. R. Tait, F. A. Combe, 
P. Poitras, J. G. Hall, J. A. Kearns. 

OLIVER— JOHN CRAIG, of 5897 McDonald St., Vancouver, B.C. Born at 
Edinburgh, Scotland, Nov. 25th, 1904; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1927; R.P.E. 
of B.C.; 1922-25 (summers), dftsman. and instr'man. on constrn., Municipality of 
Point Grey; 1926 (summer), dftsman. and surveyor, i/c control work, B.C. Forest 
Survey; 1927-28, designing dftsman.. city engr's. office, Vancouver; 1928-30, in- 
structor in civil engrg., Univ. of B.C.; 1930-38, asst. city engr., city engr's. office, 
sewer and water works divn., City of Vancouver; at present, registrar, Association 
of Professional Engineers of the Province of British Columbia. 

References: C. E. Webb, C. Brakenridge, E. A. Cleveland, R. Rome, J. M. Begg, 
W. H. Powell. 

ROWE— HUGH MILLER, of 43 Inglewood Place, Ottawa, Ont. Born at Kit- 
chener, Ont., March 11th, 1891; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1915; 1912-13, 
divn. clerk, Can. Nor. Ont. Rly.; 1914 (summer), instr'man., Welland Ship Canal; 
1916-19, Overseas, Major, Can. Rly. Troops; with the Bell Telephone Company of 
Canada as follows: 1925-26, district engr., plant, Montreal; 1927-29, gen. engrg. 
dept., Montreal, design of equipment, plant, etc.; 1930-33, engrg. dept., Toronto, 
i/c future plant extensions and budget; May, 1937 to date, inspecting engr., on mining 
and tourist roads, Ontario, for Dept. of Mines and Resources, Ottawa. 

References: A. M. Reid, W. H. Norrish, F. C. C. Lynch, W. B. Hutcheson, W. L. 
Saunders. 

SCROGGIE— GEORGE NELSON, of London, Ont. Born at Guelph, Ont., March 
31st, 1910; Educ: B.Sc (Civil), Queen's Univ., 1935; summer work as gen. asst., 
office and field work, to city engr., Guelph; 1935, inspecting engr., on roads, 1936, 
bridge inspecting engr., County of Waterloo, Ont.; 1937-38, instr'man., Dept. of 
Highways Ontario; Jan. 1st, 1939 to date, junior engr., Dept. Public Works of 
Canada, London, Ont. 

References: H. S. Nicklin, D. J. Emrey, C. K. S. Macdonell, W. P. Wilgar, W. L. 
Malcolm. 

SELF— ROBERT HARVEY, of 299 Sumach St., Toronto, Ont. Born at Van- 
couver, B.C., Oct. 23rd, 1911; Educ: B.A.Sc, 1938; Univ. of Toronto; summer work: 
instr'man., etc., Joseph Wilde, Gen. Contractor; cost accountant and timekpr., Wm. 
Breithaupt & Son; instr'man., for Mr. Sewell, O.L.S., Toronto; 1936 (4mos.), asst 
engr., Bickle-Seagrave Co. Ltd., Woodstock, Ont., designing and layout work: 
1937-38, plant engr., Canada Packers Ltd., designed and supervised erection of 
various plants in Toronto and Montreal and across Canada; Dec. 1st, 1938, to date, 
estimating and junior supt., for Bennett Pratt, General Contractors, Toronto, Ont. 

References: W. E. Bonn, F. G. Engholm, D. D. Whitson, D. C. Beam, E. A. Allcut. 

WALLENDER— LOUIS, of 397 Spadina Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at Toronto, 
July 14th, 1911; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1935; 1936 (3 mos.), Burlec 
Limited (Electrical), Scarboro Jet., Ont.; 1938 (3 mos.), Appliance SaleB Company 
(Electrical), Toronto; at present, postal employee, Terminal "A", Toronto, Ont. 

References: E. A. Allcut, R. W. Angus, T. R. Loudon, C. H. Mitchell, J. J. Spence 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF ASSOCIATE MEMBER TO THAT 
OF MEMBER 

COUSINEAU— AIME, of Montreal, Que. Born at St. Genevieve, Que., Nov. 
20th, 1885; Educ: B.A.Sc, CE., Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, 1909. B.S. (Sani- 
tary Engrg.), Harvard Univ., 1916; R. P. E. of Que.; 1914 to date, city sanitary 
engr., and technical advisor to the Medical Officer of Health, City of Montreal, at 
present, also supt. of the Divn. of Sanitation of the Dept. of Health. Member of 
several investigating commns., town planning, housing, sewage treatment, etc.; 
1928-33, lecturer on heating and ventilation, and 1933 to date, lecturer on town 
planning, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal. (St. 1908, A.M. 1915). 

References: A. Surveyer, O. O. Lefebvre, A. Frigon, J. L. Busfleld, T. J. Lafreniere, 
A. Duperron, E. A. Ryan, W. S. Lea, H. Massue. 

HOLDEN— OTTO, of Toronto, Ont. Born at Toronto, Oct. 30th, 1891; Educ. 
B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1913; R.P.E. of Ont., 1913, dftsman., London Public 
Utilities Commission; with the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
(Hydraulic Dept.), as follows: 1913-18, designing dftsman., 1918-22, designing engr., 
1922-23, hydraulic engr., 1923-37, asst. chief hydraulic engr., and 1937 to date, 
chief hydraulic engr. i/c administration of all affairs of the department. (A.M. 1921). 

References: T. H. Hogg, G. A. Gaherty, C. H. Mitchell, M. V. Sauer, H. G. Acres, 
J. T. Johnston, R. L. Hearn. 

NASH— JAMES CUNDIFF, of 147 Mountain Park Ave., Hamilton, Ont. Born 
at St. Joseph, Mo., U.S.A., Dec 14th, 1886; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1912; 
1913-15, layout, overhead system, Hamilton Hydro; 1929-30, teaching dfting., night 
classes, Hamilton Technical Institute; with the Canadian Westinghouse Company, 
Hamilton, Ont., as follows: 1908-09 and 1912-13, dfting., generators; 1919-28, dfting. 
transformers; 1928-38, responsible for mech.'l. design of transformers, and at present 
dftsman., transformer engrg. dept. (A.M. 1922). 

References: H. A. Ricker, D. W. Callander, J. R. Dunbar, W. L. Miller, G. W. 
Arnold. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF JUNIOR 

ANDERSEN— VIGGO, of 4987 Eamscliffe Ave., Montreal, Que. Born at Roskilde, 
Denmark, Nov. 23rd, 1898; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), The Royal Technical College, 
Copenhagen, 1923; 1923-24, with the municipal engr., Roskilde, Denmark; 1924-25, 
Chicago Rapid Transit Co., Chicago, and George Jerome, consltg, engr., Detroit; 
1926-27, reinforced concrete designer, municipal gasworks, Copenhagen; 1927-28, 
struct'!, steel detailer, Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Lachine; 1928-30, dftsman. and 
designer on hydro-electric developments, Power Corpn. of Canada, Montreal; 1931, 
1933-34, 1937-38, dftsman and designer, Canadian Copper Refiners Ltd., Montreal 
East; 1931-32, reinforced concrete designer, J. A. Forgues, Ltd., consltg. engrs., 
Montreal; 1932-33, designer of industrial bldgs. and foundations, W. H. Wardwell, 
Consltg. Engr., Montreal; 1934-37, designing engr. on struct'l. steel and reinforced 
concrete (in charge of office work), Dominion Reinforcing Steel Co. Ltd., Montreal; 



at present, reinforced concrete designer, J. M. Eugene Guay Inc., Consltg. Engrs., 
Montreal, Que. (Jr. 1928). 

References: N. Cageorge, H. S. Grove, C. N. Mitchell, A. Desserud, L. B. McCurdy. 

BENJAMIN— ARCHIE, of Montreal, Que. Born at Glace Bay, N.S., Sept. 22nd, 
1905; Educ: B.Sc. (Elec), McGill Univ., 1928; with the Montreal Light, Heat & 
Power Cons., as follows: 1928-29, misc. work in Cedars power house (operating, sur- 
vey work, etc), 1929 (6 mos.), asst. operator in city sub-stations, 1929-30, asst. in 
underground divn., elec. distribution dept.; 1930-34, junior engr., in dist. engrg. 
divn.; 1934 to date, distribution engrg. divn., circuit layouts, inventories, duct lines, 
66 kv. cable operation and engrg., misc. distribution engrg. problems. (St. 1926, 
Jr. 19S3). 

References: S. H. Cunha, L. A. Kenyon, R. N. Coke, L. L. O'Sullivan, G. E. 
Templeman, H Milliken. 

BERESKIN— ABRAHAM ISAAC, of 1307 Portage Ave., Winnipeg, Man. Born 
at City of Propoisk, Russia, April 28th, 1903; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), Univ. of Man., 
1929; D.L.S.; R.P.E. of Man.; 1926-28, instr'man., on surveys, Topog'l. Survey of 
Canada; 1929-31, asst. to chief of survey party preparing engrg. plan of Rousseau 
River, Man., for drainage study and flood control, summer of 1929. 1930, asst. chief 
of party, legal subdivision of Peace River block; during period between surveys was 
employed by Topog'l. Surveys, Ottawa, as surveys engr. engaged principally in pre- 
paration of aero photographs for mapping; 1932 (3 mos.), private constrn. work; 
since 1932 engaged in retail business, and during last four years as accounts clerk 
with the Dept. of National Defence, Winnipeg. Occasional survey work, but recently 
more actively engaged in surveys qualifying for commission of Man. Land Surveyor; 
2nd Lieut., Royal Can. Engrs., engaged in military engrg. at local hdqrs. and at 
Dundurn Camp, Sask. (St. 1925, Jr. 1931). 

References: J. H. Edgar, J. N. Finlayson, A. E. Macdonald. 

HAY— EDWARD CAMPBELL, of Regina, Sask. Born at Peebles, Scotland, 
Dec. 7th, 1906; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of B.C., 1930; 1925-26, dftBman., Canadian 
Westinghouse Co. Ltd., Hamilton; 1929 (4 mos.), helper, B.C. Electric Rly. Co., 
Vancouver; 1930-31, student, Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh; 
with the Canadian Westinghouse Co. Ltd., as follows: 1933-36, student sales cor- 
respondent, Hamilton, and 1936-38, at Toronto; Sept. 1938 to date, sales engr., with 
territory comprising province of Sask. (St. 1928, Jr. 1936). 

References: D. W. Callander, J. R. Dunbar, W. J. W. Reid, H. B. Stuart. 

HOLGATE— WILLIAM THOMAS, of 85 Thompson Ave., Toronto 9, Ont. Born 
at Innisfail, Alta., Feb. 18th, 1904; Educ: B.Sc. (E.E.), Univ. of Alta., 1930; R.P.E. 
of Ont.; 1927-29 (summers), mtce. and surveying, rodman, instr'man., C.N.R., 
Edmonton; with the Can. Gen. Elec Co. Ltd. as follows: 1930-31, testing apparatus, 
Toronto and Peterborough; 1931, gen. engrg. dept., wire design, insulation, testing 
methods, etc., small radio transformer design; 1931-32, at Erie Works of General 
Electric Company, on rly. transportation work, also gen. engrg. in relation to Diesel 
electric locomotives; 1932-34, i/c refrigeration production at Peterborough; 1934-35, 
retd. to gen. engrg. dept.; 1935-36, handling orders and quotations at Toronto; 1936 
to date, sales engr., Toronto district office, handling all types of elect'l. apparatus, 
incl. motors, control, transformers, capacitors, switching, breakers, etc. (Jr. 1931). 

References: A. B. Gates, W. E. Ross, C. E. Sisson, E. C. Williams, W. M. Cruthers, 
W. T. Fanjoy, V. S. Foster, H. R. Webb. 

JOHNS— CHARLES FREDERICK, of Sackville, N.B. Born at Portsmouth, 
England, Nov. 24th, 1903; Educ: 1919-24, H. M. Dockyard School, Bermuda, 
B.Sc, Mount Allison Univ., 1928; 1919-24, ap'tice. and junior engr., H. M. Dock- 
yard, Bermuda, elect'l. dept.; 1926-28, instructor in physics, Mount Allison Univ.; 
1928 to date, i, c engrg. dept., heating and air conditioning divn., Enterprise Foundry 
Co. Ltd., Sackville, N.B. (St. 1924, Jr. 1930). 

References: H. W. McKiel, F. L. West, H. W. Read, F. Binns, G. T. Medforth. 

MILLS— WILSON STUART, of 350 Sorauren Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
London, Ont., May 10th, 1895; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1921; R.P.E. of Ont.; 
summer work, property resurvey, C.P.R., Geol. Surveys, Topog'l. Surveys; 1921-22, 
office engr., Queenston development, H.E.P.C. of Ont.; 1922-23, reports and super- 
vision on drainage schemes under Municipal Drainage Act and Ditches and Water- 
courses Act; 1923 to date, district mgr., Wallace & Tiernan Ltd., manufacturers of 
chlorine and ammonia control apparatus, Toronto, Ont. (Jr. 1921). 

References: A. E. Berry, W. L. Malcolm, W. S. Lea, C. K. McLeod. H. S. Van 
Patter, H. W. Lea, R. R. Murray, W. P. Wilgar. 

MILNE— JAMES RAMSAY BURT, of 10 Mundy Ave., Kapuskasing, Ont. 
Born at Edinburgh, Scotland, January 10th, 1905; Educ: 1920-24, H. M. Dockyard 
College, Rosyth. 4th year upper college pass; 1920-25, indentured ap'tice., H. M. 
Dockyard, Rosyth, incl. 1J4 years design office; with Price Bros. & Co. Ltd., Keno- 
gami, as follows: 1925-29, mech. engr., 1930-33, asst. to mech. supt., design and 
constrn. mill bldgs., paper mill equipment; 1934-35, mech. supt., i/c design, constrn. 
and mtce. paper mill, and responsible for same; 1936 to date, supt., mtce., Spruce 
Falls Power and Paper Co., Kapuskasing, Ont., i/c and responsible for mtce. and 
constrn. in field. (Jr. 1932). 

References: G. F. Layne, N. D. Paine, C. H. McL. Burns, W. L. Yack, A. B. 
Sinclair. 

MUNRO— DAVID JOHN BEST, of 36 Dobie Ave., Town of Mount Royal, Que. 
Born at Inverness, Scotland, March 9th, 1900; Educ: B.Sc, McGill Univ., 1923; 
1919-20 (summers), dftsman., elec. helper, C.P.R.; 1921 (summer) and 1923, records 
man, underground conduits constrn., G. M. Gest Ltd.; 1923-24, graduate students' 
course, 1924-26 and 1930-34, locomotive design, Westinghouse Elec & Mfg. Co.; 
1926-30, asst. supt., equipment and shops, Quebec Railway Light and Power Com- 
pany; 1934 to date, supt. of equipment, Montreal Tramways Company, respons. for 
mtce. of all company car barns, for all rolling stock other than gas busses. Also engr. 
of all rolling stock design and modification as above. (St. 1921, Jr. 1927). 

References: D. E. Blair, C. V. Christie, P. S. Gregory. 

RIVA— RONALD HERRICK, of Wethersfleld, Conn. Born at Buffalo, N.Y., 
Sept. 3rd, 1901; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), McGill Univ., 1925. R.P.E. of Que.; 1925-26, 
chief demonstrator, dept. of descriptive drawing, McGill Univ.; 1926-28, designing 
and layout of trackwork, dept. of mtce. and structure, Montreal Tramways Co.; 
1928, chief of party, Rye extension of New York, Worcester & Boston Rly. for 
United Engineers and Constructors Inc.; 1928-29, job engr., for same company on 
constrn. of 22 story apt. bldg. and hotel; 1929-30, chief of party, Port Chester 
extension, New York, Westchester & Boston Rly., and 1930-31, asst. job engr. on 
constrn. of continuous plate mill, Chicago, 111., all for same company; 1935, asst. 
town engr., Town of Hampstead, Que., i/c engrg. for new constrn. also bldg. inspec- 
tion; 1936-37, field engr., on constrn. of townsite at Baie Comeau, Que., for the 
Ontario Paper Company; 1937, job engr., constrn. of plant for Austin Co.; 1938, 
asst. job engr., on constrn. of two bldgs., Fairfield State Hospital, Newtown, Conn., 
i/c engrg. for one bldg., and at present, job engr. on constrn. of 14 bldgs. for Con- 
necticut State Home for Veterans, Rocky Hill, Conn., i/c of all engrg., for F. H. 
McGraw & Co., Inc. (St. 1923, Jr. 1928). 

References: P. G. Gauthier, J. W. March, A. I. Cunningham, E. Cryer, W. McG. 
Gardner, W. M. Reid. 

THWAITES— JOSEPH TAYLOR, of 144 Stirton St., Hamilton, Ont. Born at 
Bolton, Lanes., England, Mar. 2nd, 1901; Educ: B.Sc, Queen's Univ., 1925; R.P.E. 
of Ont.; 1927-28, sales engr., Smart Turner Machine Co.; 1928-29, service engr., 
Wentworth Radio & Auto Supply Co.; 1929-30, asst. radio engr., 1930 to date, 
engr. on switchgear, Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamilton, Ont. (St. 1924, 
Jr. 1928). 

References: J. R. Dunbar, D. W. Callander, G. M. Bayne, E. M. Coles, G. W. 
Arnold. 



106 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



WEST— THOMAS MACDONALD, of Kingston Rd., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Toronto, Aug. 27th, 1899; Educ: B.A.Sc, Univ. of Toronto, 1921; R.P.E. of Ont.; 
1918, engine repair park, R.A.F., shop work, Poison Iron Works; 1921-22, demon- 
strator, thermodynamics, Univ. of Toronto; with J. & J. Taylor Safe Works Ltd. 
as follows: 1922-25, shop practice, 1925-39, i/c plant and research (1925, junior 
member of firm, 1935, secretary-treasurer). (St. 1921, Jr. 1921,). 

References: A. H. Harkness, C. S. L. Hertzberg, E. A. Allcut, R. W. Angus, 
E. A. H. Menges. 

FOR TRANSFER FROM THE CLASS OF STUDENT 

BRUMELL— ORBY RICHARD, of 1455 Drummond St., Montreal, Que. Born 
at Buckingham, Que., Nov. 29th, 1911; Educ: B.Eng. (Mech.), 1934; R.P.E. of 
Que,; 1933 (summer), jr. engr., Dept. of Highways of Quebec; 1934-35, instructor, 
mech. lab., McGill Univ.; 1935-37, aBSt. chief engr., design, plant mtce. and develop- 
ment work, Dominion Rubber Co.; 1937, plant engr., Jenkins Bros.; at present, 
asst. engr., Dominion Oilcloth & Linoleum Co., Montreal, Que. (St. 1930). 

References: J. L. Bicker, R. Ford, T. M. Moran, C. U. Vessot, C. M. McKergow. 

CUNNINGHAM— HAROLD EMBERSON, of Montreal, Que. Born at West- 
mount, Que., Dec. 9th, 1907; Educ: B.Sc. (Civil), McGill Univ., 1931; 1926-28 
(summers), woods dept., St. Lawrence Paper Mills Co. Ltd.; 1930 (summer), on 
Sun Life Bldg., for Cook and Leitch; 1931-32 (8 mos.), C.N.R. Terminal, Montreal, 
Monsarrat & Pratley; 1934 to date, gear engr., Dominion Engineering Works, 
Montreal, Que. (St. 1929). 

References: H. G. Welsford, F. P. Shearwood, H. A. Crombie, R. DeL. French, 
A. I. Cunningham. 



ROSS— ARTHUR LeBRETON, of 484 Duplex Ave., Toronto, Ont. Born at 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., Oct. 7th, 1910; Educ: B.Eng. (Elec), McGill Univ., 1932; 
1930-31 (summers), ap'tice, Southern Canada Power Co.; 1932-33, dftsman., 1933-34, 
electrn., 1934 (Feb. -Nov.), tech. asst. to plant engr., Noranda Mines Ltd.; 1934 to 
date, i/c production and sales engrg., control apparatus divn., Railway & Power 
Engineering Corpn., Toronto, Ont. (St. 1930). 

References: H. M. Black, G. H. Kohl, R. N. Austin, D. S. Lloyd, C. V. Christie, 
J. S. H. Wurtele. 

HOLDER— ALLAN SCOTT, of 61 Maple Ave., Shawinigan Falls, Que. Born at 
Saint John, N.B., Aug. 1st, 1911; Educ: B.Sc, N.S. Tech. Coll., 1934; 1934-37, 
misc. mtce. and engrg. work, and 1937 to date, designing engr., Canadian Industries 
Limited, Shawinigan Falls, Que. (St. 1931). 

References: H. J. Ward, H. W. McKiel, F. L. West, M. Eaton, A. H. Heatley, 
H. K. Wyman. 

ROSS— HENRY URQUHART, of 137 Upton Road, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. Born 
at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont, Oct. 6th, 1912; Educ: B.Eng., 1936, M.Sc, 1938, McGill 
Univ.; 1931, 1934, 1935 (summers), dfting., Algoma Steel Corpn., smelter, Noranda 
Mines, mill work, Dome Mines Ltd.; 1936-37, Canadian Furnace Co., Port Col- 
borne, (6 mos.), chemist, (5 mos.), constrn. work, (2 mos.), foreman, (3 mos.), office 
staff; June, 1938 to date, metallurgical dept., Algoma Steel Corporation, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont. (St. 1936). 

References: F. Smallwood, J. W. LeB. Ross, K. G. Ross, J. L. Lang, J. S. Macleod. 



Employment Service Bureau 



SITUATIONS VACANT 

GRADUATE MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 
with experience and ability in machine 
design. Location Province of Quebec. Apply 
giving full details of experience and salary 
requirements to Box No. 1785-V. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEER, A large in- 
dustrial firm has an opening for an exper- 
ienced draughtsman, preferably a graduate 
mechanical engineer, between the ages of 30 
and 35 years, with some years experience in 
pulp and paper mill building, equipment, 
and design. 

The position offers opportunity for ad- 
vancement commensurate with ability. 
Only applicants who give very pertinent 
information regarding age, religion, educa- 
tion, and experience will be considered. All 
replies will be kept strictly confidential. 
Apply to Box No. 1834-V. ' 

CIVIL SERVICE OF CANADA 

Applications are invited from residents of 
the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, possess- 
ing the necessary qualifications for the posi- 
tion of Junior Engineer, Bilingual, Ottawa 
Engineering District, Dept. Public Works. 
Duties — To inspect construction work in 
progress and lay out work according to 
plans; to supervise dredging operations and 
to make soundings; to make surveys; to 
calculate quantities and estimate cost of 
work; to prepare detail drawings, plans and 
specifications in accordance with instruc- 
tions and to do other related work as 
required. 

Qualifications required — Graduation in en- 
gineering from a university of recognized 
standing with one year of experience 
in engineering work, or graduation from 
the Royal Military College of Canada 
with two years of engineering ex- 
perience; junior membership in The En- 
gineering Institute of Canada or member- 
ship in a Provincial Association of Profes- 
sional Engineers or professional qualifica- 
tions which would permit of such member- 
ship; good judgment and ability to deal 
with men; ability to speak, read and write 
the English and French languages fluently. 
Application must be filed with the Secretary, 
Civil Service Commission, Ottawa, On- 
tario, NOT later than February 13th, 
1939. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

PAPER MILL ENGINEER, a.m.e.i.c. Mar- 
ried. Ten years experience in the design, 
construction, maintenance and costs of pulp 
and paper mills, is seeking a permanent 
position. Available on short notice. Apply 
to Box No. 150-W. 



The Service is operated for the benefit of members of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada, and for industrial and other organizations employing technically trained 
men— without charge to either party. Notices appearing in the Situations Wanted 
column will be discontinued after three insertions, and will be re-inserted upon 
request after a lapse of one month. All correspondence should be addressed to 
THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF 
CANADA, 2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 



CIVIL ENGINEER, m.a.sc, a.m.e.i.c. Eight 
years survey and municipal engineering 
experience, and three years draughting, de- 
tailing steel, concrete, and timber structures 
Apply to Box No. 467-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc (McGill '20), 
a.m.e.i.c. Married. Twelve years experience 
in pulp and paper mill design, and six years 
general construction. Available immedi- 
ately. Location immaterial. Applv to Box 
No. 547-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.a.sc (Toronto '27). 
Age 34. Married. Five years railway and 
construction work as building inspector and 
instrumentman. Level engineer and on con- 
struction of a long timber flume for a pulp 
and paper mill. Field engineer for a sulphite 
company, in charge of the following mill 
buildings, acid, digester, blow pit, barker 
room, chip storage and acid towers. Avail- 
able immediately. Apply to Box No. 714-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc '31 
(U.N.B.), jr. e. i.e. Age 30 years. Single. 
Experience in electrical wiring, construction 
of concrete wharves, inspection of piling, 
rip rap, concrete reinforcing, forms, and 
dredging. Also junior engineer. Available at 
once. Apply to Box No. 722-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc, m.sc, p.p.e.; 
Lieut, c.e., f.o. Sixteen years municipal, 
highway and construction. Five years over- 
seas. Married. Read, write and talk French. 
Will go anywhere. Apply to Box No. 737-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc '31, 
jr. e. i.e. Age 31. Experience includes: eight 
months on installation of power and lighting 
equipment; three years as supervisor of an 
electrical and service dept.; seven months 
testing power and radio equipment; one 
year as inspector on electrical equipment 
and control. At present employed. Available 
on one month's notice. Location immaterial. 
Apply to Box No. 740- W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc '29. Married. 
Experience includes building construction, 
hydro-electric development in South Amer- 
ica, road construction and paper mill con- 
struction and maintenance. Desires per- 
manent position with good prospects. Apply 
to Box No. 744-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, a.m.e.i.c. Experienced 
in general construction, buildings, gravel 



and asphalt roads. Acting in charge P.W.D. 
West Africa. Chief field engineer refinery 
construction. Survey Angola Rly., West 
Africa. General Office work. Apply to Box 
No. 765- W. 

SALES ENGINEER, b.a.sc, jr.E.i.c. Age 29. 
Married. Presently employed. Five years 
experience in sales and field engineering 
seeks position with more future. Bilingual. 
Available on few weeks' notice. Apply to 
Box No. 1107-W. 

TECHNICALLY TRAINED EXECUTIVE 
General experience administrative, organiz- 
ation and management in business and in- 
dustrial fields, including: business, plant, 
property and estate management; plant 
maintenance, modernization, production 
and personnel; economic studies, company 
reorganizations and amalgamations, valua- 
tions; railroad, highway, hydro, pulp, 
newsprint, housing, industrial surveys, in- 
vestigations and construction; b.sc degree 
in engineering, age 49, married, Canadian. 
Apply to Box No. 1175-W. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEER, grad. McGill '34, 
experienced in meter repairs, control work; 
and also chemical laboratory experience. 
Apply to Box No. 1222-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc '31. Age 
35. Experience in oil field work and railway 
construction survey. Two years on installa- 
tion and maintenance of mine equipment, 
and two years industrial plant engineering 
on design and layout of equipment. Avail- 
able immediately. Will go anywhere. Applv 
to Box No. 1249-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER,b.sc, a.m.e.i.c. Aged 29, 
enthusiastic, competent, wishes new position. 
Four years experience in design, draughting, 
and estimating steel and concrete structures 
and bridges. Six months field work bridge 
erection, four years paper mill engineering- 
design of mill buildings and hydro plant, 
paper machine installation, heating and 
ventilating, heat recovery and economy, 
etc. Now available in Montreal. Apply to 
Box No. 1295- W. 

FIELD ENGINEER AND DRAUGHTS- 
MAN, a.m.e.i.c. Age 36. Married. Fifteen 
years experience in civil engineering, general 
draughting and instrument work. Experi- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL February, 1939 



107 



ence covers office and layout work on con- 
struction of sewers, water mains, gas mains, 
(6" to 30" dia.) and transmission line struc- 
tures; topographic and stadia surveys. 
Draughting covers general civil, reinforced 
concrete, and steel design, mechanical detail- 
ing and arrangements, and mapping. Pre- 
sent location Montreal, but willing to locate 
anywhere. Available at once. Apply to Box 
No. 1326-W. 

CIVIL AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, 
jr.E.i.c. (Univ. of Man.). Married. Age 25. 
Good draughtsman. Four months draught- 
ing, one year instrumentman on highway 
location and construction, inspection and 
miscellaneous surveying and estimating. Six 
months as field engineer on pulp and paper 
mill construction. Prefer electrical or struc- 
tural design. Available at once. Apply to 
Box No. 1633- W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.e., Jr.E.i.c, age 28. 
Married. Desires position with reliable 
construction firm. Intends to make con- 
struction, life work. Over five years ex- 
perience on permanent highway construc- 
tion, inspection, estimates and instrument 



work. Available on short notice. Applv to 
Box. No. 1820-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.a.sc. '33. 
Age 27. Married. Jr.E.i.c. One year's exper- 
ience in power plant operation and over 
three years experience in hydro-electric 
development and construction. Expert 
draughtsman and instrumentman, includ- 
ing experience in steam gauging, and rein- 
forced concrete design and construction. 
Available at once. Apply to Box No. 1829-W. 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.a.sc. (Toronto '35), 
Jr.E.i.c. Age 26. Experience in highway lay- 
out and construction, concrete bridge con- 
struction, draughting, office work, and sur- 
veying. Further details on request. Good 
references. Available immediately. Location 
immaterial. Apply to Box 1832-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, b.sc. (Mani- 
toba '36), s.e.i.c. Practical and theoretical 
experience in radio. Have done experimental 
work. At present doing radio service work. 
Available at once. Apply to Box No. 1833-W 

CIVIL ENGINEER, b.sc '37, s.e.i.c. Age 22. 
At present employed, desires position with 
construction firm. Experience includes field 



instructing of transit and chain survey 
crews, draughting for geologist, instrument 
work and general supervision on highway 
construction work, purchasing in paper mill. 
Available on few weeks' notice. References 
and details on request. Willing to locate 
anywhere that offers required class of work. 
Apply to Box No. 1840-W. 

CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 

b.sc, M.E.i.c, r.p.e., Military Service 
Lieut. C.E. Married, age 47. Twenty years 
experience in heavy manufacture, drafting, 
designing, estimating and production, also 
design manufacture and maintenance of 
buildings and machines, including transport- 
ing equipment (hoists, cranes, etc.), in- 
terested in plant works or production 
management. Available on short notice. 
Apply to Box 1853-W. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, a.m.e.i.c. Age 
32. Married. At present employed in re- 
sponsible commercial position, but desires 
change. Over sixteen years experience in 
electrical industry. Trained in English 
factory. Seven years resident in Canada. 
Apply to Box No. 1854- W. 



TROLLEY BUSES REPLACING 
TRAMS 

In the East Midland Traffic Area only one 
municipality — Leicester — is still operating 
tramcars, and even this will probably cease to 
be true before long. Similarly, the only 
remaining tramway service in the Eastern 
Traffic Area is that at Southend-on-Sea, and 
that is being partially replaced. In the Metro- 
politan Traffic Area, there was a decrease of 
286 in the number of the trams licensed, this 
being accompanied by an increase of 375 in 
the number of trolley 'buses. In this con- 
nection the Commissioners for the York- 
shire Traffic Area call attention to the 
desirability of trolley vehicles being brought 
under their jurisdiction, mainly because of 
the effects which the introduction of such 
vehicles have had on co-ordination schemes 
designed to avoid wasteful competition. They 
note that, for this reason, the use of trolley 
vehicles has been discontinued at Chester- 
field, their place having been taken by Diesel- 
engined omnibuses. It would be interesting to 
know whether a similar change has taken 
place elsewhere. The Chesterfield Corpora- 
tion, it is understood, are of the opinion that 
Diesel-engined omnibuses are capable of 
performances equal to those of trolley vehicles, 
and that their introduction on routes pre- 
viously served by the latter will eventually 
admit of a more complete co-ordination of all 
the passenger-transport facilities in their 
district . — Engineering. 

HYDRO-ELECTRIC PROGRESS IN 
CANADA 

The annual review of hydro-electric pro- 
gress in Canada, which has been issued by the 
Dominion Water and Power Bureau, De- 
partment of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 
shows that during 1938 there was not only a 
substantial increase in new generating capa- 
city, but also widespread activity in the ex- 
tension of transmission and distribution 
facilities, particularly in rural areas and in the 
mining industry. The amount of hydro- 



electric generating plant added during the 
year was 135,459 h.p., bringing the total for 
the Dominion up to 8,190,772 h.p. In British 
Columbia a second 47,000-h.p. unit was 
added to the Ruskin station of the British 
Columbia Power Corporation on Stave 
River, while smaller additions were made to 
the stations of Messrs. Fraser River Golds, 
Limited, at Wahleach (Jones) Creek and of 
the Denver Light and Power Company, on 
Carpenter Creek. In Ontario a new generating 
station with a capacity of 10,400 h.p. was 
completed at Ragged Rapids, on the Mus- 
quash River, while a station of about the same 
capacity was brought into operation at Lower 
Falls, on the Montreal River. In Quebec the 
Gatineau Power Company added a 34,000- 
h.p. unit to its Chelsea plant on the 
Gatineau River, thus increasing the 
capacity of this station to 170,000 h.p., 
and the Shawinigan Water and Power 
Company added 8,000 h.p. to its La Gabelle 
station by changing the runners of two of the 
units. Important works under construction in 
this province include a 243,000-h.p. station at 
La Tuque, on the St. Maurice River, by the 
St. Maurice Power Corporation. To begin 
with, four 40,500-h.p. units will be installed 
and the delivery of these will start next year. 
The gravity dam will be 1,100 ft. long and 
will provide a normal head of 104 ft. The 
Beauharnois Light, Heat and Power Com- 
pany is also adding a ninth 53,000-h.p. unit 
to its station at Beauharnois, on the St. 
Lawrence River. It is stated that while the 
output during the first ten months of 1938 
was less than during the corresponding period 
in 1937, this is almost entirely accounted for 
by a falling off in the demand on the electric 
boilers used in the paper and pulp industry. 
At the end of the year this load showed signs 
of recovery. — Engineering. 

THE RAILWAYS AND RATE 
CONTROL 

The Committee of the Transport Advisory 
Council announce that, as a result of discus- 
sions between the railway companies and in- 



terests representing traders, the original pro- 
posals of the former regarding rate control 
have been amplified. The first proposal was 
for the entire abolition of control pending the 
establishment of a complete system of co- 
ordination of the various forms of transport, 
and it is now stated that the railways do not 
seek any alteration in the law relating to their 
obligation to provide reasonable facilities, 
through rates, or standard conditions of car- 
riage. It is proposed that regular meetings 
should be established between the companies 
and the various trading associations for the 
discussion of matters of common interest. In 
the event of agreement proving unattainable, 
a procedure would be provided for appeal to a 
body such as the Railway Rates Tribunal, 
which would have the power of deciding on 
the reasonableness of the charge under dis- 
pute. Legislation would be required to place 
this procedure on an established footing. Such 
legislation would take the form of a provision 
entitling the railways to make such reasonable 
charges as they thought fit, subject to a pro- 
viso that in case of disagreement, the respon- 
sibility should rest with a body such as the 
Railway Rates Tribunal to fix the charge. 
Every trader, or body of traders, would have 
the right of appeal on the question of reason- 
ableness, although it is hoped that normally 
all such cases would be amicably settled at 
one or other of the periodical meetings be- 
tween the appropriate trading association and 
the companies. The railway repreesntatives 
have not yet had the opportunity of laying 
these proposals before the general body of 
traders, and they therefore wish to emphasize 
the main features of the scheme, namely, that 
all rates must be reasonable, that the trader 
will have a right of appeal to a body such as 
the Railway Rates Tribunal, and that where 
he is a member of any recognized trading 
association, he can bring his complaint before 
the regular joint meeting of that association 
and the railways before appeal. It is suggested 
that under safeguards of this description, the 
trader will have ample protection against 
injustice or excessive charges under existing 
conditions of competition. — Engineering. 



ios 



February, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



VOLUME 22 



MARCH 1939 



NUMBER 3 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE 
OF CANADA 

2050 MANSFIELD STREET - MONTREAL 



CONTENTS 



L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, a.m.e.i.c. 
Editor 

N. E. D. SHEPPARD, a.m.e.i.c. 
Advertising Manager 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

J. L. BUSFIELD, m.e.i.c, Chairman 

R. W. BOYLE, m.e.i.c. 

A. DUPERRON, m.e.i.c. 

R. H. FINDLAY, m.e.i.c. 

F. S. B. HEWARD, a.m.e.i.c. 

ADVISORY MEMBERS 
OF PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

L. McK. ARKLEY, m.e.i.c. 

S. R. BANKS, a.m.e.i.c. 

A. C. D. BLANCHARD, m.e.i.c. 

F. BRIDGES, m.e.i.c. 

J. L. CLARKE, m.e.i.c. 

F. A. COMBE, m.e.i.c. 

R. L. DUNSMORE, a.m.e.i.c. 

J. T. FARMER, m.e.i.c. 

A. FERRIER, a.m.e.i.c. 
R. H. FIELD, a.m.e.i.c. 

J. N. FINLAYSON, m.e.i.c. 
R. C. FLITTON, m.e.i.c. 
R. deL. FRENCH, m.e.i.c. 
R. G. GAGE, m.e.i.c. 

E. D. GRAY-DONALD, a.m.e.i.c. 

F. G. GREEN, a.m.e.i.c. 
H. S. GROVE, A.M.K.I.C 
N. MacL. HALL, m.e.i.c. 

B. F. C. HAANEL, m.e.i.c. 
R. E. HEARTZ, m.e.i.c. 

H. O. KEAY, m.e.i.c. 

D. S. LAIDLAW, a.m.e.i.c. 

ROBT. F. LEGGET, a.m.e.i.c. 

C. R. LINDSEY, a.m.e.i.c. 
H. J. MACLEOD, m.e.i.c. 
P. B. MOTLEY, m.e.i.c. 
RALPH C. PURSER, a.m.e.i.c. 
J. L. RANNIE, m.e.i.c. 

C. A. ROBB, m.e.i.c. 

D. deC. ROSS-ROSS, m.e.i.c. 
L. T. RUTLEDGE, m.e.i.c. 

E. A. RYAN, m.e.i.c. 
H. W. TATE, m.e.i.c. 
H. J. VENNES, m.e.i.c. 

G. L. WIGGS, m.e.i.c. 



Price 50 cents a copy, $3.00 a year, in Canada, 
British Possessions, United States and Mexico. 
$4.50 a year in Foreign Countries. To members 
and Affiliates, 25 cents a copy, $2.00 a year. 
— Entered at the Post Office, Montreal, as 
Second Class Matter. 



THE INSTITUTE as a body is not responsible 
either for the statements made or for the 
opinions expressed in the following pages. 



LOOKING FORWARD 

H. W. McKiel, B.A., B.Sc, M.E.I.C Ill 

SOIL MECHANICS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING 

William P. Kimball 113 

SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 

A. W. Skempton, M.Sc, A.C.G.I., D.I.C 117 

THE GOLDEN GATE INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION .... 120 

ABSTRACTS OF CURRENT LITERATURE 121 

THE FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 122 

Adjourned General Meeting 

Awards of Medals and Prizes 

Report of Finance Committee 

Amendments to the By-laws 

Membership Classification 

Reorganization of Council 

Reception to American Guests 

Presentation to Secretary Emeritus Durley 

Election of Officers 

Council Meeting 

Technical Sessions 

The Banquet 

The Luncheons 

The Casino 

The President's Dinner 

Reception to Distinguished V isitors 

Miscellaneous — But Important 

EDITORIAL COMMENT 1H2 

Annual Meeting 

Economics and the Engineer 

A Letter to the Editor — Mr. Durley Expresses His Appreciation 
Appointment of Assistant to the General Secretary .... 

Harold Wilson McKiel (A Biography) 

Address of the Retiring President 

Meeting of Council 

Newly Elected Officers of the Institute 

Institute Prize Winners 

PERSONALS 112 

Presidential Activities 

Obituaries 

Elections and Transfers 

NEWS OF THE BRANCHES 144 

NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 147 

LIBRARY NOTES 151 

INDUSTRIAL NEWS 155 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU 156 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE 157 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 

MEMBERS OF COUNCIL 

PRESIDENT 

H. \V. McKIEL, Sackville, N.B. 



tP. M. SAUDER, Lethbridge, Alta. 
♦E. V. BUCHANAN, London, Ont. 



E. A. CLEVELAND, Vancouver, B.C. 



VICE- PRESIDENTS 

♦H. O. KEAY, Three Rivers, Que. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS 

G. J. DESBARATS, Ottawa, Ont. 



tF. NEWELL, Montreal. Que. 

*R. L. DUNSMORE, Dartmouth, N.S. 



J. B. CHALLIES, Montreal, Que. 



•I. C. BARLTROP, Vancouver, B.C. 

•B. E. BAYNE, Moncton, N.B. 

tW. F. M. BRYCE, Ottawa, Ont. 

tJ. L. BUSFIELD, Montreal, Que. 

*J. B. D'AETH, Montreal, Que. 

tP. E. DONCASTER, Fort William, Ont. 

♦A. DUPERRON, Montreal, Que. 

tR. H. FINDLAY, Montreal, Que. 

*A. B. GATES, Peterborough, Ont. 

tL. F. GRANT, Kingston, Ont. 

*J. HADDIN, Calgary, Alta. 



COUNCILLORS 

tS. HOGG, Saint John, N.B. 
*0. HOLDEN, Toronto, Ont. 
tT. H. JENKINS, Windsor, Ont. 
tA. C. JOHNSTON, Arvida, Que. 
*J. L. LANG, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 
•A. LARIVIERE, Quebec, Que. 
tA. P. LINTON, Regina, Sask. 
*H. A. LUMSDEN, Hamilton, Ont. 
tl. P. MacNAB, Halifax, N.S. 
»W. R. MANOCK, Fort Erie North, 
{H. MASSUE, Montreal, Que. 



Ont. 



tW. R. MOUNT, Edmonton, Alta. 
ÎB. R. PERRY, Montreal, Que. 
tJ. ROBERTSON, Vancouver, B.C. 
tA. U. SANDERSON, Toronto, Ont. 
•A. J. TAUNTON, Winnipeg, Man. 
»A. P. THEUERKAUF, Sydney, N.S. 
tJ. A. VANCE, Woodstock, Ont. 
*E. VIENS, Ottawa, Ont. 
tE. B. WARDLE, Grand'Mere, Que. 
•J. T. WATSON, Lethbridge, Alta. 

•For 1939. tFor 1939-40. JFor 1939-40-41 



TREASURER 

ve GASPE BEAUBIEN, Montreal, Que. 



GENERAL SECRETARY 

L. AUSTIN WRIGHT, Montreal, Que. 



SECRETARY EMERITUS 

R. J. DURLEY, Montreal, Que. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



FINANCE 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 



LEGISLATION 

A. LARIVIERE, Chairman 



PAPERS 

J. A. VANCE, Chairman. 



LIBRARY AND HOUSE 

BRIAN R. PERRY, Chairman 



PUBLICATION 

J. L. BUSFIELD, Chairman 



Members of committees to be appointed by chairmen. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 



BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND 
EDUCATION 

C. J. MACKENZIE, Chairman 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 



J. B. CHALLIES, Chairman 

R. W. ANGUS 

C. CAMSELL 

J. M. R. FAIRBAIRN 



M. .1. McHENHV 

J. C. SMITH 

H. H. VAUGHAN 



WESTERN WATER PROBLEMS 

G. A. GAHERTY, Chairman 

C. H. ATTWOOD 

CHARLES CAMSELL 

L. C. CHARLESWORTH 

T. H. HOGG 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

F. H. PETERS 

S. G PORTER 

J. M. WARDLE 



DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES 

R. B. YOUNG, Chairman 

E. VIENS, Vice-Chairman 

G. P. F. BOESE 

C. L. CAPE 

A. G. FLEMING 

W. G. GLIDDON 

O. O. LEFEBVRE 

J. A. McCRORY 

C. J. MACKENZIE 

J. H. McKINNEY 

R. M. SMITH 



PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS 

F. NEWELL, Chairman 
J. B. CHALLIES 
O. O. LEFEBVRE 



STUDENTS' AND JUNIORS' 
PRIZES 

Zone A (Western Provinces) 
H. N. Ruttan Prize 

P. M. SAUDER, Chairman 

Zone B (Province of Ontario) 
John Calbraith Prize 

E. V. BUCHANAN, Chairman 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) 
Phelps Johnson Prize 

(English) F. NEWELL, Chairman 

Ernest Marceau Prize 

(French) H. O. KEAY, Chairman 

Zone D (Maritime Provinces) 
Martin Murphy Prize 

R. L. DUNSMORE, Chairman 



110 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 

VOLUME 22 MARCH 1939 NUMBER 3 

"To facilitate the acquirement and interchange of professional knowledge 
among its members, to promote their professional interests, to encourage 
original research, to develop and maintain high standards in the engineering 
profession and to enhance the usefulness of the profession to the public." 



LOOKING FORWARD 

another annual meeting has come and gone and the presidential mantle has fallen upon my 
J\ shoulders. As I review the wearers of this mantle in the past I appreciate the great honour 
done me but even more do I appreciate the great responsibility I have accepted. To maintain the 
Institute at the level to which it has been raised is a great task; to raise it to a still higher level 
seems a very formidable one indeed. It can only be done with the active assistance of every member; 
I, therefore, bespeak for myself the same energetic support you have given your presidents in the 
past. To my immediate predecessor, I think the entire Institute owes a great debt of gratitude for 
his inspired leadership and great accomplishment. 

Our annual meeting was wonderfully successful, thanks to the Ottawa branch and the capable 
committee in charge. For the second time in two years we were honoured by the presence of His 
Excellency the Governor-General and this time we were still further honoured by the presence of 
the Lady Tweedsmuir as well. The honour which they have done the Institute shows the prominent 
place it occupies in the life of Canada today. But we must not forget that this prominence entails 
a great responsibility. The key-note of the meeting was "Service"; service not only to the profession 
but to the nation as well. This was the theme dealt with in the addresses of Dr. Wallace and Colonel 
Chevalier. It was further developed, in practice, by our sessions on western Canada's drought 
problem and by the address of the Honourable Mr. Gardiner. 

The editor of the Journal has asked me to say something about the Institute's policy for the 
coming year. I believe the annual meeting indicated clearly what our policy should be — that is, 
service to the nation at all times. To effectually accomplish anything in this line engineers should 
act as a body, not only nationally but as far as possible internationally. Hence our efforts to bring 
about a spirit of co-operation among all engineering groups in Canada will be actively continued. 
Also the good-will existing between ourselves and our cousins to the south, shown so splendidly 
by the attendance at our meeting of the strong delegation from the American engineering societies, 
shall be zealously maintained and fostered. This friendliness we believe will be greatly amplified 
by the joint meeting in New York next September, at which the American Societies are acting as 
hosts to a visiting delegation from the British Institutions, and to The Engineering Institute of 
Canada. May I digress for a moment to urge that all Canadian engineers make an attempt to be 
present at this meeting. 

Reverting to a consideration of policy I am sure that the members will be glad to learn that the 
Committee on Western Water Problems is to be continued under its present able leader, Mr. 
G. A. Gaherty, and a progress report crystallizing its findings to date is to be issued shortly. 

These policies all depend for their ultimate success, however, on the young engineer of to-day. 
He is the trustee of the future. Hence he becomes our major interest. With this in mind the Council 
has set up a strong committee consisting of older engineers, younger men in the profession, practising 
engineers and engineering teachers to consider the welfare of these younger men. It will be the 
work of this committee to deal with such matters as engineering education; the apprenticeship 
period following their formal education, the period during which the young man attains professional 
status; and his subsequent career in the profession. This committee will be representative not only 
of the groups mentioned but also of geographic divisions of the Institute, and will be directed by 
H. F. Bennett, Chairman of the London branch, a choice upon which I feel the Institute is to be 
congratulated. 

Finally, The Engineering Institute is to have the privilege during the coming year of broadcasting 
over the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation network a series of talks on engineering subjects, a 
favour which we greatly appreciate. In closing may I suggest briefly that any success attained by 
the Institute is due entirely to the efforts of its members and that usually the return which a member 
gets from his membership is in direct ratio to what he puts into that membership. Let us then forget 
all personal and regional differences and in working for the welfare of our profession and of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada ensure the service of the profession to the nation. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 111 



THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA 



OFFICERS OF BRANCHES 



BORDER CITIES 

Chairman, BOYD CANDLISH 
Vice-Chair., F. J. BRIDGE 
Executive, H. L. JOHNSTON 

W. J. FLETCHER A. E. WEST 
(Ex-Officio), E. M. KREBSER 

T. H. JENKINS 
Sec.-Treas., GEO. E. MEDLAR, 

1548 Dougall Ave., Windsor, Ont. 

CALGARY 

Chairman, E. W. BOWNESS 

Vice-Chair., S. G. COULTIS 

Executive, J. J. HANNA R. S. TROWSDALE 

F. J. HEUPERMAN 
(Ex-Officio), H. W. TOOKER H. J. McLEAN 

jas. McMillan j. haddin 

Sec.-Treas., B. W. SNYDER, 

215-6th Ave. West, 

Calgary, Alta. 

CAPE BRETON 

Chairman, I. W. BUCKLEY 

Executive, C. M. ANSON M. F. COSSITT 

J. A. MacLEOD S. G. NAISH 

(Ex-Officio) A. P. THEUERKAUF 

M. R. CHAPPELL 
Sec.-Treas., S. C. MIFFLEN, 

60 Whitney Ave., Sydney, N.S. 

EDMONTON 

Chairman, W. E. CORNISH 
Vice-Chair., C. E. GARNETT 
Executive, E. NELSON D. A. HANSEN 

E. L. SMITH J. W. PORTEOUS 
E. SKARIN 
(Ex-Officio), J. D. BAKER W. R. MOUNT 

Sec.-Treas., F. A. BROWNIE, 
11009-86th Ave., 

Edmonton, Alta. 

HALIFAX 

Chairman, A. D. NICKERSON 

Executive, E. L. BAILLIE S. BELL 

A. G. MAHON S. W. GREY 

C. ST. J. WILSON 

H. R. THEAKSTON 
(Ex-Officio), I. P. MacNAB 

R. L. DUNSMORE 
Sec.-Treas., R. R. MURRAY, 

c/o Wm. Stairs Son & Morrow Ltd., 
Halifax, N.S. 

HAMILTON 

Chairman, J. R. DUNBAR 
Vice-Chair., V. S. THOMPSON 
Executive, W. A. T. GILMOUR C. H. HUTTON 
S. SHUPE N. WAGNER 

(Ex-Officio), H. A. LUMSDEN W. J. W. REID 
Sec.-Treas., A. R. HANNAFORD, 
354 Herkimer Street, 

Hamilton, Ont. 

KINGSTON 

Chairman, H. W. HARKNESS 
Vice-Chair., G. G. M. CARR-HARRIS 
Executive, A. JACKSON V. R. DAVIES 

R. A. LOW 
(Ex-Officio), H. H. LAWSON L. F. GRANT 

Sec.-Treas., H. G. CONN, 
376 Earl St., 

Kingston, Ont. 



LAKEHEAD 

Chairman, 

Vice-Chair., 

Executive, 



E. L. GOODALL 
K. A. DUNPHY 
J. R. MATHIESON 
D. BOYD 
B. A. CULPEPER 
S. E. FLOOK 



H. OLSSON 

M. GREGOR 

E. A. KELLY 

A. T. HURTER 



(Ex-Officio), G. R. DUNCAN P.E.DONCASTER 
Sec.-Treas., H. OS, 

423 Rita St., Port Arthur, Ont. 



LETHBRIDGE 

Chairman, R. F. P. BOWMAN 

Vice-Chair., J. T. WATSON 

Executive, WM. MELDRUM P. M. SAUDER 

(Ex-Officio), J.M.CAMPBELL W.D.McKENZIE 

C. S. DONALDSON G. S. BROWN 
Sec.-Treas., E. A. LAWRENCE, 
916-8th St. S., 

Lethbridge, Alta. 



LONDON 

Chairman, H. F. BENNETT 
Vice-Chair., W. E. ANDREWES 
Executive, H. A. McKAY V. A. McKILLOP 
W. C. MILLER W. H. RIEHL 

J. R. ROSTRON 
(Ex-Officio), E. V. BUCHANAN J. A. VANCE 
Sec.-Treas., D. S. SCRYMGEOUR 

London Structural Steel Co. Ltd., 
London, Ont. 

MONCTON 

Chairman, B. E. BAYNE 

Vice-Chair., F. L. WEST 

Executive, F. O. CONDON A. S. GUNN 

G. L. DICKSON, C. S. G. ROGERS 
R. H. EMMERSON G. E. SMITH 

(Ex-Officio) E. B. MARTIN H. W. McKIEL 

Sec.-Treas., V. C. BLACKETT, 

Engrg. Dept., C.N.R., Moncton, N.B. 



MONTREAL 

Chairman, C. KIRKLAND McLEOD 

Vice-Chair., J. A. E. GOHIER 

Executive, J. A. BEAUCHEMIN 
G. J. CHENEVERT 
R. E. HEARTZ R. S, EADIE 

K. O. WHYTE G. McL. PITTS 

(Ex-Officio), J. B. D'AETH A. DUPERRON 

H. MASSUE J. L. BUSFIELD 

F. NEWELL R. H. FINDLAY 

J. B. CHALLIES B. R. PERRY 

Sec.-Treas., E. R. SMALLHORN. 

P. O. Box 132, Hochelaga Station, 
Montreal, Que. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA 

Chairman, C. G. MOON 

Vice-Chair., A. W. F. McQUEEN 

Executive, A. L. McPHAIL C. G. CLINE 

M. H. JONES P. E. BUSS 

D. W. BRACKEN E. C. LITTLE 
C. H. McL. BURNS 

(Ex-Officio), W. R. MANOCK L. C. McMURTRY 

Sec.-Treas., G. E. GRIFFITHS, 

Box 385, Thorold, Ont. 

OTTAWA 

Chairman, J. H. PARKIN 

Executive. N. MARR H. V. ANDERLON 

W. L. SAUNDERS R. A. STRONG 
R. M. STEWART 
(Ex-Officio), G. J. DESBARATS E. VIENS 

W. F. M.BRYCE 
Sec.-Treas., R. K. ODELL 

Dept. of Mines & Resources, 

Ottawa, Ont. 



PETERBOROUGH 

Chairman, W. T. FANJOY 

Executive, B. I. BURGESS I. F. McRAE 

B. OTTEWELL R. L. DOBBIN 

G. A. CUNNINGHAM 
(Ex-Officio), V. R. CURRIE A. B. GATES 

Sec.-Treas., A. L. MALBY, 

303 Rubidge St., 

Peterborough, Ont. 



QUEBEC 

Hon. Chair., 
Chairman, 
Vice-Chair., 
Executive, 



(Ex-Officio) 
Sec.-Treas., 



A. R. DECARY 

R. B. McDUNNOUGH 

PHILIPPE METHE 

J. J. O'DONNELL M. BOURGET 

L. MARTIN A. O. DUFRESNE 

C.H.BOISVERT E. GRAY-DONALD 

A. B. NORMANDIN H. CIMON 

A. LARIVIERE 

JEAN SAINT-JACQUES 

Quebec Power Co., P.O. Box 730, 

Quebec, Que 



SAGUENAY 

Chairman, M. G. SAUNDERS 
Vice-Chair., ADAM CUNNINGHAM 
Executive, F. L. LAWTON R. H. RIMMER 
A. B. SINCLAIR G. F. LAYNE 

(Ex-Officio) A. C. JOHNSTON 
Sec.-Treas., F. T. BOUTILIER, 

Box 101, Arvida, Que. 



SAINT JOHN 

Chairman, H. W. BLAKE 

Vice-Chair., H. F. MORRISEY 

Executive, H. P. LINGLEY G. N. HATFIELD 

G. G. MURDOCH 
(Ex-Officio) E. J. OWENS S. HOGG 

Sec.-Treas., F. A. PATRIQUEN, 

10 Manawagonish Rd., 

Fairville, N.B 

ST. MAURICE VALLEY 

Chairman, F. W. BRADSHAW 
Vice-Chair., C. H. CHAMPION 
Executive, N. J. A. VERMETTE H.G.TIMMIS 

A. H. HEATLEY W. B. SCOTT 

L. B. STIRLING H. O. KEAY 

J. H. FREGEAU 

K. S. LeBARON 
(Ex-Officio), H. J. WARD E. B. WARDLE 

Sec.-Treas., V. JEPSON, 

Cons. Paper Corp. Ltd., 

Grand'Mere, Que. 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman, J. W. D. FARRELL 

Vice-Chair., I. M. FRASER 

Executive, R. W. ALLEN S. R. MUIRHEAD 
H. S. CARPENTER W. E. LOVELL 
A. R. GREIG R. A. McLELLAN 

H. I. NICHOLL J. E. UNDERWOOD 

(Ex-Officio), A. P. LINTON 

Sec.-Treas., J. J. WHITE, 

City Hall, Regina, Sask. 



SAULT STE. MARIE 

Chairman, A. E. PICKERING 

Vice-Chair., A. M. WILSON 

Executive, G. B. ANDERSON N. C. COWTE 

C. R. MURDOCK 

E. W. NEELANDS 
(Ex-Officio), J. L. LANG J. S. MACLEOD 

Sec.-Treas., O. A. EVANS, 

179 Denis St., Sault Ste Marie, Ont. 



TORONTO 

Chairman, C. E. SISSON 
Vice-Chair., A. E. BERRY 

Executive, N. MacNICOL W. E. P. DUNCAN 

H. E. BRANDON G. H. ROGERS 

D. D. WHITSON M. B. WATSON 

(Ex-Officio), O. HOLDEN A. U. SANDERSON 

Sec-Treas., J. J. SPENCE, 

Engrg. Bldg., University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 



VANCOUVER 

Chairman, ERNEST SMITH 

Vice-Chair., C. E. WEBB 

Executive, V. DOLMAGE C. A. DAVIDSON 
A. PEEBLES G. O. JOHNSON 

W. O. C. SCOTT P. H. BUCHAN 

(Ex-Officio), J. P. MACKENZIE 
JAS. ROBERTSON 

Sec.-Treas., T. V. BERRY, 

3007-36th Ave. W., 

Vancouver, B.C. 

VICTORIA 

Chairman, K. MOOD IE 

Vice-Chair., H. L. SHERWOOD 

Executive, S. H. FRAME E. I. W. JARDINE 

E. W. IZARD R. E. WILKINS 

(Ex-Officio), J. C. MacDONALD 

I. C. BARLTROP 
Sec.-Treas., KENNETH REID, 

1336 Carnsew St., Victoria, B.C 



WINNIPEG 

Chairman, W. D. HURST 
Vice-Chair., L. M. HOVEY 
Executive, G. C. DAVIS C. H. ATTWOOD 

V. H. PATRIARCHE J. T. ROSE 

J. A. MacGILLIVRAY 
(Ex-Officio), A. E. MACDONALD H. L. BRIGGS 

A. J. TAUNTON 
Sec.-Treas., J. HOOGSTRATEN, 

University of Manitoba, 

Fort Garry, Man. 



112 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SOIL MECHANICS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING 

By WILLIAM P. KIMBALL 

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, Thayer School of Civil Engineering, Dartmouth College 

Paper presented before the Montreal Branch of The Engineering Institute of Canada, March 31, 1938 



SUMMARY — A review of advances in foundation practice based 
on soil mechanics, with comment on the misuse of precedent 
and the limitations of field tests. Notes the application of soil 
mechanics principles in proposals to state allowable bearing 
values for various types of soil. 

Soil mechanics has been defined as the science which 
treats of the properties, behaviour and treatment of soil 
for engineering purposes. It has found applications in three 
major fields, dams, highways and foundations. In limiting 
this paper to its applications in foundation engineering it 
is not intended to minimize its importance in the con- 
struction of dams and highways. Very extensive research 
resulting in practical applications has been carried on in 
these fields by consulting engineers, engineering schools, 
U.S. Army engineers and other branches of the federal and 
state governments. The soil analyses made by the Army 
engineers on earth dams for the Muskingum flood control 
projects in Ohio and by the Experiment Station in Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, on the design of levees have been out- 
standing in the development of the science of soil mechanics. 
So also have the activities of the Federal Bureau of Public 
Roads and of several of the state highway departments in 
soil stabilization and drainage and in the elimination of 
frost heaves. A recent example of the application of soil 
mechanics to dam analysis is found in the investigation of 
the failure of the Marshall Creek earth dam in Kansas. The 
committee appointed to investigate the causes of failure, 
conducted laboratory tests and applied the theory of circular 
failure path developed by the Swedish Geotechnical Com- 
mission. As a result of this analysis, which could just as 
well have been made before the inadequate structure was 
built, the committee found a factor of safety for the 
dam of 0.86, an indication of the failure which actually 
occurred. 

As a teacher of a college course in foundation engineering, 
the author has the opportunity as well as the obligation to 
review each year the developments in foundation practice 
and in soil mechanics and to evaluate the progress made 
in terms of its actual value as a contribution to the science 
of foundations. A teacher who includes in his course any 
material, the actual value of which he cannot clearly see, 
is not serving the profession or the students fairly. In soil 
mechanics the problem of what to teach is especially 
difficult because nobody knows the extent to which much 
of our soil mechanics may or may not be of value. Each 
year new contributions of significance are made and must 
be taught. Each year some of our beliefs, hypotheses, 
methods need to be revised and sometimes discarded in the 
light of newly acquired knowledge. Nevertheless the need 
for some scientific analysis of soil conditions has been 
confirmed in recent years by the warm reception which 
foundation engineers have given to this embryo science. 
The inconsistency of building structures whose every part 
is subjected to rigid mathematical analysis and laboratory 
tests on a material of such unknown properties as soil has 
become recognized more and more strongly by engineers. 
They are no longer willing to accept this inconsistency 
and they welcome studies which aim to eliminate the 
unknowns of foundation work. 

Hypotheses and beliefs and wishful thinking alone do not 
keep structures from settling or cracking, or highways from 
acquiring washboard surfaces or dams from being washed 
out. Many a structure has stood the test of time when built 
on these things — and good luck. Many have failed when 
built on these things — and bad luck. While there are many 
beliefs and hypotheses in soil mechanics, there are also 
plenty of facts and plenty of sound basic principles. 



It is proposed to outline in this paper how precedents, 
interpreted in the light of soil mechanics analysis, may be 
applied to the design of foundations; to present the soil 
mechanics of pile foundations; to outline desirable methods 
of soil exploration; to discuss the interpretation of field 
loading tests and the application of allowable bearing values 
to various types of soil; to show how the contributions of 
soil mechanics may be incorporated into building codes; 
and to outline very briefly the methods of making settle- 
ment analyses of structures. 

There is one never-failing criterion for foundation design, 
one panacea for all soil problems, one "yardstick" for which 
soil mechanicians can claim little credit, for which they 
have to thank those who have been engineers and builders 
for many years. This panacea is precedent; unfortunately, 
precedent can only be safely applied to a very small propor- 
tion of foundation problems. But the principles of soil 
mechanics may help a good deal to establish the extent 
of the similarity which is often apparent between existing 
and proposed structures. Apparently, soil technicians in 
general are prone to disregard valuable precedents which 
may be available to them, but the practical foundation 
engineers are also guilty of disregard, in their case the 
disregard of factors which may cause apparently identical 
structures to behave very differently. 

As an example of the misuse of precedent, a large and 
heavy double-deck bridge was recently constructed which 
for some distance runs parallel to a trestle supported on 
timber pile bents. The soil profile along the line of the 
bridge indicated that no useful purpose could be served by 
bearing piles under the heavy piers. In fact, according to 
soil mechanics developments it appeared that piles would 
be detrimental rather than helpful. The recommendation 
was therefore made that the timber piles tentatively 
scheduled to be driven be omitted. The engineers in charge 
of the design, however, pointed to the precedent of the 
pile bent trestle which had served its purpose satisfactorily 
for many years. They said the piles had worked there, so 
they should work under the piers of the new bridge. The 
piles were driven. No settlement records of the bridge are 
yet available, nor perhaps ever will be. But where is the 
fallacy in this precedent ? It lies in the vast difference 
between the types of structures under consideration. The 
first is a light timber trestle supported at intervals by pile 
bents. The loads on these bents are largely live, intermit- 
tent loads; the dead loads are very light. There is no con- 
centration of loads; they are pretty uniformly spread over 
the length of the trestle. And, finally, there is no record to 
show what the behaviour of the trestle has actually been. 
It may have settled many inches without any serious effect 
on the structure. Or it may not have settled at all, of course. 
No one knows. The new bridge, in contrast, is heavily 
constructed to carry both automobile and interurban trolley 
traffic. The loads are not spread over the length of the 
bridge; they are concentrated at piers almost 300 feet apart. 
Pile groups do not consist of a few lightly loaded piles; 
they consist of several hundred, closely-spaced, heavily- 
loaded piles. Most of the load carried by these piles is not 
intermittent; it is dead, continuously applied. And finally, 
settlements, if they occur, will not only be unsightly to 
the contour of the structure, but will cause considerable 
disturbance to trolley track alignment and to the rigid 
concrete pavement of the bridge. The engineers did make 
one concession to the soil analysis. They provided the end 
connections of the trusses with jacking plates, "just in 
case" the settlements predicted might occur. Anyway, they 
drove piles; and what more could they do than that? 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



113 



As an example of the proper use of precedent, there is a 
heavy office building in one of our eastern cities. It was 
constructed on timber piles because the underlying soil 
consisted of soft clay, and the engineers were concerned 
over the possibility of settlement. They had reason to be. 
The records to date show an average of about nine inches 
settlement, and it keeps on going. The differential settle- 
ments have been serious enough to necessitate heavy 
maintenance expenditures. Not long after the construction 
of this building a similar building was planned to be erected 
on the same kind of soft clay. The engineers who designed 
this building were concerned about settlements, too. They 
looked at the first building, and they saw the similarity 
between the types of structures and the types of soil profiles, 
and they believed in precedent. So they didn't drive piles. 
Soil mechanics told them not to anyway, and so did their 
precedent. Instead they excavated about twenty feet of 
overburden, poured a concrete mat and Vierendeel truss 
foundation over the whole area and erected their building on 
that. The last observed settlement to date was about two 
inches, and the differential settlement has been negligible. 
Of course this matter of precedent can be carried to extremes, 
as it is in Mexico City, where the precedent of existing 
structures seems to suggest that the only sure way to get 
a three-story building is to build one three-and-a-half 
stories high. 

The foregoing examples suggest that there are soil con- 
ditions in which piles may be not only useless but actually 



SOFT 



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SOFT CLAY 



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CLAY 



SOFT 



CLAY 



vite? 

SOFT ClAY 






COMPACT; 



JAUO 

■*■ ** ■ V 



CLAY 



Fig. 1 — Instances of beneficial and detrimental use of piling. 

detrimental. That this statement is true has recently come 
to our attention both through settlement observations and 
through the scientific analysis of the structure of various 
types of soil. That the fact remained obscured so long is 
attributable to over-reliance on the results of driving 
observations and pile-loading tests, and to the feeling that, 
"It's a good thing we drove piles. The settlement has been 
bad enough. Think what it would have been without the 
piles." The unreliability of bearing capacities based on pile- 
driving records is universally recognized by engineers who 
have intelligently observed the driving of piles. That the 
resistance of piles to redriving, following a period of rest 
after driving, is likely to be very different from their 
resistance to the original driving has been demonstrated 
innumerable times. Generally the resistance to redriving is 
greater. Occasionally it is less, occasionally the same. Last 



summer the author had the opportunity to record the driving 
records of long timber piles for the foundation of a bridge 
on the site of the New York World's Fair. After a rest 
period of one to two minutes the driving resistance would 
increase from, say, 12 blows of a Vulcan No. 1 hammer 
per ft. of penetration to fifty blows. Sometimes the increase 
was less, sometimes greater. In other types of soil the rest 
period required is much longer, overnight perhaps. Such 
observations are substantiated by theoretical considerations 
of the soil types and establish beyond doubt the fact that 
in all but dry, cohesionless soils, a type seldom encountered, 
the resistance to driving bears no definite relation to its 
resistance to loading, which after all is what we are inter- 
ested in. Furthermore, it can be shown that a short-time 
load-test on a pile — a test is seldom continued longer than 
a week — while it may be an indication of the ultimate 
bearing capacity of that pile, does not necessarily give any 
information regarding the bearing capacity of a group of 
piles or, more important, regarding the settlement which 
may be expected under long-continued load. Thus it becomes 
apparent that the sufficiency of a pile foundation cannot 
necessarily be determined by driving records or even load 
tests. The only true criterion is scientific analysis of the 
soil profile. Hard and fast rules are dangerous in this field, 
but here is one for pile driving: If the compaction of the 
soil which must carry the load of the building overbalances 
the injury to the structure of the soil, or if the load can be 
transmitted through weaker materials to better load- 
carrying strata below, piles should be driven. Otherwise 
they should not. Considering the two extreme types of 
soil through which piles are most generally driven, cohesive 
clay and granular sand, and realizing that there are all 
gradations of soils between the extremes, we can make the 
following statements which are generally true: Clay is 
displaced more than it is compacted by the driving of piles, 
and the geologic structure is seriously impaired. Sand is 
compacted or displaced depending upon its original density, 
and its geologic structure is not appreciably injured. 
Figure 1 shows several generalized cases where piles should 
be driven or should not be driven in accordance with 
these rules. 

In the upper row three cases are illustrated where piles 
are decidedly beneficial. In the first case the piles carry 
the building load through a soft layer of clay to a firm 
underlying stratum of sand; in the second case the loose sand 
deposit is compacted, thereby increasing its load resistance; 
and in the third case the load is carried to unyielding rock 
through bearing piles. In the middle row the first case 
illustrates an all too common use of piles where no beneficial 
result can be expected. The sand is already compact and 
the driving of piles cannot further compact or solidify the 
deposit. No harm is done except in the useless expenditure 
of money. In such a deposit if jetting is required it is a pretty 
good indication that no beneficial compacting can be 
expected. The second case illustrates a narrow footing on 
soft clay where there is a danger of failure by lateral flow 
of the underlying material along the lines indicated. In such 
cases timber piles are often driven to add stability to the 
footing. This practice, however, may damage the structure 
of the clay so as to induce excessive settlements. An alter- 
native remedy is suggested in the third picture. This 
consists of steel sheet piling driven around the footing. This 
treatment should produce the desired stability of the foot- 
ing, since the flow path is greatly increased, as shown, 
without inducing the excessive settlement which would be 
caused by disturbance of the underlying the clay by bearing 
piles. The lower row illustrates cases in which the driving 
of piles may be detrimental. In the first case no compaction 
can be expected, and the breakdown of the geologic structure 
of the clay may result in excessive settlement. The same is 
true of the second case in which the clay, which must 
ultimately carry the load of the building, is weakened by 
the penetration of the piles. A better solution of this 
problem would be a mat foundation at the top of the sand 



114 



March. 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



stratum. In the third case the piles can effect no beneficial 
compaction of the already compact sand and merely tend 
to intensify the stresses which must be carried by the 
underlying compressible clay deposit. 

A comparison with existing structures should undoubtedly 
begin with a careful study of the soil profile, and this means 
borings reliably made and reported and samples taken and 
preserved with an understanding of and a regard for the 
purposes and tests of the samples. The boring and sampling 
procedure is the backbone of all soil analysis. It is a simple 
matter to obtain satisfactory soil samples, and the expense 
involved in even the most elaborate sampling programme 
is almost negligible. Yet surprisingly few foundation soil 
profiles are adequately explored. Preliminary borings should 
generally be made by the combined wash-boring and drive- 
sampling method. In this method the casing is advanced 
by the familiar wash method, but samples are taken by 
means of a drive sampling spoon. The old-fashioned wash 
samples scooped out of the bottom of a tub of wash water 
are worse than useless. They are definitely misleading. 
The coarse material never reaches the tub and the fine 
material remains suspended in the water. The drive 
samples, though not undisturbed, are accurate and are 
suitable for some tests. They are used for classification — 
as sand, silt, clay — and for estimating their compactness, 
cementation, and structure and perhaps for rough deter- 
minations of moisture content. The soil analysis may end 
with the immediate visual inspection of these samples, for 
there is no doubt that an experienced engineer is able to 
determine merely by inspection that certain soils are 
satisfactory for the loads anticipated. Or the inspection of 
the samples may leave the engineer in doubt as to their 
load-resisting properties. In this case simple routine labor- 
atory tests such as moisture content, mechanical analysis, 
density, liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit 
determinations may be made on the drive samples for the 
purpose of more exact identification. If the results of these 
tests indicate that the load-resisting properties of the soil 
can be determined only by more elaborate tests such as 
shear, permeability and consolidation tests it will become 
necessary to obtain undisturbed samples. The term 
"undisturbed" is used loosely and means merely a sample 
taken and transferred to the laboratory in as nearly its 
original state as the best methods so far developed make 
possible. There has been great development in sampling 
spoons during the past ten years. The importance of testing 
undisturbed samples was first recognized about 1930, at 
which time improvements were begun on the open end 
pipe which until that time was the most scientific sampling 
spoon in general use. Through the various stages of devel- 
opment since 1930 the improved sampling spoon shown in 
Fig. 2 has been evolved. The essential features of this device 
are: the removable liner tube in which the sample is pre- 
served for shipment to the laboratory; the inset cutting edge 
which relieves side friction and drag on the sample as the 
spoon is jacked into the ground; the piano-wire loop which 
cuts the sample near the bottom of the cutting edge; and 
the tubes for drawing a vacuum above the sample and 
applying pressure below it as the spoon is withdrawn from 
the ground. The author has gone into this detail in the 
description of sampling devices because he feels that perhaps 
ninety per cent of foundation problems can be solved merely 
by an adequate sampling programme and intelligent in- 
spection of the samples. For the other ten per cent, and this 
minority includes many major projects, more elaborate soil 
mechanics procedure is advisable. 

Probably the outstanding example of the application of 
soil mechanics principles to general foundation problems is 
the proposed Code on Excavations and Foundations of the 
Boston Building Code. The Code specifies in connection 
with borings, for example, that "Washed or bucket samples 
shall not be accepted." 

Field loading tests, long used to supplement borings, have 
found more definite but less broad application in the light 



of soil mechanics knowledge, for scientific studies indicate 
both theoretically and by actual comparison the limitations 
of field tests in predicting the behaviour of full-sized struc- 
tures. The Boston Code, by differentiating with regard to 
both soil types and footing types, aims to do away with 
the indiscriminate application of loading tests to foundation 
design. In recognition of the fact that the bearing capacity 
and settlement of a foundation vary with the ratio of its 
width to its depth below the ground surface the Code 



Sa// c/ttck voira attach»/ /frt 



Vacuum' 




ajj<mi>led 
Itnft/t 



Fig. 2 — Improved form of sampling spoon 

specifies that this ratio be the same for test and structure. 
The occurrence of progressive, long-time settlement in clay 
is recognized in the Code by a paragraph requiring further 
investigations of clay subsoils at the discretion of the 
commissioner. Thus test-load settlements of three-eighths 
inch under design load, or one inch under twice the design 
load, are accepted in the case of rock or granular soils, such 
as gravel or sand. But when clay or rock flour soils are 
involved there is no such definitely established criterion of 
satisfactory behaviour; and where the proposed foundation 
is to be underlaid by a thick stratum of clay or by a stratum 
of clay varying considerably in thickness "the commissioner 
may require an analysis to be made of the probable magni- 
tude, rate and distribution of settlement of the proposed 
structure. Such analysis may be based upon: (1) A study of 
settlement records of nearby structures having essentially 
the same foundation conditions; (2) Consolidation tests and 
other investigations of undisturbed samples of the com- 
pressible materials." 

Building codes traditionally include a list of allowable 
bearing values for various types of soil. They specify that 
these values may not be exceeded in the absence of satis- 
factory tests. Some codes are actually indiscreet enough to 
name them "safe bearing values." Soil mechanics, settle- 
ment observations, and logic all emphasize the fallacies of 
assigning definite bearing values to vaguely defined soil 
types. In a particular location the practice is unwise enough. 
If the locality is not specified, as in the 1934 Building Code 
of the National Board of Fire Underwriters, the practice 
is entirely unjustifiable. For example this code states: "In 
the absence of satisfactory tests, the sustaining power per 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



115 



sq. ft. of soils shall be deemed as follows: soft clay, one ton; 
wet sand, two tons; coarse sand, four tons," etc. No further 
description of the soils listed is given anywhere in the code. 
An architect or engineer designing a structure is led to 
believe that the worst soil may be safely loaded to one ton 
per sq. ft. no matter what size, shape or type of structure 
is being designed; or that coarse sand may be safely loaded 
to four tons per sq. ft. regardless of the type of structure, 
the compactness or thickness of the coarse sand stratum, 
or the type of soil underlying it. Properly interpreted these 
values may be helpful to a designing engineer, but blind 
acceptance of them has been responsible for many found- 
ation inadequacies and failures. In the January, 1938, issue 
of Civil Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers), 
Jacob Feld, who has been a consulting engineer on found- 
ations in New York City for many years, says, "The total 
money loss caused by necessary repairs from unequal 
settlement is probably greater than that caused by fire loss." 

Referring specifically to the sustaining powers quoted 
from the Underwriters' Code, it may be mentioned that 
disastrous settlements have been recorded for buildings 
imposing loads of considerably less than one ton per sq. ft. 
on soft clay; and of course wet sand can be found which 
will safely sustain not two but six tons per sq. ft., whereas 
in its worst form, as quicksand, it may be entirely incapable 
of supporting any load at all. 

As a sensible working compromise between the only safe 
method of prescribing allowable bearing values — that is, 
not to prescribe them — and the other extreme as we have 
found it in the Fire Underwriters' Code, the proposed Boston 
Code states: "The maximum pressure on soils under founda- 
tions shall not exceed the allowable bearing values set forth 
. . . subject to the modifications of subsequent paragraphs 
of this section: . . . soft clay (a clay which, when freshly 
sampled, can be moulded under relatively slight pressure of 
the fingers) : one ton per sq. ft. . . . coarse loose sand (a 
sand consisting chiefly of grains which will be retained on a 
65-mesh sieve and is readily removable by shoveling only) : 
three tons per sq. ft.", etc. Note first of all that the materials 
are quite closely defined, and note particularly the modifica- 
tions which are essentially as follows: 

If the loaded area on rock is more than two feet below 
the lowest adjacent surface of sound rock, the tabulated 
allowable bearing value may be increased by 20 per cent 
for each foot of additional depth up to twice the tabulated 
values. Similarly, for granular materials such as sand or 
gravel the tabulated values may be increased by 23^ per 
cent for each foot of depth up to twice the tabulated values. 
See Fig. 3. 

For very small footings on granular materials, if the least 
lateral dimension is less than three feet, the allowable value 
is limited to one-third the tabulated value multiplied by 
the least lateral dimension. 



The values tabulated for cohesive materials such as clay 
or rock flour — sometimes called inorganic silt or just plain 
silt — apply to pressures directly under individual footings, 
walls and piers. The total load of any major portion of a 
building on these soils, minus the weight of excavated 
material, divided by the area of the bay is limited to one-half 
the tabulated value. 

Furthermore, the Code considers the occurrence of weaker 
soils at a depth below a foundation area by limiting the 



EL 01 

El -* 



120 



EL-IB 



200 



SOUNP BEDROCK 



EL -4 I— I 



COARSE LOOSE SAHD 



ALLOWABLE BEARING VALUES 

Tons pcr So. Ft. 



Fig. 3 — Proposed scheme of allowable bearing values for Boston 
Building Code. 



allowable pressure at that depth to the tabulated value for 
the soil type existing there. The calculation of pressure at 
a point below a loaded area is a complicated problem in 
elasticity and is one of the major concerns of mathematical 
technicians in the soil field ; but the Boston Code, recognizing 
the approximate nature of allowable bearing values, recom- 
mends that these pressures be computed by the practical 
approximate method of considering the foundation load as 
spread uniformly at an angle of 60 deg. with the horizontal 
but not into areas within the 60 deg. lines of adjacent 
foundations. 

And, finally, the code imposes the restriction that the 
tabulated values may not be applied at all to buildings 
which rest partially on soft clay or rock flour and partially 
on other materials. In such cases the commissioner may 
require a settlement analysis based on settlement observa- 
tions of existing structures and on soil mechanics tests. 



116 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURES 

A. W. SKEMPTON, M.Sc, A.C.G.I., D.I.C. 
Published in Engineering, September 30, 1938, and reproduced herewith by special arrangement with Engineering 



SUMMARY — Describes the methods of ascertaining settlement 
in structures, sampling substrata, making laboratory tests on 
the samples, and analyzing the results, which have been 
adopted in Britain by the Building Research Station of the 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. 

A knowledge of the settlements which a proposed engin- 
eering structure will undergo, both during and after 
construction, is of importance in design from two main 
points of view. In the first place, owing to differential settle- 
ment and the resulting secondary stresses, there will be a 
lowering of the true factor of safety with time, this being of 
particular importance in the case of modern rigid-frame 
buildings or arch bridges. Secondly, with such structures as 
chemical plant or the roadway of a bridge, it may be 
desirable to eliminate the effects of settlement by making 
provision so that such movements as occur will do so with- 
out causing any harm. In the past, foundation design has 
been considered rather from the point of view of safe 
bearing pressure of the soil than from that of settlement of 
the structure, although as some settlement must necessarily 
occur, the correct procedure is obviously to calculate what 
the movements will be and modify the design, should they 
be too great. Settlements can be reasonably estimated by 
the scientific methods developed during the last twelve 
years, largely by Terzaghi 1 and his followers. These replace 
the traditional bearing test, which yields little information 
on this point, owing to its empirical nature. A great deal of 
research has still to be carried out, but modern methods of 
analysis have achieved considerable success and are generally 
recognized as constituting an increasingly important factor 
in structural design. 



Fig.1. 




FU,.2. 



Grub Screw 



•vwiwswuwnHwwl/ 



Plug Seating set in 
Cement Mortar 



ProUctinq 
Tube 




Fig. 3. 



Stop- cock 
rCoverBox 



t _, S Level i 




ViJHa,Scd, 




(6S1I..A) 



At the present time an essential part of research on the 
subject is to obtain settlement records, as they enable cor- 
relation with theory to be made and the types of settlement 
to be classified. Observations are made by taking levels 
from a datum point to various points on the building. The 
method used by the Building Research Station, with which 

* Paper read before Section G of the British Association, at Cam- 
bridge, on August 24, 1938. 

1 von Terzaghi, K., E rdbaumechanik ;. Franz Deuticke, Vienna, 1925. 



the author is connected, is to have a brass plug which can 
be temporarily screwed into a socket cemented into the wall 
at ground level, as shown in Fig. 1. The plug is spherically 
ended and a special staff is held vertically on this end. The 
datum is established at a sufficient distance to remain 
unaffected by stresses due to the foundation load, and con- 
sists of a long rod sunk in the ground and protected from 
earth movements by a surrounding tube, as shown in Fig. 2. 
In hard ground a simpler type is used, and this is illustrated 
in Fig. 3. So far as it is possible to generalize, it has been 
found'- that there are three main types of settlement, de- 
pending on the nature of the sub-stratum, responsible for 
settlement, and these are shown in Fig. 4. In the case of 
sand the movements do not continue for any appreciable 
time after construction, whereas for clay, the settlement 



^ 5 - rîB^, 

Rod^ 




SenXancnL 



l£MHNEEKINO r 



continues long after construction, approaching a horizontal 
asymptote. With plastic clays and materials of high organic 
content a similar gradual settlement is observed, but here 
the asymptote is inclined. Table I has been prepared 3 from 
the records of 72 bridges built in connection with the 
Reichsautobahnen, and shows very clearly the importance of 
settlement of structures on clay or soft alluvial deposits. 

The settlement of a building with clay as the most im- 
portant sub-stratum may be quite small at the end of con- 
struction, smaller, for example, than if it were on sand, yet 
the final or total settlement may be many times greater, 
reaching the figures quoted below. 

The procedure adopted for settlement analysis in the case 
of a clay substratum may now be considered: (1) A visit is 
paid to the site and with the usual well-boring kit and 
special sampling tube, cores of the various substrata are 
obtained in an undisturbed state. The depth to which such 
sampling is taken depends on the individual conditions, but 
depths of 50 ft. are common and for large structures this 
must be greater. (2) Laboratory tests are carried out on the 
samples to determine their consolidation characteristics. 
(3) A mathematical analysis of the stresses set up in the 
sub-strata by the foundation load is carried out, and from 
the laboratory tests the rate of, and final value of, the com- 

2 von Terzaghi, K., "The Actual Factor of Safety in Foundations." 
Structural Engineer, Vol. 13 (No. 3), pages 126-160(1935). 

3 Casagrande, A., "Subsidence in Bridge Constructions on the 
German State Arterial Roads." International Association for Bridge 
and Structural Engineering, 2nd Congress, Berlin, 1936. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



117 



pression which the clay will undergo as a result of these 
stresses is estimated. 

Cores are obtained by drilling to a certain depth, with- 
drawing the auger and substituting a sampling tube. The 
sampling tube used by the Building Research Station for 
obtaining undisturbed cores consists of a steel cylinder of 
4j in. internal diameter with a cutting nose which has a 
slightly smaller diameter and is proud on the outer face. 
This tube is fixed on to the rods by an adaptor with a ball- 

Fig.6. 

STRUCTURE OF UNDISTURBED MARINE CLAY XIO* 

' Clay Particles 

. CoUcfidcH 

ParttcUs ofLowDegree^ 
çfCcmsoUaation. <£ 



Table I 




(«531 O.) 



' tonEBVEEREVG 



valve air exit, as shown in Fig. 5. The tube is driven into 
the clay, and when full, a twist shears the clay and the 
apparatus is withdrawn. The core is retained owing to the 
ball- valve action and by the slight expansion of the clay 
after it has passed the cutting nose. The hole is then deep- 
ened and another core taken, until a complete record is 
obtained. In their natural state, clays have a complex 
cellular micro-structure, illustrated in Fig. 6, and if this is 
in any way broken down, the properties of the clay will be 
changed 4 . The importance of this effect will be realized, for 
London clay is nearly twice as compressible when remoulded 
as in its natural state. It is not possible to obtain cores from 
a bore-hole in a completely natural state, but the relief of 
the cutting nose minimizes disturbance by preventing fric- 
tional drag between the core and the tube, and examination 
of the samples shows distortion for only a very short dis- 
tance (about § in. for London clay) from the circumference. 
To illustrate the method of analysis, let it be assumed 



1^.7 



-KM? 

; Vnifvrm.LoaiL-'lTon*jxrS<i.Ft.^ 




- '"/viVHtKW^/JVWi'^'' 



(652 IS) 



Rock 



"engbjekbinu' 



that the strata beneath the proposed building are as shown 
in Fig. 7. During the construction period, settlements due 
to the elastic compression of the sand, and to a lesser extent 
of the clay, will occur. Experience has shown 5 that in many 

4 Casagrande, A., "The Structure of Clay and its Importance in 
Foundation Engineering." Journ. Boston Soc. CE., Vol. 19 (No. 4), 
pages 168-221 (1932). 

6 von Terzaghi, K., and Frôhlich, O. K., Théorie der Setzung von 
Tonschichten. Franz Deuticke, Vienna, 1936. 



Soil Type 


Loading 


Total 
Settlement 


Sand, gravel 

Sandy or gravelly clays 

Clav loam 


Tons per 

square foot 

1 . 5—3 . 

2.5—4.0 

1—2.5 

1—2.0 


In. 

0—1 

2—8 


Alluvial silt, etc 


8—40 



cases this instantaneous settlement is small in comparison 
with the subsequent gradual settlement due to consolida- 
tion of the clay, and it will, therefore, be neglected. In those 
cases, however, where the foundation rests on a deep homo- 
geneous clay stratum, the settlement due to elastic com- 
pression is of importance, and may be calculated from 
elastic theory and a knowledge of the compression modulus 
of the clay. A paper on the method of calculation is being 
prepared at the Building Research Station for publication. 
Now the clay at any depth has been subject for many cen- 
turies to a pressure equal to the over burden (with due 
allowance for hydrostatic uplift) and will not consolidate 
any further under this load, which is called the "inactive 



Fig. 8. | 



M*» 




b ^ 




Horizontal Distribution 

I 



Fia IO fr""* ™ ynssun " p Û 

"' Y///////////////////////*////////////////////>tft 

/ h X /l\\ 



DO 
Vertical Distribution. 



(esn.r.) 



-+'" 



*l 



- i-?_— '' 



X% 



Lines çfEqualVertUal Preesure- 



preSSUre" for this reason. The structural load, however, in- 
creases the pressure by the amount shown as the "active 
pressure" and this increment will cause consolidation of the 
clay and hence settlement of the foundation. 

It is the vertical consolidation of the clay under the 
building which causes settlement and, consequently, it is 
the vertical component of stress at any depth which is 
referred to as the active pressure. By assuming that the 
clay stratum behaves as an elastic solid the problem is 
reduced to one of calculating the vertical stress at any point 
in a semi-infinite elastic solid due to a load on its surface. 
The general stress equations for this problem were derived 
by Boussinesq 6 in 1885, and the vertical component at a 
point (r.\j/), taking the point of application of the load P as 
origin, is 



az = 



3P 

2ir r 



cos 3 i> 



(1) 



Integration of this expression will give the distribution 
for any particular case of loading, and many important 

6 Boussinesq, J.-, Application des Potentiels. Paris, 1885. 



118 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



cases have been solved, 7 and conveniently tabulated. The 
distribution of vertical stress under a uniformly loaded 
square area is shown in Figs. 8, 9 and 10, and is seen to 
diminish both with depth and distance from the centre line. 
The lines of equal stress show that it is necessary to consider 
a depth of at least 1| times the width of the loaded area, 
for at this depth the stress has fallen only to one-fifth of its 
maximum value and 80 per cent, of the settlement takes 
place above this point. The absence of elastic constants from 
equation (1) does not imply that the question of the validity 




(66 21 X.) 



ApjAUd, Prttsun 

"EWHNRFJOWi* 



of applying elastic theory to a clay stratum does not arise 
in deriving the expression. The question, in fact, is of the 
greatest importance, and is one which has received little 
attention owing to experimental difficulties. The present 
position, however, may be summarized by the statement 
that comparisons of calculations with full-scale observa- 
tions 8 show promising results. 

Turning now to laboratory tests, the behaviour of clay 
under changing stress was first studied by Terzaghi 9 in the 
oedometer, a modern form of which is shown in Fig. 12. 
A specimen, 3 in. in diameter and about 1 in. thick, is 
cut from a core and placed in a brass cylinder between two 
porous stones which are in contact with water. The con- 
ditions of saturation and lateral restraint are thus simulated 
in the laboratory, and it will also be noticed that as the 
core was 4 in. in diameter, the outer \ in., which includes 
the zone of disturbance due to sampling, is discarded. 

7 Jûrgenson, L., "The Application of Theories of Elasticity and 
Plasticity to Foundation Problems." Journ. Boston Sec. CE., Vol. 
21 (No. 3), pages 206-241 (1934). Newmark, N. M., "Simplified Com- 
putation of Vertical Pressures in Elastic Foundations." University of 
Illinois, 1934. Circular No. 24 Eng. Expt. Station. Report of the 
Special Committee on Earths and Foundations, Pioc. Am. Soc. C.E., 
Vol. 59 (No. 5), pages 777-820 (1933). 

8 See, for example, Casagrande, L., loc. cit. 

9 hoc. cit. (1925). 



Now clay has an open cellular microstructure, 10 but the 
dimensions of the pores are very small and the resistance to 
flow is correspondingly high. Water has a negligible com- 
pressibility in comparison with the clay structure, and, 
therefore, the clay as a whole can suffer volume decrease 
mainly by the escape of some pore water. On the application 
of a load in the oedometer the increase in pressure in the 
(virtually restrained) water equals the applied stress in- 
crement. Flow will take place at the surface in contact with 
the stones, and a hydraulic gradient will be set up through 
the specimen, resulting in the extrusion of pore water, which 
will continue at a decreasing rate until an equilibrium 
density is reached. This change of volume with time is 
shown in Fig. 13. Theoretically, an infinite time is required 
for equilibrium to be established, but for the thickness of 
specimen used in the laboratory two days is sufficient for a 
close approximation. The load is now increased, a similar 
consolidation process takes place and a new equilibrium 
density is reached ; a number of such points gives the relation 
between density, usually expressed as the voids ratio 



vol. voids 
vol. solids 



and effective pressure. This is shown in Fig. 14. 



Returning now to the conditions under the building, if at 
any depth beneath a certain point we have an elementary 
layer of thickness Az and the inactive pressure is pi, then 
this element will have a voids ratio ei, Fig. 14. The building 
now increases the pressure to p 2 and there will be a con- 
solidation of the clay equal to (ei — €2). It is easily shown 
that this equals a change in length of 



ôs 



«1 — «2 



1 



(2) 



+ e, 

and clearly, the total settlement of this point of the building 
will be 

s x = 28s . . . . (3) 

the summation being carried out numerically. By choosing 
typical points, it is possible to gain a clear idea of the 
variation of settlement over the plan of the building. 

The settlement just calculated is the final value due to the 
attainment of equilibrium by the clay under the active pres- 
sure. This requires, as we have seen, a theoretically infinite 
time, and we have, therefore, to calculate the rate at which 
this consolidation occurs. From the mechanism of consolida- 
tion it is possible 11 to derive the fundamental equation 



where 



(4) 



d -oi do) 

C = — 

d Zi dt 

the coefficient of consolidation (a constant for any 
particular clay), and 

the hydrodynamic excess pressure in the pore 
water causing flow at a distance z from the drain- 
age surface at a time t after the application of the 
load. 



oj**- 



Fig.16. 



Permta&U Surfhc* 




"•iff- 



Case 1. Double Drainage. Far aH Pressure Distributions 
ft. .JQD (d -Vz Thickness of Layer) 

Cane 2. Single Drainage. ft-fQi) given far A .ClE. 
TypesB&D bgjnterpolation 



10 Casagrande, A., loc. cit. 

11 von Terzaghi and Fiôhlich, loc. cit. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



119 



s / 
If n = degree of consolidation = — 

compression at time t 
total compression 
then equation (4) may be solved in the form 



/ 



/ n 2 et \ 
\ 4 d 2 ) 



/(N) 



(5) 



(6) 



where d is the maximum length of drainage path. 

The relation between n and N has been evaluated 12 for a 
number of special cases, three of which are shown in Fig. 15. 
For uniform distribution of pressure the relation is 



m = °° 



(2m-l) 



m = 1 (2 m — l) 2 



■F 2 Ct 

4 d 2 

• (7) 



and the other cases may be expressed by similar series. 

In the oedometer the pressure distribution is uniform 
with double drainage, and thus for any value of m we know 
/ (N) ; but we have determined experimentally the value of t 

12 von Terzaghi and Frôhlich, loc. cit. 



corresponding to this value of m, and hence we know c (as 
the only other unknown is d, which is half the thickness of 
the specimen). Certain secondary effects' 3 complicate this 
direct comparison, but the above description is essentially 
correct. 

Let us assume that the distribution of active pressure 
under the building, Fig. 7, is trapezoidal, type B, Fig. 16. 
Now, for any value of t we know N, having determined c in 
the laboratory and d from the boring records, and, therefore, 
from the n = f (N) relation we can find the corresponding 

Sf 

value of/i. But m = — , and s x has been previously cal- 

Sqc 

culated ; thus we know H and can draw the time-settlement 
curve for any particular point of the building. 

By the application of scientific method, it is, therefore, 
possible to estimate the settlements which any proposed 
structure will undergo and, therefore, to design a foundation 
with a measure of certainty impossible with the older 
empirical methods. 

The author wishes to thank the Director of Building 
Research for permission to read this paper. 

13 von Terzaghi, K., "Principles of Final Soil Classification." Public 
Roads, Vol. 8 (No. 3), pages 41-53 (1927-28). 



THE GOLDEN GATE INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION 1939 

Notable Engineering and Artistic Features 



In the centre of San Francisco Bay, twenty million cubic 
yards of sand have been dredged and deposited upon a 
shoal to make a new island, over a mile long and covering 
about 400 acres, which now forms a fitting location for a 
great international exposition, and will later be the site of 
a vast airport whose runways are to be constructed when 
the temporary exposition buildings have been cleared away. 

This new land has been christened "Treasure Island." It 
has been built upon a shoal near Yerba Buena, the island 
which forms the mid point of the great Bay Bridge con- 
necting Oakland with San Francisco. A causeway, 900 feet 
long, leads from Treasure Island to Yerba Buena and has 
been built for six traffic lanes. Three of these are of per- 
manent construction for airport use; three others, of timber 
trestle work, will take care of the exposition crowds. 
Motorists to or from Treasure Island can leave or join the 
Bay Bridge at Yerba Buena on over- passes with- 
out any left turns across traffic streams. Parking space 
is provided for 12,000 cars. 

Four ferry slips, three on the 
San Francisco side of Treasure 
Island, and one on the Oak- 
land shore, are designed 
for an estimated peak ferry 
traffic of 65,000 passengers 
per hour. 

Three of the buildings which 
are now practically completed 
onTreasure Island are intended 
to endure as airport facilities. 
One, a $900,000 reinforced con- 
crete air terminal, now serves 
the Fair as administrative 
headquarters. The two others, 
each 287 by 335 feet, of steel 
and concrete, are being used 
as the Palace of Fine and 
Liberal Arts and the Hall of 
Air Transportation respec- 
tively; later, as hangars, their 
200 by 40 foot doors will admit 




The Court of Reflections 
Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco, 1939 



great aeroplanes — the doors being heightened at centres 
to 65 feet if found desirable. 

All the other buildings are of temporary construction, 
almost entirely timber and stucco. There is a main group 
of six blocks of exhibit halls, radiating from a central court; 
nearly seven million dollars have gone into their construc- 
tion and embellishment. 

A 400 foot "Tower of the Sun" in that central "Court 
of Honour" mounts a 44-bell carillon, and dominates the 
whole architectural group. The exposition buildings are 
largely windowless. Their new "Pacific" style of architec- 
ture is stated to have been devised "to exalt the visitor 
spiritually into a Never-Never land where romance is in 
the air." This effect will be aided by "ancient mystic 
oriental forms" and by a decorative scheme in which 
"flaming banners . . . will confer pungency to accentuate 
the simplicity of basic form." 
The arrangement of the buildings is such that no exhibitor 

finds himself on a back street, 
and (to quote further from the 
somewhat flowery official de- 
scriptions) "a planned system 
of visitor-circulation is achieved 
... so that the island will be 
saturated uniformly by strol- 
ling crowds." These crowds 
will be fed by "a number of 
prepared-food concessions that 
will embrace the international 
range of cookery." 

Indirect illumination is pro- 
vided throughout the Fair, 
using ten million kilowatt hours 
per week. Fluorescent paint, 
glowing under ultra-violet rays, 
underwater lamps, and nine 
thousand floodlights are among 
the novel features of the light- 
ing scheme. 

Tree planting is not usually 
considered a job for the 

(CONTINUED ON PAGE 153) 



120 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Abstracts of Current Literature 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-SPEED CRAFT 

The eleventh Thomas Lowe Gray Lecture delivered before 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 

London, January 6th, 1939 

By H. Scott-Paine 

A condensation prepared by R. J. Dorley, m.e.i.c, from the 
report in The Engineer January 13th and 20th, 1938. 

As a result of the lecturer's experience since 1906 in racing 
boats and aircraft, and in handling fast motor boats in bad 
weather, he has found it possible to produce high-speed 
small craft of novel type, which can be driven at over 40 
knots in a heavy sea and have been adopted by the Royal 
Navy as picket boats and motor torpedo boats. The pre- 
war types of small high-speed boats were unsuitable and 
dangerous in bad weather, although by 1924 designers in 
the United States had developed the "hard-chine" boat and 
improved its seaworthiness. The type, however, then, had 
the following disadvantages: 

1. Pounding of the forebody in a head sea. 

2. A high angle of attack and considerable change of 
trim at high speed, so that much of the under surface of 
the hull was pushed out of the water. 

3. Pitching or diving if the throttle was closed, so that in 
bad weather the boat's bow might dive into a head sea. 

These conditions not only strained the hull and made the 
riding uncomfortable, but affected the steering, so that in 
bad weather or at slow speeds directional control was poor. 

At that time no suitable lightweight marine engine had 
been developed in Europe, while in the United States 
several automobile engines had been successfully modified 
for marine work. An American engine averaging about 8 lb. 
per hp. could be obtained for about half the cost of the much 
heavier engines available in Britain. American engines were 
therefore used in the earlier experimental boats. 

In flying boats, lateral stability and control at all speeds 
depend on the variation of dihedral angle along the length 
of the hull. The underwater form of the hard-chine boat was 
therefore rearranged so that the forefoot always remained 
in contact with the water, and the alteration of trim as 
the speed increased was reduced to about 3 degrees. In 
this way a directionally stable hull was obtained in which a 
small unbalanced rudder could be used, thus lessening- 
resistance. 

Propellers of high speeds of revolution were worked out 
and proved satisfactory with "Miss Britain III" (with 
which the salt-water speed record was made). The slip at 100 
knots and 7,000 r.p.m. was only 20 per cent and the effi- 
ciency was remarkably high. In 1930 a twin engine 200 hp. 
boat was built for work with the flying boats of the Royal 
Air Force and proved beyond all doubt the superiority of 
the hard-chine type; this encouraged further development 
along the same lines with prospects of commercial success. 

In order to obtain a suitable British engine, a 43^ litre 
car engine which gave a good 100 hp. was selected but 
nearly all parts had to be modified to meet the exacting 
conditions of boat service. In their final form the engines 
proved to be a little over % lb. per hp. lighter than the 
American engine with a lower centre of gravity and a 
better petrol consumption. 

There was now a 37 ft. 6 in. boat with two 100 hp. 
engines (the two propellers turning the same way), having 
excellent sea-keeping qualities, a greater load-carrying 
capacity, comparable petrol consumption in mi. per gal., 
twice the speed, and no greater cost than with its predeces- 
sors of round-bilge form. Hundreds of these boats have now 
been built with no instance of failure of structure in service. 
A 45 ft. boat of similar characteristics was the next step 
and met with success. Its small diameter propeller was found 
to give excellent propulsion when towing a mine-sweep. 



Contributed abstracts of articles appear- 
ing in the current technical periodicals 



Rolling: 

The round-bilge hull, even if fitted with bilge keels, 
allows more free rolling than the hard-chine hull, which is 
extremely stable of itself and can carry its load at the 
lowest possible vertical distance from its bottom. When 
such a hull tends to slide down the side of a hill of water 
the action of the V bottom brings it upright. 

Pitching: 

With the round bilge form of hull, speed must be reduced 
in rough weather, as in meeting a wave the hull is in a 
diving position until the head wave has found sufficient 
area to lift the weight of the ship. The hard-chine motor 
torpedo boats can be driven up to 40 knots in a 45 m.p.h. 
wind and an 8 ft. sea. During official trials off the southeast 
of the Isle of Wight, with an average sea up to 12 ft. and 
occasional 20 ft. seas, the motor torpedo boat maintained a 
speed of 30 knots or more and easily outran the destroyer 
of 1,350 tons which carried the official observers. 

Turning: 

Ordinary forms of hull lean outward when turning. The 
new form may be designed to bank inward to any degree 
required. The motor torpedo boat can be turned at right 
angles to her coursé at any speed in seven or eight seconds 
and is directionally stable. 

( '(instruction : 

The results stated have only been obtained by a constant 
effort for lightness of construction and of machinery- The 
1935-37 motor torpedo boat, light, weighed about 12 tons, 
increased to 21-22 tons with fuel oil and armament. Under 
these conditions its speed only decreased from 40 to 38 knots. 

The hull has a strength-weight ratio unapproached 
before except in aeroplane construction. Special high tensile 
material is used for all fastenings. Tanks have been reduced 
in weight to one lb. per gal. The weight of the latest type 
of boat complete with engines, but unloaded, is 10 lb. per hp. 

Machinert/. 

The first motor torpedo boats had 500 hp. converted 
Napier "Lion" water-cooled aero-engines, later an engine of 
the same general type was specially built for the job. The 
fresh-water cooling circuit is closed, with a circulating pump 
and a cooler. Great care is necessary to avoid any possibility 
of salt-water entering the fresh-water system. The total 
weight of the whole engine and its gear is under 3 lb. per hp. 
Each boat has three of these engines; they can all be re- 
moved in four hours by six men, and replaced in a similar 
time. Much experimenting was needed to obtain a trouble- 
free salt-water pump; finally a pump was devised whose 
wheels would last 100 hours in bad water conditions and 
300 hours in water free from sand. All propellers turn the 
same way; this arrangement gives no trouble and does 
not affect directional stability at all. The use of salt-water 
resisting alloys throughout has reduced maintenance costs 
to a small figure. 

The 21 -in. Motor Torpedo Boat 

The first motor torpedo boats were armed with 18-in. 
torpedoes and eight Lewis guns. 

The latest design carries two 21-in. or four 18-in. torpedoes, 
two 20-mm. and one 25-mm. guns in weather-proof turrets. 
Its speed is over 43 knots with full war equipment. It has 
no mast or deck fittings, is very difficult to see, and is 
absolutely silent at 10 knots. 

The machinery consists of three 1,000 hp. Rolls-Royce- 
Power-Merlin engines. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



121 



THE FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

Convened at Headquarters, Montreal, on January 26th, 1939, and ajourned to the 
Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario, on February 14th, 1939 



The Fifty-Third Annual General Meeting of The Engin- 
eering Institute of Canada convened at Headquarters on 
Thursday, January twenty-sixth, nineteen hundred and 
thirty-nine, at eight o'clock p.m., with President J. B. 
Challies, m.e.i.c, in the chair. 

The Secretary having read the notice convening the 
meeting, the minutes of the Fifty-Second Annual General 
Meeting were submitted, and on the motion of J. A. 
McCrory, ..i.e. i.e., seconded by R. H. Findlay, m.e.i.c, 
were taken as read and confirmed. 

Appointment of Scrutineers 

On the motion of S. F. Rutherford, a. m.e.i.c, seconded 
by Huet Massue, m.e.i.c, Messrs. R. E. Heartz, m.e.i.c, 
Walter G. Hunt, m.e.i.c, and E. Nenniger, a. m.e.i.c, were 
appointed scrutineers to canvass the Officers' Ballot and 
report the result. 

There being no other formal business, it was resolved, 
on the motion of H. B. Montizambert, a. m.e.i.c, seconded 
by Ernest Peden, a. m.e.i.c, that the meeting do adjourn 
to reconvene at the Chateau Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario, at 
ten o'clock a.m., on the fourteenth day of February, nine- 
teen hundred and thirty-nine. 

ADJOURNED GENERAL MEETING AT THE 
CHATEAU LAURIER, OTTAWA, ONTARIO 

The adjourned meeting convened at ten fifteen a.m., on 
Tuesday, February 14th, 1939, with President J. B. 
Challies in the chair. 

The President announced that Col. A. L. Bishop, m.e.i.c, 
of Toronto, Ontario, had accepted the chairmanship of the 
Nominating Committee of the Institute for the year 1939, 
and that each branch of the Institute was represented there- 
on as follows: 

Nominating Committee, 1939 
Chairman A. L. Bishop, m.e.i.c. 
Branch Representative 

Halifax Branch C. A. Fowler, m.e.i.c. 

Cape Breton Branch J. R. Morrison, a. m.e.i.c. 

Saint John Branch J. H. McKinney, a. m.e.i.c. 

Moncton Branch E. B. Martin, a. m.e.i.c. 

Saguenay Branch G. F. Layne, a. m.e.i.c. 

Quebec Branch P. Methé, a. m.e.i.c. 

St. Maurice Valley Branch A. C. Abbott, a. m.e.i.c. 

Montreal Branch R. E. Jamieson, m.e.i.c. 

Ottawa Branch A. K. Hay, a. m.e.i.c. 

Peterborough Branch W. M. Cruthers, a. m.e.i.c. 

Kingston Branch D. S. Ellis, a. m.e.i.c. 

Toronto Branch W. E. P. Duncan, m.e.i.c. 

Hamilton Branch W. Hollingworth, m.e.i.c. 

London Branch D. S. Scrymgeour, a.m. e. i.e. 

Niagara Peninsula Branch W. Jackson, m.e.i.c. 

Border Cities Branch C. G. R. Armstrong, a. m.e.i.c. 

Sault Ste. Marie Branch A. M. Wilson, a. m.e.i.c. 

Lakehead Branch E. L. Goodall, a. m.e.i.c. 

Winnipeg Branch T. C. Main, a. m.e.i.c. 

Saskatchewan Branch S. Young, m.e.i.c. 

Lethbridge Branch J. M. Campbell, a. m.e.i.c. 

Edmonton Branch R. M. Dingwall, m.e.i.c. 

Calgary Branch F. J. Heuperman, a. m.e.i.c. 

Vancouver Branch G. L. Tooker, a. m.e.i.c. 

Victoria Branch F. C. Green, m.e.i.c. 

Awards of Medals and Prizes 

The General Secretary announced the awards of the 
various medals and prizes of the Institute, stating that the 
formal presentation of these distinctions would be made by 
Her Excellency, the Lady Tweedsmuir, at the Annual 
Dinner of the Institute that evening. 
The Past-Presidents' Prize to P. C. Perry, m.e.i.c, Regina, 

Sask., for his paper, "Stream Control in Relation to 

Droughts and Floods." 



Gzowski Medal to A. W. F. McQueen, a. m.e.i.c, and E. C. 
Molke, a. m.e.i.c, for their paper, "The 18-Foot Diameter 
Steel Pipe Line at Outardes Falls." 

Plummer Medal to H. I. Knowles, chief chemist, Atlantic 
Sugar Refineries, Saint John, N.B., for his paper, "Build- 
ing Invisible Edifices." 

Leonard Medal to J. J. Denny, m.ci.m.m., Schumacher, 
Ont., co-author of the paper, "The Prevention of Silicosis 
by Metallic Aluminum." 

Students' and Juniors' Prizes 

H. N Ruttan Prize (Western Provinces) to C. Neufeld, 
s.e.i.c, for his paper, "A Photo-Elastic Investigation of 
Stress Conditions in an End Block of the Border Bridge 
at Ceepee, Sask." 

John Galbraith Prize (Province of Ontario) to T. E. Edson, 
s.e.i.c, for his paper, "The Sandcasting of Crankshafts." 

Phelps Johnson Prize (Prov. of Quebec, English) to 
S. G. Lochhead, Jr. e. i.e., for his paper, "The New 
Westmount Trunk Sewer, 1935." 

Ernest Marceau Prize (Prov. of Quebec, French) to J. G. 
Belle-Isle, s.e.i.c, for his paper, "Projet de Développe- 
ment Hydro-Electrique." 

Sir John Kennedy Medal awarded to Past-President 
Colonel J. S. Dennis, m.e.i.c Colonel Dennis died on 
November 26th, 1938, but the medal had been presented 
to him in hospital, in Victoria, on November 4th, by 
President J. B. Challies, in company with C. A. Magrath, 

Hon.M.E.I.C 

Report of Council 

On the motion of C. K. McLeod, a. m.e.i.c, seconded by 
R. L. Dobbin, m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that the report 
of Council for the year 1939, as published in the February, 
1939, Journal, be taken as read and accepted. 

Report of Treasurer 

On the motion of deGaspe Beaubien, m.e.i.c, seconded 
by P. E. Doncaster, m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that the 
report of the Treasurer be taken as read and accepted. 

Report of Finance Committee 

In presenting the report of the Finance Committee, the 
chairman of that committee, J. A. McCrory, m.e.i.c, 
pointed out that the Institute was fortunate this year in 
having a small surplus. Over a period of years, from about 
1920 to 1928, the Institute had had some good years, and 
had been able to set aside certain funds for investment. 
Those seven good years had been followed by seven bad 
years, in which that surplus had been pretty well used up, 
although not entirely. He would like to see that surplus 
replaced, and felt that the only way that that could be 
accomplished was by increasing the membership. It was 
important, not only from a financial viewpoint, but from 
the standpoint of the activity of the Institute that the 
membership be built up. An active Institute membership 
committee could accomplish a certain amount along that 
line, but the spadework had to be done by the membership 
committees, or similar bodies, in the branches themselves. 
Council hoped that the policy re-established during the 
past year of having the General Secretary visit the branches 
would have a great effect in stimulating activity along that 
line. 

On the motion of J. A. McCrory, m.e.i.c, seconded by 
B. E. Bayne, a. m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that the report 
of the Finance Committee be accepted. 



122 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Reports of Committees 

On the motion of E. P. Muntz, m.e.i.c, seconded by H. A. 
Lumsden, m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that the reports of the 
following committees be taken as read and accepted: 
Library and House; Papers; Publication; Legislation; 
Western Water Problems; Membership and Management; 
Professional Interests; International Relations; Member- 
ship; Board of Examiners; Employment Service; Canadian 
Chamber of Commerce, report from Institute representa- 
tive. 

Branch Reports 

On the motion of W. E. Bonn, m.e.i.c, seconded by 
H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that the reports 
of the various branches of the Institute be taken as read 
and accepted. 

Amendments to the By-Laws 
In accordance with Sections 74 and 75 of the By-laws, 
the Council had presented for the consideration of corporate 
members certain proposals for the amendment of Sections 
32 and 35 and for the introduction of a new Section 77. 
These had been published in the Engineering Journal for 
December, 1938, and mailed to all corporate members. 

The General Secretary then read the proposed amend- 
ment to Section 32 as follows, the proposed changes being 
underlined: 

"Section 32 (as now proposed): 

"The entrance fees, payable at the time of application 
for admission to the Institute, shall be as follows: 

Members $10.00 

Associate Members 10 . 00 

Juniors 5 . 00 

Affiliates 10.00 

"Honorary Members and Students shall be exempt from 
entrance fees." 

This scale of fees had been authorized by resolution at 
the Annual General Meeting held at London, Ontario, on 
January 31st, 1938. The proposed change was suggested 
simply to record the information correctly in the By-laws. 

On the motion of W. R. Manock, a. m.e.i.c, seconded by 
C. G. Moon, a. m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that the proposed 
amendment to Section 32 be approved by this Annual 
General Meeting and sent out to ballot in accordance with 
Section 75 of the By-laws. 

The General Secretary then read the proposed amend- 
ment to Section 35 as follows, the proposed changes in 
wording being underlined: 

"Section 35 (as now proposed): 

"The portion of the first annual fee for which a newly 
elected member shall be liable shall be a proportion of 
the regular annual fee equivalent to the unexpired portion 
of the year, calculated from the beginning of the month 
in which the election takes place." 

This change is desired by Council in order to simplify 
for all concerned the method of computing the portion of 
the first annual fee to be paid by new members, and also 
to put such payments on an absolutely equitable basis. 
It is expected that the change will be of assistance to the 
various membership committees. 

John Murphy, m.e.i.c, was entirely in sympathy with 
intent of the proposed amendment, but felt that some 
improvement in the wording might be made. In ac- 
cordance with his suggestion, on the motion of C. R. 
Young, m.e.i.c, seconded by H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, it 
was Resolved that the words, "equivalent to" be replaced 
by the words "based on." 

On the motion of A. B. Gates, a. m.e.i.c, seconded by 
J. A. Vance, a.m. e. i.e., it was Resolved that the proposed 
amendment to Section 35 (with the verbal amendment as 
suggested) be approved by this Annual General Meeting, 



and sent out to ballot in accordance with Section 75 of 
the By-laws. 

The General Secretary then read the proposed new 
Section 77 as follows: 

"An association which enters into an agreement in 
accordance with the provisions of By-law 76 shall, when 
requested by the association, and for the purpose of 
that By-law, be termed a "component association." 

Section 76 of the By-laws, which was approved by a 
very large majority of corporate members by ballot in 
March, 1938, provides for co-operation between the 
Institute and any provincial association or corporation 
of professional engineers. It has since been found that in 
one province at least, the conclusion of an agreement for 
such co-operation would be facilitated if such co-operating 
associations could be referred to as "component associa- 
tions" in the Institute By-laws. For this reason the Council 
recommends the approval of this new section. 

On the motion of J. A. McCrory, m.e.i.c, seconded by 
P. L. Pratley, m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that the proposed 
new Section 77 be approved by the Annual General Meeting 
and sent out to ballot in accordance with Section 75 of 
the By-laws. 

Membership Classification 

The President reported that following a recommendation 
of the Committee on Membership and Management, under 
the chairmanship of Professor R. A. Spencer, a. m.e.i.c, 
Council, the day previous, had unanimously agreed that an 
amendment to the By-laws should be submitted to the 
membership, by which the present two corporate classi- 
fications of membership should be consolidated, thereby 
eliminating the classification of Associate Member. As 
P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c, had led the discussion at the Council 
meeting, the President asked him to read to the meeting 
the resolution adopted by Council. 

To explain the proposed changes, Mr. Sauder read por- 
tions of the exhaustive report of the Committee on Mem- 
bership and Management, and concluded with the an- 
nouncement that two decisions were reached by Council, 
and that the two corresponding resolutions read as follows: 

Whereas the Committee on Membership and Manage- 
ment has carefully investigated the question of Classifica- 
tion of the Membership of the Institute, and 

Whereas its findings have been carefully reviewed and 
discussed by this meeting, and 

Whereas it is the opinion of Council that to facilitate 
co-operation with other engineering bodies and for the 
benefit of the engineering profession throughout Canada, 
that there should be at this time only one grade of Corporate 
Membership in the Institute, 

Therefore be it resolved 

First, that the present grade of Associate Member be 
abolished and that the present Associate Members 
(a. m.e.i.c) be given the grade of Member (m.e.i.c) and 
that the grade Member (m.e.i.c) be the only grade of 
Corporate Membership, 

Second, that the details of qualifications and fees be 
determined by Council, 

Third, that amendments to the By-laws to give effect 
to the above be submitted to the next Annual General 
Meeting of the Institute. 

Mr. Sauder explained that the decision that details of 
qualifications and fees should be determined later by 
Council was reached because it was felt that the question 
of fees and of minimum age qualification required further 
consideration. 

The second resolution had to do with the possibility of 
a new classification known as "Fellow." Mr. Sauder ex- 
plained that this resolution had been kept separate from 
the previous resolution in order to avoid confusion. It was 
thought if the two were put together in one proposed 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



123 



amendment it would be very difficult for the members to 
indicate a clear opinion and that it was better to clear up 
the matter of consolidating the two corporate memberships 
before deciding on the merits of a new class of membership. 
The second resolution read as follows : 

Whereas the report of the Committee on Membership 
and Management shows that a substantial body of opinion 
favours the setting up of a new class of Fellow with high 
present and future qualifications, and 

Whereas Council views this proposal with favour but is 
of the opinion that action at this time is not opportune, 

Therefore, be it resolved, that no action be taken on 
the creation of a new class of membership to be known as 
Fellow until the question of combining the two grades of 
Corporate Membership has been determined and until the 
necessity and desirability of such action is further demon- 
strated. 

The President, in order to simplify the discussion, ex- 
plained that these resolutions were simply a declaration of 
policy, and a decision of Council to consolidate the classi- 
fications of Member and Associate Member, and secondly, 
that the proposal of setting up a new classification of 
"Fellow" should remain in abeyance. He also explained 
that these resolutions were simply a decision of Council to 
be submitted to the meeting. The meeting could discuss 
amendments, or could submit entirely new resolutions if it 
wished. He also pointed out that these amendments could 
not go out to ballot until they were approved by the next 
Annual General Meeting, as a decision had been reached 
too late this year to give the proper notice which was re- 
quired by the By-laws. Therefore, sufficient time was at 
the disposal of Council to work out every detail. 

Clarence M. Pitts, a.m.e.i.c, stated that he thought the 
Council of the Institute was to be congratulated on the 
steady progress which had been made towards co-operation. 
He also expressed his approval of the decision to do away 
with the classification of Associate Member. He reported 
that Gordon M. Pitts, m.e.i.c, had personally consulted 
a great many members on this same subject, and the 
decision reached by Council was in accordance with the 
majority of the opinions which had been submitted to Mr. 
Pitts. He also congratulated Professor Spencer's Committee 
on the excellent work which it had done. He asked that this 
Annual General Meeting endorse the action of Council as 
he thought the decision was for the good of the profession 
and for the good of the Institute as well. 

R. H. Findlay, m.e.i.c, suggested that it might strengthen 
the hands of Council if the meeting, by resolution, approved 
of Council's action with regard to the resolutions. Upon 
the President's assurance that such a decision would be of 
assistance to Council Mr. Findlay moved as follows: 

That this meeting go on record as approving of the 
two resolutions passed by Council and that it be left to 
Council to expedite the matter during the coming year. 

This motion was seconded by Robert F. Legget, 

A.M.E.I.C. 

Considerable discussion followed, and P. L. Pratley, 
m.e.i.c, stated his reasons for thinking that the Institute 
should go slowly in making any such changes. However, 
in view of the many considerations which were involved 
he stated that he was not opposed to unifying the two 
grades if it would facilitate meeting the legislative require- 
ments of the Institute. He was of the opinion that consider- 
ation of a possible new classification should be given at the 
same time as the first one. 

Colonel L. F. Grant, m.e.i.c, expressed himself as regret- 
ting that the first resolution was necessary, and yet in 
view of the negotiations with the Provincial Associations 
he was willing to vote in favour of it. He pointed out some 
of the complications that might follow if the classification 
"Fellow" were established. He thought that it would be 
simpler and perhaps more satisfactory in the negotiations 
if the grade of "Fellow" were not established. 



Brian R. Perry, m.e.i.c, commented on the opportunities 
which are now available to The Engineering Institute, and 
he thought there were too many grades of membership 
to-day. He also spoke at considerable length on the value 
of the work which had been done by Professor Spencer. 
As Mr. Perry was on Professor Spencer's committee he 
was in an excellent position to know. 

P. E. Doncaster, m.e.i.c, expressed the opinion of the 
Lakehead Branch, and stated that the first resolution read 
by Mr. Sauder seemed to have settled all the points which 
were raised by his branch. He also reported that the branch 
had instructed him to announce that they thought such 
matters as this should be decided for the branch membership 
through the elected councillors after they had made a 
canvass of local opinion. The branch was averse to having 
such matters the subject of letters from individual members 
to individual members instead of from the constituted 
authorities to the branches. "It was felt that this practice 
has not worked to the best advantage of the Institute and 
the profession in the past and should be discouraged." 

P. B. Motley, m.e.i.c, was of the opinion that both 
changes in classification should be settled at the same time. 
He was in favour of delaying action at the present in order 
that the whole business might be done in one stroke. 

W. R. Manock, a.m.e.i.c, presented the opinion of the 
Niagara Peninsula Branch, and read three resolutions which 
had been passed by that executive. These were as follows: 

(1) That the grade of Associate Member be abolished and 
that all present Associate Members be graded as 
Members. 

(2) That the executive of this branch oppose any lowering 
of qualifications for the grade of Member below those 
proposed by the Engineers' Council for Professional 
Development. 

(3) That the grade of Fellow be established with qualifi- 
cations similar to those recommended by the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development. 

At this point the President explained that at the back of 
the hall he saw Mr. Perry, the chairman of the E.C.P.D., 
and Colonel Davies, the assistant secretary, and suggested 
that one of them come to the front of the room and explain 
to the meeting the qualifications as determined by the 
E.C.P.D. 

Colonel C. E. Davies outlined quickly the recommenda- 
tions which have been made by the E.C.P.D. after a great 
deal of consideration. Their recommended classifications 
were Student Member, Junior Member, Member and 
Fellow. 

C. G. Moon, a.m.e.i.c, of St. Catharines, elaborated on 
the report which Mr. Manock had read as coming from the 
Niagara Peninsula Branch. It was his personal opinion 
that the class of "Fellow" was not required. 

At this point, Mr. J. P. H. Perry, the chairman of the 
E.C.P.D., spoke to the meeting and explained how the 
American Society of Civil Engineers had gone through the 
struggle which the Institute was now experiencing. Person- 
ally, he was not enthusiastic about the grade of "Fellow" 
as he believed that many people thought that it was an 
honorary grade, and he also reminded the meeting that a 
proposal to establish such a grade had been defeated by 
ballot in the American Society of Civil Engineers. In 
conclusion he suggested that we "make our foundations 
secure," and said he would like to leave the thought with 
the meeting that all engineers in the Institute think of 
themselves as members, and then if they want to go on 
like the architects do, or the American College of Surgeons, 
a higher classification might be established later. 

O. Holden, a.m.e.i.c, described the deliberations which 
had taken place in the Toronto executive. He agreed with 
the unification of the two classes of membership, but 
thought that a "Fellow" grade should be established with 
very high requirements and very restricted in number. 



124 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, expressed the opinion of the 
London Branch. They, too, thought that some considera- 
tion should be given to the establishment of "Fellow," but 
admitted there was much difference of opinion as to the 
qualifications. 

E. P. Muntz, m.e.i.c., presented the view of the On- 
tario professional association. He hoped that the first 
proposal would meet with the approval of the members as 
he thought that the members of the provincial associations 
would see in this "a very serious effort on the part of the 
Institute to meet them half way." He stated that it was 
his opinion that if this meeting, or any meeting, decided 
to create a classification of "Fellow" in any considerable 
number, he was afraid the benefit of the first resolution 
would be largely nullified. He thought that those engineers 
who are unquestionably entitled to some higher classifica- 
tion would waive their rights for the present in order to 
facilitate the successful merging of the present two classes 
of membership. He also recommended to the meeting that 
it was a little premature to talk about consolidation. He 
asked that the word "co-operation" be substituted through- 
out the discussions. 

Finally, the motion of Mr. Findlay and Mr. Legget was 
Carried without a single dissenting vote. 

Reorganization of Council 

The President announced that the question of the reor- 
ganization of Council was also dealt with at the Council 
meeting. 

Colonel Grant explained to the meeting that the following 
resolution had been passed unanimously at the Council 
meeting: 

That it is the opinion of Council that no further steps 
should be taken at this time with regard to the re- 
organization of Council. 

Colonel Grant went on to explain why he was so much 
in favour of this decision. He thought that it was very 
important that every branch should have its own member 
representing it on the governing body. Speaking for his 
own branch, Kingston, he said they were very jealous of 
their right of appointing one of their own members. 

H. A. Lumsden, m.e.i.c, stated that the Hamilton Branch 
had come to the same conclusion as was indicated in the 
resolution. Mr. Pratley also expressed himself as being in 
entire accordance with it. 

Mr. Pitts suggested that in view of the negotiations with 
the provincial associations he thought the door should not 
be closed entirely to the possibility of these associations 
having representation on Council. 

The President described his visits to all the branches 
and explained that at each one of them the question of the 
organization of Council was thoroughly discussed. He de- 
scribed the sum total of all these opinions as being "that 
as Council is getting along very well the way it is, they 
would prefer that we would stop worrying about its set 
up and get on with some other things which are more in 
the interests of the Institute and the profession." He thought 
that while the Institute was going through a transition 
period in relationship to the provincial associations the 
set up of Council should be left as it is. He also pointed out, 
in response to Mr. Pitts' comment, that the present arrange- 
ments permit of representation of a co-operating association 
on Council, and described developments in Saskatchewan 
to illustrate the point. 

On the motion of Colonel Grant, seconded by J. A. Vance, 
a. m.e.i.c, it was Resolved that this meeting endorse the 
resolution passed by Council to the effect that no further 
steps should be taken at this time with regard to the 
reorganization of Council. This decision was reached 
unanimously. 

Reception to American Guests 

The President then announced that a reception would be 
held at two-thirty in order that the members of the Institute 



might meet the distinguished visitors from the United 
States. He said that he thought that the visit of this 
delegation was as great a compliment as the Institute had 
ever had paid to it. 

On the motion of Mr. Pitts, the meeting adjourned at 
twelve o'clock noon. 

At four o'clock p.m., after the reception, the meeting 
reconvened. 

Presentation to Secretary Emeritus Durley 

The President expressed sincere regret that owing to 
illness Secretary Emeritus Richard John Durley was not 
able to attend the meeting, as it was the intention to have 
presented to him an illuminated address and a cheque in 
recognition of his faithful and loyal service during the past 
fourteen years. However, Mrs. Durley had come to Ottawa 
to receive the presentation on behalf of Mr. Durley, and 
the President asked Vice-President H. 0. Keay, a former 
colleague of Mr. Durley's at McGill, to escort Mrs. Durley 
to the platform. Amidst the enthusiastic plaudits of the 
meeting, Dr. Challies received her with "Royal Honours," a 
spontaneously graceful gesture that greatly delighted the 
entire company. Past-President Desbarats spoke in glowing 
terms of the service rendered to the Institute by Mr. Durley. 
He expressed the hope that he would continue to place his 
experience and ability at the disposal of the Institute and 
of his country should they call upon him. Mr. Desbarats 
handed Mrs. Durley the address and the cheque, and she 
was escorted back to her place to receive the congratulations 
of the entire meeting. A reproduction of the illuminated 
address along with a letter of acknowledgment appears on 
page 133. 

W. L. McFaul, m.e.i.c, addressed the meeting, feeling 
that there had been an omission in the arrangements of the 
programme. He would like to correct this oversight. He said, 
"I have much pleasure, on behalf of the members of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada, in moving a vote of appre- 
ciation of the great work which our President, Dr. Challies, 
has carried on during the past year for the development of 
the engineering profession. I would also like to present to 
the distinguished presidents from the United States, our 
President, who has done so much in promoting friendly 
relationships with our sister societies across the border." 

This resolution was received with a great show of enthus- 
iasm and applause, and Dr. Challies rose to say, "In view 
of those kind words and the lateness of the hour, I am 
going to ask if you will allow me to depart from tradition. 
Will you take the retiring President's address as read. It 
will be published in the March number of the Journal." 

Election of Officers 

At the request of the President, R. E. Heartz, m.e.i.c, 
read the report of the scrutineers appointed to canvass the 
officers' ballot for 1939, and the officers named therein were 
declared duly elected as follows: 

President H. W. McKiel, m.e.i.c. 

Vice-Presidents: 

Zone A (Western Provinces) P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c. 

Zone C (Province of Quebec) Fred Newell, m.e.i.c. 

Councillors: 

Vancouver Branch J. Robertson, m.e.i.c. 

Edmonton Branch W. R. Mount, m.e.i.c 

Saskatchewan Branch A. P. Linton, m.e.i.c 

Lakehead Branch P. E. Doncaster, m.e.i.c 

Border Cities Branch T. H. Jenkins, a. m.e.i.c 

London Branch J. A. Vance a. m.e.i.c 

Toronto Branch A. U. Sanderson, a. m.e.i.c 

Ottawa Branch W. F. M. Bryce, a. m.e.i.c 

Kingston Branch L. F. Grant, m.e.i.c 

Montreal Branch Huet Massue, m.e.i.c 

Brian R. Perry, m.e.i.c 

St. Maurice Valley Branch E. B. Wardle, m.e.i.c 

Saguenay Branch A. C. Johnston, a.m.e.i.c 

Saint John Branch S. Hogg, a.m.e.i.c. 

Halifax Branch I. P. M acNab, m.e.i.c 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



125 



At this point Dr. Challies asked Past-Presidents H. H. 
Vaughan and General C. H. Mitchell to escort Dean McKiel 
to the chair. Dr. Challies greeted him and said, "Mr. 
President, I am proud to address you as President. To you 
I hand over the gavel with complete confidence in the 
future welfare of the Institute." 

President McKiel spoke as follows: "Mr. Past-President, 
other past-presidents, distinguished guests, I can scarcely 
find words at the present time to say what is in my heart. 
I appreciate deeply the honour you have done me. I fear it 
will be impossible for me to live up to the achievements of 
the man whom I am succeeding in the Chair. All I can 
promise is that I will do my best. 

"Here is an item of news which will interest you. During 
the luncheon to-day I entered into an agreement with 
Gladstone Murray, the general manager of the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation, whereby The Engineering 
Institute will supply a series of radio talks with a view of 
putting before the public the engineer and his relations to 
the public. Further, we hope to set up, within the Institute, 
a permanent committee of co-operation with the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation. That is being done, not at our 
suggestion, but at the request of the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation, and I think that it should prove an excellent 
factor in promoting the affairs of the Institute. 

"I would like again to pay tribute to the man who has 
been my predecessor, and those other men who have been 
my predecessors. Recently I went through the Semicen- 
tennial number of the Journal, and after reading about 
the type of men who have occupied this position, and the 
services they have rendered to the Institute, may I confess 
to you that I have had my misgivings. I again thank you 
for the support you have given me, and look forward to its 
continuance. If you will support me as you have supported 
Jack Challies then I think we can carry on and make the 
Institute go a step further." 

On the motion of B. E. Bayne, a.m.e.i.c, seconded by 
S. W. Gray, a.m.e.i.c, it was unanimously Resolved that 
a hearty vote of thanks be extended to the Ottawa Branch 
for their hospitality and activity in connection with the 
Fifty-Third Annual General Meeting. The Institute desires 
to express its appreciation and gratitude to them for all 
the favours and courtesies they have extended to the 
members present at the meeting. 

On the motion of R. L. Dobbin, m.e.i.c, seconded by 
R. B. Jennings, m.e.i.c, it was unanimously Resolved 
that a hearty vote of thanks be accorded to the retiring 
President and members of Council in appreciation of the 
work they have done during the past year. 

The President said that he was very glad to add his own 
personal appreciation to that contained in the resolution. 
He also asked that the General Secretary transmit 
Mr. Bayne's resolution to the secretary of the Ottawa 
Branch. 

Dr. Challies suggested that the meeting should not con- 
clude without a formal motion of thanks to the distinguished 
gentlemen who had invaded Canada so agreeably and so 
acceptably. He moved that the General Secretary be in- 
structed to prepare a suitably worded resolution thanking 
these gentlemen for their co-operation. 

The President said that such a motion did not need a 
seconder, and turning to the American delegates, he said, 
"I appreciate fully the courtesy you have shown us in 
coming up here this year. I agree most heartily with Dr. 
Challies in his desire to insure better relations between our 
Institute and the engineering societies in the United States. 
I know that I am speaking for all the members when I say 
this. I heartily appreciate all your kindness and courtesy 
in being with us to-day. Will you kindly accept this as an 
expression of our appreciation." 

There being no further business the meeting adjourned 
at four forty-five p.m. 



Council Meeting 

Monday's largely attended Council meeting had many 
new features. In the first place this was the first time it 
had met in advance of the Annual General Meeting. By 
arranging the programme this way it was possible to give 
an entire day to the business of Council, thus making 
available sufficient time for important issues to be discussed 
to acceptable conclusions. 

There was also the advantage, which was a decided one, 
that by the time the Annual Meeting was in session members 
of Council were able to contribute more constructively to 
the discussion by reason of the firm decisions on important 
matters of policy already reached by the Council. It is 
doubtful if a more harmonious or successful annual meeting 
has ever taken place and in the opinion of many this was 
due to the fact that Council had spent all of the previous 
day clearing the ground and making the road. 

Some very important decisions were reached and it is 
suggested that members read the minutes of the meeting 
which are in this number of the Journal. There were coun- 
cillors from Vancouver to Halifax, as well as five past- 
presidents. In all there was a total attendance of thirty-six. 
In the opinion of everyone present this year's arrangement 
worked to great advantage and the hope was expressed that 
a similar procedure would be followed in the future. 

Technical Sessions 

On Wednesday morning many papers on the western 
water problem were discussed. This year practically all 
papers were devoted to various phases of the same subject, 
in somewhat the same manner as was done last year. Such 
a policy permitted a rather thorough study of the subject 
and doubtless will produce more helpful results. It was sur- 
prising to many easterners to observe the general interest 
which was taken in a discussion of a western problem. It 
was made quite evident that the east appreciates that the 
drought problem of the west is decidedly a matter of 
concern for all Canada. 

An unusual number of discussors were present and it was 
evident that most of them had come prepared to take part 
in the proceedings. It is doubtful if more complete discus- 
sions have ever been supplied. It is the plan of the Chair- 
man of this committee, G. A. Gaherty, m.e.i.c, to continue 
the work of his committee until all the papers and the dis- 
cussions, as well as conclusions, are in such shape that they 
can be published in the Journal and in some form of book 
for circulation among private individuals and business 
houses and firms which are specially interested in this 
problem. 

The morning session was carried on under the chairman- 
ship of Dean Mackenzie of Saskatoon, and in the after- 
noon, Dean Featherstonhaugh, of Winnipeg, presided. At 
5.30 the meeting had to be adjourned asthere wasnotimefor 
further discussion. It was apparent that several discussors 




Dean Mackenzie presides while E. E. Eisenhauer delivers 
his paper 



126 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



were still hoping for an opportunity to contribute their 
share, and consequently the Chairman requested any 
persons who had not been heard and had something to offer, 
to put it in writing and send it to the Headquarters of the 
Institute, where it would be very welcome and would be 
added to the other contributions. 

During the afternoon session consideration was given to a 
timely and important paper on "American Industry Looks 
at Canada." This brought forth a different set of dis- 
cussors and it was very evident that the subject was one 
of general interest. These discussions too will be made 
available to all members and to other interested parties. 
The attendance at both sessions was quite unusual and 
the auditorium was substantially occupied all day. 

A complete list of papers and their authors follows: 

Some Problems Involved in the Expansion of Can- 
ada, by C. A. Magrath, Hon.M.E.i.c. 

Mountain Water for Prairie Grassland, by F. H. 

Peters, m.e.i.c. 

Irrigation Development, Its Possibilities and Limi- 
tations, by D. W. Hays, m.e.i.c. 

Prairie Farm Rehabilitation, by George Spence. 

Water Conservation on the Western Prairies, by 

C. H. Attwood, A. M.E.I.C. 

Livestock Production in the Rehabilitation Pro- 
gramme, by Dr. E. S. Archibald. 

The Problem of Saskatchewan, by the Hon. T. G. 
Taggart and E. E. Eisenhauer, a. m.e.i.c. 

Drought — A National Problem, by G. A. Gaherty, 

M.E.I.C. 

Rehabilitation Through Water Conservation, by 

Howard J. McLean, a.m. e. i.e. 

American Industry Looks at Canada, by M. W. 

Maxwell, a. m.e.i.c. 

Mining Methods of the Canadian Malartic Mines, 

by E. V. Neelands and J. P. Millenbach, mm.c.i.m.m. 

The Banquet 

Beyond a doubt the principal feature of the social pro- 
gramme was the banquet on Tuesday night. Their Excel- 
lencies, the Governor General and The Lady Tweedsmuir, 
were guests of honour, and His Excellency took part in the 
proceedings by presenting the Honorary Membership to 
Mr. C. A. Magrath, and Her Excellency took a correspond- 
ing part by presenting the prizes. 

President McKiel was in the chair and conducted the 
proceedings with the dignity, charm and tact of a veteran 
toastmaster. The speaker was Colonel Willard Chevalier, 
Vice-President of the McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 
of New York, and publisher of "The Business Week." He 
spoke on "The Engineer Faces a New World," and gave a 
most interesting and inspirational address to one of the 
largest and most enthusiastic engineering audiences in the 
history of the Institute. Over 650 members and friends 
packed the huge ballroom and the adjoining corridors. 

Colonel Chevalier possesses a very easy style and a 
pleasant manner, and charmed his audience beyond measure. 
He spoke of the engineer's obligation to society for the 
economic effect of his work. He said that unless cognizance 
was taken of the new concepts of responsibility, the prob- 
lems of to-day would not be solved. The engineer must 
understand social trends or he would have to abdicate his 
professional position and become a mere craftsman. 

"One of the problems in the old days was scarcity. It has 
been solved so well that it has been succeeded by the 
problem of over-abundance. Engineers should be concerned 
with such things. Scientific progress is now so rapid that 
machines and structures quickly become obsolete. We now 
cannot afford to wear out things we once considered per- 
manent. We must scrap them to keep in step with progress." 




Colonel Willard Chevalier faces the 
camera after the banquet 



In conclusion he said, 
"The Engineer should 
be the architect of 
society." 

In presenting Mr. 
Magrath with his cer- 
tificate of Honorary 
Membership the Gov- 
ernor General said: "I 
am glad to welcome 
you to that small and 
exclusive body to 
which I myself have 
the honour to belong." 
Mr. Magrath said 
how pleased he was to 
receive this honour at 
the hands of His Ex- 
cellency, and spoke of 
his long associations 
with the Institute. 

Just prior to the 
banquet the following 
were presented to 
Their Excellencies, 
President and Mrs. 
McKiel, Hon. and Mrs. 
Howe, Hon. and Mrs. 
Grote Stirling, Col. 

Chevalier, Mr. and Mrs. Magrath, Senator and Mrs. Copp, 
Past-President, Mrs. and Miss Ethel Challies, President 
and Mrs. Sawyer, President Christie, President and Mrs. 
Parker, Chairman Perry, Secretary and Mrs. Seabury, 
Secretary and Mrs. Henline, Secretary and Mrs. Wright. 

The Luncheons 

The luncheon on Tuesday was addressed by Dr. R. C. 
Wallace, Principal of Queen's University. He spoke on "The 
Practical Side of Life," and called attention to the engineer's 
responsibility for the economic effects of his creations upon 
society. He thought that education should not be too 
practical, that life held more than just the discovery of new 
methods of performing old operations. He recommended 
that some consideration be given to the advisability of 
adjusting our needs to nature rather than nature to our 
needs, as the engineer was trying to do to-day. "We must 
put the brakes on against the enthusiasm and the ability of 
the scientist to use his new knowledge too quickly." 

The attendance ran up to four hundred and twenty-eight, 
which is in itself something of a record. J. H. Parkin, 
m.e.i.c, Chairman of the Ottawa Branch, presided, and 
Mayor Lewis was present to welcome the visitors to Ottawa. 

At the Wednesday luncheon, The Honourable J. G. 
Gardiner, Minister of Agriculture of the Dominion Govern- 
ment, spoke on "The Need for Resettlement in Western 
Canada." He told of the experiments which are being made 
of moving families from poor land to better and irrigated 
land. He thought that such methods held hope of a solution 
of a great deal of the problem of the dry areas. Mr. Parkin 
again presided, as due to illness Vice-President Buchanan 
was unable to be present. 

One of the outstanding features of the luncheon and of 
the whole meeting was the presentation of a silver tray from 
the Councillors to the retiring President, Dr. Challies. 
President McKiel, after an appropriate speech, turned to 
Dr. Challies and handed him the tray. Dr. Challies was 
taken completely by surprise, and although he made a 
valiant effort to tell the meeting how much he appreciated 
this honour, he was not able to find the flow of words which 
is customarily his. Amidst a tremendous outburst of 
applause he sat down with a gesture indicating he was 
entirely unequal to the occasion. 

Dr. Challies' year in office had been a most unusual one. 
So much good had been accomplished for the Institute and 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



127 



so many friends had been made by him personally, that 
Council's action was entirely spontaneous. After the con- 
clusion of Monday's meeting the idea developed and was 
pushed through rapidly so that the presentation could be 
made before the meeting broke up. 




The ladie 



transportation 



For the Ladies 

No'matter how good a programme may be it is no good 
if it does not properly provide for the entertainment of 
the ladies. This programme maintained its high average by 
offering the ladies a series of functions that answered their 
every need. Under the chairmanship of Mrs. F. H. Peters, 
every last detail was attended to by the ladies' committee. 

On Monday night Mrs. J. B. Challies entertained in her 
apartment so that the wives of the councillors might meet 
Mrs. McKiel. It was a very successful affair and admirably 
fulfilled its objective. 

The Ottawa branch made a very nice gesture of hospi- 
tality in inviting all visiting ladies to be their guests for 
the luncheons on Tuesday and Wednesday. This was very 
much appreciated. 

On Tuesday afternoon a trip was arranged to the Parlia- 
ment Buildings and the Memorial Tower, followed by tea 
in the Quebec Suite at the Chateau. 

On Wednesday afternoon, Her Excellency The Lady 
Tweedsmuir graciously received the ladies at Government 
House. This feature of the programme proved very attrac- 
tive, and over sixty ladies took advantage of it. It was 
particularly commented upon by the guests from the 
United States. 

The personnel of the Ladies' Committee was: Convener, 
Mrs. F. H. Peters; Mrs. Charles Camsell, Mrs. G. J. 
Desbarats, Mrs. C. D. Howe, Mrs. A. G. L. McNaughton, 
Mrs. G. G. Gale, Mrs. J. L. Rannie, Mrs. E. W. Stedman, 
Mrs. W. L. Cassels and Mrs. C. P. Edwards. The Institute 
is very much indebted to them for their thoughtful plan- 
ning, and their hospitable welcome to all guests. Their 
contribution was one of the most helpful of the entire 
meeting. 

The Casino 

On Wednesday night members were permitted to indulge 
themselves in a sort of denatured type of gambling. Games 
of chance of many kinds were set up in the interesting Jasper 
room, and about three hundred people risked their financial 
future (up to fifty cents) on the flip of a card or the turn 
of a wheel. There was roulette, horse racing, crown and 
anchor, and other devices well known in the so-called 
gambling world. 

Musical numbers and some juvenile dancing were inter- 
spersed with the other events in order to give variety to 
the programme. A very generous quantity of paper money 
in impressive denominations was given at the door for the 
fifty cents entrance fee and it was possible to bet sub- 
stantial amounts without fear of sacrificing the old home- 
stead. It provided a very pleasant finish to a very successful 
Annual Meeting. Clarence Pitts made a splendid master 
of ceremonies. 



The President's Dinner 

In the past there have been many outstanding dinners 
given by the retiring presidents, but it is not likely that any 
have ever equalled that which was given by President 
Challies at the Rideau Club on Monday evening. There 
were over ninety guests, the company being made up 
of councillors, officers and past officers and friends of the 
Institute from Ottawa and other parts of the country. 

At the head table there were such important personages 
as The Honourable C. D. Howe, The Honourable Grote 
Stirling, Mr. C. A. Magrath, Mr. J. B. Hunter, Deputy 
Minister of Public Works, Past-Presidents H. H. Vaughan, 
A. R. Decary, C. H. Mitchell, S. G. Porter, 0. O. Lefebvre, 
F. A. Gaby, G. J. Desbarats, and the President-elect Dean 
H. W. McKiel, Loring Christie, W. P. Dobson, G. G. Gale, 
S. W. Gray, Dr. T. H. Hogg, C. D. Harrington, E. P. Muntz, 
Major General A. G. L. McNaughton, A. L. Bishop, Dr. 
A. Frigon, Dean E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, G. A. Gaherty, 
Fraser Keith, Dean C. J. Mackenzie, W. R. McCaffrey. 

The speakers of the evening were J. P. H. Perry, Chair- 
man of the Engineers' Council for Professional Develop- 
ment, and Mr. C. E. Davies, Secretary of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers and Assistant Secretary 
of the Engineers' Council for Professional Development. 
Mr. Davies outlined the aims and objects of the E.C.P.D. 
and by means of a diagram on a blackboard, pointed out 
how the Council was aiding students and young engineers 
in the various phases of their development. Perhaps there 
is no person in North America who is so well able to speak 
on this subject as Mr. Davies, inasmuch as he has been 
the permanent officer of the organization since its inception. 

Mr. Perry told of the work which the E.C.P.D. had done 
on accrediting colleges, as well as other phases of the 
Council's work. He also talked of the things which are 
planned for the future and referred to some of the difficulties 
which they were encountering, brilliantly and frequently 
illustrating his points by what he was pleased to call 
parables. As an after-dinner speaker Mr. Perry has few peers. 

The Honourable CD. Howe and the Honourable Grote 
Stirling also spoke to the meeting and made very pleasant 
and amusing references to each other and to the fact that 
the House was now in session and that they both either had 
to stay away or both attend. It was quite a compliment to 
theTgathering that these two high-ranking political leaders 
bothjremained until practically the end of the programme. 

As an outcome of this meeting it is now possible that the 
Institute may be permitted to share to an even greater 
extent in the activities of the E.C.P.D. 




Two Ottawa citizens, Mrs. A. G. L. 

McNaughton and Past-President 

G. J. Desbarats 



128 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



Our distinguished guests from'the 
United States — H. H. Henline, Na- 
tional Secretary of the A.I.E.E.; 
Col. C. E. Davies, Secretary of the 
A.S.M.E.; J. P. H. Perry, Chairman 
of the E.C.P.D.; Col. D. H. Sawyer, 
President of the A.S.C.E.; Professor 
A. G. Christie, President of the 
A.S.M.E.; J. C. Parker, President of 
the A.I.E.E. and G. T. Seabury, 
Secretary of the A.S.C.E. .J 




Reception to Distinguished Visitors from the 
United States 

On Tuesday afternoon at 2.30 a party of distinguished 
guests from the United States assembled on the platform 
in the auditorium, together with the past-presidents and 
officers of the Institute. The company of visitors was made 
up of Colonel D. H. Sawyer, President, and Mr. George T. 
Seabury, Secretary, of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers; Professor A. G. Christie, President, and Colonel 
C. E. Davies, Secretary, of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers; Mr. John C. Parker, President, 
and Mr. H. H. Henline, National Secretary, of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, and Mr. J. P. H. Perry, 
Chairman of the Engineers' Council for Professional Devel- 
opment. President Challies was master of ceremonies, and 
in opening the meeting referred to the honour which was 
done the Institute by the presence of these eminent en- 
gineers. He would ask the several past-presidents to express 
to them the Institute's hearty welcome. 

In presenting the President of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, Past-President Brigadier-General C. H. 
Mitchell spoke of Mr. Sawyer's work in the Federal Emer- 
gency Administration of Public Works, his long experience 
in the construction industry, and his important duties with 
the U.S. Federal Government. His presence was a token 
of the cordial relations which have always existed between 
his society and the Institute. 

President Sawyer desired to present the respects of the 
Board of Direction of the Society, and to convey the hope 
that joint occasions like the present would be more frequent. 
The engineers of Canada and Britain would have a great 
opportunity to meet those of the United States at the 
Engineering Congress to be held in New York in September. 

Mr. Sawyer felt that two serious problems faced the 
engineer to-day, the first of which was, how to keep at 
work the multitude of technical men and artisans whose 
activities have made possible the technological advances 
which have so greatly increased our permanent wealth and 
the amenities of life. This could be done by further develop- 
ment of the resources of the engineering mind. 

The second task for the engineer was to take a more 
effective part in the administration of public affairs. He 
should assert himself in public matters and so use his 
talents as to lead the way from discord and suspicion to a 
world of stability and confidence. 

The President of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Professor A. G. Christie, was then introduced by 



Past- President H. H. Vaughan, who referred to Prof. 
Christie's leadership in the investigations which have so 
greatly increased the efficiency of fuel-driven power stations, 
his Canadian birth, and the kindness and hospitality which 
the Institute has always received from the great society 
over which he presides. The introduction was gracefully 
acknowledged by Prof. Christie, who reminded the audience 
that he was a graduate of the University of Toronto. 

Past-President Desbarats next presented Mr. J. C. 
Parker, President of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, as an eminent engineer of long experience in the 
public utility field, and the head of a body whose publica- 
tions form a most valuable source of professional inspiration 
for electrical engineers in Canada. 

Mr. Parker took great personal pleasure in bringing 
greetings from the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers, largely because his early professional work had been 
in Canada, and his birthplace, Detroit, was in early days as 
French as Montreal and Quebec, and as British as Toronto. 

It is no accident, said Mr. Parker, that two great demo- 
cratic nations stand together to-day in a world of turmoil. 
The individualism of the French, with their clarity and 
logical thought, and the British respect for law and order 
are the common heritage of our two great nations of the 
western world. 

These ideals, he believed, applied in problems of profes- 
sional development, of social recognition of engineering as 
a profession, and of the economic rewards for engineering 
effort. The fullest status of our profession could only be 
attained by realization of the importance of individual 
merit, individual dignity and individual responsibility. 
With a common philosophy of living, engineering societies 
could give stimulus to the personal development and the 
professional awareness of the individual engineer. 

The introduction of the Chairman of the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development was in the hands of 
Past-President Lefebvre, who welcomed Mr. J. P. H. Perry 
as the presiding officer of an organization sponsored by the 
principal American engineering societies and actively en- 
gaged in co-operative action to improve the professional 
status of the engineer. The valuable information obtained 
during their investigations, and their conclusions as regards 
engineering education, professional training, and the 
development of the young engineer had been freely placed 
at the Institute's disposal. 

Mr. Perry, in a reply whose humour was fully appre- 
ciated by the audience, outlined the aims and accomplish- 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



129 




Mr. Parker, President of the A.I.E.E., brings greetings 
to the E.I.C. 

merits of the Council and hoped that the common interests 
of professional engineers in Canada and the United States 
would be furthered by continued joint action on the part 
of his Council and the Institute. 

President Challies then introduced the secretaries of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers (Mr. G. T. Seabury), 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Col. C. E. 
Davies) and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
(Mr. H. H. Henline), each of whom spoke briefly in reply. 
Dr. Challies mentioned that in coming to this general 
meeting of the Institute, Mr. Seabury was continuing a 
series of welcome visits which had extended over many 
years. Col. Davies — a member of the Institute — was equally 
welcome, whether as secretary of the A.S.M.E. or as an 
officer of the E.C.P.D., while the presence of Mr. Henline, 
an authority on engineering society organization, was appre- 
ciated as a token of his interest in the advancement of the 
engineering profession both in Canada and in the United 
States. 

It was a most unusual occasion. It is doubtful if at any 
meeting in the United States or in Canada as many chief 
officers of the principal engineering societies have been 
assembled at one meeting. The members of the Institute 
were very pleased to have an opportunity to meet and to 
listen to such distinguished engineers, and beyond a doubt 
the meeting produced the effect of bringing the members 
of the profession in both countries much closer together. 

It is impossible to adequately thank these gentlemen for 
the sacrifices which they made in order to make this visit, 
or to tell them how much their presence added to the 
pleasure and success of the entire meeting. The fact that 
most of them brought their wives with them was an addi- 
tional reason for the pleasure which it gave the Institute 
to be their host. 



Miscellaneous — But Important 

After the banquet on Tuesday night there was a dance. 
This, too, was a great success, and it is announced that 
about seven hundred people took part. 

Although it was no part of the Annual General Meeting, 
President McKiePs address to the Ottawa Rotary Club 
was an important event. He spoke of the engineer in every- 
day life and emphasized his contributions to modern civil- 
ization, at the same time pointing out the necessity of 
keeping the economic effect of this clearly in mind. He 
defined engineering as the adaptation of natural energy 
to the progress of mankind. 

In many ways the National Research Council of Canada 
made a very substantial contribution to the success of the 
convention. For instance in the room just outside the 
convention hall and opposite the registration desk, the 
Council staff had set up a half-dozen or more very interesting 
scientific exhibits, using equipment and methods which are 
standard practice in the Council's laboratories. This was 
probably the most generally popular feature of the meeting. 

Another feature which contributed substantially to the 
success of the meeting from the point of view of the visitors 
from the United States, was that the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company put a special car on their Ottawa train 
in order to accommodate these guests on their trip from 
Montreal to Ottawa on Tuesday morning. They were 
guests of the railway, and chief engineer J. E. Armstrong, 
a.m. E.i.c, and Mrs. Armstrong acted as hosts on behalf of 
the Company. R. S. Eadie, m. e.i.c, and Mrs. Eadie, on 
behalf of Council, met the party at the Montreal West 
Station and joined with Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong in looking 
after arrangements until the arrival in Ottawa. 

The Honourable C. D. Howe, Hon. m. e.i.c, placed his 
private car at the disposal of the same parties for the 
return trip from Ottawa to Montreal on Wednesday eve- 
ning. Past Vice-President J. A. McCrory at the request of 
Council returned with them to Montreal in the capacity 
of host. These kindnesses on the part of Sir Edward Beatty 
and Hon. Mr. Howe added substantially to the pleasure 
of our visitors. Such co-operation is much appreciated 
by the Institute. 

Mere statistics are not necessarily interesting, but the 
following ones do give some extra light on the attendance 
record, and are rather impressive in their magnitude. 

Total registration 541 

Ottawa members and ladies 255 

Out of town members and ladies 230 

Non members and guests 56 

Attendance at banquet 656 

Attendance at Tuesday luncheon 412 

Attendance at Wednesday luncheon 383 

Attendance at Government House reception for ladies 67 

Attendance at ladies' tea, Tuesday 140 

Attendance at the "Casino" 291 






J. L. Busfield and J. W. Lucas 

arrange the reservations for 

the banquet 



W. Lindsay Malcolm, formerly of 

Queen's, now Dean of Civil 

Engineering at Cornell 



The Chairman of the Papers Committee, 

G. A. Gaherty, receives congratulations 

from J. A. McCrory of Shawinigan 



130 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 





The ladies are on their way to Government House 



The technical papers were interesting 





The Hon. C. D. Howe and Chairman Parkin listen to the 
Hon. J. G. Gardiner 



The National Research Council illustrate an interesting 
principle 




Past-President Porter discusses the 
programme with Les Rannie 




Dr. Dafoe of the Winnipeg Free Press 

is interested in the Western Water 

Problem. So is Dr. Challies 




Dean Mackenzie explains it to 
General McNaughton 





Dr. Wallace, Mayor Lewis and Dean McKiel pose for the 
photographer 



A president is installed 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



131 




ANNUAL MEETING 



There are varying degrees of success for Annual Meet- 
ings, but no one will hesitate to apply superlatives to the 
one which was held last month in Ottawa. A meeting which 
provides liberally of education, inspiration, entertainment 
and congeniality to an appreciative group of engineers 
deserves all the fine things that can be said of it. 

From every angle the meeting was a noteworthy event. 
Starting from the Council meeting which was held the day 
before the general meeting, unusual features attended every 
function. Thirty-six councillors and past-presidents from 
Halifax to Vancouver sat from ten in the morning until 
almost six in the afternoon, deliberating on the affairs of the 
Institute. Many decisions were reached unanimously which 
will have important and favourable effects for all time on 
the future developments of the Institute. Doubtless the 
peculiar success of this meeting was attributable to a great 
extent to the fact that it was held in advance of the general 
meeting and that a full day was set aside for it. This in- 
novation also had a favourable influence on the general 
meeting. 

The retiring President's dinner that night at the Rideau 
Club, when ninety guests greeted their host, was unique in 
many ways. The opportunity of hearing the two principal 
officers of the Engineers' Council for Professional Develop- 
ment describe the work of that excellent body was unusually 
interesting and instructive. It is expected that as an out- 
come of the visit of these officers much valuable material 
and helpful co-operation will be made available to the 
Institute. 

The Annual General Meeting on Tuesday was well 
attended and full approval was given to the decisions made 
by Council the previous day. Decision on every item of the 
agenda was reached without controversy, and complete 
unanimity pervaded the gathering. It is encouraging to 
know that these important matters of policy find such 
wholesome approval from such a representative audience. 

An unusual event was the reception to the special guests 
from the United States. The chief officers of four of the 
leading engineering societies and the secretaries of three 
were introduced by past-presidents of the Institute, and 
each responded shortly and appropriately. Their presence 
throughout the convention provided a pleasant inter- 
national flavour, and gave a decided fillip to events. The 
Institute was very proud to be their host. 

Tuesday night's banquet was something which had to be 
experienced to be appreciated. The presence of Their 
Excellencies, the skill of the speaker, the presentation of 
prizes, the decorations and the enthusiasm of the assembly 
brought about a function which many believed to have set 
a new "high." Over six hundred and fifty attended. 

The professional meeting probably brought out the most 
complete discussions that have been developed for many 
years. The principal topic was the western drought prob- 
lem. Experts from all parts of the west as well as from the 
east joined together to bring to the attention of all Cana- 
dians, deplorable conditions which exist in certain parts of 
the west and to explain policies and methods by which they 
could be overcome. It was the wish of those who were 
responsible for this portion of the programme that some 
sane policy could be evolved and that proper support would 
follow once the policy was clearly indicated. 

The luncheons, at which the attendance averaged four 



hundred, the presentation to the retiring president, the pre- 
sentation of an honorary membership, the presentation to 
the Secretary Emeritus, the special functions for the ladies, 
the dance, the reception, the casino, the exhibit of the 
National Research Council, the installation of the new 
president, combined with the other features to make up a 
genuinely successful annual meeting which will be remem- 
bered for a long time by those who were privileged to attend. 
To the Ottawa Branch go the thanks of all members. 
It seems impossible to imagine a better prepared pro- 
gramme, more complete and detailed arrangements, or a 
more interested and helpful committee. The results must 
be very gratifying to those who carried the burden. The 
magnitude of the task cannot be overestimated. This work 
of the branch has set new standards, which if maintained by 
subsequent meetings will do tremendous things for the 
Institute and for the profession. 

ECONOMICS AND THE ENGINEER 

It was a matter of considerable comment that almost all 
the speakers at the Annual General Meeting touched on 
the same subject. Without any knowledge of what was in 
the minds of the other speakers, each referred to the 
engineer's responsibility for the economic effect of his 
inventions or his creations upon society. It was a new 
thought, that the responsibility for much of the world's 
economic chaos of to-day is his, because of his failure to 
prepare the world for his brain children before he gave 
them birth. 

Dr. Wallace said that mistakes had been made in the 
past by developments which had effected a revolution in 
the mode of living and which had been entirely unforeseen 
and for which no provision had been made. He referred to 
the automobile and its detrimental effects on the home and 
on the financial stability of Government. The radio had 
changed methods of living and had disturbed many esta- 
blished customs and institutions, and its final effect was yet 
to be seen. 

Colonel Willard Chevalier said that engineers must be 
aware of the social and economic implications of their work, 
although he admitted that it was difficult for even the best 
of prognosticators to see clearly how the future would be 
affected by the developments of the present. 

Dean McKiel, speaking at the Rotary Club, suggested that 
there was some truth in the statement that engineering 
developments had gone ahead too fast without sufficient 
thought to their effects on economic life and without any 
plan for this in advance. 

There was a trace of the same thought in the luncheon 
address of the Honourable Mr. Gardiner and in the re- 
marks of one or two of the guests from the United States. 
Such a general outbreak of an idea must be of some signifi- 
cance. Are the engineers responsible for the evolutions of 
society which follow their inventions, and if they are, what 
can be done about it ? 

In considering such a difficult topic, sight should not be 
lost of the fact that the engineer's work usually stops with 
the perfecting of the article itself. The economics of manu- 
facturing or building it are decidedly within his field, but it 
is not customary that he is consulted with regard to the 
social economics of it. Engineers are responsible for the 
design of to-day's automobile but it is not likely that they 
set the production schedules or determine the marketing 
methods. As far as they go, their economics are sound. The 
manufacturer employs engineers to discover materials and 
improved methods of manufacture, but is not his the 
responsibility for the impact of these upon society ? 

It is an interesting thought, and perhaps after all, at least 
some of the responsibility is the engineer's. If so he should 
be working at its solution. How can he best prepare society 
for the still greater things that are yet to come, and which 
will bring about an even greater evolution than has yet 
occurred? 



132 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



HE 



^™**« 



tânemf&Hxetatyjhnn 19Î5 to}ff$$ 'its appreciation, 
of fii? devotion to tile interests and tde welfare of 
me^hstitate, and£is contritntiion to die progress 
and betterment of tne engineering profession^ 



Sîb'ruaiy I4-Ï.I9Î9 




1 aik^^~—\ 






(£stf&&*-^<{*^£* — 



Photographic reproduction of the illuminated address pre- 
sented to Secretary Emeritus R. J. Durley, containing signa- 
tures of officers of the Institute and all living past presidents 



MR. DURLEY EXPRESSES HIS APPRECIATION 

Mr. L. A. Wright, 

The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

2050 Mansfield Street, Montreal. 

Dear Mr. Wright: 

Will you please express to the President and Council my 
great regret that it was impossible for me to attend the 
recent Annual General Meeting in order to receive personally 
the illuminated record of my service with the Institute and 
the very acceptable cheque which accompanied it. I 
understand that this generous and timely donation was 
made up by contributions from the various branches of the 
Institute, to whose executive committees I beg that you 
will express the sincere gratitude of Mrs. Durley and myself 
for their generous action. In fact this presentation comes as 
an unexpected climax to the series of kindnesses which I 
have received during the past fourteen years from the 
officers and members of the Institute in all parts of the 
Dominion. 

My acute disappointment at missing the ceremony at 
the Ottawa meeting was lessened when Mrs. Durley told 
me of the charming way in which she was welcomed in 
my place, the graceful manner in which the presentation 
was made to her, and the appreciative remarks which she 
heard about my work as General Secretary. The memory 
of all this will be treasured; in return I offer my heartfelt 
thanks, and express the hope that from time to time there 
will be opportunity for me to be of some further service 
to the Institute. 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Sgd.) R. J. Durley. 

Westmount, February 20, 1939. 




Louis Trudel, the 
newly-appointed as- 
sistant to the 
General Secretary 



APPOINTMENT OF ASSISTANT TO THE GENERAL 
SECRETARY 

Acting on the recommendation of the finance committee, 
Council in February unanimously approved of the appoint- 
ment of Louis Trudel, b.a., b.a.sc, a.m. e. i.e., as assistant 
to the general secretary, the position formerly occupied by 
John F. Plow. Mr. Trudel took office on March 1st. 

He is a graduate in Arts of the University of Montreal, 
and in Engineering of the Ecole Polytechnique (1936). At 
college he took a special interest in many activities. He was 
associate editor of "Le Quartier Latin," the University of 
Montreal students' weekly, and was president of the 
Students' Council of the same institution, as well as presi- 
dent of the students in Engineering at the Ecole Polytech- 
nique. He was also a councillor of the Athletic Association. 

In 1935 he won the Institute students' prize, and in 1936 
gained the Ernest Marceau prize, another of the Institute's 
honours. In his graduating year he won also the Ecole 
Polytechnique Alumni medal for the best thesis of the year. 

Last year he was vice-chairman of the Junior Section of 
the Montreal Branch, and has always taken a real interest 
in Institute affairs. Since graduation he has been with the 
Provincial Electricity Board, the Southern Canada Power 
Company and Marine Industries Ltd. 

Mr. Trudel is specially qualified for this position. With 
his interest in and knowledge of Institute affairs, and his 
many contacts with young engineers, it is expected that he 
will be at ease in his new work in a very short time. 

TRAGEDY STRIKES IN HALIFAX 

At the last moment before printing, word had been 
received at Headquarters that the secretary-treasurer of the 
Halifax Branch, Robert Roy Murray, a.m. e. i.e., and Mrs. 
Murray are listed among those missing in the terrible fire 
which destroyed the Queen Hotel. An exchange of telegrams 
with Councillor MacNab and Vice-President Dunsmore of 
Halifax fails to give us any hope that they may have been 
spared from this disaster. 



Mrs. Durley re- 
ceives the illumin- 
ated address from 
Past-President G. J. 
Desbarats 




THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



133 



HAROLD WILSON McKIEL, B.A., B.Sc, M.E.I.C. 

PRESIDENT OF THE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, 1939 



At the Annual Meeting in Ottawa, the last steps of the 
formalities required for the election of a president were 
complied with, and Dean McKiel became President 
McKiel. Escorted to the platform by the two senior past 
presidents present, H. H. Vaughan and General Mitchell, 
he received the congratulations of Dr. Challies and the 
enthusiastic applause of the meeting. 

It is interesting to see these long careers of Institute 
activity culminate in the presidency. It is 20 years since the 
new president joined the 
Institute. In that time he 
has progressed from a mem- 
ber of the staff of the en- 
gineering faculty of Mount 
Allison to senior Dean of 
the University, and from a 
mere member of the In- 
stitute to President. Those 
are simple statements to 
make and yet within their 
limitations lies history, im- 
portant both to the man 
himself and to the profes- 
sion. 

It is the first time in the 
history of the Institute that 
a president has been chosen 
from the Maritimes. Rota- 
tion of this office is desir- 
able, and it is part of the 
Institute policy to see that 
it is carried out. The pre- 
sidency swings back and 
forward across the con- 
tinent, distributing its bene- 
fits and obligations from 
one city to another, and 
raising the level of Institute 
activity wherever it rests. 

Although to-day Dean 
McKiel is considered to be a 

Maritimer, the fact remains that his career began in 
Gananoque, Ont., inasmuch as that was where he was 
born. His college is Queen's from which he was graduated 
a Bachelor of Arts in 1908 and a Bachelor of Science in 1912 
with honours in chemical engineering. 

In 1911 he was assistant chemist with the Canada Cement 
Company, after which he became assistant in electro-metal- 
lurgical research at Queen's University under the Federal 
Department of Mines. In 1918 he was making explosives 
with the British Chemical Company. In 1929 he became 
consulting engineer to the Maritime Coal Railway and 
Power Company, which position he still occupies, as well as 




Harold Wilson McKiel, 



acting in the same capacity to Enamel and Heating Pro- 
ducts Limited. 

Between this work just mentioned and for relatively short 
periods of time, he was a demonstrator and a tutor in 
physics at Queen's and Director of the Academic Depart- 
ment of Mount Royal College, Calgary. In 1913 he became 
professor of Mechanical Engineering at Mount Allison. 
In 1920 he was appointed Brookfield Professor of En- 
gineering, a title which he still possesses. He was made 

Dean of the faculty in 1934. 
He has held many offices 
in the Institute. He has been 
a branch chairman, a coun- 
cillor and a vice-president, so 
he comes well prepared for 
his new responsibilities. He 
is also a member of the New 
Brunswick Association of 
Professional Engineers and 
has occupied in that organ- 
ization, the positions of 
councillor, vice-president 
and president. 

His interest in education- 
al matters goes beyond the 
bounds of his own college, 
and he is a member of the 
Board of Governors of the 
Nova Scotia Technical Col- 
lege at Halifax. He is a 
Fellow of the Canadian 
Institute of Chemistry and 
has been a councillor, chair- 
man and vice-president of 
the Maritime Section. He 
has also been a chairman of 
the Maritime Chemical As- 
sociation. He is member of 
the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, is a 
charter member of the Sack- 
ville Rotary Club and has served as secretary, vice-president 
and president of it. 

Surely with all this experience in service, Pre- 
sident McKiel has unusual qualities to bring to his new 
office. President Cody of the University of Toronto 
has said that the presidency of The Engineering Institute 
of Canada is "the highest position in the gift of the profes- 
sion." It is evident that the new incumbent has the experi- 
ence and training, the inspiration and the energy necessary 
to meet the exacting requirements of this high office, and 
the strength of character which justifies his fellow-engineers 
in thus honouring him. 



Smith, Sackville, N.B. 

B.A., B.Sc, M.E.I.C. 



134 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



ADDRESS OF THE RETIRING PRESIDENT 

DR. J. B. CHALLIES, M.E.I.C. 

Delivered before the Fifty-Third Annual General Meeting of The Engineering Institute of Canada, 

Ottawa, Ont., February 14th, 1939. 



It is doubtful if the valedictory address of any president 
of the Institute finally took the form which he had planned 
when he assumed office. There is no exception in my case. 
Ever since my installation at the London meeting last 
February, I have hoped to be able to present an address 
on an engineering subject worthy of this occasion. Such 
a subject was chosen and its contents outlined; however, 
it has seemed advisable that I should discuss briefly and 
generally matters that are more directly concerned with 
the Institute and which have not been referred to in the 
Report of the Council. 

Permit me at the outset to make my personal acknowledg- 
ment of the high honour which was done me by the mem- 
bership of the Institute; I especially appreciate the fact 
that my nomination originated from the branch that I shall 
always recognize as my Institute home. During the past 
year I have not had the leisure to do what I should have 
done to justify the action of the Ottawa Executive and the 
Nominating Committee. I suspect that my regrets as I 
look back over twelve crowded and responsible months are 
by no means unprecedented. 

It is difficult to assess my indebtedness during my period 
of office. I could not wish for a mentor more encouraging 
than the distinguished former Deputy Minister who pre- 
ceded me; for past- president s more generous; for honorary 
members more considerate; for vice-presidents more helpful; 
for councillors more alert for opportunities to serve; for a 
general secretary more efficient ; or for a Headquarters staff 
more co-operative. We have all worked well together, and 
while our sins of omission and commission may have been 
many, I can say with confidence that our successors will 
find an Institute alive to its opportunities for service — both 
to the public and to the profession — branches from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific ready and willing to function for the 
local requirements of the membership, and a devoted 
Headquarters personnel keen to carry out the will of Council. 

Reflecting on the events of 1938, I have no hesitation in 
saying that, notwithstanding the business recession, and in 
spite of the drought in the west, the year has been unques- 
tionably a notable one for the Institute. 

As to Internal Affairs 

It would be shirking a duty if I did not call attention to 
a widespread desire among the members for less subjective 
debating and for more objective discussions, for less atten- 
tion to matters of procedure and for more concern for a 
positive programme. At every branch I have visited inter- 
ested members, old and young, have urged that we stop 
arguing about the size, set-up and quorum of Council; about 
admission qualifications, and devote our energies to con- 
structive work along the lines of mutual help and public 
service. They have said to me in effect, the foundation of 
the Institute's home is on bed-rock. Let us stop moving 
the furniture around, decorating here and extending there; 
let us sit around the family fireside for awhile and get better 
acquainted with each other, not forgetting to bring in our 
engineering neighbours, so that we can concentrate upon the 
main objects of the Institute's existence which are the 
development of the professional and social interests of its 
members, the dissemination of professional and technical 
knowledge and the promotion of professional co-operation 
and unity on a Dominion-wide basis. These are the lines 
along which it is felt that the efforts of Council and of our 
branches should now be directed. 

Not only has such advice been pleasing to a frequently 



distracted president, but it has appealed strongly on account 
of its obvious common sense. I commend it to the earnest 
consideration of the membership everywhere. 

There is one very important consideration of which 
Council should never lose sight. The Institute need not 
slavishly follow all the fundamental traditions of the British 
institutions or the basic practices of the Founder societies, 
but it is particularly advisable that all contemplated changes 
in the size and set-up of Council, in membership qualifica- 
tions and nomenclature should be most carefully considered, 
and very slowly accomplished. Sudden constitutional 
changes are fraught with difficulty and danger. Council will 
therefore be wise if it makes the most searching study of all 
proposals for by-law alterations that involve important 
matters of policy. Every branch should be fully consulted. 
Let all restless councillors remember the epitaph on the 
health crusader's tombstone: "I was well; I wanted to be 
better; here I am." 

All councillors will agree that I should commend the work 
of the Committee on Membership and Management, and 
especially of its Chairman, whose efforts to find appropriate 
and acceptable replies to remits emanating from the semi- 
centennial plenary meeting of Council should prove of great 
benefit to the Institute. It may well be that as a result of 
the researches of this committee, changes in the qualifica- 
tions and nomenclature of the Institute membership may 
be instituted. I hope so. It is also possible that the council 
may, in a few years, find it advisable to recommend changes 
in its own constitution. If so, I am sure full consideration 
will have been given to what many consider to be the warp 
and woof of the organization of the Institute, namely, the 
right of every branch to be continuously represented on 
Council by one of its own members chosen in the manner 
and for the period the majority of the branch membership 
may desire. 

One important lesson which I have learned during a very 
busy year in the office of president that has brought me 
into contact with the personnel of every branch, is the 
urgent need, indeed the imperative necessity, for The 
Engineering Institute to extend its services to the young 
engineer. That has been impressed upon me with increasing 
emphasis as I visited our principal centres of engineering 
education. It is my belief that the curricula of our Canadian 
engineering colleges and their laboratory facilities compare 
quite favourably with those of similarly situated institutions 
in other countries. Something, however, is lacking. A com- 
paratively small proportion of the several thousand engin- 
eering students in Canadian colleges seems desirous of 
associating with the members of our Canadian, British and 
American engineering societies, or of learning about their 
aims and objects, or their codes of ethics. Many of these 
students hear of The Engineering Institute and the pro- 
vincial registration associations for the first time a year or 
two after their graduation. Few of them seem to have any 
opportunity to acquire even the rudiments of a professional 
consciousness during their student days. The correction of 
this unsatisfactory condition is peculiarly the responsibility 
of The Engineering Institute of Canada. 

I believe that the great mission of the Institute lies in 
intelligent, aggressive, devoted ministration to the young 
men who are choosing engineering as their life's work. Until 
recently it has done very little in an organized fashion to 
inform them as to the philosophy of our profession. That, 
in my opinion, is a real task for the incoming Council. If 
this is done properly, the year 1939 will prove to be the 
most fruitful in the long history of the Institute. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



135 



As to External Affairs 

The Institute's relations with other engineering bodies 
at home and abroad have been greatly improved. The best 
evidence of this fact is the unique honour accorded the 
Institute this afternoon by the official visit of the presidents 
and general secretaries of the three senior American Founder 
societies, and the chairman of that creation of the four 
founder and their associated societies — the Engineers' 
Council for Professional Development, an exploratory and 
promotional institution that is ministering to the young 
American engineer in a way and to a degree that is inspiring 
The Engineering Institute to extend its own efforts to advise 
and assist the young Canadian engineer. The presence of 
these distinguished leaders in organized engineering from 
the United States is much more than a courteous gesture, 
it is a token of confidence in The Engineering Institute of 
Canada coming from men who are most competent to judge. 
Without realizing it and without intending it, those partici- 
pating in this friendly American invasion have challenged 
the Institute to march on to greater achievements in the 
interest of the Sons of Martha. 

The Institute's relations with the institutions of Great 
Britain were never so cordial. One of our senior past-presi- 
dents is now in London on a mission from the Council that 
should promote better and more frequent contacts between 
English, American and Canadian engineers. Quite recently, 
Headquarters had the privilege of entertaining a past-presi- 
dent of the Institution of Electrical Engineers from London, 
who, as chairman of a "Joint Committee on Engineering 
Co-operation Overseas," is endeavouring to foster co-opera- 
tion between the members of the Institute and the resident 
members in Canada of eight major British engineering 
institutions. 

Sure and steady progress is being made towards a real 
entente cordiale with all the provincial professional associa- 
tions. As a result of conferences during recent months, the 
officers of these registration and licensing bodies, of which 
the Institute was the progenitor, are now aware that the 
Council is preDared to consult with them whenever and 
wherever they desire to discuss ways and means for joint 
action to advance the prestige of the profession and to 
increase its usefulness to the public. The Institute's agree- 
ment with the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Saskatchewan shows that this objective can be realized with 
benefit to both bodies. 

It is highly important that the Council of the Institute 
should promote cordial co-operative relations with the 
Dominion Council, the advisory body which the Provincial 
Associations have set up to promote the standardizing and 
the strengthening of the licensing movement. 

Engineers in Public Service 
I must not conclude this brief valedictory without paying 
a tribute to both the work and the worth of the members 



of our profession who are engaged in the service of the 
Dominion of Canada. No one privileged as I was to spend 
21 years as an employee of the permanent service could 
avoid becoming thoroughly familiar with the organization 
and with the personnel of the principal governmental 
departments centring in the Capital, but spread over the 
whole of this Dominion. After this long sojourn within 
official circles and after an additional 15 years of close 
co-operation with public officials, I am able to state that 
there are no better qualified professional groups than those 
that are so ably and efficiently serving the Government of 
Canada. No other country can boast of technical bureaux 
furnishing services of such widespread benefit at more 
reasonable costs than the engineering staffs of the important 
departments of Public Works, of Transport, of Mines and 
Resources and of National Defence, the National Research 
Council, the Geological, Topographic, Geodetic and Hydro- 
graphic Surveys, and by the Dominion Water and Power 
Bureau; in fact I might say in practically every branch of 
Government activity. That these engineering bodies are so 
well manned to-day is due very largely to their freedom 
from the curse of political patronage. 

In this connection I repeat what I have emphasized before 
each of the 25 branches of the Institute from Halifax to 
Victoria: "The engineering profession owes a debt of grati- 
tude to all those right honourable gentlemen who, as Prime 
Ministers of Canada, since the Civil Service Commission 
was established in 1908 have stood staunchly behind the 
principle of merit in appointments and promotions, and 
who have steadfastly refused to permit the partisan poli- 
tician to interfere with the technical services of the 
Dominion." It is a far cry from the conditions of the turn 
of the century, when the engineer had little more status 
in the Federal public service than that of a clerical employee, 
to 1939 when he is legally recognized as a member of a 
leading profession although perhaps not always compen- 
sated accordingly. 

Fundamentals 

As a final word I would like to emphasize something 
which I have tried to make clear at every appropriate 
occasion during my term of office, the simple truth that 
professional status rests but slightly on transient law, a 
little more on specialized knowledge, still a little more 
on society preferment, but a great deal more than the 
sum of all these upon the respect and support of the 
public. We must never forget that "there has been no 
true profession that has not with dignity and authority 
advised and counselled the people, that has not guarded 
the common weal. For a true profession exists only as 
the people allow it to maintain its prerogatives by reason 
of confidence in its integrity and belief in'itsjgeneral 
beneficence." 




Wednesday's luncheon listens to the Hon. J. G. Gardiner 



136 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



MEETING OF COUNCIL 

A meeting of the Council was held at the Chateau Laurier, 
Ottawa, Ontario, on Monday, February 13th, 1939, at ten- 
fifteen a.m. 

There were present: President J. B. Challies in the chair; 
Past-Presidents G. J. Desbarats, F. A. Gaby, 0. O. Le- 
febvre, C. H. Mitchell and S. G Porter; Vice-Presidents 
R. L. Dunsmore (Maritime Provinces), H. O. Keay (Pro- 
vince of Quebec), and J. A. McCrory (Province of Quebec); 
Councillors B. E. Bayne (Moncton), W. E. Bonn (Toronto), 
R. W. Boyle (Ottawa), J. L. Busfield (Montreal), H. J. A. 
Chambers (Border Cities), J. B. D'Aeth (Montreal), A. 
Duperron (Montreal), R. H. Findlay (Montreal), A. B. 
Gates (Peterborough), L. F. Grant (Kingston), 0. Holden 
(Toronto), A. Lariviere (Quebec), J. L. Lang (Sault Ste. 
Marie), H. A. Lumsden (Hamilton), W. R. Manock 
(Niagara Peninsula), F. Newell (Montreal), and J. A. 
Vance (Woodstock); Treasurer deGaspe Beaubien and the 
General Secretary. Also attending the meeting were Pre- 
sident-Elect H. W. McKiel; Vice-President-Elect P. M. 
Sauder; Councillors- Elect S. Hogg (Saint John), I. MacNab 
(Halifax), H. Massue (Montreal), B. R. Perry (Montreal), 
and J. Robertson (Vancouver). There were also present by 
invitation E. P. Muntz, m.e.i.c, immediate Past-President 
of the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario, and 
S. W. Gray, a. m.e.i.c. President of the Association of Pro- 
fessional Engineers of Nova Scotia. All councillors and 
guests were welcomed by President Challies. 

Past-President Desbarats reported regarding his in- 
vestigations during the past year in connection with the 
Engineering Public Relations Committee, which had been 
formed in London in 1937 by fourteen of the principal 
British Engineering Societies. This report was adopted and 
referred to the incoming Council for attention. 

Mr. Sauder presented a report prepared by Prof. R. A. 
Spencer, chairman of the Committee on Membership and 
Management, and discussion followed on the various 
topics which had been referred to that committee. 

The President explained the work which had been done in 
the United States by the Engineers' Council for Profes- 
sional Development regarding the classes of membership 
in the principal engineering societies in the United States. 
The E.C.P.D. had recommended that the classifications in 
engineering societies should be "Fellow," highly restricted 
and used only for recognizing outstanding professional 
service; "Member" with qualifications somewhat similar to 
the qualifications of the present Associate Member of the 
Institute, and "Junior" and "Student." Following these 
recommendations the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers had changed their nomenclature, but the 
American Society of Civil Engineers had not yet done so. 
The Institute Committee on Membership and Management 
had now reported, recommending that the recommenda- 
tions of the E.C.P.D. be adopted by the Institute. Mr. 
Sauder pointed out that the recommendation of the com- 
mittee was that the age limit for membership should be 
lowered to twenty-five at least. 

After considerable discussion it was apparent that 
members of Council favoured the consolidation of the two 
classes of corporate membership as recommended in Mr. 
Spencer's report, but that there was considerable difference 
of opinion as to the advisability of establishing the class of 
"Fellow." In order that the Council might come to some 
definite conclusion it was arranged that a committee sug- 
gested by Mr. Dunsmore, consisting of Messrs. Sauder, 
Dunsmore, Holden, Perry and Vance, should meet during 
the nodn recess to consider the forms which the resolutions 
of Council should take. 

One of the questions submitted to Mr. Spencer's 
committee was that of possible improvement in the 
present organization of Council. Mr. Sauder reviewed 
the opinions which the committee had received, the 
general viewpoint being that no change in the organ- 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



ization of Council was advisable at the present time. 
After further discussion, on the motion of Colonel Grant, 
seconded by Mr. Vance, it was resolved that it is the 
opinion of Council that no further action should be taken 
at this time. 

Mr. Sauder then commented on the committee's report 
regarding the question of increased local autonomy in the 
provinces. Mr. Newell stated that judging from the work 
of the sub-committees of the Committee on Professional 
Interests, in each province, Provincial Divisions were not 
needed as far as negotiations with any of the professional 
associations were concerned. It was then resolved, on the 
motion of Mr. Sauder, seconded by Mr. Newell, that more 
local autonomy in the provinces is not desirable, and that it 
is not advisable that Provincial Divisions should be set up. 

Mr. Sauder remarked that Mr. Spencer's committee had 
obtained a great deal of information regarding the fees of 
other engineering organizations, which had been included 
in tables attached to the committee's report. On the motion 
of Mr. Newell, seconded by Mr. Sauder, it was resolved 
that the information contained in these tables should be 
published in the Journal. 

As regards the best method of disseminating a better 
knowledge of Institute affairs throughout the membership, 
Mr. Sauder and Mr. Vance referred to the advantages of 
printing material of this kind in the Journal. It was decided 
that this policy be continued and expanded. 

It was then moved by Mr. Newell, seconded by Mr. 
Grant, and unanimously resolved, that a very hearty and 
sincere vote of thanks be tendered to Mr. Spencer and his 
committee for the great amount of work they have done, 
and for the way in which they have put these important 
matters before the Institute. 

The General Secretary presented a letter from the 
secretary of the Joint Committee on Engineering Co- 
operation Overseas, an organization created and supported 
by eight of the principal engineering societies in England, 
whose object is to bring together members of the various 
societies resident overseas. The President reported that 
Mr. F. Gill, a past-president of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, and chairman of the Joint Committee,had visited 
Montreal on January 27th, and had been present at a 
luncheon consultation with members of Council. Mr. Gill 
had stated that his committee would greatly appreciate the 
co-operation of The Engineering Institute of Canada, and 
particularly any suggestions which might lead to a better- 
ment of conditions for the profession The President had 
assured Mr. Gill that the subject would receive the con- 
sideration of Council, and that definite recommendations 
would be made if investigation showed that the Institute 
could assist the movement in any way. 

Treasurer deGaspe Beaubien reported that the Province 
of Quebec Association of Architects were seeking an amend- 
ment to their charter which would appear to limit the 
activities of engineers in regard to certain construction work. 
The Corporation of Professional Engineers of Quebec was 
opposed to this amendment, and Mr. Beaubien suggested 
that the Institute might assist the Corporation by joining 
in this protest. The proposed restrictions would appear to 
be of more than provincial interest inasmuch as the move- 
ment might spread to other parts of Canada. In the Pre- 
sident's view, the Institute should stand behind the Cor- 
poration in this matter. While it was not the Institute's 
desire to keep the architects from getting any reasonable 
amendment to their Act, he thought the Institute should 
oppose legislation which would appear to cripple its own 
members. After discussion, this view was approved by 
Council, and the following committee was appointed to take 
whatever action proves to be necessary: deGaspe Beaubien, 
chairman; J. B. Challies, O. O. Lefebvre, A. Lariviere and 
F. Newell. 

Mr. Bonn and Mr. Muntz referred to a similar condition 
which had existed in Ontario, and outlined the activities 

(CONTINUED ON PAGE 153) 

137 



NEWLY ELECTED OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE 



Fred Newell, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of the Dominion 
Bridge Company Limited, Montreal, is the newly elected 
vice-president for the province of Quebec. Mr. Newell was 
born in Portsmouth, England, and received his education 
at the London and Woolwich Polytechnic School, and 
received a Whitworth Exhibition in 1902. After several 
years engineering experience in England he came to Canada. 
Shortly after his arrival in Canada he joined the staff of 
the Dominion Bridge Company in 1908 as a designer in the 
mechanical department. Since that time he has held 
successively the positions of chief mechanical engineer and 
assistant chief engineer and in 1937 was appointed to his 
present position. Mr. Newell is chairman of the Institute's 
Committee on Professional Interests. He has been a valued 
member of Council for seven years. 




Fred Newell, M.E.I.C. 

P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c, of Lethbridge, Alta., newly elected 
vice-president for the western provinces, was born near 
Preston, Ont. He attended the University of Toronto and 
graduated with diploma in mechanical and electrical engin- 
eering. In 1904 he obtained a position with the Irrigation 
Branch of the Department of the Interior and remained 
with the department until 1920. His first position with the 
Lethbridge Northern Irrigation District was that of division 
engineer on the eastern portion of the project. In 1923 he 
was made assistant project manager and the following year 
project manager and district engineer in full charge of the 
operation and maintenance of the works of the project. 

Mr. Sauder was a member of Council in 1927 and chair- 
man of the Lethbridge Branch in 1936. In 1935 he was 
President of the Association of Professional Engineers of 
Alberta and is serving the last of a three-year term as Alberta 
representative on the Dominion Council of Professional 
Engineers. 

W. F. M. Bryce, a.m. e. i.e., of Ottawa, is the newly 
appointed councillor for that branch. He was born at 
Toronto and graduated from the University of Toronto 
in 1908. His first engineering experience was gained on 
the Toronto-Sudbury branch of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. In 1908 he entered the city engineer's office in 
Ottawa. After a year on tests and surveys he was made 
sidewalks engineer, then in 1910 he became sewers engineer 
and has remained in this position until the present time. 
Mr. Bryce was chairman of the Ottawa Branch in 1938. 
P. E. Doncaster, m.e.i.c, district engineer, Fort William, 
Department of Public Works of Canada, is the newly 
elected councillor of the Lakehead Branch. He was born 
at Oshawa, Ont., and attended the School of Mines, 
Kingston, Ont., before he started his career as an engineer 
in 1904. For two years he was on railway surveys of the 
Transcontinental Railway. From 1906-08 he was on con- 



struction of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario 
Railway in Ontario. He then entered the Department of 
Public Works of Canada as assistant engineer in the 
Toronto office. During the years 1912-1915, he was chief 
assistant to the district engineer at Chase and New West- 
minster offices. From 1915-1917 Mr. Doncaster was over- 
seas with the Canadian Expeditionary Force, as works 
officer on construction and maintenance of trench light 
railways. In 1918 he resumed his duties with the Depart- 
ment of Public Works as chief assistant to the district 
engineer at New Westminster, B.C., in 1921 became district 
engineer, Kootenay- Yale-Cariboo district and in 1932 was 
transferred to the Fort William-Port Arthur district. 
L. F. Grant, m.e.i.c, associate professor of engineering, 
Royal Military College, is the newly appointed councillor 
for the Kingston Branch. Born in Toronto, he attended the 
Royal Military College and Queen's University, obtaining 
a diploma with honours from the former in 1905 and the 
degree of b.sc. from the latter in 1926. In 1910 he was 
passed as a British Columbia Land Surveyor. From 1905 
until 1909 he was engaged on railway work as draughtsman, 
levelman and resident engineer successively on the Grand 
Trunk Pacific Railway in British Columbia. He then became 
associated with the firm of F. S. Clements and later with 
that of Dutcher Maxwell and Company in Vancouver, B.C. 

During four years overseas he was with the Canadian 
Overseas Railway Construction Corps as captain for two 
years and later received the promotion to major, second in 
command of the 5th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops. 
On his return to Canada he was engaged in surveying for 
three years when he was made instructor in engineering 
at the Royal Military College, becoming associate professor 
the following year. He holds the title of Lieutenant-Colonel. 

During the 1936-37 term of office Professor Grant was 
secretary-treasurer of the Kingston Branch, and in April, 
1938 he was appointed to Council to replace J. E. Goodman, 
a. m.e.i.c, who had resigned. 




P. M. Sauder, M.E.I.C. 

Sidney Hogg, a. m.e.i.c, of the Saint John Drydock and 
Shipbuilding Company, is the newly elected councillor for 
the Saint John Branch. He was born at Dundee, Scotland, 
and received his education there, attending the Harris 
Academy, Dundee High School and the Dundee Technical 
College, from which he graduated as naval architect in 
1922. The following year he came to Canada and became 
structural steel detailer with Canadian Vickers Limited. 
T. H. Jenkins, a. m.e.i.c, the newly elected councillor 
for the Border Cities Branch, was born at Toronto, Ont. 
He attended the Humberside Collegiate Institute and later 
the University of Toronto, graduating from the latter in 



138 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



1925 with the degree of b.a.sc. He then entered the 
Canadian Bridge Works at Walkerville, Ont., as structural 
steel detailer. A year later he became connected with the 
Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company, Detroit, Mich., 
first as structural draftsman on bridges and buildings and 
later as designer and estimator of bridges and buildings. 
He holds this position at the present time. 

A. C. Johnston, a.m. e. i.e., electrical superintendent of 
the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited, is the newly 
elected councillor for the Saguenay Branch. He was born 
in Dundee, Scotland, where he received his education. He 
came to Canada in 1904 and entered Smart-Woods Limited, 
Montreal, as assistant electrician and mechanic. In 1909 
he became master mechanic and electrician of the Mata- 
betchewan power house and after a year in this position 
was made construction electrician of the Canadian West- 
inghouse. He remained with this company in various 
capacities until 1919 when he entered the Northern 
Aluminum Company as technical assistant, becoming 
assistant superintendent in 1922. In 1927 he was appointed 
to his present position. 

A. P. Linton, m.e.i.c, chief bridge engineer with the 
Department of Highways, Saskatchewan, has been elected 
councillor for the Saskatchewan Branch. Born at New 
Hamburg, Ont., he attended the Gait Collegiate Institute 
and the University of Toronto, graduating from the latter 
in 1908 with the degree of b.a.sc. Following graduation 
he was with the Dominion Bridge Company as draughtsman 
until 1911. In 1911-12 he was with the St. Lawrence Bridge 
Company working on the design of the Quebec Bridge, and 
from that time until 1915 was chief bridge engineer with 
the Department of Highways of Saskatchewan. From 1915 
until 1919 Mr. Linton was overseas, serving with the 
1st Canadian Pioneers, 9th Battalion, Canadian Railway 
Troops, in France, and commanded the 1st Bridging Com- 
pany, Canadian Railway Troops, in Palestine. He was 
promoted to the rank of Major, was mentioned in des- 
patches, and received the o.b.e. His present rank is 
Lieutenant-Colonel. Returning to Canada in 1919, he was 
re-appointed to the position which he still holds. Mr. 
Linton was chairman of the Saskatchewan Branch in 
1935-36. 

Ira P. MacNab, m.e.i.c, of the Board of Commissioners of 
Public Utilities of Nova Scotia, is the newly elected coun- 
cillor for the Halifax Branch. A graduate of the Nova Scotia 
Technical College in 1913, he obtained his first engineering 
experience with the Truro Foundry and Machinery Com- 
pany. From this position he went to the Tramway and 
Power Company Limited, Halifax, as superintendent. He 
left Halifax in l923 to go to Calgary in an executive position 
with the Riverside Iron Works. In 1925 he went to Vene- 
zuela to inspect a plant at Maracaibo which had been 
recently acquired by the Royal Securities Company of 
Montreal. He was appointed general manager of the 
Venezuela Power Company shortly after his inspection of 
the plant and remained until 1931 when he went to Mont- 
erey, Mexico, and became associated with the Monterey 
Railway Light and Power Company. He returned to take 
his present position in 1935. 

Mr. MacNab is an active member of the Halifax Branch, 
serving as chairman of the branch in 1938. He has also 
been on the council of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Nova Scotia and has always taken a keen 
interest in the welfare of the profession. 

H. Massue, m.e.i.c, newly elected councillor for the 
Montreal Branch, graduated from Laval University in 
1913 with the degree of b.a.s., and following this took up 
post-graduate work at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology for eight months. Returning to Montreal, Mr. 
Massue became connected with the Quebec Streams Com- 
mission, remaining with that organization until 1928, when 
he joined the staff of the Shawinigan Water and Power 
Company, Montreal, as assistant engineer. 

THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



During 1937 Mr. Massue was chairman of the Montreal 
Branch of the Institute. 

Wilfred Rowland Mount, m.e.i.c, newly elected coun- 
cillor for the Edmonton Branch and engineer and superin- 
tendent of the waterworks of the City of Edmonton, was 
born at Reading, England. He received his technical educa- 
tion at the School of Metalliferous Mining, Camborne, Corn- 
wall, receiving a certificate from here in 1908. After gaining 
practical experience in several mines in Cornwall in the 
various branches of mining, metallurgy, surveying and 
assaying he went to Gold Coast Colony, West Africa, as 
surveyor and assayer with the Broomassie Mines Limited. 
He remained there a year and came to Canada in 1911. 
He was first associated with the Canadian Northern Railway 
in Alberta as assistant to division engineer, later he was 
engaged on surveys for the Dominion Government and the 
Alberta Government. In 1913 he entered the engineering 
department of the City of Edmonton as instrumentman. 
For his services overseas he received the Military Cross. 
Upon returning from the war he re-entered the engineering 
department of the City of Edmonton and advanced to the 
position of resident engineer, then assistant engineer and 
superintendent of waterworks and finally to the position 
which he now holds. 

Brian R. Perry, m.e.i.c, newly elected councillor for the 
Montreal Branch, was born at Hilton, Man., and graduated 
from McGill University in 1915 with the degree of b.sc. 
in civil engineering. He gained his early engineering experi- 
ence as instrumentman on the Intercolonial Railway and 
as engineer on foundations for the New England Founda- 
tion Company and as draftsman for the Shawinigan Water 
and Power Company. He left this last position to serve 
overseas and resumed it upon his return. In 1920 he became 
superintendent on construction with P. Lyall and Sons. 
Two years later he was placed in charge of the business of 
the Mackinnon Steel Company in Montreal territory and 
acted in this capacity until 1925. Since that time he has been 
engaged in private practice as consulting engineer. 

Mr. Perry was chairman of the Montreal Branch of the 
Institute for 1938. 

James Robertson, m.e.i.c, engineer of the Dominion 
Bridge Company, Pacific Division, is the new councillor 
for the Vancouver Branch. He was born at Kilmarnock, 
Scotland, and was educated at Kilmarnock Academy. After 
serving as an articled pupil for three years with Glenfield 
and Kennedy, Kilmarnock, he came to Canada and joined 
the Dominion Bridge Company in 1907. From 1910 to 1914 
he attended McGill University, obtaining the degree of 
b.sc. in civil engineering. He then rejoined the staff of the 
Dominion Bridge Company as designing engineer in the 
Montreal office. In 1918 he was appointed erection en- 
gineer, and in 1929 was promoted to his present position. 
Mr. Robertson was chairman of the Vancouver Branch in 
1936 and has always been an extremely active member of 
the engineering profession. 

A. U. Sanderson, a. m.e.i.c, newly elected councillor for 
the Toronto Branch, was born at Toronto, Ont., and 
graduated from the University of Toronto in 1909 with the 
degree of b.sc. Following this he became an assistant 
engineer with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. In 
1910 he joined the staff of the City of Toronto Works 
Department as assistant engineer and from 1911 to 1913 
he was assistant resident engineer on design and construc- 
tion for the filtration plant. From 1914 to 1917 he was 
resident engineer on the construction of a drifting sand 
filtration plant for the Department of Works, and in 1918 
became superintendent of the plant. In 1929 he received 
the appointment of assistant mechanical and electrical 
engineer with the Water Supply Section, Department of 
Works, Toronto, and is now chief engineer of the Section. 

Mr. Sanderson was chairman of the Toronto Branch of 
the Institute for the year 1937. He is also past-president of 
the Canadian Section of the American Waterworks 
Association. 

(CONTINUED ON PAGE 158) 

139 



INSTITUTE PRIZE WINNERS 



H. I. Knowles, who received the Plummer Medal for 1938 
for his paper "Building Invisible Edifices," is the chief 
chemist of the Atlantic Sugar Refineries, Saint John, N.B. 
He was born in Montreal and received his early education 
at Westmount Academy. In 1905 he moved to Boston, 
where he was employed in the dyestuff business and became 
an experimental dyer. He later attended the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, from which he graduated in 1915 
with the degree of Bachelor of Science. He was appointed 
assistant chemist with the Atlantic Sugar Refineries 
Limited and later chief chemist. He has been with this firm 
continuously since that time except for two short periods 
when he was with J. T. Donald & Co. at Montreal and the 
Canadian Electro Products Co. at Shawinigan Falls. 



Niagara Falls, Ont., where he remained until 1937. He is 
now with Roberts and Schaefer Company, Chicago, 111., as 
structural engineer. 

A. W. F. McQueen, m.e.i.c, is joint author with E. C. 
Molke, a. m.e.i.c, of the paper "The 18-Foot Diameter 
Steel Pipe Line at Outardes Falls," which was awarded the 
Gzowski Medal for 1938. He graduated from the Faculty of 
Applied Science of the University of Toronto in 1923 and 
entered the service of the Hydro-Electric Power Commis- 
sion of Ontario. For three years he was assistant engineer 
of tests and for another three years he remained with the 
Commission in charge of various hydrological and hydraulic 
investigations. In 1929 he became assistant engineer with 





H. I. Knowles 



A. W. F. McQueen, M.E.I.C. 





E. C. Molke, A.M.E.I.C. 



P. C. Perry, M.E.I.C. 



E. C. Molke, A.M.E.i.c, is one of the co-recipients of the 
Gzowski Medal for 1938, awarded for the paper "The 18- 
Foot Diameter Steel Pipe Line at Outardes Falls," by Mr. 
Molke and A. W. F. McQueen, a. m.e.i.c A graduate of the 
Technische Hochschule, Vienna, Mr. Molke came to 
Canada in 1922. He was employed with the Trussed Con- 
crete Steel Company of Canada, Walkerville, Ont. Then 
from 1928 to 1932 he held the position of designing en- 
gineer with the Hydro-Electric System of the City of 
Winnipeg, during which time he was engaged on the design 
of the substructure of the Slave Falls powerhouse. He then 
joined H. G. Acres and Company, consulting engineers, 



H. G. Acres and Company Limited, consulting engineers, 
Niagara Falls, Ont., and in 1934 hydraulic engineer, which 
position he holds at the present time. 

P. C. Perry, m.e.i.c, has been awarded the Past- 
Presidents' Prize for his paper "Stream Control in relation 
to Droughts and Floods." Mr. Perry has held the 
position of division engineer of the Canadian National 
Railways at Regina, Saskatchewan, since 1920. Prior to 
this he was resident engineer of the Grand Trunk 
Pacific Railway, having served in various capacities for 
this line since 1906. 



140 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 





J. J. Derry 
Winner of the Leonard Medal 



S. G. Lochhead, Jr.E.I.C. 

Winner of the Phelps Johnston 

Prize 






J. G. Belle-Isle, S.E.I.C. 

Winner of the Ernest Marceau 

Prize 



C. Neufeld, S.E.I.C. 

Winner of the H. N. Ruttan 

Prize 



T. E. Edson, S.E.I.C. 

Winner of the John Galbraith 

Prize 




The Banquet — Head Table — Mr. Magrath thanks the Governor-General 
THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



141 



Personals 



Beaudry Leman, A.M.E.i.c, president of the Banque 
Canadienne Nationale, has been chosen as joint president 
of the Montreal reception committee for the visit of their 
Majesties, the King and Queen. 

E. M. Dennis, a.m.e.i.c, has been made general executive 
assistant of the Lands, Parks and Forests Branch of the 
Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa. Mr. Davis, 
who graduated from Queen's University in 1904, was with 
the Surveyor-General, Ottawa, from that time until 1912 
when he became assistant chief in the Topographical 
Surveys Branch of the Department of the Interior. In 1924 
he was made chief of administration in the Topographical 
and Air Survey Bureau of this Department and held this 
position until 1937 when he became chief of administration 
of the Hydrographie and Map Service of the Department 
of Mines and Resources. 

W. Hamilton Munro, m.e.i.c, general manager of the 
Ottawa Electric and Gas Companies and Ottawa Light 
Heat and Power Company Limited, was elected to the 
Board of Directors of each of these companies on February 
6th. 

Lt.-Col. G. R. Turner, m.c, d.c.m., r.c.e., a.m.e.i.c, who 
has been attending a course at the Imperial Defence Col- 
lege, London, England, has returned to Canada and is now 
on the General Staff at Headquarters M.D. No. 11, 
Esquimalt, B.C. 

Major J. C. MacDonald, m.e.i.c, has resigned his posi- 
tion as comptroller of Water Rights, which he has held 
since 1926 in the Department of Lands of British Columbia, 
to act on the new British Columbia Public Utilities Com- 
mission. Major MacDonald was born in Nova Scotia but 
went to British Columbia in 1909 and became a member of 
the firm of Cleveland and Cameron of Vancouver. After 
serving with distinction overseas he entered the Depart- 
ment of Lands of British Columbia. 

Ernest Davis, m.e.i.c, former assistant comptroller of 
Water Rights and chief engineer of the Department of 
Lands of British Columbia, has been made comptroller, 
succeeding Major J. C. MacDonald, m.e.i.c 

R. W. Tassie, m.e.i.c, has been recently elected vice- 
president of Emprezas Electricas Brasileiras, S.A., and is 
now in charge of the American and Foreign Power Com- 
pany Inc. interests in Brazil. He is located in Rio de 
Janeiro. For the past twelve years Mr. Tassie has been 
with the Venezuela Power Company Limited and the 
Montreal Engineering Company, with which the former is 
affiliated. 

W. F. Angus, m.e.i.c, president of the Dominion Bridge 
Company, has been elected chairman of the board of 
governors of the Financial Federation drive for funds to 
be held later this year in Montreal. 

C. J. McGavin, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of Water Rights 
for the Government of Saskatchewan, accepted the Past- 
Presidents' Prize on behalf of P. C. Perry, m.e.i.c, who 
was unable to attend the Annual Meeting in Ottawa. 

F. R. Pope, jr. e. i.e., who graduated with honours in 
mechanical engineering from McGill University in 1935 and 
who has since then been employed by the Bell Telephone 
Co. of Canada, lately as Field Engineer at Ottawa, recently 
left the Bell to take up a position with the Western Clock 
Co. at Peterborough. 

P. H. Morgan, a.m.e.i.c, who has been construction super- 
intendent of the Beauharnois Heat and Power, is now with 
the Demerara Bauxite Company at Georgetown, British 
Guiana. 



News of the Personal Activities of members 
of the Institute, and visitors to Headquarters 



P. M. Sauder, m.e.i.c, project manager for the Lethbridge 
Northern Irrigation District, addressed a meeting of the 
Technical Agriculturists in the Marquis Hotel on Thursday, 
January 26th, 1939, on the "Constitution, By-laws and 
Code of Ethics of The Engineering Institute of Canada." 

F. G. Cross, m.e.i.c, superintendent of Operation and 
Maintenance, Canadian Pacific Railway, Department of 
Natural Resources, Irrigation Branch, Lethbridge, and an 
outstanding artist, was recently elected a Vice-president and 
Director of the Canadian Society of Painters in Water 
Colors. 

J. B. Challies, m.e.i.c, has been appointed vice-president 
of the St. Maurice Power Corporation. 

John Murphy, m.e.i.c, recently retired from the staff of 
the Department of Transport, has been elected president 
of the Ottawa-Hull Better Business Bureau. 

P. S. Gregory, m.e.i.c, assistant general manager of the 
Shawinigan Water and Power Company, has been elected a 
director of the Quebec Power Company, filling the vacancy 
caused by the death of the Hon. J. P. B. Casgrain, a.m.e.i.c 

R. A. C. Henry, m.e.i.c, former vice-president and general 
manager of the Beauharnois Power Corporation Limited, 
has been appointed a vice-president of Montreal Light, 
Heat and Power Consolidated. Mr. Henry graduated from 
McGill University with the degrees of b.a. and b.sc, 
receiving the latter in 1912. Following graduation he 
entered the service of the Department of Railways and 
Canals as inspecting engineer and in 1913 he was made 
assistant engineer. He held this position until 1923, when, 
following the reorganization of the Canadian National 
Railways, he joined their staff in Montreal. In 1929 he 
became Deputy Minister of Railways and Canals and after 
holding this position for a year he joined the Beauharnois 
Power Corporation Limited. 

H. R. Younger, a.m.e.i.c, former division engineer of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway at Nelson, B.C., has been made 
superintendent of the Kettle Valley Division and will be 
located at Penticton, B.C. 

W. S. Lea, m.e.i.c, and Jules Archambault are the two 

engineer members of the committee of five recently ap- 
pointed by the Quebec Government to investigate the 
Tramways situation in the City of Montreal. Mr. Lea is 
vice-chairman of the committee. 

A UNIQUE RECORD ? 

H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, who has just been elected to the 
chairmanship of the London Branch of the Institute, has 
occupied a similar position in two other branches, namely, 
Saint John in 1923, and Halifax in 1929. In addition he has 
represented Sault Ste. Marie on Council, and has been an 
officer of Provincial Professional Associations. 

VISITORS TO HEADQUARTERS 

R. W. McColough, m.e.i.c, chief engineer of the Depart- 
ment of Highways for Nova Scotia, when in Montreal re- 
cently found time to visit Headquarters to discuss Institute 
affairs in his province. 

S. W. Gray, a.m.e.i.c, President of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, was a very welcome 
visitor at Headquarters on his way home from the Annual 
Meeting of the Institute in Ottawa, where he represented 
the Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia. 



142 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



PRESIDENTIAL ACTIVITIES 

Dean McKiel spoke to the Rotary Club of Ottawa on 
February 13th on the subject, "The Engineer in Everyday 
Life." 

President McKiel represented the Institute at the annual 
banquet of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 
which was held in Ottawa on Saturday, February 18th. 

During the President's visit to Ontario he held two 
meetings with branches of the Mount Allison Federated 
Alumni, one at the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa on the 
17th and the other at Wymlwood, Toronto, on the 20th. 

On February 21st the President visited Headquarters, 
and during the day met with several officers to discuss 
matters pertaining to Institute policy and programme. 

OBITUARIES 

The sympathy of the Institute is extended to the relatives 
of those whose passing is recorded here. 

Thomas Walker Coxworth, a.m.e.i.c, in Chicago, on 
October 13th, 1938, due to an accident. He was born on 
September 2nd, 1903, at Deloraine, Man., and received his 
education at the University of Manitoba, graduating from 
this institution in 1926 with the degree of b.sc. He then 
entered the firm of W. & A. Smadbeck, Inc., New York, as 
field engineer in charge of land, topographic and sub- 
division surveys in the states of New Jersey, New York and 



Minnesota. In 1927 he moved to Chicago and was employed 
in various capacities in the fabricating shop and erection 
department of McClintic-Marshall Corporation until 1929 
when he was made assistant engineer. He held this position 
until 1937 when he became assistant engineer in the 
fabrication division of Bethlehem Steel Company in the 
same city. He was still with this company in this capacity 
when his sudden death occurred. 

Mr. Coxworth joined the Institute in 1935 as an Associate 
Member. 

Joseph Honoré Landry, a.m.e.i.c, in Montreal, on 
February 2nd, after several months' illness resulting from an 
automobile accident. He was born at Maskinongé, Que., on 
February 27th, 1889. Attending Laval University he 
obtained his b.a. degree in 1909 and the degree of b.sc. in 
civil engineering in 1913. He then became assistant engineer 
of the Department of Public Works of Canada, Montreal 
District; later he was made senior assistant engineer and 
remained in this position until 1937 when he was promoted 
to that of district engineer. He supervised many district 
works, particularly along the Richelieu River, Sorel Har- 
bour and Friar's Island Dam. He was deeply interested in 
the St. Lawrence Waterway plan and had prepared im- 
portant data upon the subject. During the war he acted as 
inspector for the Department of Naval Service on construc- 
tion of trawlers built by Canadian Yickers, Montreal. 

Mr. Landry joined the Institute in 1919 as an Associate 
Member. 



ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS 

At the meeting of Council held on February 13th, 1939, the following 
elections and transfers were effected: 

Member 

Sargent, Albert Elbridge, b.sc, (McGill Univ.), supt., Dow Brewery, 
National Breweries Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Associate Members 

MacNamara, William Stafford, struct'l. designer, Hamilton Bridge 

Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 
Nicol, William Brown, (Heriot-Watt College), struct'l. steel designer, 

Hamilton Bridge Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 
Smith, Donald Sinclair, m.a.sc, (Univ. of B.C.), sales engr., Northern 

Electric Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 

Juniors 

Du gas, Alexandre, b.a.sc, ce., (Ecole Polytechnique), engr., Pro- 
vincial Electricity Board, Montreal, Que. 

Morrison, Frederic Charles, B.Eng. (Elec), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 
lubrication engr., Dominion Steel & Coal Corpn., Sydney, N.S. 

Oulton, Roger Reynolds, B.Eng., (N.S. Tech. Coll.), head of 
inventory party, Engineering Service Co., Halifax, N.S. 

Sharpe, Russell Neville, b.sc. (Civil), (Univ. of Man.), 121 Sherburn 
St., Winnipeg, Man. 

Thurston, Arthur Munroe, B.Eng., (McGill Univ.), engr., Shawinigan 
Water & Power Company, Montreal, Que. 

Transferred from the class of Associate Member to that of Member 

Fraser, Isaac Matheson, B.sc, (McGill Univ.), professor of mech'l. 

engrg., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. 
McQueen, Andrew William Fraser, b.a.sc, ce., (Univ. of Toronto), 

hydraulic engr., H. G. Acres & Co. Ltd., Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Williams, Guy Morris, b.sc (ce.), (Univ. of Nebraska), prof, of 

civil engrg., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. 

Transferred from the class of Junior to that of Associate Member 

Brownell, Harold Ross, b.sc (Mech.), (McGill Univ.), sales service 

engr., Bailey Meter Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 
Lochhead, Stuart George, B.Eng. (Civil), (McGill Univ.), dftsman., 

Dominion Bridge Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
McAIpine, Robert Fraser, b.sc, (Mech.), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), mgr., 

Cape Breton Branch, William Stairs Son & Morrow Ltd., Sydney, 

N.S. 
Morton, Philip S. A., b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), asst. to district 

service engr., Montreal office, Can. Gen. Elec. Co. Ltd., Montreal, 

Que. 
Mclntyre, Douglas Vallance, b.sc (e.e.), (Univ. of Alta.), 1195 

Palmer Ave., Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Weatherbie, Weston Ewart, b.sc (Civil), (N.S. Tech. Coll.), asst. 

engr., Dept. of Highways of Nova Scotia, Truro, N.S. 



Transferred from the class of Student to that of Associate Member 

Tatham, William Carlyle, B.Eng., (McGill Univ.), asst. engr., 
Courtaulds (Canada) Ltd., Cornwall, Ont. 

Students Admitted 

Anderson, Lloyd Francis, (Univ. of Alta.), 11032-89th Ave., 

Edmonton, Alia. 
Anderson, Paul Chenery, (Univ. of Toronto), 68 Indian Road 

Crescent, Toronto, Ont. 
Bartlett, Ewart Horwood, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 29 Brenton St., 

Halifax, N.S. 
Bielhy, George Gordon, b.a.sc, (Univ. of Toronto), 83 Epworth 

Circle, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
Birt, Thomas William, b.sc (e.e.), (Univ. of Man.), 4 Scotia St., 

Winnipeg, Man. 
Boyd, Robert Norman, (Univ. of Toronto), 84 Pine Crest Road, 

Toronto, Ont. 
Cuthhertson, Charles Cassells, b.sc, (Chem.), (Queen's Univ.), 

196 Stuart St., Kingston, Ont. 
Doehler, Rolf John, (McGill Univ.), 5514 Queen Mary Rd., Montreal, 

Que. 
Dumaresq, James Philip, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), 96 Oxford St., Halifax, 

N.S. 
Garvie, William Laurence, (Univ. of B.C.), 819 Eighth Ave., New 

Westminster, B.C. 
Gray, Cvril John, (Univ. of N.B.), 245 Westmorland St., Fredericton, 

N.B. 
Gunter, Allan Nelson, b.sc (Chem.), (Univ. of Alta.), 10649-125th St., 

Edmonton, Alta. 
LaBrish, Alfred Gordon, ap'tice, E. G. M. Cape & Co., Montreal, Que. 
Laird, David William, (Univ. of Man.), P.O. Box 307, Portage la 

Prairie, Man. 
McKie, William Massey, (Univ. of Man.), 348 Stradbrooke Ave., 

Winnipeg, Man. 
Rapsey, William Woodside, (Univ. of Toronto), 87 Ava Road, 

Toronto, Ont. 
Smith, Arthur Dale, (Univ. of Toronto), 610 Ontario St., Toronto, 

Ont. 
Smith, Edgar Bernard, (N.S. Tech. Coll.), Caledonia, N.S. 
Steiman, Morris Irvin, (Univ. of Man.), 456 Pritchard Ave., Win- 
nipeg, Man. 
Stewart, Murray Douglas, (Univ. of Toronto), 282 Glencairn Ave., 

Toronto, Ont. 
Strachan, Jack Lyon, (Univ. of Man.), 28 Berrydale, St. Vital, Man. 
Sutton, Arthur Leslie, (Univ. of B.C.), 3217 West 7th Ave., Van- 
couver, B.C. 
Wardrop. William Leslie, (Univ. of Man.), Whitemouth, Man. 
Young, Robert Evans, b.a.sc (Univ. of Toronto), Markham, Ont. 
Young, William Mackay, (Univ. of Toronto), P.O. Box 130, Dunn- 

ville, Ont. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



143 



News of the Branches 



BORDER CITIES BRANCH 



Activities of the Twenty-five Branches of the 
Institute and abstracts of papers presented 



G. E. Medlar, a.m.e.i.c. 
Donald S. B. Waters, s.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Bra?ich News Editor 



The following is a synopsis of the paper presented to the 
Border Cities Branch at the monthly dinner meeting of 
January 20, 1939. 

Choosing the subject, "The Evolution and Future of 
the Home Radio Receiver," Mr. Stanley C. Polk, of 
Detroit, delivered the first part of his paper over radio 
station CKLW. 

Mr. Polk paid tribute to the engineers whom he considered 
to be largely responsible for the comparatively recent and 
rapid development of the commercial radio. 

Starting with the amateur crystal sets commonly used 
in 1920 the problem of selectivity was solved by the perfec- 
tion of the superheterodyne set. In 1924 the earphones were 
replaced by the first all electric receivers. The electro- 
dynamic loud speaker, and the birth of the cabinet radio 
in that year gave such a stimulus to the industry that 
manufacturers could not keep up with the public demand. 
The development of short wave sets which followed was 
aided by the telephone engineers. 

Mr. Polk believed that commercial television for distances 
of 25 to 50 miles will be realized very soon, but due to the 
high cost of relays, and the insulation of cables against 
electrical interferences, it will be some time before television 
reaches the present-day standard of radio. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Polk's address Mr. Jones of the 
same firm spoke briefly of the Radio Listeners' Foundation 
of United States, in which he has played a dominant rôle. 
Formed for the purpose of allowing the listener to have 
some control over the type of radio programme and thus 
eliminate undesirable features, it has to date been very 
successful. It has received the support of the press and has 
made a determined effort toward obtaining better an- 
nouncers, programmes and co-operation in the broadcasting 
industry. 

CALGARY BRANCH 



B. W. Snyder, a.m.e.i.c. 
G. W. O'Neill, a.m.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



A general meeting of the branch was held at the Palliser 
Hotel on Dec. 8th, 1938, to hear an illustrated address 
given by J. R. Wood, m.e.i.c, assistant city engineer of 
Calgary, entitled, "Problems of the City Engineer." 

In Mr. Wood's opinion, replacement of the steel truss 
bridge at East Calgary, over the Bow River, should be the 
first consideration of Calgary when finances will permit. Of 
next importance, said Mr. Wood, is the Elboya bridge, 
which he labelled as "reminiscent of horse and buggy days." 

Narrowness of the Bow River bridge makes it quite 
unsuitable for modern traffic, said Mr. Wood. When the age 
of this bridge and its present dead and live loads are taken 
into consideration, without allowance for snow and wind 
loads, the stresses that can be developed in the truss 
members are far too high, he warned. Narrowness of this 
bridge has actually been a redeeming feature of the structure 
in so far as it affects safety, since only one line of trucks or 
buses in one direction is possible. 

In place of the present Elboya bridge, Mr. Wood recom- 
mends a double span, rigid frame structure, giving maximum 
river clearance and head room. He deplored the fact that 
the present bridge gives little clearance above possible high 
water. 

The major portion of Mr. Wood's address dwelt on 
technical phases of the duty of the city engineer's depart- 
ment, such as bridges, paving, sewage, waterworks and 
miscellaneous works. 

He referred to instances of poor paving in Calgary, 
brought about by the use of clay-coated gravel, poor sand 



and little cement. Wood blocks laid on a concrete base 
were a "nightmare" of the paving department, as this type 
of paving is not suited for western Canada weather and 
climatic conditions. 

"There is a real necessity for Calgary to own a proper 
transit mixer type of truck, as now used in Vancouver, to 
transport concrete over long hauls," said Mr. Wood, as 
such a move would eliminate mixing of concrete on the job 
and save the taxpayers many dollars. 

He remarked that the existing seWer system of Calgary 
is too small to handle the maximum discharge during peak 
storms, without flooding, although various steps have been 
taken by the city in recent years to improve this utility. 

Mr. Wood was tendered a vote of thanks, on behalf of 
those present, by E. W. Bowness, m.e.i.c, Branch Chairman. 

A general meeting of this branch, on Jan. 6th, heard a 
talk by Professor H. R. Webb, of the Department of Civil 
Engineering, University of Alberta. He spoke on "The 
Grand Coulee Project," and stated that almost every 
one of the statistics connected with the construction of the 
Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State constituted a 
world record. The finished project would cost 394 millions 
of dollars and was expected to provide a living, mainly as a 
result of its irrigation possibilities, for from 75 to 120 thousand 
people. Professor Webb's illustrations gave a detailed ex- 
planation of the methods of construction used on the huge 
dam across the Columbia River. Having spent some time 
at the site of this project, he had a thorough knowledge of 
his subject. Many of the illustrations used were actual 
photographs taken by the speaker. He was tendered a 
hearty vote of thanks by the Branch Chairman. 

This branch feels indebted to Mr. Webb for the time and 
effort spent in preparing this address, which proved to be 
most enjoyable and interesting. 



HALIFAX BRANCH 



R. R. Murray, m.e.i.c. 
A. G Mahon, a.m.e.i.c 



Secretary-Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The annual joint banquet of the Halifax Branch of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada and The Association of 
Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia was held at the 
Nova Scotian Hotel, January 17th, 1939. Interesting 
addresses and a varied programme of musical entertainment 
were the highlights of the evening, together with a very 
enjoyable dinner. Approximately two hundred members 
and guests attended the gathering. 

The principal speaker of the evening was Dr. Donald F. 
MacDonald, Professor of Geology at St. Francis Xavier 
University, Antigonish. Dr. MacDonald's subject was the 
"Application of Geology to Engineering." This topic 
was illustrated by the speaker's personal experiences in 
solving many engineering problems by the aid of geology. 

Speakers, in addition to Dr. MacDonald, were M. L. 
Gordon, A. D. Nickerson, a.m.e.i.c, S. W. Gray, a.m.e.i.c, 
I. P. Macnab, m.e.i.c, H. C. Burchell, m.e.i.c, dean of 
the engineering profession in Nova Scotia, and the Hon- 
ourable A. S. MacMillan, Minister of Highways. 

During the programme, a short silence was observed in 
memory of R. J. Bell, D. W. Robb, m.e.i.c, both of 
Amherst, and W. G. Yorston, m.e.i.c, of Truro, members 
of the engineering profession who passed away during the 
year. 

The meeting was ably handled under the joint chairman- 
ship of S. W. Gray, Past-President of the A.P.E.N.S., and 
Allan Nickerson, Chairman of the Halifax Branch of the 
E.I.C. 



144 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



K. L. Dawson, m.e.i.c, directed the entertainment, 
adding some items of his own as an extra measure. The 
volume of the applause and the number of encores requested 
were ample indications of the enjoyment of the audience. 

The annual meeting of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Nova Scotia was held on January 17th. One 
of the important items of business, which is of considerable 
interest to the members of the Halifax Branch of The 
Engineering Institute of Canada, was a proposed agreement 
for closer co-operation between The Engineering Institute 
and the Nova Scotia Association of Professional Engineers. 
The agreement as drafted was not ratified at this meeting. 
However, a committee of five members was appointed to 
consider the modifications thought desirable. The amended 
proposal will be submitted to the members of the A.P.E.N.S. 
for their approval at an early date. 

LETHBRIDGE BRANCH 



E. A. Lawrence, s.e.i.c. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



The Lethbridge Branch held a regular meeting in the 
Marquis Hotel on Saturday, January 7th, under the chair- 
manship of R. F. P. Bowman, a. m.e.i.c. About 45 members, 
ladies and guests, sat down to dinner, during which music 
was provided by Geo. Brown's instrumental quartette. 
Community singing and two solos by E. Rannard, which 
were appreciated by all, completed the musical part of the 
evening. 

After a short adjournment, Professor H. R. Webb, 
a. m.e.i.c, of the department of civil engineering at the 
University of Alberta, presented an interesting description 
of the "Grand Coulee Project" on the Columbia River 
90 miles west of Spokane, and illustrated his talk with 
diagrams and pictures. Professor Webb described the action 
of the melting ice cap in past ages in creating conditions 
suitable for irrigating an expanse of land of about 12,000,000 
acres. It is proposed that eventually this land will be 
irrigated by water pumped from the Columbia River; the 
final development provides for ten dams between the Grand 
Coulee dam and Bonneville so as to develop all the available 
power in this stretch of the Columbia River. 

The present main project, including the Grand Coulee 
dam, the largest structure ever attempted by man, was 
described by Professor Webb in its various stages. The dam 
itself is of concrete, approximately 4,300 ft. long, 550 ft. 
high and about 500 ft. wide at the base and about 30 ft. 
wide at the top when completed. It will contain about 
12,000,000 cu. yd. of concrete, about 20 miles of inspection 
tunnels and many miles of pipe used during construction 
for cooling the concrete when setting and for grouting the 
construction joints. 

For power development, turbine units of 150,000 hp. will 
be installed, and the ultimate power developed will amount 
to about 2,700,000 hp. 

For irrigation purposes the water will be pumped by 10 
pumps, each capable of delivering about 10,000 gal. per 
sec. and each driven by a 65,000 hp. motor. The water 
will be pumped up 280 ft. into two equalizing reservoirs 
from which the main irrigation ditches will be led. It is 
estimated that power can be sold for 0.24 cents per kw.h. 

For the irrigated land, legislation has been enacted to 
prevent speculation in land values. It is expected that 
irrigable land will be sold in lots of 40 acres per head at 
about $10.00 per acre and that after the fifth year the 
annual charges for water service and maintenance will be 
approximately $5.10 per acre. It is believed that the irriga- 
tion project will provide land for about twenty-five thousand 
families. 

LONDON BRANCH 



D. S. ScRYMGEOUR, A. M.E.I.C, 

Jno. R. Rostron, a. m.e.i.c. 



Secretary- Treasurer 
Branch News Editor 



The regular monthly meeting of the branch was held in 
the Normal School on February 22nd, 1939, and the speaker 



was the writer, Jno. R. Rostron, a. m.e.i.c, retired Bridge 
and Structural Engineer to the City of London. His subject 
was "London's Bridges — Old and New." The talk was 
illustrated by lantern slides. The meeting was presided over 
by H. F. Bennett, m.e.i.c, chairman of the branch. 

After mentioning the various bridges and subways in and 
around London, Mr. Rostron spoke more particularly of 
the eleven large city bridges over the River Thames and 
three outside the city limits — one a suspension bridge. 
Distinguishing between "through" and "deck" bridges 
(with examples thrown on the screen) he pointed out the 
economy of the "through" type, by reason of the great 
depth of the trusses. This depth enables the same strength 
to be obtained as with shallower trusses, with only around 
half to three-fourths the weight of steel. For aesthetic 
reasons, however, the tendency now is towards the "deck" 
bridge type for city bridges provided there is sufficient 
headway over the river or road underneath. 

Four of the new bridges, for important physical reasons, 
are of the same type. The Thames River is subject to high 
flood conditions and the Warren truss type was therefore 
chosen as giving the most possible clearance underneath 
and avoiding unsightly overhead bracing. The grades of the 
roads could not be altered and so the depth of floor con- 
struction was limited. Any other type such as the bowstring 
(steel or concrete), owing to the long spans and consequent 
high trusses, would have to be braced overhead, which was 
not desired. The Warren trusses adopted are embellished 
by ornamental stone piers at the ends. These four bridges 
accommodate 32 ft. roadways and six ft. sidewalks. 

The selection of this type of bridge was amply justified 
during the high floods of 1937. The speaker then described 
the old "pin-connected" type of bridge and the objections 
to it, particularly with regard to modern traffic. 

Of the four bridges mentioned as of the same type 
Westminster Bridge (carrying King's Highways Nos. 
2 and 4) was selected as a typical example for detailed 
description. Mr. Rostron explained that with a span of 
160 ft. the economic limit for this type is rather exceeded 
as, for aesthetic reasons, the depth of trusses is only 16 ft. 
Therefore he chose a steel grid floor (filled and overfilled 
with asphalt), for its light weight. This floor, electrically 
welded, is that fabricated by the Sarnia Bridge Co. and 
was fully described and illustrated on the screen. It is good 
for H20 loading. A cardboard model was used to demon- 
strate (by application of a weight) the effect of the com- 
pressive stresses both on the top chord and web system in 
this type of bridge and the means of combating these 
stresses by heavier posts. 

The ornamental stone piers (or pylons) are of Queenston 
stone and similar in design to those at the north end of 
Westminster Bridge, London, England, which carry the 
ornamental railing around Westminster Hall of historic 
fame. 

The special characteristics of the three other bridges of 
similar design were then given. These are Victoria Bridge, 
255 ft. long (two spans); Kensington, 317 ft. long (three 
spans), and Wellington, 220 ft. long (two spans). 

Time only permitted a brief reference to the remaining 
bridges: Richmond St., 160 ft. span; Suspension Bridge, 
235 ft. span, at the Municipal Golf Links, Springbank; 
Blackfriars Bridge, 219 ft. span (Bowstring type); Chelsea 
Green, 163 ft. span, and two spans 50 ft. each; Oxford St., 
417 ft. long (three spans); King St., 160 ft. span, and Vaux- 
hall Bridge, 210 ft. long (three spans). 

A vote of thanks to the speaker was proposed by J. A. 
Vance, a.m. e. i.e., seconded by V. A. McKillop, a. m.e.i.c, 
and unanimously carried. 

In returning thanks Mr. Rostron gave voice to his 
appreciation of the "Life Membership" in the E.I.C. 
recently granted to him by the president and members of 
Council of the Institute. 

Thirty-one members and guests were present. 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



145 



MONTREAL BRANCH 

E. R. Smallhorn, a. m. e. i.e. - Secretary-Treasurer 
On January 27th the Montreal Branch visited the new 
postal terminal on St. James Street. During the tour of 
inspection J. H. Beaulieu of the publicity department de- 
scribed the mailing system to a large and interested group. 

Annual Branch Smoker 

About 450 members and their friends gathered at the 
Windsor Hotel on February 2nd to attend the Annual 
Branch Smoker. The Smoker Committee under the chair- 
manship of Dick Heartz, m.e.i.c, arranged a most inter- 
taining programme. Mr. John Pratt acted as master of 
ceremonies. Willis Malone, Jr. e. i.e., and Maxwell Ford wrote 
the music and words of a new song about The Engineering 
Institute, and Mr. Ford, himself, presented several original 
skits that were received with great glee by the audience. In 
addition to these numbers, there were singing and dancing 
acts and the Dominion Bridge Orchestra, as usual, provided 
excellent music. 

On February 9th, Dr. F. .S. Goucher of the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, New York, spoke on the subject 
of "The Early Microphone and Recent Research." He 
began his demonstrations with the "gallows-frame tele- 
phone" invented by Alexander Graham Bell and traced the 
evolution of the carbon microphone from this model and 
those of Edison, Berliner and Hughes. A picture of micro- 
phonic action, based on recent researches on contacts, was 
described and illustrated with lantern slides, models and 
demonstrations; and certain non-communication applica- 
tions of this principle discussed. Both the branch and the 
Institute of Radio Engineers enjoyed this lecture, which 
was preceded by a courtesy dinner at the Windsor Hotel. 
Mr. J. R. Haynes assisted Dr. Goucher and S. Sillitoe, 
jr. e. i.e., acted as chairman. 

On February 16th the branch heard an interesting lecture 
by S. B. Cooper on "Recent Developments in Urban 
Transportation." Mr. Cooper is the special representative 
of the Transportation Sales Department of the Westing- 
house Electric and Manufacturing Company and since 1930 
has represented his company on the President's Conference 
Committee on car research and development. The discussion 
included the application of electricity to city transportation 
through the use of trolley coaches, P. P.C. cars, streamlined 
street cars and Diesel electrics. It was the speaker's opinion 
that street cars would not be replaced by buses on the 
most heavily travelled routes of cities the size of Montreal 
because the former ease congestion far more than the latter. 
However, buses serve a logical need, he said, in all city 
transit systems. 

Prior to the meeting a courtesy dinner was held at the Wind- 
sor Hotel. D. E. Blair, m.e.i.c., was chairman of the gathering. 

Cancellation of the paper scheduled for Thursday, 
February 23rd, was necessary on account of the speaker's 
illness. Instead, Prof. R. E. Jamieson, m.e.i.c., kindly con- 
sented to show moving pictures taken by him in Italy last 
summer. R. H. Findlay, m.e.i.c, gave a short report of the 
annual meeting in Ottawa, which was supplemented by an 
exhibit of candid camera pictures of those attending this 
convention. 

NIAGARA PENINSULA BRANCH 

George W. Griffiths, a. m.e.i.c. - Secretary-T reasurer 
J. G. Welsh, s.e.i.c. - Branch News Editor 

On Friday evening, February 3rd, 1939, the Niagara 
Peninsula Branch held a dinner meeting at the Welland 
Club in Welland, Ont. Chairman C. G. Moon, a. m.e.i.c, 
presided. Ashtrays cast in the shape of small frying pans 
were presented to each person present by Canada Foundries 
and Forgings Ltd. The same company also presented a 
nickel steel frying pan as a door prize. C. H. Burns, m.e.i.c, 
introduced the speaker of the evening, Mr. Clarke Wales, 
Assistant General Manager of Algoma Steel Corporation Ltd. 

Mr. Wales spoke on "The History of the Steel Industry 
in Ontario," a synopsis of which follows. 



The history of the iron and steel industry in Canada 
until recently has been one of disappointment, largely due 
to small population and lack of domestic raw materials. 
A vigorous steel industry in times of peace or war is the 
very foundation of industrial development in any country. 
The development of the steel industry in Canada, despite 
lack of coal and ore in close proximity, is justifiable on the 
grounds that it provides work for Canadian labour on steel 
for Canada's requirements and it also provides for the 
development of a sound secondary industry. 

Early blast furnaces in Canada, as in the United States, 
used charcoal as a fuel. As the size of furnaces increased, 
however, in spite of the plentiful supply of wood, coke made 
at the coal mine in beehive ovens became more economical. 
This was still wasteful, since all of the volatile matter of 
the coal was lost. To eliminate this condition and produce 
still further economies, it became the practice to import 
the coal and make coke in Canada in by-product coke ovens, 
the coke oven gas and tar being used as a steel plant fuel. 
Later the tar became useful for purposes other than fuel 
and has been replaced with such fuels in the steel plant as 
blast furnace gas, oil, or producer gas. 

The establishment of the Algoma Steel Corporation was 
based on the use of hematite ores from the Michipicoten 
district, the water power at the Sault, the tremendous 
demand in Canada at the turn of the century for rails, and 
the energy and genius of the late F. H. Clergue. 

The first standard rails made in Canada were rolled at 
the Sault in 1902. In 1908 the Bessemer process gave way 
to the open hearth process for making steel at the Sault. 
From 1912 until 1919, expansion at the Algoma plant was 
very rapid and recent expansions of the Algoma Steel 
Corporation include the development of the New Helen 
mine at Michipicoten, new battery of coke ovens at the 
Sault, changes in fuel practices and design of furnaces in 
the Open Hearth Department, installation of a most modern 
plant for the manufacture of grinding balls and construction 
of a sheet and tin mill, which will soon go into operation. 

Through the medium of slides, Mr. Wales portrayed the 
Algoma development. The views showed the recently opened 
Michipicoten area, where hematite is obtained at the surface 
only eleven miles from Michipicoten Harbour, and also the 
mill, coal storage areas, furnaces (both Bessemer and open 
hearth), the blooming mill and then the various rolling 
mills, including the sheet mill just nearing completion. 

Following the talk Mr. Wales replied to a number of 
questions. 

R. C. McMordie, a. m.e.i.c, moved a hearty vote of 
thanks to the speaker. Mr. Burns, Mr. Dyson, and Mr. 
Griffiths were congratulated for their organization of this, 
the season's best attended meeting. 

SASKATCHEWAN BRANCH 

J. J. White, m.e.i.c. - Secretary-Treasurer 
The regular meeting of the Saskatchewan Branch was 
held on Monday, December 19, 1938, in the Kitchener 
Hotel, Regina. J. W. D. Farrell, m.e.i.c, acted as chairman 
for the joint meeting, as members of The Association of 
Professional Engineers of the Province of Saskatchewan 
and the Saskatchewan section of The American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers had also been invited to attend. 

Sixty-eight persons sat down to dinner, which was followed 
by a lecture on Scientific Crime Detection, given by Dr. 
Maurice Powers, Surgeon of the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police, with Headquarters in Regina. Dr. Powers discussed 
the "Aims of the Criminal Investigation Department" 
in a very general way, the progress that has been made by 
research in crime, the past and present status of the depart- 
ment, and illustrated his discourse by lantern slides. The 
lecture was of a somewhat confidential nature, was well 
illustrated by photographic slides and was provocative of 
much discussion. 

A hearty vote of thanks was tendered the speaker for 
his interesting and instructive address. 



146 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



VANCOUVER BRANCH 



T. V. Berry, a. m. e. i.e. 



Secretary-Treasurer 



The Vancouver Iron Works Ltd. were hosts to about 
seventy-five members and friends of the Vancouver Branch 
to an inspection of their pipe fabricating plant on Saturday, 
January 14th. 

This firm is manufacturing approximately 25,000 feet 
(2,840 tons) of electrically welded steel pipe for the Greater 
Vancouver Water District for the extension of its Capilano 
system to the westerly part of the city. The pipe varies 
from 60 in. to 32 in. inside diameter and is fabricated from 
plate varying from 9/16 in. to 5/16 in. in thickness. The 
plate is of Canadian manufacture throughout. 

The 48 in. dia. pipe on which the shop was working is 
manufactured in lengths of 32 ft. 6 in. made up of five 
courses of 6 ft. 6 in. each. The 7/16 in. plate of which the 
48 in. pipe is fabricated is bevel planed for welding. Both 
longitudinal and circular seams are tack welded prior to 
automatic butt welding by the unionmelt process which 
provides a completely shielded arc weld with a single pass. 
The longitudinal seam welds are made against a copper 
back-up bar and the circular automatic welds are made up 



against a hand-welded bead on the inside. Each length of 
pipe is belled at one end for field assembly. 

Prior to the coating process, all pipe is subject to a 
hydrostatic test for tightness, the 48 in. pipe being tested to 
325 lb. per sq. in. and all welds hammered while under pressure. 

Pipe is prepared for coating by blasting with steel grit, 
followed by spray priming, drying and pre-heating. The 
inside coat of enamel is centrifugally applied hot by spinning 
the pipe. The outside coat is applied by a spiral application. 
Both inside and outside coats are tested for "holidays" by 
means of high tension spark apparatus and weak spots 
patched with hot enamel applied by brush. The final 
process consists of the simultaneous application of hot 
enamel and asbestos felt spirally wound on the outside of 
the pipe. 

Following the inspection of the pipe plant a number of 
the visitors travelled to the south side of False Creek where 
a section of 48 in. centrifugally spun concrete pipe was being 
assembled preparatory to launching and sinking in the 
bottom of False Creek. This 48 in. concrete pipe forms the 
underwater section of the new Capilano main extension 
and is being laid by the Greater Vancouver Water District 
by its own force. 



News of Other Societies 



ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS 
OF ONTARIO 

Saturday, February 4th, at the Royal York Hotel, 
Toronto, was the day and place chosen for the Annual 
General Meeting of the Association of Professional En- 
gineers of Ontario. The afternoon meeting was attended by 
about 350 members and E. P. Muntz, m.e.i.c, the retiring 
President of the Association, occupied the chair. The large 
number of out-of-town members who attended the meeting 
was particularly encouraging to those in charge. 

The result of the annual elections was as follows: 

President — W. P. Dobson, m.e.i.c, Chief Engineer of the 
Ontario Hydro Electric Power Commission Testing 
Laboratories. 

Vice-President — J. W. Rawlins, Toronto. 
Civil Engineers on Council: 

W. E. Bonn, m.e.i.c, of Canadian Dredge and Dock 

Co. Ltd., Toronto. 
Warren C. Miller, m.e.i.c, City Engineer of St. Thomas. 
J. Clark Keith, a. m.e.i.c, Manager of the Windsor 
Utilities Commission. 

Chemical Engineers on Council: 
Robt. A. Elliott, Deloro, Ont. 
W. R. Patterson, Brantford, Ont. 

Electrical Engineers on Council: 

Arthur L. Dickieson, a. m.e.i.c, Peterboro, Ont. 

O. S. Mitchell, Secretary of Ontario Hydro Electric 

Power Commission of Ontario. 
Commander Chas. P. Edwards, a. m.e.i.c, Chief of 

the Air Services, Dept. of Transport, Ottawa. 

Mechanical Engineers on Council: 

Wm. H. Bonus, University of Toronto. 

Prof. L. T. Rutledge, m.e.i.c, Queen's University. 

C. C. Cariss, Brantford, Ont. 

Mining Engineers on Council: 
A. G. Irving, Timmins, Ont. 
Roy J. Henry, Toronto. 

The afternoon session was largely an open session and 
those present took full advantage of the opportunities for 
voicing their views. Several members pressed for more 
action by the Association to bring engineering and engin- 



Items of interest regarding activities of 
other engineering societies or associations 



eers to the attention of the public, while others thought 
that the first duty of the Association was to sell itself to 
engineers themselves, inasmuch as less than half the 
engineers in Ontario were as yet members of the Association. 
E. P. Muntz, retiring president, urged the members to 
show a public spirit beyond their daily activities and to par- 
ticipate in public affairs because their special training un- 
doubtedly qualified them for leadership. The Association 
served two purposes, stated the President, to protect the 
public against the abuses of incompetent and unsound 
engineering and to protect the engineer against unfair com- 
petition. The Council, he said, was now vested with sufficient 
powers by provincial legislation to discipline unqualified 
and unscrupulous practitioners. As a result of greater 
strength obtained in the 1937 professional engineers' act, 
the number of registrations of engineers had doubled during 
the past year. 




W. P. Dobson, M.E.I.C. 

The evening session was given over to a dinner attended 
by 300 members and invited guests. The legal and medical 
professions were represented by Chief Justice R. S. Robert- 
son and Dr. Harris McPhedran. Hon. Paul Leduc, Ontario 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



147 



Minister of Mines, represented the Government and Tracy 
D. LeMay, City Planning Commissioner of Toronto, 
represented the Ontario Land Surveyors. Alberta Profes- 
sional Engineers were represented by G. A. Gaherty, 
m.e.i. a, and those of British Columbia by W. W. Cushing. 
Others at the head table included Brig.-Gen. C.H. Mitchell, 
m.e.i. a, Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science, University 
of Toronto; Dr. T. H. Hogg, m.e.i.c, Chairman of the 
Ontario Hydro Electric Power Commission; J. W. Rawlins, 
Vice-President of the Association; Dr. J. B. Challies, 
m.e.i.c, President of The Engineering Institute of Canada; 
Rev. Dr. H.J. Cody, President of the University of Toronto, 
and Prof. R. W. Angus, Hon. m.e.i.c, Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering, University of Toronto. 

Speaking in reply to a toast to the sister professions, law, 
medicine and the clergy which was proposed by J. Clark 
Keith, a.m.e.i.c, the Hon. Paul Leduc, k.c, Ontario, Minister 
of Mines, impressed on the engineers what a great part they 
are playing in the development of the Province of Ontario 
and said that "every professional man should be proud of 
his work because it tends to raise the level of his profes- 
sion." 

Dr. J. B. Challies, of Montreal, President of The Engin- 
eering Institute of Canada, asserted that "to-day the profes- 
sional engineer enjoys a status undreamed of by the pion- 
eers of engineering science," and expressed the opinion that 
even greater heights would be achieved by engineers in the 
future and that the engineering educational course of the 
future would include two years' training in the liberal arts 
previous to technical study. Dr. Challies declared that 
Canada led the world in the organization of engineers, and 
that no other nation had such a professional body as The 
Engineering Institute of Canada. 

The President of the Dominion Council 

The principal speaker of the evening was C. C. Kirby, 
m.e.i.c, of St. John, New Brunswick, President of the 
Dominion Council of Professional Engineers, who spoke as 
follows: 

"I appreciate the honour you have done me and also the 
Dominion Council of Professional Engineers in inviting me 
to address you on this occasion, and I extend to you the 
thanks of the body which I have the privilege of represent- 
ing for this opportunity to demonstrate in a small way the 
fact that the professional engineers of Canada desire to 
work together as far as may be possible, for the good of the 
Dominion and the profession of engineering. 

"I presume that in inviting me to be your speaker on this 
occasion your Committee wish me to convey to you a 
broader picture of this movement amongst engineers than 
that of your own province, and perhaps I may be able to 
do so because of the privilege I have enjoyed of being a 
member of every inter-provincial or national committee 
dealing with this subject since that original committee 
which met in 1919 under the auspices of The Engineering 
Institute of Canada. That Committee, consisting of one 
representative of each of the thirteen branches of the 
Institute that then existed between Victoria and Halifax, 
was charged with the task of preparing something definite 
as to how the profession of engineering could be given 
control of itself under the law. It drew up what was termed 
a 'Model Act' for the engineers in each province to follow 
in seeking the necessary powers and authority from their 
respective legislatures. 

"It is possible to labour the differences and analogies 
between the different professions to inordinate length but 
the fact remains that the engineers of Canada have re- 
quested and obtained the authority to control their profes- 
sion and they are accepting that responsibility with en- 
thusiasm and becoming seriousness and do not have to 
apologize to anyone. 

"The Engineering Institute of Canada is a body of very 
different constitution to that of the provincial associations 
of professional engineers and being a voluntary society under 
a federal charter its true functions are essentially different 



and it does not desire to change them. The membership of 
the two groups is quite largely made up of the same indi- 
viduals. 

"Perhaps the best way to distinguish between the objects 
and ideals of these two groups is to reflect that in the life of 
every man who desires to follow a profession there comes a 
crisis when he applies for recognition as a qualified person 
to pursue his chosen vocation to the fullest extent. It is 
here that the associations of professional engineers take a 
vital place in his contact with society by either granting or 
declining this privilege. If a man is admitted to the profes- 
sion he is required to continue as a member of the provincial 
association in order that he shall do his part in maintaining 
the organization that will undertake the responsibility and 
work of admitting future members to the profession and 
seeing to it that its honour is upheld through its ethical 
standards. Also that an organization may exist that will 
safeguard the public interest against unauthorized practice 
by unqualified persons. 

"In this way, we believe we are contributing to the 
democratic body politic of this Dominion and are avoiding 
bureaucratic or dictatorial regimentation. We believe that 
every man should do his part and be allowed if he so desires 
to express his opinions upon the methods adopted and the 
results obtained. Apart from these obligations the contact 
of members with their association may practically cease. 

"The other groups of engineers represented by The 
Engineering Institute of Canada and the voluntary societies 
of the United States which maintain branches in Canada 
make their contact with the individual after he has been 
admitted to the profession, or so it will be in the future. 
Their object is to provide facilities for the personal contact 
between members throughout the rest of their lives and in 
so doing advance the usefulness of the member to the 
profession, his employer, and the public state, also to 
provide for continued education by exchange of knowledge 
or experiences and last, but not least, to promote social 
amenities. 

"The fact that there are so many of our members who are 
not also members of one or other of the voluntary societies 
creates a situation that has its complications in those areas 
where the voluntary societies do not exist or have strong 
and active organization, and there is a natural tendency to 
desire that one organization should fulfill all of the functions 
that are now carried on by several. There is nothing in the 
charters of .some of the provinces to prevent the provincial 
associations from embarking upon more activities than are 
concerned with their essential duties to the detriment of the 
voluntary societies. It was one of the principles of the 
'Model Act' that this should not come about, for the 
reason that a compulsory body has a different background 
to that of a voluntary body. When a man is compelled by 
law to join an organization and pay an annual fee, it is only 
reasonable and fair to the individual that his money should 
not be used for purposes that he does not desire to take part 
in and that are not essential to the administration of the 
law, particularly social matters, so it behooves us to let our 
conscience be our guide when these questions arise, and only 
undertake those things that we have reason to believe the 
general membership approves of and is willing to pay for. 
A great many of us believe we have a moral obligation to 
support the voluntary societies for the use they are to the 
profession and the state and the fact that they existed 
before us and have an historical background that is an 
asset to the Dominion and well worth the effort and money 
that we are called upon to give. That these two groups of en- 
gineers can be linked together in a co-operative arrangement 
is being demonstrated in some of the smaller Provinces at 
the present time and there is no reason to doubt that such an 
arrangement will be of benefit wherever it can be made to 
work. 

"The Engineering Institute of Canada does not need any 
eulogies from me as it is firmly established as one of the 
leading organizations of our country; I can only say that I 



148 



March, 1939 THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



have been an enthusiastic supporter of it for thirty years 
and will continue to be so. 

"There are some who resent the old Canadian Society of 
Civil Engineers having changed its name to The Engineer- 
ing Institute of Canada, thereby, as they supposed, having 
usurped the right to embrace all branches of Engineering. 
Perhaps they forget that the term 'civil engineer' was 
originally used in the sense of being non-military as the 
development of engineering was performed by the military 
forces. In the Province of Quebec today, the law uses this 
descriptive term of civil engineer in that sense and our 
brothers in the Quebec Corporation are all termed civil 
engineers. The Canadian Society was formed in the Pro- 
vince of Quebec 51 years ago. 

"In describing the Dominion Council of Professional 
Engineers whom I represent, it should be made quite clear 
that it is not a governing body in any sense. It is composed 
of one representative from each of the eight provincial 
bodies in order that it may meet together without incurring 
any very large expenses. It does not set up any permanent 
staff or incur any but the minimum of operating expenses 
for its correspondence. As it is an advisory body pure and 
simple there is no necessity for it to come to any decision by 
a majority vote and therefore proportional representation 
upon it would have no practical advantage. 

"Nothing is recommended by this Council that has not 
received the unanimous support of its members. We 
believe that a recommendation from it to a provincial 
association should receive greater consideration coming 
with the support of representatives from all of the associa- 
tions than from a bare majority. 

"In the practice of engineering, more than any other 
profession, there is a more frequent need to cross the inter- 
provincial boundaries and therefore anything that can be 
done to make inter-provincial relationship smooth working 
and harmonious is worth doing. What we desire is recipro- 
city between the provinces and the avoidance of barriers 
against any Canadian engineer. 

"We believe that a step towards our ideal would be the 
creation of a central examining board, the enabling author- 
ity which was provided for in the 'Model Act' and at 
present exists in the acts of five of the provinces, i.e., 
British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia. The primary purpose of such a board 
would be to lay down the standards of admission of future 
members who will come from the ranks of the young men 
rather than for the admission of experienced men who may 
become residents of this country in adult life. 

"Such a board will also be a help to the smaller associa- 
tions who are now faced by the need of setting up standards 
and machinery to conduct examinations for only occasional use. 

"The sovereign powers of each association will, of course, 
require to be safeguarded and I am sure you can appre- 
ciate there are a larger number of thorny points to be dealt 
with in an endeavour such as this. In some provinces the 
conduct of examinations is the sole responsibility of the 
provincial university, in others the university shares the. 
responsibility with the Association Council and in others the 
Council has a free hand. 

"There are very many instances of variations in regula- 
tions between the provinces, most of which are of some im- 
portance to us all. Whilst there is no reason to try and 
obtain a close approach to uniformity, it is nevertheless of 
some practical value to obtain a sufficient measure of 
uniformity to avoid confusion. 

"The provincial associations of professional engineers are 
truly representative of the practising engineers of this 
country. There should therefore be a net gain to the 
Dominion in having an organization that will at least link 
them together." 

The New President 

President W. P. Dobson, m.e.i.c, closed the meeting on 
an optimistic note. He said that the enthusiasm of the 
meetings had convinced him that the engineers of Ontario 



were behind the association with a realization that they 
had a job to do and a readiness to do it. The frank discus- 
sions from the younger engineers was very significant and 
Council felt that thereby they had been assisted in the 
framing of a policy for the year. 

He expressed his appreciation of the remarks of Dr. 
Challies and Mr. Kirby and their broadmindedness on the 
subject of co-operation. He was sure that the Ontario 
Council would approach this question with the same open 
mind. He believed that "a national engineering society in 
Canada is a necessity, and if the technical as well as the 
professional needs of Canadian engineers can be harmonized 
and included in the functions of such an organization, it 
should have the enthusiastic support of all Canadian 
engineers. The methods of working out this objective have 
yet to be established, but I believe it can be done." 

THE ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL 
ENGINEERS OF THE PROVINCE OF MANITOBA 

The annual general meeting of the association was held in 
Winnipeg on January 19th. 1939, and the following is the 
Council for the year 1939: 

President, W. Youngman; Vice-president, F. S. Adam- 
son; Secretary -Registrar, C. S. Landon; Councillors, A. L. 
Cavanagh, a. m.e.i.c, Dean E. P. Fetherstonhaugh, 
m.e.i.c, E. W. M. Hill, J. A. Meindl. 

THE ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL 
ENGINEERS OF THE PROVINCE OF 
NEW BRUNSWICK 

The annual meeting of the association was held in the 
Admiral Beatty Hotel, Saint John, N.B., on January 24th, 
1939. 

At this meeting the following officers were elected for the 
year 1939: 

President, C. B. Croasdale, Fredericton; Vice-president, 
G. A. Vandervoort, a. m.e.i.c, Saint John. 

New Councillors, V. St.C. Blackett, a. m.e.i.c, Moncton 
District; C. C. Kirby, m.e.i.c, Saint John District. 

Councillors remaining in office: H. F. Morrisey, a. m.e.i.c, 
Saint John District; G. L. Dickson, a. m.e.i.c, Moncton 
District; L. L. Theriault, Chatham District; J. D. McKay, 
Fredericton District. 

Secretary-Registrar, A. A. Turnbull, a. m.e.i.c, Saint 
John. 

Auditors, Y. S. Chesnut, a. m.e.i.c, Saint John; H. R. 
Logie, Saint John. 

Following the annual meeting a joint dinner was held with 
the Saint John Branch of The Engineering Institute of 
Canada at which the speaker of the evening was Dr. John 
Stephens, m.e.i.c, of the University of New Brunswick. 

THE ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL 
ENGINEERS OF NOVA SCOTIA 

The new members of the Council are: President, S. W. 
Gray, a. m.e.i.c, Nova Scotia Light and Power Company; 
Vice-President, R. B. Stewart, m.e.i.c, New Glasgow; 
Councillors, O. S. Cox, a. m.e.i.c, District Engineer 
P.W.D., Halifax; C. P. Roper, Civil Engineer, Halifax; 
J. W. Ritchie, Robb Manufacturing Co., Amherst, and 
C. W. McCarthy, Highway Department, Truro. 

In the evening a combined banquet of the Halifax Branch 
of The Engineering Institute and the Association was held in 
the Nova Scotian Hotel at which over two hundred mem- 
bers and guests were present. A delightful programme was 
enjoyed, consisting of orchestral selections, under the lead- 
ership of Mr. Harry Cochrane, interspersed with dancing 
by a number of young ladies. Several solos were well ren- 
dered by Miss Lillian Ethier, and several duets were also 
rendered by Miss Ethier and Mr. Cross. An interesting 
address was given by Dr. D. F. McDonald of St. Francis 
Xavier University, Antigonish, on the Application of 
Geology to Engineering. A toast was proposed to the King; 



THE ENGINEERING JOURNAL March, 1939 



149 



a toast to The Engineering Institute was proposed by M. L. 
Gordon, past-president of the Association, and responded 
to by A. D. Nickerson, a.m.e.i.c, Chairman of the Halifax 
Branch of the E.I.C. A toast to the A.P.E.N.S. was proposed 
by I. P. MacNab, m.e.i.c, past-president of the Halifax 
Branch of the E.I.C. , responded to by S. W. Gray, president 
of the A.P.E.N.S. 

The meeting was under the Chairmanship of S. W. Gray, 
President A.P.E.N.S., and A. D. Nickerson, Chairman 
Halifax Branch E.I.C, 

Guests at the banquet were Brigadier H. E. Boak, Hon. 
A. S. MacMillan, Provincial Minister of Highways; His 
Worship Walter Mitchell, Mayor of Halifax, and H. C. 
Burchell, m.e.i.c, dean of professional engineering in 
Nova Scotia. Entertainment was provided by the Northern 
Electric Co., Canadian General Electric Co., Canadian 
Fairbanks Morse Co. and the Canadian Industries Ltd. 
Favours were donated by the Canadian Cement Company, 
Moloney Electric Co. of Canada, Canadian Westinghouse 
Limited, and D. C. Keddy, manufacturers' agent, Wm. 
Stairs, Son and Morrow Limited and the Nova Scotia Light 
and Power Commission. The banquet was a huge success 
and was thoroughly enjoyed by all present. 

THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF MINING 
AND METALLURGY 

The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy offers 
a very attractive programme of papers for its annual meeting 
which takes place in Quebec on March 13, 14, 15. Herewith 
are the details as supplied by Secretary E. J. Carlyle. 

March 13th, 1939— Monday A.M. 

Presidential address — E. A. Collins. 

The Mineral Industry of Canada in 1938 — W. H. Losee. 

Monday P.M. 
Canadian Malartic Mine — Neelands and Millenbach. 
Noranda Stoping — Hall, Porritt and Carmichael. 
No. 3 Shaft, King Mine — J. G. Ross and Staff. 
Profitable Gold Mine Operation— I. M. Marshall. 
Milling Industrial Minerals — R. K. Carnochan. 
Limestone as a Raw Material — M. F. Goudge. 
Limestone and Lime Production — Staff of North American 

Cyanamid Company. 
Limestone in Iron and Steel Industry — Norman B. Clarke. 

March 14th, 1939— Tuesday A.M. 
Tailing Disposal, Sullivan Mill, B.C.— A. L. Irwin. 
Instrumental Control, Open Hearth Practice — E. W. Bailey. 
Amalgamating Auriferous Concentrates — A. E. Flynn. 
Recent Smelting Practice at Noranda — W. B. Boggs. 
Dust Control, Hollinger Mill— P. J. Dunlop. 

Tuesday P.M. 
Mechanized Mining, Modern Trends— T. L. McCall. 
Spiral Stoping, Beattie Mine — Jay Tuttle. 
Functions, A Dominion Department of Mines — R.C.Rowe. 
Failure of Rope at Princess Colliery — Farnham and 

Cameron. 
Lime in Milling and Flotation — H. R. Rose. 
Limestone in Pulp and Paper Industry — H. Rowley. 
Industrial Mineral Development in Canada — L. H. Cole. 

March 15th, 1939 — Wednesday A.M. 
A Geology of Quebec — Dennis and Dresser. 
Expansion of Mining in Quebec — J. E. Gill. 
Great Slave Lake Area — Henderson and Jolliffe. 
Iron Deposits, Steeprock Lake — M. W. Bartley. 

Wednesday P.M. 
Newfoundland and Labrador — A. K. Snelgrove. 
Gold Dredging in the Yukon — W. H. S. McFarland. 

LE SOCIETE DES INGENIEURS CIVILS DE FRANCE 

The Council of the Société des Ingénieurs Civils de 
France consists of the following : 

President, M. R. Berr; Vice-president, M. F. Harlé; 
General Delegate, M. P. Lecomte; Treasurer, M. P. Gassier. 



THE NATIONAL LUMBER MANUFACTURERS 
ASSOCIATION 

Timber Bridge Design Contest 

Washington, January 24. — A timber bridge design con- 
test under the joint auspices of the National Lumber Manu- 
facturers Association, American Forest Products Indus- 
tries, Inc., and the Timber Engineering Company, in which 
the latter company is offering prizes of $1,500 in cash, was 
announced here to-day. 

Open to students of architecture and engineering as well as 
graduates of both schools, the contest is aimed primarily at 
providing suitable designs for short span timber bridges 
for secondary highways. 

The rules require that the design submitted shall be of a 
highway bridge constructed of timber and employing the 
timber connector method of construction. The live load 
may be H-10 or H-15 and the span may vary from 30 ft. to 
70 ft., measured from centre to centre of bearings, but using 
only spans divisible by ten. The roadway must be 18 ft. in 
the clear. Piers of supports need not be designed beyond 
the anchorage of the bridge to a concrete pier which shall 
be assumed to have already been designed. Assumption for 
dead loads should be stated on the drawing and the design 
should be predicated on the use of American Standard 
sizes of dressed lumber and timber surfaced on four sides. 

Beside providing suitable bridge structures for highways 
the purpose of the contest is to acquaint designing engin- 
eers with the latest developments and design practices of 
modern timber construction. As an added incentive to 
students the prize money has been divided into two clas- 
sifications: (1) for all contestants and (2) for students only. 

The grand prize will be $500 in cash and will be awarded 
to that contestant who submits, in the opinion of the 
judges, the best design for secondary highway use. In 
addition there will be six other prizes in this division from 
$200 for second best design down to $50. 

The student submitting the best design will receive $200 
in cash, unless a student design is selected for the grand 
prize. Seventeen other student prizes totalling $300 will 
likewise be awarded, making twenty-five awards in all 
amounting to $1,500. 

The decision of the judges will be final. The competition 
is open to Canadians. 

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERS 

J. M. Thomson, chief designing engineer of the Ferranti 
Electric, Limited, Toronto, Ont., is the nominee for vice- 
president of the Canadian District. The election takes place 
August 1, 1939. 

The 1938 Lamme Medal of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers has been awarded to Marion A. Savage, 
Designing Engineer, General Electric Company, Schenec- 
tady, N.Y., "for able and original work in the development 
and improvement of mechanical construction and the 
efficiency of large high speed turbine alternators." The 
medal and certificate will be presented to him at the annual 
Summer Convention of the Institute, which is to be held in 
San Francisco, California, June 26-30, 1939. 

ENGINEERS' CLUB OF TORONTO 

H. C. Don Carlos has been elected to the presidency of 
the Engineers' Club of Toronto for the year 1939. Mr. Carlos 
is a graduate of the University of Toronto in electrical 
engineering and is chief operating engineer for the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario, in charge of the 
operation and maintenance of generating and transformi